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Sample records for west bengal india

  1. PREVALENCE OF BOVINE VIRAL DIARRHOEA VIRUS IN WEST BENGAL, INDIA

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    Reshmi Ghosh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bovine Viral Diarrhea (BVD is one of the most economically important diseases in cattle. The present study was undertaken to diagnose the persistently infected (PI animals by AntigenELISA and Reverse Transcriptase PCR using serum samples from organized farms as well as rural areas of West Bengal. The results showed that out of 964 serum samples tested 07 (0.73% was positive for BVDV by Antigen-ELISA. For further confirmation, RNA was extracted from the positive samples and RT-PCR was performed with 5' UTR specific primers which showed 294 bp amplicons. This finding showed circulation of BVDV in cattle in West Bengal, India.

  2. Characterization and evolution of primary and secondary laterites in northwestern Bengal Basin, West Bengal, India

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    Sandipan Ghosh; Sanat K. Guchhait

    2015-01-01

    It is quite impossible to travel far in India without observing the remarkable fer-ruginous crust to which Buchanan in 1807 gave the name of laterite. In Indian peninsula, it is a post-Cretaceous stratigraphic succession with a polycyclic nature of evolution which marks the unconformity with recent Quaternary alluvium. There are perennial problems and research gaps in the investigation of laterites in India as well as in West Bengal:(1) deifning, identify-ing and classifying lateritic materials, (2) mode of formation of laterite and its other horizons, (3) determining the ages of laterites, (4) reliability of laterites as palaeoclimatic indicators, (5) identifying topographic requirements and pedogeomorphic processes for laterite formation, and (6) reconstructions of former lateritized landscapes. The formation of north-south lateritic hard crust (i.e. Rarh Bengal) on the Rajmahal Basalt Traps, Archean granite-gneiss, Gond-wana sediments, Paleogene gravels and older deltaic alluvium is analyzed here to resolve the aforesaid problems and to depict the variable characteristics of laterites with special reference to its tectono-climatic evolution in the northwestern marginal part of Bengal Basin. This paper reveals that the low-level secondary laterites (probably the Pliocene-Early Pleistocene age) of Rarh Bengal are composed of heterogeneous Fe-Al rich gravelly materials which were derived from the high-level primary laterites (probably the Eocene-Miocene age) of plateau since the Paleogene Period by the peninsular river system, following the underlying structure of Bengal Basin. Alongside the roles of drifting of Indian Plate, establishment of monsoon climate, neo-tectonic uplifts and re-lateritization of ferruginous shelf deposits are determined here to unearth the palaeogenesis of primary and secondary laterites in West Bengal.

  3. Notes on the occurrence of Mortonagrion aborense Laidlaw, 1914 (Odonata: Coenagrionidae from lower West Bengal, India

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    Arajush Payra

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A new distribution record of an Odonata species from lower West Bengal. Mortonagrion aborense laidlaw, 1914 is recorded for the first time from Purba Medinipur district, lower West Bengal. Previously the species was recorded only from north-east India (Mizoram, West Bengal, Assam and Nagaland. Diagnostic characters with photographic details of male anal appendages are also given for easy identification of this rare damselfly species.

  4. Sighting of Elymnias panthera (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae in West Bengal, eastern India

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    A.B. Roy

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Tawny Palmfly butterfly, Elymnias panthera (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae, is a Malayan species that is also known from the Nicobar Islands. Here we report sighting of E. panthera from the Bethuadahari Wildlife Sanctuary in West Bengal, eastern India. This is the first sighting of the species from mainland India, and is a possible range extension of the species into northeastern India.

  5. Sighting of Elymnias panthera (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae in West Bengal, eastern India

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    A.B. Roy

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Tawny Palmfly butterfly, Elymnias panthera (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae, is a Malayan species that is also known from the Nicobar Islands. Here we report sighting of E. panthera from the Bethuadahari Wildlife Sanctuary in West Bengal, eastern India. This is the first sighting of the species from mainland India, and is a possible range extension of the species into northeastern India.

  6. PHYSIOLOGICAL STRAIN AMONG WOMEN POTATO CULTIVATORS IN WEST BENGAL, INDIA.

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    Pal, Amitava; De, Sujaya; Sengupta, Piyali; Maity, Payel; Mahata, Hiranmoy; Shaikh, Saijuddin; Dhara, Prakash C

    2015-12-01

    The present study was aimed to evaluate physiological strain among women cultivators engaged in potato cultivation. The cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted on 150 women participants in different districts of West Bengal State, India. The physiological strain was evaluated by working heart rate, blood lactate and oxygen consumption. The average working heart rate was 109.97 ± 9.94 beats/min when all tasks were considered together. According to the working heart rate, oxygen consumption and energy cost, the potato cultivation job was categorized as a moderate work category. Whereas, according to cardiovascular stress index (CSI), all tasks of potato cultivation were categorized into a stressful category. The more experienced workers were more productive than their less experienced counterparts, and this increased productivity appeared to be a combination of greater efficiency and greater physical exertion. Stepwise multiple linear regression analyses revealed that work pace and work experience had significant association with all the indices of physiological strain. Work pace had strongest significant impact on these indices even after controlling the effect of age, work experience and efficiency. It was concluded that during performing potato cultivation tasks the workers had a great extent of physiological strain.

  7. The Sex Education Debates: Teaching "Life Style" in West Bengal, India

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    Chakravarti, Paromita

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the recent controversies surrounding the decision to introduce sex education in secondary schools in India to combat the rapid spread of HIV and AIDS in the country. While 11 Indian states have banned it, the Left-ruled state of West Bengal has designed a teachers' manual to impart sex education. However, a close analysis of…

  8. Profile of hemoglobin D trait in West Bengal, India

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    Tuphan K. Dolai

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Hemoglobin (Hb D Punjab is one of the most commonly observed abnormal hemoglobinopathy worldwide. There was no systematic large published study to investigate the characteristic of Hb D Punjab trait in India. This study was conducted in school and college students, newly married couples and pregnant women after proper counseling in the rural areas of West Bengal state in eastern India. Complete blood count was done by Sysmax Automated Hematology Analyzer KX 21 (Sysmex Corp., Kobe, Japan and thalassemia testing was done using high-performance liquid chromatography (Variant TM - Bio-Rad Lab., Hercules, CA, USA. A total of 46,139 individuals were screened for hemoglobinopathies. Hb D trait was found in 0.35%. Hypochromia rather than microcytosis is consistent finding in Hb D trait. Anisocytosis is absent in Hb D trait. In almost all (99.37% cases, Hb D is within 40% of total hemoglobin. This data is likely to be helpful for screening of hemoglobinopathy in resource poor setting.  血红蛋白(Hb D Punjab是全球最普遍的异常血红蛋白病之一。在印度,之前并没有研究D型特征血红蛋白病的大型出版物。本研究在印度东部的西孟加拉邦的农村地区进行,研究对象是接受过相关咨询后的在校生,大学生,新婚夫妇和孕妇。完整的血细胞计数由日本神户市Sysmex公司的KX21自动化血液分析仪完成,血液测试由美国加州赫拉克勒斯Variant-Bio-Rad实验室通过高效液相色谱法完成。总计46139人被筛查,D型特征血红蛋白病的发现率为0.35%。血红蛋白过少而非小红细胞症,是D型特征血红蛋白病的主要症状。红细胞大小不均没有在D型特征血红蛋白病中被检测出。在所有的情况中(99.37%),D型特征血红蛋白占所有血红蛋白总数的40%。这些数据有利于在资源匮乏地区对血红蛋白病的筛查。

  9. Subclinical arsenicosis in cattle in arsenic endemic area of West Bengal, India.

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    Rana, Tanmoy; Bera, Asit Kumar; Das, Subhashree; Bhattacharya, Debasis; Pan, Diganta; Das, Subrata Kumar

    2014-05-01

    Arsenic is ubiquitously found metalloid that commonly contaminates drinking water and agricultural food. To minimise the ecotoxicological effect of arsenic in the environment, it is important to ameliorate the deleterious effects on human and animal health. We investigated the effects of arsenic on cattle by estimating arsenic concentration in biological samples of cattle that consumed contaminated drinking water and feedstuffs directly or indirectly. We have selected arsenic prone village that is Ghentugachi, Nadia district, West Bengal, India, along with arsenic safe control village, Akna in Hoogli district, West Bengal, India. It is found that arsenic is deposited highly in blood, urine and faeces. Agricultural field is contaminated through cattle urine, hair, faeces, cow dung cakes and farmyard manure. Bioconcentration factor and biotransfer factor are two important biomarkers to assess the subclinical toxicity in cattle, as they do not exhibit clinical manifestation like human beings.

  10. A large outbreak of Japanese encephalitis predominantly among adults in northern region of West Bengal, India.

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    Gurav, Yogesh K; Bondre, Vijay P; Tandale, Babasaheb V; Damle, Rekha G; Mallick, Sanjay; Ghosh, Uday S; Nag, Shankha S

    2016-11-01

    Unusual rise of acute encephalitis syndrome cases (AES) were reported in July 2014 in the northern region of West Bengal, India. Investigations were carried out to characterize the outbreak and to identify the associated virus etiology. This observational study is based on 398 line listed AES cases, mostly (70.8%, 282/398) adults, with case fatality ratio of 28.9% (115/398). Japanese encephalitis virus infection was detected in 134 (49.4%) among 271 AES cases tested and most of them (79.1%, 106/134) were adults. The study reports a large outbreak of genotype III Japanese encephalitis among adults in northern region of West Bengal, India. J. Med. Virol. 88:2004-2011, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Oncogenic HPV among HIV infected female population in West Bengal, India

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    Sengupta Sharmila; Bhattacharya Subhasish; Saha Bibhuti; Bal Baishali; Pal Reshmi; Sarkar Kamalesh; Mazumdar Partha; Chakraborti Shekhar

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Prevalence of both cervical cancer and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection are very high in India. Natural history of Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) infection is known to be altered in HIV positive women and there is an increased possibility of persistence of HPV infections in this population. Therefore, this study was conducted to understand the epidemiology and circulating genotypes of oncogenic HPV among HIV positive and negative female population in West Bengal, ...

  12. Periodontal conditions and treatment in urban and rural population of West Bengal, India

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    Mehta R; Kundu D; Chakrabarty S; Bharati P

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To search adequate epidemiological data on periodontal conditions for the planning of oral health programs in Indian population, and to determine the prevalence of periodontal diseases, in regards to age and gender of urban and rural population in West Bengal, India. Methods: 22 542 subjects aged 15 years onwards, representative of rural and urban areas of West Bengal were examined for their periodontal conditions using the community periodontal index (CPI).Results: Supra and/or sub gingival calculus dominated as the most frequent score (score 2) among males (76.51%) and females (76.58%), which was least affected in young age group and higher in rural population. Severity of highest score were significant (P<0.001) according to their gender, age group and habitation and had independent effects (P<0.001) on it. Mean number of sextants affected by scores 1, 2, 3, & 4 were more in the rural areas. Assessed treatment needed was predominantly type II (Scaling and improved oral hygiene).Conclusions:The severe periodontal condition (Score 2, 3 and 4) is observed among rural males in older age group more than its urban counterparts of West Bengal, India.

  13. Inbreeding effects on palmar dermatoglyphic characters in three endogamous social groups of West Bengal, India.

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    Banik, S Datta

    2014-02-01

    The present study reports inbreeding effects on mean palmar dermatoglyphic characteristics: triradial count on palm, maximal atd angle, adt angle, td ridge count, ab ridge count, main line index (MLI) and ab ridge breadth. Samples were drawn from adult males belonging to three endogamous sections representing Hindu caste Telaga of Kharagpur (West Midnapore), Ansari Muslims of Nandigram (East Midnapore) and Sheik-Sunni Muslims of Braddhaman in West Bengal, India. Consistent trend of higher mean triradial number, adt angle, and lower mean td ridge count, ab ridge count, and ab ridge breadth was observed in inbred sections compared to their non-inbred relatives in three social groups.

  14. Epidemiological and Microbiological Diagnosis of Suppurative Keratitis in Gangetic West Bengal, Eastern India

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    Basak Samar

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To determine the epidemiologcial pattern and risk factors involved in suppurative corneal ulceration in Gangetic West Bengal, eastern India, and to identify the specific microbial agents responsible for corneal infections. METHODS: All patients with suspected microbial keratitis presenting to the corneal clinic at Disha Eye Hospital, Barrackpore, West Bengal, India, from January 2001 to December 2003 were evaluated. Sociodemographic data and information pertaining to the risk factors were recorded. After diagnosing infective corneal ulcer clinically, corneal scraping and cultures were performed. RESULTS: Over a three-year period, 1198 patients with suppurative keratitis were evaluated. Ocular trauma was the most common predisposing factor in 994 (82.9% patients (P< 0.0001, followed by use of topical corticosteroids in 231 (19.28% patients. Cultures were positive in 811 (67.7% patients. Among these culture positive cases, 509 (62.7% patients had pure fungal infections (P< 0.001, 184 (22.7% patients had pure bacterial infections and 114 (14.1% had mixed fungal with bacterial infections. Acanthamoeba was detected in 4 (0.49% patients. The most common fungal pathogen was Aspergillus spp representing 373 (59.8% of all positive fungal cultures (P< 0.0001, followed by Fusarium spp in 132 (21.2% instances. Most common bacterial isolate was Staphylococcus aureus, representing 127 (42.6% of all the bacterial culture (P< 0.0001 followed by Pseudomonas spp 63 (21.1%. CONCLUSION: Suppurative keratitis in Gangetic West Bengal, most often occurs after a superficial corneal trauma with vegetative or organic materials. Fungal ulcers are more common than bacterial ulcers. Aspergillus spp and Staphylococcus aureus were the most common fungus and bacteria respectively. These ′regional′ findings have important public health implications for the treatment and prevention of suppurative corneal ulceration in this region of India.

  15. Chikungunya virus infection amongst the acute encephalitis syndrome cases in West Bengal, India

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    D Taraphdar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chikungunya virus (CHIKV infection from the acute encephalitis syndrome cases is an uncommon form and has been observed in the year 2010-11 from West Bengal, India. The case-1 and case-2 had the acute encephalitis syndrome; case-3 was of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis whereas the case-4 had the symptoms of meningo-encephalopathy with bulbar involvement. We are reporting four cases with neurological complications involving central nervous system (CNS due to CHIKV infection from this state for the first time. The virus has spread almost every districts of this state rapidly. At this stage, these cases are public health threat.

  16. Channa andrao, a new species of dwarf snakehead from West Bengal, India (Teleostei: Channidae).

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    Britz, Ralf

    2013-10-30

    Channa andrao, new species, from Lefraguri swamp, West Bengal, India, differs from all its congeners except, C. asiatica, C. bleheri and C. burmanica and the recently described C. hoaluensis and C. ninhbinhensis by the absence of pelvic fins. It can be distinguished from all other pelvic fin-less species of snakeheads by its colour pattern, and differs further in its number of vertebrae, dorsal- and anal-fin rays, and lateral-line scales from individual snakehead species in this complex. Channa andrao raises the number of snakehead species endemic to the Eastern Himalaya biodiversity hotspot to ten, representing almost one third of the known species in the genus.

  17. Association between prevalence of pyrimethamine resistance and double mutation in pfdhfr gene in West Bengal, India

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    Sabyasachi Das

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To find whether antifolate drug (pyrimethamine resistance has occurred in the two malaria endemic zones (Kolkata and Purulia of West Bengal, India. Methods: Parasitic bloods were collected from patients of Kolkata and Purulia, in vitro susceptibility test were performed in those 90 isolates. Now parasitic DNA was isolated by phenol chloroform extraction method and then polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of different codons of pfdhfr gene (51, 59, and 108 were assessed in Plasmodium falciparum isolates from patients in India. Results: Among 45 isolates from Kolkata dhfr mutant isolates at codons 108, 51 and 59 were found in 71.11 %, 100% and 15.55% isolates respectively while in Purulia mutation found in those codons were 42.22%, 57.77% and 0%, respectively. In Kolkata, the isolate having double mutation (N108 + 51I were resistant to pyrimethamine (P < 0.01 whereas in Purulia N108 mutation is occurred with both mixed and mutant 51I mutation. Conclusions: Our present findings implicate that due to enormous drug (pyrimethamine pressure double mutation with dhfr S108N/T and N51I was highly correlated (P < 0.01 with in vitro pyrimethamine resistance in two malaria endemic region of West Bengal. The increase in the number of dhfr mutations was strongly correlated to resistance to pyrimethamine.

  18. Menstruation and menstrual hygiene among adolescent girls of West Bengal, India: A school based comparative study

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    Adrija Datta

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adolescents are often less informed, less experienced, and less comfortable accessing reproductive health information and services than adults. In many developing countries, a culture of silence surrounds the topic of menstruation and related issues; as a result many young girls lack appropriate and sufficient information regarding menstrual hygiene. This may result in incorrect and unhealthy behaviour during their menstrual period. Objectives: To assess and compare knowledge, belief, ideas, source of knowledge and practice of menstrual hygiene between school-going adolescents in an urban and a rural school of West Bengal, India. Methods: Cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted among adolescent female students of Howrah district of West Bengal, India in the year 2011. Data was collected by pre-designed, pre-tested semi-structured self administered questionnaire. Results: The mean age at menarche was 12.1 years among urban and 12.2 years among the rural participants. More than 80% participants had some restrictions imposed during menstruation. Significantly higher number of urban girls had pre-menarchal knowledge on menstruation and used sanitary napkins. Conclusions: Menstrual hygiene is a vital aspect of health education for adolescent girls. For improvement of menstrual hygiene, sanitary napkins should be made universally available and affordable.

  19. Local Governments in Rural West Bengal, India and their Coordination with Line Departments

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    Bhaskar Chakrabarti

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In India, the 73rd constitutional amendment of 1992 decentralises agriculture, irrigation, health, education along with 23 other items to the Panchayats, the village level self-government body. It is envisaged that the three-tier Panchayat system at the District, Block and the Village level would coordinate with different ‘line departments’ of the government for planning various schemes and their implementation. In West Bengal, a state in eastern India, where the Panchayats were revitalised before the constitutional amendment, the initial years were marked by strong coordination between the Panchayats and other departments, especially land and agriculture, making West Bengal a ‘model’ case for the Panchayats. However, where service delivery through the Panchayats has been criticised in recent years, the disjuncture between Panchayats and the line departments is a cause for alarm. In this paper, we search for the causes behind the low level of coordination between government departments and the Panchayat at each tier. We analyse the complex process of organisational coordination that characterises decentralisation, and show how decision making in local governments is nested within various levels of hierarchy. The study focuses on the formal structures of coordination and control with regard to decision-making between the Panchayats and the line departments. We show how these processes work out in practice. These involve lack of role definition, problems of accountability, and politics over access to resources and relations of power within, as well as outside, the Panchayat.

  20. Local Governments in Rural West Bengal, India and their Coordination with Line Departments

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    Bhaskar Chakrabarti

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In India, the 73rd constitutional amendment of 1992 decentralises agriculture, irrigation, health, education along with 23 other items to the Panchayats, the village level self-government body. It is envisaged that the three-tier Panchayat system at the District, Block and the Village level would coordinate with different ‘line departments’ of the government for planning various schemes and their implementation. In West Bengal, a state in eastern India, where the Panchayats were revitalised before the constitutional amendment, the initial years were marked by strong coordination between the Panchayats and other departments, especially land and agriculture, making West Bengal a ‘model’ case for the Panchayats. However, where service delivery through the Panchayats has been criticised in recent years, the disjuncture between Panchayats and the line departments is a cause for alarm. In this paper, we search for the causes behind the low level of coordination between government departments and the Panchayat at each tier. We analyse the complex process of organisational coordination that characterises decentralisation, and show how decision making in local governments is nested within various levels of hierarchy. The study focuses on the formal structures of coordination and control with regard to decision-making between the Panchayats and the line departments. We show how these processes work out in practice. These involve lack of role definition, problems of accountability, and politics over access to resources and relations of power within, as well as outside, the Panchayat.

  1. Understanding the Patterns of Antibiotic Susceptibility of Bacteria Causing Urinary Tract Infection in West Bengal, India

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    Sunayana eSaha

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infection (UTI is one of the most common infectious diseases at the community level. In order to assess the adequacy of empirical therapy, the susceptibility of antibiotics and resistance pattern of bacteria responsible for UTI in West Bengal, India, were evaluated throughout the period of 2008-2013. The infection reports belonging to all age groups and both sexes were considered. E. coli was the most abundant uropathogen with a prevalence rate of 67.1%, followed by Klebsiella spp. (22% and Pseudomonas spp. (6%. Penicillin was least effective against UTI-causing E. coli and maximum susceptibility was recorded for the drugs belonging to fourth generation cephalosporins. Other abundant uropathogens, Klebsiella spp., were maximally resistant to broad-spectrum penicillin, followed by aminoglycosides and third generation cephalosporin. The antibiotic resistance pattern of two principal UTI pathogens, E. coli and Klebsiella spp. in West Bengal, appears in general to be similar to that found in other parts of the Globe. Higher than 50% resistance were observed for broad-spectrum penicillin. Fourth generation cephalosporin and macrolides seems to be the choice of drug in treating UTIs in Eastern India. Furthermore, improved maintenance of infection incident logs is needed in Eastern Indian hospitals in order to facilitate regular surveillance of the occurrence of antibiotic resistance patterns, since such levels continue to change.

  2. Dental Practice Scenario in a Government Homeopathic Hospital in West Bengal, India.

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    Ghosh, Shubhamoy; Panja, Shamik; Ghosh, Tarak Nath; Sharma, Pawan; Sarkar, Piyali; Koley, Munmun; Saha, Subhranil

    2014-07-01

    This pilot investigation initiated a research-targeted systematic dental homeopathy data collection in the dental outpatient section in a government homeopathic hospital in West Bengal, India. One conventionally trained dentist and 3 homeopathic doctors collected data from 949 appointments of 411 patients over 3 months. A specifically designed Excel spreadsheet enabled recording of consecutive dental appointments that was subjected to data synthesis and analysis in the end. A total of 87.3% conditions were chronic, and chronic periodontitis was most frequent (27.5%). Positive outcome was observed in 72.3% appointments. Strongly positive outcomes (scores of +2 or +3) were achieved most notably in toothache (84.6%). Single medicines were prescribed in 83.5% encounters, and mostly in tincture form (29.9%). Arnica montana constituted of 17.8% prescriptions. Considerable insight was gained into the homeopathic dental practice scenario in West Bengal, India. Positive findings suggest that dental homeopathy is a promising area for research in near future.

  3. Complete genome sequence of two genotype III Japanese encephalitis virus isolates from West Bengal, India

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    Debjani Taraphdar

    2015-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusions: This study reports on complete gene based phylogenetic analysis of JEV isolates from the State of West Bengal. It was evident from the results that JEV was still under circulation in both vaccine covered and not covered districts of West Bengal.

  4. Population Growth, Socio-economy and Quality of life in Birbhum District, West Bengal, India

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    Piyal Basu Roy

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study attempts to analyze the decadal variation of population growth, socio-economic condition and quality of life of the people in Birbhum District, West Bengal, India. It has been well accepted that if the amount of resource available within a country does not feed its total inhabitants due to excessive population in comparison to existing resource, quality of life of individual and socio-economy of that area collapse, which is very often found in developing nations of the world. Consequently, well being of common people through provision of basic needs like food, clothing, shelter, education, and health is obstructed. This adversely affects the quality of life of an individual. Increasing rate of population growth brings reduction in per capita income of people by creating pressure on land, making consumer product costlier and decreasing national capital. Moreover, the increase in the population growth rate due to high fertility, low mortality and inflow of migrants prevent improved quality of life also. Among others factors influencing Quality of Life (QOL in particular and socio-economic development and human well being in general are literacy, dietary pattern, transportation, and health service etc., the assessment of which reveals that study area turns out to be one of the backward districts of West Bengal where socio-economy and quality of life are of unfortunate character due to excessive population growth and inconsistent infrastructural development that cannot keep pace with the population increase.

  5. Evidence for Wolbachia symbiosis in microfilariae of Wuchereria bancrofti from West Bengal, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prajna Gayen; Sudipta Maitra; Sutapa Datta; Santi P Sinha Babu

    2010-03-01

    Wolbachia are symbiotic endobacteria that infect the majority of filarial nematodes, including Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi and Onchocerca volvulus. Recent studies have suggested that Wolbachia are necessary for the reproduction and survival of filarial nematodes and have highlighted the use of antibiotic therapy such as tetracycline/doxycycline as a novel method of treatment for infections caused by these organisms. Before such therapy is conceived and implemented on a large scale, it is necessary to assess the prevalence of the endosymbiont in W. bancrofti from different geographical locations. We present data from molecular and electron microscopic studies to provide evidence for Wolbachia symbiosis in W. bancrofti microfilariae collected from two districts (Bankura and Birbhum) of West Bengal, India.

  6. Effect of Environmental Exposure of Arsenic on Cattle and Poultry in Nadia District, West Bengal, India

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    Datta, Bakul Kumar; Bhar, Moloy Kumar; Patra, Pabitra Hriday; Majumdar, Debasish; Dey, Radha Raman; Sarkar, Samar; Mandal, Tapan Kumar; Chakraborty, Animesh Kumar

    2012-01-01

    A study was undertaken to evaluate an alternative source of arsenicosis in human food chain through livestock. Thirty milch cattle and 20 poultry birds along with their eggs were selected randomly from two endemic villages of Nadia district and one nonendemic villages of Hooghly district in West Bengal, India. Milk, feces, urine, and hair samples of cattle and feed materials, such as water and straw, were collected to analyze arsenic status. Arsenic concentration in egg yolk and albumen from poultry eggs and different poultry organs after culling was estimated. Distribution of arsenic in animal body indicates that major portion of arsenic was eliminated through feces, urine, and milk. Poultry egg yolk, albumen, and poultry products retain arsenic in all organs. Cows and poultry birds reared in endemic zone retain significantly higher concentration of arsenic. Consumption of egg, agricultural produces grown in contaminated soil, and milk might have produced arsenicosis and may be considered as alternative source of arsenic contamination. PMID:22736905

  7. An ergonomic study on posture-related discomfort among preadolescent agricultural workers of West Bengal, India.

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    Gangopadhyay, Somnath; Das, Banibrata; Das, Tamal; Ghoshal, Goutam

    2005-01-01

    In India, particularly in West Bengal, preadolescents are primarily associated with agricultural work in rural areas. Owing to poor socio-economic conditions, they are compelled to carry out a considerable number of manual, rigorous tasks in agricultural fields. The main aim of this study was to investigate postures adopted by preadolescent agricultural workers during individual agricultural activities and to analyze the causes of discomfort related to those postures. Fifty male and 50 female preadolescent agricultural workers were randomly selected and a detailed posture analysis was performed with the Ovako Working Posture Analysis System (OWAS). It was observed that those workers worked continuously in awkward postures during certain agricultural activities. Consequently they suffered from discomfort in different parts of their body. Even though they were very young, they were likely to suffer from serious musculoskeletal disorders in the future.

  8. Environmental arsenic toxicity in West Bengal, India: A brief policy review

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    Atreyee Basu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available High-level arsenic contamination of drinking water in West Bengal (WB, India is a grave public health concern, with 26 million people remaining affected. Two decades of research has provided detailed information on multiple aspects of exposure assessment and risk characterization. However, policy paralysis due to lack of finances and lack of any administrative coordination between the Central and State Governments has hampered the implementation of long-term solutions. Household- and community-level arsenic removal units have provided some relief to the suffering population. In view of the increased funding through the 12th Five-Year Plan period, it is the responsibility of the authorities to implement piped water supply schemes with single-point treatment facilities as the permanent solution to this three-decade-long crisis. Incorporating research evidence into policy and focusing on behavior change communication would be crucial to that end.

  9. Human and cattle population changes in deltaic West Bengal, India between 1977-1987

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    Odend' hal, S.

    1988-03-01

    In 1967-1970, 3.81 km/sup 2/ of a densely populated deltaic area of Hooghly district in West Bengal, India was intensively studied. This same area was resurveyed in 1977 and 1987. From 1977-1987, the human population has increased 10.1%, while the number of households has increased 25%. The total number of children below 10 years of age has diminished. The cattle have increased 26.5%. The number of working-age male cattle has dropped significantly with reliance, primarily on hand tractor power for field cultivation. The number of female cattle has increased substantially. Artificial insemination and the use of temperate breeds of bulls have had an obvious impact. Improvements in the general environment were observed.

  10. Assessment of alpha activity of building materials commonly used in West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Dipak; Deb, Argha; Bera, Sukumar; Sengupta, Rosalima; Patra, Kanchan Kumar

    2008-02-01

    This paper, reports for the first time, an extensive study of alpha activity of all widely used building materials (plaster of Paris, stone chips, marble, white cement, mosaic stone, limestone, sand, granite, cement brick, asbestos, red brick, cement tile, ceramic tile and ceramics) in West Bengal, India. The alpha activities have been measured using Solid State Nuclear Track Detector (SSNTD), a very sensitive detector for alpha particles. The samples were collected from local markets of Kolkata. The measured average alpha activities ranged from 22.7+/-2.5 to 590.6+/-16.8Bqkg(-1). The alpha activity of ceramic tiles was highest and provides additional data to estimate the effect of environmental radiation exposure on human health.

  11. Evaluation of registered visually disabled individuals in a district of West Bengal, India

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    Ghosh Sambuddha

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the sociodemographic characteristics, degree and cause of visual disability among certified visually disabled individuals in a rural district of West Bengal, India and to identify possible lacunae, if any, in the existing certification system. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study by secondary data analysis of medical records of 155 visually disabled individuals and their 310 eyes. Demographical features, diagnosis, percentage of visual disability and work activity status of each individual were analyzed. Results: One hundred and thirty one (84.52% individuals had 100% disability. The number of males was significantly higher than that of females. Fifty eight (37.42% individuals were below 21 years of age. Phthisis bulbi was the most common cause followed by microphthalmos. Further, 81.29% patients had the same lesion bilaterally. Conclusion: Patients with higher grades of disability have attended certification boards. A large number of disabled individuals comprised children and young adults. Male gender bias demands concern.

  12. Evaluation of some selected herbs on arsenic-affected cattle in Nadia District, West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazarika, Jantu M; Sarkar, Prasanta K; Chattopadhyay, Abichal; Mandal, Tapan K; Sarkar, Samar

    2015-04-01

    Arsenic poisoning due to contaminated subsoil water is one of the most alarming environment hazards in West Bengal, India. Cattle are also affected by arsenic due to ingestion of arsenic contaminated water, paddy straw, crops and vegetables. Thirty milch cattle having arsenic content in the range of 3.5 to 4.5 mg/kg in hair were chosen for this experiment from cattle of five respective villages in Nadia District, West Bengal, India. The cattle were divided into three groups containing 10 animals each. Group I cattle were treated with turmeric powder (Curcuma longa) 20 g/day orally for 60 days. Group II cattle were treated with turmeric powder (10 g/day) and Amaranthus spinosus powder (10 g/day) orally for 60 days. Group III cattle were treated with turmeric powder (10 g/day) and Eclipta alba powder (10 g/day) orally for 60 days. Ten apparently healthy milch cows with no history of exposure to arsenic were selected and kept as control group (group IV). Arsenic content in hair, faeces, urine and milk; different biochemical and haematological parameters and DNA fragmentation percentage assay were carried out before commencement of the treatment, after 30 days and after 60 days of treatment. The test drugs were found significantly (p arsenic from the body and lead to significant improvement in different biochemistry, pathology and DNA fragmentation assay. These drugs also give protection from possible damage caused by arsenic exposure.

  13. Present scenario of hemoglobinopathies in West Bengal, India: An analysis of a large population

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    Prakas Kumar Mandal

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: To find out the prevalence of hemoglobinopathies by screening large population in West Bengal from Eastern India. Materials and Methods: A total of 50,487 subjects are screened for hemoglobinopathies from June 2010 to August 2013. A 2.5 ml of venous blood samples were collected in the tri-potassium EDTA vacuum container from each subject and tested with automated blood cell counter (Sysmex KX21 for red cell indices. Diagnosis of hemoglobinopathies was done by VARIANT TM (Bio-Rad Laboratories, Hercules, CA, USA high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Results: Out of 50,487 cases, 44,620 (88.38% had normal and 5,867(11.62% showed abnormal hemoglobin fractions on HPLC. Of these, 5,180(10.26% were heterozygotes (traits and 687(1.36% cases were either homozygotes or compound heterozygote for different types of hemoglobinopathies. The following hemoglobinopathies were present: β-thalassemia trait 6.61%, HbE trait 2.78%, sickle cell trait 0.56%, HbD-Punjab trait 0.21%, β-thalassemia major 0.73%, HbEE 0.05%, compound heterozygosity for HbE-β-thalassemia 0.42%, and HbS-β-thalassemia 0.15%. Conclusion: Among the hemoglobinopathies, β-thalassemia trait (6.61% and HbE trait (2.78% are prevalent in rural Bengal.

  14. Monotonic trends in spatio-temporal distribution and concentration of monsoon precipitation (1901-2002), West Bengal, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Soumendu; Khan, Ansar; Akbari, Hashem; Wang, Yupeng

    2016-12-01

    This paper intended to investigate spatio-temporal monotonic trend and shift in concentration of monsoon precipitation across West Bengal, India, by analysing the time series of monthly precipitation from 18 weather stations during the period from 1901 to 2002. In dealing with, the inhomogeneity in the precipitation series, RHtestsV4 software package is used to detect, and adjust for, multiple change points (shifts) that could exist in data series. Finally, the cumulative deviation test was applied at 5% significant level to check the homogeneity (presence of historic changes by cumulative deviations test). Afterward, non-parametric Mann-Kendall (MK) test and Theil-Sen estimator (TSE) was applied to detect of nature and slope of trends; and, Sequential Mann Kendall (SQMK) test was applied for detection of turning point and magnitude of change in trends. Prior to the application of statistical tests, the pre-whitening technique was used to eliminate the effect of autocorrelation in precipitation data series. Four indices- precipitation concentration index (PCI), precipitation concentration degree (PCD), precipitation concentration period (PCP) and fulcrum (centre of gravity) were used to detect precipitation concentration and the spatial pattern in it. The application of the above-mentioned procedures has shown very notable statewide monotonic trend for monsoon precipitation time series. Regional cluster analysis by SQMK found increasing precipitation in mountain and coastal regions in general, except during the non- monsoon seasons. The results show that higher PCI values were mainly observed in South Bengal, whereas lower PCI values were mostly detected in North Bengal. The PCI values are noticeably larger in places where both monsoon total precipitation and span of rainy season are lower. The results of PCP reveal that precipitation in Gangetic Bengal mostly occurs in summer (monsoon season), and the rainy season arrives earlier in North Bengal than South Bengal

  15. Diversity of arsenite oxidizing bacterial communities in arsenic-rich deltaic aquifers in West Bengal, India

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    Devanita eGhosh

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available High arsenic (As concentration in groundwater has affected human health, particularly in South-East Asia putting millions of people at risk. Biogeochemical cycling of As carried out by different bacterial groups are suggested to control the As fluxes in aquifers. A functional diversity approach in link with As precipitation was adopted to study bacterial community structures and their variation within the As contaminated Bengal Delta Plain (BDP aquifers of India. Groundwater samples collected from two shallow aquifers in Karimpur II (West Bengal, India, during years 2010 and 2011, were investigated to trace the effects of inter-annual variability in precipitation on community structure and diversity of bacterial assemblages. The study focused on amplification, clone library generation and sequencing of the arsenite oxidase large sub-unit gene aioA and 16S rRNA marker, with respect to changes in elemental concentrations. New set of primers were designed to amplify the aioA gene as a phylogenetic marker to study taxonomically diverse arsenite oxidizing bacterial groups in these aquifers. Overall narrow distribution of bacterial communities based on aioA and 16S rRNA sequences observed was due to poor nutrient status and anoxic conditions in these As contaminated aquifers. Proteobacteria was the dominant phylum detected, within which Acidovorax, Hydrogenophaga, Albidiferax, Bosea and Polymorphum were the major arsenite oxidizing bacterial genera. The structure of bacterial assemblages including those of arsenite oxidizing bacteria were affected by an increase in major elemental concentrations (e.g., As, iron, sulfur, and silica within two sampling sessions, which was supported by PCA analysis. One of the significant findings of this study is detection of novel lineages of 16S rRNA-like bacterial sequences indicating presence of indigenous bacterial communities across both wells of BDP that can play important role in biogeochemical cycling of

  16. Prevalence of low back pain among handloom weavers in West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durlov, Santu; Chakrabarty, Sabarni; Chatterjee, Arijit; Das, Tamal; Dev, Samrat; Gangopadhyay, Somnath; Haldar, Prasun; Maity, Santi Gopal; Sarkar, Krishnendu; Sahu, Subhashis

    2014-10-01

    Handloom is one of the oldest industries in India, particularly in West Bengal, where a considerable number of rural people are engaged in weaving. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of low back pain among the handloom weavers in India. A modified Nordic Musculoskeletal Disorder Questionnaire and Oswestry Low Back Pain Disability Questionnaire along with a body part discomfort scale were administered to handloom weavers (n = 175). Working posture of the participants was assessed using the Ovako Working Posture Analysis System (OWAS). Sixty eight per cent of the participants reported suffering from low back pain, making it the most prevalent disorder in our sample. Analysis of the Oswestry Low Back Pain Disability Questionnaire data revealed that among those with low back pain (n = 119), 2% had severe disabilities, 46% had moderate disabilities, and 52% had minimal disabilities. Statistical analyses revealed a positive significant association between the intensity of pain in the lower back and an increased number of years of work experience (P<0·05). The study underlines the need for further research regarding the postural strain of weavers and also suggests the implementation of ergonomic design into weaver workstations to minimize the adverse effect of their current working postures. Improving upon the weaver's work-posture could improve their quality of life.

  17. Insecticide susceptibility of Phlebotomus argentipes & assessment of vector control in two districts of West Bengal, India

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    Vijay Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Kala-azar or visceral leishmanisis (VL is known to be endemic in several States of India including West Bengal (WB. Only meager information is available on the vector dynamics of its vector species, Phlebotomus argentipes particularly in relation to control measure from this State. Hence, a pilot study was undertaken to assess the control strategy and its impact on vector in two endemic districts of WB, India. Methods: Two villages each from the two districts, Maldah and Burdwan, were selected for the study. Seasonal variation of sandflies was observed during pre-monsoon, post-monsoon and winter seasons. Susceptibility test of P. argentipes against DDT and bioassay on DDT sprayed wall and on long lasting insecticide nets (LN Perma Net [®] 2.0 were conducted as per the WHO standard methods. Results: P. argentipes density was high during March to October. Susceptibility status of P. argentipes ranged from 40 to 61.54 per cent. Bioassay test showed 57.89 per cent mortality against LN PermaNet [®] -2.0. and 50 per cent against DDT on wall within 30 min of exposure. Interpretation & conclusions: Despite the integrated vector management approach, the sandfly population was high in the study area. The reason could be development of resistance in P. argentipes against DDT and low effectiveness of LN PermaNet [®] -2.0. The more pragmatic step will be to conduct large studies to monitor the susceptibility level in P. argentipes against DDT.

  18. PLANTS USED TO CURE PROBLEMS OF FLATULENCE AND CONSTIPATION IN THREE SOUTHERN DISTRICTS OF WEST BENGAL, INDIA

    OpenAIRE

    Shibabrata Pattanayak; Tapan Kumar Mandal; Susanta Kumar Bandyopadhyay

    2015-01-01

    Chronic flatulence and constipation are two very important problems related with digestive system. Information related with use of various plant parts for correction of these problems were collected from three southern districts of West Bengal, India with different agro-climatic conditions viz. Paschim Medinipur, Purba Medinipur, and Murshidabad. A total of six plants and three plant combinations involving another six new plants were identified, practiced methods of their uses wit...

  19. RURAL TOURISM AND IT’S IMPACT ON SOCIOECONOMIC CONDITION: EVIDENCE FROM WEST BENGAL, INDIA

    OpenAIRE

    Nilanjan Ray; Dillip Kumar Das; Partha Pratim Sengupta; Sukanya Ghosh

    2012-01-01

    This study explores rural tourism in West Bengal, India. Rural tourism promotes the local economy, socio-cultural changes and life style of the people residing around the tourist locations. This study explores the reasons foreign and domestic tourists visit this location for religious or recreational purposes. This tourism has created tremendous impact on the local economy, life style and socio-cultural changes among the rural people in and around this tourist destination. A pilot survey show...

  20. DETECTION OF CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER VIRUS BY RT-PCR IN WEST BENGAL, INDIA

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    Sumit Chowdhury

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Classical swine fever is a deadly disease of swine, caused by a RNA virus. The present study has identified presence of the classical swine fever virus (CSFV in pigs of West Bengal by one step reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR performed using 5’ NTR specific primers. Internal organs from clinically affected pigs were examined from three districts of West Bengal. RT-PCT has identified presence of CSFV in all the tissues examined confirming presence of CSFV in different parts of the state.

  1. Clinical and hematological study of canine Ehrlichiosis with otherhemoprotozoan parasites in Kolkata, West Bengal, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mousam Das; Sabyasachi Konar

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To observe other hemoprotozoan diseases with canine ehrlichiosis and to evaluate the clinical and hematological aspects of dogs naturally infected with ehrlichiosis with other hemoprotozoan diseases.Methods:Blood was collected for hematological value and Giemsa stained blood smear was made for diagnosis of Ehrlichia sp. and other hemoprotozoan parasites from naturally infected dogs. Case history was taken from the owner and clinical signs and symptoms were noted.Results:A total of 47 cases of ehrlichiosis in dogs were reported with babesiosis (8.51%) and hepatozoonosis (6.38%) hemoprotozoan diseases. Ehrlichia canis, Ehrlichia ewingii, Brucella canis,Babesia gibsoni and Hepatozoon canis were observed under oil immersion lense of microscope in Giemsa stained peripheral blood smears. Marked anaemia and neutrophilic leukocytosis were observed.Conclusions:The results of this study stated that clinical and haematological changes occurred in canine ehrlichiosis with babesiosis and hepatozoonosis due to parasitemia. In mixed infection, the disease more severe, and also it depended on immunity of animals. Babesia gibsoni andHepatozoon canis with Ehrlichia sp. were first reported from West Bengal state of India by this study.

  2. Adiposity and Health Status among Adult Male Mundas and Oraons of Paschim Medinipur, West Bengal, India

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    Subal Das

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present cross-sectional study was conducted among two male tribal groups Munda (n=106 and Oraon (n=104 aged 18–73 years of Paschim Medinipur, West Bengal. Objective was to evaluate the health status based on body mass index (BMI and percent body fat (PBF. Measurements of weight, height, circumferences, and skinfolds were recorded. Results revealed that mean age of Mundas (36.2±13.3 and Oraons (35.1±15.3 in years were similar. Significant (P<0.05 ethnic differences in mean chest circumference and anterior thigh skinfold were observed. Both Munda (50.0% and Oraon (46.2% males suffered from very high degree of chronic energy deficiency (CED based on BMI. Similarly, for percent body fat (PBF, Mundas (29.3% and Oraons (35.4% had unhealthy (too low PBF (i.e., ≤5% levels. Significantly negative correlations were observed between age and BMI and positive correlations between age, waist-hip ratio (WHR, and conicity index (CI (only Mundas among Mundas and Oraons. In Linear regression, age had a significant impact on all derived central and overall adiposity measures. Prospective studies are required to determine the associations between health status and PBF as well as nutrition status and BMI in different indigenous ethnic groups of India and elsewhere.

  3. Calcium carbide related ocular burn injuries during mango ripening season of West Bengal, eastern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, S; Saha, M; Biswas, S; Ranjan, A; Naskar, A K; Bandyopadhyay, L

    2013-01-01

    Calcium carbide used in fruit ripening industry as a cheap alternative to natural plant hormone ethylene produces highly inflammable acetylene gas. Inadvertent ignition of this gas can cause severe ocular burn injury with unilateral or bilateral blindness. To determine the characteristics and visual outcome of ocular burn injuries from calcium carbide during mango ripening season of West Bengal, eastern India. A prospective study of all cases of calcium carbide related ocular burn injury attending a tertiary care hospital during mango ripening season was carried out. The demographic features, characteristics of the injury, management and outcomes were recorded. Fifty five eyes of 33 patients were studied. Males were more commonly affected (20 patients, 60.6%) than females. The injury was bilateral in 22 patients (66.66%). Seventeen patients (51.51%) were below 20 years of age. Ten eyes had open globe injuries and 45 eyes had closed globe injuries. One eye of a patient had to be enucleated (3%). Children below 14 years of age were mainly injured while playing with indigenous fireworks of shooting carbide. Middle aged women were affected particularly during ignition of evening lamps. Carbide lamp was another source of injury. Males are more commonly affected by calcium carbide related ocular injuries. Children and young adults are the common victims. Such injuries can involve both the eyes and cause a permanent visual disability. © NEPjOPH.

  4. Medicinal plants used by tribal population of Coochbehar district, West Bengal, India-an ethnobotanical survey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tanmay Datta; Amal Kumar Patra; Santanu Ghosh Dastidar

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To explore traditional ethnomedicinal knowledge of different tribes of Coochbehar district of West Bengal, India, and its present status.Methods:were interviewed on medicinal use of local flora in all the tribal villages of Coochbehar district during July, 2007 to December, 2009 and some of the places were revisited for this purpose again during July to December of 2012. With the help of standardized questionnaires, traditional healers and resource persons Results: A total of 46 plant species belonging to 42 genera and 27 families were reported to be used for treating 33 various physical ailments. In terms of the number of medicinal plant species, Fabaceae (5 species) and Euphorbiaceae (4 species) are dominant families. Among different plant parts used for the preparation of medicine, leaves were most frequently used for the treatment of diseases.Conclusions:In all tribal villages we found the use of medicinal plants, particularly to treat common physical problems like smaller injuries, stomachache and abdominal disorder. However, non-availability of such plants in close vicinity is imposing restriction on using medicinal plants. Further research on these species may lead to the discovery of novel bioactive molecules in one hand and also it may open up a new horizon of sustainable development.

  5. Lymphatic filariasis in the foothill areas around Susunia of West Bengal in India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.Paramanik; G.Chandra

    2009-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the filarial epidemiology in 16 foothill villages around Susunia hill,Bankura district, West Bengal,India.Indices studied were microfilaria rate,mean microfilarial density,filarial disease rate and endemicity rate.Other indices related to transmission were incrimination of vector species,man-hour density of the vector,vector infection and infectivity rates,human blood index of the vector etc.Methods:Examination of 20 μL night blood samples by finger prick and clinical examination for filarial diseases of 3 737 people (2 241 male and 1 496 female)was done randomly covering nearly 22 % population of the study area.Aspects related to vectors were dealt by regular collection and dissection of mosquitoes.Results:Overall microfilaria rate,mean microfilarial density,disease rate and endemicity rate were 6.10 %,10.86 %,20.20 % and 25.58 %,re-spectively.Causative parasite was identified as Wuchereria bancrofti and Culex quinquefasciatus was incrimina-ted as the vector therein.Vector infection rate,infectivity rate and human blood index were assessed to be 6. 31 %,1.38 % and 77.33 %,respectively.Conclusion:Present study area is highly endemic for bancroftian filariasis.More than one fourth of the population under study were filarial victims indicating an overall alarming situation and immediate measure should be taken to rectify the situation.

  6. Airborne load of Cassia pollen in West Bengal, eastern India: its atmospheric variation and health impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Mir Musaraf; Mandal, Jyotshna; Bhattacharya, Kashinath

    2013-03-01

    A Burkard personal volumetric sampler was used at Sriniketan, a town about 150 km northwest of Calcutta, in the state of West Bengal, in eastern India to record the frequency of three common airborne Cassia pollen types, Cassia tora, Cassia occidentalis, and Cassia fistula for two consecutive years (2004-2006). Correlation was made between the meteorological factors and the pollen concentration in the atmosphere. The study reports Cassia pollinosis by in vivo skin prick test in respiratory allergic patients. The highest positive reactions were exhibited by C. tora (34.7 %), C. fistula (33.3 %), and C. occidentalis (28.5 %). The allergic potential of these was investigated by in vitro enzyme linked immunosorbent assay test. Their protein components were analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, in the range of 15.8-81.5 kDa. In C. occidentalis and C. fistula, 11 bands were found, while it was 10 in C. tora. The results show that the Cassia pollen occur significantly in the atmosphere with the potential to elicit an allergic response in susceptible patients.

  7. Two algal species of Volvox L. with their taxonomy and ecology from West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilu Halder

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The present paper was communicated with the taxonomic description and ecology of two species of the genus Volvox L. viz. Volvox aureus Ehr. and Volvox globator L. under the order Volvocales of class Chlorophyceae. They are freshwater and planktonic phycoflora. The colony of former species was comparatively smaller (340 µm than the later (480 µm whereas, somatic cells were found slightly larger in the former species in comparison to later species. Both were colonial, multicellular, greenish and formed dots like appearances in the water bodies and, exhibited phototactic movements. These two species were being reported first time from Hooghly of West Bengal, India. The ecological study showed that they preferred to grow in alkaline water (pH 7.3-7.5 with slight high organic nutrient contents (NO3 -N: PO4 3- ratios: 0.25-0.35: 0.30-0.32 mg/l. This study also revealed that higher total alkalinity values (174.0-184.0 mg/l were favorable for their developments and their maximum growth noticed in summer in aquatic ecosystems.

  8. Prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders and occupational health problems among groundnut farmers of West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Banibrata; Ghosh, Tirthankar; Gangopadhyay, Somnath

    2013-12-01

    The main aim of the study was to determine the nature and extent of work-related musculoskeletal disorders and physiological and thermal working stress among the groundnut farmers. In the present investigation, eighty-five groundnut farmers were recruited from the villages of Tarakeswar of West Bengal, India. Eighty-five control office workers were also selected as a control group. The modified Nordic questionnaire and a posture analysis using the OWAS method were applied in the case of groundnut farmers. The working environment and physiological stress of the groundnut cultivators were also assessed. The analysis of working posture indicated that most of the groundnut cultivation activities needed corrective measures as soon as possible. Most of the groundnut farmers suffered from discomfort at different parts of the body, especially at the lower back (99%), knee (92%), ankle (66%), shoulder (61%) and hand (60%) regions. This study also showed that groundnut farmers suffered from excessive thermal (33.4 degrees C) and physiological stress (heart rate rose up to 121.5 beats/min, systolic and diastolic blood pressure up to 132 and 80 mm/Hg, respectively, PEFR values are 403 lit/min) which affects their health. From the observation and analysis of the results, it was concluded that the health of the groundnut farmers was highly affected by improper body postures and work-load. Twisting, bending, and awkward postures during work could lead to musculoskeletal disorders among them.

  9. A Comparative Study of Labour Participation in Three Wetland Regions of West Bengal, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Malabika Biswas; Roy, Pankaj Kumar; Samal, Nihar Ranjan; Mazumdar, Asis

    2016-06-01

    Wetlands are invaluable components of the environment, ecology, resource potential and biodiversity in India. In the Gangetic flood plain of West Bengal, wetlands are used for multiple purposes, and have significant role in the livelihoods of the local people. Thus an awareness of the importance of wetland is raised from few decades, because Government authorities and private organizations are started to realize the fact that wetlands are complex ecological systems, whose structure provides numerous goods and various services, including food storage, water quality sustenance, agriculture production, fisheries and recreation. The objective of this work is to analyze the conditions of unemployed people through labour participation and to evolve an adaptation for the sustainable use of wetlands, emphasizing the economic upliftment for the selected floodplain region. It may be concluded that as some of the floodplain wetlands serves as bird sanctuaries, national parks and reserves of biodiversity, it results in several environmental issues to mitigate and are also used for irrigation, jute retting, collection of edible aquatic plants and animals as well as birds. Thus a plan for floodplain wetlands may be developed to integrate the various uses of the water body with a holistic approach.

  10. ANALYSIS OF INCIDENCE OF INFERTILITY IN CATTLE OF HOWRAH DISTRICT IN WEST BENGAL, INDIA

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    Asit Kumar Maji

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A total of 823 numbers of cattle (342 Crossbred Jersey and 481 Non-descript were presented for gynaeco-clinical examination after considering specific history of cattle at 26 fertility camps during January 2006 to December 2008 in flood prone rural areas of Howrah district of West Bengal, India. Statistical analysis of the data pointed out that among overall infertility problem incidence of anestrous and repeat breeding were 67.68 % and 32.32 % respectively. Incidence of anestrous was higher in Non-descript cattle (53.86 % than that Crossbred Jersey cattle (46.14 % and incidence of repeat breeding was also significantly (P < 0.001 higher in non-descript cattle (68.05% than that of crossbred (31.95% animal. Irrespective of breeds the incidence of true anestrous, subestrus, anestrous due to pyometra with persistent corpus leuteum and infantile genitalia with other congenital disorders were 81.51 %, 9.34%, 1.44% and 7.71% respectively. It also revealed that incidence of repeat breeding due to anovulatory estrus, follicular cyst and uterine infection were 43.61%, 46.24%, and 10.15% respectively which were also significantly higher (P<0.001 in Non-descript cattle in comparison with Crossbred Jersey (72.4 vs. 27.0 %, 59.34 vs. 40.65% and 88.89 vs. 11.11% respectively for ND vs. CBJ.

  11. Waterborne cholera outbreak following Cyclone Aila in Sundarban area of West Bengal, India, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhunia, Rama; Ghosh, Sougata

    2011-04-01

    Following Cyclone Aila, a block of Sundarban area, West Bengal, India, reported an increased number of diarrhoea cases at the end of May 2009. This study was performed to identify the agent and source of the outbreak as well as to propose control measures. The outbreak is described by time, place and person. A matched case-control study was conducted and rectal swabs and water specimens were collected. In total, 1076 probable case patients and 14 deaths (attack rate 44/10 000) were identified. Vibrio cholerae El Tor Ogawa was isolated from two of five probable case patients' stool specimens. The outbreak started in the fourth week of May, with two peaks in the second and fourth weeks of June, and lasted until August 2009. Compared with controls, cases were more likely to drink non-chlorinated piped water [matched odds ratio (MOR)=16, 95% CI 4.9-51; population attributable fraction 58%) and were less likely to drink chlorine-treated water (MOR=0.06, 95% CI 0.02-0.18). Villagers broke the water pipelines near their houses for easy access to water. Piped water specimens and stored drinking water were positive for faecal contamination. Contaminated drinking water was the probable source of the cholera outbreak. Repairing the pipelines, chlorination at household level and educating villagers regarding the danger of breached water pipe connections controlled the outbreak.

  12. 12. Chromosomal aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges in the symptomatic individuals exposed to arsenic through drinking water in West Bengal, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@In the seven districts of West Bengal, India arsenic in ground water has been found to be above the permissible limit. The concentrations of arsenic is ranging from 200-800 (g/l according to latest reports. More than 200,000 people have already shown different types of arsenical skin lesions in these seven districts of West Bengal. It has been regarded as the biggest arsenic calamity in the world. However, there is

  13. A simple chemical free arsenic removal method for community water supply - A case study from West Bengal, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sen Gupta, B., E-mail: B.Sengupta@qub.ac.u [School of Civil Engineering, Queen' s University Belfast, Stranmillis Road, David Keir Building, Belfast BT9 5AG (United Kingdom); Chatterjee, S. [School of Civil Engineering, Queen' s University Belfast, Stranmillis Road, David Keir Building, Belfast BT9 5AG (United Kingdom); Rott, U., E-mail: rott@iswa.uni-stuttgart.d [ISWA, Stuttgart University, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Kauffman, H. [ISWA, Stuttgart University, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Bandopadhyay, A., E-mail: ab@nmlindia.or [National Metallurgical Laboratory, Jamshedpur 831007 (India); DeGroot, W., E-mail: degroot@cml.leidenuniv.n [CML, Leiden University, 2300 Leiden (Netherlands); Nag, N.K., E-mail: nknagiemsjsr@sify.co [IEMS, 26- J Road, Jamshedpur 831001 (India); Carbonell-Barrachina, A.A., E-mail: angel.carbonell@umh.e [Miguel Hernandez University, 03312 Orihuela, Alicante (Spain); Mukherjee, S., E-mail: soumya_m@ymail.co [RKVM Institute of Advanced Studies, 3 B.T. Road, Kolkata 700058 (India)

    2009-12-15

    This report describes a simple chemical free method that was successfully used by a team of European and Indian scientists ( (www.qub.ac.uk/tipot)) to remove arsenic (As) from groundwater in a village in West Bengal, India. Six such plants are now in operation and are being used to supply water to the local population ( (www.insituarsenic.org)). The study was conducted in Kasimpore, a village in North 24 Parganas District, approximately 25 km from Kolkata. In all cases, total As in treated water was less than the WHO guideline value of 10 mug L{sup -1}. The plant produces no sludge and the operation cost is 1.0 US$ per day for producing 2000 L of potable water. - This work presents the chemical free arsenic removal method from groundwater and its successful implementation in West Bengal for community water supply.

  14. Diet, nutritional status and food related traditions of Oraon tribes of New Mal (West Bengal), India.

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    Mittal, Poonam C; Srivastava, Sapna

    2006-01-01

    According to the 2001 census conducted by the Government of India, India has more than 84 million tribals who constitute 8.2% of India's population. The Oraons are an agricultural tribe found mainly in Orissa, Bihar, Jharkhand and West Bengal. The present study was undertaken on a group of Oraon tribals working in a tea gardens of New Mal in Jalpaiguri district of West Bengal. The children attended the local primary school. The Oraons are covered by the Integrated Child Development Scheme (ICDS) of the Government of India, which is concerned with the health, nutrition and development of children and their mothers. To evaluate the effect of ICDS, the practices of adults towards hygiene, medication, addictive substances and diet were also recorded. 500 Oraon tribals, including 200 men and 150 women aged 20-45 years, and 150 children aged 6-12 years, were surveyed for their dietary intake by 24-hour recall and semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire methodology and anthropometry, and a description of food-related traditions. The diet of all Oraon groups was deficient in all food groups. Cereal intake was least deficient, while the intake of milk and fruit was almost negligible. Their diet was supplemented by a locally grown green leafy vegetable dheki saag, and fermented leftover rice. The energy available from the diet for all age groups was only 52-53% of the recommended dietary allowances of the Indian Council of Medical Research. Children were enrolled in a midday meal program at the local primary school; however, their energy intake was severely deficient, and of the same order as their parents. The mean basal mass index (BMI) of adult Oraons was not low, but children were severely undernourished. Men were less undernourished than were women. Some potentially useful traditions practiced included wiping washed utensils with leaves of a local plant mirchaiya, preparing herbal tablets called ranoodava to make an alcoholic and a medicinal drink called hadiya

  15. The 2010 outbreak of cholera among workers of a jute mill in Kolkata, West Bengal, India.

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    Mridha, Prakash; Biswas, Asit K; Ramakrishnan, R; Murhekar, Manoj V

    2011-02-01

    On 10 March 2010, an outbreak of diarrhoeal disease was reported among workers of a jute mill in Kolkata, West Bengal, India. The cluster was investigated to identify the agent(s) and the source of infection and make recommendations. A suspected case of cholera was defined as having >3 loose watery stools in a 24-hour period and searched for case-patients in the workers' colony. The outbreak was described by time, place, and person, and a case-control study was conducted to identify the source of infection. Rectal swabs were collected from the hospitalized case-patients, and the local water-supply system was assessed. In total, 197 case-patients were identified among 5,910 residents of the workers' colony (attack rate 3.33%). Fifteen of 24 stool samples were positive for Vibrio cholerae O1. The outbreak started on 7 March, peaked on 11 March, and ended on 16 March 2010. Compared to 120 controls, 60 cases did not differ in terms of age and socioeconomic status. Drinking-water from the reservoir within the mill premises was associated with an increased risk of illness [odds ratio: 26.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) 11.4-62.6) and accounted for most cases (population attributable risk percentage = 82%, 95% CI 70.8-92.9). An outbreak of cholera occurred among workers of the jute mill due to contamination of the drinking-water reservoir. It occurred within a few days of re-opening of the mill after the workers' strike. Health authorities need to enforce disinfection of drinking-water and regularly test its bacteriological quality, particularly before re-opening of the mill after the strike.

  16. Evaluation of patient satisfaction in a Government Homeopathic Hospital in West Bengal, India

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    Munmun Koley

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims – Discovering the degree of patient satisfaction in a medical practice setting may put substantial impact in improving health status and quality of care provided. In this study, the researchers evaluated the degree of patient satisfaction following medical encounters and re-examined the validity and reliability of the used questionnaires. Methodology – An institutional, cross-sectional, observational study was carried out involving 390 participants in February, 2013 in five out-patient clinics of Mahesh Bhattacharyya Homeopathic Medical College and Hospital, Govt. of West Bengal, Howrah, India. A 12-item Japanese short-form self-administered consultation satisfaction questionnaire translated into Bengali with a 5-point Likert scale was used. The questionnaire generated 5 subscales – overall satisfaction, complete examination, whole person care, examination time, and patient centeredness. Visual analogue scales (VASs of 100mm were provided with each single question item and each subscale. Results – The questionnaire appeared reliable and valid. Internal consistency scores Cronbach’s α were between 0.7-0.9 and test-retest reliability Cohen’s κ was greater than 0.7 for each item. Concurrent validity Pearson’s r between total questionnaire and VASs was 0.60, P < 0.001; each subscale scores 0.8 < r < 0.9, P < 0.0001, and each question score 0.8 < r < 0.9, P < 0.0001. Comparison of mean scores of five different subscales for five different outpatient clinics yielded F ratios between 4.3-9.8 (P < 0.05, df = 4, 95% CI establishing discriminant validity. Conclusions – Overall, the patients’ satisfaction appeared to be high. Further works should be undertaken adapting the questionnaire globally in different languages.

  17. Students′ perception of quality of medical education in a medical college in west Bengal, India

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    Dipta Kanti Mukhopadhyay

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Students′ perceived quality of educational service is an important field of educational research. Objectives: To identify the gaps in the quality of educational services as perceived by students in a medical college in West Bengal, India. Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional study, educational quality was measured using validated SERVQUAL instrument between two randomly selected groups of undergraduate medical students (n = 179. This five-point Likert scale questionnaire measured the expectation and perception of students on 26 items under five dimensions of quality of educational services, viz., tangible (physical facilities, equipment, and appearance of personnel, reliability (accuracy and consistency of a department in providing educational services, responsiveness (eagerness to help and commitment, assurance (ability of teaching departments to earn students′ confidence, and empathy (ability to communicate care and understanding. Dimension-wise difference in the mean scores for expectation and perception was calculated and was considered as quality gaps in educational services. Results: Significant negative quality gaps were noted in all five dimensions. The highest gap was found in tangible (-1.67 followed by empathy (-1.64 although the mean score of perceived quality in the dimension of empathy was the lowest (2.53. This indicates the need for improvement in physical facilities as well as behavior of teachers and staff toward students. The smallest gap was noted in the dimension of assurance (-1.29, which indicates the students′ overall confidence in teaching departments regarding their management or content expertise. Conclusion: These findings underscore students′ aspiration for the overall improvement of educational services that can be taken into consideration during development planning.

  18. Thermodynamics of cadmium sorption on different soils of West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karak, Tanmoy; Paul, Ranjit Kumar; Das, D K; Boruah, Romesh K; Sonar, Indira

    2014-01-01

    A sorption study was conducted on different soils collected from five agroecological zones of West Bengal, India, to understand the soil environmental behavior and fate of cadmium. For this purpose batch adsorption experiments were carried out at the native soil pH and at three different temperatures (25°C, 35°C, and 45°C). The adsorption data fitted by a linear least squares technique to the different sorption isotherms. Most data obtained give the good fit to both Freundlich and modified Langmuir isotherms, but they are not consistent with the linear Langmuir adsorption model. Thermodynamic parameters, namely, thermodynamics equilibrium constant at a particular temperature T (K T (0)), Gibbs free energy at a particular temperature T (ΔG T (0)), and change of enthalpy (ΔH (0)) and change of entropy at temperature T (ΔS T (0)), were also determined by applying sorption value and concentrations of Cd in equilibrium solution within the temperature range. The thermodynamic parameters revealed that Cd sorption increases as the values of K T (0), ΔG T (0), ΔH (0), and ΔS T (0) were increased on reaction temperatures. The spontaneous sorption reaction can be concluded due to high values of ΔG T (0). The positive values of ΔH (0) indicated that the Cd sorption is an endothermic one. Under these present conditions, the soil and its components possibly supply a number of sites having different adsorption energies for cadmium sorption.

  19. Students' perception of quality of medical education in a medical college in west Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Dipta Kanti

    2016-01-01

    Students' perceived quality of educational service is an important field of educational research. To identify the gaps in the quality of educational services as perceived by students in a medical college in West Bengal, India. In a cross-sectional study, educational quality was measured using validated SERVQUAL instrument between two randomly selected groups of undergraduate medical students (n = 179). This five-point Likert scale questionnaire measured the expectation and perception of students on 26 items under five dimensions of quality of educational services, viz., tangible (physical facilities, equipment, and appearance of personnel), reliability (accuracy and consistency of a department in providing educational services), responsiveness (eagerness to help and commitment), assurance (ability of teaching departments to earn students' confidence), and empathy (ability to communicate care and understanding). Dimension-wise difference in the mean scores for expectation and perception was calculated and was considered as quality gaps in educational services. Significant negative quality gaps were noted in all five dimensions. The highest gap was found in tangible (-1.67) followed by empathy (-1.64) although the mean score of perceived quality in the dimension of empathy was the lowest (2.53). This indicates the need for improvement in physical facilities as well as behavior of teachers and staff toward students. The smallest gap was noted in the dimension of assurance (-1.29), which indicates the students' overall confidence in teaching departments regarding their management or content expertise. These findings underscore students' aspiration for the overall improvement of educational services that can be taken into consideration during development planning.

  20. Menstrual characteristics of adolescent athletes: a study from West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Priyanka; Mishra, Shailendra Kumar; Ray, Subha

    2014-09-01

    The present study investigates: (i) differences in menstrual characteristics of athlete and non-athlete adolescents; (ii) relationship between menstrual characteristics, anthropometric variables, athletic status and socioeconomic status. The present study was conducted among 159 unmarried adolescents (80 non-athletes and 79 athletes) of age 15 to 19 years. The study participants belong to Bengali speaking Hindu ethnic group of Kolkata, the capital city of West Bengal State of India. Data were collected on socio-demographic and menstrual characteristics using pre-tested questionnaires. Anthropometric measurements were taken following standard methods. Descriptive statistics were used to understand the differences in menstrual characteristics between athletes and non-athletes, stepwise linear regression analyses were carried out to predict age at menarche, menstrual cycle length and duration of menstrual discharge using socio-demographic and anthropometric variables as well as athletic status as independent variables. Logistic (binary) regression was carried out to assess the strength of association between menstrual characteristics (as dependent variables) and athletic status, socio-demographic and anthropometric variables, and other menstrual characteristics (independent variables). The study participants differ significantly (p menstrual characteristics such as age at menarche, cycle length, skipped cycle, premenstrual syndrome, heavy discharge when compared for their athletic status. Certain anthropometric and socioeconomic variables were found to be significantly associated with their menstrual characteristics. The study results demonstrate that menstrual functioning among adolescents is significantly influenced by their athletic status. The findings of this study would help health care professionals to devise future health care programs for adolescents in gen- eral and athletes in particular.

  1. Syphilis seroprevalence among patients attending a sexually transmitted disease clinic in West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maity, Susmita; Bhunia, Somesh Chandra; Biswas, Subrata; Saha, Malay Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Syphilis is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) and is a major public health concern in India. The trend of syphilis infection was studied in attendees aged 15-49 years in an STD clinic in West Bengal from 2004 to 2008. Blood samples were collected from 250 consecutive patients per year (a total of 1,250 samples over 5 years); the patients attended the STD clinic for 12 weeks (October-December) each year, and the serostatus of syphilis was determined qualitatively with the Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) test using serum samples. A quantitative VDRL test was then performed at a dilution of 1:8 using serum samples that yielded positive results in the qualitative VDRL test. Finally, serum samples that yielded positive results in the quantitative VDRL test were also subjected to the Treponema pallidum hemagglutination assay (TPHA). The serum samples that yielded positive results in both the tests were considered syphilis seropositive. All seropositive serum samples from the quantitative VDRL test were also found to be positive results in TPHA. The total seropositivity for syphilis in the STD patients was 8.2% (women, 8.9%; men, 7.7%). Review of the data from 5 consecutive years showed a statistically significant (χ(2) = 9.968, df = 4, P < 0.05) decrease in syphilis positivity from 10.8% (2004) to 3.6% (2008). The results of the study also revealed that the highest seroprevalence was in the 20-24 age group (16.3%), and the lowest seroprevalence was in the 45-49 age group (3.3%). The study indicates the effectiveness of current interventions with a need to focus further on reducing the burden in the 20-24 age group.

  2. Availability and use of emergency obstetric care services in four districts of West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Akhil Bandhu; Das, Dilip Kumar; Misra, Raghunath; Roy, Rabindra Nath; Ghosh, Debdatta; Mitra, Kaninika

    2005-09-01

    Process indicators have been recommended for monitoring the availability and use of emergency obstetric care (EmOC) services. A health facility-based study was carried out in 2002 in four districts of West Bengal, India, to analyze these process indicators. Relevant records and registers for 2001 of all studied facilities in the districts were reviewed to collect data using a pre-designed schedule. The numbers of basic and comprehensive EmOC facilities were inadequate in all the four districts compared to the minimum acceptable level. Overall, 26.2% of estimated annual births took place in the EmOC facilities (ranged from 16.2% to 45.8% in 4 districts) against the required minimum of 15%. The rate of caesarean section calculated for all expected births in the population varied from 3.5% to 4.4% in the four districts with an overall rate of 4%, which is less than the minimum target of 5%. Only 29.9% of the estimated number of complications (which is 15% of all births) was managed in the EmOC facilities. The combined case-fatality rate in the basic/comprehensive EmOC facilities was 1.7%. Major obstetric complications contributed to 85.7% of maternal deaths, and pre-eclampsia/eclampsia was the most common cause. It can be concluded that all the process indicators, except proportion of deliveries in the EmOC facilities, were below the acceptable level. Certain priority measures, such as making facilities fully functional, effective referral and monitoring system, skill-based training, etc., are to be emphasized to improve the situation.

  3. Arsenic contamination: a potential hazard to the affected areas of West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahaman, Sefaur; Sinha, A C; Pati, R; Mukhopadhyay, D

    2013-02-01

    Arsenic contamination in groundwater is becoming more and more a worldwide problem. Nearing 50 million of people are at health risk from arsenic contamination at Ganga-Meghna-Bramhaputra basin. The experimental results of the five blocks under Malda district of West Bengal, India, showed that the arsenic concentration in groundwater (0.41-1.01 mg/l) was higher than the permissible limit for drinking water (0.01 mg/l) (WHO) and FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization) permissible limit for irrigation water (0.10 mg/l). The soil arsenic level (13.12 mg/kg) crossed the global average (10.0 mg/kg), but within the maximum acceptable limit for agricultural soil (20.0 mg/kg) recommended by the European Union. The total arsenic concentration on food crops varied from 0.000 to 1.464 mg/kg of dry weight. The highest mean arsenic concentration was found in potato (0.456 mg/kg), followed by rice grain (0.429 mg/kg). The total mean arsenic content (milligrams per kg dry weight) in cereals ranged from 0.121 to 0.429 mg/kg, in pulses and oilseeds ranged from 0.076 to 0.168 mg/kg, in tuber crops ranged from 0.243 to 0.456 mg/kg, in spices ranged from 0.031 to 0.175 mg/kg, in fruits ranged from 0.021 to 0.145 mg/kg and in vegetables ranged from 0.032 to 0.411 mg/kg, respectively. Hence, arsenic accumulation in cereals, pulses, oilseed, vegetables, spices, cole crop and fruits crop might not be safe in future without any sustainable mitigation strategies to avert the potential arsenic toxicity on the human health in the contaminated areas.

  4. Thermodynamics of Cadmium Sorption on Different Soils of West Bengal, India

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    Tanmoy Karak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A sorption study was conducted on different soils collected from five agroecological zones of West Bengal, India, to understand the soil environmental behavior and fate of cadmium. For this purpose batch adsorption experiments were carried out at the native soil pH and at three different temperatures (25°C, 35°C, and 45°C. The adsorption data fitted by a linear least squares technique to the different sorption isotherms. Most data obtained give the good fit to both Freundlich and modified Langmuir isotherms, but they are not consistent with the linear Langmuir adsorption model. Thermodynamic parameters, namely, thermodynamics equilibrium constant at a particular temperature T  (KT0, Gibbs free energy at a particular temperature T  (ΔGT0, and change of enthalpy (ΔH0 and change of entropy at temperature T  (ΔST0, were also determined by applying sorption value and concentrations of Cd in equilibrium solution within the temperature range. The thermodynamic parameters revealed that Cd sorption increases as the values of KT0, ΔGT0, ΔH0, and ΔST0 were increased on reaction temperatures. The spontaneous sorption reaction can be concluded due to high values of ΔGT0. The positive values of ΔH0 indicated that the Cd sorption is an endothermic one. Under these present conditions, the soil and its components possibly supply a number of sites having different adsorption energies for cadmium sorption.

  5. Childhood acute leukemia in West Bengal, India with an emphasis on uncommon clinical features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Saumitra; Chakrabarti, Sudipta; Chakraborty, Jayati; Paul, Prabir Chandra; Konar, Abantika; Das, Shikha

    2009-01-01

    Leukemias are the commonest childhood malignancy in West Bengal. This study was undertaken on 75 children at NRS Medical College, West Bengal to determine the distribution of signs and symptoms of leukemia and to identify unusual clinical features. After obtaining clinical history, physical examination, hematological and radiological investigations were performed. Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL, 72%) was the commonest followed by acute myeloid leukaemia (AML, 18.7%). Common symptoms and signs were fever (85.3%), pallor (64%), hepatomegaly (72%), splenomegaly (60%) and lymphadenopathy (50.7%). The uncommon signs and symptoms were abdominal pain (9.3%), joint pain (9.3%), hematemesis and malena (8%), diarrhea (5.3%), proptosis (2 cases), dysphagia, mediastinal mass and parotid swelling (1 case each). Uncommon clinical presentations lead to delay in diagnosis in some cases. Awareness of uncommon signs and symptoms of childhood leukemia together with laboratory tests may help in earlier diagnosis and proper management of the patients.

  6. PLANTS USED TO CURE PROBLEMS OF FLATULENCE AND CONSTIPATION IN THREE SOUTHERN DISTRICTS OF WEST BENGAL, INDIA

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    Shibabrata Pattanayak

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Chronic flatulence and constipation are two very important problems related with digestive system. Information related with use of various plant parts for correction of these problems were collected from three southern districts of West Bengal, India with different agro-climatic conditions viz. Paschim Medinipur, Purba Medinipur, and Murshidabad. A total of six plants and three plant combinations involving another six new plants were identified, practiced methods of their uses with dose are documented and with the help of available literatures, the previously reported uses of these medicinal plants are analyzed in that perspective.

  7. Incidence of Japanese Encephalitis among Acute Encephalitis Syndrome Cases in West Bengal, India

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    Bhaswati Bandyopadhyay

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives. Japanese encephalitis (JE is the most important cause of acute and epidemic viral encephalitis. Every year sporadic JE cases are reported from the various districts of West Bengal, indicating its endemicity in this state. JE vaccination programme has been undertaken by the State Health Department of West Bengal. This study was aimed at seeing the present scenario of JE among acute encephalitis syndrome (AES cases in West Bengal. Materials and Methods. Blood and/or CSF samples were referred from suspected AES cases to the referral virology laboratory of the Calcutta School of Tropical Medicine from different hospitals of Kolkata. IgM antibody capture ELISA was performed on the CSF and serum samples by JE virus MAC ELISA kit supplied by the National Institute of Virology, Pune. Results. The present study reveals that 22.76% and 5% of the AES cases were positive for JE IgM in 2011 and 2012, respectively. JE is mainly prevalent in children and adolescents below 20 years of age with no gender predilection. Although the percentages of JE positive cases were high in 2011, it sharply decreased thereafter possibly due to better awareness programs, due to mass vaccination, or simply due to natural epidemiological niche periodicity due to herd immunity.

  8. Increasing trend of Japanese encephalitis cases in West Bengal, India - a threat to paediatric population

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    Debjani Taraphdar

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To detect the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV as the etiologic agent from the acute encephalitis syndrome (AES cases mainly amongst the children and young adults from vaccinated and non-vaccinated districts of West Bengal. Methods: For the detection of JEV, a total of 828 sera were referred from vaccinated and non vaccinated districts of West Bengal during 2005-2011. Japanese encephalitis (JE positive cases were confirmed by ELISA and RT-PCR method. Results: Out of 828 cases, 245 samples were positive by ELISA method and 46 samples were positive by RT-PCR method. Out of 291 total positive cases, 162 (55.6% were below 20 years of age. Initially in 2005, JE cases were highest amongst the children and young adults (0-20 years. After vaccination, although the JE cases declined gradually in the vaccinated districts, but again from 2010, JE cases from the said age group showed an increasing trend from those districts. JE cases were also reported from other endemic zones of this state, which were still non-vaccinated. Conclusions: In West Bengal, JE cases are still predominated among children and young adults till the year 2011. Mass scale vaccination programme and investigation on the circulating strains are essentially required to find out the reasons of increasing tendency of JE cases in this state.

  9. Inequity in Hospitalization Care: A Study on Utilization of Healthcare Services in West Bengal, India

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    Montu Bose

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Out of eight commonly agreed Millennium Development Goals (MDG, six are related to the attainment of Universal Health Coverage (UHC throughout the globe. This universalization of health status suggests policies to narrow the gap in access and benefit sharing between different socially and economically underprivileged classes with that of the better placed ones and a consequent expansion of subsidized healthcare appears to be a common feature for most of the developing nations. The National Health Policy in India (2002 suggests expansion of market-based care for the affording class and subsidized care for the deserving class of the society. So, the benefit distribution of this limited public support in health sector is important to examine to study the welfare consequences of the policy. This paper examines the nature of utilizationto inpatient care by different socio-economic groups across regions and gender in West Bengal (WB, India. The benefit incidence of public subsidies across these socio-economic groups has also been verified for different types of services like medicines, diagnostics and professional care etc. Methods National Sample Survey Organization (NSSO has collected information on all hospitalized cases (60th round, 2004 with a recall period of 365 days from the sampled households through stratified random sampling technique. The data has been used to assess utilization of healthcare services during hospitalization and the distribution of public subsidies among the patients of different socio-economic background; a Benefit Incidence Analysis (BIA has also been carried out. Results Analysis shows that though the rate of utilization of public hospitals is quite high, other complementary services like medicine, doctor and diagnostic tests are mostly purchased from private market. This leads to high Out-of-Pocket (OOP expenditure. Moreover, BIA reveals that the public subsidies are mostly enjoyed by the relatively better

  10. Oncogenic HPV among HIV infected female population in West Bengal, India

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    Sengupta Sharmila

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prevalence of both cervical cancer and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV infection are very high in India. Natural history of Human Papilloma Virus (HPV infection is known to be altered in HIV positive women and there is an increased possibility of persistence of HPV infections in this population. Therefore, this study was conducted to understand the epidemiology and circulating genotypes of oncogenic HPV among HIV positive and negative female population in West Bengal, India. Methods In this hospital-based cross-sectional study, 93 known HIV positive females attending a pre-ART registration clinic and 1106 HIV negative females attending a Reproductive and Child Health Care Clinic were subjected to study. Cervical cell samples collected from the study population were tested for the presence of HPV 16, 18 using specific primers. Roche PCR assay was used to detect other specific HPV genotypes in the cervical cells specimens of HIV positive cases only. Results Prevalence of HPV 16, 18 among HIV positive females (32.2%; n = 30 was higher than HIV negative females (9.1%; n = 101. About 53% (23/43 of cases with oncogenic HPV were infected with genotypes other than 16, 18 either as single/multiple infections. HPV 18 and HPV 16 were the predominant genotypes among HIV positive and HIV negative subjects respectively. Oncogenic HPV was not found to be associated with age and duration of sexual exposure. But the presence of HIV was found to a statistically significant predictor oncogenic HPV. Conclusion The currently available HPV vaccines offer protection only against HPV 16 and 18 and some cross- protection to few associated genotypes. These vaccines are therefore less likely to offer protection against cervical cancer in HIV positive women a high percentage of who were infected with non-16 and non-18 oncogenic HPV genotypes. Additionally, there is a lack of sufficient evidence of immunogenicity in HIV infected individuals. Therefore

  11. Nonalcoholic liver disease and non-alcoholic steato hepatitis: A review in eyes of a histopathologist of West Bengal, India

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    Pranab Kumar Bhattacharya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available NAFLD characterized by steatosis, when NASH by steatosis, lobular inflammation or steatosis with fibrosis. NAFLD increasingly recognized today as hepatic manifestation of systemic ′metabolic complex" also in India and in province like West Bengal with BMI greater than equal 30kg/m 2 , 67% of overweight patients in which BMI greater than or equal to 25 kg/m 2 and even in 25% normal weight population or with uncontrolled type 2- NIDDM. NAFLD/NASH today one of most common liver diseases in USA, Australia, Europe, Asian countries like china, Dallas, India, and West Bengal with emerging epidemic of obesity due to DM, consumption of fast food and rich food habits in people of industrialized cities and towns even in rural villages of West Bengal . NASH a progressive form of the disease finally leads to cryptogenic cirrhosis of liver even HepatoCellular Carcinoma requires liver transplant for cure. In most cases of NASH, Insulin resistance is found. The responsible gene is fetuin-A (FetA, ethnicity, Familial clustering in first degree relatives (20% of NASH. Natural history of NAFLD variable, although most patients experience an indolent course, some others progress to cirrhosis and liver related death. Paired liver biopsy data of predominantly NASH patients shows that over a follow up period of 2-5 years 18% - 29% patients improved with life style modification and treatment, 34% to 53% remain stable and 26% to 37% develop Cirrohosis and 9% of Cirrohosis from NASH within short time, The two hit hypothesis is widely accepted theory to explain progression of NAFLD from benign steatosis towards NASH. Diagnosis of NASH is challenging before clinicians, Radiologists by USG, with fibroscan devices, MRI, PET scan unless live needle biopsy is done and final diagnosis of NASH remains in clinical knowledge of combined Hepatologists and Hispatothologists. Liver enzymes, several biomarkers for NASH availble like TNF- alpha, Adiponectin- TNF/adiponectin ratio

  12. Basement configuration of the West Bengal sedimentary basin, India as revealed by seismic refraction tomography: its tectonic implications

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    Damodara, N.; Rao, V. Vijaya; Sain, Kalachand; Prasad, A. S. S. S. R. S.; Murty, A. S. N.

    2017-03-01

    Understanding the sedimentary thickness, structure and tectonics of the West Bengal basin is attempted using pseudo 3-D configuration derived from the first arrival seismic refraction data. Velocity images of the West Bengal basin are derived using traveltime tomography along four profiles. The models are assessed for their reliability through chi-squares estimates, rms residual, traveltime fit, rays traced through the models and resolution by checkerboard tests. Tomographic images depict smooth velocity variations of Recent, Quaternary and Tertiary sediments of velocity 1.8-4.3 km s-1 deposited over the Rajmahal trap of 4.8 km s-1 velocity and the basement (5.9 km s-1) down to a maximum depth of 16 km. The present study indicates a south-easterly dip of basin as evidenced from the pseudo 3-D configuration. The basement depth along the seismic profiles varies from 1 to 16 km depending on its location in the basin. It is shallow in the north & west and deep in the east & south. The depth of the basement on the stable shelf of the basin in the west gently increases to about 8 km and dips to a maximum depth of 16 km in the deep basin part within a short distance in the east. The study identifies a regional feature, known as the Shelf break or the Hinge zone, where stable Indian shield ends and a sharp increase in sediment thickness occurs. The Hinge zone may represent the relict of continental and proto-oceanic crustal boundary formed during the rifting of India from Antarctica. The regional gravity map of the Bengal basin prepared in this study clearly brings out the Hinge zone with a linear gravity high that is compatible with seismic data. Presence of Shelf break/Hinge zone and Rajmahal volcanism in the basin suggests the influence of rifting of India from the combined Antarctica-Australia at ˜130 Ma due to mantle plume activity on the structure and tectonics of the West Bengal basin. These features along with the elevated rift shoulder are in agreement with the

  13. Prevalence of CTX-M-Producing Klebsiella spp. in Broiler, Kuroiler, and Indigenous Poultry in West Bengal State, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahanti, Achintya; Ghosh, Pratik; Samanta, Indranil; Joardar, Siddhartha Narayan; Bandyopadhyay, Samiran; Bhattacharyya, Debaraj; Banerjee, Jaydeep; Batabyal, Subhasis; Sar, Tapas Kumar; Dutta, Tapan Kumar

    2017-08-22

    This study was undertaken to detect the prevalence of CTX-M-producing Klebsiella spp. in healthy broiler, indigenous, and kuroiler birds reared in West Bengal (India) during November 2014-February 2015. In addition to CTX-M gene, the study was also conducted to reveal the occurrence of other β-lactamase and class I integron genes in Klebsiella spp. isolates along with their clonal relationship. A total of 321 cloacal swabs from healthy broiler, indigenous, and kuroiler birds were collected from different places of West Bengal, India. Klebsiella spp. isolation rate varies among different types of poultry birds (43.8-72.3%). In total, 33 (10.7%) Klebsiella spp. isolates were detected phenotypically as CTX-M producers and all the isolates possessed blaCTX-M in polymerase chain reaction. Whereas 17 (51.5%) and 16 (48.5%) Klebsiella spp. isolates possessed blaSHV, and blaTEM with blaCTX-M, respectively. None of the CTX-M-producing Klebsiella spp. isolates in this study possessed class I integron gene. Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA-based phylogenetic tree revealed the presence of clonal relationship among the CTX-M-producing Klebsiella spp. isolates, recovered from broilers and indigenous birds. This study identified broilers and indigenous game birds as a potential reservoir of CTX-M-producing Klebsiella spp., which could be transmitted to the human food chain directly or indirectly.

  14. Ecology of antibiotic resistant vibrios in traditional shrimp farming system (bhery) of West Bengal, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Leesa Priyadarsani; Thangapalam Jawahar Abraham

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To study the ecology of antibiotic resistant bacteria with emphasis on sucrose negative vibrios in water and sediments samples of traditional shrimp farming system (bhery) in West Bengal, India. Methods: The vibrios were isolated from traditional shrimp farm samples on thiosulphate citrate bthilee f rseaqltu esunccryo osfe aangtaibr ioatnidc rseuscisrotasnec nee. gative bacterial strains were used as biomarkers to assess Results: The incoming water brought presumptive vibrios ranging from 5.50×101 to 1.00×103 mL in ttoh etrhee wbhase rayb, oauntd 9t hfoelrde ainpcpreeaarseed itno vbiubirlido su. pT hvieb rleiovse lisn othf ev icburlitousr ew seyrest eombs ewrivtehd d taoy sb eo f mcuoldteurraet,e alys higher in outlet water and ranged between 4.15×102 and 4.15×103 mL. The counts of vibrios in pond sediment was found to be 1.00×102–4.90×103 g; while in inlet (2.00×102–4.20×104 g) and outlet (3.00×102–6.85×103 g) their levels were observed to be higher than the pond sediment. Thirteen wdiefrfeer seennt sVitiibvrei oto s cphelcoireasm wpehreen iecnocl,o fuonlltoewreedd ibny tcriapdriotifloonxaalc sinh rainmdp g cautilftluorxea csiyns (t9e8m.2 4a%n)d, gaelnl tvaimbircioins (t9w5o.6 1a%n)t iabniodt ioctsh,e rw aans tinboitoitcicesd. aTmheo nmgu ltiple antibiotic resistance (MAR), i.e., resistance to at least sucrose negative non-vibrios. 43.85% of the sucrose negative vibrios and 41.86% of the was used in the bhery, the preAvalll evnicberi oosf harveyi strains exhibited MAR. Although no antibiotic vibrios is a cause of concern. MAR in 44% of the sucrose negative vibrios and non- The MAR index was higher in inlet water and sediment samples. The MofA iRn loebt ssearmvepdle sin, tbhiuosm caornkfeirrm sitnragi nths eo ffa pcot nthda wt iantecor manindg sweadtiemr ewnat s( 4t0h%e) mwaajso rc osmoupracrea obfl ea ntoti bthiootsiec resistant bacteria. Conclusions: It seems that the shrimp culture in bhery does not favour the proliferation and spread

  15. Prevalence of hemoglobinopathy, ABO and rhesus blood groups in rural areas of West Bengal, India

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    Bikash Mondal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hemoglobinopathies are a group of inherited disorders of hemoglobin synthesis. It could be formed a fatal scenario in concern of lacking of actual information. Beside this, ABO and Rh blood grouping are also important matter in transfusion and forensic medicine and to reduce new born hemolytic disease (NHD. Materials and Methods: The spectrum and prevalence of various hemoglobinopathies, ABO and rhesus (Rh blood groups was screened among patients who visited B.S. Medical College and Hospital, Bankura, West Bengal, India. This study was carried out on 958 patients of different ages ranging from child to adults from January to June 2011. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, complete blood count (CBC and hemagglutination technique were performed for the assessment of abnormal hemoglobin variants, ABO and Rh blood groups, respectively. Results: Results from this study had been shown that there was high prevalence of hemoglobinpathies (27.35% where β-thalassemia in heterozygous state occurred more frequent than other hemoglobinopathies. Out of 958 patients, 72.65% were HbAA and 27.35% were hemoglobinopathies individuals where 17.64% β-thalassemia heterozygous, 2.92% β-thalassemia homozygous, 3.86% HbAE, 1.15% HbAS trait, 1.25% HbE-β thalassemia trait and 0.52% HbS-β thalassemia trait were found. No incidence of HbSS, HbSC, HbCC, HbD and other variants of hemoglobinpathies were observed. The gene frequencies with respect to ABO systems had been shown as O > B > A > AB. Blood group O was the highest (35.8% and the least percentage distribution was blood group AB (6.68%. Rhesus positive (Rh+ were 97.7%, while the remaining was 2.3% Rhesus negative (Rh-. The frequencies of A + , B + , AB +, and O + blood groups were 22.44%, 33.61%, 6.58%, and 35.07%, respectively. Conclusions: Remarkable percentages of hemoglobinopathies were prevalent from the present study. An extensive screening of the population is needed to assess the

  16. Evaluation of chronic arsenic poisoning due to consumption of contaminated ground water in West Bengal, India

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    Asutosh Ghosh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic arsenic poisoning is an important public health problem and most notable in West Bengal and Bangladesh. In this study different systemic manifestations in chronic arsenic poisoning were evaluated. Methods: A nonrandomized, controlled, cross-sectional, observational study was carried out in Arsenic Clinic, Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research, Kolkata, West Bengal, over a period of 1 year 4 months. Seventy-three cases diagnosed clinically, consuming water containing arsenic ≥50 μg/L and having hair and nail arsenic level >0.6 μg/L, were included. Special investigations included routine parameters and organ-specific tests. Arsenic levels in the drinking water, hair, and nail were measured in all. Twenty-five nonsmoker healthy controls were evaluated. Results: Murshidabad and districts adjacent to Kolkata, West Bengal, were mostly affected. Middle-aged males were the common sufferers. Skin involvement was the commonest manifestation (100%, followed by hepatomegaly [23 (31.5%] with or without transaminitis [7 (9.58%]/portal hypertension [9 (12.33%]. Restrictive abnormality in spirometry [11 (15.06%], bronchiectasis [4 (5.47%], interstitial fibrosis [2 (2.73%], bronchogenic carcinoma [2 (2.73%], oromucosal plaque [7 (9.58%], nail hypertrophy [10 (13.69%], alopecia [8 (10.95%], neuropathy [5 (6.84%], and Electrocardiography abnormalities [5 (6.84%] were also observed. Conclusions: Mucocutaneous and nail lesions, hepatomegaly, and restrictive change in spirometry were the common and significant findings. Other manifestations were characteristic but insignificant.

  17. Draft Genome Sequence of the Nonpathogenic, Thermotolerant, and Exopolysaccharide-Producing Bacillus anthracis Strain PFAB2 from Panifala Hot Water Spring in West Bengal, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Aparna; Halder, Urmi; Chaudhry, Vasvi; Varshney, Rajeev K.; Mantri, Shrikant

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus anthracis is the causative agent of fatal anthrax in both animals and humans. It is prevalently pathogenic. Here, we present a Bacillus anthracis PFAB2 strain from a relatively unexplored Panifala hot water spring in West Bengal, India. It is nonpathogenic, exopolysaccharide producing, and thermotolerant in nature. PMID:28007848

  18. Measles outbreak among the Dukpa tribe of Buxa hills in West Bengal, India: epidemiology and vaccine efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuniya, Satinath; Maji, Dipankar; Mandal, Debasis; Mondal, Nilanjan

    2013-01-01

    Although measles is a vaccine preventable disease, its occurrence and outbreaks are common in India. Four remote and inaccessible hamlets, inhabited by the Dukpa tribe, at Buxa Hills under Kalchini Block of Jalpaiguri District, West Bengal experienced a measles outbreak during the months of April-June, 2011. The authors conducted an investigation to assess vaccine coverage, vaccine efficacy (VE) and to describe the patterns of measles outbreaks in this community. The over-all attack rate was 14.3%; that among males and females were 12.6% and 16.0% respectively (P = 0.189). Attack rate was highest (40%) in 0 to <5 years followed by that in the 5 to <15 years (36.5%). VE was 66.3% (95% of the confidence interval 46.9-78.6%). There is an urgent need to increase the vaccination coverage through special tactics for reaching the unreached.

  19. Measles outbreak among the Dukpa tribe of Buxa hills in West Bengal, India: Epidemiology and vaccine efficacy

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    Satinath Bhuniya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although measles is a vaccine preventable disease, its occurrence and outbreaks are common in India. Four remote and inaccessible hamlets, inhabited by the Dukpa tribe, at Buxa Hills under Kalchini Block of Jalpaiguri District, West Bengal experienced a measles outbreak during the months of April-June, 2011. The authors conducted an investigation to assess vaccine coverage, vaccine efficacy (VE and to describe the patterns of measles outbreaks in this community. The over-all attack rate was 14.3%; that among males and females were 12.6% and 16.0% respectively (P = 0.189. Attack rate was highest (40% in 0 to <5 years followed by that in the 5 to <15 years (36.5%. VE was 66.3% (95% of the confidence interval 46.9-78.6%. There is an urgent need to increase the vaccination coverage through special tactics for reaching the unreached.

  20. Body mass index and blood pressure among men of three ethnic groups of Darjeeling, West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta Banik, Sudip

    2014-01-01

    This study was undertaken from 2009-2011 to understand the association between body mass index (BMI) and blood pressure (BP) (systolic or SBP and diastolic or DBP) among randomly chosen men, aged 30 to 59 years, of three endogamous communities in Darjeeling, West Bengal, India: Dhimal (n = 88), Mech (n = 71), and Rajbanshi (n = 83). Analysis of variance was applied. Remarkable rates of BMI-based undernutrition (chronic energy deficiency or CED) were recorded among Dhimals (31%) and Rajbanshis (18%). Notable prevalence of overweight (20%) was recorded among men of Mech community. None were found to be obese in three samples. Mean SBP and DBP were found to rise consistently at levels of BMI (undernutrition, normal, and overweight). BMI was observed to rise consistently at levels of blood pressures (normotensive, prehypertensive, and hypertensive). Among Mech, this pattern was found to be more conspicuous. DBP was found to be more sensitive with changes of BMI in men.

  1. OUTBREAK OF HEMORRHAGIC SEPTICEMIA IN FREE RANGE BUFFALO AND CATTLE GRAZING AT RIVERSIDE GRASSLAND IN MURSHIDABAD DISTRICT, WEST BENGAL, INDIA

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    Joyjit Mitra

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available An outbreak of Haemorrhegic Septicaemia among free ranging buffaloes and cattle reared at the natural grassland at the embankment and surrounding area of Bhagirathi river in 3 blocks of Murshidabad district of West Bengal, India was diagnosed by clinical symptoms, postmortem examination, bacteriological study and biochemical tests. Among 154 affected animals (2.16% of total animals at risk buffalo were 85.71% and cattle were 14.28%. A total of 52 affected animals (33.76% died before starting treatment. Among the dead animals, 86.53% was buffalo and 13.46% was cattle. The ailing animals were successfully treated with antibiotic, analgesic and corticosteroid. The epidemic was finally controlled by vaccination, restriction of animal movement and proper disposal of carcasses.

  2. Study of fractures in Precambrian crystalline rocks using field technique in and around Balarampur, Purulia district, West Bengal, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Monalisa Mitra; Tapas Acharya

    2015-12-01

    Location of recharge zone in Precambrian crystalline rock is still unclear. The present study attempts to perform a detailed analysis of the joints/fractures developed in a Precambrian metamorphic terrain in and around Balarampur in Purulia district of West Bengal, India using bedrock data. The analysis shows that the orientations of major fracture trends are variable along with varying lithological units and structural affinities. The application of lithology-based analysis technique identifies highly predominant fracture frequency and fracture aperture in mica schist and phyllite in the area. This property is not evident in the granite gneiss and epidiorite. The moderate to high fracture permeability value is also associated with the fractures occurring in the shear zone. Mica schist and phyllite associated with the shear zone may represent a permeable recharge zone in the region.

  3. A preliminary survey on parasitic occurrence in indigenous climbing perch,Anabas testudineus (Bloch, 1972) from West Bengal state of India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Basudev Mandal; Sourabh Kumar Dubey; Puja Dasgupta; Bijay Kali Mahapatra; Bimal Kinkar Chand

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To describe the parasitic infestations ofAnabas testudineus (A. testudineus) collected from three different fish producing districts of West Bengal state in India. Methods:A total number of 75 specimens ofA. testudineus were collected from different floodplain areas of West Bengal, India. These specimens were examined for parasites using established techniques after measuring basic morphometric parameters. Results: A total 165 individual of 20 parasites (13 ectoparasites and 7 endoparasites) belonging to 7 phyla were recorded from 64 infectedA. testudineus. Among the observed parasites, 8 were protozoan including 3 ciliates; 2 monogenic trematodes, 2 strigeidid trematodes, 1 nematode, 3 crustaceans, 3 myxozoans and 1 echinorhynchus acanthocephalan parasites. The quantitative abundance of parasites were highest in gill (37%) followed by body outer layer (35%) and intestine (28%). District wise quantitative count of parasites in different investigated organ fromA. testudineus revealed that North 24 Parganas is highly infected followed by West Midnapore and East Midnapore. The highest prevalence (%) and mean abundance of parasitic occurrence was observed in North 24 Parganas followed by West Midnapore and East Midnapore. The highest mean intensity was found at West Midnapore followed by North 24 Parganas and East Midnapore. Conclusions: Especially West Bengal state of India, inland culture and capture fishery mainly rural based and operated by poor farmers. Developing right kind of interventions and management practice can prevent adverse impact of diseases and assist poor farmers for sustainable production.

  4. Entomological investigations into an epidemic of Japanese encephalitis (JE in northern districts of West Bengal, India (2011-2012

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    T Mariappan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Japanese encephalitis (JE is one of the most important arboviral diseases of human beings with outbreaks in many parts of Southeast Asia including India. We present the entomological findings of an outbreak occurred in northern part of West Bengal during 2011-2012 with special emphasis on the role of JE vectors in different seasons. Methods: Adult mosquito collections were made with the help of mouth aspirators, aided by flash lights during day time resting inside human and animal habitations as indoor, and resting outside field grasses, bushes, underneath of culverts and bridges as outdoor, and in and around the pig enclosures and cattle sheds during dusk period in JE affected villages from Cooch Behar, Dakshin Dinajpur, Darjeeling and Jalpaiguri districts in North West Bengal. In all study villages, a long handled with enamel bowl dipper was used to obtain immature stages of mosquitoes from various breeding habitats. Results: A total of 19 different types of mosquito breeding habitats were examined for vectors of JE. From these habitats, 23.7 per cent were positive for breeding during the study period. Overall, nine different species were recorded through emergence, but none was positive for JE virus when subjected for detection of virus. Adult mosquitoes of more than 50 per cent of the potential JE vector species obtained through dusk and the rest through indoor and outdoor collections in all seasons. Altogether, 27 different species were recorded. Most of these were JE vectors. Interpretation & conclusions: Our results showed that in addition to Cx. vishnui subgroup, detection of JE virus antigen in Cx. quinquefasciatus indicated the possible maintenance of JE virus in nature through poor vector mosquitoes throughout the year. Since, all potential vector species reported elsewhere in India were also found in this region and fluctuated in density in different seasons, a proper integrated vector control programme needs

  5. Studies on reproductive biology of Mystus tengara (Ham.-Buch., 1822), a freshwater catfish of West Bengal, India

    OpenAIRE

    Sandipan Gupta; Samir Banerjee

    2013-01-01

    Studies on reproductive biology are essential to assess culture potential of a fish species. Mystus tengara is a popular food fish as well as preferred as an ornamental fish in West Bengal. Till date detailed report on reproductive biology of this fish species in the agro-climatic context of West Bengal is lacking. Therefore, the present work was aimed to study the detailed reproductive biology of Mystus tengara with an emphasis on sex ratio, length at first sexual maturity, cycle of gonadal ...

  6. Seasonal dynamics of ichthyodiversity in a hill stream of the Darjeeling Himalaya, West Bengal, india

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    M.L. Acharjee

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The small torrential spring-fed hill-stream Relli in the Darjeeling Himalaya of West Bengal was studied from March 2007 to February 2009 to assess seasonal dynamics and diversity of fish populations.  The study revealed that the stream sustained 25 rheophilic cold water fish species from 15 genera and five families having ornamental, food and sport value.  Seven omnivorous species were abundantly found, and the array of juveniles and sub adults suggests this stream is used as a breeding and nursery ground for some species.  The stream harboured fish with unique modifications such as adhesive structures.  Analysis of monthly data indicate that abundance and diversity indices increased slightly during April–May and sharply during October–November, indicating significant seasonal variations with the low diversity observed during monsoon months reflecting environmental stresses.  Evenness was high in all sampling sites, and inversely related to the dominance index of ichthyofauna.  The density and diversity of fish assemblages along the gradient of the stream may be interrupted due to anthropogenic disturbances.  Our study provides baseline data which may be helpful for conservation and management of fish species, and in formulating fishery policy. 

  7. Ichthyofaunal Diversity and Water Quality in the Kangsabati Reservoir, West Bengal, India

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    Amalesh Bera

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The ichthyofauna in relation to water quality was studied on monthly basis from March, 2010 to February, 2011 in the Kangsabati Reservoir, West Bengal. The study revealed that physicochemical parameters of Kangsabati Reservoir were congenial for 39 fish species of commercial importance, belonging to 7 orders, 15 families, and 26 genera. The Cypriniformes were dominant with 17 species, followed by Siluriformes and Perciformes, with 7 species each, Channiformes with 3 species, Osteoglossiformes and Synbranchiformes with 2 species each, and Anguilliformes with 1 species. Regarding their conservation status, 27 species were of least concern, 1 species was vulnerable, 6 species were near threatened, 1 species was data deficient, and 4 species were not evaluated (IUCN-Version 2014.1. Economical values have also been evaluated. Water parameters such as temperature, pH, alkalinity, dissolved oxygen, hardness, free CO2, salinity, total inorganic nitrogen, and phosphate were recorded and found suitable for fish production. Conductivity, transparency, and high chloride level are minor limiting factor that may needs rectification for improved fisheries management.

  8. Literacy Rates and its Impact on Birth Rates in Nadia District, West Bengal, India

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    Mahadeb Ghosh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Equality in socio-economic component is essential for human development and social change. Educational inequality reduces economic growth and women's empowerment on the one hand and increases birth rate on the other. In population studies, it has been established that educational level is collinearly related with demographic behaviour. This study aims to investigate inequalities in literacy rates and its impact on birth rates in Nowpara-I Gram Panchayat (GP located in the Krishnagar II C.D. Block, Nadia District of West Bengal using a household survey conducted in 356 households among women aged 49 and above in triangulation with secondary data. The aim of this study is to explore the causes of the spatial inequalities in education and its effect on spatial variations in birth rates. The key finding suggest that in Nowpara-I, negative relationships exist between female education and birth rate because education has a positive impact on empowerment, late marriage, use of contraceptives and family size.

  9. Socio-economic determinants of underweight children in West Bengal, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bharati S; Chakrabarty S; Som S; Pal M; Bharati P

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To study the extent of undernutrition at district level and the socio-economic determinants of underweight children aged 0-71 months in West Bengal.Methods: The data were accessed from the Reproductive and Child Health Survey (RCHS-II), which contained information of 7 550 children and their parents. Information of socio-economic variables about the associated families of these children had also been taken for our study. This study computed weight-for-age z-scores to assess the nutritional status of the children using WHO (2006) reference.Results: The prevalence of underweight varied over the districts. Districts with very high prevalence of underweight children were Murshidabad, Burdwan, Purulia, Medinipur, Howrah and South 24 Parganas. High prevalent districts for both boys and girls were Jalpaiguri and Coochbihar. Low prevalent districts for both boys and girls were South Dinajpur, Nadia and Kolkata. The percentage of underweight children were more in rural areas among Muslim families with illiterate parents and low standard of living. In Murshidabad, Bankura, Nadia, Medinipur and South 24 Parganas districts, i.e., where prevalence of underweight children were higher, the rural and urban differences were less. The characteristics like religion, parents' educational status and standard of living index showed significant effect on the children's weights.Conclusions: Public intervention programs on the parent's education and the standard of living of the households at district level should be given high priority to combat the children's undernutrition problems so far as weight for age is concerned.

  10. Cholera outbreak secondary to contaminated pipe water in an urban area, West Bengal, India, 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhunia, Rama; Ramakrishnan, Ramachandran; Hutin, Yvan; Gupte, Mohan D

    2009-01-01

    Outbreaks of cholera are common in West Bengal. In April 2006, Garulia municipality reported a cluster of diarrhea cases. We investigated this cluster to identify the etiological agent, source of transmission and propose control measures. We defined a case of diarrhea as occurrence of > or =3 loose/watery stools a day among the residents of Garulia since April 2006. We searched for cases of diarrhea in health care facilities and health camp. We conducted a gender- and age-matched case-control study to identify risk factors. We inspected the sanitation and water supply system. We collected rectal swabs from diarrhea patients and water specimens from the affected areas for laboratory investigation. Two hundred and ninety-eight cases of diarrhea were reported to various health care facilities (attack rate: 3.5/1000, no deaths). The attack rate was highest among children (6.4/1000). Vibrio cholerae El Tor O1 Inaba was isolated from two of 7 rectal swabs. The outbreak started on 10 April 2006, peaked on 26 April and lasted till 6 May. Cases clustered in an area distal to leaking water pipelines. Drinking municipal water exclusively was significantly associated with the illness (OR 13, 95% CI=6.5-27). Eight of the 12 water specimens from the affected area had fecal contamination and poor chlorine content. This outbreak was due to a contaminated municipal piped water supply and V. cholera 01 Inaba was possibly the causative organism.

  11. Multivariate erosion risk assessment of lateritic badlands of Birbhum (West Bengal, India): A case study

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sandipan Ghosh; Kamala Bhattacharya

    2012-12-01

    Each geomorphic hazard involves a degree of risk which incorporates quantification of the probability that a hazard will be harmful. At present, the categorization of sub-watersheds into erosion risk is considered as the fundamental step to conserve the soil loss. Development of badlands over the laterites of Birbhum district is an indicative of excessive soil loss in the monsoonal wet-dry type of climate. Slope erosion and channel erosion have generated huge amount of sediment from the small watersheds during intense monsoonal rainfall (June–September). The adjoining areas of Rampurhat I Block, Birbhum (West Bengal) and Shikaripara Block, Dumka (Jharkhand) have lost the lateritic soil cover at a rate of 20–40 ton/ha/year (Sarkar et al. 2005). In order to estimate the progressive removal of soil particles from the gully-catchments of the above-mentioned area, different morphometric parameters, soil parameters, hydrologic parameters and empirical models are employed. Side by side, the study is carried out to categorize the gully-catchments into different magnitude of erosion risk using several multivariate statistical techniques.

  12. A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON GROWTH AND PRODUCTION TRAITS OF IMPROVED POULTRY BREEDS UNDER BACKYARD MANAGEMENT PRACTICES IN SOUTH 24 PARGANAS DISTRICT OF WEST BENGAL, INDIA

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    Sarbaswarup Ghosh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Four chicken genotypes (Rhode Island Red, Vanaraja, Haringhata Black and Divyayan Red were evaluated for their suitability under backyard farming in South 24 Parganas district of West Bengal, India. The experiment was carried out in a randomized design with seven replications. Body weight gain and adult body weight (2008.3 gm were significantly (P<0.05 higher in Divyayan Red. This breed was also proved to be superior to other three breeds in terms of age at sexual maturity (168 days, egg production (155 numbers and egg weight (55.5 gm. It can be concluded that Divyayan Red breed could be considered for poultry breeding programs in South 24 Parganas district of West Bengal, India.

  13. Study on work load and work-related musculoskeletal disorders amongst male jute mill workers of West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sett, Moumita; Sahu, Subhashis

    2012-01-01

    Work-related problems, many of which could be prevented with proper ergonomic techniques are particularly common in developing countries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the work stress and the development of the work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMSDs) of workers employed in the jute mills of India. About 219 male workers engaged in different departments of three jute industries in 24-Parganas (North) and Hooghly districts of West Bengal, India volunteered for this study. Questionnaires along with direct observation of work postures were conducted. Physical parameters such as body weight, height; physiological parameters like heart rate response, blood pressure and psycho-physiological parameters such as perceived exertion rating were studied during different tasks performed by them. It was observed that the 'hacklers' are mostly stressed. Analyses of working postures (OWAS) suggested that their adopted awkward postures were very stressful. A large number of hacklers (92.5% suffer from intense pain in different body parts as compared to workers in other departments of the jute industries. Workers report that the pain even lasts many hours after work. Since most of the workers perform repetitive tasks, so both the workplace as well as the work-rest schedule must be reorganized.

  14. Are the adolescent behaviors too risky? A school-based study in a district of West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Dipta K; Mukhopadhyay, Sujishnu; Sinhababu, Apurba; Biswas, Akhil B

    2012-12-01

    A cross-sectional study was undertaken among 2068 school-going adolescents of a subdistrict area of West Bengal, India for assessment of entire array of risk behaviors and their correlates. Aggressive, suicidal, substance use and sexual risk behaviors were measured using a self-administered, multi-item, validated questionnaire in the local vernacular. Prevalence of physical fights, weapon carrying in the last 30 days and gang fights in the last 12 months were 27.1%, 7.3% and 13.0%, respectively. Current users of tobacco, alcohol and illicit substances were 7.1%, 3.4% and 2.0%, respectively. Suicidal ideation and attempts were reported by 11.7% and 3.5% of students. Almost one-tenth of respondents had premarital sexual intercourse. Male gender, low subjective economic status, exposure to electronic media and poor academic achievements were associated with most of the studied risk behaviors, except that females showed more propensities to suicidal behavior. The magnitude and pattern of adolescent risk behaviors, though less studied in India, warrants urgent, coordinated actions.

  15. Coverage and Compliance of Mass Drug Administration in Lymphatic Filariasis: A Comparative Analysis in a District of West Bengal, India

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    Tanmay Kanti Panja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite several rounds of Mass Drug Administration (MDA as an elimination strategy of Lymphatic Filariasis (LF from India, still the coverage is far behind the required level of 85%.Objectives: The present study was carried out with the objectives to assess the coverage and compliance of MDA and their possible determinants. Methods: A cross-sectional community based study was conducted in Paschim Midnapur district of West Bengal, India for consecutive two years following MDA. Study participants were chosen by 30-cluster sampling technique. Data was collected by using pre-tested semi-structured proforma to assess the coverage and compliance of MDA along with possible determinants for non-attaining the expected coverage. Results: In the year 2009, coverage, compliance, coverage compliance gap (CCG and effective coverage was seen to be 84.1%, 70.5%, 29.5% and 59.3% respectively. In 2010, the results further deteriorated to 78.5%, 66.9%, 33.3% and 57% respectively. The poor coverage and compliance were attributed to improper training of service providers and lack of community awareness regarding MDA.Conclusion: The study emphasized supervised consumption, retraining of service providers before MDA activities, strengthening behaviour change communication strategy for community awareness. Advocacy by the program managers and policy makers towards prioritization of MDA program will make the story of filaria elimination a success.

  16. Geriatric Disability and Associated Risk Factors: A Community Based Study in a Rural Area of West Bengal, India

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    Pankaj Kumar Mandal

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Similar to developed countries, aging is increasedin India. Because of the epidemiology and demographictransition phase, chronic diseases and disabilitiesalong with health costs are increasing day by day. As socialfactors and chronic diseases are the major reasons for geriatricdisability, the present study was done with the following objectives:to assess and compare the socio-demographic characteristicsamong the disabled and non-disabled geriatric population,and to find out the association between sociodemographicand chronic diseases with functional disabilityamong the study population.Methods: A cross-sectional study was done in a rural communityof West Bengal, India. House to house visit, clinicalexamination, observation, and interview were done with a predesigned,pre-tested proforma. Epi Info and SPSS softwarewere used for statistical analysis.Results: A total of 458 people had chronic conditions and theprevalence of disability was 17.47%. Among the sociodemographicvariables, age, female sex, marital status, literacystatus, and family composition and among the chronic diseases,tuberculosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, ischemicheart disease, osteoarthritis, neuropathy, acid peptic disorder,prostatic hypertrophy, and osteoporosis were found as risk factorsof disability in binary logistic regression analysis. 71.2% ofthe disabilities were explained by these risk factors.Conclusion: The data highlighted the different risk factorsassociated with disability. No single measure rather multidimensionalapproach should be the model for the preventionof disability.

  17. Geochemical evolution of groundwater in southern Bengal Basin: The example of Rajarhat and adjoining areas, West Bengal, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Paulami Sahu; P K Sikdar; Surajit Chakraborty

    2016-02-01

    Detailed geochemical analysis of groundwater beneath 1223 km2 area in southern Bengal Basin along with statistical analysis on the chemical data was attempted, to develop a better understanding of the geochemical processes that control the groundwater evolution in the deltaic aquifer of the region. Groundwater is categorized into three types: `excellent', `good' and `poor' and seven hydrochemical facies are assigned to three broad types: `fresh', `mixed' and `brackish' waters. The `fresh' water type dominated with sodium indicates active flushing of the aquifer, whereas chloride-rich `brackish' groundwater represents freshening of modified connate water. The `mixed' type groundwater has possibly evolved due to hydraulic mixing of `fresh' and `brackish' waters. Enrichment of major ions in groundwater is due to weathering of feldspathic and ferro-magnesian minerals by percolating water. The groundwater of Rajarhat New Town (RNT) and adjacent areas in the north and southeast is contaminated with arsenic. Current-pumping may induce more arsenic to flow into the aquifers of RNT and Kolkata cities. Future large-scale pumping of groundwater beneath RNT can modify the hydrological system, which may transport arsenic and low quality water from adjacent aquifers to presently unpolluted aquifer.

  18. Environmental hypothesis: is poor dietary selenium intake an underlying factor for arsenicosis and cancer in Bangladesh and West Bengal, India?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spallholz, Julian E; Mallory Boylan, L; Rhaman, M M

    2004-05-01

    To reduce the incidence of dysentery, cholera and other water-borne diseases and mortality of people drinking from surface contaminated sources of water, the World Bank and United Nations Children's Fund began to sink tube wells into the underlying aquifers of Bangladesh and West Bengal, India, in the 1970s. Many of the tube wells were drilled into underground aquifers that provided microbiologically clean water that was later determined to contain arsenic (As). As contamination of drinking water is a problem of natural occurrence throughout the world and domestic water often exceeds the World Health Organization limit of 50 microg As/l in the countries of Bangladesh, West Bengal, India and Nepal as well as other areas occupying much of the Ganges-Brahmaputra delta. It is estimated that as many as one-half of these tube wells discharge water with sufficient amounts of As to produce arsenicosis, i.e. As toxicity in the human population. Access to clean As free water is the priority of most organized relief efforts. Where As free domestic water cannot be provided, an improved diet and/or dietary supplements may ameliorate As toxicity or prevent its toxicity all together. The dietary status of the essential human trace element, selenium (Se) may be adversely affected by a chronic excessive ingestion of As. As added to animal diets has been known to counteract Se toxicity in animals since the 1930s. It is reasoned therefore, that high levels of chronic As ingestion from well water by people within the delta will accelerate the excretion of Se lowering the body's content of this essential trace element. Excessive Se excretion owing to Se/As complexation may add to the likelihood of As being more toxic and carcinogenic over time, due to the oxidative stress imposed by the excessive As and low Se ingestion. Because of the unique environment of the Ganges-Brahmaputra delta in which millions of people are presently exposed to As, we ask the question: are low dietary Se

  19. Traditional Practicing with Arsenic Rich Water in Fish Industries Leads to Health Hazards in West Bengal and North-Eastern States of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashyap, C. A.

    2014-12-01

    The supply of good quality food is main necessity for economic and social health of urban and rural population throughout the globe. This study comes to know the severity of As in the west Bengal and north-eastern states of the India. Over the 75% large population of India lives in villages and associated with farming and its related work. West Bengal is the densest populated area of India, fish and rice is the staple food as well as in north-eastern states. For the fulfil demand of fish large population the area are used fisheries as the business. Arsenic contamination in ground water is major growing threat to worldwide drinking water resources. High As contamination in water have been reported in many parts of the world Chandrasekharam et al., 2001; Smedley and Kinniburgh, 2002; Farooq et al., 2010). In context to West Bengal and north-east states of India arsenic is main problem in the food chain. These areas are very rich in arsenic many fold higher concentrations of Arsenic than their respective WHO permissible limits have been reported in the water. Over the 36 million people in Bengal delta are at risk due to drinking of As contaminated water (Nordstrom, 2002). The highest concentration of arsenic (535 μg/L Chandrashekhar et al. 2012) was registered from Ngangkha Lawai Mamang Leikai area of Bishnupur district which is fifty fold of the WHO limit for arsenic and tenfold of Indian permissible limit. With the continuous traditional practicing (As rich water pond) and untreated arsenic rich water in fish industries leads to health hazards. A sustainable development in aquaculture should comprise of various fields including environmental, social, cultural and economic aspects. A scientific study has to be needed for the overcome on this problem and rain harvested water may be used for reduce the arsenic problems in fisheries.

  20. Arsenic contamination in shallow groundwater and agricultural soil of Chakdaha Block, West Bengal, India

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    Anamika eShrivastava

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The study area comes in one of the eight districts of West Bengal where groundwater contains arsenic above the prescribed limit by WHO (10μg/l. Each day groundwater is being withdrawn by the village people for the fulfillment of their basic needs and for agricultural purposes. With the groundwater along with high concentration of arsenic (As, many other heavy metals are also getting introduced in the environment. In the areas with a long history of use of such groundwater, the agricultural lands have been affected severely. The extent of contamination has increased to a level where the crops grown in those lands are becoming a major source for arsenic and other heavy metals poisoning and subsequently transfer to different trophic levels. Based on this concern a somewhat detailed study was carried out to obtain an idea about the magnitude of soil and water contamination in the area. The mean concentrations (mg/kg of As (9.67, Fe (9275.58, Mn (190.04, Cu (26.53 and Zn (36.04 in the control land soils were found within the normal range. Whereas the mean As (54.40, Fe (15745.50, Mn (307.90, Cu (69.33 and Zn (44.56 were found to be in higher, mainly arsenic which is at an alarming point. In case of water samples, the pond water was having the mean concentration (μg/l of As (32.63, Fe (57.21, Mn (30.25, Cu (0.82. Whereas in case of shallow groundwater there was more increase in the case of As (76.43, Fe (5493.22, Mn (253.63, and Cu (1.825. It was also observed that Zn although present in soil samples, it was below detection limits in case of water samples. The As concentration in soil and water showed a positive correlation. Also the correlation analyses between soil arsenic and other heavy metals shows a positive co-relation with all of them.

  1. Palynofloral changes in the Upper Paleozoic and Mesozoic of the Deocha-Pachami area, Birbhum Coalfield, West Bengal, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    VIJAYA

    2009-01-01

    The study of Upper Paleozoic and Mesozoic palynomorphs in three boreholes from the Deocha-Pachami area, Birbhum Coalfield, West Bengal, India, has allowed dating of the Talchir, Barakar, Dubrajpur, and Rajmahal formations, and revealed many hiatuses. The lowermost unit, the Talchir Formation, yielded earliest Permian palynomorphs. The Barakar Formation, which includes coal-bearing strata, was previously dated as Early Permian. However, data presented herein indicate an Early Permian to earliest Triassic age for this unit,containing actually the Karharbari, Barakar s.s., Kulti, and Ranigang formations as well as the basal part of the Panchet Formation. The overlying Dubrajpur Formation is Jurassic (Callovian to Tithonian), with an unconformity at its base. The uppermost Dubrajpur Formation is Tithonian-Berriasian. The palynomorphs from the intertrappeans within the Rajmahal Formation suggest an Early Cretaceous age. The revised ages of the Barakar and Dubrajpur formations are of major regional significance. The distribution patterns of spore-pollen may provide a broad spectrum of paleoclimate during Permian, Late Jurassic, and Early Cretaceous times, as there is no record of marine signatures in the study area.

  2. Geophysical exploration for coal-bearing Gondwana basins in the states of West Bengal and Bihar in northeast India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saha, S.N.; Roy, A.K.; Brahman, C.V.; Sastry, C.B.K.; De, M.K.

    1992-10-01

    The states of West Bengal and Bihar in northeast India are known to bear 'A' grade coal seams within Gondwana basins. An alluvium-covered area to the north of the Ajay river was considered to be prospective for the exploration of coal. Gravity and magnetic surveys were mainly carried out over an area of 1900 km[sup 2] with resistivity soundings taken at selected places. Gondwana sediments lying over basement subbasins are prospective areas for the exploration of coal. The gravity survey interpreted an 8-km wide and 20-km long depression known as the Pachami basin. This basin was drilled at several places and thick 'A' grade coal seams were intersected. The gravity survey broadly outlined the Pachami basin and several other basement depressions through gravity low contour closures. A forward modelling of a profile across the Pachami basin indicated a maximum depth of about 1.3 km to the basement at its deepest part. The magnetic map was vitiated through the presence of fluctuating high amplitude and high wavenumber anomalies due to a thick blanket of trap lying above the Gondwana sediments. Selected resistivity soundings could approximately interpret the shallow-basement depths, and the thickness and depths of the overlying trap.

  3. Prevalence ofEdwardsiella tarda in commercially important finfish and shellfish of Bihar and West Bengal, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pankaj Kumar; Harresh Adikesavalu; Thangapalam Jawahar Abraham

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the prevalence ofEdwardsiella tarda (E. tarda) in finfish and shellfish of West Bengal and Bihar, India and their antibiogram. Methods:Fish samples were enriched overnight inEdwardsiella ictaluri broth and plated onto Edwardsiella ictaluri agar. Typical colonies were identified conventionally and byVITEK 2 compact system. Antibiogram was done by agar disc diffusion assay. Results:Of the 118 fish samples screened, only 14.41% hadE. tarda. The incidence was marginally high in wild fish (15.30%) than in cultured fish (13.26%). Maximum incidence was in intestine (12.98%) followed by gills (6.60%) and skin (2.38%). AllE. tarda strains were sensitive to ciprofloxacin and exhibited varying degrees of resistance to other antibiotics. Multiple antibiotic resistance was seen in 84.00%–87.50% of theE. tarda strains. Majority of them had high minimal inhibitory concentration values (200µg/mL) for oxytetracycline and gentamycin. Conclusions:The results suggested that considerable proportions of commercially important finfish are carriers of multiple antibiotic resistanceE. tarda. This calls for proper sanitary measures to eliminate this pathogen in fish and fishery products.

  4. Skill of frontline workers implementing integrated management of neonatal and childhood illness: experience from a district of West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Akhil B; Mukhopadhyay, Dipta K; Mandal, Nirmal K; Panja, Tanamy K; Sinha, Nirmalya; Mitra, Kaninika

    2011-10-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted in Purulia district, West Bengal, India, to assess the skill of 155 frontline workers implementing Integrated Management of Neonatal and Childhood Illness (IMNCI) and the logistic support thereof. The skills of counting respiratory rate, assessing immunization status in both age groups, assessment of breastfeeding in young infants and plotting of weight in a growth chart in case of children aged 2-59 months were acquired by majority of workers. Around two-thirds workers synthesized correct classification and nearly 60% gave appropriate management of at least one subgroup. In 30-40% cases, carers received feeding advices. Around 50% casesheets were complete and timely report submission rate was nearly 70%. Necessary equipments were available with majority of workers except the utensils for preparation of ORS. The supply of essential drugs varied from 33.5 to 71.6%. These findings suggest that IMNCI program offered a scope for capacity-building and infrastructure strengthening of the health system.

  5. The palaeosol model of arsenic pollution of groundwater tested along a 32 km traverse across West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoque, M A; McArthur, J M; Sikdar, P K

    2012-08-01

    The distribution of As-pollution in groundwater of the deltaic aquifers of south-eastern Asia may be controlled by the subsurface distribution of palaeo-channel sediments (As-polluted groundwaters) and palaeo-interfluvial sediments (As-free groundwaters). To test this idea, termed the palaeosol model of As-pollution, we drilled 10 sites, analysed groundwater from 249 shallow wells (screened pollution in a further 531 wells. Our work was conducted along a 32-km traverse running W to E across southern West Bengal, India. At seven drill sites we logged a palaeo-interfluvial sequence, which occurs as three distinct units that together occupy 20 km of the traverse. These palaeo-interfluvial sequences yield As-free groundwaters from brown sands at depthpolluted groundwater in grey sands. Our findings confirm the predictions of the palaeosol model of As-pollution. We show again that well-colour can be used both to successfully predict the degree of As-pollution in groundwater, and to locate regions of buried palaeo-interfluve that will yield As-free groundwater for the foreseeable future. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Arsenic mobilization in the aquifers of three physiographic settings of West Bengal, India: understanding geogenic and anthropogenic influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhowmick, Subhamoy; Nath, Bibhash; Halder, Dipti; Biswas, Ashis; Majumder, Santanu; Mondal, Priyanka; Chakraborty, Sudipta; Nriagu, Jerome; Bhattacharya, Prosun; Iglesias, Monica; Roman-Ross, Gabriela; Guha Mazumder, Debendranath; Bundschuh, Jochen; Chatterjee, Debashis

    2013-11-15

    A comparative hydrogeochemical study was carried out in West Bengal, India covering three physiographic regions, Debagram and Chakdaha located in the Bhagirathi-Hooghly alluvial plain and Baruipur in the delta front, to demonstrate the control of geogenic and anthropogenic influences on groundwater arsenic (As) mobilization. Groundwater samples (n = 90) from tube wells were analyzed for different physico-chemical parameters. The low redox potential (Eh = -185 to -86 mV) and dominant As(III) and Fe(II) concentrations are indicative of anoxic nature of the aquifer. The shallow (100 m) aquifers of Bhagirathi-Hooghly alluvial plains as well as shallow aquifers of delta front are characterized by Ca(2+)HCO3(-) type water, whereas Na(+) and Cl(-) enrichment is found in the deeper aquifer of delta front. The equilibrium of groundwater with respect to carbonate minerals and their precipitation/dissolution seems to be controlling the overall groundwater chemistry. The low SO4(2-) and high DOC, PO4(3-) and HCO3(-) concentrations in groundwater signify ongoing microbial mediated redox processes favoring As mobilization in the aquifer. The As release is influenced by both geogenic (i.e. geomorphology) and anthropogenic (i.e. unsewered sanitation) processes. Multiple geochemical processes, e.g., Fe-oxyhydroxides reduction and carbonate dissolution, are responsible for high As occurrence in groundwaters.

  7. Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice Related to Diabetes Mellitus Among Diabetics and Nondiabetics Visiting Homeopathic Hospitals in West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koley, Munmun; Saha, Subhranil; Arya, Jogendra Singh; Choubey, Gurudev; Ghosh, Shubhamoy; Chattopadhyay, Rajat; Das, Kaushik Deb; Ghosh, Aloke; Hait, Himangsu; Mukherjee, Rajarshi; Banerjee, Tanapa

    2016-01-01

    High prevalence of undiagnosed cases of diabetes mellitus and poor knowledge, awareness, and practice has increased premature death, costly complications, and financial burden. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in November 2014 on 273 diabetics and 355 nondiabetics in 3 government homeopathic hospitals in West Bengal, India. A self-administered questionnaire assessing knowledge, awareness, and practice related to diabetes was used. A total of 17.5% to 29.3% of the participants were aware of the normal blood sugar level. Lack of insulin, frequent urination, hypertension, and poor wound healing were identified most frequently as the cause, symptom, association, and complications. A total of 35.5% to 46.5% said that diabetes was preventable; 14.1% to 31.9% knew that diabetes was controllable rather than curable. Consumption of planned diet, avoiding sugar, and testing blood sugar were the most frequently identified components of healthy lifestyle, diabetic diet, and diagnostic domain. Diabetics had higher knowledge and awareness than nondiabetics (P < .0001); still the latter need to be made aware and knowledgeable to curtail the ever-increasing burden of diabetes.

  8. Effect of air and noise pollution on species diversity and population density of forest birds at Lalpahari, West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Dulal C; Padhy, Pratap K

    2011-11-15

    The Rajmahal-type quality stones for building purposes are found abundantly in Birbhum district, West Bengal, India, where stone mining and crushing have become the main industrial activity. Although crusher dust is injurious to health, demand for crushed stone is ever-increasing as a result of rapid infrastructural growth in the country. Most of the crusher units at Rampurhat are situated along the roadways adjacent to forest under Tumboni Beat of Rampurhat Range of Birbhum Forest Division. Excessive load of air pollution in this area has led to degradation of this forest. The status of the ambient air and noise level was evaluated. The effect of air and noise pollution on abundance and variability of birds in this forest have been compared to an almost non-polluted forest of the same bio-geographic zone. Both species diversity and population density of birds were found to decrease in the polluted forest, especially in the areas adjacent to crushers. For comparing the pollution status of two different forest sites and for establishing whether the density of birds have any correlation between the sites, the Student's t-test and the chi-square test were applied respectively. Most of the results proved to be significant.

  9. Fish guild structure along a longitudinally-determined ecological zonation of Teesta, an eastern Himalayan river in West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakrabarty, M

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The Eastern Himalaya Biodiversity Hotspot contains exceptional freshwater biodiversity and ecosystems that are of vital importance to local and regional livelihoods, but these are under threat from the developmental and anthropogenic pressures arising from the 62 million people living in the area. Therefore, monitoring the riverine health and considering future conservation approach, the study of fish biodiversity plays a significant role in this region. The River Teesta in the Brahmaputra basin in India forms one of the major rivers in the Eastern Himalayas. In the present investigation, we studied ecological fish guilds as they can enhance the usefulness of fish zonation concepts and serve as tools to assess and manage the ecological integrity of large rivers. We classified fish species according to their water flow preference and spawning substrate preference. Ten spawning habitats were identified, occurring in three water flow guilds. The most widely preferred habitat in upstream zones was lithophils while in lower stretches it was lithopleagophils. On applying predictions of the River Continuum Concept, our results indicated the presence of a zonation pattern based on fish species assemblage and their ecological attributes along the longitudinal stretch of the Teesta River in west Bengal. Along the longitudinal stretch of the river, species richness increased downstream, with maximum richness in the mid-reaches. However, species richness decreased further downstream. The number of ecological guilds also increased downstream, and there were clear shifts in the structure of the guilds.

  10. On the Behaviour, abundance, habitat use and potential threats of the Gangetic Dolphin Platanista gangetica in southern West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahua Roy Chowdhury

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Ganga River Dolphin Platanista gangetica Roxburgh, 1801 is a globally endangered cetacean found in the River system of Ganga, Brahmaputra and Meghna in Bangladesh and India.  A survey and research were conducted from 2012–2014 to explore the behaviour, abundance, habitat use and potential threats of the Dolphin in the lower, middle and upper stretches of the river Ganga and its tributaries in southern West Bengal.  The study recorded different types of surfacing patterns with respect to their age class as well as on diurnal activity pattern of the individual. The adults and sub-adults were found to have different types of surfacing during different hours of the day.  The morning and afternoon were observed to be feeding hours of the Dolphin.  Multiple potential threats were encountered during the present study such as destructive fishing gears, dumping of solid and municipal waste, industrial effluents, agricultural run-off, construction of water structures, water extraction and reduction of river depth attributed to siltation.  These factors contributed to the present study of the river dolphins in the Ganga, which are localised at certain pockets in good number.  

  11. Palynofloral changes in the Upper Paleozoic and Mesozoic of the Deocha-Pachami area, Birbhum Coalfield, West Bengal, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vijaya, B. [Birbal Sahni Institute of Paleobotany, Lucknow (India)

    2009-12-15

    The study of Upper Paleozoic and Mesozoic palynomorphs in three boreholes from the Deocha-Pachami area, Birbhum Coalfield, West Bengal, India, has allowed dating of the Talchir, Barakar, Dubrajpur, and Rajmahal formations, and revealed many hiatuses. The lowermost unit, the Talchir Formation, yielded earliest Permian palynomorphs. The Barakar Formation, which includes coal-bearing strata, was previously dated as Early Permian. However, data presented herein indicate an Early Permian to earliest Triassic age for this unit-containing actually the Karharbari, Barakar s.s., Kulti, and Ranigang formations as well as the basal part of the Panchet Formation. The overlying Dubrajpur Formation is Jurassic (Callovian to Tithonian), with an unconformity at its base. The uppermost Dubrajpur Formation is Tithonian-Berriasian. The palynomorphs from the intertrappeans within the Rajmahal Formation suggest an Early Cretaceous age. The revised ages of the Barakar and Dubrajpur formations are of major regional significance. The distribution patterns of spore-pollen may provide a broad spectrum of paleoclimate during Permian, Late Jurassic, and Early Cretaceous times, as there is no record of marine signatures in the study area.

  12. An observation on the Odonata fauna of the Asansol-Durgapur Industrial Area, Burdwan, West Bengal, India

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    Amar Kumar Nayak

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation was undertaken as a pilot study to examine the diversity, occurrence and distribution pattern of dragonflies and damselflies (Odonata from the selected study sites of the Asansol-Durgapur industrial area of Burdwan District of West Bengal, India from January 2012 to December 2015.  A combination of direct search and opportunistic sighting methods were applied to record 57 different Odonata species (38 dragonflies and 19 damselflies.  Among the dragonflies the most diverse family was Libellulidae represented by 36 species while among damselflies Coenagrionidae was the most diverse family represented by 16 species.  In spite of the Asansol-Durgapur region being an industrial urban area, the present study revealed a handsome diversity of odonates.  A suitable geographic location, favourable climatic conditions, heterogeneous habitat types that included ponds, wetlands, riverbeds, grasslands and agricultural lands along with the presence of appropriate vegetation provided a comfortable shelter for Odonata species to flourish in this ecoregion.   All the odonates noted in the present study belong to the Least Concerned category as designated by IUCN. 

  13. Earthquake scenario in West Bengal with emphasis on seismic hazard microzonation of the city of Kolkata, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, S. K.; Adhikari, M. D.; Maiti, S. K.; Devaraj, N.; Srivastava, N.; Mohapatra, L. D.

    2014-09-01

    Seismic microzonation is a process of estimating site-specific effects due to an earthquake on urban centers for its disaster mitigation and management. The state of West Bengal, located in the western foreland of the Assam-Arakan Orogenic Belt, the Himalayan foothills and Surma Valley, has been struck by several devastating earthquakes in the past, indicating the need for a seismotectonic review of the province, especially in light of probable seismic threat to its capital city of Kolkata, which is a major industrial and commercial hub in the eastern and northeastern region of India. A synoptic probabilistic seismic hazard model of Kolkata is initially generated at engineering bedrock (Vs30 ~ 760 m s-1) considering 33 polygonal seismogenic sources at two hypocentral depth ranges, 0-25 and 25-70 km; 158 tectonic sources; appropriate seismicity modeling; 14 ground motion prediction equations for three seismotectonic provinces, viz. the east-central Himalaya, the Bengal Basin and Northeast India selected through suitability testing; and appropriate weighting in a logic tree framework. Site classification of Kolkata performed following in-depth geophysical and geotechnical investigations places the city in D1, D2, D3 and E classes. Probabilistic seismic hazard assessment at a surface-consistent level - i.e., the local seismic hazard related to site amplification performed by propagating the bedrock ground motion with 10% probability of exceedance in 50 years through a 1-D sediment column using an equivalent linear analysis - predicts a peak ground acceleration (PGA) range from 0.176 to 0.253 g in the city. A deterministic liquefaction scenario in terms of spatial distribution of liquefaction potential index corresponding to surface PGA distribution places 50% of the city in the possible liquefiable zone. A multicriteria seismic hazard microzonation framework is proposed for judicious integration of multiple themes, namely PGA at the surface, liquefaction potential

  14. Ground water arsenic contamination in West Bengal, India: a risk of sub-clinical toxicity in cattle as evident by correlation between arsenic exposure, excretion and deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bera, Asit Kumar; Rana, Tanmoy; Das, Subhshree; Bhattacharya, Debasis; Bandyopadhyay, Subhasish; Pan, Diganta; De, Sumanta; Samanta, Srikanta; Chowdhury, Atalanta Narayan; Mondal, Tapan Kumar; Das, Subrata Kumar

    2010-11-01

    Arsenic contamination of ground water in West Bengal, India, is a great concern for both human and livestock populations. Our study investigated and correlated the arsenic concentration in the drinking water, urinary excretion and deposition of total arsenic in hair of cattle at an arsenic contaminated zone in West Bengal. The results of our study indicated that the average concentration of arsenic in tube well water in contaminated villages ranged from 0.042 to 0.251 ppm and a statistical significant (p contaminated zone. The arsenic concentration in urine and hair of cattle ranged between 0.245-0.691 ppm and 0.461-0.984 ppm, respectively. A close relationship was found between the total arsenic in drinking water urinary excretion (r² = 0.03664, p arsenic concentration in hair (r² = 0.03668, p arsenic concentration in cattle urine and hair can serve as biomarkers for both present and past exposure in cattle population.

  15. Nutritional status of school going children and adolescents aged 9-13 years at Haldia in West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudip Datta Banik

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Malnutrition in children and adolescents is a global problem. In developing nations of Africa and Southeast Asia, the prevalence of undernutrition in children is very high. There is scanty data 'With respect to the nutritional status of school going children and adolescents, especially from suburban and rural areas in India. Objective A study was undertaken among boys (n = 174 and girls (n = 128 aged 9 13 years in a suburban area of Purba Medinipur district of West Bengal in India to understand age and sex variation of nutritional status of the subjects. Methods A crosssectional study among the schoolgoing children and adolescent aged 9 13 years was done during JuneSeptember 2009 in Haldia. Results Age and sex variation of anthropometric characteristics (body mass index or BMI and conicity index or CI revealed that remarkable sections of both the sexes were suffering from underweight (8.30%, stunting (14.60% and wasting (2.80%. Significant sex differences were observed in cases of mean CI (P=O.OO1, weightforage zscore (P = 0.0001 and weight-for-height ,-score (P 0.0001. Discussion Besides notable prevalence of under nutrition in both sexes, situation of the girls is worse (underweight - 11.70% and stunting - 21.10% compared to the boys. This is most evident among the subjects of both sexes aged 11 and 12 years.

  16. Knowledge, attitude, and practice in relation to stroke: A community-based study from Kolkata, West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujata Das

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The rising incidence of stroke in India indicates the importance of evaluating the existing knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP in the community, which is essential for stroke control. Objective: To explore and compare stroke-related KAP among participants from stroke-affected families (SAFs and nonstroke-affected families (NSFs. Design: Using stratified random sampling, a three-phase house-to-house survey was conducted in Kolkata, West Bengal, India. First, field investigators screened subjects of stroke; second, the neurologist confirmed positive cases; and third, under supervision of the neuropsychologist, a validated questionnaire on KAP was administered to participants from SAFs and age-matched NSAFs from the same neighborhood. Results: The KAP questionnaire was administered to 282 participants each from both groups. Knowledge about stroke prevailed in 97% participants and was significantly higher in the SAF group. Both SAF and NSAF groups had better knowledge about prominent symptoms of stroke (loss of consciousness and paralysis and admitted it as emergency situation requiring hospitalization and that it was potentially preventable. Those persons belonging to the SAF group, however, had lesser knowledge of the risk factors such as diabetes (P < 0.001, smoking (P < 0.014, alcoholism (P < .0.0001, family history (P < .0.0001 and mild stroke symptoms such as headache, (P < 0.001, vomiting (P < 0.001, and fits (P 0.003 as compared to the NSAF group. Conclusions: Persons from both SAF and non-SAF groups are aware about stroke but possess lesser knowledge about the many symptoms of stroke and risk factors, indicating the necessity of enhancement of existence knowledge on symptoms for better diagnosis and of risk factors for better prevention.

  17. A survey of arsenic, manganese, boron, thorium, and other toxic metals in the groundwater of a West Bengal, India neighbourhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacquart, Thomas; Bradshaw, Kelly; Frisbie, Seth; Mitchell, Erika; Springston, George; Defelice, Jeffrey; Dustin, Hannah; Sarkar, Bibudhendra

    2012-07-01

    Around 150 million people are at risk from arsenic-contaminated groundwater in India and Bangladesh. Multiple metal analysis in Bangladesh has found other toxic elements above the World Health Organization (WHO) health-based drinking water guidelines which significantly increases the number of people at risk due to drinking groundwater. In this study, drinking water samples from the Bongaon area (North 24 Parganas district, West Bengal, India) were analyzed for multiple metal contamination in order to evaluate groundwater quality on the neighbourhood scale. Each sample was analyzed for arsenic (As), boron (B), barium (Ba), chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and uranium (U). Arsenic was found above the WHO health-based drinking water guideline in 50% of these tubewells. Mn and B were found at significant concentrations in 19% and 6% of these tubewells, respectively. The maps of As, Mn, and B concentrations suggest that approximately 75% of this area has no safe tubewells. The concentrations of As, Mn, B, and many other toxic elements are independent of each other. The concentrations of Pb and U were not found above WHO health-based drinking water guidelines but they were statistically related to each other (p-value = 0.001). An analysis of selected isotopes in the Uranium, Actinium, and Thorium Radioactive Decay Series revealed the presence of thorium (Th) in 31% of these tubewells. This discovery of Th, which does not have a WHO health-based drinking water guideline, is a potential public health challenge. In sum, the widespread presence and independent distribution of other metals besides As must be taken into consideration for drinking water remediation strategies involving well switching or home-scale water treatment.

  18. Primary Schooling in West Bengal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Amartya

    2010-01-01

    With his Nobel Prize award money, Amartya Sen set up the Pratichi Trust which carries out research, advocacy and experimental projects in basic education, primary health care, and women's development in West Bengal and Bangladesh. Professor Sen himself took active interest in this work--helping set the agenda, looking at the evidence from…

  19. Isolation and characterization of a phosphate solubilizing heavy metal tolerant bacterium from River Ganga, West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipak Paul

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Phosphates solubilizing bacterial (PSB strains were isolated from the jute mill effluent discharge area of the Ganga river water at Bansberia, West Bengal, India. Experimental studies found that the strain KUPSB16 was effective in solubilization of phosphate with phosphate solubilization index (SI = 3.14 in Pikovskaya’s agar plates along with maximum solubilized phosphate production of 208.18 g mL-1 in broth culture. Highest drop in pH value was associated with maximum amount of phosphate solubilization by the PSB strain KUPSB16 where pH decreased to 3.53 from initial value of 7.0±0.2. The isolated PSB strains were tested for tolerance against four heavy metals such as cadmium (Cd, chromium (Cr, lead (Pb and zinc (Zn at concentrations 1-15 mM. The results showed that most of the PSB isolates grew well at low concentrations of heavy metals and their number gradually decreased as the concentration increased. Isolated PSB strain KUPSB16 was tested for its multiple metal resistances. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC for Cd2+, Cr6+, Pb2+ and Zn2+ in tris-minimal broth medium were 4.2, 5.5, 3.6 and 9.5 mM respectively. The MIC values for the metals studied on agar medium was higher than in broth medium and ranged from 4.8-11.0 mM. The isolated bacterial strain KUPSB16 was subjected to morphological, physiological and biochemical characterization and identified as the species of the genus Bacillus. The phosphate solubilizing bacterium possessing the properties of multiple heavy metal tolerance in heavy metal contaminated areas might be exploited for bioremediation studies in future.

  20. Size-fractionation of groundwater arsenic in alluvial aquifers of West Bengal, India: the role of organic and inorganic colloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumder, Santanu; Nath, Bibhash; Sarkar, Simita; Chatterjee, Debashis; Roman-Ross, Gabriela; Hidalgo, Manuela

    2014-01-15

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and Fe mineral phases are known to influence the mobility of arsenic (As) in groundwater. Arsenic can be associated with colloidal particles containing organic matter and Fe. Currently, no data is available on the dissolved phase/colloidal association of As in groundwater of alluvial aquifers in West Bengal, India. This study investigated the fractional distribution of As (and other metals/metalloids) among the particulate, colloidal and dissolved phases in groundwater to decipher controlling behavior of organic and inorganic colloids on As mobility. The result shows that 83-94% of As remained in the 'truly dissolved' phases (i.e., 0.05 μm size) colloidal particles, which indicates the close association of As with larger Fe-rich inorganic colloids. In smaller (i.e., <0.05 μm size) colloidal particles strong positive correlation is observed between As and DOC (r(2)=0.85), which highlights the close association of As with smaller organic colloids. As(III) is mainly associated with larger inorganic colloids, whereas, As(V) is associated with smaller organic/organometallic colloids. Scanning Electron Microscopy and Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy confirm the association of As with DOC and Fe mineral phases suggesting the formation of dissolved organo-Fe complexes and colloidal organo-Fe oxide phases. Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy further confirms the formation of As-Fe-NOM organometallic colloids, however, a detailed study of these types of colloids in natural waters is necessary to underpin their controlling behavior.

  1. Arsenic and other heavy metal accumulation in plants and algae growing naturally in contaminated area of West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, N K; Raghubanshi, A S; Upadhyay, A K; Rai, U N

    2016-08-01

    The present study was conducted to quantify the arsenic (As) and other heavy metal concentrations in the plants and algae growing naturally in As contaminated blocks of North-24-Pargana and Nandia district, West Bengal, India to assess their bioaccumulation potential. The plant species included five macrophytes and five algae were collected from the nine selected sites for estimation of As and other heavy metals accumulated therein by using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrophotometer (ICP-MS). Results revealed that maximum As concentration (117mgkg(-1)) was recorded in the agricultural soil at the Barasat followed by Beliaghat (111mgkg(-1)) sites of North-24-Pargana. Similarly, concentration of selenium (Si, 249mgkg(-1)), lead (Pb, 79.4mgkg(-1)), chromium (Cr, 138mgkg(-1)) was also found maximum in the soil at Barasat and cadmium (Cd, 163mgkg(-1)) nickel (Ni, 36.5mgkg(-1)) at Vijaynagar site. Among the macrophytes, Eichhornia crassipes found more dominating species in As contaminated area and accumulate As (597mgkg(-1)) in the shoot at kanchrapara site. The Lemna minor found to accumulate maximum As (735mgkg(-1)) in the leaves at Sonadanga and Pistia stratiotes accumulated minimum As (24.5mgkg(-1)) in the fronds from Ranaghat site. In case of diatoms, maximum As (760mgkg(-1)) was accumulated at Kanchrapara site followed by Hydrodictiyon reticulatum (403mgkg(-1)) at the Ranaghat site. High concentration of As and other heavy metal in soil indicates long term effects of irrigation with contaminated ground water, however, high concentration of heavy metals in naturally growing plants and algae revealed their mobilization through leaching and possible food chain contamination. Therefore, efficient heavy metal accumulator macrophytes Eichhornia crassipes, Lemna minor, Spirodela polyrhiza may be exploited in removing metals from contaminated water by developing a plant based treatment system. However, As accumulator algal species may be used as a bioresource for

  2. Anthropometric characteristics and evaluation of nutritional status amongst female brick field workers of the unorganized sectors of West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sett, M; Sahu, S

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of the study is to evaluate the body composition and hand grip strength as indirect measures of nutritional status of 162 female workers and the status of the serum oxidative stress enzymes of 35 female workers engaged in the manual brick making units of the unorganized sectors of West Bengal, India. Results show that the waist-hip ratio values (mean 0.79 vs. 0.83; p=0.0034) are significantly greater amongst the brick carriers than the moulders. The body density (mean 1067.0 vs. 1056.0kg/m(3); pbrick carriers is significantly higher. The hand grip strength (HGS) (horizontal) of the brick workers in right (mean 379.52 vs. 267.72N; p<0.0001) and left (mean 268.78 vs. 162.79N; p<0.0001) hands are significantly greater than the control group. The serum malondialdehyde level is significantly higher (mean 99.97 vs. 160.21nmol/mg of protein; p<0.0001) but the superoxide dismutase level (mean 6.71 vs. 3.34unit/mg of protein; p<0.0001), glutathione level (GSH) (mean 3.93 vs. 2.11μg/mg of protein; p<0.0001) and glutathione-s-transferase (GST) activity (mean 5.4 vs. 2.73nmole/min/mg of protein; p<0.0001) are significantly lower than that of the control group. The indirect nutritional assessments have shown that the women are poorly nourished. The hand grip strength is quite high in both groups of workers but consecutively decreases with the passage of time. Reduced levels of GSH and GST indicate that there is a higher level of reactive oxygen species inducing oxidative stress in the body. The probable causes of this state might be the intake of less nutritious food, polluted environment, excess ambient temperature and improper workstation.

  3. Metal concentrations and histopathological changes in goats (Capra hircus) reared near an industrial area of West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, I; Mukhopadhayay, S K; Patra, A K; Pradhan, S

    2015-07-01

    The present investigation was performed to assess the concentrations of four heavy metals-lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), and cobalt (Co)-in goats reared in the vicinity of an industrial area of West Bengal, India, including soil, water, and feedstuffs; tissues of liver, kidney, lung, spleen, and muscle; and milk and faeces. In addition, histopathological changes in liver, lung, kidney, spleen, and muscle samples were examined. Mejia block as an industrial polluted site and Vatar block as a reference site (without any industrial activities and 120 km away from the polluted site) were selected for this study. The results showed that concentrations of these heavy metals in soil, water feedstuffs, all tissues, milk, and faeces were greater (P kidney > lung > spleen > muscle. Concentrations of heavy metals were greater in older animals than in young ones. Haemoglobin, total protein, packed cell volume, total erythrocyte counts, and total leucocytes counts were significantly (P < 0.01) decreased in blood of goats in the polluted site compared with the reference site. Serum glucose, creatinine, aspartate amino transferase, alanine amino transferase, and alkanline phosphatase were significantly (P < 0.05 to P < 0.01) increased. Histological examination showed several pathological alterations including degeneration, vacuolation, and tubulitis in kidney; congestion, degeneration, periportal necrosis, and focal haemorrhages in liver; and congestion and diffuse haemorrhage in lungs. It was concluded that natural exposure to these environmental heavy metals significantly increases toxic heavy-metal concentrations in several visceral organs resulting in pathological changes in these tissues. Thus, consumption of the meat of goats reared in the polluted site may pose human health hazards.

  4. Conservative management of Beta-thalassemia major cases in the sub-division level hospital of rural West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Ujjwal; Kundu, Dipankar; Sinha, Arijit; Banerjee, Kallol; Bandyopadhyay, Ranjana; Mandal, Tridibeshwar; Ray, Debes

    2013-01-01

    The ideal management of thalassemia involves a multidisciplinary therapeutic team approach and should be preferably done at a comprehensive thalassemia care center with all sorts of specialists and the backup of a well-equipped blood bank. However, in developing country like ours, these facilities are not available in rural set up. So, a situation where conservative therapy with regular blood transfusion is the only choice left to innumerable thalassemic children. To evaluate the existing conservative management protocol of Beta-thalassemia major patients in the setup of a subdivision level Government Hospital of rural West Bengal, India. The study was performed between December 2009 and December 2011. Beta-thalassemia major patients, registered in blood bank for moderate transfusion regimen, were taken in study. All the patients were screened for Transfusion Transmittable Infections at the time of registration and thereafter periodically every six months. Iron chelation therapy was given simultaneously with transfusion at a dose of 20 to 40 mg/kg/day for six days. The patients were advised to follow up with chelation therapy at home by daily infusion with a goal of maintaining serum ferritin level below 1000 ng/ml. Over this long period of study, the patients were periodically evaluated for complications. The average blood requirement (ml/kg/year) in 1-5 years, 6-10 years, and 11-15 years were 110, 150, and 180, respectively. Incidence of Hepatitis C Virus infection in 1-5 years and 6-10 years were 1.75% and 2.08%, respectively. It is well seen that serum ferritin level increase with ascending age as does the blood consumption. Conservative management may be the best alternative and at times the only hope for patients in developing country like ours. However, in order to decrease the disease load, steps need to be taken to introduce preventive measures.

  5. Economy of Fertilizer Nitrogen through Organic Sources in Rain-Fed Rice-Legume Cropping Systems in West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Puste

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Field experiments were conducted at a farmers’ plot adjacent to the Regional Research Station, red and laterite zone, Sub-center Sekhampur (Birbhum district of West Bengal, India, situated 23° 24' N latitude, 87° 24' E longitude, to study the effect of different bio- and organic sources of nutrients instead of total fertilizer N in terms of crop productivity in the sequence and building up of soil fertility. During the wet seasons of 1997 and 1998, 12 combinations of bio- and organic sources (crop residues, well decomposed cow dung, dhanicha as green manure were substituted for 25–50% of N fertilizer applied on transplanted rice (Cv. IR 36. Subsequently, during the winters of 1997–1998 and 1998–1999, leguminous pulse crops like lentil (Lens culinaris [L.] Medic., gram (Cicer arietinum L. and lathyrus (Lathyrus sativus L. were grown with and without inoculation of Rhizobium. Results revealed that the application of inorganic N in combination with organic sources exhibited a significant increase in rice yield (3.60–3.84 t ha-1 compared to the yield from sole application of N (3.19–3.26 t ha-1. The study showed that about 25% of total applied N was saved without significant yield reduction with simultaneous improvement of soil physical properties (pH, organic matter, available N, P, K, and CEC. Seed yield of pulses (lentil, gram, and lathyrus were more pronounced in the treatment inoculated with Rhizobium, with a saving of 42.6–48.4 kg N ha-1. Therefore, the results suggest that the combined application of inorganic and organic N sources in a 75:25 ratio is a superior N-management practice with regards to crop yields as well as improvement of soil fertility.

  6. Arsenic accumulation in native plants of West Bengal, India: prospects for phytoremediation but concerns with the use of medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Preeti; Dwivedi, Sanjay; Mishra, Aradhana; Kumar, Amit; Dave, Richa; Srivastava, Sudhakar; Shukla, Mridul Kumar; Srivastava, Pankaj Kumar; Chakrabarty, Debasis; Trivedi, Prabodh Kumar; Tripathi, Rudra Deo

    2012-05-01

    Arsenic (As) is a widespread environmental and food chain contaminant and class I, non-threshold carcinogen. Plants accumulate As due to ionic mimicry that is of importance as a measure of phytoremediation but of concern due to the use of plants in alternative medicine. The present study investigated As accumulation in native plants including some medicinal plants, from three districts [Chinsurah (Hoogly), Porbosthali (Bardhman), and Birnagar (Nadia)] of West Bengal, India, having a history of As pollution. A site-specific response was observed for Specific Arsenic Uptake (SAU; mg kg(-1) dw) in total number of 13 (8 aquatic and 5 terrestrial) collected plants. SAU was higher in aquatic plants (5-60 mg kg(-1) dw) than in terrestrial species (4-19 mg kg(-1) dw). The level of As was lower in medicinal plants (MPs) than in non-medicinal plants, however it was still beyond the WHO permissible limit (1 mg kg(-1) dw). The concentration of other elements (Cu, Zn, Se, and Pb) was found to be within prescribed limits in medicinal plants (MP). Among the aquatic plants, Marsilea showed the highest SAU (avg. 45 mg kg(-1) dw), however, transfer factor (TF) of As was the maximum in Centella asiatica (MP, avg. 1). Among the terrestrial plants, the maximum SAU and TF were demonstrated by Alternanthera ficoidea (avg. 15) and Phyllanthus amarus (MP, avg. 1.27), respectively. In conclusion, the direct use of MP or their by products for humans should not be practiced without proper regulation. In other way, one fern species (Marsilea) and some aquatic plants (Eichhornia crassipes and Cyperus difformis) might be suitable candidates for As phytoremediation of paddy fields.

  7. Biogeochemical Controls on the Release and Accumulation of Mn and As in Shallow Aquifers, West Bengal, India

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    Michael A. Vega

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available HIGHLIGHTSManganese and arsenic concentrations are elevated in Murshidabad groundwater.Manganese release appears to be independent of dissolved organic matter quality.Mineral precipitation and dissolution reactions impact fate of manganese.Arsenic concentrations are related to dissolved organic matter quantity and quality.The prevalence of manganese (Mn in Southeast Asian drinking water has recently become a topic of discussion, particularly when concurrent with elevated arsenic (As. Although Mn groundwater geochemistry has been studied, the link between dissolved organic matter (DOM quality and Mn release is less understood. This work evaluates characteristics of DOM, redox chemistry, and the distribution of Mn within Murshidabad, West Bengal, India. Shallow aquifer samples were analyzed for cations, anions, dissolved organic carbon, and DOM properties using 3-dimensional fluorescence excitation emission matrices followed by parallel factor modeling analyses. Two biogeochemical regimes are apparent, separated geographically by the river Bhagirathi. East of the river, where Eh and nitrate (NO3− values are low, humic-like DOM coexists with high dissolved Mn, As, and Fe. West of the river, lower dissolved As and Fe concentrations are coupled with more protein-like DOM and higher NO3− and Eh values. Dissolved Mn concentrations are elevated in both regions. Based on the distribution of available electron acceptors, it is hypothesized that groundwater east of the Bhagirathi, which is more reducing and enriched in dissolved Fe and Mn but depleted in NO3−, is chemically dominated by Mn(IV/Fe(III reduction processes. West of the river where NO3− is abundant yet dissolved Fe is absent, NO3− and Mn(IV likely buffer redox conditions such that Eh values are not sufficiently reducing to release Fe into the dissolved phase. The co-occurrence of humic-like DOM with dissolved As, Fe, and Mn in the more reducing aquifers may reflect complex formation

  8. Goiter prevalence, urinary iodine, and salt iodization level in sub-Himalayan Darjeeling district of West Bengal, India

    OpenAIRE

    Akhil Bandhu Biswas; Dilip Kumar Das; Indranil Chakraborty; Asit Kumar Biswas; Puran Kumar Sharma; Romy Biswas

    2014-01-01

    National iodine deficiency disorders control program needs to be continuously monitored. Hence, a cross-sectional study was conducted during the period from April-May 2011 to assess the prevalence of goiter, status of urinary iodine excretion (UIE) level and to estimate iodine content of salts at the household level in Darjeeling district, West Bengal. Study subjects were 2400 school children, aged 8-10 years selected through "30 cluster" sampling methodology. Goiter was assessed by standard ...

  9. First record of protozoan parasites, Tetrahymena rostrata and Callimastix equi from the edible oyster in Sundarbans region of West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Tanima; Bandyopadhyay, Probir Kumar

    2016-09-01

    Several protozoan parasites have been found infecting the edible oysters, hence deteriorating the meat quality. Protozoan parasites such as, Tetrahymena rostrata and Callimastix equi infested the edible oyster in Sundarbans region, West Bengal, India, are first record from this region. Due to filter feeding habit of the organisms, oysters provides excellent ecological services in regard to efficient cleaning of infectious agents from surrounding water as a potential measure to improve water quality. However, these environmental benefits are associated with public heath risks from contaminated oysters intended for human consumption.

  10. Threat of land subsidence in and around Kolkata City and East Kolkata Wetlands, West Bengal, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P Sahu; P K Sikdar

    2011-06-01

    This paper attempts to estimate the possible rate of land subsidence of Kolkata City including Salt Lake City and the adjoining East Kolkata Wetlands located at the lower part of the deltaic alluvial plain of South Bengal basin. Demand of groundwater for drinking, agricultural and industrial purposes has increased due to rapid urbanization. The subsurface geology consists of Quaternary sediments comprising a succession of clay, silty clay and sand of various grades. Groundwater occurs mostly under confined condition except in those places where the top aquitard has been obliterated due to the scouring action of past channels. Currently, the piezometric head shows a falling trend and it may be accelerated due to further over-withdrawal of groundwater resulting in land subsidence. The estimated mean land subsidence rate is 13.53 mm/year and for 1 m drop in the piezometric head, the mean subsidence is 3.28 cm. The surface expression of the estimated land subsidence is however, cryptic because of a time lag between the settlement of the thick low-permeable aquitard at the top and its surface expression. Therefore, groundwater of the cities and wetland areas should be developed cautiously based on the groundwater potential to minimize the threat of land subsidence.

  11. Molecular evidence for the occurrence of Japanese encephalitis virus genotype I and III infection associated with acute Encephalitis in Patients of West Bengal, India, 2010

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    Sarkar Arindam

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV, a mosquito-borne zoonotic pathogen, is the sole etiologic agent of Japanese Encephalitis (JE; a neurotropic killer disease which is one of the major causes of viral encephalitis worldwide with prime public health concern. JE was first reported in the state of West Bengal, India in 1973. Since then it is being reported every year from different districts of the state, though the vaccination has already been done. Therefore, it indicates that there might be either partial coverage of the vaccine or the emergence of mutated/new strain of JEV. Considering this fact, to understand the JEV genotype distribution, we conducted a molecular epidemiological study on a total of 135 serum/cerebrospinal fluid (CSF samples referred and/or collected from the clinically suspected patients with Acute encephalitis syndrome (AES, admitted in different district hospitals of West Bengal, India, 2010. Findings JEV etiology was confirmed in 36/135 (26.6% and 13/61 (21.3% 2–15 days’ febrile illness samples from AES cases by analyzing Mac-ELISA followed by RT-PCR test respectively. Phylogenetic analysis based on complete envelope gene sequences of 13 isolates showed the emergence of JEV genotype I (GI, co-circulating with genotype III (GIII. Conclusion This study represents the first report of JEV GI with GIII, co-circulating in West Bengal. The efficacy of the vaccine (derived from JEV GIII strain SA-14-14-2 to protect against emerging JEV GI needs careful evaluation. In future, JE outbreak is quite likely in the state, if this vaccine fails to protect sufficiently against GI of JEV.

  12. Physico-chemical characteristics of Jharkhand and West Bengal thermal springs along SONATA mega lineament, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hemant K Singh; D Chandrasekharam; O Vaselli; G Trupti; B Singh; Aref Lashin; Nassir Al Arifi

    2015-03-01

    The chemical and isotopic compositions of thermal springs located along the Son–Narmada–Tapti (SONATA) mega lineament in central India have been investigated. The issuing temperatures of the thermal waters vary from 31° to 89°C for the thermal springs and 24° to 25°C for the cold springs. These thermal springs are located on the Archean Chotanagpur Gneissic Complex (CGC) in the eastern part of peninsular India. The thermal springs are mostly alkaline in nature with pH varying from 7.5 to 9.5. Piper diagram suggests that the chemistry of the thermal waters is compatible with the granitic host rocks through which the waters circulate. Mineral saturation index suggests that the thermal waters are saturated with cristobalite and quartz at lower temperatures (less than ∼130 to 150°C), and calcite and forsterite at higher temperatures (∼160° to 250°C). The estimated reservoir temperature based on chemical geothermometers is in the range of 132°–265°C, which favours a medium enthalpy geothermal system. Oxygen isotope fractionation of Bakreswar and Tantloi thermal springs highlights a higher reservoir temperature than estimated by chemical geothermometer. Positive gravity anomalies over Bakreswar and Tantloi areas strongly suggest a basement/mantle upliftment or mafic intrusion which could account for the heat source close to the surface. However, the large negative gravity anomaly depression around the Surajkund and Katkamsandi thermal springs indicates presence of deep seated faults.

  13. Prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders among the brick field workers of West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Banibrata

    2014-01-01

    Brick field industry is one of the most important and oldest industries in India, where millions of workers suffered from work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs). The main aim of the present investigation was to assess the prevalence of WMSDs among brick field workers. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 216 brick field workers. A modified Nordic questionnaire was applied among them. In brick making industry, the workers adopt different unfavorable actions, such as frequent bending; bending and twisting of the body; and working above shoulder height, which may lead to severe pain in different parts of the body, especially lower back (brick carriers: 90%; moulders: 92%; fireman: 75%; stackers: 88%) and neck (brick carriers: 89%; moulders: 88%; fireman: 54%; stackers: 72%), It was concluded from the study that health of the brick field workers was highly affected due to working in different awkward postures for long periods.

  14. Diverse gene cassettes in class 1 integrons of facultative oligotrophic bacteria of River Mahananda,West Bengal, India.

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    Ranadhir Chakraborty

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In this study a large random collection (n=2188 of facultative oligotrophic bacteria, from 90 water samples gathered in three consecutive years (2007-2009 from three different sampling sites of River Mahananda in Siliguri, West Bengal, India, were investigated for the presence of class 1 integrons and sequences of the amplification products. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Replica plating method was employed for determining the antibiotic resistance profile of the randomly assorted facultative oligotrophic isolates. Genomic DNA from each isolate was analyzed by PCR for the presence of class 1 integron. Amplicons were cloned and sequenced. Numerical taxonomy and 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses were done to ascertain putative genera of the class 1 integron bearing isolates. Out of 2188 isolates, 1667 (76.19% were antibiotic-resistant comprising of both single-antibiotic resistance (SAR and multiple-antibiotic resistant (MAR, and 521 (23.81% were sensitive to all twelve different antibiotics used in this study. Ninety out of 2188 isolates produced amplicon(s of varying sizes from 0.15 to 3.45 KB. Chi-square (χ(2 test revealed that the possession of class 1 integron in sensitive, SAR and MAR is not equally probable at the 1% level of significance. Diverse antibiotic-resistance gene cassettes, aadA1, aadA2, aadA4, aadA5, dfrA1, dfrA5, dfrA7, dfrA12, dfrA16, dfrA17, dfrA28, dfrA30, dfr-IIe, blaIMP-9, aacA4, Ac-6'-Ib, oxa1, oxa10 and arr2 were detected in 64 isolates. The novel cassettes encoding proteins unrelated to any known antibiotic resistance gene function were identified in 26 isolates. Antibiotic-sensitive isolates have a greater propensity to carry gene cassettes unrelated to known antibiotic-resistance genes. The integron-positive isolates under the class Betaproteobacteria comprised of only two genera, Comamonas and Acidovorax of family Comamonadaceae, while isolates under class Gammaproteobacteria fell under the families

  15. Are institutional deliveries promoted by Janani Suraksha Yojana in a district of West Bengal, India?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanmay Kanti Panja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available ′Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY′ was implemented in India to promote institutional deliveries among the poorer section of the society. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Bankura district among 324 women who delivered in last 12 months selected through 40 cluster technique to find out institutional delivery rate, utilization of JSY during antenatal period and relation between cash benefit under JSY during antenatal period and institutional delivery. Overall institutional delivery rate was 73.1% and utilization of JSY among eligible women was 50.5%. Institutional delivery (84.0%, consumption of 100 iron-folic acid tablets (46.0% and three or more antenatal check-ups (91.0% were better in women who received financial assistance from JSY during antenatal period than other women. After adjustment for socio-demographic factors, JSY utilization came out to be significantly (P=0.031 associated with institutional deliveries. The study showed that cash incentive under JSY in antenatal period had positive association on institutional deliveries.

  16. Coalbed methane-produced water quality and its management options in Raniganj Basin, West Bengal, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendhe, Vinod Atmaram; Mishra, Subhashree; Varma, Atul Kumar; Singh, Awanindra Pratap

    2015-09-01

    Coalbed methane (CBM) recovery is associated with production of large quantity of groundwater. The coal seams are depressurized by pumping of water for regular and consistent gas production. Usually, CBM operators need to pump >10 m3 of water per day from one well, which depends on the aquifer characteristics, drainage and recharge pattern. In India, 32 CBM blocks have been awarded for exploration and production, out of which six blocks are commercially producing methane gas at 0.5 million metric standard cubic feet per day. Large amount of water is being produced from CBM producing blocks, but no specific information or data are available for geochemical properties of CBM-produced water and its suitable disposal or utilization options for better management. CBM operators are in infancy and searching for the suitable solutions for optimal management of produced water. CBM- and mine-produced water needs to be handled considering its physical and geochemical assessment, because it may have environmental as well as long-term impact on aquifer. Investigations were carried out to evaluate geochemical and hydrogeological conditions of CBM blocks in Raniganj Basin. Totally, 15 water samples from CBM well head and nine water samples from mine disposal head were collected from Raniganj Basin. The chemical signature of produced water reveals high sodium and bicarbonate concentrations with low calcium and magnesium, and very low sulphate in CBM water. It is comprehend that CBM water is mainly of Na-HCO3 type and coal mine water is of Ca-Mg-SO4 and HCO3-Cl-SO4 type. The comparative studies are also carried out for CBM- and mine-produced water considering the geochemical properties, aquifer type, depth of occurrence and lithological formations. Suitable options like impounding, reverse osmosis, irrigation and industrial use after prerequisite treatments are suggested. However, use of this huge volume of CBM- and mine-produced water for irrigation or other beneficial purposes

  17. Coalbed methane-produced water quality and its management options in Raniganj Basin, West Bengal, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendhe, Vinod Atmaram; Mishra, Subhashree; Varma, Atul Kumar; Singh, Awanindra Pratap

    2017-06-01

    Coalbed methane (CBM) recovery is associated with production of large quantity of groundwater. The coal seams are depressurized by pumping of water for regular and consistent gas production. Usually, CBM operators need to pump >10 m3 of water per day from one well, which depends on the aquifer characteristics, drainage and recharge pattern. In India, 32 CBM blocks have been awarded for exploration and production, out of which six blocks are commercially producing methane gas at 0.5 million metric standard cubic feet per day. Large amount of water is being produced from CBM producing blocks, but no specific information or data are available for geochemical properties of CBM-produced water and its suitable disposal or utilization options for better management. CBM operators are in infancy and searching for the suitable solutions for optimal management of produced water. CBM- and mine-produced water needs to be handled considering its physical and geochemical assessment, because it may have environmental as well as long-term impact on aquifer. Investigations were carried out to evaluate geochemical and hydrogeological conditions of CBM blocks in Raniganj Basin. Totally, 15 water samples from CBM well head and nine water samples from mine disposal head were collected from Raniganj Basin. The chemical signature of produced water reveals high sodium and bicarbonate concentrations with low calcium and magnesium, and very low sulphate in CBM water. It is comprehend that CBM water is mainly of Na-HCO3 type and coal mine water is of Ca-Mg-SO4 and HCO3-Cl-SO4 type. The comparative studies are also carried out for CBM- and mine-produced water considering the geochemical properties, aquifer type, depth of occurrence and lithological formations. Suitable options like impounding, reverse osmosis, irrigation and industrial use after prerequisite treatments are suggested. However, use of this huge volume of CBM- and mine-produced water for irrigation or other beneficial purposes

  18. Hydrochemical framework of the aquifer in and around East Kolkata Wetlands, West Bengal, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Paulami; Sikdar, P. K.

    2008-08-01

    The area lies between Hugli river in the northwest and Bidyadhari river in the east and includes the East Kolkata Wetlands. The East Kolkata Wetlands is included in the List of Wetlands of International Importance (“Ramsar List”), as per the Convention on Wetlands signed in Ramsar, Iran, in 1971. This wetland has been declared as a Ramsar site on the 19th August 2002 (Ramsar site no. 1208) and therefore has acquired an international status. The area is a part of the lower deltaic plain of the Bhagirathi Ganga river system and is generally flat in nature. The sub-surface geology of the area is completely blanketed by the Quaternary fluviatile sediments comprising a succession of clay, silty clay, sand and sand mixed with occasional gravel. The Quaternary aquifer is sandwiched between two clay sequences. The confined aquifer is made up of moderately well sorted sand and reflects fluviatile environment of deposition. The regional groundwater flow direction is from east to west. Detailed geochemical investigations of 40 groundwater samples along with statistical analysis (for example, correlation and principal component analysis) on these chemical data reveal: (i) four types of groundwater quality, for example, good, poor, very poor and water unsuitable for drinking purpose, (ii) four hydrochemical facies which may be assigned to three broad types such as “fresh”, “blended”, and “brackish” waters, (iii) the evolution of the “blended” water is possibly due to hydraulic mixing of “fresh” and “brackish” waters within the aquifer matrix and/or in well mixing, and (iv) absence of Na Cl facies indicates continuous flushing of the aquifer.

  19. Assessment of groundwater quality from Bankura I and II Blocks, Bankura District, West Bengal, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nag, S. K.; Das, Shreya

    2017-02-01

    Hydrochemical evaluation of groundwater has been conducted in Bankura I and II Blocks to analyze and determining groundwater quality in the area. Thirty-six groundwater samples were analyzed for their physical and chemical properties using standard laboratory methods. The constituents have the following ranges in the water: pH 6.4-8.6, electrical conductivity 80-1900 μS/cm, total hardness 30-730 mg/l, TDS 48-1001 mg/l, Ca2+ 4.2-222.6 mg/l, Na+ 2.33-103.33 mg/l, Mg2+ 1.56-115.36 mg/l, K+ 0.67-14 mg/l and Fe BDL-2.53 mg/l, HCO3^{ - } 48.8-1000.4 mg/l, Cl- 5.6-459.86 mg/l and SO4^{ = } BDL-99.03 mg/l. Results also show that bicarbonate ions ( HCO3^{ - } ) dominate the other anions (Cl- and SO4^{2 - } ). Sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), soluble sodium percentage (SSP), residual sodium carbonate (RSC), magnesium adsorption ratio (MAR), total hardness (TH), and permeability index (PI) were calculated as derived parameters, to investigate the ionic toxicity. Concerned chemical parameters when plotted in the U.S. Salinity diagram indicate that waters are of C1-S1, C2-S1 and C3-S1 types, i.e., low salinity and low sodium which is good for irrigation. The values of Sodium Adsorption Ratio indicate that the groundwater of the area falls under the category of low sodium hazard. So, there is neither salinity nor toxicity problem of irrigation water, and hence the ground water can safely be used for long-term irrigation. The chemical parameters when plotted in Piper's trilinear diagram are found to concentrate in the central and west central part of the diamond-shaped field. Based on the analytical results, groundwater in the area is found to be generally fresh and hard to very hard. The abundance of the major ions is as follows: HCO3 > Cl > SO4 and Ca > Na > Mg > K > Fe. Results also show that bicarbonate ions ( HCO3^{ - } ) dominate the other anions (Cl- and SO4^{2 - } ). According to Gibbs diagrams samples fall in the rock dominance field and the chemical quality of

  20. Studies on reproductive biology of Mystus tengara (Ham.-Buch., 1822, a freshwater catfish of West Bengal, India

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    Sandipan Gupta

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Studies on reproductive biology are essential to assess culture potential of a fish species. Mystus tengara is a popular food fish as well as preferred as an ornamental fish in West Bengal. Till date detailed report on reproductive biology of this fish species in the agro-climatic context of West Bengal is lacking. Therefore, the present work was aimed to study the detailed reproductive biology of Mystus tengara with an emphasis on sex ratio, length at first sexual maturity, cycle of gonadal maturation and spawning periodicity using standard methods. Results of the study revealed female dominance of the species over male in the population. However, the males showed earlier maturation than females. Five gonadal maturity stages namely immature, maturing, mature, ripe and spent were identified both for female and male fishes. Monthly study of gonadosomatic index (GSI, condition factor and mean ova diameter revealed that the breeding season for this fish species extended from May to September with a single spawning month in July. Total spawning behaviour along with synchronous oocytes development was also observed in this fish species.

  1. Avian influenza surveillance reveals presence of low pathogenic avian influenza viruses in poultry during 2009-2011 in the West Bengal State, India

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    Pawar Shailesh D

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction More than 70 outbreaks of the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI H5N1 have been reported in poultry in the western and north-eastern parts of India. Therefore, in view of the recent HPAI H5N1 outbreaks in poultry, active AI surveillance encompassing wild, resident, migratory birds and poultry was undertaken during 2009–2011 in the State of West Bengal. Methods A total of 5722 samples were collected from West Bengal; 3522 samples (2906 fecal droppings + 616 other environmental samples were from migratory birds and 2200 samples [1604 tracheal, cloacal swabs, environmental samples, tissue samples + 596 blood (serum] were from domestic ducks and poultry. All tracheal, cloacal and environmental samples were processed for virus isolation. Virus isolates were detected using hemagglutination assay and identified using hemagglutination inhibition (HI and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR assays. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of partial region of the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes was done. Intravenous pathogenicity index assays were performed in chickens to assess pathogenicity of AI virus isolates. Serum samples were tested for detection of antibodies against AI viruses using HI assay. Results A total of 57 AI H9N2, 15 AI H4N6 and 15 Newcastle Disease (NDV viruses were isolated from chickens, from both backyard and wet poultry markets; AI H4N6 viruses were isolated from backyard chickens and domestic ducks. Characterization of AI H9N2 and H4N6 viruses revealed that they were of low pathogenicity. Domestic ducks were positive for antibodies against H5 and H7 viruses while chickens were positive for presence of antibodies against AI H9N2 and NDV. Conclusions In the current scenario of HPAI H5N1 outbreaks in West Bengal, this report shows presence of low pathogenic AI H9N2 and H4N6 viruses in chickens and domestic ducks during the period 2009–2011. This is the first report of

  2. Phylogenetic analysis of env, gag, and tat genes of HIV type 1 detected among the injecting drug users in West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullick, Ranajoy; Sengupta, Satarupa; Sarkar, Kamalesh; Saha, M K; Chakrabarti, Sekhar

    2006-12-01

    A recent occurrence of HIV-1 seropositivity among a group of injecting drug users (IDUs) in Darjeeling, a hilly district in northern West Bengal, revealed overall 11.8% HIV seroprevalence. Our study based on env (C2-V3), gag (p24-p7), and tat (exon-1) genomic regions of HIV-1 detected among this population showed that Darjeeling IDU sequences belonged to subtype C. Interestingly, the IDU sequences from Darjeeling were again found to be closer to the C strains from Manipur, a northeastern state in India, which is linked to the Golden Triangle via the Manipur-Myanmar border, rather than the IDU C sequences from Nepal, a neighboring country of India. The outgroup reference strains from different sites of IDU-driven epidemics in the world like Russia, Vietnam, Thailand, and Spain belonged to the nonsubtype C group and formed separate clusters from the subtype C cluster in our analysis. These results indicate a rapid spread of HIV-1 by possible drug trafficking along international boundaries, which might also help in the invasion of HIV-1 among IDUs of Darjeeling through the Manipur-Myanmar border of India.

  3. An ergonomic study on teenage girls working in the manual brick manufacturing units in the unorganized sectors in West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Subhashis; Sett, Moumita; Gangopadhyay, Somnath

    2010-06-01

    There are laws which protect and prevent the teenage girls from working. But still in the developing countries like India, Bangladesh, etc. teenage girls coming from low socio-economic background work, to add to the family income. There is dearth of data regarding the ergonomic studies of the teenage girls working in the manual brick manufacturing units of the unorganized sectors in India. Therefore, a field study was conducted in about four brick manufacturing units of West Bengal, India. Their job in these fields was to carry 8-10 unbaked and sun-dried bricks (49.11 +/- 2.13 Kg) from the brick field to the kiln-top and again carry the baked bricks back from the kiln to some other corner of the brick field, under the hot sun. Thus, this study aimed at evaluating their work load and their consequent work-related health effects. Results show that 86 % of them suffered from work-related pain in different body parts and there was an increase in their physiological and psychological parameters after work. It is concluded that the frequent use of awkward postures while at work (OWAS) and performing heavy to moderate types of tasks in the field are deteriorating their health conditions.

  4. Adherence to anti-retroviral therapy & factors associated with it: A community based cross-sectional study from West Bengal, India

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    Sobha Pahari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Failure to adhere to anti-retroviral therapy (ART can lead to a range of unfavourable consequences impacting upon people living with HIV (PLH and society. It is, therefore, paramount that ART adherence is measured in a reliable manner and factors associated with adherence are identified. Lack of such data from West Bengal necessitated undertaking the current study. Methods: Participants were included during August-October, 2011 from three Drop-In-Centres (DICs from the three districts of West Bengal, India. ART-adherence was calculated by using formula based on pill-count and records collected from ART-card in possession of each of the 128 consenting adult PLH. Information on self-reported adherence, socio-demography, and adherence influencing issues was also collected through interviewer-administered questionnaire. Results: Of the 128 PLH, 99 (77% and 93 (73% PLH had ≥90 per cent and ≥95 per cent adherence, respectively to ART. Conversely, subjective reporting captured much higher proportion of PLH as ′well adherent′; a finding having implications for ongoing ART programme. Factors, independently associated with poor adherence (<90%, were ′7 th to 12 th month period of ART intake′ (adjusted OR=9.5; 90% CI 1.9 - 47.3; p0 =0.02 and ′non-disclosure of HIV status to family members′ (adjusted OR=4; 90% CI 1.3 - 13; P=0.05. Results at 95 per cent adherence cut-off were similar. Interpretation & conclusions: Enabling environment, which would encourage people to disclose their HIV status and in turn seek adherence partners from families and beyond and ongoing adherence-counselling appear to be important issues in the programme. Relevance of these study findings in wider context is conceivable.

  5. Assessment of hematological profiles of adult male athletes from two different air pollutant zones of West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Paulomi; Chatterjee, Pinaki

    2015-01-01

    Health effects from air pollution are severe concern of today's world. The study was undertaken to assess the effects of air pollution on hematological profiles of trained and untrained males of West Bengal. The sample consisted of 60 sprinters, 60 footballers, and 120 untrained males, subdivided into two groups from two zones, namely, Tollygunge and Sonarpur. Suspended particulate matter (SPM), respirable particulate matter (RPM), oxides of sulfur (SOx), and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) of ambient air were monitored for both zones. Height and weight of all the subjects were measured. Venous blood sample was drawn from the cubital vein, and the red blood cell count (TC), packed cell volume (PCV), hemoglobin (Hb) concentration, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) were determined by standard methods. Results revealed that SPM, RPM, SOx, and NOx concentrations were significantly higher in the Tollygunge area than Sonarpur. TC, PCV, and Hb concentration of untrained males were significantly higher than footballers in both regions but no significant difference were observed when compared with sprinters, except the Hb concentration in the Tollygunge zone. On the other hand, all hematological parameters of both trained and untrained males were significantly higher in the Sonarpur area than Tollygunge. It was concluded that environmental air pollutants might influence hematological profile adversely both in trained and sedentary males. However, further investigation in this area is needed.

  6. TECHNICAL EFFICIENCY IN AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION AND ACCESS TO CREDIT IN WEST BENGAL, INDIA: A STOCHASTIC FRONTIER APPROACH

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    Arindam Laha

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Access to credit significantly influences land leasing decisions, and thus ultimately has a significant implication on ensuring efficiency in agricultural production. This paper attempts to examine the instrumental role of credit in ensuring efficiency in the context of West Bengal agriculture by disaggregating the analysis for two mutually exclusive groups: bank customers and non-bank customers. Empirical analysis based on Stochastic Frontier Analysis confirms that farming households having access to formal credit are, in general, practicing cultivation more efficiently by channelizing credit in the utilization of agricultural inputs. In addition, contractual arrangements and operated farm size are found to be significant determinants of observed variation of technical efficiency estimates in case of bank customers. In the context of higher probability of access to credit in case of fixed rent tenants and large farmers, it can be argued that farmers having access to credit achieved a higher efficiency level by adopting the improved technology in agricultural production. Thus an access to institutional credit would provide an incentive to the farmers to adjust the operational land by the mechanism of tenurial contract so as to bring about efficiency in agricultural production.

  7. Determinants of smoking and chewing habits among rural school children in Bankura district of West Bengal, India

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    Naba Kumar Das

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The present study was undertaken to assess the prevalence of smoking and chewing habits and causes of addiction among the school children of rural areas.Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in four secondary schools from rural areas of Bankura District, West Bengal during August 2012 to September 2012. Total 1674 students studying in 5th to 10th standard (age group of 10-15 years were enrolled in the present study. A self-administered questionnaire was applied for data collection.Results The study showed that 18.45%, 27.95% and 67.56% of the students were smokers, chewer and non-addicted, respectively. Considerable number of boys were addicted with smoking (boys 32.3% vs. 4.33girls % and chewing habits (boys 43.53% vs 12.15girls %. In case of boys, these habits were increased with advancement of ages. Students were more attracted to bidi and tobacco with pan-masala among different types of smoking and chewing agents. The most familiar reasons for tobacco user were: influenced by friends (22.88%, influenced by family members (16.32% and stress relief (10.88%. Conclusion This study indicated that smoking and chewing habits among school children in rural areas is looming public health issue. Adverse health effect of tobacco use may be incorporated in school secondary curriculum to change the attraction with tobacco among the young generation.

  8. Comparative evaluation of essential fatty acid composition of mothers' milk of some urban and suburban regions of West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Susmita; Dhar, Pubali; Ghosh, Santinath

    2012-12-01

    This study investigated the fatty acid composition of lipid present in breast milk of mothers residing in urban and suburban regions of West Bengal with special emphasis on n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, which played a crucial role in the growth and development of neonates. Milk samples collected from 135 mothers of middle income group (average monthly income around 'Rs 10,000/-') were analysed by gas liquid chromatography after extraction and transmethylation to determine fatty acid composition. Information about the dietary intake of individual mothers was obtained through food frequency questionnaire. The fractions of n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids available in milk of urban mothers were 13.59 ± 0.94 and 3.65 ± 0.49, respectively, and in suburban mothers 12.74 ± 0.89 and 4.36 ± 0.39, respectively. The green leafy vegetables, fishes and vegetable oils were the major sources of essential fatty acids in the diet of the experimental groups of Bengali mothers. This study revealed a relationship between the alimentary habits of mothers and the concentration of essential fatty acids in breast milk of Bengali mothers.

  9. Arsenic contamination in sesame and possible mitigation through organic interventions in the lower Gangetic Plain of West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Bishwajit; Bhattacharyya, Kallol; Giri, Pradip K; Sarkar, Supradip

    2011-12-01

    The widespread geogenic arsenic contamination of groundwater in the Gangetic Delta of West Bengal, leading to toxicities through the food chain-principally through irrigated rice-drew due attention from researchers. Oilseeds such as sesame might be a remunerative alternative to rice and can be grown with small quantities of contaminated groundwater. The present study was conducted to explore the efficiency of organic matter in reducing arsenic accumulation in sesame. Accumulation of total arsenic in sesame seed and available arsenic in post-harvest soils varied from 0.08 to 0.58 mg kg(-1) and from 3.87 to 8.89 kg ha(-1) , respectively. The organic manures added as soil amendment significantly reduced the accumulation (concentration) of arsenic in sesame seed to a maximum extent of 65.5% (vermicompost), 50% (phosphocompost), 42% (mustard cake) and 40% (farmyard manure (FYM)) compared with the control counterpart. The risk associated with dietary exposure to arsenic-contaminated sesame oil reached a value of 15.55% of provisional tolerable weekly intake for arsenic at the maximum accumulation of arsenic in sesame oil. Substantial accumulation of arsenic in the soil-plant system was found. Risks of exposure to arsenic-contaminated oil remained considerably high. Irrigation through surface water and organic amendments both significantly reduced arsenic accumulation in sesame. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Goiter prevalence, urinary iodine, and salt iodization level in sub-Himalayan Darjeeling district of West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Akhil Bandhu; Das, Dilip Kumar; Chakraborty, Indranil; Biswas, Asit Kumar; Sharma, Puran Kumar; Biswas, Romy

    2014-01-01

    National iodine deficiency disorders control program needs to be continuously monitored. Hence, a cross-sectional study was conducted during the period from April-May 2011 to assess the prevalence of goiter, status of urinary iodine excretion (UIE) level and to estimate iodine content of salts at the household level in Darjeeling district, West Bengal. Study subjects were 2400 school children, aged 8-10 years selected through "30 cluster" sampling methodology. Goiter was assessed by standard palpation technique, UIE was estimated by wet digestion method and salt samples were tested by spot iodine testing kit. Overall goiter prevalence rate was 8.7% (95% confidence intervals = 7.6-9.8) and goiter prevalence was significantly different with respect to gender. Median UIE level was 15.6 mcg/dL (normal range: 10-20 mcg/dL). About 92.6% of the salt samples tested had adequate iodine content of ≥15 ppm. Findings of the present study indicate that the district is in a transition phase from iodine-deficiency to iodine sufficiency.

  11. Local Sustainable Energy Assessment of Uttarakhand and West Bengal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jan; Lund, Søren

    The publication reports a sustainable energy assessment at the local project site of the HighARCS project in Nainital, Uttarakhand and Buxa, West Bengal, India. The assessment has been made as a contribution to the elaboration of biodiversity conservation and livelihoods improvement action plans....... It proposes an energy assessment methodology and planning procedure. An assessment is made for each of the two local areas on the basis of data collected during a field visit in Sept 2010...

  12. The prevalence and characterization of β-thalassemia trait by using high-performance liquid chromatography among the rural population in West Bengal, India

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    Suman K. Maji

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Hemoglobinopathies, common genetic disorders of hemoglobin, can be prevented by population screening and genetic counseling. Identification of these disorders is immensely important epidemiologically and aid in prevention of more serious hemoglobin disorders. Thalassemia is the commonest monogenic disorder in India, which belongs to the thalassemia belt of the world. The present study was undertaken to find out the characteristics of β-thalassemia trait and spectrum of this disorder among the rural population, screened under the hospital-based screening program in West Bengal, a state in eastern part of India. This study was carried out in school and college students, newly married couples and pregnant women after proper counseling in the rural areas of five southern districts of this state. Blood samples were tested by high-performance liquid chromatography. Total 1429 β-thalassemia traits were detected by random screening from this population. The mean value of HbA2 of the study population, having β-thalassemia trait is 4.9%. The prevalence (10.5% of β-thalassemia trait in West Bengal is higher than other parts of the country. These data are likely to help us in future planning for screening programmes in rural areas of West Bengal, India.  血红蛋白病——常见的血红蛋白遗传疾病,是可以通过人口筛查和遗传咨询的方法来预防的。鉴定此种疾病,对于其传播性及预防其导致的更加严重的血红蛋白疾患有非常重大的意义。印度所处世界地中海贫血带,地中海贫血在印度是最常见的单基因疾病。本研究的目的是通过医院筛查程序来研究印度西孟买邦农村人口有关β-地中海贫血症频谱和特征。该研究在印度南部的五个农村地区进行,研究对象是接受过相关咨询后的在校生,大学生,新婚夫妇和孕妇。血液样本通过高效液相色谱法检测。总计1429例带有β-地中海贫血症特质的

  13. Spatial distribution & physicochemical characterization of the breeding habitats of Aedes aegypti in & around Kolkata, West Bengal, India

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    Soumendranath Chatterjee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Dengue infection is endemic in several areas and the dengue virus is transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. Thus, it becomes important to understand the breeding ecology of dengue vector and characterize the physicochemical parameters of its breeding habitat. The objective of this study was to analyze the physicochemical parameters of the breeding habitat of the dengue vector and to find out the nutrient composition of the habitat in and around Kolkata, West Bengal. In addition, a geographic information system (GIS was used to map the disease prone areas for its effective management and prevention. Methods: Water samples were collected from various breeding habitats of Aedes mosquitoes of Kolkata and adjoining areas and were analysed for various physicochemical properties like acidity, alkalinity, hardness, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, concentration of chloride (Cl - , sodium (Na + , potassium (K + , fluoride (F - in relation to larval prevalence. Results: Parameters like water pH, total dissolved solids, total hardness, electrical conductivity, concentration of chloride, sodium and potassium were seen to vary throughout the year. Certain parameters were found to be dependent on container type, like concentration of fluoride. Significant positive correlations were seen between per dip larval density and total dissolved solids (TDS and electrical conductivity. Interpretation & conclusions: Water pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids were seen to play a major role in the ovipositional preferences. Container type did not seem to affect TDS. Tyres had the highest TDS in most of the cases. Nutrient composition like sodium concentration was mostly found in the coconut shells, potassium concentration also showed the same. Thus, container type and various parameters and nutrients play a major role in determining where a gravid female mosquito will lay its eggs. It was observed that by altering various

  14. A study to investigate fluoride contamination and fluoride exposure dose assessment in lateritic zones of West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samal, Alok C; Bhattacharya, Piyal; Mallick, Anusaya; Ali, Md Motakabber; Pyne, Jagadish; Santra, Subhas C

    2015-04-01

    To assess the status of severity of fluoride contamination in lateritic Bankura and Purulia districts of West Bengal, concentrations of fluoride in different water sources and agricultural field soils were investigated. The fluoride content (mg/l) was observed to differ with aquifer depths: 0.19-0.47 in dug wells, 0.01-0.17 in shallow tube wells, and 0.07-1.6 in deep tube wells. Fluoride within the World Health Organization (WHO) prescribed range (1.0-1.5 mg/l) was estimated only in ~17% of the total collected water samples while ~67% showed fluoride and thus may impede in the production and maintenance of healthy teeth and bones of the residents, especially children. Fluoride in water was found to be significantly correlated (r = 0.63) with pH. The exposure dose of fluoride (mg/kg/day) from drinking water in infants, children, and adults was estimated in the ranges 0.02-0.53, 0.01-0.24, and 0.01-0.14, respectively against the standard value of 0.05. A clear risk of dental fluorosis is apparent in infants and children of the study area. The fluoride in soil (55-399 mg/kg) was detected to be significantly correlated with the fluoride content in deep tube wells and soil pH (r = 0.56 and 0.71, respectively). The relationships of soil fluoride with total hardness and that with phosphate were not significant. There is a high possibility of bioaccumulation of fluoride from contaminated soil and water of the study area to cultivated crops. This will enhance the quantity of fluoride intake into human food chain in addition to drinking water pathway.

  15. A comprehensive screening program for β-thalassemia and other hemoglobinopathies in the Hooghly District of West Bengal, India, dealing with 21 137 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Kallol Kumar; Chatterjee, Tridip; Mondal, Ujjalendu Bikash

    2016-11-01

    We here present a report of population screening programs (January 2012-December 2015) conducted by the Thalassemia Control Unit, Imambara Sadar Hospital, Chinsurah, Hooghly in the Hooghly District of West Bengal, India for prevention of thalassemia. We screened β-thalassemia (β-thal) heterozygotes and homozygotes, and Hb E (HBB: c.79G > A)-β-thal compound heterozygotes. Among 21 137 cases, we found 1968 heterozygotes and 192 homozygotes or compound heterozygotes. Results were evaluated with standard hematological analyses including red cell indices, hemoglobin (Hb) typing and quantification. The participants of the screening program were divided into six groups (children, pre-marriage cases, post-marital cases, family members of affected individuals, family members of carriers and pregnant women). While considering the average frequency of carriers, many reports recorded both related individuals (family members of trait and affected individuals) as well as unrelated individuals such as school children and pregnant women. These would have to be considered separately and only the unrelated individuals taken to estimate carrier frequencies in this article that would give more realistic data on carrier frequency of unrelated individuals.

  16. An assessment of QOL and its determining factors of post menopausal women in a rural area of West Bengal, India: A multivariate analysis

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    Sudeshna Ray

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim was to assess QOL and its determining factors among postmenopausal women of a rural area of West- Bengal in India. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 315 postmenopausal women and the data were collected using the modified menopause quality of life questionnaire of Hilditch. (Hilditch MENQOL. Results: Out of the 315 women who have been interviewed 243 (77% had poor quality of life. Multivariate analysis revealed that poor QOL was more among those who did not live with their own children [AOR (95% C.I. 4.26 (2.1–8.6], did not undertake regular exercise, [AOR (95% C.I. 2.88 (1.38–6.03], were literate [AOR (95% C.I. 2.5 (1.13–4.8], were monetarily dependent on their children [AOR (95% C.I. 2.5 (1.32–4.88], not living under one roof with children [AOR (95% C.I. 4.26 (2.1–8.6] and had attained menopause >5 years. [AOR (95% C.I. 4.82 (2.47–9.41]. Conclusion: Different stakeholders are required to mobilize the post-menopausal women through IEC activities to cope up with the stress of the post-menopausal phase and acquire a better quality of life beyond their reproductive age.

  17. Impact of reduction dose, time and method of application of chemical fertilizer on mung bean under old alluvial soil, West Bengal, India

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    Naba Kumar Mondal

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Field experiments were conducted with mung bean (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek consecutively for three years (2009, 2010, and 2011 in the Crop Research and Seed Multiplication Farm, Burdwan University, West Bengal, India. In the first two years, varietals screening of mung bean under recommended dose of chemical fertilizer (20:40:20 were performed with five varieties with a local variety of mung bean during February to May of 2009. In the second year, one experiment was conducted with six different reduced dose of chemical fertilizer. In the third year, five different method and time of application of biofertilizer were applied to study the effects on agronomic traits and growth attributes of mung bean. The variety PDM-54 a significant higher seed yield along with other yield contributing factors, which was found to be superior to other varieties. In 2010, seed yield was found to be the best for 30% less nitrogenous and 25% less phosphate fertilizer along with recommended dose of chemical fertilizer. In 2011, the best yield was given by the treatment of basal @ 0.75 kg ha-1 + 1.5 kg ha-1 soil application after 21 days + 0.75 kg ha-1 as soil application + best dose of previous year.

  18. Characterization of fluoride-tolerant halophilic Bacillus flexus NM25 (HQ875778) isolated from fluoride-affected soil in Birbhum District, West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Kartick Chandra; Mondal, Naba Kumar; Chatterjee, Soumendranath; Ghosh, Tuhin Subhra; Datta, Jayanta Kumar

    2014-02-01

    A new Gram-positive, nonpigmented, rod-shaped fluoride-tolerant bacterial strain, NM25, was isolated from waterlogged muddy field soil collected from the fluoride endemic area of Rampurhat II block (average fluoride in water, 4.7 mg/l, and in soil, 1.5 mg/kg) in Birbhum District, West Bengal, India. The study was undertaken to characterize the fluoride-tolerant bacterial isolate, to determine its role in bioaccumulation of fluoride, and to analyze the water and soil quality of the bacterial environment. The isolate was positive for catalase, lipase, urease, protease, oxidase, and H2S production, but negative for indole production, nitrate reduction, and Vogues-Proskauer test. The organisms were sensitive to recommended doses of ofloxacin, kanamycin, rifampicin, levofloxacin, vancomycin, gatifloxacin, gentamicin, doxycycline, streptomycin, and nalidixic acid but resistant to ampicillin. Based on the phenotypic characteristics, 16S rRNA gene sequence, and phylogenetic analysis, the bacterial isolate NM25 was identified as Bacillus flexus. The G+C content of the 16S rDNA was 53.14 mol%. This strain tolerated up to 20% (w/v) NaCl in nutrient agar medium and was grown at the pH range 4-12. It reduced fluoride concentration up to 67.45% and tolerated more than 1,500 ppm of fluoride in brain-heart infusion agar medium.

  19. Groundwater assessment in Salboni Block, West Bengal (India) using remote sensing, geographical information system and multi-criteria decision analysis techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Madan K.; Chowdary, V. M.; Chowdhury, Alivia

    2010-11-01

    An approach is presented for the evaluation of groundwater potential using remote sensing, geographic information system, geoelectrical, and multi-criteria decision analysis techniques. The approach divides the available hydrologic and hydrogeologic data into two groups, exogenous (hydrologic) and endogenous (subsurface). A case study in Salboni Block, West Bengal (India), uses six thematic layers of exogenous parameters and four thematic layers of endogenous parameters. These thematic layers and their features were assigned suitable weights which were normalized by analytic hierarchy process and eigenvector techniques. The layers were then integrated using ArcGIS software to generate two groundwater potential maps. The hydrologic parameters-based groundwater potential zone map indicated that the `good' groundwater potential zone covers 27.14% of the area, the `moderate' zone 45.33%, and the `poor' zone 27.53%. A comparison of this map with the groundwater potential map based on subsurface parameters revealed that the hydrologic parameters-based map accurately delineates groundwater potential zones in about 59% of the area, and hence it is dependable to a certain extent. More than 80% of the study area has moderate-to-poor groundwater potential, which necessitates efficient groundwater management for long-term water security. Overall, the integrated technique is useful for the assessment of groundwater resources at a basin or sub-basin scale.

  20. Bioavailability of iodine and hardness (magnesium and calcium salt) in drinking water in the etiology of endemic goitre in Sundarban delta of West Bengal (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Amar K; Tripathy, Smritiratan; Debnath, Arijit; Ghosh, Dishari

    2007-04-01

    Endemic goitre has been reported from the ecologically diverse Sundarban delta of West Bengal (India). To study the etiological factors for the persistence of endemic goitre, bioavailability of iodine and hardness of water used for drinking in the region were evaluated because these common environmental factors are inversely and directly related with goitre prevalence in several geographical regions. For the present study from 19 Community Development Blocks of Sundarban delta, 19 areas were selected at random. From each area at least 8 drinking water samples were collected and analyzed for iodine and the hardness (calcium and magnesium salt content). Iodine content in the drinking water samples was found in the range from 21 to 119 mg/L and total hardness of drinking water was found to range from 50 to 480 ppm. Presence of magnesium salt was found higher than the calcium salts in most of the samples. These findings suggest that the entire delta region is environmentally iodine sufficient but water is relatively hard and thus possibility of hardness of water for the persistence of endemic goitre may not be ruled out.

  1. Evaluation of regional fracture properties for groundwater development using hydrolithostructural domain approach in variably fractured hard rocks of Purulia district, West Bengal, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Tapas Acharya; Rajesh Prasad; S Chakrabarti

    2014-04-01

    Estimation of geohydrologic properties of fractured aquifers in hard crystalline and/or metamorphosed country rocks is a challenge due to the complex nature of secondary porosity that is caused by differential fracturing. Hydrologic potentiality of such aquifers may be assessed if the geological controls governing the spatial distribution of these fracture systems are computed using a software-based model. As an exemplar, the Precambrian metamorphics exposed in and around the Balarampur town of Purulia district, West Bengal (India) were studied to find out the spatial pattern and consistency of such fracture systems. Surfer and Statistica softwares were used to characterize these rock masses in terms of hydrological, structural and lithological domains. The technique is based on the use of hydraulically significant fracture properties to generate representative modal and coefficient of variance () of fracture datasets of each domain. The is interpreted to obtain the spatial variability of hydraulically significant fracture properties that, in turn, define and identify the corresponding hydrolithostructural domains. The groundwater flow estimated from such a technique is verified with the routine hydrological studies to validate the procedure. It is suggested that the hydrolithostructural domain approach is a useful alternative for evaluation of fracture properties and aquifer potentiality, and development of a regional groundwater model thereof.

  2. A first note on Japanese encephalitis virus isolation from Culex quinquefasciatus Say in Northern West Bengal.

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    V. Thenmozhi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Japanese encephalitis (JE is endemic in many parts of India including the state of West Bengal. In West Bengal, the first major outbreaks of JE occurred in the districts of Bankura and Burdwan in 1973. The Culex vishnui subgroup of mosquitoes has been implicated as major vectors of JE. However in India, JE virus (JEV has been isolated from 16 species of mosquitoes. During September 2011, JE cases were reported from four districts -Jalpaiguri, Darjeeling, Dinajpur and Cooch Behar of West Bengal (North. Adult mosquitoes were collected, identified, pooled and screened for JEV using antigen capture ELISA. Out of 279 mosquito pools tested, one pool of Cx. pseudovishnui and three pools of Cx. quinquefasciatus were found positive for JEV. The ELISA positive pools were further confirmed as JEV by insect bioassay (Toxo-IFA. Two pools of Cx. quinquefasciatus were confirmed as JEV. This represents the first report of JEV isolation from Cx. quinquefasciatus in West Bengal.

  3. Evolution of community-based arsenic removal systems in remote villages in West Bengal, India: assessment of decade-long operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Sudipta; Greenleaf, John E; Gupta, Anirban; Ghosh, Debabrata; Blaney, Lee M; Bandyopadhyay, P; Biswas, R K; Dutta, Amal K; Sengupta, Arup K

    2010-11-01

    In Bangladesh and the neighboring state of West Bengal, India, over 100 million people are affected by widespread arsenic poisoning through drinking water drawn from underground sources containing arsenic at concentrations well above the permissible limit of 50 μg/L. The health effects caused by arsenic poisoning in this area is as catastrophic as any other natural calamity that occurred throughout the world in recent times. Since 1997, over 200 community level arsenic removal units have been installed in Indian subcontinent through collaboration between Bengal Engineering and Science University (BESU), India and Lehigh University, USA. Approximately 200,000 villagers collect arsenic-safe potable water from these units on a daily basis. The treated water is also safe for drinking with regard to its total dissolved solids, hardness, iron and manganese content. The units use regenerable arsenic-selective adsorbents. Regular maintenance and upkeep of the units is administered by the villagers through formation of villagers' water committee. The villagers contribute towards the cost of operation through collection of a small water tariff. Upon exhaustion, the adsorbents are regenerated in a central facility by a few trained villagers. The process of regeneration reduces the volume of disposable arsenic-laden solids by nearly two orders of magnitude and allows for the reuse of the adsorbent material. Finally, the arsenic-laden solids are contained on well-aerated coarse sand filters with minimum arsenic leaching. This disposal technique is scientifically more appropriate than dumping arsenic-loaded adsorbents in the reducing environment of landfills as currently practiced in developed countries including the United States. The design of the units underwent several modifications over last ten years to enhance the efficiency in terms of arsenic removal, ease of maintenance and ecologically safe containment and disposal of treatment residuals. The continued safe operation

  4. Ovarian tumors in pediatric age group - A clinicopathologic study of 10 years′ cases in West Bengal, India

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    Bhattacharyya Nirmal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Objective in this retrospective study is to find out the incidence of different ovarian tumors of girls up to 20 years of age observed in last ten years in North Bengal Medical College and to correlate clinical and gross findings with histopathologic findings and to compare the incidence with other studies and follow-up of patients with malignant ovarian tumors. Materials and Methods: Findings were retrieved from records of different pathological reports and clinical reports. Results: Total 151 cases of ovarian tumors were received in pathology department in which 34 cases were malignant (22.6%. Amongst malignant cases, 66% are of germ-cell origin-dysgerminoma being the commonest. Strikingly we got 9 cases of malignant surface epithelial tumor. As per follow-up records most of the dysgerminoma came in stage IA and recovered fully following chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Amongst other malignant tumors, few lost the follow-up management and others expired due to metastasis. Conclusions: Patients from hilly areas of North Bengal and low socio-economic status led to lower detection rate of ovarian tumors in early stage which are absolutely necessary for proper guidelines of management to reduce mortality.

  5. Isolation and characterization of BoHV-1 from seropositive cows after inducing artificial stress in West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Tapabrata; Guha, Chanchal; Chakraborty, Dhruba; Pal, Biplab; Biswas, Ujjwal; Chatterjee, Amaresh; Koenig, Patricia; Beer, Martin

    2013-08-01

    Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (BoHV-1) is the most important emerging disease of cattle in India. With an aim to reactivate BoHV-1 from latently infected sero-positive cattle for molecular characteristics of the isolates prevalent in tropical and sub-tropical countries like India and further epidemiological investigations on IBR infections this study had been conducted. Artificial stress with dexamethasone at the dose rate of 0.1 mg kg(-1) body weight for 5 consecutive days was induced in BoHV-1 sero-positive cows. Then isolation from nasal swabs was attempted in Madin Darby Bovine Kidney (MDBK) cell line to find out the prevalent strain in India. The virus was isolated from all the three cows. All the three isolates were typed as BoHV-1.2 (Strain India 4, India 5 and India 6). The reactivation obtained in this study with dexamethasone suggests the usefulness of BoHV-1 cow latency model for epidemiological investigations on BoHV-1 infections in tropical and sub-tropical countries like India, Pakistan etc.

  6. Mid-upper arm circumference for age and undernutrition among 2 to 6 year old Bauri and Santal children of Purulia, West Bengal, India

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    Subal Das

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC is one of the simplest and easiest measures for large-scale screening programme for assessing undernutrition, especially among children. MUAC-based nutritional survey is easy to implement at the community level by the health workers or volunteers after minimum training. Methods: The present cross sectional study was done among Bauri and Santal children of Purulia, West Bengal, India. A total of 1013 children (Bauri = 499 and Santal = 514 aged 2-6 years were measured for MUAC. The normalized MUAC for age by z-scores were calculated using LMS method. Results: The age, sex and community specific sample distributions were prepared. Mean MUAC increased with age (except among Santal boys at the age of 6 years. The girls had higher median MUAC than boys at all ages except at 2 years. Prevalence of MUAC-based undernutrition (following WHO was highest at the age of 3 years for boys (61.7 % and girls (36.5 %. Similarly, prevalence of undernutrition was highest (48.6 % and 47.4 % among Santal boys and girls at the age of 6 and 3 years, respectively. Significant sex difference (age combined in prevalence of undernutrition was observed among Bauris (χ2= 20.54, df= 8, p< 0.001 and Santals (χ2= 6.71, p< 0.05. Conclusion: High rate of undernutrition was observed among these children.. Our study clearly revealed that the median MUAC of children were lower than two standard references at all ages.

  7. Assessment of toxic metals in groundwater and saliva in an arsenic affected area of West Bengal, India: A pilot scale study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhowmick, Subhamoy; Kundu, Amit Kumar; Adhikari, Jishnu; Chatterjee, Debankur; Iglesias, Monica; Nriagu, Jerome; Guha Mazumder, Debendra Nath; Shomar, Basem; Chatterjee, Debashis

    2015-10-01

    Communities in many parts of the world are unintentionally exposed to arsenic (As) and other toxic metals through ingestion of local drinking water and foods. The concentrations of individual toxic metals often exceed their guidelines in drinking water but the health risks associated with such multiple-metal exposures have yet to receive much attention. This study examines the co-occurrence of toxic metals in groundwater samples collected from As-rich areas of Nadia district, West Bengal, India. Arsenic in groundwater (range: 12-1064 µg L(-1); mean ± S.D: 329±294 µg L(-1)) was the most important contaminant with concentrations well above the WHO guideline of 10 µg L(-1). Another important toxic metal in the study area was manganese (Mn) with average concentration of 202±153 µg L(-1), range of 18-604 µg L(-1). The average concentrations (µg L(-1)) of other elements in groundwater were: Cr (5.6±5.9), Mo (3.5±2.1), Ni (8.3±8.7), Pb (2.9±1.3), Ba (119±43), Zn (56±40), Se (0.60±0.33), U (0.50±0.74). Saliva collected from the male participants of the area had mean concentrations of 6.3±7.0 µg As L(-1) (0.70-29 µg L(-1)), 5.4±5.5 µg Mn L(-1) (0.69-22 µg L(-1)), 2.6±3.1 µg Ni L(-1) (0.15-13 µg L(-1)), 0.78±1.0µg Cr L(-1) (metals beside As must be monitored in drinking water before implementation of any policies to provide safe water to the affected communities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Studies on seasonal fluctuation of different indices related to filarial vector,Culex quinquefasciatus around foothills of Susunia of West Bengal, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Manas Paramanik; Goutam Chandra

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To collect information on the seasonal activity of filarial vector around foothills of Susunia of West Bengal, India.Methods: Indoor-resting mosquitoes were collected from the human habitations of16 villages. Collected mosquitoes were identified and examined for different parameters following standard methods recommended by World Health Organization and pioneer workers.Results: Overall man hour density, infection rate, infectivity rate, human blood index and daily mortality rate of the vector were assessed as10.54%, 6.31%, 1.38%, 77.33% and13.00%, respectively, which were12.17%, 8.63%, 2.26%, 100.00% and17.00%, respectively in the summer season. Average load of microfilaria,1st stage,2nd stage and3rd stage larvae ofWuchereria bancrofti in infected vectors were10.02, 7.50, 5.56 and4.68, respectively, which were11.58, 9.90, 6.27and5.44, respectively in summer. Among the searched shelters 63.37%, 8.16% and2.08% were found to be invaded by any vector, infected vector and infective vector, respectively, which were68.75%,12.76% and3.91%, respectively in summer.Conclusions: Different indices related to the vector were much higher in summer, which indicates that, summer is the most favorable season for transmission of lymphatic filariasis in the study area. Available data will help to formulate an effective vector control measure.

  9. A study on utilization of Janani Suraksha Yojana and its association with institutional delivery in the state of West Bengal, India

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    Dipta K Mukhopadhyay

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: India launched the Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY on the principles of conditional cash transfer providing monetary incentive to needy women to improve access to institutional childbirth. Objectives: This study was conducted among JSY-eligible women who delivered between April 2012 and June 2012 to assess the utilization of cash incentives toward institutional delivery, along with other associated factors influencing institutional delivery. Methods: It was a cross-sectional, descriptive study conducted between July 2012 and May 2013 on 946 women selected through stratified random sampling of subcentres from better and worse performing districts of West Bengal. Results: 74.7% of the study population was JSY-eligible. 90.2% of those who took three antenatal check-ups (ANCs and 36.8% JSY-noneligible women received cash. Government institutions were preferred for childbirth among all groups irrespective of JSY eligibility, receipt of cash, and number of antenatal visits. Overall, 78.8% opted for institutional delivery if they had received cash, which was significantly more than those who did not (64.5%. JSY-eligible women were 1.5 times more likely to deliver in government institutions compared to JSY-noneligible women. With no incentive, the likelihood of institutional delivery was halved. The distance of a 24 Χ 7 delivery hub beyond 5 km (74.8% vs. 81.8%, the religion of Islam (62.7% vs. 83.2%, and multiparity (63.9% vs. 83.6% were significant deterring factors. Conclusion: Despite some inclusion and exclusion errors, cash incentive under JSY was associated with increased institutional delivery, especially in government institutions though there were other factors influencing the decision as well.

  10. Japanese encephalitis associated acute encephalitis syndrome cases in West Bengal, India: A sero-molecular evaluation in relation to clinico-pathological spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Arindam; Datta, Somenath; Pathak, Bani K; Mukhopadhyay, Subhra K; Chatterjee, Shyamalendu

    2015-08-01

    Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a major public health problem in Asia and worldwide and it is responsible mainly for viral acute encephalitis syndrome (AES). The sole etiologic agent of JE is Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV). Although JE/AES cases have been regarded traditionally as a disease of children, a growing number of patients with JE/AES cases are also seen in the adult age group every year in the state of West Bengal, India in spite of vaccination. Therefore, a systematic study was performed to differentiate and characterize the clinico-pathological parameters and viral diversity among the patients of different age groups. Viral diversity was also evaluated from the JE/AES cases, depending on their disease severity. A total of 441 JE/AES cases were included in this study. By MAC-ELISA, 111 samples were found JEV IgM positive and among the IgM negative cases, 26 samples were found RT-PCR positive against JEV infection. Neck rigidity, abnormal behavior, convulsion, protein in CSF, WBC in CSF, and aspartate transaminase in blood differed significantly among the patients of pediatric-adolescent and adult group in both IgM positive and RT-PCR positive cases. Viral diversity was increased significantly in the pediatric-adolescent group compared to adult patients. Interestingly, with the rise in disease severity the viral diversity was found to be increased among the patients, irrespective of their age distribution. Based on clinico-pathological parameters and analysis of viral diversity, it can be concluded that viral diversity which occurs naturally is likely to affect disease severity, especially in the patients of pediatric-adolescent group. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Fluoride-contaminated groundwater of Birbhum district, West Bengal, India: Interpretation of drinking and irrigation suitability and major geochemical processes using principal component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batabyal, Asit Kumar; Gupta, Srimanta

    2017-08-01

    The present research work is confined to a rural tract located in the north-western part of Birbhum district, West Bengal, India. Chemical analysis of the groundwater shows the cations is in the order of Na(+) > Ca(2+) > Mg(2+) while for anions it is HCO3(─) > Cl(─) > SO4(2─) > NO3(─). The F(─) concentration was found to vary from 0.01 to 18 mg/L in the pre-monsoon and 0.023 to 19 mg/L in post-monsoon period. 86% of samples show low F(─) content (1.2 mg/L) mainly in the central and north-central parts of the study area at a depth of 46 to 98 m. The prime water type is CaHCO3 succeeded by F(─)-rich NaHCO3 and NaCl waters. The suitability analysis reveals that the water at about 81% of the sampling sites is unsuitable for drinking and at 16% of sites unsuitable for irrigation. The alkaline nature of the water and/or elevated concentration of Fe, Mn and F(─) make the water unsuitable for potable purposes while the high F(─) and Na(+) contents delimit the groundwater for irrigation uses. Multivariate statistical analysis suggests that chemical weathering along with ion exchange is the key process, responsible for mobilization of fluoride in groundwater of the study area.

  12. Status of groundwater arsenic contamination in all 17 blocks of Nadia district in the state of West Bengal, India: A 23-year study report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mohammad Mahmudur; Mondal, Debapriya; Das, Bhaskar; Sengupta, Mrinal Kumar; Ahamed, Sad; Hossain, M. Amir; Samal, Alok Chandra; Saha, Kshitish Chandra; Mukherjee, Subhash Chandra; Dutta, Rathindra Nath; Chakraborti, Dipankar

    2014-10-01

    A comprehensive study was conducted in Nadia, one of the nine arsenic (As) affected districts in West Bengal, India to determine the extent and severity of groundwater As contamination and its health effects in particular, dermatological effects and neurological complications. We collected 28,947 hand tube-well water samples from all 17 blocks of Nadia district and analyzed for As by the flow injection-hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometer (FI-HG-AAS). We found 51.4% and 17.3% of the tube-wells had As above 10 and 50 μg/L, respectively and observed that groundwater of all 17 blocks contained As above 50 μg/L with maximum observed level of 3200 μg/L. We estimated that about 2.1 million and 0.6 million people could be drinking As contaminated water above 10 and 50 μg/L, respectively, while 0.048 million could be at risk of drinking As-contaminated water above 300 μg/L, the concentration predicted to cause overt arsenical skin lesions. We screened 15,153 villagers from 50 villages and registered 1077 with arsenical skin lesions resulting in a prevalence rate of 7.1%. Analyzing 2671 biological samples (hair, nail and urine), from people with and without arsenical skin symptoms we found 95% of the samples had As above the normal level, indicating many people in Nadia district are sub-clinically affected. Arsenical neuropathy was observed in 33% of 255 arsenicosis patients with 28.2% prevalence for predominant sensory neuropathy and 4.7% for sensorimotor. As groundwater is still the main source of drinking water, targeting low-As aquifers and switching tube-well from unsafe to nearby safe sources are two visible options to obtain safe drinking water.

  13. Role of phosphate solubilizing Burkholderia spp. for successful colonization and growth promotion of Lycopodium cernuum L. (Lycopodiaceae) in lateritic belt of Birbhum district of West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Ranjan; Barman, Soma; Mukherjee, Rajib; Mandal, Narayan C

    2016-02-01

    Profuse growth of Lycpodium cernuum L. was found in phosphate deficient red lateritic soil of West Bengal, India. Interaction of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza (VAM) with Lycopodium rhizoids were described earlier but association of PGPR with their rhizoids were not studied. Three potent phosphate solubilizing bacterial strains (P4, P9 and P10) associated with L. cernuum rhizoids were isolated and identified by 16S rDNA homologies on Ez-Taxon database as Burkholderia tropica, Burkholderia unamae and Burkholderia cepacia respectively. Day wise kinetics of phosphate solubilization against Ca3(PO4)2 suggested P4 (580.56±13.38 μg ml(-1)) as maximum mineral phosphate solubilizer followed by P9 (517.12±17.15 μg ml(-1)) and P10 (485.18±14.23 μg ml(-1)) at 28 °C. Release of bound phosphates by isolated strains from ferric phosphate (FePO4), aluminum phosphate (AlPO4) and four different complex rock phosphates indicated their very good phosphate solubilizng efficacy. Nitrogen independent solubilizition also supports their nitrogen fixing capabilities. Inhibition of P solubilization by calcium salts and induction by EDTA suggested pH dependent chelation of metal cations by all of the isolates. Rhizoidal colonization potentials of Burkholderia spp. were confirmed by in planta experiment and also using scanning electron microscope (SEM). Increases of total phosphate content in Lycopodium plants upon soil treatment with these isolates were also recorded. In addition siderophore production on CAS agar medium, tryptophan dependent IAA production and antifungal activities against pathogenic fungi by rhizospheric isolates deep-rooted that they have definite role in nutrient mobilization for successful colonization of L. cernuum in nutrient deficient lateritic soil.

  14. Distinct repeat motifs at the C-terminal region of CagA of Helicobacter pylori strains isolated from diseased patients and asymptomatic individuals in West Bengal, India

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    Chattopadhyay Santanu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infection with Helicobacter pylori strains that express CagA is associated with gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, and gastric adenocarcinoma. The biological function of CagA depends on tyrosine phosphorylation by a cellular kinase. The phosphate acceptor tyrosine moiety is present within the EPIYA motif at the C-terminal region of the protein. This region is highly polymorphic due to variations in the number of EPIYA motifs and the polymorphism found in spacer regions among EPIYA motifs. The aim of this study was to analyze the polymorphism at the C-terminal end of CagA and to evaluate its association with the clinical status of the host in West Bengal, India. Results Seventy-seven H. pylori strains isolated from patients with various clinical statuses were used to characterize the C-ternimal polymorphic region of CagA. Our analysis showed that there is no correlation between the previously described CagA types and various disease outcomes in Indian context. Further analyses of different CagA structures revealed that the repeat units in the spacer sequences within the EPIYA motifs are actually more discrete than the previously proposed models of CagA variants. Conclusion Our analyses suggest that EPIYA motifs as well as the spacer sequence units are present as distinct insertions and deletions, which possibly have arisen from extensive recombination events. Moreover, we have identified several new CagA types, which could not be typed by the existing systems and therefore, we have proposed a new typing system. We hypothesize that a cagA gene encoding higher number EPIYA motifs may perhaps have arisen from cagA genes that encode lesser EPIYA motifs by acquisition of DNA segments through recombination events.

  15. Dispersion pattern of petroleum hydrocarbon in coastal water of Bay of Bengal along Odisha and West Bengal, India using geospatial approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panigrahy, P K; Satapathy, D R; Panda, C R; Kar, R N

    2014-12-01

    Petroleum hydrocarbon (PHC) concentration was monitored in water of estuaries, ports, and coastal transects up to 10-km distance in East Coast of India once in every year during 2002-2009. The highest concentration was observed at Haldia port (1.60-20.11 μg/l) due to the impact of hydrocarbon discharges from nearby oil refinery, petrochemical industries, handling of crude oils, etc. The concentration of PHC exhibited relatively higher values during low tide than the high tide in all the four estuaries indicating riverine inputs and land-based discharges, which contribute substantial amounts of PHC to the coastal water. Hoogly estuary recorded higher values of PHC (1.17-18.50 μg/l) due to the influence of industrial wastes, land runoff, and port activities. The spatial distribution of PHC estimated by the kriging method showed a variation in concentration of PHC over the whole region. To discriminate the dispersion pattern of PHC, principal component analysis (PCA) was performed using a correlation matrix.

  16. The profile and treatment outcomes of sputum smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis re-treatment cases, in a district medical college of West Bengal, India

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    Abinash Agarwala

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In a high tuberculosis (TB burden county like India with different regional demography, knowledge about patient profile has a pivotal role in determining and identifying the factors associated with poor treatment outcomes among TB re-treatment cases. Aim: The aim was to describe the demography and clinical characteristics of TB re-treatment cases and to evaluate the factors associated with poor treatment outcomes among those patients. Settings and Design: A prospective longitudinal cohort study was carried out at chest medicine outdoor from February, 2011 to 2014 in a district medical college of West Bengal, India. Materials and Methods: Sputum smear positive re-treatment pulmonary TB patients attending our chest medicine outdoor during the 3 years study period were evaluated for demographic and clinical characteristics on the basis of previous treatment history and records at the beginning of the study. Patients were followed-up during the 8 months treatment period (Category II treatment regimen under Revised National TB Control Program. At the end of the study period, treatment outcomes were analyzed and factors associated with poor treatment outcomes were identified. Statistical Analysis: All variables were described by proportions, and differences between independent groups were compared using the Chi-square test and Fisher′s exact test, as applicable. Results: Among 74 patients, re-treatment was successful in 75.7% of relapse case, 66.7% of loss to follow-up cases and 53.8% of failure cases. Re-treatment failure was higher (38.5% in treatment failure cases compare to relapse cases (10.8% and initial loss to follow-up cases (16.7%. Young age, male, unmarried, employed who work outside appears to be the risk factors for loss to follow-up. Low body mass index, treatment from the private sector, history of alcoholism, radiological cavitory lesion, larger duration of previous treatment, lesser gap from previous treatment has

  17. Development of nested polymerase chain reaction-based diagnosis of duck enteritis virus and detection of DNA polymerase gene from non-descriptive duck breeds of West Bengal, India

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Partha Sarathi Mandal; Sunit Kumar Mukhopadhayay; Saktipada Pradhan; Samiran Mondal; Chandrakanta Jana; Nimai Chandra Patra; Rabindra Nath Hansda

    2017-01-01

    ...) infected eggs, and histopathological changes of chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) in non-descriptive ducks of West Bengal with special reference to standardize nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR...

  18. Influences of groundwater extraction on the distribution of dissolved As in shallow aquifers of West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neidhardt, Harald; Berner, Zsolt; Freikowski, Dominik; Biswas, Ashis; Winter, Josef; Chatterjee, Debashis; Norra, Stefan

    2013-11-15

    Here we report temporal changes of As concentrations in shallow groundwater of the Bengal Delta Plain (BDP). Observed fluctuations are primarily induced by seasonally occurring groundwater movement, but can also be connected to anthropogenic groundwater extraction. Between December 2009 and July 2010, pronounced variations in the groundwater hydrochemistry were recorded in groundwater samples of a shallow monitoring well tapping the aquifer in 22-25 m depth, where Astot concentrations increased within weeks from 100 to 315 μg L(-1). These trends are attributed to a vertically shift of the hydrochemically stratified water column at the beginning of the monsoon season. This naturally occurring effect can be additionally superimposed by groundwater extraction, as demonstrated on a local scale by an in situ experiment simulating extensive groundwater withdrawal during the dry post-monsoon season. Results of this experiment suggest that groundwater extraction promoted an enduring change within the distribution of dissolved As in the local aquifer. Presented outcomes contribute to the discussion of anthropogenic pumping influences that endanger the limited and yet arsenic-free groundwater resources of the BDP.

  19. Plant Remains from an Archaeological Site as Indicators of Vegetation and Agricultural Practice Between (3320±400) and (2080±80) yr BP in Gangetic West Bengal, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ruby Ghosh; Subir Bera; Ashalata D'Rozario; Manju Banerjee; Supriyo Chakraborty

    2006-01-01

    Diverse plant remains recovered from an archaeological site of Chalcolithic-Early Historic age in the Bhairabdanga area of Pakhanna (latitude 23°25′N, longitude 87°23′E), situated on the west bank of the Damodar river, Bankura district, West Bengal, India, include food grains, wood charcoals, and palynomorphs. Radiocarbon dating of the recovered biological remains reveal the age of the site as (3320±400) to (2080±80) yr BP. The food grains were identified as Oryza sativa L. and Vigna mungo L, and seeds of Brassica cf.campestris L. were also found; these indicate the agricultural practice and food habits of the ancient people living at Pakhanna from the Chalcolithic to the Early Historic period. Sediments including plant remains have been broadly divided into two zones, considering archaeological findings and radiocarbon dating. Analysis of the plant remains (i.e. wood charcoals and palynomorphs) in addition to cultivated food grains has revealed that a rich vegetation cover existed in this area, with a prevailing tropical and humid climate,comprising the timber-yielding plants Shorea sp., Terminalia sp., and Tamarindus sp., with undergrowths of diverse shrubs and herbs during the Chalcolithic period (zone Ⅰ) dated (3320±400) yr BP. Comparatively poorer representation and frequency of plant remains indicate a drier climate during the Early Historic period (zone Ⅱ) dated as (2110±340) to (2080±80) yr BP. Comparisons of the archaeobotanical data recovered from the Chalcolithic and Early Historic period and also a principle components analysis indicate a change in the climate of the area from tropical and humid at (3 320 ± 400) yr BP to tropical and drier conditions at (2110±340) to (2080±80) yr BP. The present-day tropical, dry deciduous vegetation of the area suggests that climate change has occurred in the area since the contemporaneous past. The plant remains database has been utilized to reconstruct the settlement pattern of the community living

  20. Assessment of air pollution stress on some commonly grown tree species in industrial zone of Durgapur, West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayek, S; Satpati, S; Gupta, S; Saha, R N; Datta, J K

    2011-01-01

    The present study deals with the biochemical responses of some selected tree species with respect to increased air pollution in Durgapur industrial city in India. Areas in vicinity to industries possess very high concentrations of suspended particulate matter (571 microg/m3), SOx (132 microg/m3) and NOx (97 microg/m3) which shows significant correlations (p Air Pollution Toblerance Index (APTI) and Tectona grandis (6.13 +/- 0.276), Lagerstroemia speciosa (7.075 +/- 0.18) and Delonix regia (6.87 +/- 0.079) were sensitive with lower APTI values. Therefore, plant species with higher APTI value, being more resistant, can be used as pollutant absorbent to reduce the pollution level and are suitable for plantations in industrial areas.

  1. Socio-demographic profile and suicidal intent of attempted suicide cases: A hospital based study in West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhadip Bharati

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Suicide is one of the ten major causes of death in India. Suicidal intent score has been found to be a good predictor of a subsequent completed suicide. The present study was conducted to find out the socio-demographic profile and the suicidal intent score of the cases of attempted suicide as well as to determine the association of suicidal intent score with various factors. Methodology: We conducted the present hospital based observational cross sectional study at a rural hospital of Eastern India. 156 admitted cases with history of self-poisoning were interviewed after obtaining the informed consent. Socio-demographic information and suicidal intent score were recorded and analyzed. Results: 55.1% patients were in the age group of below 20 years, 69.2% were females, 58.3% belonged to socioeconomic class V and 17.3% patients were illiterate. 43.6% were students and 28.8% housewives. 17.3% patients had history of suicidal attempts in the past and in 23.1 % cases stress factor was present in the family. Suicidal intent score was medium in 63.5% patients, 10.3% patients had low score and 26.2% had high score. Different factors like age of 20 years and above, male sex, married people, people having addiction habit, previous suicidal attempt, positive family history and stress factors in family increased the suicidal intent score whereas aged less than 20 years, female sex, unmarried people, people having no previous attempt of suicide, negative family history and absence of stress factor in the family decreased the suicidal intent score. Conclusion: The present study highlighted the influencing factors of suicidal intent score based on a hospital set up. A larger community based study with follow up of study subjects is required to get a detailed idea about the influencing factors of suicidal intent score. [Natl J Med Res 2013; 3(2.000: 122-125

  2. Undernutrition among Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS Scheme Children aged 2-6 years of Arambag, Hooghly District, West Bengal, India: A serious public health problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopal Chandra Mandal

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: Childhood undernutrition is a major public health problem in developing countries. In view of this, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the rates of stunting, underweight and wasting among 2-6 year old rural children of Bengalee ethnicity.

    Methods: In this study, 20 Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS Centres of Bali gram panchayet, Arambag, Hooghly District, West Bengal, India, were selected. A total of 1012 (boys = 498; girls = 514 2-6 year old children were studied. Height-for-age (HAZ, weight-for-age (WAZ and weight-for-height (WHZ < -2 z-scores were used to evaluate stunting, underweight and wasting, respectively, following the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS Guidelines. Classification of severity of malnutrition was done based on the World Health Organization recommendations.

    Results: Boys were significantly heavier than girls at ages 2-4 years; they were significantly taller at ages 2 and 4. Significant age differences existed in mean height and weight in both sexes. Mean HAZ, WAZ and WHZ were less than those of NCHS for both sexes at all ages. The overall (age and sex combined rates of stunting, underweight and wasting were 26.6 %, 63.3 % and 50.0 %, respectively. The prevalence of stunting (boys = 24.9 %; girls = 28.2 %, and underweight (b = 62.2 %; g = 64.4 % was higher among girls whereas that of wasting was higher among boys (b = 52.4 %; g = 47.4 %. Based on World Health Organization classification of severity of malnutrition, the overall prevalence of stunting was medium (20 . 29 %, whereas those of underweight (. 30 % and wasting (. 15 % were very high, in both sexes.

    Conclusions: The nutritional status of the subjects was unsatisfactory indicating a major public health problem. There is scope for much improvement in the form of enhanced supplementary nutrition.

  3. Geostatistical approach for management of soil nutrients with special emphasis on different forms of potassium considering their spatial variation in intensive cropping system of West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Sourov; Santra, Priyabrata; Majumdar, Kaushik; Ghosh, Debjani; Das, Indranil; Sanyal, S K

    2015-04-01

    A large part of precision agriculture research in the developing countries is devoted towards precision nutrient management aspects. This has led to better economics and efficiency of nutrient use with off-farm advantages of environmental security. The keystone of precision nutrient management is analysis and interpretation of spatial variability of soils by establishing management zones. In this study, spatial variability of major soil nutrient contents was evaluated in the Ghoragacha village of North 24 Parganas district of West Bengal, India. Surface soil samples from 100 locations, covering different cropping systems of the village, was collected from 0 to 15 cm depth using 100×100 m grid system and analyzed in the laboratory to determine organic carbon (OC), available nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) contents of the soil as well as its water-soluble K (KWS), exchangeable K (KEX), and non-exchangeable forms of K (KNEX). Geostatistical analyses were performed to determine the spatial variation structure of each nutrient content within the village, followed by the generation of surface maps through kriging. Four commonly used semivariogram models, i.e., spherical, exponential, Gaussian, and linear models were fitted to each soil property, and the best one was used to prepare surface maps through krigging. Spherical model was found the best for available N and P contents, while linear and exponential model was the best for OC and available K, and for KWS and KNEK, Gausian model was the best. Surface maps of nutrient contents showed that N content (129-195 kg ha(-1)) was the most limiting factor throughout the village, while P status was generally very high ( 10-678 kg ha(-1)) in the soils of the present village. Among the different soil K fractions, KWS registered the maximum variability (CV 75%), while the remaining soil K fractions showed moderate to high variation. Interestingly, KNEX content also showed high variability, which essentially

  4. Fate of cadmium at the soil-solution interface: a thermodynamic study as influenced by varying pH at South 24 Parganas, West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karak, Tanmoy; Paul, Ranjit Kumar; Das, Sampa; Das, Dilip K; Dutta, Amrit Kumar; Boruah, Romesh K

    2015-11-01

    A study on the sorption kinetics of Cd from soil solution to soils was conducted to assess the persistence of Cd in soil solution as it is related to the leaching, bioavailability, and potential toxicity of Cd. The kinetics of Cd sorption on two non-contaminated alkaline soils from Canning (22° 18' 48.02″ N and 88° 39' 29.0″ E) and Lakshmikantapur (22° 06' 16.61″ N and 88° 19' 08.66″ E) of South 24 Parganas, West Bengal, India, were studied using conventional batch experiment. The variable soil suspension parameters were pH (4.00, 6.00, 8.18, and 9.00), temperatures (308, 318, and 328 K) and Cd concentrations (5-100 mg L(-1)). The average rate coefficient (kavg) and half-life (t1/2) values indicate that the persistence of Cd in soil solution is influenced by both temperature and soil suspension pH. The concentration of Cd in soil solution decreases with increase of temperature; therefore, Cd sorption on the soil-solution interface is an endothermic one. Higher pH decreases the t 1/2 of Cd in soil solution, indicating that higher pH (alkaline) is not a serious concern in Cd toxicity than lower pH (acidic). Based on the energy of activation (Ea) values, Cd sorption in acidic pH (14.76±0.29 to 64.45±4.50 kJ mol(-1)) is a surface control phenomenon and in alkaline pH (9.33±0.09 to 44.60±2.01 kJ mol(-1)) is a diffusion control phenomenon The enthalpy of activation (ΔH∓) values were found to be between 7.28 and 61.73 kJ mol(-1). Additionally, higher positive energy of activation (ΔG∓) values (46.82±2.01 to 94.47±2.36 kJ mol(-1)) suggested that there is an energy barrier for product formation.

  5. Characterization of soils in terms of pedological variability under different physiography of Damodar command area (part, West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjan Bera

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Five representative soil profiles occurring on four different physiography under subtropical environment of Damodar command area, India, were studied for soil pedological variability. Two way approaches were taken to evaluate the extent of profile development. Firstly different extractants were used to determine various forms of Fe and Al and their different ratios. Average contents of Fe and Al, extracted by different extracting reagents were found to be in descending order, as follows: Aldith > Aloxa > Alpyr and Fedith > Feoxa > Fepyr. Analysis of pyrophosphate (pyr, oxalate (oxa, and dithionate (dith extractable Fe and Al fractions indicated that with increasing soil age, the content of crystalline Fe and Al oxides increased at the expense of the poorly crystalline forms. The mean content of amorphous Fe and Al, crystalline Fe and Al, and their ratios estimated the degree of soil development. In the second part, elemental analysis was done, silica to sesquioxide ratio as well as ratio of alkali cations was measured and weathering index of each horizon was determined. The ratios and weathering indices indicated that except Madhpur soil series, all other soils were young and pedological development was still in progress in Damodar command area.

  6. Assessment of potential hazards of fluoride contamination in drinking groundwater of an intensively cultivated district in West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Manik Chandra; Mandal, Biswapati

    2009-05-01

    We assessed the potential of fluoride (F) contamination in drinking groundwater of an intensively cultivated district in India as a function of its lithology and agricultural activities. Three hundred and eight groundwater samples were collected at different depths from various types of wells and analyzed for pH, EC, NO(3)-N load and F content. A typical litholog was constructed and database on fertilizer and pesticide uses were also recorded for the district. The water samples were almost neutral in reaction and non-saline in nature with low NO(3)-N content (0.02 to 4.56 microg mL(-1)). Fluoride content in water was also low (0.01 to 1.18 microg mL(-1)) with only 2.27% of them exceeding 1.0 microg mL(-1) posing a potential threat of fluorosis. On average, its content varied little spatially and along depth of sampling aquifers because of homogeneity in lithology of the district. The F content in these samples showed a significant positive correlation (r = 0.12, P < or = 0.05) with the amount of phosphatic fertilizer (single super phosphate) used for agriculture but no such relation either with the anthropogenic activities of pesticide use or NO(3)-N content, pH and EC values of the samples was found. The results suggest that the use of phosphatic fertilizer may have some role to play in F enrichment of groundwater.

  7. Household Survey of Pesticide Practice, Deliberate Self-Harm, and Suicide in the Sundarban Region of West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohini Banerjee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The toxicological impact and intentional ingestion of pesticides are major public health concerns globally. This study aimed to estimate the extent of deliberate self-harm (DSH and suicides (suicidal behaviour and document pesticide practices in Namkhana block of the Sundarban region, India. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 1680 households (21 villages following a mixed random and cluster design sampling. The survey questionnaire (Household Information on Pesticide Use and DSH was developed by the research team to elicit qualitative and quantitative information. The Kappa statistic and McNemar’s test were used to assess the level of agreement and association between respondents’ and investigators’ opinions about safe storage of pesticides. Over five years, 1680 households reported 181 incidents of suicidal behaviour. Conflict with family members was the most frequently reported reason for suicidal behaviour (53.6%. The Kappa statistic indicated poor agreement between respondents and investigators about safe storage of pesticides. The pesticide-related annual DSH rate was 158.1 (95% CI 126.2–195.5, and for suicide it was 73.4 (95% CI 52.2–100.3 per 100,000. Unsafe pesticide practice and psychosocial stressors are related to the high rates of suicidal behaviour. An intersectoral approach involving the local governments, agricultural department and the health sector would help to reduce the magnitude of this public health problem.

  8. Isotopic and geochemical characterization of invader tilapia fishes from water bodies of West Bengal and Karnataka, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Mousumi; Ghosh, Prosenjit; Ramdas, Leena; Chakrabarti, Ramananda

    2015-11-01

    The otoliths (N = 12) of freshwater invasive species tilapia (Tilapia mossambicus) collected from two water bodies located at Kolkata and Bangalore, India, were analyzed for stable isotopes (δ18O, δ14C) and major and trace elements in order to assess the suitability of using otoliths as a tracer of aquatic environmental changes. The stable isotope analysis was done using the dual inlet system of a Finnigan-MAT 253 isotope ratio mass spectrometer (Thermo-Fisher, Bremen, Germany). Concentrations of major and trace elements were determined using a Thermo X-Series II quadrupole mass spectrometer. The stable isotope composition in tilapia otolith samples from Bangalore and Kolkata water bodies are quite good agreeing with that of the respective lake/pond and rain water. Elemental composition revealed in a pattern of Ca>Fe>Na>Sr>K>Ba>Cr>Mg>As>Mn>Zn>Co>Cu>Cd>Pb. The otoliths from Kolkata pond water are more enriched in Ba, Zn, Pb, Mn, Se, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Ni whereas Cr and As were found to be higher in otolith samples from Bangalore lake. The enrichment factor (EF) values of Cr were higher for both the sampling location in comparison with other metals, although all the studied metals exhibited EF values>1. The PCA shows clustering of metals in the otolith which are related either with the metabolic and physiological attributes or waterborne source. The study demonstrated the potential of stable isotope techniques to distinguish otolith specimens from varied climatic zone, while elemental composition recorded the quality of water at both the locations. The role of climate driving the quality of water can be understood by detailed and continuous monitoring of otolith specimens in the future. Future method allows reconstruction of climate and water quality from old specimens from field exposures or museum collection.

  9. Determinants of Rural Industrial Entrepreneurship of Farmers in West Bengal : A Structural Equations Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folmer, Henk; Dutta, Subrata; Oud, Han

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a structural equations model of rural industrial entrepreneurship (RIE) among farmers in the Bardhaman district, West Bengal, India. It identifies the determinants of RIE but also analyzes impacts of RIE on its endogenous determinants. Age, education, marital status, number of

  10. Groundwater arsenic contamination in one of the 107 arsenic-affected blocks in West Bengal, India: Status, distribution, health effects and factors responsible for arsenic poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roychowdhury, Tarit

    2010-11-01

    A somewhat detailed study was carried out in Gaighata, one of the 107 arsenic-affected blocks in West Bengal, India, to determine the degree of groundwater contamination with arsenic, its depth wise distribution, correlation with iron, arsenical health effects to the inhabitants and the factors responsible for arsenic poisoning. Groundwater in all the 107 mouzas over 13 gram-panchayets in Gaighata block contains arsenic above 0.01mgl(-1) and in 91 mouzas, arsenic concentration has been found above 0.05mgl(-1). About 59.2 and 40.3% of the tubewell water samples contain arsenic above 0.01 and 0.05mgl(-1), respectively. The approximate population drinking arsenic-contaminated water above 0.01 and 0.05mgl(-1) are 106,560 and 72,540, respectively. The tubewells that were installed within the depth range of 15.4-30.3m are mostly arsenic-contaminated. Even the shallow groundwater level (7.87-15.1m) is arsenic-contaminated. Both arsenic and iron concentrations in groundwater gradually increase from lower depth to higher depth up to 39.4m, and then decrease with increasing depth. About 58% of the deep tubewell water samples (depth range 122-182m, n=31) contain arsenic ≥0.05mgl(-1). About 72% of the arsenic-contaminated deep tubewells (n=18) were safe when surveyed first time. But within a span of 2-5 years, they became contaminated with arsenic. The linear regression shows direct correlation between arsenic and iron concentrations in groundwater (r(2)=0.8114, parsenic from water by an adult male and female in the surveyed areas are 11.7 and 13.1μg/kg body wt./day, respectively and these values are higher than the WHO recommended PTDI value of inorganic arsenic (2.1μg/kg body wt./day). Mean arsenic concentrations in urine, hair and nail samples, collected from the inhabitants of Gutri mouza are higher than their normal level and the values are 292μgl(-1) (range: 8.35-1024μg l(-1), n=193), 2.50mgkg(-1) (range: 0.17-5.99mgkg(-1), n=132), and 6.05mgkg(-1) (range: 0

  11. A Study on Gender Preference and Awareness Regarding Prenatal Sex Determination among Antenatal Women in a Rural Area of Darjeeling District, West Bengal, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Archak

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Sex ratio is one of the major indicators to find the gender preferences in the community. Change in sex ratio reflects underlying socioeconomic, cultural patterns of a society. Aim The present study was conducted with the aim to find out the knowledge of antenatal women regarding the prenatal sex determination and the Pre Natal Diagnostic Techniques (PNDT) Act in a rural area along with assessing the gender preference in family among the study population. Materials and Methods A community based, descriptive, cross-sectional study was undertaken in the villages of Matigara Block of Darjeeling district of West Bengal, which serves as a field practice area of North Bengal Medical College & Hospital for two months. A total of 116 pregnant women were included and a pre designed pre tested questionnaire was used to collect the socio demographic details. The data were analysed by SPSS 20.0 software for proportions with chi-square tests. Results Knowledge of sex determination and the PNDT Act were found to be 44.82% and 18.10% among antenatal women. Knowledge regarding assessment of gender preference showed 52.58% expect a boy in this pregnancy. It was found that the determinants for gender preference were caste, sex of the last pregnancy and current gender composition. It was found that the determinants for knowledge of sex determination are age of the mother and the gravida of the mother. It was also found that the factor for the knowledge regarding the PNDT Act is age of the mother. These associations are statistically significant. Conclusion This situation calls for a strategy which includes community based awareness campaigns, women employment, education, and empowerment and by ensuring effective implementation of PNDT Act by the government so that families find it difficult to undertake sex determination.

  12. Accumulation and toxic effect of arsenic and other heavy metals in a contaminated area of West Bengal, India, in the lichen Pyxine cocoes (Sw.) Nyl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajpai, Rajesh; Upreti, D K

    2012-09-01

    Ecological indicators can be used to assess the condition of the environment, to provide an early warning signal of changes in the surrounding environment or to diagnose the causes of an environmental problem. The study aims to evaluate the applicability of a common foliose lichen Pyxine cocoes (Sw.) Nyl., as an indicator to evaluate the arsenic and heavy metal rich sites. The naturally growing lichen and its substratum (bark) were utilized to biomonitor the accumulation of arsenic (As) and other heavy metals (Al, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb and Zn) in Chinsurah, a highly As contaminated area of West Bengal. Significantly higher levels of Al, Cr, Fe, Pb and Zn (pmetals while Cr, Cd and Pb were below detection limit. As evident from the bioaccumulation factor most of the metals accumulated in lichen thallus are air borne. Chl a and Chl b concentrations decreased significantly with increasing distance from roadside whereas the carotenoid and protein showed an enhanced level. The chlorophyll stability index, chlorophyll degradation and carotenoid contents were found to be the most sensitive parameters to assess the vitality of lichen thallus against changing environment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Morphotaxonomical description of three new species of Myxobolus Bütschli, 1882 (Myxozoa: Myxosporea: Bivalvulida) from edible freshwater fishes of West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Subarna; Bandyopadhyay, P K

    2017-03-01

    Three new species of Myxobolus are described from the mucous membrane around gill lamellae of carps of West Bengal. The new species have been named as M. muralidharani sp. n., M. nilimae sp. n. from Labeo rohita, and M. harpreetae sp. n. from Labeo bata respectively. Spores of M. muralidharani sp. n. measured 13.84 ± 0.049 (13-14) × 4.95-6 (5.35) µm, with two elongated equal sized polar capsules. Spores of M. nilimae sp. n. measured 15.9-17.1 (16.65) µm × 6.2-7.5 (6.9) µm, with two equal petal shaped polar capsules, 9.0-11 (10.4) µm × 3-3.5 (3.16) µm. In contrast to aforementioned two new species, M. harpreetae sp. n. had two unequal polar capsules, 8.7-9.2 (9.149) µm × 2.9-4.0 (3.45) µm and 7.6-8.3 (7.94) µm × 2.8-3.3 (2.9) µm in each spore, 11.4-13.8 (13.2) µm × 4.9-7.8 (6.51) µm.

  14. Palmar a-b ridge count in E-β thalassemia patients: A study on the Bengalee Hindu Caste Populations of West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Das

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Apart from the unique value of finger prints for personal identification, dermatoglyphics has been utilized as valuable marker trait and its diagnostic value for different genetic disorders is well documented. Several studies have reported the importance of dermatoglyphics as markers of a prenatal disturbance due to the fact that finger and palmar dermatoglyphics characteristics are formed by the end of the second trimester, they may provide evidence of disturbances in early development. To best of the knowledge, the present study is the first attempt to understand the association of palmar a-b ridge count among the E-β thalassemia patients. To achieve the purpose finger and palm prints of 70 (Male-35, Female-35 diagnosed E-β thalassemia patients were obtained from Hindu caste Bengalee population of Howrah district, West Bengal. Apart from thalassemia patients, 70 (Male-35, Female-35 apparently healthy individuals without any family history of thalassemia as controls have also been collected from Bengalee Hindu caste population of the same area. Bilateral palm prints of all the participants were collected by using standard ink and roller method. For the present purpose a-b ridge count (ABRC of each palm and total a-b ridge count (TABRC of the E-β thalassemia patients and the controls have been evaluated using standard method. The results revealed significantly (p<0.05 higher ABRC and TABRC among E-β thalassemia patients than the controls, and consequently indicated greater distance between palmar a and b interdigital triradii among the E-β thalassemia patients. Furthermore, significant (p<0.05 increase of ABRC was found among the male patients than that of female patients along with significant (p<0.05 bilateral asymmetry for ABRC among the female E-β thalassemia patients. However, no such sexual dimorphism and bilateral asymmetry for ABRC was revealed among the controls. Therefore, the present study envisaged that palmar a-b ridge count

  15. Anthropometric and body frame size characteristics in relation to body mass index and percentage body fat among adult Bengalee male brick-kiln workers from Murshidabad, West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banik, Sudip Datta; Ghosh, Mihir; Bose, Kaushik

    2016-11-01

    Anthropometric and body frame size parameters (ABFSP) are used to interpret body mass and to evaluate nutritional status. Objective of the present study was to investigate the interrelationships between ABFSP, percentage body fat (BF%) and body mass index (BMI). The study was carried out in a sample of 141 adult Bengalee healthy male brick-kiln workers (age range 18-59 years) from Murshidabad district in West Bengal, India. Body weight was recorded; anthropometric measurements included height, breadth (elbow, wrist, hand, foot, ankle, knee), circumferences (mid-upper arm, chest, waist, hip, thigh, medial calf) and skinfolds (biceps, triceps, subscapular, suprailiac). Derived ABFSP included sum of breadth and circumferences, frame index, BMI, BF%, sum of skinfolds, ratio of central and peripheral skinfolds, arm muscle area, arm muscle circumference, arm fat area and brachial adipo-muscular ratio. Correlations (age-controlled) between ABFSP, BMI and BF% were highly significant (p BMI-based nutritional status (BNS). Multinomial logistic regression analysis (age-adjusted) showed ABFSP had statistically significant (p BMI and BF% independent of age. The ABFSP in individuals with normal BMI, suffering from undernutrition (low BMI) or overweight are different.

  16. Septic Abortion Managed in a Tertiary Hospital in West Bengal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a cross-sectional study carried out in Burdwan Medical College and Hospital in West Bengal between July 2011 and June 2012. On ... The modal age group of the patients was 15-25 years (49.5%). Majority of ... Address for correspondence.

  17. Deciphering groundwater quality for irrigation and domestic purposes – a case study in Suri I and II blocks, Birbhum District, West Bengal, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shreya Das; S K Nag

    2015-07-01

    Assessment of the hydrochemical characteristics of water and aquifer hydraulic properties is important for groundwater planning and management in the study area. It is not only the basic need for human existence but also a vital input for all development activities. The present hydro-geochemical study of groundwater samples from the Suri I and II blocks of Birbhum district, West Bengal (23.76°–23.99°N; 87.42°–87.64°E) was carried out to assess their suitability for agricultural, domestic and drinking purposes. For this study, samples were collected from 26 locations during the post-monsoon and pre-monsoon sessions spanning over 2012 and 2013. Groundwater samples were analyzed for their physical and chemical properties using standard laboratory methods. Physical and chemical parameters of groundwater such as pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cl, HCO3, SO4 and F were determined. Various water quality indices like SAR, SSP, PI, RSC, MAR and KR have been calculated for each water sample to identify the irrigational suitability standard. According to most of these parameters, the groundwater has been found to be well to moderately suitable for irrigation. In the post-monsoon session exceptionally high RSC values for around 80% samples indicate an alkaline hazard to the soil. The ion balance histogram for post-monsoon indicates undesirable ion balance values according to fresh water standards whereas in pre-monsoon, the samples show good ion balance in water. For determination of the drinking suitability standard of groundwater, three parameters have been considered – total hardness (TH), Piper’s trilinear diagram and water quality index study. Groundwater of the present study area has been found to be moderately-hard to hard during both sampling sessions and hence poses no health risk which could arise due to excess consumption of calcium or magnesium. Hydrogeochemical facies in the form of Piper’s trilinear diagram

  18. Deciphering groundwater quality for irrigation and domestic purposes - a case study in Suri I and II blocks, Birbhum District, West Bengal, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Shreya; Nag, S. K.

    2015-07-01

    Assessment of the hydrochemical characteristics of water and aquifer hydraulic properties is important for groundwater planning and management in the study area. It is not only the basic need for human existence but also a vital input for all development activities. The present hydro-geochemical study of groundwater samples from the Suri I and II blocks of Birbhum district, West Bengal (23.76 ∘-23.99 ∘N; 87.42 ∘-87.64 ∘E) was carried out to assess their suitability for agricultural, domestic and drinking purposes. For this study, samples were collected from 26 locations during the post-monsoon and pre-monsoon sessions spanning over 2012 and 2013. Groundwater samples were analyzed for their physical and chemical properties using standard laboratory methods. Physical and chemical parameters of groundwater such as pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cl, HCO3, SO4 and F were determined. Various water quality indices like SAR, SSP, PI, RSC, MAR and KR have been calculated for each water sample to identify the irrigational suitability standard. According to most of these parameters, the groundwater has been found to be well to moderately suitable for irrigation. In the post-monsoon session exceptionally high RSC values for around 80% samples indicate an alkaline hazard to the soil. The ion balance histogram for post-monsoon indicates undesirable ion balance values according to fresh water standards whereas in pre-monsoon, the samples show good ion balance in water. For determination of the drinking suitability standard of groundwater, three parameters have been considered - total hardness (TH), Piper's trilinear diagram and water quality index study. Groundwater of the present study area has been found to be moderately-hard to hard during both sampling sessions and hence poses no health risk which could arise due to excess consumption of calcium or magnesium. Hydrogeochemical facies in the form of Piper's trilinear diagram plot

  19. Significant increase in HBV, HCV, HIV and syphilis infections among blood donors in West Bengal, Eastern India 2004-2005: Exploratory screening reveals high frequency of occult HBV infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Prasun Bhattacharya; Partha Kumar Chandra; Sibnarayan Datta; Arup Banerjee; Subhashish Chakraborty; Krishnan Rajendran; Subir Kumar Basu; Sujit Kumar Bhattacharya; Runu Chakravarty

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the prevalence of markers of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among blood donors in Kolkata, Eastern India for two consecutive years and to conduct a pilot study to explore the presence of HBV DNA among hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) negative but anti-HBc positive blood donors.METHODS: Seroprevalence of HBsAg, anti-HCV and anti-HIV was studied among 113051 and 106695 voluntary blood donors screened in 2004 and 2005,respectively. Moreover, a pilot study on 1027 HBsAg negative donors was carried out for evaluating the presence of HBV DNA by PCR on HBsAg negative/antiHBc positive donors.RESJLTS: A statistically significant increase in the prevalence of HBV (1448 vs 1768, P < 0.001), HIV (262vs 374, P < 0.001), HCV (314 vs 372, P = 0.003) and syphilis (772 vs 853, P = 0.001) infections was noted among blood donors of Kolkata West Bengal in 2005 as compared to 2004. Moreover, the exploratory study on 1027 HBsAg negative donors revealed that 188 (18.3%) of them were anti-HBc positive out of which 21% were positive for HBV DNA.CONCLUSION: The findings of this study underscore the significantly increasing endemicity of hepatitis viruses, syphilis and HIV among the voluntary blood donors of our community. The pilot study indicates a high rate of prevalence of HBV DNA among HBsAg negative/anti-HBc positive donors and thus emphasizes the need for a more sensitive and stringent screening algorithm for blood donations.

  20. Study of HLA Class I gene in Indian schizophrenic patients of Siliguri, West Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Bisu; Bera, Nirmal Kumar; De, Santanu; Nayak, Chittaranjan; Chaudhuri, Tapas Kumar

    2011-09-30

    The authors studied the prevalence of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) Class I gene in 136 (85 male, 51 female) India-born schizophrenia patients residing in and around the Siliguri subdivision of West Bengal by the PCR-SSP method. The control group consisted of 150 age- and sex-matched healthy individuals from the same ethnic group as the patients. Increased frequency of HLA A*03 as well as decreased frequencies of HLA A*31 and HLA B*51, was noted. The study suggests the possible existence of a susceptibility locus for schizophrenia within the HLA region.

  1. Arsenic burden from cooked rice in the populations of arsenic affected and nonaffected areas and Kolkata City in West-Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Arup; Chowdhury, Uttam Kumar; Mondal, Debapriya; Das, Bhaskar; Nayak, Bishwajit; Ghosh, Arijit; Maity, Sumana; Chakraborti, Dipankar

    2009-05-01

    Arsenic contamination of rice irrigated with contaminated groundwater contributes to the additional arsenic burden of the population where rice is the staple food. In an arsenic contaminated area, an experimental field-based study done on nine fields elucidated significant positive correlation between arsenic in irrigation water and soil, irrigation water and rice, and also soil and rice both for Boro (groundwater) and Aman (rainwater) rice. Speciation studies showed that for both Boro (cooked) and Aman (raw) rice from contaminated area, 90% of total recovered arsenic was inorganic. In arsenic contaminated, uncontaminated villages, and Kolkata city, daily quantities of arsenic ingested by adult population from cooked rice diet are equivalent to 6.5, 1.8, and 2.3 L respectively, of drinking water containing WHO guideline value. In contaminated area, daily intake only from cooked Boro rice for 34.6% of the samples exceeded the WHO recommended MTDI value (2 microg In-As day(-1) kg(-1) body wt), whereas daily intake from Aman rice was below MTDI value as was rice from uncontaminated areas and Kolkata city. Our study indicated that employing traditional rice cooking method as followed in Bengal delta and using water having arsenic <3 microg L(-1) for cooking, actual exposure to arsenic from rice would be much less.

  2. HIV/AIDS related deaths from three district hospitals of West Bengal: An observation

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    MK Bhattacharya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Data on HIV/AIDS incidence or deaths are limited in poor-resource country like India and non-existent in state of West Bengal. These data are essential for formulating policies for HIV intervention strategies to curb HIV epidemic. In present study, a descriptive analysis of all registered cases from three district hospitals (Maldah, North 24 Parganas and Darjeeling during July 2006-December 2007 was conducted. HIV/AIDS related deaths were found to be higher in Darjeeling district compare to other two districts. A comprehensive and well-coordinated survey is needed to explore further HIV/AIDS mortality data in India for providing necessary information in developing HIV prevention programs.

  3. Knowledge and Practice of Standard Precautions and Awareness Regarding Post-Exposure Prophylaxis for HIV among Interns of a Medical College in West Bengal, India

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    Shuvankar Mukherjee

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess the knowledge of interns on standard precautions and post-exposure prophylaxis for HIV, and identify the gap between knowledge and practice relating to standard precautions, as well as determining the perceived barriers against adherence to standard precautions.Methods: The study was conducted on 130 interns of 2010-11 batch from a government-run medical college in Kolkata, India. All participants completed a self-administered questionnaire with items relating to basic components of standard precautions and post-exposure prophylaxis for HIV. The questionnaire also included open ended questions relating to reasons for non-adherence to the practice of standard precautions along with additional space for specific comments, if any.Results: Poor adherence in the use of personal protective equipment, hand washing, safe handling and disposal of needles and sharp objects were found to be among the practices for which the interns expressed correct knowledge. While the main reasons for non-adherence were found to be clumsiness in handling needles, wearing gloves, feeling uncomfortable when wearing aprons, impracticality of regular hand-washing and non-availability of equipment. Although the majority of the respondents (84.6% expressed awareness of washing sites of injured with soap and water, approximately 32.3% did not know that antiseptics could cause more damage. Also, only 63.8% expressed awareness of reporting any incidence of occupational exposure, while knowledge on post-exposure prophylaxis regimens was generally found to be poor.Conclusion: The considerable gap between knowledge and practice of standard precautions and inadequate knowledge of post-exposure prophylaxis emphasizes the need for continuous onsite training of interns with supportive supervision and monitoring of their activities.

  4. Profile of Nutrition among 24-59 Months Children in a Rural Area of Bengal, India

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    Mausumi Basu, Kumaresh Chandra Sarkar, Biman Roy, Palash Das, Jayanta Kumar Barua, Sukanta Biswas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Globally, 162 million under-five children were suffering from stunting; 99 million from underweight and 51 million from wasting in 2012. The Government of India has introduced NewWHO 2006 Child Growth Standards in India for monitoring growth of children. This study wasconducted with the objective to assess the magnitude of under-nutrition among 24-59 months children in a rural area of West Bengal and some social factors influencing their nutritional status. Materials and methods: A community based cross sectional study was conducted among 360 children of 24 – 59 months in ten randomly selected villages of West Bengal in March 2013 using a predesigned pretested schedule. Results: The prevalence of underweight, stunting and wasting was 49.17%, 59.44% and 20.28% respectively. Boys suffered more than girls in all indicators. The prevalence of under-weight, stunting and wasting was significantly associated with age of the study population, literacy status of parents and socio economic status but not with sex. Conclusion: The problem of under-nutrition amongst under-five children needs to be addressed through comprehensive preventive, promotive, curative and social measures.

  5. Assessment of oral health status of Santal (Tribal children of West Bengal

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    Shyamapada Mandal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Santal is the third largest tribal community of India leading a very poor standard of education and life style. There are, however, few population-based studies evaluating the oral health status among Santal children in West Bengal. Aims: The aim of the study was to evaluate the oral health status of Santal children of West Bengal by assessing prevalence of dental caries and inflammatory condition of gingival. Settings and Design: Santal children aged between 2-14 years (N = 1205 were randomly selected from different Santal communities of West Bengal for this study. The children were divided into three different groups according to dentition. Materials and Methods: Caries for permanent dentition Decayed Missing Filled Tooth (DMFT, for deciduous dentition decayed extracted filled (def index was used. For mixed dentition DMF and def was measured respectively and then added together. Inflammatory condition of gingival was assessed by papillary marginal attachment (PMA index. Statistical Analysis Used: the data was analyzed statistically by SPSS software version 11. Results: The study showed there was no significant difference (P > 0.05 between the average decayed extracted filled teeth (deft/DMFT for boys and girls in deciduous and permanent dentition. But in mixed dentition this value for the boys was significantly higher (P < 0.001 than girls. ′Z′ values were found to be non significant when compared mild, moderate and severe gingivitis between boys and girls in each dentition group, but mild gingivitis significantly increases from deciduous dentition to mixed to permanent dentition (P <0.001.

  6. CUMIN (CUMINUM CYMINUM L.; UMBELLIFERAE CULTIVATION IN WEST BENGAL PLAINS, KALYANI, NADIA

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    Paul Rita

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.; Family: Umbelliferae is a seed spice of commercial importance as well as it is a potential medicinal herb with immense therapeutic uses not withstanding its significance in health food formulations. Seeds (fruits yield essential oil cuminaldehyde, and it is used in perfume industry. The species is reported to be widely cultivated (major states: Rajasthan and Gujrat in India, excepting West Bengal and Assam. Good field and viable seeds (evidenced from Scanning Electron Microscopy and viability test performed following the use of 1% tetrazolium chloride of cumin (seed moisture content – 8.2% collected from Zonal Adaptive Govt. Research Station, Krishnanagar, West Bengal were grown in the Experimental field plots of University of Kalyani, Nadia (latitude 22º 50´ to 24º 11´ N, longitude 88º 09´ to 88º 48´ E, elevation 48 feet above sea level; sandy loamy soil, pH – 6.8 during the months of December to April 2009-2010. Seeds of mother stock germinated (petriplate – 100.0%; field – 54.0%, survivality – 55.56% and plants were raised and flowers started from early February. Male meiosis (2n=14; mean chromosome association/cell at metaphase- 6.80II+0.35I, chiasma/nucleus- 10.4±0.3, coefficient of chiasma terminalization– 0.66, predominance of rod bivalents at MI; 100.0% anaphase I cells were cytologically balanced and pollen grains (assessed following 1% acetocarmine staining technique fertility (84.8% were nearly normal. On histological examinations of mother fruit stock it was found that it possessed distinct fruit wall layers, endosperm, embryo and oil vittae but fruits of raised plants were devoid of embryo and endosperm. The present investigation possibly provided some evidences regarding failure of cumin cultivation in West Bengal though a representative location was considered.

  7. Pandemic management and developing world bioethics: bird flu in West Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborti, Chhanda

    2009-12-01

    This paper examines the case of a recent H5N1virus (avian influenza) outbreak in West Bengal, an eastern state of India, and argues that poorly executed pandemic management may be viewed as a moral lapse. It further argues that pandemic management initiatives are intimately related to the concept of health as a social 'good' and to the moral responsibility of protection from foreseeable social harm from an infectious disease. The initiatives, therefore, have to be guided by special moral obligations towards biorisk reduction, obligations which remain unfulfilled when a public body entrusted with the responsibility fails to manage satisfactorily the prevention and control of the infection. The overall conclusion is that pandemic management has a moral dimension. The gravity of the threat that fatal infectious diseases pose for public health creates special moral obligations for public bodies in pandemic situations. However, the paper views the West Bengal case as a learning opportunity, and considers the lapses cited as challenges that better, more effectively conducted pandemic management can prepare for. It is hoped that this paper will provoke constructive bioethical deliberations, particularly pertinent to the developing world, on how to ensure that the obligations towards health are fulfilled ethically and more effectively.

  8. Seasonality of tuberculosis in rural West Bengal: A time series analysis

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    Ranadip Chowdhury

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a recent concern about the global climatic change that is expected to have broad health impacts. The health effects of extreme weather events include a spectrum of wide variety of impacts. According to a study in Northern India, tuberculosis (TB diagnosis peaked between April and June, and it reached a nadir between October and December. However, no seasonality was reported from South India. Aims: This study is aimed to assess the seasonality of TB in rural West Bengal and to develop a univariate time series model. Settings and Design: Retrospective record-based study was carried out at Amdanga tuberculosis unit (TU, North 24-parganas, West Bengal. Materials and Methods: A total of 1507 new TB cases were registered in the TB register of the TU during January-2008 to December-2011 period were taken for this study. Statistical Analysis: Seasonal adjusted factor (SAF, autocorrelation function (ACF, partial autocorrelation function (PACF, and seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA methods were applied by using the SPSS 16.0 version. Results: ACF and PACF at lag 12 shows significant pick suggesting seasonal component of the TB series. SAF showed peak seasonal variation from March to June and nadir from October to December in additive model. Univariate model by expert-modeler in the SPSS showed SARIMA ((0,0,0(1,2,0 12 could best predict the model with 54.3% variability. Conclusion: A seasonal pattern of TB was observed. This information would be usefulfor administration and managers to take extra care to arrange and provide extra facilities during the peak seasons.

  9. A comparison of palmar dermatoglyphics in two ethnic Indian populations of north Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Jaydip; Kanchan, Tanuj; Mondal, Nitish

    2011-01-01

    Dermatoglyphic print comparisons can be utilized to establish personal identification in forensic cases. The northern part of the state of West Bengal, India, is the home to many ethnic populations. Two such populations are the Rajbanshi and the Mech. Palm prints were collected from 192 adult Rajbanshi (105 men and 87 women) and 100 adult Mech (50 men and 50 women) individuals for print comparison using the standard ink and roll print method. The dermatoglyphic variables studied were mainline formulae, termination of mainline, positional variation of axial triradii, and true pattern of hypothenar and thenar configuration area. There were differences between the Rajbanshi and Mech individuals with respect to these dermatoglyphic variables. The uses of these variables appear to be limited only to ethnic identification, not personal identification. The present investigation further highlights the racial affinity, sex, and bilateral differences among Rajbanshi individuals using dermatoglyphic palmar variables.

  10. Development of nested polymerase chain reaction-based diagnosis of duck enteritis virus and detection of DNA polymerase gene from non-descriptive duck breeds of West Bengal, India

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    Partha Sarathi Mandal

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study was undertaken to detect the clinical signs, postmortem lesions of embryonated duck plague (DP infected eggs, and histopathological changes of chorioallantoic membrane (CAM in non-descriptive ducks of West Bengal with special reference to standardize nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Materials and Methods: After postmortem of suspected carcasses, samples were collected for virus isolation and identification through specific pathogen free (Khaki Campbell embryonated duck eggs. PCR was also done as confirmatory test after doing postmortem of duck embryos. DP specific nested PCR was standardized for better confirmation of the disease. Sensitivity of nested primers was also tested for DP virus. Results: Gross, postmortem and histopathological changes were prominent in dead embryos. First set of primer was able to detect 602 bp fragments of DNA polymerase gene of duck enteritis virus from infected CAM. Subsequently, a DP specific nested PCR which was very much sensitive for very small amount of viral genome was successfully standardized. After NCBI blast nucleotide sequence of nested PCR product (Accession No. HG425076 showed homology with the sequences data available in GenBank. Conclusion: The study concludes that PCR assay is very much helpful to diagnose DP disease and developed nested PCR is a double confirmatory diagnostic tool for DP.

  11. Development of nested polymerase chain reaction-based diagnosis of duck enteritis virus and detection of DNA polymerase gene from non-descriptive duck breeds of West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Partha Sarathi; Mukhopadhayay, Sunit Kumar; Pradhan, Saktipada; Mondal, Samiran; Jana, Chandrakanta; Patra, Nimai Chandra; Hansda, Rabindra Nath

    2017-03-01

    The study was undertaken to detect the clinical signs, postmortem lesions of embryonated duck plague (DP) infected eggs, and histopathological changes of chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) in non-descriptive ducks of West Bengal with special reference to standardize nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR). After postmortem of suspected carcasses, samples were collected for virus isolation and identification through specific pathogen free (Khaki Campbell) embryonated duck eggs. PCR was also done as confirmatory test after doing postmortem of duck embryos. DP specific nested PCR was standardized for better confirmation of the disease. Sensitivity of nested primers was also tested for DP virus. Gross, postmortem and histopathological changes were prominent in dead embryos. First set of primer was able to detect 602 bp fragments of DNA polymerase gene of duck enteritis virus from infected CAM. Subsequently, a DP specific nested PCR which was very much sensitive for very small amount of viral genome was successfully standardized. After NCBI blast nucleotide sequence of nested PCR product (Accession No. HG425076) showed homology with the sequences data available in GenBank. The study concludes that PCR assay is very much helpful to diagnose DP disease and developed nested PCR is a double confirmatory diagnostic tool for DP.

  12. 1. Height, weight and BMI of the teenagers: A Comparative Study of Jharkhand, Bihar, West Bengal and Orissa

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    S. Shome

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares the height, weight and BMI of the 15-19 groups of male and female of four eastern region states of India namely Jharkhand, Bihar, West Bengal and Orissa using Third National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3 data. The sample sizes of Jharkhand, Bihar, West Bengal and Orissa are 176, 236, 375 and 229 for male and 631, 893, 1052 and 829 for female respectively. Data on socio-demographic background of the households like place of residence, social group, education of males and females, and wealth index of the family are taken to see the differential effects of these variables on the teenager's height and weight. It is well recognized that height and weight are interrelated. These are also related with socioeconomic variables. But, does the relation remain same over all teenager's (15-19 years height and weight groups in different eastern region states? The objective of this paper is to find the effect of the socio-economic variables on heights and weights for different groups of persons formed according to the different levels of heights and weights and to see whether there are gender differences in the variation of heights and weights in the four eastern region states. Descriptive studies show a clear positive relation of height and weight with the economic level. In case of BMI, it is the age group which seems to be the most influential factor. The notable feature is that percentages of short height in all the four eastern region states are higher in comparison to India (29.5% in case of male. For underweight, the percentage of West Bengal only is lower than national average. The result is similar in case of short height for the females also and for underweight all eastern region state's female shows higher percentage than national average.

  13. BENEFICIARIES VIEW POINT AND FACTORS INFLUENCING IN DUCED ABORTIONS IN A RURAL COMMUNITY OF WEST BENGAL.

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    Debabrata

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Study of induced abortion in India by considering t he complete birth history of women is lacking. Induced abortion is associated wi th high mortality and morbidity in India. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of the study were to find out the In duced abortions ratio and to identify certain characteristics like perception, hea lth care seeking behavior and the motivational factors for such an act. METHODS: An exploratory type of investigation (a retrospective case series study was carried out amo ng 46 acceptors of induced abortion in a rural community of west Bengal, between September, 1 1 to February 12. RESULTS: The ratio of induced abortions was 20.62 per year per 1000 women o f reproductive age group. 89% belongs to Hindu and 93% of them were married. Unplanned preg nancy (43.47% and financial problem (21.73 % were the main reasons for acceptance of in duced abortions. About 71 % of induced abortions were carried out by qualified person in h ospital set up. CONCLUSION: Eventually induced abortions are increasing universally and se veral traditional methods are also found to be life threatening. So exploration of induced abort ions is important aspect and explores the point for entry of further research.

  14. Level of Rural Development in Burdwan and Murshidabad Districts, West Bengal: A Comparative Study

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    Syfujjaman Tarafder

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The key purpose of this research is to examine the level of attainment of rural development in the two districts—Burdwan and Murshidabad. The reasons for selecting these two districts stems from the fact that majority of the population of these two districts dwell in rural areas. The concept of rural development is comprehensive. It includes economic development of rural people through the development of productive sectors and employment associated with rural infrastructural development as well human development. Therefore, rural development includes in its domain all the aspects of human development of the rural people. The present Central as well as State Governments have undertaken different policies and plans to bring about positive changes amidst the rural people. In most cases, however, the policies and plans fail to achieve the desired level of changes in the rural areas (Desai, 1991. Although in fewer isolated cases, some success has been achieved, but overall development remains to be reached. This research, based mainly on secondary data aims to investigate the scale of progress in the two districts —Burdwan and Murshidabad of West Bengal, India, in the areas embracing social correlates of rural poverty, basic infrastructure facilities, standard of living and quality of life. The data are analysed with the help of statistical and cartographical analysis.

  15. Commuting patterns of workers in a village of Barddhaman district, West Bengal

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    Bhaswati Mondal

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Commuting helps to keep balance between residence and workplace of workers. With growing accessibility and connectivity, the importance of commuting is increasing all over the world. It is becoming a major substitute to migration. In commute-studies, commute-pattern is an important chapter. It highlights commuters’ directions of movement, distance they cover, modes of transport they use, the time they take to commute, etc. Unlike the urban-based commute pattern, commute pattern in rural areas are relatively an under-researched issue. In fact, traditionally rural people are thought to carry a sedentary lifestyle. Using primary data, this study aims to explore the commute patterns of rural workers located in the village of Gandharbapur of Barddhaman district of West Bengal, India. All the commuters were found to be engaged in non-farm work. Commuters stem from two major groups. One group of commuters is accumulated farm-income induced. They possess sufficient agricultural land. Investing their surplus farm-income, they have established non-farm works. The second group of commuters is poverty-driven. They are landless poor or are marginal farmers and to escape poverty, they have slipped into these works. Located beyond the suburban area (Memari being the nearest town, most commuters commute to nearby rural areas. Due to non-availability of public transport, women commute less than men do. Regular-paid government employees commute longer than other workers commute. The article concludes with a summary of findings and recommendations for further research.

  16. Feasibility Study of Phragmites karka and Christella dentata Grown in West Bengal as Arsenic Accumulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Anshita; Jamil, Sarah; Srivastava, Pankaj Kumar; Tripathi, Rudra Deo; Sharma, Yogesh Kumar; Singh, Nandita

    2015-01-01

    A survey was undertaken, in arsenic (As) contaminated area of the Nadia district, West Bengal, India, to find native As accumulator plants. As was determined both in soil and plant parts. The results showed that the mean translocation factor of Pteris vittata L, Phragmites karka (Cav.) Trin. Ex. Steud and Christella dentata Forssk were higher than 1. It thus appeared that these plants can be efficient accumulators of As. Phytoremediation ability of C. dentata and P. karka was evaluated and compared with known As-hyperaccumulators -P. vittata and Adiantum capillus veneris L. Plants were grown in the As spiked soil (25, 50, 75 and 100 mg kg(-1)). As accumulation was found to be highest in P. vittata, 117.18 mg kg(-1) in leaf at 100 mg kg(-1) As treatment, followed by A. capillus veneris, P. karka and C. dentata being 74, 83.87 and 40.36 mg kg(-1), respectively. Lipid peroxidation increased after As exposure in all plants. However, the antioxidant enzyme activity and molecules concentration also increased which helped the plants to overcome As-induced oxidative stress. The study indicates that P. karka and C. dentata could be considered as As-accumulators and find application for As-phytoextraction in field conditions.

  17. Comparative evaluation of growth parameters of IVF children of West Bengal

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    Sudipta Kar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Fertility rates have started declining in West Bengal, India in the last few decades. In vitro fertilization (IVF is one of the major treatment modalities available to infertile couple. Aims: This study was aimed to evaluate and compare the growth parameters of IVF and spontaneously conceived children. The objective of this study is to relate the physical status of IVF children with that of spontaneously conceived group. Settings and Design: In a cross-sectional case-control study, growth parameters of 3-14-year-old children were assessed. Subjects and Methods: Weight and height of 3-14-year-old children were assessed. Birth weight and length of each case and control group was also recorded. The case group consisted of term, singleton babies who were outcome of IVF in the studied area in 2009. The control group consisted of term, first child, singleton, and spontaneously conceived 3-14-year-old children who were also resident of the studied area. A sample of 150 IVF and 150 spontaneously conceived children were examined. Statistical Analysis Used: Chi-square and student′s t-test were used for data analysis. Results: No statistically significant difference found in the studied (IVF children and the control group (spontaneously conceived children. Conclusions: Growth retardation is more prevalent in babies born through IVF in the initial phase of life, but later on, IVF children are considered same as spontaneously conceived children.

  18. Marine fishery possibilities of the west coast of India

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    Panikkar, N.K.

    Marine fishery activity of the west coast of India is discussed. Sea fish production from the west coast of India makes three fourths of total fish production from Indian coasts. Kerala accounts for the largest production of fish in India...

  19. Does Women Empowerment Predict Contraceptive Use? A Study in a Rural Area of Hooghly District, West Bengal

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    Aparajita Dasgupta Dasgupta

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: India launched the world’s first national family planning programme in 1952. Unfortunately, considerable numbers of eligible couples in India are still not using any method of contraception in spite of the fact that knowledge related to contraceptives are not lacking. Studies reported that the status of the women in the family and largely in the community, represented by a measure ‘women empowerment’ plays a role in determining contraceptive use. However, there is dearth of literature in this regards especially among women of reproductive age of West Bengal. Aims & Objectives: To find out the current contraceptive use and its relationship, if any with women empowerment among adult married women of reproductive age group in a rural area of West Bengal. Material & Methods: Community based cross-sectional study was conducted among 151 WRA using interviewer-administered questionnaire. Current use of contraceptive was the outcome variable. The main explanatory variable was ‘empowerment score’-a summed measure of four domains: ‘financial autonomy’, ‘freedom of movement’, ‘involvement in household level decision making’ and ‘woman’s power in sexual and reproductive decision making’. Results: 63.6% study participants were using any method of contraception at the time of study. Women empowerment [AOR (CI: 1.11 (1.02-1.22] and education of women [AOR (CI: 2.56 (1.13-5.85] were significantly associated with contraceptive use, even after adjustment with other independent variables. Conclusion: Educating women and empowering them will improve the family planning practices. This will, in long run play a pivotal role in improving family and community health.

  20. Anopheline Diversity: Morphological and Molecular Variation of An. subpictus in Rural and Urban Areas of West Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satarupa Paul

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A systematic survey (March 2012- Feb 2013of Anopheline population in rural(Mogra and urban(Dumdum areas of West Bengal has been conducted to know the present population load of Anopheles subpictus. A reliminary attempt has been made to assess the potential morphological (wing as well as molecular variation of Anopheles subpictus by using ITS-2 sequence primer. A considerable sequence variation is observed between the rural and urban population of West Bengal.

  1. Isolation and characterization of Staphylococcus sp. strain NBRIEAG-8 from arsenic contaminated site of West Bengal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, Shubhi; Singh, Namrata; Singh, Nandita [CSIR - National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow, UP (India). Eco-auditing Lab.; Verma, Praveen C.; Singh, Ankit; Mishra, Manisha [CSIR - National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow, UP (India). Plant Molecular Biology and Genetic Engineering; Sharma, Neeta [Lucknow Univ., UP (India). Plant Pathology Lab.

    2012-09-15

    Arsenic contaminated rhizospheric soils of West Bengal, India were sampled for arsenic resistant bacteria that could transform different arsenic forms. Staphylococcus sp. NBRIEAG-8 was identified by16S rDNA ribotyping, which was capable of growing at 30,000 mg l{sup -1} arsenate [As(V)] and 1,500 mg l{sup -1} arsenite [As(III)]. This bacterial strain was also characterized for arsenical resistance (ars) genes which may be associated with the high-level resistance in the ecosystems of As-contaminated areas. A comparative proteome analysis was conducted with this strain treated with 1,000 mg l{sup -1} As(V) to identify changes in their protein expression profiles. A 2D gel analysis showed a significant difference in the proteome of arsenic treated and untreated bacterial culture. The change in pH of cultivating growth medium, bacterial growth pattern (kinetics), and uptake of arsenic were also evaluated. After 72 h of incubation, the strain was capable of removing arsenic from the culture medium amended with arsenate and arsenite [12% from As(V) and 9% from As(III)]. The rate of biovolatilization of As(V) was 23% while As(III) was 26%, which was determined indirectly by estimating the sum of arsenic content in bacterial biomass and medium. This study demonstrates that the isolated strain, Staphylococcus sp., is capable for uptake and volatilization of arsenic by expressing ars genes and 8 new upregulated proteins which may have played an important role in reducing arsenic toxicity in bacterial cells and can be used in arsenic bioremediation. (orig.)

  2. VESICOVAGINAL FISTULA: OUR EXPERIENCE OF 47 CASES IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL OF WEST BENGAL

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    Biswajit

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Vesicovaginal Fistula (VVF, an abnormal communication between the urinary bladder and vagina, is one of the most distressing and embarrassing health problem for the ladies. The present observational study was planned to inquire into the demographic and aetiologic pattern of vesicovaginal fistula and the long-term success rate of its surgical management following different techniques of repair in a tertiary care centre of West Bengal, India. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 47 patients with vesicovaginal fistula presented at our hospital over a span of nine years, were observed during their course of treatment. The patients were evaluated with clinical history, physical examination, routine laboratory investigations, intravenous urogram and cystoscopy. Then the patients had undergone operation by vaginal or abdominal route. Patients were discharged from the hospital with per urethral catheter. On 21st post-operative day, routine cystogram was done in every patient before catheter removal to exclude the failure of the operation. RESULT Of the observed 47 patients, 66% were tracked back to their obstetric causes and 34% patients could be linked up to gynaecological aetiology like a complication of hysterectomy or after brachytherapy for carcinoma of cervix. In 23.4% of patients, the repair of fistula was done by vaginal route, whereas in 76.6% cases by abdominal approach. Overall success rate of surgical repair was 87.3%, which is comparable to the success rate mentioned in literature. CONCLUSION In spite of a decline in the incidence of vesicovaginal fistula in the western world, it is still highly prevalent in the developing countries. Prolonged obstructive labour was found as the most common aetiology of this devastating condition in our region. Timely intervention with meticulous surgical technique is essential for an acceptable success rate in fistula repair surgery. However, improved obstetric care, institutional delivery, high literacy rate

  3. Geologic, geomorphic and hydrologic framework and evolution of the Bengal basin, India and Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Abhijit; Fryar, Alan E.; Thomas, William A.

    2009-03-01

    The Bengal basin, the largest fluvio-deltaic sedimentary system on Earth, is located in Bangladesh and three eastern states of India. Sediment accumulates in the basin from the Ganges, Brahmaputra, and Meghna (GBM) river systems and is dispersed into the Bay of Bengal, forming the largest submarine fan in the world. The basin is located in the Himalayan foreland at the junction of the Indian, Eurasian, and Burmese plates. The basin is bounded by the Indian craton on the west and the Indo-Burmese fold belts on the east. It can be broadly divided into a stable shelf and a foredeep separated by a deep seismic hinge zone. Basin sediments overlie Gondwanan basement and vary in thickness from a few kilometers on the stable shelf to more than 16 km in the foredeep. The basin was initiated at the breakup of Gondwanaland in the late Mesozoic and evolved through the formation of the proto-GBM delta to the present delta starting around 10.5 Ma. The stratigraphy of the different parts of the basin differs considerably, because of contrast in depositional history within the several sub-basins that were produced by intra-plate tectonic activities associated with ongoing Himalayan orogeny. The present-day geomorphology is dominated by the extensive Holocene GBM floodplain and delta. The vertical succession of the deltaic plain can be classified into five units on the basis of differences in grain size, which reflect differing depositional environments. The initiation of the modern GBM delta at the onset of the Pleistocene glacial maximum and its evolution to the present configuration are intricately related to Holocene fluvio-dynamic processes, eustatic sea-level changes, and tectonic movements. The sedimentology and mineralogy of the different parts of the basin reflect differences in sediment provenance. The mineralogy is dominated by detrital quartz, some feldspar, and minor amounts of carbonates; illite and kaolinite are the main clay minerals. The basin has profuse

  4. Periodontal status of a given population of West Bengal: An epidemiological study

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Background: This paper presents the prevalence and severity of periodontal disease in a given population of West Bengal and its relationship with their age, sex, socioeconomic status, educational background, and dietary habits. Also, the treatment needs on the basis of Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Needs (CPITN), which might be helpful for future planning of dental services. Materials and Methods: A sample of 22,452 individuals aged 15 years and above was selected using a random cl...

  5. A Study on Problems of Hijras in West Bengal Based on Neutrosophic Cognitive Maps

    OpenAIRE

    Kalyan Mondal; Surapati Pramanik

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the problems faced by Hijras in West Bengal in order to find its solutions using neutrosophic cognitive maps. Florentin Smarandache and Vasantha Kandasamy studied neutrosophic cognitive map which is an extension of fuzzy cognitive map by incorporating indeterminacy. Hijras is considered as neither man nor woman in biological point of view. They are in special gender identity (third gender) in Indian society. In their daily life, they have to fac...

  6. Evaluation of egg production after adoption of biosecurity strategies by backyard poultry farmers in West Bengal

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    I. Samanta

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: On the basis of identified source of major bacterial infections at four agro-climatic zones in West Bengal the cost-effective biosecurity strategy was formulated for backyard poultry farmers. The aim of the present study was to assess the adoption. So, the study was aimed to detect the adoption level of the formulated biosecurity strategy to mitigate the Salmonella and Escherichia coli contamination level in the sources and its correlation with egg production in West Bengal. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire was prepared querying regarding the biosecurity measures presently followed by the farmers, if any and egg production of their birds. Subsequent to the interview the formulated biosecurity strategy was conveyed. After 3 months, the interview with the same questionnaire was conducted to the same farmers to detect their adoption level. Results: The change in practices were noted in certain parameters which differs significantly (p<0.01 or p<0.05. As a consequence, the average egg production/flock was increased in 3 months after adoption of the strategy (618.2±37.77/flock in comparison to last 3 months average before adoption of the strategy (495.3±30.00/flock which also differs significantly (p<0.01. Conclusion: The present study detected the implementation of the biosecurity strategy in backyard poultry farming in West Bengal can substantially benefit the farmers in terms of increased egg production.

  7. Ethnobotanical survey of folklore plants used in treatment of snakebite in Paschim Medinipur district, West Bengal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sumana Sarkhel

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate and collect information from traditional health healers/tribal communities on the use of medicinal plants for treatment of snakebite. Methods:The ethno-medicinal study was conducted in 8 villages of the Paschim Medinipur district of West Bengal in 2012-2013 through questionnaire and personal interviews. Following the method of Martin, information about medicinal plants used in snake bite, precise plant parts used, methods of treatment and administration was enquired from the tribal communities (Santhals, Mundas, Lodhas, Bhumijs, Oraon Kherias) of the region. Results:The present study enumerates 20 ethnomedicinal plant species belonging to 16 families used by the tribal communities and medicinal healers of Paschim Medinipur district, West Bengal in treatment of snakebite. Each plant species has been listed alphabetically according to its botanical name, family, vernacular name, part(s) used, mode of preparation/administration. Conclusions:The importance of traditional medicinal system among the tribal communities of Paschim Medinipur district of West Bengal has been highlighted in the present study.

  8. Arsenic contamination in agricultural soils of Bengal deltaic region of West Bengal and its higher assimilation in monsoon rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrivastava, Anamika; Barla, Anil; Singh, Surjit; Mandraha, Shivanand; Bose, Sutapa

    2017-02-15

    In the Bengal deltaic region, the shallow groundwater laced with arsenic is used for irrigation frequently and has elevated the soil arsenic in agricultural soil. However, the areas with seasonal flooding reduce arsenic in top layers of the soils. Study shows arsenic accumulation in the deeper soil layers with time in the contaminated agricultural soil (19.40±0.38mg/kg in 0-5cm, 27.17±0.44mg/kg in 5-10cm and 41.24±0.48mg/kg in 10-15cm) in 2013 whereas depletion in 2014 and its buildup in different parts of monsoon rice plant in Nadia, India. Principal Component Analysis and Cluster Analysis were performed, and Enrichment Factor was calculated to identify the sources of arsenic in the soil. Potential Ecological Risk was also calculated to estimate the extent of risk posed by arsenic in soil, along with the potential risk of dietary arsenic exposure. Remarkably, the concentration of arsenic detected in the rice grain showed average value of 1.4mg/kg in 2013 which has increased to 1.6 in 2014, both being above the permissible limit (1mg/kg). These results indicate that monsoon flooding enhances the infiltration of arsenic in the deeper soil layer, which lead to further contamination of shallow groundwater. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The Politics of Starvation Deaths in West Bengal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubin, Olivier

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the local socio-political causes behind a sudden wave of starvation deaths that swept across the West Bengali village of Amlashol during the summer of 2004. Following the new paradigm of famine analysis where focus is placed on political failures, the article addresses three...... groups of political dynamics that together contributed to the starvation deaths: (i) political triggering mechanisms; (ii) underlying political dynamics; and (iii) village specific political dynamics. The article finds that the government’s escalating conflict with the Maoists turned a situation...... and politically marginalised panchayat. Within Amlashol, the casualties of starvation came primarily from one particular Scheduled tribe, the Sabars, due to issues of social stigmatisation, political exclusion and eroding livelihoods. The article provides a testament to the importance of addressing disaggregated...

  10. A study on bed utilization in the gynaecological ward of a district hospital in West Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, S; Biswas, R; Lahiri, A

    2005-01-01

    A study was conducted in a non-paying gynaecological ward of the district hospital, South 24 Parganas, West Bengal to assess different bed efficiency indicators. Total 331 patients were admitted in 23 study beds (12 OPD beds and 11 emergency beds) during an observation period of six months. Overall average number of admissions were 14.4 and average length of stay 14.7days. Bed turnover rate was 13.8 and was higher for emergency beds (22.1) compared to OPD beds (9). Bed occupancy rate was 61.3% with significant difference between OPD beds (57.5%) and emergency beds (65.4%).

  11. Studies on mid gut microbiota of wild caught Culex (Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes from Barasat (North 24 Parganas of West Bengal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Pal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Mosquitoes are haematophagous insects that serve as obligate intermediate host for numerous diseases like Filaria, Malaria, Dengue, etc. Mosquitoes can be considered as a holobiont units in which host (mosquitoes and its gut microbiota are involved in a complex reciprocal interaction. The naturally acquired microbiota can modulate mosquitos’ vectorial capacity by inhibiting the development of pathogens. But, enough care has not been taken in West Bengal to investigate on the midgut microbiota of Culex mosquitoes. Therefore, a preliminary attempt has been undertaken to study the morphology, growth pattern and antibiotic susceptibility of midgut microbiota of Culex (Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes collected from Barasat areas (North 24 Parganas of West Bengal..

  12. Foramgeographical affinities of the west and east coasts of India: An approach through cluster analysis and comparison of taxonomical, environmental and ecological parameters of Recent foraminiferal thanatotopes

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Katha, P.K.; Bhalla, S.N.; Nigam, R.

    -Pacific province, and have been widely reported from Malaysia, Indonesia, Taiwan, Japan and other countries. Similarly Spiroloculina communis and Quinqueloculina tropicalis of the east coast occur rarely at one or two places along the West Coast of India... and east coasts of India shows that there are two distinct faunal provinces? the western covering the major part of the Arabian Sea and the eastern covering the Bay of Bengal and the coast along Thailand, Malaysia and Sumatra. Also that the major part...

  13. Child Immunization and Vitamin A Supplementation in the District of Bankura, West Bengal

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    Nirmal Kumar Mandal

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: District Health Authority of Bankura in the state of West Bengal desired to estimate the coverage of childhood vaccination and vitamin A prophylaxis by an independent body. To address these issues the present study was undertaken. Objectives: To estimate immunization coverage and vitamin A supplementation in 12-23 months children. Methods: A Cross sectional observational study was conducted in the district of Bankura, West Bengal among children aged between 12-23 months with sample size 320. Study variables were sex, residence, antigen-wise immunization coverage, proportion of fully immunized children, immunization drop-out rate, Vitamin-A (first dose supplementation etc. Coverage was estimated by proportions and Chi-square (c2 was applied as a test of significance. Results: 99.0%, 94.8% and 91.4% of studied children received BCG, DPT-3/OPV-3 and Measles vaccination respectively. 80.3% of children (80.9% male and 79.7% of female were fully immunized. The drop out rate for highest covered antigen dose (DPT1/OPV1 to lowest covered antigen dose (measles was 8.1%. Fully immunized children were found more in rural area (81.7% than the urban area (62.5 of the district. Difference was statistically significant. Almost 92% children received first dose of Vitamin-A. Conclusion: Immunization coverage of Bankura district was higher than that of the state and national figures. Rural coverage is better than urban.

  14. Periodontal status of a given population of West Bengal: An epidemiological study

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    Debabrata Kundu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This paper presents the prevalence and severity of periodontal disease in a given population of West Bengal and its relationship with their age, sex, socioeconomic status, educational background, and dietary habits. Also, the treatment needs on the basis of Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Needs (CPITN, which might be helpful for future planning of dental services. Materials and Methods: A sample of 22,452 individuals aged 15 years and above was selected using a random cluster sampling from the population. All the subjects sampled were weighed by age, sex, community, income group, educational level, diet pattern, and habitation. The WHO CPITN was used to assess the levels of periodontal condition and treatment needs. Results: Score 2 was most prevalent in all the groups. Periodontal disease is widespread in West Bengal and a positive relation appears to exist between age, sex, socio-economic status, education level, and dietary habits with periodontal status. Comprehensive oral hygiene instruction and dental prophylaxis need to be initiated. Conclusion: The data on periodontal conditions presented in this study are similar to data available from WHO on global oral health. These estimates are important for the future planning of dental services in the state.

  15. Seasonal dynamics of Vibrio cholerae and its phages in riverine ecosystem of Gangetic West Bengal: cholera paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mookerjee, Subham; Jaiswal, Abhishek; Batabyal, Prasenjit; Einsporn, Marc H; Lara, Ruben J; Sarkar, Banwarilal; Neogi, Sucharit Basu; Palit, Anup

    2014-10-01

    The Gangetic delta is a century-old cholera endemic belt where the role of riverine-estuarine ecosystem in cholera transmission has never been elucidated. Seasonality, distribution, and abundance of environmental Vibrio cholerae O1/O139 and vibriophage in Hooghly riverine-estuarine environment and their correlation with cholera incidence pattern in West Bengal, India, have been analyzed for the first time across summer, monsoon, and winter months. A total of 146 water samples collected from two sites of the Hooghly River (Howrah and Diamond Harbour) were analyzed physicochemically along with cultivable Vibrio count (CVC), V. cholerae O1/O139, and vibriophages. V. cholerae O1 was detected in 56 (38.3%) samples, while 66 (45.2%) were positive for V. cholerae O1 phages. Flood tide, water temperature (31 ± 1.6 °C), and turbidity (≥250 nephelometric turbidity unit (NTU)) significantly stimulated V. cholerae and vibriophage abundance in riverine ecosystem. Solitary existence of V. cholerae O1 and phages (p V. cholerae O1 or V. cholerae O1 Φ) on the other. Significant association (p cholera cases and V. cholerae O1 in aquatic environment implies the role of riverine-estuarine ecosystem in cholera transmission. A "biomonitoring tool" of physicochemical stimulants, tidal, and climatic variants has been proposed collating V. cholerae and phage dynamics that can forewarn any impending cholera outbreak.

  16. Parasitic prevalences in fresh water prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii in north and south 24 Parganas districts of West Bengal

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    Monjit Paul

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of different freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii parasites, found during the period from April to August 2007, was investigated in different freshwater wetlands of north and south 24 Parganas districts of West Bengal state in India. Eleven parasites - Zoothamnium, Epistylis, Gregarina, Amphileptus, Dileptus, Myxobolus, Chilodonella, Balladyna, Gozia, Rhabdochona, Indocucullanus, Procamallanus and Cucullanus - were found after examining 1,000 specimens of Macrobrachium rosenbergii of different-sized groups. The highest prevalence of the parasites was recorded in the size group of 81-85 mm and 136-140 mm. The intensity of ectoparasitic infection was observed to be high with an increase in size. The gills and the surface of the body were mostly infected. Endoparasites were found in the intestinal part, and mostly due to poor raw foods given to the prawns as their diets. The parasites get more shelter and space for them. The highest intensity of those parasites was found in the month of August due to favourable autumnal conditions, with little rain and favourable breeding time of the parasites. Stressed and weak prawns are more vulnerable to infestation under adverse environmental conditions.

  17. Geochemical appraisal of fluoride-laden groundwater in Suri I and II blocks, Birbhum district, West Bengal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Shreya; Nag, S. K.

    2017-09-01

    The present study has been carried out covering two blocks—Suri I and II in Birbhum district, West Bengal, India. The evaluation focuses on occurrence, distribution and geochemistry in 26 water samples collected from borewells spread across the entire study area homogeneously. Quantitative chemical analysis of groundwater samples collected from the present study area has shown that samples from two locations—Gangta and Dhalla contain fluoride greater than the permissible limit prescribed by WHO during both post-monsoon and pre-monsoon sampling sessions. Significant factor controlling geochemistry of groundwater has been identified to be rock-water interaction processes during both sampling sessions based on the results of Gibb's diagrams. Geochemical modeling studies have revealed that fluorite (CaF2) is, indeed, present as a significant fluoride-bearing mineral in the groundwaters of this study area. Calcite or CaCO3 is one of the most common minerals with which fluorite remains associated, and saturation index calculations have revealed that the calcite-fluorite geochemistry is the dominant factor controlling fluoride concentration in this area during both post- and pre-monsoon. High fluoride waters have also been found to be of `bicarbonate' type showing increase of sodium in water with decrease of calcium.

  18. Epidemiological predictors of metabolic syndrome in urban West Bengal, India

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    Sasthi Narayan Chakraborty

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Metabolic syndrome is one of the emerging health problems of the world. Its prevalence is high in urban areas. Though pathogenesis is complex, but the interaction of obesity, sedentary lifestyle, dietary, and genetic factors are known as contributing factors. Community-based studies were very few to find out the prevalence or predictors of the syndrome. Objectives: To ascertain the prevalence and epidemiological predictors of metabolic syndrome. Materials and Methods: A total of 690 study subjects were chosen by 30 clusters random sampling method from 43 wards of Durgapur city. Data were analyzed in SPSS version 20 software and binary logistic regression was done to find out statistical significance of the predictors. Results: Among 32.75% of the study population was diagnosed as metabolic syndrome according to National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III definition with a modification for Asia Pacific cut-off of waist circumference. Odds were more among females (2.43, upper social class (14.89, sedentary lifestyle (17.00, and positive family history. Conclusion: The overall prevalence of metabolic syndrome was high in urban areas of Durgapur. Increased age, female gender, higher social status, sedentary lifestyle, positive family history, and higher education were the statistically significant predictors of metabolic syndrome.

  19. A study on knowledge and practice related to bird flu in a rural community of Hooghly District of West Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Shibani; Sen, Shibotosh; Sengupta, Bhaswati

    2010-01-01

    For last few years in the early spring bird flu poses a threat to India. The causative agent H5N1 virus is also getting robust day by day acquiring an ability to cross the species barrier. It is now known as (H5N1) which is emerging as killer virus to man. Although human casualty is yet to be recorded from India, but the threat is not over. The present study had been undertaken in the village of Hakimpur of Singur Block of District Hooghly, West Bengal, with a population 862 of 215 families. The objective of the study was to assess the knowledge of the study population regarding bird flu and to study their practice regarding poultry maintenance. The head of the family from each family was interviewed. A house to house survey in the census method on a pre-designed, pre-tested, semi-structured schedule was done. Information regarding socio-demographic profile, poultry keeping, correct knowledge about bird flu, mode of transmission, culling, etc was recorded. The data were collected and analyzed by relevant statistical methods. The results showed that 46% respondents knew what bird flu is, 62.8% knew the mode of transmission, and 35.3% knew the procedure of culling. Out of literates about 53% and out of the illiterates only 0.93% were aware of the transmission of the virus through body fluids. The predominant source of information was mass media. 57.14% of the families rearing poultry, kept the birds in shed, 40.48% in cage, and 2.38% in living room.

  20. Hydrological modelling of the west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Suprit, K.

    A hydrological modelling framework was assembled for simulating discharges of the west-coast rivers of India. The framework is applied to the Mandovi river, Goa, a typical west-coast river. The modelling framework consisted of a digital elevation...

  1. Tidal propagation off the central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Unnikrishnan, A.S.

    Present study reviews the characteristics of tidal propagation on the continental shelf off the central west coast of India. Available observations from tide gauges are used to describe the variations of tidal ranges along the west coast. Amplitudes...

  2. A Study on Problems of Hijras in West Bengal Based on Neutrosophic Cognitive Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalyan Mondal

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the problems faced by Hijras in West Bengal in order to find its solutions using neutrosophic cognitive maps. Florentin Smarandache and Vasantha Kandasamy studied neutrosophic cognitive map which is an extension of fuzzy cognitive map by incorporating indeterminacy. Hijras is considered as neither man nor woman in biological point of view. They are in special gender identity (third gender in Indian society. In their daily life, they have to face many of problems in social aspects. Some of the problems namely, absence of social security, education problem, bad habits, health problem, stigma and discrimination, access to information and service problem, violence, Hijra community issues, and sexual behavior problem are considered in this study. Based on the expert’s opinion and the notion of indeterminacy, we formulate neutrosophic cognitive map. Then we studied the effect of two instantaneous state vectors separately on connection matrix E and neutrosophic adjacency matrix N(E.

  3. BLOOD PRESSURE AWARENESS AMONG GENERAL POPULATION: A RURAL WEST BENGAL EXPERIENCE WITH LOGISTIC REGRESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjoy Kumar Sadhukhan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The study was conducted with an objective to find out the awareness of self blood pressure in a rural community of West Bengal and factors associated with it. Methods: A community based cross-sectional study on self BP awareness among adults (≥18 years was carried out in a rural community of West Bengal through house to house visits. Total study subjects were1201 (Male=598; Female=603 of which 132 (11% were hypertensive. Results: Only 17.2% of all study subjects were aware of their own BP readings with no male-female difference. This awareness was significantly associated with age, education, economic status and hypertension, which remained significant, even after multiple logistic regressions. Even among hypertensives, only 38% were aware of their self BP. Nearly 67.11% of the study subjects had no knowledge about complications of hypertension. About 86.92% of the study subjects were ignorant about the life style changes required to prevent hypertension. Regarding hypertension control/treatment, 72.85% of study subjects were unaware. In general, males had better knowledge compared to females,although not always statistically significant. Conclusion: Self BP awareness among this study population was very poor even among the hypertensives leading to a high risk of cerebrovascular accidents and coronary heart diseases. Interpersonal communication in medical facilities as well as other strategies like group-discussions (general and focal, mass media and general education system can be utilized to improve the situation. [National J of Med Res 2012; 2(1.000: 55-58

  4. CHANGING EPIDEMIOLOGICAL TREND OF CHOLERA IN WEST BENGAL: THE GIANT IS BACK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indrani

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Choler a is a devastating diarrheal disease caused by V. cholera. Two biotypes of V. cholerae O1, classical and El - Tor, are distinguished. Each biotype is further subdivided into two serotypes, termed Inaba and Ogawa. As large deltaic areas of the Ganges and Brah maputra rivers are considered to be the homeland of cholera, objective of our study was to detect the circulating strain of Vibrio causing Cholera outbreaks in different pockets of West Bengal. Water samples collected from the water sources of the affected areas and stool samples and or rectal swabs of suspected cases were tested according to standard bacteriological protocol. In July 2008, Cholera outbreak was caused by Vibrio cholera e O1 El - Tor Inaba serotype in Darjeeling district affecting 176 persons. Mean age of the affected people was 15years. Thereafter in the June, 2010, there was an outbreak of Vibrio cholerae El Tor Ogawa affecting 87 people in Maldah. Mean age of the cases was 25years. Similar type of Vibrio cholerae O1 El - Tor Ogawa strain was is olated in the outbreak of June to September 2012 in Maldah with lower mean age of cases i.e.7years. A total of 93 patients suffered from Cholera during this outbreak. Cholera outbreak in West Bengal was caused by classical Vibrio cholerae O1 Ogawa serotype affecting 803 people in North 24 Paragana in October, 2013. Mean age of the patients was 31year. As classical Vibrio causes more severe disease than El - Tor, its reemergence with multidrug resistant properties is no doubt an upcoming threat

  5. Nomophobic behaviors among smartphone using medical and engineering students in two colleges of West Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Pallabi; Bhattacherjee, Sharmistha; Dasgupta, Samir; Roy, Jayanta Kumar; Mukherjee, Abhijit; Biswas, Romy

    2017-01-01

    Growing smartphone usage among global and Indian college students has resulted in considerable issues of "nomophobia" (NMP) or feelings of discomfort or anxiety experienced by individuals whenever unable to use their smartphones. This significantly impacts their health, work, and study. The objective of this study is to find out the prevalence of NMP among smartphone using medical and engineering undergraduates of West Bengal and to compare the nomophobic behaviors, its predictors, and smartphone usage among them. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 303 medical and 305 engineering undergraduates in West Bengal using a validated NMP questionnaire consisting of four factors. Comparison of means of individual questions and factor scores was done. Nomophobic clusters among the two groups were identified using two-stage cluster analysis. Binary logistic regression was used for comparison of predictors of NMP. Engineering students showed a higher proportion of nomophobics (44.6%) than medical students (42.6%). Significant higher means was observed among engineering students for the factor "giving upconvenience" and individual variables like "scared due to running out of battery," "nervous due to disconnection from online identity," "uncomfortable when unable stay up-to-date with social media" and "anxious when unable to check E-mails." A Higher proportion of nomophobics among both groups were females, those owning smartphone beyond 2 years, having monthly mobile bill above Rs. 200 and spending over 4 h daily on smartphone. NMP has emerged as a significant cause of concern among both the groups. Standardized measures for identification and appropriate psychobehavioral therapy for those seeking help might alleviate the problem.

  6. A study on socio-demographic characteristics of alcoholics attending the de-addiction center at Burdwan medical college and hospital in West Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya Prasad Sarkar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Prevalence of alcohol use in India is reported to be 21.4% and there is increasing alcohol intake among the young people. The present study was undertaken to study the socio-demographic characteristics of patients having alcohol-related disorders attending the de-addiction center at Burdwan Medical College in West Bengal and to find out some factors responsible for that. A clinic-based descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among 187 patients with the help of pre-tested pre-designed schedule after obtaining informed consent. Data analysis was carried out with the help of Epi info software version 6. Majority of the patients were male, in productive age group and married. Age of initiation and amount of alcohol intake were significantly associated with positive family history of alcoholism. Children having family history of alcoholism should be counseled to prevent development of alcoholism.

  7. Risk Correlates of Diarrhea in Children Under 5 Years of Age in Slums of Bankura, West Bengal

    OpenAIRE

    Avisek Gupta; Gautam Sarker; Arup Jyoti Rout; Tanushree Mondal; Ranabir Pal

    2015-01-01

    Background: Diarrheal diseases are an important cause of mortality and morbidity globally in children under 5 years of age. Objective: To find the prevalence and risk factors of diarrhea among children under 5 years. Materials and Methods: A population-based analytical cross-sectional study was conducted in the urban slums of Bankura, West Bengal on the prevalence of diarrhea and feeding practices, nutrition, and immunization among 152 children under 5 years (69 males and 83 females). Results...

  8. Food Security in Households of People Living With Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: A Cross-sectional Study in a Subdivision of Darjeeling District, West Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Pallabi; Bhattacherjee, Sharmistha; Das, Dilip Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) adversely impacts food security in households of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). Little research has focused on food insecurity among PLWHA in India. The purpose of this study was to identify the prevalence of and factors relating to food security in households of PLWHA in the Siliguri subdivision of Darjeeling, West Bengal, India. A cross-sectional community-based study was carried out among 173 PLWHA residing in Siliguri and registered at the Anti-retroviral Therapy Centre of North Bengal Medical College & Hospital. Data was collected at the household level with interviews of PLWHA using a food security survey instrument. We analyzed the associations using logistic regression. The prevalence of household food security among the participants was 50.9% (88/173). Five years or more of schooling, higher socioeconomic class and males were found to be significantly associated with a higher likelihood of food security. A later stage of the disease and the presence of other family members with HIV/AIDS were significantly associated with a lower likelihood of food security. The major coping strategies to deal with food insecurity in the acute phase HIV infection included borrowing money (56.1%), followed by spousal support, loans from microfinance institutions, banks, or money lenders, borrowing food, or selling agricultural products. The present study revealed that only about half of households with PLWHA were food secure. Prior interventions relating to periods of food and economic crisis as well as strategies for sustaining food security and economic status are needed in this area.

  9. Prevalence of dental caries and treatment needs in children in coastal areas of West Bengal

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    Dulal Das

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was carried out to measure the caries prevalence and treatment needs in school children of 6-14 year old residing in coastal areas of West Bengal. Materials and Methods: A total of 1764 children of 6-14 years age group, studying in different primary and high schools of the coastal areas were examined using World Health Organization criteria (1997 to record the prevalence of dental caries. The treatment needs were also calculated according to that given criteria. Statistical Analysis: The results were subjected to statistical analysis using the Chi-square test and unpaired ′t′ test. Results: Dental caries were founded low in the studied population. The overall all caries prevalence in the permanent dentition was 28.06%, in boys it was 25.39% and in girls it was 30.86%. Therefore caries prevalence in female was higher and which was statistically highly significant (P < 0.05. The most frequently required treatment was one surface filling followed by other treatments irrespective of sex and age group. Discussion: The presence of sea foods containing high fluoride and least availability of refined carbohydrate in the diet may be the reason of lower prevalence. Conclusion: child oral health is always a matter of concern for a developing country so further research is required to explore actual causes.

  10. Estimation of regional-scale groundwater flow properties in the Bengal Basin of India and Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, H.A.; Voss, C.I.

    2009-01-01

    Quantitative evaluation of management strategies for long-term supply of safe groundwater for drinking from the Bengal Basin aquifer (India and Bangladesh) requires estimation of the large-scale hydrogeologic properties that control flow. The Basin consists of a stratified, heterogeneous sequence of sediments with aquitards that may separate aquifers locally, but evidence does not support existence of regional confining units. Considered at a large scale, the Basin may be aptly described as a single aquifer with higher horizontal than vertical hydraulic conductivity. Though data are sparse, estimation of regional-scale aquifer properties is possible from three existing data types: hydraulic heads, 14C concentrations, and driller logs. Estimation is carried out with inverse groundwater modeling using measured heads, by model calibration using estimated water ages based on 14C, and by statistical analysis of driller logs. Similar estimates of hydraulic conductivities result from all three data types; a resulting typical value of vertical anisotropy (ratio of horizontal to vertical conductivity) is 104. The vertical anisotropy estimate is supported by simulation of flow through geostatistical fields consistent with driller log data. The high estimated value of vertical anisotropy in hydraulic conductivity indicates that even disconnected aquitards, if numerous, can strongly control the equivalent hydraulic parameters of an aquifer system. ?? US Government 2009.

  11. Littoral transport studies along west coast of India - A reivew

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kunte, P.D.; Wagle, B.G.; Sugimori, Y.

    This article presents an overview of investigations that were carried out to determine the dynamics of littoral transport along the west coast of India, during last three decades. Sedimentological methods, wave refraction diagrams, tracer tracking...

  12. Some Actiniaria (Cnidaria: Anthozoa) from the west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Hartog, J. C. Den; Jayasree, V.

    A small collection of five species of Actiniaria from the west coast of India, including three new species, is described and discussed. It concerns Anthopleura anjunae spec. nov., Bunodosoma goanensis spec. nov., Synantheopsis parulekari spec. nov...

  13. Tides in the Gulf of Khambhat, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nayak, R.K.; Shetye, S.R.

    Semi-diurnal tides in the Gulf of Khambhat (Cambay), west coast of India, amplify about threefold from mouth to head. In contrast, the amplification of diurnal tides is much smaller. A one-dimensional barotropic model with channel geometry...

  14. Spitbase of west coast of India: Potential appraisal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kunte, P.D.; Wagle, B.G.

    Spectacular spits of different sizes and variety of shapes bordering west coast of India were mapped with remote sensing techniques. By gathering information on geomorphological and locational parameters of spits, "SPITBASE", a database of spits...

  15. A CHROMOSOMAL KARYOTYPING STUDY IN MALE WITH PRIMARY INFERTILITY IN A WESTERN WEST BENGAL POPULATION

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    Abhijit

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT It is interesting that the primary infertility is a major problem in a society like ours where the population is going to be exploded. It is because that infertility severely affects the family or couples psychological harmony, sexual life & social status. Of the many factors responsible for primary male infertility which may be manifested as azoospermia or oligozoospermia, one of the important etiological factors is genetic abnormality affecting the Y chromosome. Among the different parameters known to be responsible for normal spermatogenesis, a small region in the long arm of Y chromosome, containing genes or gene cluster, defined as ‘Azoospermia Factor’ (AZF is definitely maintains the normal spermatogenesis to occur. Any abnormality in that part of the Y chromosome in the form of deletion or deviation of normal gene arrangement produces azoospermia or oligozoospermia and subsequently produces primary male infertility. SETTINGS Bankura Sammilani Medical College and Hospitals, Bankura, West Bengal. DESIGN Simple random sampling method. DURATION OF STUDY November 2013 to march 2015 (One and a half year. METHOD 80 males suffering from primary infertility with azoospermia or oligozoospermia were selected attending the antenatal outpatient department. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS 2.5% patients showed numerical chromosomal abnormality i.e. Klinefelter syndrome (47XXY. Structural abnormalities were detected in 3.75% patients in the form of deletion in the long arm of Y chromosome and ring chromosome. RESULT Out of 80 patients 5 patients showed chromosomal abnormalities in the form of both numerical as Klinefelter syndrome (2 patients & qualitative as deletions (2 patients & ring chromosome (1 patient. CONCLUSION Y chromosomal abnormalities either numerical or structural, is an important factor of male infertility as oligospermia or azoospermia. These abnormalities can be easily detected by simple aids like karyotyping and does not require high

  16. Status of birth preparedness and complication readiness in Uttar Dinajpur District, West Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Dipta Kanti; Mukhopadhyay, Sujishnu; Bhattacharjee, Sharmistha; Nayak, Susmita; Biswas, Asit K; Biswas, Akhil B

    2013-01-01

    Birth Preparedness and Complication Readiness (BPCR) is crucial in averting maternal morbidity and mortality. To find out awareness and practices regarding BPCR among pregnant and recently delivered women in Uttar Dinajpur, West Bengal. This is a cross-sectional, community-based, mixed methods study. Two-stage, 40 cluster sampling technique was used to select three pregnant and six recently delivered women separately. Information on socio-demographic variables as well as awareness and practices regarding BPCR were collected through semi-structured interview. In-depth interviews with one respondent per cluster were also conducted. For statistical analysis Z test was used. Around 50% of the respondents planned for first antenatal check-up (ANC) within 12 weeks, four or more ANCs and institutional delivery. Proportion of women aware of at least one key danger sign each of pregnancy, labor, postpartum, and newborn ranged from 12.1% to 37.2%, whereas 58.3% knew at least one key component of essential newborn care. Around two-thirds and one-third of women, respectively, especially those from backward and below poverty line (BPL) families knew about cash incentive and referral transport schemes. Proportions of women with first ANC within 12 weeks, four or more ANCs, institutional delivery, saving money, identifying transport, and blood donor were 50.4%, 33.6%, 46.2%, 40.8%, 27.3%, and 9.6%, respectively. Hindu religion, backward castes, BPL status, and education ≥ 5 years influenced the practices except for two regarding ANC. Overall BPCR index of the study population was 34.5. Preparedness in health system, ensuring competence, and motivation of workers are needed for promoting BPCR among the study population.

  17. Prospecting Russula senecis: a delicacy among the tribes of West Bengal

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    Somanjana Khatua

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Russula senecis, a worldwide distributed mushroom, is exclusively popular among the tribal communities of West Bengal for food purposes. The present study focuses on its reliable taxonomic identification through macro- and micro-morphological features, DNA barcoding, confirmation of its systematic placement by phylogenetic analyses, myco-chemicals and functional activities. For the first time, the complete Internal Transcribed Spacer region of R. senecis has been sequenced and its taxonomic position within subsection Foetentinae under series Ingratae of the subgen. Ingratula is confirmed through phylogenetic analysis. For exploration of its medicinal properties, dried basidiocarps were subjected for preparation of a heat stable phenol rich extract (RusePre using water and ethanol as solvent system. The antioxidant activity was evaluated through hydroxyl radical scavenging (EC50 5 µg/ml, chelating ability of ferrous ion (EC50 0.158 mg/ml, DPPH radical scavenging (EC50 1.34 mg/ml, reducing power (EC50 2.495 mg/ml and total antioxidant activity methods (13.44 µg ascorbic acid equivalent/mg of extract. RusePre exhibited antimicrobial potentiality against Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Furthermore, different parameters were tested to investigate its chemical composition, which revealed the presence of appreciable quantity of phenolic compounds, along with carotenoids and ascorbic acid. HPLC-UV fingerprint indicated the probable existence of at least 13 phenolics, of which 10 were identified (pyrogallol > kaempferol > quercetin > chlorogenic acid > ferulic acid, cinnamic acid > vanillic acid > salicylic acid > p-coumaric acid > gallic acid. Result from the present work suggests that the fraction, RusePre, may open novel prospect as a functional ingredient in antioxidant supplements and in drugs to treat infectious disease.

  18. The silent burden of anemia in school age children: A community based study in West Bengal

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    Soma Gupta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Under nutrition and anemia are common co-morbidities in school age children. Due to transition in dietary habits in developing countries, a paradoxical finding of coexistence of anemia and normal/over nutrition is also a cause of concern. Objective:> T o assess the nutritional status and prevalence of anemia among school age children (6 - 16 years residing in rural and urban areas of a district of West Bengal and also to find out the association between weight status, measured as Body Mass Index(BMI and anemia. Materials and Methods: Age, height & weight were measured in 86 rural and 86 urban school age (6 -16 years children in rural and urban field practice areas of Midnapore Medical College. Their blood was estimated for haemoglobin concentration. Results: Overall prevalence of anemia was 80.2%, and not significantly different between the rural (83.7% and urban (76.7% participants and across the genders both in rural (86.4% versus 80.9% and urban (85.7% versus 72.4% areas. Thinness was observed to be higher in urban area (48.8% versus 41.9%. However, severe thinness was higher in rural area (18.5% versus 13.9%. Significantly, higher proportion of boys revealed severely low BMI compared to girls in both rural (33.3% versus 4.5% and urban (17.2% versus 7.1% areas with no significant differences between the prevalence of anemia across the grades of underweight and normal nutritional status. Conclusions: Poor nutritional status and anemia are still, taking heavy toll and new program strategies are needed, particularly those that improve the overall nutrition status of children.

  19. Observed characteristics of tide-surge interaction along the east coast of India and the head of Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Antony, C.; Unnikrishnan, A.S.

    make it one among the cyclone prone water bodies on the globe. The North Indian Ocean basin comprising of the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea, accounts for 5- 6 cyclones per year and the ratio of frequencies of formation of cyclones in the Bay... then turn and move towards the north east direction. Due to the low-lying nature of the coast and cyclone tracks, the east coast of India and the Bangladesh coast are highly vulnerable to damages caused by storm surges. Moreover, the head bay...

  20. Globalisation and the Cultural Politics of Educational Change: The Controversy over Teaching of English in West Bengal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scrase, Timothy J.

    2002-09-01

    (Globalisation and the Cultural Politics of Educational Change: The Controversy over the Teaching of English in West Bengal) - This article deals with the articulation of educational policy, cultural politics, and social class in the era of globalization. It analyses the policy of the Government of West Bengal to remove the teaching of English from the primary school syllabus in the state in the early 1980s and its subsequent reintroduction from the beginning of the school year in 2000. The author argues that English is a crucial component of the middle classes' cultural capital and is essential to their future employment success, especially in a globalising work environment. This is supported by interviews conducted during 1998/1999 with middle-class Bengalis. For governments of postcolonial, developing societies, this dispute highlights an essential dichotomy between, on the one hand, the ideal of broad-based educational policies and, on the other hand, the need to prepare children for employment at home and abroad in the context of globalisation.

  1. Tropical cyclones in the Bay of Bengal and extreme sea-level projections along the east coast of India in a future climate scenario

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Unnikrishnan, A.S.; RameshKumar, M.R.; Sindhu, B.

    of India were made using a storm surge model developed for the Bay of Bengal, driven by winds and surface atmospheric pressure. For A2 simulations, a uniform sea-level rise of 4 mm/yr from 1990 was included from the present levels. The 100-year return...

  2. Historical developments in marine geology and some aspects of fine-grained sediments along the continental margins of India and Bengal fan

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, V.P.

    Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 29 Historical developments in Marine Geology and some aspects of fine- grained sediments along the continental margins of India and Bengal Fan V. Purnachandra Rao National Institute of Oceanography.... The Andhra University, Waltair made pioneering investigations on the eastern continental margin of India in the early 1950s. However, the International Indian Ocean Expedition (IIOE: 1961-1965) is an important landmark in the history of development...

  3. Effect of thiobencarb and pretilachlor on microorganisms in relation to mineralization of C and N in the Gangetic alluvial soil of West Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhowmick, Sourav; Das, Ritwika; Das, Amal Chandra

    2014-10-01

    An experiment was conducted under laboratory conditions to investigate the effect of two pre-emergence herbicides, viz., thiobencarb (at 1.5 and 4.5 kg active ingredient (a.i.) ha(-1)) and pretilachlor (at 0.5 and 1.5 kg a.i. ha(-1)), on the growth and multiplication of some microorganisms (bacteria, actinomycetes and fungi) in relation to transformations and availability of C and N in the Gangetic alluvial soil (Typic Haplustept) of West Bengal, India. Application of both the herbicides, in general, significantly increased microbial biomass, resulting in greater retention, mineralization and availability of oxidizable organic C and N in soil, and the stimulations were more pronounced when the herbicides were applied at their lower concentrations (recommended field application rates), more so with thiobencarb, as compared to pretilachlor. Compared to untreated control soil, the application of thiobencarb at lower concentration increased the proliferation of total bacteria, actinomycetes and fungi by 57.3, 36.6 and 55.2%, respectively, and released the highest amount (40.2%) of soluble NO₃(-) in soil, while pretilachlor at field application rate induced the growth and multiplication of bacteria and fungi by 58.3 and 17.6%, respectively. Irrespective of the concentrations, the stimulations were at par for both the herbicides towards the retention of oxidizable organic C, total N and exchangeable NH₄(+) in soil.

  4. SEROLOGICAL DIAGNOSIS OF CANINE BRUCELLLOSIS IN A KENNEL OF KOLKATA, INDIA

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    J. Mitra

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Antibodies against Brucella canis was detected in 5 out of 10 Labrador bitches tested for brucellasis by 2-mercapto-ethanol rapid slide agglutination Test and lateral flow immunechromatographic assay at Kolkata, West Bengal, India.

  5. Earth Observation and Geospatial techniques for Soil Salinity and Land Capability Assessment over Sundarban Bay of Bengal Coast, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sumanta; Choudhury, Malini Roy; Das, Subhasish; Nagarajan, M.

    2016-12-01

    To guarantee food security and job creation of small scale farmers to commercial farmers, unproductive farms in the South 24 PGS, West Bengal need land reform program to be restructured and evaluated for agricultural productivity. This study established a potential role of remote sensing and GIS for identification and mapping of salinity zone and spatial planning of agricultural land over the Basanti and Gosaba Islands(808.314sq. km) of South 24 PGS. District of West Bengal. The primary data i.e. soil pH, Electrical Conductivity (EC) and Sodium Absorption ratio (SAR) were obtained from soil samples of various GCP (Ground Control Points) locations collected at 50 mts. intervals by handheld GPS from 0-100 cm depths. The secondary information is acquired from the remotely sensed satellite data (LANDSAT ETM+) in different time scale and digital elevation model. The collected field samples were tested in the laboratory and were validated with Remote Sensing based digital indices analysisover the temporal satellite data to assess the potential changes due to over salinization. Soil physical properties such as texture, structure, depth and drainage condition is stored as attributes in a geographical soil database and linked with the soil map units. The thematic maps are integrated with climatic and terrain conditions of the area to produce land capability maps for paddy. Finally, The weighted overlay analysis was performed to assign theweights according to the importance of parameters taken into account for salineareaidentification and mapping to segregate higher, moderate, lower salinity zonesover the study area.

  6. Physico-chemical parameters of the SW and post NE monsoon (2009) seawater along the continental slope, Tamil Nadu, east coast of India, Bay of Bengal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisha, V.; Achyuthan, H.

    2014-01-01

    Variations in sea water temperature, salinity, light intensity and availability of nutrients strongly influence the phytoplankton distribution that forms an important part of the coastal food chain. In this paper, we present the results of the physico-chemical parameters and nutrient concentrations in seawaters sampled during the 2009 South West (SW) and post North East (NE) monsoon periods along the continental shelf from Chennai to Nagapattinam, east coast, Tamil Nadu. This study was conducted to assess the status of the coastal biogeochemical environment and for this purpose, seawater samples were collected from the sea surface and also at varying depths (surface to 150 m depth) at six different locations. The nutrient analyses and the CTD data reveal a distinct variation with water depth along the continental slope and also the physico-chemical properties of seawater are not homogenous. The observed values of nutrients for the post NE monsoon period are low compared to the SW monsoon period. Contour plots indicate seasonal and spatial variations in physico-chemical parameters along the continental shelf of the east coast of India. The data suggests that during the 2009 SW monsoon period, a significant increase of freshwater input into the Bay of Bengal could have elevated nutrient concentration compared to that observed during the post 2009 NE monsoon.

  7. A cyto-epidemiological study on married women in reproductive age group (15-49 years regarding reproductive tract infection in a rural community of West Bengal

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    Shamima Yasmin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Reproductive tract infection (RTI represents a major public health problem in India. Women are either not aware of the symptoms of RTI or refuse to seek health care due to economic and time constrains unless suffering from alarming symptoms. Objectives: To find out the prevalence of women with suggestive symptoms of RTI; to identify clinical and cytological abnormalities among the symptomatic women and to find out association between socio-demographic profile and risk factors with RTI symptomatic and cytology positive patients. Materials and Methods: A total of 385 married women in reproductive age group residing in Baligori sub-center area in Tarakeswar block of Hooghly district, West Bengal, India, were screened for symptom suggestive of RTI; symptomatic women went through gynecological examination and cancer cervix screening by Pap smear. Analysis of results was done by Odds ratio and multivariate logistic regression. Results: Overall, 23.6% of the study population had symptoms suggestive of RTI. Most of them (68.1% had abnormal vaginal discharge. Among the symptomatic women, cytology proved that 24.4% were suffering from acute cervicitis, 4.7% from A Squamous Cell of Undetermined Significance (ASCUS and 2.3% from Low Grade Intra epithelial Lesion (LSIL Squamous. Statistically significant association was observed for age, number of children, contact history of husband, pond bathing, menstrual hygiene, intra uterine device insertion, non-usage of barrier method, and history of abortion among women symptomatic for RTI and asymptomatic women. Conclusions: Prevalence of suggestive symptoms of RTI in women was found to be high (23.6%, and among them 7% had cervical dysplasia. Therefore, enhancing awareness and organizing screening camps are absolute necessity and must be held at frequent intervals to curb the menace due to cervical cancer.

  8. Nearshore currents along the Karnataka coast, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SanilKumar, V.; Dora, G.U.; Philip, C.S.; Pednekar, P.S.; Singh, J.

    Measured current data at 7 locations and tide data at 3 locations during the pre-summer monsoon period along the west coast of India is used in the study. The surface currents during March showed a predominant northward trend and during April...

  9. Beach rocks of the central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wagle, B.G.

    in the intertidal zone or spray zone as well as 2 to 4 m above the present high 112 Iv t l<'igure 1. Map showing the location of beach rock exposures along the central west Clnst of India. water line. They occur as medium thick beds (3-4 m), more often as patches...

  10. Seasonal variability of coastal water quality in bay of Bengal and Palk Strait, Tamilnadu, Southeast Coast of India

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    Viswanathan Srinivasan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the physicochemical parameters of water quality collected from 12 sampling stations from Topputhurai to Muthupet in Vedaranyam located on the southeast coast of India from January to December 2008. Results showed that the DO and nutrients were the maximum in the Bay of Bengal during the monsoon period. High concentration of the nutrients in summer season was obtained near the Muthupet mangroves compared to the Palk Strait, which showed that this acted as a source of nutrients to the adjacent coastal waters. Low concentrations of the nutrients observed in the monsoon could be attributed to the terrestrial runoff from Muthupet lagoon. The physicochemical characteristics of coastal waters between the Point Calimere and Muthupet could be used as a baseline data for the monitoring, conservation and management of Point Calimere Wildlife and Bird sanctuary, Great Vedaranyam swamp and Muthupet mangrove ecosystem.

  11. Leveraging microfinance to impact HIV and financial behaviors among adolescents and their mothers in West Bengal: a cluster randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spielberg, Freya; Crookston, Benjamin T; Chanani, Sheila; Kim, Jaewhan; Kline, Sean; Gray, Bobbi L

    2013-01-01

    Microfinance can be used to reach women and adolescent girls with HIV prevention education. We report findings from a cluster-randomized control trial among 55 villages in West Bengal to determine the impact of non-formal education on knowledge, attitudes and behaviors for HIV prevention and savings. Multilevel regression models were used to evaluate differences between groups for key outcomes while adjusting for cluster correlation and differences in baseline characteristics. Women and girls who received HIV education showed significant gains in HIV knowledge, awareness that condoms can prevent HIV, self-efficacy for HIV prevention, and confirmed use of clean needles, as compared to the control group. Condom use was rare and did not improve for women. While HIV testing was uncommon, knowledge of HIV-testing resources significantly increased among girls, and trended in the positive direction among women in intervention groups. Conversely, the savings education showed no impact on financial knowledge or behavior change.

  12. Assessment of energy balance against the nutritional status of women carriers in the brickfields of West Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Bijetri; Sen, Devashish

    2016-09-01

    The Indian brick industry is an unorganized sector in which large numbers of migrant women workers are employed. A survey was conducted on 62 women workers working in different brickfields of West Bengal to assess their physiological workload, nutritional profile, total energy expenditure and energy balance. Energy intake was calculated using physiological fuel values of carbohydrate, fat and protein. From the results it is seen that 13% of the sample population falls under severe (grade III) chronic energy deficiency. The average daily consumption of the workers was comparatively lower than their daily energy expenditure, considering the nature of the job which falls under heavy to extremely heavy categories. This negative energy balance is effectively observed in the nutritional anthropometry data. Thus, an immediate ergonomics intervention with better nutrition should be implemented to improve the health status of the workers so they can safely continue to work for a longer period.

  13. Acute Childhood Illnesses and Health Seeking Behaviour among under five children in a village of Hooghly district, West Bengal

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    Indira Dey (Pal

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: – Acute respiratory infections and diarrhoeal diseases are important causes of morbidity in children worldwide. IMNCI component is addressing these two illnesses in a major way and is concentrating on health care practices of community. Objective: – to find out their health seeking behaviour. Methodology: – A community based , cross-sectional study was conducted in the Mollasimla village of Hooghly district of West Bengal using 2 weeks recall for acute illnesses. Results – It was found that 56.8%, 23.8% and 18.9% children suffered from ARI, fever and diarrhea respectively. Overall treatment rate was above 93% and most of the children were treated in hospitals and health centre. Conclusion: – Acute illnesses are still largely prevalent in the rural community. As mothers are the first care givers, they should be made aware of the preventive measures and the need for seeking treatment.

  14. Effectiveness of training on infant feeding practices among community influencers in a rural area of west Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haldar, A; Ray, S; Biswas, R; Biswas, B; Mukherjee, D

    2001-01-01

    Total 34 Influencers were trained in a subcentre area of South 24-parganas district of West Bengal. Knowledge was imparted to community influencers on infant feeding practices through lecture, group discussion, question-answer session and hand-on-training by trained health workers. Pre-assessment was done before initiation of training. Repeat training was conducted at frequent intervals within a period of 3 months. Mean score of knowledge of influencers during pre-training assessment was 13.3 and improved thereafter-following training to 20.8 (1st assessment), 20.6 (2nd assessment), 23.7 (3rd assessment) and 25.2 (final-assessment). Repeat training had also desired impact.

  15. Earth Observation and Geospatial techniques for Soil Salinity and Land Capability Assessment over Sundarban Bay of Bengal Coast, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das Sumanta

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available To guarantee food security and job creation of small scale farmers to commercial farmers, unproductive farms in the South 24 PGS, West Bengal need land reform program to be restructured and evaluated for agricultural productivity. This study established a potential role of remote sensing and GIS for identification and mapping of salinity zone and spatial planning of agricultural land over the Basanti and Gosaba Islands(808.314sq. km of South 24 PGS. District of West Bengal. The primary data i.e. soil pH, Electrical Conductivity (EC and Sodium Absorption ratio (SAR were obtained from soil samples of various GCP (Ground Control Points locations collected at 50 mts. intervals by handheld GPS from 0–100 cm depths. The secondary information is acquired from the remotely sensed satellite data (LANDSAT ETM+ in different time scale and digital elevation model. The collected field samples were tested in the laboratory and were validated with Remote Sensing based digital indices analysisover the temporal satellite data to assess the potential changes due to over salinization. Soil physical properties such as texture, structure, depth and drainage condition is stored as attributes in a geographical soil database and linked with the soil map units. The thematic maps are integrated with climatic and terrain conditions of the area to produce land capability maps for paddy. Finally, The weighted overlay analysis was performed to assign theweights according to the importance of parameters taken into account for salineareaidentification and mapping to segregate higher, moderate, lower salinity zonesover the study area.

  16. Potential of using arsenic-safe aquifers as sustainable drinking water sources in arsenic-affected areas of Bengal basin, India and Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Prosun; Mukherjee, Abhijit; Biswas, Ashis; Hossain, Mohammed; von Brömssen, Mattias

    2016-04-01

    Naturally occurring arsenic (As) in Holocene aquifers in Bengal basin (India and Bangladesh) have undermined a long success of supplying the population with safe drinking water. Several studies have shown that many of the tested mitigation options have not been well accepted by the people. Instead, local drillers target presumed safe groundwater on the basis of the colour of the sediments. The overall objective of the study has thus been focused on assessing the potential for local drillers to target As safe groundwater. The specific objectives have been to validate the correlation between aquifer sediment colours and groundwater chemical composition, characterize aqueous and solid phase geochemistry and dynamics of As mobility and to assess the risk for cross-contamination of As between aquifers in areas of southeastern Bangladesh and West Bengal. Drillings to a depth of 60 m revealed two distinct hydrostratigraphic units, a strongly reducing aquifer unit with black to grey sediments overlying a patchy sequence of weathered and oxidised white, yellowish-grey to reddish-brown sediment. The aquifers are separated by an impervious clay unit. The reducing aquifer is characterized by high concentrations of dissolved As, DOC, Fe and PO43--tot. On the other hand, the off-white and red sediments contain relatively higher concentrations of Mn and SO42- and low As. Groundwater chemistry correlates well with the colours of the aquifer sediments. Geochemical investigations indicate that secondary mineral phases control dissolved concentrations of Mn, Fe and PO43--tot. Dissolved As is influenced by the amount of Hfo, pH and PO43--tot as a competing ion. Laboratory studies suggest that oxidised sediments have a higher capacity to absorb As. Monitoring of hydraulic heads and groundwater modelling illustrate a complex aquifer system with three aquifers to a depth of 250 m. Groundwater modelling studies illustrate two groundwater flowsystems: i) a deeper regional predominantly

  17. Health impact of supplying safe drinking water containing fluoride below permissible level on flourosis patients in a fluoride-endemic rural area of West Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Kunal Kanti

    2011-01-01

    The problem of high fluoride concentration in groundwater resources has become one of the most important toxicological and geo-environmental issues in India. Excessive fluoride in drinking water causes dental and skeletal fluorosis, which is encountered in endemic proportions in several parts of the world. World Health Organization (WHO) guideline value and the permissible limit of fluoride as per Bureau of Indian Standard (BIS) is 1.5 mg/L. About 20 states of India, including 43 blocks of seven districts of West Bengal, were identified as endemic for fluorosis and about 66 million people in these regions are at risk of fluoride contamination. Studies showed that withdrawal of sources identified for fluoride often leads reduction of fluoride in the body fluids (re-testing urine and serum after a week or 10 days) and results in the disappearance of non-skeletal fluorosis within a short duration of 10-15 days. To determine the prevalence of signs and symptoms of suspected dental, skeletal, and non-skeletal fluorosis, along with food habits, addictions, and use of fluoride containing toothpaste among participants taking water with fluoride concentration above the permissible limit, and to assess the changes in clinical manifestations of the above participants after they started consuming safe drinking water. A longitudinal intervention study was conducted in three villages in Rampurhat Block I of Birbhum district of West Bengal to assess the occurrence of various dental, skeletal, and non-skeletal manifestations of fluorosis, along with food habits, addictions, and use of fluoride containing toothpaste among the study population and the impact of taking safe water from the supplied domestic and community filters on these clinical manifestations. The impact was studied by follow-up examination of the participants for 5 months to determine the changes in clinical manifestations of the above participants after they started consuming safe drinking water from supplied

  18. Health impact of supplying safe drinking water containing fluoride below permissible level on flourosis patients in a fluoride-endemic rural area of West Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunal Kanti Majumdar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The problem of high fluoride concentration in groundwater resources has become one of the most important toxicological and geo-environmental issues in India. Excessive fluoride in drinking water causes dental and skeletal fluorosis, which is encountered in endemic proportions in several parts of the world. World Health Organization (WHO guideline value and the permissible limit of fluoride as per Bureau of Indian Standard (BIS is 1.5 mg/L. About 20 states of India, including 43 blocks of seven districts of West Bengal, were identified as endemic for fluorosis and about 66 million people in these regions are at risk of fluoride contamination. Studies showed that withdrawal of sources identified for fluoride often leads reduction of fluoride in the body fluids (re-testing urine and serum after a week or 10 days and results in the disappearance of non-skeletal fluorosis within a short duration of 10-15 days. Objective: To determine the prevalence of signs and symptoms of suspected dental, skeletal, and non-skeletal fluorosis, along with food habits, addictions, and use of fluoride containing toothpaste among participants taking water with fluoride concentration above the permissible limit, and to assess the changes in clinical manifestations of the above participants after they started consuming safe drinking water. Materials and Methods: A longitudinal intervention study was conducted in three villages in Rampurhat Block I of Birbhum district of West Bengal to assess the occurrence of various dental, skeletal, and non-skeletal manifestations of fluorosis, along with food habits, addictions, and use of fluoride containing toothpaste among the study population and the impact of taking safe water from the supplied domestic and community filters on these clinical manifestations. The impact was studied by follow-up examination of the participants for 5 months to determine the changes in clinical manifestations of the above participants

  19. Fine mode aerosol chemistry over a rural atmosphere near the north-east coast of Bay of Bengal in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adak, Anandamay; Chatterjee, Abhijit; Ghosh, Sanjay; Raha, Sibaji; Roy, Arindam

    2016-07-01

    A study was conducted on the chemical characterization of fine mode aerosol or PM2.5 over a rural atmosphere near the coast of Bay of Bengal in eastern India. Samples were collected and analyzed during March 2013 - February 2014. The concentration of PM2.5 was found span over a wide range from as low as 3 µg m-3 to as high as 180 µg m-3. The average concentration of PM2.5 was 62 µg m-3. Maximum accumulation of fine mode aerosol was observed during winter whereas minimum was observed during monsoon. Water soluble ionic species of fine mode aerosol were characterized over this rural atmosphere. In spite of being situated near the coast of Bay of Bengal, we observed significantly higher concentrations for anthropogenic species like ammonium and sulphate. The concentrations of these two species were much higher than the sea-salt aerosols. Ammonium and sulphate contributed around 30 % to the total fine mode aerosols. Even dust aerosol species like calcium also showed higher concentrations. Chloride to sodium ratio was found to be much less than that in standard sea-water indicating strong interaction between sea-salt and anthropogenic aerosols. Use of fertilizers in various crop fields and human and animal wastes significantly increased ammonium in fine mode aerosols. Dust aerosol species were accumulated in the atmosphere which could be due to transport of finer dust species from nearby metropolis or locally generated. Non-sea-sulphate and nitrate showed significant contributions in fine mode aerosols having both local and transported sources. Source apportionment shows prominent emission sources of anthropogenic aerosols from local anthropogenic activities and transported from nearby Kolkata metropolis as well.

  20. East India Coastal Current induced eddies and their interaction with tropical storms over Bay of Bengal.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Patnaik, K.V.K.R.K.; Maneesha, K.; Sadhuram, Y.; Prasad, K.V.S.R.; Murty, T.V.R.; Rao, V.B.

    feedback to the atmosphere (Namias and Canyan, 1981). For example the hurricane “Opal” that occurred in 1995 intensified rapidly from Category 1 to Category 4 status within 14 hours as it passed over a warm core eddy and encountered a deeper and warmer...’s negative feedback, helps to maintain and even boost the TC intensity. Though Bay of Bengal is well known for eddies, quantitative analysis on the role of these eddies in the intensification of storms is still lacking. Ali et al. (2007...

  1. Isolation and Biochemical Characterizations of Mid Gut Microbiota of Culex (Culex quinquefasciatus Mosquitoes in Some Urban Sub Urban & Rural Areas of West Bengal.

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    Rahul Kumar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Mosquitoes, in general are medically important vectors of many diseases like Malaria, Dengue and Filariasis, which are a great challenge for public health in many countries. All animals and plants establish symbiotic relationship with microbes. Mosquitoes can be considered as an holobiont units in which the host (mosquito and its microbiota are involved in complex reciprocal multipartite interaction such as host reproduction and survival, protection against natural enemies. This naturally acquired microbial flora can modulate the mosquitos’ vectorial capacity by inhibiting the development of pathogen. But enough care has not been under taken regarding the biochemical characterization of Culex mosquitoes (Culex quinquefasciatus in West Bengal. Therefore a preliminary investigation have been undertaken for the determination of biochemical characterization such as gram staining, pattern of growth, detection of economically important enzyme as well as antibiotic susceptibility assay of midgut bacterial isolates of Culex (Culex quinquefasciatus in some urban, sub-urban and rural areas of West Bengal.

  2. Buried late Pleistocene fluvial channels on the inner continental shelf off Vengurla, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SubbaRaju, L.V.; Krishna, K.S.; Chaubey, A.K.

    Analysis of echosounding, side-scan sonar and shallow seismic data collected west of Burnt islands off Vengurla, west coast of India, revealed a featureless seabed, thicknesses of subsurface layers, and presence of buried channels filled...

  3. Association of body weight concern with media exposure: A study on young girls of Howrah District, West Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Mallick

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Objective: To assess the association between body weight concern and their frequency of exposure to the media among a group of young girls. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted of 110 girls aged 14-21 years, residing in the district of Howrah, West Bengal. Information on socio-demographic characteristics, weight related concern and media exposures were collected using pretested questionnaires. Weight related concerns included body weight dissatisfaction and perceived body weight. Media exposures included frequency of watching television programs, reading newspaper and magazine articles and browsing internet on topics related to body weight concern. Results: Although the frequency of watching television programs was high among the study participants yet it was not significantly associated with their body weight. Ch-square test showed that there was an association between the frequency of exposure to magazine articles related to body weight concern and initiation of exercise to reduce body weight. Reading of newspaper articles related to body weight by the participants was significantly associated with those who perceive themselves as fat. Multinomial logistic regression analysis revealed that the perception of being overweight was found to be four times more among the girls below 17 years compared to those who are older. Conclusions: Print media (both news paper and magazine did play a significant role in developing concerns over body weight among this group of young girls.

  4. Sero diagnosis of dengue activity in an unknown febrile outbreak at the Siliguri Town, District Darjeeling, West Bengal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Debjani Taraphdar; Arindam Sarkar; Mihir Kumar Bhattacharya; Shyamalendu Chatterjee

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the outbreak of unknown fever at Siliguri town, Darjeeling District on request from the State Health Department, Government of West Bengal. Methods:Investigations were made to the affected wards, Sub Divisional Hospital and the nursing homes of Siliguri Town. Duration of illness was 3-5 days. Interesting observations were made in some cases which had gastrointestinal disorders with high serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) and serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT) levels. A total of 69 blood samples and 7 throat swabs (in Minimum Essential Media) were collected and brought to the ICMR Virus Unit, Kolkata for analysis. Mosquitoes from different affected areas were collected for the identification of the definite vector. Results:Amongst the 69 blood samples, 42 (60.86%) were positive to IgM antibody against dengue virus by Mac enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test. No IgM antibody to Japanese encephalitis virus was detected among the collected blood samples. Based on the clinical symptoms, presence of IgM antibody to dengue virus and identification of Aedes mosquito, it amply proves that, the illness of those cases were due to dengue virus infection. Conclusions:Based on clinical-epidemiological observations of the investigations the possibility of a communicable disease of viral origin, the detection of IgM antibody and the identification of Aedes egypti, and the potential circulation of denge virus in Siliguri town for the first time were all suggested.

  5. Air Pollution over North-West Bay of Bengal in the Early Post-Monsoon Season Based on NASA MERRAero Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishcha, Pavel; DaSilva, Arlindo M.; Starobinets, Boris; Alpert, Pinhas

    2013-01-01

    The MERRA Aerosol Reanalysis (MERRAero) has been recently developed at NASA's Global Modeling Assimilation Office (GMAO). This reanalysis is based on a version of the GEOS-5 model radiatively coupled with GOCART aerosols, and it includes assimilation of bias-corrected Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT) from the MODIS sensor on both Terra and Aqua satellites. Our main finding is that, in October, in the absence of aerosol sources in north-west Bay of Bengal (BoB), MERRAero showed increasing AOT trends over north-west BoB exceeding those over the east of the Ganges basin. The Ganges basin is characterized by significant population growth accompanied by developing industry, agriculture, and increasing transportation: this has resulted in declining air quality. MERRAero data for the period 2002-2009 was used to study AOT trends over north-west Bay of Bengal (BoB) in the early post-monsoon season. This season is characterized by aerosol transport from the Ganges basin to north-west BoB by prevailing winds; and still significant rainfall of over 150 mmmonth. Different aerosol components showed strong increasing AOT trends over north-west BoB. The following factors contributed to the increasing AOT trend over the area in question in October: an increasing number of days when prevailing winds blew from land to sea, resulting in a drier environment and an increase in air pollution over north-west BoB; wind convergence was observed over north-west BoB causing the accumulation of aerosol particles over that region, when prevailing winds blew from land to sea. MERRAero aerosol reanalysis can be used on a global scale.

  6. Groundwater potential zoning of a peri-urban wetland of south Bengal Basin, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Paulami; Sikdar, Pradip K

    2011-03-01

    Demand for groundwater for drinking, agricultural, and industrial purposes has increased due to rapid increase in population. Therefore, it is imperative to assess the groundwater potential of different areas, especially in a fragile wetland ecosystem to select appropriate sites for developing well fields to minimize adverse environmental impacts of groundwater development. This study considers East Calcutta Wetlands (ECW)--a freshwater peri-urban inland wetland ecosystem located at the lower part of the deltaic alluvial plain of South Bengal Basin and east of Kolkata city. This wetland is well known over the world for its resource recovery systems developed by local people through ages, using wastewater of the city. The subsurface geology is completely blanketed by the Quaternary sediments comprising a succession of silty clay, sand of various grades, and sand mixed with occasional gravels and thin intercalations of silty clay. Groundwater occurs mostly under confined condition except in those places where the top aquitard has been obliterated due to scouring action of past channels. The groundwater in the study area is being over-extracted at the rate of 65 × 10(3) m(3)/day. Overlay analysis in Geographic Information System platform using multiple criteria such as water quality index, hydraulic conductivity, groundwater velocity, and depth to piezometric surface reveals that in and around ECW, there are five groundwater potential zones. About 74% of the aquifer of this area shows very poor to medium groundwater potential. Management options such as minimization of groundwater abstraction by introducing the treated surface water supply system and the implementation of rainwater harvesting and artificial recharge in high-rise buildings and industries are suggested for different potential zones.

  7. A study on domestic violence against adult and adolescent females in a rural area of West Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarkar Madhutandra

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Globally, domestic violence against females is common across culture, religion, class and ethnicity. There are various reasons for domestic violence and it might have serious health outcomes. Objectives: The study was undertaken to determine the prevalence, characteristics, reasons and the socio-demographic correlates of domestic violence, if any, and to find out the perceptions of the females to cope with the act of violence and to overcome the situation. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional observational study was undertaken by interviewing 141 adult and adolescent females residing in a village of West Bengal, with the help of a pre-designed and pre-tested questionnaire. Data were analyzed statistically by simple proportions and tests of significance (Chi-square test. Results: Out of 141 respondents, 33 (23.4% adult and adolescent females in this village were exposed to domestic violence in the past year. Among the demographic characteristics, statistically significant maximum prevalence was observed among 30-39 years age group, illiterate and unmarried females. For most of the females who were exposed to domestic violence, their husbands acted as the perpetrators (72.73% and they reported slapping as the specific act of physical assault (72.73%. Majority of the respondents reported that opportunity of education (31.9%, being economically productive (31.9% and better family income (23.4% would help them to overcome the situation. Conclusion: This study emphasizes the need for justified female empowerment and this calls for multidisciplinary approach to develop public health measures, which would most effectively address the problem of domestic violence.

  8. Effectiveness of first-aid training on school students in Singur Block of Hooghly District, West Bengal

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    Lina Bandyopadhyay

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: First aid is the helping behavior and initial care provided for an acute illness or injury. Students have the potential for changing the health scenario of the society if properly groomed and educated. The objective of the study is to evaluate the effectiveness of educational intervention on the first aid among middle school students of a rural school in West Bengal. Materials and Methods: A total of 230, 6th and 7th standard students were given a self-administered questionnaire for assessing their baseline knowledge about management of common injuries followed by educational intervention with a systematically devised teaching module during February to March 2016. Post intervention evaluation of their knowledge acquisition was done after 2 weeks with same questionnaire. Results: The baseline knowledge on the management of selected injuries was found to be insufficient among the study subjects. Paired t-test was performed to compare the pre- and post-test scores of knowledge and attitude of the students about first aid, and there was a significant change in knowledge from pretest score (mean = 1.50, standard deviation [SD] =0.47 to posttest score (mean = 6.53, SD = 1.30. To quantify the effectiveness of health education, effect size (Cohen's d was derived. For knowledge score, Cohen's d was 5.14 with large effect size indicating highly effective impact of the training program. Significant change was also noticed regarding attitude regarding first aid as evident from increase in pretest score (mean = 1.19, SD = 0.96 to posttest score (mean = 3.17, SD = 1.03; Cohen's d was 1.88 with medium effect size. Conclusion: Inculcating first-aid training in the school curriculum can be a fruitful investment in ensuring proper and timely management of illnesses and injuries not only for the school children but also for the community at large.

  9. Magnitude, types and sex differentials of aggressive behaviour among school children in a rural area of West Bengal

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    Debashis Dutt

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aggression affects academic learning and emotional development, can damage school climate and if not controlled early and may precipitate extreme violence in the future. Objective s : (1 To determine the magnitude and types of aggressive behavior in school children. (2 To identify the influence of age and sex on aggressive behavior. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Anandanagar High School, Singur village, West Bengal. Participants were 161 boys and 177 girls of classes VII to IX. The students were asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire indicating the types of aggressive behavior by them in the previous month and to assess themselves with reference to statements indicating verbal/physical aggression. Results: Overall, 66.5% of the children were physically aggressive in the previous month: Boys 75.8%, girls 58.2% ( P = 0.001; 56.8% were verbally aggressive: Boys 55.2%, girls 61% ( P = 0.97. Verbal indirect passive aggression was more common among girls (55.3% than among boys (22.3% ( P = 0.000 [1.17E-09 ]. Boys were more liable to physical aggression, viz. 60.2% of the boys would hit on provocation compared with only 9% of the girls ( P = 0.000 [6.6E -23 ]. Regarding attributes indicating verbal aggression, girls were more argumentative (63.8% than boys (55.2% ( P = 0.134 and disagreeing (41.8% compared with boys (33.5% ( P = 0.145. With increasing age/class, physical direct active aggression decreased while physical indirect passive and verbal indirect passive aggression increased. No classes had been taken on anger control/management by school the authorities. Conclusions: Aggressive behavior was common both among boys and girls. Life skills education/counseling/classroom management strategies are recommended.

  10. A comparative study on the decomposition of edible and non-edible oil cakes in the Gangetic alluvial soil of West Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Sudeshna; Das, Ritwika; Das, Amal Chandra

    2014-08-01

    An experiment has been conducted under laboratory conditions to investigate the effect of decomposition of two edible oil cakes, viz. mustard cake (Brassica juncea L) and groundnut cake (Arachis hypogaea L), and two non-edible oil cakes, viz. mahua cake (Madhuca indica Gmel) and neem cake (Azadirachta indica Juss), at the rate of 5.0 t ha(-1) on the changes of microbial growth and activities in relation to transformations and availability of some plant nutrients in the Gangetic alluvial (Typic Haplustept) soil of West Bengal, India. Incorporation of oil cakes, in general, highly induced the proliferation of total bacteria, actinomycetes, and fungi, resulting in greater retention and availability of oxidizable C, N, and P in soil. As compared to untreated control, the highest stimulation of total bacteria and actinomycetes was recorded with mustard cake (111.9 and 84.3 %, respectively) followed by groundnut cake (50.5 and 52.4 %, respectively), while the fungal colonies were highly accentuated due to the incorporation of neem cake (102.8 %) in soil. The retention of oxidizable organic C was highly increased due to decomposition of non-edible oil cakes, more so under mahua cake (14.5 %), whereas edible oil cakes and groundnut cake in particular exerted maximum stimulation (16.7 %) towards the retention of total N in soil. A similar trend was recorded towards the accumulation of available mineral N in soil and this was more pronounced with mustard cake (45.6 %) for exchangeable NH4 (+) and with groundnut cake (63.9 %) for soluble NO3 (-). The highest retention of total P (46.9 %) was manifested by the soil when it was incorporated with neem cake followed by the edible oil cakes; while the available P was highly induced due to the addition of edible oil cakes, the highest being under groundnut cake (23.5 %) followed by mustard cake (19.6 %).

  11. The use of antibiotics and disinfectants in the freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii farms of north and south 24 Parganas districts of West Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monjit Paul

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii farms and hatcheries of north and south 24 Parganas districts in West Bengal were surveyed for the details of antibiotics and disinfectants used for controlling the prawn diseases and pathogens. During the survey, 4antibiotics and four 4disinfectants were found to be used commonly by the farmers during a 12-month period of study. The chemicals used in the culture systems as antibiotics or disinfectants for the culture water, tanks, other utensils, and others have serious health hazards for both the cultured prawns and human beings. The study also indicates no herbal medicines, and probiotics are being used in prawn farms.

  12. Correlation between nutritional status and clinical parameters among Thalassaemic patients – A study of West Bengal

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    A. Jana

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Thalassaemia is the most common monogenic, autosomal recessive hereditary disorder. The severe forms of thalassaemia are associated with chronic transfusion dependent haemolytic anaemia. Normal growth is impeded due to nutritional deficiency, chronic anaemia as well as iron overload. The aim of this study is to focus the nutritional health status of transfusion dependent thalassaemia patients. This is a cross-sectional analysis of the records of the patients registered at Day Care unit of a City Hospital, Kolkata, India. Clinical history of each patient is collected from registered book of the hospital and body weights and height of the patients are taken from day care unit before starting the transfusion. Laboratory parameters like Pretransfusion Haemoglobin (Hb and Periodic Serum Ferritin are noted in respect of each patient. Z score for height, weight and Body Mass Index (BMI is also taken into consideration using WHO reference. Statistical analysis was carried out using Microsoft excel and SPSS16 Software. Out of 117 Bengali speaking patients 84 were from different Hindu caste families and the rest 33 were from the Muslim community. The mean age of studied patients’ population was 10.77 years (range 4 -20years. Major patients (81.1% suffer high level (>1000ng/ml of serum ferritin level due to not proper management of Pretransfusion haemoglobin and as well as not taken regular chelation. About two third (65.8% of studied population are noted to be short stature, 18.8% are thin and 23.9% are very thin (BMI Z score <-3. as well as regular chelation therapy is the central aspects to improve their proper growth Only 3 children are overweight. Height Z scores is significantly co related with mean serum ferritin level. Management of the disease is very important to control the nutritional health status of thalassaemic children. Proper knowledge of iron free food, optimum transfusion as well as regular chelation therapy is the central aspects to

  13. Edwardsiella ictaluri infection in Pangasius catfish imported from West Bengal into the Southern Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, A C N; Reichley, S R; Ware, C; Griffin, M J

    2016-09-05

    In response to a mortality event, seven Pangasius catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) were submitted to the University of the West Indies, School of Veterinary Medicine, Trinidad and Tobago, for diagnostic evaluation. These fish were part of a consignment that arrived from Kolkata two weeks earlier. Fish presented with perianal haemorrhage and blister-like swellings on the skin which ruptured to leave ulcers. Edwardsiella ictaluri was consistently recovered from the brain and skin. Repetitive sequence-mediated PCR analysis revealed genetic fingerprints consistent with E. ictaluri isolates from farm-raised channel catfish in Mississippi, USA. Plasmid analysis of the case isolates identified two unique plasmids that differ slightly in conformation and content from the pEI1 and pEI2 plasmids described for E. ictaluri from other fish hosts. The case isolates were also PCR negative for several E. ictaluri virulence factors. The biological implications of these genetic differences are unclear and warrant further study. This is the first report and documentation of E. ictaluri infection in Trinidad and Tobago, suggesting the pathogen may have been introduced concurrently with the importation of fish. This report emphasizes the importance of adequate health screenings of imported lots to minimize the threat of introducing E. ictaluri to non-endemic areas.

  14. Variations in nearshore waves along Karnataka, west coast of India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V Sanil Kumar; Glejin Johnson; G Udhaba Dora; Sajiv Philip Chempalayi; Jai Singh; P Pednekar

    2012-04-01

    Wind wave spectra were recorded simultaneously at three shallow (water depth 7–9 m) locations (Malpe, Honnavar and Karwar) along the 200 km stretch of the state of Karnataka in 2009 during 27 April–24 May (representing conditions prior to onset of the Indian summer monsoon), 12 June–8 July (monsoon), and 1–31 October (post-monsoon). Each spectrum was based on data recorded for half an hour using a waverider buoy. The paper describes characteristics of the spectra and the wave parameters derived from the spectra. Both reveal the dramatic changes that occur in the wave field due to the summer monsoon. The changes were virtually identical at all the three locations suggesting that the wave characteristics described here are representative of the conditions that exist along the coast of Karnataka State, west coast of India.

  15. Environmental magnetic and geochemical characteristics of Chennai coastal sediments, Bay of Bengal, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R Venkatachalapathy; S Veerasingam; N Basavaiah; T Ramkumar; K Deenadayalan

    2011-10-01

    In this study, environmental magnetic, heavy metal and statistical analyses were conducted on 21 surface sediments collected from Chennai coast, India, to examine the feasibility of heavy metal pollution using magnetic susceptibility. The Chennai coastal sediment samples are dominated by ferrimagnetic minerals corresponding to magnetite-like minerals. The percentage of frequency dependent magnetic susceptibility reflects the presence of super-paramagnetic/single domain magnetic minerals in Chennai harbour, Cooum and Adayar rivers sediments. High pollution load index in sample E1, E2, CH7, C11, C12 and A16 is mainly due to anthropogenic activities such as, harbour activities, Cooum and Adayar rivers input and industrial effluent. Factor analysis shows that the magnetic concentration dependent parameters (, ARM and SIRM) covary with the heavy metal concentrations, suggesting that the input of magnetic minerals and heavy metals in Chennai coastal sediments are derived from the same anthropogenic sources. Strong correlation obtained between pollution load index (PLI) and concentration dependent parameters (, ARM and SIRM) for the polluted samples with magnetic susceptibility excess of 50 × 10−8 m3kg−1. Significant correlations between heavy metals and magnetic susceptibility point out the potential of magnetic screening/monitoring for simple and rapid proxy indicator of heavy metal pollution in marine sediments.

  16. Identity and the concept of the West: the case of Brazil and India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Stuenkel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to provide insights about how Brazil and India view and relate to the concept of the West, and how this affects their identity and foreign policy. Both countries' notions about the West are the subject of lively domestic discussion both in academia and the media, reflecting the struggle these countries find themselves in to define their identity as they rise. I argue that the concept of the West serves, in both Brazil and India, as a crucial concept to articulate their own identity-by a complex combination of criticizing, distancing itself from, or attempting to emulate the West.

  17. On an upwelling front along the west coast of India during later part of southwest monsoon

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Unnikrishnan, A.S.; Antony, M.K.

    A coastal front, associated with upwelling, is identified from the observed thermal field along the west coast of India during September, 1987. The front, which is seen very clearly upto a depth of about 75 m, has a horizontal gradient...

  18. Graphic pattern of foraminiferal dominance in nearshore region of central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Setty, M.G.A.P.; Nigam, R.; Ambre, N.V.

    Within the inner neritic zone (0-55 m depth) along the central west coast of India, some foraminiferal groups such as @iAmmonia, Elphidium, Trochammina, Bulimina, Bolivina, Nonion, Nonionella@@ and Florilus@@ individually (total foraminiferal number...

  19. Petroleum hydrocarbon concentration in sediments along northern west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ram, A.; Kadam, A.N.

    Gas chromatography revealed that nonpolar material extracted from surface sediments collected along the northern west coast of India was originated from petroleum hydrocarbon residue. Petroleum hydrocarbon levels as determinEd. by fluorescence...

  20. Observational Evidence of Summer Shamal Swells along the West Coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Glejin, J.; SanilKumar, V.; Nair, T.M.B.; Singh, J.; Mehra, P.

    Wave data collected off Ratnagiri, West coast of India, in 2010 and 2011 are used to examine the presence of the summer shamal swells. This study also aims to understand variations in wave characteristics and associated modifications in wind sea...

  1. Computation of dilution discharge and mean concentration of effluents in Beypore Estuary, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DineshKumar, P.K.; Josanto, V.; Sankaranarayanan, V.N.

    Tide dominated Beypore estuary along the west coast of India was studied to estimate the mean flow available for diluting the conservative effluents based on the distribution of ambient salinity as a guide through one dimensional analysis...

  2. Classification of tidal inlets along the central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vikas, M.; Reddy, N.A.; Rao, S.; JayaKumar, S.

    Tidal inlets along the Maharashtra coast on the central west coast of India were classified according to three methods available in the literature. Two classification methods viz., (i) Hydrodynamic classification (Hayes, 1979) and (ii...

  3. Textural characteristics of foreshore sediments along Karnataka shoreline, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dora, G.U.; SanilKumar, V.; Philip, C.S.; Johnson, G.; Vinayaraj, P.; Gowthaman, R.

    Grain character analysis of beach sediments along three selected beaches (Pavinkurve, Kundapura and Padukare) of Karnataka coast, west coast of India is carried out to identify the textural behavior of beach sediments during an annual cycle from...

  4. 'Shamal' swells in the Arabian Sea and their influence along the west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Aboobacker, V.M.; Vethamony, P.; Rashmi, R.

    Wave data collected off Ratnagiri, Goa and Dwarka along the west coast of India during winter season (NE monsoon and early pre‐monsoon) present distinct wave characteristics with periodicity ranging between 2 and 5 days associated with shamal events...

  5. Contribution from coastal laterites to the nearshore placers of central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gujar, A.R.; Srinivas, K.

    The heavy mineral placers with variable concentrations of ilmenite and magnetite occur in the surface and in the sub-surface sediments of many bays along central west coast of India. These sediments are associated with pebbles of laterite...

  6. Distribution of urea in the waters of the west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Verlecar, X.N.

    at some levels and very low concentrations at others. Urea concentration increases towards the central west coast of India. Comparison with the other inorganic nutrients indicates that urea constitutes 10% of the available nitrogen in the euphotic zone (0...

  7. Seasonal patterns of phytoplankton biomass and productivity in a tropical estuarine complex (west coast of India)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Devassy, V.P.; Goes, J.I.

    Phytoplankton cell numbers and chlorophyll a determinations were made during the premonsoon, monsoon and postmonsoon periods in the Mandovi-Zuari estuarine complex (west coast of India). Primary productivity estimates agreed well with chlorophyll a...

  8. Benthic foraminifera as proxy for oxygen-depleted conditions off the central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nigam, R.; Mazumder, A.; Henriques, P.J.; Saraswat, R.

    In order to study the response of benthic foraminifera, especially the rectilinear bi- and tri-serial benthic foraminifera (RBF) to oxygen-depleted conditions from the Arabian Sea off central west coast of India, 103 surface sediment samples...

  9. Environmental changes associated with monsoon induced upwelling, off central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DeSousa, S.N.; Sawkar, K.; Rao, P.V.S.S.D.P.

    Coastal upwelling of nutrients during and after the southwest monsoon has been considered to support rich pelagic and demersal fisheries off the west coast of India. Studies indicate occurrence of coastal upwelling assoicated with Ekman transport...

  10. Distribution of hydromedusae from the exclusive economic zone of the west and east coasts of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Santhakumari, V.; Nair, V.R.

    Distribution and abundance of hydromedusae from the exclusive economic zone of the west and east coasts of India is carried out based on zooplankton collections (on board FORV Sagar Sampada) during the period 1985-1990. The 661 samples collected...

  11. Estimation of stature from hand dimensions in Bengalee population, West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amitava Pal

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Stature estimation from decomposing bodies and incomplete skeletons particularly in personal identification is considered as one of the biggest aspects of forensic science. This issue has gained importance in recent times due to mass disasters like terrorist attacks, mass murders, transport accidents, floods and earthquakes. Thus, the present study was undertaken to set up a standard formulae to estimate stature from hand dimensions in the Bengalee population. Measurements of different hand dimensions and statures were taken from 1662 adult Bengalee women aged from 20 to 40 years following the standard technique and appropriate landmarks. There was no statistically significant bilateral variation of the measurements. The correlation coefficients between stature and all variables were positive and statistically significant (p < 0.001. The hand length and palm length showed a better correlation with stature than the other variables. Simple linear regression equations and multiple linear regression equation were formulated for stature estimation using the hand dimensions. The derived equations were applied to the control group and it was noted that the percentage difference between true stature of the control and the estimated stature ranged from 0.01% to 0.15%. The multiple linear regression equation was more reliable than the simple linear regression equations as a lower standard error of estimate and higher value of determination coefficient and multiple correlation coefficient. From the results of the present study, it may be concluded that hand dimensions can be successfully used for estimating stature of adult Bengalee women in forensic practice by enforcement agencies and forensic scientists.

  12. Chironomid midges as allergens: evidence from two species from West Bengal, Kolkata, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumi Nandi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Arthropods of different taxonomic identity including chironomid midges are known to induce allergic response in humans. The present study was done to access two common chironomid species Chironomus circumdatus and Polypedilum nubifer for their sensitizing potential as an allergen in atopic patients and controls. Methods: Following preparation of allergenic extracts of the two chironomid species separately, 198 atopic patients attending an allergy clinic and 50 age matched controls were tested along with a routine panel of allergens to assess sensitization. Results: The skin prick test (SPT results revealed that 189 of the 198 patients (95.4% demonstrated sensitization to both the chironomid species. Higher levels of total IgE was observed in atopic subjects than in the control group. Interpretation & conclusions: The results suggest that the chironomid midges Chironomus circumdatus and Polypedilum nubifer can elicit sensitization in humans. A potential risk for allergic reactions by susceptible individuals exists due to these chironomid species, owing to their abundance and chances of contact with human beings. Further studies may be initiated to characterize the nature of the allergens and to assess their clinical relevance.

  13. Effects of occupational heat exposure on female brick workers in West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moumita Sett

    2014-02-01

    : We conclude that high heat exposure in brickfields during summer caused physiological strain in both categories of female brickfield workers. A coping strategy employed by the brick carriers was to reduce their walking speed and thus lose part of their earnings. The lost productivity for every degree rise in temperature is about 2% in the brickfields. This reduction will be exacerbated by climate change and may undermine the quality of life of female brickfield workers.

  14. Contaminated Pond Water Favors Cholera Outbreak at Haibatpur Village, Purba Medinipur District, West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilip Kumar Biswas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Health workers reported an increased number of diarrhea cases at Haibatpur village on June 17, 2012. This outbreak was investigated with the following objectives: to confirm the existence of diarrhea outbreak, to find out the risk factors, and propose control measures. Cases were listed; spot map and epidemic curve were drawn. Attack rate was calculated by age and sex and risk factors were found out by calculating odds ratio (OR with 95% confidence interval (CI. Rectal swabs were taken and water specimens were collected for laboratory test. Forty-one cases of patients were identified with overall attack rate (AR was 5% (41/780. AR among men was higher 6% (25/404 than women. There was no death. V. cholerae 01 Eltor Ogawa was isolated from one (1/4 stool specimen. Spot map showed cases clustered around two ponds which were contaminated with coliform organisms. The underground water was a bit saline in nature. Using pond water for preparation of fermented rice (Panta Bhat (OR 4.73, 95% CI 1.69–13.51, washing utensil in pond water (OR 7.31, 95% CI 1.77–42.29 were associated with cholera outbreak. Health education was done to villagers. Disinfection of two ponds with bleaching powder was done. We proposed supplying of safe drinking water and repairing defective deep tube well to village.

  15. Rapid erosion of the coast of Sagar island, West Bengal - India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopinath, Girish; Seralathan, P.

    2005-10-01

    The coastal zone of the Sagar island has been studied. The island has been subjected to erosion by natural processes and to a little extent by anthropogenic activities over a long period. Major landforms identified in the coastal area of the Sagar island are the mud flats/salt marshes, sandy beaches/dunes and mangroves. The foreshore sediments are characterized by silty, slightly sandy mud, slightly silty sand and silty sand. Samples 500 m inland from high waterline are silty slightly sandy mud, and by clayey slightly sandy mud. The extent of coastline changes are made by comparing the topographic maps of 1967 and satellite imageries of 1996, 1998 and 1999. Between 1967 and 1999 about 29.8 km2 of the island has been eroded and the accreted area is only 6.03 km2. Between 1996 and 1998 the area underwent erosion of 13.64 km2 while accretion was 0.48 km2. From 1998 to 1999, 3.26 km2 additional area was eroded with meager accretion. Erosion from 1997 to 1999 was estimated at 0.74 km2 /year; however, from 1996 to 1999, the erosion rate was calculated as 5.47 km2/year. The areas severely affected by erosion are the northeastern, southwestern and southeastern faces of the island. As a consequence of coastal erosion, the mud flats/salt marshes, sandy beaches/dunes and mangroves have been eroded considerably. Deposition is experienced mainly on the western and southern part of the island. The island is built primarily by silt and clay, which can more easily be eroded by the waves, tides and cyclonic activities than a sandy coast. Historic sea level rises accompanied by land subsidence lead to differing rates of erosion at several pockets, thus periodically establishing new erosion planes.

  16. Organic richness and gas generation potential of Permian Barren Measures from Raniganj field, West Bengal, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Annapurna Boruah; S Ganapathi

    2015-07-01

    The organic geochemistry of shales in terms of its organic richness, hydrocarbon source potential, thermal maturity, depositional environment, etc., are essential stipulations for shale gas resources assessment. In this study, a total of 32 core samples of Permian Barren Measures from four boreholes in Raniganj field of Damodar Basin were analysed to evaluate their gas generation potential using Rock–Eval pyrolysis techniques. Petrographic analysis brings out the lithofacies of Barren Measures as carbonaceous silty shale, iron rich claystone and sand-shale intercalation. The total organic content (TOC) of the shale units of Barren Measures ranges from 3.75 to 20.9 wt%, whereas hydrogen index (HI) ranges from 58.45 to 125.34 mg HC/g TOC. Present study suggests early to late maturated (0.6–1%) organic matters in Barren Measures with gas prone type III kerogen. The study analysed the effect of burial history on the preservation and maturation of organic matters. The organic richness, kerogen type, thermal maturity and petrographic properties of Barren Measures signify fair to excellent gas generation potential.

  17. Menstruation and menstrual hygiene among adolescent girls of West Bengal, India: A school based comparative study

    OpenAIRE

    Adrija Datta; Nirmalya Manna; Mousumi Datta; Jhuma Sarkar; Baijayanti Baur; Saraswati Datta

    2012-01-01

    Background: Adolescents are often less informed, less experienced, and less comfortable accessing reproductive health information and services than adults. In many developing countries, a culture of silence surrounds the topic of menstruation and related issues; as a result many young girls lack appropriate and sufficient information regarding menstrual hygiene. This may result in incorrect and unhealthy behaviour during their menstrual period. Objectives: To assess and compare knowledge, bel...

  18. Strategy and policy in mobilizing resources for employability enhancement (West Bengal, India)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saha, Nibedita; Heijden, van der Beatrice I.J.M.; Gregar, Ales

    2013-01-01

    Employability enhancement is a burning topic in present world. To sustain in this competitive world every human needs the capacity to adopt themselves through their own skills, efficiency and knowledge. This paper tries to investigate the prominence of employability and its current practices in that

  19. Comparison of avifaunal diversity in and around Neora Valley National Park, West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U.S. Roy

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic intervention has led to conversion of much of the global diversity by means of habitat alterations. The present study was carried out to investigate the importance of habitat quality and habitat heterogeneity for the diversity, distribution and abundance of avifauna in and around Neora Valley National Park (NVNP during April-May 2010. A total of 73 bird species belonging to 25 families were recorded during the present study applying a modified point count method. Forest edges were found to be most diverse with a total count of 54 bird species having an abundance of 172.53 number of birds ha-1. Study areas with human settlements was represented by a total species count of 24 with an abundance of 130.39 number of birds ha-1 while a total species count of 22 with an abundance of 69.32 number of birds ha-1 was recorded from thick vegetation assemblage with close canopy cover. This site specific occurrence pattern for avifauna was reflected in the study of diversity indices. The highest Shannon-Wiener general diversity score of 3.77 was recorded for bird species from forest edges. Study areas with dense canopy closure were found to support more habitat specialist bird species while areas having human settlements harboured more opportunistic bird species. An overall negative influence of human settlements on bird diversity, distribution and abundance was evidenced from the present study and needs further investigation. Moreover, intensive studies will certainly enrich our knowledge of avian diversity and distribution pattern from the present study location.

  20. Hypertriglyceridemia:a case report from diagnostic laboratory, Barasat, West Bengal, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Utpal Kumar Biswas; Arun Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Hypertriglyceridemia is defined as an abnormal concentration of triglyceride in the blood and has been associated with atherosclerosis, even in the absence of hypercholesterolemia. This case report is of 40-year-old man diagnosed to have hypertriglyceridemia who attended for routine screening in our diagnostic laboratory at Barasat. He was nonsmoker, non-alcoholic, had a reasonable diet with abundant fruits and vegetables, and was on regular exercise. He was not taking any lipid lowering medications. He hailed from Barasat, and was employed in Government sector in Barasat and policeman by profession. His father died at the age of 57 years in a heart attack; but his mother is healthy and now almost 62 years of age, and he has two brothers one elder and another younger to him, both are healthy. His blood pressure was normal, his body-mass index was 27, and his waist circumference was 96 cm and hip circumference was 103. His waist/hip ratio was 0.932. The Biochemical analyses were as follows- Fasting Glucose: 186 mg/dL, Total Cholesterol: 90 mg/dL, Triglycerides: 372 mg/dL, High-density cholesterol: 3.80 mg/dL, Low-density cholesterol: 2.90 mg/dL, VLDL: 83.20 mg/dL, Cholesterol/HDL-C ratio: 23.6:1, LDL-C/HDL-C: 0.07:1. This study revealed the increased prevalence of dyslipidemia to be more prevalent in 31-40 year males, suggesting that this group is at an increased risk of developing CAD leading to young infarcts. Combination lifestyle therapies i.e., enhanced physical activity and dietary modification and therapeutic intervention would help us in the treatment and management of dyslipidemia.

  1. Butterflies of the Rice Research Station and adjoining locality in Chinsurah, West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somnath Mandal

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Chinsurah is a small town on the western bank of the Hugli River, a distributary of the river Ganges.  A survey from November 2006 to June 2014 with photographic documentation on the butterfly community in Chinsurah revealed the presence of a total of 70 species representing 53 genera in five families; most dominant family was the Nymphalidae having 34.3% of the total species.  Six species are legally protected; one species under Schedule I; three species under Schedule II; and two species under Schedule IV of the Indian Wildlife (Protection Act, 1972.  Rare species like Pareronia avator (Moore, Mahathala ameria (Hewitson and Melanitis zitenius (Herbst were recorded in this rapidly degrading habitat.  This study may help in planning conservation strategies in urban areas and sustainable development as well. 

  2. Asymptomatic leishmaniasis in kala-azar endemic areas of Malda district, West Bengal, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Pabitra; Ganguly, Swagata; Chatterjee, Moytrey; Das, Soumendu Bikash; Kundu, Pratip K.; Guha, Subhasish K.; Ghosh, Tamal K.; Bera, Dilip K.; Basu, Nandita

    2017-01-01

    Asymptomatic leishmaniasis may drive the epidemic and an important challenge to reach the goal of joint Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) elimination initiative taken by three Asian countries. The role of these asymptomatic carriers in disease transmission, prognosis at individual level and rate of transformation to symptomatic VL/Post Kala-azar Dermal Leishmaniasis (PKDL) needs to be evaluated. Asymptomatic cases were diagnosed by active mass survey in eight tribal villages by detecting antileishmanial antibody using rK39 based rapid diagnostic kits and followed up for three years to observe the pattern of sero-conversion and disease transformation. Out of 2890 total population, 2603 were screened. Antileishmanial antibody was detected in 185 individuals of them 96 had a history of VL/PKDL and 89 without such history. Seventy nine such individuals were classified as asymptomatic leishmaniasis and ten as active VL with a ratio of 7.9:1. Out of 79 asymptomatic cases 2 were lost to follow up as they moved to other places. Amongst asymptomatically infected persons, disease transformation in 8/77 (10.39%) and sero-conversion in 62/77 (80.52%) cases were noted. Seven (9.09%) remained sero-positive even after three years. Progression to clinical disease among asymptomatic individuals was taking place at any time up to three years after the baseline survey. If there are no VL /PKDL cases for two or more years, it does not mean that the area is free from leishmaniasis as symptomatic VL or PKDL may appear even after three years, if there are such asymptomatic cases. So, asymptomatic infected individuals need much attention for VL elimination programme that has been initiated by three adjoining endemic countries. PMID:28187202

  3. Prevalence of hemoglobinopathy, ABO and rhesus blood groups in rural areas of West Bengal, India

    OpenAIRE

    Bikash Mondal; Soumyajit Maiti; Biplab Kumar Biswas; Debidas Ghosh; Shyamapada Paul

    2012-01-01

    Background: Hemoglobinopathies are a group of inherited disorders of hemoglobin synthesis. It could be formed a fatal scenario in concern of lacking of actual information. Beside this, ABO and Rh blood grouping are also important matter in transfusion and forensic medicine and to reduce new born hemolytic disease (NHD). Materials and Methods: The spectrum and prevalence of various hemoglobinopathies, ABO and rhesus (Rh) blood groups was screened among patients who visited B.S. Medical College...

  4. Comparison of avifaunal diversity in and around Neora Valley National Park, West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U.S. Roy

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic intervention has led to conversion of much of the global diversity by means of habitat alterations. The present study was carried out to investigate the importance of habitat quality and habitat heterogeneity for the diversity, distribution and abundance of avifauna in and around Neora Valley National Park (NVNP during April-May 2010. A total of 73 bird species belonging to 25 families were recorded during the present study applying a modified point count method. Forest edges were found to be most diverse with a total count of 54 bird species having an abundance of 172.53 number of birds ha-1. Study areas with human settlements was represented by a total species count of 24 with an abundance of 130.39 number of birds ha-1 while a total species count of 22 with an abundance of 69.32 number of birds ha-1 was recorded from thick vegetation assemblage with close canopy cover. This site specific occurrence pattern for avifauna was reflected in the study of diversity indices. The highest Shannon-Wiener general diversity score of 3.77 was recorded for bird species from forest edges. Study areas with dense canopy closure were found to support more habitat specialist bird species while areas having human settlements harboured more opportunistic bird species. An overall negative influence of human settlements on bird diversity, distribution and abundance was evidenced from the present study and needs further investigation. Moreover, intensive studies will certainly enrich our knowledge of avian diversity and distribution pattern from the present study location.

  5. Cytological profile of Pap smears in a tertiary care hospital of West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandini Bhaduri Bhattacharyya

    2016-12-01

    Conclusions: Majority of the cases cervical cytology were reported to be without any epithelial cell abnormality followed by LSIL. Age and religion were significantly associated with the abnormality of smears. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(12.000: 4397-4400

  6. A study on fertility perception: An experience from West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sankar Nath Jha

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Correct Knowledge regarding different components of fertility among Eligible Couples to be enhanced by intervention through Information, Education and Communication (Interpersonal Communication and Mass Media.

  7. An Indo-Arabian type of stone anchor from Kannur, Kerala,west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.; Manikfan, A.; Mohamed, M.

    and commerce, cultural contacts and boat and shipbuilding activities of the region. In India, stone anchors have been reported from Gujarat, Maharashtra, Goa, Lakshadweep on the west coast and Tamil Nadu and Orissa on the east coast of India. Recent exploration...

  8. Seasonal variations of aerosol over Dona Paula, A coastal site on the west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Suresh, T.; Desa, E.S.

    Observations of the aerosol studies carried-out for three years (2000 -2002) at Dona-Paula, Goa, India (15.456 degrees N, 73.801 degrees E), a coastal site on the west coast of India is reported. Aerosol optical depths were measured using a five...

  9. Fern diversity and biomass at Chilapatta reserve forest of West Bengal Terai Duars in sub-humid tropical foothills of Indian eastern Himalayas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gopal Shukla; Sumit Chakravarty

    2012-01-01

    We documented the status of fern diversity,biomass and carbon accumulation at Chilapatta Reserve Forest in Cooch Behar Wildlife Division,West Bengal.Stratified random nested quadrat sampling was adopted for analyzing the qualitative and quantitative characters.Nineteen fern species were recorded,of which two are yet to be identified.Identified species were of eight families and nine genera.Highest and lowest frequency recorded were 25.44 and 0.19 while relative frequency varied from 3.16 to 12.25.Fern density ranged from 93 to 13,403 individuals·ha-1.Most of the species were widely distributed.(IVI) values ranged from 7.54 to 37.45.The above ground portion of ferns accumulated the major portion ofbiomass and carbon.

  10. A study on the role of parental involvement in control of nutritional anemia among children of free primary schools in a rural area of West Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haldar, Dibakar; Chatterjee, Tutul; Sarkar, Aditya Prasad; Das, Sankar Kumar; Mallik, Sarmila

    2011-01-01

    An intervention study was conducted among students of three randomly selected free primary schools in rural West Bengal to assess the effect of health-nutrition education for behavior modification of parents on nutritional anemia of children. Clinically anemic students were school-wise randomized into 'groups of two' and intervened with anthelminthic, iron-folic acid (IFA) pediatric tablet and health-nutrition education by reoriented teachers. Parents of study group were involved in behavior change processes. Baseline overall prevalence of anemia was 64.4%. After IFA therapy, prevalence of anemia was not found to differ between two groups (χ² = 2.68, P > 0.05, RR= 0.48, 95% C.I 0.2 Parental involvement for life style and dietary modification may curb childhood anemia.

  11. Vertical propagation of baroclinic Kelvin waves along the west coast of India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D Nethery; D Shankar

    2007-08-01

    A linear, continuously stratified ocean model is used to investigate vertical propagation of remotely forced, baroclinic Kelvin waves along the Indian west coast. The extent of vertical propagation over the length of the coast is found to be an increasing function of the forcing frequency. Simulations show that, over the length of the Indian west coast, vertical propagation is limited at annual and semi-annual periods, but significant at periods shorter than about 120 days. This has two major consequences. First, the depth of subsurface currents associated with these frequencies varies substantially along the coast. Second, baroclinic Kelvin waves generated in the Bay of Bengal at periods shorter than about 120 days have negligible influence on surface currents along the north Indian west coast.

  12. Intra-seasonal sea level variability along the west coast of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhage, Laxmikant; Strub, P. Ted

    2016-11-01

    The importance of local versus distant forcing is studied for the wind-driven intra-seasonal (30-120 day) sea level anomaly (SLA) variations along the west coast of India. Significant correlations of altimeter-derived SLA on the west coast are found with the mid-basin SLA east of Sri Lanka and SLA as far as Sumatra and the equator, with increased lags, connecting with the remote forcing from the equator in the form of reflected Rossby waves. The highest correlations between SLA on the west coast and winds are found with the winds at the southern tip of India. Coherence calculations help to identify the importance of a narrow band (40-60 day) for the interactions of winds with the intra-seasonal SLA variations. A multivariate regression model, along with the coherences within this narrower band, suggest the lags of SLA on the west coast with winds to range from 0 to 2 days with the local forcing to 11-13 days with the forcing along south east coast of India. Hovmöller diagrams illustrate the propagation of signals by estimating phase speed for Rossby waves (57 cm/s) across the Indian Ocean from Sumatra and Coastal Trapped Waves (CTWs) along the west coast of India (178 cm/s). Propagation from the south-east coast of India is not as robust as Rossby waves from Sumatra.

  13. Spectral aerosol optical depths over Bay of Bengal and Chennai: I—measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, S.; Jayaraman, A.

    A cruise experiment to study the aerosol optical characteristics was conducted in February-March 2001 over the Bay of Bengal, a data void region. An analysis of aerosol optical depths (AODs) measured onboard Sagar Kanya shows that the AODs are higher when compared to those measured over the west coast of India and the Arabian Sea. The mean AODs at 0.5 μm over the Bay of Bengal are in the range of 0.2-0.7, and are found to show a variation of about 40-50% in the wavelength region of 0.4- 0.85 μm. The mean wavelength exponent α over the Bay of Bengal is found to be 1.80, higher than the Arabian Sea value of 1.46, indicating a relatively higher concentration of submicron size particles. The mean Ångström coefficient β, which represents the columnar aerosol loading, over the Bay of Bengal is found to be 0.10. Measurements of AODs, made before and after the cruise in Chennai, an urban station located on the eastern coast of India, show higher values compared to the Bay of Bengal data. The mean α for Chennai is found to be 1.53, which is lower than the Bay of Bengal value while the mean β is higher at 0.18. While a higher α value indicates the dominance of smaller size particles over Bay of Bengal, a higher β and a higher AOD at all wavelengths indicate the dominance of both bigger and smaller particles over Chennai. A comparison of AODs obtained over a coastal station Trivandrum, located on the southwest coast of India, during March 2001 showed that in the smaller wavelength range the Chennai AODs are higher while above 0.6 μm the AODs are comparable. The day-to-day variations of AODs measured at Chennai are less significant when compared to Bay of Bengal and are below 10%. As Chennai is an urban, industrial and a well-populated city, and is a constant source of aerosol particles, there are lesser day-to-day variations in the AOD, while over the Bay of Bengal the air masses come from different source regions carrying aerosols of different chemical and

  14. West India coastal current and Lakshadweep High/Low

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shetye, S.R.

    ), forms off southwestern India, and migrates westward across the Arabian Sea. The annual cycle of the WICC and that of the Lakshadweep High/Low arise from a set of circumstances that are special to the North India Ocean. This relatively small tropical...

  15. Magnetic studies of basement off the coast of Bombay, West of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, D

    , 175 (1990) 317-334 Elsevier Science Publishers B.V., Amsterdam - Printed in The Netherlands 317 Magnetic studies of basement off the coast of Bombay, west of India D. GOPALA RAO National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa- 004 (India... the tectonic regime, sedimentary record and magnetic sig- D. GOPALA RAO natures of the continental margin, which are sig- nificant in any explanation of the evolution of the margin. Results are based on both the published (Sahay, 1978; Basu et al., 1980...

  16. Magnetic anomalies in Central Bengal fan

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, T.C.S.; Lakshminarayana, S.; Sarma, K.V.L.N.S.

    Total magnetic field anomalies recorded over the Central Bengal Fan are analysed and the depths to the magnetic basement are computed using the analytical signal and the Werner deconvolution methods. To the west and east of 85 degrees E...

  17. Regional Aerosol Forcing over India: Preliminary Results from the South West Asian Aerosol-Monsoon Interactions (SWAAMI) Aircraft Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, W.; Brooks, J.; Fox, C.; Haslett, S.; Liu, D.; Kompalli, S. K.; Pathak, H.; Manoj, M. R.; Allan, J. D.; Haywood, J. M.; Highwood, E.; Langridge, J.; Nanjundaiah, R. S.; Krishnamoorthy, K.; Babu, S. S.; Satheesh, S. K.; Turner, A. G.; Coe, H.

    2016-12-01

    Aerosol particles from multiple sources across the Indian subcontinent build up to form a dense and extensive haze across the region in advance of the monsoon. These aerosols are thought to perturb the regional radiative balance and hydrological cycle, which may have a significant impact on the monsoon circulation, as well as influencing the associated cloud and rainfall of the system. However the nature and magnitude of such impacts are poorly understood or constrained. Major uncertainties relevant to the regional aerosol burden include its vertical distribution, the relative contribution of different pollution sources and natural emissions and the role of absorbing aerosol species (black carbon and mineral dust). The South West Asian Aerosol-Monsoon Interactions (SWAAMI) project sought to address these major uncertainties by conducting an airborne experiment during June/July 2016 on-board the UK Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurement (FAAM) BAe-146 research aircraft. Based out of Lucknow in the), The aircraft conducted multiple flights from Lucknow in the heart of the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP) in advance of the monsoon and during the onset phase. The spatial and vertical distribution of aerosol was evaluated across northern India, encompassing drier desert-like regions to the west, heavily populated urban and industrial centres over the IGP and air masses in outflow regions to the south-east towards the Bay of Bengal. Principal measurements included aerosol chemical composition using an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer and a DMT Single Particle Soot Photometer, alongside a Leosphere backscatter LIDAR. Sulphate was a major contributor to the aerosol burden across India, while the organic aerosol was elevated and more dominant over the most polluted regions of the IGP. Substantial aerosol concentrations were frequently observed up to altitudes of approximately 6km, with notable changes in aerosol chemical and physical properties when comparing different

  18. Restoration of mangroves along the central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Untawale, A.G.

    of various measures taken by the Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India. New Delhi, conservation and management policies were initiated between 1985-1995. During this period it was observed, with remote sensing techniques, that vast...

  19. Ocean outfall off Mangalore, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mandal, S.; Chandramohan, P.; Raju, N.S.N.; Pathak, K.C.

    Various industries like refineries, petrochemicals, thermal power, iron and steel, copper smelter, nylon and resins, etc. are coming up along the coastal belt of India. They generally intend to discharge the effluent, brine and warm water from...

  20. Variations in tidal constituents along the nearshore waters of Karnataka, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SanilKumar, V.; Dora, G.U.; Philip, C.S.; Pednekar, P.S.; Singh

    . Coast. Res., vol.27(5); 2011; 824-829 Variations in tidal constituents along the nearshore waters of Karnataka, west coast of India V.Sanil Kumar, G. Udhaba Dora, Sajive Philip, P.Pednekar and JaiSingh Ocean Engineering, National Institute...

  1. Sea level changes induced by local winds on the west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mehra, P.; Tsimplis, M.N.; Desai, R.G.P.; Joseph, A.; Shaw, A.G.P.; Somayajulu, Y.K.; Cipollini, P.

    The contribution of atmospheric pressure and local wind to sea level variability at Goa (West coast of India) for the period 2007–2008 is investigated. Sea level data from a tide gauge are compared with measured local surface meteorological as well...

  2. Tides in the Mandovi and Zuari estuaries, Goa, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sundar, D.; Shetye, S.R.

    Mandovi and Zuari are two estuaries located in Goa, west coast of India. Variation of water level in the estuaries was monitored for a month at 13 locations using tide-poles during March–April 2003. Analysis of this data has provided for the first...

  3. Organic matter distribution in the continental shelf sediments, off Kochi, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Reddy, N.P.C.

    Organic matter was analysed on the silt-clay fraction of forty eight sediment samples from the continental shelf off Kochi, west coast of India. It was found to be high in the recent, near shore silt-clay predominant sediments towards Alleppey...

  4. Water masses and general hydrography along the west coast of India during early March

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    RameshBabu, V.; Varkey, M.J.; Das, V.K.; Gouveia, A.D.

    Structure of water masses along the west coast of India from Bombay to Trivandrum has been studied through vertical sections of temperature, salinity and density during 3-17 March 1977. The Arabian Sea high salinity water spreads south as a core...

  5. Organotins in the sediments of the Zuari estuary, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jadhav, S.; Bhosle, N.B.; Massanisso, P.; Morabito, R.

    Author version: J. Environ. Manage.: 90(suppl. 1); 2009; S4-S7. Organotins in the sediments of the Zuari estuary, west coast of India Sangeeta Jadhav* a , Narayan B Bhosle a , Paolo Massanisso b , Roberto Morabito b a Marine Corrosion...

  6. Time and space variations of monsoonal upwelling along the west and east coasts of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naidu, P.D.; RameshKumar, M.R.; RameshBabu, V.

    The study of monthly mean local temperature anomaley (LTA defined as the difference between coastal and mid-ocean sea surface temperature), and Ekman transport along the west and east coasts of India based on 60-year data set of Hastenrath and Lamb...

  7. Tracking the history of dinoflagellate cyst assemblages in sediments from the west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DeSilva, M.S.; Anil, A.C.; Borole, D.V.; Nath, B.N.; Singhal, R.K.

    the west coast of India. The naturally occurring radionuclide sup(210) Pb activity in the sediment samples were measured; and subsequently the sedimentation rates (SRs) and ages were modeled. The SRs ranged from 0.15 plus or minus 0.01 to 2.80 plus or minus...

  8. Macrofouling community development at tropical coastal environment (New Mangalore Port, West Coast of India)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Venkat, K.; Anil, A.C.; Wagh, A.B.

    to evaluate the influence of environment on the development of macrofouling community at a locality which is not directly influenced by river run-off, a coastal station at New Mangalore Port (West coast of India) was monitored. Panels of admeasuring 10 x 15...

  9. Observational evidence for remote forcing of the west India coastal current

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shetye, S.R.; Suresh, I.; Shankar, D.; Sundar, D.; Jayakumar, S.; Mehra, P.; Desai, R.G.P.; Pednekar, P.S.

    remote and local forcing in observations. Using field measurements (current, sea level, and wind) for a month during March-April 2003 off Goa in the near-coast regime of the West India Coastal Current (WICC), we show that the current was driven by local...

  10. Synechococcus as an indicator of trophic status in the Cochin backwaters, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rajaneesh, K.M.; Mitbavkar, S.; Anil, A.C.; Sawant, S.S.

    conditions during three seasons, post-monsoon (PM-I; October 2011 and PM-II; November 2012), pre-monsoon (PrM; May 2012) and monsoon (MON; August 2012). CB, along the west coast of India, receives continuous load of nutrients throughout the year through...

  11. Exploration for shipwrecks off Sunchi Reef, Goa, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.; Gaur, A.S.; Sundaresh; Bandodkar, S.N.

    Archival records show that a number of ships have sunk in the waters off Goa, on the west coast of India, as a result of foul weather, warfare and human error. Explorations were carried out in 1997-99 to locate shipwrecks using a boat-towed metal...

  12. Remote assessment of net shore drift along the west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kunte, P.D.; Wagle, B.G.; Sugimori, Y.

    Space borne images were analyzed to examine direction, amount and behavior of long-shore drift and its contribution towards deciding areas vulnerable to coastal erosion and accretion along the West Coast of India. Long-term net shore drift direction...

  13. Metal distribution in Halophila beccarii (Aschers) and sorrounding environment along the central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jagtap, T.G.

    Halophila beccarii (Aschers), the surrounding water and the sediments showed varying concentrations of Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Cu, Ni, Sr and Li at different localities along central west coast of India. Iron was found to be maximum in both the plant...

  14. Caste, Class and the Love-Marriage: Social Change in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corwin, Lauren A.

    1977-01-01

    The present study of a small town in rural West Bengal, India, reveals a number of "love-marriages" involving individuals from castes of distinctly different ranks in the local caste hierarchy. Despite the prevailing rule of caste endogamy, inter-caste couples appear to face little difficulty. (Author)

  15. The Sexual Lives of Muslim Girls in the "Bustees" of Kolkata, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Kabita

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims to understand why and how young Muslim women pursue sexual relationships in the urban bustees (slums) of Kolkata, West Bengal, India. I discuss how girls in heterosexual romantic relationships decide where, when and how to have sex, and the importance of class discourses and popular Bollywood culture in this decision-making…

  16. Distribution of clay minerals in marine sediments off Chennai, Bay of Bengal, India:Indicators of sediment sources and transport processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Subramanian VEERASINGAM; Ramdoss VENKATACHALAPATHY; Thirunavukkarasu RAMKUMAR

    2014-01-01

    Clay mineralogy, texture size and statistical analyses were carried out on surface sediments from the continental shelf of Chennai, Bay of Bengal, India. The purpose of this study is to characterize the clay mineral distribution and its relation to the hydrodynamics off Chennai to identify the sources and transport pathways of the marine sediments. Characterization of clay minerals in coastal sediments by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy has provided the association of quartz, feldspar, kaolinite, chlorite, illite and iron oxides (magnetite and hematite) derived from river catchments and coastal erosion. Kaolinite, chlorite, illite, iron oxides, and organic matter are the dominant minerals in Cooum, and Adayar region. High quartz and feldspar zones were identified in Marina, which are being confined the sand zone and paralleling the coast. The strong relationships among the wave energy density, sand, quartz and carbonate revealed that wave induced littoral drift system play a dominant role in transportation and deposition of sediments in the Chennai coast. The sediment texture and minerals data are in agreement well with the previous results of hydrodynamics and littoral drift models in this region. Multivariate statistical analyses (correlation, cluster and factor analyses) were carried out and obtained results suggested that clay minerals and organic matter are trapped in silt and clay particles, whereas quartz, feldspar and carbonate are associated with sand particles. Results of sediment sources and transport processes from this study will be useful to predict the fate of the pollutants released from land or the potential change in sediment delivery to coastal areas.

  17. A new Neocalceostomatid (Monogenoidea) from the gills of the blackfin sea catfish, Arius jella (Siluriformes: Ariidae), in the Bay of Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritsky, Delane C; Shameem, U; Kumari, Ch Padma; Krishnaveni, I

    2012-06-01

    Thysanotohaptor n. gen. (Neocalceostomatidae) is proposed to accommodate Thysanotohaptor rex n. sp. collected from the gills of the blackfin sea catfish Arius jella Day (Siluriformes: Ariidae) from off the coast of Visakhapatnam, Bay of Bengal, Andhra Pradesh, India. Thysanotohaptor is differentiated from the other known neocalceostomatid genera by its species having multiple postgermarial testes (single testis in species of Neocalceostoma and Neocalceostomoides ), lacking a transverse bar associated with the ventral anchor pair (present in species of Neocalceostoma ), and possessing a disc-shaped haptor with a pleated marginal frill (frill absent in Neocalceostomoides spp.; Neocalceostoma spp. with delicate marginal membranes). The Neocalceostomatidae is considered valid within the Order Dactylogyridea based on its members having a haptor armed with 10 marginal and 4 ventral hooks and a germarium having a distal loop prior to uniting with the ootype; the family is not assigned to a suborder of Dactylogyridea because of uncertainty in part about the way in which the distribution of haptoral hooks evolved within the taxon.

  18. Assessment of iodine and non-iodine deficiency hypothyroidism in women of reproductive ages in the sub-Himalayan plains of West Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Arabinda; Biswas, Utpal; Mukherjee, Ashoke; Sarker, Krishna Chandra; Samajdar, Kausik; Mukherjee, Gautam

    2009-01-01

    Indian women of reproductive age groups commonly suffer from hypothyroidism which may be due to iodine or non iodine deficiency causes. This study was undertaken with a view to ascertain the leading cause of hypothyroidism in women of reproductive age group residing in the sub-Himalayan plain areas of Darjeeling district of West Bengal. Serum TSH, T4, T3 and Urinary Iodine Excretion (UIE) levels were measured in 101 non pregnant women. Our results reveal that among 37.62% (n=38) of bio-chemically established hypothyroid women; majority 76.32% (n=29) are suffering from iodine deficiency and the rest 23.68% (n=9) have Hypothyroidism due to other causes. Moreover, iodine deficiency persists among 57.42% (n=58) of the women in our study. We conclude that iodine deficiency disorders are still a major problem in this region and hypothyroidism due to iodine deficiency is more prevalent than the non iodine deficiency causes. Hence lacunae in the iodine supplementation process needs to be reviewed.

  19. A study on the role of parental involvement in control of nutritional anemia among children of free primary schools in a rural area of West Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dibakar Haldar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An intervention study was conducted among students of three randomly selected free primary schools in rural West Bengal to assess the effect of health-nutrition education for behavior modification of parents on nutritional anemia of children. Clinically anemic students were school-wise randomized into ′groups of two′ and intervened with anthelminthic, iron-folic acid (IFA pediatric tablet and health-nutrition education by reoriented teachers. Parents of study group were involved in behavior change processes. Baseline overall prevalence of anemia was 64.4%. After IFA therapy, prevalence of anemia was not found to differ between two groups (χ2 = 2.68, P > 0.05, RR= 0.48, 95% C.I 0.2 < RR < 1.19 while reducing 52.2% of relative risk. Reassessment after six months showed significantly lower prevalence in study group (χ2 = 18.14, P < 0.05, RR = 0.20, 95% C.I. 0.08 < RR < 0.49. Parental involvement for life style and dietary modification may curb childhood anemia.

  20. Inferring the fluoride hydrogeochemistry and effect of consuming fluoride-contaminated drinking water on human health in some endemic areas of Birbhum district, West Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, D; Dutta, G; Gupta, S

    2016-04-01

    This research work is carried out to evaluate fluoride (F) hydrogeochemistry and its effect on the population of two endemic villages of Birbhum district, West Bengal. Fluoride concentration in drinking water varies from 0.33 to 18.08 mg/L. Hydrogeochemical evolution suggests that ion-exchange mechanism is the major controlling factor for releasing F in the groundwater. Most of the groundwater samples are undersaturated with respect to calcite and fluorite. Health survey shows that out of 235 people, 142 people suffer from dental fluorosis. According to fluoride impact severity, almost 80 and 94 % people in an age group of 11-20 and 41-50 suffer from dental and skeletal fluorosis, respectively. Statistically drinking water F has a positive correlation with dental and skeletal fluorosis. Bone mineral density test reveals that 33 and 45 % of the studied population suffer from osteopenic and osteoporosis disease. IQ test also signifies that F has a bearing on the intelligence development of the study area school children. The existence of significant linear relationship (R (2) = 0.77) between drinking water F and urinary F suggests that consumption of F-contaminated drinking water has a major control over urinary F (0.39-20.1 mg/L) excretion.

  1. Predicted weight with different body segments and its use in nutritional assessment among older Bengalees of Purba Medinipur District, West Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binoy Kuiti

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the applicability of alternative versus direct anthropometric measurements for evaluating of nutritional status among older Bengalees. We conducted a cross-sectional survey in a coastal area of Purba Medinipur District, West Bengal. We measured weight, height, knee height, waist, hip and mid-upper-arm circumferences of 114 older individuals. Correlations between the different methods for calculating body mass index (BMI; using direct or alternative measurements were evaluated by Passing-Bablok regression method; agreement in the allocation of participants to the same risk category was assessed by squared weighted kappa statistic and indicators of internal relative validity. Using the Passing-Bablok regression method, the best agreement was found in fourth model (height + WC + HC for men and in women, the best agreement was found in the second model (height + MUAC. The agreement between this classification and that obtained using BMI calculated by alternative measurements was “fair-good.” When it is not possible to determine nutritional status risk category by using weight, we suggest that for older Bengalees, it may be appropriate to use the alternative measurements to predict weight and BMI.

  2. Ships on hero stones from the west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.

    (Maharashtra, India) show naval warfare. The Old Goa stones belong to the Kadambas who ruled Goa from 950–1300 AD. The Eksar stones to the reign of king Bhoja of Malwa in 1020 AD. Similar hero stones with boat motifs of the 18th to 19th centuries AD have been...

  3. Eriophyoid mites from Eastern India: description of three new species (Acari: Prostigmata: Eriophyoidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debnath, Pranab; Karmakar, Krishna

    2016-01-11

    Three new eriophyoid mite species, namely Dichopelmus puncti n. sp. (Eriophyidae) from cogan grass, Imperata cylindrica (Poaceae); Calacarus kalyaniensis n. sp. (Eriophyidae) from Siam weed, Chromolaena odorata (Asteraceae) and Neorhynacus bidhanae n. sp. (Diptilomiopidae) from Croton caudatus (Euphorbiaceae), are described and illustrated from West Bengal, India. The new species are vagrants on the leaves of their respective host plants with no visible damage observed. Keys to the known species of Dichopelmus and Neorhynacus are provided along with a checklist of eriophyoid mites species present in West Bengal.

  4. The behaviour of aluminium in waters of the Mandovi estuary, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Upadhyay, S.; SenGupta, R.

    (1995) 261-276 The behaviour of aluminium in waters of the Mandovi estuary, west coast of India S. Upadhyay aY1, R. Sen Gupta b a Department of Marine Science, Goa University. Goa 403203. India b National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa...- tems (Plankey and Patterson, 1987), only a few ’ Present address: School of Environmental Sciences, Univer- sity of East Anglia, Norwich, NR4 7TJ, UK. studies are available concerning its behaviour in estuaries (Hosokawa et al., 1970; Hydes and Liss...

  5. Petroleum hydrocarbon concentration in surface sediments in continental shelf region along the central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ram, A.; Kadam, A.N.

    Gas chromatography revealed that nonpolar material extracted from surface sediments collected along the northern west coast of India was originated from petroleum hydrocarbon residue. Petroleum hydrocarbon levels as determinEd. by fluorescence...

  6. Temporal variation in macroinvertebrates associated with intertidal sponge Ircinia fusca (Carter 1880) from Ratnagiri, West coast, India.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sivadas, S.K.; Redij, A.G.S.; Sagare, P.; Thakur, N.L.; Ingole, B.S.

    Temporal variation of macrofauna associated with a marine sponge, Ircinia fusca was studied from a tropical rocky shore along the West coast of India. Triplicate sponge samples (~100 g) were collected from January to December 2010 from Bhagwati...

  7. Marine geoscientific surveys in ports and nearshore regions of the Arabian Sea off central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SubbaRaju, L.V.; Naidu, P.D.; Almeida, F.

    Bathymetric, side scan sonar and shallow seismic surveys were carried out in ports and adjacent nearshore regions of the Arabian Sea off the central west coast of India. It is observed that in the regions of rivers confluencing the sea...

  8. Geochemical and diatom records of recent changes in depositional environment of a tropical wetland, central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pande, A.; Nayak, G.N.; Prasad, V.; PrakashBabu, C

    Two mudflat sediment cores collected from a sub-channel (S-61) and the main channel (S-60) of a tropical wetland, along central west coast of India, were investigated for recent changes in depositional environment using geochemical (sediment grain...

  9. Pattern of species succession of soft-bottom macrofauna in the estuaries of Goa, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Harkantra, S.N.; Rodrigues, N.R.

    Multivariate techniques, chord normalized expected species shared (CNESS) and principal component analyses of hypergeometric probability of species matrices (PCA-H) were applied to soft-bottom macrofauna data of Goa estuaries, west coast of India...

  10. Probable movement and mixing of contaminants in tidal estuaries - A field study in Kundalika Estuary, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DineshKumar, P.K.; Sarma, R.V.; Zingde, M.D.

    The probable movement and mixing of contaminants within and through the Kundalika river estuary along the west coast of India are studied Neutrally buoyant biplane drogues, floats and dye were tracked at different stages of the tide to assess...

  11. A comparative evaluation of dental caries status among hearing-impaired and normal children of Malda, West Bengal, evaluated with the Caries Assessment Spectrum and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudipta Kar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Dental caries is one of the major modern-day diseases of dental hard tissue. It may affect both normal and hearing-impaired children. Aims: This study is aimed to evaluate and compare the prevalence of dental caries in hearing-impaired and normal children of Malda, West Bengal, utilizing the Caries Assessment Spectrum and Treatment (CAST. Settings and Design: In a cross-sectional, case-control study of dental caries status of 6-12-year-old children was assessed. Subjects and Methods: Statistically significant difference was found in studied (hearing-impaired and control group (normal children. In the present study, caries affected hearing-impaired children found to be about 30.51% compared to 15.81% in normal children, and the result was statistically significant. Regarding individual caries assessment criteria, nearly all subgroups reflect statistically significant difference except sealed tooth structure group, internal caries-related discoloration in dentin, and distinct cavitation into dentine group, and the result is significant at P < 0.05. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analysis was carried out utilizing Z-test. Results: Statistically significant difference was found in studied (hearing-impaired and control group (normal children. In the present study, caries effected hearing-impaired children found about 30.51% instead of 15.81% in normal children, and the result was statistically significant (P < 0.05. Regarding individual caries assessment criteria, nearly all subgroups reflect statistically significant difference except sealed tooth structure group, internal caries-related discoloration in dentin, and distinct cavitation into dentine group. Conclusions: Dental health of hearing-impaired children was found unsatisfactory than normal children when studied in relation to dental caries status evaluated with CAST.

  12. A Community Based Study On The Prevalence Of Risk Factors OF Cancer Cervix In Married Women Of A Rural Area Of West Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dasgupta Aparajita

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question: What is the prevalence of the established risk factors associated with cancer cervix? Objective: To assess the presence of some determinants of cancer cervix among married, rural women of reproductive age group. Study design: Community based, cross â€" sectional, observational study. Setting: Rural: Village East Gobindopur is Singur block in Hooghly district of West Bengal. Study population : All the married women of reproductive age group (103 of the village were included in the study. Results: More than two â€" third (72.8% of the study population belonged to the vulnerable age group (25-45 years for this disease while 59.3% were married before they attained 18 years of age. Again 50% (approx of the married women gave birth to their first child before they were 18 years of age. One â€" third of the study population had parity higher than three. Two â€" third of the women studied were using one or more methods of family planning and one â€" third of the same population were permanently sterilized, 20% were using oral contraceptive pills and only 7.7% were using barrier methods of contraception. Only 31% of the women had satisfactory genital hygiene practice and 36.9% had symptoms of reproductive tract infection. Conclusion: There was a high prevalence of some important risk factors associated with cancer cervix like age, age of marriage, age of first child birth, parity ,family planning practices, genital hygiene and reproductive tract infections in the study population. Therefore screening and early detection efforts can be directed specifically to the group at risk.

  13. Identification of chlorophyll ( with application of IRS-P4 OCM data and Geographical Information System - a case study of part of Bay of Bengal, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavan Dayaker, T.

    2002-05-01

    As 60 - 70 % of the world's population live within 20 - 30 km of the coastline, coastal zone management and optimisation of ocean resources have grown in of importance. The study of the ocean encompasses its physical chemical, biological properties and its interaction with land and biological productivity. Mapping of coastal zone gives us insight about how to conserve its eco-balance and implement effective coastal zone management. Effective Coastal Zone Management will need accurate and comprehensive scientific data, on which decisions can be based. In the present study Ocean Color Monitor ( OCM ) data is used for identification of chlorophyll, which inturn indicates the presence of phytoplankton, which is the primary producer in the food chain, and also to fish . The study area is part of Bay of Bengal Sea near the coastal region of Andhra Pradesh, India. Remote sensing in optical region is found useful in understanding the spatial distribution of ocean water constituents, in which phytoplankton pigment which impart a green colour to the sea water, has a definite response in the visible region, which enables plant material to be distinguished from the other suspended matter. Normalised Differential Vegetative Index ( NDVI ), which is mainly used on land applications for the identification of vegetation based on chlorophyll absorption, is used on water surface in the present study. The positive value of NDVI is an indication of the presence of pigment concentration / chlorophyll / phytoplankton / fish. The successful launch of the IRS - P4 satellite which provides us a challenging opportunity to study ocean resources and its characteristics and see how best we can benefit, over a period of time, in several areas of human survival specifically related to food security on a sustained basis. This study is first of its kind in utilising the latest technology to explore the marine resources for mapping the fishing zones and the results, clearly indicate that NDVI can

  14. Time series monitoring of water quality and microalgal diversity in a tropical bay under intense anthropogenic interference (SW coast of the Bay of Bengal, India)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaik, Aziz ur Rahman [CSIR — National Institute of Oceanography, Regional Centre, 176 Lawson' s Bay Colony, Visakhapatnam, AP 530017 (India); Biswas, Haimanti, E-mail: haimanti.biswas@nio.org [CSIR — National Institute of Oceanography, Regional Centre, 176 Lawson' s Bay Colony, Visakhapatnam, AP 530017 (India); Reddy, N.P.C.; Srinivasa Rao, V. [CSIR — National Institute of Oceanography, Regional Centre, 176 Lawson' s Bay Colony, Visakhapatnam, AP 530017 (India); Bharathi, M.D. [Present address: ICMAM Project Directorate, 2nd Floor, NIOT Campus, Velacherry-Tambaram Main Road, Pallikkaranai, Chennai 600100 (India); Subbaiah, Ch.V. [CSIR — National Institute of Oceanography, Regional Centre, 176 Lawson' s Bay Colony, Visakhapatnam, AP 530017 (India)

    2015-11-15

    In recent decades, material fluxes to coastal waters from various land based anthropogenic activities have significantly been enhanced around the globe which can considerably impact the coastal water quality and ecosystem health. Hence, there is a critical need to understand the links between anthropogenic activities in watersheds and its health. Kakinada Bay is situated at the SW part of the Bay of Bengal, near to the second largest mangrove cover in India with several fertilizer industries along its bank and could be highly vulnerable to different types of pollutants. However, virtually, no data is available so far reporting its physicochemical status and microalgal diversity at this bay. In order to fill this gap, we conducted three time series observations at a fixed station during January, December and June 2012, at this bay measuring more than 15 physical, chemical and biological parameters in every 3 h over a period of 36 h in both surface (0 m) and subsurface (4.5 m) waters. Our results clearly depict a strong seasonality between three sampling months; however, any abnormal values of nutrients, biological oxygen demand or dissolved oxygen level was not observed. A Skeletonema costatum bloom was observed in December which was probably influenced by low saline, high turbid and high Si input through the river discharge. Otherwise, smaller diatoms like Thalassiosira decipiens, Thalassiothrix frauenfeldii, and Thalassionema nitzschioides dominated the bay. It is likely that the material loading can be high at the point sources due to intense anthropogenic activities, however, gets diluted with biological, chemical and physical processes in the offshore waters. - Highlights: • No signature of enormous nutrient loading was observed over the diel cycle • Dissolved oxygen and BOD concentrations did not show any exceptional trend • Diatoms dominated more than 90% of the total phytoplankton communities • A Skeletonema Costatum (a centric diatom) bloom was

  15. Tides in the Mandovi and Zuari estuaries, Goa, west coast of India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D Sundar; S R Shetye

    2005-10-01

    Mandovi and Zuari are two estuaries located in Goa,west coast of India.Variation of water level in the estuaries was monitored for a month at 13 locations using tide-poles during March –April 2003.Analysis of this data has provided for the first time,characteristics of how tidal constituents vary in the narrow and shallow estuaries,typical of those found along the west coast of India.At a distance of 45 km from the mouth the tidal range increased in both estuaries by approximately 20%.The tidal range at the upstream end of the two channels at the stations dropped sharply because of the increase in elevation of the channels.

  16. Community structure and coral health status across the depth gradients of Grande Island, Central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Manikandan, B.; Ravindran, J.; Mohan, H.; Periasamy, R.; ManiMurali, R.; Ingole, B.S.

    The Grande Island, located at the central west coast of India is one of the less studied coral reef systems in India. In this study, we provide a comprehensive description of the coral community structure and health status of corals across...

  17. Aerosol characterization over Sundarban mangrove forest at the north-east coast of Bay of Bengal, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Abhijit; Das, Sanat Kumar; Sarkar, Chirantan; Ghosh, Sanjay; Raha, Sibaji; Singh, Soumendra; Roy, Arindam

    2016-07-01

    A comprehensive study was conducted on chemical characterization of size segregated and cumulative aerosols during winter, 2015 and summer 2016 over a remote mangrove forest at Sundarban at the north-east coast of Bay of Bengal. Aerosols originated from the surf zone at the land-ocean boundary of Sundarban mangrove forest and aerosols advected from Kolkata and other metropolitan and urban cities at Indo-Gangetic Plain were characterized in terms of major water soluble inorganic species. Attempt was made to investigate the combined effect of locally generated sea-salt and advected anthropogenic aerosols could change the pristine marine character at this region during the above mentioned periods. Significant chloride depletion from sea-salt aerosols was observed in coarse and ultrafine mode compared to fine mode in winter whereas reverse trend was observed during summer. On an average the chloride to sodium ratio in PM10 aerosol was found to be around 0.6 which was much lower than that in sea-water. It was observed that non-sea-sulphate and nitrate aerosols were the major species depleting chloride from sea-salt aerosols. This supported the interaction between fresh marine and polluted anthropogenic aerosols. The average concentration of PM10 aerosols was 64 μg m-3 in winter and 89 μg m-3 in summer. Major water soluble ionic species were used for the source apportionment of aerosol during the two seasons. On an average it was observed that 60-70 % of total PM10 aerosols were constituted by the major water soluble ionic species. Emission flux and deposition flux of aerosols were also studied over this remote forest region. It was also observed that anthropogenic ionic species were mostly accumulated in the ultrafine and fine mode region both during winter and summer. On the other hand sea-salt species were mostly accumulated in the coarse mode region. Sulphate aerosol showed bimodal distribution with prominent peaks both at ultrafine/fine and coarse mode region

  18. Tsunami impacts on morphology of beaches along south Kerala coast, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rasheed, K.A.A.; Das, V.K.; Revichandran, C.; Vijayan, P.R.; Thottam, T.J.

    TSUNAMI IMPACTS ON MORPHOLOGY OF BEACHES ALONG SOUTH KERALA COAST, WEST COAST OF INDIA K. A. Abdul Rasheed *, V. Kesava Das, C. Revichandran, P. R. Vijayan and Tony. J. Thottam National Institute of Oceanography (NIO), Regional Centre (RC... large waves of height 11 to 11.5m in Kutch region (Pendse 1945). Most of the tsunamis are generated by the earthquake-initiated seabed displacements. Landslides (including underwater landslides), volcanic eruptions, impact of large objects (such...

  19. Hair mercury concentrations in residents of Sundarban and Calcutta, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibb, Herman; O'Leary, Keri Grace; Sarkar, Santosh Kumar; Wang, Jing; Liguori, Lisa; Rainis, Holly; Smith, Katy A; Chatterjee, Mousumi

    2016-10-01

    Few studies on hair mercury have been conducted in India despite the fact that India is the world's third largest producer of coal and coal is India's primary energy source. No studies have been conducted in the Indian state of West Bengal which has a coastline with the Bay of Bengal. This study examined the concentration of mercury in hair in two diverse populations in West Bengal, India: Sundarban, a mangrove wetland where fishing is a common occupation, and Calcutta, a megacity and India's oldest functioning port. Individuals from whom scalp hair was collected (N=100) were asked a series of questions on occupation, education, age, smoking and alcohol consumption, and fish consumption. SAS was utilized to generate descriptive statistics including frequency and univariate analyses and to perform regression analyses to determine significant predictors of hair mercury in this population. The mean hair mercury increased across the first three age categories (45). Hair mercury concentration was significantly higher among residents of Sundarban compared to Calcutta (p=0.0005). In multivariable analysis, location (Sundarban vs. Calcutta) and age were significant predictors of hair mercury concentration (p=0.0120 and p=0.0161, respectively). Average hair mercury concentrations in this study were not particularly elevated. Smoking and alcohol consumption were predictors of hair mercury concentration. The hair mercury in Sundarban residents compared to Calcutta residents may be elevated due to greater consumption of fish and type of fish consumed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Gravity anomalies and crustal structure of the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Subrahmanyam, V; Krishna, K.S.; Murthy, I.V; Sarma, K.V.L; Desa, M.; Ramana, M.V; KameshRaju, K.A.

    The Bengal Fan is covered afresh by systematic geological and geophysical investigations by National Institute of Oceanography (NIO), India and a detailed free-air gravity map of the fan is prepared. The map shows two strong gravity lows - one...

  1. Geoid and gravity anomaly data of conjugate regions of Bay of Bengal and Enderby Basin: New constraints on breakup and early spreading history between India and Antarctica

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Krishna, K.S.; Michael, L.; Bhattacharyya, R.; Majumdar, T.J.

    Enderby Basin as conjugate FZs that trace the early Cretaceous rifting of south ECMI from Enderby Land. Structural rises between the FZs of Bay of Bengal may either represent fossil ridge segments, possibly have extinct during the early evolution...

  2. Refining the Bengal Fan stratigraphy - A first correlation of IODP Expedition 354 results and seismic data from the Bay of Bengal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwenk, Tilmann; Spiess, Volkhard; Bergmann, Fenna; France-Lanord, Christian; Klaus, Adam

    2016-04-01

    The Bengal Fan covers the floor of the entire Bay of Bengal from the continental margins of India and Bangladesh to the sediment-filled Sunda Trench off Myanmar and the Andaman Islands, and along the west side of the Ninetyeast Ridge. The deposition and progradation of the Bengal Fan started in the Eocene after the collision of India with Asia resulting in the build-up of the Himalaya and the formation of a large proto-Bay of Bengal. Continued convergence of the Indian and Australian plates with the Southeast Asian plate reduced the size of the bay and focused the source of turbidites finally into the present Bengal Basin, Bangladesh shelf, and the shelf canyon "Swatch of no Ground". Today, the Bengal Fan is mainly fed by the sediment load of the Ganges and Brahmaputra rivers, which drain the Himalayas at its southern and northern slope, respectively, and deliver their load to the delta in the Bengal Basin, to the Bengal Shelf and to the deep sea fan. Thus the Bengal Fan is a suitable recorder to study interactions among the growth of the Himalaya and Tibet, the development of the Asian monsoon, and processes affecting the carbon cycle and global climate. Because sedimentation in the Bengal Fan responds to both, climate and tectonic processes, its terrigenous sediment records the past evolution of both the Himalaya and regional climate. This evolution is also expressed in the stratigraphy of the fan in terms of unconformities and key horizons, average sedimentation rates as a function of distance from the basement ridges at 85°E and 90°E and the presence or absence of channel-levee systems. The histories of the Himalaya/Tibetan system and the Asian monsoon require sampling different periods of time with different levels of precision. Therefore IODP Expedition 354 drilled in February-March 2015 a seven site, 320 km-long transect across the Bengal Fan at 8°N. This strategy has been chosen because sediment transport took place by turbidity currents following

  3. Macrobenthic communities of the Vellar Estuary in the Bay of Bengal in Tamil-Nadu in South India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chertoprud, M. V.; Chertoprud, E. S.; Saravanakumar, A.; Thangaradjou, T.; Mazei, Yu. A.

    2013-03-01

    The macrobenthic fauna and communities of the Vellar Estuary located at the southeast cost of India (11°30' N, 79°45' E) and the adjacent marine and river habitats are described on the basis of original data (70 samples over 10 transects). The fauna consists of 115 macrobenthic species and 79 species in estuarine habitats. We described 14 types of macrobenthic communities with different compositions of the dominant species. The leading ecological factors of the distribution of the communities are the salinity, depth, and bottom type. The Vellar estuary consists of two longitudinal zones of macrobenthos. The polyhalinic area is populated by the marine species, but it is related not to a salinity decrease but to the protection from waves and silt on the bottom in this area. The polyhalinic communities are most abundant in terms of the biomass and species richness. The mesohalinic area is inhabited by brackish water species and communities with low abundance. The sublittoral estuarine area is dominated by filter-feeders—the bivalves Crassostrea madrasensis, Meretrix casta, Modiolus metcalfei, and Scapharca inaequivalves—and the littoral zone is dominated by the gastropods Cerithidea cingulata, some crabs, and polychaetes. The ecosystem function of the Vellar estuary can be defined as a filter for the fine organic particles transported by the river.

  4. Concentration of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in sediment cores of Sundarban mangrove wetland, northeastern part of Bay of Bengal (India)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binelli, Andrea [Department of Biology, University of Milan, Via Celoria 26, 20133 Milan (Italy)]. E-mail: andrea.binelli@unimi.it; Sarkar, Santosh Kumar [Department of Marine Science, University of Calcutta, 35 Ballygunge Circular Road, Calcutta 700 019 (India); Chatterjee, Mousumi [Department of Marine Science, University of Calcutta, 35 Ballygunge Circular Road, Calcutta 700 019 (India); Riva, Consuelo [Department of Biology, University of Milan, Via Celoria 26, 20133 Milan (Italy); Parolini, Marco [Department of Biology, University of Milan, Via Celoria 26, 20133 Milan (Italy); Bhattacharya, Bhaskar deb [Department of Marine Science, University of Calcutta, 35 Ballygunge Circular Road, Calcutta 700 019 (India); Bhattacharya, Asok Kumar [Department of Marine Science, University of Calcutta, 35 Ballygunge Circular Road, Calcutta 700 019 (India); Satpathy, Kamala Kanta [Indira Gandhi Center for Atomic Research, Environmental and Industrial Safety Section, Safety Group, Kalpakkam 603 102, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2007-08-15

    The paper presents the first comprehensive survey of congener profiles (12 congeners) of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in core sediment samples (<63 {mu}m) covering seven sites in Sundarban mangrove wetland (India). Gas-chromatographic analyses were carried out in GC-Ms/Ms for tri- to hepta- brominated congeners. Results pointed out a non-homogenous contamination of the wetland with {sigma}{sub 12} PBDE values ranging from 0.08 to 29.03 ng g{sup -1}, reflecting moderate to low contamination closely in conformity to other Asian aquatic environments. The general order of decreasing congener contribution to the total load was: BDE 47 > 99 > 100 > 154, similar to the distribution pattern worldwide. Although tetrabromodiphenyl ether BDE 47 was found in all samples followed by hexabromodiphenyl ether BDE-154, they were not necessarily the dominant congeners. No uniform temporal trend on PBDE levels was recorded probably due to particular hydrological characteristics of the wetland and/on non-homologous inputs from point sources (untreated municipal wastewater and local industries, electronic wastes from the dump sites, etc.) of these compounds. Because of the propensity of PBDEs to accumulate in various compartments of wildlife and human food webs, evaluation of biological tissues should be undertaken as a high priority.

  5. Characterization and phylogenetic analysis of novel polyene type antimicrobial metabolite producing actinomycetes from marine sediments:Bay of Bengal India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Valan; Arasu; M; Asha; KRT; Duraipandiyan; V; Ignacimuthu; S; Agastian; P

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To isolate and indentify the promising antimicrobial metabolite producing Streptomyces strains from marine sediment samples from Andraprudesh coast of India.Methods:Antagonistic aetinomycetes were isolated by starch casein agar medium and modified nutrient agar medium with 1%glucose used as a base for primary screening.Significant antimicrobial metabolite producing strains were selected and identified by using biochemical and 16S rDNA level.Minimum inhibitory concentrations of the organic extracts were done by using broth micro dilution method.Results:Among the 210 actinomyeetes,64.3%exhibited activity against Gram positive bacteria,48.5%showed activity towards Cram negative bacteria,38.8%exhibited both Cram positive and negative bacteria and 80.85%isolates revealed significant antifungal activity.However,five isolates AP-5,AP-18,AP-41 and AP-70 showed significant antimicrobial activity.The analysis of cell wall hydrolysates showed the presence of LL-diaminopimelic acid and glycine in all the isolates.Sequencing analysis indicated that the isolates shared 98.5%-99.8%sequence identity to the 16S rDNA gene sequences of the Streptomyces taxons.The antimicrobial substances were extracted using hexane and ethyl acetate from spent medium in which strains were cultivated at 30X for five days.The antimicrobial activity was assessed using broth micro dilution technique.Each of the culture extracts from these five strains showed a typical polyenelike property.The lowest minimum inhibitory concentrations of ethyl acetate extracts against Escherichia coli and Cumularia lunula were 67.5 and 125.0μg/mL,respectively.Conclusions:It can be concluded that hexane and ethyl acetate soluble extracellular products of novel isolates are effective against pathogenic bacteria and fungi.

  6. Characterization and phylogenetic analysis of novel polyene type antimicrobial metabolite producing actinomycetes from marine sediments:Bay of Bengal India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Valan Arasu M; Asha KRT; Duraipandiyan V; Ignacimuthu S; Agastian P

    2012-01-01

    To isolate and indentify the promising antimicrobial metabolite producingStreptomyces strains from marine sediment samples from Andrapradesh coast of India. Methods:Antagonistic actinomycetes were isolated by starch casein agar medium and modified nutrient agar medium with 1% glucose used as a base for primary screening. Significant antimicrobial metabolite producing strains were selected and identified by using biochemical and 16S rDNA level. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of the organic extracts were done by using broth micro dilution method. Results: Among the 210 actinomycetes, 64.3% exhibited activity against Gram positive bacteria, 48.5 % showed activity towards Gram negative bacteria, 38.8% exhibited both Gram positive and negative bacteria and 80.85 % isolates revealed significant antifungal activity. However, five isolates AP-5, AP-18, AP-41 and AP-70 showed significant antimicrobial activity. The analysis of cell wall hydrolysates showed the presence of LL-diaminopimelic acid and glycine in all the isolates. Sequencing analysis indicated that the isolates shared 98.5%-99.8%sequence identity to the 16S rDNA gene sequences of the Streptomyces taxons. The antimicrobial substances were extracted using hexane and ethyl acetate from spent medium in which strains were cultivated at 30℃for five days. The antimicrobial activity was assessed using broth micro dilution technique. Each of the culture extracts from these five strains showed a typical polyene-like property. The lowest minimum inhibitory concentrations of ethyl acetate extracts against Escherichia coli and Curvularia lunata were 67.5 and 125.0 μg/mL, respectively. Conclusions: It can be concluded that hexane and ethyl acetate soluble extracellular products of novel isolates are effective against pathogenic bacteria and fungi.

  7. Characterization and phylogenetic analysis of novel polyene type antimicrobial metabolite producing actinomycetes from marine sediments: Bay of Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valan, Arasu M; Asha, K R T; Duraipandiyan, V; Ignacimuthu, S; Agastian, P

    2012-10-01

    To isolate and indentify the promising antimicrobial metabolite producing Streptomyces strains from marine sediment samples from Andrapradesh coast of India. Antagonistic actinomycetes were isolated by starch casein agar medium and modified nutrient agar medium with 1% glucose used as a base for primary screening. Significant antimicrobial metabolite producing strains were selected and identified by using biochemical and 16S rDNA level. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of the organic extracts were done by using broth micro dilution method. Among the 210 actinomycetes, 64.3% exhibited activity against Gram positive bacteria, 48.5 % showed activity towards Gram negative bacteria, 38.8% exhibited both Gram positive and negative bacteria and 80.85 % isolates revealed significant antifungal activity. However, five isolates AP-5, AP-18, AP-41 and AP-70 showed significant antimicrobial activity. The analysis of cell wall hydrolysates showed the presence of LL-diaminopimelic acid and glycine in all the isolates. Sequencing analysis indicated that the isolates shared 98.5%-99.8% sequence identity to the 16S rDNA gene sequences of the Streptomyces taxons. The antimicrobial substances were extracted using hexane and ethyl acetate from spent medium in which strains were cultivated at 30°Cfor five days. The antimicrobial activity was assessed using broth micro dilution technique. Each of the culture extracts from these five strains showed a typical polyene-like property. The lowest minimum inhibitory concentrations of ethyl acetate extracts against Escherichia coli and Curvularia lunata were 67.5 and 125.0 µg/mL, respectively. It can be concluded that hexane and ethyl acetate soluble extracellular products of novel isolates are effective against pathogenic bacteria and fungi.

  8. Seroepidemiology of bluetongue in South Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkendu Halder

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: With the aim of revealing the epidemiological intricacies of bluetongue (BT in the southern part of West Bengal state, the present study was undertaken to assess seroprevalence of BT along with identification of the vector of the disease, i.e., Culicoides midges available in the region in their breeding season with conducive environmental factors, if any. Materials and Methods: A total of 1509 (sheep-504, goat-1005 samples were collected from three different agroclimatic zones of South Bengal viz. new alluvial, red laterite and coastal saline. To detect anti-BT antibodies in the collected serum samples, indirect-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (i-ELISA was performed. Culicoides midges were collected from those agro-climatic zones of South Bengal for species identification. The meteorological parameters, viz. temperature (maximum and minimum, rainfall and relative humidity of three agro-climatic zones of South Bengal were analyzed for the months of July to December during 2010-2013. Results: The overall seropositivity was 33.13% and 30.24% in sheep and goat, respectively as assessed by i-ELISA. In South Bengal, the predominant species of Culicoides found were Culicoides schultzei, Culicoides palpifer and Culicoides definitus. Conclusion: Since virus transmitting species of Culicoides midges could be detected in South Bengal, besides high seropositivity in ruminants, the possibility of circulating BT virus in South Bengal is quite imminent.

  9. Changing Pattern of Crop Fraction in Late Blight Induced Potato Crops in Potato Bowl of West Bengal by using Multi-temporal Time Series AWiFs Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarty, Abhisek

    2016-07-01

    Crop fraction is the ratio of crop occupying a unit area in ground pixel, is very important for monitoring crop growth. One of the most important variables in crop growth monitoring is the fraction of available solar radiation intercepted by foliage. Late blight of potato (Solanum tuberosum), caused by the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora infestans, is considered to be the most destructive crop diseases of potato worldwide. Under favourable climatic conditions, and without intervention (i.e. fungicide sprays), the disease can destroy potato crop within few weeks. Therefore it is important to evaluate the crop fraction for monitoring the healthy and late blight affected potato crops. This study was conducted in potato bowl of West Bengal, which consists of districts of Hooghly, Howrah, Burdwan, Bankuara, and Paschim Medinipur. In this study different crop fraction estimation method like linear spectral un-mixing, Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) based DPM model (Zhang et al. 2013), Ratio vegetation index based DPM model, improved Pixel Dichotomy Model (Li et al. 2014) ware evaluated using multi-temporal IRS AWiFs data in two successive potato growing season of 2012-13 and 2013-14 over the study area and compared with measured crop fraction. The comparative study based on measured healthy and late blight affected potato crop fraction showed that improved Pixel Dichotomy Model maintain the high coefficient of determination (R2= 0.835) with low root mean square error (RMSE=0.21) whereas the correlation values of NDVI based DPM model and RVI based DPM model is 0.763 and 0.694 respectively. The changing pattern of crop fraction profile of late blight affected potato crop was studied in respect of healthy potato crop fraction which was extracted from the 269 GPS points of potato field. It showed that the healthy potato crop fraction profile maintained the normal phenological trend whereas the late blight affected potato crop fraction profile suddenly fallen

  10. Anti Diabetic Plants Present In West Godavari District Of Andhra Pradesh India- A Short Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkata Narasimha Kadali

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is considered as one of the chronic disease more prevalent in India and rest of the world. Chronic hyperglycemia leads to the destruction of different organs in the body.There are lots of synthetic drugs present in the market for the treatment of diabetes but they are prone to noxious effects to human systems. Herbs have natural inhibiting potency against various sorts of diseases and they are the ultimate source of bio active compounds which lacks toxic effects. Medicinal plants which have potent anti hyperglycemic effect have been identified and proved experimentally. In this short review an attempt has been made to review some of the medicinal plants such as Annona reticulata, Carica papaya, Coccinia grandis, Moringa oleifera, Murraya koenigi etc., of about 10 species which are proved to be anti diabetic present in the west godavari district of Andhra Pradesh, India.

  11. Nutrient environment of red tide- infested waters off south-west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Joseph, T.; Shaiju, P.; Laluraj, C.M.; Balachandran, K.K.; Nair, M.; George, R.; Nair, K.K.C.; Sahayak, S.; Prabhakaran, M.P.

    /Accepted: 28 August 2007 /Published online: 19 September 2007 # Springer Science + Business Media B.V. 2007 Abstract The bloom-infested waters along the south- west coast of India were assessed to bring about... by prevailing winds and currents. Hence, it is likely that, the dinoflagellates observed off Kollam must have moved in to this region (lat.8°20′N, long. 76°29′E). These advective processes are often strong enough to transport the organisms over large dis- tances...

  12. Improving modeling of tides on the continental shelf off the west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Testut, L.; Unnikrishnan, A.S.

    shows RMS misfit around 11 cm). Compared to all others bathymetries, the unmodified versions of ETOPO (5’, 2’ and 1’) gave relatively poor results in the northern part of the shelf with up to 23 cm RMS error for ETOPO5.This gives an indicationof... of semi-diurnal tides off the central west coast of India. In these regions, the error in M2 tidal correction reachs upto 15 cm, which is too large to derive accurate sea level anomalies from altimetric data. In this paper, we propose a simple approach...

  13. Genome Sequence of the Arsenic-Resistant Haladaptatus sp. Strain R4 Isolated from Ramnagar, West Bengal, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Urmimala; Mukherjee, Trinetra; Bose, Sucharita; Roy, Chayan; Rameez, Moidu Jameela; Ghosh, Wriddhiman

    2016-01-01

    Here, we present the draft genome of Haladaptatus sp. strain R4, a halophilic archaea that produces an orange-pink pigment and is capable of growing in a wide salinity range. The genome assembly shows genes for arsenic resistance, siderophore production, trehalose and glycine betaine biosynthesis, uptake and transporters of sodium, potassium, and chloride ions. PMID:27660791

  14. Studies on the fluidity of milk lipids of mothers from three socioeconomic groups of West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Susmita; Ghosh, Santinath; Dhar, Pubali; Ghosh, Mahua

    2013-10-01

    This study evaluated the fluid character of human milk by determining the mean melting points (MMP) of fatty acids of milk lipid of Bengali mothers. Fatty acid methyl esters were analyzed by gas liquid chromatography. MMPs were calculated from the fatty acid concentration (% w/w) and their molar mass. Phospholipid content of samples was also determined. The MMPs of milk lipid of higher income group (n = 48), medium income group (n = 57) and lower income group (n = 112) mothers were found to be 31.33°C ± 0.61, 36.86°C ± 0.64 and 35.11°C ± 0.65, respectively, which showed a significant correlation with the fatty acid composition, with P milk lipid (34.43°C ± 0.63) of these three groups was below the core body temperature (37.4°C) of human beings, which perhaps helps in maintaining the milk fluidity as well as lipid digestion in breastfed infants.

  15. Assessment of respiratory symptoms and lung function values among the brick field workers of West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Banibrata

    2016-07-03

    Brick manufacturing process releases large amounts of silica dust into the work environment due to the use of silica-containing materials. The main aim of the study was to investigate the impairment of lung function and prevalence of respiratory symptoms among the different groups of brick field workers in comparison with control subjects. A total of 250 brick field workers and 130 unexposed control subjects were randomly selected in which demographic characteristics, respiratory symptoms, and lung function values were recorded. The result showed significantly lower p value (brick field workers when compared with control group. The prevalence of respiratory symptoms was dyspnea (46.8%), phlegm (39.2%), and chest tightness (27.6%). Dust exposure in working environment affected the lung function values and increased the respiratory symptoms among the brick field workers.

  16. An ergonomics study on posture-related discomfort and occupational-related disorders among stonecutters of West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangopadhyay, Somnath; Das, Banibrata; Das, Tamal; Ghoshal, Goutam; Ghosh, Tirthankar

    2010-01-01

    Stonecutting and setting are important tasks in a construction site. A field study was conducted to assess occupational-related disorders and to conduct ergonomics assessment among stonecutters. The study focused on (a) the duration of work per day, (b) the working environment and working activities and (c) the feeling of discomfort in different parts of the body. A detailed posture analysis was performed with the Ovako working posture analysis system (OWAS). It was observed that stonecutters worked continuously in awkward postures during stonecutting and setting. Consequently, they suffered from discomfort in different parts of their body, specifically in the lower back, knees and shoulders, which mainly prevented them from continuing their work. This study also revealed that stonecutters had to work in congested work areas with a poor level of illumination. The noise level and dust particles emitted during stonecutting activities could affect stonecutters.

  17. A comparative ergonomics postural assessment of potters and sculptors in the unorganized sector in West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Subhashis; Moitra, Subhabrata; Maity, Santigopal; Pandit, Asis K; Roy, Biswajit

    2013-01-01

    Potters and sculptors perform their work in very awkward postures. The purpose of this study was to analyse these postures. The modified Nordic questionnaire was used to analyse musculoskeletal discomfort. Rapid entire body assessment (REBA) and rapid upper limb assessment (RULA) were used to evaluate the subjects' postures. There were no significant differences between times of discomfort and the group of subjects. However, there were significant differences in discomfort in different body parts. The analysis indicated that various body postures were harmful to the subjects and that there were profound deviations from natural curvature of various body parts due to awkward body postures. Ergonomics intervention was required to improve the quality of life.

  18. Magic Moments of Struggle: Women's Memory of the Naxalbari Movement in West Bengal, India (1967-75)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roy, Mallarika Sinha

    2009-01-01

    and violence and patriarchal domination within the movement as well. As these memories are refracted by the women's diverse socio-economic and cultural locations, the paper makes an effort to distinguish the multiple meanings of the ‘magic moments of struggle' in the lives of peasant/working-class women, from...

  19. Life cycle of a plant parasitic mite, Tetranychus sayedi Baker & Pitchard (Acari: Tetranychidae) on two hosts from West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Sagata; Gupta, Salil Kumar

    2017-09-01

    The present paper reports duration of different developmental stages as well as fecundity, longevity, oviposition periods, sex ratio, etc. of Tetranychus sayedi Baker & Pitchard on two medicinal plants, viz. Cryptolepis buchanani Roem & Schult and Justicia adhatoda L. under laboratory condition at 27.5 °C and 65% R.H. during February-March, 2016. The two hosts in which the life cycle was studied form two new records of hosts for this mite. It appears that C. buchanani is better host among the two hosts as because the life cycle (egg to adult) was completed in shorter time, recording high fecundity and longer longevity.

  20. In vitro assessment on the impact of soil arsenic in the eight rice varieties of West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Piyal; Samal, Alok C; Majumdar, Jayjit; Banerjee, Satabdi; Santra, Subhas C

    2013-11-15

    Rice is an efficient accumulator of arsenic and thus irrigation with arsenic-contaminated groundwater and soil may induce human health hazard via water-soil-plant-human pathway. A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted on three high yielding, one hybrid and four local rice varieties to investigate the uptake, distribution and phytotoxicity of arsenic in rice plant. 5, 10, 20, 30 and 40 mg kg(-1) dry weights arsenic dosing was applied in pot soil and the results were compared with the control samples. All the studied high yielding and hybrid varieties (Ratna, IET 4094, IR 50 and Gangakaveri) were found to be higher accumulator of arsenic as compared to all but one local rice variety, Kerala Sundari. In these five rice varieties accumulation of arsenic in grain exceeded the WHO permissible limit (1.0 mg kg(-1)) at 20 mg kg(-1) arsenic dosing. Irrespective of variety, arsenic accumulation in different parts of rice plant was found to increase with increasing arsenic doses, but not at the same rate. A consistent negative correlation was established between soil arsenic and chlorophyll contents while carbohydrate accumulation depicted consistent positive correlation with increasing arsenic toxicity in rice plant.

  1. Seasonal incidence of protozoan parasites of the black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) of Sundarbans, West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborti, Jayati; Bandyapadhyay, Probir K

    2011-06-01

    There is a delicate balance between the host, pathogen and environment. Aquatic organisms, including shellfish, respond directly to climatic changes in their biological environment as their metabolic processes are influenced by temperature, salinity, and oxygen levels. Certain environmental conditions are more conducive to diseases than others among which water temperature is significantly associated with disease outbreak. The present study showed that Peneaus monodon of Sundarbans serve as a host for many protozoan parasites and epibionts including ciliates, gregarines and microsporidia. The protozoan parasites also require a particular environmental condition for their maximum growth and survival. The intensity of infection significantly increases with rise in temperature (P < 0.05) following a definite trend but no significant relationship between infection rate of ciliates and pH of water. In case of gregarine parasites significance (P < 0.05) exists among infection rate and temperature as well as pH of the farm water. Microsporidian parasites do not follow any significant seasonal trend in infecting the host P. monodon.

  2. MANAGEMENT STRATEGY FOR SHRIMP (PENAEUS MONODON, FABRICIUS FARMING AT BHAGBANPUR REGION IN PURBA MEDINIPUR DISTRICT OF WEST BENGAL, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sahu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Shrimp culture can give miracles towards socio-economic development for a large number of rural people. Its sustainable development can be achieved through the application of scientific methodology, input of technical knowledge at the crisis time, quality control mechanism targeted to marketing strategy, sufficient supply of institutional credit and Government involvement in the marketing strategy. An optimum output cannot be assured even after taking the risk of huge investment. The export policy promotion and distinct quality measures are the major thrust area for the recent days. Government efforts in implementing a proper planning and management oriented marketing strategies are required for the sustainability of the industry.

  3. Histopathological alterations in the vital organs of Indian Major Carps with parasitic infestation in fish farms West Bengal, India

    OpenAIRE

    Kurva Raghu Ramudu; Gadadhar Dash

    2015-01-01

    The study was conducted to investigate the histological changes of vital organs such as kidney, gills and brain with the mixed infestation of parasites in Indian Major Carps (IMC). The parasites such as Myxobolus spp., Thelohanellus spp., Trichodina spp., Dactylogyrus spp., Gyrodactylus spp. and Nematodes were observed in three IMC. Several histological alterations were observed in the kidney of Catla catla, Labeo rohita and Cirrhinus mrigala, which includes vacuolar degeneration in the epith...

  4. Histopathological alterations in the vital organs of Indian Major Carps with parasitic infestation in fish farms West Bengal, India

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    Kurva Raghu Ramudu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to investigate the histological changes of vital organs such as kidney, gills and brain with the mixed infestation of parasites in Indian Major Carps (IMC. The parasites such as Myxobolus spp., Thelohanellus spp., Trichodina spp., Dactylogyrus spp., Gyrodactylus spp. and Nematodes were observed in three IMC. Several histological alterations were observed in the kidney of Catla catla, Labeo rohita and Cirrhinus mrigala, which includes vacuolar degeneration in the epithelium of renal tubules, focal areas of necrosis, proliferation of bowman′s capsule and many cases the renal tubules lost its shape and canalculi formation was observed. The gills showed focal areas of necrosis, exacerbated swelling of gill arch, deposition of distinct black melanin pigmentation at the basal point of the gill arch, loss of primary and secondary lamellae, prominent vacuolar degeneration and formation of vacuoles. The presence of protozoan parasites in brain tissue resulted necrosis of the brain tissue, black pigmentation, vacuolization of myelin sheath of nerve fibers and common degenerative changes. Aims: To study histological changes of vital organs such as kidney, gills and brain with the mixed infestation of parasites in Indian Major Carps (IMC. Settings and Design: The organs fixed in 4% formalin are transferred to 50% ethyl alcohol and stored for further analysis. Materials and Methods: Histopathological analysis was made as described by Roberts. Statistical Analysis Used: Nil. Results: Described in text. Conclusions: The present study brings about conclusion that impact of mixed infestation of the parasites on their hosts was severe. Histopathological changes were observed in vital organs which might be due to toxins released by different parasites or physical damage of tissue with the presence of parasites.

  5. Conservative management of Beta-thalassemia major cases in the sub-division level hospital of rural West Bengal, India

    OpenAIRE

    Bandyopadhyay, Ujjwal; Kundu, Dipankar; Sinha, Arijit; Banerjee, Kallol; Bandyopadhyay, Ranjana; Mandal, Tridibeshwar; Ray, Debes

    2013-01-01

    Background: The ideal management of thalassemia involves a multidisciplinary therapeutic team approach and should be preferably done at a comprehensive thalassemia care center with all sorts of specialists and the backup of a well-equipped blood bank. However, in developing country like ours, these facilities are not available in rural set up. So, a situation where conservative therapy with regular blood transfusion is the only choice left to innumerable thalassemic children. Objective: To ev...

  6. Awareness and practice of biomedical waste management among healthcare providers in a Tertiary Care Hospital of West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sourya Kanti Das

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Biomedical waste (BMW is waste generated during diagnosis, treatment, or immunization of human beings or animals or in research activities. BMW is hazardous and can be injurious to humans or animals and deleterious to environment. Effective management of BMW is a legal as well as a social responsibility. Objectives: To assess the knowledge and practice regarding hospital waste management among healthcare providers of a tertiary care hospital. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in the Departments of General Medicine, Surgery, Gynecology and Obstetrics, and Radiotherapy among 198 different hospital staff within 3 months with the help of a predesigned and pretested interview schedule to elicit the knowledge of BMW management. An observatory checklist is used to find out practices regarding BMW management prevailing in the above wards and staff of the hospital. Results: Majority (60.6% of the study population belonged to the age group of 21-30 years. About one-third of the total study population were junior doctors and nurses. 35.8% worked for 1 year in the hospital, and 29.8% worked within 2-5 years. All the participants had heard about BMW management, but only 1.5% had formal training. 6.6% knew about five-color coding used for segregation of waste with red, black, yellow, blue bags and white puncture proof container. 31.3% knew correct disposal of sharps. All the participants knew about the use of personal protective measures while handling BMW and used in most of the time. 70.2% of respondents knew the use of gloves and mask together. In 33.3% of observation, it was seen that syringes were reused for the same patient. Four colored bins were used most of the time in the above-studied wards. Conclusion and Recommendation: The above study revealed certain paucity of knowledge among the healthcare providers in the field of BMW management which adversely affected their practice. There should be regular comprehensive training programs regarding BMW management for all level of workers and strict implementation of them.

  7. Impact of arsenic in foodstuffs on the people living in the arsenic-affected areas of West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Badal K; Suzuki, Kazuo T; Anzai, Kazunori

    2007-10-01

    Although the accumulation of arsenic (As) in human blood is linked with some diseases and with occupational exposure, there are few reports on speciation of As in blood. On the basis of our earlier article, elevated level of arsenicals in human urine and blood were found in the ex-exposed population via As-containing drinking water. The aim of the present study was to get an insight on impact of As in foodstuffs on the people living in the As-affected areas. Moreover, speciation of arsenicals in urine, and water-samples found in arsenobetaine (AsB). Since sampling population (n=25) was not taking any seafood, As in foodstuffs was thought to be the prime source for this discrepancy. So, speciation of methanol extract of freeze-dried red blood cells (RBCs) and foodstuffs, and trichloro acetic acid (TCA) treated plasma by high performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled argon plasma mass spectrometer (HPLC-ICP MS) collected from the study population (n=33) was carried out to support our hypothesis. Results showed that urine contained AsB (1.7%), arsenite (iAs(III)) (14.3), arsenate (iAs(V)) (4.9), monomethylarsonous acid (MMA(III)) (0.64), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA(V)) (13.6), dimethylarsinous acid (DMA(III)) (7.7), and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA(V)) (65.4). Blood contained 21.3 microg L(- 1) (mean) As and of which 27.3% was in plasma and 72.7% in RBCs. RBCs contained AsB (21.6%) and DMA(V) (78.4) and blood plasma contained AsB (12.4%), iAs(III) (25.9), MMA(V) (30.3), and DMA(V) (31.4). Furthermore, speciation of As in foodstuffs showed that most of them contained AsB (3.54-25.81 microg kg(- 1)) (25.81-312.44 microg kg(- 1)) along with iAs(III) (9.62-194.93), iAs(V) (17.63-78.33), MMA(V) (9.47-73.22) and DMA(V) (13.43-101.15) that supported the presence of AsB and elevated As in urine and blood samples of the present study group. Inorganic As (iAs) predominates in rice (67.17-86.62%) and in spices (40-90.35%), respectively over organic As. So, As in the food chain is a real threat to human health.

  8. Butterflies of Sundarban Biosphere Reserve, West Bengal, eastern India: a preliminary survey of their taxonomic diversity, ecology and their conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Chowdhury

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The Indian Sundarbans, part of the globally famous deltaic eco-region, is little-studied for butterfly diversity and ecology. The present study reports 76 butterfly species belonging to five families, which is a culmination of 73 species obtained from surveys conducted over a period of three years (2009-2011 in reclaimed and mangrove forested areas and three species obtained from an earlier report. Six of these species are legally protected under the Indian Wildlife (Protection Act, 1972. Random surveys were employed for both the study areas, supplemented by systematic sampling in reclaimed areas. The reclaimed and forested areas differed largely in butterfly richness (Whittaker’s measure of ß diversity = 0.55. For sample-based rarefaction curves, butterfly genera showed a tendency to reach an asymptote sooner than the species. Numerous monospecific genera (77.19% of the taxa resulted in a very gentle but non-linear positive slope for the species-genus ratio curve. A species-genus ratio of 1.33 indicated strong intra-generic competition for the butterflies of the Indian Sundarbans. Mangrove areas were species poor, with rare species like Euploea crameri, Colotis amata and Idea agamarshchana being recorded in the mangrove area; while Danaus genutia was found to be the most frequent butterfly. Butterfly abundance was very poor, with no endemic species and the majority (53.9% of the taxa; n=41 were found locally rare. The changing composition of butterflies in the once species-poor mangrove zone of the fragile Sundarbans may interfere with their normal ecosystem functioning.

  9. Description of a new species of clupeid fish, Amblygaster indiana (Clupeiformes: Clupeidae), off Eraviputhenthurai, west coast of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary, Anthonipillai Arockia; Balasubramanian, Thngavelu; Selvaraju, Shanker; Shiny, Anthonipillai

    2017-03-28

    A new species, Amblygaster indiana sp. nov., is described from 12 specimens collected from fish landing centers and fish markets at Eraviputhenthurai, west coast of India. The new species can be differentiated from all other species of Amblygaster by its larger size and very deep body, 8 circular-shaped pre-pelvic scutes, different gill rakers counts, large eyes, 40 lateral scales, and peculiar gap between the left and right frontoparietal striae on the top of the head. The new species has been seasonally captured with A. sirm in Eraviputhenthurai and also other coastal waters of the south west coast of India. The proportions of A. indiana sp. nov. and A. sirm in fish catches are approximately 1 to 20. Gillnets and shore seines are used to catch Amblygaster spp. along the Eraviputhenthurai coast and along the coastal zones of south west coasts of India.

  10. A model of basement structure from magnetic anomalies of the Bombay High oil-field west of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, D.G.

    -122 111 Elsevier Science Publishers B.V., Amsterdam A model of basement structure from magnetic anomalies of the Bombay High Oil-Field west of India D. Gopala Rao National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa 403 004, India (Revision accepted....5 kin LOWER MIOCENE LIMESTONE REFLECTOR (FROM SEISMIC DATA) ~',r V,,- v • - ~'¥¥YYYVV . ..... \\[~~'vvwvwyvvvvWvvvv " ":" ":'wv ..... I"'T .... L CLAY/CLAYSTONE ~ OBSERVED MAGNETIC ANOMALIES SHALE ~ THEORETICAL MAOHETIC ANOMALIES LIMESTONE...

  11. Response of zooplankton to physical changes in the environment: coastal upwelling along central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Madhupratap, M.; Nair, S.R.S.; Haridas, P.; Padmavati, G.

    Research 413-426 Fort Lauderdale, Florida Response of Zooplankton to Physical Changes in the Environment: Coastal Upwelling Along the Central West Coast of India b~ M. Madhupratap,t S.R. Sreekumaran Nair/ P. Haridas,* and Gadi PadmavatP tNational Institute... of zooplankton to physical changes in the environment: COlistlil upwelling along the central west coast of India. Journal of Coastal Research, 6(2), 413-426. Fort Lauderdale (Florida). ISSN 0749-0208. Zooplankton composition lind abundance were studied in a...

  12. Lithospheric stretching and the long wavelength free-air gravity anomaly of the Eastern Continental margin of India and the 85 degree E Ridge, Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rajesh, S.; Majumdar, T.J.; Krishna, K.S.

    Among the submarine ridge systems in the northern Indian Ocean, the 85 degree E Ridge in the Bay of Bengal is more enigmatic owing to its peculiar anomalous negative free-air gravity. In general, this has been attributed to the isostatic...

  13. Hydrogeochemical comparison and effects of overlapping redox zones on groundwater arsenic near the Western (Bhagirathi sub-basin, India) and Eastern (Meghna sub-basin, Bangladesh) margins of the Bengal Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Abhijit; von Brömssen, Mattias; Scanlon, Bridget R.; Bhattacharya, Prosun; Fryar, Alan E.; Hasan, Md. Aziz; Ahmed, Kazi Matin; Chatterjee, Debashis; Jacks, Gunnar; Sracek, Ondra

    2008-07-01

    Although arsenic (As) contamination of groundwater in the Bengal Basin has received wide attention over the past decade, comparative studies of hydrogeochemistry in geologically different sub-basins within the basin have been lacking. Groundwater samples were collected from sub-basins in the western margin (River Bhagirathi sub-basin, Nadia, India; 90 samples) and eastern margin (River Meghna sub-basin; Brahmanbaria, Bangladesh; 35 samples) of the Bengal Basin. Groundwater in the western site (Nadia) has mostly Ca-HCO3 water while that in the eastern site (Brahmanbaria) is much more variable consisting of at least six different facies. The two sites show differences in major and minor solute trends indicating varying pathways of hydrogeochemical evolution However, both sites have similar reducing, postoxic environments (pe: + 5 to - 2) with high concentrations of dissolved organic carbon, indicating dominantly metal-reducing processes and similarity in As mobilization mechanism. The trends of various redox-sensitive solutes (e.g. As, CH4, Fe, Mn, NO3-, NH4+, SO42-) indicate overlapping redox zones, leading to partial redox equilibrium conditions where As, once liberated from source minerals, would tend to remain in solution because of the complex interplay among the electron acceptors.

  14. A first record of the benthic form of Stylocheilus longicauda (Quoy and Gaimard, 1824 (Anaspidea: Aplysiidae from Gujarat and Maharashtra along the mainland west coast of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Apte

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper is a part of the author’s ongoing work on the opisthobranch fauna of India under MoEF supported programme All India Coordinated Project on Taxonomy - Mollusca (AICOPTAX. The present paper extends the range of the benthic form of Stylocheilus longicauda to the coasts of Maharashtra and Gujarat along the west coast of India.

  15. Diarrhoeal Health Risks Attributable to Water-Borne-Pathogens in Arsenic-Mitigated Drinking Water in West Bengal are Largely Independent of the Microbiological Quality of the Supplied Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debapriya Mondal

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing discussion about the possibility of arsenic mitigation measures in Bengal and similar areas leading to undesirable substitution of water-borne-pathogen attributable risks pathogens for risks attributable to arsenic, in part because of uncertainties in relative pathogen concentrations in supplied and end-use water. We try to resolve this discussion, by assessing the relative contributions of water supply and end-user practices to water-borne-pathogen-attributable risks for arsenic mitigation options in a groundwater arsenic impacted area of West Bengal. Paired supplied arsenic-mitigated water and end-use drinking water samples from 102 households were collected and analyzed for arsenic and thermally tolerant coliforms [TTC], used as a proxy for microbiological water quality, We then estimated the DALYs related to key sequelae, diarrheal diseases and cancers, arising from water-borne pathogens and arsenic respectively. We found [TTC] in end-use drinking water to depend only weakly on [TTC] in source-water. End-user practices far outweighed the microbiological quality of supplied water in determining diarrheal disease burden. [TTC] in source water was calculated to contribute <1% of total diarrheal disease burden. No substantial demonstrable pathogen-for-arsenic risk substitution attributable to specific arsenic mitigation of supplied waters was observed, illustrating the benefits of arsenic mitigation measures in the area studied.

  16. Health impact of supplying safe drinking water on patients having various clinical manifestations of fluorosis in an endemic village of West Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunal K Majumdar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Excessive fluoride in drinking water causes dental, skeletal and non-skeletal fluorosis which is encountered in endemic proportions in several parts of the world. The World Health Organization (WHO guideline value and the permissible limit of fluoride as per the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS is 1.5 mg/L. Studies showed that withdrawal of sources identified for fluoride, often leads to reduction of fluoride in the body fluids (re-testing urine and serum after a week or ten days and results in the disappearance of non-skeletal fluorosis within a short duration of 10-15 days. Objective: To determine the prevalence of signs and symptoms of suspected dental, skeletal and non-skeletal fluorosis along with food habits, addictions and use of fluoride-containing toothpaste among participants taking water with fluoride concentration above permissible limit and to assess the changes in clinical manifestations of the above participants after consumption of safe drinking water with fluoride concentration below permissible limit. Materials and Methods: A longitudinal intervention study was conducted from October 2010 to December 2011 in a village selected randomly in Purulia District of West Bengal which is endemic for fluorosis. Thirty-six families with 104 family members in the above village having history of taking unsafe water containing high level of fluoride were selected for the study. The occurrence of various dental, skeletal and non-skeletal manifestations of fluorosis along with food habits, addictions and use of fluoride-containing toothpaste among the study population was assessed; the impact of taking safe water with fluoride concentration below permissible limit from a supplied community filter on these clinical manifestations was studied by follow-up examination of the above participants for six months. The data obtained is compared with the collected data from the baseline survey. Results: The prevalence of signs and symptoms of

  17. Role of west Asian surface pressure in summer monsoon onset over central India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Arindam; Agrawal, Shubhi

    2017-07-01

    Using rain-gauge measurements and reanalysis data sets for 1948-2015, we propose a mechanism that controls the interannual variation of summer monsoon onset over central India. In May, about a month before the onset, the low level jet over the Arabian Sea is about 40% stronger and about 2.5 degrees northward during years of early onset as compared to years of late onset. A stronger and northward shifted low level jet carries about 50% more moisture in early onset years, which increases low level moist static energy over central India in the pre-monsoon season. The increase in low level moist static energy decreases the stability of the atmosphere and makes it conducive for convection. The strength and position of the low level jet are determined by surface pressure gradient between western Asia and the west-equatorial Indian Ocean. Thus, an anomalous surface pressure low over western Asia in the pre-monsoon season increases this gradient and strengthens the jet. Moreover, a stronger low level jet increases the meridional shear of zonal wind and supports the formation of an onset vortex in a stronger baroclinic atmosphere. These developments are favourable for an early onset of the monsoon over the central Indian region. Our study postulates a new physical mechanism for the interannual variation of onset over central India, the core of the Indian monsoon region and relevant to Indian agriculture, and could be tested for real-time prediction.

  18. ANALYSIS OF AGRO-ECOLOGICAL SITUATION FOR IDENTIFICATION OF PROBLEMS BY PRA TECHNIQUES IN ADAPTIVE VILLAGE OF KRISHI VIGYAN KENDRA UNDER NEW ALLUVIA ZONE OF MURSHIDABAD DISTRICT OF WEST BENGAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishake Naskar

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Agro Ecosystem analysis using the Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA techniques of an adaptive village (Jainpur of New Alluvial Zone of Murshidabad-Jiaganj block in Murshidabad district, West Bengal revealed that the village basically has rice and jute based farming system. The cropping intensity of the village is 233%. Out of 363 household 80% is engaged in Agriculture, Animal Husbandry and other allied activities. The land availability per household is 0.40 ha. The villagers are mostly scheduled caste. By snow ball technique major problems were identified .On the basis of bio-physical and socio-economic problems, thrust area were selected. Area specific On Farm Trials (OFT in farmers' were conducted on some researchable issues. Front Line Demonstration (FLD, training programme, health camp, awareness camp and other different extension activities were arranged to mitigate the problems.

  19. Origin of amphibole-rich beach sands from Tila-Mati, Karwar, central-west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mislankar, P.G.; Iyer, S.D.

    The pocket beach at Tila-Mati, Karwar, central west coast of India, is characterised by the occurrence of amphibole-rich (chiefly tremolite-actinolite) coarse sand in the zone of minimal impact of waves and currents. In the total sediment, grain...

  20. On the distribution of fluoride, calcium and magnesium in the waters off the central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naik, S.; Dias, C.F.M.

    The distribution of fluoride, calcium and magnesium was studied in the waters off the central west coast of India. The averages F/Cl, Ca/Cl and Mg/Cl ratios observed are (6.83 plus or minus 0.023) x 10@u-5@@, (0.02194 plus or minus 0.00068) and (0...

  1. Occurrence of larvae of Pseudorhombus elevatus Ogilby (Heterosomata-Pisces) along the south-west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Devi, C.B.L.

    stations off the south-west coast of India Larvae slightly less than 8 mm had developed the full complement of dorsal, anal, caudal and pelvic rays but lacked pectoral rays and a few gill rakers Metamorphosis must take place at a small size, probably...

  2. Deterioration of Early Holocene coral reef due to sea level rise along west coast of India: Benthic foraminiferal testimony

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mazumder, A; Nigam, R.; Henriques, P.J.

    A total of 103 surface sediment samples collected from the water depth range of 15-3300 m along Vijaydurg-Karwar stretch of central west coast of India were analyzed for foraminiferal content. Relict benthic foraminiferal assemblage was noted within...

  3. On the dominance of pre-existing swells over wind seas along the west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Aboobacker, V.M.; Rashmi, R.; Vethamony, P.; Menon, H.B.

    the post-monsoon season. NCEP reanalysis winds have been used to analyse active fetch available in the Indian Ocean, from where the predominant swells propagate to the west coast of India. A numerical model was set up to simulate waves in the Indian Ocean...

  4. Observed intraseasonal and seasonal variability of the West India Coastal Current on the continental slope

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P Amol; D Shankar; V Fernando; A Mukherjee; S G Aparna; R Fernandes; G S Michael; S T Khalap; N P Satelkar; Y Agarvadekar; M G Gaonkar; A P Tari; A Kankonkar; S P Vernekar

    2014-07-01

    We present current data from acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCPs) moored on the continental slope off the west coast of India. The data were collected at four locations (roughly at Kanyakumari, Kollam, Goa, and Mumbai) extending from ∼7° to ∼20° N during 2008–2012. The observations show that a seasonal cycle, including an annual cycle, is present in the West India Coastal Current (WICC); this seasonal cycle, which strengthens northward, shows considerable interannual variability and is not as strongly correlated along the coast as in climatologies based on ship drifts or the altimeter. The alongshore decorrelation of theWICC is much stronger at intraseasonal periods, which are evident during the winter monsoon all along the coast. This intraseasonal variability is stronger in the south. A striking feature of the WICC is upward phase propagation, which implies an undercurrent whose depth becomes shallower as the season progresses. There are also instances when the phase propagates downward. At the two southern mooring locations off Kollam and Kanyakumari, the cross-shore current, which is usually associated with eddy-like circulations, is comparable to the alongshore current on occasions. A comparison with data from the OSCAR (Ocean Surface Currents Analyses Real-time) data product shows not only similarities, but also significant differences, particularly in the phase. One possible reason for this phase mismatch between the ADCP current at 48 m and the OSCAR current, which represents the current in the 0–30 m depth range, is the vertical phase propagation. Current products based on Ocean General Circulation Models like ECCO2 (Estimating the Circulation and Climate of the Ocean, Phase II) and GODAS (Global Ocean Data Assimilation System) show a weaker correlation with the ADCP current, and ECCO2 does capture some of the observed variability.

  5. Observed intraseasonal and seasonal variability of the West India Coastal Current on the continental slope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amol, P.; Shankar, D.; Fernando, V.; Mukherjee, A.; Aparna, S. G.; Fernandes, R.; Michael, G. S.; Khalap, S. T.; Satelkar, N. P.; Agarvadekar, Y.; Gaonkar, M. G.; Tari, A. P.; Kankonkar, A.; Vernekar, S. P.

    2014-06-01

    We present current data from acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCPs) moored on the continental slope off the west coast of India. The data were collected at four locations (roughly at Kanyakumari, Kollam, Goa, and Mumbai) extending from ˜ 7° to ˜ 20°N during 2008-2012. The observations show that a seasonal cycle, including an annual cycle, is present in the West India Coastal Current (WICC); this seasonal cycle, which strengthens northward, shows considerable interannual variability and is not as strongly correlated along the coast as in climatologies based on ship drifts or the altimeter. The alongshore decorrelation of the WICC is much stronger at intraseasonal periods, which are evident during the winter monsoon all along the coast. This intraseasonal variability is stronger in the south. A striking feature of the WICC is upward phase propagation, which implies an undercurrent whose depth becomes shallower as the season progresses. There are also instances when the phase propagates downward. At the two southern mooring locations off Kollam and Kanyakumari, the cross-shore current, which is usually associated with eddy-like circulations, is comparable to the alongshore current on occasions. A comparison with data from the OSCAR (Ocean Surface Currents Analyses Real-time) data product shows not only similarities, but also significant differences, particularly in the phase. One possible reason for this phase mismatch between the ADCP current at 48 m and the OSCAR current, which represents the current in the 0-30 m depth range, is the vertical phase propagation. Current products based on Ocean General Circulation Models like ECCO2 (Estimating the Circulation and Climate of the Ocean, Phase II) and GODAS (Global Ocean Data Assimilation System) show a weaker correlation with the ADCP current, and ECCO2 does capture some of the observed variability.

  6. High Arsenic contamination in drinking water Hand-Pumps in Khap Tola, West Champaran, Bihar, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddharth eBhatia

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study tests the drinking water supply of a marginalized village community of Khap Tola in the state of Bihar, a state in Northern India. Based on hand pump drinking water sample testing and analysis, we found that there was high levels of arsenic (maximum value being 397 ppb , in excess of the WHO limits of 10ppb. Analysis showed 57% of the samples from private hand-pumps in the shallow aquifer zone of 15-35m have arsenic greater than 200 ppb. Using GIS overlay analysis technique it was calculated that 25% of the residential area in the village is under high risk of arsenic contamination. Further using USEPA guidelines, it was calculated that children age group 5-10 years are under high risk of getting cancer. The Hazard Quotient calculated for 21 children taken for study, indicated that children may have adverse non-carcinogenic health impacts, in the future, with continued exposure. Since the area adds a new arsenic contaminated place in India, further geochemical analysis and health assessment needs to be done in this district of West Champaran in, Bihar.

  7. Impact of sea breeze on wind-seas off Goa, west coast of India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Neetu; Satish Shetye; P Chandramohan

    2006-04-01

    After withdrawal of the Indian Summer Monsoon and until onset of the next monsoon,i.e.,roughly during November-May, winds in the coastal regions of India are dominated by sea breeze.It has an impact on the daily cycle of the sea state near the coast.The impact is quite significant when large scale winds are weak.During one such event,1 –15 April 1997,a Datawell directional waverider buoy was deployed in 23 m water depth off Goa,west coast of India.Twenty-minute averaged spectra,collected once every three hours,show that the spectrum of sea-breeze-related ‘wind-seas’ peaked at 0.23 ± 0.05 Hz. These wind-seas were well separated from swells of frequencies less than 0.15 Hz.The TMA spectrum (Bouws et al 1985) matched the observed seas spectra very well when the sea-breeze was active and the fetch corresponding to equilibrium spectrum was found to be 77 ± 43 km during such occasions. We emphasize on the diurnal cycle of sea-breeze-related sea off the coast of Goa and write an equation for the energy of the seas as a function of the local wind.

  8. History of son preference and sex selection in India and in the west.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Sutapa; Singh, Amarjeet

    2003-01-01

    In the history of mankind, there was a time when women dominated the world. In due course of time, as the patriarchal societies evolved, the status of women gradually declined. Sons were preferred to daughters. In India, the Brahmin community promoted such customs and rituals, which gave more and more importance to sons eg. Lighting the funeral pyre of the father was told to be a pre-condition for salvation of his spirit. Similarly, in western civilization also women were considered to be weak. In consonance with such a mind-set man has been trying various techniques for sex-selection since antiquity eg. for acquiring a son choosing a special day, time and posture for sexual intercourse, special diet, charms and amulet and prayers etc. In Vedas also punsavana karma has been described as a technique for acquiring a son. Apart from these techniques, female infanticide has also been used as a way to create a male dominated, son-worshipping society. On development of the technique of ultrasonography as an example of progress of science and technology, man has devised a new way of killing females in womb itself, which has resulted in continuous decline in female: male sex ratio in India. To stop this, Indian Govt. promulgated PNDT Act 1994. But considering the widely prevalent practice of use of various regimen of sex-pre-selection by people as well as unscrupulous medical practitioners, Govt. of India has amended this Act (2002). Still, as authors have found in one of their studies, sex-selection drugs are being used widely by north Indians for getting a son. Here, it should be noted that sex-selection methods are being used in west also. But the perspective is different. There, it is not used for female feticide or for acquiring a son. Rather, it is more an effort towards demonstrating the control of man over the NATURE.

  9. Possible magmatic underplating beneath the west coast of India and adjoining Dharwar craton: Imprint from Archean crustal evolution to breakup of India and Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saikia, Utpal; Das, Ritima; Rai, S. S.

    2017-03-01

    The shear wave velocity of the crust along a ∼660 km profile from the west to the east coast of South India is mapped through the joint inversion of receiver functions and Rayleigh wave group velocity. The profile, consisting of 38 broadband seismic stations, covers the Archean Dharwar craton, Proterozoic Cuddapah basin, and rifted margin and escarpment. The Moho is mapped at a depth of ∼40 km beneath the mid-Archean Western Dharwar Craton (WDC), Cuddapah Basin (CB), and the west and east coasts formed through the rifting process. This is in contrast with a thin (∼35 km) crust beneath the late-Archean Eastern Dharwar Craton (EDC). Along the profile, the average thickness of the upper, middle and lower crust is ∼4 km, 12 ± 4 km and 24 ± 4 km respectively. Above the Moho, we observe a high-velocity layer (HVL, Vs > 4 km/s) of variable thickness increasing from 3 ± 1 km beneath the EDC to 11 ± 3 km beneath the WDC and the CB, and 18 ± 2 km beneath the west coast of India. The seismic wave velocity in this layer is greater than typical oceanic lower crust. We interpret the high-velocity layer as a signature of magmatic underplating due to past tectonic processes. Its significant thinning beneath the EDC may be attributed to crustal delamination or relamination at 2.5 Ga. These results demonstrate the dual signature of the Archean Dharwar crust. The change in the geochemical character of the crust possibly occurred at the end of Archean when Komatiite volcanism ceased. The unusually thick HVL beneath the west coast of India and the adjoining region may represent underplated material formed due to India-Madagascar rifting, which is supported by the presence of seaward dipping reflectors and a 85-90 Ma mafic dyke in the adjoining island.

  10. Modulation of Low-Latitude West Wind on Abnormal Track and Intensity of Tropical Cyclone Nargis (2008) in the Bay of Bengal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Wei-Wei; WANG Chunzai; WANG Dongxiao; YANG Lei; DENG Yi

    2012-01-01

    Tropical cyclone (TC) Nargis (2008) made landfall in Myanmar on 02 May 2008,bringing a storm surge,major flooding,and resulting in a significant death toll. TC Nargis (2008) displayed abnormal features,including rare eastward motion in its late stage,rapid intensification before landing.Using reanalysis data and a numerical model,we investigated how a low-latitude westerly wind modulated TC Nargis' (2008) track and provided favorable atmospheric conditions for its rapid intensification.More importantly,we found a possible counterbalance effect of flows from the two hemispheres on the TC track in the Bay of Bengal.Our analysis indicates that a strong westerly wind burst across the Bay of Bengal,resulting in TC Nargis' (2008) eastward movement after its recurvature.This sudden enhancement of westerly wind was mainly due to the rapidly intensified mid-level cross-equatorial flow.Our results show that a high-pressure system in the Southern Hemisphere induced this strong,mid-level,cross-equatorial flow.During the rapid intensification period of TC Nargis (2008),this strong and broad westerly wind also transported a large amount of water vapor to TC Nargis (2008).Sufficient water vapor gave rise to continuously high and increased mid-level relative humidity,which was favorable to TC Nargis' (2008) intensification.Condensation of water vapor increased the energy supply,which eventuated the intensification of TC Nargis (2008) to a category 4 on the Saffir-Simpson scale.

  11. Genetic differentiation and population structure of five ethnic groups of Punjab (North-West India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gagandeep; Talwar, Indu; Sharma, Rubina; Matharoo, Kawaljit; Bhanwer, A J S

    2016-12-01

    The state of Punjab in the North-West part of India has acted as the main passage for all the major human invasions into the Indian subcontinent. It has resulted in the mixing of foreign gene pool into the local populations, which led to an extensive range of genetic diversity and has influenced the genetic structure of populations in Punjab, North-West India. The present study was conducted to examine the genetic structure, relationships, and extent of genetic differentiation in five Indo-European speaking ethnic groups of Punjab. A total of 1021 unrelated samples belonging to Banias, Brahmins, Jat Sikhs, Khatris, and Scheduled castes were analyzed for four human-specific Ins/Del polymorphic loci (ACE, APO, PLAT, and D1) and three restriction fragment length polymorphisms ESR (PvuII), LPL (PvuII), and T2 (MspI) using Polymerase chain reaction (PCR). All the loci were found to be polymorphic among the studied populations. The frequency of the Alu insertion at APO locus was observed to exhibit the highest value (82.6-96.3 %), whereas D1 exhibited the lowest (26.5-45.6 %) among all the ethnic groups. The average heterozygosity among the studied populations ranged from 0.3816 in Banias to 0.4163 in Khatris. The FST values ranged from 0.0418 to 0.0033 for the PLAT and LPL loci, respectively, with an average value being 0.0166. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that Banias and Khatris are genetically closest to each other. The Jat Sikhs are genetically close to Brahmins and are distant from the Banias. The Jat Sikhs, Banias, Brahmins, and Khatris are genetically very distant from the Scheduled castes. Overall, Uniform allele frequency distribution patterns, high average heterozygosity values, and a small degree of genetic differentiation in this study suggest a genetic proximity among the selected populations. A low level of genetic differentiation was observed in the studied population groups indicating that genetic drift might have been small or negligible in shaping

  12. Future trends in urbanization and coastal water pollution in the Bay of Bengal: the lived experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zinia, N.J.; Kroeze, C.

    2015-01-01

    The Bay of Bengal includes coastal seas of several countries, including Bangladesh, India, and Myanmar. We present scenarios for future river export of eutrophying nutrients into the Bay of Bengal, and the role of urbanization therein. We used NEWS (Nutrient Export from WaterSheds) model to analyze

  13. Longshore sediment transport in the surf zone based on different formulae: A case study along the central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SanilKumar, V.; Shanas, P.R.; Dora, G.U.; Johnson, G.; Philip, C.S.

    Understanding longshore sediment transport (LST) is a prerequisite for designing an effective coastal zone management strategy. The present study estimates the LST along the central west coast of India based on four bulk LST formulae: (1...

  14. Dispersion and retrievability of water quality indicators during tidal cycles in coastal Salaya, Gulf of Kachchh (West coast of India)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mohandass, C.; Jayakumar, S.; Ramaiah, N.; Vethamony, P.

    Author version: Environ. Monit. Assess., vol.169(1-4); 2010; 639-645 Dispersion and retrievability of water quality indicators during tidal cycles in coastal Salaya, Gulf of Kachchh (West coast of India). C.Mohandass *, S. Jaya Kumar, N. Ramaiah...; Brookings et al. 1985), affect ambient nutrient concentrations as well as water quality. Understanding their influence is critical to both basic ecology of tidal creeks and for evolving sampling protocols and pollutant-mitigation advisories. Lindquist...

  15. A retrospective study of clinico-pathological spectrum of carcinoma breast in a West Delhi, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitendra Singh Nigam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Data on the demographic profile of breast cancer patients from Delhi is scarce and whatever is available is from higher referral center. Our hospital caters to patients from an urban population of the lower socioeconomic strata and is a representation of cases at a tertiary care hospital in west Delhi. In Delhi, breast cancer (26.8% is commonest cancer among the female followed by cervix (12.5%, gallbladder (7.2%, ovary (7.1%, and uterus (3.3%. Aims and Objectives: A retrospective audit of breast cancer patients presenting at a tertiary referral center from 2004 to 2011. Materials and Methods: A total of 328 cases diagnosed as carcinoma breast on histopathology from year 2004 to 2011 were retrieved and studied retrospectively with regards to demographic profile and their histological features with estrogen receptor (ER, progesterone receptor (PR, and Her2neu status. Results: The median age of presentation was 49 years of age. Infiltrating ductal carcinoma (IDC, not otherwise specified (NOS was the commonest histopathological variant (81.40% followed by medullary carcinoma (10.36% and mucinous carcinoma (2.74%. Triple negative were found to be the commonest group comprising 39.4% of all the cases followed by ER and PR both positive. Pathological tumor, node, and metastasis (TNM staging showed most common group was T 2 N 0 M 0 ( 19.5% followed by T 2 N 1 M 0 (17.1% and T 2 N 2 M 0 (14%. Conclusion: The incidence of breast cancer in the India and include a higher incidence of ER, PR, and Her2neu negative disease in west Delhi.

  16. Area Handbook Series. India: A Country Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    Congress (Congress) founded 1892 .............. India Councils Act 1905 ............ Partition of Bengal by Lord Curzon, viceroy 1906 .............. All...reversal of partition of Bengal; transfer of imperial capital to New Delhi from Calcutta 1916 .............. Lucknow Pact between Congress and League...Gandhi holds talks with Mohammad Ali Jinnah 1945 ............ Labour government in Britain announces intention ofearly independence in India 1946

  17. Cholera in India: an analysis of reports, 1997–2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanungo, S; Sah, BK; Lopez, AL; Sung, JS; Paisley, AM; Sur, D; Clemens, JD

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Objective To more accurately define the annual incidence of cholera in India, believed to be higher than reported to the World Health Organization (WHO). Methods We searched the biomedical literature to extract data on the cases of cholera reported in India from 1997 to 2006 and compared the numbers found to those reported annually to WHO over the same period. The latter were obtained from WHO’s annual summaries of reported cholera cases and National health profile 2006, published by India’s Central Bureau of Health Intelligence. Findings Of India’s 35 states or union territories, 21 reported cholera cases during at least one year between 1997 and 2006. The state of West Bengal reported cases during all 10 years, while the state of Maharashtra and the union territory of Delhi reported cases during nine, and Orissa during seven. There were 68 outbreaks in 18 states, and 222 038 cases were detected overall. This figure is about six times higher than the number reported to WHO (37 783) over the same period. The states of Orissa, West Bengal, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Assam and Chhattisgarh accounted for 91% of all outbreak-related cases. Conclusion The reporting of cholera cases in India is incomplete and the methods used to keep statistics on cholera incidence are inadequate. Although the data are sparse and heterogeneous, cholera notification in India is highly deficient. PMID:20428385

  18. Trend in GHG Emissions from Northeast and West Coast Regions of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tongdimenba Jamir

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Climate change due to increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHGs has emerged as a serious global environmental issue. An attempt has been made to assess the GHG emissions in two geographical regions of India i.e. the Northeast Region (NER and the West coast Region (WCR during the period of 1980-2005. The analysis reveals an increasing trend in GHG emissions from the study regions except for CH4, which shows a decreasing trend in Goa and Kerala.  As far as state wise GHG emissions are concerned; Assam ranks first in CO2, CH4 and N2O emissions from the NER. Konkan ranks first in CO2 and CH4 emissions, while Kerala ranks first in N2O emissions representing the WCR. Analysis of the compounded annual growth rate reveals higher for the WCR in CO2 and CH4 emissions except N2O where the NER remains the highest. In order to find the association between GHG emissions and climatic response, the mean air temperature for 26 stations in both regions were subjected to trend analysis. The findings show warming trends in the mean air temperature over a majority of the stations indicating a possible role by increased GHGs. Further, the analysis reveals a positive correlation of population and GHG emissions significantly at 99% for both the regions.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.63.1.2739

  19. Five year retrospective survival analysis of triple negative breast cancer in North-West India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Sharma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In our institute, about 10% of total cancer is female breast cancer. This analysis was performed to check triple negativity among these patients with their survival strength up to 5 years in relation to different age groups, stage and chemotherapy protocols. Materials and Methods: 208 immunohistochemistry proved triple negative breast cancer patients registered and treated until 2008 were retrospectively selected for the study. Overall survival up to 5 years was observed on the basis of stage, different age groups and chemotherapy regimens. All patients had undergone surgery, conventional external beam radiation therapy and adjuvant chemotherapy. The survival analyses were performed using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: The majority of patients (41% were in the age group 21-30 years. Stage IV was seen in 18% of the patients at diagnosis and mainly in 21-40 years age group. Only 3% of females were >70 years age and were of Stage I and II. Overall 5 year survival in Stage I in Cyclophosphamide, Adriamycin/Epirubicin, 5-Flurouracil group was 37.5% as compared with Docetaxel/Paclitaxel, Epirubicin group 93% (P < 0.0001. Conclusion: Triple negativity in North-West India is about 11.8%. We observed it in younger patients mainly with highly aggressive behaviors. Taxane based chemotherapy gives better result as compared with anthracycline based regimens in all stages.

  20. Groundwater quality in Imphal West district, Manipur, India, with multivariate statistical analysis of data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Elangbam J K; Gupta, Abhik; Singh, N R

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this paper was to analyze the groundwater quality of Imphal West district, Manipur, India, and assess its suitability for drinking, domestic, and agricultural use. Eighteen physico-chemical variables were analyzed in groundwater from 30 different hand-operated tube wells in urban, suburban, and rural areas in two seasons. The data were subjected to uni-, bi-, and multivariate statistical analysis, the latter comprising cluster analysis (CA), principal component analysis (PCA), and factor analysis (FA). Arsenic concentrations exceed the Indian standard in 23.3% and the WHO limit in 73.3% of the groundwater sources with only 26.7% in the acceptable range. Several variables like iron, chloride, sodium, sulfate, total dissolved solids, and turbidity are also beyond their desirable limits for drinking water in a number of sites. Sodium concentrations and sodium absorption ratio (SAR) are both high to render the water from the majority of the sources unsuitable for agricultural use. Multivariate statistical techniques, especially varimax rotation of PCA data helped to bring to focus the hidden yet important variables and understand their roles in influencing groundwater quality. Widespread arsenic contamination and high sodium concentration of groundwater pose formidable constraints towards its exploitation for drinking and other domestic and agricultural use in the study area, although urban anthropogenic impacts are not yet pronounced.

  1. Primary sand-dune plant community and soil properties during the west-coast India monsoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willis A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A seven-station interrupted belt transect was established that followed a previously observed plant zonation pattern across an aggrading primary coastal dune system in the dry tropical region of west-coast India. The dominant weather pattern is monsoon from June to November, followed by hot and dry winter months when rainfall is scarce. Physical and chemical soil characteristics in each of the stations were analysed on five separate occasions, the first before the onset of monsoon, three during and the last post-monsoon. The plant community pattern was confirmed by quadrat survey. A pH gradient decreased with distance from the shoreline. Nutrient concentrations were deficient, increasing only in small amounts until the furthest station inland. At that location, there was a distinct and abrupt pedological transition zone from psammite to humic soils. There was a significant increase over previous stations in mean organic matter, ammonium nitrate and soil-water retention, although the increase in real terms was small. ANOVA showed significant variation in electrical conductivity, phosphorus, calcium, magnesium and sodium concentrations over time. There was no relationship between soil chemistry characteristics and plant community structure over the transect. Ipomoea pes-caprae and Spinifex littoreus were restricted to the foredunes, the leguminous forb Alysicarpus vaginalis and Perotis indica to the two stations furthest from the strand. Ischaemum indicum, a C4 perennial grass species adopting an ephemeral strategy was, in contrast, ubiquitous to all stations.

  2. Bioactive potential of some intertidal molluscs collected from Mumbai coast,West coast of India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Atul G Babar; Anant Pande; Balasaheb G Kulkarni

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To identify the bioactive potential of crude methanolic extracts of five gastropods and one bivalve collected from the west coast of India (Mumbai coast). Methods: Disc-diffusion assay and micro-dilution technique were used to test the bioactive potential of these molluscs against six pathogenic bacteria. Results: The crude methanolic extracts of all the molluscs showed significant activity against one or more bacteria tested. Minimum inhibitory concentration of crude methanolic extracts was found in the range of 0.10–0.35 mg/mL against human pathogenic bacterial strains. Hemifusus pugilinus and Nerita sp. extracts were most effective showing activity against all bacterial strains. Hemifusus pugilinus extract exhibited good activity against Vibrio cholerae contrary to earlier reports. Methanolic extract of Gafrarium divaricatum demonstrated considerable activity against both Escherichia coli and Streptococcus pyogenes. Trochus radiatus extract was inactive against all the bacteria tested except Escherichiacoli. Euchelus asper extract was active against Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Conclusions: All the molluscs screened exhibited potential activity against one or more bacterial strain. Further work is in progress to isolate the active constituents of the extracts.

  3. Quaternary Geology and Geomorphology of Terna River Basin in West Central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Babar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the morphostratigraphy, lithostratigraphy and sedimentary structures of Terna River basin in the Deccan Basaltic Province (DBP of West Central India. These Quaternary deposits have been divided into three informal formations (i dark grey silt formation – Late Holocene, (ii Light grey silt formations – Early Holocene, (iii Dark grayish brown silt formation – Late Pleistocene with the older Quaternary Alluvial deposits of Upper Pleistocene age. The fine clay and silt formations in the lower reaches reflect that the streams are of low gradient and more sinuous. The river shows evidences of channel movement by avulsion, largely controlled by lineaments. Palaeo-levees, in the form 4–5 m high ridges exist along the Terna River floodplain, specifically in the Ter, Killari, Sastur, Dhuta and Makni villages. Several lineaments occur along NE-SW, NW-SE, E-W and WNW-ESE directions, which control the basement structure in the study area. The values of the Topographic Sinuosity Index (TSI indicate rejuvenation of the area leading to the dominance of topography on the sinuosity of the river channels. The break in slope in the long profile is also indication of the Quaternary tectonic uplift of the area. Radiocarbon dating of some charcoal fragments collected from folded beddings indicates that paleoseismic activity might have taken place along the basin between AD 120 and AD 1671.

  4. Knowledge attitude and practices for antenatal care and delivery of the mothers of tea garden in Jalpaiguri and Darjeeling districts, West Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabir Kumar Manna, Debasis De and Debidas Ghosh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to access the influence of socioeconomic factors on antenatal care and delivery practices of the mother of North Bengal. A community based study was carried out among 1772 families of the 7 blocks of the two districts. Various socio economic factors were considered for the antenatal care and delivery practices. We also tried to find out the relationship between antenatal check up with perinatal mortality. The study shows that the muslim mothers, Scheduled tribe mothers, non -educated and mothers with higher age group are less interested about ANC. Family income 2000/- month showing 62.42% ANC coverage. We found that only 7.11% mother used Govt. hospital and 2.65% used private clinic. The mother with medical problems and obstetric problems has high ANC coverage. So, socioeconomic factors significantly influence the antenatal coverage and delivery practices. Hence initiative may be taken at Government and non government levels to raise knowledge, attitude and practices for the improvement of antenatal care and delivery practices of the mother at these zones.

  5. The biology of the Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gauns, M.

    This article focusses on the variability in physics and chemistry of the region and investigate its influence on the biology. This article is largely based on the recent observations made during the India JGOFS and BOBPS (Bay of Bengal Process Study...

  6. Biomonitoring of Heavy metals using the bivalve molluscs in sunderban mangrove wetland, Northeast Coast of Bay of bengal (india): possible risks to Human health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabral, Henrique; Cardoso, Ines [Departamento de Biologia Animal/Instituto de Oceanografia, Campo Grande, Lisboa (Portugal); Chatterjee, Mousumi; Kumar Bhattacharya, Asok; Aftab Alam, Mohammad [Department of Marine Science, University of Calcutta, Calcutta (India); Kanta Satpathy, Kamala [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Environmental and Industrial Safety Section, Safety Group, Kalpakkam, Tamil Nadu (India); Kumar Sarkar, Santosh

    2008-02-15

    The suitability of using four bivalve molluscs (Sanguinolaria acuminata, Anadara granosa, Meretrix meretrix, and Pelecyora trigona) in biomonitoring of heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn, and Hg) collected from intertidal regions of the Sunderban mangrove wetland, northeastern part of the Bay of Bengal, were evaluated. Both speciesdependent variability and temporal variations were pronounced. A high degree of organ specificity was evident in the bivalves where gill and mantle exhibited higher metal accumulation due to ion exchange property of the mucous layer covering these organs while shells represent very poor accumulation. Elevated values of Zn and Cu reflect high potential for biomagnification through marine food chain. Metal concentrations in different body size groups of the bivalves do not follow uniform trend. Correlation coefficient between different metal couplings as tested statistically revealed significant coupling for Pb-Zn, Pb-Cu, Zn-Cu, and Hg-Cu. Concentrations of all the metals in specific organs (visceral mass, mantle and gill) of the bivalves exceeded the safe levels according to the international standards for metals compiled by Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations and would be of great risk for human consumption. It is concluded that the mussel and clam are suitable biomonitors to employ in programs designed to assess changes in metal pollution in the Sunderban mangrove wetland. (Abstract Copyright [2008], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  7. Distribution of trace metals in surface seawater and zooplankton of the Bay of Bengal, off Rushikulya estuary, East Coast of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srichandan, Suchismita; Panigrahy, R C; Baliarsingh, S K; Rao B, Srinivasa; Pati, Premalata; Sahu, Biraja K; Sahu, K C

    2016-10-15

    Concentrations of trace metals such as iron (Fe), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), cobalt (Co), nickel (Ni), manganese (Mn), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), arsenic (As), vanadium (V), and selenium (Se) were determined in seawater and zooplankton from the surface waters off Rushikulya estuary, north-western Bay of Bengal. During the study period, the concentration of trace metals in seawater and zooplankton showed significant spatio-temporal variation. Cu and Co levels in seawater mostly remained non-detectable. Other elements were found at higher concentrations and exhibited marked variations. The rank order distribution of trace metals in terms of their average concentration in seawater was observed as Fe>Ni>Mn>Pb>As>Zn>Cr>V>Se>Cd while in zooplankton it was Fe>Mn>Cd>As>Pb>Ni>Cr>Zn>V>Se. The bioaccumulation factor (BAF) of Fe was highest followed by Zn and the lowest value was observed with Ni. Results of correlation analysis discerned positive affinity and good relationship among the majority of the trace metals, both in seawater and zooplankton suggesting their strong affinity and coexistence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The perceived relevance of tooth carving in dental education: Views of practicing dentists and faculty in West India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Meghanand T; Sahni, Priya; Singhvi, Abhishek; Singh, Anjali

    2014-01-01

    Teaching dental anatomy includes observation and analysis of natural teeth and carving wax models to accurately reproduce the morphology of teeth. The aim of this survey was to assess the importance of tooth carving in its relevance to clinical practice in the opinion of practicing clinicians throughout west India. Faculties of 27 dental colleges and dental practitioners of the Rajasthan and Gujarat states in western India were contacted through e-mail, telephone and mail. A total of 1866 subjects were contacted of which 1722 responded. The perceived relevance of tooth carving in clinical practice was assessed through a 14-item multiple choice questionnaire. Questions ranged from the queries of clinicians' interest in tooth carvings, their opinion of the practical significance of this exercise during their training to their clinical practice, and their recommendations regarding tooth carving. A total of 69.1% of respondent practitioners believe that the tooth carving exercise influences their clinical practice, and 93.4% recommend tooth carving to be continued in the undergraduate dental curriculum. The results indicated that most dentists in west India valued what they learned through tooth carving and that they use this knowledge in their practice. This information supports the continued teaching of tooth carving in the undergraduate dental curriculum.

  9. Return period estimates of extreme sea level along the east coast of India from numerical simulations

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sindhu, B.; Unnikrishnan, A.S.

    ), and 37 severe cyclonic storms (SCS). The report gave a detailed account of the position and the pressure of the cyclone core for each LPS event at each day of its development till the landfall for the events identified during 1974... of Bengal usually move toward west, north west or north before finally curving east into north-east corner of the bay, affecting the east coast of India, Bangladesh, Myanmar and Sri Lanka. The extent of damage at the coast was documented in many earlier...

  10. Epidemiology of road traffic accident deaths in children in Chandigarh zone of North West India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalbir Singh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The fatalities from Road Traffic Accidents (RTA constitute a major cause of unnatural deaths among children in Chandigarh zone of North West India. The epidemiology of RTA related deaths in this age group is lacking in our country. This retrospective study (1974–2013 included children (⩽18 years who became victims of RTA and subsequently died during the course of treatment. The postmortem and hospital records of the victims were used to collect the epidemiological data regarding age, sex, area of residence, etc. These deaths constituted 9.4% of total road accident deaths reported at this hospital. Out of a total of 709 RTA deaths in children, about 16% were reported in the block year of 1974–78 and this proportion decreased to 9.4% during the block year of 1984–88 and has remained almost constant since then. The maximum number of victims belonged to the states of Haryana (36% and Punjab (34%. A higher number of deaths were observed in rural population (60%. Most of the fatalities occurred between 12–4 pm (29.9% and pedestrians (47.8% were found to be the most commonly affected. The most common affected was the 16–18 year age group (35.3%. Injury to head and neck region (81.4% was responsible for a majority of deaths. The study concluded that the RTA remains an important cause of unnatural deaths in children. The static proportion of these deaths over the past three decades signifies that the road safety policies have been ineffective in preventing causalities and need further improvements.

  11. Backtrack modeling to locate the origin of tar balls depositing along the west coast of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suneel, V; Ciappa, A; Vethamony, P

    2016-11-01

    Tar ball (TB) deposition along the West Coast of India (WCI) is a common phenomenon during the southwest monsoon season, particularly along the coast of Goa and Gujarat, and it is a major concern to the stake holders. Our earlier studies showed that the source oil for the TBs deposited on the Goa coast in August 2010 is the tanker wash, and the source for subsequent TBs deposited on the Gujarat coast during July 2012 and June 2013 and Goa coast in May 2013 is from Bombay High (BH) oil fields. In the present study, the TBs that were deposited during May 2013 and May 2014 on the Goa coast were backtracked through a trajectory model, primarily to simulate their pathways and identify the reason for the occurrence of TBs only in May, and eventually to identify the origin and the source. The backtracking results re-confirmed that the TBs deposited in 2010 were originated from the tanker routes and that of both 2013 and 2014 TBs from the BH oil fields. The climatology of wind and surface circulation showed that the TBs deposited on the Goa coast during May/June only are from the oil fields and those during August from the tanker route. The results of backtracking simulations showed that the residence time of the oil residues/TBs is approximately 22days for August 2010 TBs, ≈30days for May 2013 TBs and 65days for May 2014 TBs. The residence time (in water) of TBs that deposit (on the coast) in the month of May could be as much as 7months, and could be around one month if deposit in August, primarily because of winds and hydrodynamic conditions of the Arabian Sea.

  12. Assessment of mangroves from Goa, west coast India using DNA barcode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saddhe, Ankush Ashok; Jamdade, Rahul Arvind; Kumar, Kundan

    2016-01-01

    Mangroves are salt-tolerant forest ecosystems of tropical and subtropical intertidal regions. They are among most productive, diverse, biologically important ecosystem and inclined toward threatened system. Identification of mangrove species is of critical importance in conserving and utilizing biodiversity, which apparently hindered by a lack of taxonomic expertise. In recent years, DNA barcoding using plastid markers rbcL and matK has been suggested as an effective method to enrich traditional taxonomic expertise for rapid species identification and biodiversity inventories. In the present study, we performed assessment of available 14 mangrove species of Goa, west coast India based on core DNA barcode markers, rbcL and matK. PCR amplification success rate, intra- and inter-specific genetic distance variation and the correct identification percentage were taken into account to assess candidate barcode regions. PCR and sequence success rate were high in rbcL (97.7 %) and matK (95.5 %) region. The two candidate chloroplast barcoding regions (rbcL, matK) yielded barcode gaps. Our results clearly demonstrated that matK locus assigned highest correct identification rates (72.09 %) based on TaxonDNA Best Match criteria. The concatenated rbcL + matK loci were able to adequately discriminate all mangrove genera and species to some extent except those in Rhizophora, Sonneratia and Avicennia. Our study provides the first endorsement of the species resolution among mangroves using plastid genes with few exceptions. Our future work will be focused on evaluation of other barcode markers to delineate complete resolution of mangrove species and identification of putative hybrids.

  13. Sediment dispersal pattern in the Bay of Bengal - evidence for commencement of Bengal Fan sedimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, K. S.; Ismaiel, M.; Karlapati, S.; Gopala Rao, D.; Mishra, J.; D, S.

    2015-12-01

    The sediment succession in the Bay of Bengal records signatures corresponding to India-Asia collision, regional climate, and erosional processes of the Himalayan orogeny and the Indian subcontinent. The Bengal Fan - world's largest submarine fan - has been long studied to understand the link between the Himalayan tectonics and Asian monsoon climate, but early phase information of the Himalaya erosion is not retrieved from the Indian Ocean due to lack of deep-core samples. Therefore, the missing corresponding signals hampered the understanding of coupled processes between tectonics, climate and erosion. Seismic reflection profiles and industrial drill wells from the western Bay of Bengal show two different modes of sediment deposition: initially Indian peninsular rivers discharged sediments to the ocean at a rate ~20 m/m.y. until Oligocene-Miocene time (~23 Ma) with the exception of two fairly-enhanced sediment pulses from 65 to 54 and again from 34 to 23 Ma; since 23 Ma the Ganges and Brahmaputra rivers added huge volumes of sediments to the bay with variable rates range from 40 to >1000 m/m.y. Using seismic stratigraphic technique we found a distinct increase in sediment discharge (~140 m/m.y.) at 23 Ma is an important age marker for the onset of Bengal Fan sedimentation as a coupled connection between the Himalayan tectonics and Asian climate. Further rise in sedimentation rate during the period 6.8 - 0.8 Ma is surprisingly not in agreement with the decrease in sediment rate reported at ODP Leg 116 sites in the distal Bengal Fan, but coincident with the change in monsoon intensity. Here we provide well constrained ages for the growth of the Bengal Fan, which can serve as benchmark for interactions between the Himalayan exhumation and Asian climate.

  14. Solar-energy an American India (SAI) partnership: The Ramakrishna Mission PV Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullal, H.S.; Stone, J.L. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes a cooperative program which was established in 1993 by the Minister of the Indian Ministry of Non-Conventional Energy Sources (MNES) and the Secretary of the U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE). Eventually it fielded one project, funded 50-50 for a total of 500k dollars. The project selected was a sustainable rural economic development initiative with Ramakrishna Mission in West Bengal, India, as the nongovernment organization (NGO). The objectives of the program were to establish the economic viability of photovoltaic power in the Sundarbans region of West Bengal. To have the project self-sustaining with minimal subsidies to the beneficiaries. To establish the infrastructure for financing, training, installation and maintenance with the NGO taking the lead. To work with the NGO to expand utilization of photovoltaics in the region. To perform a before and after social, economic, and environmental impact study with the Tata Energy Research Institute.

  15. Subsurface oscillations at an oceanic station in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarma, Y.V.B.; Sarma, M.S.S.; Charyulu, R.J.K.; Rao, D.P.

    Surface wind, atmospheric pressure and the temperature profiles in the upper layers at an oceanic station off west of Andaman Island in the Bay of Bengal have been analysed to examine the causes for the observed subsurface oscillations...

  16. Income and nutritional status of the fishing community residing in coastal bay of Bengal: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Baidyanath; Chattopadhyay, Manabendu; Maity, Moumita; Mukhopadhyay, Barun; Gupta, Ranjan

    2010-01-01

    This is part of a project on the disadvantaged, marginalized, vulnerable/weaker section of the population and their survival strategy. The paper presents the results of a survey carried out during 2006-07 with the objective of throwing light on the life and living conditions of an economically weaker community such as 'fishing community' residing in the coastal area of Bay of Bengal in West Bengal and Orissa, India, in the context of global scenario. Various scientists have conducted quite a large number of studies to ascertain the income and nutritional status of people in rural India. Very few attempts, however, have been made to investigate in detail regarding the living standards of some specific communities, which are very often referred to, as the 'weaker section' of the people. The people belonging to fishing community are, by and large, not only economically weak in terms of earning and availability of work, the majority of them are not able to procure the minimum nourishment. The present study shows that some notable elements of living conditions such as food, shelter, health etc. matters much more than the conventional income or calorie deficiency. Commonly, the social scientists equate poverty with income or calorie deficiency which may not be the case as is evident from this study. We have hinted some measures to be undertaken to ameliorate the sufferings of the fishing community.

  17. Knowledge and Awareness of the Tuberculosis in Tuberculosis Patients at a Tertiary Care Centre in North West Rajasthan, India

    OpenAIRE

    Vinod Kumar Jangid; Neeraj Kumar Agrawal; Gulab Singh Yadav; Shubham Pandey; Brij B Mathur

    2016-01-01

    "Introduction- The awareness and knowledge about TB vary in different geographical locations and a relationship exists between knowledge and prevention of disease. Hence we planned to con-duct the study to assess it in TB patients in North West Rajasthan, India. Method- A cross sectional, questionnaire based epidemiological study was conducted in 510 TB patients of age group 16-78 years for 9 months from April 2010 to January 2011 in the Department of TB and Chest, S.P. Medical College, ...

  18. On vertical velocity fluctuations and internal tides in an upwelling region off the west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Unnikrishnan, A.S.; Antony, M.K.

    of flow and wind and temperature oscillations at a mooring site in the shelf waters off the west coast of India are discussed. The vertical velocities were computed from a time series of vertical temperature profiles assuming that horizontal advection... of tem- perature is negligible. The computed values at a depth of 40 m during the 72-h period of observation were of the order of 10-l to lo-* cm s-i, with a mean value of - 2.77 x lo-* cm s-i indicating a net upward movement of water. The com- puted...

  19. Climate induced variability of suspended matter and nutrient in the discharge of Kali river, central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghavan, B.R.; Chauhan, O.S.

    of the central west coast of India is not dammed. The river has a small, estuarine mouth and virtually no large scale deltaic activities are reported from the area. Being located in the region of high precipitation (~ 2700 mm y -1 , 80% of which... (Table 1). The precipitation magnitude is highly seasonal, and virtually no meteoric water is available after cessation of the NE and the SW monsoons (Table 1). The river originates in the Western Ghats (elevation ~ 1900 m above mean sea level...

  20. Acid rains over semi-urban atmosphere at eastern Himalaya and near coast of Bay of Bengal and alkaline rains over typical urban atmosphere in India: A study on precipitation chemistry during monsoon, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Arindam; Chatterjee, Abhijit; Sarkar, Chirantan; Ghosh, Sanjay; Raha, Sibaji

    A study has been made on precipitation chemistry over three different atmosphere in India. Rain samples were collected during the entire period of monsoon (June-October) in the year of 2013 over Kolkata (22.6 (°) N, 89.4 (°) E), a mega city with typical urban atmosphere; Falta (22.3 (°) N, 88.1 (°) E), a rural atmosphere near eastern coast of Bay of Bengal and Darjeeling (27.01 (°) N, 88.15 (°) E), a high altitude (2200 m asl)hill station over eastern Himalaya in India. The major focus of the study is to investigate the composition of various types of aerosol ionic components scavenged and its effect on the acidity and how it differs between these three distinctly different atmospheres. The results showed that the sea-salt components were higher in Falta (140 mueqv/lit) followed by Kolkata (120 mueqv/lit) and minimum in Darjeeling (30 mueqv/lit). Over all the stations, Na (+) and Cl (-) showed strong correlations indicating common marine source. The marine air masses originated from Bay of Bengal (BoB) were found to significantly enrich sea-salt particles over Falta, the nearest station from BoB and having least effect on Darjeeling, the farthest station from BoB. Dust and anthropogenic aerosols particles were significantly higher over Kolkata compared to other two stations. Dust particles were found to scavenge more in the initial phase of monsoon and it gradually decreased as the monsoon progressed. The average pH of rain water over Kolkata was 6.0 indicating alkaline in nature. pH over Falta was 5.2 indicating slightly acidic in nature and the most important fact is that pH over Darjeeling was 4.6 indicating highly acidic in nature. It was found that Ca (2+) , Mg (2+) and NH _{4} (+) neutralized the acidity of rain water over all the stations with the maximum neutralizing factor for Ca (2+) . However, NH _{4} (+) played important role over Darjeeling in neutralizing rain water acidity. The major reason for high acidity of rain water was not due to high

  1. Simulating the daily discharge of the Mandovi River, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Suprit, K.; Shankar, D.; Venugopal, V.; Bhatkar, N.V.

    A hydrological modelling framework was assembled to simulate the daily discharge of the Mandovi River on the Indian west coast. Approximately 90% of the west-coast rainfall, and therefore discharge, occurs during the summer monsoon (June...

  2. Waves in shallow water off west coast of India during the onset of summer monsoon

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SanilKumar, V.; Philip, C.S.; Nair, T.N.B.

    and south-west and the balance was due to the seas from south-west to north-west. Wave age of the measured data indicates that the measured waves are young sea with presence of swells. Even when the wind speed reduced to less than 3 m/s, significant wave...

  3. Observed intraseasonal and seasonal variability of the West India coastal current on the continental slope.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Amol, P.; Shankar, D.; Fernando, V.; Mukherjee, A.; Aparna, S.G.; Fernandes, R.; Michael, G.S.; Khalap, S.T.; Satelkar, N.P.; Agarvadekar, Y.; Gaonkar, M.G.; Tari, A.P.; Kankonkar, A.; Vernekar, S.

    between the Arabian Sea, a concentration basin, and the Bay of Bengal, a dilution basin (Jensen 2001; Han et al. 2001) and plays a major role in the region’s climate (see, for example, the reviews by Schott and McCreary 2001; Schott et al. 2009). The WICC... to the regional climate and marine living resources imply that it is important to be able to describe its variability and understand what causes the observed variability. In the rest of this introduction, we review our current state of knowledge of the WICC. We...

  4. Atmospheric fine and coarse mode aerosols at different environments of India and the Bay of Bengal during winter-2014: Implications of a coordinated campaign

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sen, A.; Ahammed, Y.N.; Arya, B.C.; Banerjee, T.; Begam, R.G.; Baruah, B.P.; Chatterjee, A.; Choudhuri, A.K.; Dhir, A.; Das, T.; Dhyani, P.P.; Deb, N.C.; Gadi, R.; Gauns, M.; Ghosh, S.K.; Gupta, A.; Sharma, K.C.; Khan, A.H.; Kumari, K.M.; Kumar, M.; Kumar, A.; Kuniyal, J.C.; Lakhani, A.; Meena, R.K.; Mahapatra, P.S.; Naqvi, S.W.A.; Singh, D.P.; Pal, S.; Panda, S.; Rohtash; Saikia, J.; Saikia, P.; Sharma, A.; Sharma, P.; Saxena, M.; Shenoy, D.M.; Vachaspati, C.V.; Sharma, S.K.; Mandal, T.K

    –12048. [7] M.G. Lawrence, J. Lelieveld, Atmospheric pollutant outflow from southern Asia: a review, Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., 10(4) (2010) 11017–11096. [8] T. Saud, M. Saxena, D.P. Singh, Saraswati, Manisha Dahiya, S.K. Sharma, A. Datta, Ranu Gadi, T.K... aerosols in China and India, Science, 297(5590) (2002) 2250–2253. [10] M.V.S.N. Prasad, C. Sharma, B.C. Arya, T.K. Mandal, S. Singh, M.J. Kulshrestha, R. Agnihotri, S.K. Mishra, S.K. Sharma, Experimental facilities to monitor various types of atmospheric...

  5. A mid-Holocene strandline deposit on the inner shelf of Cochin, West coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Reddy, N.P.C.; Rao, N.V.N.D.

    stream_size 7 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name J_Geol_Soc_India_39_205.pdf.txt stream_source_info J_Geol_Soc_India_39_205.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  6. Radiocarbon dates of the medieval period stone anchors from Dabhol, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A.S.; Sundaresh; Tripati, S.; Vora, K.H.

    ., From Calcutta to Bom- bay Coasting: The Handbook to the Ports on the Coast of India between Cal- cutta and Bombay, J.D. Potter, London, 1902, p. 291. 3. Frowde, H., The Imperial Gazetteer of India, University of Oxford, London, 1908, vol. XI, pp...

  7. Near shore waves, long-shore currents and sediment transport along micro-tidal beaches, central west coast of India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sajiv Philip CHEMPALAYIL; V Sanil KUMAR; G Udhaba DORA; Glejin JOHNSON

    2014-01-01

    Coastlines are undergoing constant geomorphologic changes with respect to the incident wave climate. Based on waves measured at 9 m water depth, simulation of near shore wave transformation is done using REFDIF-1 numerical model and the near shore breaker parameters are estimated at two micro-tidal beaches along central west coast of India. Model results are validated with measured values. From the breaker parameters, long-shore current and long-shore sediment transport rates (LSTR) are computed by using semi-empirical equations. Estimated long-shore current and LSTR are showing dramatic variations with respect to seasons. Predominant direction of LSTR is observed towards north since the approach waves are from south-west direction during pre-monsoon and post monsoon. During monsoon season, waves are from west south-west and resulted in southerly transport. The estimated annual net and gross LSTR by Cambridge Environmental Research Consultants (CERC) at two locations are in the same order whereas LSTR estimated by Walton & Bruno and Kamphuis equations are showing different estimations because of difference in surf-zone width and foreshore slope between the two locations. For micro-tidal beaches with length less than 6 km, Kamphuis equation is giving agreeable estimation of LSTR. Sensitivity analysis of LSTR estimate shows that coastal inclination is the prominent factor in determining LSTR than incident wave angle.

  8. Temporal characteristics of aerosol physical properties at Visakhapatnam on the east coast of India during ICARB – Signatures of transport onto Bay of Bengal

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K Niranjan; V Sreekanth; B L Madhavan; T Anjana Devi; B Spandana

    2008-07-01

    Realizing the importance of aerosol physical properties at the adjoining continental and coastal locations in the airmass pathways onto the oceanic region, extensive measurements of aerosol physical properties were made at Visakhapatnam (17.7°N, 83.3°E), an eastern coastal location in peninsular India during the ICARB period. The temporal variations of aerosol optical depth, near surface aerosol mass size distributions and BC mass concentrations show significantly higher aerosol optical depth and near surface mass concentrations during the first and last weeks of April 2007. The mean BC mass fraction in the fine mode aerosol was around 11%. The aerosol back scatter profiles derived from Micro Pulse Lidar indicate a clear airmass subsidence on the days with higher aerosol optical depths and near surface mass fraction. A comparison of the temporal variation of the aerosol properties at Visakhapatnam with the MODIS derived aerosol optical depth along the cruise locations indicates a resemblance in the temporal variation suggesting that the aerosol transport from the eastern coastal regions of peninsular India could significantly affect the aerosol optical properties at the near coastal oceanic regions and that the affect significantly reduced at the farther regions.

  9. Seasonal variations of aerosol over Dona Paula, a coastal site on the west coast of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, T.; Desa, Elgar

    We report here the observations of the aerosol studies carried-out for three years (2000-2002) at Dona-Paula, Goa (15.456°N, 73.801°E), a coastal site on the west coast of India. Aerosol optical depths were measured using a five channel sunphotometer with wavelengths at 440, 500, 675, 870 and 936 nm. The site enjoys a tropical climate and is under the influence of the strong southwest or summer monsoon and weak northeast or winter monsoon. Being a coastal station land-sea breeze play an important role in the variations of the aerosol loading over the site and their transport to the Arabian Sea. The mean aerosol optical thicknesses (AOT) at 500 and 870 nm are 0.46 (±0.15) and 0.23 (±0.097), respectively, while the Angstrom exponent is 1.31 (±0.347). The aerosol properties over the site showed a distinct seasonal variations, with high values of AOT observed during summer, with mean values of 0.48 (±0.15) and 0.26 (±0.09) at 500 and 870 nm, respectively, while during the winter relatively low values were observed, with mean value of 0.41 (±0.14) and 0.19 (±0.09) at 500 and 870 nm, respectively. The values of Angstrom exponents observed at the site suggest that the aerosol comprise mostly of the small size particles, with relatively larger particles being observed during summer than winter. An anti-correlation is observed between the inter-annual variations in the aerosol loading and the rainfall over Goa. Aerosol properties show diurnal variations, with comparatively lower values of AOT being observed in the evening. These diurnal variations are within a limit of 10% of the average values observed for the day. Seasonal patterns in the diurnal variations of aerosol optical depths have been observed. Considering the effect of the meteorological parameters over the aerosol, it is observed that the AOT is positively correlated with water vapor column, however the wind is found to aid in the reduction of aerosol load over Goa. It can be inferred from the weak

  10. Patterns of vegetation composition across levels of canopy disturbance in temperate forests of west Himalaya, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Airi Subodh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyses the impacts of canopy disturbance on vegetation compositional attributes of two characteristic temperate forests (i.e., mixed broad-leaf and banj-oak forests in west Himalayan part of India. Following the standard approaches, quantitative information on compositional attributes of forest vegetation was generated and analyzed. Considerable changes in these attributes were revealed across different levels of canopy disturbance in both forests. In particular, tree density and total basal area (TBA exhibited significant decline from undegraded to degraded stands. Among others, seedling and sapling density of mixed broad-leaf forest was affected adversely by increased level of canopy disturbance. However, herb density in this forest increased significantly with increasing levels of disturbance; the same was not true for banj-oak forest. A significant decline in relative frequency and density of native herbaceous species was apparent towards degraded stands, implying that the disturbed sites in both forests created an opportunity for the establishment and proliferation of non-natives. However, with significant increase in relative density of non-native herbs, the degraded stands of banj-oak forest emerged as critically vulnerable to non-native proliferation. The patterns of tree size class distribution in both forests also exhibited certain trends across canopy disturbance, which suggested possible future changes in composition. In particular, the patterns of common tree associates (i.e., Myrica esculenta and Rhododendron arboreum in banj-oak forest and Pinus roxburghii in mixed broad-leaf forest were indicative of likely compositional changes in near future. The study concludes that: (i compositional attributes of both mixed broad-leaf and banj-oak forests were sensitive to increasing levels of canopy disturbance, (ii mixed broad-leaf forest exhibited greater sensitivity to canopy disturbance at recruitment levels, (iii increased

  11. Potential emission flux to aerosol pollutants over Bengal Gangetic plain through combined trajectory clustering and aerosol source fields analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, D. Bharath; Verma, S.

    2016-09-01

    A hybrid source-receptor analysis was carried out to evaluate the potential emission flux to winter monsoon (WinMon) aerosols over Bengal Gangetic plain urban (Kolkata, Kol) and semi-urban atmospheres (Kharagpur, Kgp). This was done through application of fuzzy c-mean clustering to back-trajectory data combined with emission flux and residence time weighted aerosols analysis. WinMon mean aerosol optical depth (AOD) and angstrom exponent (AE) at Kol (AOD: 0.77; AE: 1.17) were respectively slightly higher than and nearly equal to that at Kgp (AOD: 0.71; AE: 1.18). Out of six source region clusters over Indian subcontinent and two over Indian oceanic region, the cluster mean AOD was the highest when associated with the mean path of air mass originating from the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian sea clusters at Kol and that from the Indo-Gangetic plain (IGP) cluster at Kgp. Spatial distribution of weighted AOD fields showed the highest potential source of aerosols over the IGP, primarily over upper IGP (e.g. Punjab, Haryana), lower IGP (e.g. Uttarpradesh) and eastern region (e.g. west Bengal, Bihar, northeast India) clusters. The emission flux contribution potential (EFCP) of fossil fuel (FF) emissions at surface (SL) of Kol/Kgp, elevated layer (EL) of Kol, and of biomass burning (BB) emissions at SL of Kol were primarily from upper, lower, upper/lower IGP clusters respectively. The EFCP of FF/BB emissions at Kgp-EL/SL, and that of BB at EL of Kol/Kgp were mainly from eastern region and Africa (AFR) clusters respectively. Though the AFR cluster was constituted of significantly high emission flux source potential of dust emissions, the EFCP of dust from northwest India (NWI) was comparable to that from AFR at Kol SL/EL.

  12. Temperature and salinity profile data collected from XBT, CTD, MBT and Bottle casts from multiple platforms by the National Institute of Oceanography (NIO), India, in the Bay of Bengal from August 28, 1976 to January 07, 2009 (NODC Accession 0055418)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical data were collected from Bottle, MBT, XBT, and CTD casts from the Andaman and Burma Seas, Bay of Bengal, Malacca Straits, and the Indian Ocean. Data were...

  13. Temperature and salinity profile data collected from CTD casts by the National Institute of Oceanography (NIO), India, in the Bay of Bengal and Indian Ocean from October 01, 1983 to August 05, 1996 (NODC Accession 0055417)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical data were collected from CTD casts from the Bay of Bengal and Indian Ocean. Data were collected from October 1983 to August 1996. Data were collected and...

  14. Sexual behavior and condom use among seasonal Dalit migrant laborers to India from Far West, Nepal: a qualitative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran Bam

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Around 41% of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV cases in Nepal occur in seasonal migrant laborers. Dalit migrant laborers represent the largest proportion of reported HIV cases in the Far Western Region (Sudur Pashchimanchal, or Far West, Nepal. The study's objectives were to assess sexual behavior, condom use status and HIV risk perception among Dalit migrant laborers to India from Far West Region, Nepal. METHODS: The study was conducted among Dalit male migrant laborers aged 15 years and above who had migrated for at least six months of the last two years to India. For the sampling the village development committees (VDCs from Achham, Doti and Kanchanpur districts of Nepal were purposively selected. The data were collected in March and April 2011 via ten in-depth interviews and four focus group discussions and analyzed using content analysis. RESULTS: Poor socio-economic status, caste-related discrimination, and lack of employment opportunities push large groups of young Dalits to migrate to India for employment, where they engage in sex with female sex workers (FSWs. The participants described unmarried status, peer influence, alcohol use, low-priced sex with FSWs and unwillingness to use condoms as common factors of their migration experience. Lack of awareness on HIV/AIDS was common among study participants. Awareness of HIV/AIDS and faithful, monogamous partnerships are reported as factors influencing safer sexual behavior. CONCLUSIONS: Dalits are an especially vulnerable population among migrant laborers and may be over-represented in new HIV infections in Nepal. Comprehensive surveying and health promotion programs targeted to this population are urgently needed and potent methods of stopping HIV spread.

  15. Petrology, geochemistry of hornblende gabbro and associated dolerite dyke of Paharpur, Puruliya, West Bengal: Implication for petrogenetic process and tectonic setting

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Aditi Mandal; Arijit Ray; Mayukhee Debnath; Sankar Prasad Paul

    2012-06-01

    Paharpur gabbroic intrusive is an arcuate body running east–west paralleling the foliation of Chhotanagpur Granite Gneiss which acts as country rock. The main gabbroic body is intruded by a number of dolerite dykes running north–south. It is composed of clinopyroxene (Wo48En40Fs12–Wo51En40Fs09, mg no. 72–82), plagioclase (An52–An90), hornblende (magnesian hornblende to ferro-tschermackite), orthopyroxene (En76–En79) and ilmenite. Hornblende occurs as large poikilitic grain and constitutes around 60% of the rock. Both gabbro and associated dolerite dykes, show relatively primitive character (mg no. 65–73). Primitive mantle-normalized and MORB-normalized spider diagrams indicate enrichment in Rb, Ba, Th, La, Sr and depletion in Nb, Zr, Y, Ti and Nd. The LILE enrichment and Nb, Ti, Zr, Y depletion suggest arc like geochemical signature for the gabbroic and doleritic rocks of Paharpur. Flat to slightly LREE fractionated pattern and variable degree of REE enrichment is observed. An early stage fractionation of clinopyroxene, plagioclase, orthopyroxene, ilmenite and late stage reaction of cumulate pile and evolved melt/hydrous fluid is suggested for magmatic evolution of gabbro. Associated dolerite dykes, which are geochemically similar to the gabbro, have tholeiitic with boninitic character. The mineralogical and chemical compositions of intrusive rocks also have some similarity with mafic rocks of ophiolite complex of subduction zone.

  16. Zooplankton ecology in the Mandovi-Zuari estuarine system of Goa, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Padmavati, G.; Goswami, S.C.

    Seasonal variability in the physico-chemical features, zooplankton standing stock (biomass) and faunal composition in the Mandovi-Zuari estuarine system of Goa, India, during January to December 1990 were studied. Hydrobiological characteristics...

  17. Field measurement on longshore current variation between Ratnagiri and Mangalore, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chandramohan, P.; Nayak, B.U.; Anand, N.M.; SanilKumar, V.

    The daily measurements on longshore current velocity and direction were carried out at selected 12 stations along the coast between Ratnagiri and Mangalore, India. The directional wave data measured at Karwar were used to theoretically estimate...

  18. Pyramidal anchor stone from Baga waters of Goa, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.

    Underwater exploration in the coastal region off Baga (Goa, India) led to the recovery of an isolated stone artefact, which resembles a pyramidal type of anchor stone. This anchor stone is unlike to other pyramidal anchor stones found elsewhere...

  19. Freshwater flushing time scales of the Vashishti Estuary, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DineshKumar, P.K.; Sarma, R.V.; Zingde, M.D.

    Results are presented for the Vashishti estuary, Kerala, India to evaluate its freshwater flushing time scales based on 8 sets of observations of longitudinal salinity distributions. The results of the flushing time using the fraction of freshwater...

  20. Speciation and behaviour of Cd, Pb and Cu in Zuari Estuary, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    George

    Dissolved labile and nonlabile forms of Cd, Pb and Cu in Zuari Estuary, Goa, India measured for a period of 14 months showed lowest concentrations during the SW monsoon (June-September) while maximum concentrations were observed during...

  1. An insight into the 'Fifty-Fathom-Flat' off India's west coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mukhopadhyay, R.; Fernandes, W.A.; Naik, Y.S.; Karisiddaiah, S.M.

    The architecture of the western continental margin of India (WCMI) is likely to have been influenced in the geological past by several episodes of volcanic eruptions, rifting, and continental break-up. The WCMI is characterized by a wide shelf...

  2. Ecology and Distribution of Copepods from the Salt Pan Ecosystems of Mumbai, West Coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Stephen, R.; Jayalakshmy, K.V.; NaveenKumar, K.R.; Nair, V.R.

    Ecology, distribution and diversity of Copepod collected from two salt pans of Mumbai, India, are presented. Copepods, the mai zooplankton components, consisted mainly of Bestiolina similis, Acartia southwelli, Oithona sp., O. similis, O. hebes...

  3. Historical period stone anchors from Vijaydurg on the west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.; Gaur, A.S.; Sundaresh; Bandodkar, S.N.

    Stone anchors are the primary antiquites in marine archaeological studies. Evidences of their evolution are noticed in India since 2500 B.C. A number of stone anchors have been recovered during the recent marine archaeological explorations at Dwarka...

  4. Surface circulation over the shelf off the east coast of India during the south west monsoon

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gopalakrishna, V.V.; Sastry, J.S.

    upwelling in the southern regions off the East Coast of India. Vertical temperature and salinity structures north of Visakhapatnam show a predominant estuarine character and upwelling is not evident. In the northern regions, the flow is directed south...

  5. Regional gravity and magnetic studies over the continental margin of the Central West Coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SubbaRaju, L.V.; KameshRaju, K.A.; Subrahmanyam, V.; Rao, D.G.

    ) have deciphered the nature and structure of the magnetic crystalline base ment in the region. The present gravity (890 km) and magnetic (510 Ion) data, together with bathymetry (890 km) col lected on board RV Sagar Kanya along five regional profiles... covering the Bombay offshore basin are stud ied to decipher the model crustal structure and to un- derstand the regional tectonic framework of central western continental margin of India. Previous Studies The continental margin of western India...

  6. The Contextual Issues in the Islamic Architecture of Bengal Mosques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saiful Hasan Tariq

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The history of the settlement in Bengal region is probably more than 3,000 years old. The Muslim rule was introduced by the invasionof Ikhtiyar Uddin Muhammad bin Bakhtiyar Khilji at around 1204 A.D. In the later years lots of Muslim rulers came in this continentand contributed in the construction of Masjid, Madrasa, and Mausoleums. Unique building materials, climatic considerations, social and contextual impact on spatial quality has given such prominence in these structures that it has become identical as “Bengal Style” among the other styles practiced in Indian sub-continent and outside of India in other Muslim countriesduring 12th-15th century. This paper is an outcome of the search on contextual issues of Bengal mosques practiced from 12th -15th century and put light on the existing practice of mosque architecture in Bangladesh.

  7. Outcomes of West Nile encephalitis patients after 1 year of West Nile encephalitis outbreak in Kerala, India: A follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, Anukumar; Thekkekara, Romy Jose; Tandale, Babasheb V

    2016-11-01

    We reported an acute encephalitis syndrome outbreak in Alappuzha district in Kerala, India during the year 2011. The etiology was confirmed to be West Nile virus lineage 1. Many encephalitis patients from this outbreak exhibited neurological sequelae post recovery. This study was aimed to assess the clinical outcomes of West Nile encephalitis confirmed case-patients after 1 year of acute illness. Forty West Nile virus confirmed encephalitis patients were selected from the 2011 outbreak was included in this study. Out of 40 cases, only 30 survived after 12 months. Among these 30 recovered case-patients, 27 (90%) consented for clinical follow-up and 23 (73.67%) of them consented for assessment of cognitive impairment and deposition of blood sample for antibody testing. The most common symptom observed in these patients was fatigue (25.93%). Other symptoms included dizziness (7.4%), decreased sense of hearing (7.4%) and decreased sense of smell (7.4%). Reduced power in limbs was found in 33.33% of the cases. Most of the patients (23.1%) were dependent on others for normal daily living activities. The patients also had probable risk of poor cognition (29.41%) and dementia (57.14%). None of the patients were positive for WNV specific IgM at 12 months post onset of disease. The study concluded that the long-term sequelae were noticed in WNV positive patients. Prevention effort should be focused on the elderly (≥60 years old) people who have a higher risk of severe sequelae. The state health authorities should create awareness among people in order to prevent the transmission of disease. J. Med. Virol. 88:1856-1861, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Oral health status and treatment needs among 10126 school children in West Godavari district, Andhra Pradesh, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, M. Ghanashyam; Radhakrishna, A. Naga; Kambalimath, Halaswamy V.; Chandrasekhar, Shalini; Deepthi, B.; Ramakrishna, J.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Oral diseases are affecting a large percentage of children worldwide. This study with Indian Society of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry collaboration was taken up with the aim to evaluate the oral health status and treatment needs in school-going children of the West Godavari district, Andhra Pradesh, India. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 10126 school children who were randomly selected from 32 schools in West Godavari district. To find the significance of the obtained number of cases for different age groups, Chi-square test of significance was used. Results: The prevalence of dental conditions are as follows: Dental caries 63.5%, periodontal diseases 13.6%, dental anomalies 3.6%, dental trauma 3.2%, and orthodontic treatment 25.1%. Among the different age groups, 11–14 years age group has the highest prevalence of oral health problems. Females were more affected with dental caries (P = 0.17), orthodontic treatment needs (P = 0.12), and dental anomalies (P = 0.86) compared to males which was statistically insignificant. The highest prevalence of dental conditions in the case of females was observed during the age of 11–14 years, and in males, the peak was seen in the 15–18 years age group. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that school-going children in West Godavari district suffer from a high prevalence of dental conditions and have higher treatment needs. PMID:27382536

  9. India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-05-01

    In this discussion of India attention is directed to the following: the people; geography; history; government; political conditions; the economy; foreign relations (Pakistan and Bangladesh, China, and the Soviet Union); defense; and the relations between the US and India. In 1983 India's population was estimated at 746 million with an annual growth rate of 2.24%. The infant mortality rate was estimated at 116/1000 in 1984 with a life expectancy of 54.9 years. Although India occupies only 2.4% of the world's land area, it supports nearly 15% of the world's population. 2 major ethnic strains predominate in India: the Aryan in the north and the Dravidian in the south, although the lines between them are blurred. India dominates the South Asian subcontinent geographically. The people of India have had a continuous civilization since about 2500 B.C., when the inhabitants of the Indus River Valley developed an urban culture based on commerce, trade, and, to a lesser degree, agriculture. This civilization declined about 1500 B.C. and Aryan tribes originating in central Asia absorbed parts of its culture as they spread out over the South Asian subcontinent. During the next few centuries, India flourished under several successive empires. The 1st British outpost in South Asia was established in 1619 at Surat on the northwestern coast of India. The British gradually expanded their influence until, by the 1850s, they controlled almost the entire area of present-day India. Independence was attained on August 15, 1947, and India became a dominion within the Commonwealth of Nations with Jawaharlal Nehru as prime minister. According to its constitution, India is a "sovereign socialist secular democratic republic." Like the US, India has a federal form of government, but the central government in India has greater power in relation to its states, and government is patterned after the British parliamentary system. The Congress Party has ruled India since independence with the

  10. Distribution of some biochemical compounds in sediments of the shelf and slope regions of the west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhosle, N.B.; Dhargalkar, V.K.; Braganca, A.

    Surficial sediment samples collected from the continental shelf and slope of the Bay of Bengal were studied for the distribution of organic carbon and its constituent fractions such as carbohydrates, proteins, amino acids and lipids. Organic carbon...

  11. Dominant role of winds near Sri Lanka in driving seasonal sea level variations along the west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Suresh, I.; Vialard, J.; Izumo, T.; Lengaigne, M.; Han, W.; McCreary, J.; Muraleedharan, P.M.

    . Previous studies suggested that WCI sea level variability is primarily driven by remote wind forcing from the Bay of Bengal and equatorial Indian Ocean through coastal Kelvin wave propagation. Using a linear ocean model, we demonstrate that wind forcing...

  12. Estimation of carrying capacity of the Gulf of Kachchh, west coast of India in relation to petroleum hydrocarbon through oil spill modeling

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vethamony, P.; Babu, M.T.; Reddy, G.S.; Sudheesh, K.; Desa, E.; Zingde, M.D.

    The Gulf of Kachchh (GoK) is a semi-enclosed basin located in the northern part of the west coast of India, and opens to the Arabian Sea. GoK is about 170 km long and 75 km wide at the mouth, and encompasses several ecosystems. Besides major...

  13. Identifying the source of tar balls deposited along the beaches of Goa in 2013 and comparing with historical data collected along the west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Suneel, V.; Vethamony, P.; Naik, B.G.; Krishna, M.S.; Jadhav, L.

    Deposition of oil residues, also known as tar balls, is a seasonal phenomenon, and it occurs only in the southwest monsoon season along the west coast of India. This has become a serious environmental issue, as Goa is a global tourist destination...

  14. Association between premonsoonal SST anomaly field in the eastern Arabian Sea and subsequent monsoon rainfall over the west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sadhuram, Y.; RameshBabu, V.; Gopalakrishna, V.V.; Sarma, M.S.S.

    -September) summer monsoon rainfall over the central west coast of India. Premonsoonal warm SST anomaly seems to be mainly the result of higher atmospheric subsidence over the ocean and may not be considered as predictor for a good ensuing monsoon, emphasizing...

  15. Preliminary Study on Mg content of hard part(Test) of a benthic foraminifer from the inner shelf, off West Coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Khare, N.; Nigam, R.; Iyer, S.D.

    A preliminary study has been made for trace element (Mg) in the test of benthic species Bulimina exilis from a shallow sediment core (at 22 m water depth) off west coast of India using Electron Probe Microanalyser (EPMA) The Mg content is selected...

  16. A summer monsoon pump to keep the Bay of Bengal salty

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vinayachandran, P.N.; Shankar, D; Vernekar, S.; Sandeep, K.K.; Amol, P.; Neema, C.P.; Chatterjee, A.

    Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa 403004, India. D R A F T January 21, 2013, 11:04am D R A F T Geophys. Res. Lett., vol.40; 2013; 1777-1782 X - 2 VINAYACHANDRAN ET AL.: BAY OF BENGAL SALT PUMP The Bay of Bengal receives a large influx of freshwater... this saltier water into the rest of the basin, allowing the bay to stay salty despite a large net fresh- water input. D R A F T January 21, 2013, 11:04am D R A F T VINAYACHANDRAN ET AL.: BAY OF BENGAL SALT PUMP X - 3 1. Introduction The Northern Indian Ocean...

  17. Characterisation of Fluorescent Biological Aerosol Particles during South-West Monsoon from a High Altitude Site in South India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valsan, A. E.; R, R.; V, B. C.; Huffman, J. A.; Poeschl, U.; Gunthe, S. S.

    2015-12-01

    Biological aerosols (Bioaerosols) constitute a wide range of dead and alive biological materials that are suspended in the atmosphere. Though ubiquitous in earth's atmosphere, bioaerosols are poorly characterized in terms of their atmospheric abundance, sources and physical properties. Here we discuss the number concentration and size distribution of coarse mode (>1µm) biological aerosols measured at a relatively clean high altitude continental site, Munnar (10.09 N, 77.06 E; 1605 m asl) located in the Western Ghats mountain ranges of Southern Tropical India. The fluorescent biological aerosol particles (FBAP) were continuously measured using Ultra Violet Aerodynamic Particle Sizer (UVAPS) from 01 June to 21 August 2014 (South-West Monsoon Period) which showed some interesting patterns. The mean number and mass concentration of coarse FBAP during the campaign was observed to be 1.7 x 10-2cm-3 and 0.24µg m-3 respectively, which corresponds to 2% and 9% of coarse total aerosol particles (TAP) number and mass concentration. FBAP concentration decreased significantly during periods of heavy and continuous rain with constant South-West winds. This may be due to the clean marine influx coming from the ocean and continuous washout. The Relative Humidity (RH) and temperature remained consistent during this period without any strong diurnal pattern. When the wind fluctuated in North-West directions, the FBAP concentration increased to even an order of magnitude higher than the periods of South-West winds which can be attributed to the transported bioaerosols from the nearby vegetated area. In spite of variability in the number concentrations, the size distribution of FBAP exhibited a prominent peak at ~3 μm throughout the campaign, which should be fungal spores. They also exhibited a strong diurnal pattern with high concentrations occuring during the night time which peaks in the early morning hours.Biological aerosols (Bioaerosols) constitute a wide range of dead and

  18. High-resolution analysis of Y-chromosomal polymorphisms reveals signatures of population movements from Central Asia and West Asia into India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Namita Mukherjee; Almut Nebel; Ariella Oppenheim; Partha P. Majumder

    2001-12-01

    Linguistic evidence suggests that West Asia and Central Asia have been the two major geographical sources of genes in the contemporary Indian gene pool. To test the nature and extent of similarities in the gene pools of these regions we have collected DNA samples from four ethnic populations of northern India, and have screened these samples for a set of 18 Y-chromosome polymorphic markers (12 unique event polymorphisms and six short tandem repeats). These data from Indian populations have been analysed in conjunction with published data from several West Asian and Central Asian populations. Our analyses have revealed traces of population movement from Central Asia and West Asia into India. Two haplogroups, HG-3 and HG-9, which are known to have arisen in the Central Asian region, are found in reasonably high frequencies (41.7% and 14.3% respectively) in the study populations. The ages estimated for these two haplogroups are less in the Indian populations than those estimated from data on Middle Eastern populations. A neighbour-joining tree based on Y-haplogroup frequencies shows that the North Indians are genetically placed between the West Asian and Central Asian populations. This is consistent with gene flow from West Asia and Central Asia into India.

  19. Vertical propagation of baroclinic Kelvin waves along the west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nethery, D.; Shankar, D.

    A linear, continuously stratified ocean model is used to investigate vertical propagation of remotely forced, baroclinic Kelvin waves along the Indian west coast. The extent of vertical propagation over the length of the coast is found...

  20. Shores of the central west coast of India - a case study using remote sensing data

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wagle, B.G.

    flats, can be ascribed to the possibilities of its continuous progradation. Whereas, the coastal tract with active cliffs, broad wave-cut terraces etc. indicate the retrograding coast. The shoreline of the central west coast, therefore, can be classified...