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Sample records for west basin south

  1. Potential Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO) Cask Drop in the K West Basin South Loadout Pit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    POWERS, T.B.

    1999-01-01

    This calculation note documents the probabilistic calculation of a potential drop of a multi-canister overpack (MCO) cask or MCO cask and immersion pail at the K West Basin south loadout pit. The calculations are in support of the cask loading system (CLS) subproject alignment of CLS equipment in the K West Basin south loadout pit

  2. Flow velocities estimated from chlorine-36 in the South-West Great Artesian Basin, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herczeg, A.L.; Love, A.J.; Sampson, L.; Cresswell, R.G.; Fifield, L.K.

    1999-01-01

    The Great Artesian Basin (GAB) is the largest groundwater basin in the world and is the lifeline for water resources in a large proportion of the arid interior of the Australian continent. Despite its obvious importance, there is a great deal of uncertainty in the estimates of horizontal groundwater flow velocities and recharge rates. We report the first reliable estimates of these sustainability indicators in the south west segment of the GAB. Groundwater was sampled from 23 wells along two transects parallel to the W-E hydraulic gradient for 36 Cl, 14 C, stable isotopes (δ 13 C, δ 18 O, δ 2 H) and major ion chemistry. The groundwater collected was from the undifferentiated Jurassic and Cretaceous (J and K) aquifer. These new data potentially contribute to the resolution of the interpretation of 36 Cl derived ages in a very large slow moving groundwater system and to the overall conceptual understanding of flow systems of the GAB

  3. Relating petroleum system and play development to basin evolution: West African South Atlantic basins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beglinger, S.E.; Doust, H.; Cloetingh, S.A.P.L.

    2012-01-01

    Sedimentary basins can be classified according to their structural genesis and evolutionary history and the latter can be linked to petroleumsystem and playdevelopment. We propose an approach in which we use the established concepts in a new way: breaking basins down into their natural basin cycle

  4. Devonian sand injections and volcanism in the Murzuq Basin (south-west Libya)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moreau, Julien; Ghienne, Jean-Francois

    system is original by its interaction with volcanism and its situation in an epicontinental intracratonic basin. The sand injections form a seal-bypass system between the Ordovician-Cambrian reservoirs and the Lower Devonian sandstones, breaching through the Silurian shale seal (and source rock...

  5. Tectonics in the Northwestern West Philippine Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ni Xianglong; Wu Shiguo; Shinjo Ryuichi

    2008-01-01

    The West Philippine basin (WPB) is a currently inactive marginal basin belonging to Philippine Sea plate, which has a complex formation history and various crust structures. Based on gravity, magnetic and seismic data, the tectonics in West Philippine basin is characterized by amagnma spreading stage and strike slip fractures. NNE trending Okinawa-Luzon fracture zone is a large fracture zone with apparent geomorphology and shows a right-handed movement. The results of joint gravity-magnetic-seismic inversion suggest that the Okinawa-Luzon fracture zone has intensive deformation and is a transform fault. Western existence of the NW trending fractures under Ryukyu Islands Arc is the main cause of the differences between south and north Okinawa Trough. The Urdaneta plateau is not a remained arc, but remnant of mantle plume although its lava chemistry is similar to oceanic island basalt (OIB).

  6. Hydrogeology of the West Siberian Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foley, M.G.; Bradley, D.J.; Cole, C.R.

    1996-01-01

    Nuclear fuel cycle activities of the former Soviet Union (FSU) have resulted in extensive radioactive contaminant releases to the environment in western Siberia. We are developing three-dimensional numerical models of the hydrogeology and potential contaminant migration in the West Siberian Basin. We have assumed that ground-water flow in the West Siberian Basin is topographically driven, with recharge to the basin occurring in the highlands on the west, east, and south, and internal discharge localized in numerous river valleys and lakes that ultimately discharge north to the ocean. We are modeling the regional hydrogeology as three-dimensional, steady-state, saturated flow that is recharged from above. We acquired topographic, geologic, hydrostratigraphic, hydrogeologic, and water-balance data for the West Siberian Basin and constructed a regional water table. We correlated and combined 70 different rock types derived from published descriptions of West Siberian Basin rocks into 17 rock types appropriate for assignment of hydrogeologic properties on the basis of spatial heterogeneity and constituent (i.e., sand, silt, and clay) diversity. Examination of resulting three-dimensional assemblages of rock types showed that they were consistent with published and inferred paleogeography and depositional processes. Calibrating the basin's moisture balance (i.e., recharge and discharge) to the derived water table determined plausible input parameter values for unknowns such as hydraulic conductivities. The general directions of calculated ground-water flow suggest that major rivers act as discharge areas, with upwelling below the rivers extending down into the basement rocks, and that ground-water divides that penetrate the entire thickness of the model are evident between major rivers

  7. K West Basin canister survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitner, A.L.

    1998-01-01

    A survey was conducted of the K West Basin to determine the distribution of canister types that contain the irradiated N Reactor fuel. An underwater camera was used to conduct the survey during June 1998, and the results were recorded on videotape. A full row-by-row survey of the entire basin was performed, with the distinction between aluminum and stainless steel Mark 1 canisters made by the presence or absence of steel rings on the canister trunions (aluminum canisters have the steel rings). The results of the survey are presented in tables and figures. Grid maps of the three bays show the canister lid ID number and the canister type in each location that contained fuel. The following abbreviations are used in the grid maps for canister type designation: IA = Mark 1 aluminum, IS = Mark 1 stainless steel, and 2 = Mark 2 stainless steel. An overall summary of the canister distribution survey is presented in Table 1. The total number of canisters found to contain fuel was 3842, with 20% being Mark 1 Al, 25% being Mark 1 SS, and 55% being Mark 2 SS. The aluminum canisters were predominantly located in the East and West bays of the basin

  8. Hydrochemistry and origin of principal major elements in the groundwater of the Béchar–Kénadsa basin in arid zone, South-West of Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lachache Salih

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Béchar region is located in the southwest of Algeria, characterized by an arid climate with a Saharan tendency. It is subject to an increasing demand for water like all the great agglomerations due to the economic and demographic development. The groundwater of region is deteriorating because of the economic development, and the rapid growth of population. This article is devoted to the study of hydrochemistry and processes of mineralization of groundwater in this region. The results of physicochemicals analyses shows the same chemical facies of the chloride and sulphate-calcium and magnesium type, with high mineralization from North-East to South-West to the outlet of Béchar–Kénadsa basin. The determination of the mineralization origin and the main major elements were approached by multivariate statistical treatment and geochemical. This method has identified the main chemical phenomena involved in the acquisition of mineralization of water in this aquifer. These phenomena are mainly related to the dissolution of evaporite formations, the infiltration of runoff water and direct ion exchange and mixing. However, the high mineralization anomaly is observed at the centre of Béchar–Kénadsa basin progressively by going to the outlet of this basin.

  9. Kilometre-scale sand injectites in the intracratonic Murzuq Basin (South-west Libya): an igneous trigger?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moreau, Julien; Ghienne, Jean-Francois; Hurst, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Mount Telout, situated at the edge of the Murzuq Basin, is a 325 m high conical hill within a circular collapse structure that records 0.5 km3 of sand intrusion into Silurian shales. Based on a comparison with other similar circular collapse structures around the Murzuq Basin, it is argued that s...

  10. Stratigraphic framework of Cambrian and Ordovician rocks in the central Appalachian Basin from Medina County, Ohio, through southwestern and south-central Pennsylvania to Hampshire County, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, Robert T.; Harris, Anita G.; Repetski, John E.; revised and digitized by Crangle, Robert D.

    2003-01-01

    A 275-mi-long restored stratigraphic cross section from Medina County, Ohio, through southwestern and south-central Pennsylvania to Hampshire County, W. Va., provides new details on Cambrian and Ordovician stratigraphy in the central Appalachian basin and the structure of underlying Precambrian basement rocks. From west to east, the major structural elements of the block-faulted basement in this section are (1) the relatively stable, slightly extended craton, which includes the Wooster arch, (2) the fault-controlled Ohio-West Virginia hinge zone, which separates the craton from the adjoining Rome trough, (3) the Rome trough, which consists of an east-facing asymmetric graben and an overlying sag basin, and (4) a positive fault block, named here the South-central Pennsylvania arch, which borders the eastern margin of the graben part of the Rome trough. Pre-Middle Ordovician structural relief on Precambrian basement rocks across the down-to-the-west normal fault that separates the Rome trough and the adjoining South-central Pennsylvania arch amounted to between 6,000 and 7,000 ft. The restored cross section shows eastward thickening of the Cambrian and Ordovician sequence from about 3,000 ft near the crest of the Wooster arch at the western end of the section to about 5,150 ft at the Ohio-West Virginia hinge zone adjoining the western margin of the Rome trough to about 19,800 ft near the depositional axis of the Rome trough. East of the Rome trough, at the adjoining western edge of the South-central Pennsylvania arch, the Cambrian and Ordovician sequence thins abruptly to about 13,500 ft and then thins gradually eastward across the arch to about 12,700 ft near the Allegheny structural front and to about 10,150 ft at the eastern end of the restored section. In general, the Cambrian and Ordovician sequence along this section consists of four major lithofacies that are predominantly shallow marine to peritidal in origin. In ascending stratigraphic order, the lithofacies

  11. A Reconnaissance for Emerging Contaminants in the South Branch Potomac River, Cacapon River, and Williams River Basins, West Virginia, April-October 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Douglas B.; Leiker, Thomas J.

    2006-01-01

    In 2003 a team of scientists from West Virginia Division of Natural Resources and the U. S. Geological Survey found a high incidence of an intersex condition, oocytes in the testes, among smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) in the South Branch Potomac River and the Cacapon River of West Virginia, indicating the possible presence of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs). Possible sources of EDCs include municipal and domestic wastewater, and agricultural and industrial activities. Several sampling strategies were used to identify emerging contaminants, including potential EDCs, and their possible sources in these river basins and at an out-of-basin reference site. Passive water-sampling devices, which accumulate in-stream organic chemical compounds, were deployed for 40-41 days at 8 sampling sites. Sampler extracts were analyzed for a broad range of polar and non-polar organic compounds including pesticides, flame retardants, pharmaceuticals, and personal-care products. Analysis of passive-sampler extracts found 4 compounds; hexachloro-benzene; pentachloroanisole; 2,2',4,4',5-penta-bromo-diphenyl ether (BDE 47); and 2,2',4,4',6-penta-bromo-diphenyl ether (BDE 99) to be present at every sampled site, including the reference site, and several sites had detectable quantities of other compounds. No detectable quantity of any antibiotics was found in any passive-sampler extract. Effluent samples were analyzed for 39 antibiotics as tracers of human and agricultural waste. Additionally, poultry-processing plant effluent was sampled for roxarsone, an organoarsenic compound used as a poultry-feed additive, and other arsenic species as tracers of poultry waste. Antibiotics were detected in municipal wastewater, aquaculture, and poultry-processing effluent, with the highest number of antibiotics and the greatest concentrations found in municipal effluent. Arsenate was the only arsenic species detected in the poultry-processing plant effluent, at a concentration of 1.0 ?g

  12. Late quaternary uplift and subsidence of the west coast of Tanna, south Vanuatu, southwest Pacific: U-Th ages of raised coral reefs in the Median Sedimentary Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neef, G.; Zhao, J.X.; Collerson, K.D.; Zhang, F.S.

    2003-01-01

    Twelve Late Quaternary TIMS U-Th ages are reported here from 10 coral samples collected in situ from five transgressive coral/algal raised reefs (height: max. 113m, min. 8m) and two raised lagoonal deposits (height: max. 18 m, min. 8 m) along and near the west coast of Tanna, which lies in the Median Sedimentary Basin of South Vanuatu, southwest Pacific. These reefs and raised lagoonal deposits represent several age groups: (i) 215ka (marine oxygen-isotope stage 7) penultimate interglacial (highest elevation and oldest); (ii) one lagoonal deposit of ca 127 ka (marine oxygen-isotope stage 5e); (iii) three last interglacial reefs with ages 102, 89 and 81 ka (representing marine oxygen-isotope stages 5c, 5b and 5a, respectively, of the latter part of the last interglacial); (iv) a lagoonal deposit with a 92 ka age (5b); and (v) a Holocene reef (age >5.7-5.0 ka) (lowest elevation and youngest). A ca 4.9 ka regressive reef (at elevation of 1.5 m above sea-level) is consistent with an island-wide 6.5m uplift (probably largely coseismic), and a probable further island-wide uplift-occurred in the late Holocene. The U-series ages taken together with the heights of transgressive reefs show that uplift since 215 ka was, on average, at -0.52 mm/y, although since 5 ka the uplift rate was, on average, ∼1.6 mm/y (the assumption being that a 1.5 m above sea-level reef has a coseismic origin) Elevation of transgressive reefs 5a, 5b and 5c and their ages indicates an island-wide subsidence during the period ?124-89 ka (i.e. Late Quaternary uplift/subsidence was jerky). Late Quaternary uplift/subsidence on the northwest coast of Tanna is considered to be due to irregular thickness of crust being subducted beneath Tanna. Copyright (2003) Geological Society of Australia

  13. Deep aquifer systems in the molasse basin of South-West Germany. Thorough hydrogeological study as a basis for a future quantitative an qualitative management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watzel, R.; Bertleff, B.

    1996-01-01

    The sandstone basin of the south of Germany is an area where the geothermic exploitation is intensive. The well-working of these equipments require good attainments about the quantities of available water in the aquifer stratum and about the geometric conditions. That is the reason why the rest part of the basin has been largely prospected for almost twenty years. Hydraulic, hydro-chemical and isotopic studies have shown that two circulation zones have to be differentiated. Very different replacement conditions are represented in the latter. The possibilities of geometric exploitations are determined by the ratio of the paleo-Pleistocene aquiferous stratum and of the recently formed one. This study handles above all with the results of the hydro-chemical and isotopic exams and with the issue of the renewal of the aquiferous stratum. The possible consequences for the future use of the stratum will be outlined. (authors). 61 refs., 6 figs

  14. Programmatic factors associated with the limited impact of Community-Directed Treatment with Ivermectin to control Onchocerciasis in three drainage basins of South West Cameroon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Tetteh Duamor

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The CDTI model is known to have enhanced community participation in planning and resource mobilization toward the control of onchocerciasis. These effects were expected to translate into better individual acceptance of the intervention and hence high Treatment Coverage, leading to a sustainable community-led strategy and reduction in the disease burden. A survey revealed that after 10-12 rounds of treatment, prevalence of onchocerciasis was still high in three drainage basins of South West Cameroon and transmission was going on.We designed a three (3-year retrospective (2012, 2013 and 2014, descriptive cross-sectional study to explore the roles of operational challenges in the failure of CDTI to control the disease as expected. We administered 83 semi-structured questionnaires and conducted 12 in-depth interviews with Chiefs of Bureau Health, Chiefs of Centers, CDDs and Community Heads. Descriptive statistics was used to explore indicators of performance which were supported with views from in-depth interviews.We found that community participation was weak; communities were not deciding time and mode of distributions. Only 6 (15.0% of 40 Community Drug Distributors reported they were selected at general community meetings as required. The health service was not able to meet and discuss Community-Directed Treatment with Ivermectin activities with individual communities partly due to transportation challenges; this was mostly done through letters. Funding was reported to be inadequate and not timely. Funds were not available to conduct Community-Self Monitoring after the 2014 Mass Drug Administration. There was inadequate health staff at the frontline health facility levels, and some Chiefs of Center reported that Community-Directed Treatment with Ivermectin work was too much for them. The mean operational Community Drug Distributor-population ratio was 1 Community Drug Distributor per 317 populations (range: 194-464, expected is 1:250. Community

  15. K West basin isolation barrier leak rate test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitehurst, R.; McCracken, K.; Papenfuss, J.N.

    1994-01-01

    This document establishes the procedure for performing the acceptance test on the two isolation barriers being installed in K West basin. This acceptance test procedure shall be used to: First establish a basin water loss rate prior to installation of the two isolation barriers between the main basin and the discharge chute in K-Basin West. Second, perform an acceptance test to verify an acceptable leakage rate through the barrier seals

  16. IAU South West Asian ROAD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickaelian, Areg; Azatyan, Naira; Farmanyan, Sona; Mikayelyan, Gor

    2016-10-01

    Armenia is hosting the IAU South West Asian (SWA) Regional Office of Astronomy for Development (ROAD). It is a county of ancient astronomy and is also rich in modern astronomical facilities and infrastructures, hence may successfully serve as a regional center for various activities. Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory (BAO) has 2.6m and 1m Schmidt, as well as a number of smaller telescopes that are an observational basis for joint projects and collaborations. Armenian Virtual Observatory (ArVO) is hosting astronomical databases, such as the Digitized First Byurakan Survey (DFBS) and may also serve as a basis for development of VO structures in this region. Recently we have conducted a number of new activities; a meeting on ``Relation of Astronomy to other Sciences, Culture and Society" (RASCS) was organized by BAO and Armenian Astronomical Society (ArAS) in Oct 2014 in Byurakan. Activities related to Archaeoastronomy and Astronomy in Culture (AAC) were initiated as well. Discussions on future Armenian-Iranian collaboration in astronomy were carried out, including an Armenian-Iranian Astronomical Workshop held in Oct 2015 in Byurakan. Similar workshops have been carried out between BAO and Abastumani Astronomical Observatory (AbAO, Georgia) since 1974.

  17. BENTHIC MACROINVERTEBRATE COMMUNITY STRUCTURE IN THE UPPER HYDROGRAPHIC BASIN OF CERNA RIVER IN RELATION TO WATER QUALITY (WEST AND SOUTH-WESTERN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CORINA TUDORESCU

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The quality of an hydrographic basin may be reflected by the composition of benthic macroinvertebrates communities as they can be influenced by the quality degradations of physical and chemical water parameters. The structure of the benthic community in the upper basin of the Cerna river was characterized by the presence of 13 groups. Abundance and frequency values recorded for benthic communities varied according to the physical-chemical conditions specific to each sample collecting station. Plecoptera, Ephemeroptera, Trichoptera and Amphipoda were influenced by changes in water quality, changes that were reflected in the composition and structure of such communities with low levels of abundance, reaching extinction in some areas of the basin.

  18. Sedimentology and stratigraphy of the middle Eocene Guara carbonate platform near Arguis, South-West Pyrenean foreland: Implications for basin physiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huyghe, D.; Castelltort, S.; Serra-Kiel, J.; Filleaudeau, P.-Y.; Emmanuel, L.; Mouthereau, F.; Renard, M.

    2009-04-01

    The Pyrenees results from the collision between Spain and Europe and developed between the upper Cretaceous (Santonian) and the Miocene. Its foreland basins are characterised by a thick fill of detrital and carbonate sediments. The diversity of Eocene deposits in the southern Pyrenean foreland basin is of particular use in facies sedimentology due to their exceptional outcropping quality and well established stratigraphic framework and has been taken as type examples of many different sedimentary environments. Most studies have concerned facies sedimentology of detrital series in turbiditic environments, meandering and braided rivers, alluvial fans, and deltas. In contrast, the Eocene carbonate series have attracted less attention. The marine Guara limestones are a formation of lower to middle Eocene age deposited on the southern border of the western Pyrenean foreland basin (Jaca basin). They were deposited as a retrogradational carbonate platform dominated by large benthic foraminifers near or at the flexural forebulge of the foreland basin as the Pyrenean orogen developed. This formation represents the last episode of carbonate platform in the Pyrenees and remains poorly studied. In the present work our aim is to provide a detailed facies analysis and physiographic reconstructions of the Guara carbonate platform. This is crucial to unravel the respective influences of tectonics, climate and rheology of the lithosphere on the foreland basin tectonic and stratigraphic development, and it brings new constraints on the paleoenvironments and paleogeography during the Lutetian, i.e. at the beginning of the major phase of activity of the Pyrenean orogenesis. Two outcrops were studied in the Sierras Marginales at the localities of Arguis and Lusera. The Lusera section once restored in its initial position is located to the North of the Arguis section in a basinward direction such that comparing time-equivalent facies between these two sections helps us reconstructing

  19. South Fork Holston River basin 1988 biomonitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saylor, C.F.; Ahlstedt, S.A.

    1990-06-01

    There is concern over the effects of shifts in land use use practices on the aquatic fauna of streams in the South Fork Holston River basin in northwestern North Carolina and southwestern Virginia. Trout reproduction has noticeably declined in the Watauga River subbasin. The Watauga River and Elk River subbasins have been subjected to commercial and resort development. The Middle fork Holston River and the upper South Fork Holston River subbasins have been affected by agricultural and mining activities, respectively (Cox, 1986). To aid reclamation and management of the South Fork Holston basin, Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) biologists conducted biomonitoring--including index of biotic integrity and macroinvertebrate sampling--on the Middle Fork Holston, South Fork Holston, Watauga, and Elk Rivers to assess cumulative impairment related to changes in habitat and pollutant loading in these subbasins. Biomonitoring can detect environmental degradation, help document problem areas, and assist in development of strategies for managing water quality. This report discusses the methods and materials and results of the biomonitoring of South Fork Holston River Basin. 13 refs., 5 figs., 12 tabs.

  20. Analysis of Ignition Testing on K-West Basin Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Abrefah; F.H. Huang; W.M. Gerry; W.J. Gray; S.C. Marschman; T.A. Thornton

    1999-08-10

    Approximately 2100 metric tons of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) discharged from the N-Reactor have been stored underwater at the K-Basins in the 100 Area of the Hanford Site. The spent fuel has been stored in the K-East Basin since 1975 and in the K-West Basin since 1981. Some of the SNF elements in these basins have corroded because of various breaches in the Zircaloy cladding that occurred during fuel discharge operations and/or subsequent handling and storage in the basins. Consequently, radioactive material in the fuel has been released into the basin water, and water has leaked from the K-East Basin into the soil below. To protect the Columbia River, which is only 380 m from the basins, the SNF is scheduled to be removed and transported for interim dry storage in the 200 East Area, in the central portion of the Site. However, before being shipped, the corroded fuel elements will be loaded into Multi-Canister OverPacks and conditioned. The conditioning process will be selected based on the Integrated Process Strategy (IPS) (WHC 1995), which was prepared on the basis of the dry storage concept developed by the Independent Technical Assessment (ITA) team (ITA 1994).

  1. Analysis of Ignition Testing on K-West Basin Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrefah, J.; Huang, F.H.; Gerry, W.M.; Gray, W.J.; Marschman, S.C.; Thornton, T.A.

    1999-01-01

    Approximately 2100 metric tons of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) discharged from the N-Reactor have been stored underwater at the K-Basins in the 100 Area of the Hanford Site. The spent fuel has been stored in the K-East Basin since 1975 and in the K-West Basin since 1981. Some of the SNF elements in these basins have corroded because of various breaches in the Zircaloy cladding that occurred during fuel discharge operations and/or subsequent handling and storage in the basins. Consequently, radioactive material in the fuel has been released into the basin water, and water has leaked from the K-East Basin into the soil below. To protect the Columbia River, which is only 380 m from the basins, the SNF is scheduled to be removed and transported for interim dry storage in the 200 East Area, in the central portion of the Site. However, before being shipped, the corroded fuel elements will be loaded into Multi-Canister OverPacks and conditioned. The conditioning process will be selected based on the Integrated Process Strategy (IPS) (WHC 1995), which was prepared on the basis of the dry storage concept developed by the Independent Technical Assessment (ITA) team (ITA 1994)

  2. Organic Geochemistry and Rock-Eval Pyrolysis of Eocene fine Sediments, East Ketungau Basin, West Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H. Hermiyanto Zajuli

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v6i2.119Indonesia contains many Paleogene and Neogene basins which some of them have been proven to be a very prolific producer of oil and gas. A study on the result of Rock-Eval pyrolysis and biomarker undertaken on the Eocene Mandai Group was able to assess hydrocarbon potential of the Paleogene fine sediments in the frontier basin, especially West Kalimantan area. East Ketungau Basin is located in the western Kalimantan, bounded with Melawi Basin by the Semitau High in the south and West Ketungau Basin in the west. The Mandai Group was deposited in the East Ketungau Basin during Eocene, consisting of sandstone and mudstone facies. Mudstone facies comprises shale, claystone, and coal. Seven samples of Eocene fine sediments collected from East Ketungau Basin were analyzed by Rock-Eval pyrolisis and three samples for biomarker to evaluate their hydrocarbon potential. The Rock-Eval pyrolisis result of Mandai Group shows that TOC value of this facies ranges from 0.34 % to 5.16 %, Potential Yield (PY between 0.06 and 4.78 mg HC/g rock, and Hydrogen Index (HI from 12 to 89. Based on that result, the fine sediments of Mandai Group are included into a gas prone source rock potential with poor to fair categories. Moreover Tmax values vary from 426o C to 451o C. The Eocene fine sediments of Mandai Group fall under kerogen type III. Based on Tmax and biomarker analyses, the maturity of the sediments is situated within immature to mature level. The fine sediments of Mandai Group were deposited in a terrestrial to marine environment under anoxic to sub-oxic condition.

  3. Drainage areas of the Potomac River basin, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Jeffrey B.; Hunt, Michelle L.; Stewart, Donald K.

    1996-01-01

    This report contains data for 776 drainage-area divisions of the Potomac River Basin, from the headwaters to the confluence of the Potomac River and the Shenandoah River. Data, compiled in downstream order, are listed for streams with a drainage area of approximately 2 square miles or larger within West Virginia and for U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging stations. The data presented are the stream name, the geographical limits in river miles, the latitude and longitude of the point, the name of the county, and the 7 1/2-minute quadrangle in which the point lies, and the drainage area of that site. The total drainage area of the Potomac River Basin downstream of the confluence of the Shenandoah River at the State boundary is 9,367.29 square miles.

  4. promoting integrated water resources management in south west

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    1, 2 SOUTH WEST REGIONAL CENTRE FOR NATIONAL WATER RESOURCES CAPACITY BUILDING NETWORK,. FEDERAL UNIVERSITY OF ... that an integrated approach to water resource development and management offers the best ...

  5. Materials of conference: Hydrogeological Problems of South-West Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    Hydrogeological problems of South-west Poland is the collection of conference papers held in Szklarska Poreba on 20-22 June 1996. The materials have been gathered in three topical groups: water quality problems in hydrological cycle, regional hydrogeology of South-west Poland, theoretical problems and research methods in hydrogeology. More of performed articles have a interdisciplinary character taking into account the precipitation and surface water quality and their influence on ground water features

  6. SLUDGE RETRIEVAL FROM HANFORD K WEST BASIN SETTLER TANKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erpenbeck, E.G.; Leshikar, G.A.

    2011-01-01

    In 2010, an innovative, remotely operated retrieval system was deployed to successfully retrieve over 99.7% of the radioactive sludge from ten submerged tanks in Hanford's K-West Basin. As part of K-West Basin cleanup, the accumulated sludge needed to be removed from the 0.5 meter diameter by 5 meter long settler tanks and transferred approximately 45 meters to an underwater container for sampling and waste treatment. The abrasive, dense, non-homogeneous sludge was the product of the washing process of corroded nuclear fuel. It consists of small (less than 600 micron) particles of uranium metal, uranium oxide, and various other constituents, potentially agglomerated or cohesive after 10 years of storage. The Settler Tank Retrieval System (STRS) was developed to access, mobilize and pump out the sludge from each tank using a standardized process of retrieval head insertion, periodic high pressure water spray, retraction, and continuous pumping of the sludge. Blind operations were guided by monitoring flow rate, radiation levels in the sludge stream, and solids concentration. The technology developed and employed in the STRS can potentially be adapted to similar problematic waste tanks or pipes that must be remotely accessed to achieve mobilization and retrieval of the sludge within.

  7. Reserve Growth in Oil Fields of West Siberian Basin, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Mahendra K.; Ulmishek, Gregory F.

    2006-01-01

    Although reserve (or field) growth has proven to be an important factor contributing to new reserves in mature petroleum basins, it is still a poorly understood phenomenon. Limited studies show that the magnitude of reserve growth is controlled by several major factors, including (1) the reserve booking and reporting requirements in each country, (2) improvements in reservoir characterization and simulation, (3) application of enhanced oil recovery techniques, and (4) the discovery of new and extensions of known pools in discovered fields. Various combinations of these factors can affect the estimates of proven reserves in particular fields and may dictate repeated estimations of reserves during a field's life. This study explores the reserve growth in the 42 largest oil fields in the West Siberian Basin, which contain about 55 percent of the basin's total oil reserves. The West Siberian Basin occupies a vast swampy plain between the Ural Mountains and the Yenisey River, and extends offshore into the Kara Sea; it is the richest petroleum province in Russia. About 600 oil and gas fields with original reserves of 144 billion barrels of oil (BBO) and more than 1,200 trillion cubic feet of gas (TCFG) have been discovered. The principal oil reserves and most of the oil fields are in the southern half of the basin, whereas the northern half contains mainly gas reserves. Sedimentary strata in the basin consist of Upper Triassic through Tertiary clastic rocks. Most oil is produced from Neocomian (Lower Cretaceous) marine to deltaic sandstone reservoirs, although substantial oil reserves are also in the marine Upper Jurassic and continental to paralic Lower to Middle Jurassic sequences. The majority of oil fields are in structural traps, which are gentle, platform-type anticlines with closures ranging from several tens of meters to as much as 150 meters (490 feet). Fields producing from stratigraphic traps are generally smaller except for the giant Talin field which

  8. A lightning climatology of the South-West Indian Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Bovalo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN data have been used to perform a lightning climatology in the South-West Indian Ocean (SWIO region from 2005 to 2011. Maxima of lightning activity were found in the Maritime Continent and southwest of Sri Lanka (>50 fl km−2 yr−1 but also over Madagascar and above the Great Lakes of East Africa (>10–20 fl km−2 yr−1. Lightning flashes within tropical storms and tropical cyclones represent 50 % to 100 % of the total lightning activity in some oceanic areas of the SWIO (between 10° S and 20° S.

    The SWIO is characterized by a wet season (November to April and a dry season (May to October. As one could expect, lightning activity is more intense during the wet season as the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ is present over all the basin. Flash density is higher over land in November–December–January with values reaching 3–4 fl km−2 yr−1 over Madagascar. During the dry season, lightning activity is quite rare between 10° S and 25° S. The Mascarene anticyclone has more influence on the SWIO resulting in shallower convection. Lightning activity is concentrated over ocean, east of South Africa and Madagascar.

    A statistical analysis has shown that El Niño–Southern Oscillation mainly modulates the lightning activity up to 56.8% in the SWIO. The Indian Ocean Dipole has a significant contribution since ~49% of the variability is explained by this forcing in some regions. The Madden–Julian Oscillation did not show significative impact on the lightning activity in our study.

  9. Evaluation of geological structure and uranium mineralization model in West Lemajung Sector, Kalan Basin, West Kalimantan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngadenin; Sularto, P.

    2000-01-01

    The fieldwork is based on the data of strike (S0) and schistosity (S1) of cores that could not penetrate the geological structure model and result of observation on some cores has shown that U mineralization veins are not always parallel to S1. The problems were encountered in core drill data to improve the estimation of U resources from indication category to measured category. The purpose of the evaluation is to establish the advisability of geological structure model and U mineralization model which was applied by this time. The research used remapping of geological structure with surface method in the scale of 1:1000. The result of remapping shows the difference of the dipping between new geological structure model and the old model. The dipping of the new model is to South East until vertical and the old model is to North West until vertical and to South East until vertical. Despite the difference between both of them, the substantive of folding system is identical so that the new and old models can be applied in drilling in West Lemajung sector. U mineralization model of remapping result consists of 3 types : type 1 U mineralization lens form with West-East direction and vertical dipping which is associated with tourmaline, type 2 U mineralization filling in the open fractures with West-East direction and 70 o to North dipping and parallel with S1, and type 3 U mineralization fill in opening fractures with N 110 o - 130 o E the direction and 60 o to North East until subvertical dipping while the old model is only one type. It is U mineralization filling in the open fractures with West-East the direction and 70 o to North the dipping and parallel with S1. Because of this significant difference, data collection of drill core must follow the new mineralization model. (author)

  10. Wave transport in the South Australian Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bye, John A. T.; James, Charles

    2018-02-01

    The specification of the dynamics of the air-sea boundary layer is of fundamental importance to oceanography. There is a voluminous literature on the subject, however a strong link between the velocity profile due to waves and that due to turbulent processes in the wave boundary layer does not appear to have been established. Here we specify the velocity profile due to the wave field using the Toba spectrum, and the velocity profile due to turbulence at the sea surface by the net effect of slip and wave breaking in which slip is the dominant process. Under this specification, the inertial coupling of the two fluids for a constant viscosity Ekman layer yields two independent estimates for the frictional parameter (which is a function of the 10 m drag coefficient and the peak wave period) of the coupled system, one of which is due to the surface Ekman current and the other to the peak wave period. We show that the median values of these two estimates, evaluated from a ROMS simulation over the period 2011-2012 at a station on the Southern Shelf in the South Australian Basin, are similar in strong support of the air-sea boundary layer model. On integrating over the planetary boundary layer we obtain the Ekman transport (w*2/f) and the wave transport due to a truncated Toba spectrum (w*zB/κ) where w* is the friction velocity in water, f is the Coriolis parameter, κ is von Karman's constant and zB = g T2/8 π2 is the depth of wave influence in which g is the acceleration of gravity and T is the peak wave period. A comparison of daily estimates shows that the wave transports from the truncated Toba spectrum and from the SWAN spectral model are highly correlated (r = 0.82) and that on average the Toba estimates are about 86% of the SWAN estimates due to the omission of low frequency tails of the spectra, although for wave transports less than about 0.5 m2 s-1 the estimates are almost equal. In the South Australian Basin the Toba wave transport is on average about 42% of

  11. Hydrogeology and water quality of the West Valley Creek Basin, Chester County, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senior, Lisa A.; Sloto, Ronald A.; Reif, Andrew G.

    1997-01-01

    The West Valley Creek Basin drains 20.9 square miles in the Piedmont Physiographic Province of southeastern Pennsylvania and is partly underlain by carbonate rocks that are highly productive aquifers. The basin is undergoing rapid urbanization that includes changes in land use and increases in demand for public water supply and wastewater disposal. Ground water is the sole source of supply in the basin.West Valley Creek flows southwest in a 1.5-mile-wide valley that is underlain by folded and faulted carbonate rocks and trends east-northeast, parallel to regional geologic structures. The valley is flanked by hills underlain by quartzite and gneiss to the north and by phyllite and schist to the south. Surface water and ground water flow from the hills toward the center of the valley. Ground water in the valley flows west-southwest parallel to the course of the stream. Seepage investigations identified losing reaches in the headwaters area where streams are underlain by carbonate rocks and gaining reaches downstream. Tributaries contribute about 75 percent of streamflow. The ground-water and surface-water divides do not coincide in the carbonate valley. The ground-water divide is about 0.5 miles west of the surface-water divide at the eastern edge of the carbonate valley. Underflow to the east is about 1.1 inches per year. Quarry dewatering operations at the western edge of the valley may act partly as an artificial basin boundary, preventing underflow to the west. Water budgets for 1990, a year of normal precipitation (45.8 inches), and 1991, a year of sub-normal precipitation (41.5 inches), were calculated. Streamflow was 14.61 inches in 1990 and 12.08 inches in 1991. Evapotranspiration was estimated to range from 50 to 60 percent of precipitation. Base flow was about 62 percent of streamflow in both years. Exportation by sewer systems was about 3 inches from the basin and, at times, equaled base flow during the dry autumn of 1991. Recharge was estimated to be 18

  12. K West Basin Sand Filter Backwash Sample Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiskum, Sandra K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Smoot, Margaret R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Coffey, Deborah S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Pool, Karl N. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-03-01

    A sand filter is used to help maintain water clarity at the K West Basin where highly radioactive sludge is stored. Eventually that sand filter will require disposal. The radionuclide content of the solids trapped in the sand filter will affect the selection of the sand filter disposal pathway. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was contracted by the K Basin Operations & Plateau Remediation Project (operations contractor CH2M Hill) to analyze the radionuclide content of the solids collected from the backwash of the K West Basin sand filter. The radionuclide composition in the sand filter backwash solids will be used by CH2M Hill to determine if the sand filter media and retained sludge solids will be designated as transuranic waste for disposal purposes or can be processed through less expensive means. On October 19, 2015, K Basin Operations & Plateau Remediation Project staff backwashed the sand filter into the North Load-Out Pit (NLOP) and immediately collected sample slurry from a sampling tube positioned 24 in. above the NLOP floor. The 764 g sand filter backwash slurry sample, KW-105 SFBW-001, was submitted to PNNL for analysis on October 20, 2015. Solids from the slurry sample were consolidated into two samples (i.e., a primary and a duplicate sample) by centrifuging and measured for mass (0.82 g combined – wet centrifuged solids basis) and volume (0.80 mL combined). The solids were a dark brown/orange color, consistent with iron oxide/hydroxide. The solids were dried; the combined dry solids mass was 0.1113 g, corresponding to 0.0146 weight percent (wt%) solids in the original submitted sample slurry. The solids were acid-digested using nitric and hydrochloric acids. Insoluble solids developed upon dilution with 0.5 M HNO3, corresponding to an average 6.5 wt% of the initial dry solids content. The acid digestate and insoluble solids were analyzed separately by gamma spectrometry. Nominally, 7.7% of the 60Co was present

  13. Sedimentary response to orogenic exhumation in the northern rocky mountain basin and range province, flint creek basin, west-central Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portner, R.A.; Hendrix, M.S.; Stalker, J.C.; Miggins, D.P.; Sheriff, S.D.

    2011-01-01

    Middle Eocene through Upper Miocene sedimentary and volcanic rocks of the Flint Creek basin in western Montana accumulated during a period of significant paleoclimatic change and extension across the northern Rocky Mountain Basin and Range province. Gravity modelling, borehole data, and geologic mapping from the Flint Creek basin indicate that subsidence was focused along an extensionally reactivated Sevier thrust fault, which accommodated up to 800 m of basin fill while relaying stress between the dextral transtensional Lewis and Clark lineament to the north and the Anaconda core complex to the south. Northwesterly paleocurrent indicators, foliated metamorphic lithics, 64 Ma (40Ar/39Ar) muscovite grains, and 76 Ma (U-Pb) zircons in a ca. 27 Ma arkosic sandstone are consistent with Oligocene exhumation and erosion of the Anaconda core complex. The core complex and volcanic and magmatic rocks in its hangingwall created an important drainage divide during the Paleogene shedding detritus to the NNW and ESE. Following a major period of Early Miocene tectonism and erosion, regional drainage networks were reorganized such that paleoflow in the Flint Creek basin flowed east into an internally drained saline lake system. Renewed tectonism during Middle to Late Miocene time reestablished a west-directed drainage that is recorded by fluvial strata within a Late Miocene paleovalley. These tectonic reorganizations and associated drainage divide explain observed discrepancies in provenance studies across the province. Regional correlation of unconformities and lithofacies mapping in the Flint Creek basin suggest that localized tectonism and relative base level fluctuations controlled lithostratigraphic architecture.

  14. Spinner dolphins Stenella longirostris off south-west Mauritius ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spinner dolphins Stenella longirostris longirostris off the south-west coast of Mauritius are subject to ongoing anthropogenic disturbance in the form of daily dolphin tourism, which has intensified since 1998. Abundance of this species was estimated using photo-identification data and mark-recapture analysis. Between April ...

  15. Climatology and Landfall of Tropical Cyclones in the South- West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract—The climatology of cyclone formation and behaviour in the South-West Indian Ocean, including landfall in Mozambique and Madagascar, has been investigated. The records used were obtained by merging track data from the Joint Typhoon Warning Centre with data from La Reunion – Regional Specialised ...

  16. Assessing Control of Asthma in Jush, Jimma, South West Ethiopia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Despite international guidelines, asthma control is short of the goal in different parts of the world. The objective of this study was to assess control of asthma in patients older than 14 years at the Chest Clinic of Jimma University Specialized Hospital/JUSH, South West Ethiopia. Methods: A cross-sectional ...

  17. Relationships between the forest dwelling people of South-West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A brief study was carried out in South-West Mau region of the Mau Forest Complex in March 1993. The primary aim was to assess the importance of the tree hyrax, Dendrohyrax arboreus (A. Smith, 1827), to the local forest-dwelling people as a source of food and medicine and in their spiritual traditions, while investigating ...

  18. Unreviewed safety question evaluation of 100K East and 100K West in-basin fuel characterization program activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alwardt, L.D.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide the basis for answers to an Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) safety evaluation of the 105K East (KE) and 105K West (KW) in-basin activities associated with the fuel characterization program as described in the characterization shipping plan. The significant activities that are common to both 105 KE and 105 KW basins are the movement of canisters from their main basin storage locations (or potentially from the 105 KE Tech View Pit if a dump table is available) to the south loadout pit transfer channel, hydrogen generation testing in the single element fuel container, loading the single element fuel container into the shipping cask, loading of the shipping cask onto a flat-bed trailer, return of the test fuel elements or element pieces from the 327 facility, placement of the fuel elements back into Mark 2 canisters, and placement of the canisters in the main storage basin. Decapping of canisters in the south loadout pit transfer channel and re-encapsulation of canisters are activities specific to the 105 KW basin. The scope of this safety evaluation includes only those characterization fuel shipment activities performed in the 105 KE and 105 KW fuel storage basin structures up to installation of the overpack. The packaging safety evaluation report governs the shipment of the fuel elements. The K Basins Plant Review Committee has determined that the in-basin activities associated with the fuel characterization program fuel shipments are bounded by the current safety envelop and do not constitute an unreviewed safety question. This determination is documented on Attachment 1

  19. Data compilation report: Gas and liquid samples from K West Basin fuel storage canisters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trimble, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    Forty-one gas and liquid samples were taken from spent fuel storage canisters in the K West Basin during a March 1995 sampling campaign. (Spent fuel from the N Reactor is stored in sealed canisters at the bottom of the K West Basin.) A description of the sampling process, gamma energy analysis data, and quantitative gas mass spectroscopy data are documented. This documentation does not include data analysis

  20. K-West and K-East basin thermal analyses for dry conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaver, T.R.; Cramer, E.R.; Hinman, C.A.

    1994-01-01

    Detailed 3 dimensional thermal analyses of the 100K East and 100 K West basins were conducted to determine the peak fuel temperature for intact fuel in the event of a complete loss of water from the basins. Thermal models for the building, an array of fuel encapsulation canisters on the basin floor, and the fuel within a single canister are described along with conservative predictions for the maximum expected temperatures for the loss of water event

  1. Spatial pattern recognition of seismic events in South West Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benítez, Hernán D.; Flórez, Juan F.; Duque, Diana P.; Benavides, Alberto; Lucía Baquero, Olga; Quintero, Jiber

    2013-09-01

    Recognition of seismogenic zones in geographical regions supports seismic hazard studies. This recognition is usually based on visual, qualitative and subjective analysis of data. Spatial pattern recognition provides a well founded means to obtain relevant information from large amounts of data. The purpose of this work is to identify and classify spatial patterns in instrumental data of the South West Colombian seismic database. In this research, clustering tendency analysis validates whether seismic database possesses a clustering structure. A non-supervised fuzzy clustering algorithm creates groups of seismic events. Given the sensitivity of fuzzy clustering algorithms to centroid initial positions, we proposed a methodology to initialize centroids that generates stable partitions with respect to centroid initialization. As a result of this work, a public software tool provides the user with the routines developed for clustering methodology. The analysis of the seismogenic zones obtained reveals meaningful spatial patterns in South-West Colombia. The clustering analysis provides a quantitative location and dispersion of seismogenic zones that facilitates seismological interpretations of seismic activities in South West Colombia.

  2. Thallium in the hydrosphere of south west England

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Law, Sin [School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Turner, Andrew, E-mail: aturner@plymouth.ac.uk [School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)

    2011-12-15

    Thallium is a highly toxic metal whose environmental concentrations, distributions and behaviour are not well understood. In the present study we measure the concentrations of Tl in filtered and unfiltered samples of rain, tap, river, estuarine and waste waters collected from south west England. Dissolved Tl was lowest (<20 ng L{sup -1}) in tap water, rain water, treated sewage and landfill effluents, estuarine waters, and rivers draining catchments of sandstones and shales. Concentrations up to about 450 ng L{sup -1} were observed in rivers whose catchments are partly mineralized and where metal mining was historically important, and the highest concentration ({approx}1400 ng L{sup -1}) was measured in water abstracted directly from an abandoned mine. Compared with other trace metals measured (e.g. As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn), Tl has a low affinity for suspended particles and undergoes little removal by conventional (hydroxide precipitation) treatment of mine water. - Highlights: > Thallium concentrations have been measured in natural and waste waters from south west England. > Dissolved concentrations spanned three orders of magnitude and were highest in water from an abandoned mine. > Inputs associated with historical metal mine workings are the most important to the regional hydrosphere. - Concentrations of dissolved thallium in waters of south west England span two orders of magnitude and are greatest in water from an abandoned mine.

  3. Thallium in the hydrosphere of south west England

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Law, Sin; Turner, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Thallium is a highly toxic metal whose environmental concentrations, distributions and behaviour are not well understood. In the present study we measure the concentrations of Tl in filtered and unfiltered samples of rain, tap, river, estuarine and waste waters collected from south west England. Dissolved Tl was lowest ( -1 ) in tap water, rain water, treated sewage and landfill effluents, estuarine waters, and rivers draining catchments of sandstones and shales. Concentrations up to about 450 ng L -1 were observed in rivers whose catchments are partly mineralized and where metal mining was historically important, and the highest concentration (∼1400 ng L -1 ) was measured in water abstracted directly from an abandoned mine. Compared with other trace metals measured (e.g. As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn), Tl has a low affinity for suspended particles and undergoes little removal by conventional (hydroxide precipitation) treatment of mine water. - Highlights: → Thallium concentrations have been measured in natural and waste waters from south west England. → Dissolved concentrations spanned three orders of magnitude and were highest in water from an abandoned mine. → Inputs associated with historical metal mine workings are the most important to the regional hydrosphere. - Concentrations of dissolved thallium in waters of south west England span two orders of magnitude and are greatest in water from an abandoned mine.

  4. Anomalous South Pacific lithosphere dynamics derived from new total sediment thickness estimates off the West Antarctic margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wobbe, Florian; Lindeque, Ansa; Gohl, Karsten

    2014-12-01

    Paleotopographic models of the West Antarctic margin, which are essential for robust simulations of paleoclimate scenarios, lack information on sediment thickness and geodynamic conditions, resulting in large uncertainties. A new total sediment thickness grid spanning the Ross Sea-Amundsen Sea-Bellingshausen Sea basins is presented and is based on all the available seismic reflection, borehole, and gravity modeling data offshore West Antarctica. This grid was combined with NGDC's global 5 arc minute grid of ocean sediment thickness (Whittaker et al., 2013) and extends the NGDC grid further to the south. Sediment thickness along the West Antarctic margin tends to be 3-4 km larger than previously assumed. The sediment volume in the Bellingshausen, Amundsen, and Ross Sea basins amounts to 3.61, 3.58, and 2.78 million km3, respectively. The residual basement topography of the South Pacific has been revised and the new data show an asymmetric trend over the Pacific-Antarctic Ridge. Values are anomalously high south of the spreading ridge and in the Ross Sea area, where the topography seems to be affected by persistent mantle processes. In contrast, the basement topography offshore Marie Byrd Land cannot be attributed to dynamic topography, but rather to crustal thickening due to intraplate volcanism. Present-day dynamic topography models disagree with the presented revised basement topography of the South Pacific, rendering paleotopographic reconstructions with such a limited dataset still fairly uncertain.

  5. Geology Structure Identification Using Pre-Stack Depth Migration (PSDM Method of Tomography Result in North West Java Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudra Irawan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available North West Java Basin is a tertiary sedimentary basin which is located in the right of the western part of the Java island. North West Java Basin is geodynamic where currently located at the rear position of the path of the volcanic arc of Java that is the result of the India-Australia plate subduction to the south towards the Eurasian plate (Explanation of Sunda in the north. Geology structure observation is difficult to be conducted at Quaternary volcanicfield due to the classical problem at tropical region. In the study interpretation of fault structures can be done on a cross-section of Pre-Stack Depth Migration (PSDM used prayer namely Hardware Key Device, ie Central Processing Unit: RedHat Enterprise Linux AS 5.0, prayer Monitor 24-inch pieces, Server: SGI altix 450/SuSe Linux Enterprise Server 9.0, 32 GB, 32 X 2,6 GHz Procesor, network: Gigabyte 1 Gb/s, and the software used is paradigm, product: Seismic Processing and Imaging. The third fault obtained in this study in accordance with the geological information derived from previous research conducted by geologists. The second general direction is northwest-southeast direction represented by Baribis fault, fault-fault in the Valley Cimandiri and Gunung Walat. This direction is often known as the directions Meratus (Meratus Trend. Meratus directions interpreted as directions that follow the pattern of continuous arc Cretaceous age to Meratus in Kalimantan.

  6. Hydrogeological assessment of Acid mine Drainage impacts in the West Rand Basin, Gauteng Province

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hobbs, PJ

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available HYDROGEOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF ACID MINE DRAINAGE IMPACTS IN THE WEST RAND BASIN, GAUTENG PROVINCE Principal Author PJ Hobbs (Pr.Sci.Nat.) Co-author JE Cobbing (Pr.Sci.Nat.) August 2007 Report prepared for CSIR / THRIP Document... it is published. A Hydrogeological Assessment of Acid Mine Drainage Report No. Impacts in the West Rand Basin, Gauteng Province CSIR/NRE/WR/ER/2007/0097/C CSIR Natural Resources and the Environment (i) The “Lodge” spring rising...

  7. Water Accounting Plus for sustainable water management in the Volta river basin, West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembélé, Moctar; Schaefli, Bettina; Mariéthoz, Grégroire; Ceperley, Natalie; Zwart, Sander J.

    2017-04-01

    Water Accounting Plus (WA+) is a standard framework that provides estimates of manageable and unmanageable water flows, stocks, consumption among users, and interactions with land use. The water balance terms are estimated based on remotely sensed data from online open access databases. The main difference with other methods is the use of spatiotemporal data, limiting the errors due to the use of static data. So far, no studies have incorporated climate change scenarios in the WA+ framework to assess future water resources, which would be desirable for developing mitigation and adaptation policies. Moreover WA+ has been implemented using remote sensing data while hydrological models data can also be used as inputs for projections on the future water accounts. This study aims to address the above challenges by providing quantified information on the current and projected state of the Volta basin water resources through the WA+ framework. The transboundary Volta basin in West Africa is vulnerable to floods and droughts that damage properties and take lives. Residents are dependent on subsistence agriculture, mainly rainfed, which is sensitive to changes and variation in the climate. Spatially, rainfall shows high spatiotemporal variability with a south-north gradient of increasing aridity. As in many basins in semi-arid environments, most of the rainfall in the Volta basin returns to the atmosphere. The competition for scarce water resources will increase in the near future due to the combined effects of urbanization, economic development, and rapid population growth. Moreover, upstream and downstream countries do not agree on their national priorities regarding the use of water and this brings tensions among them. Burkina Faso increasingly builds small and medium reservoirs for small-scale irrigation, while Ghana seeks to increase electricity production. Information on current and future water resources and uses is thus fundamental for water actors. The adopted

  8. Environmental Assessment for Enhanced Use Leasing West Side Development, Phase I South, Hill AFB, Utah

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Winn, Kay

    2006-01-01

    This document presents potential environmental and socioeconomic consequences associated with the proposed project called the West Side Development, Phase 1 South, developing approximately 44 acres...

  9. Forest cover disturbances in the South Taiga of West Siberia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyukarev, E A; Pologova, N N; Golovatskaya, E A; Dyukarev, A G, E-mail: egor@imces.ru [Institute of Monitoring of Climatic and Ecological Systems SB RAS, Akademicheskii Prospekt 10/3 (Russian Federation)

    2011-07-15

    Analysis of vegetation cover and tendencies in forest cover changes at a typical site in the south of West Siberia was performed using remote sensing observations from Landsat. The Northern Eurasia Land Cover legend was used for the assessment of unsupervised classification results. The land cover maps constructed have shown that about half of the study area is occupied by wetlands with several distinctively different vegetation types. The area studied is typical for the South Taiga zone (ecoregion) of Western Siberia from the Ob' river to the Irtysh river, where loamy and clayey soil forming rocks are widespread. Similar vegetation structures dominate over 600 000 km{sup 2}, or about 20%, of the West Siberia area. Analyses of the forest cover changes show that the forest cover loss is not very significant. The area of forest disturbed in 1990-9 is equal to 16 008 ha. The area of forest disturbances during the 2000-7 period was about twice as high (30 907 ha). The main reasons for the forest reduction are intensive forest harvesting and strong windthrow. The high sustainability of the region studied against anthropogenic impacts is explained by the high overall wetness of the territory, the small population density, and the prevalence of deciduous forests at different succession stages with rich vegetation cover.

  10. Epidemiology of West Nile in Europe and in the Mediterranean Basin

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Calistri, P.; Giovannini, A.; Hubálek, Zdeněk; Ionescu, A.; Monaco, F.; Savini, G.; Lelli, R.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 4, - (2010), s. 29-37 ISSN 1874-3579 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Epidemiology * Europe * West Nile * Mediterranean Basin Subject RIV: FN - Epidemiology, Contagious Diseases ; Clinical Immunology http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2878979/pdf/TOVJ-4-29.pdf

  11. Aluminum hydroxide coating thickness measurements and brushing tests on K West Basin fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitner, A.L.

    1998-01-01

    Aluminum hydroxide coating thicknesses were measured on fuel elements stored in aluminum canisters in K West Basin using specially developed eddy current probes . The results were used to estimate coating inventories for MCO fuel,loading. Brushing tests successfully demonstrated the ability to remove the coating if deemed necessary prior to MCO loading

  12. Late Eocene sea retreat from the Tarim Basin (west China) and concomitant Asian paleoenvironmental change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosboom, R.E.; Dupont-Nivet, G.; Houben, A.J.P.; Brinkhuis, H.; Villa, G.; Mandic, O.; Stoica, M.; Zachariasse, W.J.; Guo, ZJ.; Li, CX.; Krijgsman, W.

    2011-01-01

    The Paleogene sediments of the southwest Tarim Basin along the West Kunlun Shan in western China include the remnants of the easternmost extent of a large epicontinental sea. This shallow sea once extended across the Eurasian continent before it retreated westward and eventually separated as the

  13. The Tectonic Boundary Between Eastern Subbaisin and South-West Subbasin of the South China Sea Revealed from the Normalized Magnetic Source Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, L.; Meng, X.

    2014-12-01

    The South China Sea (SCS), surrounded by the Eurasia, Pacific and India-Australia plates, is one of the largest marginal seas in the Western Pacific. It was formed by the interaction of the three plates and the seafloor spreading during Late Oligocene time to Early Miocene time. The boundary between Eastern Subbaisin and South-west Subbasin of the SCS has long been debated in the literature. Refining the boundary is one of the crucial tasks for correctly understanding the seafloor spreading model of the SCS. Due to few drills on the deep ocean basin of the SCS, magnetic data become important information for refining the boundary. However, the interpretation of magnetic data in the SCS suffers from the remanent magnetization of ocean crust as well as igneous rock and seamounts. The conventional reduction-to-pole anomalies at low latitudes usually neglect the remanent magnetization, making the interpretation incorrect. Here, we assembled high-resolution total magnetic intensity (TMI) data around the ocean basin of the SCS, and then did a special transformation of the TMI anomalies with a varying magnetic inclinations algorithm to obtain the normalized source strength (NSS). The NSS has advantage of insensitivity to remanent magnetization, benefitting correct interpretation. The NSS presents discriminative features from east to west in the ocean basin. The boundary of the discriminative features is clear and just ranges from the northeastern edge of the Zhongsha Islands running in the southeast direction to the northeastern edge of the Reed Bank. These imply that magnetic structure and tectonic features in the crust are discriminative between both sides of this boundary. It can be deduced that this boundary is the tectonic boundary between Eastern Subbaisin and South-west Subbasin. We acknowledge the financial support of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (41374093) and the SinoProbe-01-05 project.

  14. Nuclear axis. Secret collaboration between West Germany and South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cervenka, Z.; Rogers, B.

    1978-01-01

    Today there is virtually no doubt that the white racist minority government in Pretoria has-or shortly will have-its finger on the nuclear button, introducing a new and extremely volatile element into African politics and threatening the peace of the whole world. This book is the sinister story of how they are getting the bomb and who has helped them. Relying on hitherto top-secret government documents, informants, and the public record, Zdenek Cervenka of the Scandinavian Institute of Africa Affairs, and Barbara Rogers, formerly of the British Foreign Office and a consultant to the United Nations and the Congressional Subcommittee on Southern Africa, have pieced together the story of the clandestine collaboration between West Germany, and South Africa to develop operational nuclear weapons. The authors trace Germany's rise as a military nuclear power (only thirty years after unconditional surrender); the growth of its atomic cooperation with South Africa; the transfer of secret technological data; the way in which other countries-including the United States, Britain, France, Israel-have been involved. The authors show that the Germans, pledged never to develop nuclear weapons, have become a major nuclear power, and, together with the South African military-industrial complex, now have the power to alter the course of modern history in Europe, Africa, and the rest of the world. The authors conclude with a discussion of how the international system of nuclear safeguards failed and how the Western allies acquiesced in that failure

  15. Community Policing in South-West Nigeria: Finding a Nexus between the Police and the People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olusegun, Omowunmi J.

    2016-01-01

    The joint efforts of the police and the communities in south-west Nigeria to tackle the alarming rates of crime in various societies has over the year been adopted as a strategic way of curbing crime in Nigeria. This paper examines the divergent views of community policing in south-west Nigeria. The paper is empirical in nature though related…

  16. Cyclonic eddies identified in the Cape Basin of the South Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, C.; Lutjeharms, J. R. E.

    2011-03-01

    Inter-ocean exchange south of Africa takes place largely through the movement of Agulhas Rings into the Cape Basin. Recent observations have shown that the highly energetic flow field in this basin consists of anti-cyclonic rings as well as cyclonic eddies. Very little is known of the characteristics of the cyclonic eddies. Using altimetric data, this study determines the location, frequency and seasonality of these cyclonic eddies their size, trajectories, life spans and their association with Agulhas Rings. Cyclonic eddies were seen to split, merge and link with other cyclonic eddies, where splitting events created child cyclonic eddies. The 105 parent and 157 child cyclonic eddies identified over a decade show that on average 11 parent and 17 child cyclonic eddies appear annually in AVISO merged absolute dynamic topography data along the continental slope. Thirty-two percent follow an overall west south-westward direction, with 27% going west north-westward. Average translocation speeds are 2.2 ± 0.1 km/day for parent and 3.0 ± 0.2 km/day for child cyclonic eddies. Parent cyclonic eddy lifespan averaged 250 ± 18 days; whereas child cyclonic eddies survived for only 118 ± 11 days. A significant difference in lifespan for parent and child cyclonic eddies identified in the north and south region of the study area was detected. Seventy-seven percent of the northern and 93% of the southern cyclonic eddies were first detected directly adjacent to passing Agulhas Rings, suggesting a vital interaction between these mesoscale eddies within the region. Topographical features appeared to affect the behaviour and lifespan of these deep cyclonic eddies.

  17. Future Climate Change Impacts on Streamflows of Two Main West Africa River Basins: Senegal and Gambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ansoumana Bodian

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This research investigated the effect of climate change on the two main river basins of Senegal in West Africa: the Senegal and Gambia River Basins. We used downscaled projected future rainfall and potential evapotranspiration based on projected temperature from six General Circulation Models (CanESM2, CNRM, CSIRO, HadGEM2-CC, HadGEM2-ES, and MIROC5 and two scenarios (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 to force the GR4J model. The GR4J model was calibrated and validated using observed daily rainfall, potential evapotranspiration from observed daily temperature, and streamflow data. For the cross-validation, two periods for each river basin were considered: 1961–1982 and 1983–2004 for the Senegal River Basin at Bafing Makana, and 1969–1985 and 1986–2000 for the Gambia River Basin at Mako. Model efficiency is evaluated using a multi-criteria function (Fagg which aggregates Nash and Sutcliffe criteria, cumulative volume error, and mean volume error. Alternating periods of simulation for calibration and validation were used. This process allows us to choose the parameters that best reflect the rainfall-runoff relationship. Once the model was calibrated and validated, we simulated streamflow at Bafing Makana and Mako stations in the near future at a daily scale. The characteristic flow rates were calculated to evaluate their possible evolution under the projected climate scenarios at the 2050 horizon. For the near future (2050 horizon, compared to the 1971–2000 reference period, results showed that for both river basins, multi-model ensemble predicted a decrease of annual streamflow from 8% (Senegal River Basin to 22% (Gambia River Basin under the RCP4.5 scenario. Under the RCP8.5 scenario, the decrease is more pronounced: 16% (Senegal River Basin and 26% (Gambia River Basin. The Gambia River Basin will be more affected by the climate change.

  18. Rare earth elements in the banded iron formation of the Griqualand West sequence, northern Cape Province, South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horstmann, U.E.; Haelbich, I.W.; Cornell, D.H.

    1990-01-01

    The Proterozoic banded iron-formations (BIF) of the Griqualand West sequence of the Transvaal Supergroup in the northern Cape Province of South Africa have been investigated for their rare earth elements (REE) contents. Twenty three REE analyses were completed using an ICP-AES method. Despite diagenetic and metamorphic processes, it can be concluded from the so far available REE data that the conspicuous differences in REE patterns to those reported from elsewhere indicate the BIF of the Transvaal Supergroup to have originated in relative restricted parts or basins of the Precambrian ocean. 7 refs., 1 fig

  19. Sedimentary Record of the Back-Arc Basins of South-Central Mexico: an Evolution from Extensional Basin to Carbonate Platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra-Rojas, M. I.; Molina-Garza, R. S.; Lawton, T. F.

    2015-12-01

    The Lower Cretaceous depositional systems of southwestern Oaxaquia, in south-central Mexico, were controlled by tectonic processes related to the instauration of a continental arc and the accretion of the Guerrero arc to mainland Mexico. The Atzompa Formation refers to a succession of conglomerate, sandstone, siltstone, and limestone that crop out in southwestern Mexico with Early Cretaceous fauna and detrital zircon maximum depositional ages. The sedimentary record shows a transition from early fluvial/alluvial to shallow marine depositional environments. The first stage corresponds to juvenile fluvial/alluvial setting followed by a deep lacustrine depositional environment, suggesting the early stages of an extensional basin. The second stage is characterized by anabranched deposits of axial fluvial systems flowing to the NE-SE, showing deposition during a period of rapid subsidence. The third and final stage is made of tidal deposits followed, in turn, by abrupt marine flooding of the basin and development of a Barremian-Aptian carbonate ramp. We interpret the Tentzo basin as a response to crustal extension in a back-arc setting, with high rates of sedimentation in the early stages of the basin (3-4 mm/m.y), slower rates during the development of starved fluvial to tidal systems and carbonate ramps, and at the top of the Atzompa Formation an abrupt deepening of the basin due to flexural subsidence related to terrane docking and attendant thrusting to the west. These events were recorded in the back-arc region of a continental convergent margin (Zicapa arc) where syn-sedimentary magmatism is indicated by Early Cretaceous detrital and volcanic clasts from alluvial fan facies west of the basin. Finally, and as a response to the accretion of the Guerrero superterrane to Oaxaquia during the Aptian, a carbonate platform facing toward the Gulf of Mexico was established in central to eastern Oaxaquia.

  20. Variety, State and Origin of Drained Thaw Lake Basins in West-Siberian North

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirpotin, S.; Polishchuk, Y.; Bryksina, N.; Sugaipova, A.; Pokrovsky, O.; Shirokova, L.; Kouraev, A.; Zakharova, E.; Kolmakova, M.; Dupre, B.

    2009-04-01

    Drained thaw lake basins in Western Siberia have a local name "khasyreis" [1]. Khasyreis as well as lakes, ponds and frozen mounds are invariable element of sub-arctic frozen peat bogs - palsas and tundra landscapes. In some areas of West-Siberian sub-arctic khasyreis occupy up to 40-50% of total lake area. Sometimes their concentration is so high that we call such places ‘khasyrei's fields". Khasyreis are part of the natural cycle of palsa complex development [1], but their origin is not continuous and uniform in time and, according to our opinion, there were periods of more intensive lake drainage and khasyrei development accordingly. These times were corresponding with epochs of climatic warming and today we have faced with one of them. So, last years this process was sufficiently activated in the south part of West-Siberian sub-arctic [2]. It was discovered that in the zone of continuous permafrost thermokarst lakes have expanded their areas by about 10-12%, but in the zone of discontinuous permafrost the process of their drainage prevails. These features are connected with the thickness of peat layers which gradually decreases to the North, and thus have reduced the opportunity for lake drainage in northern areas. The most typical way of khasyrei origin is their drainage to the bigger lakes which are always situated on the lower levels and works as a collecting funnels providing drainage of smaller lakes. The lower level of the big lake appeared when the lake takes a critical mass of water enough for subsidence of the lake bottom due to the melting of underlaying rocks [2]. Another one way of lake drainage is the lake intercept by any river. Lake drainage to the subsurface (underlaying rocks) as some authors think [3, 4] is not possible in Western Siberia, because the thickness of permafrost is at list 500 m here being safe confining bed. We mark out few stages of khasyrei development: freshly drained, young, mature and old. This row reflects stages of

  1. A review of stratigraphy and sedimentary environments of the Karoo Basin of South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R. M. H.

    . Deformation of the southern rim of the basin, caused by the subducting palaeo-Pacific plate, resulted in mountain ranges far to the south. Material derived from this source, as well as granitic uplands to the west and morth-east, was deposited on large deltas that built out into the Ecca sea (Upper Ecca). The relatively cool climate and lowland setting promoted thick accumulations of peat on the coastal and delta plains and which now constitute the major coal reserves of southern Africa. Later the prograding deltas coalesced to fill most of the basin after which fluvial sedimentation of the Beaufort Group dominated. The climate by this time (Late Permian) had warmed to become semi-arid with highly seasonal rainfall. The central parts of the basin were for the most part drained by fine-grained meanderbelts and semi-permanent lakes. Significant stratabound uranium reserves have been delimited in the channel sandstones of the Beaufort Group in the southwestern parts of the basin. Pulses of uplift in the southern source areas combined with a possible orogenic effect resulted in two coarser-grained alluvial fans prograding into the more central parts of the basin (Katberg Sandstone Member and Molteno Formation). In the upper Karoo sequence progressive aridification dominated depositional style with playa lake and wadi-type environments (Elliot Formation) that finally gave way to a dune sand dominated system (Clarens Formation). Basinwide volcanic activity of the early Jurassic Drakensberg Group brought deposition in the Karoo Basin to a close.

  2. Gas and liquid sampling for closed canisters in K-West basins - functional design criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitkoff, C.C.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide functions and requirements for the design and fabrication of equipment for sampling closed canisters in the K-West basin. The samples will be used to help determine the state of the fuel elements in closed canisters. The characterization information obtained will support evaluation and development of processes required for safe storage and disposition of Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) materials

  3. Melo carboniferous basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flossdarf, A.

    1988-01-01

    This report is about of the Melo carboniferous basin which limits are: in the South the large and high Tupambae hill, in the west the Paraiso hill and the river mountains, in the North Yaguaron river basin to Candidata in Rio Grande del Sur in Brazil.

  4. Cretaceous to Recent Asymetrical Subsidence of South American and West African Conjugate Margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenning, J.; Mann, P.

    2017-12-01

    Two divergent interpretations have been proposed for South American rifted-passive margins: the "mirror hypothesis" proposes that the rifted margins form symmetrically from pure shear of the lithosphere while upper-plate-lower plate models propose that the rifted margins form asymmetrically by simple shear. Models based on seismic reflection and refraction imaging and comparison of conjugate, rifted margins generally invoke a hybrid stretching process involving elements of both end member processes along with the effects of mantle plumes active during the rift and passive margin phases. We use subsidence histories of 14, 1-7 km-deep exploration wells located on South American and West African conjugate pairs now separated by the South Atlantic Ocean, applying long-term subsidence to reveal the symmetry or asymmetry of the underlying, conjugate, rift processes. Conjugate pairs characterize the rifted margin over a distance of 3500 km and include: Colorado-South Orange, Punta Del Este-North Orange, South Pelotas-Lüderitz and the North Pelotas-Walvis Basins. Of the four conjugate pairs, more rapid subsidence on the South American plate is consistently observed with greater initial rift and syn-rift subsidence rates of >60m/Ma (compared to 100 m/Ma are observed offshore South Africa between approximately 120-80 Ma, compatible with onset of the post-rift thermal sag phase. During this period the majority of burial is completed and rates remain low at Argentina/Uruguay displays more gradual subsidence throughout the Cretaceous, consistently averaging a moderate 15-30m/Ma. By the end of this stage there is a subsequent increase to 25-60 m/Ma within the last 20 Ma, interpreted to reflect lithospheric loading due to increased sedimentation rates during the Cenozoic. This increase in subsidence rate is not seen in the African conjugate section where the majority of sediments bypassed the highly aggraded Cretaceous shelf. Initially greater on the Brazilian margin compared to

  5. Calibration parameters used to simulate streamflow from application of the Hydrologic Simulation Program-FORTRAN Model (HSPF) to mountainous basins containing coal mines in West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, John T.; Wiley, Jeffrey B.; Paybins, Katherine S.

    2005-01-01

    This report presents the Hydrologic Simulation Program-FORTRAN Model (HSPF) parameters for eight basins in the coal-mining region of West Virginia. The magnitude and characteristics of model parameters from this study will assist users of HSPF in simulating streamflow at other basins in the coal-mining region of West Virginia. The parameter for nominal capacity of the upper-zone storage, UZSN, increased from south to north. The increase in UZSN with the increase in basin latitude could be due to decreasing slopes, decreasing rockiness of the soils, and increasing soil depths from south to north. A special action was given to the parameter for fraction of ground-water inflow that flows to inactive ground water, DEEPFR. The basis for this special action was related to the seasonal movement of the water table and transpiration from trees. The models were most sensitive to DEEPFR and the parameter for interception storage capacity, CEPSC. The models were also fairly sensitive to the parameter for an index representing the infiltration capacity of the soil, INFILT; the parameter for indicating the behavior of the ground-water recession flow, KVARY; the parameter for the basic ground-water recession rate, AGWRC; the parameter for nominal capacity of the upper zone storage, UZSN; the parameter for the interflow inflow, INTFW; the parameter for the interflow recession constant, IRC; and the parameter for lower zone evapotranspiration, LZETP.

  6. Tectonic implications of Mesozoic magmatism to initiation of Cenozoic basin development within the passive South China Sea margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Hue Anh; Chan, Yu Lu; Yeh, Meng Wan; Lee, Tung Yi

    2018-04-01

    The South China Sea (SCS) is one of the classical example of a non-volcanic passive margin situated within three tectonic plates of the Eurasian, Indo-Australian and Philippine Sea plate. The development of SCS resulted from interaction of various types of plate boundaries, and complex tectonic assemblage of micro blocks and accretionary prisms. Numerous models were proposed for the formation of SCS, yet none can fully satisfy different aspects of tectonic forces. Temporal and geographical reconstruction of Cretaceous and Cenozoic magmatism with the isochrones of major basins was conducted. Our reconstruction indicated the SE margin of Asia had gone through two crustal thinning events. The sites for rifting development are controlled by localized thermal weakening of magmatism. NW-SE extension setting during Late Cretaceous revealed by magmatism distribution and sedimentary basins allow us to allocate the retreated subduction of Pacific plate to the cause of first crustal thinning event. A magmatic gap between 75 and 65 Ma prior to the initiation of first basin rifting suggested a significant modification of geodynamic setting occurred. The Tainan basin, Pearl River Mouth basin, and Liyue basins started to develop since 65 Ma where the youngest Late Cretaceous magmatism concentrated. Sporadic bimodal volcanism between 65 and 40 Ma indicates further continental extension prior to the opening of SCS. The E-W extension of Malay basin and West Natuna began since late Eocene followed by N-S rifting of SCS as Neotethys subducted. The SCS ridge developed between Pearl River Mouth basin and Liyue basin where 40 Ma volcanic activities concentrated. The interaction of two continental stretching events by Pacific followed by Neotethys subduction with localized magmatic thermal weakening is the cause for the non-volcanic nature of SCS.

  7. Chemostratigraphy of Late Cretaceous deltaic and marine sedimentary rocks from high northern palaeolatitudes in the Nuussuaq Basin, West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenniger, Marc; Pedersen, Gunver Krarup; Bjerrum, Christian J.

    The Nuussuaq Basin in the Baffin Bay area in West Greenland formed as a result of the opening of the Labrador Sea in Late Mesozoic to Early Cenozoic times. The first rifting and the development of the Nuussuaq Basin took place during the Early Cretaceous and was followed by a second rifting phase...

  8. Lithostratigraphy of the Cretaceous–Paleocene Nuussuaq Group, Nuussuaq Basin, West Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dam, Gregers

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The Nuussuaq Basin is the only exposed Cretaceous–Paleocene sedimentary basin in West Greenland and is one of a complex of linked rift basins stretching from the Labrador Sea to northern Baffin Bay. These basins developed along West Greenland as a result of the opening of the Labrador Sea in Late Mesozoic to Early Cenozoic times. The Nuussuaq Basin is exposed in West Greenland between 69°N and 72°N on Disko, Nuussuaq, Upernivik Ø, Qeqertarsuaq, Itsaku and Svartenhuk Halvø and has also been recorded in a number of shallow and deep wells in the region. The sediments are assigned to the more than 6 km thick Nuussuaq Group (new which underlies the Palaeogene plateau basalts of the West Greenland Basalt Group. The sediment thickness is best estimated from seismic data; in the western part of the area, seismic and magnetic data suggest that the succession is at least 6 km and possibly as much as 10 km thick. The exposed Albian–Paleocene part of the succession testifies to two main episodes of regional rifting and basin development: an EarlyCretaceous and a Late Cretaceous – Early Paleocene episode prior to the start of sea-floor spreading in mid-Paleocene time. This exposed section includes fan delta, fluviodeltaic, shelfal and deepmarine deposits. The Nuussuaq Group is divided into ten formations, most of which have previously been only briefly described, with the exception of their macrofossil content. In ascending stratigraphic order, the formations are: the Kome Formation, the Slibestensfjeldet Formation (new, the Upernivik Næs Formation, the Atane Formation (including four new members – the Skansen, Ravn Kløft, Kingittoq and Qilakitsoq Members – and one new bed, the Itivnera Bed, the Itilli Formation (new, including four new members: the Anariartorfik, Umiivik, Kussinerujuk and Aaffarsuaq Members, the Kangilia Formation (including the revised Annertuneq Conglomerate Member andthe new Oyster–Ammonite Conglomerate Bed, the

  9. Contraceptive use among hairdressers in South-west Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omokhodion, F O; Onadeko, M O; Balogun, O O

    2007-08-01

    Hairdressers and their apprentices are mostly women in their reproductive years. The social environment in hairdressing salons provides the opportunity to discuss sexual exploits among peers and may influence decisions on sexual behavior. This study was designed to assess the knowledge and use of contraceptives among hairdressers. A structured questionnaire was used to collect information on demographic characteristics and knowledge and use of contraceptive methods among hairdressers in Ibadan, South-west Nigeria. A total of 355 hairdressers were interviewed: 60 apprentices (17%) and 295 qualified hairdressers (83%); 110 (31%) single and 240 (67%) married. They were females aged 15 - 49 years (mean 29 +/- 6.9 years). Some 70% of single women had regular sexual partners. A total of 24 single women (21%) had been pregnant and 20 (18%) had abortions. Some 121 (34%) of the study population were currently using contraceptives: 27 single and 94 married respondents. The prevalence of contraceptive use among sexually active single women was 34%. The condom was the most known and used contraceptive method. The major reasons for non-use of contraceptives were fear of side-effects (23%); need for more children (16%); or respondents were not engaged in sexual activity (12%). Contraceptive use among sexually active single hairdressers is lower than the national average. Workplace educational intervention is needed to prevent unwanted pregnancies and sexually transmitted infections among these young women.

  10. Artificial radioactivity in tide washed pastures in south west Scotland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKay, W.A.; Bonnett, P.J.P.; Barr, H.M.; Howorth, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    A study has been carried out to determine the impact of Sellafield discharges on the levels of radioactivity in tide washed pastures in south west Scotland. The likely areas of tidal inundations along the Nith, Urr, Dee, Fleet and Cree (including nearby Bladnoch) rivers were assessed using maps and aerials photographs. These were then visited and gamma radiation measurements taken at regular intervals to enable the external dose from anthropogenic nuclides to be estimated. A further survey followed where soil cores were taken from the areas on each river where the external dose appeared highest and analysed for a range of artificial radionuclides. The levels of 137 Cs, 134 Cs, 238 Pu, 239+240 Pu and 241 Am found, although small, were clearly in excess of the background from other sources. A habit survey was carried out to provide site specific information of tide washed pasture usage, which, with the spatial radionuclide data was used to estimate doses to appropriate critical groups. The maximum annual dose calculated to arise was 60 μSv which is less than 6% of the ICRP principal dose limit of 1 mSv. (author)

  11. Hydro engineering Feasibility Study of Surface Runoff Water Harvesting in Al-Ajeej Basin, North West Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thair M. Al-Taiee

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The hydro engineering  characteristics of Al-Ajeej basin which was located within south Sinjar plain north west Iraq was analyzed to predict the possibility of surface runoff harvesting during rainfall season in the upstream sites in this basin using watershed modeling system (WMS. The hydrological feasibility of constructing small dam on Al-Ajeej valley with some preliminary design calculations were presented. The best optimum dam site was selected to be located (3.95 km downstream the confluence of Al-Badee branch with Al-Ajeej valley (35° 46¢ 6² Latitude and Longitude 41° 36¢ 11² having a catchment's area of (3043km2. The proposed dam  height was (12.5 meter with a dam length of (1277m, while the normal storage volume of the reservoir is (38.8 million m3. Construction a dams in such sites characterized by water shortage during all  around the year will give an aid in the sustainable development of such area by increasing  the cultivation lands, the agricultural products and also modify the income of the villagers living  in this area leading to prevent them leaving their lands to other places

  12. South Africa offers exploratory potential in variety of basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broad, D.S.; Mills, S.R. (Soekor Ltd., Cape Town (South Africa))

    1993-12-06

    While the future suspension of the oil embargo against South Africa will no doubt help revitalize the region's most powerful economy, a move away from dependence on coal as the major local energy source is also likely. This could be accomplished through regional cooperation and development were it not for the ongoing conflict in Angola, the only producer of oil and gas in the Southern African Development Community. Even with world oil prices in the doldrums, massive foreign exchange savings would result from a domestic source, and in line with world trends the possibility of harnessing the gas resources of the region is increasingly seen as a possibility. For the present, those resources remain to be defined. But ENH of Mozambique is pursuing an appraisal program for Pande field with World Bank funding, while Shell and its partners are considering possibilities of Kudu field in Namiba. And while South Africa's own national oil company, Soekor, has had limited success with its search for oil during the apartheid years, offshore F-A gas field is in production, and the potential for hydrocarbons-gas in particular--requires a great deal more investigation. The colleagues have prepared a series of articles on basins off South Africa. These articles were prepared in anticipation of the completion of political reform and of the start of a licensing round, possibly during 1994. This article draws together summaries of aspects thought to be most pertinent to petroleum exploration.

  13. Test plan for techniques to measure and remove coatings from K West Basin fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bridges, A.E.; Pitner, A.L.; Makenas, B.J.

    1998-01-01

    Several types of coatings have previously been visually identified on the surface of 105-K East and 105-K West Basins fuel elements. One type of coating (found only in K West Basin) in particular was found to be a thick translucent material that was often seen to be dislodged from the elements as flakes when the elements were handled during visual examinations (Pitner 1997). Subsequently it was determined (for one element only in a hot cell) that this material, in the dry condition, could easily be removed from the element using a scraping tool. The coating was identified as Al(OH) 3 through X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses and to be approximately 60 microm thick via scanning electron microscopy (SEM). However, brushing under water in the basin using numerous mechanical strokes failed to satisfactorily remove these coatings in their thickest form as judged by appearance. Such brushing was done with only one type of metal brush, a brush design previously found satisfactory for removing UO 4 .xH 2 O coatings from the elements

  14. A magnetic and gravity investigation of the Liberia Basin, West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris Cooper, S.; Liu, Tianyou

    2011-02-01

    Gravity and magnetic analysis provide an opportunity to deduce and understand to a large extent the stratigraphy, structure and shape of the substructure. Euler deconvolution is a useful tool for providing estimates of the localities and depth of magnetic and gravity sources. Wavelet analysis is an interesting tool for filtering and improving geophysical data. The application of these two methods to gravity and magnetic data of the Liberia Basin enable the definition of the geometry and depth of the subsurface geologic structures. The study reveals the basin is sub-divided and the depth to basement of the basin structure ranges from about 5 km at its North West end to 10 km at its broadest section eastward. Magnetic data analysis indicates shallow intrusives ranging from a depth of 0.09 km to 0.42 km with an average depth of 0.25 km along the margin. Other intrusives can be found at average depths of 0.6 km and 1.7 km respectively within the confines of the basin. An analysis of the gravity data indicated deep faults intersecting the transform zone.

  15. Impacts of climate change on hydro-meteorological drought over the Volta Basin, West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguntunde, Philip G.; Abiodun, Babatunde J.; Lischeid, Gunnar

    2017-08-01

    This study examines the characteristics of drought in the Volta River Basin (VRB), investigates the influence of drought on the streamflow, and projects the impacts of future climate change on the drought. A combination of observation data and regional climate simulations of past and future climates (1970-2013, 2046-2065, and 2081-2100) were analyzed for the study. The Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) and Standardized Precipitation and Evapotranspiration (SPEI) were used to characterize drought while the Standardized Runoff Index (SRI) were used to quantify runoff. Results of the study show that the historical pattern of drought is generally consistent with previous studies over the Basin and most part of West Africa. RCA ensemble medians (RMED) give realistic simulations of drought characteristics and area extent over the Basin and the sub-catchments in the past climate. Generally, an increase in drought intensity and spatial extent are projected over VRB for SPEI and SPI, but the magnitude of increase is higher with SPEI than with SPI. Drought frequency (events per decade) may be magnified by a factor of 1.2 (2046-2065) to 1.6 (2081-2100) compared to the present day episodes in the basin. The coupling between streamflow and drought episodes was very strong (P planning how to minimize the negative impacts of future climate change that could have consequences on agriculture, water resources and energy supply.

  16. Crustal structure of the Siberian craton and the West Siberian basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cherepanova, Yulia; Artemieva, Irina; Thybo, Hans

    2013-01-01

    We present a digital model SibCrust of the crustal structure of the Siberian craton (SC) and the West Siberian basin (WSB), based on all seismic profiles published since 1960 and sampled with a nominal interval of 50. km. Data quality is assessed and quantitatively assigned to each profile based...... and ~. 6.2-6.6. km/s in parts of the WSB and SC. Exceptionally high basement Vp velocities (6.8-7.0. km/s) at the northern border between the SC and the WSB indicate the presence of magmatic intrusions and are proposed to mark the source zone of the Siberian LIP. The cratonic crust generally consists...

  17. Epidemiology of West Nile in Europe and in the Mediterranean Basin

    OpenAIRE

    Calistri, Paolo; Giovannini, Armando; Hubalek, Zdenek; Ionescu, Aurelia; Monaco, Federica; Savini, Giovanni; Lelli, Rossella

    2010-01-01

    In the last 30 years several cases of West Nile (WN) virus infection were reported in horses and humans in Europe and in the Mediterranean Basin. Most of them were determined by strains of the Lineage 1 included in the European Mediterranean/Kenyan cluster. Strains of this cluster are characterised by a moderate pathogenicity for horses and humans and limited or no pathogenicity for birds. In recent years, however, WN cases determined by strains grouped in the Israeli/American cluster of Line...

  18. The nuclear axis. Secret collaboration between West Germany and South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cervenka, Z.; Rogers, B.

    1978-01-01

    Post-war international politics are examined, with particular reference to international collaboration in the nuclear energy field and to the proliferation of atomic weapons capability. The development of atomic energy programmes in West Germany and in South Africa is discussed. South African uranium resources are described. Reference is made to the British-Dutch-West German collaboration on uranium enrichment, and to the South African enrichment process. Political activities involving atomic energy considerations are also discussed with reference to the countries mentioned and,in addition, to USA, Israel, Iran and Brazil. (U.K.)

  19. Seismic attribute analysis to enhance detection of thin gold-bearing reefs: South Deep gold mine, Witwatersrand basin, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Manzi, MSD

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The gold-bearing Upper Elsburg Reef clastic wedge (UER) in the South Deep gold mine in the Witwatersrand basin (South Africa) hosts the highly auriferous basal conglomerate known as the Elsburg Conglomerate (EC) reef. The reef is less than 20 m...

  20. Technology Development And Deployment Of Systems For The Retrieval And Processing Of Remote-Handled Sludge From Hanford K-West Fuel Storage Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raymond, R.E.

    2011-01-01

    In 2011, significant progress was made in developing and deploying technologies to remove, transport, and interim store remote-handled sludge from the 105-K West Fuel Storage Basin on the Hanford Site in south-central Washington State. The sludge in the 105-K West Basin is an accumulation of degraded spent nuclear fuel and other debris that collected during long-term underwater storage of the spent fuel. In 2010, an innovative, remotely operated retrieval system was used to successfully retrieve over 99.7% of the radioactive sludge from 10 submerged temporary storage containers in the K West Basin. In 2011, a full-scale prototype facility was completed for use in technology development, design qualification testing, and operator training on systems used to retrieve, transport, and store highly radioactive K Basin sludge. In this facility, three separate systems for characterizing, retrieving, pretreating, and processing remote-handled sludge were developed. Two of these systems were successfully deployed in 2011. One of these systems was used to pretreat knockout pot sludge as part of the 105-K West Basin cleanup. Knockout pot sludge contains pieces of degraded uranium fuel ranging in size from 600 μm to 6350 μm mixed with pieces of inert material, such as aluminum wire and graphite, in the same size range. The 2011 pretreatment campaign successfully removed most of the inert material from the sludge stream and significantly reduced the remaining volume of knockout pot product material. Removing the inert material significantly minimized the waste stream and reduced costs by reducing the number of transportation and storage containers. Removing the inert material also improved worker safety by reducing the number of remote-handled shipments. Also in 2011, technology development and final design were completed on the system to remove knockout pot material from the basin and transport the material to an onsite facility for interim storage. This system is scheduled

  1. Unearthing a hidden treasure: 60 years of karst research in the Far West Rand, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aljoscha Schrader

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Karstified dolomitic formations situated in the Far West Rand goldfield of the Witwatersrand Basin constitute a significant groundwater resource in semi?arid South Africa and would be of strategic importance for alleviating the increasing water stress in nearby metropolitan areas. The deep?level gold mines operating below the dolomites have suffered from large volumes of dolomitic groundwater flowing into the mine voids, rendering mining both expensive and hazardous. In order to secure safe and economical mining, the overlying dolomites were dewatered. Here we review research over 60 years, conducted in three of the four major dolomitic compartments affected by dewatering. After more than six decades of research, these aquifers are arguably the most investigated karst systems in South Africa, and possibly worldwide. The data generated are, in many respects, unique, as many measurements can never be repeated, covering stochastic events such as a major water inrush into mine workings and some of the most catastrophic sinkhole developments ever recorded. Given the potential value for improving the understanding of general and local karst hydrogeology, our main goal for this paper is to alert the scientific community to the existence of this resource of mostly unpublished data and research. A no less important aim is to support a systematic collation of these studies which are in danger of being irretrievably lost as mines increasingly close down. Ecological and economic impacts of the flooding of mines in and around Johannesburg emphasise the lack of reliable historical mine data to optimally address the matter. We provide the first comprehensive, yet not exhaustive, overview on the existing studies, briefly discussing scientific content as well as obstacles for utilising the scattered, and often non?peer reviewed, information sources.

  2. Karst Aquifer Recharge: A Case History of over Simplification from the Uley South Basin, South Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nara Somaratne

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The article “Karst aquifer recharge: Comments on ‘Characteristics of Point Recharge in Karst Aquifers’, by Adrian D. Werner, 2014, Water 6, doi:10.3390/w6123727” provides misrepresentation in some parts of Somaratne [1]. The description of Uley South Quaternary Limestone (QL as unconsolidated or poorly consolidated aeolianite sediments with the presence of well-mixed groundwater in Uley South [2] appears unsubstantiated. Examination of 98 lithological descriptions with corresponding drillers’ logs show only two wells containing bands of unconsolidated sediments. In Uley South basin, about 70% of salinity profiles obtained by electrical conductivity (EC logging from monitoring wells show stratification. The central and north central areas of the basin receive leakage from the Tertiary Sand (TS aquifer thereby influencing QL groundwater characteristics, such as chemistry, age and isotope composition. The presence of conduit pathways is evident in salinity profiles taken away from TS water affected areas. Pumping tests derived aquifer parameters show strong heterogeneity, a typical characteristic of karst aquifers. Uley South QL aquifer recharge is derived from three sources; diffuse recharge, point recharge from sinkholes and continuous leakage of TS water. This limits application of recharge estimation methods, such as the conventional chloride mass balance (CMB as the basic premise of the CMB is violated. The conventional CMB is not suitable for accounting chloride mass balance in groundwater systems displaying extreme range of chloride concentrations and complex mixing [3]. Over simplification of karst aquifer systems to suit application of the conventional CMB or 1-D unsaturated modelling as described in Werner [2], is not suitable use of these recharge estimation methods.

  3. Influence of basin connectivity on sediment source, transport, and storage within the Mkabela Basin, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. R. Miller

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The management of sediment and other non-point source (NPS pollution has proven difficult, and requires a sound understanding of particle movement through the drainage system. The primary objective of this investigation was to obtain an understanding of NPS sediment source(s, transport, and storage within the Mkabela Basin, a representative agricultural catchment within the KwaZulu–Natal Midlands of eastern South Africa, by combining geomorphic, hydrologic and geochemical fingerprinting analyses.

    The Mkabela Basin can be subdivided into three distinct subcatchments that differ in their ability to transport and store sediment along the axial valley. Headwater (upper catchment areas are characterized by extensive wetlands that act as significant sediment sinks. Mid-catchment areas, characterized by higher relief and valley gradients, exhibit few wetlands, but rather are dominated by a combination of alluvial and bedrock channels that are conducive to sediment transport. The lower catchment exhibits a low-gradient alluvial channel that is boarded by extensive riparian wetlands that accumulate large quantities of sediment (and NPS pollutants.

    Fingerprinting studies suggest that silt- and clay-rich layers found within wetland and reservoir deposits of the upper and upper-mid subcatchments are derived from the erosion of fine-grained, valley bottom soils frequently utilized as vegetable fields. Coarser-grained deposits within these wetlands and reservoirs result from the erosion of sandier hillslope soils extensively utilized for sugar cane, during relatively high magnitude runoff events that are capable of transporting sand-sized sediment off the slopes. Thus, the source of sediment to the axial valley varies as a function of sediment size and runoff magnitude. Sediment export from upper to lower catchment areas was limited until the early 1990s, in part because the upper catchment wetlands were hydrologically disconnected from

  4. Geologic framework and petroleum systems of Cook Inlet basin, south-central Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    LePain, D.L.; Stanley, R.G.; Helmold, K.P.; Shellenbaum, D.P.; Stone, D.M.; Hite, D.M.

    2013-01-01

    This report provides a comprehensive overview of the stratigraphy, structure, tectonics, and petroleum systems of the Cook Inlet basin, an important oil- and gas-producing region in south-central Alaska.

  5. Application of advanced reservoir characterization, simulation and production optimization strategies to maximize recovery in slope and basin clastic reservoirs, West Texas (Delaware Basin). Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutton, S.P.; Asquith, G.B.; Barton, M.D.; Cole, A.G.; Gogas, J.; Malik, M.A.; Clift, S.J.; Guzman, J.I.

    1997-11-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate that detailed reservoir characterization of slope and basin clastic reservoirs in sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico is a cost-effective way to recover a higher percentage of the original oil in place through strategic placement of infill wells and geologically based field development. This project involves reservoir characterization of two Late Permian slope and basin clastic reservoirs in the Delaware Basin, West Texas, followed by a field demonstration in one of the fields. The fields being investigated are Geraldine Ford and Ford West fields in Reeves and Culberson Counties, Texas. Project objectives are divided into two major phases, reservoir characterization and implementation. The objectives of the reservoir characterization phase of the project were to provide a detailed understanding of the architecture and heterogeneity of the two fields, the Ford Geraldine unit and Ford West field. Reservoir characterization utilized 3-D seismic data, high-resolution sequence stratigraphy, subsurface field studies, outcrop characterization, and other techniques. Once reservoir characterized was completed, a pilot area of approximately 1 mi{sup 2} at the northern end of the Ford Geraldine unit was chosen for reservoir simulation. This report summarizes the results of the second year of reservoir characterization.

  6. Major geological events and uranium metallogenesis in South-west China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Chengjiang; Xu Zhengqi; Ni Shijun; Chen Youliang

    2012-01-01

    Uranium is widely distributed in South-west China, with all types but on a not-so-large scale. South-west China is located on the combining site of several large tectonic elements and every tectonic movement has different effects on different regions. To study and clarify the correlation between the major geological events in South-west China and the Uranium metallogenesis, comprehensive research and field investigation are made besides collecting a lot of materials. Through analysis and research on the major geological events in South-west China, the evolution of those e vents is basically clarified and the events closely related with uranium mineralization are determined. It is discovered that there are several ore-forming geologic events in the geological history of South-west China; almost every major tectonic movement cycle is accompanied with uranium metallogenesis, from Jinning Movement to Chengjiang Movement, to Hercynian Movement, to Indosinian Movement. to Yanshan Movement. to Himalayan movement. Even though every major tectonic cycle is accompanied with uranium mineralization, three major geological events are generally obviously related with uranium metallogenesis, i.e. the Rodinian supercontinent breakup even in Jinning-Chengjiang Period, Yanshan Movement and Himalayan movement, in which the first one is the process of uranium pre-enrichment and provides the source of uranium. Yanshan Movement and Himalayan movement are the important processes for mineralization, mainly the hydrothermal superimposed mineralization. (authors)

  7. ASPECTS ON THE ACTUAL LEVEL OF EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT AT THE SOUTH-WEST REGION OLTENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHIRCULESCU MARIA FELICIA

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Due to the complexity of the educational sector, the work is topical, even though over time there have been many concerns regarding its education and development and the correlation between the level of educational development and the level of economic development. The aim of the paper is to analyze the educational development at the level of the South-West Oltenia region over the period 2010-2015, thus using the statistical series for the mentioned timeframe we analyzed the evolution of the number of educational units in the South-West Oltenia region And the evolution of the school population in the South-West Oltenia region. Thus, the objective of the paper is enshrined in the overall objective of Romania, namely to reduce the economic and social development disparities between Romania and other EU Member States. The results of the analysis carried out by the two indicators, the number of educational units in the South-West Oltenia region and the number of the school population at the level of the South-West Oltenia region indicate that the number of educational units in the period 2010-2015 decreased by 4.28% And the number of the school population by 14.67%.

  8. Boundaries of Consent: Stakeholder Representation in River Basin Management in Mexico and South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wester, P.; Merrey, D.J.; Lange, M.

    2003-01-01

    Increasing the capacity of water users to influence decision-making is crucial in river basin management reforms. This article assesses emerging forums for river basin management in Mexico and South Africa and concludes that the pace of democratization of water management in both is slow. Mexico is

  9. Thermal Properties of West Siberian Sediments in Application to Basin and Petroleum Systems Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romushkevich, Raisa; Popov, Evgeny; Popov, Yury; Chekhonin, Evgeny; Myasnikov, Artem; Kazak, Andrey; Belenkaya, Irina; Zagranovskaya, Dzhuliya

    2016-04-01

    Quality of heat flow and rock thermal property data is the crucial question in basin and petroleum system modeling. A number of significant deviations in thermal conductivity values were observed during our integral geothermal study of West Siberian platform reporting that the corrections should be carried out in basin models. The experimental data including thermal anisotropy and heterogeneity measurements were obtained along of more than 15 000 core samples and about 4 500 core plugs. The measurements were performed in 1993-2015 with the optical scanning technique within the Continental Super-Deep Drilling Program (Russia) for scientific super-deep well Tyumenskaya SG-6, parametric super-deep well Yen-Yakhinskaya, and deep well Yarudeyskaya-38 as well as for 13 oil and gas fields in the West Siberia. Variations of the thermal conductivity tensor components in parallel and perpendicular direction to the layer stratification (assessed for 2D anisotropy model of the rock studied), volumetric heat capacity and thermal anisotropy coefficient values and average values of the thermal properties were the subject of statistical analysis for the uppermost deposits aged by: T3-J2 (200-165 Ma); J2-J3 (165-150 Ma); J3 (150-145 Ma); K1 (145-136 Ma); K1 (136-125 Ma); K1-K2 (125-94 Ma); K2-Pg+Ng+Q (94-0 Ma). Uncertainties caused by deviations of thermal conductivity data from its average values were found to be as high as 45 % leading to unexpected errors in the basin heat flow determinations. Also, the essential spatial-temporal variations in the thermal rock properties in the study area is proposed to be taken into account in thermo-hydrodynamic modeling of hydrocarbon recovery with thermal methods. The research work was done with financial support of the Russian Ministry of Education and Science (unique identification number RFMEFI58114X0008).

  10. The Apollo peak-ring impact basin: Insights into the structure and evolution of the South Pole-Aitken basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Ross W. K.; Head, James W.; Guo, Dijun; Liu, Jianzhong; Xiao, Long

    2018-05-01

    The 492 km-diameter Apollo impact basin post-dates, and is located at the inner edge of, the ∼2240 km-diameter South Pole-Aitken (SPA) basin, providing an opportunity to assess the SPA substructure and lateral heterogeneity. Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory gravity data suggest an average crustal thickness on the floor of SPA of ∼20 km and within the Apollo basin of ∼5 km, yet remote sensing data reveal no conclusive evidence for the presence of exposed mantle material. We use the iSALE shock physics code to model the formation of the Apollo basin and find that the observational data are best fit by the impact of a 40 km diameter body traveling at 15 km/s into 20-40 km thick crustal material. These results strongly suggest that the Apollo impact occurred on ejecta deposits and collapsed crustal material of the SPA basin and could help place constraints on the location, size and geometry of the SPA transient cavity. The peak ring in the interior of Apollo basin is plausibly interpreted to be composed of inwardly collapsed lower crustal material that experienced peak shock pressures in excess of 35 GPa, consistent with remote sensing observations that suggest shocked plagioclase. Proposed robotic and/or human missions to SPA and Apollo would present an excellent opportunity to test the predictions of this work and address many scientific questions about SPA basin evolution and structure.

  11. Geometry and structure of the pull-apart basins developed along the western South American-Scotia plate boundary (SW Atlantic Ocean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban, F. D.; Tassone, A.; Isola, J. I.; Lodolo, E.; Menichetti, M.

    2018-04-01

    The South American-Scotia plate boundary is a left-lateral fault system which runs roughly E-W for more than 3000 km across the SW Atlantic Ocean and the Tierra del Fuego Island, reaching to the west the southern Chile Trench. Analyses of a large dataset of single- and multi-channel seismic reflection profiles acquired offshore has allowed to map the trace of the plate boundary from Tierra del Fuego to the Malvinas Trough, a tectonic depression located in the eastern part of the fault system, and to reconstruct the shape and geometry of the basins formed along the principal displacement zone of the fault system. Three main Neogene pull-apart basins that range from 70 to 100 km in length, and from 12 to 22 km in width, have been identified along this segment of the plate boundary. These basins have elongated shapes with their major axes parallel to the ENE-WSW direction of the fault zone. The sedimentary architecture and the infill geometry of the basins suggest that they represent mostly strike-slip dominated transtension basins which propagated from E to W. The basins imaged by seismic data show in some cases geometrical and structural features linked to the possible reactivation of previous wedge-top basins and inherited structures pertaining to the external front of the Magallanes fold-and-thrust compression belt, along which the South American-Scotia fault system has been superimposed. It is suggested that the sequence of the elongated basins occur symmetrically to a thorough going strike-slip fault, in a left-stepping geometrical arrangement, in a manner similar to those basins seen in other transcurrent environments.

  12. Surface deformation on the west portion of the Chapala lake basin: uncertainties and facts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hernandez-Marin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study we investigate different aspects of land subsidence and ground failures occurring in the west portion of Chapala lake basin. Currently, surface discontinuities seem to be associated with subsiding bowls. In an effort to understand some of the conditioning factors to surface deformation, two sounding cores from the upper sequence (11 m depth were extracted for analyzing physical and mechanical properties. The upper subsoil showed a predominant silty composition and several lenses of pumice pyroclastic sand. Despite the relative predominance of fine soil, the subsoil shows mechanical properties with low clay content, variable water content, low plasticity and variable compressibility index, amongst some others. Some of these properties seem to be influenced by the sandy pyroclastic lenses, therefore, a potential source of the ground failure could be heterogeneities in the upper soil.

  13. Physical characteristics of stream subbasins in the Pomme de Terre River Basin, west-central Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, D.L.; Payne, G.A.

    1994-01-01

    Data describing the physical characteristics of stream subbasins upstream from selected points on streams in the Pomme de Terre River Basin, located in west-central Minnesota, are presented in this report. The physical characteristics are the drainage area of the subbasin, the percentage area of the subbasin covered only by lakes, the percentage area of the subbasin covered by both lakes and wetlands, the main-channel length, and the main-channel slope. The points on the stream include outlets of subbasins of at least 5 square miles, outfalls of sewage treatment plants, and locations of U.S. Geological Survey low-flow, high-flow, and continuous-record gaging stations.

  14. Activity of the 7Be isotope in plants from south-west Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loennroth, T.; Kaellman, K.M.; Agren, D.; Lill, J.O.

    2007-01-01

    We report the measurements of 7 Be activity in nine vegetable species through the detection of its 477.6 keV γ-ray of 7 Li. The plants were grown 10 km south of the city of Turku in south-west Finland, located at approximately about 23E, 62N. The results show that nettle, salad and cucumber have activities that exceed the detection limit. (author)

  15. Application of Advanced Reservoir Characterization, Simulation, and Production Optimization Strategies to Maximize Recovery in Slope and Basin Clastic Reservoirs, West Texas (Delaware Basin), Class III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutton, Shirley P.; Flanders, William A.

    2001-11-04

    The objective of this Class III project was demonstrate that reservoir characterization and enhanced oil recovery (EOR) by CO2 flood can increase production from slope and basin clastic reservoirs in sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico. Phase 1 of the project, reservoir characterization, focused on Geraldine Ford and East Ford fields, which are Delaware Mountain Group fields that produce from the upper Bell Canyon Formation (Ramsey sandstone). The demonstration phase of the project was a CO2 flood conducted in East Ford field, which is operated by Orla Petco, Inc., as the East Ford unit.

  16. Choices of canisters and elements for the first fuel shipment from K West Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makenas, B.J.

    1995-03-01

    Twenty-two canisters (10 prime and 12 backup candidates) in the K West Basin have been identified as containing fuel which, when examined, will satisfy the Data Quality Objectives for the first fuel shipment from this basin. These were chosen as meeting criteria such as containing relatively long fuel elements, locking bar integrity, and the availability of gas/liquid interface level measurements for associated canister gas traps. Two canisters were identified as having reported broken fuel on initial loading. Usage and interpretation of canister cesium concentration measurements have also been established and levels of maximum and minimum acceptable cesium concentration (from a data optimization point of view) for decapping have been determined although other operational cesium limits may also apply. Criteria for picking particular elements, once a canister is opened, are reviewed in this document. A pristine, a slightly damaged, and a badly damaged element are desired. The latter includes elements with end caps removed but does not include elements which have large amounts of swelling or split cladding that might interfere with handling tools. Finally, operational scenarios have been suggested to aid in the selections of canisters and elements in a way that utilizes anticipated canister gas sampling and leads to a correct and quick choice of elements which will supply the desired data

  17. Characteristics of the Triassic Source Rocks of the Aitutu Formation in the (West Timor Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asep Kurnia Permana

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available DOI:10.17014/ijog.v1i3.192The Triassic rocks of the (West Timor Basin have been identified that was mainly deposited in the  marine environment. The fine grained clastics and carbonate  rocks of this Triassic marine  facies are considered to be the most promising source rocks potential in this basin. In this paper we present geochemical and petrographic data from outcrop samples of the Triassic carbonate Aitutu Formation, due to emphasized the organic maturation, kerogen type of the organic matter and the origin of the organic matter.  A representative of selected sample were subjected to the Rock-Eval Pyrolisis, vitrinite reflectance and thermal alteration index, bitumen extraction, were analyzed on the GC-MS. The samples were collected from marine deposit of the Triassic Sequence. The TOC values of the analyzed sample range between rich and rich organic richness (0.51% - 9.16%, wt.%, TOC, which consists mainly of type II and III kerogen and the organic matter consider to be predominantly oil/gas prone and gas prone potential. The thermal maturity assessed from Tmax, TAI, and vitrinite reflectance shows an immature to early peak mature stage of the organic matter. The GC-MS analyses of the biomarkers indicate mainly the organic matter derived from mixed source rocks facies containing alga debris and higher plant terrestrial origin.

  18. COMPARATIVE ASPECTS OF EMPLOYMENT RATES BY EDUCATIONAL LEVEL IN SOUTH-WEST OLTENIA, ROMANIA AND EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Zaharia

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available South West Region includes the counties of Dolj, Gorj, Meheninţi, Olt and Valcea and together West Region make up the Macro 4. The geographical, economic and social structural changes in the last two decades, and the economic crisis have led to some peculiarities of labor market in this development region. This paper provides a comparative analysis of employment rates by level of education in the EU (27, some EU countries, as in Romania during 2000-2011. It also analyzes the structure of employment in South West Oltenia development region, by age, level of education, sex and area, in 2010 compared to the structure of employment in Macro 4 and in some cases, with that recorded in Western region. Compared to developments in Romania and Macro 4 level, the employment rates and the structure of employees have certain characteristics. Thus features occur in age groups 55-64 years and especially in the age group over 64 years, the South West region these represents 9.05% of total employment, compared to only 1.74% in the West region. Also, in rural areas, the percentage of employed population 25 to 64 years with low levels of education and medium education level, reach 96.8% of the total, which is a weakness of this region.

  19. Basement-involved faults and deep structures in the West Philippine Basin: constrains from gravity field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gang; Jiang, Suhua; Li, Sanzhong; Zhang, Huixuan; Lei, Jianping; Gao, Song; Zhao, Feiyu

    2017-06-01

    To reveal the basement-involved faults and deep structures of the West Philippine Basin (WPB), the gravitational responses caused by these faults are observed and analyzed based on the latest spherical gravity model: WGM2012 Model. By mapping the free-air and Bouguer gravity anomalies, several main faults and some other linear structures are located and observed in the WPB. Then, by conducting a 2D discrete multi-scale wavelet decomposition, the Bouguer anomalies are decomposed into the first- to eighth-order detail and approximation fields (the first- to eighth-order Details and Approximations). The first- to third-order Details reflect detailed and localized geological information of the crust at different depths, and of which the higher-order reflects gravity field of the deeper depth. The first- to fourth-order Approximations represent the regional gravity fields at different depths of the crust, respectively. The fourth-order Approximation represents the regional gravity fluctuation caused by the density inhomogeneity of Moho interface. Therefore, taking the fourth-order Approximation as input, and adopting Parker-Oldenburg interactive inversion, We calculated the depth of Moho interface in the WPB. Results show that the Moho interface depth in the WPB ranges approximately from 8 to 12 km, indicating that there is typical oceanic crust in the basin. In the Urdaneta Plateau and the Benham Rise, the Moho interface depths are about 14 and 16 km, respectively, which provides a piece of evidence to support that the Banham Rise could be a transitional crust caused by a large igneous province. The second-order vertical derivative and the horizontal derivatives in direction 0° and 90° are computed based on the data of the third-order Detail, and most of the basement-involved faults and structures in the WPB, such as the Central Basin Fault Zone, the Gagua Ridge, the Luzon-Okinawa Fault Zone, and the Mindanao Fault Zone are interpreted by the gravity derivatives.

  20. CRITICALITY SAFETY CONTROL OF LEGACY FUEL FOUND AT 105-K WEST FUEL STORAGE BASIN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JENSEN, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    In August 2004, two sealed canisters containing spent nuclear fuel were opened for processing at the Hanford Site's K West fuel storage basin. The fuel was to be processed through cleaning and sorting stations, repackaged into special baskets, placed into a cask, and removed from the basin for further processing and eventual dry storage. The canisters were expected to contain fuel from the old Hanford C Reactor, a graphite-moderated reactor fueled by very low-enriched uranium metal. The expected fuel type was an aluminum-clad slug about eight inches in length and with a weight of about eight pounds. Instead of the expected fuel, the two canisters contained several pieces of thin tubes, some with wire wraps. The material was placed into unsealed canisters for storage and to await further evaluation. Videotapes and still photographs of the items were examined in consultation with available retired Hanford employees. It was determined that the items had a fair probability of being cut-up pieces of fuel rods from the retired Hanford Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR). Because the items had been safely handled several times, it was apparent that a criticality safety hazard did not exist when handling the material by itself, but it was necessary to determine if a hazard existed when combining the material with other known types of spent nuclear fuel. Because the PRTR operated more than 40 years ago, investigators had to rely on a combination of researching archived documents, and utilizing common-sense estimates coupled with bounding assumptions, to determine that the fuel items could be handled safely with other spent nuclear fuel in the storage basin. As older DOE facilities across the nation are shut down and cleaned out, the potential for more discoveries of this nature is increasing. As in this case, it is likely that only incomplete records will exist and that it will be increasingly difficult to immediately characterize the nature of the suspect fissionable

  1. Evidence of a southward eddy corridor in the South-West Indian ocean

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ansorge, IJ

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Mesoscale eddies and meanders have been shown to be one of the dominant sources of flow variability in the world s ocean. One example of an isolated eddy hotspot is the South-West Indian Ridge (SWIR). Several investigations have shown that the SWIR...

  2. Alien Planorbid (Mollusca, Gastropoda Pulmonata) from South West Africa erroneously recorded as Biomphalaria Pfeifferi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruggen, van A.C.

    1974-01-01

    In 1970 I published a record of the freshwater snail Biomphalaria pfeifferi (Krauss, 1848) (fam. Planorbidae) for South West Africa: "Sandamap Farm, Spitzkoppe" (Van Bruggen, 1970: 45, figs. 1-13). Dr. D. S. Brown of the Medical Research Council (London) kindly drew my attention to the fact that

  3. the relationships of the avifauna of the south west arid area of africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    came from the north; zoological facts suggest that African birds must have evolved within the continent, with .... discovered one in central Tanganyika, appears to have evolved in the South West Arid but to have left these ... seems to me that leucotis is more similar, in size and plumage pattern, to verticalis than to australis.

  4. Archaeological significance of trace element analysis of South West African potsherds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boule, G.J.; Peisach, M.; Jacobson, L.

    1979-01-01

    The archaeological study of early population movements in South West Africa/Namibia has been aided by trace element analysis of potsherds. The results suggest that the central areas of the country were populated by mobile groups of pastoralists and hunter-gatherers, while the northern areas were settled by sedentary peoples [af

  5. Growth of alfonsino Beryx splendens Lowe 1834 in the South-West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Age and growth of alfonsino Beryx splendens from South-West Indian Ocean seamounts were studied based on whole otolith readings. Ages of the fish under study ranged between one year and 14 years (15.5–43.5cm fork length). Age distribution was related to depth. The von Bertalanffy growth parameters for males were ...

  6. Fog-water harvesting along the West Coast of South Africa: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many parts of the West Coast of South Africa experience severe water shortages throughout the year. Despite the meager rainfall, however, the region is subject to a high incidence of fog which might provide water for water-poor communities. This paper investigates the fog water potential of the area. Since fog water ...

  7. Food habits of some deep-sea fish off South Africa's west coast. 2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The food habits of five species of eels and one species of spiny eel collected from the upper continental slope off the Cape west coast and Agulhas Bank, South Africa, are described. All are members of a defined demersal micro- or mesocarnivore feeding guild except Simenchelys parasitica, a scavenger. Two congrids ...

  8. Corporate Culture and University Goal Achievement in South-West Zone, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulkareem, Rasaq L.; Sheu, Adaramaja A.; Kayode, David J.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between culture and university goal achievement in South west geo-political zone, Nigeria. Specifically, the purpose was to find out the nature of the corporate culture and university goal achievement as well as to determine the relationship between corporate culture and university goal achievement in South…

  9. Situated Literacy Practices Amongst Artisans in the South West of Nigeria: Developmental and Pedagogical Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ade-Ojo, Gordon O.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports an aspect of a larger study on literacy practices, needs and perceptions of artisans in a part of the South West region of Nigeria. Using an ethnographic approach to research, it identified a variety of literacy practices, events and mediums, thus confirming the notion of literacy as social practice. The study employed a…

  10. Job Performance and Gender Factors of Administrative Staff in South West Nigeria Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olorunsola, E. O.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the level of administrative staff job performance in South West Nigerian universities and also investigates whether the administrative staff job performance is related to their sexual characteristics. An instrument titled Job Performance Questionnaire (JPQ) was used to collect the data and was administered 400 subjects in…

  11. Coping with drought risk: empirical analysis of farmers' drought adaption in the south-west Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Duinen, Rianne; Filatova, Tatiana; Geurts, Petrus A.T.M.; van der Veen, A.

    2014-01-01

    Climate change projections show that periods of droughts are likely to increase, causing decreasing water availability, salinization, and consequently farm income loss in the south-west Netherlands. Adaptation is the key to decrease a farmer's drought vulnerability and to secure the agricultural

  12. Marriage, Intimacy and Risk of HIV Infection in South West Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Long-term, monogamous, relationships are often portrayed as protective in HIV prevention campaigns. Focusing on marriage in a community in south west Uganda, we examine why and how people enter long term relationships, what their expectations are and what factors sustain those relationships. Qualitative data were ...

  13. Radiometric characteristics of heavy mineral deposits along the west coast of South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Macdonald, W.G.; Rozendaal, A.; de Meijer, R.J.

    During the last decade, exploration and mining of modern-Tertiary heavy mineral beach and raised beach sands along the west coast of South Africa has developed into a major industry. High resolution radiometric techniques have demonstrated their use as a quantitative indicator of total heavy mineral

  14. Modelling the impact of rural migration on tropical deforestation in South-West Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Rompaey, Anton; Debonne, N.; Vanmaercke, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    A major driver of tropical deforestation is rural frontier migration. In this paper an attempt is made to formally describe the human-environment interactions that are manifested in a forested system experiencing a large influx of rural migrants. The Guraferda district in South-West Ethiopia was

  15. the relationships of the avifauna of the south west arid area of africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some years ago, I discussed (Winterbottom 1959) the limits of the zoogeographical district well named by Chapin (1923) the South West Arid and extended it eastward to include the highveld grasslands of the Transvaal and Orange Free State which Chapin had excluded. Later, I (Winter- bottom 1966) considered its ...

  16. Surveys of virus diseases on pepper ( Capsicum spp.) in South-west ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Surveys to determine the incidence, diversity and distribution of viruses infecting pepper (Capsicum spp.) were conducted in six states (Oyo, Ondo, Osun, Ogun, Ekiti and Lagos) of South-west Nigeria in 2010 and 2011. Leaf samples from symptomatic and asymptomatic plants were collected at random from farmers' fields ...

  17. Spatiotemporal Assessment of Groundwater Resources in the South Platte Basin, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruybal, C. J.; McCray, J. E.; Hogue, T. S.

    2015-12-01

    The South Platte Basin is one of the most economically diverse and fastest growing basins in Colorado. Strong competition for water resources in an over-appropriated system brings challenges to meeting future water demands. Balancing the conjunctive use of surface water and groundwater from the South Platte alluvial aquifer and the Denver Basin aquifer system is critical for meeting future demands. Over the past decade, energy development in the basin has added to the competition for water resources, highlighting the need to advance our understanding of the availability and sustainability of groundwater resources. Current work includes evaluating groundwater storage changes and recharge regimes throughout the South Platte Basin under competing uses, e.g. agriculture, oil and gas, urban, recreational, and environmental. The Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment satellites in conjunction with existing groundwater data is used to evaluate spatiotemporal variability in groundwater storage and identify areas of high water stress. Spatiotemporal data will also be utilized to develop a high resolution groundwater model of the region. Results will ultimately help stakeholders in the South Platte Basin better understand groundwater resource challenges and contribute to Colorado's strategic future water planning.

  18. Application of Advanced Reservoir Characterization, Simulation, and Production Optimization Strategies to Maximize Recovery in Slope and Basin Clastic Reservoirs, West Texas (Delaware Basin)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutton, Shirley

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this Class 3 project was demonstrate that detailed reservoir characterization of slope and basin clastic reservoirs in sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico is a cost effective way to recover a higher percentage of the original oil in place through strategic placement of infill wells and geologically based field development. Project objectives are divided into two main phases. The original objectives of the reservoir-characterization phase of the project were (1) to provide a detailed understanding of the architecture and heterogeneity of two representative fields of the Delaware Mountain Group, Geraldine Ford and Ford West, which produce from the Bell Canyon and Cherry Canyon Formations, respectively, (2) to chose a demonstration area in one of the fields, and (3) to simulate a CO 2 flood in the demonstration area

  19. Sample Return Mission to the South Pole Aitken Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, M. B.; Clark, B. C.; Gamber, T.; Lucey, P. G.; Ryder, G.; Taylor, G. J.

    1999-01-01

    The South Pole Aitken Basin (SPA) is the largest and oldest observed feature on the Moon. Compositional and topographic data from Galileo, Clementine, and Lunar Prospector have demonstrated that SPA represents a distinctive major lunar terrane, which has not been sampled either by sample return missions (Apollo, Luna) or by lunar meteorites. The floor of SPA is characterized by mafic compositions enriched in Fe, Ti, and Th in comparison to its surroundings. This composition may represent melt rocks from the SPA event, which would be mixtures of the preexisting crust and mantle rocks. However, the Fe content is higher than expected, and the large Apollo basin, within SPA, exposes deeper material with lower iron content. Some of the Fe enrichment may represent mare and cryptomare deposits. No model adequately accounts for all of the characteristics of the SPA and disagreements are fundamental. Is mantle material exposed or contained as fragments in melt rock and breccias? If impact melt is present, did the vast sheet differentiate? Was the initial mantle and crust compositionally different from other regions of the Moon? Was the impact event somehow peculiar, (e.g., a low-velocity impact)? The precise time of formation of the SPA is unknown, being limited only by the initial differentiation of the Moon and the age of the Imbrium event, believed to be 3.9 b.y. The questions raised by the SPA can be addressed only with detailed sample analysis. Analysis of the melt rocks, fragments in breccias, and basalts of SPA can address several highly significant problems for the Moon and the history of the solar system. The time of formation of SPA, based on analysis of melt rocks formed in the event. would put limits on the period of intense bombardment of the Moon, which has been inferred by some to include a "terminal cataclysm." If close to 3.9 Ga, the presumed age of the Imbrium Basin, the SPA date would confirm the lunar cataclysm. This episode, if it occurred, would have

  20. Beyond water, beyond boundaries: spaces of water management in the Krishna river basin, South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venot, Jean-Philippe; Bharati, Luna; Giordano, Mark; Molle, François

    2011-01-01

    As demand and competition for water resources increase, the river basin has become the primary unit for water management and planning. While appealing in principle, practical implementation of river basin management and allocation has often been problematic. This paper examines the case of the Krishna basin in South India. It highlights that conflicts over basin water are embedded in a broad reality of planning and development where multiple scales of decisionmaking and non-water issues are at play. While this defines the river basin as a disputed "space of dependence", the river basin has yet to acquire a social reality. It is not yet a "space of engagement" in and for which multiple actors take actions. This explains the endurance of an interstate dispute over the sharing of the Krishna waters and sets limits to what can be achieved through further basin water allocation and adjudication mechanisms – tribunals – that are too narrowly defined. There is a need to extend the domain of negotiation from that of a single river basin to multiple scales and to non-water sectors. Institutional arrangements for basin management need to internalise the political spaces of the Indian polity: the states and the panchayats. This re-scaling process is more likely to shape the river basin as a space of engagement in which partial agreements can be iteratively renegotiated, and constitute a promising alternative to the current interstate stalemate.

  1. USING SRTM TO QUANTIFY SIZE PARAMETERS AND SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF ENDORHEIC BASINS IN SOUTHERN SOUTH AMERICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Hesse

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The SRTM data set is the highest resolution DEM with global or continental coverage. It is therefore theDEM of choice for continental-scale geomorphological mapping and quantitative analysis. In this study,SRTM data are used for the identification and characterisation of endorheic basins in southern SouthAmerica (south of 19°S. The results show the feasibility of continental-scale quantitative geomorphologybased on SRTM data and provide insights into the distribution of closed basins. The largest endorheicbasin is located in the Puna region and consists of several interconnected sub-basins. This basin accountsfor 38.6 % (7877 km3 of the total volume of the endorheic basins identified in this study. Analyses of thegeographic distribution show a narrow longitudinal distribution between 64.5 and 71.5° W and a multimodallatitudinal distribution which is characterised by two groups of basins at 22.5–27.5°S and 37.5–50.0° Sand an almost complete absence of basins between 27.5 and 37.5° S. Problems and sources ofmisinterpretation arising from data quality and resolution are discussed. Further research, targeting in particularthe genesis and potential for paleoenvironmental reconstruction of closed basins in southern Argentina, iscalled for.

  2. Climatology and Landfall of Tropical Cyclones in the South- West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    with a substantial increase (about 0.3˚C) in sea surface temperature. However, it is ... Julian (1994). El Niño is known to cause increased cyclone activity in the South and in the North-East. Pacific, but decreased activity in the North Atlantic.

  3. Study of ecological situation for the West Kazakhstan south districts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreeva, N.P.; Bolotov, B.M.; Gajtinov, A.Sh.; Zashkvara, O.V.; Matveeva, I.M.; Polyakov, A.I.; Ryabikin, Yu.A.; Chasnikov, I.Ya.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper the results of comprehensive research for ecological status of Karabota, Kaztal, Dzhangaly, Dzhanibek and Akzhaik districts of the West Kazakhstan districts adjoining to 'Kapustin Yar' and A zgir' test sites are presented. In the indicated districts the following examinations were conducted: analysis of soils samples; bottom sediments, flora and fauna samples for determination of radionuclide and heavy metals content in its; determination of absorption dose with population by the EPR dosimetry method by human teeth enamel; study of α-radiation accumulation in a diverse trees' annual rings

  4. Bedrock morphology and structure, upper Santa Cruz Basin, south-central Arizona, with transient electromagnetic survey data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bultman, Mark W.; Page, William R.

    2016-10-31

    susceptibilities of rocks found in the study area, and estimated natural remanent magnetic intensities and directions, reasonable geologic models can be built. This indicates that the depth to bedrock map is reason-able and geologically possible.Finally, CDTs derived from the 1998 Santa Cruz Basin transient electromagnetic survey were used to help identify basin structure and some physical properties of the basin fill in the study area. The CDTs also helped to confirm depth to bedrock estimates in the Santa Cruz Basin, in particular a region of elevated bedrock in the area of Potrero Canyon, and a deep basin in the location of the Arizona State Highway 82 microbasin. The CDTs identified many concealed faults in the study area and possibly indicate deep water-saturated clay-rich sediments in the west-central portion of the study area. These sediments grade to more sand-rich saturated sediments to the south with relatively thick, possibly unsaturated, sediments at the surface. Also, the CDTs may indicate deep saturated clay-rich sediments in the Highway 82 microbasin and in the Mount Benedict horst block from Proto Canyon south to the international border.

  5. Placer chromite along south Maharashtra, central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gujar, A.R.; Ambre, N.V.; Iyer, S.D.; Mislankar, P.G.; Loveson, V.J.

    . An examination of the electron photomicrographs revealed several features of the chromite grains (Figure 5 c to f ). Grains display mechanical breaking such as con- choidal to sub-conchoidal fractures, V-shaped impact depressions and irregular cracks... . In this article we describe the occurrence, mineralogy, geochemistry, transport mechanisms, provenance and economic feasibility of the chromite deposit of south Maharashtra coast. Methodology Surficial and sub-surficial samples from various physi- ographic...

  6. Public Interests in the International Court of Justice—A Comparison Between Nuclear Arms Race and South West Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venzke, I.

    2017-01-01

    In the present essay I compare the 2016 judgment of the International Court of Justice (ICJ) in Nuclear Arms Race (Marshall Islands v. United Kingdom) with the Court's 1966 judgment in South West Africa (Ethiopia v. South Africa; Liberia v. South Africa). A series of similarities between the two

  7. The metallogenic role of east-west fracture zones in South America with regard to the motion of lithospheric plates (with an example from Brazil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutina, J.; Carter, William D.; Lopez, F.X.

    1978-01-01

    The role of east-west fracture zones in South America is discussed with regard to global fracturing and the motion of lithospheric plates. A set of major NW-trending lineaments has been derived which show a tendency to be spaced equidistantly and may correspond to a set of east-west fractures in the "pre-drift" position of the South American plate. Statistical analysis of linears in the ERTS-mosaics shows that NW-fractures are also among the most important ones in the Andes region, suggesting that the above major lineaments extend into the basement of the Andes. Some of the old major fractures, trending east-west in the present orientation of South America, are discussed and their NE orientation in the pre-drift position of the plate is considered. An example of structural control of ore deposition in the Brazilian Shield is presented, using the maps of the RADAM Project. It is concluded that the small tin-bearing granitic bodies concentrated in the region of Sao Felix do Xingu in the state of Para represent upper parts of an unexposed granitoid massif which is controlled by the intersection of a major east-west fracture zone probably represents westward extension of the Patos Lineament of the easternmost part of Brazil, connected with the east-west fracture zone of the Para state through the basement of the Maranhao Basin (Sineclise do Maranhao-Piaui). It is expected that the proposed "Patos-Para Lineament" extends further westward and may similarly control, at intersections with fractures of other trends, some mineralization centers in the western part of the state of Para and in the state of Amazonas.

  8. Petroleum systems in rift basins – a collective approach in South-east Asian basins.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doust, H.; Sumner, D.

    2007-01-01

    This paper synthesizes some of the main conclusions reached in a recent regional review of the Tertiary basins of Southeast Asia, carried out by Shell. Four distinctive types of petroleum systems, correlating with the four main stages of basin evolution (early to late syn-rift and early to late

  9. A basin on an unstable ground: Correlation of the Middle Archaean Moodies Basin, Barberton Greenstone Belt, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnemueller, Frank; Heubeck, Christoph; Kirstein, Jens; Gamper, Antonia

    2010-05-01

    The 3.22 Ga-old Moodies Group, representing the uppermost part of the Barberton Supergroup of the Barberton Greenstone Belt (BGB), is the oldest well-exposed, relatively unmetamorphosed, quartz-rich sedimentary unit on Earth. Moodies facies (north of the Inyoka Fault) were thought to be largely of alluvial, fluvial, deltaic or shallow-marine origin (Anhaeusser, 1976; Eriksson, 1980; Heubeck and Lowe, 1994) and in its upper part syndeformational. However, units can only locally be correlated, and the understanding of the interplay between Moodies sedimentation and deformation is thus limited. We mapped and measured Moodies units in the northern BGB. They partly consist of extensive turbiditic deepwater deposits, including graded bedding, flame structures, and slumped beds, interbedded with jaspilites. These contrast with shallow-water environments, south-facing progressive unconformities and overlying alluvial-fan conglomerates along the northern margin of the Saddleback Syncline further south. The palaeogeographic setting in which late BGB deformation was initiated therefore appears complex and cannot be readily explained by a simple southward-directed shortening event. In order to constrain Moodies basin setting before and during late-Moodies basin collapse, we correlated ~15 measured sections in the northern and central BGB. Most units below the Moodies Lava (MdL, ca. 3230.6+-6 Ma) can be correlated throughout although facies variations are apparent. Above the Moodies Lava, coarse-grained units can only be correlated through the Eureka Syncline and the Moodies Hills Block but not with the Saddleback Syncline. Fine-grained and jaspilitic units can be correlated throughout the northern BGB. Moodies below-wavebase deposition occurred largely north of the Saddleback Fault. The observations are consistent with a pronounced basin compartmentalization event following the eruption of the MdL which appeared to have blanketed most of the Moodies basin(s) in middle Moodies

  10. Mapping of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis in the regions of Littoral, North-West, South and South-West Cameroon and recommendations for treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The previous nationwide mapping of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH) in Cameroon was conducted 25 years ago. Based on its results, mass drug administration (MDA) of praziquantel was limited to the three northern regions and few health districts in the southern part of Cameroon. In 2010, we started the process of updating the disease distribution in order to improve the control strategies. Three of the ten regions of Cameroon were mapped in 2010 and the data were published. In 2011, surveys were conducted in four additional regions, i.e. Littoral, North-West, South and South-West. Methods Parasitological surveys were conducted in March 2011 in selected schools in all 65 health districts of the four targeted regions, using appropriate research methodologies, i.e. Kato-Katz and urine filtration. Results The results showed significant variation of schistosomiasis and STH prevalence between schools, villages, districts and regions. Schistosoma haematobium was the most prevalent schistosome species, with an overall prevalence of 3.2%, followed by S. mansoni (3%) and S. guineensis (1.2%). The overall prevalence of schistosomiasis across the four regions was 7.4% (95% CI: 6.7-8.3%). The prevalence for Ascaris lumbricoides was 19.5% (95% CI: 18.3-20.7%), Trichuris trichiura 18.9% (95% CI: 17.7-20.1%) and hookworms 7.6% (95% CI: 6.8-8.4%), with an overall STH prevalence of 32.5% (95% CI: 31.1-34.0%) across the four regions. STH was more prevalent in the South region (52.8%; 95% CI: 48.0-57.3%), followed by the South-West (46.2%; 95% CI: 43.2-49.3%), the North-West (35.9%; 95% CI: 33.1-38.7%) and the Littoral (13.0%; 95% CI: 11.3-14.9%) regions. Conclusions In comparison to previous data in 1985–87, the results showed an increase of schistosomiasis transmission in several health districts, whereas there was a significant decline of STH infections. Based on the prevalence data, the continuation of annual or bi-annual MDA for STH is

  11. Mapping of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis in the regions of Littoral, North-West, South and South-West Cameroon and recommendations for treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchuem Tchuenté, Louis-Albert; Dongmo Noumedem, Calvine; Ngassam, Pierre; Kenfack, Christian Mérimé; Gipwe, Nestor Feussom; Dankoni, Esther; Tarini, Ann; Zhang, Yaobi

    2013-12-23

    The previous nationwide mapping of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH) in Cameroon was conducted 25 years ago. Based on its results, mass drug administration (MDA) of praziquantel was limited to the three northern regions and few health districts in the southern part of Cameroon. In 2010, we started the process of updating the disease distribution in order to improve the control strategies. Three of the ten regions of Cameroon were mapped in 2010 and the data were published. In 2011, surveys were conducted in four additional regions, i.e. Littoral, North-West, South and South-West. Parasitological surveys were conducted in March 2011 in selected schools in all 65 health districts of the four targeted regions, using appropriate research methodologies, i.e. Kato-Katz and urine filtration. The results showed significant variation of schistosomiasis and STH prevalence between schools, villages, districts and regions. Schistosoma haematobium was the most prevalent schistosome species, with an overall prevalence of 3.2%, followed by S. mansoni (3%) and S. guineensis (1.2%). The overall prevalence of schistosomiasis across the four regions was 7.4% (95% CI: 6.7-8.3%). The prevalence for Ascaris lumbricoides was 19.5% (95% CI: 18.3-20.7%), Trichuris trichiura 18.9% (95% CI: 17.7-20.1%) and hookworms 7.6% (95% CI: 6.8-8.4%), with an overall STH prevalence of 32.5% (95% CI: 31.1-34.0%) across the four regions. STH was more prevalent in the South region (52.8%; 95% CI: 48.0-57.3%), followed by the South-West (46.2%; 95% CI: 43.2-49.3%), the North-West (35.9%; 95% CI: 33.1-38.7%) and the Littoral (13.0%; 95% CI: 11.3-14.9%) regions. In comparison to previous data in 1985-87, the results showed an increase of schistosomiasis transmission in several health districts, whereas there was a significant decline of STH infections. Based on the prevalence data, the continuation of annual or bi-annual MDA for STH is recommended, as well as an extension of

  12. Sampling and analysis plan for sludge located in fuel storage canisters of the 105-K West basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, R.B.

    1997-01-01

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) provides direction for the first sampling of sludge from the K West Basin spent fuel canisters. The specially developed sampling equipment removes representative samples of sludge while maintaining the radioactive sample underwater in the basin pool (equipment is described in WHC-SD-SNF-SDD-004). Included are the basic background logic for sample selection, the overall laboratory analyses required and the laboratory reporting required. These are based on requirements put forth in the data quality objectives (WHC-SD-SNF-DQO-012) established for this sampling and characterization activity

  13. Cenozoic Tectonic Characteristics in the Adare Basin, West Ross Sea: Evidence From Seismic Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Q.; Gao, J.; Ding, W.

    2017-12-01

    Based on the geophysical data obtained from the Adare Basin and its adjacent areas, West Ross Sea, the authors employed the frequency wave-number filtering technique to recover the newly processed dataset with high signal noise ratio and complete seismic event which highly contributes to reveal more detailed deep-seated geological structures than previously thought. The structural features and magmatism of the study area in Cenozoic were classified and analyzed. Combined with glaciation, the associated sedimentary facies were summarized systematically. The authors' analysis revealed that, at 16 Ma, under the influence of the thermal effect caused by residual magmatism and asymmetric spreading of Adare Basin in the initial period, surrounding areas of two flanks of the Adare trough were characterized by uplift folds and tilted uplift zone, respectively. The small-scale uplift fold zone was characterized by nearly upright faults and folds and was located in the southern part of the eastern flank, whereas the tilted uplift zone dominated in the corresponding district of western flank that reached the continental margin. By utilizing the contact relationship between igneous rocks and surrounding rocks, igneous rocks can be divided into two periods: early-stage and late Cenozoic igneous rocks. The early-stage rocks are generally located dispersedly in the tilted uplift zone and the age is poorly known. It is suggested that they were related to the residual magmatism. On the other hand, the spatial distribution of Late Cenozoic igneous rocks, formed not earlier 5.5 Ma, was extensive and scattered, almost covering the whole study area, which indicates that they might be unrelated to the rifting in space and time, instead they were affected by decompression melting of the mantle because of the large-scale deglaciation since Pliocene.

  14. Predicting the downstream impact of ensembles of small reservoirs with special reference to the Volta Basin, West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Giesen, N.; Andreini, M.; Liebe, J.; Steenhuis, T.; Huber-Lee, A.

    2005-12-01

    After a strong reduction in investments in water infrastructure in Sub-Saharan Africa, we now see a revival and increased interest to start water-related projects. The global political willingness to work towards the UN millennium goals are an important driver behind this recent development. Large scale irrigation projects, such as were constructed at tremendous costs in the 1970's and early 1980's, are no longer seen as the way forward. Instead, the construction of a large number of small, village-level irrigation schemes is thought to be a more effective way to improve food production. Such small schemes would fit better in existing and functioning governance structures. An important question now becomes what the cumulative (downstream) impact is of a large number of small irrigation projects, especially when they threaten to deplete transboundary water resources. The Volta Basin in West Africa is a transboundary river catchment, divided over six countries. Of these six countries, upstream Burkina Faso and downstream Ghana are the most important and cover 43% and 42% of the basin, respectively. In Burkina Faso (and also North Ghana), small reservoirs and associated irrigation schemes are already an important means to improve the livelihoods of the rural population. In fact, over two thousand such schemes have already been constructed in Burkina Faso and further construction is to be expected in the light of the UN millennium goals. The cumulative impact of these schemes would affect the Akosombo Reservoir, one of the largest manmade lakes in the world and an important motor behind the economic development in (South) Ghana. This presentation will put forward an analytical framework that allows for the impact assessment of (large) ensembles of small reservoirs. It will be shown that despite their relatively low water use efficiencies, the overall impact remains low compared to the impact of large dams. The tools developed can be used in similar settings elsewhere

  15. Assessment of ASN inspections apart from BNI (Greater South West)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menechal, Ph.

    2008-01-01

    After having recalled recent evolutions of the ASN's organization (the French nuclear safety authority) and its basic missions (regulation elaboration, decisions, control of nuclear activities and installations, public information), the author presents the Bordeaux ASN's department which is in charge of the south-western part of France. He indicates and comments some data illustrating the performed actions and missions. He describes the objectives and procedures of inspection which may depend on the activity (external radiotherapy, interventional radiology, research laboratories). He assesses theses inspections in terms of radioprotection organization, of risk assessment and of definition of regulated areas, of personnel classification and dosimetric follow-on, of training of exposed personnel, of medical follow-on, of radioprotection control, of training of patients to radioprotection, of source management, and of waste and effluent management

  16. Testing and sampling of deep brine aquifers in the Palo Duro Basin, West Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deyling, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    The US Department of Energy is investigating the Palo Duro Basin of West Texas along with locations in Nevada, Washington, Utah, Mississippi and Louisiana as potential sites for storage of high-level nuclear waste. Ten wells have been drilled to depths between 3000 and 8300 feet. Testing and sampling of deep test zones requires advance planning and analysis of what must be obtained from the well. Various alternatives are available depending on data needs. In this particular instance, both hydrologic and geochemical data were required. The methods chosen were field proven methods used in the oil field industry for many years. Short term testing has included conventional oil-field-type drill stem tests and drill stem equipment with surface pressure readout. Long term testing has consisted of a series of production and recovery tests. Fluid sampling was performed in two stages. The first was at the well head under an imposed pressure of several hundred psi. The second fluid samples were collected downhole at the production zone under pressures close to ambient pressure. The geochemical data and hydrologic data can be used as independent checks on each other in many cases. Test results from the well along with examination of recovered core provided maximum data for each well. 5 references, 8 figures

  17. Intercomparison of Evapotranspiration Over the Savannah Volta Basin in West Africa Using Remote Sensing Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. P. Burt

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares evapotranspiration estimates from two complementary satellite sensors – NASA’s Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS and ESA’s ENVISAT Advanced Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR over the savannah area of the Volta basin in West Africa. This was achieved through solving for evapotranspiration on the basis of the regional energy balance equation, which was computationally-driven by the Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land algorithm (SEBAL. The results showed that both sensors are potentially good sources of evapotranspiration estimates over large heterogeneous landscapes. The MODIS sensor measured daily evapotranspiration reasonably well with a strong spatial correlation (R2=0.71 with Landsat ETM+ but underperformed with deviations up to ~2.0 mm day-1, when compared with local eddy correlation observations and the Penman-Monteith method mainly because of scale mismatch. The AATSR sensor produced much poorer correlations (R2=0.13 with Landsat ETM+ and conventional ET methods also because of differences in atmospheric correction and sensor calibration over land.

  18. Frasnian reef and basinal strata of West Central Alberta: A combined sedimentological and biostratigraphic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weissenberger, J.A.W. (Imperial Oil Resources Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada))

    1994-03-01

    The depositional history for the Frasnian in the Nordegg area is interpreted and illustrated on cross sections and paleogeographic maps. Carbonate deposition began with the flooding of the West Alberta Arch and the deposition of the upper Swan Hills Formation during the Lower asymmetrica Zone. Transgression in the Middle asymmetrica Zone initiated the basinal Cline Channel and Duvernay Formation shale deposition, while the time equivalent Cooking Lake Formation was deposited on the drowned Swan Hills platform. The overlying lower Leduc Formation shows backstepping and aggradational reef margin stacking patterns. Maximum relief from the carbonate platform to surrounding Duvernay Formation shale during the Upper asymmetrica Zone was 100 m. Aggradation and backstepping was repeated in the Ancyrognathus trianularis Zone, with syndepositional relief reaching 170 m at the Wapiabi Gap reef margin. Platfrom-margin profiles were controlled by physical factors such as dominant wind direction and currents. On the Ram Range the margin backstepped, but then aggraded at Cripple Creek. At Wapiabi Gap, to the north on the Bighorn Range, the margin was dominantly aggradational. Ireton Formation shale deposition was also influenced by currents. In the Lower gigas Zone, the Leduc carbonate platform reached a maximum syndepositional relief at 220 m. A change from dominantly biohermal to biostromal platform margins occurred. A prograding wedge of Ireton Formation shale filled much of the relief in the Cline Channel, while the upper Leduc platform was drowned. Finally, the progradational Nisku Formation was deposited during the Upper gigas Zone. 70 refs., 20 figs.

  19. Duvernay shale lithofacies distribution analysis in the West Canadian Sedimentary Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Houqin; Kong, Xiangwen; Long, Huashan; Huai, Yinchao

    2018-02-01

    In the West Canadian Sedimentary Basin (WCSB), Duvernay shale is considered to contribute most of the Canadian shale gas reserve and production. According to global shale gas exploration and development practice, reservoir property and well completion quality are the two key factors determining the shale gas economics. The two key factors are strongly depending on shale lithofacies. On the basis of inorganic mineralogy theory, all available thin section, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) data were used to assist lithofacies analysis. Gamma ray (GR), acoustic (AC), bulk density (RHOB), neutron porosity (NPHI) and photoelectric absorption cross-section index (PE) were selected for log response analysis of various minerals. Reservoir representative equation was created constrained by quantitative core analysis results, and matrix mineral percentage of quartz, carbonate, feldspar and pyrite were calculated to classify shale lithofacies. Considering the horizontal continuity of seismic data, rock physics model was built, and acoustic impedance integrated with core data and log data was used to predict the horizontal distribution of different lithofacies. The results indicate that: (1) nine lithofacies can be categorized in Duvernay shale, (2) the horizontal distribution of different lithofacies is quite diversified, siliceous shale mainly occurs in Simonette area, calcareous shale is prone to develop in the vicinity of reef, while calcareous-siliceous shale dominates in Willesdon Green area.

  20. Epidemiology of west nile in europe and in the mediterranean basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calistri, Paolo; Giovannini, Armando; Hubalek, Zdenek; Ionescu, Aurelia; Monaco, Federica; Savini, Giovanni; Lelli, Rossella

    2010-04-22

    In the last 30 years several cases of West Nile (WN) virus infection were reported in horses and humans in Europe and in the Mediterranean Basin. Most of them were determined by strains of the Lineage 1 included in the European Mediterranean/Kenyan cluster. Strains of this cluster are characterised by a moderate pathogenicity for horses and humans and limited or no pathogenicity for birds. In recent years, however, WN cases determined by strains grouped in the Israeli/American cluster of Lineage 1 or in the lineage 2 have been reported in Hungary and Austria. The role of migrating birds in introducing new viruses to Europe has been often demonstrated. The migratory birds, which may be infected in their African wintering places, carry the virus northward to European sites during spring migrations. In the past, the virus introduction determined occasional cases of WN. In the recent years, new epidemiological scenarios are developing. In few occasions it has been evidenced the capability of WNV strains of overwintering by using local birds and mosquitoes. Species of Culex amongst mosquitoes and magpies (Pica pica), carrion crows (Corvus corone) and rock pigeons (Columba livia) amongst resident birds are the most probable species involved in this hypothetical WND endemic cycle.

  1. West Siberian basin hydrogeology - regional framework for contaminant migration from injected wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foley, M.G.

    1994-05-01

    Nuclear fuel cycle activities of the former Soviet Union (FSU) have resulted in massive contamination of the environment in western Siberia. We are developing three-dimensional numerical models of the hydrogeology and potential contaminant migration in the West Siberian Basin. Our long-term goal at Pacific Northwest Laboratory is to help determine future environmental and human impacts given the releases that have occurred to date and the current waste management practices. In FY 1993, our objectives were to (1) refine and implement the hydrogeologic conceptual models of the regional hydrogeology of western Siberia developed in FY 1992 and develop the detailed, spatially registered digital geologic and hydrologic databases to test them, (2) calibrate the computer implementation of the conceptual models developed in FY 1992, and (3) develop general geologic and hydrologic information and preliminary hydrogeologic conceptual models relevant to the more detailed models of contaminated site hydrogeology. Calibration studies of the regional hydrogeologic computer model suggest that most precipitation entering the ground-water system moves in the near-surface part of the system and discharges to surface waters relatively near its point of infiltration. This means that wastes discharged to the surface and near-surface may not be isolated as well as previously thought, since the wastes may be carried to the surface by gradually rising ground waters

  2. Saghro Group in the Ougnat Massif (Morocco), an evidence for a continuous Cadomian basin along the northern West African Craton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michard, André; Soulaimani, Abderrahmane; Ouanaimi, Hassan; Raddi, Youssef; Aït Brahim, Lahsen; Rjimati, Ech-Cherki; Baidder, Lahssen; Saddiqi, Omar

    2017-03-01

    The Saghro Group (SG) is a folded, low-grade volcano-sedimentary series up to 8 km thick that crops out within and to the north of the Pan-African suture zone in the central and eastern Anti-Atlas. Here we describe the SG of the Ougnat inliers that are exposed in the easternmost Anti-Atlas beneath the unconformable, Late Ediacaran Ouarzazate Group (OZG) volcanic rocks. The Ougnat SG mostly consists of volcaniclastic greywackes accumulated in a peritidal-to-shallow basin. The basin infilling was deformed by NNE-trending, mostly upright folds with axial-planar slaty cleavage and low-grade metamorphism. The deformed SG rocks were intruded by the ∼550 Ma Mellab hypovolcanic granodiorite. The latter also crosscuts the lowest OZG rocks that are dated to 574-571 Ma in the western Saghro region. The SG rocks that form the Siroua and Saghro inliers have an oldest age of 620-610 Ma and were folded at ∼610-580 Ma at the onset of the Cadomian orogenic events. We show that the SG rocks are similar to the ;Série verte; (SV) rocks that are exposed in the Ougarta and western Hoggar east of the Pan-African suture. We infer that the SG and SV rocks accumulated in a same, continuous basin that was bounding the West African Craton to the north and the east. This strongly subsiding basin formed close to a volcanic arc and was folded during the last Pan-African synmetamorphic events. Fold orientation and age of folding differ however along the edge of the West African Craton. The orogenic greywackes that form the remnants of the SG-SV basin thus constitute a precious record of the diachronic Cadomian event s.l. along the West African Craton northern margin.

  3. West Nile Review: 15 Years of Human Disease in South Dakota, 2002-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kightlinger, Lon

    2017-08-01

    During the past 15 years, 2002-2016, West Nile virus (WNV) has emerged in South Dakota resulting in 509 neuroinvasive disease (NID) cases, 745 hospitalizations and 38 deaths. Culex tarsalis is the state's primary mosquito vector. South Dakota's average annual incidence of WNV-NID and death rate are the highest of any state in the U.S. WNV cases have been reported from all counties in the state. All age groups have been infected with cases peaking in the 40-44 year age group, but deaths peaking in cases 70 years and older. Although South Dakota's WNV season lasts six months, May-October, the first week of August has been the peak week of WNV disease onsets. West Nile is now enzootic in South Dakota. Every citizen, local mosquito control programs, medical and public health infrastructures must continue to prevent and respond to annual WNV outbreaks, and prepare for the next arboviral disease to emerge. Copyright© South Dakota State Medical Association.

  4. Medicinal plants used by traditional healers from South-west Algeria: an ethnobotanical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bachir Benarba

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to document and analyze the local knowledge of medicinal plants’ use by traditional healers in South-west Algeria. The ethnobotanical survey was conducted in two Saharian regions of South-west of Algeria: Adrar and Bechar. In total, twenty-two local traditional healers were interviewed using semi-structured questionnaire and open questions. Use value (UV, fidelity level (FL and Informant Consensus Factor (FIC were used to analyze the obtained data. Our results showed that 83 medicinal plants species belonging to 38 families are used by traditional healers from South-west of Algeria to treat several ailments. Lamiaceae, Asteraceae, Apiaceae and Fabaceae were the most dominant families with 13, 8, 6 and 4 species respectively. Leaves were the plant parts mostly used (36%, followed by seeds (18%, aerial parts (17% and roots (12%. Furthermore, decoction was the major mode of preparation (49% and oral administration was the most preferred (80%. Thymus vulgaris L. (UV=1.045, Zingiber officinale (UV=0.863, Trigonella foenum-graecum L. (UV=0.590, Rosmarinus officinalis L. (UV=0.545 and Ruta chalepensis L. (UV=0.5 were the most frequently species used by local healers. A great informant consensus has been demonstrated for kidney (0.727, cancer (0.687, digestive (0.603 and respiratory diseases. The present study revealed rich ethnomedicinal knowledge in South-west Algeria. The reported species with high use-value, fidelity level and informant consensus factor could be of great interest for further pharmacological studies. [J Complement Med Res 2016; 5(4.000: 320-330

  5. Nutrient environment of red tide- infested waters off south-west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Joseph, T.; Shaiju, P.; Laluraj, C.M.; Balachandran, K.K.; Nair, M.; George, R.; Nair, K.K.C.; Sahayak, S.; Prabhakaran, M.P.

    /Accepted: 28 August 2007 /Published online: 19 September 2007 # Springer Science + Business Media B.V. 2007 Abstract The bloom-infested waters along the south- west coast of India were assessed to bring about... tides, a natural phenomenon, are now common in many coastal waters. Various factors contribute to red tide formation such as insolation, wind, rain, salinity and nutrient input from land or by upwelling. Nitrogen and phosphorus are involved in phytoplank...

  6. Shoreline change detection from Karwar to Gokarna - South West coast of India using remotely Sensed data

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Choudhary, R.; Gowthaman, R.; SanilKumar, V.

    -494 #02060313 Copyright ©2013 CAFET-INNOVA TECHNICAL SOCIETY. All rights reserved. Shoreline change detection from Karwar to Gokarna - South West coast of India using remotely Sensed data RICHA CHOUDHARY 1 , R. GOWTHAMAN 2 AND V. SANIL KUMAR 2 1... years period. Gangavali river mouth has narrowed due to siltation. Significant changes in the geomorphic features like spit growth, braided island, creeks, tidal flat are observed near Kali and Gangavali river mouth. Keywords: Remote sensing...

  7. Tsunami impacts on morphology of beaches along south Kerala coast, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rasheed, K.A.A.; Das, V.K.; Revichandran, C.; Vijayan, P.R.; Thottam, T.J.

    TSUNAMI IMPACTS ON MORPHOLOGY OF BEACHES ALONG SOUTH KERALA COAST, WEST COAST OF INDIA K. A. Abdul Rasheed *, V. Kesava Das, C. Revichandran, P. R. Vijayan and Tony. J. Thottam National Institute of Oceanography (NIO), Regional Centre (RC... large waves of height 11 to 11.5m in Kutch region (Pendse 1945). Most of the tsunamis are generated by the earthquake-initiated seabed displacements. Landslides (including underwater landslides), volcanic eruptions, impact of large objects (such...

  8. Regional Dimensions of South Africa's CAADP Process: Lessons from West Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Haggblade, Steven; Staaz, John; Boughton, Duncan; Diallo, Boubacar; Meyer, Ferdinand; Minde, Issac Joseph; Traub, Lulama Ndibongo; Tschirley, David

    2015-01-01

    Regional spillovers offer prospects for accelerating Africa’s agricultural productivity growth, market development and food security. West Africa has recognised and embraced the importance of regional technology transfers, agricultural commodity trade, food security monitoring and agricultural planning. In order for the Southern African region to follow suit, South Africa’s country Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Programme (CAADP) plan will need to recognise the country’s c...

  9. Hydrological response to bauxite mining and rehabilitation in the jarrah forest in south west Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew H. Grigg

    2017-01-01

    Study region: Jarrah forest in south west Australia. Study focus: The hydrological response to bauxite mining in the jarrah forest could differ from other land uses such as timber harvesting or clearing for agriculture, since mining involves excavation of the upper regolith in addition to changes in forest cover due to clearing and subsequent rehabilitation. Three catchments, one subject to mining, a second subject to an intensive forest thinning treatment and an untreated control were mon...

  10. Late Quaternary stratigraphy, sedimentology, and geochemistry of an underfilled lake basin in the Puna (north-west Argentina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlue, Michael M.; Cohen, Andrew S.; Ellis, Geoffrey S.; Kowler, Andrew L.

    2013-01-01

    Depositional models of ancient lakes in thin-skinned retroarc foreland basins rarely benefit from appropriate Quaternary analogues. To address this, we present new stratigraphic, sedimentological and geochemical analyses of four radiocarbon-dated sediment cores from the Pozuelos Basin (PB; northwest Argentina) that capture the evolution of this low-accommodation Puna basin over the past ca. 43 cal kyr. Strata from the PB are interpreted as accumulations of a highly variable, underfilled lake system represented by lake-plain/littoral, profundal, palustrine, saline lake and playa facies associations. The vertical stacking of facies is asymmetric, with transgressive and thin organic-rich highstand deposits underlying thicker, organic-poor regressive deposits. The major controls on depositional architecture and basin palaeogeography are tectonics and climate. Accommodation space was derived from piggyback basin-forming flexural subsidence and Miocene-Quaternary normal faulting associated with incorporation of the basin into the Andean hinterland. Sediment and water supply was modulated by variability in the South American summer monsoon, and perennial lake deposits correlate in time with several well-known late Pleistocene wet periods on the Altiplano/Puna plateau. Our results shed new light on lake expansion–contraction dynamics in the PB in particular and provide a deeper understanding of Puna basin lakes in general.

  11. Spatial variability in phytoplankton community structure along the eastern Arabian Sea during the onset of south-west monsoon

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ahmed, A.; Kurian, S.; Gauns, M.; ChndrasekharaRao, A.V.; Mulla, A.; Naik, B.; Naik, H.; Naqvi, S.W.A.

    The Arabian Sea experiences moderate to weak upwelling along the south-west coast of India, which subsequently propagates towards the north. This causes variation in plankton community composition, which is addressed in the present study. Here we...

  12. Seasonal distribution of temperature and salinity in the surface waters off South West Africa, 1972-1974

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O'Toole, M. J

    1980-01-01

    Monthly distribution charts of surface water temperature and salinity off the coast of South West Africa between Cape Frio and Hollams Bird Island are presented for the periods August 1972 to March...

  13. Changes in the geographical distribution of plant species and climatic variables on the West Cornwall peninsula (South West UK).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosanic, Aleksandra; Anderson, Karen; Harrison, Stephan; Turkington, Thea; Bennie, Jonathan

    2018-01-01

    Recent climate change has had a major impact on biodiversity and has altered the geographical distribution of vascular plant species. This trend is visible globally; however, more local and regional scale research is needed to improve understanding of the patterns of change and to develop appropriate conservation strategies that can minimise cultural, health, and economic losses at finer scales. Here we describe a method to manually geo-reference botanical records from a historical herbarium to track changes in the geographical distributions of plant species in West Cornwall (South West England) using both historical (pre-1900) and contemporary (post-1900) distribution records. We also assess the use of Ellenberg and climate indicator values as markers of responses to climate and environmental change. Using these techniques we detect a loss in 19 plant species, with 6 species losing more than 50% of their previous range. Statistical analysis showed that Ellenberg (light, moisture, nitrogen) and climate indicator values (mean January temperature, mean July temperature and mean precipitation) could be used as environmental change indicators. Significantly higher percentages of area lost were detected in species with lower January temperatures, July temperatures, light, and nitrogen values, as well as higher annual precipitation and moisture values. This study highlights the importance of historical records in examining the changes in plant species' geographical distributions. We present a method for manual geo-referencing of such records, and demonstrate how using Ellenberg and climate indicator values as environmental and climate change indicators can contribute towards directing appropriate conservation strategies.

  14. Changes in the geographical distribution of plant species and climatic variables on the West Cornwall peninsula (South West UK)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosanic, Aleksandra; Anderson, Karen; Harrison, Stephan; Turkington, Thea; Bennie, Jonathan

    2018-01-01

    Recent climate change has had a major impact on biodiversity and has altered the geographical distribution of vascular plant species. This trend is visible globally; however, more local and regional scale research is needed to improve understanding of the patterns of change and to develop appropriate conservation strategies that can minimise cultural, health, and economic losses at finer scales. Here we describe a method to manually geo-reference botanical records from a historical herbarium to track changes in the geographical distributions of plant species in West Cornwall (South West England) using both historical (pre-1900) and contemporary (post-1900) distribution records. We also assess the use of Ellenberg and climate indicator values as markers of responses to climate and environmental change. Using these techniques we detect a loss in 19 plant species, with 6 species losing more than 50% of their previous range. Statistical analysis showed that Ellenberg (light, moisture, nitrogen) and climate indicator values (mean January temperature, mean July temperature and mean precipitation) could be used as environmental change indicators. Significantly higher percentages of area lost were detected in species with lower January temperatures, July temperatures, light, and nitrogen values, as well as higher annual precipitation and moisture values. This study highlights the importance of historical records in examining the changes in plant species’ geographical distributions. We present a method for manual geo-referencing of such records, and demonstrate how using Ellenberg and climate indicator values as environmental and climate change indicators can contribute towards directing appropriate conservation strategies. PMID:29401494

  15. West Nile virus circulation in South-Eastern Romania, 2011 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinu, S; Cotar, A I; Pănculescu-Gătej, I R; Fălcuţă, E; Prioteasa, F L; Sîrbu, A; Oprişan, G; Bădescu, D; Reiter, P; Ceianu, C S

    2015-05-21

    Lineage 2 West Nile virus (WNV), previously found only in sub-Saharan Africa and Madagascar, was identified in Hungary in 2004 and has rapidly expanded in Europe in the past decade. Following a significant outbreak of West Nile fever with neurological cases caused by lineage 1 WNV in Romania in 1996, scattered cases have been recorded in the south-east of the country in each transmission season. Another outbreak, affecting a larger area and caused by lineage 2 WNV, was recorded in 2010. We analysed human sera from neuroinvasive West Nile fever cases and mosquitoes, sampled in south-eastern Romania between 2011 and 2013, for the presence of WNV genome, and obtained partial NS5 and envelope glycoprotein sequences. Human- and mosquito-derived WNV sequences were highly similar (99%) to Volgograd 2007 lineage 2 WNV and differed from isolates previously detected in central and southern Europe. WNV was detected in one pool of Culex pipiens s.l. males, documenting vertical transmission. Lineage 4 WNV, of unknown pathogenicity to mammals, was found in the amphibian-feeding mosquito Uranotaenia unguiculata from the Danube Delta. Our results present molecular evidence for the maintenance of the same isolates of Volgograd 2007-like lineage 2 WNV in south-eastern Romania between 2011 and 2013.

  16. Materials of conference: Hydrogeological Problems of South-West Poland; Materialy konferencji: Problemy Hydrogeologiczne Poludniowo-Zachodniej Polski

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    Hydrogeological problems of South-west Poland is the collection of conference papers held in Szklarska Poreba on 20-22 June 1996. The materials have been gathered in three topical groups: water quality problems in hydrological cycle, regional hydrogeology of South-west Poland, theoretical problems and research methods in hydrogeology. More of performed articles have a interdisciplinary character taking into account the precipitation and surface water quality and their influence on ground water features.

  17. Expansion of the South China Sea basin: Constraints from magnetic anomaly stripes, sea floor topography, satellite gravity and submarine geothermics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuezhong Yu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The widely distributed E–W-trending magnetic anomaly stripes in the central basin and the N–E-trending magnetic anomaly stripes in the southwest sub-basin provide the most important evidence for Neogene expansion of the South China Sea. The expansion mechanism remains, however, controversial because of the lack of direct drilling data, non-systematic marine magnetic survey data, and irregular magnetic anomaly stripes with two obvious directions. For example, researchers have inferred different ages and episodes of expansion for the central basin and southwest sub-basin. Major controversy centers on the order of basinal expansion and the mechanism of expansion for the entire South China Sea basin. This study attempts to constrain these problems from a comprehensive analysis of the seafloor topography, magnetic anomaly stripes, regional aeromagnetic data, satellite gravity, and submarine geothermics. The mapped seafloor terrain shows that the central basin is a north-south rectangle that is relatively shallow with many seamounts, whereas the southwest sub-basin is wide in northeast, gradually narrows to the southwest, and is relatively deeper with fewer seamounts. Many magnetic anomaly stripes are present in the central basin with variable dimensions and directions that are dominantly EW-trending, followed by the NE-, NW- and NS-trending. Conversely such stripes are few in the southwest sub-basin and mainly NE-trending. Regional magnetic data suggest that the NW-trending Ailaoshan-Red River fault extends into the South China Sea, links with the central fault zone in the South China Sea, which extends further southward to Reed Tablemount. Satellite gravity data show that both the central basin and southwest sub-basin are composed of oceanic crust. The Changlong seamount is particularly visible in the southwest sub-basin and extends eastward to the Zhenbei seamount. Also a low gravity anomaly zone coincides with the central fault zone in the sub-basin

  18. Feeding patterns of potential West Nile virus vectors in south-west Spain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Muñoz

    Full Text Available Mosquito feeding behaviour determines the degree of vector-host contact and may have a serious impact on the risk of West Nile virus (WNV epidemics. Feeding behaviour also interacts with other biotic and abiotic factors that affect virus amplification and transmission.We identified the origin of blood meals in five mosquito species from three different wetlands in SW Spain. All mosquito species analysed fed with different frequencies on birds, mammals and reptiles. Both 'mosquito species' and 'locality' explained a similar amount of variance in the occurrence of avian blood meals. However, 'season of year' was the main factor explaining the presence of human blood meals. The differences in diet resulted in a marked spatial heterogeneity in the estimated WNV transmission risk. Culex perexiguus, Cx. modestus and Cx. pipiens were the main mosquito species involved in WNV enzootic circulation since they feed mainly on birds, were abundant in a number of localities and had high vector competence. Cx. perexiguus may also be important for WNV transmission to horses, as are Cx. pipiens and Cx. theileri in transmission to humans. Estimates of the WNV transmission risk based on mosquito diet, abundance and vector competence matched the results of previous WNV monitoring programs in the area. Our sensitivity analyses suggested that mosquito diet, followed by mosquito abundance and vector competence, are all relevant factors in understanding virus amplification and transmission risk in the studied wild ecosystems. At some of the studied localities, the risk of enzootic circulation of WNV was relatively high, even if the risk of transmission to humans and horses was less.Our results describe for first time the role of five WNV candidate vectors in SW Spain. Interspecific and local differences in mosquito diet composition has an important effect on the potential transmission risk of WNV to birds, horses and humans.

  19. Application of advanced reservoir characterization, simulation, and production optimization strategies to maximize recovery in slope and basin clastic reservoirs, West Texas (Delaware Basin), Class III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutton, Shirley P.; Flanders, William A.; Zirczy, Helena H.

    2000-05-24

    The objective of this Class 3 project was to demonstrate that detailed reservoir characterization of slope and basin clastic reservoirs in sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico is a cost effective way to recover a higher percentage of the original oil in place through strategic placement of infill wells and geologically based field development. Phase 1 of the project, reservoir characterization, was completed this year, and Phase 2 began. The project is focused on East Ford field, a representative Delaware Mountain Group field that produces from the upper Bell Canyon Formation (Ramsey sandstone). The field, discovered in 1960, is operated by Oral Petco, Inc., as the East Ford unit. A CO{sub 2} flood is being conducted in the unit, and this flood is the Phase 2 demonstration for the project.

  20. Application of Advanced Reservoir Characterization, Simulation, and Production Optimization Strategies to Maximize Recovery in Slope and Basin Clastic Reservoirs, West Texas (Delaware Basin), Class III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutton, Shirley P.; Flanders, William A.; Mendez, Daniel L.

    2001-05-08

    The objective of this Class 3 project was demonstrate that detailed reservoir characterization of slope and basin clastic reservoirs in sandstone's of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico is a cost effective way to recover oil more economically through geologically based field development. This project was focused on East Ford field, a Delaware Mountain Group field that produced from the upper Bell Canyon Formation (Ramsey sandstone). The field, discovered in 9160, is operated by Oral Petco, Inc., as the East Ford unit. A CO2 flood was being conducted in the unit, and this flood is the Phase 2 demonstration for the project.

  1. Organic petrology, mineralogy and depositional environment of the Kipra lignite seam, Maritza-West basin, Bulgaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostova, Irena [Department of Geology and Palaeontology, Sofia University ' ' St. Kliment Ohridski' ' , 1000, Sofia (Bulgaria); Zdravkov, Alexander [Department of Economic Geology, University of Mining and Geology ' ' St. Ivan Rilski' ' , 1700, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2007-08-01

    The aim of the present study is to provide additional information about the properties and depositional environment of the Kipra lignite seam, which was deposited during the regressive stage of development of the Maritza-West basin. Petrographical and mineralogical data, along with ash yields and sulphur contents of 24 samples from a seam profile, have been used to study the vertical variation of the depositional settings during peat accumulation and subsequent coalification. The Kipra lignite is characterized by high ash yields and sulphur contents. It formed in a rheotrophic, low-lying mire with alkaline pH value. Vegetation with low preservation potential dominated within the palaeomire. During peat formation, frequent changes of the water level controlled the depositional environment. During the deposition of units 1 and 2, high water energy caused the transportation of high amounts of inorganic material into the mire, resulting in the formation of weakly gelified mineral-rich lignite. The organic matter from units 3 and 4 is characterized by enhanced gelification, which probably reflects the decreasing energy of the system. Good positive correlation between sulphur contents and the GI values was established in units 4, indicating that the gelification of the tissues was probably mainly controlled by the bacterial activity. In contrast, the gelification of the samples from unit 3 of the Kipra seam was probably governed by the redox conditions. The organic matter deposited under relatively wet conditions, in which the thermal and oxidative destruction of the tissues, was limited. A variety of major, minor and accessory minerals are present in Maritza-West lignite. The mineral composition is dominated mainly by pyrite, gypsum and calcite, and to a lesser extent limonite, quartz, kaolinite, montmorillonite, illite, chlorite and plagioclase. Jarosite, hematite, halloysite, mica, K-feldspar, aragonite, siderite, and dolomite were also determined in very low

  2. A review of EIA report quality in the North West province of South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandham, Luke A.; Pretorius, Hester M.

    2008-01-01

    The revised EIA regulations implemented on 3 July 2006 focused attention on the question of EIA effectiveness in South Africa. EIR quality review is one of the quality control functions contributing to EIA effectiveness within any EIA system, therefore the EIR quality review package developed by Lee and Colley was adapted and used to review the quality of a sample of 28 EIRs in the North West province of South Africa. Overall, 86% of the reports achieved satisfactory grades, with the descriptive and presentational elements of the EIRs more satisfactorily addressed, and the analytical components such as impact significance, addressed to a less satisfactory degree. EIR quality appears to be on par with international standards, but there are areas of distinct weakness. Further research is required to optimise quality review, and to reveal whether the new regulations have succeeded in addressing these weaknesses and made positive contributions to EIR quality, as a component of EIA effectiveness in South Africa

  3. Study of southern CHAONAN sag lower continental slope basin deposition character in Northern South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Y.

    2009-12-01

    Northern South China Sea Margin locates in Eurasian plate,Indian-Australia plate,Pacific Plates.The South China Sea had underwent a complicated tectonic evolution in Cenozoic.During rifting,the continental shelf and slope forms a series of Cenozoic sedimentary basins,including Qiongdongnan basin,Pearl River Mouth basin,Taixinan basin.These basins fill in thick Cenozoic fluviolacustrine facies,transitional facies,marine facies,abyssal facies sediment,recording the evolution history of South China Sea Margin rifting and ocean basin extending.The studies of tectonics and deposition of depression in the Southern Chaonan Sag of lower continental slope in the Norther South China Sea were dealt with,based on the sequence stratigraphy and depositional facies interpretation of seismic profiles acquired by cruises of“China and Germany Joint Study on Marine Geosciences in the South China Sea”and“The formation,evolution and key issues of important resources in China marginal sea",and combining with ODP 1148 cole and LW33-1-1 well.The free-air gravity anomaly of the break up of the continental and ocean appears comparatively low negative anomaly traps which extended in EW,it is the reflection of passive margin gravitational effect.Bouguer gravity anomaly is comparatively low which is gradient zone extended NE-SW.Magnetic anomaly lies in Magnetic Quiet Zone at the Northern Continental Margin of the South China Sea.The Cenozoic sediments of lower continental slope in Southern Chaonan Sag can be divided into five stratum interface:SB5.5,SB10.5,SB16.5,SB23.8 and Hg,their ages are of Pliocene-Quaternary,late Miocene,middle Miocene,early Miocene,paleogene.The tectonic evolution of low continental slope depressions can be divided into rifting,rifting-depression transitional and depression stages,while their depositional environments change from river to shallow marine and abyssa1,which results in different topography in different stages.The topographic evolvement in the study

  4. West Siberian Basin hydrogeology: Site characterization of Mayak, Tomsk-7, and Krasnoyarsk-26

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoover, K.A.; Foley, M.G.; Allen, E.A.; Alexander, L.J.; McKinley, M.I.

    1997-01-01

    The former Soviet Union has extensive defense-related nuclear production facilities that have released large amounts of hazardous and radioactive waste materials into the air, surface water, and ground water in areas surrounding the production sites. The key sites of concern are Mayak, Tomsk-7, and Krasnoyarsk-26, all located within the West siberian Basin. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), in cooperation with the Russian Ministry of Atomic Energy (Minatom), has been conducted contaminant-migration studies of Mayak, Tomsk-7, and Krasnoyarsk-26 in Western Siberia since 1993. The intent of this program is to maximize use of US and Russian site characterization, contaminant transport modeling, and remediation technology for the benefit of DOE and Minatom site-cleanup activities. Site characterization activities conducted during FY 1996 comprised evaluating the existing database, developing methods for synthesizing missing data, and designing an effective means of data and technology transfer. Comparison of the database, most of the contents of which have been acquired remotely with contaminant transport modeling data requirements allowed the authors to evaluate the utility of data acquired remotely for modeling purposes, and to identify gaps in the characterization of Russian waste-disposal sites. Identifying these gaps led to the second activity, which was to develop methods for synthesizing missing data from an evaluation of existing data. The authors tested these methods by evaluating geologic fracturing at the Mayak site. The third activity was the development of an effective procedure for data and technology transfer. The goal was to provide the site characterization database to Russian modelers in such a way that the data were easily transported, viewed, and manipulated for use in their models. This report summarizes the results of the three site characterization activities performed during FY 1996

  5. Streamflow gain and loss and water quality in the upper Nueces River Basin, south-central Texas, 2008-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banta, J. Ryan; Lambert, Rebecca B.; Slattery, Richard N.; Ockerman, Darwin J.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey-in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, The Nature Conservancy, the Real Edwards Conservation and Reclamation District, and the Texas Parks and Wildlife Department-investigated streamflow gain and loss and water quality in the upper Nueces River Basin, south-central Texas, specifically in the watersheds of the West Nueces, Nueces, Dry Frio, Frio, and Sabinal Rivers upstream from the Edwards aquifer outcrop. Streamflow in these rivers is sustained by groundwater contributions (for example, from springs) and storm runoff from rainfall events. To date (2012), there are few data available that describe streamflow and water-quality conditions of the rivers within the upper Nueces River Basin. This report describes streamflow gain-loss characteristics from three reconnaissance-level synoptic measurement surveys (hereinafter referred to as "surveys") during 2008-10 in the upper Nueces River Basin. To help characterize the hydrology, groundwater-level measurements were made, and water-quality samples were collected from both surface-water and groundwater sites in the study area from two surveys during 2009-10. The hydrologic (streamflow, springflow, and groundwater) measurements were made during three reconnaissance-level synoptic measurement surveys occurring in July 21-23, 2008; August 8-18, 2009; and March 22-24, 2010. These survey periods were selected to represent different hydrologic conditions. Streamflow gains and losses were based on streamflow and springflow measurements made at 74 sites in the study area, although not all sites were measured during each survey. Possible water chemistry relations among sample types (streamflow, springflow, or groundwater), between surveys, and among watersheds were examined using water-quality samples collected from as many as 20 sites in the study area.

  6. Basin-Wide Oceanographic Array Bridges the South Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansorge, I. J.; Baringer, M. O.; Campos, E. J. D.; Dong, S.; Fine, R. A.; Garzoli, S. L.; Goni, G.; Meinen, C. S.; Perez, R. C.; Piola, A. R.; Roberts, M. J.; Speich, S.; Sprintall, J.; Terre, T.; Van den Berg, M. A.

    2014-02-01

    The meridional overturning circulation (MOC) is a global system of surface, intermediate, and deep ocean currents. The MOC connects the surface layer of the ocean and the atmosphere with the huge reservoir of the deep sea and is the primary mechanism for transporting heat, freshwater, and carbon between ocean basins. Climate models show that past changes in the strength of the MOC were linked to historical climate variations. Further research suggests that the MOC will continue to modulate climate change scenarios on time scales ranging from decades to centuries [Latif et al., 2006].

  7. Shale characterization in mass transport complex as a potential source rock: An example from onshore West Java Basin, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugraha, A. M. S.; Widiarti, R.; Kusumah, E. P.

    2017-12-01

    This study describes a deep-water slump facies shale of the Early Miocene Jatiluhur/Cibulakan Formation to understand its potential as a source rock in an active tectonic region, the onshore West Java. The formation is equivalent with the Gumai Formation, which has been well-known as another prolific source rock besides the Oligocene Talang Akar Formation in North West Java Basin, Indonesia. The equivalent shale formation is expected to have same potential source rock towards the onshore of Central Java. The shale samples were taken onshore, 150 km away from the basin. The shale must be rich of organic matter, have good quality of kerogen, and thermally matured to be categorized as a potential source rock. Investigations from petrography, X-Ray diffractions (XRD), and backscattered electron show heterogeneous mineralogy in the shales. The mineralogy consists of clay minerals, minor quartz, muscovite, calcite, chlorite, clinopyroxene, and other weathered minerals. This composition makes the shale more brittle. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) analysis indicate secondary porosities and microstructures. Total Organic Carbon (TOC) shows 0.8-1.1 wt%, compared to the basinal shale 1.5-8 wt%. The shale properties from this outcropped formation indicate a good potential source rock that can be found in the subsurface area with better quality and maturity.

  8. Hydrocarbon preservation conditions in Mesozoic–Paleozoic marine strata in the South Yellow Sea Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Liang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In the South Yellow Sea Basin, Mesozoic–Paleozoic marine strata are generally well developed with large thickness, and they are characterized by multi-source and multi-stage hydrocarbon accumulation, providing a material basis for the formation of large-scale oil and gas fields. However, no substantial breakthrough has been made in this area. Based on previous research results, the complex tectonic pattern of this superimposed basin was formed by multi-stage tectonic movements and the favorable static conditions for hydrocarbon preservation were reworked or destroyed by later superimposition. Therefore, hydrocarbon preservation conditions are the key factors for restricting the breakthrough of marine oil and gas exploration in this area. In this paper, hydrocarbon preservation conditions of marine strata in the South Yellow Sea Basin were comprehensively analyzed from many aspects, such as tectonic movement, source conditions, caprock characteristics, magmatic activities, and hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical characteristics. It is indicated that the complex tectonic pattern of the South Yellow Sea Basin is resulted from tectonic events in multiple stages, and the development and evolution of regional source rocks are mainly controlled by two stages (i.e., the stable evolution stage of Mesozoic–Paleozoic marine basin and the Mesozoic–Cenozoic tectonic pattern transformation and basin formation stage, so the characteristics of differential oil and gas preservation are presented. Besides, better marine hydrocarbon preservation preconditions in this area are weaker tectonic reworking, development of high-quality thick source rocks, good vertical sealing capacity of caprocks, weaker magmatic activity and confined hydrogeological conditions. It is concluded that the Laoshan Uplift in the central part of the South Yellow Sea Basin is structurally stable with weaker faulting and magmatic activities, so it is better in oil and gas preservation

  9. Study on tertiary in-situ leachable uranium mineralization conditions in South Songliao basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhenqiang; Li Guokuan; Zhao Zonghua; Zhang Jingxun

    2001-01-01

    Tertiary in-situ leachable mineralization in Songliao Basin was analyzed in theory in the past. Since 1998, regional investigation at 1:200000 scale has been done with about 120 holes drilled. Based on drill holes recording, section compiling and sample analysis, the authors investigate into the Tertiary in-situ leachable conditions including rock character, sedimentary facies, rock chemistry, organic substances, uranium content, sandstone porosity, sandstone bodies, interlayer oxidation, and hydro-dynamic value. The study would play important role in prospecting for in-situ leachable uranium in South Songliao basin

  10. Photosynthetic pathways and the geographical distribution of grasses in South West Africa/Namibia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, R.P.; Vogel, J.C.; Fuls, A.

    1980-01-01

    Analysis of floristic lists for South West Africa/Namibia shows that, throughout the territory, more than 95% of the grass species occurring in any given area display the C 4 photosynthetic pathway. Exceptions are areas in the north-east and southwest where between 5% and 18% of the grass species are of the C 3 type. The south-western district of Luderitz falls within the winter rainfall area and it is only here that temperate C 3 genera are found. The C 3 species in the north-east belong to tropical groups. Most of the South West African C 3 grasses grow in specialized habitats and are either hydrophytes or sciophytes. Subdivision of the C 4 grasses into the three subtypes of the C 4 pathway reveals distinctive distributional trends. Malate formers or NADP-me species clearly become more abundant with increasing rainfall, whereas the aspartate formers show the opposite tendency. However, within the aspartate forming group the results show that it is specifically the NAD-me type of species which dominate in areas of very low precipitation, notably in the Namib and pre-Namib areas where rainfall is less than 200 mm/yr. The PEP-ck species form a group intermediate between the malate formers and the NAD-me grasses, especially as far as their water requirements are concerned [af

  11. IAU South West and Central Asian Regional Office of Astronomy for Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickaelian, A. M.; Hakopian, S. A.; Farmanyan, S. V.; Mikayelyan, G. A.

    2017-12-01

    The International Astronomical Union (IAU) announced its Strategic Plan on Astronomy for Development in 2009, during the International Year of Astronomy (IYA). One of its main components was the creation of the Office of Astronomy for Development (OAD) and corresponding Regional Offices (ROADs) for implementation and coordination of its aims. The OAD was created in Cape Town, South Africa and later on ROADs were created in 8 regions. Since 2015, Armenia hosts one of them, IAU South West Asian (SWA), later renamed to South West and Central Asian (SWCA) ROAD. At present, already 6 countries have officially joined (Armenia, Georgia, Iran, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, and Turkey), but the Office serves for a rather broad region, from Eastern Europe to Central Asia. Armenia's geographical location and its historical role in astronomy (both for well-known archaeoastronomical heritage and the presence of the famous Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory (BAO) founded by Viktor Ambartsumian in 1946) serve as a link between Europe and Eastern Partnership countries, Middle East and Asia in general. We run activities in 3 directions, Task Forces (TF): TF1 Universities and Research, TF2 Children and Schools and TF3 Public Outreach. We present our projects and all other accomplishments and discuss the role of our ROAD in maintaining contacts and development of astronomy in the region, as well as contacts between Europe and the Eastern Partnership countries. Most up-to-date information about the IAU SWCA ROAD is available on its webpage at http://iau-swa-road.aras.am/eng/index.php.

  12. Photosynthetic pathways and the geographical distribution of grasses in South West Africa/Namibia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, R P [Department of Agriculture and Fisheries, Pretoria (South Africa). Botanical Research Institute; Vogel, J C; Fuls, A [Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Pretoria (South Africa). National Physical Research Lab.

    1980-07-01

    Analysis of floristic lists for South West Africa/Namibia shows that, throughout the territory, more than 95% of the grass species occurring in any given area display the C/sub 4/ photosynthetic pathway. Exceptions are areas in the north-east and southwest where between 5% and 18% of the grass species are of the C/sub 3/ type. The south-western district of Luderitz falls within the winter rainfall area and it is only here that temperate C/sub 3/ genera are found. The C/sub 3/ species in the north-east belong to tropical groups. Most of the South West African C/sub 3/ grasses grow in specialized habitats and are either hydrophytes or sciophytes. Subdivision of the C/sub 4/ grasses into the three subtypes of the C/sub 4/ pathway reveals distinctive distributional trends. Malate formers or NADP-me species clearly become more abundant with increasing rainfall, whereas the aspartate formers show the opposite tendency. However, within the aspartate forming group the results show that it is specifically the NAD-me type of species which dominate in areas of very low precipitation, notably in the Namib and pre-Namib areas where rainfall is less than 200 mm/yr. The PEP-ck species form a group intermediate between the malate formers and the NAD-me grasses, especially as far as their water requirements are concerned.

  13. Interpretation of magnetotelluric data: Pasco Basin, south central Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orange, A.; Berkman, E.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to review, evaluate, and interpret magnetotelluric (MT) data collected in support of the Basalt Waste Isolation Project. The integrated interpretation presented is related to regional and site-specific geology and associated borehole, gravity, and magnetic data. The MT interpretation procedure placed strong reliance on computer models based upon the inferred physical parameters of the subsurface materials and their anticipated variability. Much of the MT data is of poor quality by current standards; however, significant qualitative observations can be made. The quantification of these observations, including the procedures and assumption utilized, are discussed in detail. Problems related to ambiguities inherent in the MT method are discussed as related to the Pasco Basin MT data. 117 refs., 77 figs., 3 tabs

  14. Hydrological long-term dry and wet periods in the Xijiang River basin, South China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Fischer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, hydrological long-term dry and wet periods are analyzed for the Xijiang River basin in South China. Daily precipitation data of 118 stations and data on daily discharge at Gaoyao hydrological station at the mouth of the Xijiang River for the period 1961–2007 are used. At a 24-month timescale, the standardized precipitation index (SPI-24 for the six sub-basins of the Xijiang River and the standardized discharge index (SDI-24 for Gaoyao station are applied. The monthly values of the SPI-24 averaged for the Xijiang River basin correlate highly with the monthly values of the SDI-24. Distinct long-term dry and wet sequences can be detected.

    The principal component analysis is applied and shows spatial disparities in dry and wet periods for the six sub-basins. The correlation between the SPI-24 of the six sub-basins and the first principal component score shows that 67% of the variability within the sub-basins can be explained by dry and wet periods in the east of the Xijiang River basin. The spatial dipole conditions (second and third principal component explain spatiotemporal disparities in the variability of dry and wet periods. All sub-basins contribute to hydrological dry periods, while mainly the northeastern sub-basins cause wet periods in the Xijiang River. We can also conclude that long-term dry events are larger in spatial extent and cover all sub-basins while long-term wet events are regional phenomena.

    A spectral analysis is applied for the SPI-24 and the SDI-24. The results show significant peaks in periodicities of 11–14.7 yr, 2.8 yr, 3.4–3.7 yr, and 6.3–7.3 yr. The same periodic cycles can be found in the SPI-24 of the six sub-basins but with some variability in the mean magnitude. A wavelet analysis shows that significant periodicities have been stable over time since the 1980s. Extrapolations of the reconstructed SPI-24 and SDI-24 represent the continuation of observed significant periodicities

  15. Diagenetic history of the Swan Hills Simonette Oil Reservoir (Givetian-Frasnian), deep basin of west-central Alberta, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duggan, J.P.; Mountjoy, E.W. [McGill Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Earth and Planetary Sciences

    1997-05-01

    The geology and diagenetic history of the Swan Hills Simonette oil field of west-central Alberta basin was described. Present-day burial depth is 3900 m; formation temperature is 93 degrees C. Highest porosites (20 per cent) occur in dolostones of the lagoon, ref, and fore-reef depositional environments but limestones still retain porosities up to five per cent. Hydrocarbons are present in saddle dolomite fluid inclusions. Oxygen isotopes for replacement dolomites and late calcite suggest that the carbonate-precipitating fluids were derived from the Precambrian basement or Paleozoic clastics sourced from the basement. Faults may have acted as vertical conduits for fluid migration.

  16. Geophysical Measurements in the Beaver Basin, West-Central Utah; Part 1--Slingram, Magnetic, and Self-Potential Profiles

    OpenAIRE

    Flanigan, Vincent J.; Campbell, David L.; U.S. Geological Survey

    1981-01-01

    This report consists of figures showing profile locations (fig. 1, table 1) in the Beaver Basin, west-central Utah, and ground geophysical data collected in September 1980 along these traverses (figs. 2-11). These data consist of slingram electromagnetic (real and imaginary components at 222, 444, 888, 1777, and 3555 Hz), ground magnetic and self-potential measurements collected at 200-foot (61-m) intervals along about 8.8 miles (14.2 km) of survey line. Table 2 lists equipment used. The r...

  17. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF THE LABOR MARKET IN SOUTH-WEST OLTENIA IN THE CURRENT ECONOMIC CIRCUMSTANCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stegăroiu Carina-Elena

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article introduces the concept of sustainable development of the labor market at a regional level. For this analysis we chose the Development Region of South West Oltenia, based on the terms of future considerations regarding Romania's territorial reorganization. To this extent, we chose to outline, taking into consideration the macroeconomic indicators pertaining to the region chosen for study, the prerequisites for a development based on sound economic principles of the labor market. Sustainable development involves combining all factors of impact for better resource management in the case of labor, which must take into account the cyclical implications of the Romanian economy.

  18. Geochemistry and petrogenesis of the Dehe Bala calc-alkaline granodiorites, south west of Boein Zahra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynab Gharamohammadi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Dehe Bala pluton is exposed approximately 45 km south-west of Boein Zahra town, Qazvin province. This Pluton which intruded the Eocene volcano-sedimentary rocks of the Urumieh-Dokhtar Magmatic assemblage (UDMA, is mainly composed of granodiorite and produced narrow thermal metamorphic contact aureoles surrounding the intrusion. The body is characterized by SiO2 content ranging from 64.2 to 66.9 wt%, high-k calc-alkaline nature and metaluminous character (A/CNK

  19. Environment of deposition and stratigraphy of the uranium-bearing strata around Beaufort West, South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horowitz, A.

    1976-04-01

    Palynological analyses of some 50 samples collected from uranium-bearing strata - as well as the layers immediately above and below them - around Beaufort West, South Africa, indicate that these sediments were laid down in a wide, rather shallow delta in Late Permian times. Most of the sediments are fluvio-deltaic, and most of the plant remains were transported from the north, the hinterland in those times. A considerable percentage of the microfossils, e.g. Veryhachium and hystrichospheres, are clearly from a marine environment. The occurrence of marine microfossils in the spectrum, as compared with those of terrestrial provenance, increases considerably southwards [af

  20. An Exploratory Study of the Women Entrepreneurial Motivation in the South-West Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ph. D.Chinonye Okafor

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Women entrepreneurial motivation is a function of variables that are subject to authors and researchers’ opinions and views. These variables can be classified based on their impact on women entrepreneurial performance, behavior and challenges. This paper is therefore focused on examining the factors that affect women entrepreneurial motivation in the South-West Nigeria. The data used for the study was obtained through primary source. The data gathered was analyzed using the model of correlation analysis. Recommendations were made based on the result obtained from the testing of the hypothesis.

  1. Deer forests, game shooting and landed estates in the South West of Ireland, 1840 - 1970

    OpenAIRE

    Ryan, John M. (Sean)

    2001-01-01

    This thesis is concentrated on the historical aspects of the elitist field sports of deer stalking and game shooting, as practiced by four Irish landed ascendancy families in the south west of Ireland. Four great estates were selected for study. Two of these were, by Irish standards, very large: the Kenmare estate of over 136,000 acres in the ownership of the Roman Catholic Earls of Kenmare, and the Herbert estate of over 44,000 acres in the ownership of the Protestant Herbert family. The oth...

  2. Identifying environmental risk factors and mapping the risk of human West Nile virus in South Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, A.; Davis, J. K.; Wimberly, M. C.

    2017-12-01

    Human West Nile virus (WNV) first arrived in the USA in 1999 and has since then spread across the country. Today, the highest incidence rates are found in the state of South Dakota. The disease occurrence depends on the complex interaction between the mosquito vector, the bird host and the dead-end human host. Understanding the spatial domain of this interaction and being able to identify disease transmission hotspots is crucial for effective disease prevention and mosquito control. In this study we use geospatial environmental information to understand what drives the spatial distribution of cases of human West Nile virus in South Dakota and to map relative infection risk across the state. To map the risk of human West Nile virus in South Dakota, we used geocoded human case data from the years 2004-2016. Satellite data from the Landsat ETM+ and MODIS for the years 2003 to 2016 were used to characterize environmental patterns. From these datasets we calculated indices, such as the normalized differenced vegetation index (NDVI) and the normalized differenced water index (NDWI). In addition, datasets such as the National Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS), National Land Cover Dataset (NLCD), National Wetland inventory (NWI), National Elevation Dataset (NED) and Soil Survey Geographic Database (SSURGO) were utilized. Environmental variables were summarized for a buffer zone around the case and control points. We used a boosted regression tree model to identify the most important variables describing the risk of WNV infection. We generated a risk map by applying this model across the entire state. We found that the highest relative risk is present in the James River valley in northeastern South Dakota. Factors that were identified as influencing the transmission risk include inter-annual variability of vegetation cover, water availability and temperature. Land covers such as grasslands, low developed areas and wetlands were also found to be good predictors for human

  3. Effects of Accelerated Deglaciation on Chemical Characteristics of Sub-arctic Lakes and Rivers in South and West Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, M.; Strock, K.; Edwards, B. R.

    2017-12-01

    Glaciers and their associated paraglacial landscapes have changed rapidly over the past century, and may see increased rates of melt as temperatures increase in high latitude environments. As glaciers recede, glacial meltwater subsidies increase to inland freshwater systems, influencing their structure and function. Evidence suggests melting ice influences the chemical characteristics of systems by providing nutrient subsidies, while inputs of glacial flour influence their physical structure by affecting temperature, reducing water clarity and increasing turbidity. Together, changes in physical and chemical structure of these systems have subsequent effects on biota, with the potential to lower taxonomic richness. This study characterized the chemistry of rivers and lakes fed by glacial meltwater in sub-arctic environments of Iceland, where there is limited limnological data. The survey characterized nutrient chemistry, dissolved organic carbon, and ion chemistry. We surveyed glacial meltwater from six glaciers in south and west Iceland, using the drainage basin of Gigjökull glacier along the southern coast as a detailed study area to examine the interactions between groundwater and surface runoff. The southern systems, within the Eastern Volcanic Zone, have minimal soil development and active volcanoes produce ash input to lakes. Lakes in the Western Volcanic Zone were more diverse, located in older bedrock with more extensively weathered soil. Key differences were observed between aquatic environments subsidized with glacial meltwater and those without. This included physical effects, such as lower temperatures and chemical effects such as lower conductivity and higher pH in glacially fed systems. In the drainage basin of Gigjökull glacier, lakes formed after the former lagoon was emptied and then partly refilled with debris from jokulhlaups during the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption. These newly formed lakes resembled non-glacial melt systems despite receiving

  4. Gamma irradiation of quartz from Pannier basin, South America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enokihara, Cyro T.; Rela, Paulo R. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: cteiti@ipen.br, E-mail: prela@ipen.br; Guttler, Rainer A.S. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias

    2007-07-01

    The use of gamma radiation to induce or enhance color centers in gemstones is a widespread technique and applied worldwide on a industrial scale since at least 1970. The presence of defects and defect structures in quartz from a border region of southern Brazil and Uruguay are the reason for the creation of a new color variety of quartz called 'Prasiolite' in the gem trade. This quartz has a pleasant green color produced by gamma irradiation. The procedures of irradiation at IPEN show that the activation of these color producing defects can be monitored by detailed chemical and spectroscopic analysis. For the first time UV-VIS-NIR spectra of this new color variety of quartz are shown. They revealed special features of these quartz crystals coming from basaltic terranes of the Parana Basin. Contrary to most specimen of quartz from other parts of Brazil, they have such a high water and OH content that they resemble more chalcedony or opal, but not highly crystalline quartz specimens. The cause of the color are broken bonds of Si-OH defining the so-called dangling bonds. (author)

  5. Distribution of calcretes and gypcretes in southwestern United States and their uranium favorability, based on a study of deposits in Western Australia and South West Africa (Namibia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlisle, D.; Merifield, P.M.; Orme, A.R.; Kohl, M.S.; Kolker, O.; Lunt, O.R.

    1978-01-01

    Calcrete, dolocrete, and gypcrete carnotite are abundant in western Australia and Namib Desert, although only a few are of ore grade. The geology of these deposits are described. A genetic classification of calcretes emphasizing uranium favorability was developed, based on the distinction between pedogenic and nonpedogenic processes. Similarities between western Australia and South West Africa give support for the conclusions that lateral transport of U in groundwater is essential to ore deposition and that bedrock barriers or constrictions which narrow the channel of subsurface flow or force the water close to the land surface, greatly favor the formation of uraniferous calcretes. Criteria for uranium favorability deduced from the Australian and South West African studies were applied in a preliminary way to the southern Basin and Range Province of U.S. The procedure is to search for areas in which nonpedogenic calcrete or gypcrete may have developed. A caliche distribution map was compiled from soil survey and field data. Many areas were visited and some of the more interesting are described briefly, including parts of Clark County, Nevada, with occurrences of carnotite in calcrete

  6. Distribution of calcretes and gypcretes in southwestern United States and their uranium favorability, based on a study of deposits in Western Australia and South West Africa (Namibia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlisle, D.; Merifield, P.M.; Orme, A.R.; Kohl, M.S.; Kolker, O.; Lunt, O.R.

    1978-01-06

    Calcrete, dolocrete, and gypcrete carnotite are abundant in western Australia and Namib Desert, although only a few are of ore grade. The geology of these deposits are described. A genetic classification of calcretes emphasizing uranium favorability was developed, based on the distinction between pedogenic and nonpedogenic processes. Similarities between western Australia and South West Africa give support for the conclusions that lateral transport of U in groundwater is essential to ore deposition and that bedrock barriers or constrictions which narrow the channel of subsurface flow or force the water close to the land surface, greatly favor the formation of uraniferous calcretes. Criteria for uranium favorability deduced from the Australian and South West African studies were applied in a preliminary way to the southern Basin and Range Province of U.S. The procedure is to search for areas in which nonpedogenic calcrete or gypcrete may have developed. A caliche distribution map was compiled from soil survey and field data. Many areas were visited and some of the more interesting are described briefly, including parts of Clark County, Nevada, with occurrences of carnotite in calcrete. (DLC)

  7. Using Spatial Information Technologies as Monitoring Devices in International Watershed Conservation along the Senegal River Basin of West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaw A. Twumasi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present the applications of spatial technologies—Geographic Information Systems (GIS and remote sensing—in the international monitoring of river basins particularly analyzing the ecological, hydrological, and socio-economic issues along the Senegal River. The literature on multinational water crisis has for decades focused on mediation aspects of trans-boundary watershed management resulting in limited emphasis placed on the application of advances in geo-spatial information technologies in multinational watershed conservation in the arid areas of the West African sub-region within the Senegal River Basin for decision-making and monitoring. While the basin offers life support in a complex ecosystem that stretches across different nations in a mostly desert region characterized by water scarcity and subsistence economies, there exists recurrent environmental stress induced by both socio-economic and physical factors. Part of the problems consists of flooding, drought and limited access to sufficient quantities of water. These remain particularly sensitive issues that are crucial for the health of a rapidly growing population and the economy. The problems are further compounded due to the threats of climate change and the resultant degradation of almost the region’s entire natural resources base. While the pace at which the institutional framework for managing the waters offers opportunities for hydro electricity and irrigated agriculture through the proliferation of dams, it has raised other serious concerns in the region. Even where data exists for confronting these issues, some of them are incompatible and dispersed among different agencies. This not only widens the geo-spatial data gaps, but it hinders the ability to monitor water problems along the basin. This study will fill that gap in research through mix scale methods built on descriptive statistics, GIS and remote sensing

  8. Using spatial information technologies as monitoring devices in international watershed conservation along the Senegal River Basin of West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merem, Edmund C; Twumasi, Yaw A

    2008-12-01

    In this paper, we present the applications of spatial technologies-Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and remote sensing-in the international monitoring of river basins particularly analyzing the ecological, hydrological, and socio-economic issues along the Senegal River. The literature on multinational water crisis has for decades focused on mediation aspects of trans-boundary watershed management resulting in limited emphasis placed on the application of advances in geo-spatial information technologies in multinational watershed conservation in the arid areas of the West African sub-region within the Senegal River Basin for decision-making and monitoring. While the basin offers life support in a complex ecosystem that stretches across different nations in a mostly desert region characterized by water scarcity and subsistence economies, there exists recurrent environmental stress induced by both socio-economic and physical factors. Part of the problems consists of flooding, drought and limited access to sufficient quantities of water. These remain particularly sensitive issues that are crucial for the health of a rapidly growing population and the economy. The problems are further compounded due to the threats of climate change and the resultant degradation of almost the region's entire natural resources base. While the pace at which the institutional framework for managing the waters offers opportunities for hydro electricity and irrigated agriculture through the proliferation of dams, it has raised other serious concerns in the region. Even where data exists for confronting these issues, some of them are incompatible and dispersed among different agencies. This not only widens the geo-spatial data gaps, but it hinders the ability to monitor water problems along the basin. This study will fill that gap in research through mix scale methods built on descriptive statistics, GIS and remote sensing techniques by generating spatially referenced data to supplement

  9. Chemical stratigraphy of Grande Ronde Basalt, Pasco Basin, south-central Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, P.E.; Ledgerwood, R.K.; Myers, C.W.; Reidel, S.P.; Landon, R.D.; Hooper, P.R.

    1980-02-01

    Grande Ronde Basalt in the Pasco Basin, south-central Washington, can be subdivided into three chemical types and two chemical subtypes based on x-ray fluorescence major element analysis of samples from seven deep core holes and three surface sections. These chemical types are: (1) high-Mg Grande Ronde chemical type; (2) low-Mg Grande Ronde chemical type; (3) low-K (very high-Mg.) Grande Ronde chemical type; and (4) Umtanum Grande Ronde chemical subtype. A possible fifth subdivision is the McCoy Canyon Grande Ronde chemical subtype. The Umtanum and the McCoy Canyon subtypes are both single flows which belong to the low Mg and high-Mg chemical types, respectively. These subdivisions are all distinguished on a plot of MgO versus TiO 2 and/or MgO versus P 2 O 5 , but other major and minor elements, as well as trace elements, also reflect consistent chemical differences between the chemical types. Identification of these chemical types in the Pasco Basin subsurface shows that the high-Mg and low-Mg chemical types are ubiquitous, but the low-K chemical type is limited to the central, southern, and eastern parts of the basin. The Umtanum chemical subtype is present throughout the Pasco Basin subsurface, although it thins in the northeastern part of the basin and is apparently absent from surface exposures 40 kilometers (25 miles) north of the basin. The McCoy Canyon chemical subtype is also present throughout the basin

  10. Near-vertical seismic reflection image using a novel acquisition technique across the Vrancea Zone and Foscani Basin, south-eastern Carpathians (Romania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panea, I.; Stephenson, R.; Knapp, C.; Mocanu, V.; Drijkoningen, G.; Matenco, L.; Knapp, J.; Prodehl, K.

    2005-12-01

    The DACIA PLAN (Danube and Carpathian Integrated Action on Process in the Lithosphere and Neotectonics) deep seismic sounding survey was performed in August-September 2001 in south-eastern Romania, at the same time as the regional deep refraction seismic survey VRANCEA 2001. The main goal of the experiment was to obtain new information on the deep structure of the external Carpathians nappes and the architecture of Tertiary/Quaternary basins developed within and adjacent to the seismically-active Vrancea zone, including the Focsani Basin. The seismic reflection line had a WNW-ESE orientation, running from internal East Carpathians units, across the mountainous south-eastern Carpathians, and the foreland Focsani Basin towards the Danube Delta. There were 131 shot points along the profile, with about 1 km spacing, and data were recorded with stand-alone RefTek-125s (also known as "Texans"), supplied by the University Texas at El Paso and the PASSCAL Institute. The entire line was recorded in three deployments, using about 340 receivers in the first deployment and 640 receivers in each of the other two deployments. The resulting deep seismic reflection stacks, processed to 20 s along the entire profile and to 10 s in the eastern Focsani Basin, are presented here. The regional architecture of the latter, interpreted in the context of abundant independent constraint from exploration seismic and subsurface data, is well imaged. Image quality within and beneath the thrust belt is of much poorer quality. Nevertheless, there is good evidence to suggest that a thick (˜10 km) sedimentary basin having the structure of a graben and of indeterminate age underlies the westernmost part of the Focsani Basin, in the depth range 10-25 km. Most of the crustal depth seismicity observed in the Vrancea zone (as opposed to the more intense upper mantle seismicity) appears to be associated with this sedimentary basin. The sedimentary successions within this basin and other horizons

  11. Underground Hydrosphere of the Sedimentary Basins as Naphtides-Generating System (on the Example of the South Caspian Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Feyzullayev

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of organic matter (OM content dissolved in the formation waters and waters of mud volcanoes (water dissolved organic matter – DOM of the oil and gas bearing South Caspian Basin and its distribution in stratigraphic and hypsometrical depth is given in the article. The stratigraphic interval of research covers the period from the Lower Pliocene to the Jurassic, and the depth interval: from 73 to 6043 m. In these intervals, the values ​​of the DOM in reservoir waters vary from 4.1 mg/l to 271.2 mg /l, averaging (by 219 analyzes 48.9 mg/l. A good correlation of the values ​​of DOM and OM in rocks has been established. In both cases, Paleogene and Jurassic rocks have the highest values. In the change of the DOM with depth, an increase in its values ​​from a depth of about 3.3 km is noted, which is possibly due to the onset of catagenetic transformation of OM into hydrocarbons in the rock-water system. The dependence of the DOM content on the mineralization of water has been established: its highest values ​​are characteristic for waters with mineralization not higher than 50 g/l. The waters of mud volcanoes are characterized by low levels of DOM and low mineralization, which is most likely due to their condensation nature. The conducted studies confirm the idea of ​​the DOM participation, along with the OM of rocks, in the processes of oil and gas generation. The process of OM transformation into oil and gas in aqueous solution should be taken into account in basin modeling and in estimating the predicted resources of hydrocarbons in the sedimentary basin.

  12. Impact of fire on the macrofungal diversity in scrub jungles of south-west India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammatanda A. Greeshma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fortnightly survey in control and fire-impacted regions of scrub jungle of south-west coast of India during south-west monsoon (50 m2 quadrats up to 10 weeks yielded 34 and 25 species of macrofungi, respectively. The species as well as sporocarp richness were the highest during the fourth week, while the diversity attained the highest during the second week in control region. In fire-impacted region, the species and sporocarp richness and diversity peaked at sixth week. Seven species common to both regions were Chlorophyllum molybdites, Lepiota sp., Leucocoprinus birnbaumii, Marasmius sp. 3, Polyporus sp., Schizophyllum commune and Tetrapyrgos nigripes. The overall sporocarp richness was higher in fire-impacted than in control region. The Jaccard’s similarity between regions was 13.5%, while fortnights of regions ranged from 0% (10th week to 11.7% (eighth week. Control region showed single-species dominance by Xylaria hypoxylon, while multispecies dominance by Cyathus striatus and Lentinus squarrosulus in fire-impacted region. Except for air temperature, nine abiotic factors significantly differed between control and fire-impacted regions. The Pearson correlation was positive between species richness and phosphorus content in fire-impacted region (r = 0.696, while sporocarp richness was negatively correlated with pH in control region (r = −0.640. Economically viable species were 12 and 10 without overlap in control and fire-impacted regions, respectively.

  13. HUMAN RESOURCES, SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT PAWN IN SOUTH-WEST OLTENIA REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia, Marin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development is a strategy by which people seek ways to economic development, benefiting also from the local environment or to benefit quality of life. Aim of this paper is to highlight that each county has different sustainable development opportunities, according to demographic and economic potential. These opportunities exist for each urban area in part due to each Region.Starting from the idea accepted worldwide through sustainable development that seeks interaction and compatibility of four systems: human (social economic, environmental (for environmental or ecological and technology, we considered an analysis of human resources in the South-West Oltenia Region. Rresearch methods used consist of systemic analysis, comparative and comprehensive approach to the topic investigated, depending on the target. This research is based on different databases, and uses various methods in an attempt to provide an explanation of the issues that are, theoretically speaking, persuasive. Research results are to highlight the employment rate in the South region West Oltenia, the programs used by authorities to reduce unemployment and to identify any tracks to revive the labor market in this region.

  14. Radionuclides in plankton from the South Pacific Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsh, K.V.; Buddemeier, R.W.

    1984-01-01

    An investigation has been initiated of the utility of marine plankton as bioconcentrating samplers of low-level marine radioactivity in the southern hemisphere. A literature review has shown that both freshwater and marine plankton have trace element and radionuclide concentration factors (relative to water) of up to 10 4 . In 1956 and 1958 considerable work was done on the accumulation and distribution of a variety of fission and activation products produced by nuclear tests in the Marshall Islands. Since then, studies, have largely been confined to a few radionuclides, and most of the work in the last twenty years has been done in the northern hemisphere. The authors participated in Operations Deepfreeze 1981 and 1982, collecting a total of 48 plankton samples from the USCGC Glacier on its Antarctic cruises. Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories sampled air, water, rain, and fallout. The authors were able to measure concentrations in plankton of the naturally-occurring radionuclides 7 Be, 40 K, and the U and Th series, and they believe that they have detected low levels of 144 Ce and 95 Nb in seven samples ranging as far south as 68 0 . Biological identification of the plankton suggests a possible correlation between radionuclide concentration and the protozoa content of the samples. 7 references, 5 figures, 1 table

  15. Sediment-hosted micro-disseminated gold mineralization constrained by basin paleo-topographic highs in the Youjiang basin, South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianming; Ye, Jie; Ying, Hanlong; Liu, Jiajun; Zheng, Minghua; Gu, Xuexiang

    2002-06-01

    The Youjiang basin is a Devonian-Triassic rift basin on the southern margin of the Yangtze Craton in South China. Strong syndepositional faulting defined the basin-and-range style paleo-topography that further developed into isolated carbonate platforms surrounded by siliciclastic filled depressions. Finally, thick Triassic siliciclastic deposits covered the platforms completely. In the Youjiang basin, numerous sediment-hosted, micro-disseminated gold (SMG) deposits occur mainly in Permian-Triassic chert and siliciclastic rocks. SMG ores are often auriferous sedimentary rocks with relatively low sulfide contents and moderate to weak alteration. Similar to Carlin-type gold ores in North America, SMG ores in the Youjiang basin are characterized by low-temperature mineral assemblages of pyrite, arsenopyrite, realgar, stibnite, cinnabar, marcasite, chalcedony and carbonate. Most of the SMG deposits are remarkably distributed around the carbonate platforms. Accordingly, there are platform-proximal and platform-distal SMG deposits. Platform-proximal SMG deposits often occur in the facies transition zone between the underlying platform carbonate rocks and the overlying siliciclastic rocks with an unconformity (often a paleo-karst surface) in between. In the ores and hostrocks there are abundant synsedimentary-syndiagenetic fabrics such as lamination, convolute bedding, slump texture, soft-sediment deformation etc. indicating submarine hydrothermal deposition and syndepositional faulting. Numerous fluid-escape and liquefaction fabrics imply strong fluid migration during sediment basin evolution. Such large-scale geological and fabric evidence implies that SMG ores were formed during basin evolution, probably in connection with basinal fluids. It is well known that basinal fluids (especially sediment-sourced fluids) will migrate generally (1) upwards, (2) towards basin margins or basin topographic highs, (3) and from thicker towards thinner deposits during basin evolution

  16. Conditions and potential evaluation of the uranium mineralization in volcanic basins at the west section of the Yanliao mineral belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhengbang; Zhao Shiqin; Luo Yi; Zhou Dean; Xiao Xiangping

    1993-03-01

    The West section of the Yanliao Mineral Belt is an important prospective uranium mineralization area in volcanic basins at North China. It has undergone three evolutionary periods and developed into six large volcanic collapse faulted basins with tri-layer structure. This leads to three times of pre-enrichment and multiple mineralization of uranium. Finally, the accumulation of uranium and superimposed reworked actions of uranium mineralization resulted in the formation of uranium deposits. After analyzing conditions of uranium mineralization, a model for uranium mineralization of mixed hydrothermal solution of multiple sources in penetrating volcanic collapse faulted basins and seven exploring criteria are suggested. On this basis the evaluation of prospect in this area is positive, and the main exploring strategy has been decided. Furthermore, five prospective areas of mineralization and three most favorable mineralization zones are selected. For exploring large size or super-large size uranium deposits in the area, the key is to strengthen the study and boring of deep layers. Thus, the mineralization in the deep layers or basement may be found. The prediction of deep blind deposits in known ore districts has been proved effectively

  17. Application of Advanced Reservoir Characterization, Simulation, and Production Optimization Strategies to Maximize Recovery in Slope and Basin Clastic Reservoirs, West Texas (Delaware Basin)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutton, S.P.; Flanders, W.A.; Guzman, J.I.; Zirczy, H.

    1999-06-08

    The objective of this Class III project is to demonstrate that detailed reservoir characterization of slope and basin clastic reservoirs in sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico is a cost-effective way to recover a higher percentage of the original oil in place through geologically based field development. This year the project focused on reservoir characterization of the East Ford unit, a representative Delaware Mountain Group field that produces from the upper Bell Canyon Formation (Ramsey Sandstone). The field, discovered in 1960, is operated by Orla Petco, Inc., as the East Ford unit; it contained an estimated 19.8 million barrels (MMbbl) of original oil in place. Petrophysical characterization of the East Ford unit was accomplished by integrating core and log data and quantifying petrophysical properties from wireline logs. Most methods of petrophysical analysis that had been developed during an earlier study of the Ford Geraldine unit were successfully transferred to the East Ford unit. The approach that was used to interpret water saturation from resistivity logs, however, had to be modified because in some East Ford wells the log-calculated water saturation was too high and inconsistent with observations made during the actual production. Log-porosity to core-porosity transforms and core-porosity to core-permeability transforms were derived from the East Ford reservoir. The petrophysical data were used to map porosity, permeability, net pay, water saturation, mobil-oil saturation, and other reservoir properties.

  18. Sedimentology of the upper Karoo fluvial strata in the Tuli Basin, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordy, Emese M.; Catuneanu, Octavian

    2001-08-01

    The sedimentary rocks of the Karoo Supergroup in the Tuli Basin (South Africa) may be grouped in four stratigraphic units: the basal, middle and upper units, and the Clarens Formation. This paper presents the findings of the sedimentological investigation of the fluvial terrigenous clastic and chemical deposits of the upper unit. Evidence provided by primary sedimentary structures, palaeontological record, borehole data, palaeo-flow measurements and stratigraphic relations resulted in the palaeo-environmental reconstruction of the upper unit. The dominant facies assemblages are represented by sandstones and finer-grained sediments, which both can be interbedded with subordinate intraformational coarser facies. The facies assemblages of the upper unit are interpreted as deposits of a low-sinuosity, ephemeral stream system with calcretes and silcretes in the dinosaur-inhabited overbank area. During the deposition of the upper unit, the climate was semi-arid with sparse precipitation resulting in high-magnitude, low-frequency devastating flash floods. The current indicators of the palaeo-drainage system suggest flow direction from northwest to southeast, in a dominantly extensional tectonic setting. Based on sedimentologic and biostratigraphic evidence, the upper unit of the Tuli Basin correlates to the Elliot Formation in the main Karoo Basin to the south.

  19. Preliminary description of hydrologic characteristics and contaminant transport potential of rocks in the Pasco Basin, south-central Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deju, R.A.; Fecht, K.R.

    1979-03-01

    This report aims at consolidating existing data useful in defining the hydrologic characteristics of the Pasco Basin within south-central Washington. It also aims at compiling the properties required to evaluate contaminant transport potential within individual subsurface strata in this basin. The Pasco Basin itself is a tract of semi-arid land covering about 2,000 square miles in south-central Washington. The regional geology of this basin is dominated by tholeiitic flood basalts of the Columbia Plateau. The surface hydrology of the basin is dominated by the Yakima, Snake, and Columbia rivers. Short-lived ephemeral streams may flow for a short period of time after a heavy rainfall or snowmelt. The subsurface hydrology of the Pasco Basin is characterized by an unconfined aquifer carrying the bulk of the water discharged within the basin. This aquifer overlies a series of confined aquifers carrying progressively smaller amounts of groundwater as a function of depth. The hydraulic properties of the various aquifers and non-water-bearing strata are characterized and reported. A summary of the basic properties is tabulated. The hydrochemical data obtained are summarized. The contaminant transport properties of the rocks in the Pasco Basin are analyzed with emphasis on the dispersion and sorption coefficients and the characteristics of the potential reactions between emplaced waste and the surrounding medium. Some basic modeling considerations of the hydrogeologic systems in the basin with a brief discussion of model input requirements and their relationship to available data are presented

  20. 33 CFR 334.670 - Gulf of Mexico south and west of Apalachicola, San Blas, and St. Joseph bays; air-to-air firing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gulf of Mexico south and west of Apalachicola, San Blas, and St. Joseph bays; air-to-air firing practice range, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla. 334..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.670 Gulf of Mexico south and west of...

  1. Mass balance for lead in the California South Coast Air Basin: An update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lankey, R.L.; Davidson, C.I.; McMichael, F.C.

    1998-01-01

    A mass balance for lead for the year 1989 in the South Coast Air Basin has inputs to the atmosphere of 600 ± 190 kg/day and outputs of 580 ± 160 kg/day, showing rough agreement. Stationary sources are responsible for only about 5% of the total lead emissions. The bulk of the lead is emitted from vehicles using leaded gasoline (37%) and unleaded gasoline (15%), as well as from resuspension of previously deposited lead on roads (43%). Over half of the total emitted lead deposits on roads and nearby soil, while about one-third is carried out of the basin by wind. A small amount, less than 10%, is deposited on surfaces throughout the basin. These percentages are approximately the same as those in a mass balance for the same region calculated for 1972, when lead emissions from leaded gasoline were about a factor of 70 greater than leaded gas emissions in 1989. When the lead emissions re used as inputs o a simple continuously stirred flow reactor model for the basin, reasonable, agreement is obtained between calculated and measured concentrations

  2. Structure of the la VELA Offshore Basin, Western Venezuela: AN Obliquely-Opening Rift Basin Within the South America-Caribbean Strike-Slip Plate Boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, J. M.; Mann, P.

    2015-12-01

    Bathymetric, gravity and magnetic maps show that the east-west trend of the Cretaceous Great Arc of the Caribbean in the Leeward Antilles islands is transected by an en echelon series of obliquely-sheared rift basins that show right-lateral offsets ranging from 20 to 40 km. The basins are 75-100 km in length and 20-30 km in width and are composed of sub-parallel, oblique slip normal faults that define deep, bathymetric channels that bound the larger islands of the Leeward Antilles including Aruba, Curacao and Bonaire. A single basin of similar orientation and structure, the Urumaco basin, is present to the southwest in the Gulf of Venezuela. We mapped structures and sedimentation in the La Vela rift basin using a 3D seismic data volume recorded down to 6 seconds TWT. The basin can be mapped from the Falcon coast where it is correlative with the right-lateral Adicora fault mapped onshore, and its submarine extension. To the southeast of the 3D survey area, previous workers have mapped a 70-km-wide zone of northeast-striking, oblique, right-lateral faults, some with apparent right-lateral offsets of the coastline. On seismic data, the faults vary in dip from 45 to 60 degrees and exhibit maximum vertical offsets of 600 m. The La Vela and other obliquely-opening rifts accommodate right-lateral shear with linkages to intervening, east-west-striking right-lateral faults like the Adicora. The zone of oblique rifts is restricted to the trend of the Great Arc of the Caribbean and may reflect the susceptiblity of this granitic basement to active shearing. The age of onset for the basins known from previous studies on the Leeward Antilles is early Miocene. As most of these faults occur offshore their potential to generate damaging earthquakes in the densely populated Leeward Antilles is not known.

  3. Simulating the characteristics of tropical cyclones over the South West Indian Ocean using a Stretched-Grid Global Climate Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maoyi, Molulaqhooa L.; Abiodun, Babatunde J.; Prusa, Joseph M.; Veitch, Jennifer J.

    2018-03-01

    Tropical cyclones (TCs) are one of the most devastating natural phenomena. This study examines the capability of a global climate model with grid stretching (CAM-EULAG, hereafter CEU) in simulating the characteristics of TCs over the South West Indian Ocean (SWIO). In the study, CEU is applied with a variable increment global grid that has a fine horizontal grid resolution (0.5° × 0.5°) over the SWIO and coarser resolution (1° × 1°—2° × 2.25°) over the rest of the globe. The simulation is performed for the 11 years (1999-2010) and validated against the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) best track data, global precipitation climatology project (GPCP) satellite data, and ERA-Interim (ERAINT) reanalysis. CEU gives a realistic simulation of the SWIO climate and shows some skill in simulating the spatial distribution of TC genesis locations and tracks over the basin. However, there are some discrepancies between the observed and simulated climatic features over the Mozambique channel (MC). Over MC, CEU simulates a substantial cyclonic feature that produces a higher number of TC than observed. The dynamical structure and intensities of the CEU TCs compare well with observation, though the model struggles to produce TCs with a deep pressure centre as low as the observed. The reanalysis has the same problem. The model captures the monthly variation of TC occurrence well but struggles to reproduce the interannual variation. The results of this study have application in improving and adopting CEU for seasonal forecasting over the SWIO.

  4. Simulation of Water Quality in the Tull Creek and West Neck Creek Watersheds, Currituck Sound Basin, North Carolina and Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Ana Maria

    2009-01-01

    A study of the Currituck Sound was initiated in 2005 to evaluate the water chemistry of the Sound and assess the effectiveness of management strategies. As part of this study, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was used to simulate current sediment and nutrient loadings for two distinct watersheds in the Currituck Sound basin and to determine the consequences of different water-quality management scenarios. The watersheds studied were (1) Tull Creek watershed, which has extensive row-crop cultivation and artificial drainage, and (2) West Neck Creek watershed, which drains urban areas in and around Virginia Beach, Virginia. The model simulated monthly streamflows with Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficients of 0.83 and 0.76 for Tull Creek and West Neck Creek, respectively. The daily sediment concentration coefficient of determination was 0.19 for Tull Creek and 0.36 for West Neck Creek. The coefficient of determination for total nitrogen was 0.26 for both watersheds and for dissolved phosphorus was 0.4 for Tull Creek and 0.03 for West Neck Creek. The model was used to estimate current (2006-2007) sediment and nutrient yields for the two watersheds. Total suspended-solids yield was 56 percent lower in the urban watershed than in the agricultural watershed. Total nitrogen export was 45 percent lower, and total phosphorus was 43 percent lower in the urban watershed than in the agricultural watershed. A management scenario with filter strips bordering the main channels was simulated for Tull Creek. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool model estimated a total suspended-solids yield reduction of 54 percent and total nitrogen and total phosphorus reductions of 21 percent and 29 percent, respectively, for the Tull Creek watershed.

  5. Thermometric carottage measurement and thermic flow in Cheb basin (West Czech)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irovska, J.; Kobr, M.; Cermak, V.

    2002-01-01

    The basic method applied for carottage measurement in Cheb basin was the measurement of natural gamma activity and resistance measurement. In selected drillings for search of coal deposits the neutron-neutron profiling, density gamma-gamma carottage and inclinometry were applied. This standard method was refill with measurements of hydrogeology conditions in a drill (resistivimetry, thermometry, photometry, flowmeter). In the Cheb basin 36 drills have stable thermometric measurements of 850 drills with the depth more than 45 m. From these measurements the map of thermal flow density was plotted. On the map 4 anomalies are manifested

  6. Retrieval of biophysical parameters with AVIRIS and ISM: The Landes Forest, south west France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagolski, F.; Gastellu-Etchegorry, J. P.; Mougin, E.; Giordano, G.; Marty, G.; Letoan, T.; Beaudoin, A.

    1992-01-01

    The first steps of an experiment for investigating the capability of airborne spectrometer data for retrieval of biophysical parameters of vegetation, especially water conditions are presented. Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) and ISM data were acquired in the frame of the 1991 NASA/JPL and CNES campaigns on the Landes, South west France, a large and flat forest area with mainly maritime pines. In-situ measurements were completed at that time; i.e. reflectance spectra, atmospheric profiles, sampling for further laboratory analyses of elements concentrations (lignin, water, cellulose, nitrogen,...). All information was integrated in an already existing data base (age, LAI, DBH, understory cover,...). A methodology was designed for (1) obtaining geometrically and atmospherically corrected reflectance data, (2) registering all available information, and (3) analyzing these multi-source informations. Our objective is to conduct comparative studies with simulation reflectance models, and to improve these models, especially in the MIR.

  7. Net ecosystem exchange in a sedge-sphagnum fen at the South of West Siberia, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyukarev, Egor

    2017-04-01

    The model of net ecosystem exchange was used to study the influence of different environmental factors and to calculate daily and growing season carbon budget for minerotrophic fen at South of West Siberia, Russia. Minerotrophic sedge-sphagnum fen occupies the central part of the Bakcharskoe bog. The model uses air and soil temperature, incoming photosynthetically active radiation, and leaf area index as the explanatory factors for gross primary production, heterotrophic and autotrophic respiration. The model coefficients were calibrated using data collected by automated soil CO2 flux system with clear long-term chamber. The studied ecosystem is a sink of carbon according to modelling and observation results. This study was supported by Russian Foundation for Basic Researches (grant numbers 16-07-01205 and 16-45-700562.

  8. Macro and trace elements in Paracentrotus lividus gonads from South West Atlantic areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Camacho, Carolina; Rocha, A. Cristina; Barbosa, Vera L.

    2018-01-01

    Sea urchin represents one of the most valuable seafood product being harvested and explored for their edible part, the gonads or roe. This species is generally considered a sentinel organism for ecotoxicological studies being widely used in monitoring programs to assess coastal aquatic environments...... quality, because is directly exposed to anthropogenic contaminants in their habitat. In this context, the aim of this study is to evaluate the concentrations of macro (Cl, K, P, Ca, S) and trace (Zn, Br, Fe, Sr, I, Se, Rb, Cu, Cr, Ni, As, iAs, Cd, Pb, Hg) elements in Paracentrotus lividus gonads from...... three South West Atlantic production areas subjected to distinct environmental and anthropogenic pressures. In all studied areas, the elements profile in sea urchin gonads was Cl > K > P > Ca > S > Zn > Br > Fe > Sr > I > Rb > Cu > Se > Cr > Ni, suggesting an element guide profile with special interest...

  9. Conceptions of the Nature of Science Held by Undergraduate Pre-Service Biology Teachers in South-West Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adedoyin, A. O.; Bello, G.

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the conceptions of the nature of science held by pre-service undergraduate biology teachers in South-West, Nigeria. Specifically, the study examined the influence of their gender on their conceptions of the nature of science. The study was a descriptive research of the survey method. The population for the study comprised…

  10. Ongeluk basaltic andesite formation in Griqualand West, South Africa: Submarine alteration in a 2222 Ma Proterozoic sea

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cornell, DH

    1996-07-01

    Full Text Available The Ongeluk lavas form part of the Palaeoproterozoic Transvaal-Griqualand West supracrustal sequence of the Archaean Kaapvaal Craton of South Africa. They form a thick shallow-marine volcanic sequence of pillow lava, massive flows and hyaloclastite...

  11. Diet composition and quality for Calanus finmarchicus egg production and hatching success off south-west Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonasdottir, Sigrun; Gudfinnsson, H.G.; Gislason, A.

    2002-01-01

    Egg production and hatching success of the copepod Calanus finmarchicus was measured during spring and summer in the waters south-west of Iceland. Egg-production rates varied greatly, both temporally and spatially, with highest average rates found at a station with low chlorophyll-a concentrations...

  12. Youthful Lust and Violation of Mobile Phone Rule in a Private Christian Mission University, South West Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojo, Omonijo Dare; Ugochukwu, Nnedum Obiajulu Anthony; Obinna, Ezeokana Jude

    2011-01-01

    This study aims at discovering the difference in the perceived lack of privacy in communication and violation of mobile phone rule among students in a Private Christian Mission University, South-West Nigeria. It equally tries to discover if there is a difference in the perceived students' desire to express love to the opposite sex and violation of…

  13. Study of petrological characteristics of uranium-bearing sandstone in the south of ordos basin, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Cheng; Jia Licheng; Li Song; Zhang Zimin

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses the relation between uranium-bearing abundance and texture constituent of sedimentary rock, on the basis of the research of petrological characteristic of sandstone in the south of Ordos basin. The influence of infiltration of sandstone and uranium migration and accumulation by the major diagenesis of compaction and cementation, clay minerals evolution, corrosion and forming of secondary porosity are discussed. Uranium-bearing sandstones are divided into four types and their petrological characteristics are discussed. After mineralization conditions being summed up, the uranium-mineralization model of sandstone-type is built. Reliable petrological evidences for evaluating favourable uranium mineralization rich areas are furnished. (authors)

  14. Incidence of non-typhoidal Salmonella in poultry products in the North West Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseline Y. Olobatoke

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the incidence of non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS serotypes in raw and ready-to-eat (RTE broiler products in the North West Province of South Africa. A total of 120 raw broiler samples, 40 samples of polonies and 20 samples of smoked viennas were obtained from retail points in major cities and towns in the province. Samples were subjected to aerobic plate count and later screened for the presence of NTS using phenotypic and genotypic techniques. The average bacterial count in raw products was 3.1 x 105 cfu/g whereas bacterial contamination of RTE products was 1.8 x 103 cfu/g. The average recovery rate of NTS species from raw broiler products was 12.5% and the serotypes identified were S. typhimurium (46.4%, S. enteritidis (30.9% and S. newport (22.9%. No NTS was recovered from the RTE products. However, S. typhimurium was the predominant serotype in whole carcasses whereas S. enteritidis and S. newport were prevalent in chicken parts. Out of the 160 presumptive NTS isolates screened by polymerase chain reaction (PCR, 140 (87.5% were confirmed for the presence of the Salmonella-specific invA gene. In addition, 115 (82.4% of the confirmed isolates harboured the plasmid spvC gene. Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD fingerprinting of isolates using RAPD 1 and RAPD 3 primers, revealed some inter- and intra-serotype genetic diversity among isolates, suggesting varying sources of contamination. The results of this study represent the first report on the incidence and prevalent serotypes of NTS in chicken products in the North West Province of South Africa.

  15. Pathology of fatal lineage 1 and 2 West Nile virus infections in horses in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    June H. Williams

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Since 2007, West Nile virus (WNV has been reported in South African horses, causing severe neurological signs. All cases were of lineage 2, except for one case that clustered with lineage 1 viruses. In the present study, gross and microscopic lesions of six South African lineage 2-infected horses and the one lineage 1 case are described. Diagnoses were confirmed by real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR of central nervous system (CNS tissue and one by RT-PCR of a brain virus isolate. The CNS of all cases was negative by RT-PCR or immunohistochemistry (IHC for African horse sickness (AHS, equine encephalosis virus, equine herpes viruses 1 and 4, other zoonotic flaviviruses, alphaviruses, and shunivirus, and either by immunofluorescence or IHC for rabies. Gross visceral lesions were nonspecific but often mimicked those of AHS. The CNS histopathology of WNV lineage 2 cases resembled the nonsuppurative polioencephalomyelitis reported in the Northern Hemisphere lineage 1 and recent Hungarian lineage 2 cases. Occasional meningitis, focal spinal ventral horn poliomalacia, dorsal and lateral horn poliomyelitis, leucomyelitis, asymmetrical ventral motor spinal neuritis and frequent olfactory region involvement were also seen. Lineage 2 cases displayed marked variations in CNS lesion severity, type and distribution, and suggested various viral entry routes into the CNS, based on findings in experimental mice and hamsters. Lineage 1 lesions were comparable to the milder lineage 2 cases. West Nile virus IHC on CNS sections with marked lesions from all cases elicited only two antigen-positive cells in the olfactory cortex of one case. The presence in the CNS of T-lymphocytes, B-lymphocytes, plasma cells and macrophage-monocytes was confirmed by cluster of differentiation (CD 3, CD20, multiple myeloma oncogene 1 (MUM1 and macrophage (MAC 387 IHC.

  16. Prevalence and impacts of low back pain among peasant farmers in South-West Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bosede Abidemi Tella

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: A relationship between low back pain (LBP and poor postures has been previously established with a high prevalence observed in many occupations. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of LBP, associated risk factors and impacts on farmers in South-West Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Six hundred and four farmers completed a 36-item closed-ended questionnaire which was translated to Yoruba language with content validity and back translation done afterwards. The questionnaire sought information on demographic data, 12-month prevalence, severity, history, causes and management of LBP, and its impacts on farm activities and the activities of daily living. Data was analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 17. Data was summarized using descriptive statistics of mean, range, frequency, standard deviation, percentage. Chi2 and Mann-Whitney-U test were used to find association between variables. The level of significance was set at α = 0.05. Results: The 12-month prevalence of LBP among the respondents was 74.4%. Low back pain was described as moderate in 53.4%. Prolonged bending (51.3% was the most related risk factor. A considerable proportion (65.9% of the respondents were unable to continue some of the previously enjoyed activities. Males had significantly higher (p < 0.05 prevalence, recurrence and duration of LBP than the females. Conclusion: There is a high prevalence of LBP among farmers in South-West Nigeria. Age, sex and years of involvement in farming have a significant influence on the prevalence of LBP.

  17. Malignancy in scleroderma patients from south west England: a population-based cohort study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Siau, Keith

    2010-01-08

    The pathophysiological relationship between scleroderma and malignancy remains poorly understood. Although some previous studies have demonstrated an increased malignancy risk in patients with scleroderma, others have been inconclusive. We aimed to determine if patients with scleroderma had an increased risk of malignancy compared to an age- and sex-matched local South West England population, and if there were any important differences between scleroderma patients with and without malignancy. Methods of this study are as follows. Notes were obtained on all local scleroderma patients (n = 68) locally, and those diagnosed with malignancy verified by contacting each patient\\'s general practitioner. Expected malignancy figures were obtained from age- and sex-stratified regional prevalence data provided by the South West Cancer Intelligence Service registry. Among the patients, 22.1% with scleroderma were identified with concurrent malignancy. Affected sites were of the breast (n = 5), haematological system (n = 5), skin (n = 4), and unknown primary (n = 1). Overall, malignancy risk was found to be increased in scleroderma (RR = 3.15, 95% CI 1.77-5.20, p = 0.01). In particular, this risk was the highest for haematological malignancies (RR = 18.5, 95% CI 6-43, p = 0.03), especially for non-Hodgkin\\'s lymphoma (RR = 25.8, 95% CI 5-75, p = 0.10). The majority of patients (86.7%) developed malignancy after the onset of scleroderma (mean = 6.9 years). Age of >70 and patients with limited scleroderma were significant risk factors for a patient with scleroderma to have a concurrent malignancy; however, no increased risk was found in patients with any particular pattern of organ involvement, cytotoxic usage or serology. To conclude, in this small patient cohort, we have found that scleroderma is associated with an increased risk of malignancy. This risk is statistically significant in patients with limited scleroderma. Patients who are elderly and those with limited disease

  18. Assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources in the West Korea Bay–North Yellow Sea Basin, North Korea and China, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Finn, Thomas M.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Woodall, Cheryl A.

    2017-07-11

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered, technically recoverable conventional resources of 1.1 billion barrels of oil and 2.2 trillion cubic feet of gas in the West Korea Bay–North Yellow Sea Basin, North Korea and China.

  19. Computation of groundwater resources and recharge in Chithar River Basin, South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramani, T; Babu, Savithri; Elango, L

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater recharge and available groundwater resources in Chithar River basin, Tamil Nadu, India spread over an area of 1,722 km(2) have been estimated by considering various hydrological, geological, and hydrogeological parameters, such as rainfall infiltration, drainage, geomorphic units, land use, rock types, depth of weathered and fractured zones, nature of soil, water level fluctuation, saturated thickness of aquifer, and groundwater abstraction. The digital ground elevation models indicate that the regional slope of the basin is towards east. The Proterozoic (Post-Archaean) basement of the study area consists of quartzite, calc-granulite, crystalline limestone, charnockite, and biotite gneiss with or without garnet. Three major soil types were identified namely, black cotton, deep red, and red sandy soils. The rainfall intensity gradually decreases from west to east. Groundwater occurs under water table conditions in the weathered zone and fluctuates between 0 and 25 m. The water table gains maximum during January after northeast monsoon and attains low during October. Groundwater abstraction for domestic/stock and irrigational needs in Chithar River basin has been estimated as 148.84 MCM (million m(3)). Groundwater recharge due to monsoon rainfall infiltration has been estimated as 170.05 MCM based on the water level rise during monsoon period. It is also estimated as 173.9 MCM using rainfall infiltration factor. An amount of 53.8 MCM of water is contributed to groundwater from surface water bodies. Recharge of groundwater due to return flow from irrigation has been computed as 147.6 MCM. The static groundwater reserve in Chithar River basin is estimated as 466.66 MCM and the dynamic reserve is about 187.7 MCM. In the present scenario, the aquifer is under safe condition for extraction of groundwater for domestic and irrigation purposes. If the existing water bodies are maintained properly, the extraction rate can be increased in future about 10% to 15%.

  20. Linking Tarim Basin sea retreat (west China) and Asian aridification in the late Eocene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosboom, R.; Dupont-Nivet, G.; Grothe, A.; Brinkhuis, H.; Villa, G.; Mandic, O.; Stoica, M.; Huang, W.; Yang, W.; Guo, Z.; Krijgsman, W.

    2014-01-01

    The Tarim Basin in western China formed the easternmost margin of a shallow epicontinental sea that extended across Eurasia and was well connected to the western Tethys during the Paleogene. Climate modelling studies suggest that the westward retreat of this sea from Central Asia may have been as

  1. Phleboviruses detection in Phlebotomus perniciosus from a human leishmaniasis focus in South-West Madrid region, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remoli, Maria Elena; Jiménez, Maribel; Fortuna, Claudia; Benedetti, Eleonora; Marchi, Antonella; Genovese, Domenico; Gramiccia, Marina; Molina, Ricardo; Ciufolini, Maria Grazia

    2016-04-13

    Phlebotomus-borne (PhB-) viruses are distributed in large areas of the Old World and are widespread throughout the Mediterranean basin, where recent investigations have indicated that virus diversity is higher than initially suspected. Some of these viruses are causes of meningitis, encephalitis and febrile illnesses. In order to monitor the viral presence and the infection rate of PhB-viruses in a recently identified and well characterized human zoonotic leishmaniasis focus in southwestern Madrid, Spain, a sand fly collection was carried out. Sand fly insects were collected in four stations using CDC light traps during 2012-2013 summer seasons. Screening for Phlebovirus presence both via isolation on Vero cells and via polymerase chain reaction (PCR), using degenerated primers targeting a portion of the L segment, was performed. The serological identity and phylogenetic relationships on the three genomic segments of the viral isolates were carried out. Six viral isolates belonging to different serological complexes of the genus Phlebovirus were obtained from fifty pools on a total of 963 P. perniciosus (202 females). Phylogenetic analysis and serological assays allowed the identification of two isolates of Toscana virus (TOSV) B genotype, three isolates strongly related to Italian Arbia virus (ARBV), and one isolate of a novel putative Phlebovirus related to the recently characterized Arrabida virus in South Portugal, tentatively named Arrabida-like virus. Positive male sand fly pools suggested that transovarial or venereal transmission could occur under natural conditions. Our findings highlighted the presence of different Phlebovirus species in the South-West area of the Madrid Autonomous Community where an outbreak of cutaneous and visceral human leishmaniasis has been recently described. The evidence of viral species never identified before in Spain, as ARBV and Arrabida-like virus, and TOSV B genotype focus stability was demonstrated. Environmental aspects

  2. Moonrise: Sampling the South Pole-Aitken Basin to Address Problems of Solar System Significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeigler, R. A.; Jolliff, B. L.; Korotev, R. L.; Shearer, C. K.

    2016-01-01

    A mission to land in the giant South Pole-Aitken (SPA) Basin on the Moon's southern farside and return a sample to Earth for analysis is a high priority for Solar System Science. Such a sample would be used to determine the age of the SPA impact; the chronology of the basin, including the ages of basins and large impacts within SPA, with implications for early Solar System dynamics and the magmatic history of the Moon; the age and composition of volcanic rocks within SPA; the origin of the thorium signature of SPA with implications for the origin of exposed materials and thermal evolution of the Moon; and possibly the magnetization that forms a strong anomaly especially evident in the northern parts of the SPA basin. It is well known from studies of the Apollo regolith that rock fragments found in the regolith form a representative collection of many different rock types delivered to the site by the impact process (Fig. 1). Such samples are well documented to contain a broad suite of materials that reflect both the local major rock formations, as well as some exotic materials from far distant sources. Within the SPA basin, modeling of the impact ejection process indicates that regolith would be dominated by SPA substrate, formed at the time of the SPA basin-forming impact and for the most part moved around by subsequent impacts. Consistent with GRAIL data, the SPA impact likely formed a vast melt body tens of km thick that took perhaps several million years to cool, but that nonetheless represents barely an instant in geologic time that should be readily apparent through integrated geochronologic studies involving multiple chronometers. It is anticipated that a statistically significant number of age determinations would yield not only the age of SPA but also the age of several prominent nearby basins and large craters within SPA. This chronology would provide a contrast to the Imbrium-dominated chronology of the nearside Apollo samples and an independent test of

  3. Survey of the livestock ticks of the North West province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur M. Spickett

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Ticks, as vectors of disease and damage agents, impact directly and indirectly on the economy of the livestock industry in southern Africa. This study surveyed the occurrence and distribution of ticks infesting livestock across the North West province, South Africa. During three phases in consecutive years, officers of the provincial Veterinary Department collected specimens monthly from livestock hosts at specified sites across the province. Data analysis constituted the fourth phase of the study. A total of 1090 collections from 265 sites yielded 42 566 tick specimens, comprising 22 different tick species (18 ixodids, 4 argasids. The specimens represent all of the major tick vectors of disease that occur in South Africa. The major tick-borne diseases (i.e. heartwater, both African and Asiatic bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis were found to be prevalent mainly in the north-eastern region of the province, which also displayed the highest tick species diversity. The central region appears transitory to some of the major vectors. Although some tick species were contained within specific regions, others were widespread across the province. Associated serology data show that most herds sampled in areas endemic for babesiosis and anaplasmosis in the north-eastern region are endemically unstable and at risk to these tick-borne diseases should vector control measures become ineffective.

  4. Spatio-temporal epidemiology of human West Nile virus disease in South Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimberly, Michael C; Giacomo, Paolla; Kightlinger, Lon; Hildreth, Michael B

    2013-10-29

    Despite a cold temperate climate and low human population density, the Northern Great Plains has become a persistent hot spot for human West Nile virus (WNV) disease in North America. Understanding the spatial and temporal patterns of WNV can provide insights into the epidemiological and ecological factors that influence disease emergence and persistence. We analyzed the 1,962 cases of human WNV disease that occurred in South Dakota from 2002-2012 to identify the geographic distribution, seasonal cycles, and interannual variability of disease risk. The geographic and seasonal patterns of WNV have changed since the invasion and initial epidemic in 2002-2003, with cases shifting toward the eastern portion of South Dakota and occurring earlier in the transmission season in more recent years. WNV cases were temporally autocorrelated at lags of up to six weeks and early season cumulative case numbers were correlated with seasonal totals, indicating the possibility of using these data for short-term early detection of outbreaks. Epidemiological data are likely to be most effective for early warning of WNV virus outbreaks if they are integrated with entomological surveillance and environmental monitoring to leverage the strengths and minimize the weaknesses of each information source.

  5. Geographic Variability in Geocoding Success for West Nile Virus Cases in South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wey, Christine L.; Griesse, Jennifer; Kightlinger, Lon; Wimberly, Michael C.

    2009-01-01

    Background Geocoding, the process of assigning each case a set of coordinates that closely approximates its true location, is an important component of spatial epidemiological studies. The failure to accurately geocode cases adversely affects the validity and strength of conclusions drawn from the analysis. We investigated whether there were differences among geographic locations and demographic classes in the ability to successfully geocode West Nile virus (WNV) cases in South Dakota. We successfully geocoded 1,354 cases (80.8%) to their street address locations and assigned all 1,676 cases to ZIP code tabulation areas (ZCTAs). Using spatial scan statistics, significant clusters of non-geocoded cases were identified in central and western South Dakota. Geocoding success rates were lower in areas of low population density and on Indian reservations than in other portions of the state. Geocoding success rates were lower for Native Americans than for other races. Spatial epidemiological studies should consider the potential biases that may result from excluding non-geocoded cases, particularly in rural portions of the Great Plains that contain large Native American populations. PMID:19577505

  6. Comparison of West African and Congo Basin monkeypox viruses in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina L Hutson

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Although monkeypox virus (MPXV studies in wild rodents and non-human primates have generated important knowledge regarding MPXV pathogenesis and inferences about disease transmission, it might be easier to dissect the importance of virulence factors and correlates of protection to MPXV in an inbred mouse model. Herein, we compared the two clades of MPXV via two routes of infection in the BALB/c and C57BL/6 inbred mice strains. Our studies show that similar to previous animal studies, the Congo Basin strain of MPXV was more virulent than West African MPXV in both mouse strains as evidenced by clinical signs. Although animals did not develop lesions as seen in human MPX infections, localized signs were apparent with the foot pad route of inoculation, primarily in the form of edema at the site of inoculation; while the Congo Basin intranasal route of infection led to generalized symptoms, primarily weight loss. We have determined that future studies with MPXV and laboratory mice would be very beneficial in understanding the pathogenesis of MPXV, in particular if used in in vivo imaging studies. Although this mouse model may not suffice as a model of human MPX disease, with an appropriate inbred mouse model, we can unravel many unknown aspects of MPX pathogenesis, including virulence factors, disease progression in rodent hosts, and viral shedding from infected animals. In addition, such a model can be utilized to test antivirals and the next generation of orthopoxvirus vaccines for their ability to alter the course of disease.

  7. Facies analysis and sequence stratigraphy of neoproterozoic Platform deposits in Adrar of Mauritania, Taoudeni basin, West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benan, C. A. A.; Deynoux, M.

    The Neoproterozoic and Palaeozoic Taoudeni basin forms the flat-lying and unmetamorphosed sedimentary cover of the West African Craton. In the western part of this basin, the Char Group and the lower part of the Atar Group make up a 400-m-thick Neoproterozoic siliciclastic succession which rests on the Palaeoproterozoic metamorphic and granitic basement. Five erosional bounding surfaces of regional extent have been identified in this succession. These surfaces separate five stratigraphic units with lithofacies associations ranging from fluvial to coastal and fluvial-, tide-, or wave-dominated shallow marine deposits. Owing to their regional extent and their position within the succession, the erosive bounding surfaces correspond to relative sea-level falls, and accordingly the five stratigraphic units they bound represent allocyclic transgressive-regressive depositional sequences (S1-S5). Changes in the nature of the deposits forming the transgressive-regressive cycles reflect landward or seaward shifts of the stacked sequences. These successive relative sea-level changes are related to the reactivation of basement faults and tilting during rifting of the Pan-Afro-Brasiliano supercontinent 1000 m.y. ago. The stromatolite bearing carbonate-shale sequences which form the rest of the Atar Group mark the onset of a quiet period of homogeneous subsidence contemporaneous with the Pan-African I oceanization 800-700 m.y. ago.

  8. HYDRO-METEOROLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS FOR SUSTAINABLE LAND MANAGEMENT IN THE SINGKARAK BASIN, WEST SUMATRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasdi Subagyono

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Studi tentang karakteristik hidro-meteorologi telah dilakukan di wilayah danau Singkarak pada 2006-2007 dengan melibatkan partisipasi masyarakat. Stasiun iklim otomatis dan pengukur tinggi muka air otomatis dipasang untuk memonitor data hidrologi dan meteorologi di wilayah cekungan Singkarak. Data meteorologi dianalisa untuk mengetahui karakteristik iklim di wilayah sekitar danau. Model hidrologi GR4J dan H2U diaplikasikan untuk simulasi discharge dan untuk mengkarakterisasi proses hidrologi di wilayah danau. Simulasi model aliran divalidasi pada musim hujan. Alternatif pengelolaan lahan diformulasikan berdasarkan karakteristik hidrologi daerah aliran sungai di sekitar cekungan Singkarak. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa daerah tangkapan di sekitar danau Singkarak memiliki respon yang tinggi terhadap jumlah dan intensitas hujan. Hidrograp menunjukkan peningkatan yang tajam dari discharge segera setelah curah hujan mulai dan menurun relative lamban ketika curah hujan berhenti. Untuk pengelolaan lahan secara berkelanjutan di wilayah danau Singkarak, konservasi lahan dan air harus menjadi prioritas utama. Wanatani dapat diimplementasikan sebagai alternatif sistem pertanaman oleh penduduk lokal. Karena potensi kelangkaan air bisa terjadi pada periode kering, panen air dan konservasi air dapat diterapkan sebagai opsi yang dapat dikombinasikan dalam sistem pengelolaan lahan.   Hydro-meteorological processes of the Singkarak basin has been studied involving participatory of local community in 2006-2007. Automatic weather station (AWS and automatic water level recorder (AWLR were installed to record meteorological and hydrological data within the Singkarak Basin. Meteorological data was analyzed to understand the meteorological characteristic surrounding the Basin area. Model of GR4J and H2U were used to simulated discharge and to understand the hydrological processes within the basin. The validation of simulated discharge was done in the wet season

  9. Application of Advanced Reservoir Characterization, Simulation, and Production Optimization Strategies to Maximize Recovery in Slope and Basin Clastic Reservoirs, West Texas (Delaware Basin)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrew G. Cole; George B. Asquith; Jose I. Guzman; Mark D. Barton; Mohammad A. Malik; Shirley P. Dutton; Sigrid J. Clift

    1998-04-01

    The objective of this Class III project is to demonstrate that detailed reservoir characterization of clastic reservoirs in basinal sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico is a cost-effective way to recover more of the original oil in place by strategic infill-well placement and geologically based enhanced oil recovery. The study focused on the Ford Geraldine unit, which produces from the upper Bell Canyon Formation (Ramsey sandstone). Reservoirs in this and other Delaware Mountain Group fields have low producibility (average recovery <14 percent of the original oil in place) because of a high degree of vertical and lateral heterogeneity caused by depositional processes and post-depositional diagenetic modification. Outcrop analogs were studied to better interpret the depositional processes that formed the reservoirs at the Ford Geraldine unit and to determine the dimensions of reservoir sandstone bodies. Facies relationships and bedding architecture within a single genetic unit exposed in outcrop in Culberson County, Texas, suggest that the sandstones were deposited in a system of channels and levees with attached lobes that initially prograded basinward, aggraded, and then turned around and stepped back toward the shelf. Channel sandstones are 10 to 60 ft thick and 300 to 3,000 ft wide. The flanking levees have a wedge-shaped geometry and are composed of interbedded sandstone and siltstone; thickness varies from 3 to 20 ft and length from several hundred to several thousands of feet. The lobe sandstones are broad lens-shaped bodies; thicknesses range up to 30 ft with aspect ratios (width/thickness) of 100 to 10,000. Lobe sandstones may be interstratified with laminated siltstones.

  10. Dependence between sea surge, river flow and precipitation in south and west Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Svensson

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Estuaries around Great Britain may be at heightened risk of flooding because of the simultaneous occurrence of extreme sea surge and river flow, both of which may be caused by mid-latitude cyclones. A measure especially suited for extremes was employed to estimate dependence between river flow and sea surge. To assist in the interpretation of why flow-surge dependence occurs in some areas and not in others, the dependence between precipitation and surge and between precipitation and river flow was also studied. Case studies of the meteorological situations leading to high surges and/or river flows were also carried out. The present study concerns catchments draining to the south and west coasts of Great Britain. Statistically significant dependence between river flow and daily maximum sea surge may be found at catchments spread along most of this coastline. However, higher dependence is generally found in catchments in hilly areas with a southerly to westerly aspect. Here, precipitation in south-westerly airflow, which is generally the quadrant of prevailing winds, will be enhanced orographically as the first higher ground is encountered. The sloping catchments may respond quickly to the abundant rainfall and the flow peak may arrive in the estuary on the same day as a large sea surge is produced by the winds and low atmospheric pressure associated with the cyclone. There are three regions where flow-surge dependence is strong: the western part of the English south coast, southern Wales and around the Solway Firth. To reduce the influence of tide-surge interaction on the dependence analysis, the dependence between river flow and daily maximum surge occurring at high tide was estimated. The general pattern of areas with higher dependence is similar to that using the daily maximum surge. The dependence between river flow and daily maximum sea surge is often strongest when surge and flow occur on the same day. The west coast from Wales and

  11. Characteristics of Droughts in South Africa: A Case Study of Free State and North West Provinces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina M. Botai

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The Free State (FS and North West (NW Provinces are often hard hit by droughts with impacts on water availability, farm production and livestock holdings. The South African government declared the two Provinces drought disaster areas in the 2015/2016 hydrological year. This is a major drawback, since both the Provinces play an important role to South African economy as they are a haven to agricultural production and have major water reservoirs in South Africa. This study was undertaken to investigate the historical evolution of drought within the FS and NW Provinces over the past 30 years. The Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI and Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI calculated based on monthly meteorological data from 14 weather/climate stations within the FS and NW Provinces were used to explore and characterize variation in drought intensity, duration, frequency and severity in FS and NW Provinces during 1985–2015. Results indicate that there exist localized positive and negative trends with spatial dependence across the selected stations. In particular, about 60% of the weather stations exhibiting a decreasing trend are located in FS Province, suggesting that FS has being experiencing increasing drought during the analyzed period compared to NW Province. Results from the analysis of drought evaluation indicators (DEIs calculated from SPEI suggest that drought severity and frequency was more pronounced in FS while the intensity of the drought was more in NW Province during 1985–2015. In addition, based on SPEI calculations, moderate drought occurrences increased during 1985–1994 and 1995–2004 periods and decreased thereafter (2005–2015 in both Provinces. Drought classification based on parameters derived from SPEI produced similar results for mild drought occurrences during the same time scales.

  12. Hydrological Responses to Land Use/Cover Changes in the Olifants Basin, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Gyamfi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the hydrological impacts of land use changes on the Olifants Basin in South Africa using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT. A three-phase land use scenario (2000, 2007 and 2013 employing the “fix-changing” method was used to simulate the hydrology of the Olifants Basin. Changes in land uses were related to different hydrological responses through a multi-regression analysis to quantify the effects of land use changes. Results reveal that from 2000 to 2013, a 31.6% decrease in rangeland with concomitant increases in agriculture lands (20.1%, urban areas (10.5% and forest (0.7% led to a 46.97% increase in surface runoff generation. Further, urbanization was revealed as the strongest contributor to increases in surface runoff generation, water yield and evapotranspiration (ET. ET was found to be a key water availability determinant as it has a high negative impact on surface runoff and water yield. Urbanization and agriculture were the most essential environmental factors influencing water resources of the basin with ET playing a dominant role. The output of the paper provides a simplistic approach of evaluating the impacts of land use changes on water resources. The tools and methods used are relevant for policy directions on water resources planning and adaptation of strategies.

  13. Occurrence of 1 ka-old corals on an uplifted reef terrace in west Luzon, Philippines: Implications for a prehistoric extreme wave event in the South China Sea region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Noelynna T.; Maxwell, Kathrine V.; Tsutsumi, Hiroyuki; Chou, Yu-Chen; Duan, Fucai; Shen, Chuan-Chou; Satake, Kenji

    2017-12-01

    Recent 230Th dating of fossil corals in west Luzon has provided new insights on the emergence of late Quaternary marine terraces that fringe west Luzon Island facing the Manila Trench. Apart from regional sea level changes, accumulated uplift from aseismic and seismic processes may have influenced the emergence of sea level indicators such as coral terraces and notches. Varied elevations of middle-to-late Holocene coral terraces along the west Luzon coasts reveal the differential uplift that is probably associated with the movement of local onland faults or upper-plate structures across the Manila Trench forearc basin. In Badoc Island, offshore west of Luzon mainland, we found notably young fossil corals, dated at 945.1 ± 4.6 years BP and 903.1 ± 3.9 years BP, on top of a 5-m-high reef platform. To constrain the mechanism of emergence or emplacement of these fossil corals, we use field geomorphic data and wave inundation models to constrain an extreme wave event that affected west Luzon about 1000 years ago. Our preliminary tectonic and tsunami models show that a megathrust rupture will likely lead to subsidence of a large part of the west Luzon coast, while permanent coastal uplift is attributed to an offshore upper-plate rupture in the northern Manila Trench forearc region. The modeled source fault ruptures and tsunami lead to a maximum wave height of more than 3 m and inundation distance as far as 2 km along the coasts of western and northern Luzon. While emplacement of coral boulders by an unusually strong typhoon is also likely, modeled storm surge heights along west Luzon do not exceed 2 m even with Typhoon Haiyan characteristics. Whether tsunami or unusually strong typhoon, the occurrence of a prehistoric extreme wave event in west Luzon remains an important issue in future studies of coastal hazards in the South China Sea region.

  14. West Africa

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    freelance

    considered by many as a successful model of river basin organization. NBA, after years of ... a Regional Water Protocol for West Africa, following the model of the SADC ...... protection of water against pollution of all kinds (urban, industrial,.

  15. Relation between ground water and surface water in the Hillsborough River basin, west-central Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolansky, R.M.; Thompson, T.H.

    1987-01-01

    The relation between groundwater and surface water in the Hillsborough River basin was defined through the use of: seismic-reflection profiling along selected reaches of the Hillsborough River, and evaluation of streamflow, rainfall, groundwater levels, water quality, and geologic data. Major municipal well fields in the basin are Morris Bridge and Cypress Creek where an averages of 15.3 and 30.0 million gal/day (mgd), respectively, were pumped in 1980. Mean annual rainfall for the study area is 53.7 inches. Average rainfall for 1980, determined from eight rainfall stations, was 49.7 inches. Evapotranspiration, corrected for the 5% of the basin that is standing water, was 35.7 in/year. The principal geohydrologic units in the basin are the surficial aquifer, the intermediate aquifer and confining beds, the Upper Floridan aquifer, the middle confining unit, and the Lower Floridan aquifer. Total pumpage of groundwater in 1980 was 98.18 mgd. The surficial aquifer and the intermediate aquifer are not used for major groundwater supply in the basin. Continuous marine seismic-reflection data collected along selected reaches of the Hillsborough River were interpreted to define the riverbed profile, the thickness of surficial deposits, and the top of persistent limestone. Major areas of groundwater discharge near the Hillsborough River and its tributaries are the wetlands adjacent to the river between the Zephyrhills gaging stations and Fletcher Avenue and the wetlands adjacent to Cypress Creek. An estimated 20 mgd seeps upward from the Upper Floridan aquifer within those wetland areas. The runoff/sq mi is greater at the Zephyrhills station than at Morris Bridge. However, results of groundwater flow models and potentiometric-surface maps indicate that groundwater is flowing upward along the Hillsborough River between the Zephyrhills gage and the Morris Bridge gage. This upward leakage is lost to evapotranspiration. An aquifer test conducted in 1978 at the Morris Bridge well

  16. Mesozoic carbonate-siliciclastic platform to basin systems of a South Tethyan margin (Egypt, East Mediterranean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassy, Aurélie; Crouzy, Emmanuel; Gorini, Christian; Rubino, Jean-Loup

    2015-04-01

    The Mesozoïc Egyptian margin is the south margin of a remnant of the Neo-Tethys Ocean, at the African northern plate boundary. East Mediterranean basin developed during the late Triassic-Early Jurassic rifting with a NW-SE opening direction (Frizon de Lamotte et al., 2011). During Mesozoïc, Egypt margin was a transform margin with a NW-SE orientation of transform faults. In the Eastern Mediterranean basin, Mesozoïc margins are characterized by mixed carbonate-siliciclastics platforms where subsidence and eustacy are the main parameters controlling the facies distribution and geometries of the platform-to-basin transition. Geometries and facies on the platform-slope-basin system, today well constrained on the Levant area, where still poorly known on the Egyptian margin. Geometries and stratigraphic architecture of the Egyptian margin are revealed, thanks to a regional seismic and well data-base provided by an industrial-academic group (GRI, Total). The objective is to understand the sismostratigraphic architecture of the platform-slope-basin system in a key area from Western Desert to Nile delta and Levant margin. Mapping of the top Jurassic and top Cretaceous show seismic geomorphology of the margin, with the cartography of the hinge line from Western Desert to Sinaï. During the Jurassic, carbonate platform show a prograding profile and a distally thickening of the external platform, non-abrupt slope profiles, and palaeovalleys incisions. Since the Cretaceous, the aggrading and retrograding mixed carbonate-siliciclastic platform show an alternation of steep NW-SE oblique segments and distally steepened segments. These structures of the platform edge are strongly controlled by the inherited tethyan transform directions. Along the hinge line, embayments are interpreted as megaslides. The basin infilling is characterised by an alternation of chaotic seismic facies and high amplitude reflectors onlaping the paleoslopes. MTC deposits can mobilize thick sedimentary

  17. Forecasting in an integrated surface water-ground water system: The Big Cypress Basin, South Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butts, M. B.; Feng, K.; Klinting, A.; Stewart, K.; Nath, A.; Manning, P.; Hazlett, T.; Jacobsen, T.

    2009-04-01

    The South Florida Water Management District (SFWMD) manages and protects the state's water resources on behalf of 7.5 million South Floridians and is the lead agency in restoring America's Everglades - the largest environmental restoration project in US history. Many of the projects to restore and protect the Everglades ecosystem are part of the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan (CERP). The region has a unique hydrological regime, with close connection between surface water and groundwater, and a complex managed drainage network with many structures. Added to the physical complexity are the conflicting needs of the ecosystem for protection and restoration, versus the substantial urban development with the accompanying water supply, water quality and flood control issues. In this paper a novel forecasting and real-time modelling system is presented for the Big Cypress Basin. The Big Cypress Basin includes 272 km of primary canals and 46 water control structures throughout the area that provide limited levels of flood protection, as well as water supply and environmental quality management. This system is linked to the South Florida Water Management District's extensive real-time (SCADA) data monitoring and collection system. Novel aspects of this system include the use of a fully distributed and integrated modeling approach and a new filter-based updating approach for accurately forecasting river levels. Because of the interaction between surface- and groundwater a fully integrated forecast modeling approach is required. Indeed, results for the Tropical Storm Fay in 2008, the groundwater levels show an extremely rapid response to heavy rainfall. Analysis of this storm also shows that updating levels in the river system can have a direct impact on groundwater levels.

  18. Chapter 8: Fire and nonnative invasive plants in the Interior West bioregion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter M. Rice; Guy R. McPherson; Lisa J. Rew

    2008-01-01

    The Interior West bioregion is bounded on the east by the eastern slope of the Rocky Mountains from Canada south to Mexico and on the west by the eastern foothills of the Cascade Range in Washington and Oregon and the eastern foothills of the Sierra Nevada in California. The bioregion includes the Chihuahuan, Sonoran, and Mojave hot deserts and the Great Basin cold...

  19. Changing the role of traditional birth attendants in Yirol West County, South Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilunda, Calistus; Dall'Oglio, Giovanni; Scanagatta, Chiara; Segafredo, Giulia; Lukhele, Bhekumusa Wellington; Takahashi, Risa; Putoto, Giovanni; Manenti, Fabio; Betrán, Ana Pilar

    2017-01-01

    Effective from May 2014, community-based traditional birth attendants (TBAs) in Yirol West County, South Sudan, were directed to start referring all women in labour to health facilities for childbirth instead of assisting them in the villages. This study aimed to understand the degree of integration of TBAs in the health system, to reveal the factors influencing the integration, and to explore the perceived solutions to the challenges faced by TBAs. A qualitative study utilising 11 focus group discussions with TBAs, 6 focus group discussions with women, and 18 key informant interviews with members of village health committees, staff of health facilities, and staff of the County Health Department was conducted. Data were analysed using qualitative content analysis. The study found that many TBAs were referring women to health facilities for delivery, but some were still attending to deliveries at home. Facilitators of the adoption of the new role by TBAs were: acceptance of the new TBAs' role by the community, women and TBAs, perceptions about institutional childbirth and risks of home childbirth, personal commitment and motivation by some TBAs, a good working relationship between community-based TBAs and health facility staff, availability of incentives for women at health facilities, and training of TBAs. Challenges of integrating TBAs in the health system included, among others, communication problems between TBAs and health care facilities, delays in seeking care by women, insecurity, lack of materials and supplies for TBAs, health system constraints, insufficient incentives for TBAs, long distances to health facilities and transportation problems. This study has revealed encouraging developments in TBAs' integration in the formal health system in Yirol West. However, there is need to address the challenges faced by TBAs in assuming their new role in order to sustain the integration.

  20. Changing the role of traditional birth attendants in Yirol West County, South Sudan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calistus Wilunda

    Full Text Available Effective from May 2014, community-based traditional birth attendants (TBAs in Yirol West County, South Sudan, were directed to start referring all women in labour to health facilities for childbirth instead of assisting them in the villages. This study aimed to understand the degree of integration of TBAs in the health system, to reveal the factors influencing the integration, and to explore the perceived solutions to the challenges faced by TBAs. A qualitative study utilising 11 focus group discussions with TBAs, 6 focus group discussions with women, and 18 key informant interviews with members of village health committees, staff of health facilities, and staff of the County Health Department was conducted. Data were analysed using qualitative content analysis. The study found that many TBAs were referring women to health facilities for delivery, but some were still attending to deliveries at home. Facilitators of the adoption of the new role by TBAs were: acceptance of the new TBAs' role by the community, women and TBAs, perceptions about institutional childbirth and risks of home childbirth, personal commitment and motivation by some TBAs, a good working relationship between community-based TBAs and health facility staff, availability of incentives for women at health facilities, and training of TBAs. Challenges of integrating TBAs in the health system included, among others, communication problems between TBAs and health care facilities, delays in seeking care by women, insecurity, lack of materials and supplies for TBAs, health system constraints, insufficient incentives for TBAs, long distances to health facilities and transportation problems. This study has revealed encouraging developments in TBAs' integration in the formal health system in Yirol West. However, there is need to address the challenges faced by TBAs in assuming their new role in order to sustain the integration.

  1. Dark ice dynamics of the south-west Greenland Ice Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedstone, Andrew J.; Bamber, Jonathan L.; Cook, Joseph M.; Williamson, Christopher J.; Fettweis, Xavier; Hodson, Andrew J.; Tranter, Martyn

    2017-11-01

    Runoff from the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) has increased in recent years due largely to changes in atmospheric circulation and atmospheric warming. Albedo reductions resulting from these changes have amplified surface melting. Some of the largest declines in GrIS albedo have occurred in the ablation zone of the south-west sector and are associated with the development of dark ice surfaces. Field observations at local scales reveal that a variety of light-absorbing impurities (LAIs) can be present on the surface, ranging from inorganic particulates to cryoconite materials and ice algae. Meanwhile, satellite observations show that the areal extent of dark ice has varied significantly between recent successive melt seasons. However, the processes that drive such large interannual variability in dark ice extent remain essentially unconstrained. At present we are therefore unable to project how the albedo of bare ice sectors of the GrIS will evolve in the future, causing uncertainty in the projected sea level contribution from the GrIS over the coming decades. Here we use MODIS satellite imagery to examine dark ice dynamics on the south-west GrIS each year from 2000 to 2016. We quantify dark ice in terms of its annual extent, duration, intensity and timing of first appearance. Not only does dark ice extent vary significantly between years but so too does its duration (from 0 to > 80 % of June-July-August, JJA), intensity and the timing of its first appearance. Comparison of dark ice dynamics with potential meteorological drivers from the regional climate model MAR reveals that the JJA sensible heat flux, the number of positive minimum-air-temperature days and the timing of bare ice appearance are significant interannual synoptic controls. We use these findings to identify the surface processes which are most likely to explain recent dark ice dynamics. We suggest that whilst the spatial distribution of dark ice is best explained by outcropping of particulates from

  2. Pattern of sudden death at Ladoke Akintola University of Technology Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, South West Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinwusi PO

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Patience Olayinka Akinwusi,1,2 Akinwumi Oluwole Komolafe,3 Olanrewaju Olayinka Olayemi,2 Adeleye Abiodun Adeomi41Department of Medicine, College of Health Sciences, Osun State University, 2Department of Medicine, LAUTECH Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, 3Department of Morbid Anatomy, Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching, Hospitals Complex, Ile-Ife, Osun State, 4Department of Community Medicine, LAUTECH Teaching Hospital, Ogbomoso, Oyo State, NigeriaBackground: The purpose of this study was to determine the etiology and epidemiologic characteristics of sudden death at Ladoke Akintola University of Technology (LAUTECH Teaching Hospital, South West Nigeria.Methods: This was a retrospective descriptive study of all cases of natural unexpected death, either occurring out of hospital or less than 24 hours after admission to LAUTECH Teaching Hospital, over a nine-year period from January 2003 to December 2011. Data were generated from information in the case notes and autopsy reports for these cases.Results: Sudden death accounted for 29 (4.0% of 718 adult medical deaths and 1.0% of all adult medical admissions. Out-of-hospital deaths occurred in 72.4% of cases. The mean age of the patients was 46.8 ± 11.5 (range 25–74 years. The male to female ratio was 6.25:1. Cardiovascular disease were the most common cause of death (51.7%, followed by respiratory disease (20.7%, pulmonary thromboembolism (10.4%, central nervous system disease (13.8%, gastrointestinal disorders (13.8%, severe chemical/drug poisoning (13.8%, and combined cardiovascular and central nervous system disease (13.8%. Hypertension-related causes were responsible for 14/29 (48.3% of the sudden deaths. Hypertensive heart disease accounted for 86.7% of the cardiovascular deaths, hypertensive heart failure accounted for 73.3%, whilst all heart failure cases accounted for 80.0%. Left ventricular hypertrophy was present in 69.2% of the patients with hypertensive heart disease. Moderate to severe

  3. Water geochemistry of the Xijiang basin rivers, South China: Chemical weathering and CO2 consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Zhifang; Liu Congqiang

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → The Xijiang River is the second largest river in China and flows through a large carbonate rock region in South China. → Sulfuric acid, which emanate from acid precipitation and the oxidation of sulfide minerals, is involved as a proton donor in weathering reactions in the Xijiang basin. → Calculated results show that the contribution of cations from rock weathering induced by sulfuric acid accounts for approximately 11.2%. → The flux of CO 2 released into the atmosphere is approximately 0.41 x 10 12 gC yr -1 produced by sulfuric acid-induced carbonate weathering in the Xijiang basin. → Sulfuric acid-induced carbonate weathering could counterbalance a significant part of the CO 2 consumed by silicate weathering. - Abstract: The Xijiang River, the mainstream of the Zhujiang (Pearl) River, which is the second largest river in China in terms of discharge, flows through a large carbonate rock region in South China. The chemical and Sr isotopic compositions of the Xijiang waters were determined during the high-flow season in order to understand the chemical weathering processes, associated CO 2 consumption and anthropogenic influences within the carbonate-dominated basin. The major ion compositions of the river waters are characterized by the dominance of Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ , HCO 3 - and are significantly rich in SO 4 2- . The SO 4 2- is mainly derived from the oxidation of sulfide minerals and acid precipitation caused by coal combustion. Chemical and Sr isotopic compositions of the river waters indicate that four reservoirs (carbonates, silicates, evaporites and anthropogenic inputs) contribute to the total dissolved loads. The chemical weathering rates of carbonates and silicates for the Xijiang basin are estimated to be approximately 78.5 and 7.45 ton km -2 a -1 , respectively. The total chemical weathering rate of rocks for the Xijiang basin is approximately 86.1 ton km -2 a -1 or 42 mm ka -1 , which is much higher than global mean

  4. The Hydrologic Regime of the La Plata Basin in South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berbery, E. H.; Barros, V. R.

    2002-12-01

    The main components of the hydrologic cycle of the La Plata basin in southeastern South America are investigated using a combination of observations, satellite products and National Centers for Environmental Prediction-National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP-NCAR) global reanalyses. La Plata basin is second only to the Amazon basin in South America, and plays a critical role in the economies of the region. It is a primary factor in energy production, water resources, transportation, agriculture and livestock. Of particular interest was to evaluate the annual cycle of the hydrologic cycle components. The La Plata annual-mean river discharge is about 21,000 m3 s-1, and the amplitude of the mean annual cycle of La Plata River discharge is small: it is slightly larger during late summer, but continues with large volumes even during winter. The reason is that different precipitation regimes over different locations contribute to the total river discharge. One regime is found toward the northern boundary, where precipitation peaks during summer in association with the southernmost extension of the monsoon system. A second one is found over the central part of the basin, where precipitation peaks at different times in the seasonal cycle. Further analysis of the main tributaries of La Plata (Paran , Uruguay and Paraguay) reveals that each has a well defined annual cycle, but with different phases that can be traced primarily to each basin's physiography and precipitation regime. The upper and middle portions of the Paran River are most influenced by the summer monsoon regime, thus the river has a maximum discharge in late summer. The annual cycle of precipitation over the Uruguay River basin has two maxima, one in late autumn and the second one in spring and, consistently, the river discharge is largest in winter and spring. The smooth annual cycle of the Paraguay River discharge, with a maximum in winter, is the result of the Pantanal, a large wetland that

  5. A combined chemical, isotopic and microstructural study of pyrite from roll-front uranium deposits, Lake Eyre Basin, South Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingham, Edwina S.; Cook, Nigel J.; Cliff, John; Ciobanu, Cristiana L.; Huddleston, Adam

    2014-01-01

    The common sulfide mineral pyrite is abundant throughout sedimentary uranium systems at Pepegoona, Pepegoona West and Pannikan, Lake Eyre Basin, South Australia. Combined chemical, isotopic and microstructural analysis of pyrite indicates variation in fluid composition, sulfur source and precipitation conditions during a protracted mineralization event. The results show the significant role played by pyrite as a metal scavenger and monitor of fluid changes in low-temperature hydrothermal systems. In-situ micrometer-scale sulfur isotope analyses of pyrite demonstrated broad-scale isotopic heterogeneity (δ34S = -43.9 to +32.4‰VCDT), indicative of complex, multi-faceted pyrite evolution, and sulfur derived from more than a single source. Preserved textures support this assertion and indicate a genetic model involving more than one phase of pyrite formation. Authigenic pyrite underwent prolonged evolution and recrystallization, evidenced by a genetic relationship between archetypal framboidal aggregates and pyrite euhedra. Secondary hydrothermal pyrite commonly displays hyper-enrichment of several trace elements (Mn, Co, Ni, As, Se, Mo, Sb, W and Tl) in ore-bearing horizons. Hydrothermal fluids of magmatic and meteoric origins supplied metals to the system but the geochemical signature of pyrite suggests a dominantly granitic source and also the influence of mafic rock types. Irregular variation in δ34S, coupled with oscillatory trace element zonation in secondary pyrite, is interpreted in terms of continuous variations in fluid composition and cycles of diagenetic recrystallization. A late-stage oxidizing fluid may have mobilized selenium from pre-existing pyrite. Subsequent restoration of reduced conditions within the aquifer caused ongoing pyrite re-crystallization and precipitation of selenium as native selenium. These results provide the first qualitative constraints on the formation mechanisms of the uranium deposits at Beverley North. Insights into

  6. Sedimentology of the lower Karoo Supergroup fluvial strata in the Tuli Basin, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordy, Emese M.; Catuneanu, Octavian

    2002-11-01

    The Karoo Supergroup in the Tuli Basin (South Africa) consists of a sedimentary sequence (˜450-500 m) composed of four stratigraphic units, namely the informal Basal, Middle and Upper Units, and the formal Clarens Formation. The units were deposited in continental settings from approximately Late Carboniferous to Middle Jurassic. This paper focuses on the ˜60-m-thick Basal Unit, which was examined in terms of sedimentary facies and palaeo-environments based on evidence provided by primary sedimentary structures, palaeo-flow measurements, palaeontological findings, borehole data (59 core descriptions) and stratigraphic relations. Three main facies associations have been identified: (i) gravelstone (breccias and conglomerate-breccias), (ii) sandstone and (iii) fine-grained sedimentary rocks. The coarser facies are interpreted as colluvial fan deposits, possibly associated with glaciogenic diamictites. The sandstone facies association is mainly attributed to channel fills of low sinuosity, braided fluvial systems. The coal-bearing finer-grained facies are interpreted as overbank and thaw-lake deposits, and represent the lower energy correlatives of the sandy channel fills. Sediment aggradation in this fluvio-lacustrine system took place under cold climatic conditions, with floating lake ice likely associated with lacustrine environments. Palaeo-current indicators suggest that the highly weathered, quartz-vein-rich metamorphic rock source of the Basal Unit was situated east-northeast of the study area. The accumulation of the Basal Unit took place within the back-bulge depozone of the Karoo foreland system. In addition to flexural subsidence, the amount of accommodation in this tectonic setting was also possibly modified by extensional tectonism in the later stages of the basin development. Based on sedimentological and biostratigraphic evidence, the coal-bearing fine-grained facies association displays strong similarities with the Vryheid Formation of the main Karoo

  7. Contrasting Permo - Carboniferous Evolution of Resita and Sirinia - Presacina Basins (South Carpathians, Romania); an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatu, M.; Seghedi, I.; Nutu, L. M.; Nicolae, I.

    2009-04-01

    Two important Permo-Carboniferous molasses basins Resita and Sirinia - Presacina occur in Romanian Banat (south-western part of Carpathian chain), unconformable overlie the Getic and Danubian domains with different pre-Variscan and Variscan geodynamic history. They show differences in their lithology reflecting various geotectonic settings and evolutions. In the Resita domain the Upper Carboniferous deposits (Westphalian - Stephanian in age, according to the previous paleobotanic and palynological data) are important in volume and they contain terrigeneous siliciclastic rocks represented by sandy - conglomerate and argillaceous - sandy rocks variable in thickness with siltstone, carbonaceous shale and coal beds interlayering. There are not volcanic rocks present in Upper Carboniferous of Resita domain. In contrast with Resita in the Sirinia - Presacina basins the Upper Carboniferous deposits are volumetrically more restrictive. These deposits transgresively overlie pre-Sudetian formations and consist of continental - lacustrine terrigeneous formations, rarely associated with limnic carbonatic rocks. In this association the alternating conglomerate, siliceous sandstone, siltstone and clay with lens - like coal inter-layers prevails. In two small areas Dragosela - Tulinecea - Camenita (in the western part) and Baia Noua - Cucuiova (in the eastern part) the terrigeneous deposits are associated with basaltic andesite and andesite rocks with alkaline affinity. In both of these basins the Lower Permian deposits (according to the paleobotanic data) unconformably overlie the Upper Carboniferous formations and/or pre-Sudetian basements. The Lower Permian deposits in the Resita basin occur in two superposed formations (Nastaseanu, 1987): (1) Walchia Beds dominated by black argillaceous shales, slightly bituminous with rare sandy-conglomerate interlayers and (2) Red Beds composed by sandy-conglomerate deposits with some argillaceous intercalations, all red in color, with

  8. NURE [National Uranium Resource Evaluation] HSSR [Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance] Quadrangle Summary Tables, South West Region: Volume 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This volume presents a summary of the distribution of elemental concentrations for water and sediment samples across quadrangles located in the South West Regional File. The next section briefly outlines the approach used by ISP in preparing these data tables. This is followed by an Alphabetical Index to the quadrangles contained in the South West Regional File and a Quadrangle Map; both the Index and Map present a record count for each quadrangle. The last section presents the data summary tables organized by sample type (water or sediments) and displaying elements within quads and quads within elements. These data summary tables show the general ranges of values present in the NURE Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance sample data in each quadrangle or state. As with all summaries, they represent the data according to the best judgement of the professionals doing the analysis. This section gives a general description of the procedures used to produce the quadrangle summary percentiles

  9. Detection and attribution of climate change at regional scale: case study of Karkheh river basin in the west of Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohrabi, Narges; Goodarzi, Elahe; Massah Bavani, Alireza; Najafi, Husain

    2017-11-01

    This research aims at providing a statistical framework for detection and attribution of climate variability and change at regional scale when at least 30 years of observation data are available. While extensive research has been done on detecting significant observed trends in hydroclimate variables and attribution to anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions in large continents, less attention has been paid for regional scale analysis. The latter is mainly important for adaptation to climate change in different sectors including but not limited to energy, agriculture, and water resources planning and management, and it is still an open discussion in many countries including the West Asian ones. In the absence of regional climate models, an informative framework is suggested providing useful insights for policymakers. It benefits from general flexibility, not being computationally expensive, and applying several trend tests to analyze temporal variations in temperature and precipitation (gradual and step changes). The framework is implemented for a very important river basin in the west of Iran. In general, some increasing and decreasing trends of the interannual precipitation and temperature have been detected. For precipitation annual time series, a reducing step was seen around 1996 compared with the gradual change in most of the stations, which have not experience a dramatical change. The range of natural forcing is found to be ±76 % for precipitation and ±1.4 °C for temperature considering a two-dimensional diagram of precipitation and temperature anomalies from 1000-year control run of global climate model (GCM). Findings out of applying the proposed framework may provide useful insights into how to approach structural and non-structural climate change adaptation strategies from central governments.

  10. Variations of lead isotopes and airborne particulate concentrations from the Kozani basin, West Macedonia, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charalampides, G; Manoliadis, O; Triantafyllou, A

    2002-03-01

    The spread and variation in 206Pb/207Pb ratios make Pb isotopes a powerful tool when it comes to detecting trends in airborne particulates originating mainly from power plants. This study was conducted to determine the source of pollution in Kozani area, an affected industrial area. Lead isotopic ratios of air filters under certain meteorological conditions were compared to Pb isotope analyses sampled from lignite mines, but also to Pb isotope analyses of cultivations in soil originating from the reclamation of old abandoned lignite-mines. The particles taken into consideration have an aerodynamic diameter less than 10 microm (PM10). The measurements were carried out in a central part of the town of Kozani, West Macedonia, for one year observation period. The lead isotope values of air filters and of wheat in the Kozani area are between the values of lignite Pb and of Greek gasoline.

  11. Identification of Novel Cetacean Poxviruses in Cetaceans Stranded in South West England.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Barnett

    Full Text Available Poxvirus infections in marine mammals have been mainly reported through their clinical lesions and electron microscopy (EM. Poxvirus particles in association with such lesions have been demonstrated by EM and were previously classified as two new viruses, cetacean poxvirus 1 (CePV-1 and cetacean poxvirus 2 (CePV-2. In this study, epidermal pox lesions in cetaceans stranded in South West England (Cornwall between 2008 and 2012 were investigated by electron microscopy and molecular analysis. PCR and sequencing of a highly conserved region within the viral DNA polymerase gene ruled out both parapox- and orthopoxviruses. Moreover, phylogenetic analysis of the PCR product clustered the sequences with those previously described as cetacean poxviruses. However, taking the close genetic distance of this gene fragment across the family of poxviridae into account, it is reasonable to postulate further, novel cetacean poxvirus species. The nucleotide similarity within each cluster (tentative species detected ranged from 98.6% to 100%, whilst the similarity between the clusters was no more than 95%. The detection of several species of poxvirus in different cetacean species confirms the likelihood of a heterogeneous cetacean poxvirus genus, comparable to the heterogeneity observed in other poxvirus genera.

  12. Reptile-associated salmonellosis in children aged under 5 years in South West England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Dan; Oshin, Femi

    2015-04-01

    To determine the proportion of Salmonella cases in children aged reptile-associated salmonellosis (RAS) and to compare the severity of illness. To analyse all cases of salmonellosis reported to public health authorities in children aged under 5 years in the South West of the UK from January 2010 to December 2013 for reptile exposure, age, serotype, hospitalisation and invasive disease. 48 of 175 (27%) Salmonella cases had exposure to reptiles. The median age of RAS cases was significantly lower than non-RAS cases (0.5 vs 1.0 year). RAS cases were 2.5 times more likely to be hospitalised (23/48) compared with non-RAS cases (25/127; p=0.0002). This trend continued in cases aged under 12 months, with significantly more RAS cases hospitalised (19/38) than non-RAS cases (8/42; p=0.003). Significantly more RAS cases had invasive disease (8/48: 5 bacteraemia, 2 meningitis, 1 colitis) than non-RAS cases (4/127: 3 bacteraemia, 1 meningitis). Reptile exposure was found in over a quarter of all reported Salmonella cases in children under 5 years of age. RAS is associated with young age, hospitalisation and invasive disease. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  13. Osseous Frame Index calculations of the early medieval South-West Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasch, Isabelle; Langer, Antje; Boley, Moritz; Mumm, Rebekka; Riesenberg, Martin; Mann, Robert; Wahl, Joachim

    2018-05-15

    The proper description of former populations is one of the most difficult tasks in anthropology. Archaeological material is often limited due to fragmented and sometimes poorly preserved bone material resulting in incomplete data. Published skeletal raw data are available from the past, but much of this data is either unavailable or not used for scientific studies. The authors seek to elicit more information about prehistoric times by using this dataset to introduce a new method. The purpose is to provide an approach to reconstruct a former population in respect to robusticity and health status. For this in the pilot study the Body Mass Index (BMI) and Frame Index (FI) of early medieval South-West Germany have been analysed. The FI, in contrast to the BMI, has not yet been used for robusticity analysis utilizing only skeletal remains. As far as we know, this is the first time that the FI has been calculated using archaeological material. Due to unknown soft-tissue thickness we introduce the Osseous Frame Index (OFI). The measured OFI reveals new insights in (pre-)historic populations and allows comparisons with modern reference samples. Our OFI calculations are relatively similar to modern calculations. Males have a higher robusticity than females, slightly increasing during life-time compared to females. These calculations provide a better historical understanding of human body composition.

  14. Terrace Agriculture of the Hani People – Cultural Heritage of the South-West China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kladovshchikova Mariya Evgenyevna

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the features of terrace agriculture of Hani and Yi indigenous minorities, living in the Yunnan province in the South-West China, just a step away from the Laos and Vietnam boundaries. The cultural landscape of the Hani rice terraces, included into the UNESCO World Heritage List in 2013 (Cultural Landscape of Honghe Hani Rice Terraces, expresses the conservation of the minorities’ course of life during the last 1 300 years. The geological framework, climate patterns and conform type of vegetation predefine the specific character of natural conditions necessary for terrace agriculture and red rice growth – the most important crop within the region. At that, the landscape picture which fully reflects the season fluctuations of regional subtropical climate, also facilitates to aesthetic and romantic perception forming, symbolizing man-made environment integral and interlaced into natural landscape. The special focus is made on the description of terraced slopes unique morphology and ancient land cultivation technologies for the essential regional culture – red rice. Preservation of centuries-old traditions of efficient agriculture makes it possible to achieve integration of cultural and natural landscapes, that seamlessly comprises the ethnic minorities’ life, as well as to prevent development of erosion and landslide slope processes. The elements of the traditional Hani people way of life, including ritual customs associated with terrace agriculture, are particularly described.

  15. Liquefaction analysis of alluvial soil deposits in Bedsa south west of Cairo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Mohamed Hafez Ismail Ibrahim

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Bedsa is one of the districts in Dahshour that lays south west of Cairo and suffered from liquefaction during October 1992 earthquake, Egypt. The soil profile consists of alluvial river Nile deposits mainly sandy mud with low plasticity; the ground water is shallow. The earthquake hypocenter was 18 km far away with local magnitude 5.8; the fault length was 13.8 km, as recorded by the Egyptian national seismological network (ENSN at Helwan. The analysis used the empirical method introduced by the national center for earthquake engineering research (NCEER based on field standard penetration of soil. It is found that the studied area can liquefy since there are saturated loose sandy silt layers at depth ranges from 7 to 14 m. The settlement is about 26 cm. The probability of liquefaction ranges between 40% and 100%. The presence of impermeable surface from medium cohesive silty clay acts as a plug resisting and trapping the upward flow of water during liquefaction, so fountain and spouts at weak points occurs. It is wise to use point bearing piles with foundation level deeper than 14 m beyond the liquefiable depth away from ground slopes, otherwise liquefaction improving techniques have to be applied in the area.

  16. INDIVIDUALISM VERSUS COLLECTIVISM IN ECONOMIC ORGANIZATIONS FROM SOUTH-WEST OLTENIA REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PhD Mirela SIRBU

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the major impact the organizational culture exerts over long-term performance of organizations and on the competitive advantage, in the theory and practice of management the concerns for understanding its multiple facets have intensified worldwide. This is highlighted by the numerous intercultural studies that emphasize the "invisible force" of each nation's culture and each organization's culture, which constitutes irrefutable arguments for enhancing the knowledge in this area. In this context, this study highlights how the cultural dimension "individualism-collectivism" influences the behavior of employees, in general, but especially that of managers from South-West Oltenia Region. The study results are based on the responses of 1086 respondents from 70 organizations in various fields of economic activity, whose opinions were investigated in two perspectives: current practice and desired practice. This paper presents some of the findings resulted from the research COMOR- Managerial Behavior in the Organizations in Romania, initiated and carried out throughout the country since 2009 by the Management Scientific Society of Romania (SSMAR in collaboration with the Association of Faculties of Economics in Romania (AFER.

  17. Trichinella britovi in the jackal Canis aureus from south-west Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirjalali, H; Rezaei, S; Pozio, E; Naddaf, S R; Salahi-Moghaddam, A; Kia, E B; Shahbazi, F; Mowlavi, Gh

    2014-12-01

    Trichinellosis is an important helminthic food-borne zoonosis, which is caused by nematodes of the genus Trichinella. Although, Trichinella spp. has been detected frequently in Iranian wildlife, this parasitic infection is not considered a major public health problem. This is largely because Islamic codes forbid consumption of pork meat in this country. However, knowledge about this zoonotic pathogen is important because human trichinellosis has been documented in countries where most of the population is Muslim. The aims of the present work were to investigate whether Trichinella spp. was still circulating in wildlife of the Khuzestan Province (south-west Iran) about 30 years after the first investigation, to identify the aetiological agent at the species level by molecular analyses, and to review the literature on Trichinella spp. in animals of Iran. During the winter 2009-2010, muscle samples from 32 road-killed animals (14 dogs and 18 jackals, Canis aureus) were collected. Muscle samples were digested and Trichinella sp. larvae were isolated from two jackals. The Trichinella sp. larvae have been identified as Trichinella britovi by molecular analyses. These results confirm that T. britovi is the prevalent species circulating in wild animals of Iran.

  18. Small is beautiful: Marine small-scale fisheries catches from the South-West Maluku Regency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutubessy, BG; Mosse, JW; Hayward, P.

    2017-10-01

    The fisheries data supplied by fisheries agency have served as the primary tool for regional fisheries statistics. However, it is recognized these data are incomplete and often underestimate actual catches, particularly for small-scale fisheries. There is no widely accepted definition of small-scale fisheries or global data on number of small-scale fishers and their catches. This study reconstructed total marine catches from 1980 to 2015 for South-west Maluku (MBD) regency, by applying an established catch construction approach utilizing all available quantitative and qualitative data, combined with assumption-based estimations and interpolations. As newly established regency since 2009, there is lack of fisheries data available which is needed for fisheries management. Fishers’ knowledge is important information taken from to construct long-term fisheries data. Estimated total fish withdrawal from MBD waters was 86,849.66 tonnes during 1980 - 2015, dominated by pelagic fishes. Consistency of estimated total removal and total landings at MBD regency play important role in small-scale fisheries management and this method of visualizing the history of fishery from poor-data condition might be an optimistic effort.

  19. Sedimentary evolution and ecosystem change in Ahémé lake, south-west Benin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoussou, Ernest; Totin Vodounon, Henri S.; Vissin, Expédit W.; Mahé, Gil; Oyédé, Marc Lucien

    2018-04-01

    Tropical moist ecosystems, such as Ahémé lake, south-west Benin, are increasingly marked by water degradation, linked with the activities of increasing riparian populations. The objective of this study is to analyze sedimentary dynamics and its influence on the changing ecosystem of Ahémé lake from 1961-2010. Data used to carry out the study are records of precipitation, flows, turbidity, suspended sediment, mineral elements and bathymetry. Grain size data from the sieving of sediment samples were used to interpret suspended solids distribution in the lake. Linear correlation coefficients were used to assess the degree of dependence between rainfall and runoff inputs to the lake. Lake depth measurements in some areas of the lake serve to determine the rate of infilling. The sorting index was used to highlight the distribution and origin of sediments in the lake. The results show a degradation of the lake Ahémé ecosystem characterized by infilling of its bed, a high correlation (r = 0.90) between rainfall and runoff, seasonal change in physicochemical parameters (total suspended sediment decrease by -91 %) and decrease in fish production by 135.8 t yr-1. The highest mean suspended sediment concentrations in lake inputs occur during high water periods (123 mg L-1) compared to low water periods (11.2 mg L-1).

  20. Lysobacter thermophilus sp. nov., isolated from a geothermal soil sample in Tengchong, south-west China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Da-Qiao; Yu, Tian-Tian; Yao, Ji-Cheng; Zhou, En-Min; Song, Zhao-Qi; Yin, Yi-Rui; Ming, Hong; Tang, Shu-Kun; Li, Wen-Jun

    2012-11-01

    A Gram-negative and aerobic bacterium, designated YIM 77875(T), was isolated from a geothermal soil sample collected at Rehai National Park, Tengchong, Yunnan Province, south-west China. Bacterial growth occurred from 37 to 65 °C (optimum 50 °C), pH 6.0-8.0 (optimum pH 7.0) and 0-1 % NaCl (w/v). Cells were rod-shaped and colonies were convex, circular, smooth, yellow and non-transparent. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that strain YIM 77875(T) belongs to the genus Lysobacter. The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity values between strain YIM 77875(T) and other species of the genus Lysobacter were all below 94.7 %. The polar lipids of strain YIM 77875(T) were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and five unknown phospholipids. The predominant respiratory quinone was Q-8 and the G+C content was 68.8 mol%. Major fatty acids were iso-C(16:0), iso-C(15:0) and iso-C(11:0). On the basis of the morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics, as well as genotypic data, strain YIM 77875(T) represents a novel species, Lysobacter thermophilus sp. nov., in the genus Lysobacter. The type strain is YIM 77875(T) (CCTCC AB 2012064(T) = KCTC 32020(T)).

  1. Profiles of innovators in a semi-arid smallholder agricultural environment in south west Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutsvangwa-Sammie, Eness P.; Manzungu, Emmanuel; Siziba, Shephard

    2017-08-01

    Innovations are regarded as critical to improving the efficiency, productivity and effectiveness of African agriculture. However, few efforts have been directed at understanding 'agricultural innovators', especially among smallholder farmers in sub-Saharan Africa who face low agricultural productivity and widespread food insecurity. This paper investigates the profile of innovators from a local perspective in a semi-arid smallholder farming area in south-west Zimbabwe. The paper is based on data collected from key informant interviews and a household questionnaire survey administered to 239 households from Gwanda and Insiza districts between 2013 and 2014. Qualities or attributes of an innovator (which constitute the profile of an innovator) identified by key informants included: resource endowment; social networks; education; and enthusiasm (passionate and hardworking). The attributes were used in a logit regression model to estimate the probability of the 239 households exhibiting the attributes of an innovator. Social networks and resource endowment, as depicted by amount of land cultivated, were found to significantly influence the probability of an individual being an innovator. Interestingly, the common attributes of education or belonging to an innovation platform used by extension and development agents, were found not to influence the probability of one being an innovator. The paper concludes that understanding local perceptions of innovators, which is based on appreciation of the socio-economic and biophysical circumstances, should be used to identify a 'basket' of context specific innovations that have potential to address the diverse needs of rural households farming households.

  2. Reproductive biology of the spotback skate Atlantoraja castelnaui in the south-west Atlantic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colonello, J C; García, M L; Lasta, C A; Menni, R C

    2012-06-01

    This study provides information on the reproduction of spotback skate Atlantoraja castelnaui. A total of 232 individuals (119 females and 113 males) were obtained from surveys carried out between 2003 and 2006, from the south-west Atlantic Ocean, between 34 and 42° S and <50 m deep; another 514 specimens (241 females and 273 males) were obtained between 2005 and 2007 from commercial fishery operations carried out in the same area and landings in the port of Mar del Plata, Argentina. Males ranged from 185 to 1250 mm total length (L(T) ) and females from 243 to 1368 mm L(T) . Length at maturity was estimated to be 980 mm for males and 1089 mm L(T) for females. Lack of variation of testis mass together with the continuous production of mature spermatocyst and spermatozoa in deferent ducts suggested that males can reproduce throughout the year. Females reproduced year-round with peaks of reproductive activity an integral part of a continuous cycle. This conclusion is corroborated by the seasonal variation of ovaries, oviducal gland and the occurrence of females with eggs in the uterus throughout the year. Results from this study indicate that A. castelnaui is very susceptible to fishery pressure. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2012 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  3. CONSANGUINEOUS MARRIAGES AMONG IRANIAN MANDAEANS LIVING IN SOUTH-WEST IRAN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadat, Mostafa; Zarghami, Mahdis

    2018-07-01

    SummarySeveral studies have indicated that consanguineous marriages (unions between biologically related persons) are associated with increased risk of autosomal recessive diseases and several multifactorial traits. Mandaeans are a closed ethno-religious community living in areas of southern Iraq and Iran (Khuzestan Province). There are currently no data on the prevalence of consanguineous marriages among Mandaeans. The present study was carried out in 2016 to determine the prevalence of consanguinity among Iranian Mandaeans living in Khuzestan Province, south-west Iran. A total of 137 couples (urban areas: 79 couples; rural areas: 58 couples) were included in the study. Information on the consanguineous marriages of the subjects was collected through direct interviews. Marriages were classified by the degree of relationship between couples as double first cousins, first cousins, first cousin once removed, second cousins and unrelated marriages. The coefficient of inbreeding (F) was calculated for each couple and the mean coefficient of inbreeding (α) estimated for the population, stratified by rural and urban areas. The overall frequency of consanguinity was found to be 50.7% in urban and 86.2% in rural areas. There was a significant difference between rural and urban areas in types of marriages (χ 2=24.8, df=4, p<0.001) and first cousin marriages (51.8%) were the most common type. The overall α-value was estimated to be 0.0363 for the Iranian Mandaean population.

  4. Vegetation mapping of the Mond Protected Area of Bushehr Province (south-west Iran).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrabian, Ahmadreza; Naqinezhad, Alireza; Mahiny, Abdolrassoul Salman; Mostafavi, Hossein; Liaghati, Homan; Kouchekzadeh, Mohsen

    2009-03-01

    Arid regions of the world occupy up to 35% of the earth's surface, the basis of various definitions of climatic conditions, vegetation types or potential for food production. Due to their high ecological value, monitoring of arid regions is necessary and modern vegetation studies can help in the conservation and management of these areas. The use of remote sensing for mapping of desert vegetation is difficult due to mixing of the spectral reflectance of bright desert soils with the weak spectral response of sparse vegetation. We studied the vegetation types in the semiarid to arid region of Mond Protected Area, south-west Iran, based on unsupervised classification of the Spot XS bands and then produced updated maps. Sixteen map units covering 12 vegetation types were recognized in the area based on both field works and satellite mapping. Halocnemum strobilaceum and Suaeda fruticosa vegetation types were the dominant types and Ephedra foliata, Salicornia europaea-Suaeda heterophylla vegetation types were the smallest. Vegetation coverage decreased sharply with the increase in salinity towards the coastal areas of the Persian Gulf. The highest vegetation coverage belonged to the riparian vegetation along the Mond River, which represents the northern boundary of the protected area. The location of vegetation types was studied on the separate soil and habitat diversity maps of the study area, which helped in final refinements of the vegetation map produced.

  5. Characteristics of wood chip fuel demand and supply in south-west Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teraoka, Y.; Sato, M.; Ijichi, S. [Faculty of Agriculture, Kagoshima Univ., Kagoshima (Japan)

    2012-11-01

    Although fossil fuel has been still important energy source in Japan, business managers who examine to sift energy source from oil to bio-fuels would increase for reducing CO{sub 2} emission and high energy cost. It would be quite reasonable choice for Japanese people to use woody biomass for energy sources but woody biomass fuel market hasn't been expanded. One of the reasons is that the Japanese timber production, processing and distribution sectors haven't considered the wood fuel production as by-product. Therefore, this study investigated a potential wood chip boiler demand in south-west Japan through a questionnaire survey for industrial sectors. Second aim is to explain the importance of management information such as a quantity of chip fuel production or distribution and a moisture content of chips from the example cases of installed chip boiler facilities. Expected facilities that would introduce a chip boiler are a hotel, a large hospital, a liquor factory and an aquaculture pool. There will be an annual wood chip fuel demand of 0.756 million green-ton (6.0 PJ) in Kagoshima Prefecture. Problems in more chip boilers introduction are a stable fuel supply and fuel moisture control in addition to the reduction of an initial and operational running cost.

  6. Contextual socioeconomic determinants of cardiovascular risk factors in rural south-west China: a multilevel analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geater Alan

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We examined independent influences of contextual variables on cardiovascular risk factors in Shilin county, Yunnan province, South-west China. Methods Three villages were selected from each of the ten townships based on probability proportional to size. In each selected village, 200 individuals aged ≥ 45 years were chosen based on simple random sampling method. From 6006 individuals, information on demographic characteristics, smoking and drinking status was obtained by interview. Blood pressure, height, weight, and waist and hip girth were measured. Fasting blood sugar was measured in a 10-percent subsample. Contextual data were from official reports. Multi-level regression modelling with adjustment for individual and contextual variables was used. Results Contextual variables associated with CVD risk factors included: remoteness of village with higher blood pressure and fasting blood sugar, high proportion of Yi minority with drinking, high literacy rate with a lower rate of smoking and a lower mean waist-hip ratio, and high average income with lower systolic blood pressure and body mass index (BMI but higher FBS. Conclusion While contextual SES is associated with a few CVD risk factors, villages with high level of income are worse off in fasting blood sugar. Strategies of economic development should be reviewed to avoid adverse effects on health.

  7. The terrestrial distribution of artificial radioactivity in south-west Scotland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, Paul; Cook, G.T.; Baxter, M.S.; Thompson, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    This investigation extends the data base on dispersion of Sella-field-derived radionuclides to the northern Solway coastal zone of south-west Scotland. Results of 10x10 km grid soil survey indicate that the predominant source of 239+240 Pu to the area has been weapons fallout, Chernobyl fallout having greatly modified 134 Cs and 137 Cs inventories. Inland transects reveal little evidence of airborne sea-to-land transfer of Sellafield-derived radionuclides, but riverine systems exhibit regions of significant on-land input from Sellafield via tidal inundation and deposition of particles. Sequential chemical leaching of soil and sediment samples suggests a change in chemical association of plutonium between marine and terrestrial systems. In radiological terms, airborne on-land transfer of Sellafield radionuclides is of negligible significance. Radionuclide inventories in Solway soils are generally well below the limiting values implied by the recommended generalised derived limits (GDL). In some tidally inundated riverbank areas however, 137 Cs, Puα and 241 Am levels occasionally exceed 25% of the appropriate GDL values. (author). 40 refs.; 8 figs.; 7 tabs

  8. Occurrence of Emerging Micropollutants in Water Systems in Gauteng, Mpumalanga, and North West Provinces, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanda, Elijah M M; Nyoni, Hlengilizwe; Mamba, Bhekie B; Msagati, Titus A M

    2017-01-13

    The ubiquitous occurrence of emerging micropollutants (EMPs) in water is an issue of growing environmental-health concern worldwide. However, there remains a paucity of data regarding their levels and occurrence in water. This study determined the occurrence of EMPs namely: carbamazepine (CBZ), galaxolide (HHCB), caffeine (CAF), tonalide (AHTN), 4-nonylphenol (NP), and bisphenol A (BPA) in water from Gauteng, Mpumalanga, and North West provinces, South Africa using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to high resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC-HRTOFMS). Kruskal-Wallis test and ANOVA were performed to determine temporal variations in occurrence of the EMPs. Principal component analysis (PCA) and Surfer Golden Graphics software for surface mapping were used to determine spatial variations in levels and occurrence of the EMPs. The mean levels ranged from 11.22 ± 18.8 ng/L for CAF to 158.49 ± 662 ng/L for HHCB. There was no evidence of statistically significant temporal variations in occurrence of EMPs in water. Nevertheless, their levels and occurrence vary spatially and are a function of two principal components (PCs, PC1 and PC2) which controlled 89.99% of the variance. BPA was the most widely distributed EMP, which was present in 62% of the water samples. The detected EMPs pose ecotoxicological risks in water samples, especially those from Mpumalanga province.

  9. Reproductive patterns of blacktail comber ( Serranus atricauda, Serranidae) from south-west Portugal seamounts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Ana; Sequeira, Vera; Paiva, Rafaela Barros; Vieira, Ana Rita; Gordo, Leonel Serrano

    2014-03-01

    The knowledge of the reproductive strategy is essential for the comprehensive understanding of the population dynamics of any fish species. This study intends to define the spawning season, verify the type of fecundity regulation and estimate relative annual fecundity for Serranus atricauda inhabiting the south-west of Portugal seamounts (Gorringe, Ampère and Lion). Monthly samples, between September 2010 and December 2011, were obtained from commercial vessels. This species is synchronously hermaphroditic, and mature individuals were found all year round, with gonadosomatic index peak from February to September. No clear relation between hepatosomatic index and Fulton's condition factor and gonadal development was found, and therefore, it is probable that reproductive success depends more on environmental conditions and food availability during the spawning season than on body energy reserves. No gap exists between pre-vitellogenic and vitellogenic oocytes and the oocyte size-frequency distribution during the main spawning season show no dominant cohort progressing through time. The number of standing stock of advanced vitellogenic oocytes showed an increase trend along the spawning season decreasing only at its end and the relative intensity of α-atresia was always low throughout this period with an increase towards the end. All these criteria corroborate the indeterminate fecundity type assigned to S. atricauda in previous studies. Mean relative annual fecundity estimated was 5,655 ± 4,321 oocytes per gram of gutted weight.

  10. Saline variability at the south-west of Portugal after kriging data from Ramalina spp. biomonitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueira, R.; Sousa, A.J.; Pacheco, A.M.G.; Catarino, F.

    2000-01-01

    Sea-salt input over the land masses may have deleterious effects on man-made structures, vegetable organisms (crops and vegetation) and soil/water resources. Recent work has shown the ability of some lichen species to monitor the deposition of airborne salts of marine origin. The atmospheric transport and deposition of sea salts can be assessed by measuring saline elements in lichens growing over coastal areas. The concentration of Cl - and Na + was determined in lichen thalli collected in three different dates on the south-west region of Portugal. The extracellular fraction of Na + was obtained by a sequential elution procedure, and Cl - was determined after leaching samples with water. The dispersion of element grades in the area was studied through geostatistical analysis. Numerical values were estimated by two interpolation methods: ordinary kriging and kriging with an external drift. The latter method used the logarithm of the distance to the coast as an auxiliary variable and yielded more reliable results. Every set of data produced a similar spatial pattern, showing a steep gradient in the first three kilometres from the coast. However, considerable variation can be observed between surveys. The variability of results is interpreted using the precipitation data obtained for the region under consideration. (author)

  11. Land use influences on acidification and recovery of freshwaters in Galloway, south-west Scotland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Helliwell

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The long term response of surface waters to changes in sulphur deposition and afforestation is investigated for three upland river systems in the Galloway region of south-west Scotland. From 1984-1999, these rivers exhibited a statistically significant decline in non-marine sulphate concentrations in response to reduced acid deposition. This reduction in non-marine sulphate was, however, insufficient to induce a pH recovery over the period. A statistically significant increase in river pH was observed between 1956-1970 (0.05 yr-1 when subsidised agricultural lime payments were at a maximum. In 1976, this subsidy ceased and surface waters have progressively acidified. In addition, climatic change is found to influence long-term trends in pH. Mean annual pH was greatest during a dry period between 1969-1973 when total annual discharge was low. Thereafter, pH declined gradually in response to higher rainfall and increased total annual discharge. Overall, surface waters draining the afforested catchments of the Rivers Cree and Bladnoch are more acid than those draining the moorland catchment of the Luce. These results indicate that in afforested catchments, current reductions in sulphur emissions have not led to an observed improvement in the acid status of surface waters. Forestry, therefore, represents a confounding factor with regard to chemical recovery from acidification in this region. Keywords: acidification, afforestation, deposition, rivers, lochs, non-marine sulphate, pH

  12. Studies on MODIS NDVI and its relation with the south west monsoon, western ghats, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmi Kumar, Tv; Barbosa, Humberto; Uma, R.; Rao, Koteswara

    2012-07-01

    Eleven years (2000 to 2010) of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data, derived from Moderate Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Terra with 250m resolution are used in the present study to discuss the changes in the trends of vegetal cover. The interannual variability of NDVI over western ghats (number of test sites are 17) showed increasing trend and the pronounced changes are resulted due to the monsoon variability in terms of its distribution (wide spread/fairly wide spread/scattered/isolated) and activity (vigorous/normal/weak) and are studied in detail. The NDVI progression is observed from June with a minimum value of 0.179 and yielded to maximum at 0.565 during September/October, on average. The study then relates the NDVI with the no of light, moderate and heavy rainfall events via statistical techniques such as correlation and regression to understand the connection in between the ground vegetation and the south west monsoon. The results of the study inferred i) NDVI, Antecedent Precipitation Index (API) are in good agreement throughout the monsoon which is evidenced by correlation as well as by Morlett Wavelet Analysis, ii) NDVI maintained good correlation with no of Light Rainy and Moderate Rainy alternatively but not with no of Heavy Rainy days, iii) Relation of NDVI with Isolated, Scattered distributions and active monsoons is substantial and iv) Phenological stages captured the Rate of Green Up during the crop season over western ghats.

  13. The hydrocarbon potential of the West Bengal basin of Eastern India and Western Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, L.V.; Lenengerger, T.L.

    1994-01-01

    Within the Bengal Basin is an extensively developed Eocene shelf system with fair to good potential for stratigraphic oil accumulations. The best quality data available to evaluate this play are from the Bogra Shelf area of Bangladesh. Within this general area Stanvac participated in the drilling of 13 wells in the late 1950's, including critical wells on the Bogra Shelf. This well data, combined with modern excellent quality seismic data, has allowed definition of a geological and geophysical constrained hydrocarbon system model. Potential source, reservoir and seal units can be identified or postulated from both well and seismic data within the Eocene depositional systems tracts. The most promising potential source rock unit identified on the Bogra Shelf to date are Upper Jalangi (Early Ecocene) shales containing oil-prone kerogens that average 4.7% TOC. Four wells, structurally up-dip of the defined play area, have good oil shows in thermally immature Jalangi sands indicating possible up dip migration. Reservoir strata have not been penetrated on the Bogra Shelf. Based basin modelling and seismic data, however, a foraminiferal grain stone facies within the Middle Eocene Sylthet Limestone carbonate buildups could provide a suitable reservoir. The tight micritic facies within the Sylhet Limestone and the overlying late Eocene Kopilli Shale form the updip, lateral and top seals for these stratigraphic traps. Exploration risks associated with this play include the following: (1) Limited drainage areas for the identified leads; (2) Carbonate build-ups may be perched on impermeable strata, precluding vertical charging; (3) presence, and up-dip limit of reservoir is speculative. (author)

  14. Evidence for Cenozoic extensional basin development and tectonic inversion south of the flat-slab segment, southern Central Andes, Chile (33° 36°S.L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charrier, R.; Baeza, O.; Elgueta, S.; Flynn, J. J.; Gans, P.; Kay, S. M.; Muñoz, N.; Wyss, A. R.; Zurita, E.

    2002-04-01

    The mainly volcanic Cenozoic deposits that make up much of the western part of the Principal Cordillera in Central Chile are generally subdivided into two major units: an older Abanico or Coya-Machalí Formation and a younger Farellones Formation. Difficulty in differentiating these units has led to considerable debate. On the basis of the wide distribution, great thickness, and presence of sedimentary intercalations, it has been postulated that these arc volcanics were deposited in an intermontane basin; more recently, it has been proposed that this basin developed under extensional conditions and underwent subsequent tectonic inversion. We present field, geochronologic, geochemical, and thermal maturity data that support the latter interpretation. Collectively, this new information clarifies the stratigraphic, tectonic, and paleogeographic evolution of these deposits. The vast geographic extent of the Abanico Formation and lateral equivalents, which reach from at least 32°30' to 44°S along the Principal Cordillera, its great thickness, and the presence of repeated thick fluvial and lacustrine intercalations all indicate deposition in a large, strongly subsident, and probably north-south oriented basin, developed between middle to late Eocene and Oligocene. The unconformable contact with underlying Mesozoic units observed at several localities indicates that deposition followed a substantial erosional episode during late Cretaceous and/or early Cenozoic time. Basal deposits of the Abanico Formation near Termas del Flaco increase rapidly in thickness to the west. Still further to the west, a thick Abanico section contains, in its upper part, mammal fossils older than those found in the basal deposits near Termas. This evidence indicates a major space of deposition west of this locality, which had been filled before deposition took place at Termas. The east-vergent, high-angle El Fierro thrust fault on the east side of the westward-growing deposits is interpreted

  15. Experience of Implementing a Distributed Control System for Thermal and Mechanical and Electrical Equipment at the South-West CHP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babkin, K. V., E-mail: babkin@uztec.ru; Tsvetkov, M. S.; Kostyuk, R. I.; Chugin, A. V. [SC “South-West CHP” (Russian Federation); Bilenko, V. A.; Molchanov, K. A.; Fedunov, V. V. [JSC “Interautomatika” (Russian Federation)

    2015-01-15

    Results of implementing an SPPA-T3000-based unified distributed control system for thermal and mechanical and electrical equipment at the South-West CHP are discussed. Hardware solutions for integration with local control systems, control of electrical equipment in compliance with the standards IEC 61850, Modbus RTU, and communication between the plant control system and the System Operator of the Unified Power System are described.

  16. Experience of Implementing a Distributed Control System for Thermal and Mechanical and Electrical Equipment at the South-West CHP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babkin, K. V.; Tsvetkov, M. S.; Kostyuk, R. I.; Chugin, A. V.; Bilenko, V. A.; Molchanov, K. A.; Fedunov, V. V.

    2015-01-01

    Results of implementing an SPPA-T3000-based unified distributed control system for thermal and mechanical and electrical equipment at the South-West CHP are discussed. Hardware solutions for integration with local control systems, control of electrical equipment in compliance with the standards IEC 61850, Modbus RTU, and communication between the plant control system and the System Operator of the Unified Power System are described

  17. Petrography and geochemistry of iron formations of the Paleoproterozoic Koegas Subgroup, Transvaal Supergroup, Griqualand West, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    M.Sc. (Geology) Nel, B.P. (2013). Petrography and geochemistry of iron formations of the Paleoproterozoic Koegas Subgroup, Transvaal Supergroup, Griqualand West, South Africa. MSc thesis (unpublished), University of Johannesburg, Aucklandpark, pp. 133. The Early Paleoproterozoic Koegas Subgroup comprises a succession of siltstone, mudstone, iron-­‐formation, chert and carbonate rocks that overlies the iron-­‐formations of the Asbestos Hills Subgroup with sharp contact. It is overlain with ...

  18. Improving learning infrastructure and environment for sustainable quality assurance practice in secondary schools in Ondo State, South-West, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Ayeni, Adeolu Joshua; Adelabu, Modupe A.

    2012-01-01

    The current study examines the state of learning environment and infrastructure, together with their effects on teaching and learning activities and the extent to which they are being maintained. The study uses a descriptive survey design paradigm. Respondents consist of 60 principals and 540 teachers that were randomly selected using the multi-stage sampling technique from a pool of 599 public secondary schools in the Ondo State, South-West, Nigeria. Data were collected using the Learning En...

  19. In vitro anthelmintic activity of Heliotropium indicum, Senna fistula and Spigelia anthelmia used as worm expeller in South West Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Oluwakemi K. Sobiyi; A.O. Tom Ashafa

    2015-01-01

    The anthelmintic potential of Heliotropium indicum, Senna fistula and Spigelia anthelmia were investigated using nematodes larvae from sheep and adult earthworms in order to justify the folkloric claim of the plants as worm expeller in south west of Nigeria. The acetone, ethanol, hydro-alcohol and distilled water extracts showed dose-dependent anthelmintic activities at the different concentrations (0.25, 0.50, 1.0 mg/ml) when tested against nematodes larvae. The order of anthelmintic effect ...

  20. NOAA TIFF Image - 3 m Backscatter Mosaic of the south west shore (La Parguera) of Puerto Rico, Project NF-06-03, 2006, UTM 19 WGS84

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This image represents a 3 meter resolution backscatter mosaic of the south west shore (La Parguera) of Puerto Rico. NOAA's NOS/NCCOS/CCMA Biogeography Team, in...

  1. Deltaic Depositional Systems, Evolution Characteristics, and Petroleum Potential, Palaeogene Sub-Basin, South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan; Wang, Hua; Zhang, Guotao

    2015-04-01

    Deltaic depositional systems are detailed characterized by morphology and facies in a Palaeogene continental sub-basin of Beibuwan Basin, South China Sea. Based on examination of 435 m of conventional cores from 30 wells, three major types of deltaic facies have been recognized: delta, beach and shoreface. Morphology and facies asymmetry between the down-drift and the up-drift sides present a typical asymmetric delta system:1) the down-rift, sourced primarily by the feeding river, are influenced by mixed river and wave processes. Deposits on this side are muddy and consist of barrier, bar, bay-fill, and bayhead delta facies with variable bioturbation intensity; 2)the up-rift, in contrast, is sourced by a second sediment source and typically consists of laterally continuous sandy beach and shoreface facies. Finally, two fundamentally different depositional models are established and reflect a different style of sequence stratigraphic patterns: 1) Multiple-stage faults slopes developed in the down-rift side feed fine grained sediment into two stages channelized front deltaic system; 2) Flexure slope break of the up-rift side, combining with deeper gradual slopes, conversely, feed coarser grained sediment from larger drainages into sandy beach and shoreface systems. Such a distinction has well explained the differentiation of the proven hydrocarbon reserves because the up-rift consists of well-sorted, mature, and laterally continuous homogeneous beach-shoreface reservoirs, whereas the down-rift, in contrast, is muddier and consists of less continuous, less mature, heterolithic reservoirs. The Delta asymmetry concepts and models don't only challenge the traditional definition of deltas in Fushan sub-basin, but also provides strong theoretical support for the future exploration. This process-based model may be applicable to many deep-water settings and provides a framework within which to interpret the stratigraphic and spatial distribution of these complex deposits.

  2. Deflating the shale gas potential of South Africa's Main Karoo basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiel O. de Kock

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Main Karoo basin has been identified as a potential source of shale gas (i.e. natural gas that can be extracted via the process of hydraulic stimulation or ‘fracking’. Current resource estimates of 0.4–11x109 m3 (13–390 Tcf are speculatively based on carbonaceous shale thickness, area, depth, thermal maturity and, most of all, the total organic carbon content of specifically the Ecca Group’s Whitehill Formation with a thickness of more than 30 m. These estimates were made without any measurements on the actual available gas content of the shale. Such measurements were recently conducted on samples from two boreholes and are reported here. These measurements indicate that there is little to no desorbed and residual gas, despite high total organic carbon values. In addition, vitrinite reflectance and illite crystallinity of unweathered shale material reveal the Ecca Group to be metamorphosed and overmature. Organic carbon in the shale is largely unbound to hydrogen, and little hydrocarbon generation potential remains. These findings led to the conclusion that the lowest of the existing resource estimates, namely 0.4x109 m3 (13 Tcf, may be the most realistic. However, such low estimates still represent a large resource with developmental potential for the South African petroleum industry. To be economically viable, the resource would be required to be confined to a small, well-delineated ‘sweet spot’ area in the vast southern area of the basin. It is acknowledged that the drill cores we investigated fall outside of currently identified sweet spots and these areas should be targets for further scientific drilling projects. Significance: This is the first report of direct measurements of the actual gas contents of southern Karoo basin shales. The findings reveal carbon content of shales to be dominated by overmature organic matter. The results demonstrate a much reduced potential shale gas resource presented by the Whitehill

  3. Magnetic Signature of the Lunar South Pole-Aitken Basin: Character, Origin, and Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purucker, Michael E.; Head, James W., III; Wilson, Lionel

    2012-01-01

    A new magnetic map of the Moon, based on Lunar Prospector (LP) magnetometer observations, sheds light on the origin of the South Pole-Aitken Basin (SPA), the largest and oldest of the recognized lunar basins. A set of WNW-trending linear to arcuate magnetic features, evident in both the radial and scalar observations, covers much of a 1000 km wide region centered on the NW portion of SPA. The source bodies are not at the surface because the magnetic features show no first-order correspondence to any surface topographic or structural feature. Patchy mare basalts of possible late Imbrianage are emplaced within SPA and are inferred to have been emplaced through dikes, directly from mantle sources. We infer that the magnetic features represent dike swarms that served as feeders for these mare basalts, as evident from the location of the Thomson/ Mare Ingenii, Van de Graaff, and Leeuwenhoek mare basalts on the two largest magnetic features in the region. Modeling suggests that the dike zone is between 25 and 50 km wide at the surface, and dike magnetization contrasts are in the range of 0.2 A/m. We theorize that the basaltic dikes were emplaced in the lunar crust when a long-lived dynamo was active. Based on pressure, temperature, and stress conditions prevalent in the lunar crust, dikes are expected to be a dominantly subsurface phenomenon, consistent with the observations reported here.

  4. Last Glacial mammals in South America: a new scenario from the Tarija Basin (Bolivia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coltorti, M.; Abbazzi, L.; Ferretti, M. P.; Iacumin, P.; Rios, F. Paredes; Pellegrini, M.; Pieruccini, P.; Rustioni, M.; Tito, G.; Rook, L.

    2007-04-01

    The chronology, sedimentary history, and paleoecology of the Tarija Basin (Bolivia), one of the richest Pleistocene mammalian sites in South America, are revised here based on a multidisciplinary study, including stratigraphy, sedimentology, geomorphology, paleontology, isotope geochemistry, and 14C geochronology. Previous studies have indicated a Middle Pleistocene age for this classic locality. We have been able to obtain a series of 14C dates encompassing all the fossil-bearing sequences previously studied in the Tarija Basin. The dated layers range in age from about 44,000 to 21,000 radiocarbon years before present (BP), indicating that the Tarija fauna is much younger than previously thought. Glacial advances correlated to marine isotopic stages (MIS) 4 and 2 (ca. 62 and 20 ka BP, respectively) are also documented at the base and at the very top of the Tarija Padcaya succession, respectively, indicating that the Bolivian Altiplano was not dry but sustained an ice cap during the Last Glacial Maximum. The results of this multidisciplinary study enable us to redefine the chronological limits of the Tarija sequence and of its faunal assemblage and to shift this paleontological, paleoclimatological, and paleoecological framework to the time interval from MIS 4 to MIS 2.

  5. Acoustic and tephra records of explosive eruptions at West Mata submarine volcano, NE Lau Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziak, R. P.; Bohnenstiehl, D. R.; Baker, E. T.; Matsumoto, H.; Caplan-Auerbach, J.; Mack, C. J.; Embley, R. W.; Merle, S. G.; Walker, S. L.; Lau, T. A.

    2013-12-01

    West Mata is a 1200 m deep submarine volcano where explosive boninite eruptions were directly observed in May 2009. Here we present long-term acoustic and tephra records of West Mata explosion activity from three deployments of hydrophone and particle sensor moorings beginning on 8 January 2009. These records provide insights into the character of explosive magma degassing occurring at the volcano's summit vent until the decline and eventual cessation of the eruption during late 2010 and early 2011. The detailed acoustic records show three types of volcanic signals, 1) discrete explosions, 2) diffuse explosions, and 3) volcanic tremor. Discrete explosions are short duration, high amplitude broad-band signals caused by rapid gas bubble release. Diffuse signals are likely a result of 'trap-door' explosions where a quench cap of cooled lava forms over the magmatic vent but gas pressure builds underneath the cap. This pressure eventually causes the cap to breach and gas is explosively released until pressure reduces and the cap once again forms. Volcanic tremor is typified by narrow-band, long-duration signals with overtones, as well as narrow-band tones that vary frequency over time between 60-100 Hz. The harmonic tremor is thought to be caused by modulation of rapid, short duration gas explosion pulses and not a magma resonance phenomenon. The variable frequency tones may be caused by focused degassing or hydrothermal fluid flow from a narrow volcanic vent or conduit. High frequency (>30 Hz) tremor-like bands of energy are a result of interference caused by multipath wide-band signals, including sea-surface reflected acoustic phases, that arrive at the hydrophone with small time delays. Acoustic data suggest that eruption velocities for a single explosion range from 4-50 m s-1, although synchronous arrival of explosion signals has complicated our efforts to estimate long-term gas flux. Single explosions exhibit ~4-40 m3 s-1 of total volume flux (gas and rock) but

  6. Coalbed methane-produced water quality and its management options in Raniganj Basin, West Bengal, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendhe, Vinod Atmaram; Mishra, Subhashree; Varma, Atul Kumar; Singh, Awanindra Pratap

    2017-06-01

    Coalbed methane (CBM) recovery is associated with production of large quantity of groundwater. The coal seams are depressurized by pumping of water for regular and consistent gas production. Usually, CBM operators need to pump >10 m3 of water per day from one well, which depends on the aquifer characteristics, drainage and recharge pattern. In India, 32 CBM blocks have been awarded for exploration and production, out of which six blocks are commercially producing methane gas at 0.5 million metric standard cubic feet per day. Large amount of water is being produced from CBM producing blocks, but no specific information or data are available for geochemical properties of CBM-produced water and its suitable disposal or utilization options for better management. CBM operators are in infancy and searching for the suitable solutions for optimal management of produced water. CBM- and mine-produced water needs to be handled considering its physical and geochemical assessment, because it may have environmental as well as long-term impact on aquifer. Investigations were carried out to evaluate geochemical and hydrogeological conditions of CBM blocks in Raniganj Basin. Totally, 15 water samples from CBM well head and nine water samples from mine disposal head were collected from Raniganj Basin. The chemical signature of produced water reveals high sodium and bicarbonate concentrations with low calcium and magnesium, and very low sulphate in CBM water. It is comprehend that CBM water is mainly of Na-HCO3 type and coal mine water is of Ca-Mg-SO4 and HCO3-Cl-SO4 type. The comparative studies are also carried out for CBM- and mine-produced water considering the geochemical properties, aquifer type, depth of occurrence and lithological formations. Suitable options like impounding, reverse osmosis, irrigation and industrial use after prerequisite treatments are suggested. However, use of this huge volume of CBM- and mine-produced water for irrigation or other beneficial purposes

  7. Mineralogy and organic petrology of oil shales in the Sangkarewang Formation, Ombilin Basin, West Sumatra, Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fatimah [School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052 (Australia)]|[Centre for Geological Resources, Department of Mines and Energy, Jalan Soekarno Hatta No. 444, Bandung 40254 (Indonesia); Ward, Colin R. [School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052 (Australia)

    2009-01-31

    The Ombilin Basin is filled by late Eocene to early Oligocene marginal fan deposits (Brani Formation) and lacustrine shales (Sangkarewang Formation), unconformably overlain by a late Oligocene to early Miocene fluvial sequence (Sawahlunto and Sawahtambang Formations) and capped by an early to mid-Miocene marine sequence (Ombilin Formation). Significant oil shale deposits occur in the Sangkarewang Formation, intercalated with thin laminated greenish-grey calcareous sandstones. X-ray diffraction shows that the sediments consist mainly of quartz, feldspar, carbonates and a range of clay minerals, together in some cases with minor proportions of sulphides, evaporites and zeolites. Feldspar and non-kaolinite clay minerals decrease up the sequence, relative to kaolinite, suggesting a changing sediment source as the basin was filled. Calcite, thought to be mainly of authigenic origin, is also more abundant in the middle and upper parts of the sequence. The organic matter in the oil shales of the sequence is dominated by liptinite macerals, particularly alginite (mainly lamalginite) and sporinite. Cutinite also occurs in some samples, along with resinite and traces of bituminite. The dominance of lamalginite in the liptinite components suggests that the material can be described as a lamosite. Samples from the Sangkarewang Formation have vitrinite reflectance values ranging between 0.37% and 0.55%. These are markedly lower than the vitrinite reflectance for coal from the overlying Sawahlunto Formation (0.68%), possibly due to suppression associated with the abundant liptinite in the oil shales. Fischer assay data on outcrop samples indicate that the oil yield is related to the organic carbon content. Correlations with XRD data show that, with one exception, the oil yield and organic carbon can also be correlated directly to the abundance of carbonate (calcite) and inversely to the abundance of quartz plus feldspar. This suggests that the abundance of algal material in the

  8. Water resources in the Big Lost River Basin, south-central Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosthwaite, E.G.; Thomas, C.A.; Dyer, K.L.

    1970-01-01

    The Big Lost River basin occupies about 1,400 square miles in south-central Idaho and drains to the Snake River Plain. The economy in the area is based on irrigation agriculture and stockraising. The basin is underlain by a diverse-assemblage of rocks which range, in age from Precambrian to Holocene. The assemblage is divided into five groups on the basis of their hydrologic characteristics. Carbonate rocks, noncarbonate rocks, cemented alluvial deposits, unconsolidated alluvial deposits, and basalt. The principal aquifer is unconsolidated alluvial fill that is several thousand feet thick in the main valley. The carbonate rocks are the major bedrock aquifer. They absorb a significant amount of precipitation and, in places, are very permeable as evidenced by large springs discharging from or near exposures of carbonate rocks. Only the alluvium, carbonate rock and locally the basalt yield significant amounts of water. A total of about 67,000 acres is irrigated with water diverted from the Big Lost River. The annual flow of the river is highly variable and water-supply deficiencies are common. About 1 out of every 2 years is considered a drought year. In the period 1955-68, about 175 irrigation wells were drilled to provide a supplemental water supply to land irrigated from the canal system and to irrigate an additional 8,500 acres of new land. Average. annual precipitation ranged from 8 inches on the valley floor to about 50 inches at some higher elevations during the base period 1944-68. The estimated water yield of the Big Lost River basin averaged 650 cfs (cubic feet per second) for the base period. Of this amount, 150 cfs was transpired by crops, 75 cfs left the basin as streamflow, and 425 cfs left as ground-water flow. A map of precipitation and estimated values of evapotranspiration were used to construct a water-yield map. A distinctive feature of the Big Lost River basin, is the large interchange of water from surface streams into the ground and from the

  9. Simulation of the Lower Walker River Basin hydrologic system, west-central Nevada, using PRMS and MODFLOW models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allander, Kip K.; Niswonger, Richard G.; Jeton, Anne E.

    2014-01-01

    Walker Lake is a terminal lake in west-central Nevada with almost all outflow occurring through evaporation. Diversions from Walker River since the early 1900s have contributed to a substantial reduction in flow entering Walker Lake. As a result, the lake is receding, and salt concentrations have increased to a level in which Oncorhynchus clarkii henshawi (Lahontan Cutthroat trout) are no longer present, and the lake ecosystem is threatened. Consequently, there is a concerted effort to restore the Walker Lake ecosystem and fishery to a level that is more sustainable. However, Walker Lake is interlinked with the lower Walker River and adjacent groundwater system which makes it difficult to understand the full effect of upstream water-management actions on the overall hydrologic system including the lake level, volume, and dissolved-solids concentrations of Walker Lake. To understand the effects of water-management actions on the lower Walker River Basin hydrologic system, a watershed model and groundwater flow model have been developed by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Bureau of Reclamation and the National Fish and Wildlife Foundation.

  10. Increasing drought risk in large-dam basins of South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, I. W.; Shin, Y.; Park, J.; Kim, D.

    2017-12-01

    In 2015, South Korea suffered one of the worst droughts in recent years. Seoul and Gyeonggi and Gangwon provinces experienced severe drought conditions, receiving less than 43 percent of the annual precipitation average of the past 30 years. Additionally, the 2015 summer precipitation was less than half of the average. The lack of summer precipitation induced serious shortages in dam storages, which are important supplies for the dry season. K-water, a public company managing South Korea's public water supply system, is fighting to secure public water supply and minimize potential damage that may occur before the subsequent wet season. This study detected significant decreasing trends (95% confidence interval) in dry-seasonal runoff rates (=dam inflow / precipitation) in three dams basins (Soyang, Chungju, and Andong). Changes in potential evapotranspiration (PET) and precipitation indices were examined to investigate potential causes of decreasing runoff rates trends. However, there were no clear relations among changes in runoff rates, PET, and precipitation indices. Runoff rate reduction in the three dams may increase the risk of dam operational management and long-term water resource planning. Therefore, it will be necessary to perform a multilateral analysis to better understand decreasing runoff rates.AcknowledgementsThis research was supported by a grant(2017-MPSS31-001) from Supporting Technology Development Program for Disaster Management funded by Ministry of Public Safety and Security(MPSS) of the Korean government.

  11. Mapping of a Hydrological Ice Sheet Drainage Basin on the West Greenland Ice Sheet Margin from ERS-1/2 SAR Interferometry, Ice-Radar Measurement, and Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlstrøm, Andreas P.; Bøggild, C.E.; Stenseng, L.

    2002-01-01

    importance of the potential of the ice overburden pressure compared to the bedrock topography. The meltwater run-off for the basin delineations was modelled with an energy-balance model calibrated with observed ice-sheet ablation and compared to a 25 year time series of measured basin run-off. The standard......The hydrological ice-sheet basin draining into the Tasersiaq lake, West Greenland (66°13'N, 50°30'W), was delineated, First using standard digital elevation models (DEMs) for ice-sheet surface and bedrock, and subsequently using a new high-resolution dataset, with a surface DEM derived from repeat......-track interferometric synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and a bedrock topography derived from an airborne 60 MHz ice-penetrating radar. The extent of the delineation was calculated from a water-pressure potential as a function of the ice-sheet surface and bedrock elevations and a hydraulic factor κ describing the relative...

  12. Groundwater nitrate pollution in Souss-Massa basin (south-west ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EJIRO

    Comté, 16 route de Gray, 25030 Besançon cedex, France. ... the study sites are the main cause of serious nitrate pollution given the superimposition of high nitrate ... development level. ... Location map of the irrigated areas and the sampling network. ... of clay, occur chiefly in the Chtouka-Massa region and in the Atlas.

  13. An integrated geological and geophysical study of the Uinta Mountains, Utah, Colorado and a geophysical study on Tamarix in the Rio Grande River basin, West Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatun, Salma

    2008-07-01

    This research consists of two parts. One part deals with an integrated analysis of the structural anomaly associated with the Uinta Mountains, Utah. The other part deals with a study on the effect of Tamarix on soil and water quality. The Uinta Mountains are an anomalous east-west trending range of the Central Rocky Mountains and are located in northeastern Utah and northwestern Colorado. They have long been recognized as a structural anomaly that is surrounded by other Laramide structures that trend N-S or northwest. The study area extends from -112 to -108 degrees longitude and 41.5 to 39 degrees latitude and consists of three major geologic features: The Green River basin, Uinta Mountains, and the Uinta basin. This study investigates the tectonic evolution and the structural development of the Uinta aulacogen. There is a growing interest in exploration for petroleum and other hydrocarbons in the area of this study. Oil companies have been drilling wells in this area since the 1950's. The results of this study will enhance the existing knowledge of this region, and thus will help in the pursuit of hydrocarbons. A highly integrated approach was followed for this investigation. Gravity, magnetic, drill hole, seismic and receiver function data were used in the analysis. Gravity and magnetic data were analyzed using software tools available in the Department of Geological Sciences such as Oasis Montaj and GIS. Filtered gravity maps show that the Uinta Mountains and the surrounding basins and uplifts are deep seated features. These maps also reveal a correlation between the Uinta Mountains and the regional tectonic structures. This correlation helps in understanding how the different tectonic events that this region went through contributed to the different phases of development of the Uinta aulacogen. Four gravity models were generated along four north-south trending profile lines covering the target area from east to west. Interpretations of these models give a

  14. Factors affecting tuberculosis case detection in Kersa District, South West Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desalegn Dabaro

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tuberculosis is one of the deadly communicable diseases which claim the lives of millions in the world. Early case detection and prompt treatment cures the patients, breaks the transmission and improves the control program. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the factors affecting tuberculosis case detection in Kersa District, south west Ethiopia. Method: Facility based cross sectional study design was employed in four directly observed treatment short course service providing public health centers. Three hundred eighty four patient folders were reviewed. In-depth interviews was conducted with 18 health care workers including heads of health centers, tuberculosis focal persons, clinicians, laboratory technicians, tuberculosis program coordinator and head of health office. Result: Significant number, 135(35.2% of tuberculosis suspects were not requested for microscopic examination of sputum smear, the laboratory results 21(8.4% of requested patients were not recorded in both patient folders and laboratory registers. Only 10 (4.4% of those examined and recorded were smearing positive. Participants described that the shortage and irregular supply of acid fast bacilli reagents and consumable, inadequate infrastructures, frequent electricity interruption, shortage of trained care providers, negligence of care providers, weakness of laboratory quality assurance system and poor health information use culture were major factors for low case identification. Conclusion: The resource shortage, electricity interruption, low commitment of care providers, weak quality assurance practice and poor health information use culture were major factors for low tuberculosis case identification and should be considered. Keywords: Tuberculosis, Diagnosis, Case detection, Factors

  15. The geology and geochemistry of some epigenetic uranium deposits near the Swakop River, South West Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hambleton-Jones, B.B.

    1983-10-01

    This study comprises a geological and geochemical investigation of the uranium deposits in the region near the Swakop River which extends from the Langer Heinrich Mountain in the east to the end of the Tumas River in the west. The general geology of the basement rocks in the Langer Heinrich region only is discussed. The general geology of the younger duricrust formations is discussed. Analytical methods were developed for the separation of thorium, protactinium and uranium from geological materials using various chromatographic procedures. Alpha spectrometry, neutron activation analysis and delayed neutron counting were the main techniques used. The occurrence of uranium in the region of study follows a unique geochemical cycle, and the geochemistry at each stage in the cycle was examined. The first stage in the uranium-geochemical cycle was the basement rocks. The second stage in the geochemical cycle of uranium was the subsurface water. The third stage in the geochemical cycle of uranium concerns its occurrence in the duricrust deposits. Isotopic disequilibrium measurements showed that uranium is still migrating, and that the age of the carnotite precipitation is 30 000 years, based on the open-system model of uranium migration. In the final stage of the geochemical cycle, the geochemistry of uranium in seawater and the diatomaceous muds is discussed. A classification system for the uranium deposits near the Swakop River, based on genetic relationships, is proposed and described in terms of the geochemical cycle of uranium, the mode of transport and mode of deposition. The relationships between the duricrust uranium deposits and the other uranium deposits of South Africa are compared

  16. LIVESTOCK MANAGEMENT AND PRODUCTION SYSTEM OF AGROPASTORALISTS IN THE DERIVED SAVANNA OF SOUTH-WEST NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olurotimi Ayobami Olafadehan

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A survey was conducted by the administration of structured questionnaires to agropastoralists in fifty settlements in the derived savannah of South-west Nigeria in other to highlight the management practices and some of the factors influencing production in the area. The production system is traditional with animals being maintained on free range grazing, browsing and offer of crop-residues. Rangelands were, however, the major source of feed for the cattle. Farmers rarely supplemented their stock with concentrate diet while the most commonly purchased feed supplement was salt. Cattle constituted the major ruminant in the stock (65% while sheep and goats accounted for 23% and 11%, respectively. The most favoured and dominant breed of cattle in the agropastoral herd is the Bunaji (White Fulani (72.10% followed by N’Dama (18.20% and Keteku (9.30%. Female cattle were more in the herd than the male for all the breeds. Labour allocation among the agropastoralists is based on sex with more male tasks than female. All the agropastoralists (100% inherited there stock while few (24% engaged in care-taking of animals for others. Low milk production, soil-eating and diarrhoea were the prevalent diseases among the animals. Majority (84% of the agropastoralists depended on the use of local herbs and self medication for treating their animals as against a few (6% engaging the services of the veterinarian. The system under study vividly typifies a traditional smallholder dairy production system characterized by little or not input. Improved feeding, housing and health management will enhance the productivity of the animals.

  17. 90–100% renewable electricity for the South West Interconnected System of Western Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Bin; Blakers, Andrew; Stocks, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    Rapidly increasing penetration of renewables, primarily wind and photovoltaics (PV), is causing a move away from fossil fuel in the Australian electric power industry. This study focuses on the South West Interconnected System in Western Australia. Several high (90% and 100%) renewables penetration scenarios have been modelled, comprising wind and PV supplemented with a small amount of biogas, and compared with a “like-for-like” fossil-fuel replacement scenario. Short-term off-river (closed cycle) pumped hydro energy storage (PHES) is utilised in some simulations as a large-scale conventional storage technology. The scenarios are examined by using a chronological dispatch model. An important feature of the modelling is that only technologies that have been already deployed on a large scale (>150 gigawatts) are utilised. This includes wind, PV and PHES. The modelling results demonstrate that 90–100% penetration by wind and PV electricity is compatible with a balanced grid. With the integration of off-river PHES, 90% renewables penetration is able to provide low-carbon electricity at competitive prices. Pumped hydro also facilitates a 100% renewables scenario which produces zero greenhouse gas emissions with attractive electricity prices. A sensitivity analysis shows the most important factors in the system cost are discount rate and wind turbine cost. - Highlights: • Short-term off-river pumped hydro energy storage (STORES). • 90–100% renewables for a large-scale self-contained power system. • PV and wind serves 80–90% of the total energy. • 90% renewables system costs $116 ($103)/MWh using 2016 (2030) prices.

  18. Birth Preparedness and Complication Readiness among Women Attending Antenatal Clinics in Ogbomoso, South West, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajibola Idowu, MBBS, FWACP

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Information on factors associated with birth preparedness and complication readiness (BP/CR is central in designing cost effective programs for reducing maternal deaths among women. This study assessed factors influencing BP/CR among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic in Ogbomoso, South West Nigeria. Methodology: This is a cross-sectional study conducted between January and April, 2015. Systematic sampling technique was employed to recruit 400 women attending antenatal clinic at Bowen University Teaching Hospital, Ogbomoso, Nigeria. A pre-tested questionnaire was used for data collection and data analysis was done using SPSS version 21. Chi-square test was used for bivariate analysis while binary logistic regression was used for multivariate analysis. Statistical significance was set at p <0.05. Results: More than half (51.3% of our respondents were in the 30-39 age category. Only 40.3% of these respondents were reported well prepared for births and were complication ready. The proportion of women who had BP/CR was significantly higher among those in the middle socio-economic group (51.6%, p<0.05, those who practiced Christianity (76.4%, p<0.05 and those from Yoruba ethnic group (80.1%, p<0.05. Respondents in lower socio-economic group were 42% less likely to have prepared for birth compared to women in the high socio-economic class (OR: 0.58, 95% CI: 0.34-0.99. Conclusion and Global Health Implications: The proportion of Nigerian women in our sample who were well-prepared for birth and its complication was below average. There is need for more awareness programs on BP/CR; such programs should target all women especially the vulnerable group

  19. Optimal feeding systems for small-scale dairy herds in the North West Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Patience Manzana

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Land redistribution was legislated in 1994; it was designed to resolve historical imbalances inland ownership in South Africa. Between 2002 and 2006, a longitudinal observational studywas conducted with 15 purposively selected small-scale dairy farmers in a land redistributionproject in Central North West Province. Four farmers left the project over the period. For thepurposes of this study, a small-scale dairy farm was defined as a farm that produces less than500 L of milk a day, irrespective of the number of cows or size of the farm. The study wasconducted in three phases. In the first phase, situational analysis using participatory ruralappraisal (PRA and observation was used to outline the extent of the constraints and designappropriate interventions. Feeds that were used were tested and evaluated. In the secondphase, three different feeding systems were designed from the data obtained from PRA. Thesewere: (1 A semi-intensive farm-based ration using available crops, pastures and crop residueswith minimal rations purchased. (2 An intensive, zero-grazing dairy system using a totalmixed ration. (3 A traditional, extensive or dual-purpose system, where the calf drank fromthe cow until weaning and milking was done only once a day. In the third phase, adoptionwas monitored. By July 2006, all remaining farmers had changed to commercially formulatedrations or licks and the body condition score of the cows had improved. It was concluded thatveterinary extension based on PRA and a holistic systems approach was a good option forsuch complex problems. Mentoring by commercial dairy farmers, veterinary and extensionservices appeared to be viable. Further research should be done to optimise the traditionalmodel of dairy farming, as this was relatively profitable, had a lower risk and was less labourintensive.

  20. Optimal feeding systems for small-scale dairy herds in the North West Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzana, N Patience; McCrindle, Cheryl M E; Sebei, P Julius; Prozesky, Leon

    2014-07-09

    Land redistribution was legislated in 1994; it was designed to resolve historical imbalances inland ownership in South Africa. Between 2002 and 2006, a longitudinal observational studywas conducted with 15 purposively selected small-scale dairy farmers in a land redistributionproject in Central North West Province. Four farmers left the project over the period. For thepurposes of this study, a small-scale dairy farm was defined as a farm that produces less than500 L of milk a day, irrespective of the number of cows or size of the farm. The study wasconducted in three phases. In the first phase, situational analysis using participatory ruralappraisal (PRA) and observation was used to outline the extent of the constraints and designappropriate interventions. Feeds that were used were tested and evaluated. In the secondphase, three different feeding systems were designed from the data obtained from PRA. Thesewere: (1) A semi-intensive farm-based ration using available crops, pastures and crop residueswith minimal rations purchased. (2) An intensive, zero-grazing dairy system using a totalmixed ration. (3) A traditional, extensive or dual-purpose system, where the calf drank fromthe cow until weaning and milking was done only once a day. In the third phase, adoptionwas monitored. By July 2006, all remaining farmers had changed to commercially formulatedrations or licks and the body condition score of the cows had improved. It was concluded thatveterinary extension based on PRA and a holistic systems approach was a good option forsuch complex problems. Mentoring by commercial dairy farmers, veterinary and extensionservices appeared to be viable. Further research should be done to optimise the traditionalmodel of dairy farming, as this was relatively profitable, had a lower risk and was less labourintensive.

  1. High maternal mortality in rural south-west Ethiopia: estimate by using the sisterhood method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaya Yaliso

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Estimation of maternal mortality is difficult in developing countries without complete vital registration. The indirect sisterhood method represents an alternative in places where there is high fertility and mortality rates. The objective of the current study was to estimate maternal mortality indices using the sisterhood method in a rural district in south-west Ethiopia. Method We interviewed 8,870 adults, 15–49 years age, in 15 randomly selected rural villages of Bonke in Gamo Gofa. By constructing a retrospective cohort of women of reproductive age, we obtained sister units of risk exposure to maternal mortality, and calculated the lifetime risk of maternal mortality. Based on the total fertility for the rural Ethiopian population, the maternal mortality ratio was approximated. Results We analyzed 8503 of 8870 (96% respondents (5262 [62%] men and 3241 ([38%] women. The 8503 respondents reported 22,473 sisters (average = 2.6 sisters for each respondent who survived to reproductive age. Of the 2552 (11.4% sisters who had died, 819 (32% occurred during pregnancy and childbirth. This provided a lifetime risk of 10.2% from pregnancy and childbirth with a corresponding maternal mortality ratio of 1667 (95% CI: 1564–1769 per 100,000 live births. The time period for this estimate was in 1998. Separate analysis for male and female respondents provided similar estimates. Conclusion The impoverished rural area of Gamo Gofa had very high maternal mortality in 1998. This highlights the need for strengthening emergency obstetric care for the Bonke population and similar rural populations in Ethiopia.

  2. Qualitative Interpretation Of Aerogravity And Aeromagnetic Survey Data Over The South Western Part Of The Volta River Basin Of Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    George Hinson; Aboagye Menyeh; David Dotse Wemegah

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The study area South western part of Volta River Basin of Ghana covering an area of 8570 km2 which is one-eleventh the area of the Volta River basin of Ghana has been subjected to numerous academic research works but geophysical survey works because of virtual perceptive reasons. It is now believed to overly mineral-rich geological structures hence the use of magnetic and gravity survey methods to bring out these mineral-rich geological structures.Geographically it study area is loca...

  3. Comparison of the rift and post-rift architecture of conjugated salt and salt-free basins offshore Brazil and Angola/Namibia, South Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strozyk, Frank; Back, Stefan; Kukla, Peter A.

    2017-10-01

    This study presents a regional comparison between selected 2D seismic transects from large, conjugated salt and salt-free basins offshore southern Brazil (Campos Basin, Santos Basin, Pelotas Basin) and southwest Africa (Kwanza Basin, northern and southern Namibe Basin, Walvis Basin). Tectonic-stratigraphic interpretation of the main rift and post-rift units, free-air gravity data and flexural isostatic backstripping were used for a comprehensive basin-to-basin documentation of key mechanisms controlling the present-day differences in conjugated and neighbouring South Atlantic basins. A significant variation in the tectonic-sedimentary architecture along-strike at each margin and between the conjugated basins across the South Atlantic reflects major differences in (1) the structural configuration of each margin segment at transitional phase between rifting and breakup, as emphasized in the highly asymmetric settings of the large Santos salt basin and the conjugated, salt-free southern Namibe Basin, (2) the post-breakup subsidence and uplift history of the respective margin segment, which caused major differences for example between the Campos and Espirito Santo basins and the conjugated northern Namibe and Kwanza basins, (3) variations in the quantity and distribution of post-breakup margin sediments, which led to major differences in the subsidence history and the related present-day basin architecture, for example in the initially rather symmetric, siliciclastic Pelotas and Walvis basins, and (4) the deposition of Aptian evaporites in the large rift and sag basin provinces north of the Rio Grande Rise and Walvis Ridge, highly contrasting the siliciclastic basins along the margin segments south of the ridges. The resulting present-day architecture of the basins can be generally classified as (i) moderately symmetric, salt-free, and magma-rich in the northern part of the southern segment, (i) highly asymmetric, salt-bearing and magma-poor vs. salt-free and magma

  4. Simulation of efficiency impact of drainage water reuse: case of small-scale vegetable growers in North West Province, South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speelman, S.; Haese, D' M.F.C.; Haese, D' L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on estimating the effect of drainage water reuse on the technical efficiency of small-scale vegetable growers in South Africa applying a data envelopment analysis (DEA). In the semi-arid North West Province of South Africa water scarcity and the soon to be implemented water

  5. A 500-year history of floods in the semi arid basins of south-eastern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez García, Carlos; Schulte, Lothar; Peña, Juan Carlos; Carvalho, Filpe; Brembilla, Carla

    2016-04-01

    Floods are one of the natural hazards with higher incidence in the south-eastern Spain, the driest region in Europe, causing fatalities, damage of infrastructure and economic losses. Flash-floods in semi arid environments are related to intensive rainfall which can last from few hours to days. These floods are violent and destructive because of their high discharges, sediment transport and aggradation processes in the flood plain. Also during historical times floods affected the population in the south-eastern Spain causing sever damage or in some cases the complete destruction of towns. Our studies focus on the flood reconstruction from historical sources of the Almanzora, Aguas and Antas river basins, which have a surface between 260-2600 km2. We have also compiled information from the Andarax river and compared the flood series with the Guadalentín and Segura basins from previous studies (Benito et. al., 2010 y Machado et al., 2011). Flood intensities have been classified in four levels according to the type of damage: 1) ordinary floods that only affect agriculture plots; 2) extraordinary floods which produce some damage to buildings and hydraulic infrastructure; 3) catastrophic floods which caused sever damage, fatalities and partial or complete destruction of towns. A higher damage intensity of +1 magnitude was assigned when the event is recorded from more than one major sub-basin (stretches and tributaries such as Huércal-Overa basin) or catchment (e.g. Antas River). In total 102 incidences of damages and 89 floods were reconstructed in the Almanzora (2.611 km2), Aguas (539 km2), Antas (261 km2) and Andarax (2.100 km2) catchments. The Almanzora River was affected by 36 floods (1550-2012). The highest events for the Almanzora River were in 1580, 1879, 1973 and 2012 producing many fatalities and destruction of several towns. In addition, we identified four flood-clusters 1750-1780, 1870-1900, 1960-1977 and 1989-2012 which coincides with the periods of

  6. Ground-water quality in the Appalachian Plateaus, Kanawha River basin, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheets, Charlynn J.; Kozar, Mark D.

    2000-01-01

    Water samples collected from 30 privately-owned and small public-supply wells in the Appalachian Plateaus of the Kanawha River Basin were analyzed for a wide range of constituents, including bacteria, major ions, nutrients, trace elements, radon, pesticides, and volatile organic compounds. Concentrations of most constituents from samples analyzed did not exceed U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) standards. Constituents that exceeded drinking-water standards in at least one sample were total coliform bacteria, Escherichia coli (E. coli), iron, manganese, and sulfate. Total coliform bacteria were present in samples from five sites, and E. coli were present at only one site. USEPA secondary maximum contaminant levels (SMCLs) were exceeded for three constituents -- sulfate exceeded the SMCL of 250 mg/L (milligrams per liter) in samples from 2 of 30 wells; iron exceeded the SMCL of 300 ?g/L (micrograms per liter) in samples from 12 of the wells, and manganese exceeded the SMCL of 50 ?g/L in samples from 17 of the wells sampled. None of the samples contained concentrations of nutrients that exceeded the USEPA maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) for these constituents. The maximum concentration of nitrate detected was only 4.1 mg/L, which is below the MCL of 10 mg/L. Concentrations of nitrate in precipitation and shallow ground water are similar, potentially indicating that precipitation may be a source of nitrate in shallow ground water in the study area. Radon concentrations exceeded the recently proposed maximum contaminant level of 300 pCi/L at 50 percent of the sites sampled. The median concentration of radon was only 290 pCi/L. Radon-222 is a naturally occurring, carcinogenic, radioactive decay product of uranium. Concentrations, however, did not exceed the alternate maximum contaminant level (AMCL) for radon of 4,000 pCi/L in any of the 30 samples. Arsenic concentrations exceeded the proposed MCL of 5?g/L at 4 of the 30 sites. No samples exceeded the

  7. Basin Analysis and Petroleum System Characterisation of Western Bredasdorp Basin, Southern Offshore of South Africa: Insights from a 3d Crust-Scale Basin Model - (Phase 1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonibare, W. A.; Scheck-Wenderoth, M.; Sippel, J.; Mikeš, D.

    2012-04-01

    In recent years, construction of 3D geological models and their subsequent upscaling for reservoir simulation has become an important tool within the oil industry for managing hydrocarbon reservoirs and increasing recovery rate. Incorporating petroleum system elements (i.e. source, reservoir and trap) into these models is a relatively new concept that seems very promising to play/prospect risk assessment and reservoir characterisation alike. However, yet to be fully integrated into this multi-disciplinary modelling approach are the qualitative and quantitative impacts of crust-scale basin dynamics on the observed basin-fill architecture and geometries. The focus of this study i.e. Western Bredasdorp Basin constitutes the extreme western section of the larger Bredasdorp sub-basin, which is the westernmost depocentre of the four southern Africa offshore sub-basins (others being Pletmos, Gamtoos and Algoa). These basins, which appear to be initiated by volcanically influenced continental rifting and break-up related to passive margin evolution (during the Mid-Late Jurassic to latest Valanginian), remain previously unstudied for crust-scale basin margin evolution, and particularly in terms of relating deep crustal processes to depo-system reconstruction and petroleum system evolution. Seismic interpretation of 42 2D seismic-reflection profiles forms the basis for maps of 6 stratigraphic horizons which record the syn-rift to post-rift (i.e. early drift and late drift to present-day seafloor) successions. In addition to this established seismic markers, high quality seismic profiles have shown evidence for a pre-rift sequence (i.e. older than Late Jurassic >130 Ma). The first goal of this study is the construction of a 3D gravity-constrained, crust-scale basin model from integration of seismics, well data and cores. This basin model is constructed using GMS (in-house GFZ Geo-Modelling Software) while testing its consistency with the gravity field is performed using IGMAS

  8. Hydrological Appraisal of Climate Change Impacts on the Water Resources of the Xijiang Basin, South China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dehua Zhu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Assessing the impact of climate change on streamflow is critical to understanding the changes to water resources and to improve water resource management. The use of hydrological models is a common practice to quantify and assess water resources in such situations. In this study, two hydrological models with different structures, e.g., a physically-based distributed model Liuxihe (LXH and a lumped conceptual model Xinanjiang (XAJ are employed to simulate the daily runoff in the Xijiang basin in South China, under historical (1964–2013 and future (2014–2099 climate conditions. The future climate series are downscaled from a global climate model (Beijing Climate Centre-Climate System Model, BCC-CSM version 1.1 by a high-resolution regional climate model under two representative concentration pathways—RCP4.5 and RCP8.5. The hydrological responses to climate change via the two rainfall–runoff models with different mathematical structures are compared, in relation to the uncertainties in hydrology and meteorology. It is found that the two rainfall–runoff models successfully simulate the historical runoff for the Xijiang basin, with a daily runoff Nash–Sutcliffe Efficiency of 0.80 for the LXH model and 0.89 for the XAJ model. The characteristics of high flow in the future are also analysed including their frequency (magnitude–return-period relationship. It shows that the distributed model could produce more streamflow and peak flow than the lumped model under the climate change scenarios. However the difference of the impact from the two climate scenarios is marginal on median monthly streamflow. The flood frequency analysis under climate change suggests that flood magnitudes in the future will be more severe than the historical floods with the same return period. Overall, the study reveals how uncertain it can be to quantify water resources with two different but well calibrated hydrological models.

  9. Evaluation on uncertainty sources in projecting hydrological changes over the Xijiang River basin in South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Fei; Zhao, Chongxu; Jiang, Yong; Ren, Liliang; Shan, Hongcui; Zhang, Limin; Zhu, Yonghua; Chen, Tao; Jiang, Shanhu; Yang, Xiaoli; Shen, Hongren

    2017-11-01

    Projections of hydrological changes are associated with large uncertainties from different sources, which should be quantified for an effective implementation of water management policies adaptive to future climate change. In this study, a modeling chain framework to project future hydrological changes and the associated uncertainties in the Xijiang River basin, South China, was established. The framework consists of three emission scenarios (ESs), four climate models (CMs), four statistical downscaling (SD) methods, four hydrological modeling (HM) schemes, and four probability distributions (PDs) for extreme flow frequency analyses. Direct variance method was adopted to analyze the manner by which uncertainty sources such as ES, CM, SD, and HM affect the estimates of future evapotranspiration (ET) and streamflow, and to quantify the uncertainties of PDs in future flood and drought risk assessment. Results show that ES is one of the least important uncertainty sources in most situations. CM, in general, is the dominant uncertainty source for the projections of monthly ET and monthly streamflow during most of the annual cycle, daily streamflow below the 99.6% quantile level, and extreme low flow. SD is the most predominant uncertainty source in the projections of extreme high flow, and has a considerable percentage of uncertainty contribution in monthly streamflow projections in July-September. The effects of SD in other cases are negligible. HM is a non-ignorable uncertainty source that has the potential to produce much larger uncertainties for the projections of low flow and ET in warm and wet seasons than for the projections of high flow. PD contributes a larger percentage of uncertainty in extreme flood projections than it does in extreme low flow estimates. Despite the large uncertainties in hydrological projections, this work found that future extreme low flow would undergo a considerable reduction, and a noticeable increase in drought risk in the Xijiang

  10. Groundwater Depletion in the West Liaohe River Basin, China and Its Implications Revealed by GRACE and In Situ Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulong Zhong

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The West Liaohe River Basin (WLRB is one of the most sensitive areas to climate change in China and an important grain production base in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of China. Groundwater depletion in this region is becoming a critical issue. Here, we used the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE satellite data and in situ well observations to estimate groundwater storage (GWS variations and discussed the driving factors of GWS changes in the WLRB. GRACE detects a GWS decline rate of −0.92 ± 0.49 km3/yr in the WLRB during 2005–2011, consistent with the estimate from in situ observations (−0.96 ± 0.19 km3/yr. This long-term GWS depletion is attributed to reduced precipitation and extensive groundwater overexploitation in the 2000s. Long-term groundwater level observations and reconstructed total water storage variations since 1980 show favorable agreement with precipitation anomalies at interannual timescales, both of which are significantly influenced by the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO. Generally, the WLRB receives more/less precipitation during the El Niño/La Niña periods. One of the strongest El Niño events on record in 1997–1998 and a subsequent strong La Niña drastically transform the climate of WLRB into a decade-long drought period, and accelerate the groundwater depletion in the WLRB after 1998. This study demonstrates the significance of integrating satellite observations, ground-based measurements, and climatological data for interpreting regional GWS changes from a long-term perspective.

  11. Carbon monoxide degassing from seismic fault zones in the Basin and Range province, west of Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yutao; Zhou, Xiaocheng; Zheng, Guodong; Li, Jing; Shi, Hongyu; Guo, Zhengfu; Du, Jianguo

    2017-11-01

    Degassing of carbon monoxide (CO), which plays a significant role in the contribution of deep carbon to the atmosphere, commonly occurs within active fault zones. CO degassing from soil to the atmosphere in the Basin and Range province, west of Beijing (BRPB), China, was investigated by in-situ field measurements in the active fault zones. The measured concentrations of CO in soil gas in the BRPB ranged from 0.29 × 10-6 to 1.1 × 10-6 with a mean value of 0.6 × 10-6, which is approximately twice as large as that in the atmosphere. Net fluxes of CO degassing ranged from -48.6 mg m-2 d-1 to 12.03 mg m-2 d-1. The diffusion of CO from soil to the atmosphere in the BRPB was estimated to be at least 7.6 × 103 ton/a, which is comparable to the corresponding result of about 1.2 × 104 ton/a for CO2. CO concentrations were spatially heterogeneous with clearly higher concentrations along the NE-SW trending in the BRPB. These elevated values of CO concentrations were also coincident with the region with low-velocity and high conductivity in deep mantle, and high Poisson's ratio in the crust, thereby suggesting that CO degassing from the soil might be linked to upwelling of the asthenospheric mantle. Other sources of CO in the soil gas are suggested to be dominated by chemical reactions between deep fluids and carbonate minerals (e.g., dolomite, limestone, and siderite) in country rocks. Biogenic processes may also contribute to the CO in soil gas. The spatial distribution patterns of CO concentrations are coincident with the stress field, suggesting that the concentrations of CO could be a potential indicator for crustal stress field and, hence is potential useful for earthquake monitoring in the BRPB.

  12. Surface Water Interim Measures/Interim Remedial Action Plan/Environmental Assessment and Decision Document, South Walnut Creek Basin, Operable Unit No. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Volume 2 of this IM/IRA Plan contains OU 2 surface water, sediment, ground water and soil chemistry data, as well as the South Walnut Creek Basin Surface Water IM/IRA schedule and a tabulation of ARARs. (FL)

  13. Extensional Tectonics and Sedimentary Architecture Using 3-D Seismic Data: An Example from Hydrocarbon-Bearing Mumbai Offshore Basin, West Coast of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, D. K.; Bhowmick, P. K.; Mishra, P.

    2016-12-01

    In offshore sedimentary basins, analysis of 3-D seismic data tied with well log data can be used to deduce robust isopach and structure contour maps of different stratigraphic formations. The isopach maps give depocenters whereas structure contour maps give structural relief at a specific time. Combination of these two types of data helps us decipher horst-graben structures, sedimentary basin architecture and tectono-stratigraphic relations through Tertiary time. Restoration of structural cross sections with back-stripping of successively older stratigraphic layers leads to better understand tectono-sedimentary evolution of a basin. The Mumbai (or Bombay) Offshore Basin is the largest basin off the west coast of India and includes Bombay High giant oil/gas field. Although this field was discovered in 1974 and still producing, the basin architecture vis-à-vis structural evolution are not well documented. We take the approach briefly outlined above to study in detail three large hydrocarbon-bearing structures located within the offshore basin. The Cretaceous Deccan basalt forms the basement and hosts prodigal thickness (> 8 km at some localities) of Tertiary sedimentary formations.A two stage deformation is envisaged. At the first stage horst and graben structures formed due to approximately E-W extensional tectonics. This is most spectacularly seen at the basement top level. The faults associated with this extension strike NNW. At the second stage of deformation a set of ENE-striking cross faults have developed leading to the formation of transpressional structures at places. High rate of early sedimentation obliterated horst-graben architecture to large extent. An interesting aspect emerges is that the all the large-scale structures have rather low structural relief. However, the areal extent of such structures are very large. Consequently, these structures hold commercial quantities of oil/gas.

  14. Depositional Record of the Bagua Basin, Northern Peru: Implications for Climate and Tectonic Evolution of Tropical South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, F.; George, S. W. M.; Williams, L. A.; Horton, B. K.; Garzione, C. N.

    2015-12-01

    The Andes Mountains exert critical controls on the climate, hydrology, and biodiversity of South America. The Bagua Basin, a low elevation (400-600 m) intermontane basin in northern Peru, offers a unique opportunity to study the ecological, climatic, and structural evolution of the western topographic boundary of the Amazonian foreland. Situated between the Marañon fold-thrust belt of the Western Cordillera and basement block uplifts of the Eastern Cordillera, the Bagua region contains a protracted, semi-continuous record of Triassic through Pleistocene sedimentation. Whereas Triassic-Cretaceous marine deposits were potentially related to extension and regional thermal subsidence, a Paleocene-Eocene shift to shallow marine and fluvial systems marks the onset of foreland basin conditions. Oligocene-Miocene sedimentation corresponds to a braided-meandering fluvial system with exceptional development of paleosols. In this study, we use new detrital zircon U-Pb geochronologic and oxygen stable isotopic datasets to establish a chronology of pre-Andean and Andean processes within the Bagua Basin. Detrital zircon geochronology provides constraints on when the Western and Eastern cordilleras shed sediments into the basin. Syndepositional zircons within Eocene, Oligocene and Miocene strata provide key age control for a previously poorly constrained depositional chronology. Preliminary results suggest a dramatic provenance shift in which Paleocene deposits contain almost exclusively cratonic populations (500-1600 Ma) whereas Eocene deposits show a mix of syndepositional zircons from the magmatic arc, recycled Mesozoic zircons, and cratonic zircon populations. Oxygen stable isotopes (δ18O) of carbonate nodules from Neogene paleosols will help elucidate when the Eastern Cordillera became an orographic barrier intercepting moisture from the Amazon basin to the east. Together, these records will help uncover the history of tectonics and climate interaction in tropical South

  15. Stream water quality in coal mined areas of the lower Cheat River Basin, West Virginia and Pennsylvania, during low-flow conditions, July 1997

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Donald R.; Clark, Mary E.; Brown, Juliane B.

    1999-01-01

    IntroductionThe Cheat River Basin is in the Allegheny Plateau and Allegheny Mountain Sections of the Appalachian Plateau Physiographic Province (Fenneman, 1946) and is almost entirely within the state of West Virginia. The Cheat River drains an area of 1,422 square miles in Randolph, Tucker, Preston, and Monongalia Counties in West Virginia and Fayette County in Pennsylvania. From its headwaters in Randolph County, W.Va., the Cheat River flows 157 miles north to the Pennsylvania state line, where it enters the Monongahela River. The Cheat River drainage comprises approximately 19 percent of the total Monongahela River Basin. The Cheat River and streams within the Cheat River Basin are characterized by steep gradients, rock channels, and high flow velocities that have created a thriving white-water rafting industry for the area. The headwaters of the Cheat River contain some of the most pristine and aesthetic streams in West Virginia. The attraction to the area, particularly the lower part of the Cheat River Basin (the lower 412 square miles of the basin), has been suppressed because of poor water quality. The economy of the Lower Cheat River Basin has been dominated by coal mining over many decades. As a result, many abandoned deep and surface mines discharge untreated acid mine drainage (AMD), which degrades water quality, into the Cheat River and many of its tributary streams. Approximately 60 regulated mine-related discharges (West Virginia Department of Environmental Protection, 1996) and 185 abandoned mine sites (U.S. Office of Surface Mining, 1998) discharge treated and untreated AMD into the Cheat River and its tributaries.The West Virginia Department of Environmental Protection (WVDEP) Office of Abandoned Mine Lands and Reclamation (AML&R) has recently completed several AMD reclamation projects throughout the Cheat River Basin that have collectively improved the mainstem water quality. The AML&R office is currently involved in acquiring grant funds and

  16. Constraining the sedimentology and stratigraphy of submarine intraslope lobe deposits using exhumed examples from the Karoo Basin, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Flint, Stephen; Hodgson, David; Spychala, Yvonne; Mountney, Nigel

    2017-01-01

    Intraslope lobe deposits provide a process record of the infill of accommodation on submarine slopes and their recognition enables the accurate reconstruction of the stratigraphic evolution of submarine slope systems. Extensive exposures of discrete sand-prone packages in Units D/E and E, Fort Brown Formation, Karoo Basin, South Africa, permit analysis of the sedimentology and stacking patterns of three intraslope lobe complexes and their palaeogeographic reconstruction via bed-scale analysis...

  17. Application of anatectic mineralization to prospecting in-situ leachable sandstone type uranium ore in South Songliao Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Zhonghua

    2001-01-01

    The deep ore-forming origin is a new theory for prospecting in-situ leachable sandstone type uranium. Tectonics, lithologic and geochemistry are basic forecasting criteria. Previous unconsolidated sand, source area and geochemical barrier are three essential conditions for forming uranium deposit. Metallogenic environment and prospective region are found. Tertiary system is prospective layer for prospecting in-situ leachable sandstone type uranium ore in south Songliao Basin

  18. Hydrological Modeling of Watersheds Using the Only Corresponding Competitor Method: The Case of M'Zab Basin, South East Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    Oulad Naoui Noureddine; Cherif ELAmine; Djehiche Abdelkader

    2017-01-01

    Water resources management includes several disciplines; the modeling of rainfall-runoff relationship is the most important discipline to prevent natural risks. There are several models to study rainfall-runoff relationship in watersheds. However, the majority of these models are not applicable in all basins of the world. In this study, a new stochastic method called The Only Corresponding Competitor method (OCC) was used for the hydrological modeling of M’ZAB Watershed (South East of Alge...

  19. Geologic Mapping of the Lunar South Pole, Quadrangle LQ-30: Volcanic History and Stratigraphy of Schroedinger Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mest, S. C.; Berman, D. C.; Petro, N. E.

    2009-01-01

    In this study we use recent images and topographic data to map the geology and geomorphology of the lunar South Pole quadrangle (LQ-30) at 1:2.5M scale [1-4] in accordance with the Lunar Geologic Mapping Program. Mapping of LQ-30 began during Mest's postdoctoral appointment and has continued under the PG&G Program, from which funding became available in February 2009. Preliminary map-ping and analyses have been done using base materials compiled by Mest, but properly mosaicked and spatially registered base materials are being compiled by the USGS and should be received by the end of June 2009. The overall objective of this research is to constrain the geologic evolution of the lunar South Pole (LQ-30: 60deg -90deg S, 0deg - +/-180deg ) with specific emphasis on evaluation of a) the regional effects of basin formation on the structure and composition of the crust and b) the spatial distribution of ejecta, in particular resulting from formation of the South Pole-Aitken (SPA) basin and other large basins. Key scientific objectives include: 1) Constraining the geologic history of the lunar South Pole and examining the spatial and temporal variability of geologic processes within the map area. 2) Constraining the vertical and lateral structure of the lunar regolith and crust, assessing the distribution of impact-generated materials, and determining the timing and effects of major basin-forming impacts on crustal structure and stratigraphy in the map area. And 3) assessing the distribution of resources (e.g., H, Fe, Th) and their relationships with surface materials.

  20. Pelagic communities of the South West Indian Ocean seamounts: R/V Dr Fridtjof Nansen Cruise 2009-410

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, A. D.; Alvheim, O.; Bemanaja, E.; Benivary, D.; Boersch-Supan, P.; Bornman, T. G.; Cedras, R.; Du Plessis, N.; Gotheil, S.; Høines, A.; Kemp, K.; Kristiansen, J.; Letessier, T.; Mangar, V.; Mazungula, N.; Mørk, T.; Pinet, P.; Pollard, R.; Read, J.; Sonnekus, T.

    2017-02-01

    The seamounts of the southern Indian Ocean remain some of the most poorly studied globally and yet have been subject to deep-sea fishing for decades and may face new exploitation through mining of seabed massive sulphides in the future. As an attempt to redress the knowledge deficit on deep-sea benthic and pelagic communities associated mainly with the seamounts of the South West Indian Ridge two cruises were undertaken to explore the pelagic and benthic ecology in 2009 and 2011 respectively. In this volume are presented studies on pelagic ecosystems around six seamounts, five on the South West Indian Ridge, including Atlantis Bank, Sapmer Seamount, Middle of What Seamount, Melville Bank and Coral Seamount and one un-named seamount on the Madagascar Ridge. In this paper, existing knowledge on the seamounts of the southwestern Indian Ocean is presented to provide context for the studies presented in this volume. An account of the overall aims, approaches and methods used primarily on the 2009 cruise are presented including metadata associated with sampling and some of the limitations of the study. Sampling during this cruise included physical oceanographic measurements, multibeam bathymetry, biological acoustics, and net sampling of phytoplankton, macrozooplankton and micronekton/nekton. The studies that follow reveal new data on the physical oceanography of this dynamic region of the oceans, and the important influence of water masses on the pelagic ecology associated with the seamounts of the South West Indian Ridge. New information on the pelagic fauna of the region fills an important biogeographic gap for the mid- to high-latitudes of the oceans of the southern hemisphere.

  1. Spatial and Temporal Variability of Rainfall over the South-West Coast of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Sarwar Hossain

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the spatial and temporal rainfall variability from the 1940s to 2007 in the south west coastal region of Bangladesh. Time series statistical tests were applied to examine the spatial and temporal trends in three time segments (1948–1970, 1971–1990 and 1991–2007 and four seasons (Pre-monsoon; Monsoon; Post-Monsoon and Winter, during the period 1948–2007. Eight weather stations were divided into two zones: exposed (exposed to sea and interior (distant to sea. Overall, rainfall increased during the period 1948–2007, while the trends intensified during post-1990s. Post-monsoon and winter rainfall was observed to follow significant positive trends at most weather stations during the time period 1948–2007. The rate of change was found in exposed zone and interior zone are +12.51 and +4.86 mm/year, respectively, over post monsoon and +0.9 and +1.86 mm/year, respectively, over winter. These trends intensified both in the exposed zone (+45.81 mm/year and the interior zone (+27.09 mm/year 1990 onwards. Winter rainfall does not exhibit significant change (p > 0.1 over the exterior or interior zone, though individual stations like Jessore, Satkhira and Bhola show significant negative trends after 1990s. Although the trends were observed to weaken in the monsoon and pre-monsoon seasons, they are not significant. Moreover, an 11-year cyclicity was found within these two seasons, whilst no cyclicity was observed in the post-monsoon and winter seasons. Sequential Mann Kendal test reveals that the changes in two zones rainfall trends are started around mid-80s, where step change found only for fours season in Khulna stations and also for winter seasons in all weather stations. These changes may have a detrimental effect on rain-fed agriculture in Bangladesh. The application of palaeo-environmental techniques, threshold determination and rainfall analysis across the whole country could be useful to support adaptation planning of

  2. Recovery from acidification of lochs in Galloway, south-west Scotland, UK: 1979-1998

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Ferrier

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The Galloway region of south-west Scotland has historically been subject to long-term deposition of acidic precipitation which has resulted in acidification of soils and surface waters and subsequent damage to aquatic ecology. Since the end of the 1970s, however, acidic deposition has decreased substantially. The general pattern is for a rapid decline in non-marine sulphate in rainwater over the period 1978-1988 followed by stable concentrations to the mid-1990s. Concentrations of nitrate and ammonium in deposition have remained constant between 1980 and 1998. Seven water quality surveys of 48 lochs in the Galloway region have been conducted between 1979 and 1998. During the first 10 years, from 1979, there was a major decline in regional sulphate concentrations in the lochs, which was expected to have produced a decline in base cations and an increase in the acid neutralising capacity. But sea-salt levels (as indicated by chloride concentrations were approximately 25% higher in 1988 than in 1979 and thus short-term acidification due to sea-salts offset much of the long-term recovery trend expected in the lochs. During the next 10 years, however, the chloride concentrations returned to 1979 levels and the lochs showed large increases in acid neutralising capacity despite little change in sulphate concentrations. From the observed decline in sulphate deposition and concentrations of sulphate in the lochs, it appears that approximately 75% of the possible improvement in acid neutralising capacity has already occurred over the 20-year period (1979-1998. The role of acid deposition as a driving factor for change in water chemistry in the Galloway lochs is confounded by concurrent changes in other driving variables, most notably, factors related to episodic and year-to-year variations in climate. In addition to inputs of sea-salts, climate probably also influences other chemical signals such as peaks in regional nitrate concentrations and the sharp

  3. NEON Collaborative Data Collection Campaign at Pacific South West Site in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampe, T. U.; Leisso, N.; Krause, K.; Musinsky, J.; Petroy, S. B.; Wasser, L. A.; Cawse-Nicholson, K.; van Aardt, J. A.; Schaaf, C.; Strahler, A. H.; Serbin, S. P.

    2013-12-01

    The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is a continental-scale observatory that will collect biological, chemical and geophysical data over the continental United States in order to study biodiversity, landcover change, climate change and invasive species. In June 2013, a large-scale data collection took place over NEON's Pacific South West (PSW) site 17 in CA, USA. Data were collected in the San Joaquin Experimental Range and the Sierra National Forest. NEON's AOP (Airborne Observation Platform) acquired high spatial resolution hyperspectral data (~1m pixels), waveform lidar, discrete lidar, and RGB imagery over all three sites. A field team simultaneously collected atmospheric and vegetation inventory data, including tree locations, height, diameter-at-breast-height (DBH), species, and spectral data. The NEON collect was centered within a collaboration of multiple research entities, including NASA, Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT), University of Massachusetts (Boston; UMB, and Lowell; UML), Boston University (BU), and the University of Wisconsin, Madison (UWM). NASA's AVIRIS and MASTER sensors were flown over a wider area encompassing the NEON sites, with AVIRIS acquiring hyperspectral data (224 bands) at approximately 30m spatial resolution, and MASTER acquiring multispectral thermal data (50 bands) at approximately 50m spatial resolution. These data will be downscaled to approximate theoretical HyspIRI data (60m spatial resolution) as part of a large collection of preparatory research. Concurrently, a variety of university teams were active in the field: RIT collected ground-based lidar, leaf area index (LAI), herbaceous biomass measurements, wide-angle photographs, and spectral measurements. Data were collected over 20 80x80m sites, centered on existing 20x20m NEON sites. This data set will be used to inform synthetic scene design and to study the impact of sub-pixel structural variation on pixel-level spectral response; The BU, UMB, and UML

  4. The new face of rheumatic heart disease in South West Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinwusi PO

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Patience Olayinka Akinwusi,1,2 Johnson Olarewaju Peter,2 Adebayo Tolulope Oyedeji,2 Abiona Oluwadamilola Odeyemi21Department of Medicine, College of Health Sciences, Osun State University, 2Department of Medicine, LAUTECH Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, Osun State, NigeriaPurpose: To determine the current prevalence of rheumatic heart disease (RHD, clinical features, types of valvular lesions, complications and mortality, at Ladoke Akintola University of Technology (LAUTECH Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, South West Nigeria.Methods: We conducted a retrospective, descriptive study of all the cases of RHD seen in the medical outpatient clinics and wards of LAUTECH for 9 years, from January 2003 to December 2011. Statistical analysis of data obtained was done using SPSS 16. Results: The total number of attendees of all the medical outpatient clinics during the 9-year period was 67,378, with a subset of 9423 attending the cardiology clinic. There were 11 cases of RHD, which translates to a prevalence of 0.16/1000 and 1.2/1000 for medical outpatient clinics and the cardiology clinic respectively. The mean age of the patients was 25.64 ± 9.65 years, age range 14–40 years and male to female ratio of 1:1.2. The most common valve affected was mitral (90.9%, followed by the aortic (36.4%, and the tricuspid (18.2%. Mitral and aortic lesions coexisted in 18.2% of the patients, and late presentation was common in all RHD cases. Heart failure was the most common complication (90.9%. Other complications were secondary pulmonary hypertension (36.4%, infective endocarditis (27.3%, atrial fibrillation (27.3%, cardioembolic cerebrovascular disease (18.2%, and atrial flutter (9.1%. Mortality was 9.1%, while only one patient (9.1% had definitive surgery. Financial constraints precluded others from having definitive surgery.Conclusion: The prevalence of RHD has declined considerably as a result of improvements in the primary health care delivery system, with widespread use

  5. Integrated risk mapping and landscape characterisation of lymphatic filariasis and loiasis in South West Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara A. Brant

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Nigeria has the heaviest burden of lymphatic filariasis (LF in sub-Saharan Africa, which is caused by the parasite Wuchereria bancrofti and transmitted by Anopheles mosquitoes. LF is targeted for elimination and the national programme is scaling up mass drug administration (MDA across the country to interrupt transmission. However, in some regions the co-endemicity of the filarial parasite Loa loa (loiasis is an impediment due to the risk of severe adverse events (SAEs associated with the drug ivermectin. To better understand factors influencing LF elimination in loiasis areas, this study conducted a cross-sectional survey on the prevalence and co-distribution of the two infections, and the potential demographic, landscape, human movement, and intervention-related risk factors at a micro-level in the South West zone of Nigeria. In total, 870 participants from 10 communities on the fringe of a meso-endemic loiasis area of Osun State were selected. LF prevalence was measured by clinical assessment and using the rapid immunochromatographic test (ICT to detect W. bancrofti antigen. Overall LF prevalence was low with ICT positivity ranging from 0 to 4.7%, with only 1 hydrocoele case identified. Males had significantly higher ICT positivity than females (3.2% vs 0.8%. Participants who did not sleep under a bed net had higher ICT positivity (4.0% than those who did (1.3%. ICT positivity was also higher in communities with less tree coverage/canopy height (2.5–2.8% than more forested areas with greater tree coverage/canopy height (0.9–1.0%. In comparison, loiasis was determined using the rapid assessment procedure for loiasis (RAPLOA, and found in all 10 communities with prevalence ranging from 1.4% to 11.2%. No significant difference was found by participants' age or sex. However, communities with predominately shrub land (10.4% or forested land cover (6.2% had higher prevalence than those with mosaic vegetation/croplands (2.5%. Satellite imagery

  6. African catfish Clarias gariepinus farming practices in North and South 24 Parganas districts of West Bengal, India

    OpenAIRE

    Thangapalam Jawahar Abraham; Prakash Kumar Mallick; Pradipta Paul

    2018-01-01

    Clarias gariepinus is widely cultured due to its tolerance to environmental extremes, high production and good feed conversion rate. This communication describes the farming practices of C. gariepinus in North and South 24 Parganas districts of West Bengal. Clarias gariepinus is cultured in ponds of 0.1–0.75 ha, where fingerlings were stocked at a density of 860–1150 cubic meter–1. The current practices of seed transportation were stressful to fish as the majority of the farmers noticed 5–10%...

  7. Outline of geophysical investigations on the great earthquake in the south-west Japan on Dec. 21, 1946

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Takeshi

    1947-01-01

    In in the early morning of Dec. 21, 1946, a great destructive earthquake occurred in southern-western Japan. According to the seismogram obtained in our university, the earthquake motion began at Tokyo from 4 h 20 m 10.4 s on Dec. 21, 1946. The maximum amplitude of NS, EW, and up-down components of the earthquake motion at Tokyo was 12.0 mm, 14.0 mm and 3.0 mm respectively, while the initial motion was composed of 80 μ south, 67 μ west and 20 μ down movements.

  8. EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS OF THE ENTREPRENEURIAL ENVIRONMENT AT REGIONAL LEVEL IN ROMANIA. CASE STUDY: THE REGION OF SOUTH-WEST OLTENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BĂLĂCESCU ANIELA

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study is a descriptive statistic of the regional entrepreneurial environment in Romania, focusing on South-West Oltenia, with the aim that surprised the level of entrepreneurship in this area. In this study we considered the demographic analysis of active enterprises at the 8 development regions of Romania, the survival rate of enterprises, the competitiveness, and profile of the entrepreneur. The period under review is 2008-2014, and the main sources of information were the databases of the National Institute of Statistics and the National Trade Register Office

  9. First record of Annonaceae wood for the Neogene of South America, Amazon Basin, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Alberto Amaral Soares

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The relief of the regions of Manaus and Itacoatiara, Central Amazon, is supported by Neogene siliciclastic rocks, bounded at the base and top by lateritic paleosols and covered by quaternary sedimentary deposits from the Solimões-Amazon river system. This unit is informally assigned to the Novo Remanso Formation, consists of usually reddish and ferruginized sandstones, conglomerates and pelites, with few identified fossil records, a fact that has hindered its stratigraphic position, and the paleoenvironmental reconstruction of the last phase of the Amazon Basin settling. This study describes, for the first time, the occurrence of fossil wood in outcroppings of the left bank of the Amazon River, where anatomical and morphological data has enabled its characterization to the species level. Thus, the data marks the record of the Annonaceae in South America, as well as the depositional processes related to incorporation of organic material in the sandy layer and the fossilization processes that allowed its preservation. In an unprecedented way, this study has described Duguetiaxylon amazonicum nov. gen and sp. and provided information on the anatomical and systematic character, as well as data on plant-insect interaction, and a better understanding of the family.

  10. Evidence of a therapsid scavenger in the Late Permian Karoo Basin, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Fordyce

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Dicynodonts are an extinct group of herbivorous non-mammalian therapsids (‘mammal-like’ reptiles that are widely known from terrestrial Permo-Triassic strata throughout Pangaea. Dicynodont fossil remains are common within the Late Permian Beaufort Group of the Karoo Basin in South Africa. A large, partially articulated dicynodont skeleton recovered from the TropidostomaAssemblage Zone is taphonomically important in having an unusual disarticulation pattern, bone surface punctures and a broken tooth of an unidentified carnivore associated with it. Here we report on the nature of the bone damage, and the identity of the carnivore that lost a canine tooth whilst scavenging the dicynodont carcass. The morphological characteristics of the serrations on the unidentified tooth were compared with those of contemporaneous carnivores, the gorgonopsians and therocephalians. Scanning electron microscopy analysis of a silicone cast of the unidentified tooth revealed distinctive 0.5-mm square-shaped serrations. Our comparative assessment of the tooth size, curvature, cross-sectional shape and morphology of the serrations revealed that the unidentified canine most closely matched Aelurognathus,a gorgonopsian known from the same assemblage zone.

  11. Sedimentology and palaeontology of upper Karoo aeolian strata (Early Jurassic) in the Tuli Basin, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordy, Emese M.; Catuneanu, Octavian

    2002-08-01

    The Karoo Supergroup in the Tuli Basin (South Africa) consists of a sedimentary sequence composed of four stratigraphic units, namely the Basal, Middle and Upper units, and Clarens Formation. The units were deposited in continental settings from approximately Late Carboniferous to Middle Jurassic. This paper focuses on the Clarens Formation, which was examined in terms of sedimentary facies and palaeo-environments based on evidence provided by primary sedimentary structures, palaeo-flow measurements and palaeontological findings. Two main facies associations have been identified: (i) massive and large-scale planar cross-bedded sandstones of aeolian origin; and (ii) horizontally and cross-stratified sandstones of fluvial origin. Most of the sandstone lithofacies of the Clarens Formation were generated as transverse aeolian dunes produced by northwesterly winds in a relatively wet erg milieu. Direct evidence of aquatic subenvironments comes from local small ephemeral stream deposits, whereas palaeontological data provide indirect evidence. Fossils of the Clarens Formation include petrified logs of Agathoxylon sp. wood type and several trace fossils which were produced by insects and vertebrates. The upper part of the Clarens Formation lacks both direct and indirect evidence of aquatic conditions, and this suggests aridification that led to the dominance of dry sand sea conditions.

  12. Characteristics and model of sandstone type uranium deposit in south of Songliao basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Wenbin; Yu Zhenqing

    2010-01-01

    Through analyzing the uranium deposit tectonic environment, upper cretaceous sequence stratigraphy, depositional system, evolutionary characteristics of sand bodies, the effect of subsequent transformation and the characteristic of uranium deposit, the sandstone type uranium deposit in southern basin is different from typical interlayer oxidation zone sandstone type uranium deposit. The formation and evolution of sandstone-type uranium deposit are controlled by structure fensters; the favorable sedimentary facies type is braided river facies, and the ore body is braided river sand body. The size of uranium deposits is controlled by the local oxidation zone with the characteristics of sandstone type uranium deposit in partial oxidation zone. Uranium ore bodies which distribute in the roof wings of structure fenstes, and occur in gray layers between the upper and lower oxidation zone, showing tabular, and the plate of uranium ore body is controlled by the local oxidation zone. Based on the geological features of sandstone-type uranium deposits, the metallogenic model of local oxidation zones sandstone-type uranium deposits has been set up in the south of Songliao Baisn. (authors)

  13. Two Late Pleistocene climate-driven incision/aggradation rhythms in the middle Dnieper River basin, west-central Russian Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panin, Andrei; Adamiec, Grzegorz; Buylaert, Jan-Pieter; Matlakhova, Ekaterina; Moska, Piotr; Novenko, Elena

    2017-06-01

    In valleys of the River Seim and its tributaries in the middle Dnieper basin (west-central Russian Plain), two low terraces (T1, 10-16 m, and T0, 5-7 m above the river) and a floodplain (2-4 m) with characteristic large and small palaeochannels exist. A range of field and laboratory techniques was applied and ∼30 new numerical ages (OSL and 14C dates) were obtained to establish a chronology of incision and aggradation events that resulted in the current valley morphology. Two full incision/aggradation rhythms and one additional aggradation phase from the previous rhythm were recognized in the Late Pleistocene - Holocene climate cycle. The following events were detected. (1) Late MIS 5 - early MIS 4: aggradation of Terrace T1 following the deep incision at the end of MIS 6. (2) Late MIS 4 (40-30 ka): incision into Terrace T1 below the present-day river, formation of the main scarp in the bottom of the valley between Terrace T1 and Terrace T0/Floodplain levels. (3) MIS 2: aggradation of Terrace T0, lateral migrations of a shallow braided channel located few meters above the present-day river since ∼25 ka through the LGM. (4) 18-13 ka: incision into Terrace T0 below the modern river. Multiple-thread channels concentrated in a single flow that at some places formed large meanders. In the period 15-13 ka, high floods that rose above the present-day floods left large levees and overbank loams on Terrace T0. (5) Younger Dryas - Holocene transition: aggradation up to the modern channel level, transformation of large Late Glacial to small Holocene meanders. The established incision/aggradation rhythms are believed to be manifested over the Central Russian Plain outside the influence of ice sheets in the north and base level changes in the south. The two-phase deepening of the valley occurred in the last quarter of the last glacial epoch but can not be attributed directly to the glacial-interglacial transition. Both the detected incision events correspond to relatively

  14. The Volta Basin Water Allocation System: assessing the impact of small-scale reservoir development on the water resources of the Volta basin, West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kasei

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available In the Volta Basin, infrastructure watershed development with respect to the impact of climate conditions is hotly debated due to the lack of adequate tools to model the consequences of such development. There is an ongoing debate on the impact of further development of small and medium scale reservoirs on the water level of Lake Volta, which is essential for hydropower generation at the Akosombo power plant. The GLOWA Volta Project (GVP has developed a Volta Basin Water Allocation System (VB-WAS, a decision support tool that allows assessing the impact of infrastructure development in the basin on the availability of current and future water resources, given the current or future climate conditions. The simulated historic and future discharge time series of the joint climate-hydrological modeling approach (MM5/WaSiM-ETH serve as input data for a river basin management model (MIKE BASIN. MIKE BASIN uses a network approach, and allows fast simulations of water allocation and of the consequences of different development scenarios on the available water resources. The impact of the expansion of small and medium scale reservoirs on the stored volume of Lake Volta has been quantified and assessed in comparison with the impact of climate variability on the water resources of the basin.

  15. Comparison of peak discharges among sites with and without valley fills for the July 8-9, 2001 flood in the headwaters of Clear Fork, Coal River basin, mountaintop coal-mining region, southern West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Jeffrey B.; Brogan, Freddie D.

    2003-01-01

    The effects of mountaintop-removal mining practices on the peak discharges of streams were investigated in six small drainage basins within a 7-square-mile area in southern West Virginia. Two of the small basins had reclaimed valley fills, one basin had reclaimed and unreclaimed valley fills, and three basins did not have valley fills. Indirect measurements of peak discharge for the flood of July 8-9, 2001, were made at six sites on streams draining the small basins. The sites without valley fills had peak discharges with 10- to 25-year recurrence intervals, indicating that rainfall intensities and totals varied among the study basins. The flood-recurrence intervals for the three basins with valley fills were determined as though the peak discharges were those from rural streams without the influence of valley fills, and ranged from less than 2 years to more than 100 years.

  16. Potential effects of energy development on environmental resources of the Williston Basin in Montana, North Dakota, and South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post van der Burg, Max; Vining, Kevin C.; Frankforter, Jill D.

    2017-09-28

    The Williston Basin, which includes parts of Montana, North Dakota, and South Dakota in the United States, has been a leading domestic oil and gas producing area. To better understand the potential effects of energy development on environmental resources in the Williston Basin, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Land Management, and in support of the needs identified by the Bakken Federal Executive Group (consisting of representatives from 13 Federal agencies and Tribal groups), began work to synthesize existing information on science topics to support management decisions related to energy development. This report is divided into four chapters (A–D). Chapter A provides an executive summary of the report and principal findings from chapters B–D. Chapter B provides a brief compilation of information regarding the history of energy development, physiography, climate, land use, demographics, and related studies in the Williston Basin. Chapter C synthesizes current information about water resources, identifies potential effects from energy development, and summarizes water resources research and information needs in the Williston Basin. Chapter D summarizes information about ecosystems, species of conservation concern, and potential effects to those species from energy development in the Williston Basin.

  17. Opening of stripe mine Oslomej - West as a contribution to exploitation of coal in Kichevo basin and extension of exploitation period of TPP 'Oslomej' (Macedonia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anastasovski, Vlade; Milevski, Trifun; Jolev, Slavcho; Panovski, Aleksandar

    1997-01-01

    Coal mining in the open mine 'Oslomej' in Macedonia has started 1980 and its regular coal production is 1,2 x 10 6 t per year. The whole coal produced in this mine is used for the Thermal Power Plant 'Oslomej', whose total installed capacity is 120 MW. Taking into consideration the planned exploitation dynamics, the coal reserves will meet the TPP needs for the next 4-5 years. In order to consolidate the coal reserves in the Kitchevo basin, a previous geologic examinations were carried out. In this paper economic, electro energetic and commercial justification of opening the stripe mine Oslomej - West is analysed

  18. Integrated numerical modeling for basin-wide water management: The case of the Rattlesnake Creek basin in south-central Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sophocleous, M.A.; Koelliker, J.K.; Govindaraju, R.S.; Birdie, T.; Ramireddygari, S.R.; Perkins, S.P.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this article is to develop and implement a comprehensive computer model that is capable of simulating the surface-water, ground-water, and stream-aquifer interactions on a continuous basis for the Rattlesnake Creek basin in south-central Kansas. The model is to be used as a tool for evaluating long-term water-management strategies. The agriculturally-based watershed model SWAT and the ground-water model MODFLOW with stream-aquifer interaction routines, suitably modified, were linked into a comprehensive basin model known as SWATMOD. The hydrologic response unit concept was implemented to overcome the quasi-lumped nature of SWAT and represent the heterogeneity within each subbasin of the basin model. A graphical user-interface and a decision support system were also developed to evaluate scenarios involving manipulation of water fights and agricultural land uses on stream-aquifer system response. An extensive sensitivity analysis on model parameters was conducted, and model limitations and parameter uncertainties were emphasized. A combination of trial-and-error and inverse modeling techniques were employed to calibrate the model against multiple calibration targets of measured ground-water levels, streamflows, and reported irrigation amounts. The split-sample technique was employed for corroborating the calibrated model. The model was run for a 40 y historical simulation period, and a 40 y prediction period. A number of hypothetical management scenarios involving reductions and variations in withdrawal rates and patterns were simulated. The SWATMOD model was developed as a hydrologically rational low-flow model for analyzing, in a user-friendly manner, the conditions in the basin when there is a shortage of water.

  19. Formation-evolution model of uranium-productive basin and its recognition criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zuyi; Li Ziying; Zhou Weixun; Guan Taiyang

    2004-11-01

    Based on geologic-tectonic setting and dynamic evolution of important U-productive basins both at home and abroad, authors distinguish six type of U-productive basins, and nominate each type by typical representative of this type, namely Chu-Sarysu and Syr-Darya type, Central Kyzylkum type, Zaural and West-Siberia type, Zabaikal type, Bohemia type, and South Texas type. The formation-evolution model of each type of U-productive basin has been established and recognition criteria have been proposed. Finially, the difference between each type U-productive basin is discussed and some assumption on prospecting for U-productive basins is proposed. (authors)

  20. Formation-evolution model of uranium-productive basin and its recognition criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuyi, Chen; Ziying, Li [Beijing Research Inst. of Uranium Geology, Beijing (China); Weixun, Zhou; Taiyang, Guan [East China Inst. of Technology, Fuzhou (China)

    2004-11-15

    Based on geologic-tectonic setting and dynamic evolution of important U-productive basins both at home and abroad, authors distinguish six type of U-productive basins, and nominate each type by typical representative of this type, namely Chu-Sarysu and Syr-Darya type, Central Kyzylkum type, Zaural and West-Siberia type, Zabaikal type, Bohemia type, and South Texas type. The formation-evolution model of each type of U-productive basin has been established and recognition criteria have been proposed. Finially, the difference between each type U-productive basin is discussed and some assumption on prospecting for U-productive basins is proposed. (authors)

  1. The Prevalence of Celiac Disease in Children with Unexplained Failure to Thrive in South West of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehri Taheri

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Celiac disease (CD, considered as a common chronic and genetic diseases that caused by hypersensitivity to gluten. Failure to thrive (FTT, is one of three major clinical features of CD during childhood. The current study aimed to determine the prevalence of celiac disease in children with unexplained FTT in South West of Iran. Materials and Methods  This cross‑sectional study was conducted on 433 children 9-month to 6 years old that diagnosed as unexplained FTT referred to Abuzar Children's Hospital, Ahvaz, South West of Iran, in 2014. In this study, we examined the serum levels of anti-transglutaminase antibody (anti-tTG in children with unexplained FTT. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 16.0 software. Results  The results showed that the prevalence of CD in children with unexplained FTT in was 8.8%. The mean scores of children's anti-tTG serum levels in both gender and age groups, showed no significant difference (P> 0.05. Conclusion  At current study, the prevalence of CD in children with FTT was 8.8%. Since the CD is an important cause of unexplained FTT in children, the early screening and diagnosis and dietary management can be decrease the risk for long-term complications in these children.

  2. In vitro anthelmintic activity of Heliotropium indicum, Senna fistula and Spigelia anthelmia used as worm expeller in South West Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwakemi K. Sobiyi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The anthelmintic potential of Heliotropium indicum, Senna fistula and Spigelia anthelmia were investigated using nematodes larvae from sheep and adult earthworms in order to justify the folkloric claim of the plants as worm expeller in south west of Nigeria. The acetone, ethanol, hydro-alcohol and distilled water extracts showed dose-dependent anthelmintic activities at the different concentrations (0.25, 0.50, 1.0 mg/ml when tested against nematodes larvae. The order of anthelmintic effect for the plants was H. indicum> S. fistula> S. anthelmia. Acetone and ethanol extracts of the three plants showed the most effective activity (100% mortality against adult earth worm (Pheretima posthuma after 30 min of exposure The reference standard drug (Vermox® showed less effectiveness compared to the medicinal plants used in the study. Overall, the study indicates that Heliotropium indicum, Senna fistula and Spigelia anthelmia are potential anthelmintic herbal drugs, which in turn validates the use of the three species as worm expellers by the Yorubas tribe of South West Nigeria.

  3. Object-based 3D geomodel with multiple constraints for early Pliocene fan delta in the south of Lake Albert Basin, Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xu; Lei, Fang; Xinye, Zhang; Pengfei, Wang; Xiaoli, Yang; Xipu, Yang; Jun, Liu

    2017-01-01

    The early Pliocene fan delta complex developed in the south of Lake Albert Basin which is located at the northern end of the western branch in the East African Rift System. The stratigraphy of this succession is composed of distributary channels, overbank, mouthbar and lacustrine shales. Limited by the poor seismic quality and few wells, it is full of challenge to delineate the distribution area and patterns of reservoir sands. Sedimentary forward simulation and basin analogue were applied to analyze the spatial distribution of facies configuration and then a conceptual sedimentary model was constructed by combining with core, heavy mineral and palynology evidences. A 3D geological model of a 120 m thick stratigraphic succession was built using well logs and seismic surfaces based on the established sedimentary model. The facies modeling followed a hierarchical object-based approach conditioned to multiple trend constraints like channel intensity, channel azimuth and channel width. Lacustrine shales were modeled as background facies and then in turn eroded by distribute channels, overbank and mouthbar respectively. At the same time a body facies parameter was created to indicate the connectivity of the reservoir sands. The resultant 3D facies distributions showed that the distributary channels flowed from east bounding fault to west flank and overbank was adhered to the fringe of channels while mouthbar located at the end of channels. Furthermore, porosity and permeability were modeled using sequential Gaussian simulation (SGS) honoring core observations and petrophysical interpretation results. Despite the poor seismic is not supported to give enough information for fan delta sand distribution, creating a truly representative 3D geomodel is still able to be achieved. This paper highlights the integration of various data and comprehensive steps of building a consistent representative 3D geocellular fan delta model used for numeral simulation studies and field

  4. Statistical summaries of water-quality data for selected streamflow-gaging stations in the Red River of the North basin, North Dakota, Minnesota, and South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macek-Rowland, Kathleen M.; Dressler, Valerie M.

    2002-01-01

    The quantity and quality of current and future water resources in the Red River of the North Basin in North Dakota, Minnesota, and South Dakota are concerns of people who reside within the basin. Additional water resources are needed because of recent growth in population, industry, and agriculture. How the management of current and future water-resources will impact water quality within the basin is a critical issue. Water-quality data, particularly for surface-water sources, will help water-resources managers make decisions about current and future water resources in the Red River of the North Basin. Statistical summaries of water-quality data for 43 streamflow-gaging stations in the Red River of the North Basin in North Dakota, Minnesota, and South Dakota are presented in this report. Statistical summaries include sample size, maximum, minimum, mean, and values for the 95th, 75th, 50th, 25th, and 5th percentiles.

  5. A revision of communication strategies for effective disaster risk reduction: A case study of the South Durban basin, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Skinner

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The study examined how effective forms of communication are, or could be, impacting themore traditional forms of emergency and disaster management communication throughthe print and electronic media and how an integrated communication strategy involving allstakeholders could prove to be successful. This study was of an exploratory and descriptivenature, using a case study of the South Durban basin to demonstrate how media analysis,community discussions and internal and external evaluations of current practices in use bymajor industrial players in the basin has thus far failed to reach its full potential for effectivedisaster risk reduction. Strongly emerging from this study was the finding that, as a resultof these evaluations, new systems are now being planned to incorporate social media as anintegral part of an overall communication strategy, which could have far-reaching implicationsfor corporate communicators and strategic planners.

  6. Geologic sources and concentrations of selenium in the West-Central Denver Basin, including the Toll Gate Creek watershed, Aurora, Colorado, 2003-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschke, Suzanne S.; Walton-Day, Katherine; Beck, Jennifer A.; Webbers, Ank; Dupree, Jean A.

    2014-01-01

    Toll Gate Creek, in the west-central part of the Denver Basin, is a perennial stream in which concentrations of dissolved selenium have consistently exceeded the Colorado aquatic-life standard of 4.6 micrograms per liter. Recent studies of selenium in Toll Gate Creek identified the Denver lignite zone of the non-marine Cretaceous to Tertiary-aged (Paleocene) Denver Formation underlying the watershed as the geologic source of dissolved selenium to shallow ground-water and surface water. Previous work led to this study by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the City of Aurora Utilities Department, which investigated geologic sources of selenium and selenium concentrations in the watershed. This report documents the occurrence of selenium-bearing rocks and groundwater within the Cretaceous- to Tertiary-aged Denver Formation in the west-central part of the Denver Basin, including the Toll Gate Creek watershed. The report presents background information on geochemical processes controlling selenium concentrations in the aquatic environment and possible geologic sources of selenium; the hydrogeologic setting of the watershed; selenium results from groundwater-sampling programs; and chemical analyses of solids samples as evidence that weathering of the Denver Formation is a geologic source of selenium to groundwater and surface water in the west-central part of the Denver Basin, including Toll Gate Creek. Analyses of water samples collected from 61 water-table wells in 2003 and from 19 water-table wells in 2007 indicate dissolved selenium concentrations in groundwater in the west-central Denver Basin frequently exceeded the Colorado aquatic-life standard and in some locations exceeded the primary drinking-water standard of 50 micrograms per liter. The greatest selenium concentrations were associated with oxidized groundwater samples from wells completed in bedrock materials. Selenium analysis of geologic core samples indicates that total selenium

  7. Generation of deterministic tsunami hazard maps in the Bay of Cadiz, south-west Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Gómez, J. A.; Otero, L.; Olabarrieta, M.; González, M.; Carreño, E.; Baptista, M. A.; Miranda, J. M.; Medina, R.; Lima, V.

    2009-04-01

    The bay of Cádiz is a densely populated and industrialized area, and an important centre of tourism which multiplies its population in the summer months. This bay is situated in the Gulf of Cádiz, the south-west Atlantic margin of the Iberian Peninsula. From a tectonic point of view this area can be defined as a diffuse plate boundary, comprising the eastern edge of the Gloria and Tydeman transforms (where the deformation is mainly concentrated in these shear corridors), the Gorringe Bank, the Horseshoe Abyssal plain, the Portimao and Guadalquivir banks, and the western termination of the arcuated Gibraltar Arc. This deformation zone is the eastern edge of the Azores - Gibraltar seismic zone, being the present day boundary between the Eurasian and African plates. The motion between the plates is mainly convergent in the Gulf of Cádiz, but gradually changes to almost pure transcurrent along the Gloria Fault. The relative motion between the two plates is of the order of 4-5 mm/yr. In order to define the different tsunamigenic zones and to characterize its worst tsunamigenic source we have used seismic, structural and geological data. The numerical model used to simulate the wave propagation and coastal inundation is the C3 (Cantabria, COMCOT and Tsunami-Claw) model. C3 is a hybrid finite difference-finite volume method which balances between efficiency and accuracy. For offshore domain in deep waters the model applies an explicit finite difference scheme (FD), which is computationally fast and accurate in large grids. For near coast domains in coastal areas, it applies a finite volume scheme (VOF). It solves correctly the bore formation and the bore propagation. It is very effective solving the run-up and the run down. A set of five worst case tsunamigenic sources has been used with four different sea levels (minimum tide, most probable low tide, most probable high tide and maximum tide), in order to produce the following thematic maps with the C3 model: maximum

  8. Evaluation of baseline ground-water conditions in the Mosteiros, Ribeira Paul, and Ribeira Fajã Basins, Republic of Cape Verde, West Africa, 2005-06

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilweil, Victor M.; Earle, John D.; Cederberg, Jay R.; Messer, Mickey M.; Jorgensen, Brent E.; Verstraeten, Ingrid M.; Moura, Miguel A.; Querido, Arrigo; Spencer,; Osorio, Tatiana

    2006-01-01

    This report documents current (2005-06) baseline ground-water conditions in three basins within the West African Republic of Cape Verde (Mosteiros on Fogo, Ribeira Paul on Santo Antão, and Ribeira Fajã on São Nicolau) based on existing data and additional data collected during this study. Ground-water conditions (indicators) include ground-water levels, ground-water recharge altitude, ground-water discharge amounts, ground-water age (residence time), and ground-water quality. These indicators are needed to evaluate (1) long-term changes in ground-water resources or water quality caused by planned ground-water development associated with agricultural projects in these basins, and (2) the feasibility of artificial recharge as a mitigation strategy to offset the potentially declining water levels associated with increased ground-water development.Ground-water levels in all three basins vary from less than a few meters to more than 170 meters below land surface. Continuous recorder and electric tape measurements at three monitoring wells (one per basin) showed variations between August 2005 and June 2006 of as much as 1.8 meters. Few historical water-level data were available for the Mosteiros or Ribeira Paul Basins. Historical records from Ribeira Fajã indicate very large ground-water declines during the 1980s and early 1990s, associated with dewatering of the Galleria Fajã tunnel. More-recent data indicate that ground-water levels in Ribeira Fajã have reached a new equilibrium, remaining fairly constant since the late 1990s.Because of the scarcity of observation wells within each basin, water-level data were combined with other techniques to evaluate ground-water conditions. These techniques include the quantification of ground-water discharge (well withdrawals, spring discharge, seepage to springs, and gallery drainage), field water-quality measurements, and the use of environmental tracers to evaluate sources of aquifer recharge, flow paths, and ground

  9. Postbreeding resource selection by adult black-footed ferrets in the Conata Basin, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eads, D.A.; Millspaugh, J.J.; Biggins, D.E.; Livieri, T.M.; Jachowski, D.S.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated postbreeding resource selection by adult black-footed ferrets (Mustela nigripes) on a 452-ha black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) colony in the Conata Basin of South Dakota during 20072008. We used resource selection functions (RSFs) to evaluate relationships between numbers of ferret locations and numbers of prairie dog burrow openings (total or active), distances to colony edges, and connectivity of patches of burrow openings. In both years ferrets selected areas near edges of the prairie dog colony where active burrow openings were abundant. In the interior of the colony ferrets selected areas with low abundance of active burrow openings. At times, prairie dog productivity (i.e., pup abundance) might be greatest at colony edges often characterized by grasses; ferrets are likely to select areas where refuge and vulnerable prey are abundant. Ferrets could have used interior areas with few active burrow openings as corridors between edge areas with many active burrow openings. Also, in areas with few active burrow openings ferrets spend more time aboveground during movements and, thus, are likely to be more easily detected. These results complement previous studies demonstrating importance of refuge and prey in fine-scale resource selection by ferrets and provide insight into factors that might influence edge effects on ferret space use. Conservation and restoration of colonies with areas with high densities of burrow openings and prairie dogs, and corridors between such areas, are needed for continued recovery of the black-footed ferret. RSFs could complement coarse-scale habitat evaluations by providing finer-scale assessments of habitat for the black-footed ferret. ?? 2011 American Society of Mammalogists.

  10. Himalayan tectonic evolution and uranium ore formation, south of Songliao basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Wanwen; Wang Liming; Tian Li

    2008-01-01

    Based on the analysis of stress field and geomorphic environment of Songliao Basin during Himalayan Movement, it is presented that Himalayan Movement supplied favorite structural and geomorphic conditions with Eocene and Pliocene being metallogenic epoch for sandstone-type uranium in Songliao Basin. Degradation inliers at the southern margin of Songliao Basin, where structure and mineralization developed well, are the target area for in-situ sandstone type uranium. (authors)

  11. Soil erodibility mapping using the RUSLE model to prioritize erosion control in the Wadi Sahouat basin, North-West of Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toubal, Abderrezak Kamel; Achite, Mohammed; Ouillon, Sylvain; Dehni, Abdelatif

    2018-03-12

    Soil losses must be quantified over watersheds in order to set up protection measures against erosion. The main objective of this paper is to quantify and to map soil losses in the Wadi Sahouat basin (2140 km 2 ) in the north-west of Algeria, using the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) model assisted by a Geographic Information System (GIS) and remote sensing. The Model Builder of the GIS allowed the automation of the different operations for establishing thematic layers of the model parameters: the erosivity factor (R), the erodibility factor (K), the topographic factor (LS), the crop management factor (C), and the conservation support practice factor (P). The average annual soil loss rate in the Wadi Sahouat basin ranges from 0 to 255 t ha -1  year -1 , maximum values being observed over steep slopes of more than 25% and between 600 and 1000 m elevations. 3.4% of the basin is classified as highly susceptible to erosion, 4.9% with a medium risk, and 91.6% at a low risk. Google Earth reveals a clear conformity with the degree of zones to erosion sensitivity. Based on the soil loss map, 32 sub-basins were classified into three categories by priority of intervention: high, moderate, and low. This priority is available to sustain a management plan against sediment filling of the Ouizert dam at the basin outlet. The method enhancing the RUSLE model and confrontation with Google Earth can be easily adapted to other watersheds.

  12. East-West, Collectivist-Individualist: A Cross-Cultural Examination of Temperament in Toddlers from Chile, Poland, South Korea, and the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krassner, Ariye M; Gartstein, Maria A; Park, Curie; Dragan, Wojciech Ł; Lecannelier, Felipe; Putnam, Samuel P

    2017-01-01

    The present study examined toddler temperament across Chilean, South Korean, Polish, and US samples, providing an opportunity to examine both collectivist-individualist and East-West contrasts. The effect of culture on the three factor and 18 dimension scores provided by the Early Childhood Behavior Questionnaire were investigated. Results provide evidence of cross-cultural differences between the four samples. Chilean toddlers scored significantly higher than US, Polish, and South Korean children on the overall factor of Negative Affectivity, as well as higher than the Polish and South Korean samples on the Surgency factor. South Korean toddlers scored significantly higher on the factor of Effortful Control, and two related dimensions, than US, Polish, or Chilean samples. Results are discussed in terms of the apparent roles of individualism/collectivism and East-West distinctions in shaping temperament development.

  13. East-West, Collectivist-Individualist: A Cross-Cultural Examination of Temperament in Toddlers from Chile, Poland, South Korea, and the U.S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krassner, Ariye M.; Gartstein, Maria A.; Park, Curie; Dragan, Wojciech Ł.; Lecannelier, Felipe; Putnam, Samuel P.

    2017-01-01

    The present study examined toddler temperament across Chilean, South Korean, Polish, and US samples, providing an opportunity to examine both collectivist-individualist and East-West contrasts. The effect of culture on the three factor and 18 dimension scores provided by the Early Childhood Behavior Questionnaire were investigated. Results provide evidence of cross-cultural differences between the four samples. Chilean toddlers scored significantly higher than US, Polish, and South Korean children on the overall factor of Negative Affectivity, as well as higher than the Polish and South Korean samples on the Surgency factor. South Korean toddlers scored significantly higher on the factor of Effortful Control, and two related dimensions, than US, Polish, or Chilean samples. Results are discussed in terms of the apparent roles of individualism/collectivism and East-West distinctions in shaping temperament development. PMID:29333175

  14. U, Th and K contents and metamorphism of Archaean rocks from South-West Greenland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalsbeek, F.

    1974-01-01

    Granulite facies rocks, from the Nordland area, West Greenland, contain six times less U than the amphibolite facies rocks of the Frederikshaab area, and half of the amount of K. The rocks of the Frederikshaab area did not form by retrogression of granulite facies rocks. This study is based on analyses of sand samples which adequately represent the inhomogeneous bed rock. (author)

  15. Fog-water harvesting along the West Coast of South Africa: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drinie

    2002-10-04

    Oct 4, 2002 ... in rural areas and the expected boom in West Coast tourism, it is evident that ... systems have been erected in the Canary Islands, Peru, Ecuador and the Sultanate of .... As is the case in the Namib (Olivier, 1992, 1995), high.

  16. Variability in warm-season atmospheric circulation and precipitation patterns over subtropical South America: relationships between the South Atlantic convergence zone and large-scale organized convection over the La Plata basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattingly, Kyle S.; Mote, Thomas L.

    2017-01-01

    Warm-season precipitation variability over subtropical South America is characterized by an inverse relationship between the South Atlantic convergence zone (SACZ) and precipitation over the central and western La Plata basin of southeastern South America. This study extends the analysis of this "South American Seesaw" precipitation dipole to relationships between the SACZ and large, long-lived mesoscale convective systems (LLCSs) over the La Plata basin. By classifying SACZ events into distinct continental and oceanic categories and building a logistic regression model that relates LLCS activity across the region to continental and oceanic SACZ precipitation, a detailed account of spatial variability in the out-of-phase coupling between the SACZ and large-scale organized convection over the La Plata basin is provided. Enhanced precipitation in the continental SACZ is found to result in increased LLCS activity over northern, northeastern, and western sections of the La Plata basin, in association with poleward atmospheric moisture flux from the Amazon basin toward these regions, and a decrease in the probability of LLCS occurrence over the southeastern La Plata basin. Increased oceanic SACZ precipitation, however, was strongly related to reduced atmospheric moisture and decreased probability of LLCS occurrence over nearly the entire La Plata basin. These results suggest that continental SACZ activity and large-scale organized convection over the northern and eastern sections of the La Plata basin are closely tied to atmospheric moisture transport from the Amazon basin, while the warm coastal Brazil Current may also play an important role as an evaporative moisture source for LLCSs over the central and western La Plata basin.

  17. Recent discovery of handaxes associated with tektites in the Nanbanshan locality of the Darnel site, Bose basin, Guangxi, South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wei; MO JinYou; HUANG ZhiTao

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports the recent discovery of 176 stone artifacts, including two handaxes (bifacial large cutting tools), which are preserved in the laterized sediments of terrace 4 of the Youjiang River at the Nanbanshan locality of the Damei site in the Bose basin, south China. Their characteristics are similar to Paleolithic stone artifacts discovered from other sites in this basin. The handaxes, picks and other stone artifacts are associated with 155 tektite pieces found in the same horizontal layer. These fresh, unabraded and sharp-edged tektites were buried immediately after the airfall event. This provides fur-ther evidence that the Bose stone artifacts and the tektites were deposited simultaneously around 0.8 Ma. More stone artifacts were also unearthed above the tektite layer, indicating that early humans in the area survived the event.

  18. Surface circulation over the shelf off the east coast of India during the south west monsoon

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gopalakrishna, V.V.; Sastry, J.S.

    upwelling in the southern regions off the East Coast of India. Vertical temperature and salinity structures north of Visakhapatnam show a predominant estuarine character and upwelling is not evident. In the northern regions, the flow is directed south...

  19. maqualand coast on the west coast of South Africa, which covered a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    , Rondebosch 7701, South ... The selection was designed to ensure ... monitoring event, the primary space covered by sessile ...... the size of sexual maturity, rendering the mussel bed ..... spatial patterns of distribution of intertidal invertebrates.

  20. November 2007 Multibeam Mapping of South West corner of Pulley Ridge

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This disk or set of disks contain high-resolution multibeam and backscatter maps of the south-western corner of the Pulley Ridge Area, near the Tortugas, in the Gulf...

  1. Modelling the effects of climate and land cover change on groundwater recharge in south-west Western Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Dawes

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The groundwater resource contained within the sandy aquifers of the Swan Coastal Plain, south-west Western Australia, provides approximately 60 percent of the drinking water for the metropolitan population of Perth. Rainfall decline over the past three decades coupled with increasing water demand from a growing population has resulted in falling dam storage and groundwater levels. Projected future changes in climate across south-west Western Australia consistently show a decline in annual rainfall of between 5 and 15 percent. There is expected to be a reduction of diffuse recharge across the Swan Coastal Plain. This study aims to quantify the change in groundwater recharge in response to a range of future climate and land cover patterns across south-west Western Australia.

    Modelling the impact on the groundwater resource of potential climate change was achieved with a dynamically linked unsaturated/saturated groundwater model. A vertical flux manager was used in the unsaturated zone to estimate groundwater recharge using a variety of simple and complex models based on climate, land cover type (e.g. native trees, plantation, cropping, urban, wetland, soil type, and taking into account the groundwater depth.

    In the area centred on the city of Perth, Western Australia, the patterns of recharge change and groundwater level change are not consistent spatially, or consistently downward. In areas with land-use change, recharge rates have increased. Where rainfall has declined sufficiently, recharge rates are decreasing, and where compensating factors combine, there is little change to recharge. In the southwestern part of the study area, the patterns of groundwater recharge are dictated primarily by soil, geology and land cover. In the sand-dominated areas, there is little response to future climate change, because groundwater levels are shallow and much rainfall is rejected recharge. Where the combination of native vegetation and

  2. Early diagenetic processes in sediments of the Angola Basin, eastern South Atlantic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pruysers, Peter A.

    1998-01-01

    In this thesis early diagenetic processes in Angola Basin sediments are studied. The sediments discussed were recovered during the 1989 Angola Basin Cruise with the RIV Tyro. Pore water samples of box cores 8, 12, 17, 19,28, and 42 and of piston cores 17, 19, and 28 are presented. In addition, the

  3. Assessing Hydrologic Impacts of Future Land Cover Change Scenarios in the South Platte River Basin (CO, WY, & NE) and the San Pedro River Basin (U.S./Mexico).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, J. E.; Burns, I. S.; Guertin, D. P.; Kepner, W. G.; Goodrich, D. C.

    2016-12-01

    Long-term land-use and land cover change and their associated impacts pose critical challenges to sustaining vital hydrological ecosystem services for future generations. In this study, a methodology to characterize hydrologic impacts from future urban growth through time that was developed and applied on the San Pedro River Basin was expanded and utilized on the South Platte River Basin as well. Future urban growth is represented by housing density maps generated in decadal intervals from 2010 to 2100, produced by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Integrated Climate and Land-Use Scenarios (ICLUS) project. ICLUS developed future housing density maps by adapting the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) social, economic, and demographic storylines to the conterminous United States. To characterize hydrologic impacts from future growth, the housing density maps were reclassified to National Land Cover Database (NLCD) 2006 land cover classes and used to parameterize the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) using the Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment (AGWA) tool. The objectives of this project were to 1) develop and implement a methodology for adapting the ICLUS data for use in AGWA as an approach to evaluate impacts of development on water-quantity and -quality, 2) present, evaluate, and compare results from scenarios for watersheds in two different geographic and climatic regions, 3) determine watershed specific implications of this type of future land cover change analysis.

  4. Geometry and kinematics of Majiatan Fold-and-thrust Belt, Western Ordos Basin: implication for Tectonic Evolution of North-South Tectonic Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, D.

    2017-12-01

    The Helan-Chuandian North-South Tectonic Belt crossed the central Chinese mainland. It is a boundary of geological, geophysical, and geographic system of Chinese continent tectonics from shallow to deep, and a key zone for tectonic and geomorphologic inversion during Mesozoic to Cenozoic. It is superimposed by the southeastward and northeastward propagation of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in late Cenozoic. It is thus the critical division for West and East China since Mesozoic. The Majiatan fold-and-thrust belt (MFTB), locating at the central part of HCNSTB and the western margin of Ordos Basin, is formed by the tectonic evolution of the Helan-Liupanshan Mountains. Based on the newly-acquired high-resolution seismic profiles, deep boreholes, and surface geology, the paper discusses the geometry, kinematics, and geodynamic evolution of MFTB. With the Upper Carboniferous coal measures and the pre-Sinian ductile zone as the detachments, MFTB is a multi-level detached thrust system. The thrusting was mainly during latest Jurassic to Late Cretaceous, breaking-forward in the foreland, and resulting in a shortening rate of 25-29%. By structural restoration, this area underwent extension in Middle Proterozoic to Paleozoic, which can be divided into three phases of rifting such as Middle to Late Proterozoic, Cambiran to Ordovician, and Caboniferous to early Permian. It underwent compression since Late Triassic, including such periods as Latest Triassic, Late Jurassic to early Cretaceous, Late Cretaceous to early Paleogene, and Pliocene to Quaternary, with the largest shortening around Late Jurassic to early Cretaceous period (i.e. the mid-Yanshanian movement by the local name). However, trans-extension since Eocene around the Ordos Basin got rise to the formation the Yingchuan, Hetao, and Weihe grabens. It is concluded that MFTB is the leading edge of the intra-continental Helan orogenic belt, and formed by multi-phase breaking-forward thrusting during Late Jurassic to Cretaceous

  5. Application of advanced reservoir characterization, simulation, and production optimization strategies to maximize recovery in slope and basin clastic reservoirs, west Texas (Delaware Basin). Annual progress report, March 31, 1995--March 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutton, S.P.; Hovorka, S.D.; Cole, A.G.

    1996-08-01

    The objective of this Class III project is to demonstrate that detailed reservoir characterization of clastic reservoirs in basinal sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico is a cost-effective way to recover more of the original oil in place by strategic infill-well placement and geologically based field development. Reservoirs in the Delaware Mountain Group have low producibility (average recovery <14 percent of the original oil in place) because of a high degree of vertical and lateral heterogeneity caused by depositional processes and post-depositional diagenetic modification. Detailed correlations of the Ramsey sandstone reservoirs in Geraldine Ford field suggest that lateral sandstone continuity is less than interpreted by previous studies. The degree of lateral heterogeneity in the reservoir sandstones suggests that they were deposited by eolian-derived turbidites. According to the eolian-derived turbidite model, sand dunes migrated across the exposed shelf to the shelf break during sea-level lowstands and provided well sorted sand for turbidity currents or grain flows into the deep basin.

  6. Chlorine-36 measurements in the Murray Basin; preliminary results from the Victorian and South Australian Mallee region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davie, R.F.; Calf, G.E.; Bird, J.R.; Topham, S.; Kellett, J.R.; Evans, W.R.; Fifield, L.K.; Ophel, T.R.

    1989-01-01

    Chlorine-36 analyses of groundwater samples from 18 wells in the Victorian and South Australian Mallee region of the Murray Basin have been carried out using the technique of accelerator mass spectrometry. Results of these analyses are discussed and presented as evidence for significant recharge from rainfall over much of the study area to the underlying Murray Group limestone aquifer. In addition, results indicate areas where further 36 Cl measurements of Murray Mallee groundwater would provide useful hydrological information on both recharge and discharge mechanisms. 34 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs

  7. Stable isotope distribution in continental Maastrichtian vertebrates from the Haţeg Basin, South Carpathians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojar, Ana-Voica; Csiki, Zoltan; Grigorescu, Dan

    2010-05-01

    The oxygen isotopic compositions of biogenic apatite from crocodiles, turtles and dinosaurs, and their relationship to climate and physiology have been evidenced by several studies (Barrick and Showers, 1995; Kolodny et al., 1996; Barrick et al., 1999; Fricke and Rogers, 2000; Stoskopf et al., 2001; Straight et al., 2004; Amiot et al., 2007). To date, few attempts have been made to correlate the enamel d13C to dietary resources of dinosaurs (Bocherens et al., 1988; Stanton Thomas and Carlson, 2004; Fricke and Pearson, 2008; Fricke, et al., 2008). One additional complication is that for dinosaurs, the d18O of enamel phosphate depends on both body water and variations in body temperature. Several studies addressed the issue of endothermy vs. ectothermy of fossil vertebrates by studying inter- and intra-bone and enamel isotopic variability (Barrick and Showers, 1994, 1995; Barrick et al., 1996; 1998; Fricke and Rogers, 2000). More recent investigations provided evidence for inter-tooth temporal variations and related them to seasonality and/or changes in physiology (Straight et al., 2004; Stanton Thomas and Carlson, 2004). The main objectives of this study are to extract palaeoclimatic information considering, beside lithofacial characteristics and the isotopic distribution of carbonates formed in paleosols, the stable isotope composition of vertebrate remains from the Haţeg Basin. We also sampled several teeth along their growth axis in order to get further information about growth rates and the amplitude of isotopic variation. Located in the South Carpathians in Romania, the Haţeg Basin contains a thick sequence of Maastrichtian continental deposits yielding a rich dinosaur and mammalian fauna. Stable isotope analyses of both calcretes and dinosaur, crocodilian and turtle remains from two localities (Tuştea and Sibişel) were integrated in order to reconstruct environmental conditions during the Maastrichtian time and to gain further insights into the metabolism

  8. HTLV-I infection in the South West Indian Ocean islands, particularly in La Réunion and the Seychelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubry, P; Bovet, P; Vitrac, D; Schooneman, F; Hollanda, J; Malvy, D; Gaüzère, B-A

    2013-10-01

    Data on HTLV-I are scarce in several Southwest Indian Ocean islands except for La Réunion and The Seychelles. The two cases of HTLV-I have been confirmed by Western-Blot in La Réunion, among blood donors. In Seychelles (87 400 inhabitants in 2012), where blood donors and some other cases are screened, HTLV-I was confirmed with a line immune assay in 43 persons and at least 10-20 patients are known to have tropical spastic paraparesia or adult T-cell lymphoma associated with HTLV-I. In the south-west Indian Ocean, a possibly important other issue may be co-infection of HTLV-1 with the Strongyloides stercoralis roundworm, which is endemic in all countries of the region and which can sometimes lead to severe symptomatic infestation.

  9. Food habits of fishes on an exposed sandy beach at Fukiagehama, South-West Kyushu Island, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakane, Yukinori; Suda, Yusuke; Sano, Mitsuhiko

    2011-06-01

    To clarify the feeding habits and major food sources of sandy beach fishes, the gut contents of 55 fish species collected on a sandy beach at Fukiagehama, South-West Kyushu Island, Japan, were examined. Ontogenetic changes in food preference were recognized in nine species ( Hypoatherina valenciennei, Lateolabrax japonicus, Trachurus japonicus, Sillago japonica, Sphyraena japonica, Paralichthys olivaceus, Heteromycteris japonica, Paraplagusia japonica, and Takifugu niphobles). A cluster analysis based on dietary overlaps showed that the sandy beach fish assemblage comprised six trophic groups (mysid, amphipod, zooplankton, juvenile fish, terrestrial insect, and mollusk feeders). Of these, the first three groups were the most abundantly represented, whereas the last two were represented by only a single species. These results indicated that epibenthic macrofauna, such as mysids and gammaridean amphipods, and zooplankton, were important food resources for the fish assemblage at the study site, but infaunal macrobenthos, such as polychaetes and bivalves, being relatively unimportant.

  10. Ectoparasites of dogs belonging to people in resource-poor communities in North West Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.R. Bryson

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available A total of 344 dogs belonging to people in resource-poor communities in North West Province, South Africa, was examined for ectoparasites, and all visible arthropods were collected from the left side of each dog. By doubling these numbers it was estimated that the dogs harboured 14 724 ixodid ticks, belonging to 6 species, 1028 fleas, belonging to 2 species, and 26 lice. Haemaphysalis leachi accounted for 420 and Rhipicephalus sanguineus for 14 226 of the ticks. Pure infestations of H. leachi were present on 14 dogs and of R. sanguineus on 172 dogs. Small numbers of Amblyomma hebraeum, R. appendiculatus, R. evertsi evertsi and R. simus were also collected. The predominance of R. sanguineus accounts for the high prevalence of canine ehrlichiosis (Ehrlichia canis within the survey region, compared to canine babesiosis (Babesia canis, which is transmitted by H. leachi, and is a much rarer disease.

  11. Applications of biological tools or biomarkers in aquatic biota: A case study of the Tamar estuary, South West England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallas, Lorna J; Jha, Awadhesh N

    2015-06-30

    Biological systems are the ultimate recipients of pollutant-induced damage. Consequently, our traditional reliance on analytical tools is not enough to assess ecosystem health. Biological responses or biomarkers are therefore also considered to be important tools for environmental hazard and risk assessments. Due to historical mining, other anthropogenic activities, and its conservational importance (e.g. NATURA sites, SACs), the Tamar estuary in South West England is an ideal environment in which to examine applications of such biological tools. This review presents a thorough and critical evaluation of the different biological tools used in the Tamar estuary thus far, while also discussing future perspectives for biomarker studies from a global perspective. In particular, we focus on the challenges which hinder applications of biological tools from being more readily incorporated into regulatory frameworks, with the aim of enabling both policymakers and primary stakeholders to maximise the environmental relevance and regulatory usefulness of such tools. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Public-private sector partnership in household waste management as perceived by residents in south-west Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezebilo, Eugene E; Animasaun, Emmanuel D

    2012-08-01

    In most developing countries public-private sector partnership is becoming increasingly applied in household waste management service delivery especially in urban areas to reduce cost and improve effectiveness. This paper reports a study of householders' perceptions of public-private sector partnership in provision of household waste management services in Ilorin, south-west Nigeria. A multistage random sampling technique was used to select 224 households for the study. The data generated from the survey were analysed using a binary logit model. The results show that most of the respondents were of the opinion that the public-private partnership has not been able to improve household waste management services. Time taken to visit solid waste collection point, income and marital status negatively influenced their perceptions, while activities of sanitary inspectors, occupation and gender had positive influence. The public-private partnership will be more effective and sustainable if the public sector could pay more attention to performance monitoring and accountability.

  13. Using the SPEI to Assess Recent Climate Change in the Yarlung Zangbo River Basin, South Tibet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binquan Li

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The Yarlung Zangbo River (YZR is the largest river system in the Tibetan Plateau, and its basin is one of the centers of human economic activity in Tibet. Large uncertainties exist in several previous climate change studies in this basin because of limited climate observations. In this paper, we used a meteorological drought index (Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index, SPEI and a newly-released gridded climate forcing dataset based on high-quality climate station data to re-evaluate climate change in the YZR Basin during the period of 1961–2014. Results showed that precipitation experienced a statistically insignificant increasing trend at a rate of 6.32 mm/10 years, and its annual mean was 512.40 mm. The basin was sensitive to climate change in terms of the air temperature that significantly increased at the rate of 0.32 °C/10 years. This warming rate was obviously larger than that in many other regions. Analysis of SPEI showed that the basin had no obvious statistical trends in the number of dry/wet episodes, but the severity of dry episode aggravated in terms of duration and magnitude. This study provides a reliable analysis of climate change in the YZR Basin, and suggests this large Tibetan river basin is sensitive to climate change.

  14. A measure for the efficiency of water use and its determinants, a case study of small-scale irrigation schemes in North-West Province, South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speelman, S.; Haese, D' M.F.C.; Buysse, J.; Haese, D' L.

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyses the efficiency with which water is used in small-scale irrigation schemes in North-West Province in South Africa and studies its determinants. In the study area, small-scale irrigation schemes play an important role in rural development, but the increasing pressure on water

  15. Moderation and Assessment Project--South West. A Presentation of a Model for Moderating Pupils' Work That Is Teacher Assessed, Developed in England, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radnor, Hilary

    The Moderation and Assessment Project, South West, was an outgrowth of the Technical and Vocational Educational Initiative of the government of the United Kingdom that attempted to develop more courses with vocational relevance for adolescents. Growing from research projects under the Moderation and Assessment project, a new model of moderation is…

  16. A preliminary report on the biomass of chaetognaths in the Indian Ocean comparing the south-west and north-east monsoon periods

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, V.R.

    sorted and the total number of chaetognaths in the samples were then computed The average number of chaetognaths for all samples from each 5 degrees Marsden Square is separately estimated for the south-west and north-east monsoon periods The period mid...

  17. A predominance of hypertensive heart disease among patients with cardiac disease in buea, a semi-urban setting, South west region of cameroon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nkoke, Clovis; Makoge, Christelle; Dzudie, Anastase; Mfeukeu, Liliane Kuate; Luchuo, Engelbert Bain; Menanga, Alain; Kingue, Samuel

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The pattern of heart disease is diverse within and among world regions. The little data on the spectrum of heart disease in Cameroon has been so far limited to major cities. We sought to describe the pattern of heart disease in Buea, the South West Region of Cameroon, a semi-urban

  18. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet among employees in South West England: Formative research to inform a web-based, work-place nutrition intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angeliki Papadaki

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Improvement in the consumption of several Mediterranean diet components is needed to increase adherence in this sample of adults. The findings have the potential to inform the development of a web-based intervention that will focus on these foods to promote the Mediterranean diet in work-place settings in South West England.

  19. Urban and community forests of the Southern Atlantic region: Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak; Eric J. Greenfield

    2009-01-01

    This report details how land cover and urbanization vary within the states of Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia, and West Virginia; and the District of Columbia by community (incorporated and census designated places), county subdivision, and county. Specifically this report provides critical urban and community forestry...

  20. Continuous Monitoring of CH4 Emissions from Marcellus Shale Gas Extraction in South West Pennsylvania Using Top Down Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmiento, D. P.; Belmecheri, S.; Lauvaux, T.; Sowers, T. A.; Bryant, S.; Miles, N. L.; Richardson, S.; Aikins, J.; Sweeney, C.; Petron, G.; Davis, K. J.

    2012-12-01

    Natural gas extraction from shale formations via hydraulic-fracturing (fracking) is expanding rapidly in several regions of North America. In Pennsylvania, the number of wells drilled to extract natural gas from the Marcellus shale has grown from 195 in 2008 to 1,386 in 2010. The gas extraction process using the fracking technology results in the escape of methane (CH4), a potent greenhouse gas and the principal component of natural gas, into the atmosphere. Emissions of methane from fracking operations remain poorly quantified, leading to a large range of scenarios for the contribution of fracking to climate change. A mobile measurement campaign provided insights on methane leakage rates and an improved understanding of the spatio-temporal variability in active drilling areas in the South West of Pennsylvania. Two towers were then instrumented to monitor fugitive emissions of methane from well pads, pipelines, and other infrastructures in the area. The towers, one within a drilling region and one upwind of active drilling, measured atmospheric CH4 mixing ratios continuously. Isotopic measurements from air flasks were also collected. Data from the initial mobile campaign were used to estimate emission rates from single sites such as wells and compressor stations. Tower data will be used to construct a simple atmospheric inversion for regional methane emissions. Our results show the daily variability in emissions and allow us to estimate leakage rates over a one month period in South West Pennsylvania. We discuss potential deployment strategies in drilling zones to monitor emissions of methane over longer periods of time.

  1. Characteristics of PM10 Chemical Source Profiles for Geological Dust from the South-West Region of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yayong Liu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Ninety-six particulate matter (PM10 chemical source profiles for geological sources in typical cities of southwest China were acquired from Source Profile Shared Service in China. Twenty-six elements (Na, Mg, Al, Si, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Se, Sr, Cd, Sn, Sb, Ba, Be, Tl and Pb, nine ions (F−, Cl−, SO42−, NO3−, Na+, NH4+, K+, Mg2+ and Ca2+, and carbon-containing species (organic carbon and elemental carbon were determined to construct these profiles. Individual source profiles were averaged and compared to quantify similarities and differences in chemical abundances using the profile-compositing method. Overall, the major components of PM10 in geological sources were crustal minerals and undefined fraction. Different chemical species could be used as tracers for various types of geological dust in the region that resulted from different anthropogenic influence. For example, elemental carbon, V and Zn could be used as tracers for urban paved road dust; Al, Si, K+ and NH4+ for agricultural soil; Al and Si for natural soil; and SO42− for urban resuspended dust. The enrichment factor analysis showed that Cu, Se, Sr and Ba were highly enriched by human activities in geological dust samples from south-west China. Elemental ratios were taken to highlight the features of geological dust from south-west China by comparing with northern urban fugitive dust, loess and desert samples. Low Si/Al and Fe/Al ratios can be used as markers to trace geological sources from southwestern China. High Pb/Al and Zn/Al ratios observed in urban areas demonstrated that urban geological dust was influenced seriously by non-crustal sources.

  2. Reentrainment of the circadian pacemaker during jet lag: East-west asymmetry and the effects of north-south travel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diekman, Casey O; Bose, Amitabha

    2018-01-21

    The normal alignment of circadian rhythms with the 24-h light-dark cycle is disrupted after rapid travel between home and destination time zones, leading to sleep problems, indigestion, and other symptoms collectively known as jet lag. Using mathematical and computational analysis, we study the process of reentrainment to the light-dark cycle of the destination time zone in a model of the human circadian pacemaker. We calculate the reentrainment time for travel between any two points on the globe at any time of the day and year. We construct one-dimensional entrainment maps to explain several properties of jet lag, such as why most people experience worse jet lag after traveling east than west. We show that this east-west asymmetry depends on the endogenous period of the traveler's circadian clock as well as daylength. Thus the critical factor is not simply whether the endogenous period is greater than or less than 24 h as is commonly assumed. We show that the unstable fixed point of an entrainment map determines whether a traveler reentrains through phase advances or phase delays, providing an understanding of the threshold that separates orthodromic and antidromic modes of reentrainment. Contrary to the conventional wisdom that jet lag only occurs after east-west travel across multiple time zones, we predict that the change in daylength encountered during north-south travel can cause jet lag even when no time zones are crossed. Our techniques could be used to provide advice to travelers on how to minimize jet lag on trips involving multiple destinations and a combination of transmeridian and translatitudinal travel. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Evaluation of geologic structure guiding ground water flow south and west of Frenchman Flat, Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKee, E.H.

    1998-01-01

    Ground water flow through the region south and west of Frenchman Flat, in the Ash Meadows subbasin of the Death Valley ground water flow system, is controlled mostly by the distribution of permeable and impermeable rocks. Geologic structures such as faults are instrumental in arranging the distribution of the aquifer and aquitard rock units. Most permeability is in fractures caused by faulting in carbonate rocks. Large faults are more likely to reach the potentiometric surface about 325 meters below the ground surface and are more likely to effect the flow path than small faults. Thus field work concentrated on identifying large faults, especially where they cut carbonate rocks. Small faults, however, may develop as much permeability as large faults. Faults that are penetrative and are part of an anastomosing fault zone are particularly important. The overall pattern of faults and joints at the ground surface in the Spotted and Specter Ranges is an indication of the fracture system at the depth of the water table. Most of the faults in these ranges are west-southwest-striking, high-angle faults, 100 to 3500 meters long, with 10 to 300 /meters of displacement. Many of them, such as those in the Spotted Range and Rock Valley are left-lateral strike-slip faults that are conjugate to the NW-striking right-lateral faults of the Las Vegas Valley shear zone. These faults control the ground water flow path, which runs west-southwest beneath the Spotted Range, Mercury Valley and the Specter Range. The Specter Range thrust is a significant geologic structure with respect to ground water flow. This regional thrust fault emplaces siliceous clastic strata into the north central and western parts of the Specter Range

  4. Condom use as part of the wider HIV prevention strategy: experiences from communities in the North West Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versteeg, Marije; Murray, Montagu

    2008-07-01

    Correct and consistent condom usage remains a pivotal strategy in reaching the target set by the South African government to reduce new HIV infections by 50% in the next 5 years. Studies have found that there has been an increase in condom usage by some categories of the population, but usage has not yet reached the desired levels in order to meet the target. This article reports on the findings of a study on condom usage in eight communities in the North West Province, which was part of a wider HIV and AIDS programme evaluation commissioned by the North West Provincial Department of Health. The main aim was to assess accessibility to condoms, and knowledge, attitudes and practices around condom use by four sampled communities in the North West Province. Eight focus group discussions were held and 50 households were interviewed. The study found positive results regarding accessibility and awareness of condoms. However, this often did not lead to the desired behavioural change of using condoms in risky sexual interactions. The majority of respondents still resisted condom usage, used condoms inconsistently, or were not in a position to negotiate protected sexual intercourse. The main reasons reported for this were: reduced pleasure, perceived and real physical side-effects, myths, lack of information, status, financial reasons, distrust in the efficacy of condoms, family planning, cultural reasons, gender-related reasons and trust. Many of the barriers to consistent condom use cannot be overcome by strategies that target the individual. Interventions need to address underlying developmental factors such as the non-biological factors that increase the susceptibility of women to HIV infection. As this falls outside of the scope of the mandate of the Department of Health, various partnerships with other key role players need to be established and/or strengthened, such as with local government, non-governmental organisations and faith-based organisations.

  5. MODEL RECONSTRUCTION OF THE VEGETATION COVER OF THE SOUTH OF THE WEST SIBERIAN PLAIN FROM THE LATE PALEOLITHIC PERIOD UNTIL THE LATE XIX CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    М. А. Kharitonenkov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Model reconstruction of vegetation cover of the south of the West Siberian Plain from the late Pleistocene to the modern era has been carried out on the basis of the associated chronological analysis of paleontological, archaeological and paleoclimate data. We have determined the starting point of active vegetation transformation in the south of the West Siberian Plain as a result of tradition-bound exploitation of natural resources. Periods of maximum anthropogenic load – peak and relative recession – on vegetation cover, acting as a further determinant factor, have been determined in this study for the first time. Comprehensive analysis and new understanding of palynological, paleozoological, archaeological and paleoclimate data in terms of theoretical synecology confirmed the notions on the determinant role of the anthropogenic factor in the transformation of the Pleistocene forest-meadow-steppe vegetation into contemporary communities of the southern taiga, the subtaiga and the forest-steppe of the West Siberian Plain.

  6. Successful Deployment of System for the Storage and Retrieval of Spent/Used Nuclear Fuel from Hanford K-West Fuel Storage Basin-13051

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quintero, Roger; Smith, Sahid; Blackford, Leonard Ty; Johnson, Mike W.; Raymond, Richard; Sullivan, Neal; Sloughter, Jim

    2013-01-01

    In 2012, a system was deployed to remove, transport, and interim store chemically reactive and highly radioactive sludge material from the Hanford Site's 105-K West Fuel Storage Basin that will be managed as spent/used nuclear fuel. The Knockout Pot (KOP) sludge in the 105-K West Basin was a legacy issue resulting from the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) washing process applied to 2200 metric tons of highly degraded fuel elements following long-term underwater storage. The washing process removed uranium metal and other non-uranium constituents that could pass through a screen with 0.25-inch openings; larger pieces are, by definition, SNF or fuel scrap. When originally retrieved, KOP sludge contained pieces of degraded uranium fuel ranging from 600 microns (μm) to 6350 μm mixed with inert material such as aluminum hydroxide, aluminum wire, and graphite in the same size range. In 2011, a system was developed, tested, successfully deployed and operated to pre-treat KOP sludge as part of 105-K West Basin cleanup. The pretreatment process successfully removed the vast majority of inert material from the KOP sludge stream and reduced the remaining volume of material by approximately 65 percent, down to approximately 50 liters of material requiring management as used fuel. The removal of inert material resulted in significant waste minimization and project cost savings because of the reduced number of transportation/storage containers and improvement in worker safety. The improvement in worker safety is a result of shorter operating times and reduced number of remote handled shipments to the site fuel storage facility. Additionally in 2011, technology development, final design, and cold testing was completed on the system to be used in processing and packaging the remaining KOP material for removal from the basin in much the same manner spent fuel was removed. This system was deployed and successfully operated from June through September 2012, to remove and package the last

  7. Residents' attitudes to proposed wind farms in the West Coast region of South Africa: A social perspective from the South

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombard, Andrea; Ferreira, Sanette

    2014-01-01

    The West Coast Region (WCR) of the Western Cape Province in South Africa is earmarked for 13 onshore wind farm projects totaling approximately 700 wind turbines. The developed world debate about the social acceptance of wind farm projects has impeded and illuminated a number of these developments. This paper is aimed at understanding people's reaction to proposed wind farm projects in the WCR – a region of a developing country – and to investigate whether the reasoning behind opposition to or acceptance of wind farm projects is similar to the discourse on the topic by scholars in the developed world. Quantitative and qualitative methods were used to collect primary data by semi-structured interviews and a questionnaire survey. A spatial dimension was added through a map-based approach. Reactions by WCR residents to the wind farm projects were mainly positive, although some opposition was detected. International scholarship holds that place attachment serves as a reason for opposition to wind farm projects. Although most of the WCR residents had strong place attachments to their region, most of the respondents also supported the proposed wind farm projects. - Highlights: • A case study on social acceptance of proposed wind farm projects in South Africa is discussed. • The main focus is on the relation between place attachment and social acceptance or rejection of wind farm projects. • The results of the study correspond to the findings on place attachment and wind farm projects in the developed world

  8. Analyse sismo-stratigraphique du bassin d'Abda (Maroc occidental), exemple de structures inverses pendant le rifting atlantiqueSeismo-stratigraphic analysis of the Abda Basin (West Morocco): a case of reverse structures during the Atlantic rifting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echarfaoui, Hassan; Hafid, Mohamed; Salem, Abdallah Aı̈t; Abderrahmane, Aı̈t Fora

    The review of the seismic reflection and well data from the coastal Abda Basin (western Morocco) shows that its Triassic and Jurassic sequences were deposited in a submeridean sag basin, whose eastern margin is characterised by progressive truncations and pinching out of these sequences against a prominent Palaeozoic high. The uplift of this latter is interpreted as a response to an Upper Triassic-Middle Jurassic local compressional event that controlled Triassic-Jurassic sedimentation within the Abda Basin. The present day 'West Meseta Flexure' is a surface expression of this uplift. To cite this article: H. Echarfaoui et al., C. R. Geoscience 334 (2002) 371-377.

  9. Ecological similarities between two Mediterranean wetlands: Sidi Boughaba (North-West Morocco and the Doñana National Park (South-West Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najat Elkhiati

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Addressing the underlying common processes within aquatic systems located in the same geographical region has long been used as a tool for the advancement of limnology. A limnological study of the Merja Sidi Boughaba in 2009 has shown that there are many common features between the physico-chemical and biological conditions of this site and previous data reported from some of the wetlands of the Doñana National Park (South-West Spain. Both are Ramsar sites located on extensive dune systems of the Atlantic coast with a Mediterranean climate. They have a common palaeoenvironmental history that is largely responsible for their similar hydrology and water composition. Oceanic influence has probably produced a slight disproportion of Mg2+ over Ca2+ through airborne sea salt deposition and the surface evaporation of groundwater feeding these wetlands during annual flood and drought cycles. The wide spectrum of environmental conditions encountered in the Doñana wetlands is epitomised by the Merja Sidi Boughaba, where water and sediment gradually change in the same water body from north to south: from humic-coloured waters and a sandy substrate to a calcium-rich substrate with turbid and silted waters which eventually dry out. As a consequence, the community of submersed macrophytes is very rich and dominated by dense charophyte beds. The high primary production coupled with high biodiversity found in the Merja Sidi Boughaba is also shared by the Doñana wetlands. The high conservation status of both sites enables a useful comparison to be made of the water quality of shallow aquatic systems at a regional scale which, contrary to the trophic classifications developed for deep stratified lakes in temperate regions, is not based on regressions between the concentrations of chlorophyll and total phosphorus (Tot-P but on the proportions of dissolved and particulate P pools. In these Mediterranean sites, nutrients are more efficiently recycled through the

  10. A Cross-Cultural Study of Behavioral Inhibition in Toddlers: East-West-North-South

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Kenneth H.; Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Chen, Xinyin; Hastings, Paul; Sanson, Ann; Coco, Alida Lo; Zappulla, Carla; Chung, Ock-Boon; Park, Sung-Yun; Doh, Hyun Sim; Chen, Huichang; Sun, Ling; Yoon, Chong-Hee; Cui, Liyin

    2006-01-01

    The prevalence of behavioral inhibition in toddlers was examined in five cultures. Participants in this study included 110 Australian, 108 Canadian, 151 Chinese, 104 Italian, and 113 South Korean toddlers and their mothers who were observed during a structured observational laboratory session. Matched procedures were used in each country, with…

  11. Burden of fetal alcohol syndrome in a rural West Coast area of South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ahead of print) [http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1111/acer.12033] (accessed 19 March 2013). 6. Croxford J, Viljoen D. Alcohol consumption by pregnant women in the Western Cape. S Afr Med J. 1999;89(9):962-965. 7. South African Revenue Services. Excise duties and levies 2012. http://www.sars.gov.za/home.asp?pid=483.

  12. Structures within the oceanic crust of the central South China Sea basin and their implications for oceanic accretionary processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Weiwei; Sun, Zhen; Dadd, Kelsie; Fang, Yinxia; Li, Jiabiao

    2018-04-01

    Internal structures in mature oceanic crust can elucidate understanding of the processes and mechanism of crustal accretion. In this study, we present two multi-channel seismic (MCS) transects across the northern flank of the South China Sea basin to reveal the internal structures related to Cenozoic tectono-magmatic processes during seafloor spreading. Bright reflectors within the oceanic crust, including the Moho, upper crustal reflectors, and lower crustal reflectors, are clearly imaged in these two transects. The Moho reflection displays varied character in continuity, shape and amplitude from the continental slope area to the abyssal basin, and becomes absent in the central part of the basin where abundant seamounts and seamount chains formed after the cessation of seafloor spreading. Dipping reflectors are distinct in most parts of the MCS data but generally confined to the lower crust above the Moho reflection. These lower crustal reflectors merge downward into the Moho without offsetting it, probably arising from shear zones between the crust and mantle characterized by interstitial melt, although we cannot exclude other possibilities such as brittle faulting or magmatic layering in the local area. A notable feature of these lower crustal reflector events is their opposite inclinations. We suggest the two groups of conjugate lower crustal reflector events observed between magnetic anomalies C11 and C8 were associated with two unusual accretionary processes arising from plate reorganizations with southward ridge jumps.

  13. Local Lunar Gravity Field Analysis over the South Pole-aitken Basin from SELENE Farside Tracking Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goossens, Sander Johannes; Ishihara, Yoshiaki; Matsumoto, Koji; Sasaki, Sho

    2012-01-01

    We present a method with which we determined the local lunar gravity field model over the South Pole-Aitken (SPA) basin on the farside of the Moon by estimating adjustments to a global lunar gravity field model using SELENE tracking data. Our adjustments are expressed in localized functions concentrated over the SPA region in a spherical cap with a radius of 45deg centered at (191.1 deg E, 53.2 deg S), and the resolution is equivalent to a 150th degree and order spherical harmonics expansion. The new solution over SPA was used in several applications of geophysical analysis. It shows an increased correlation with high-resolution lunar topography in the frequency band l = 40-70, and admittance values are slightly different and more leveled when compared to other, global gravity field models using the same data. The adjustments expressed in free-air anomalies and differences in Bouguer anomalies between the local solution and the a priori global solution correlate with topographic surface features. The Moho structure beneath the SPA basin is slightly modified in our solution, most notably at the southern rim of the Apollo basin and around the Zeeman crater

  14. Breccia pipes in the Karoo Basin, South Africa, as conduits for metamorphic gases to the Early Jurassic atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silkoset, Petter; Svensen, Henrik; Planke, Sverre

    2014-05-01

    The Toarcian (Early Jurassic) event was manifested by globally elevated temperatures and anoxic ocean conditions that particularly affected shallow marine taxa. The event coincided with the emplacement of the vast Karoo-Ferrar Large Igneous Province. Among the suggestions for trigger mechanisms for the climatic perturbation is metamorphic methane generation from black shale around the sills in the Karoo Basin, South Africa. The sill emplacement provides a mechanism for voluminous in-situ production and emission of greenhouse gases, and establishes a distinct link between basin-trapped and atmospheric carbon. In the lower stratigraphic levels of the Karoo Basin, black shales are metamorphosed around sills and the sediments are cut by a large number of pipe structures with metamorphic haloes. The pipes are vertical, cylindrical structures that contain brecciated and baked sediments with variable input of magmatic material. Here, we present borehole, petrographic, geochemical and field data from breccia pipes and contact aureoles based on field campaigns over a number of years (2004-2014). The metamorphism around the pipes show equivalent metamorphic grade as the sediments around nearby sills, suggesting a more prominent phreatomagmatic component than previously thought. The stratigraphic position of pipes and the breccia characteristics strengthens the hypothesis of a key role in the Toarcian carbon isotope excursion.

  15. Constraining the sedimentology and stratigraphy of submarine intraslope lobe deposits using exhumed examples from the Karoo Basin, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spychala, Y. T.; Hodgson, D. M.; Flint, S. S.; Mountney, N. P.

    2015-06-01

    Intraslope lobe deposits provide a process record of the infill of accommodation on submarine slopes and their recognition enables the accurate reconstruction of the stratigraphic evolution of submarine slope systems. Extensive exposures of discrete sand-prone packages in Units D/E and E, Fort Brown Formation, Karoo Basin, South Africa, permit analysis of the sedimentology and stacking patterns of three intraslope lobe complexes and their palaeogeographic reconstruction via bed-scale analysis and physical correlation of key stratal surfaces. The sand-prone packages comprise tabular, aggradationally to slightly compensationally stacked lobe deposits with constituent facies associations that can be attributed to lobe axis, lobe off-axis, lobe-fringe and distal lobe-fringe environments. Locally, intraslope lobe deposits are incised by low aspect ratio channels that mark basinward progradation of the deepwater system. The origin of accommodation on the slope for lobe deposition is interpreted to be due to differential compaction or healing of scars from mass wasting processes. The stacking patterns and sedimentary facies arrangement identified in this study are distinct from those of more commonly recognized basin-floor lobe deposits, thereby enabling the establishment of recognition criteria for intraslope lobe deposits in other less well exposed and studied fine-grained systems. Compared to basin floor lobes, intraslope lobes are smaller in volume, influenced by higher degrees of confinement, and tend to show aggradational stacking patterns.

  16. Probabilistic Approach to Provide Scenarios of Earthquake-Induced Slope Failures (PARSIFAL Applied to the Alcoy Basin (South Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Martino

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The PARSIFAL (Probabilistic Approach to pRovide Scenarios of earthquake-Induced slope FAiLures approach was applied in the basin of Alcoy (Alicante, South Spain, to provide a comprehensive scenario of earthquake-induced landslides. The basin of Alcoy is well known for several historical landslides, mainly represented by earth-slides, that involve urban settlement as well as infrastructures (i.e., roads, bridges. The PARSIFAL overcomes several limits existing in other approaches, allowing the concomitant analyses of: (i first-time landslides (due to both rock-slope failures and shallow earth-slides and reactivations of existing landslides; (ii slope stability analyses of different failure mechanisms; (iii comprehensive mapping of earthquake-induced landslide scenarios in terms of exceedance probability of critical threshold values of co-seismic displacements. Geotechnical data were used to constrain the slope stability analysis, while specific field surveys were carried out to measure jointing and strength conditions of rock masses and to inventory already existing landslides. GIS-based susceptibility analyses were performed to assess the proneness to shallow earth-slides as well as to verify kinematic compatibility to planar or wedge rock-slides and to topples. The experienced application of PARSIFAL to the Alcoy basin: (i confirms the suitability of the approach at a municipality scale, (ii outputs the main role of saturation in conditioning slope instabilities in this case study, (iii demonstrates the reliability of the obtained results respect to the historical data.

  17. SHRIMP zircon U-Pb age and its significances of volcanic rocks from banshi basin in south jiangxi province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Baofeng; Wu Jianhua

    2011-01-01

    SHRIMP zircon U-Pb dating is applied to geochronological study for tuff of original Jilongzhang formation and rhyolite of original Banshi formation in Banshi basin, located in the Sannan (Longnan, Dingnan, Quannan) -Xunwu volcanic rocks belts in the south of Jiangxi. The result shows that zircon SHRIMP U-Pb age of the tuff is (142.5 ± 1.3) Ma and the age of the rhyolite is (131.4 ± 1.3) Ma. According to the latest international stratigraphic chart, the boundary between Jurassic and Cretaceous is (145.4 ± 4.0) Ma. So original Jilongzhang Formation and original Banshi Formation in Banshi basin were formed during early Early Cretaceous. The volcanic series in Banshi basin belongs to only one volcanic cycle. The features of the rock associations consistent with Wuyi group on the Xiajiang-Guangfeng volcanic rocks belts in the north of Jiangxi, so original Jilongzhang formation falls under E'huling formation and original Banshi formation falls under Shixi formation. (authors)

  18. The extreme 2014 flood in south-western Amazon basin: the role of tropical-subtropical South Atlantic SST gradient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espinoza, Jhan Carlo; Marengo, José Antonio; Ronchail, Josyane; Carpio, Jorge Molina; Flores, Luís Noriega; Guyot, Jean Loup

    2014-01-01

    Unprecedented wet conditions are reported in the 2014 summer (December–March) in South-western Amazon, with rainfall about 100% above normal. Discharge in the Madeira River (the main southern Amazon tributary) has been 74% higher than normal (58 000 m 3 s −1 ) at Porto Velho and 380% (25 000 m 3 s −1 ) at Rurrenabaque, at the exit of the Andes in summer, while levels of the Rio Negro at Manaus were 29.47 m in June 2014, corresponding to the fifth highest record during the 113 years record of the Rio Negro. While previous floods in Amazonia have been related to La Niña and/or warmer than normal tropical South Atlantic, the 2014 rainfall and flood anomalies are associated with warm condition in the western Pacific-Indian Ocean and with an exceptionally warm Subtropical South Atlantic. Our results suggest that the tropical and subtropical South Atlantic SST gradient is a main driver for moisture transport from the Atlantic toward south-western Amazon, and this became exceptionally intense during summer of 2014. (letter)

  19. Stress distribution and seismicity patterns of the 2011 seismic swarm in the Messinia basin, (South-Western Peloponnesus, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Chouliaras

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this investigation we examine the local stress field and the seismicity patterns associated with the 2011–2012 seismicity swarm in the Messinia basin, south-western Peloponnesus, Greece, using the seismological data of the National Observatory of Athens (NOA. During this swarm more than 2000 events were recorded in a 12 month period by the Hellenic Unified Seismological Network (HUSN and also by the additional local installation of four portable broadband seismographic stations by NOA.

    The results indicate a Gaussian distribution of swarm activity and the development of a seismicity cluster in a pre-existing seismic gap within the Messinia basin. Centroid Moment Tensor solutions demonstrate a normal fault trending northwest–southeast and dipping to the southwest primarily due to an extensional stress field. During this seismicity swarm an epicentre migration of the three largest shocks is observed, from one end of the rupture zone in the north-western part of the cluster, towards the other edge of the rupture in the south-eastern part of the cluster. This migration is found to follow the Coulomb failure criterion that predicts the advancement and retardation of the stress field and the patterns of increases and decreases of the seismicity rate (b-value of the frequency–magnitude relation.

  20. Geodynamic models assist in determining the South Loyalty Basin's slab location and its implications for regional topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Stuart R.

    2010-05-01

    In the Western Pacific, two competing kinematic reconstructions exist: one with wholly westward subduction of the Pacific plate at what is now the Tonga-Kermadec trench and one combining a degree of eastward subduction under what has been termed the New Caledonia trench. New seismological observations indicate that eastward subduction could explain the existence of a fast anomaly, the hyothesised South Loyalty Basin slab, below the 660km transition zone distinct from the fast anomaly aligned with the Tonga-Kermadec slab. A plate reconstruction dated from the suggested initiation of New Caledonia subduction in the Eocene has been developed. This reconstruction is then used to predict the thermal history of the region and together provide kinematic and thermal boundary conditions for a regional mantle convection model. The model-predicted location of the South Loyalty Basin slab's location will be presented along with the location's dependence on the mantle rheological parameters and the hotspot reference frame. The implications for the topography of the region will also be discussed.

  1. In search of a merged identity: the case of multi-campus North-West University, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frans Kamsteeg

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available South Africa’s post–apartheid governments have taken far–reaching policy measures to transform the system of higher education, do away with its strongly segregated character, and develop an efficient and internationally recognised system that provides equal chances for all ethnic groups. Since 2002 higher education has become the explicit target of a government policy, geared to cultural development and intervention, including the enforcement of a series of mergers between traditionally white and black universities and former technikons (currently universities of technology. This process has caused intense debate at the level of leadership and among policy makers in these institutions, but little is known of how this ideological battle over educational development has affected daily academic practice. This paper gives a first, somewhat tentative discussion on the current effects of the changes in higher education in South Africa, and in particular at one of the institutions affected: the newly merged North-West University (NWU. The article is based on documentary research and three personal visits to the university; in the process a joint research project was initiated between the VU University of Amsterdam (VUUA and NWU. This paper attempts to shed some early light on how efficiency and social equity goals are met within NWU’s institutional merger, beginning from a cultural perspective that focuses on the construction of ‘merger narratives’. The paper also gives a voice to critical reactions, narratives of resistance that have emerged from the university shop floor.

  2. Apolipoprotein A-I and B levels, dyslipidemia and metabolic syndrome in south-west Chinese women with PCOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinxia; Fan, Ping; Liu, Hongwei; Bai, Huai; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Feng

    2012-08-01

    What are the relationships between apolipoprotein (apo) A-I and apoB concentrations, the apoB/apoA-I ratio and the prevalences of dyslipidemia and metabolic syndrome (MS) in south-west Chinese women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). There is a relatively high incidence of dyslipidemia and MS in south-west Chinese women with PCOS, especially in patients without hyperandrogenism. Patients with dyslipidemia are more obese, and have a more adverse glucose and lipid metabolic profile and higher apoB levels and apoB/apoA-I ratio. The increased apoB levels and apoB/A1 ratio and the MS are strongly associated with PCOS, suggesting that there is an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases in these patients. Dyslipidemia and MS have been widely studied in women with PCOS, but to date no data from south-west Chinese subjects have been available. The apoB/apoA-I ratio has been reported to be strongly associated with MS and insulin resistance (IR) and to be a reliable parameter that reflects lipid disturbances and the potential to develop atherosclerosis, but its relationship with PCOS is unclear. DESIGN This case-control study included 406 patients with PCOS and 342 control women between 17 and 40 years of age from a population in south-west China during 2006-2011. The diagnosis of PCOS was based on the revised 2003 Rotterdam criteria. The control group, consisting of women with infertility due to a Fallopian obstruction or the husband's infertility, women undergoing a pre-pregnancy check and healthy volunteers, was recruited from the same hospital during the same period. All women were not taking any medication known to affect carbohydrate or lipid or hormone metabolism for at least 3 months prior to the study, and were studied during the follicular phase of their menstrual cycle. MS was assessed by the National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult treatment Panel (NCEP-ATP) III criteria modified for Asian populations. Dyslipidemia was defined by one or more of the

  3. Data quality objectives for sampling of sludge from the K West and K East Basin floor and from other Basin areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MAKENAS, B.J.

    1998-01-01

    This document addresses the characterization strategy for those types of sludge not previously characterized or discussed in previous DQO documents. It seeks to ascertain those characteristics of uncharacterized Sludge which are unique with respect to the properties already determined for canister and K East Basin floor Sludge. Also recent decisions have resulted in the need for treatment of the Sludge prior to its currently identified disposal path to the Hanford waste tanks. This has resulted in a need for process development testing for the treatment system development

  4. Heat flow in Railroad Valley, Nevada and implications for geothermal resources in the south-central Great Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C.F.; Sass, J.H.

    2006-01-01

    The Great Basin is a province of high average heat flow (approximately 90 mW m-2), with higher values characteristic of some areas and relatively low heat flow (characteristic of an area in south-central Nevada known as the Eureka Low. There is hydrologie and thermal evidence that the Eureka Low results from a relatively shallow, hydrologically controlled heat sink associated with interbasin water flow in the Paleozoic carbonate aquifers. Evaluating this hypothesis and investigating the thermal state of the Eureka Low at depth is a high priority for the US Geological Survey as it prepares a new national geothermal resource assessment. Part of this investigation is focused on Railroad Valley, the site of the largest petroleum reservoirs in Nevada and one of the few locations within the Eureka Low with a known geothermal system. Temperature and thermal conductivity data have been acquired from wells in Railroad Valley in order to determine heat flow in the basin. The results reveal a complex interaction of cooling due to shallow ground-water flow, relatively low (49 to 76 mW m-2) conductive heat flow at depth in most of the basin, and high (up to 234 mW m-2) heat flow associated with the 125??C geothermal system that encompasses the Bacon Flat and Grant Canyon oil fields. The presence of the Railroad Valley geothermal resource within the Eureka Low may be reflect the absence of deep ground-water flow sweeping heat out of the basin. If true, this suggests that other areas in the carbonate aquifer province may contain deep geothermal resources that are masked by ground-water flow.

  5. Investigation on the 1970s and 1980s droughts in four tributaries of the Niger River Basin (West Africa).

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Badou, DF

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available this question, we evaluated spatio-temporal pattern of rainfall and runoff in four tributaries (Sota, Alibori, Mekrou and Kompa-gorou) of the Niger River basin, covering a total area of 40,000km2 for the period 1971 to 2010. First, decadal rainfall variability...

  6. Evaluation of recent hydro-climatic changes in four tributaries of the Niger River Basin (West Africa)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Badou, DF

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available West Africa experienced severe drought during the 1970s and 1980s, posing a threat to water resources. A wetter climate more recently suggests recovery from the drought. The Mann-Kendall trend and Theil-Sen’s slope estimator were applied to detect...

  7. Effects of urbanization on agricultural lands and river basins: case study of Mersin (South of Turkey).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran, Celalettin; Gunek, Halil; Sandal, Ersin Kaya

    2012-04-01

    Largely, Turkey is a hilly and mountainous country. Many rivers rise from the mountains and flow into the seas surrounding the country. Mean while along fertile plains around the rivers and coastal floodplains of Turkey were densely populated than the other parts of the country. These characteristics show that there is a significant relationship between river basins and population or settlements. It is understood from this point of view, Mersin city and its vicinity (coastal floodplain and nearby river basins) show similar relationship. The city of Mersin was built on the southwest comer of Cukurova where Delicay and Efrenk creeks create narrow coastal floodplain. The plain has rich potential for agricultural practices with fertile alluvial soils and suitable climate. However, establishment of the port at the shore have increased commercial activity. Agricultural and commercial potential have attracted people to the area, and eventually has caused rapid spatial expansion of the city, and the urban sprawls over fertile agricultural lands along coastal floodplain and nearby river basins of the city. But unplanned, uncontrolled and illegal urbanization process has been causing degradation of agricultural areas and river basins, and also causing flooding in the city of Mersin and its vicinity. Especially in the basins, urbanization increases impervious surfaces throughout watersheds that increase erosion and runoff of surface water. In this study, the city of Mersin and its vicinity are examined in different ways, such as land use, urbanization, morphology and flows of the streams and given some directions for suitable urbanization.

  8. Application of advanced reservoir characterization, simulation, and production optimization strategies to maximize recovery in slope and basin clastic reservoirs, West Texas (Delaware Basin). Quarterly report, October 1 - December 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutton, S.P.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate that detailed reservoir characterization of slope and basin clastic reservoirs in sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico is a cost effective way to recover a higher percentage of the original oil in place through strategic placement of infill wells and geologically based field development. Project objectives are divided into two major phases. The objectives of the reservoir characterization phase of the project are to provide a detailed understanding of the architecture and heterogeneity of two fields, the Ford Geraldine unit and Ford West field, which produce from the Bell Canyon and Cherry Canyon Formations, respectively, of the Delaware Mountain Group and to compare Bell Canyon and Cherry Canyon reservoirs. Reservoir characterization will utilize 3-D seismic data, high-resolution sequence stratigraphy, subsurface field studies, outcrop characterization, and other techniques. Once the reservoir-characterization study of both fields is completed, a pilot area of approximately 1 mi{sup 2} in one of the fields will be chosen for reservoir simulation. The objectives of the implementation phase of the project are to (1) apply the knowledge gained from reservoir characterization and simulation studies to increase recovery from the pilot area, (2) demonstrate that economically significant unrecovered oil remains in geologically resolvable untapped compartments, and (3) test the accuracy of reservoir characterization and flow simulation as predictive tools in resource preservation of mature fields. A geologically designed, enhanced-recovery program (CO{sub 2} flood, waterflood, or polymer flood) and well-completion program will be developed, and one to three infill wells will be drilled and cored. Technical progress is summarized for: geophysical characterization; reservoir characterization; outcrop characterization; and recovery technology identification and analysis.

  9. Variability of mineral dust deposition in the western Mediterranean basin and south-east of France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Vincent

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have provided some insight into the Saharan dust deposition at a few specific locations from observations over long time periods or intensive field campaigns. However, no assessment of the dust deposition temporal variability in connection with its regional spatial distribution has been achieved so far from network observations over more than 1 year. To investigate dust deposition dynamics at the regional scale, five automatic deposition collectors named CARAGA (Collecteur Automatique de Retombées Atmosphériques insolubles à Grande Autonomie in French have been deployed in the western Mediterranean region during 1 to 3 years depending on the station. The sites include, from south to north, Lampedusa, Majorca, Corsica, Frioul and Le Casset (southern French Alps. Deposition measurements are performed on a common weekly period at the five sites. The mean dust deposition fluxes are higher close to the northern African coasts and decrease following a south–north gradient, with values from 7.4 g m−2 year−1 in Lampedusa (35°31′ N, 12°37′ E to 1 g m−2 year−1 in Le Casset (44°59′ N, 6°28′ E. The maximum deposition flux recorded is of 3.2 g m−2 wk−1 in Majorca with only two other events showing more than 1 g m−2 wk−1 in Lampedusa, and a maximum of 0.5 g m−2 wk−1 in Corsica. The maximum value of 2.1 g m−2 year−1 observed in Corsica in 2013 is much lower than existing records in the area over the 3 previous decades (11–14 g m−2 year−1. From the 537 available samples, 98 major Saharan dust deposition events have been identified in the records between 2011 and 2013. Complementary observations provided by both satellite and air mass trajectories are used to identify the dust provenance areas and the transport pathways from the Sahara to the stations for the studied period. Despite the large size of African dust plumes detected by satellites, more

  10. Magnetotelluric data collected to characterize aquifers in the San Luis Basin, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ailes, Chad E.; Rodriguez, Brian D.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey is conducting a series of multidisciplinary studies of the San Luis Basin as part of the Geologic Framework of Rio Grande Basins project. Detailed geologic mapping, high-resolution airborne magnetic surveys, gravity surveys, magnetotelluric surveys, and hydrologic and lithologic data are being used to better understand the aquifers in the San Luis Basin. This report describes one north-south and two east-west regional magnetotelluric sounding profiles, acquired in June of 2010 and July and August of 2011, across the San Luis Basin in northern New Mexico. No interpretation of the data is included.

  11. Palinspastic reconstruction and geological evolution of Permian residual marine basins bordering China and Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gen-Yao Wu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available One main feature of the tectono-paleogeographic evolution of the southern branch of the Paleo-Asian Ocean was that there developed residual marine basins in former backarc/forearc regions after the disappearance of oceanic crust. The paper illustrates the viewpoint taking the evolution of Dalandzadgad and Solonker oceanic basins as examples. The Dalandzadgad ocean subducted southwards during the Silurian-Devonian, created an intra-oceanic arc and a backarc basin in southern Mongolia. In addition, a continent marginal arc formed along the national boundary between China and Mongolia, the south of which was a backarc basin. The oceanic basin closed and arc–arc (continent collision occurred during the early Early Permian, followed by two residual marine basins developing in the former backarc regions, named the South Gobi Basin in southern Mongolia and the Guaizihu Basin in western Inner Mongolia. The Solonker ocean subducted southwards and finally disappeared during the early Middle Permian. Afterwards, two residual marine basins occurred in northern China, the Zhesi Basin being situated in the former backarc region and the Wujiatun Basin in the former forearc region. The late Middle Permian was the most optimum period for the developing residual marine basins, when they covered a vast area. The basin evolution differentiated during the early Late Permian, with a general trend of uplift in the east and of subsidence in the west. The Upper Permian in the South Gobi Basin was characterized by coal-bearing strata hosting economically valuable coal fields. A transgression invaded westwards and the Chandmani-Bayanleg Basin was created in southwest Mongolia during the middle-late stage of the Late Permian. Correspondingly, the coal formation entered a flourishing time, with thick coal beds and sedimentary interbeds. All of these basins, namely, both the marine and nonmarine residual basins, reversed and closed by the end of Permian.

  12. Epidemiological studies on Fasciola hepatica in Gafsa oases (South West of Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hammami H.

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological investigations on Fasciola hepatica fasciolasis were carried out from July 2004 to June 2005 in the Gafsa oases (Tunisia after the detection of a human case. Three habitats were studied: one in El Gsar and two in Ain Soltan. The prevalence of human infection was 6.6 %. The presence of the parasite was detected through serology in 14.3 % of cattle, 35 % of sheep and 68.4 % of goats. The plants Apium nodiflorum, Oxalis cernua and Sonchus maritimus were suspected to be at the origin of animal contamination and Apium nodiflorum was incriminated in human infection. The prevalence of the infection of the intermediate host Galba truncatula (G. truncatula was 19.2 % from July 2004 to June 2005. Gafsa oases constitute a new location for the development of fasciolasis in the southern west of Tunisia.

  13. Spilitization processes in the Proterozoic Ongeluk Andesite Formation in Griqualand West, South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuette, S.S.; Cornell, D.H.

    1990-01-01

    The Ongeluk Formation is a thick succession of lavas which crops out over a large portion of the region. The formation thickness is poorly constrained and considered to be equivalent to the Hekpoort Basalts in the Transvaal, but large facies changes in the sedimentary formations obscure the correlation. At least two alteration events can be recognized in the Ongeluk Lava: a spilitization process, and a locally restricted hydrothermal event and oxidation process which obscures the spilitization process. The Ongeluk lavas probably covered a much greater area of Griqualand West than at present and could have provided a significant source of manganese, deposited in the Kalahari Manganese Field. A connection between the volcanic origin and alteration of the Ongeluk Formation and the Kalahari Manganese-type mineralization is demonstrated by Gresens' equations. 2 figs., 1 tab

  14. Magmatic dyke swarms of the south shetland islands volcanic arc, west-antarctica - tracers of geodynamic history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, St.; Miller, H.

    2003-04-01

    Magmatic dykes are essential components of volcanic arcs, following joint systems and fracture zones. This work aims to reconstruct the deformational and intrusive history of the northern part of the Antarctic Peninsula by combining structural information with the geochemistry, isotopy and age of the dykes. On the South Shetland Islands volcanic activity began about 130 Ma ago. From Mid to Late Eocene (49-34 Ma) the northern Antarctic Peninsula and southern South America underwent extensional tectonics, which led to sea-floor spreading in the Drake Passage 28 Ma ago. Subsequent slab-rollback caused arc-extension and the opening of the Bransfield Rift as a backarc-basin between 4 and 1.3 Ma ago. Very slow subduction (1mm/a) at the South Shetland trench continues until the present day. Several changes of subduction direction caused crucial variations regarding the tectonic regime in the overlying South Shetland block, being the reason for the shifting strike of the dykes. Several dyke systems were mapped in areas of up to 100000m2, with the outcrop situation being good enough to observe plenty of relative age relationships. ICP-MS geochemical analysis on 132 dykes shows, as expected, that the majority of them correspond to a typical subduction-related calcalcalic suite, ranging from basalts to rhyolites. Nevertheless, some dykes show shoshonitic characteristics and are maybe related to an early stage extensional crustal regime. This is supported by the relative ages observed in the field, indicating, that these dykes belong to the oldest ones outcropping in the investigated area. In one case, the geochemical behaviour of the dyke corresponds clearly to adacitic conditions, being a hint on partially molten subducted oceanic crust. In several areas (e.g. Potter Peninsula, King George Island, and Hurd Peninsula, Livingston Island) a strong correlation between chemism and strike of the dykes - and therefore the tectonic regime at the time of intrusion - is observed. Ce

  15. Adsorption kinetics of CO2, CH4, and their equimolar mixture on coal from the Black Warrior Basin, West-Central Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruszkiewicz, M.S.; Naney, M.T.; Blencoe, J.G.; Cole, D.R.; Pashin, J.C.; Carroll, R.E.

    2009-01-01

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the adsorption kinetic behavior of pure and mixed gases (CO2, CH4, approximately equimolar CO2 + CH4 mixtures, and He) on a coal sample obtained from the Black Warrior Basin at the Littleton Mine (Twin Pine Coal Company), Jefferson County, west-central Alabama. The sample was from the Mary Lee coal zone of the Pottsville Formation (Lower Pennsylvanian). Experiments with three size fractions (45-150????m, 1-2??mm, and 5-10??mm) of crushed coal were performed at 40????C and 35????C over a pressure range of 1.4-6.9??MPa to simulate coalbed methane reservoir conditions in the Black Warrior Basin and provide data relevant for enhanced coalbed methane recovery operations. The following key observations were made: (1) CO2 adsorption on both dry and water-saturated coal is much more rapid than CH4 adsorption; (2) water saturation decreases the rates of CO2 and CH4 adsorption on coal surfaces, but it appears to have minimal effects on the final magnitude of CO2 or CH4 adsorption if the coal is not previously exposed to CO2; (3) retention of adsorbed CO2 on coal surfaces is significant even with extreme pressure cycling; and (4) adsorption is significantly faster for the 45-150????m size fraction compared to the two coarser fractions. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V.

  16. Assessing floods and droughts in the Mékrou River basin (West Africa): a combined household survey and climatic trends analysis approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markantonis, Vasileios; Farinosi, Fabio; Dondeynaz, Celine; Ameztoy, Iban; Pastori, Marco; Marletta, Luca; Ali, Abdou; Carmona Moreno, Cesar

    2018-05-01

    The assessment of natural hazards such as floods and droughts is a complex issue that demands integrated approaches and high-quality data. Especially in African developing countries, where information is limited, the assessment of floods and droughts, though an overarching issue that influences economic and social development, is even more challenging. This paper presents an integrated approach to assessing crucial aspects of floods and droughts in the transboundary Mékrou River basin (a portion of the Niger River basin in West Africa), combining climatic trends analysis and the findings of a household survey. The multivariable trend analysis estimates, at the biophysical level, the climate variability and the occurrence of floods and droughts. These results are coupled with an analysis of household survey data that reveals the behaviour and opinions of local residents regarding the observed climate variability and occurrence of flood and drought events, household mitigation measures, and the impacts of floods and droughts. Based on survey data analysis, the paper provides a per-household cost estimation of floods and droughts that occurred over a 2-year period (2014-2015). Furthermore, two econometric models are set up to identify the factors that influence the costs of floods and droughts to impacted households.

  17. Freshwater fish faunas, habitats and conservation challenges in the Caribbean river basins of north-western South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Segura, L F; Galvis-Vergara, G; Cala-Cala, P; García-Alzate, C A; López-Casas, S; Ríos-Pulgarín, M I; Arango, G A; Mancera-Rodríguez, N J; Gutiérrez-Bonilla, F; Álvarez-León, R

    2016-07-01

    The remarkable fish diversity in the Caribbean rivers of north-western South America evolved under the influences of the dramatic environmental changes of neogene northern South America, including the Quechua Orogeny and Pleistocene climate oscillations. Although this region is not the richest in South America, endemism is very high. Fish assemblage structure is unique to each of the four aquatic systems identified (rivers, streams, floodplain lakes and reservoirs) and community dynamics are highly synchronized with the mono-modal or bi-modal flooding pulse of the rainy seasons. The highly seasonal multispecies fishery is based on migratory species. Freshwater fish conservation is a challenge for Colombian environmental institutions because the Caribbean trans-Andean basins are the focus of the economic development of Colombian society, so management measures must be directed to protect aquatic habitat and their connectivity. These two management strategies are the only way for helping fish species conservation and sustainable fisheries. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  18. The interrelation of circulation processes in the atmosphere by B. L. Dzerdzeyevskiy with the change of runoff in the basins of rivers of South Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tursunova, Aisulu

    2017-05-01

    The article contains analysis of the interrelation of circulation processes in the atmosphere with the change of runoff in the basins of rivers. The results of estimates which show the relationship of circulation processes in the atmosphere with the runoff of the zone of formation of one of southern regions of Kazakhstan are discussed. The typification of circulation processes by B. L. Dzerdzeyevskiy and previously made estimates of water resources in the basins of rivers of South Kazakhstan were assumed as a basis. Certain areas were considered in this work: the Ile-Balkash basin, basin of rivers Shu-Talas and basin of the Syrdariya river, each basin is considered separately, since the runoff varies by regions and by the value of fluctuations, it is not permanent, because of the various factors of runoff formation in individual basins of that region. The calculations performed have shown the possibility of using typification of elementary circulation mechanism (ECM) for further researches of climatic changes, including to determine the direction of change of river runoff in other river basins. The created database on annual values of each of the 41 types of ECM can be used in other studies as well.

  19. Some peculiarities of basin petroleum potential, mediterranean belt, in connection with estimating oil potential of large depths, south Caspian province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belonin, M.D.; Sobolev, V.S.

    2002-01-01

    Full text : Some peculiarities of occuring and forming oil pools in the richest south Caspian province are considered in connection with the problems concerning the estimation of oil potential of large depths. On the data of A.A. Ali-zade (1981, 1985) and other researchers, in the direction of regional subsidence of sedimentary beds, gas saturation of fluids increases and oil pools change progressively into gas-oil and gas-condensate ones. The continental margins of a transitional stage between the synoceanic and final phases of developing a continent-ocean system are present in the Mediterranean belt including its west component in the Mexico-Caribbean region. Some new results of a chromatographic analysis of nonfractional oils were received. The indices of individual hydrocarbon composition are indicative of the presence of wide vertical hydrocarbon migration during forming multibedded offshore hydrocarbon fields in south Caspian. In the south Caspian offshore, the composition of oils found in the range between 4-6 km is in agreement with the composition of fluids of the main zone of oil generation. It suggests the generation of liquid hydrocarbons at depths exceeding 6.5 km.

  20. Qualitative Interpretation Of Aerogravity And Aeromagnetic Survey Data Over The South Western Part Of The Volta River Basin Of Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Hinson

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The study area South western part of Volta River Basin of Ghana covering an area of 8570 km2 which is one-eleventh the area of the Volta River basin of Ghana has been subjected to numerous academic research works but geophysical survey works because of virtual perceptive reasons. It is now believed to overly mineral-rich geological structures hence the use of magnetic and gravity survey methods to bring out these mineral-rich geological structures.Geographically it study area is located at the south western part of the Voltaian basin at latitudes 07o 00 N and 08o 00 N and longitudes 02o 00 W and 01o 00 W respectively. Airborne gravity and magnetic survey methods were employed in the data collection. The field data correction and error reduction were applied to the two raw data on the field after which Geosoft Oasis Montaj 7.01 Encom Profile Analysis P.A 11 and 13 Model Vision 12 and ArcGIS 10.0 were used to process enhance e.g. reduce to pole at low latitude first vertical derivative etc. model the reduced and corrected airborne magnetic data and also to produce maps from them data. Low-to-moderate-to-high gravity and magnetic anomalies were obtained in the complete Bouguer anomaly CBA and total magnetic intensity TMI reduced to pole at low latitude with many of these anomalies trending NE-SW by which the Birimian Metasediments and Metavolcanics can be said to be part of the causative structures of these anomalies with cross-cut NW-SE faults. From the quantitative point of view the intrusive granitic bodies of the study area have a mean depth location of 1.7 km while the isolated anomaly is located at a depth of 1.4 km computed from Euler deconvolution. The NE-SW trending anomalies show the trend direction of their causative structures which are the basement rocks and the basinal intrusive bodies.

  1. Determination of the water quality index ratings of water in the Mpumalanga and North West provinces, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanda, Elijah M. M.; Mamba, Bhekie B.; Msagati, Titus A. M.

    2016-04-01

    This study reports on the water quality index (WQI) of wastewater and drinking water in the Mpumalanga and North West provinces of South Africa. The WQI is one of the most effective tools available to water sustainability researchers, because it provides an easily intelligible ranking of water quality on a rating scale from 0 to 100, based on the ascription of different weightings to several different parameters. In this study the WQI index ratings of wastewater and drinking water samples were computed according to the levels of pH, electrical conductivity (EC), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), E. coli, temperature, turbidity and nutrients (nitrogen and phosphates) found in water samples collected from the two provinces between June and December, 2014. This study isolated three groups of WQ-rated waters, namely: fair (with a WQI range = 32.87-38.54%), medium (with a WQI range = 56.54-69.77%) and good (with a WQI range = 71.69-81.63%). More specifically, 23%, 23% and 54% of the sampled sites registered waters with fair, medium and good WQ ratings respectively. None of the sites sampled during the entire period of the project registered excellent or very good water quality ratings, which would ordinarily indicate that no treatment is required to make it fit for human consumption. Nevertheless, the results obtained by the Eerstehoek and Schoemansville water treatment plants in Mpumalanga and North West provinces, respectively, suggest that substantial improvement in the quality of water samples is possible, since the WQI values for all of the treated samples were higher than those for raw water. Presence of high levels of BOD, low levels of dissolved oxygen (DO), E. coli, nitrates and phosphates especially in raw water samples greatly affected their overall WQ ratings. It is recommended that a point-of-use system should be introduced to treat water intended for domestic purposes in the clean-water-deprived areas.

  2. Sedimentary basin analysis and petroleum potential of the Cretaceous and Tertiary strata in Korea.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Jin-Dam; Kwak, Young-Hoon; Bong, Pil-Yoon [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (KR)] (and others)

    1999-12-01

    Since 1992 sedimentary basin analysis to assess petroleum potential of the Cretaceous and Tertiary strata in the Korean onshore and continental shelf have been carried out. The Cretaceous non-marine strata mainly occupy the Gyeongsang Basin in southeastern part of the Korean Peninsula and small basins such as Haenam and Gyeokpo depressions in western coastal areas. The Tertiary strata are mostly distributed in Domi, Cheju, Socotra subbasins, and Okinawa Trough in the South Continental Shelf, and Kunsan and Heuksan basins in the West. The basin evolution and petroleum potential for each basins are characterized as follow. The Cretaceous Gyeongsang sediments were deposited in three subbasins including Milyang, Euisung and Yongyang subbasins. The black shales in Nakdong and Jinju formations are interpreted to contain abundant organic matter during the deposition, thermal maturity reaching up to the zone of dry gas formation. Because porosity and permeability are too low, the sandstones can act as a tight gas reservoir rather than conventional oil and gas reservoir. The latest Cretaceous strata of Haenam and Kyeokpo depressions in western coastal area are correlated into the Yuchon Volcanic Group of the Gyeongsang Basin. Petroleum potential of the Early Cretaceous basin in the West Continental Shelf could be relatively high in terms of sedimentary basin filled with thick lacustrine sediments. The Kunsan basin in the West Continental Shelf originated in the Early Cretaceous time expanded during the Paleocene time followed by regional erosion at the end of Paleocene on which Neogene sediment have been accumulated. The Paleocene-Eocene sublacustrine shales may play an major role as a source and cap rocks. South Continental Shelf Basin is subdivided by Cheju subbasin in the center, Socotra Subbasin to the west, Domi Subbasin to the northeast and Okinawa Trough to the East. The potential hydrocarbon traps associated with anticline, titled fault blocks, fault, unconformity

  3. Evaluating LSM-Based Water Budgets Over a West African Basin Assisted with a River Routing Scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getirana, Augusto C. V.; Boone, Aaron; Peugeot, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    Within the framework of the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis (AMMA) Land Surface Model Intercomparison Project phase 2 (ALMIP-2), this study evaluates the water balance simulated by the Interactions between Soil, Biosphere, and Atmosphere (ISBA) over the upper Oum River basin, in Benin, using a mesoscale river routing scheme (RRS). The RRS is based on the nonlinear Muskingum Cunge method coupled with two linear reservoirs that simulate the time delay of both surface runoff and base flow that are produced by land surface models. On the basis of the evidence of a deep water-table recharge in that region,a reservoir representing the deep-water infiltration (DWI) is introduced. The hydrological processes of the basin are simulated for the 2005-08 AMMA field campaign period during which rainfall and stream flow data were intensively collected over the study area. Optimal RRS parameter sets were determined for three optimization experiments that were performed using daily stream flow at five gauges within the basin. Results demonstrate that the RRS simulates stream flow at all gauges with relative errors varying from -22% to 3% and Nash-Sutcliffe coefficients varying from 0.62 to 0.90. DWI varies from 24% to 67% of the base flow as a function of the sub-basin. The relatively simple reservoir DWI approach is quite robust, and further improvements would likely necessitate more complex solutions (e.g., considering seasonality and soil type in ISBA); thus, such modifications are recommended for future studies. Although the evaluation shows that the simulated stream flows are generally satisfactory, further field investigations are necessary to confirm some of the model assumptions.

  4. Application of sequence stratigraphy to carbonate reservoir prediction, Early Palaeozoic eastern Warburton basin, South Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiaowen S.; Stuart, W.J.

    1996-12-31

    The Early Palaeozoic Warburton Basin underlies the gas and oil producing Cooper and Eromanga Basins. Postdepositional tectonism created high potential fracture porosities, complicating the stratigraphy and making reservoir prediction difficult. Sequence stratigraphy integrating core, cuttings, well-log, seismic and biostratigraphic data has recognized a carbonate-dominated to mixed carbonate/siliciclastic supersequence comprising several depositional sequences. Biostratigraphy based on trilobites and conodonts ensures reliable well and seismic correlations across structurally complex areas. Lithofacies interpretation indicates sedimentary environments ranging from carbonate inner shelf, peritidal, shelf edge, deep outer shelf and slope to basin. Log facies show gradually upward shallowing trends or abrupt changes indicating possible sequence boundaries. With essential depositional models and sequence analysis from well data, seismic facies suggest general reflection configurations including parallel-continuous layered patterns indicating uniform neuritic shelf, and mounded structures suggesting carbonate build-ups and pre-existing volcanic relief. Seismic stratigraphy also reveals inclined slope and onlapping margins of a possibly isolated platform geometry. The potential reservoirs are dolomitized carbonates containing oomoldic, vuggy, intercrystalline and fracture porosities in lowstand systems tracts either on carbonate mounds and shelf crests or below shelf edge. The source rock is a deep basinal argillaceous mudstone, and the seal is fine-grained siltstone/shale of the transgressive system tract.

  5. Application of sequence stratigraphy to carbonate reservoir prediction, Early Palaeozoic eastern Warburton basin, South Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiaowen S.; Stuart, W.J.

    1996-01-01

    The Early Palaeozoic Warburton Basin underlies the gas and oil producing Cooper and Eromanga Basins. Postdepositional tectonism created high potential fracture porosities, complicating the stratigraphy and making reservoir prediction difficult. Sequence stratigraphy integrating core, cuttings, well-log, seismic and biostratigraphic data has recognized a carbonate-dominated to mixed carbonate/siliciclastic supersequence comprising several depositional sequences. Biostratigraphy based on trilobites and conodonts ensures reliable well and seismic correlations across structurally complex areas. Lithofacies interpretation indicates sedimentary environments ranging from carbonate inner shelf, peritidal, shelf edge, deep outer shelf and slope to basin. Log facies show gradually upward shallowing trends or abrupt changes indicating possible sequence boundaries. With essential depositional models and sequence analysis from well data, seismic facies suggest general reflection configurations including parallel-continuous layered patterns indicating uniform neuritic shelf, and mounded structures suggesting carbonate build-ups and pre-existing volcanic relief. Seismic stratigraphy also reveals inclined slope and onlapping margins of a possibly isolated platform geometry. The potential reservoirs are dolomitized carbonates containing oomoldic, vuggy, intercrystalline and fracture porosities in lowstand systems tracts either on carbonate mounds and shelf crests or below shelf edge. The source rock is a deep basinal argillaceous mudstone, and the seal is fine-grained siltstone/shale of the transgressive system tract.

  6. Governance and politics in the upper Limpopo River Basin, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Meissner, Richard

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available waterscape in the basin. Four events, namely, the politics of the Middle Iron Age State at Mapungubwe; the development of the Mapungubwe National Park and World Heritage Site; the management of water for the De Beers Venetia Diamond Mine...

  7. 75 FR 61414 - Basin Electric Power Cooperative: South Dakota PrairieWinds Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-05

    ... renewable energy goals. The resources or environmental factors that could be affected by the proposed... purpose and need, Basin Electric identified construction of the proposed Project as its best course of... environmental factors (e.g., soils, topography and geology, water resources, air quality, biological resources...

  8. Sediment compaction and pore pressure prediction in deepwater basin of the South China Sea: Estimation from ODP and IODP drilling well data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yangbing; Wu, Tuoyu; Sun, Jin; Zhang, Hanyu; Wang, Jiliang; Gao, Jinwei; Chen, Chuanxu

    2018-02-01

    Overpressure in deepwater basins not only causes serious soft sediment deformation, but also significantly affects the safety of drilling operations. Therefore, prediction of overpressure in sediments has become an important task in deepwater oil exploration and development. In this study, we analyze the drilling data from ODP Leg 184 Sites 1144, 1146, and 1148, and IODP Leg 349 Sites U1431, U1432, U1433, and U1435 to study the sediment compaction and controls in the northern South China Sea. Sedimentation rate, sediment content, distribution area, and buried depth are the factors that influence sediment compaction in the deepwater basin of the South China Sea. Among these factors, the sediment content is the most important. The fitted normal compacted coefficients and mudline porosity for an interval of 50 m shows disciplinary variation versus depth. The pore pressure predicted from different fitted results shows varying overpressure situations. The normal compaction trend from Site 1144 reflects the porosity variation trend in stable deposition basins in the northern South China Sea. The predicted pore pressure shows overpressure at Site 1144, which is attributed to compaction disequilibrium. Nevertheless, the mixed lithology column may influence the predicted over-pressure at Site 1148, which is responsible for the confusing result. Above all, we find that sediment compaction should serve as a proxy for pore pressure in the deepwater basin of the South China Sea.

  9. Biostratigraphy, palaeoecology and palaeogeography of the mainly marine Ager Formation (Upper Paleocene — Lower Eocene) in the Tremp Basin, Central-South Pyrenees, Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaemers, Pieter A.M.

    1978-01-01

    During the greater part of the Palaeogene the Tremp Basin was an area which underwent rapid subsidence as compared with the axial zone of the Pyrenees to the north, and the Ebro Massif to the south. As a result the sea occupied this area for a long time and deposition of the Ager Formation took

  10. Structure of the Karoo-age Ellisras Basin in Limpopo Province, South Africa in the light of new airborne geophysical data

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Fourie, CJS

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The Waterberg Coalfield is destined to become the major source of energy for South Africa in the future. In 2008, Coaltech Research Organisation funded an airborne magnetic and radiometric survey over the Karoo-age Ellisras Basin in which...

  11. Late Archaean tectonics and sedimentation of the South Rand area, Witwatersrand basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, R.M.

    1992-01-01

    The sedimentary fill of the southern part of the northeastern Witwatersrand basin consists of four unconformity bounded mega sequences. Early sedimentation took place in a stable, epi continental basin characterized by amphidromic flow. Gradual transgression to distal shelf facies was followed by gradual emergence to intertidal facies. Unconformity Bounded Mega sequence 2 shows that the basin underwent regression, in which discrete uplifts provided a source of granite-greenstone-derived sediment to associated braid plain aprons. Thereafter the basin subsided into a system almost identical to that in which Unconformity Bounded Mega sequence 1 developed. Unconformity Bounded Mega sequence 3 was deposited in a similar marine environment, on an angular unconformity in the east. Regional uplift occurred to the northwest of the basin. Unconformity Bounded Mega sequence 4 records progradation of a perennial braid plain controlled by uplift in the east, and by the minor influence of an uplift to the northwest. Rapid transgression resulted in submarine fan facies development, after which rapid emergence was controlled by uplift in the east, and to a lesser extent, the north. The braid plain was the site of extrusion of komatiitic lavas of the lower Ventersdorp Supergroup and was subsequently smothered by the sustained outpouring of a two kilometer-thick pile of basalts. Crustal extension climaxed after extrusion of felsic volcanics. This extension is antithetic to regional down-to-the-northwest, lower Ventersdorp Supergroup rifting. The last conspicuous phase of Precambrian tectonics is the superposition of a right-lateral wrench system on the early structural framework, after deposition of the lower Transvaal Sequence. Analysis of the samples was carried out by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. 243 refs., 119 figs., 8 tabs

  12. Knowledge and Understanding of the Hydrogeology of the Salt Basin in South-Central New Mexico and Future Study Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, G.F.; Chace, D.A.

    2006-01-01

    The Salt Basin covers about 2,400 square miles of south-central New Mexico and extends across the State line into Texas. As much as 57 million acre-feet of ground water may be stored within the New Mexico part of the Salt Basin of which 15 million acre-feet are potentially potable and recoverable. Recent work suggests that the volume of ground water in storage within the New Mexico portion of the Salt Basin may be substantially greater than 57 million acre-feet. In this report, aquifers contained in the San Andres, Bone Spring, and Victorio Peak Limestones and in the Yeso, Hueco, and Abo Formations are collectively referred to as the carbonate aquifer. Porosity and permeability of the major aquifer are primarily determined by the density and interconnectedness of fractures and karstic solution channels. The spatial variability of these fractures and karstic features leads to a large spatial variability in hydraulic properties in the carbonate aquifer. Ground water generally moves southward away from recharge areas along the northern border of the Salt Basin and generally moves eastward to southeastward away from areas of distributed recharge on the Otero Mesa and the Diablo Plateau. Ground water originating from these recharge areas generally moves toward the central valley. Present day discharge is mostly through ground-water withdrawal for agricultural irrigation. A zone of relatively low hydraulic gradient, corresponding to the location of the Otero Break, extends from near the Sacramento River watershed southward toward Dell City, Texas. Ground water in the carbonate aquifer generally is very hard and has dissolved-solids concentrations ranging from 500 to 6,500 milligrams per liter. Substantial variability exists in current estimates of (1) ground-water recharge, (2) natural ground-water discharge, (3) the volume of ground water in storage, (4) the volume of recoverable ground water, (5) the conceptual model of ground-water flow, (6) the distribution of ground

  13. Testing water demand management scenarios in a water-stressed basin in South Africa: application of the WEAP model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lévite, Hervé; Sally, Hilmy; Cour, Julien

    Like many river basins in South Africa, water resources in the Olifants river basin are almost fully allocated. Respecting the so-called “reserve” (water flow reservation for basic human needs and the environment) imposed by the Water Law of 1998 adds a further dimension, if not difficulty, to water resources management in the basin, especially during the dry periods. Decision makers and local stakeholders (i.e. municipalities, water users’ associations, interest groups), who will soon be called upon to work together in a decentralized manner within Catchment Management Agencies (CMAs) and Catchment Management Committees (CMCs), must therefore be able to get a rapid and simple understanding of the water balances at different levels in the basin. This paper seeks to assess the pros and cons of using the Water Evaluation and Planning (WEAP) model for this purpose via its application to the Steelpoort sub-basin of the Olifants river. This model allows the simulation and analysis of various water allocation scenarios and, above all, scenarios of users’ behavior. Water demand management is one of the options discussed in more detail here. Simulations are proposed for diverse climatic situations from dry years to normal years and results are discussed. It is evident that the quality of data (in terms of availability and reliability) is very crucial and must be dealt with carefully and with good judgment. Secondly, credible hypotheses have to be made about water uses (losses, return flow) if the results are to be meaningfully used in support of decision-making. Within the limits of data availability, it appears that some water users are not able to meet all their requirements from the river, and that even the ecological reserve will not be fully met during certain years. But the adoption of water demand management procedures offers opportunities for remedying this situation during normal hydrological years. However, it appears that demand management alone will not

  14. Rainfall-Driven Diffusive Hydrograph and Runoff Model for Two Sub-Basins within the Arroyo Colorado in South Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, M. C.; Al-Qudah, O.; Jones, K.

    2017-12-01

    The Arroyo Colorado, located within the Rio Grande Valley of South Texas, has been on the list for the State of Texas's most impaired rivers since the 1990's. Few models for the watershed discharge and contaminates transport have been developed, but all require specialized understanding of modeling and input data which must either be assumed, estimated or which is difficult, time-consuming and expensive to collect. It makes sense to see if a general, simpler `catchment-scale' lumping model would be feasible to model water discharge along the Arroyo. Due to its simplicity and the hypothesized diffusive nature of the drainage in the alluvial floodplain deposits of the Arroyo watershed, the Criss and Winston model was chosen for this study. Hydrographs were characterized, clearly demonstrating that the discharge to the Arroyo is greatly affected by precipitation, and which provided clear rain events for evaluation: 62 rain events over a ten-year time span (2007 - 2017) were selected. Best fit curves using the Criss and Winston lag time were plotted, but better fitting curves were created by modifying the Criss and Winston lag time which improved the fit for the rising limb portion of the hydrograph but had no effect on the receding limb portion of the graph. This model provided some insights into the nature of water transport along the Arroyo within two separate sub-basins: El Fuste and Harlingen. The value for the apparent diffusivity constant "b", a constant which encompasses all diffusive characteristics of the watershed or sub-basins in the watershed (i.e. the lumping constant), was calculated to be 0.85 and 0.93 for El Fuste and Harlingen, respectively, indicating that each sub-basin within the watershed is somewhat unique. Due to the lumping nature of the "b" constant, no specific factor can be attributed to this difference. More research could provide additional insight. It is suggested that water diffusion takes longer in the Harlingen sub-basin (larger "b

  15. Geohydrology of the Aucilla-Suwannee-Ochlockonee River Basin, south-central Georgia and adjacent parts of Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torak, Lynn J.; Painter, Jaime A.; Peck, Michael F.

    2010-01-01

    Major streams and tributaries located in the Aucilla-Suwannee-Ochlockonee (ASO) River Basin of south-central Georgia and adjacent parts of Florida drain about 8,000 square miles of a layered sequence of clastic and carbonate sediments and carbonate Coastal Plain sediments consisting of the surficial aquifer system, upper semiconfining unit, Upper Floridan aquifer, and lower confining unit. Streams either flow directly on late-middle Eocene to Oligocene karst limestone or carve a dendritic drainage pattern into overlying Miocene to Holocene sand, silt, and clay, facilitating water exchange and hydraulic connection with geohydrologic units. Geologic structures operating in the ASO River Basin through time control sedimentation and influence geohydrology and water exchange between geohydrologic units and surface water. More than 300 feet (ft) of clastic sediments overlie the Upper Floridan aquifer in the Gulf Trough-Apalachicola Embayment, a broad area extending from the southwest to the northeast through the center of the basin. These clastic sediments limit hydraulic connection and water exchange between the Upper Floridan aquifer, the surficial aquifer system, and surface water. Accumulation of more than 350 ft of low-permeability sediments in the Southeast Georgia Embayment and Suwannee Strait hydraulically isolates the Upper Floridan aquifer from land-surface hydrologic processes in the Okefenokee Basin physiographic district. Burial of limestone beneath thick clastic overburden in these areas virtually eliminates karst processes, resulting in low aquifer hydraulic conductivity and storage coefficient despite an aquifer thickness of more than 900 ft. Conversely, uplift and faulting associated with regional tectonics and the northern extension of the Peninsular Arch caused thinning and erosion of clastic sediments overlying the Upper Floridan aquifer southeast of the Gulf Trough-Apalachicola Embayment near the Florida-Georgia State line. Limestone dissolution in

  16. Analysis of cyclical sedimentation in the lower Permian Mchuchuma coalfield (South-West-Tanzania)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casshyap, S M; Kreuser, T; Wopfner, H

    1987-01-01

    A statistical approach by a modified Markov process model was used to prove that the lower Permian coal measures of the Tanzanian Mchuchuma basin developed distinct cyclicities during deposition. From results the transition path of lithologic states typical for this coal sequence is as follows: (A) coarse sandstone, (B) medium sandstone, (C) fine-very fine sandstone, (D) shale, (E) mudstone, (F) coal or (E+F) and again (A) coarse sandstone. The majority of cycles is asymmetric (ABCDEF-ABC..) but symmetrical cycles are present as well (ABCDEFED). The statistical results concur with observed sedimentological evidence of depositional environment. Fining upward cycles correspond to the development of basal channel bars, changing into levees, then into back swamps which are topped by coal swamps. Frequent interbedding of coal and mudstone in the upper part of the coal measures calls for periodic flooding and flushing of fine clastics into coal-forming swamps causing interruption of peat formation. Cyclical deposition is explained by wandering channels in response to varying discharge and rate of deposition, their lateral frequent shifting caused the formation of asymmetrical cycles in this fluviodeltaic depositional model. 33 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Natural sources of metals in the south of West Siberia landscapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roslyakov, N.A.; Kalinin, Yu.A.; Roslyakova, N.V.; Kropacheva, M.Yu.

    2008-01-01

    The present paper dwells on a negative effect of natural anomalous concentrations of heavy and radioactive metals on state-of-the-art landscapes, with their vertical zonality distinctly expressed and ore mineralization composition miscellaneous. In terms of ecology there are given data on element distributions depending on the vertical zonality and genetic belonging of West Siberian elementary landscapes. Natural geochemical anomalies are shown to have a long formation history. General distribution trend of Li, Be, B, P, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, Ge, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb, Mo, Ag, Sn, Te, Ba, W, Au, Pb, Bi, Hg, Th, U as well as Hf, Ta, Rb, Cs, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Yb, Lu in major types of the region rocks and levels of their anomalous concentrations have been analyzed. Against the regional background a significant effect upon ecogeochemistry of state-of-the-art landscapes of natural anomalies of heavy and radioactive metals genesis and composition of which find their reflection in the vertical zonality of the surface relief have been shown.

  18. Hard ticks (Ixodidae and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in south west of Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narges Sharifinia

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ticks are vectors of some important arthropod-borne diseases in both fields of veterinary and medicine, such as Lyme, tularemia, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, and some types of encephalitis as well as Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF. Iran is known as one of the main foci of CCHF in west of Asia. This study was conducted in DarrehShahr County because of the development of animal husbandry in this area to detect the fauna and viral infection of the hard ticks of livestock. A cross-sectional survey was conducted during 2011-2012 with random sampling in four villages. A sample of ticks was subjected to RT-PCR method for detection of viral infection. During the study period, 592 Ixodidae ticks were collected and identified as seven species of Hyalomma asiaticum, Hy. marginatum, Hy. anatolicum, Hy. dromedarii, Hy. detritum, Rhipicephalus bursa and Rh. sanguineus. More than 20% of these ticks were examined to detect the genome of CCHF virus while 6.6% were positive. All species of Hyalomma were found to be positive. A high rate of livestock was found to be infected with hard ticks, which can act as the vectors of the CCHF disease. Regarding infection of all five Hyalomma species captured in this area, this genus should be considered as the main vector of CCHF. Planning control program can be performed based on the obtained data on seasonal activity of Ixodidae to prevent animal infestation as well as to reduce the risk of CCHF transmission.

  19. LANDSCAPE-ECOLOGICAL PLANNING OF THE COASTAL ZONE OF SOUTH-WEST CRIMEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Danekina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the application of methods of landscape planning in order to maintain the sustainable state of the coastal south-western part of the Crimean peninsula. There are many protected landscapes in this territory, including reserves and other specially protected landscapes. However, the network of such specially protected natural resources can not fully satisfy the resources they consume and simultaneously maintain a favorable ecological situation in the region. The results of studies of the prospects and prerequisites for the formation and preservation of the landscape-ecological framework of the South-Western Crimea have been presented. Various groups of factors that negatively affect the ecological state of the region are analyzed, among them construction in coastal protective bands, recreational digression of soils and vegetation, pollution with industrial wastewater, illegal sand sampling, etc. Assessment of nature use structures has shown that the existing system needs landscape-ecological justification and planning. The structure of the landscape-ecological framework of the South-Western Crimea has been developed. Its elements have been identified, which contain natural “cores” subject to special protection, ecological corridors and buffer zones. In the course of the study, a mapping of the landscapeecological planning organization of the coastal territory of the Crimean coast has been carried out. The map-scheme shows the elements of the landscape-ecological framework, landscape zones and belts and types of anthropogenic landscapes. In the conditions of limited economic development of the territory, the landscape-ecological framework must include transformed anthropogenic landscapes. Landscape planning should be carried out taking into account regional features of the Black Sea coast, for this purpose the article gives a brief description of the landscape diversity and stability of landscape geosystems. The most

  20. Attrition and Opportunities Along the HIV Care Continuum: Findings From a Population-Based Sample, North West Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippman, Sheri A; Shade, Starley B; El Ayadi, Alison M; Gilvydis, Jennifer M; Grignon, Jessica S; Liegler, Teri; Morris, Jessica; Naidoo, Evasen; Prach, Lisa M; Puren, Adrian; Barnhart, Scott

    2016-09-01

    Attrition along the HIV care continuum slows gains in mitigating the South African HIV epidemic. Understanding population-level gaps in HIV identification, linkage, retention in care, and viral suppression is critical to target programming. We conducted a population-based household survey, HIV rapid testing, point-of-care CD4 testing, and viral load measurement from dried blood spots using multistage cluster sampling in 2 subdistricts of North West Province from January to March, 2014. We used weighting and multiple imputation of missing data to estimate HIV prevalence, undiagnosed infection, linkage and retention in care, medication adherence, and viral suppression. We sampled 1044 respondents aged 18-49. HIV prevalence was 20.0% (95% confidence interval: 13.7 to 26.2) for men and 26.7% (95% confidence interval: 22.1 to 31.4) for women. Among those HIV positive, 48.4% of men and 75.7% of women were aware of their serostatus; 44.0% of men and 74.8% of women reported ever linking to HIV care; 33.1% of men and 58.4% of women were retained in care; and 21.6% of men and 50.0% of women had dried blood spots viral loads <5000 copies per milliliter. Among those already linked to care, 81.7% on antiretroviral treatment (ART) and 56.0% of those not on ART were retained in care, and 51.8% currently retained in care on ART had viral loads <5000 copies per milliliter. Despite expanded treatment in South Africa, attrition along the continuum of HIV care is slowing prevention progress. Improved detection is critically needed, particularly among men. Reported linkage and retention is reasonable for those on ART; however, failure to achieve viral suppression is worrisome.

  1. Incidence of cassava mosaic disease and associated whitefly vectors in South West and North Central Nigeria: Data exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eni, Angela O; Efekemo, Oghenevwairhe P; Soluade, Mojisola G; Popoola, Segun I; Atayero, Aderemi A

    2018-08-01

    Cassava mosaic disease (CMD) is one of the most economically important viral diseases of cassava, an important staple food for over 800 million people in the tropics. Although several Cassava mosaic virus species associated with CMD have been isolated and characterized over the years, several new super virulent strains of these viruses have evolved due to genetic recombination between diverse species. In this data article, field survey data collected from 184 cassava farms in 12 South Western and North Central States of Nigeria in 2015 are presented and extensively explored. In each State, one cassava farm was randomly selected as the first farm and subsequent farms were selected at 10 km intervals, except in locations were cassava farms are sporadically located. In each selected farm, 30 cassava plants were sampled along two diagonals and all selected plant was scored for the presence or absence of CMD symptoms. Cassava mosaic disease incidence and associated whitefly vectors in South West and North Central Nigeria are explored using relevant descriptive statistics, box plots, bar charts, line graphs, and pie charts. In addition, correlation analysis, Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), and multiple comparison post-hoc tests are performed to understand the relationship between the numbers of whiteflies counted, uninfected farms, infected farms, and the mean of symptom severity in and across the States under investigation. The data exploration provided in this data article is considered adequate for objective assessment of the incidence and symptom severity of cassava mosaic disease and associated whitefly vectors in farmers' fields in these parts of Nigeria where cassava is heavily cultivated.

  2. Late Pleistocene glacial stratigraphy of the Kumara-Moana region, West Coast of South Island, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrows, Timothy T.; Almond, Peter; Rose, Robert; Keith Fifield, L.; Mills, Stephanie C.; Tims, Stephen G.

    2013-08-01

    On the South Island of New Zealand, large piedmont glaciers descended from an ice cap on the Southern Alps onto the coastal plain of the West Coast during the late Pleistocene. The series of moraine belts and outwash plains left by the Taramakau glacier are used as a type section for interpreting the glacial geology and timing of major climatic events of New Zealand and also as a benchmark for comparison with the wider Southern Hemisphere. In this paper we review the chronology of advances by the Taramakau glacier during the last or Otira Glaciation using a combination of exposure dating using the cosmogenic nuclides 10Be and 36Cl, and tephrochronology. We document three distinct glacial maxima, represented by the Loopline, Larrikins and Moana Formations, separated by brief interstadials. We find that the Loopline Formation, originally attributed to Oxygen Isotope Chronozone 4, is much younger than previously thought, with an advance culminating around 24,900 ± 800 yr. The widespread late Pleistocene Kawakawa/Oruanui tephra stratigraphically lies immediately above it. This Formation has the same age previously attributed to the older part of the Larrikins Formation. Dating of the Larrikins Formation demonstrates there is no longer a basis for subdividing it into older and younger phases with an advance lasting about 1000 years between 20,800 ± 500 to 20,000 ± 400 yr. The Moana Formation represents the deposits of the last major advance of ice at 17,300 ± 500 yr and is younger than expected based on limited previous dating. The timing of major piedmont glaciation is restricted to between ˜25,000 and 17,000 yr and this interval corresponds to a time of regionally cold sea surface temperatures, expansion of grasslands at the expense of forest on South Island, and hemisphere wide glaciation.

  3. Mapping of coastal aquifer vulnerable zone in the south west coast of Kanyakumari, South India, using GIS-based DRASTIC model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliraj, S; Chandrasekar, N; Peter, T Simon; Selvakumar, S; Magesh, N S

    2015-01-01

    The south west coast of Kanyakumari district in Tamil Nadu, India, is significantly affected by seawater intrusion and diffusion of pollutants into the aquifers due to unregulated beach placer mining and other anthropogenic activities. The present study investigates the vulnerability of the coastal aquifers using Geographic Information System (GIS)-based DRASTIC model. The seven DRASTIC parameters have been analyzed using the statistical equation of this model to demarcate the vulnerable zones for aquifer contamination. The vulnerability index map is prepared from the weighted spatial parameters, and an accounting of total index value ranged from 85 to 213. Based on the categorization of vulnerability classes, the high vulnerable zones are found near the beach placer mining areas between Manavalakurichi and Kodimanal coastal stretches. The aquifers associated with settlements and agricultural lands in the middle-eastern part have experienced high vulnerability due to contaminated water bodies. Similarly, the coastal areas of Thengapattinam and Manakudi estuary and around the South Tamaraikulam have also been falling under high vulnerability condition due to backwater and saltpan. In general, the nearshore region except the placer mining zone and the backwater has a moderately vulnerable condition, and the vulnerability index values range from 149 to180. Significantly, the northern and northeastern uplands and some parts of deposition zones in the middle-south coast have been identified as low to no vulnerable conditions. They are structurally controlled by various geological features such as charnockite, garnet biotite gneiss and granites, and sand dunes, respectively. The aquifer vulnerability assessment has been cross-verified by geochemical indicators such as total dissolved solids (TDS), Cl(-), HCO₃(-), and Cl(-)/HCO₃(-) ratio. The high ranges of TDS (1,842--3,736 mg/l) and Cl(-) (1,412--2,112 mg/l) values are well correlated with the observed high

  4. Trees as methane sources: A case study of West Siberian South taiga

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churkina, A. I.; Mochenov, S. Yu; Sabrekov, S. F.; Glagolev, M. V.; Il’yasov, D. V.; Terentieva, I. E.; Maksyutov, S. S.

    2018-03-01

    Within this study, we were measuring methane emission from the tree trunks, leaves and branches in the seasonally flooded forest and in the forested bogs (pine-shrub-sphagnum ecosystems or “ryams”) in south taiga zone of Western Siberia. Our results suggest that the tree trunks may act as a methane conductor from the soil to the atmosphere bypassing the methanotrophically active zones of soil. The tree methane flux depends on a trunk diameter and an ecosystem type. The average methane emission from tree trunks was 0.0061±0.0003 mg CH4·m-2·h-1 per unit of ground area. The methane emission from branches and leaves was zero.

  5. Rural-urban differentials of premature mortality burden in south-west China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chongsuvivatwong Virasakdi

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Yunnan province is located in south western China and is one of the poorest provinces of the country. This study examines the premature mortality burden from common causes of deaths among an urban region, suburban region and rural region of Kunming, the capital of Yunnan. Methods Years of life lost (YLL rate per 1,000 and mortality rate per 100,000 were calculated from medical death certificates in 2003 and broken down by cause of death, age and gender among urban, suburban and rural regions. YLL was calculated without age-weighting and discounting rate. Rates were age-adjusted to the combined population of three regions. However, 3% discounting rate and a standard age-weighting function were included in the sensitivity analysis. Results Non-communicable diseases contributed the most YLL in all three regions. The rural region had about 50% higher premature mortality burden compared to the other two regions. YLL from infectious diseases and perinatal problems was still a major problem in the rural region. Among non-communicable diseases, YLL from stroke was the highest in the urban/suburban regions; COPD followed as the second and was the highest in the rural region. Mortality burden from injuries was however higher in the rural region than the other two regions, especially for men. Self-inflicted injuries were between 2–8 times more serious among women. The use of either mortality rate or YLL gives a similar conclusion regarding the order of priority. Reanalysis with age-weighting and 3% discounting rate gave similar results. Conclusion Urban south western China has already engaged in epidemiological pattern of developed countries. The rural region is additionally burdened by diseases of poverty and injury on top of the non-communicable diseases.

  6. The Pan-African Damara Orogen of South West Africa/Namibia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.McG.

    1983-01-01

    The structural grain of the Damara orogen points to a reversal of spreading and to north-westward subduction of the African cratons below a South American craton and of the Kalahari Craton below the Congo Craton. D 1 recumbent folding was followed by intrusion of 650 m.y.-old granitic rocks, uplift and erosion and deposition of a northern molasse. D 2 deformation in the coastal arm marked the continental collision phase in this region. The final, large-scale deformational event in this region caused westward-vergent back folding which was followed by intrusion of 570 m.y.-old post-tectonic granites. In the Central Zone, widespread intrusion of 550 m.y.-old, syntectonic granites and extrusion of their volcanic equivalents in a 150 km-wide, high-temperature-low-pressure zone along the leading edge of the Congo Craton was accompanied by uplift, erosion and the deposition of K-rich greywackes as a fore-arc sequence above the earlier, spreading-phase deposits in the closing Southern Zone ocean. Sedimentological aspects of the Damara along the southern margin of the orogen suggest that the lower Nama Group, which contains a unique Ediacara fauna and was derived from easterly sources, was deposited between about 650 and 550 m.y. ago during deformation north of the Southern Zone ocean. During the final major deformation event in the Central Zone (D 3 doming), the fore-arc deposits and the underlying passive-margin sediments to the south were deformed. The Damaran granitic rocks are Hercynotype; granites make up 96 per cent of the more than 200 plutons. Average compositions have a slightly less calc-alkaline character than typical compressional margin granitic suites. Early granites have I-type chemistries and appear to have been derived from deep crustal sources, whereas most of the young granites have intermediate to S-type compositions and were generated at various crustal levels

  7. Rural-urban differentials of premature mortality burden in south-west China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Le; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi

    2006-10-14

    Yunnan province is located in south western China and is one of the poorest provinces of the country. This study examines the premature mortality burden from common causes of deaths among an urban region, suburban region and rural region of Kunming, the capital of Yunnan. Years of life lost (YLL) rate per 1,000 and mortality rate per 100,000 were calculated from medical death certificates in 2003 and broken down by cause of death, age and gender among urban, suburban and rural regions. YLL was calculated without age-weighting and discounting rate. Rates were age-adjusted to the combined population of three regions. However, 3% discounting rate and a standard age-weighting function were included in the sensitivity analysis. Non-communicable diseases contributed the most YLL in all three regions. The rural region had about 50% higher premature mortality burden compared to the other two regions. YLL from infectious diseases and perinatal problems was still a major problem in the rural region. Among non-communicable diseases, YLL from stroke was the highest in the urban/suburban regions; COPD followed as the second and was the highest in the rural region. Mortality burden from injuries was however higher in the rural region than the other two regions, especially for men. Self-inflicted injuries were between 2-8 times more serious among women. The use of either mortality rate or YLL gives a similar conclusion regarding the order of priority. Reanalysis with age-weighting and 3% discounting rate gave similar results. Urban south western China has already engaged in epidemiological pattern of developed countries. The rural region is additionally burdened by diseases of poverty and injury on top of the non-communicable diseases.

  8. Soil Erosion and Sediment Yield Modelling in the Pra River Basin of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kusimi

    sediment delivery ratio; soil erosion modelling; sediment yield modelling. .... The basin falls within the wet semi-equitorial climatic belt which is ... influence of the moist south-west monsoons during the rainy season, with high .... availability of good satellite images covering the study area; because of thick cloud cover most.

  9. [Molecular-biologic analysis of avian influenza virus isolates which caused epizootics on the south of West Siberia and in Crimea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishchenko, G G; Berezhnov, S P; Shestopalov, A M; Alekseev, A Iu; Ternovoĭ, V A; Khaĭtovich, A B; Kroviakova, M T; Netesov, S V; Drozdov, I G

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine reasons of poultry deaths in Crimea Republic in December 2005 as well as isolation, identification, and comparative analysis of pathogens, which caused epizootics in Siberia and Crimea. During epizootic in poultry in North-East Crimea highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1 was isolated. Phylogenetic analysis of RNA sequences revealed that they belong to one big cluster. Isolated strain was close to viruses, which caused epizootic in July-August 2005 in the south of West Siberia. Conclusion about the high importance of the south of West Siberia in spreading of highly pathogenic influenza viruses H5N1 in Eurasia was made.

  10. Characterization of gas hydrate distribution using conventional 3D seismic data in the Pearl River Mouth Basin, South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiujuan; Qiang, Jin; Collett, Timothy S.; Shi, Hesheng; Yang, Shengxiong; Yan, Chengzhi; Li, Yuanping; Wang, Zhenzhen; Chen, Duanxin

    2016-01-01

    A new 3D seismic reflection data volume acquired in 2012 has allowed for the detailed mapping and characterization of gas hydrate distribution in the Pearl River Mouth Basin in the South China Sea. Previous studies of core and logging data showed that gas hydrate occurrence at high concentrations is controlled by the presence of relatively coarse-grained sediment and the upward migration of thermogenic gas from the deeper sediment section into the overlying gas hydrate stability zone (BGHSZ); however, the spatial distribution of the gas hydrate remains poorly defined. We used a constrained sparse spike inversion technique to generate acoustic-impedance images of the hydrate-bearing sedimentary section from the newly acquired 3D seismic data volume. High-amplitude reflections just above the bottom-simulating reflectors (BSRs) were interpreted to be associated with the accumulation of gas hydrate with elevated saturations. Enhanced seismic reflections below the BSRs were interpreted to indicate the presence of free gas. The base of the BGHSZ was established using the occurrence of BSRs. In areas absent of well-developed BSRs, the BGHSZ was calculated from a model using the inverted P-wave velocity and subsurface temperature data. Seismic attributes were also extracted along the BGHSZ that indicate variations reservoir properties and inferred hydrocarbon accumulations at each site. Gas hydrate saturations estimated from the inversion of acoustic impedance of conventional 3D seismic data, along with well-log-derived rock-physics models were also used to estimate gas hydrate saturations. Our analysis determined that the gas hydrate petroleum system varies significantly across the Pearl River Mouth Basin and that variability in sedimentary properties as a product of depositional processes and the upward migration of gas from deeper thermogenic sources control the distribution of gas hydrates in this basin.

  11. Natural radionuclides by gammaspectrometry in region of West-south Serbia, for 1998, 1997 and 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaskovic, I.; Vukovic, D.M. [Institute of Occupational and Radiological Health, Deligradska 29, Belgrade, Yugoslavia, Faculty of Physical Chemistry, Studentski trg 12, Belgrade (Yugoslavia); Markovic, D. [Faculty of Physical Chemistry, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    2000-05-01

    Region of West Serbia, known as Uzicki region, as a agriculture and industry region, with cities: Uzice, Cacak, Kraljevo and Valjevo is important part of Yugoslavia for development. Radioactivity comes mostly from natural radionuclides and partly from long-lived radionuclides from non natural sources as a consequence of Chernobyl accident. Monitoring of environment has proceeded by vertical methodology. We analyzed: aerosol, soil, fallout (wet and dry deposition), rivers, lakes, drinking water, human and animal food. Results from analyze of samples of environment contains very low activity, actually activity of changes of basic signal. Results for 1998, 1997 and 1996 are: 1. Gamma dose was measure in Belgrade with median years values: 0.103 {mu}G/h (1998), 0.077 {mu}G/h (1997) and 0.0722 {mu}G/h (1996). 2. By gammaspectrometry analyze of air of months samples for each year, results shows activity of changes of basic signal. The signals are coming from natural radionuclides. 3. {sup 137}Cs, as a long lived radionuclide, with remarkable activity in soil analyzed from Zlatibor and result are :32.3-173 Bq/kg (1998), -Bq/kg (1997) and 33-122.7 Bq/kg (1996). 4. Activity in the rivers for these region not analyzed. 5. Activity of drinking waters, from city network shows low level of activity which comes from {sup 40}K, for both places. 6. Activity in human food, measured in yogurt, meats, bread and agricultural products comes from {sup 40}K Uzice 32.4-168 Bq/kg (1998), Bq/kg (1997) and 55.2-164 Bq/kg (1996). Activities of {sup 137}Cs are 1 Bq/kg. Results of analyze of animal food shows same results. The samples were collected according to methods determined by the Regulations. (author)

  12. Natural radionuclides by gammaspectrometry in region of West-south Serbia, for 1998, 1997 and 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaskovic, I.; Vukovic, D.M.; Markovic, D.

    2000-01-01

    Region of West Serbia, known as Uzicki region, as a agriculture and industry region, with cities: Uzice, Cacak, Kraljevo and Valjevo is important part of Yugoslavia for development. Radioactivity comes mostly from natural radionuclides and partly from long-lived radionuclides from non natural sources as a consequence of Chernobyl accident. Monitoring of environment has proceeded by vertical methodology. We analyzed: aerosol, soil, fallout (wet and dry deposition), rivers, lakes, drinking water, human and animal food. Results from analyze of samples of environment contains very low activity, actually activity of changes of basic signal. Results for 1998, 1997 and 1996 are: 1. Gamma dose was measure in Belgrade with median years values: 0.103 μG/h (1998), 0.077 μG/h (1997) and 0.0722 μG/h (1996). 2. By gammaspectrometry analyze of air of months samples for each year, results shows activity of changes of basic signal. The signals are coming from natural radionuclides. 3. 137 Cs, as a long lived radionuclide, with remarkable activity in soil analyzed from Zlatibor and result are :32.3-173 Bq/kg (1998), -Bq/kg (1997) and 33-122.7 Bq/kg (1996). 4. Activity in the rivers for these region not analyzed. 5. Activity of drinking waters, from city network shows low level of activity which comes from 40 K, for both places. 6. Activity in human food, measured in yogurt, meats, bread and agricultural products comes from 40 K Uzice 32.4-168 Bq/kg (1998), Bq/kg (1997) and 55.2-164 Bq/kg (1996). Activities of 137 Cs are 1 Bq/kg. Results of analyze of animal food shows same results. The samples were collected according to methods determined by the Regulations. (author)

  13. Quaternary volcanism in Deception Island (Antarctica): South Shetland Trench subduction-related signature in the Bransfield Basin back arc domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gale, C.; Ubide, T.; Lago, M.; Gil-Imaz, A.; Gil-Pena, I.; Galindo-Zaldivar, J.; Rey, J.; Maestro, A.; Lopez-Martinez, J.

    2014-01-01

    Deception Island shows a volcanism related to the Phoenix Plate subduction and roll-back under South Shetland Block in the present times. The development of the island is related to the evolution and collapse of a volcanic caldera, and this study is focused on the petrology, mineralogy and geochemistry of the post-caldera rocks. We have made a study of the lava flows, dikes and the youngest historic eruption in 1970. These rocks range from dacite to rhyolite and have a microporphyritic texture with olivine and minor clinopyroxene. A pre-caldera basaltic andesite has also been studied. It has a microporphyritic texture with clinopyroxene. The intermediate and acid compositions alternating in the volcanostratigraphic sequence suggest either mafic recharge events or melt extraction from different levels in the deep magmatic system. All the studied compositions share a subduction-related signature similar to other magmatics from the Bransfield Basin. However, compositional differences between pre-caldera and post-caldera rocks indicate a different magma source and depth of crystallisation. According to the geothermobarometric calculations the pre-caldera magmas started to crystallise at deeper levels (13.5-15 km) than the post-caldera magmas (6.2-7.8 km). Specifically, the postcaldera magmas indicate a smaller influence of the subducting slab in the southwestern part of the Bransfield Basin in respect to the available data from other sectors as well as the involvement of crustal contamination in the genesis of the magmas. (Author)

  14. Permian storm current-produced offshore bars from an ancient shelf sequence : Northwestern Karoo basin, republic of South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A. M.; Zawada, P. K.

    The Ecca-Beaufort transition zone from the Karoo Basin comprises upward-coarsening sequences which are interpreted as prograding, storm-produced offshore bars. Eight facies are recognised: (A) dark-grey shale, (B) thinly interbedded siltstone and mudstone, (C) thinly interbedded siltstone and very fine-grained sandstone, (D) blue-grey coarse-grained siltstone, (E) low-angle truncated and flat-laminated sandstone, (F) wave-rippled sandstone, (G) planar cross-bedded sandstone, (H) intraformational clay-pellet conglomerate. Four sub-environments are recognised, these being: (1) the bar crest which comprises proximal tempestites, (2) the bar slope consisting of soft-sediment deformed siltstone, (3) the bar fringe/ margin which is composed of storm layers and offshore siltstones and (4) the interbar/offshore environment comprising siltstone and distal storm layers. These bars formed in response to wave and storm processes and migrated across a muddy shelf environment. The orientation of bars was probably coast-parallel to subparallel with respect to the inferred north-northwest-south-southeast coastline. These proposed, storm-produced bars acted as major depo-centres within the shelf setting of the study area. As shelf sediments are recorded from almost the entire northwestern Karoo Basin it is anticipated that bar formation was an important sedimentary factor in the deposition of the sediments now referred to as the Ecca-Beaufort transition zone.

  15. Genetic connectivity and phenotypic plasticity in the cyprinodont Aphanius farsicus from the Maharlu Basin, south-western Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholami, Z; Esmaeili, H R; Erpenbeck, D; Reichenbacher, B

    2015-03-01

    Meristic and morphometric characteristics, including otolith data, of the Farsi tooth-carp Aphanius farsicus, which is endemic to the endorheic Maharlu Basin in south-western Iran, were analysed for a sample of 92 individuals from four spring-streams; DNA sequence data (cytochrome b gene) are presented for 29 specimens. Some phenotypic variation was detected but the genetic data clearly indicate connectivity between the populations. Possible links between phenotypic variation and environmental variables such as water temperature, habitat size and absence or presence of predators and competitors are discussed. Based on a literature survey and the new data, it is concluded that population connectivity is maintained during times of droughts via large aquifers that formed during the late Pliocene to early Pleistocene, when the extant endorheic Maharlu Basin was created. Based on new data presented here and previous work, it is apparent that plastic and constant characteristics are present in Aphanius species, and that, if a population becomes isolated, a given trend of evolution may give rise to a taxonomically useful characteristic. © 2015 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  16. Flood-tracking chart for the Withlacoochee and Little River Basins in south-central Georgia and northern Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotvald, Anthony J.; McCallum, Brian E.; Painter, Jaime A.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with other Federal, State, and local agencies, operates a flood-monitoring system in the Withlacoochee and Little River Basins. This system is a network of automated river stage stations (ten are shown on page 2 of this publication) that transmit stage data through satellite telemetry to the USGS in Atlanta, Georgia and the National Weather Service (NWS) in Peachtree City, Georgia. During floods, the public and emergency response agencies use this information to make decisions about road closures, evacuations, and other public safety issues. This Withlacoochee and Little River Basins flood-tracking chart can be used by local citizens and emergency response personnel to record the latest river stage and predicted flood-crest information along the Withlacoochee River, Little River, and Okapilco Creek in south-central Georgia and northern Florida. By comparing the current stage (water-surface level above a datum) and predicted flood crest to the recorded peak stages of previous floods, emergency response personnel and residents can make informed decisions concerning the threat to life and property.

  17. Late Neogene low-angle thrusting on the northwestern margin of the South Carpathians (Poiana Rusca, West Romania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oczlon, Martin S.; Onescu, Dan

    2005-12-01

    Mineral exploration drillholes and geoelectric prospecting provide for the first time evidence for thrusting of the South Carpathian Paleozoic basement over northerly adjacent Middle Miocene sediments. Investigations were carried out in two locations, 30 km apart, along the northern margin of the Poiana Rusca Mountains, Romania, southwestern Carpathians. Drill holes in both locations encountered weakly consolidated Middle Miocene clay, sand, and fine gravel below Paleozoic low-grade metamorphic rocks. Intersections from various drill holes demonstrate the presence of low-angle thrusting. Kinematic indicators are so far lacking, but with a thrust direction oriented roughly normal to strike of the Poiana Rusca Mountains, minimum displacement is 1-1.4 km in northwestern or northern direction, respectively. Thrusting occurred most likely during the Late Miocene-Pliocene, whereafter Quaternary regional uplift dissected the thrust plane. In the tectonic framework of Neogene dextral translation of the Tisza-Dacia Block against the southerly adjacent Moesian Platform, transtension appears responsible for Middle Miocene basin formation along the northern margin of the Poiana Rusca region. Proceeding collision of the Tisza-Dacia Block with the East European Craton introduced stronger impingement of the Tisza-Dacia Block against the Moesian Platform, leading to a Late Miocene-Pliocene transpressional regime, in which the northern Poiana Rusca basement was thrust over its adjacent Middle Miocene sediments.

  18. Urban nature conservation: vegetation of natural areas in the Potchefstroom municipal area, North West Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.S. Cilliers

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available This study on the natural and degraded natural vegetation of natural areas in the Potchefstroom Municipal Area, forms part of a research programme on spontaneous vegetation in urban open spaces in the North West Province, South Africa. Using a numerical classification technique (TWINSPAN as a first approximation, the classification was refined by applying Braun-Blanquet procedures. The result is a phytosociological table from which 6 plant communities were recognised, which are subdivided in sub-communities and variants, resulting in 18 vegetation units. Some of these vegetation units are similar to communities described previously in natural areas. The presence of degraded natural communities suggests huge anthropogenic influences in certain areas. An ordination (DECORANA scatter diagram shows the distribution of the plant communities along gradients which could be related to vegetation structure, altitude, soil depth, rockiness of soil surface, wetness or dryness of the habitat and number of introduced species. This study contributes to the compilation of a guideline for a conservation orientated management plan for the area, but also created a wealth of new knowledge of the reaction of indigenous plant species under disturbed conditions.

  19. Sustainability Factor Related with the Implementation of Community Mental Health Nursing (CMHN in South and West Jakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esti Winahayu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the sustainability factor related with the implementation of CMHN in South and West Jakarta. The method of the study was cross sectional, data of the nurses was collected by questionnaire of CMHN and pearson correlation was used to analyzed the data. Interviews conducted on stakeholder to get stakeholder perceptions about the sustainability factor of CMHN. The ability of nurse in the implementation of CMHN is 45,86%. The nurse perception toward sustainability factor of CMHN is 67,49%. The result of study shows the significant relationship between the sustainability factor with the implementation of CMHN. The result of analysis interviews with stakeholder about 8 sustainability factors is obtained into several themes: the positive opinion of stakeholder toward the CMHN (the existence of nursing care to the patients, detecting of new case, and reducing stigma and the effort for the sustainability of CMHN (increasing the perception, budget planning, and socialization. The result of the study is recomended to improve the community mental health nursing service in other region. Keywords: CMHN nurses, stakeholder, sustainability, the implementation of CMHN

  20. Postmortem evidence of interactions of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) with other dolphin species in south-west England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, J; Davison, N; Deaville, R; Monies, R; Loveridge, J; Tregenza, N; Jepson, P D

    2009-10-10

    Reports of violent interactions between bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) and harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) in the coastal waters of the UK are well documented. Examination of stranded cetaceans by the Cornwall Wildlife Trust Marine Strandings Network and the UK Cetacean Strandings Investigation Programme has indicated that seven animals, of four other species, found stranded in south-west England, had pathology consistent with bottlenose dolphin interaction, including two juvenile and two adult common dolphins (Delphinus delphis), one juvenile pilot whale (Globicephala melas), one juvenile Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus) and one adult striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba). Although recorded traumatic lesions were often not as severe as those found in harbour porpoises, it is probable that the interactions did contribute to stranding and/or death in all four of the juvenile animals examined. Furthermore, analysis of photographs taken before establishment of the Marine Strandings Network revealed rake (teeth) marks consistent with bottlenose dolphin interaction on one stranded common dolphin in 1992. A number of causes have been suggested for these interactions in harbour porpoises stranded in the UK and it is possible that any combination of these factors may also be implicated in the cases described in this report.

  1. Three-dimensional architecture and development of Danianbryozoan mounds at Limhamn, south-west Sweden, usingground-penetrating radar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lars; Schack von Brockdorff, A.; Bjerager, Morten Gustav Erik

    2009-01-01

    in the Limhamn limestone quarry, south-west Sweden, obtained from combined reflected ground-penetrating radar signals and outcrop analysis provide new information about the architecture and growth development of such mounds. The mounds are composed of bryozoan limestone and dark-grey to black flint bands which...... outline mound geometries. Ground-penetrating radar data sections are collected over a 120 m by 60 m grid of data lines with trace spacing of 0·25 m, providing a depth penetration of 7 to 12 m and a vertical resolution of ca 0·30 m. The ground-penetrating radar images outline the geometry of the internal...... layering of the mounds which, typically, have widths and lengths of 30 to 60 m and heights of 5 to 10 m. Mound architecture and growth show great variability in the ground-penetrating radar images. Small-scale mound structures with a palaeorelief of only a few metres may constitute the basis for growth...

  2. Thermus tengchongensis sp. nov., isolated from a geothermally heated soil sample in Tengchong, Yunnan, south-west China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tian-Tian; Yao, Ji-Cheng; Ming, Hong; Yin, Yi-Rui; Zhou, En-Min; Liu, Min-Jiao; Tang, Shu-Kun; Li, Wen-Jun

    2013-03-01

    A Gram-stain negative aerobic bacterium, designated YIM 77924(T), was isolated from a geothermally heated soil sample collected at Rehai National Park, Tengchong, Yunnan province, south-west China. Growth was found to occur from 55 to 75 °C (optimum 65 °C), pH 6.0-8.0 (optimum pH 7.0) and 0-1 % NaCl (w/v). Cells were observed to be rod-shaped and the colonies convex, circular, smooth, yellow and non-transparent. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that strain YIM 77924(T) belongs to the genus Thermus. The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity values between strain YIM 77924(T) and other species of the genus Thermus were all below 97 %. The polar lipids of strain YIM 77924(T) were determined to be aminophospholipid, phospholipid and glycolipid. The predominant respiratory quinone was determined to be MK-8 and the G+C content was 66.64 mol%. The major fatty acids identified were iso-C(16:0), iso-C(15:0), iso-C(17:0) and C(16:0). On the basis of the morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics as well as genotypic data, strain YIM 77924(T) is proposed to represent a novel species, Thermus tengchongensis sp. nov., in the genus Thermus. The type strain is YIM 77924(T) (=KCTC 32025(T) = CCTCC AB2012063(T)).

  3. In situ gamma ray measurements of radionuclides at a disused phosphate mine on the West Coast of South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezuidenhout, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    High levels of uranium and its radioactive progeny like radium is normally associated with phosphate mining. In Situ gamma ray spectroscopy as a survey tool has been successfully applied to assess radionuclide concentrations in various geographical environments. A transportable and robust gamma ray detection system (GISPI) was therefore employed to determine the concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides at a disused phosphate mine on the West Coast of South Africa. The concentrations of radium, thorium and potassium were measured and plotted. The measurements showed fairly high concentrations with medians of 320 Bq/kg for "2"2"6Ra, 64 Bq/kg for "2"3"2Th and 390 Bq/kg for "4"0K. The highest concentrations were however confined to specific areas of the mine. The effective dose due to gamma irradiation for the various areas of the mine was also estimated and the highest estimated level was 0.45 mSv/y. The article finally draws conclusions as to the origins and impact of the radiation. - Highlights: • A self-developed transportable and robust gamma ray detection system (the GISPI) was employed in the measurements. • A different mathematical analysis method was used. • QGIS was used extensively. • The results is important for current developments in infrastructure and mining.

  4. Antibody detection of feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV in sera of companion cats in Ahvaz, south west of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyfiabad Shapouri, M.R.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV is ubiquitous in domestic cats, especially in young cats and multi-cat environments. In the present study, a total of 248 companion cats of different ages were examined for serum antibody detection of FIPV by immunochromatography assay. The cats were selected from those referring to Veterinary Hospital of Ahvaz University, southwestern Iran from December 2006 to June 2009. Classification was made by age, sex, breed, region and season. The studied cats were divided based on age into three groups ( 3 years and based on area into five regions (north, east, west, south and central. The results were analyzed by using Chi-square analysis and Fischer's exact test. Seventeen of 248 serum samples (6.85% had antibody against feline infectious peritonitis virus. Prevalence was significantly higher in young kittens less than 6 months (9.72%; 7 out of 72 and mean-age cats 6 months – 3 years (9.28%; 9 out of 97 compared with above 3 years (1.27%; 1 out of 79 (P0.05. It is necessary to control cat population in these area particular young cats to reduce risk of infection transmission between them.

  5. Regionally heterogeneous paleoenvironmental responses in the West African and South American monsoon systems on glacial to millennial timescales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanahan, T. M.; Hughen, K. A.; van Mooy, B.; Overpeck, J. T.; Baker, P. A.; Fritz, S.; Peck, J. A.; Scholz, C. A.; King, J. W.

    2008-12-01

    Although millennial-scale paleoenvironmental changes have been well characterized for high latitude sites, short-term climate variability in the tropics is less well understood. While the Intertropical Convergence Zone may act as an integrator of tropical climate changes, regional factors also play an important role in controlling the tropical response to climate forcing. Understanding these influences, and how they modulate the response to global climate forcing under different mean climate states is thus important for assessing how the tropics may respond to future climate change. Here, we examine new centennial-resolution records of paleoenvironmental change from isotopic and relative abundance data from molecular biomarkers in sediment cores from Lake Bosumtwi and Lake Titicaca. We assess the relative response of the West African and South American monsoon systems to millennial and suborbital-scale climate variability over the last ca. 30,000 years. While there is evidence for synchronous climate variability in the two systems, the dominant paleoenvironmental changes appear largely decoupled, highlighting the importance of regional climatology in controlling the response to climate forcing in tropical regions.

  6. Malaria survey and malaria control detachments in the South-West Pacific Area in World War 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocker, Denton W

    2009-01-01

    Malaria among troops in the South-West Pacific Area (SWPA) in World War 2 affected the military effort to the degree that special units were formed to combat it. These malaria survey detachments (MSDs) and malaria control detachments (MCDs) were self-contained and so could move quickly to wherever their services were needed. In SWPA by 25 September 1944 there were 32 MSDs and 65 MCDs. Tables of organization called for 11 enlisted men in MSDs and MCDs, two officers in MSDs and one in MCDs. Detachments served throughout the SWPA. Detailed records of the 31st MSD show that in addition to antimalarial efforts it worked at control of scrub typhus, dengue and venereal disease, at reduction of rat populations and in experimental work involving DDT and schistosomiasis. Specific locations of the 31st MSD were New Guinea (3 sites), Morotai, Leyte, Mindoro, Okinawa and Japan. The detachment served overseas for 21 months. Experience in combating malaria in SWPA in World War 2 points to the need for better and continuous training of both medical and line officers in malaria prevention and control.

  7. RUNOFF HYDROGRAPHS USING SNYDER AND SCS SYNTHETIC UNIT HYDROGRAPH METHODS: A CASE STUDY OF SELECTED RIVERS IN SOUTH WEST NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahab Adebayo Salami

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development of runoff hydrographs for selected rivers in Ogun-Osun river catchment, south west, Nigeria using Snyder and Soil Conservation Service (SCS methods of synthetic unit hydrograph to determine the ordinates. The Soil Conservation Service (SCS curve Number method was used to estimate the excess rainfall from storm of different return periods. The peak runoff hydrographs were determined by convoluting the unit hydrographs ordinates with the excess rainfall and the value of peak flows obtained by both Snyder and SCS methods observed to vary from one river watershed to the other. The peak runoff hydrograph flows obtained based on the unit hydrograph ordinate determined with Snyder method for 20-yr, 50-yr, 100-yr, 200-yr and 500-yr, return period varied from 112.63m3/s and 13364.30m3/s, while those based on the SCS method varied from 304.43m3/s and 6466.84m3/s for the eight watersheds. However, the percentage difference shows that for values of peak flows obtained with Snyder and SCS methods varies from 13.14% to 63.30%. However, SCS method is recommended to estimate the ordinate required for the development of peak runoff hydrograph in the river watersheds because it utilized additional morphometric parameters such as watershed slope and the curve number (CN which is a function of the properties of the soil and vegetation cover of the watershed.

  8. Prevalence of Cryptosporidium Infection in Immunocompromised Pa-tients, In South-West of Iran, 2009-10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Balouty Dehkordy

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cryptosporidium is a protozoan parasite with worldwide distribution. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection by antigen detection in faeces among immunocompromised patients referred to educational hospitals of Ahvaz City, South-West of Iran, 2009-2010.Methods: Fecal samples from 176 immunocompromised patients were collected and Cryptosporid­ium coproantigen test was performed using ELISA method (DRG kit, Germany. A questionnaire was completed for each case and the results were analyzed using descriptive and Chi-Square tests, by SPSS statistical software (15th version.Results: Our study indicated 5.1% Cryptosporidium infection prevalence in the immunocompro­mised participated population. Furthermore, 4.2 %, 4%, 4.5 % and 9.1% infection rates were identi­fied in children suffered from hematopoietic malignancy, adult cancer patients, renal trans­plant recipients, and HIV+ cases, respectively. There was not significant correlation between the infection and age and gender (P>0.05. Infection was most frequent among HIV+ patients.Conclusion: The present study confirmed the high prevalence of Cryptosporidium antigen in fe­cal samples of immunocompromised patients in the region. As no chemotherapeutic agents have yet proven, especially in immunosuppressed patients, therefore our results highlight the impor­tance of preventive intervention in these groups.

  9. Lihuaxuella thermophila gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated from a geothermal soil sample in Tengchong, Yunnan, south-west China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tian-Tian; Zhang, Bing-Huo; Yao, Ji-Cheng; Tang, Shu-Kun; Zhou, En-Min; Yin, Yi-Rui; Wei, Da-Qiao; Ming, Hong; Li, Wen-Jun

    2012-11-01

    A novel filamentous bacterium, designated YIM 77831(T), was isolated from a geothermal soil sample collected at Rehai National Park, Tengchong, Yunnan province, south-west China. Growth occurred from 28 to 65 °C (optimum 50 °C), pH 6.0-8.0 (optimum pH 7.0). The strain formed branched substrate mycelia, endospores were produced on the substrate mycelium and aerial mycelium was not produced on any of the growth media tested. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain YIM 77831(T) was affiliated with the family Thermoactinomycetaceae. The stain YIM 77831(T) contained meso-diaminopimelic acid in the cell wall. Whole-cell hydrolysates contained glucose, galactose, mannose, ribose and rhamnose. The polar lipids were phosphatidylmethylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, an unidentified aminophospholipid and four unknown phospholipids. The only menaquinone was MK-7. Major fatty acids were iso-C(15:0), anteiso-C(15:0) and anteiso-C(17:0). The G+C content was 55.6 mol%. On the basis of the morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics as well as genotypic data, strain YIM 77831(T) represents a novel genus and species, Lihuaxuella thermophila gen. nov., sp. nov., in the family Thermoactinomycetaceae. The type strain is YIM 77831(T) (CCTCC AA 2011024(T) = JCM 18059(T)).

  10. Psychological strengths, coping and suicide ideation in the South African Police Services In The North West Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rothmann

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Relatively high numbers of suicides occur in the South African Police Services. The objective of this research was to determine the relationship between sense of coherence, generalised self-efficacy, locus of control and coping on the one hand and suicide ideation among police personnel on the other hand. The study population (N = 287 consisted of uniformed police personnel in the North West Province. The results showed that sense of coherence and generalised self-efficacy are related to suicide ideation of police members. A discriminant analysis showed that sense of coherence, coping strategies and medical status correctly classified 81,48% of participants who scored high on suicide ideation. Opsomming ‘n Relatiewe hoë getal selfmoorde kom in die Suid-Afrikaanse Polisiediens voor. Die doelstelling van hierdie navorsing was om die verband tussen koherensiesin, algemene selfdoeltreffendheid, lokus van beheer en coping enersyds en selfmoorddenkbeeldvorming van polisiepersoneel andersyds te bepaal. Die studiepopulasie (N = 287 het bestaan uit polisiepersoneel in die Noordwes-Provinsie. Die resultate het aangetoon dat koherensiesin en algemene selfdoeltreffendheid verband hou met selfmoorddenkbeeldvorming by polisieper-soneel. ‘n Diskriminantontleding het aangetoon dat koherensiesin, coping-strategieë en mediese toestand 81,48% van die deelnemers met hoë tellings ten opsigte van selfmoorddenkbeeldvorming korrek geklassifiseer het.

  11. Prevalence of human pathogenic enteric viruses in bivalve molluscan shellfish and cultured shrimp in south west coast of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umesha, Kanasinakatte R; Bhavani, Naniah C; Venugopal, Moleyur N; Karunasagar, Indrani; Krohne, Georg; Karunasagar, Iddya

    2008-03-20

    The prevalence of human enteric viruses in bivalve molluscan shellfish and shrimp collected off the south west coast of India was studied to assess the extent of fecal pollution of coastal environment. Out of 194 samples analyzed, 37% of oyster, 46% of clam and 15% of shrimp samples were positive for enteroviruses (EV). Adenoviruses (ADV) were detected in 17% of oyster and 27% of clam samples. However, other enteric viruses such as noroviruses (NoV) and hepatitis A virus (HAV) were not detected in any of the samples. High prevalence of EV and ADV was noticed between May to December. Thirty four percent of oyster and 49% of clam samples showed fecal coliform values higher than the limit. MS-2 phage was detected in 57% of oyster and 73% of clam samples. The presence of MS-2 phage and human enteric viruses showed association while fecal coliforms and enteric viruses showed no association. However, 17 samples, which were positive for enteric viruses (EV and ADV), were negative for MS-2 phage.

  12. A study of environmental radon levels in rammed earth dwellings in the south west of Western Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, M.; Jennings, P.

    2002-01-01

    Indoor radon and thoron progeny Equilibrium Equivalent Concentrations (EEC) were measured with a portable 'Radon Sniffer' in 10 rammed earth dwellings and 10 conventional dwellings in Margaret River in the South West of Western Australia. Natural background gamma radiation was also measured within the dwellings. The results of this study show that the mean indoor radon progeny concentrations in rammed earth and non-rammed earth dwellings was 24 Bq m -3 EEC and 9.3 Bq m -3 EEC respectively. The mean indoor thoron progeny concentrations in rammed earth and non-rammed earth dwellings was 3.9 Bq m -3 EEC and 0.8 Bq m -3 EEC respectively. The ranges of combined indoor radon and thoron progeny concentrations in rammed earth and non-rammed earth dwellings were between 2.1 and 76 Bq m -3 EEC and 2.0 and 27 Bq m -3 EEC respectively. The mean annual effective radiation dose equivalents from combined indoor radon and thoron progeny concentrations EEC using UNSCEAR's (1982) conversion factors in rammed earth and non-rammed earth dwellings were 4.1 mSv y -1 and 2.2 mSv y -1 respectively. Copyright (2002) Australasian Radiation Protection Society Inc

  13. African catfish Clarias gariepinus farming practices in North and South 24 Parganas districts of West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thangapalam Jawahar Abraham

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Clarias gariepinus is widely cultured due to its tolerance to environmental extremes, high production and good feed conversion rate. This communication describes the farming practices of C. gariepinus in North and South 24 Parganas districts of West Bengal. Clarias gariepinus is cultured in ponds of 0.1–0.75 ha, where fingerlings were stocked at a density of 860–1150 cubic meter–1. The current practices of seed transportation were stressful to fish as the majority of the farmers noticed 5–10% mortalities, despite the use of antibiotics. Acclimatization of seeds was practiced by the majority of farmers before stocking. Different feeds including slaughter-house wastes and dead poultry were supplied. Multiple stocking and harvesting were a common practice. Major problems identified were insufficient feed, disease, transport, poor seed quality and lack of financial support. The survival percentage was poor, as 88% of the farmers recorded <40–50% survival at harvest. Dropsy was the most common disease and had a significant impact on economy. Antibiotics or other aquadrugs were frequently used for treatment, although the success varied. In general, the C. gariepinus farming has helped to recycle the wastes generated in and around metropolitan Kolkata and adjacent municipalities into wealth, but it suffers from management issues and huge economic losses. This calls for immediate attention from researchers, administrators and extension personals.

  14. Human Mycobacterium bovis infection in the south-west of Ireland 1983-1992: a comparison with M. tuberculosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cotter, T P

    2012-02-03

    Epidemiological and bacteriological aspects of human Mycobacterium bovis disease were investigated in south-west Ireland (counties Cork & Kerry, population 536,000) over the years 1983-92 inclusive and compared to M. tuberculosis. Results showed a small, stable incidence of culture positive M. bovis human disease, mean annual incidence 0.56 per 100,000 population compared to a higher but declining incidence of culture positive M. tuberculosis (15.3 per 100,000 in 1983, 9.0 per 100,000 in 1992). Male patients were the majority, 63.4 per cent of M. bovis; 62.4% of M. tuberculosis (p = 0.03). Fifty three per cent of M. bovis cases (n = 30) were pulmonary, compared to 85% of M. tuberculosis (n = 626; p = 0.0001). M. bovis patients were older (p = 0.02), mean age 58.4 years (SD 18.9) compared to 48.5 (SD 22.2). The mycobacterial smear positive rate was similar in both groups taken as a whole. No rural-urban difference in incidence was found in either disease, suggesting in the case of M. bovis initial infection in childhood via contaminated milk in the pre-pasteurisation era.

  15. Key attributes of agricultural innovations in semi-arid smallholder farming systems in south-west Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutsvangwa-Sammie, Eness P.; Manzungu, Emmanuel; Siziba, Shephard

    2018-06-01

    In Sub-Sahara Africa, which includes Zimbabwe, about 80% of the population depends on agriculture for subsistence, employment and income. Agricultural production and productivity are, however, low. This has been attributed to a lack of appropriate innovations despite the huge investments that have been made to promote 'innovations' as a means to safeguarding agriculture-based livelihoods, which raises the question of how innovations are conceptualized, designed and implemented. This paper explores the key attributes of agricultural innovations by assessing how innovations are conceptualized, designed and implemented in semi-arid smallholder farming systems in south-west Zimbabwe. The study gathered information from 13 key informants and a household survey of 239 farmer households from Gwanda and Insiza districts. Results showed a multiplicity of understandings of agricultural innovations among different stakeholders. However, novelty/newness, utility and adaptability were identified as the major attributes. In general, farmers characterized agricultural innovations as 'something new and mostly introduced by NGOs' but did not associate them with the key attributes of utility and adaptability. More crop-related innovations were identified despite the area being suitable for livestock production. The paper concludes that, rather than view the multiple and sometimes competing understandings of agricultural innovations as undesirable, this should be used to promote context specific innovations which stand a better chance of enhancing agriculture-based livelihoods.

  16. Incentives Packages And Employees’ Attitudes To Work: A Study Of Selected Government Parastatals In Ogun State, South-West, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hezekiah Olubusayo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available For any organization to compete favourably in the competitivesociety, employees’ attitudes and commitment towards work goes a long way indetermining the employees’ performance and organization productivity. The main objective of this study is to examine the effect ofincentives packages on employees’ attitudes towards work. A descriptive researchmethod was adopted for this study using one hundred twenty valid questionnaireswhich were completed by members of staff of four (4 selected governmentparastartals in Ogun State, South-West Nigeria using stratified and systematicsampling technique. The data collected were carefully analyzed using percentagesupported by standard deviation to represent the raw data in a meaningfulmanner. The results show that strong relationship exists between incentives packagesand employees’ attitudes towards work and the workers are not satisfied withthe present incentives packages. The summary of the findings indicates thatthere is strong correlation between the tested dependent variable andindependent construct. However, employers of labour and decision makers shouldendeavour to review incentives packages at various levels in order to earnemployees’ commitment and satisfaction.

  17. Incentives Packages and Employees’ Attitudes to Work: A Study Of Selected Government Parastatals In Ogun State, South-West, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hezekiah Olubusayo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For any organization to compete favourably in the competitive society, employees’ attitudes and commitment towards work goes a long way in determining the employees’ performance and organization productivity. The main objective of this study is to examine the effect of incentives packages on employees’ attitudes towards work. A descriptive research method was adopted for this study using one hundred twenty valid questionnaires which were completed by members of staff of four (4 selected government parastartals in Ogun State, South-West Nigeria using stratified and systematic sampling technique. The data collected were carefully analyzed using percentage supported by standard deviation to represent the raw data in a meaningful manner. The results show that strong relationship exists between incentives packages and employees’ attitudes towards work and the workers are not satisfied with the present incentives packages. The summary of the findings indicates that there is strong correlation between the tested dependent variable and independent construct. However, employers of labour and decision makers should endeavour to review incentives packages at various levels in order to earn employees’ commitment and satisfaction.

  18. Acceptance for Beneficial Use for the Canister Cleaning System for the K West basin Project - A.2.A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FARWICK, C.C.

    2000-01-01

    This documents the documentation that is required to be turned over to Operations with the Canister Cleaning System (CCS). The Acceptance for Beneficial Use will be updated as required prior to turnover. This document is prepared for the purposes of documenting an agreement among the various disciplines and organizations within the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project as to what is required in terms of installed components of the CCS. This documentation will be used to achieve project closeout and turnover of ownership of the CCS to K Basins Operations

  19. Egg cases of the graytail skate Bathyraja griseocauda and the cuphead skate Bathyraja scaphiops from the south-west Atlantic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabragaña, E; Vazquez, D M; Gabbanelli, V; Sabadin, D; Barbini, S A; Lucifora, L O

    2017-09-01

    Egg cases of Bathyraja griseocauda were larger (140-142 mm in length) than those of Bathyraja scaphiops (88-90 mm in length) and their surface was relatively smooth, without denticles, prickles or any ornamentation. Egg cases of B. scaphiops had a relative coarse surface, covered with prickles of similar size. An identification key for the all described egg cases from Bathyraja occurring in the south-west Atlantic Ocean is provided. © 2017 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  20. Effect of Land Use and Climate Change on Runoff in the Dongjiang Basin of South China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhu He

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Variability and availability of water resources under changing environment in a regional scale have been hot topics in recent years, due to the vulnerability of water resources associated with social and economic development. In this paper, four subbasins in the Dongjiang basin with a significant land use change were selected as case study. Runoffs of the four subbasins were simulated using the SCS monthly model to identify the quantitative impacts of land use and climate change. The results showed that (1, in the Dongjiang basin, temperature increased significantly, evaporation and sunlight decreased strongly, while precipitation showed a nonsignificant increase; (2 since the 1980s, land uses in the Dongjiang basin have experienced a significant change with a prominent increase in urban areas, a moderate increase in farmlands, and a great decrease in forest areas; (3 the SCS monthly model performed well in the four subbasins giving that the more significant land use change in each subbasin, the more runoff change correspondingly; (4 overall, runoff change was contributed half and half by climate change and human activities, respectively, in all the subbasins, in which about 20%~30% change was contributed by land use change.

  1. Nonindigenous Freshwater and Estuarine Species Introductions and their Potential to Affect Sportfishing in the Lower Stream and Estuarine Regions of the South and West Shores of Oahu, Hawaii: Data from 1998-1999 (NODC Accession 0001116)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Surveys of native and non-indigenous species along the south and west shores of Oahu (excluding Pearl Harbor) were funded by a grant from the David and Lucile...

  2. Presence of stratospheric humidity in the ozone column depletion on the west coast of South America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Da Silva, M. Luis; Gutierrez, O. Luis; Morales, S. Luis; Universidad de Chile, Santiago; Torres, C. Arnaldo

    2006-01-01

    The ozone column depletion over the western coast of South America has been previously explained, based on the existence of winds in the area of the depletion, which cause compression and thinning of the ozone layer. However, the presence of humidity and methane transported by these winds to the stratosphere where the ozone depletion is present gives evidence that these compounds also participate in the depletion of the ozone layer. These two compounds, humidity and methane, are analysed during the ozone depletion of January, 1998. It is observed that when humidity presents fluctuations, ozone has fluctuations too. A maximum of humidity corresponds to a minimum of ozone, but there is a shift in altitude between them. This shift is observed in the stratosphere and upper troposphere and corresponds to approximately 500 m. It is important to point out that during this event El Nino was present and the sources of methane are the Amazon forest and the Pacific Ocean. The data for this study was obtained from NASA and HALOE

  3. Late presentation and management of South Asian breast cancer patients in West Yorkshire, United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, Sreekumar Sundara; Lim, Jennifer N W; Haq, Anwar

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to bridge the knowledge gap and improve our understanding of the late presentation and management of breast cancer among South Asian women of non-oriental origin (SA) living in the United Kingdom. Retrospective review of the breast cancer waiting list data-base held at Calderdale and Huddersfield NHS trust was undertaken to identify SA women diagnosed with breast cancer from January 2000 to August 2007. We identified 41 (2.5%) SA women among 1,630 patients diagnosed with breast cancer during this period and 36 were included (median age=53.5 years, range=32-84). Only 19% (n=7) were screen detected and 81% (n=29) presented thorough symptomatic breast clinic. In the latter, 66% (n=19) were in the screening age group and 45% (n=13) presented beyond 8 weeks (late presentation). In our cohort, 91% (n=29) patients had advanced disease (TNM stage 2 and 3) resulting in a high mastectomy rate of 61% (n=22). 19% (n=7) died as a direct result of cancer and the remaining 78% (n=28) remains disease free following treatment thus far. The delay in presentation and poor national breast screening programme uptake among the SA women resulted in advanced disease at diagnosis. There is need for increasing the breast cancer awareness as well as encouraging breast screening among SA women in the UK.

  4. Risk of anaemia in HIV positive pregnant women in Ibadan, south west Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adesina, O; Oladokun, A; Akinyemi, O; Akingbola, T; Awolude, O; Adewole, I

    2011-03-01

    Anaemia in pregnancy is an important cause of maternal and neonatal mortality. It is a recognized co-morbidity of HIV infection. This study aimed to determine the risk of anaemia in HIV positive pregnant women. This is a cross sectional study of healthy pregnant women attending Adeoyo Hospital, a secondary health centre in South-western Nigeria over a 1-month period (January 2007). During the study period, 2737 eligible women presented for antenatal care. About 98% (2682) of these women consented to HIV testing. Over all, their mean (+ S.D) packed cell volume was 30.96% (+/- 4.13). The prevalence of HIV infection was 2.9% (95% CI 2.3% - 3.6%) and the overall prevalence of anaemia was 33.1%. Frequency of anaemia was significantly higher in HIV +ve women (57.3% vs. 42.7%, p = 0.00. OR = 2.81., CI = 1.72-4.58). HIV +ve women presented more frequently with moderate or severe anaemia. In the logistic regression analysis only HIV infection (OR = 2.4, 95% CI = 1.37-4.21) and primigravidity (OR = 1.25, 95% CI = 1.04-15.2) remained independently associated with anemia. Anaemia is common in HIV positive pregnant women in this environment. Care providers must endeavor to determine the HIV status of every pregnant woman especially if she presents with anaemia with a view to providing appropriate interventions.

  5. Uranium-series disequilibrium studies in phosphorite nodules from the west coast of South America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnett, W.C.; Veeh, H.H.

    1977-01-01

    Sedimentary phosphorites occurring on the sea floor off Peru and Chile have been analyzed for U and Th isotopes, to establish their ages and hence obtain clues for their mode of formation. Fission-track distribution studies indicate that the U is primarily associated with the apatite fraction. Uranium-series disequilibrium methods, therefore, should be applicable, if the U incorporation is syngenetic with the apatite. The fractionation of U isotopes between oxidation states in the relatively young phosphorites from South America is low compared to that in older deposits. This supports the contention of Kolodny et al., (Geochim.Cosmochim.Acta;34:3 (1970)) that the major mechanism of 234 U/ 238 U fractionation is