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Sample records for west area greenland

  1. Strategic environmental impact assessment of hydrocarbon activities in the Disko West area[Greenland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosbech, A; Boertmann, D; Jespersen, Martin

    2007-05-15

    This publication is a strategic environmental impact assessment of activities related to exploration, development and exploitation of hydrocarbons in the sea of West Greenland between 67 deg. and 71 deg. N (= the Disko West Area). (au)

  2. West Greenlandic Eskimo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trondhjem, Naja Blytmann; Fortescue, Michael David

    West Greenlandic Eskimo. The current situation of the West Greenlandic language as principal means of communication among the majority Greenlandic population will be presented with special emphasis on the northwest hunting district of Upernavik, where traditional marine mammal hunting is still...... the principal economic activity. Research projects and language initiatives currently in progress within Greenland will be touched upon, as will the possibilities of communication with North American Inuit. West Greenlandic is unique among the native languages of the North American Arctic and Sub...

  3. Population Structure of West Greenland Narwhals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riget, F.; Dietz, R.; Møller, P.

    The hypothesis that different populations of narwhals in the West Greenland area exist has been tested by different biomarkers (metal and organochlorine concentrations, stable isotopes and DNA). Samples of muscle, liver, kidney, blubber and skin tissues of narwhals from West Greenland have been...... isotopes could not support the population structure with two West Greenland populations suggested by the genetic study....

  4. Changing surface-atmosphere energy exchange and refreezing capacity of the lower accumulation area, West Greenland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charalampidis, C.; van As, D.; Box, J. E.; van den Broeke, M. R.; Colgan, W. T.; Doyle, S. H.; Hubbard, A. L.; MacFerrin, M.; Machguth, H.; Smeets, C. J. P. P.

    2015-01-01

    We present 5 years (2009–2013) of automatic weather station measurements from the lower accumulation area (1840 m a.s.l. – above sea level) of the Greenland ice sheet in the Kangerlussuaq region. Here, the summers of 2010 and 2012 were both exceptionally warm, but only 2012 resulted in a strongly

  5. Permafrost degradation in West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Niels Nielsen; Ingeman-Nielsen, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Important aspects of civil engineering in West Greenland relate to the presence of permafrost and mapping of the annual and future changes in the active layer due to the ongoing climatically changes in the Arctic. The Arctic Technology Centre (ARTEK) has worked more than 10 years on this topic...... and the first author has been involved since 1970 in engineering geology, geotechnical engineering and permafrost related studies for foundation construction and infrastructures in towns and communities mainly in West Greenland. We have since 2006 together with the Danish Meteorological Institute, Greenland...... Survey (ASIAQ) and the University of Alaska Fairbanks carried out the US NSF funded project ARC-0612533: Recent and future permafrost variability, retreat and degradation in Greenland and Alaska: An integrated approach. This contribution will present data and observations from the towns Ilulissat...

  6. Verbal aspects in West Greenlandic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trondhjem, Naja Blytmann

    2017-01-01

    In this article, lexical aspectual types in West Greenlandic are investigated in the five aspectual types, states, achievements, semelfactives, activities and accomplishments. It is shown that derivational verbalizing affixes include aspectual type congruent with the lexical aspect and how the as...

  7. Changing surface-atmosphere energy exchange and refreezing capacity of the lower accumulation area, West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charalampidis, C.; Van As, D.; Box, J. E.

    2015-01-01

    We present 5 years (2009-2013) of automatic weather station measurements from the lower accumulation area (1840 m a.s.l.-above sea level) of the Greenland ice sheet in the Kangerlussuaq region. Here, the summers of 2010 and 2012 were both exceptionally warm, but only 2012 resulted in a strongly...... negative surface mass budget (SMB) and surface meltwater run-off. The observed run-off was due to a large ice fraction in the upper 10 m of firn that prevented meltwater from percolating to available pore volume below. Analysis reveals an anomalously low 2012 summer-averaged albedo of 0.71 (typically ∼ 0.......78), as meltwater was present at the ice sheet surface. Consequently, during the 2012 melt season, the ice sheet surface absorbed 28 % (213 MJ m-2) more solar radiation than the average of all other years. A surface energy balance model is used to evaluate the seasonal and interannual variability of all surface...

  8. Changing surface-atmosphere energy exchange and refreezing capacity of the lower accumulation area, West Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charalampidis, C.; van As, D.; Box, J. E.; van den Broeke, M. R.; Colgan, W. T.; Doyle, S. H.; Hubbard, A. L.; MacFerrin, M.; Machguth, H.; Smeets, C. J. P. P.

    2015-11-01

    We present 5 years (2009-2013) of automatic weather station measurements from the lower accumulation area (1840 m a.s.l. - above sea level) of the Greenland ice sheet in the Kangerlussuaq region. Here, the summers of 2010 and 2012 were both exceptionally warm, but only 2012 resulted in a strongly negative surface mass budget (SMB) and surface meltwater run-off. The observed run-off was due to a large ice fraction in the upper 10 m of firn that prevented meltwater from percolating to available pore volume below. Analysis reveals an anomalously low 2012 summer-averaged albedo of 0.71 (typically ~ 0.78), as meltwater was present at the ice sheet surface. Consequently, during the 2012 melt season, the ice sheet surface absorbed 28 % (213 MJ m-2) more solar radiation than the average of all other years. A surface energy balance model is used to evaluate the seasonal and interannual variability of all surface energy fluxes. The model reproduces the observed melt rates as well as the SMB for each season. A sensitivity analysis reveals that 71 % of the additional solar radiation in 2012 was used for melt, corresponding to 36 % (0.64 m) of the 2012 surface lowering. The remaining 64 % (1.14 m) of surface lowering resulted from high atmospheric temperatures, up to a +2.6 °C daily average, indicating that 2012 would have been a negative SMB year at this site even without the melt-albedo feedback. Longer time series of SMB, regional temperature, and remotely sensed albedo (MODIS) show that 2012 was the first strongly negative SMB year, with the lowest albedo, at this elevation on record. The warm conditions of recent years have resulted in enhanced melt and reduction of the refreezing capacity in the lower accumulation area. If high temperatures continue, the current lower accumulation area will turn into a region with superimposed ice in coming years.

  9. Fluid flow and methane occurrences in the Disko Bugt area offshore West Greenland: indications for gas hydrates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Tove; Laier, Troels; Kuijpers, Antoon; Rasmussen, Tine L.; Mikkelsen, Naja E.; Nørgård-Pedersen, Niels

    2014-12-01

    The present study is the first to directly address the issue of gas hydrates offshore West Greenland, where numerous occurrences of shallow hydrocarbons have been documented in the vicinity of Disko Bugt (Bay). Furthermore, decomposing gas hydrate has been implied to explain seabed features in this climate-sensitive area. The study is based on archive data and new (2011, 2012) shallow seismic and sediment core data. Archive seismic records crossing an elongated depression (20×35 km large, 575 m deep) on the inner shelf west of Disko Bugt (Bay) show a bottom simulating reflector (BSR) within faulted Mesozoic strata, consistent with the occurrence of gas hydrates. Moreover, the more recently acquired shallow seismic data reveal gas/fluid-related features in the overlying sediments, and geochemical data point to methane migration from a deeper-lying petroleum system. By contrast, hydrocarbon signatures within faulted Mesozoic strata below the strait known as the Vaigat can be inferred on archive seismics, but no BSR was visible. New seismic data provide evidence of various gas/fluid-releasing features in the overlying sediments. Flares were detected by the echo-sounder in July 2012, and cores contained ikaite and showed gas-releasing cracks and bubbles, all pointing to ongoing methane seepage in the strait. Observed seabed mounds also sustain gas seepages. For areas where crystalline bedrock is covered only by Pleistocene-Holocene deposits, methane was found only in the Egedesminde Dyb (Trough). There was a strong increase in methane concentration with depth, but no free gas. This is likely due to the formation of gas hydrate and the limited thickness of the sediment infill. Seabed depressions off Ilulissat Isfjord (Icefjord) previously inferred to express ongoing gas release from decomposing gas hydrate show no evidence of gas seepage, and are more likely a result of neo-tectonism.

  10. Future markers of the West Greenlandic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trondhjem, Naja Blytmann

    2010-01-01

    Abstract West Greenlandic, a polysynthetic language, belongs to Inuit languages. In Inuktitut (Canada) and West Greenlandic (Inuit languages) tense is marked by optional tense suffixes and in both languages the temporal systems are based on a future/ non-future opposition. In Inuktitut the tense...... suffixes have developed a complicated remoteness system. In West Greenlandic the future tense suffixes have a distinction between vague and inevitable future, and the past time suffixes have developed different perfect meanings. In Iñupiaq (Alaska), the temporal system is based on an opposition between...... past, present and future, where tense is marked in the flectional morpheme, but only in the indicative mood. There are only a few tense suffixes. The meanings of these tense suffixes are the same as those of the West Greenlandic tense suffixes. My current work is a typological investigation about...

  11. Distribution and abundance of West Greenland humpback whales ( Megaptera novaeangliae )

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Finn; Hammond, P.S.

    2004-01-01

    Photo-identification surveys of humpback whales Megaptera novaeangliae were conducted at West Greenland during 1988-93, the last 2 years of which were part of the internationally coordinated humpback whale research programme YoNAH, with the primary aim of estimating abundance for the West Greenland...... effort. A total of 670 groups of humpback whales was encountered leading to the identification of 348 individual animals. Three areas of concentration were identified: an area off Nuuk; an area at c. 63degrees30'N; and an area off Frederikshab. Sequential Petersen capture-recapture estimates of abundance...

  12. Climate variability in West Greenland during the past 1500 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    dos Santos Ribeiro, Sofia Isabel; Moros, Matthias; Ellegaard, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    -surface temperatures in Disko Bay are out-of-phase with Greenland ice-core reconstructed temperatures and marine proxy data from South and East Greenland. This is probably governed by an NAO-type pattern, which results in warmer sea-surface conditions with less extensive sea ice in the area for the later part....... Sea ice cover and primary productivity were identified as the two main factors driving dinoflagellate cyst community changes through time. Our data provide evidence for an opposite climate trend in West Greenland relative to the NE Atlantic region from c. AD 500 to 1050. For the same period, sea...

  13. Report on a Magnetotelluric Study in Kangerlussuaq, West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kother, Livia Kathleen; Junge, A.; Löwer, A.

    2011-01-01

    Despite a well-mapped, interesting surface geology, deep sounding geophysical studies like seismics or magnetotellurics have been used very rarely in Greenland. The aim of this article is to present the preliminary results of a magnetotelluric study performed in the area of Kangerlussuaq, West Gr...... Greenland. The estimated transfer functions will be used in the future for 2-D and 3-D modelling of subsurface resistivity structures, the inuence of the electrically conductive ocean, as well as the source geometry in the auroral oval.......Despite a well-mapped, interesting surface geology, deep sounding geophysical studies like seismics or magnetotellurics have been used very rarely in Greenland. The aim of this article is to present the preliminary results of a magnetotelluric study performed in the area of Kangerlussuaq, West...

  14. The lithospheric mantle below southern West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sand, Karina Krarup; Waight, Tod Earle; Pearson, D. Graham

    2009-01-01

    Geothermobarometry of primarily garnet lherzolitic xenoliths from several localities in southern West Greenland is applied to address the diamond potential, pressure and temperature distribution and the stratigraphy of the subcontinental lithospheric mantle ~600 Ma ago. The samples are from kimbe...... into the reworked Archean North of the Naqssugtoqidian deformation front....

  15. Ecosystem variability in west Greenland waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, E.; Pedersen, Søren Anker; Ribergaard, M. H.

    2004-01-01

    A review of the climate conditions off West Greenland during the past 50 years shows large variability in the atmospheric, oceanographic and sea-ice variables, as well as in fish stocks. A positive relationship is found between water temperature and the recruitment of cod and redfish, whereas the...

  16. Tributyltin accumulation and effects in marine molluscs from West Greenland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strand, J.; Asmund, G

    2003-05-01

    Tributyltin is accumulated in marine molluscs living in Greenland, with the highest levels found in harbour areas. - The levels of the antifouling agent tributyltin (TBT) and its breakdown products in bivalves were investigated in 1999-2000 at six areas along the west coast of Greenland with focus on locations inside and outside harbours. In addition female gastropods were examined for the development of TBT-induced masculine characteristics in form of imposex or intersex. The highest TBT concentration, 254 ng g{sup -1} ww, was found in the bivalve Mytilus edulis sampled inside Nuuk harbour, but significant TBT concentrations were also present in bivalves from the other harbour areas. Only low levels of TBT were detected in bivalves sampled outside the harbours and in several of the samples the TBT level was below the detection limit. The examination of neogastropods like Buccinum revealed that imposex development occurred in all the harbours. In contrast, imposex was not found in any neogastropods sampled outside the harbour areas. However, the value of marine neogastropods as indicators of TBT contamination in West Greenland seems limited, because of large species diversity and the difficulties in sampling enough specimens at least with the current sampling strategy. No effects, which could be related to TBT contamination, were found in the most abundant tidal gastropod in West Greenland, Littorina saxatilis.

  17. Tributyltin accumulation and effects in marine molluscs from West Greenland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strand, J.; Asmund, G.

    2003-01-01

    Tributyltin is accumulated in marine molluscs living in Greenland, with the highest levels found in harbour areas. - The levels of the antifouling agent tributyltin (TBT) and its breakdown products in bivalves were investigated in 1999-2000 at six areas along the west coast of Greenland with focus on locations inside and outside harbours. In addition female gastropods were examined for the development of TBT-induced masculine characteristics in form of imposex or intersex. The highest TBT concentration, 254 ng g -1 ww, was found in the bivalve Mytilus edulis sampled inside Nuuk harbour, but significant TBT concentrations were also present in bivalves from the other harbour areas. Only low levels of TBT were detected in bivalves sampled outside the harbours and in several of the samples the TBT level was below the detection limit. The examination of neogastropods like Buccinum revealed that imposex development occurred in all the harbours. In contrast, imposex was not found in any neogastropods sampled outside the harbour areas. However, the value of marine neogastropods as indicators of TBT contamination in West Greenland seems limited, because of large species diversity and the difficulties in sampling enough specimens at least with the current sampling strategy. No effects, which could be related to TBT contamination, were found in the most abundant tidal gastropod in West Greenland, Littorina saxatilis

  18. Markers of futurity and aspect in West Greenlandic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trondhjem, Naja Blytmann

    2014-01-01

    if necessary. The Alaskan Iñupiaq has an opposition between past, present and future. In Inuktitut and West Greenlandic tense is marked by optional derivational affixes. In Inuktitut the tense affixes have developed a complicated remoteness system (future and past) (Swift, 2004). In West Greenlandic the future...... is unmarked and past time reference can be marked if necessary. The Alaskan Iñupiaq has an opposition between past, present and future. In Inuktitut and West Greenlandic tense is marked by optional derivational affixes. In Inuktitut the tense affixes have developed a complicated remoteness system (future......Markers of futurity and aspect in West Greenlandic Unlike European languages tense in the West Greenlandic (WG) language is not marked in the inflection, but it is marked by derivational affixes (henceforth affixes). The West Greenlandic language belongs to Inuit-languages, (Iñupiaq (Alaska...

  19. Present conditions in Greenland and the Kangerlussuaq area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, A. B.

    2010-01-01

    Greenland is the world's largest island, with an area of 2.2 million square kilometres, 80 % of which is covered by the ice sheet. The climate is Arctic, but as Greenland stretches 2600 km from north to south, there is a huge variability in climate, with temperature decreasing from south to north. Due to the influence of oceanic currents, the west coast is slightly warmer than the east coast. Precipitation also decreases strongly from the south to the north, and also with distance from the coast. Kangerlussuaq is located in the dry, continental area of central west Greenland. The bedrock of Greenland is dominated by Precambrian gneisses, with sedimentary rocks occurring in some areas of East and North Greenland, and smaller areas of basalts. All of Greenland has been glaciated several times and has thus been eroded and shaped by the ice, as it still is at the ice margin. Soils are generally thin, and especially in the gneiss regions rather poor in plant nutrients. Permafrost occurs throughout the ice free areas of Greenland. It is continuous in the north, discontinuous along parts of the central east and west coast and occurs as isolated patches in the south. Kangerlussuaq is in the southernmost part of the continuous permafrost zone. The spatial variability in climate is also reflected in the vegetation zones, which range from Arctic dessert in the far north, through dwarf shrub zones with increasing plant height and density towards the south, to the arctic shrub zone in the continental parts of West Greenland and subarctic Birch forest in South Greenland. The terrestrial food chains in Greenland are generally short and with few species. Cyclic variation in population sizes has been observed in some mammal species, including lemming and caribou. Many species of mammals and birds are associated with the coastal environment, which is therefore also and important resource area for the human population. Fishery is the most economically important industry in Greenland

  20. One million years of glaciation and denudation history in west Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strunk, Astrid; Knudsen, Mads Faurschou; Egholm, David Lundbek

    2017-01-01

    The influence of major Quaternary climatic changes on growth and decay of the Greenland Ice Sheet, and associated erosional impact on the landscapes, is virtually unknown beyond the last deglaciation. Here we quantify exposure and denudation histories in west Greenland by applying a novel Markov......-Chain Monte Carlo modelling approach to all available paired cosmogenic 10Be-26Al bedrock data from Greenland. We find that long-term denudation rates in west Greenland range from >50 m Myr−1 in low-lying areas to ∼2 m Myr−1 at high elevations, hereby quantifying systematic variations in denudation rate among...... different glacial landforms caused by variations in ice thickness across the landscape. We furthermore show that the present day ice-free areas only were ice covered ca. 45% of the past 1 million years, and even less at high-elevation sites, implying that the Greenland Ice Sheet for much of the time...

  1. Caribou, individual-based modeling and mega-industry in central West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raundrup, Katrine; Nymand, Josephine; Nabe-Nielsen, Jacob

    in West Greenland. In a newly started PhD-project the focus will be the implementation of spatially explicit individual based modeling (IBM). The project relies on existing knowledge on caribou behavior and feeding ecology along with data on variations in the vegetation. By relating vegetation, snow......Spatial distribution of caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus) in West Greenland is a result of both short and long term changes in the Arctic landscape. To understand present distribution 40 satellite collars were deployed on 40 female caribou in the Akia-Maniitsoq herd, central West Greenland...... in an area. Further, enhanced or lowered hunting pressure, and changed weather conditions can be studied using IBM. Thus, both short and long term changes in the landscape will be studied and provide insights in how the specific spatial changes impact caribou in West Greenland....

  2. Evaluation of the use of common sculpin (Myoxocephalus scorpius) organ histology as bioindicator for element exposure in the fjord of the mining area Maarmorilik, West Greenland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonne, Christian, E-mail: csh@dmu.dk [Aarhus University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Bioscience, Arctic Research Centre (ARC), Frederiksborgvej 399, P.O. Box 358, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Bach, Lis; Søndergaard, Jens; Rigét, Frank F.; Dietz, Rune; Mosbech, Anders [Aarhus University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Bioscience, Arctic Research Centre (ARC), Frederiksborgvej 399, P.O. Box 358, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Leifsson, Pall S. [University of Copenhagen, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Department of Veterinary Disease Biology, Bülowsvej 17, DK-1870 Frederiksberg (Denmark); Gustavson, Kim [Aarhus University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Bioscience, Arctic Research Centre (ARC), Frederiksborgvej 399, P.O. Box 358, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark)

    2014-08-15

    The former Black Angel lead–zinc mine in Maarmorilik, West Greenland, is a historic example of how mining activity may result in a significant impact on the surrounding fjord system in terms of elevated concentrations of especially lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) in seawater, sediments and surrounding biota. In order to shed light on the present contamination and possible effects in the fjord we initiated a range of studies including a pilot study on gill and liver morphology of common sculpins (Myoxocephalus scorpius) around Maarmorilik. Sculpins were caught and sampled at five different stations known to represent a gradient of Pb concentrations. Fish livers from all specimens were analyzed for relevant elements in the area: Fe, Zn, As, Cu, Se, Cd, Pb, Ag, Hg, Co and Ni. Lead, As and Hg showed significant differences among the five stations. For 20% of the sculpins, Hg concentrations were in the range of lowest observed effect dose (LOED) of 0.1–0.5 μg/g ww for toxic threshold on reproduction and subclinical endpoints. Likewise LOEDs for tissue lesions, LOEDs for biochemistry, growth, survival and reproduction were exceeded for Cd (0.42–1.8 μg/g ww) and for As (11.6 μg/g ww) in 28% and 85% of the sculpins, respectively. Similar to this, the no observed effect dose (NOED) for biochemistry was exceeded for Pb (0.32 μg/g ww) and for growth, mortality and reproduction for Zn (60–68 μg/g ww) in 33% and 24% of the sculpins, respectively. For all sculpins, females were significantly larger than males and for five of the elements (Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Se) females had higher concentrations. The chronic lesions observed in liver (mononuclear cell infiltrates, necrosis, vacuolar hepatocytes, portal fibrosis, bile duct hyperplasia, active melanomacrophage centers) and gills (fusion and edema of secondary lamellae, laminar telangiectasis, mononuclear cell infiltrates, blebs) were similar to those in the literature studies for both wild and laboratory exposed sculpins and

  3. Evaluation of the use of common sculpin (Myoxocephalus scorpius) organ histology as bioindicator for element exposure in the fjord of the mining area Maarmorilik, West Greenland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonne, Christian; Bach, Lis; Søndergaard, Jens; Rigét, Frank F.; Dietz, Rune; Mosbech, Anders; Leifsson, Pall S.; Gustavson, Kim

    2014-01-01

    The former Black Angel lead–zinc mine in Maarmorilik, West Greenland, is a historic example of how mining activity may result in a significant impact on the surrounding fjord system in terms of elevated concentrations of especially lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) in seawater, sediments and surrounding biota. In order to shed light on the present contamination and possible effects in the fjord we initiated a range of studies including a pilot study on gill and liver morphology of common sculpins (Myoxocephalus scorpius) around Maarmorilik. Sculpins were caught and sampled at five different stations known to represent a gradient of Pb concentrations. Fish livers from all specimens were analyzed for relevant elements in the area: Fe, Zn, As, Cu, Se, Cd, Pb, Ag, Hg, Co and Ni. Lead, As and Hg showed significant differences among the five stations. For 20% of the sculpins, Hg concentrations were in the range of lowest observed effect dose (LOED) of 0.1–0.5 μg/g ww for toxic threshold on reproduction and subclinical endpoints. Likewise LOEDs for tissue lesions, LOEDs for biochemistry, growth, survival and reproduction were exceeded for Cd (0.42–1.8 μg/g ww) and for As (11.6 μg/g ww) in 28% and 85% of the sculpins, respectively. Similar to this, the no observed effect dose (NOED) for biochemistry was exceeded for Pb (0.32 μg/g ww) and for growth, mortality and reproduction for Zn (60–68 μg/g ww) in 33% and 24% of the sculpins, respectively. For all sculpins, females were significantly larger than males and for five of the elements (Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Se) females had higher concentrations. The chronic lesions observed in liver (mononuclear cell infiltrates, necrosis, vacuolar hepatocytes, portal fibrosis, bile duct hyperplasia, active melanomacrophage centers) and gills (fusion and edema of secondary lamellae, laminar telangiectasis, mononuclear cell infiltrates, blebs) were similar to those in the literature studies for both wild and laboratory exposed sculpins and

  4. U, Th and K contents and metamorphism of Archaean rocks from South-West Greenland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalsbeek, F.

    1974-01-01

    Granulite facies rocks, from the Nordland area, West Greenland, contain six times less U than the amphibolite facies rocks of the Frederikshaab area, and half of the amount of K. The rocks of the Frederikshaab area did not form by retrogression of granulite facies rocks. This study is based on analyses of sand samples which adequately represent the inhomogeneous bed rock. (author)

  5. Ice-margin and meltwater dynamics during the mid-Holocene in the Kangerlussuaq area of west Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carrivick, Jonathan L.; Yde, Jacob; Russell, Andrew J.

    2017-01-01

    likely relate to mid-Holocene subglacial hydrology. In comparison to the geomorphological record at other Northern Hemisphere ice-sheet margins the depositional landforms in this study area are few in number and variety and small in scale, most likely due to a restricted sediment supply. They include...

  6. Contaminants in two West Greenland caribou populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gamberg, Mary, E-mail: mary.gamberg@gmail.com [Gamberg Consulting, 708 Jarvis St., Whitehorse, Yukon Y1A 2J2 (Canada); Cuyler, Christine [Greenland Institute of Natural Resources, PO Box 570, 3900 Nuuk, Greenland (Denmark); Wang, Xiaowa [Environment Canada, 867 Lakeshore Rd., Burlington, ON L7S 1A1 (Canada)

    2016-06-01

    Two caribou populations in West Greenland were sampled and the kidneys, liver and muscle analyzed for contaminants, including aluminum, arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, mercury, selenium and zinc. Although close in proximity, the two populations are topographically separated by an ice cap, which creates different climates and vegetation types in each region. Contaminant levels reflected the differing diets of the two caribou populations. To the south in the wetter lichen-rich region, caribou had significantly more aluminum, arsenic, cadmium, lead, mercury, selenium and zinc, likely due to atmospheric deposition on lichens. To the north in the dry desert steppe where grasses predominate, caribou had higher levels of copper. Cows collected in late winter had significantly less hepatic copper, lead and mercury if pregnant, indicating placental transfer of these elements. Our results suggest that hepatic copper levels < 200 μg g{sup −1} dry weight may result in copper depletion in pregnant cows and hepatic mercury concentrations above 0.5 μg g{sup −1} dry weight may negatively affect fertility in caribou cows. Hepatic mercury levels were negatively correlated with cow body weight, suggesting an adverse effect on body condition. Element concentrations found in tissues from these caribou are not considered to be of a health concern for those consuming this traditional food. - Highlights: • Caribou tissue contaminant profiles may reflect different diets. • Low hepatic copper may result in copper depletion in pregnant caribou. • High hepatic mercury may negatively affect fertility in caribou cows. • Hepatic mercury is negatively correlated with body condition in caribou cows. • Metal levels in tissues are not a health concern to people consuming caribou.

  7. Satellite Tracking of Humpback Whales in West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietz, R.; Teilmann, J.; Heide-Jørgensen, M.-P.

    In June 2000, 6 humpback whales (Megaptere novaeangliae) were tagged with satellite transmitters off West Greenland. Contact remained for up to 42 days. The tagging revealed that within the month of June, humpback whales off West Greenland moved between Fiskenæs Banke, Fyllas Banke, Tovqussaq Banke......, Sukkertop Banke and Lille Hellefiske Banke. The whales showed a preference for the continental slopes with depths less than 200 m, however, few dives were recorded down to 500 m. The whales had a preference for dives lasting 7-8 min. (15%) and no dives lasted longer than 15 min....

  8. Rapid population increase in an introduced muskox population, West Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carsten Riis Olesen

    1993-10-01

    Full Text Available In 1962 and 1965, 27 (13 and 14 muskox yearlings were translocated from East Greenland (71°N to the Angujaartorfiup Nunaa range in West Greenland (67°N. Angujaartorfiup Nunaa is a 6600 km2 icefree, continental area where caribou are indigenous. The climate is strictly continental with a minimum of precipitation but with abundant vegetation. Aerial surveys in 1990 documented that the muskox population has increased to 2600 heads despite quota-based harvesting since 1988. The annual quota was 200, 300 and 400 for 1988, 1989 and 1990, respectively. Distribution of muskoxen shows a significant preference for low altitude habitats southeast of Kangerlussuaq Airport and around Arnangarnup Qoorua (Paradise valley. Annual population increment averages 30% and the calf crop is around 24% of the population. Yearling recruitment in the population reveals that calf mortality during winter is very limited. About half of the 1-year-old females are served and they eventually give birth to their first calf when they turn 2 years old. With half of the 2-year-old females reproducing, the calf/cow ration ranges between 0.9 and 1.0.

  9. Overlap in diet and distribution of two goose species suggests potential for competition at a common moulting area in West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raundrup, Katrine; Levermann, Nette; Poulsen, Michael

    2012-01-01

    found, and behavioural observations indicated only slight modifications in attentive behaviour and increased distance to the lakeshore in sympatry. This would seem to imply that the area has sufficient space and forage to support both species. If so, the local decline in Greenland White-fronted Goose...... on activity budgets and spatial distribution were obtained from observations of behaviour, and diet selection was determined through analyses of plant epidermal fragments in faecal samples that were subsequently genotyped to goose species. No differences in diet or spatial distribution of the two species were...

  10. Occurrence of anisakid nematodes in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) and Greenland cod (Gadus ogac), West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouritsen, Kim N.; Hedeholm, Rasmus; Schack, Henriette B.

    2010-01-01

    Anisakid nematodes commonly infect gadids, and are of economic and aesthetic importance to the commercial fishing industry in Greenland as some species are pathogenic to humans. However, very little is known about the occurrence of these parasites and their impact on the hosts in Greenland waters....... During a survey in 2005, stomach sample of 227 Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) and 64 Greenland cod (Gadus ogac) was collected in Godthaab and Sisimiut fiord systems in West Greenland waters. All cod were dissected for stomach contents and anisakid nematodes were removed from the visceral cavity. Third stage...... nematode species regarding prevalence of infection and mean infection intensity was evident, and there was no relationship between fish condition and the intensity of nematode infections. Standardised for size, capelin-eating cod were in better condition and more heavily infected than fish subsisting...

  11. Aeolian Landscape Change in West Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heindel, Ruth Chaves

    In the Arctic, aeolian processes can be important drivers of landscape change. Soil deflation, the removal of fine-grained sediment by wind, is one aeolian process that has had a profound impact in the Arctic. While soil deflation has been well studied in Iceland, our understanding of aeolian processes across the rest of the Arctic remains limited. Kangerlussuaq, West Greenland, provides an opportunity to study the mechanisms and impacts of soil deflation without direct anthropogenic influence. In Kangerlussuaq, strong katabatic winds have resulted in distinct erosional landforms, here referred to as deflation patches, that are largely devoid of vascular plants and are dominated by biological soil crusts. This dissertation considers the geomorphic and ecological impacts of soil deflation through an interdisciplinary framework. I show that deflation patches are a critical component of the Kangerlussuaq ecosystem, accounting for 22% of the terrestrial landscape and impacting vegetation dynamics by providing habitat for graminoid, herbaceous, and lichen species. Deflation patches formed roughly 230-800 years ago, during a period of cold, dry, and windy climate conditions. Deflation patches expand across the landscape when the active margin, or scarp, becomes undercut and collapses. I estimate that rates of patch expansion are roughly 2.5 cm yr-1, and that geomorphic change can be detected even over the short time period of two years. I suggest that an erosional threshold exists because climate conditions required for initial deflation-patch formation are harsher than those required for continued patch expansion. The future trajectory of deflation patches depends on the role of the biological soil crust as either a successional facilitator or a long-term landscape cover, as well as future climate conditions. While the biological soil crusts slightly enrich soil fertility over time, they decrease soil moisture and create an impenetrable soil surface, which may inhibit

  12. The effect of sea-ice loss on beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) in West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heide-Jørgensen, M.P.; Laidre, K.L.; Simon, Malene Juul

    2009-01-01

    An aerial survey was conducted to estimate the abundance of belugas (Delphinapterus leucas) on their wintering ground in West Greenland in March-April 2006 and 2008. The survey was conducted as a double platform aerial line transect survey, and sampled approximately 17% of the total survey area o...

  13. Deglacial History and Paleoceanography of the Umanak System, West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sheldon, Christina; Jennings, Anne; Andrews, John

    2012-01-01

    A record of Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS) and ice-stream history, ice-sheet ocean interactions and paleoclimate from the Last Glacial Maximum to present is preserved in the sediments of the Umanak fjord, shelf trough and trough mouth fan system of central West Greenland. The objective of this study....... This evidence of Atlantic Water carried in the WGC precedes lithological evidence of ice stream retreat from the shelf edge (an influx of coarse IRD beginning 62 cm above the first Atlantic Water assemblage) indicating the presence of the WGC at the shelf edge prior to initial deglaciation. Both the slope...... is to document the timing and rate of ice retreat and the role of the West Greenland Current (WGC) in initiating or sustaining ice retreat. During cruise JR175 of the UK ship RRS James Clark Ross in 2009, sediment cores and geophysical data were collected from the Umanak System to document the glacial history...

  14. Offshore Seabird Distributions during Summer and Autumn at West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boertmann, D.; Mosbech, A.

    . During the autumn the numbers of seabirds increase as migrants from local and international populations of mainly thick-billed murre and little auk arrive to spend the winter in West Greenland waters. Huge concentrations of thick-billed murres, common eiders and king-eiders may occur then...

  15. Northern Shrimp (Pandalus borealis) Recruitment in West Greenland Waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, S. A.; Storm, L. M.

    2002-01-01

    Lipid class and fatty acid compositions were determined in shrimp larvae (Pandalus borealis and P. montagui) collected along transects across banks on the West Greenland shelf in June 1999, May and July 2000. The lipid class contents were investigated as indices of larval shrimp lipid condition a...

  16. Genetic structure of West Greenland populations of lumpfish Cyclopterus lumpus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayoral, Elsa Garcia; Olsen, M.; Hedeholm, R.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, 11 microsatellite markers were used to determine the structure of West Greenlandic lumpfish Cyclopterus lumpus populations across six spawning locations spanning >1500 km and compared with neighbouring populations in Canada and Iceland. To evaluate whether data allow for identifica...

  17. Regional and inter annual patterns of heavy metals, organochlorines and stable isotopes in narwhals (Monodon monoceros) from West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietz, R.; Riget, F.; Hobson, K.A.

    2004-01-01

    Samples of 150 narwhals obtained in different years from two West Greenland areas, Avanersuaq and Uummannaq, were compared for concentrations of and regional differences in heavy metals and organochlorines and stable-carbon and nitrogen isotopes. Cadmium, Hg, and Se concentrations increased....../age composition of the data. PCB and DDT concentrations in West Greenland narwhals were half those found in East Greenland and Svalbard. Stable-carbon isotope ratios in muscle of 150 narwhals showed a decreasing trend in the first year when they gradually reduced their dependency on mother's milk, after which...... between stable isotope ratios and metal and OC concentrations....

  18. West Greenland caribou explosion: What happened? What about the future?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Cuyler

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available In West Greenland, the 1993 caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus population size estimate was 7000 to 9000 animals. Eight years later in 2001, the estimate was ca. 140 000. Relatively rapid rise and fall cycles of abundance in West Greenland caribou have been noted since the 1700s. Caribou have no natural predators in West Greenland. Combined with their high fertility and recruitment, this suggests that overabundance might be their greatest threat to stability. The 2005 population surveys indicate poor recruitment in two major populations and decreasing abundance in one. Given stocking densities are three to six-times the value considered sustainable, we expect strong competition between individuals for available food resources. Although the management goal is sustainable harvest of natural resources, if populations continue at their current size or increase further, there is a clear risk of range overgrazing and trampling. Unsustainable range use may result in density-dependent forage limitation with subsequent relatively rapid population decline over a series of years, e.g. a decade. As in the past, populations are expected to recover, and if true to the past, recovery will take the better part of a century. Furthermore, the role of catastrophic weather events may be of major importance. Abrupt collapse could be precipitated by a disastrous single year event, e.g. thaw-freeze icing or deep snow, because possibilities for dispersal to new ranges are limited. Regardless of management initiatives taken now, population declines or crashes may be inevitable for some West Greenland herds in the foreseeable future, but accurate predictions about herd trends are impossible. To understand the potential impact of future developments, Greenland caribou and their range must be studied within the wider context of climate change.

  19. Observed runoff, jokulhlaups and suspended sediment load from the Greenland ice at Kangerlussuaq, West Greenland, 2007 and 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mernild, Sebastian Haugard [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hasholt, Bent [UNIV OF COPENHAGEN

    2009-01-01

    This study fills the gap in hydrologic measurements of runoff exiting a part of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS), the Kangerlussuaq drainage area, West Greenland. The observations are of value for obtaining knowledge about the terrestrial freshwater and sediment output from part of the GrIS and the strip of land between the GrIS and the ocean, in the context of varying ice sheet surface melt and influx entering the ocean. High-resolution stage, discharge and suspended sediment load show a decrease in runoff of {approx} 25% and in sediment load of {approx} 40% from 2007 to 2008 in response to a decrease in the summer accumulated number of positive degree days. During the 2007 and 2008 runoff season, joekulhlaups are observed at Kangerlussuaq, drained from an ice-dammed lake at the margin of the GrIS.

  20. Seasonal migration, vertical activity and winter temperature experience of Greenland halibut Reinhardtius hippoglossoides (Walbaum) in West Greenland waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boje, Jesper; Neuenfeldt, Stefan; Sparrevohn, Claus Reedtz

    2014-01-01

    resident in Disko Bay (mean range 2.6°C) than when resident in the ice fjord (mean range 1.4°C). Using the tagged halibut as a 'live tool,' we show that parts of the ice fjord are hundreds of meters deeper than previously thought. We also document the first seawater temperature measurements made beneath......The deep-water flatfish Greenland halibut Reinhardtius hippoglossoides (Walbaum) is common along the West Greenland coast. In the northwestern fjords, Greenland halibut is an important socio-economic resource for the Greenland community, but due to the deep and partly ice-covered environment, very...

  1. Catch statistics for belugas in West Greenland 1862 to 1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MP Heide-Jørgensen

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Information and statistics including trade statistics on catches of white whales or belugas (Delphinapterus leucas in West Greenland since 1862 are presented. The period before 1952 was dominated by large catches south of 66o N that peaked with 1,380 reported kills in 1922. Catch levels in the past five decades are evaluated on the basis of official catch statistics, trade in mattak (whale skin, sampling of jaws and reports from local residents and other observers. Options are given for corrections of catch statistics based upon auxiliary statistics on trade of mattak, catches in previous decades for areas without reporting and on likely levels of loss rates in different hunting operations. The fractions of the reported catches that are caused by ice entrapments of whales are estimated. During 1954-1999 total reported catches ranged from 216 to 1,874 and they peaked around 1970. Correcting for underreporting and killed-but-lost whales increases the catch reports by 42% on average for 1954-1998. If the whales killed in ice entrapments are removed then the corrected catch estimate is on average 28% larger than the reported catches.

  2. Strategic environmental impact assessment of hydrocarbon activities in the Disko West area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosbech, A.; Boertmann, D.; Jespersen, Martin

    2007-05-01

    This publication is a strategic environmental impact assessment of activities related to exploration, development and exploitation of hydrocarbons in the sea of West Greenland between 67 deg. and 71 deg. N (the Disko West Area). (au)

  3. Measurement campaign for wind power potential in west Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rønnow Jakobsen, Kasper

    2013-04-01

    Experiences and results from a wind resource exploring campaign 2003- in west Greenland. Like many other countries, Greenland is trying to reduce its dependency of fossil fuel by implementing renewable energy. The main challenge is that the people live on the coast in scattered settlements, without power infrastructure. Based on this a wind power potential project was established in 2002, funded by the Greenlandic government and the Technical University of Denmark. We present results and experiences of the campaign. 1 Field campaign There were only a few climate stations in or close to settlements and due to their positioning and instrumentation, they were not usable for wind resource estimation. To establish met stations in Arctic areas with complex topography, there are some challenges to face; mast positioning in complex terrain, severe weather conditions, instrumentation, data handling, installation and maintenance budget. The terrain in the ice free and populated part, mainly consists of mountains of different heights and shapes, separated by deep fjords going from the ice cap to the sea. With a generally low wind resource the focus was on the most exposed positions close to the settlements. Data from the nearest existing climate stations was studied for background estimations of predominant wind directions and extreme wind speeds, and based on that the first 10m masts were erected in 2003. 2 Instruments The first installations used standard NRG systems with low cost NRG instruments. For most of the sites this low cost setup did a good job, but there were some problems with the first design, including instrument and boom strains. In subsequent years, the systems were updated several times to be able to operate in the extreme conditions. Different types of instruments, data logger and boom systems were tested to get better data quality and reliability. Today 11 stations with heights ranging from 10-50m are installed and equipped according to the IEC standard

  4. Chemostratigraphy of Late Cretaceous deltaic and marine sedimentary rocks from high northern palaeolatitudes in the Nuussuaq Basin, West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenniger, Marc; Pedersen, Gunver Krarup; Bjerrum, Christian J.

    The Nuussuaq Basin in the Baffin Bay area in West Greenland formed as a result of the opening of the Labrador Sea in Late Mesozoic to Early Cenozoic times. The first rifting and the development of the Nuussuaq Basin took place during the Early Cretaceous and was followed by a second rifting phase...

  5. Environmental Oil Spill Sensitivity Atlas for the Northern West Greenland (72°-75° N) Coastal Zone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stjernholm, Michael; Boertmann, David; Mosbech, Anders

    This oil spill sensitivity atlas covers the shoreline and the offshore areas of West Greenland between 72º N and 75º N. The coastal zone is divided into 118 shoreline segments and the offshore zone into 3 areas. A sensitivity index value is calculated for each segment/area, and each segment/area ....... Based on all the information, appropriate oil spill response methods have been assessed for each area...

  6. Evidence of Quick-Clay Deposit at Kangerlussuaq, West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingeman-Nielsen, Thomas; Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie; Jørgensen, Anders Stuhr

    2010-01-01

    unnoticed in Greenland, but in this case the jökulhlaup propagated through a river basin which passes by the main international airport in Greenland. Due to the erosion of the riverbank during the jökulhlaup, several man-made structures were affected – roads disappeared and several storage facilities were...... eroded and destroyed by the river. In the wake of the catastrophic flood, a previously unknown permafrozen fingrained marine deposit was observed in the erosional bank of the river. Laboratory studies have proven this material to have extremely high sensitivity, with natural water content much higher...... than the liquid limit. The formation has been stabilized by the presence of permafrost in the area, but the combination of erosional energy supplied by the river and the sensitive properties of the material have resulted in quick thaw, destabilization and erosion of the formation. As an effect...

  7. Impact of deep-sea fishery for Greenland halibut (Reinhardtius hippoglossoides) on non-commercial fish species off West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ole A; Bastardie, Francois; Eigaard, Ole Ritzau

    2014-01-01

    Since the late 1980s, a deep-sea fishery for Greenland halibut (Reinhardtius hippoglossoides) has been developing gradually in West Greenland. Deep-sea fish species are generally long-lived and characterized by late age of maturity, low fecundity, and slow growth, features that probably cause low....... During the period 1988–2011, population abundance and size composition changed as catch and effort in the Greenland halibut fishery increased. Two species showed a significant decrease in abundance, and four populations showed a significant reduction in mean weight of individuals (p , 0.05). Correlation...... analyses show that most of the observed trends in abundance are probably not related to increasing fishing effort for Greenland halibut. The analysis did, however, show that most of the observed decreases in mean weight were significantly correlated with fishing effort during the 24-year period...

  8. The Vaigat Rock Avalanche Laboratory, west-central Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunning, S.; Rosser, N. J.; Szczucinski, W.; Norman, E. C.; Benjamin, J.; Strzelecki, M.; Long, A. J.; Drewniak, M.

    2013-12-01

    Rock avalanches have unusually high mobility and pose both an immediate hazard, but also produce far-field impacts associated with dam breach, glacier collapse and where they run-out into water, tsunami. Such secondary hazards can often pose higher risks than the original landslide. The prediction of future threats posed by potential rock avalanches is heavily reliant upon understanding of the physics derived from an interpretation of deposits left by previous events, yet drawing comparisons between multiple events is normally challenging as interactions with complex mountainous terrain makes deposits from each event unique. As such numerical models and the interpretation of the underlying physics which govern landslide mobility is commonly case-specific and poorly suited to extrapolation beyond the single events the model is tuned to. Here we present a high-resolution LiDAR and hyperspectral dataset captured across a unique cluster of large rock avalanche source areas and deposits in the Vaigat straight, west central Greenland. Vaigat offers the unprecedented opportunity to model a sample of > 15 rock avalanches of various age sourced from an 80 km coastal escarpment. At Vaigat many of the key variables (topography, geology, post-glacial history) are held constant across all landslides providing the chance to investigate the variations in dynamics and emplacement style related to variable landslide volume, drop-heights, and thinning/spreading over relatively simple, unrestricted run-out zones both onto land and into water. Our data suggest that this region represents excellent preservation of landslide deposits, and hence is well suited to calibrate numerical models of run out dynamics. We use this data to aid the interpretation of deposit morphology, structure lithology and run-out characteristics in more complex settings. Uniquely, we are also able to calibrate our models using a far-field dataset of well-preserved tsunami run-up deposits, resulting from the 21

  9. Rapid dynamic thinning events during 1985-2010 on Upernavik Isstrøm, West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Shfaqat Abbas; Kjær, Kurt H.; Korsgaard, Niels Jákup

    Many glaciers along the southeast and northwest coast of Greenland have accelerated, increasing the ice sheet's contribution to global sea-level rise. Here, we map elevation changes on Upernavik Isstrøm (UI), West Greenland, during 2003-2009 using high-resolution Ice, Cloud and land Elevation...

  10. Manganiferous minerals of the epidote group from the Archaean basement of West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katerinopoulou, Anna; Balic Zunic, Tonci; Kolb, Jochen

    2014-01-01

    The chemical compositions and crystal structures of Mn3+-containing minerals from the epidote group in Greenland rocks are investigated and described in detail. They occur in hydrothermally altered Archaean mafic sequences within the gneissic complex of the North Atlantic craton of West Greenland...

  11. Reconnaissance study of uranium and fluorine contents of stream and lake waters, West Greenland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steenfelt, A.; Dam, E.

    1982-01-01

    The present study forms part of a current investigation on the applicability of geochemical methods in mineral exploration in Greenland. The sampling programme of 1981 comprised three parts: (1) A helicopter supported, low density, regional sampling (1 sample/30 km 2 ) of stream water and stream sediment in the area covered by map sheet 66 V.2, south-east of Soendre Stroemfjord. A total of 207 water samples was obtained. (2) Detailed sampling within a 20 km 2 area of lake and stream water (71 samples) from a camp at 66deg49'N, 25deg37'W, 25 km south-west of Soendre Stroemfjord. (3) Reconnaissance sampling, by boat, along the southern part of the west coast of Greenland. The aim of this reconnaissance was to obtain information on the character of the drainage systems and on the availability of sample media (water, stream sediment, aquatic moss) for geochemical exploration. A total of 195 water samples were collected. In addition, rust zones and areas of known mineralisation along the coast were sampled. (author)

  12. Lithostratigraphy of the Cretaceous–Paleocene Nuussuaq Group, Nuussuaq Basin, West Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dam, Gregers

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The Nuussuaq Basin is the only exposed Cretaceous–Paleocene sedimentary basin in West Greenland and is one of a complex of linked rift basins stretching from the Labrador Sea to northern Baffin Bay. These basins developed along West Greenland as a result of the opening of the Labrador Sea in Late Mesozoic to Early Cenozoic times. The Nuussuaq Basin is exposed in West Greenland between 69°N and 72°N on Disko, Nuussuaq, Upernivik Ø, Qeqertarsuaq, Itsaku and Svartenhuk Halvø and has also been recorded in a number of shallow and deep wells in the region. The sediments are assigned to the more than 6 km thick Nuussuaq Group (new which underlies the Palaeogene plateau basalts of the West Greenland Basalt Group. The sediment thickness is best estimated from seismic data; in the western part of the area, seismic and magnetic data suggest that the succession is at least 6 km and possibly as much as 10 km thick. The exposed Albian–Paleocene part of the succession testifies to two main episodes of regional rifting and basin development: an EarlyCretaceous and a Late Cretaceous – Early Paleocene episode prior to the start of sea-floor spreading in mid-Paleocene time. This exposed section includes fan delta, fluviodeltaic, shelfal and deepmarine deposits. The Nuussuaq Group is divided into ten formations, most of which have previously been only briefly described, with the exception of their macrofossil content. In ascending stratigraphic order, the formations are: the Kome Formation, the Slibestensfjeldet Formation (new, the Upernivik Næs Formation, the Atane Formation (including four new members – the Skansen, Ravn Kløft, Kingittoq and Qilakitsoq Members – and one new bed, the Itivnera Bed, the Itilli Formation (new, including four new members: the Anariartorfik, Umiivik, Kussinerujuk and Aaffarsuaq Members, the Kangilia Formation (including the revised Annertuneq Conglomerate Member andthe new Oyster–Ammonite Conglomerate Bed, the

  13. Vegetation phenology gradients along the west and east coasts of Greenland from 2001 to 2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karami, Mojtaba; Hansen, Birger Ulf; Westergaard-Nielsen, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    , as well as the climatic response. The date of the start of season (SOS) was significantly earlier (24 days), length of season longer (25 days), and time-integrated NDVI higher in West Greenland. The sea ice concentration during May was found to have a significant effect on the date of the SOS only in West...

  14. Walruses in West Greenland: Where do they belong?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Born, E. W.; Andersen, L. W.; Dietz, R.

    ) transmitted for more than 3 months during which time she moved from CWG west to SE Baffin Island (SE BI). Hence, the studies supported a suspected connection between walruses in CWG and the HS-SE BI area. Future studies include a genetic comparison of biopsies from SE BI and CWG, and deployment of satellite...

  15. Cascading off the West Greenland Shelf: A numerical perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marson, Juliana M.; Myers, Paul G.; Hu, Xianmin; Petrie, Brian; Azetsu-Scott, Kumiko; Lee, Craig M.

    2017-07-01

    Cascading of dense water from the shelf to deeper layers of the adjacent ocean basin has been observed in several locations around the world. The West Greenland Shelf (WGS), however, is a region where this process has never been documented. In this study, we use a numerical model with a 1/4° resolution to determine (i) if cascading could happen from the WGS; (ii) where and when it could take place; (iii) the forcings that induce or halt this process; and (iv) the path of the dense plume. Results show cascading happening off the WGS at Davis Strait. Dense waters form there due to brine rejection and slide down the slope during spring. Once the dense plume leaves the shelf, it gradually mixes with waters of similar density and moves northward into Baffin Bay. Our simulation showed events happening between 2003-2006 and during 2014; but no plume was observed in the simulation between 2007 and 2013. We suggest that the reason why cascading was halted in this period is related to: the increased freshwater transport from the Arctic Ocean through Fram Strait; the additional sea ice melting in the region; and the reduced presence of Irminger Water at Davis Strait during fall/early winter. Although observations at Davis Strait show that our simulation usually overestimates the seasonal range of temperature and salinity, they agree with the overall variability captured by the model. This suggests that cascades have the potential to develop on the WGS, albeit less dense than the ones estimated by the simulation.

  16. Mapping ice-bonded permafrost with electrical methods in Sisimiut, West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingeman-Nielsen, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    Permafrost delineation and thickness determination is of great importance in engineering related projects in arctic areas. In this paper, 2D geoelectrical measurements are applied and evaluated for permafrost mapping in an area in West Greenland. Multi-electrode resistivity profiles (MEP) have been...... collected and are compared with borehole information. It is shown that the permafrost thickness in this case is grossly overestimated by a factor of two to three. The difference between the inverted 2D resistivity sections and the borehole information is explained by macro-anisotropy due to the presence...... of horizontal ice-lenses in the frozen clay deposits. It is concluded that where the resistivity method perform well for lateral permafrost mapping, great care should be taken in evaluating permafrost thickness based on 2D resistivity profiles alone. Additional information from boreholes or other geophysical...

  17. Feeding ecology of capelin (Mallotus villosus Müller) in West Greenland waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedeholm, R.; Grønkjær, P.; Rysgaard, Søren

    2012-01-01

    collected along 1500 km of the Greenland west coast, this study aims to provide knowledge on capelin feeding ecology and the role that diet composition and biomass may have in generating the observed latitudinal growth differences in Greenland capelin. In total, 572 stomachs were sampled. The most dominant...... prey shift towards euphausiids along with an increase in prey weight (relative and absolute) was seen with increasing latitude. The spatial variation in feeding pattern was supported by stable nitrogen analyses. The mean δ 15N values of capelin muscle tissue for the south (60-64°N) and north (68-72°N......) were 9.54 ‰ ± 0.72 and 12.47 ‰ ± 0.38 (mean ± SD), respectively. However, when differences in isotopic baseline values (C. finmarchicus δ 15N, 2.47 ‰) in the two areas were taken into account, the isotope values suggest that capelin in the northern areas fed on a slightly higher trophic level higher...

  18. Environmental Oil Spill Sensitivity Atlas for the West Greenland (68°-72° N) Coastal Zone, 2nd revised edition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Daniel Spelling; Johansen, Kasper Lambert; Mosbech, Anders

    This oil spill sensitivity atlas covers the shoreline and the offshore areas of West Greenland between 68º N and 72º N. The coastal zone is divided into 199 shoreline segments and the offshore zone into 8 areas. A sensitivity index value is calculated for each segment/area, and each segment...... ranking are shown on 37 maps (in scale 1:250,000), which also show the different elements included and the selected areas. Coast types, logistics and proposed response methods along the coasts are shown on another 37 maps. The sensitivities of the offshore zones are depicted on 4 maps, one for each season...

  19. Effect of acidification on an Arctic phytoplankton community from Disko Bay, West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoisen, Christina; Riisgaard, Karen; Lundholm, Nina

    2015-01-01

    . Our findings show that coastal phytoplankton from Disko Bay is naturally exposed to pH fluctuations exceeding the experimental pH range used in most ocean acidification studies. We emphasize that studies on ocean acidification should include in situ pH before assumptions on the effect of acidification...... on marine organisms can be made. KEY WORDS: Ocean acidification · Coastal · Arctic phytoplankton · Growth rate · pH · CO2 · DIC......ABSTRACT: Long-term measurements (i.e. months) of in situ pH have not previously been reported from the Arctic; this study shows fluctuations between pH 7.5 and 8.3 during the spring bloom 2012 in a coastal area of Disko Bay, West Greenland. The effect of acidification on phytoplankton from...

  20. Holocene palaeosols and aeolian activities in the Umimmalissuaq valley, West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Michael; Thiel, Christine; Kühn, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Aeolian sand sheets and active dunefields preserve an ancient Holocene land surface represented by palaeosols that occur around the present ice margin in the Kangerlussuaq area, West Greenland. To determine the relation between Holocene aeolian activities and periods of soil formation, both...... margin (60 wt%) are comparable with aeolian sand sheets currently formed at greater distances (4–5 km) from the present ice margin. We propose a transport distance for fine....... This period was characterised by low but constant aeolian activity. Since aeolian activity intensified after around 300 cal. yr b2k and is still resulting in active dunefields with coarse and medium sand accumulation, the ice margin must have reached its present position at that time....

  1. Antler possession by west Greenland female caribou in relation to population characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henning Thing

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available The frequency of antlerless adult female caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus was studied in four separate populations in west Greenland. Between the herds antlerlessness varied from 21% to 79%. An inverse relationship between winter range quality and percentage of unantlered cows is demonstrated. Relationship between calf percentage and maternal antler status was studied in one population and antlerless cows showed higher reproductive rate than antlered ones. In another population antlerless cows were almost absent outside the calving area. Calves of antlerless mothers were more susceptible to diseases and had significantly higher summer mortality than other calves, 42% and 27% respectively. The relative importance of factors influencing antler development under various environmental conditons are assessed and a close relationship between antlerlessness, physical condition, lactation, and length of period between calving and midsummer is discussed.

  2. Life history and ecology of harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena from West Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Lockyer

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available During 1988, 1989 and 1995, 187 harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena were sampled from the catches off West Greenland. The samples were taken in 3 areas between 62° N and 70° N: northerly (n=134, Maniitsoq and locations Kangaamiut, Qeqertarsuaq and Qasigiannguit further north, southerly (n=30, Nuuk and southernmost (n=23, Paamiut. A suite of biological measurements and data were collected from these samples. Comparison of age and length distributions between years and areas indicated that while there were no statistical differences between the Maniitsoq and northerly samples in different years, the southerly Nuuk and Paamiut samples were biased to younger age classes. Application of the Gompertz growth model to length and weight at age data indicated an asymptotic length of 154 cm in females and 143 cm in males with weights of 64 kg and 52 kg respectively. A number of correlations were observed between length, midgirth(G3, body and blubber weights and blubber thickness. Indicators of body condition showed that overall pregnant females were fattest but that blubber thickness was greatest in juveniles. The blubber lipid content was generally 92-95% wet weight of tissue. Stomach content analysis for 92 animals indicated regional differences, although capelin (Mallotus villosus was predominant in all samples. The presence of fish, squid and crustaceans indicated opportunistic feeding. Females ovulated from age 3-4 years at a length of about 140 cm; combined testis weights >200 g indicated maturation in males from age 2 years upwards at a length >125 cm. Several small embryos were found, consistent with a mating season in late summer. Testis hypertrophy in August also supported a late summer breeding. Analysis of ovarian corpora indicated annual ovulation. Certain biological parameters, including body condition indicators, indicate differences between WestGreenland and eastern North Atlantic populations that agree with published genetic findings.

  3. Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gad, Ulrik Pram

    2014-01-01

    in 1979 and made the 1985 withdrawal possible. On 25 November 2008, a majority of the people of Greenland voted in favour of enhanced home rule – ‘self-government’ – still within formal Danish sovereignty. Denmark and Greenland alike are preparing for a future envisioned as involving climate change...

  4. Rapid dynamic thinning on Upernavik Icestream, West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Shfaqat Abbas; Kjær, Kurt H.; Korsgaard, Niels Jákup

    2011-01-01

    The main outlet glaciers in Greenland have more than doubled their contribution to global sea level rise over the last decade. Several studies have shown increase in ice discharge from the main outlet glaciers (notably Kangerdlugssuaq (KG) and Helheim glaciers (HG) in Southeast Greenland, and Jak......) laser altimetry data supplemented with altimeter surveys from NASA’s Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM). To assess thinning prior to 2003, we analyze 1985 aerial photos and derived a 2x2 m grid digital elevation model (DEM)....

  5. Size and trends of the bowhead whale, beluga and narwhal stocks wintering off West Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MP Heide-Jørgensen

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available To assess the size and trends of the abundance of the bowhead whale (Balaena mysticetus, the beluga, or white whale (Delphinapterus leucas, and the narwhal (Monodon monoceros visual aerial surveys were conducted in West Greenland in March 1998 and 1999. An estimated 49 bowhead whales (95% CI: 13 to 188 were present at the surface in 1998. Data from land-based observations enabled correction for bowhead whales that were not available at the surface to be seen during the survey. By applying a rounded average of 80% (SE=3 for submergence an estimate of 246 bowhead whales (95% CI: 62 to 978 in 1998 was obtained. The 76 and 47 sightings of beluga pods in 1998 and 1999, respectively, had distributions similar to those of previous surveys with the highest concentration at the northern edge of the northern part of Store Hellefiskebanke. No belugas were seen in the southernmost area between Maniitsoq and Paamiut. The index estimate of the abundance of belugas comparable with previous surveys was 929 (95% CI: 563 to 1,533 in 1998 and 735 (95% CI: 436 to 1,239 in 1999. When analysing the sightings as a line-transect survey and correcting for whales that were either submerged or at the surface but missed by the observers an estimated 7,941 (95% CI: 3,650 to 17,278 belugas wintered in West Greenland in 1998-1999. The uncorrected estimate of narwhal abundance was 524 (95% CI: 214 to 1,284 and correcting for the same biases as for the belugas gives a total abundance of 2,861 (95% CI: 954 to 8,578 narwhals in 1998-1999.

  6. Geology and assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the West Greenland-East Canada Province, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Moore, Thomas E.; Gautier, Donald L.

    2018-01-05

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently assessed the potential for undiscovered oil and gas resources of the West Greenland-East Canada Province as part of the USGS Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal program. The province lies in the offshore area between western Greenland and eastern Canada and includes Baffin Bay, Davis Strait, Lancaster Sound, and Nares Strait west of, and including, part of Kane Basin. A series of major tectonic events led to the formation of several distinct structural domains that are the geologic basis for defining five assessment units (AU ) in the province, all of which are within the Mesozoic-Cenozoic Composite Total Petroleum System (TPS). Potential petroleum source rocks within the TPS include strata of Ordovician, Lower and Upper Cretaceous, and Paleogene ages. The five AUs defined for this study—the Eurekan Structures AU, Northwest Greenland Rifted Margin AU, Northeast Canada Rifted Margin AU, Baffin Bay Basin AU, and the Greater Ungava Fault Zone AU— encompass the entire province and were assessed for undiscovered, technically recoverable resources. The estimated mean volumes of undiscovered resources for the West GreenlandEast Canada Province are 10.7 billion barrels of oil, 75 trillion cubic feet of gas, and 1.7 billion barrels of natural gas liquids. For the part of the province that is north of the Arctic Circle, the estimated mean volumes of these undiscovered resources are 7.3 billion barrels of oil, 52 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 1.1 billion barrels of natural-gas liquids.

  7. Engineering geological and geophysical investigations for road construction in the municipality of Sisimiut, West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingeman-Nielsen, Thomas; Clausen, Helle; Foged, Niels Nielsen

    2007-01-01

    In connection with a road construction project between the towns of Sisimiut and Kangerlussuaq in Central West Greenland, the Arctic Technology Centre has been involved in prospecting and site investigations. This paper presents a selection of results concerning the climatic conditions...... and construction work in order to counter the effects of permafrost degradation and increased active layer thickness....

  8. Photobiology of sea ice algae during initial spring growth in Kangerlussuaq, West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hawes, Ian; Lund-Hansen, Lars Chresten; Sorrell, Brian Keith

    2012-01-01

    We undertook a series of measurements of photophysiological parameters of sea ice algae over 12 days of early spring growth in a West Greenland Fjord, by variable chlorophyll fluorescence imaging. Imaging of the ice–water interface showed the development of ice algae in 0.3–0.4 mm wide brine...

  9. Environmental factors affecting recruitment of northern shrimp (Pandalus borealis) in West Greenland waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieland, Kai; Siegstad, H.

    2012-01-01

    Survey estimates of biomass of Northern shrimp (Pandalus borealis) in West Greenland waters increased from about 178000 tons in 1998 to about 598000 tons in 2003. The increase in stock size was preceded by several consecutive years in which recruitment was substantially above average. Recruitment...

  10. The Role of Biological Soil Crusts in Nitrogen Cycling and Soil Deflation in West Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heindel, R. C.; Governali, F. C.; Spickard, A. M.; Virginia, R. A.

    2017-12-01

    Although shrub expansion has been observed across the Arctic in moist tundra habitat, shrubs may be prevented from expanding in arid Arctic regions due to low soil moisture or soil erosion. This may be the case in Kangerlussuaq, West Greenland, where katabatic winds off the Greenland Ice Sheet have eroded distinct patches of mixed shrub tundra, resulting in nearly barren low productivity areas dominated by biological soil crusts (biocrusts) and graminoids. The future trajectory of these bare patches - persisting in a low biomass state or returning to a shrub-dominated state - depends on the role of the biocrust as either a long-term landscape cover limiting revegetation or as a successional facilitator. Prior to this study, little was known about the physical and ecological development of West Greenland biocrusts and how they may influence future vegetation dynamics. We found that biocrusts took 230 ± 48 years to fully develop, and that later stages of biocrust development were related to increased thickness and penetration resistance and decreased soil moisture, factors limiting shrub seedling establishment. The nitrogen (N) fixing lichen Stereocaulon sp. was found throughout the study region at all stages of biocrust development. Natural 15N abundance suggests that Stereocaulon sp. obtains about half of its N from biological fixation, and that some biologically-fixed N is incorporated into the underlying soils over time. Although soil N and C concentrations increased slightly with biocrust development, their levels under the most developed biocrusts remained low compared to the surrounding shrub and graminoid tundra. Our results suggest that deflation patches, triggered by long-term variations in climate, may remain in a low-productivity ecosystem state for hundreds to thousands of years, if precipitation and temperature regimes do not dramatically alter the vegetation potential of the region. However, if future climate change in the Arctic favors greater

  11. Neoglacial and historical glacier changes around Kangersuneq fjord in southern West Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weidick, Anker

    2012-12-01

    head of Nordre Sermilik fjord in southern Greenland and Jakobshavn Isbræ in Disko Bugt, central West Greenland. The Neoglacial advances appear to have occurred at different times, although this may in part reflect the limited information about fluctuations prior to the 1930s. The differences could also reflect variations in mass balance of different sectors of the ice sheet, different subglacial dynamics or topographical factors. The lowland areas are separated by uplands and highlands that extend below the marginal part of the Inland Ice; in such areas, the outlets have been advancing almost up to the present, so that the position of the glacier front around AD 2000 broadly coincides with the LIA maximum. Charting the fluctuations of the outlets thus illustrates the large variability of the glaciers’ response to changing climate but it is notable that the number of advancing outlets has decreased markedly in recent years.

  12. Meltwater chemistry and solute export from a Greenland ice sheet catchment, Watson River, West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yde, Jacob C.; Knudsen, N. Tvis; Hasholt, Bent

    2014-01-01

    –2010 for the Watson River sector of the GrIS that drains into the fjord Kangerlussuaq. The hydrochemistry is dominated by Ca2+ and HCO3− with a relatively high molar K+/Na+ ratio of 0.6 ± 0.1, typical for meltwaters draining a gneissic lithology. Low molar Ca2+/Na+ and Mg2+/Na+ ratios indicate that weathering....... However, when normalized by discharge the denudation rates are comparable to other Arctic sites. When extrapolating the results from the Watson River catchment to the entire Greenland for 2007–2010, the solute export from Greenland meltwater varied between 7.1 × 106 and 7.8 × 106 tons, whilst the major...

  13. Estimating the future ice sheet hydropower potential in Paakitsoq, Ilulissat, West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlstrøm, Andreas P.; Mottram, R.H.; Nielsen, C.

    2008-01-01

    sheet has emphasized the risk of sudden changes in catchment supply. In this study, we present a thorough investigation of hydropower feasibility at the Paakitsoq basin, near Ilulissat in West Greenland. The catchment is completely dominated by the Greenland ice sheet which provides large quantities...... of meltwater during the summer season. However, geometrical changes in the ice sheet, for example due to a retreat or an advance of the ice sheet margin, could change the hydrological catchment within the ice sheet. Such a change would have a devastating economical impact as a hydropower plant is a significant...... long-term investment for an Arctic community of modest population. Here we present a new bedrock and surface map of the Paakitsoq/Swiss Camp part of the Greenland ice sheet and a prediction of the future discharge up to 2080 AD using regional climate model output, dynamic ice sheet modelling...

  14. Modeling the response of subglacial drainage at Paakitsoq, west Greenland, to 21st century climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayaud, Jerome R.; Banwell, Alison F.; Arnold, Neil S.; Willis, Ian C.

    2014-12-01

    Although the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) is losing mass at an accelerating rate, much uncertainty remains about how surface runoff interacts with the subglacial drainage system and affects water pressures and ice velocities, both currently, and into the future. Here, we apply a physically based, subglacial hydrological model to the Paakitsoq region, west Greenland, and run it into the future to calculate patterns of daily subglacial water pressure fluctuations in response to climatic warming. The model is driven with moulin input hydrographs calculated by a surface routing model, forced with distributed runoff. Surface runoff and routing are simulated for a baseline year (2000), before the model is forced with future climate scenarios for the years 2025, 2050, and 2095, based on the IPCC's Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs). Our results show that as runoff increases throughout the 21st century, and/or as RCP scenarios become more extreme, the subglacial drainage system makes an earlier transition from a less efficient network operating at high water pressures, to a more efficient network with lower pressures. This will likely cause an overall decrease in ice velocities for marginal areas of the GrIS. However, short-term variations in runoff, and therefore subglacial pressure, can still cause localized speedups, even after the system has become more efficient. If these short-term pressure fluctuations become more pronounced as future runoff increases, the associated late-season speedups may help to compensate for the drop in overall summer velocities, associated with earlier transitioning from a high to a low pressure system.

  15. Characterizing the Frequency and Elevation of Rapid Drainage Events in West Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooley, S.; Christoffersen, P.

    2016-12-01

    Rapid drainage of supraglacial lakes on the Greenland Ice Sheet is critical for the establishment of surface-to-bed hydrologic connections and the subsequent transfer of water from surface to bed. Yet, estimates of the number and spatial distribution of rapidly draining lakes vary widely due to limitations in the temporal frequency of image collection and obscureness by cloud. So far, no study has assessed the impact of these observation biases. In this study, we examine the frequency and elevation of rapidly draining lakes in central West Greenland, from 68°N to 72.6°N, and we make a robust statistical analysis to estimate more accurately the likelihood of lakes draining rapidly. Using MODIS imagery and a fully automated lake detection method, we map more than 500 supraglacial lakes per year over a 63000 km2 study area from 2000-2015. Through testing four different definitions of rapidly draining lakes from previously published studies, we find that the number of rapidly draining lakes varies from 3% to 38%. Logistic regression between rapid drainage events and image sampling frequency demonstrates that the number of rapid drainage events is strongly dependent on cloud-free observation percentage. We then develop three new drainage criteria and apply an observation bias correction that suggests a true rapid drainage probability between 36% and 45%, considerably higher than previous studies without bias assessment have reported. We find rapid-draining lakes are on average larger and disappear earlier than slow-draining lakes, and we also observe no elevation differences for the lakes detected as rapidly draining. We conclude a) that methodological problems in rapid drainage research caused by observation bias and varying detection methods have obscured large-scale rapid drainage characteristics and b) that the lack of evidence for an elevation limit on rapid drainage suggests surface-to-bed hydrologic connections may continue to propagate inland as climate warms.

  16. A new regional high-resolution map of basal and surface topography for the Greenland ice-sheet margin at Paakitsoq, West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mottram, R.; Nielsen, C.; Ahlstrøm, A. P.

    2009-01-01

    In 2005 an airborne survey was carried out from a Twin Otter aircraft at Pâkitsup Akuliarusersua (Paakitsoq) near Ilulissat in West Greenland. The survey aimed to measure ice thickness with a 60 MHz cohrent radar and surface elevation with a scanning laser altimeter.......In 2005 an airborne survey was carried out from a Twin Otter aircraft at Pâkitsup Akuliarusersua (Paakitsoq) near Ilulissat in West Greenland. The survey aimed to measure ice thickness with a 60 MHz cohrent radar and surface elevation with a scanning laser altimeter....

  17. Mountain glaciers vs Ice sheet in Greenland - learning from a new monitoring site in West Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abermann, Jakob; van As, Dirk; Wacker, Stefan; Langley, Kirsty

    2017-04-01

    Only 5 out of the 20.000 peripheral glaciers and ice caps surrounding Greenland are currently monitored due to logistical challenges and despite their significance for sea level rise. Large spatial coast-to-icesheet mass and energy balance gradients limit simple upscaling methods from ice-sheet observations, which builds the motivation for this study. We present results from a new mass and energy balance time series at Qasigiannguit glacier (64°09'N; 51°21'W) in Southwest Greenland. Inter-annual variability is discussed and the surface energy balance over two summers is quantified and a ranking of the main drivers performed. We find that short-wave net radiation is by far the most dominant energy source during summer, followed by similar amounts of net longwave radiation and sensible heat, respectively. We then relate these observations to synchronous measurements at similar latitude on an outlet glacier of the ice sheet a mere 100 km away. We find very pronounced horizontal surface mass balance gradients, with generally more positive values closer to the coast. We conclude that despite minor differences of atmospheric parameters (i.e. humidity, radiation, and temperature) the main reason for the strongly different signal is a pronounced winter precipitation gradient that translates in a different duration of ice exposure and through that an albedo gradient. Modelled energy balance gradients converted into mass changes show good agreement to measured surface mass balance gradients and we explore a latitudinal signal of these findings.

  18. The Greenland analogue project. Geomodel version 1 of the Kangerlussuaq area on Western Greenland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engstroem, J.; Paananen, M. [GTK Geological Survey of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Klint, K.E. [GEUS Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2012-02-15

    During the 2nd annual Greenland Analogue Project modelling workshop in Toronto, November 2010, the hydrological modellers requested an updated geological map and structural model of the field area around Kangerlussuaq, Western Greenland. This report presents an updated GAP Geomodel which utilizes all available information in order to improve the accuracy of the model, especially beneath the ice-sheet. The modelling area was divided into two scales: The regional scale area and the site scale area. The site scale refers to the area were surface mapping has been performed, and where two drillholes (DH-GAP01 and DH-GAP03) were drilled during 2009. Geological and topographical maps from GEUS (sub-model 1) and data extracted from the Geophysical map, GEUS, (sub-model 2) were used in the process to develop GAP Geomodel version 1. These two interpretations were independent from each other and in the final stage these sub-models were integrated and developed into GAP Geological model version 1. The integration resulted in a total of 158 lineaments. These lineaments are referred in the final model as deformation zones and faults, where deformation zones are larger features and faults are single fractures indicating some sense of movement. Four different sets of deformation zones and faults were identified in the regional area. The most prominent feature is the ductile/brittle roughly ENE-WSW trending zones crosscutting the whole area; referred as Type 1. Type 2 and Type 3 zones are in general smaller scale than Type 1 and mostly dominated by brittle deformation. The Type 2 system generally trends NW-SE, while the Type 3 system generally trends NE-SW. The Type 4 features are a brittle and roughly N-S orientated younger system, thus crosscutting all other types. Confirmation and validation of the regional model is based on detailed surface-based examination of fractures within the site area, although the scale is different the same orientations were also identified in the

  19. The Greenland Analogue Project. Geomodel version 1 of the Kangerlussuaq area on Western Greenland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engstroem, Jon; Paananen, Markku (Geological Survey of Finland (Finland)); Klint, Knud Erik (The National Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (Denmark))

    2012-02-15

    During the 2nd annual Greenland Analogue Project modelling workshop in Toronto, November 2010, the hydrological modellers requested an updated geological map and structural model of the field area around Kangerlussuaq, Western Greenland. This report presents an updated GAP geomodel which utilizes all available information in order to improve the accuracy of the model, especially beneath the ice sheet. The modelling area was divided into two scales: The regional scale area and the site scale area. The site scale refers to the area were surface mapping has been performed, and where two boreholes (DH-GAP01 and DH-GAP03) were drilled during 2009. Geological and topographical maps from GEUS (sub-model 1) and data extracted from the geophysical map, GEUS, (sub-model 2) were used in the process to develop GAP geomodel version 1. These two interpretations were independent from each other and in the final stage these sub-models were integrated and developed into GAP geological model version 1. The integration resulted in a total of 158 lineaments. These lineaments are referred in the final model as deformation zones and faults, where deformation zones are larger features and faults are single fractures indicating some sense of movement. Four different sets of deformation zones and faults were identified in the regional area. The most prominent feature is the ductile/brittle roughly ENE-WSW trending zones crosscutting the whole area, referred as Type 1. Type 2 and Type 3 zones are in general smaller scale than Type 1 and mostly dominated by brittle deformation. The Type 2 system generally trends NW-SE, while the Type 3 system generally trends NE-SW. The Type 4 features are a brittle and roughly N-S orientated younger system, thus crosscutting all other types. Confirmation and validation of the regional model is based on detailed surface-based examination of fractures within the site area, although the scale is different the same orientations were also identified in the

  20. The Greenland analogue project. Geomodel version 1 of the Kangerlussuaq area on Western Greenland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engstroem, J.; Paananen, M.; Klint, K.E.

    2012-02-01

    During the 2nd annual Greenland Analogue Project modelling workshop in Toronto, November 2010, the hydrological modellers requested an updated geological map and structural model of the field area around Kangerlussuaq, Western Greenland. This report presents an updated GAP Geomodel which utilizes all available information in order to improve the accuracy of the model, especially beneath the ice-sheet. The modelling area was divided into two scales: The regional scale area and the site scale area. The site scale refers to the area were surface mapping has been performed, and where two drillholes (DH-GAP01 and DH-GAP03) were drilled during 2009. Geological and topographical maps from GEUS (sub-model 1) and data extracted from the Geophysical map, GEUS, (sub-model 2) were used in the process to develop GAP Geomodel version 1. These two interpretations were independent from each other and in the final stage these sub-models were integrated and developed into GAP Geological model version 1. The integration resulted in a total of 158 lineaments. These lineaments are referred in the final model as deformation zones and faults, where deformation zones are larger features and faults are single fractures indicating some sense of movement. Four different sets of deformation zones and faults were identified in the regional area. The most prominent feature is the ductile/brittle roughly ENE-WSW trending zones crosscutting the whole area; referred as Type 1. Type 2 and Type 3 zones are in general smaller scale than Type 1 and mostly dominated by brittle deformation. The Type 2 system generally trends NW-SE, while the Type 3 system generally trends NE-SW. The Type 4 features are a brittle and roughly N-S orientated younger system, thus crosscutting all other types. Confirmation and validation of the regional model is based on detailed surface-based examination of fractures within the site area, although the scale is different the same orientations were also identified in the

  1. The Greenland Analogue Project. Geomodel version 1 of the Kangerlussuaq area on Western Greenland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engstroem, Jon; Paananen, Markku; Klint, Knud Erik

    2012-02-01

    During the 2nd annual Greenland Analogue Project modelling workshop in Toronto, November 2010, the hydrological modellers requested an updated geological map and structural model of the field area around Kangerlussuaq, Western Greenland. This report presents an updated GAP geomodel which utilizes all available information in order to improve the accuracy of the model, especially beneath the ice sheet. The modelling area was divided into two scales: The regional scale area and the site scale area. The site scale refers to the area were surface mapping has been performed, and where two boreholes (DH-GAP01 and DH-GAP03) were drilled during 2009. Geological and topographical maps from GEUS (sub-model 1) and data extracted from the geophysical map, GEUS, (sub-model 2) were used in the process to develop GAP geomodel version 1. These two interpretations were independent from each other and in the final stage these sub-models were integrated and developed into GAP geological model version 1. The integration resulted in a total of 158 lineaments. These lineaments are referred in the final model as deformation zones and faults, where deformation zones are larger features and faults are single fractures indicating some sense of movement. Four different sets of deformation zones and faults were identified in the regional area. The most prominent feature is the ductile/brittle roughly ENE-WSW trending zones crosscutting the whole area, referred as Type 1. Type 2 and Type 3 zones are in general smaller scale than Type 1 and mostly dominated by brittle deformation. The Type 2 system generally trends NW-SE, while the Type 3 system generally trends NE-SW. The Type 4 features are a brittle and roughly N-S orientated younger system, thus crosscutting all other types. Confirmation and validation of the regional model is based on detailed surface-based examination of fractures within the site area, although the scale is different the same orientations were also identified in the

  2. Three recent ice entrapments of Arctic cetaceans in West Greenland and the eastern Canadian High Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MP Heide-Jørgensen

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Three ice entrapments of Monodontids have been reported in the western North Atlantic since 1993. Hunters in Disko Bay, West Greenland, discovered one in March 1994 that included about 150 narwhals (Monodon monoceros. The entrapment occurred during a sudden cold period which caused ice to form rapidly. The trapped whales were subject to hunting, but about 50 of the killed whales could not be retrieved in the ice. The whales were trapped in a small opening in the ice and because of that they would probably have succumbed even if not discovered by hunters. Two entrapments involving white whales or belugas (Delphinapterus leucas occurred in the eastern Canadian Arctic in May 1999; one in Lancaster Sound discovered by polar bear (Ursus maritimus researchers and one in Jones Sound discovered by hunters. The first included one bowhead whale (Balaena mysticetus and about 40 belugas that were being preyed upon by polar bears. The second involved at least 170 belugas, of which about 100 were killed by polar bears and 17 were taken by hunters. The entrapments in Disko Bay and Jones Sound both occurred in areas where entrapments have previously been reported, whereas the one in Lancaster Sound was in a new area.

  3. Freshwater discharge and sediment transport to Kangerlussuaq Fjord, West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Andreas Peter Bech

    the deep inner basin of Kangerlussuaq Fjord. Different melt models were applied to the MIKE SHE and MIKE 11 water routing models in order to simulate the proglacial water flows. The best melt model was a surface energy balance model. The routing model improved the modelled proglacial discharge......The main objectives of this PhD study have been to quantify the large-scale hydrological and geomorphological processes and implications related to three large proglacial rivers draining into Kangerlussuaq Fjord from the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS). These rivers are Watson, Umivit and Sarfartoq...... River. Hydrological processes studied are: proglacial discharge volumes and timing of this, creation of runoff (i.e. melt), storage and release features such as ice dammed lakes (jökulhlaups lakes), the role of supraglacial lakes, storage and release inside or beneath the ice and the role of the so...

  4. The Quaternary geology of the Narssaq area, South Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Funder, Svend Visby

    1979-01-01

    The topography and glacial striations in th~ Narssaq area indicate that the ice age glacial regime in this part of Greenland was characterized by ice movement constrained by the local topography, and a shallow depth of the ice cover. Erratics observed 1200 m above sea level provide a minimum esti...... in the ice sheet. The low altitudes of the marine limits (47-60 m above sea level) also may be interpreted to reflect shallow ice thicknesses, while the few available dates for the timing of the isostatic upheaval, indicate that the Narssaq area was free of ice c. 11 000 years ago....

  5. Upgrading of the West Area

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    The rejigged main hall (EHW1) in the West Area: on background, below the crane, is the brown yoke of the Omega magnet which had been resited. The upgrading was completed by the time in July when 400 GeV protons arrived. See Annual Report 1983 p. 107.

  6. A new Eimeria species (Protozoa: Eimeriidae) from caribou in Ameralik, West Greenland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skirnisson, K; Cuyler, C

    2016-04-01

    Fecal samples of 11 calves shot in the Ameralik area, West Greenland, in August-September 2014 were examined for coccidian parasites. The calves belonged to a population of interbreeding indigenous caribou Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus and feral semi-domestic Norwegian reindeer Rangifer tarandus tarandus. Two coccidian species were found: Eimeria rangiferis and a coccidium that was identified and described as a new species. The latter's sporulated oocyst is spherical or slightly subspherical. Average size is 25.6 × 24.8 μm. The oocyst has two distinct walls. Wall thickness is ∼1.4 μm. The unicolored outer wall is brown, the inner wall is dark gray. The oocysts contain a small polar granule but are devoid of a microphyle. The oocysts enclose four ovoid-shaped sporocysts with a rounded end opposite to the Stieda body. The average size of sporocysts is 15.2 × 7.8 μm. Sporocysts contain a granular sporocyst residuum that forms a spherical cluster between the sporocysts, one large refractile body is present in each sporozoite. The spherical form easily distinguishes oocysts of the new species from the seven previously described eimerid species in R. tarandus. This is the first eimerid described as a new species to the sciences from caribou in the Nearctic.

  7. Outbreak of trichinellosis associated with consumption of game meat in West Greenland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, Lone Nukâraq; Petersen, Eskild; Kapel, Christian M O; Melbye, Mads; Koch, Anders

    2005-09-05

    The Inuit population of the Arctic has always been at risk of acquiring trichinellosis and severe outbreaks have been recorded in Alaska and Canada. In West Greenland, a number of large outbreaks took place during the 1940s and 1950s; they involved total 420 cases including 37 deaths. Since then only sporadic cases have been reported. Here, we describe an outbreak of infection with Trichinella spp. after consumption of infected meat presumably from walrus or polar bear caught in western Greenland. Six persons who had eaten of the walrus and polar bear meat were two males and four females, age range 6--47 years. Using ELISA and Western blot analysis (Trichinella-specific IgG antibodies against excreted/secreted antigen and synthetic tyvelose antigen, respectively) four of these persons were found to be sero-positive for Trichinella antibodies, with three of these having clinical symptoms compatible with trichinellosis. On re-test, 12--14 months later one of the two sero-negative persons had sero-converted, probably due to a new, unrelated infection. This study demonstrates that acquiring Trichinella from the consumption of marine mammals remains a possibility in Greenland, and that cases may go undetected. Trichinellosis in Greenland can be prevented by the implementation of public health measures.

  8. Suicides in the midnight sun--a study of seasonality in suicides in West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Björkstén, Karin Sparring; Bjerregaard, Peter; Kripke, Daniel F

    2005-01-01

    high rates in most age groups, up to 577 per 100,000 person-years in men aged 15-24 years in 1990, and up to 147 per 100,000 person-years in women aged 15-24 years in 1995. Violent methods of suicide were used by 93%. Depression has been reported uncommonly. High alcohol intake and extended periods......Greenland is the most extreme of human habitats in regard to annual changes in natural light. From being very low, the rate of suicides in Greenland has increased during the past few decades to be among the highest in the world. Several studies have shown seasonality in suicides with spring...... or summer peaks, but this has not been previously shown in Greenland. Official data from 1968 to 1995 from West Greenland were pooled. A significant seasonality in the 833 suicides was found using Rayleigh's test, a peak in June and a trough in the winter. Suicides increased during the period, and reached...

  9. Diagenesis and reservoir properties of Cretaceous-Lower Tertiary sandstones: the GANT-1 well, western Nuussuaq, central West Greenland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kierkegaard, Thomas

    1998-08-01

    The main purpose of this study is to describe the diagenetic alterations occurring in the Cretaceous to Lower Paleocene sedimentary succession of the GANT-1 well, and to determine the diagenetic and detrital factors which control present porosity and permeability. The GANT-1 well is located on north-western Nuussuaq, central West Greenland. The West Greenland margin is a continental margin subdivided into linked basins where Cretaceous to Lower Tertiary and probably older sediments have been deposited. In the Nuussuaq area these sediments are overlain by a succession of Early Tertiary basaltic volcanic rocks which reaches a combined thickness of around 2-2.5 km. Although the reservoir properties of the sandstone intervals in the GANT-1 and GANE-1 wells are generally relatively poor, it is suggested that moderate to good properties may be found in certain intervals within the Maastrichtian-Paleocene succession. However, the reason for the locally enhanced reservoir properties in GANT-1 was not clarified by this study due to the lack of regional petrographical data. (EG) EFP-96. 41 refs., 3 maps

  10. Holocene glacial history of the west Greenland Ice Sheet inferred from cosmogenic exposure ages and threshold lakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Nicolaj Krog; Kjaer, K. H.; Colding, Sune Oluf

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we use a combination of 10Be exposure ages and threshold lakes to constrain the ice sheet history in Godthåbs- and Buksefjorden, west Greenland (63-64°N) during the Holocene. The 10Be cosmogenic exposure ages have been used to quantify both the ice retreat and thinning of the west...

  11. Mass balance of the Amitsulôq ice cap, West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlstrøm, Andreas P.; Bøggild, Carl Egede; Olesen, Ole B.

    2007-01-01

    We present detailed mass balance measurements from the Amitsulôq ice cap in West Greenland spanning from 1982 to 1990. The data includes summer and winter balances from 26 stake locations distributed over five transects covering the whole ice cap. The mass balance measurements are combined...... with a recent satellite-derived digital elevation model to calculate the specific balance, which is in turn compared to discharge data from the adjacent Tasersiaq basin. The correlation between specific summer balance and discharge is R2 = 0.93 indicating that the basin discharge is dominated by glacial...... meltwater, linking the hydropower potential of the basin closely to the fate of the adjoining Greenland ice-sheet margin....

  12. The influence of climatic and physiological performance on population dynamics of Mytilus edulis in West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyrring, Jakob; Blicher, Martin; Sejr, Mikael Kristian

    2014-01-01

    data on current distribution and physiological performance of blue mussels in the Arctic is lacking, and knowledge of how “climate” in a broad sense specifically influence population dynamics of this species is unknown. Here, we present data on abundance, age and mortality of blue mussels in West...... Greenland. We supplement our data with physiological measurements on freezing tolerance and aerobic metabolic performance of intertidal specimens. We hereby attempt to identify links between temperature and physiology and how this might translate into population dynamics in this region of the Arctic....... Results show an overall decline in blue mussel abundance along the coast from south to north Greenland. Physiological adaptation and plasticity of blue mussels was found across latitudes spanning from the temperate to the High Arctic region. Combined our results indicate that low ocean temperature per se...

  13. Molecular diversity patterns among various phytoplankton size-fractions in West Greenland in late summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elferink, Stephanie; Neuhaus, Stefan; Wohlrab, Sylke; Toebe, Kerstin; Voß, Daniela; Gottschling, Marc; Lundholm, Nina; Krock, Bernd; Koch, Boris P.; Zielinski, Oliver; Cembella, Allan; John, Uwe

    2017-03-01

    Arctic regions have experienced pronounced biological and biophysical transformations as a result of global change processes over the last several decades. Current hypotheses propose an elevated impact of those environmental changes on the biodiversity, community composition and metabolic processes of species. The effects on ecosystem function and services, particularly when invasive or toxigenic harmful species become dominant, can be expressed over a wide range of temporal and spatial scales in plankton communities. Our study focused on the comparison of molecular biodiversity of three size-fractions (micro-, nano-, picoplankton) in the coastal pelagic zone of West Greenland and their association with environmental parameters. Molecular diversity was assessed via parallel amplicon sequencing the 28S rRNA hypervariable D1/D2 region. We showed that biodiversity distribution within the area of Uummannaq Fjord, Vaigat Strait and Disko Bay differed markedly within and among size-fractions. In general, we observed a higher diversity within the picoplankton size fraction compared to the nano- and microplankton. In multidimensional scaling analysis, community composition of all three size fractions correlated with cell size, silicate and phosphate, chlorophyll a (chl a) and dinophysistoxin (DTX). Individually, each size fraction community composition also correlated with other different environmental parameters, i.e. temperature and nitrate. We observed a more homogeneous community of the picoplankton across all stations compared to the larger size classes, despite different prevailing environmental conditions of the sampling areas. This suggests that habitat niche occupation for larger-celled species may lead to higher functional trait plasticity expressed as an enhanced range of phenotypes, whereas smaller organisms may compensate for lower potential plasticity with higher diversity. The presence of recently identified toxigenic harmful algal bloom (HAB) species (such

  14. Feeding ecology of Greenland halibut and sandeel larvae off West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenberg, Claus; Munk, Peter; Folkvord, A.

    2006-01-01

    it remained constant for sandeel at a level of 2.7% of larval length. This led to a reduction in prey niche overlap between the two species. The available prey copepod biomass differed distinctly across the shelf area. In May, the prey density of Gr. halibut was the highest in the off-shelf area in Davis...... Strait. In June and July, the prey-rich areas for both species were mainly located at the slopes of the banks and at the shelf break area. Gut fullness was higher in these areas than in neighbouring areas, suggesting that the larval food resource could be scarce. The feeding ecology of Gr. halibut...

  15. Observations of runoff and sediment and dissolved loads from the Greenland Ice Sheet at Kangerlussuaq, West Greenland, 2007 to 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasholt, Bent; Mikkelsen, Andreas Peter Bech; Nielsen, Morten Holtegaard

    2012-01-01

    Observations from 2007 to 2010 of runoff, sediment and solute delivery from a segment of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) and the proglacial landscape draining into the fjord at Kangerlussuaq are presented. The observations include at least three jökulhlaups and extreme recordings from 2010...... previously published for 2007 and 2008. The average effective erosion from the catchment was 0.28 mm (min. 0.18 and max. 0.45 mm). The erosion is larger than indicated from most other locations along the GrIS, but in the same order of magnitude as erosion in other glaciated areas at the same latitude, e.......g. Norway. The sandur in the proglacial area acts as a sediment sink for a lot of the sediments from the GrIS....

  16. Spatial statistical analysis of contamination level of 241Am and 239Pu Thule, North-West Greenland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strodl Andersen, J.

    2011-10-01

    A spatial analysis of data on radioactive pollution on land at Thule, North-West Greenland is presented. The data comprises levels of 241 Am and 239,240 Pu on land. Maximum observed level of 241 Am is 2.8x10 5 Bq m -2 . Highest levels were observed near Narsaarsuk. This area was also sampled most intensively. In Groennedal the maximum observed level of 241 Am is 1.9Oe10 4 Bq m -2 . Prediction of the overall amount of 241 Am and 239,240 Pu is based on grid points within the range from the nearest measurement location. The overall amount is therefore highly dependent on the model. Under the optimal spatial model for Narsaarsuk, within the area of prediction, the predicted total amount of 241 Am is 45 GBq and the predicted total amount of 239,240 Pu is 270 GBq. (Author)

  17. Spatial statistical analysis of contamination level of 241Am and 239Pu, Thule, North-West Greenland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strodl Andersen, J. (JSA EnviroStat (Denmark))

    2011-10-15

    A spatial analysis of data on radioactive pollution on land at Thule, North-West Greenland is presented. The data comprises levels of 241Am and 239,240Pu on land. Maximum observed level of 241Am is 2.8x105 Bq m-2. Highest levels were observed near Narsaarsuk. This area was also sampled most intensively. In Groennedal the maximum observed level of 241Am is 1.9-104 Bq m-2. Prediction of the overall amount of 241Am and 239,240Pu is based on grid points within the range from the nearest measurement location. The overall amount is therefore highly dependent on the model. Under the optimal spatial model for Narsaarsuk, within the area of prediction, the predicted total amount of 241Am is 45 GBq and the predicted total amount of 239,240Pu is 270 GBq. (Author)

  18. Contamination of arctic Fjord sediments by Pb-Zn mining at Maarmorilik in central West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perner, Kerstin; Leipe, Thomas; Dellwig, O

    2010-01-01

    This study focuses on heavy metal contamination of arctic sediments from a small Fjord system adjacent to the Pb-Zn "Black Angel" mine (West Greenland) to investigate the temporal and spatial development of contamination and to provide baseline levels before the mines re-opening in January 2009....... Maximum contents were found at 12 cm depth in Affarlikassaa. After 17 years the mine last closed, specific local hydrographic conditions continue to disperse heavy metal enriched material derived from the Affarlikassaa into Qaumarujuk. Total Hg profiles from multi-cores along the transect clearly...

  19. Hepatic and renal histology and mercury concentrations of North West and North East Greenland narwhals (Monodon monoceros)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Christian; Leifsson, Pall S.; Sondergaard, Jens

    2018-01-01

    subadult females, 8 adult females, 3 subadult males, and 1 adult male) and compare data with previous observations of 12 North West Greenland specimens (1 subadult female, 4 adult females, 1 subadult male, and 6 adult males). The zoological length was significantly larger and hepatic and renal...... of glomerular lesions (capillary dilatation [0–100%], membrane thickening [0–100%], dilatation of space [0–80%], and sclerosis [0–70%]) and two tubular lesions (atrophy/hyalinization [0–40%] and casts [0–60%]). Hepatic tissues exhibited three portal lesions (fibrosis [0–33%], cell infiltrates [0–40%], and bile...... duct proliferation [0–40%]) and two parenchymal lesions (steatosis [83–100%] and lipid-filled Ito cells [0–33%]). All 12 lesions were found in adult whales from North West Greenland while eight were present in adult whales from North East Greenland. Six lesions were detected in subadults from North...

  20. Seismic stratigraphic architecture of the Disko Bay trough-mouth fan system, West Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Julia C.; Knutz, Paul C.

    2015-04-01

    Spatial and temporal changes of the Greenland Ice Sheet on the continental shelf bordering Baffin Bay remain poorly constrained. Then as now, fast-flowing ice streams and outlet glaciers have played a key role for the mass balance and stability of polar ice sheets. Despite their significance for Greenland Ice Sheet dynamics and evolution, our understanding of their long-term behaviour is limited. The central West Greenland margin is characterized by a broad continental shelf where a series of troughs extend from fjords to the shelf margin, acting as focal points for trough-mouth fan (TMF) accummulations. The sea-ward bulging morphology and abrupt shelf-break of these major depositional systems is generated by prograding depocentres that formed during glacial maxima when ice streams reached the shelf edge, delivering large amounts of subglacial sediment onto the continental slope (Ó Cofaigh et al., 2013). The aim of this study is to unravel the seismic stratigraphic architecture and depositional processes of the Disko Bay TMF, aerially the largest single sedimentary system in West Greenland, using 2D and 3D seismic reflection data, seabed bathymetry and stratigraphic information from exploration well Hellefisk-1. The south-west Disko Bay is intersected by a deep, narrow trough, Egedesminde Dyb, which extends towards the southwest and links to the shallower and broader cross-shelf Disko Trough (maximum water depths of > 1000 m and a trough length of c. 370 km). Another trough-like depression (trough length of c. 120 km) in the northern part of the TMF, indicating a previous position of the ice stream, can be distinguished on the seabed topographic map and the seismic images. The Disko Bay TMF itself extends from the shelf edge down to the abyssal plain (abyssal floor depths of 2000 m) of the southern Baffin Bay. Based on seismic stratigraphic configurations relating to reflection terminations, erosive patterns and seismic facies (Mitchum et al., 1977), the TMF

  1. Controversial Pb-Pb and Sm-Nd isotope results in the early Archean Isua (West Greenland) oxide iron formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frei, Robert; Rosing, Minik; Stecher, Ole

    1999-01-01

    Pb stepwise leaching (PbSL) determinations on two magnetite-enriched fractions of a BIF sample from the northeastern part of the Isua supracrustal belt (West Greenland) yield an isochron of 3691 ± 22 Ma (MSWD = 0.4). In combination with previously published geochronological constraints for a mini...

  2. Age and sex distributions in the catches of belugas, Delphinapterus leucas , in West Greenland and in western Russia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heide-Jørgensen, M.P.; Lockyer, C.

    2001-01-01

    Age and sex were determined for belugas or white whales, Delphinapterus leucas, harvested in West Greenland in 1985-86 and 1989-1997. There was a clear segregation of whales in the drive fishery conducted during autumn in Qaanaaq and Upernavik. Primarily immature whales of both sexes together wit...

  3. Horizontal and vertical dynamics of zooplankton and larval fish communities during mid-summer in Disko Bay, West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Peter; Nielsen, Torkel Gissel; Hansen, Benni Winding

    2015-01-01

    Disko Bay is a highly productive inlet at the border between high- and low-arctic sectors of west Greenland. The physical/chemical conditions in the bay have changed during recent decades, specifically during an inflow event in 1996–1997 that led to increased deep-water temperatures. To further u...

  4. Environmental oil spill sensitivity atlas for the West Greenland (68 deg.-72 deg. N) coastal zone, 2nd revised edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clausen, D.; Johansen, Kasper L.; Mosbech, A.; Boertmann, D.; Wegeberg, S.

    2012-12-15

    This oil spill sensitivity atlas covers the shoreline and the offshore areas of West Greenland between 68 deg. N and 72 deg. N. The coastal zone is divided into 199 shoreline segments and the offshore zone into 8 areas. A sensitivity index value is calculated for each segment/area, and each segment/area is subsequently ranked according to four degrees of sensitivity. Besides this general ranking a number of smaller areas are especially selected as they are of particular significance, they are especially vulnerable to oil spills and they have a size making oil spill response possible. The shoreline sensitivity ranking are shown on 37 maps (in scale 1:250,000), which also show the different elements included and the selected areas. Coast types, logistics and proposed response methods along the coasts are shown on another 37 maps. The sensitivities of the offshore zones are depicted on 4 maps, one for each season. Based on all the information, appropriate oil spill response methods have been assessed for each area. (Author)

  5. Morphology and sedimentology of glacigenic submarine fans on the west Greenland continental margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Cofaigh, Colm; Hogan, Kelly A.; Dowdeswell, Julian A.; Jennings, Anne E.; Noormets, Riko; Evans, Jeffrey

    2014-05-01

    Along the West Greenland continental margin adjoining Baffin Bay, bathymetric data show a series of large submarine fans located at the mouths of cross-shelf troughs. Two of these fans, the Uummannaq Fan and the Disko Fan are trough-mouth fans built largely of debris delivered from ice sheet outlets of the Greenland Ice Sheet during past glacial maxima. On the Uummannaq Fan glacigenic debris flow deposits occur on the upper slope and extend to at least 1800 m water depth in front of the trough-mouth. The debris flow deposits are related to the remobilisation of subglacial debris that was delivered onto the upper slope at times when an ice stream was positioned at the shelf edge. In contrast, sedimentary facies from the northern sector of the fan are characterised by hemipelagic and ice-rafted sediments and turbidites; glacigenic debris flows are notably absent in cores from this region. Further south along the Greenland continental margin the surface of the Disko Fan is prominently channelised and associated sediments are acoustically stratified. Although glacigenic debris flow deposits do occur on the upper Disko Fan, sediments recovered in cores from elsewhere on the fan record the influence of turbidity current and meltwater sedimentation. The channelised form of the Disko fan contrasts markedly with that of the Uummannaq Fan and, more widely, with trough mouth fans from the Polar North Atlantic. Collectively these data highlight the variability of glacimarine depositional processes operating on trough-mouth fans on high-latitude continental slopes and show that glacigenic debris flows are but one of a number of mechanisms by which such large glacially-influenced depocentres form.

  6. Twenty-one years of mass balance observations along the K-transect, West Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. S. W. van de Wal

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A 21-yr record is presented of surface mass balance measurements along the K-transect. The series covers the period 1990–2011. Data are available at eight sites along a transect over an altitude range of 380–1850 m at approximately 67° N in West Greenland. The surface mass balance gradient is on average 3.8 × 10−3 m w.e. m−1, and the mean equilibrium line altitude is 1553 m a.s.l. Only the lower three sites within 10 km of the margin up to an elevation of 700 m experience a significant increasing trend in the ablation over the entire period. Data are available at: doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.779181.

  7. A new cycle of jökulhlaups at Russell Glacier, Kangerlussuaq, West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Russell, Andrew J.; Carrivick, Jonathan L.; Ingeman-Nielsen, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    years. Robust calculations of lake volumes and peak discharges are made, based onintensive field surveys and utilizing high-spatial-resolution orthophotographs of the lake basin and icemargin. These data enable identification of controls on the behaviour of the ice-dammed lake andprovide the first field......Jokulhlaups in 2007 and 2008 from an ice-dammed lake at the northern margin of RussellGlacier, West Greenland, marked the onset of a renewed jokulhlaup cycle after 20 years of stability. Wepresent a record of successive ice-dammed lake drainage events and associated ice-margin dynamicsspanning 25......-based examination of controls on jokulhlaup magnitude and frequency for thissystem. We find that Russell Glacier jokulhlaups have a much higher peak discharge than predicted bythe Clague–Mathews relationship, which we attribute to an unusually short englacial/subglacialrouteway and the presence of a thin ice dam...

  8. Marine meiofauna, carbon and nitrogen mineralization in sandy and soft sediments of Disko Bay, West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rysgaard, S.; Christensen, P.B.; Sørensen, Martin Vinther

    2000-01-01

    Organic carbon mineralization was studied in a shallow-water (4 m), sandy sediment and 2 comparatively deep-water (150 and 300 m), soft sediments in Disko Bay, West Greenland. Benthic microalgae inhabiting the shallow-water locality significantly affected diurnal O-2 conditions within the surface...... is regulated primarily by the availability of organic matter and not by temperature. The shallow-water sediment contained a larger meiofauna population than the deep-water muddy sediments. Crustacean nauplia dominated the upper 9 mm while nematodes dominated below. A typical interstitial fauna of species...... layers of the sediment. Algal photosynthetic activity and nitrogen uptake reduced nitrogen effluxes and denitrification rates. Sulfate reduction was the most important pathway for carbon mineralization in the sediments of the shallow-water station. In contrast, high bottom-water NO3- concentrations...

  9. West Coast Rockfish Conservation Areas, 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data delineate Rockfish Conservation Areas (RCA) off the West Coast of the United States for 2015. There are three types of areas closures depicted in this...

  10. Mineral nutrition and alimentary pools in muskoxen and caribou on the Angujaartorfiup Nunaa range in West Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Staaland

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available Minerals (Na, K, Cl, Ca, P, Mg and crude protein concentrations as well as total contents were measured throughout the alimentary tract of muskoxen and caribou from Angujaatorfiup Nunaa range, Søndre Strømfjord area in West Greenland. The muskoxen had significantly higher K concentrations in the caecum and proximal colon than the caribou. Caribou collected during the summer season had the highest Mg concentrations throughout the alimentary tract. In both species water, Na, K and CI concentrations decreased through the distal part of the alimentary system whereas Ca, Mg, P and crude protein concentrations increased. The muskoxen had relatively larger mineral pools and total content in the omasum than the caribou, and the caribou relatively larger mineral pools (except K and CI and total content in the caecum. Higher concentrations of Mg in the alimentary tract of the caribou than the muskoxen during the summer could also indicate that the caribou feed more on herbs with high concentrations of Mg. The data does also indicate that both the caribou and the muskoxen are living in an area where high intakes of minerals from both vegetation and mineral licks are possible. Based on the present study the muskoxen is apparently a typical grazer whereas the caribou is more like a concentrate selector.

  11. Ice-Ocean Interactions to the North-West of Greenland: Glaciers, Straits, Ice Bridges, and the Rossby Radius (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muenchow, A.; Falkner, K. K.; Melling, H.; Johnson, H. L.; Huntley, H. S.; Ryan, P.; Friends Of Petermann

    2010-12-01

    Petermann Glacier at 81 N latitude is a major outlet glacier adjacent to Nares Strait. It terminates in a long (70 km), narrow (16 km) and thin (50 m) floating tongue and has a grounding line more than 500 m below sea level. A calving event in 2010 reduced the floating area by 25% and produced a single 240 km2 ice island currently moving south in Nares Strait where it will likely interact with island to potentially create a temporary polynya in Nares Strait. The 2010 calving from Petermann Glacier contributes bridge formed regularly at the southern end of Nares Strait creating the North-Water polynya near 79 N latitude. Since 2006 this ice bridge has largely failed to form, leading, perhaps, to the occasional formation of a secondary ice bridge 300 km to the north where Nares Strait connects to the Arctic Ocean. However, this ice bridge appears to form for shorter periods only. Consequently Arctic sea ice can now exit the Arctic in winter via pathways to the west of Greenland all year. We speculate that this changed ocean and sea ice regime in Nares Strait and the Arctic Ocean may contribute to the recently observed calving events in Petermann Fjord.

  12. Applying foraminiferal stratigraphy as a biomarker for heavy metal contamination and mining impact in a fiord in West Greenland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elberling, Bo; Knudsen, Karen Luise; Kristensen, Peter H; Asmund, Gert

    2003-04-01

    Sulphidic mine waste disposed in marine environments constitutes an environmental risk to aquatic life due to potential uptake and accumulation of heavy metals in biota. Fiord sediments near the former Black Angel Mine in West Greenland are contaminated by lead and zinc as a result of submarine tailings disposal in 1973-1990. In 1999 cores were taken up to 10 km away from the disposal area. Analyses include heavy metals, radiochemical dating (210Pb) and high-resolution foraminiferal stratigraphy. The mining operation resulted in significant changes in the assemblage composition. In addition, up to 20% of the Melonis barleeanus population found in sediment deposited during nearby tailings disposal was deformed compared to a natural background of less than 5%. Throughout cores representing the last 100 years of sedimentation, the total numbers and frequency of morphological abnormalities among M. barleeanus revealed some correlation with heavy metals concentrations (up to r2 = 79%). We conclude that abnormalities among foraminifera may represent a useful biomarker for evaluating trends in the biological impact resulting of submarine tailings disposal as well as long-term environmental impact and subsequent recovery.

  13. Ice-dammed lake drainage evolution at Russell Glacier, west Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrivick, Jonathan L.; Tweed, Fiona S.; Ng, Felix; Quincey, Duncan J.; Mallalieu, Joseph; Ingeman-Nielsen, Thomas; Mikkelsen, Andreas B.; Palmer, Steven J.; Yde, Jacob C.; Homer, Rachel; Russell, Andrew J.; Hubbard, Alun

    2017-11-01

    Glaciological and hydraulic factors that control the timing and mechanisms of glacier lake outburst floods (GLOFs) remain poorly understood. This study used measurements of lake level at fifteen minute intervals and known lake bathymetry to calculate lake outflow during two GLOF events from the northern margin of Russell Glacier, west Greenland. We used measured ice surface elevation, interpolated subglacial topography and likely conduit geometry to inform a melt enlargement model of the outburst evolution. The model was tuned to best-fit the hydrograph’s rising limb and timing of peak discharge in both events; it achieved Mean Absolute Errors of Lake water temperature, which strongly governed the enlargement rate, preconditioned the high peak discharge and short duration of these floods. We hypothesize that both GLOFs were triggered by ice dam flotation, and localised hydraulic jacking sustained most of their early-stage outflow, explaining the particularly rapid water egress in comparison to that recorded at other ice-marginal lakes. As ice overburden pressure relative to lake water hydraulic head diminished, flow became confined to a subglacial conduit. This study has emphasised the inter-play between ice dam thickness and lake level, drainage timing, lake water temperature and consequently rising stage lake outflow and flood evolution.

  14. Environmental Oil Spill Sensitivity Atlas for the West Greenland (68º-72º N) Coastal Zone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosbech, A.; Boertmann, D.; Olsen, B. Ø.

    This oil spill sensitivity atlas covers the shoreline and the offshore areas of West Greenlandbetween 68º N and 72º N. The coastal zone is divided into nearly 200 areas and the offshorezone into 8 areas. A sensitivity index value is calculated for each area, and each area issubsequently ranked...... on 37 maps (in scale 1:250,000), which also show thedifferent elements included. These maps also show the selected areas. Coast types, logistics andproposed response methods along the coasts are shown on another 38 maps. The sensitivities ofthe offshore zones are depicted on 4 maps, one for each season...

  15. Age of Tertiary volcanic rocks on the West Greenland continental margin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lotte M.; Pedersen, Asger Ken; Tegner, Christian

    2016-01-01

    across the entire North Atlantic Igneous Province. A quiescent 58–56 Ma period correlates with similar periods in East Greenland and the Faroes, and the Naqerloq Formation is coeval with the Eocene basalts in East Greenland. The Paleocene and Eocene tholeiitic basalts are distinguishable chemically...

  16. The role of meltwater in high-latitude trough-mouth fan development : the Disko Trough-Mouth Fan, West Greenland.

    OpenAIRE

    Cofaigh, Colm Ó.; Hogan, Kelly A.; Jennings, Anne E.; Callard, S. Louise; Dowdeswell, Julian A.; Noormets, Riko; Evans, Jeff

    2018-01-01

    The Disko Trough-Mouth Fan (TMF) is a major submarine sediment fan located along the central west Greenland continental margin offshore of Disko Trough. The location of the TMF at the mouth of a prominent cross-shelf trough indicates that it is a product of repeated glacigenic sediment delivery from former fast-flowing outlets of the Greenland Ice Sheet, including an ancestral Jakobshavn Isbrae, which expanded to the shelf edge during successive glacial cycles. This study focuses on the upper...

  17. Greenland surface mass-balance observations from the ice-sheet ablation area and local glaciers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machguth, Horst; Thomsen, Henrik H.; Weidick, Anker

    2016-01-01

    Glacier surface mass-balance measurements on Greenland started more than a century ago, but no compilation exists of the observations from the ablation area of the ice sheet and local glaciers. Such data could be used in the evaluation of modelled surface mass balance, or to document changes in g...

  18. Testing EGM2008 on Leveling Data from Scandinavia, Adjacent Baltic Areas, and Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strykowski, Gabriel; Forsberg, René

    2010-01-01

    We tested EGM2008 on GPS/leveling data from Scandinavia and adjacent areas. EGM2008 performs at the same level as the best regional geoid model, NKG2004. However, the direct evaluation of EGM2008 is difficult in Greenland because no leveling data are available. Nevertheless, we show on 78 GPS-MSS...

  19. The nature of nursing practice in rural and remote areas of Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hounsgaard, Lise; Jensen, A.B.; Præst Wilche, J.

    2013-01-01

    it meets the requirements of healthcare reform. Design This ethnographic study utilised documentary analysis, participant observation and qualitative interviewing carried out in remote areas of Greenland during 2011–2012. Eight registered nurses, four women and four men, aged between 35 and 55...

  20. Greenland surface mass-balance observations from the ice-sheet ablation area and local glaciers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Machguth, Horst; Thomsen, Henrik H.; Weidick, Anker; Ahlstrøm, Andreas P.; Abermann, Jakob; Andersen, Morten L.; Andersen, Signe B.; Bjørk, Anders A.; Box, Jason E.; Braithwaite, Roger J.; Bøggild, Carl E.; Citterio, Michele; Clement, Poul; Colgan, William; Fausto, Robert S.; Gleie, Karin; Gubler, Stefanie; Hasholt, Bent; Hynek, Bernhard; Knudsen, Niels T.; Larsen, Signe H.; Mernild, Sebastian H.; Oerlemans, Johannes; Oerter, Hans; Olesen, Ole B.; Smeets, C. J P Paul; Steffen, Konrad; Stober, Manfred; Sugiyama, Shin; Van As, Dirk; Van Den Broeke, Michiel R.; Van De Wal, Roderik S W

    2016-01-01

    Glacier surface mass-balance measurements on Greenland started more than a century ago, but no compilation exists of the observations from the ablation area of the ice sheet and local glaciers. Such data could be used in the evaluation of modelled surface mass balance, or to document changes in

  1. Are warbles and bots related to reproductive status in West Greenland caribou?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Cuyler

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In March-April 2008-09, using CARMA protocols, 81 cows and 16 calves were collected in West Greenland from two caribou populations; Akia-Maniitsoq (AM and Kangerlussuaq-Sisimiut (KS. In both populations, warble larvae numbers were highest in calves and higher in non-pregnant than pregnant cows. Nose bots showed no relationship with pregnancy or lactation; KS calves had higher nose bot loads than cows, a pattern not observed in AM. Pregnant cows had more rump fat than non-pregnant cows. KS cows lacking rump fat entirely had the highest warble burdens. We observed lactating pregnant cows with moderate larval burdens. Projected energy cost of the heaviest observed combined larvae burdens was equivalent to 2-5 days basal metabolic rate (BMR for a cow, and 7-12 days BMR for a calf. Foregone fattening in adult cows with average burdens was 0.2 to 0.5 kg, but almost doubled with the heaviest infestations to 0.4 and 0.8 kg. Average burdens in calves resulted in forgone fattening of about 0.5 kg, with peak costs equivalent to 0.7 and 1.1 kg fat for AM and KS calves respectively. Although modest, these projected energy costs of hosting larvae for cows support the negative relationship between rump fat and larvae burden. For calves, hosting high burdens of warble larvae could affect winter survival, specifically those weaned normally in October or in early winter. Harmful effects of oestrid larvae burdens may remain subtle but clearly cumulative in relation to seasonal forage availability and incidence of other parasites.

  2. Ice-Dammed Lake Drainage Evolution at Russell Glacier, West Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan L. Carrivick

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available KEY POINTS/HIGHLIGHTSTwo rapid ice-dammed lake drainage events gauged and ice dam geometry measured.A melt enlargement model is developed to examine the evolution of drainage mechanism(s.Lake temperature dominated conduit melt enlargement and we hypothesize a flotation trigger.Glaciological and hydraulic factors that control the timing and mechanisms of glacier lake outburst floods (GLOFs remain poorly understood. This study used measurements of lake level at 15 min intervals and known lake bathymetry to calculate lake outflow during two GLOF events from the northern margin of Russell Glacier, west Greenland. We used measured ice surface elevation, interpolated subglacial topography and likely conduit geometry to inform a melt enlargement model of the outburst evolution. The model was tuned to best-fit the hydrograph rising limb and timing of peak discharge in both events; it achieved Mean Absolute Errors of <5%. About one third of the way through the rising limb, conduit melt enlargement became the dominant drainage mechanism. Lake water temperature, which strongly governed the enlargement rate, preconditioned the high peak discharge and short duration of these floods. We hypothesize that both GLOFs were triggered by ice dam flotation, and localized hydraulic jacking sustained most of their early-stage outflow, explaining the particularly rapid water egress in comparison to that recorded at other ice-marginal lakes. As ice overburden pressure relative to lake water hydraulic head diminished, flow became confined to a subglacial conduit. This study has emphasized the inter-play between ice dam thickness and lake level, drainage timing, lake water temperature and consequently rising stage lake outflow and flood evolution.

  3. Shoreline changes and its impact on archaeological sites in West Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenger-Nielsen, R.; Kroon, A.; Elberling, B.; Hollesen, J.

    2017-12-01

    Coastal erosion is regarded as a major threat to archaeological sites in the Arctic region. The problem arises because the predominantly marine-focused lifeways of Arctic people means that the majority of archaeological sites are found near the coast. On a Pan-Arctic scale, coastal erosion is often explained by long-term processes such as sea level rise, lengthening of open water periods due to a decline in sea ice, and a predicted increase in the frequency of major storms. However, on a local scale other short-term processes may be important parameters determining the coastal development. In this study, we focus on the Nuuk fjord system in West Greenland, which has been inhabited over the past 4000 years by different cultures and holds around 260 registered archaeological settlements. The fjord is characterized by its large branching of narrow deep-water and well-shaded water bodies, where tidal processes and local sources of sediment supply by rivers are observed to be the dominant factors determining the coastal development. We present a regional model showing the vulnerability of the shoreline and archeological sites due to coastal processes. The model is based on a) levelling surveys and historical aerial photographs of nine specific sites distributed in the region, b) water level measurements at three sites representing the inner-, middle- and outer fjord system, c) aerial photographs, satellite images and meteorological data of the entire region used to up-scale our local information at a specific settlement scale towards a regional scale. This deals with spatial and temporal variability in erosion and accumulation patterns along the shores in fjords and open seas.

  4. Dark ice dynamics of the south-west Greenland Ice Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedstone, Andrew J.; Bamber, Jonathan L.; Cook, Joseph M.; Williamson, Christopher J.; Fettweis, Xavier; Hodson, Andrew J.; Tranter, Martyn

    2017-11-01

    Runoff from the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) has increased in recent years due largely to changes in atmospheric circulation and atmospheric warming. Albedo reductions resulting from these changes have amplified surface melting. Some of the largest declines in GrIS albedo have occurred in the ablation zone of the south-west sector and are associated with the development of dark ice surfaces. Field observations at local scales reveal that a variety of light-absorbing impurities (LAIs) can be present on the surface, ranging from inorganic particulates to cryoconite materials and ice algae. Meanwhile, satellite observations show that the areal extent of dark ice has varied significantly between recent successive melt seasons. However, the processes that drive such large interannual variability in dark ice extent remain essentially unconstrained. At present we are therefore unable to project how the albedo of bare ice sectors of the GrIS will evolve in the future, causing uncertainty in the projected sea level contribution from the GrIS over the coming decades. Here we use MODIS satellite imagery to examine dark ice dynamics on the south-west GrIS each year from 2000 to 2016. We quantify dark ice in terms of its annual extent, duration, intensity and timing of first appearance. Not only does dark ice extent vary significantly between years but so too does its duration (from 0 to > 80 % of June-July-August, JJA), intensity and the timing of its first appearance. Comparison of dark ice dynamics with potential meteorological drivers from the regional climate model MAR reveals that the JJA sensible heat flux, the number of positive minimum-air-temperature days and the timing of bare ice appearance are significant interannual synoptic controls. We use these findings to identify the surface processes which are most likely to explain recent dark ice dynamics. We suggest that whilst the spatial distribution of dark ice is best explained by outcropping of particulates from

  5. Gravity changes in mid-west Greenland from GOCE gravity model and gradient data using ground and airborne gravity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tscherning, Carl Christian; Herceg, Matija; Fredenslund Levinsen, Joanna

    GOCE TRF (terrestrial reference frame) vertical anomalous gradients (Tzz) from two periods have been used to determine gravity anomalies changes in mid-west Greenland, where a large mass-loss has been detected using GRACE (Fig. 1). As additional data were used the GOCE DIR-3 model and ground...... gravity at the coast on solid rock, where no mass loss is expected. The methods of Least-Squares Collocation (LSC) and the Reduced Point Mass (RPM) methods have been used, however only LSC included the ground data....

  6. Volatile and siderophile trace elements in anorthositic rocks from Fiskenaesset, West Greenland: comparison with lunar and meteoritic analogues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, J.W.; Ganapathy, R.; Higuchi, H.; Kraehenbuehl, U.

    1976-01-01

    Seventeen trace elements (Ag, Au, Bi, Br, Cd, Cs, Ge, Ir, Ni, Rb, Re, Sb, Se, Te, Tl, U, Zn) were analysed by radiochemical neutron activation and 13 other elements (Ce, Co, Cr, Eu, Fe, Hf, La, Lu, Na, Sc, Sm, Tb, Yb) by instrumental neutron activation in a total of 12 rocks from the layered anorthositic complex at Fiskenaesset, West Greenland, and in the plagioclase-rich unbrecciated eucrite, Serra de Mage. The results are discussed and compared with lunar and meteoritic analogues. (author)

  7. Coral by-catch in shrimp bottom trawl surveys in West Greenland waters (2010 – 2012)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensbye, Helle; Arboe, Nanette Hammeken

    There have been zoological expeditions in Greenland waters since the 19th century documenting the sea life, including cold water corals. Coral trees (vernacular name for Paragorgia arborea) are mentioned as early as 1741 in the first natural history book about Greenland (Egede 1741). Due to the m......There have been zoological expeditions in Greenland waters since the 19th century documenting the sea life, including cold water corals. Coral trees (vernacular name for Paragorgia arborea) are mentioned as early as 1741 in the first natural history book about Greenland (Egede 1741). Due....... The identification of the corals is based on Kenchington et al. (2009). The identification of many specimens has further been verified by Ole Tendal (Zoological Museum, Copenhagen) on the basis of frozen samples. Few corals, mainly soft corals (Alcyonacea) and sea pens (Pennatulacea), were found in the depth range...

  8. Uranium-bearing metasediment and granite in the Tasermiut area, South Greenland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leth Nielsen, B.; Tukiainen, T.

    1981-01-01

    Regional exploration for uranium was carried out in South Greenland in 1979 and 1980. From the planning stage the area between the fjords Tasermiut and Soendre Sermilik was considered a favourable target because deposits from geological environments of similar age, structure and lithology are known, e.g. the Makkovik Bay area in Labrador. The deposits sought were mainly pegmatitic or vein type deposits related to a Proterozoic unconformity. During the South Greenland uranium exploration project the area was covered in 1979 by a regional reconnaissance gamma-spectrometric survey and by drainage geochemistry (stream sediments and stream waters). Several areas of anomalous radioactivity were recorded, and on the basis of this and short field visit in 1979 it was decided to undertake a more systematic follow-up in 1980. The preliminary results of this work are reported below. (author)

  9. Greenland, my greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Astrid

    2016-01-01

    In 2012, Visit Greenland, the Greenlandic national tourist organisation, conducted a survey on Danish prejudices towards Greenland and Greenlanders. The survey, linked to an ambivalent nation-building strategy that pitched Greenland as ‘the pioneering nation’, was aimed both at challenging...... tourist audience more concerned with preserving whales than with accepting the sustainable visions of indigenous modernity that are currently being articulated by Greenlanders. Contemporary Greenlandic nation branding is a response to these internal and external dichotomies....

  10. Challenging the Southern Boundary of Active Rock Glaciers in West Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langley, K.; Abermann, J.

    2017-12-01

    Rock glaciers are permafrost features abundant in mountainous environments and are characterized as `steadily creeping perennially frozen and ice-rich debris on non-glacierised mountain slopes'. Previous studies investigated both the climatic significance and the dynamics of rock glaciers in Greenland, however, there do not exist studies as far south as the Godthåbsfjord area. We recently found evidence of a active rock glacier near Nuuk, around 250 km further south than the previously suggested southern active limit. It shows no signs of pioneer vegetation, which supports its likely dynamic activity. The rock glacier covers an area of ca. 1 km2and its lowest point is at an elevation of about 250 m a.s.l. Here we present the results of a two year field campaign designed to (I) confirm or reject active rock glacier occurrence in the Godthåbsfjord area with innovative methods, (II) study their dynamic regime and (III) investigate the climatic boundary conditions necessary for active rock glacier occurrence in the Sub-Arctic. We use a number of methods to determine the state of the rock glacier. Movement of the landform is assessed using repeat GPS surveying of marked stones and feature tracking based on ortho-photos and DEMs from repeat UAV deployments. Bottom temperature of snow cover (BTS) measurements give an independent first-order estimate of permafrost occurrence. An air temperature sensor deployed near the snout and recording hourly gives a first order estimate of the temperature gradients between Nuuk and the rock glacier, allowing us to assess the climatic boundary conditions required for rock glacier occurrence. BTS measurements show a clear drop in temperatures over the rock glacier compared to the surrounding areas suggesting an active landform with a well demarcated thermal regime. We will assess this independently with the repeat GPS and UAV surveys and will thus be able to confirm or reject the hypothesis of activity by the end of summer 2017.

  11. Northern shrimp ( Pandalus borealis ) recruitment in West Greenland waters : Part I. Distribution of Pandalus shrimp larvae in relation to hydrography and plankton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, S.A.; Storm, L.; Stenberg, Claus

    2002-01-01

    Plankton samples and oceanographic data were obtained during transect studies across fishing banks over the West Greenland shelf areas in June 1999, May, and July 2000. The hypothesis that larval shrimp are linked to the behaviour of hydrographic fronts was tested by determining whether larval...... shrimp abundance was linked to plankton distributions, species composition and primary productivity. We found six pelagic developmental stages (ZI–ZVI) in two species of Pandalus larvae. P. borealis was the most abundant species in all stages from ZII to ZVI. The smaller P. montagui larvae were slightly....... The two species showed minor differences in larval distribution across banks and between transects, indicating a wide larval dispersal and a relatively short hatching period. We found no relationship between indices of larval shrimp abundance and the T–S characteristics of water masses, chlorophyll...

  12. Automated Ground-based Time-lapse Camera Monitoring of West Greenland ice sheet outlet Glaciers: Challenges and Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Y.; Box, J. E.; Balog, J.; Lewinter, A.

    2008-12-01

    Monitoring Greenland outlet glaciers using remotely sensed data has drawn a great attention in earth science communities for decades and time series analysis of sensory data has provided important variability information of glacier flow by detecting speed and thickness changes, tracking features and acquiring model input. Thanks to advancements of commercial digital camera technology and increased solid state storage, we activated automatic ground-based time-lapse camera stations with high spatial/temporal resolution in west Greenland outlet and collected one-hour interval data continuous for more than one year at some but not all sites. We believe that important information of ice dynamics are contained in these data and that terrestrial mono-/stereo-photogrammetry can provide theoretical/practical fundamentals in data processing along with digital image processing techniques. Time-lapse images over periods in west Greenland indicate various phenomenon. Problematic is rain, snow, fog, shadows, freezing of water on camera enclosure window, image over-exposure, camera motion, sensor platform drift, and fox chewing of instrument cables, and the pecking of plastic window by ravens. Other problems include: feature identification, camera orientation, image registration, feature matching in image pairs, and feature tracking. Another obstacle is that non-metric digital camera contains large distortion to be compensated for precise photogrammetric use. Further, a massive number of images need to be processed in a way that is sufficiently computationally efficient. We meet these challenges by 1) identifying problems in possible photogrammetric processes, 2) categorizing them based on feasibility, and 3) clarifying limitation and alternatives, while emphasizing displacement computation and analyzing regional/temporal variability. We experiment with mono and stereo photogrammetric techniques in the aide of automatic correlation matching for efficiently handling the enormous

  13. Uranium geology and prospecting in Greenland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steenfelt, A.; Neilson, B.L.; Secher, K.

    1977-01-01

    The Geological Survey of Greenland is responsible for most of the uranium and thorium prospecting activity in Greenland, which involves airborne gamma spectrometry and scintillometry, geochemical sampling, geological investigations and ground scintillometry. Since 1971 large areas of east and west Greenland have been investigated by aerial surveys, geochemical sampling and most of the detailed scintillometric work having been restricted to small areas in east Greenland. Anomalous radioactivity in west Greenland is recorded from carbonatite intrusions, and from units in Proterozoic and Archaean gneisses. No mineralization has been found to date. In south Greenland investigations have been centred on the uranium and thorium deposit at Kvanefjeld, which is situated in a corner of the Ilimaussaq alkaline intrusion. The coincidence of favourable conditions during the differentiation and crystallization of the magma led to an extreme enrichment of uranium and thorium in the rocks that were last formed - the lujavrites. The deposit comprises parts of the lujavrites and a secondary enrichment zone in the contact between lujavrite and basaltic cover rocks. Reasonably assured reserves are 5800 t U with a grade of 310 ppm U. In the Caledonides of east Greenland some gneisses in basement cores, a dark siltstone in late Precambrian sediments and the Devonian acid magmatic rocks are characterized by a higher radiation level. A number of small mineral occurrences have been found, the majority of which are associated with the Devonian acid magmatic rocks. (author)

  14. CHEAT MOUNTAIN ROADLESS AREA, WEST VIRGINIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englund, K.J.; Behum, P.T.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral-resource survey determined that coal is the most important mineral resource in the Cheat Mountain Roadless Area, West Virginia. It is tentatively ranked as high-volatile A to medium-volatile bituminous similar to coal in nearby mining areas, and is primarily of coking quality. Demonstrated coal resources are estimated to total about 11. 6 million short tons in beds more than 28 in. thick in areas of substantiated resource potential and an additional 32. 7 million short tons in beds between 14 and 28 in. thick have been identified. Limestone, shale, clay, and sandstone occur in the area but these commodities are readily available outside the roadless area. Available information suggests little promise for the occurrence of metallic mineral or other energy resources in the area.

  15. A preliminary strategic environmental impact assessment of mineral and hydrocarbon activities on the Nuussuaq peninsula, West Greenland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boertmann, D.; Asmund, G.; Glahder, C.; Tamstorf, M.

    2008-01-15

    There is an increasing interest for mineral and hydrocarbon exploration in Greenland and in both regards the Nuussuaq peninsula is in focus. This preliminary strategic environmental impact assessment describes the status of the biological knowledge from the area and designates potential conflicts between activities and the biological environment. Furthermore biological knowledge gaps are identified. These should be filled before specific environmental impacts assessments can be carried out and relevant studies to fill these data gaps are proposed. (au)

  16. The MajuagaaA Kimberlite Dike, Maniitsoq Regio, West Greenland: Constraints on an Mg-rich Silicocarbonatitic Melt Composition from Groundmass Mineralogy and Bulk Compositions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Troels F. D.; Sand, Karina Krarup

    2008-01-01

    The Majuagaa kimberlite dike in the Maniitsoq region, southern West Greenland, is 564 Ma old, 2.5 km long, and up to 2 m wide. It is well exposed and very fresh, allowing detailed petrographic and chemical investigations. Little or no serpentinization is observed, and primary petrographic...

  17. Variable influx of West Greenland Current water into the Labrador Current through the last 8000 years, based on a multiproxy study from Trinity Bay, NE Newfoundland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sheldon, Christina; Seidenkrantz, Marit-Solveig; Frandsen, Paul

    2015-01-01

    This multi-proxy study of marine sediment gravity core AI07-06G from Trinity Bay, Newfoundland, recorded changes in the strength of the Labrador Current (LC) during the Holocene. From ca. 8-5 cal kyr BP, Trinity Bay's seafloor was influenced by cooled Atlantic water derived from the West Greenland...

  18. A combined DNA-microsatellite and isozyme analysis of the population structure of the harbour porpoise in Danish waters and west Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, L W; Holm, L E; Siegismund, Hans Redlef

    1997-01-01

    deviations from the expected Hardy-Weinberg distribution were only observed in the total sample and at a single locus in the North Sea-summer sample and at two loci in the West Greenland sample. Whenever this occurred a surplus of homozygotes was observed, suggesting a Wahlund effect, a null allele...

  19. The seasonal cycle and interannual variability of surface energy balance and melt in the ablation zone of the west Greenland ice sheet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broeke, M.R.; Smeets, C.J.P.P.; van de Wal, R.S.W.

    2011-01-01

    We present the seasonal cycle and interannual variability of the surface energy balance (SEB) in the ablation zone of the west Greenland ice sheet, using seven years (September 2003–August 2010) of hourly observations from three automatic weather stations (AWS). The AWS are situated along the 67◦ N

  20. Drainage of the ice-dammed Lake Tinninilik, West Greenland; implication on bedrock uplift

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Kristian Kjellerup; Khan, Shfaqat Abbas; Bjørk, Anders Anker

    Drainage of ice-dammed lakes is regularly observed along the margin of the Greenland Ice Sheet. However, the speed of the drainage events and implications can vary depending on the size of the lakes and the local settings. Here, we assess the drainage pattern of Lake Tinninilik, dammed...

  1. Past sea-level data from Lakse Bugt, Disko Island, West Greenland from ground-penetrating radar data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Priscila E.; Nielsen, Lars; Kroon, Aart; Clemmensen, Lars B.

    2016-04-01

    Beach-ridge deposits have been used as sea-level indicators in numerous studies from temperate coastal regions. However, their present surface morphology in artic regions may not accurately correspond to past sea-level, because subsequent surface erosion, solifluction processes and/or later sediment deposition may have altered the surface significantly. The internal structure of these beach ridges, however, is often well-preserved and thus constitutes an important key to reconstruction of past sea levels as seen elsewhere. In the present study, high-resolution reflection GPR data and high-precision topographic data were collected at Lakse Bugt (Disko Island, West Greenland) using a shielded 250 MHz antennae system and a RTK-Trimble R8 DGPS, respectively. Three transects were collected across a sequence of fossil, raised beach ridge deposits, and two transects were obtained across modern beach deposits at the shoreline of the mesotidal regime. Along all radar profiles we observed downlap reflection points, which we interpret to represent the boundary between sediments deposited on the beachface and sediments deposited in the upper shoreface regime. Both the upper shoreface and the beachface deposits exhibit reflection patterns dipping in the seaward direction. The beachface deposits show the strongest dip. At or just below the downlap points strong diffractions are often observed indicating the presence of a layer containing stones. These stones are large enough to generate significant signal scattering. At the present day beach a sharp transition defined by the presence of large stones is observed near the low tide water level: cobbles characterize the seaside, while the land side is characterized by sand and gravel. Therefore, it seems reasonable to conclude that downlap points observed in the GPR data serve as indicators of past low-tide levels (at the time of deposition). The downlap points show a consistent offset with respect to present surface topography

  2. Stock identity of beluga (Delphinapterus leucas in Eastern Canada and West Greenland based on organochlorine contaminants in their blubber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Innes

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Belugas (Delphinapterus leucas caught by hunters from various hamlets in the Arctic differed in the concentrations of organochlorine contaminants in their blubber. By applying Canonical Discriminant Analysis (CDA it was possible to separate all seven sampling locations from each other. Over 90% of the samples could be classified back to their landing location based on the data transformations developed by CDA. This analysis suggested that “stock” or management unit for belugas is best described by the culturally transmitted behaviour of their migration route. The analysis also provides evidence that most belugas caught by hunters from Grise Fiord are not the same as belugas caught while migrating along West Greenland; that some belugas caught in Sanikiluaq are not the same as beluga caught in the Nastapoka River estuary; and that the belugas caught in Kimmirut are not the same as belugas caught in Cumberland Sound. There is a need to redefine the stock descriptions of some belugas in Canada and Greenland.

  3. Surface mass balance and runoff modeling using HIRHAM4 RCM at Kangerlussuaq (Søndre Strømfjord), West Greenland, 1950-2080

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mernild, Sebastian H.; Liston, Glen E.; Hiemstra, Christopher A.

    2011-01-01

    A regional atmospheric model, the HIRHAM4 regional climate model (RCM) using boundary conditions from the ECHAM5 atmosphere-ocean general circulation model (AOGCM), was downscaled to a 500-m gridcell increment using SnowModel to simulate 131 yr (1950-2080) of hydrologic cycle evolution in west...... Greenland's Kangerlussuaq drainage. Projected changes in the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) surface mass balance (SMB) and runoff are relevant for potential hydropower production and prediction of ecosystem changes in sensitive Kangerlussuaq Fjord systems. Mean annual surface air temperatures and precipitation...

  4. Heat sources for glacial ice melt in a West Greenland tidewater outlet glacier fjord: The role of subglacial freshwater discharge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Jørgen; Mortensen, John; Lennert, Kunuk

    2015-01-01

    The melting of tidewater outlet glaciers from the Greenland Ice Sheet contributes significantly to global sea level rise. Accelerated mass loss is related to melt-processes in front of calving glaciers, yet the role of ocean heat transports is poorly understood. Here we present the first direct...... of the area near the glacier showed that ice melt was mainly due to ocean heat transport and that direct plume-associated melt was only important in periods with high meltwater discharge rates of ~100 m3 s−1. Ocean mixing outside of the plume area was thus the primary heat source for melting glacier ice....

  5. Bacterial communities hitching a hike - a guide to the river system of the Red river, Disko Island, West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauptmann, Aviaja Zenia Edna Lyberth; Markussen, Thor N.; Stibal, Marek

    of different water sources on the microbial communities in Arctic rivers and estuaries remains unknown. In this study we used 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing to assess a small river and its estuary on Disko Island, West Greenland (69°N). We describe the bacterial community through a river into the estuary......Glacier melting and altered precipitation patterns influence Arctic freshwater and coastal ecosystems. Arctic rivers are central to Arctic water ecosystems linking glacier meltwaters and precipitation with the ocean through transport of particulate matter and microorganisms. However, the impact......, including communities originating in a glacier and a proglacial lake. Our results show that water from the glacier and lake transports distinct communities into the river in terms of diversity and community composition. Bacteria of terrestrial origin were among the dominating OTUs in the main river, while...

  6. Past sea-level data from Lakse Bugt, Disko Island, West Greenland from ground-penetrating radar data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emerich Souza, Priscila; Nielsen, Lars; Kroon, Aart

    Beach-ridge deposits have been used as sea-level indicators in numerous studies from temperate coastal regions. However, their present surface morphology in artic regions may not accurately correspond to past sea-level, because subsequent surface erosion, solifluction processes and/or later...... sediment deposition may have altered the surface significantly. The internal structure of these beach ridges, however, is often well-preserved and thus constitutes an important key to reconstruction of past sea levels as seen elsewhere. In the present study, high-resolution reflection GPR data and high......-precision topographic data were collected at Lakse Bugt (Disko Island, West Greenland) using a shielded 250 MHz antennae system and a RTK-Trimble R8 DGPS, respectively. Three transects were collected across a sequence of fossil, raised beach ridge deposits, and two transects were obtained across modern beach deposits...

  7. Microalgal composition and primary production in Arctic sea ice: a seasonal study from Kobbeijord (Kangerluarsunnguaq), West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Ditte Marie; Rysgaard, Søren; Glud, Ronnie N.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the microalgal community in sea ice and in the water column of Kobbefjord, west Greenland, through an entire sea ice season, Temporal variation in physical (photosynthetically active radiation [PAR), temperature, brine volume) and chemical (salinity, nutrient concentration......) properties confirmed that sea ice is a very dynamic habitat. Nevertheless, a viable sea ice algal comuunity was present throughout the year, with a species succession from flagellate dominance (dinoflagellates and cryptophytes) in December to February, followed by Chaetoceros simplex (a centric diatom...... (maxima of 1.8 and 2.6 mu g chl](-1) in March and May, respectively). Primary production mirrored biomass dynamic, which had 2 seasonal peaks of ca. 21 and 15 mg Cm-2 d(-1). Integrated primary production over 7 mo was 0.8 g Cm-2 in sea ice and 94.4 g C m(-2) in the water column, with the vast majority...

  8. Population dynamics and production of the small copepod Oithona spp. in a subarctic fjord of West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zamora-Terol, Sara; Kjellerup, Sanne; Swalethorp, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    fjord of West Greenland. During winter–early spring, the abundance of Oithona spp. was low (1.8 9 103 ind. m-2) and the population was mainly composed of late copepodites and adults, whereas in summer, abundance peaked and younger stages dominated (1.1 9 106 ind. m-2). In general, all stages of Oithona...... production rates (EPR) were low in winter–early spring (0.13 ± 0.03 eggs female-1 day-1) and reached maximum values in summer (1.6 ± 0.45 eggs female-1 day-1). EPR of Oithona spp. showed a significantly positive relationship with both temperature and protozooplankton biomass, and the development...

  9. Microalgal composition and primary production in Arctic sea ice: a seasonal study from Kobbeijord (Kangerluarsunnguaq), West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Ditte Marie; Rysgaard, Søren; Glud, Ronnie N.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the microalgal community in sea ice and in the water column of Kobbefjord, west Greenland, through an entire sea ice season, Temporal variation in physical (photosynthetically active radiation [PAR), temperature, brine volume) and chemical (salinity, nutrient concentration...... (maxima of 1.8 and 2.6 mu g chl](-1) in March and May, respectively). Primary production mirrored biomass dynamic, which had 2 seasonal peaks of ca. 21 and 15 mg Cm-2 d(-1). Integrated primary production over 7 mo was 0.8 g Cm-2 in sea ice and 94.4 g C m(-2) in the water column, with the vast majority......) properties confirmed that sea ice is a very dynamic habitat. Nevertheless, a viable sea ice algal comuunity was present throughout the year, with a species succession from flagellate dominance (dinoflagellates and cryptophytes) in December to February, followed by Chaetoceros simplex (a centric diatom...

  10. Contaminants in the atmosphere. AMAP-Nuuk, West Greenland 2002-2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skov, H.; Bossi, S.; Waehlin, P. [and others

    2005-08-15

    This report presents the results of atmospheric monitoring in Nuuk, Greenland. A long series of heavy metals and persistent organic Pollutants (POPs) have been measured and model calculations have been carried out supporting the interpretation of the results. Financially, the Danish Environmental Protection Agency supported this work with means from the MIKA/DANCEA funds for Environmental Support to the Arctic Region and the work is part of the Danish contribution to Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme, AMAP. (au)

  11. Ice–ocean interaction and calving front morphology at two west Greenland tidewater outlet glaciers

    OpenAIRE

    Chauché , N.; Hubbard , A.; Gascard , Jean-Claude; Box , J. E.; Bates , R.; Koppes , M.; Sole , A.; Christoffersen , P.; Patton , H.

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Warm, subtropical-originating Atlantic water (AW) has been identified as a primary driver of mass loss across the marine sectors of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS), yet the specific processes by which this water mass interacts with and erodes the calving front of tidewater glaciers is frequently modelled and much speculated upon but remains largely unobserved. We present a suite of fjord salinity, temperature, turbidity versus depth casts along with glacial runoff estim...

  12. Second Baseline Study in the Citronen Fjord Area North Greenland 1997

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glahder, C.

    is not significantly different from that of uncontaminated fjords in West Greenland. This year relatively many Collared lemmings were seen which was probably the reason why one pair of Arctic foxes raised six cubs, why two pairs of Long-tailed skuas fled youngs (1 and 2), and why a Gyr falcon, female, was seen (a new...... period samples were collected of seaweed (Laminaria sp), fish (Fourhorned sculpin), river sediments, Arctic willow, Entired-leafed mountain avens, grasses and faeces from Muskox, Alpine hare and Collared lemming. These samples have been prepared for storage, and are now stored at the National...... Environmental Research Institute, Department of Arctic Environment together with the samples from the first baseline study in 1994. Sea water and fresh water were sampled and analysed for dissolved zinc. The total amount of zinc discharged from the Eastern River during the period from 22 June to 13 August...

  13. The Greenlandic sea areas and activity level up to 2025

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Uffe; í Dali, Birita

    2016-01-01

    , petroleum activity, tourism and research/government activity. The last chapter is devoted to summarizing findings about the current developed activity level in the High North sea and coastal regions and the estimated activity level up to 2025. Possible implications for the preparedness system in the High....... It includes an overview of types of vessels and other objects involved in different activities, and the volume of traffic connected to different types of activities, such as fisheries, petroleum, tourism, navy and research. Furthermore, this report estimates the maritime activity level in the area the next...

  14. Seasonal variability of the circulation system in a West Greenland tidewater outlet glacier fjord, Godthåbsfjord (64°N)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, John; Bendtsen, Jørgen; Lennert, Kunuk

    2014-01-01

    Many tidewater outlet glacier fjords surround the coast of Greenland, and their dynamics and circulation are of great importance for understanding the heat transport toward glaciers from the ice sheet. Thus, fjord circulation is a critical aspect for assessing the threat of global sea level rise...... due to melting of the ice sheet. However, very few observational studies describe the seasonal dynamics of fjord circulation. Here we present the first continuous current measurements (April–November) from a deep mooring deployed in a west Greenland tidewater outlet glacier fjord. Four distinct...... circulation phases are identified during the period, and they are related to exchange processes with coastal waters, tidal mixing, and melt processes on the Greenland Ice Sheet. During early summer, warm intermediate water is transported toward the glacier at an average velocity of about 7 cm s−1. In late...

  15. New interpretations based on seismic and modelled well data and their implications for the tectonic evolution of the west Greenland continental margin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mcgregor, E.D.; Nielsen, S.B.; Stephenson, R.A.

    Davis Strait is situated between Baffin Island and Greenland and forms part of a sedimentary basin system, linking Labrador Sea and Baffin Bay, developed during Cretaceous and Palaeocene rifting that culminated in a brief period of sea-floor spreading in the late Palaeocene and Eocene. Seismic...... reflection profiles and exploration wells along the Greenland margin of Davis Strait have been analysed in order to elucidate uplift events affecting sedimentary basin development during the Cenozoic with a focus on postulated Neogene (tectonic) uplift affecting the west Greenland continental margin...... tectonic event. An interpretation in which the inferred onshore cooling is related to erosion of pre-existing topography is more consistent with our new results from the offshore region. These results will have important implications for other continental margins developed throughout the Atlantic...

  16. Diagnosis of osteoporosis in rural Arctic Greenland: a clinical case using plain chest radiography for secondary prevention and consideration of tools for primary prevention in remote areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischer, Inuuteq; Schæbel, Louise K; Albertsen, Nadja; Sørensen, Vibeke N; Andersen, Stig

    2017-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a frequent disease in many populations. The hallmark is fragility fractures, which are harbingers of future fractures, disability, mortality and cost on society. The occurrence increases with age, low vitamin D level and smoking. Smoking rates are high, vitamin D is low and life expectancy is rising steeply in Greenland, as is the need for focus on osteoporosis. We report a case that uses a simple and readily available tool to diagnose osteoporosis at the hospital in Sisimiut, a town of 5000 inhabitants on the west coast of Greenland. A 51-year-old Inuit woman was seen due to lower back pain. No trauma could be recalled. Laboratory results showed a low vitamin D level and normal S-calcium, S-phosphate, S-parathyroid hormone, S-thyrotropin, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, S-creatinine and hemoglobin. The lateral chest radiograph demonstrated a reduction of anterior height of the seventh and ninth thoracic vertebral bodies of 50% and 40% respectively. Chest radiographs are frequently done in the towns along the vast coastline of Greenland, the world's largest island. They are transferred to the hospital in the capital city Nuuk using existing tele-technology, and specialist evaluations are given in electronic records available at the coastal hospitals. Effective therapies for osteoporosis are available and the identification of vertebral fractures that merit treatment may prevent future fractures, morbidity and mortality. Fragility fractures are frequent in old age and the steep rise in life expectancy and in the number of old people in Greenland emphasize the need for a focus on management of osteoporosis. Geography provides a diagnostic challenge to rural and remote areas that can be overcome by the use of lateral chest radiographs as it relies on facilities readily available. Clinical risk assessment tools with high specificity may support further osteoporosis risk prediction in remote Arctic societies.

  17. Magnetotelluric investigation in West Greenland - considering the polar electrojet, ocean and fjords

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritsen, Nynne Louise Berthou

    results, however the multiple station technique improves the data quality around 1 s compared to the single station technique. Different challenges are connected with the survey location, where ocean and fjord systems have a large impact on the transferfunctions. A 3D model study of the impact of fjords...... on induction arrows is presented, illustrating the importance of including these in magnetotelluric modelling. This informationis included in the 3D modelling of the magnetotelluric survey in Greenland, together with the bathymetry of the ocean. The modelling shows that the impact from the fjords and ocean...

  18. Inuit health in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, P; Curtis, T; Borch-Johnsen, K

    2003-01-01

    During 1997-2001 a population survey was carried out amongst Greenland Inuit living in Denmark and West Greenland (Nuuk, Sisimiut, Qasigiannguit and four villages in Uummannaq municipality). Data collection comprised an interview, a questionnaire, clinical examinations and sampling of biological ...

  19. Pb isotopes as tracers of mining-related Pb in lichens, seaweed and mussels near a former Pb-Zn mine in West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Jens; Asmund, Gert; Johansen, Poul

    2010-01-01

    Identification of mining-related contaminants is important in order to assess the spreading of contaminants from mining as well as for site remediation purposes. This study focuses on lead (Pb) contamination in biota near the abandoned ‘Black Angel Mine’ in West Greenland in the period 1988–2008....... mining pollution. Lead isotopes can be used to monitor uptake of mining-related lead in lichens, seaweed and mussels.......Identification of mining-related contaminants is important in order to assess the spreading of contaminants from mining as well as for site remediation purposes. This study focuses on lead (Pb) contamination in biota near the abandoned ‘Black Angel Mine’ in West Greenland in the period 1988...

  20. The intertidal community in West Greenland: Large-scale patterns and small-scale variation on ecosystem dynamics along a climate gradient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyrring, Jakob; Blicher, Martin; Sejr, Mikael Kristian

    are largely unknown. The West Greenland coast is north - south orientated. This provides an ideal setting to study the impact of climate change on marine species population dynamics and distribution. We investigated the latitudinal changes in the rocky intertidal community along 18° latitudes (59-77°N......) in West Greenland. Using cleared quadrats we quantified patterns in abundance, biomass and species richness in the intertidal zone. We use this data to disentangle patterns in Arctic intertidal communities at different scales. We describe the effects of different environmental drivers and species...... interactions on distribution and dynamics of intertidal species. Our results indicate that changes in distribution and abundance of foundation species can have large effects on the ecosystem. We also show that the importance of small-scale variation may be of same magnitude as large- scale variation. Only...

  1. Atmospheric concentrations of organochlorine pesticides, polybrominated diphenyl ethers and polychloronaphthalenes in Nuuk, South-West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bossi, Rossana; Skov, Henrik; Vorkamp, Katrin

    2008-01-01

    Atmospheric concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychloronaphthalenes (PCNs) were measured for the first time in Nuuk, Greenland in 2004 and 2005. The annual mean concentrations af the measured OCs were: α-HCH 20.2 pg m-3, Υ-HCH (lindane) 5......-HCH, which had maximum concentration in August in both years. The average annual mean for ΣPBDEs was 1.14 ± 0.81 pg m-3. The predominant congeners measured in Nuuk were BDE-47 and BDE-99 followed by BDE-100, -153 and -28, indicating the use of penta-BDE technical products as the main source. A clear seasonal...

  2. Ice stratigraphy at the Pakitsoq ice margin, West Greenland, derived from gas records

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaefer, H.; Petrenko, V. V.; Brook, E. J.

    2009-01-01

    at Pakitsoq. Sections containing ice from every distinct climatic interval during Termination I, including Last Glacial Maximum, Bolling/Allerod, Younger Dryas and the early Holocene, are identified. In the early Holocene, we find evidence for climatic fluctuations similar to signals found in deep ice cores...... from Greenland. A second glacial-interglacial transition exposed at the extreme margin of the ice is identified as another outcrop of Termination I (rather than the onset of the Eemian interglacial as postulated in earlier work). Consequently, the main structural feature at Pakitsoq is a large......-scale anticline with accordion-type folding in both exposed sequences of the glacial-Holocene transition, leading to multiple layer duplications and age reversals....

  3. Palaeoecology of Holocene peat deposits from Nordvestø, north-west Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennike, Ole; Goodsite, Michael Evan; Heinemeier, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Two extensive peat deposits on Nordvestø, between Greenland and Canada, were examined for macroscopic remains of plants and animals. One of the peat deposits accumulated during the period from c. 7,100 to 5,100 cal. years BP. This peat is guanogenic and completely dominated by the coprophilous...... bryophyte Aplodon wormskioldii, and also contains frequent remains of feathers. The peat formed close to a large former sea bird colony, probably a puffin (Fratercula arctica) colony. Puffins are now rare in the region, but the population may have been larger during the mid Holocene, when the sea was ice......-free for a longer period than at present. The other peat deposit is dated to c. 9,300-7,400 cal. years BP, it is minerogenic and the macrofossils reflect deposition in a shallow, richly vegetated pond. This peat formed during warmer summers than at present....

  4. Structure and annual increase in a population of West Greenland caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henning Thing

    1982-05-01

    Full Text Available During 1977-80 a large scale research program was carried out in West Greenland to study caribou ecology and population dynamics. Papers dealing with feeding ecology, range condition, calf mortality, and behaviour have been published elsewhere (Strandgaard 1980; Holt 1980; Clausen et al. 1980; Thing & Clausen 1980; Thing 1980; Roby 1980; Thing 1981; Roby & Thing 1982; Thing & Thing 1982. The present study deals with some dynamic parameters in the Sisimiut herd (Fig. 1, viz. group size, sex and age composition, calf/cow ratio, calf increment, and annual recruitment. Caribou in the Sisimiut region are mainly found in very small groups of one to five animals in most seasons. Aggregations of more than 50 animals are rarely seen except in the calving and summer seasons (Fig. 2. A distinct annual cycle is apparent in the mean group size with a steady increase from a mid winter minimum of 1.4 caribou/group towards a maximum of almost 25 caribou/group in the post-calving season (Fig. 3. The absence of important predators (especially wolves and the fact that winter food resources in the region have been depleted seem to reduce group size. Consequently, Sisimiut caribou are characterized year round by forming very small groups as compared to most other wild Rangifer populations. Caribou cows (females 2 years + make up approx. 50% of the herd, while bulls (males 2 years + average only 10% (Fig. 4. The number of bulls in the herd shows a significant decline caused by a selective hunting pressure as well as natural winter mortality (Fig. 5. The rut takes place in October during the fall migration from the inland ranges adjacent to the Inland Ice towards the coast line. The cows are apparently served mainly by 1 1/2 and 2 year old bulls. Despite scarcity of adequate food on the winter ranges there is a high calf production. This is probably explained by excellent forage conditions on the inland range prior to and during the calving season (May - June

  5. Average sedimentary rock rare Earth element patterns and crustal evolution: Some observations and implications from the 3800 Ma ISUA supracrustal belt, West Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dymek, R. F.; Boak, J. L.; Gromet, L. P.

    1983-01-01

    Rare earth element (REE) data is given on a set of clastic metasediments from the 3800 Ma Isua Supracrustal belt, West Greenland. Each of two units from the same sedimentary sequence has a distinctive REE pattern, but the average of these rocks bears a very strong resemblance to the REE pattern for the North American Shale Composite (NASC), and departs considerably from previous estimates of REE patterns in Archaean sediments. The possibility that the source area for the Isua sediments resembled that of the NASC is regarded as highly unlikely. However, REE patterns like that in the NASC may be produced by sedimentary recycling of material yielding patterns such as are found at Isua. The results lead to the following tentative conclusions: (1) The REE patterns for Isua Seq. B MBG indicate the existence of crustal materials with fractionated REE and negative Eu anomalies at 3800 Ma, (2) The average Seq. B REE pattern resembles that of the North American Shale Composite (NASC), (3) If the Seq. B average is truly representative of its crustal sources, then this early crust could have been extensively differentiated. In this regard, a proper understanding of the NASC pattern, and its relationship to post-Archaean crustal REE reservoirs, is essential, (4) The Isua results may represent a local effect.

  6. Envisat-derived elevation changes of the Greenland ice sheet, and a comparison with ICESat results in the accumulation area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Louise Sandberg; Simonsen, Sebastian Bjerregaard; Meister, Rakia

    2015-01-01

    We show, for the first time over the Greenland ice sheet, that an along track method for deriving rates of elevationchange can successfully be applied to Envisat radar altimetry data (2002–2010). The results provide improved resolution and coverage compared to previous results obtained from cross......-over methods. Also, we find that temporal changes in the elevation change rate can be derived from Envisat data, and show clearexamples of this by generating five-year running means for selected areas of the Greenland ice sheet. For a period between 2003 and 2009, the elevation of the ice sheetswas measured...

  7. Phytoplankton growth and microzooplankton grazing along a sub-Arctic fjord (Godthåbsfjord, West Greenland)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calbet, A.; Riisgaard, Karen; Saiz, E.

    2011-01-01

    the nutrient rich waters in the upwelling area in the vicinity of the glacier. Most of the grazing impact was on the 20 µm microzooplankton, as deducted from additional dilution experiments removing > 20 µm. Overall, little......We evaluated the role of microzooplankton (sensu latto, grazers sea transect in the Greenland subarctic fjord, Godthåbfjord. Based on the distribution of size fractionated chlorophyll a (chl a) concentrations...... we established four zones: i) Fyllas Bank, characterized by deep chl a maxima (ca. 30-40 m) consisting of large cells; ii) the mouth and main branch of the fjord, where phytoplankton was relatively homogeneously distributed in the upper 30 m layer; iii) inner waters influenced by glacial melt water...

  8. Thermal tracing of retained meltwater in the lower accumulation area of the Southwestern Greenland ice sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charalampidis, Charalampos; Van As, Dirk; Colgan, William T.

    2016-01-01

    We present in situ firn temperatures from the extreme 2012 melt season in the southwestern lower accumulation area of the Greenland ice sheet. The upper 2.5 m of snow and firn was temperate during the melt season, when vertical meltwater percolation was inefficient due to a similar to 5.5 m thick...... no indication of meltwater percolation below 9 m depth or complete filling of pore volume above, firn at 10 and 15 m depth was respectively 4.2-4.5 ºC and 1.7 ºC higher than in a conductivity-only simulation. Even though meltwater percolation in 2012 was inefficient, firn between 2 and 15 m depth the following...

  9. Ice-ocean interaction and calving front morphology at two west Greenland tidewater outlet glaciers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauché, N.; Hubbard, A.; Gascard, J.-C.; Box, J. E.; Bates, R.; Koppes, M.; Sole, A.; Christoffersen, P.; Patton, H.

    2014-08-01

    Warm, subtropical-originating Atlantic water (AW) has been identified as a primary driver of mass loss across the marine sectors of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS), yet the specific processes by which this water mass interacts with and erodes the calving front of tidewater glaciers is frequently modelled and much speculated upon but remains largely unobserved. We present a suite of fjord salinity, temperature, turbidity versus depth casts along with glacial runoff estimation from Rink and Store glaciers, two major marine outlets draining the western sector of the GrIS during 2009 and 2010. We characterise the main water bodies present and interpret their interaction with their respective calving fronts. We identify two distinct processes of ice-ocean interaction which have distinct spatial and temporal footprints: (1) homogenous free convective melting which occurs across the calving front where AW is in direct contact with the ice mass, and (2) localised upwelling-driven melt by turbulent subglacial runoff mixing with fjord water which occurs at distinct injection points across the calving front. Throughout the study, AW at 2.8 ± 0.2 °C was consistently observed in contact with both glaciers below 450 m depth, yielding homogenous, free convective submarine melting up to ~200 m depth. Above this bottom layer, multiple interactions are identified, primarily controlled by the rate of subglacial fresh-water discharge which results in localised and discrete upwelling plumes. In the record melt year of 2010, the Store Glacier calving face was dominated by these runoff-driven plumes which led to a highly crenulated frontal geometry characterised by large embayments at the subglacial portals separated by headlands which are dominated by calving. Rink Glacier, which is significantly deeper than Store has a larger proportion of its submerged calving face exposed to AW, which results in a uniform, relatively flat overall frontal geometry.

  10. Atmospheric concentrations of organochlorine pesticides, polybrominated diphenyl ethers and polychloronaphthalenes in Nuuk, South-West Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossi, Rossana; Skov, Henrik; Vorkamp, Katrin; Christensen, Jesper; Rastogi, Suresh C.; Egeløv, Axel; Petersen, Dorthe

    Atmospheric concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychloronaphthalenes (PCNs) were measured for the first time in Nuuk, Greenland in 2004 and 2005. The annual mean concentrations of the measured OCs were: α-HCH 20.2 pg m -3, γ-HCH (lindane) 5.1 pg m -3, endosulfan 4.8 pg m -3 and dieldrin 1.9 pg m -3. Concentrations of Σ-chlordanes, DDEs and heptachlor epoxide were generally similar and lower than those of α-HCH and γ-HCH. The concentrations of most chlorinated pesticides did not show any clear seasonal variation, with the exception of γ-HCH, which had maximum concentration in August in both years. The average annual mean for ΣPBDEs was 1.14 ± 0.81 pg m -3. The predominant congeners measured in Nuuk were BDE-47 and BDE-99 followed by BDE-100, -153 and -28, indicating the use of penta-BDE technical products as the main source. A clear seasonal variation of PBDE concentrations was observed with maximum concentrations occurring in the summer months. The ΣPCNs concentrations ranged between 0.062 and 0.258 pg m -3 with an annual mean concentration of 0.161 ± 0.004 pg m -3. The PCNs profile was dominated by the tetra-PCNs (74% of the annual mean) and the penta-PCNs (18% of the annual mean). A seasonal trend for ΣPCNs was not observed. Atmospheric concentrations of the investigated compounds were correlated with temperature and anthropogenic CO in order to obtain information about their transport pattern. Positive correlations were found between CO and chlordanes, p, p'-DDE and trifluralin, while a negative correlation was found for γ-HCH. A significant correlation with temperature variations was found for dieldrin, heptachlor epoxide, α-HCH, γ-HCH, BDE-47, BDE-99 and tetra-PCNs, which indicates that re-emission of these compounds from previously contaminated surfaces as an important factor for the observed variations in concentrations.

  11. Hydrologic exchange and chemical weathering in a proglacial watershed near Kangerlussuaq, west Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deuerling, Kelly M.; Martin, Jonathan B.; Martin, Ellen E.; Scribner, Cecilia A.

    2018-01-01

    The exchange of proglacial river water with active layer pore water could alter water chemical compositions in glacial outwash plains and oceanic solute fluxes. To evaluate effects of this exchange, we sampled Watson River and adjacent pore water during the 2013 melt season at two sandurs in western Greenland; one in Sandflugtdalen and the other near the confluence with Søndre Strømfjord. We measured temperature, specific conductivity, and head gradients between the river and bank over a week-long period at Sandflugtdalen, as well as sediment hydraulic conductivity and chemical compositions of waters from both sites. Specific conductivity of pore water is four to ten times greater than river water as solutes are concentrated from weathering reactions, cryoconcentration, and evaporation. Pore water compositions are predominantly altered by carbonate dissolution and sulfide mineral oxidation. High concentrations of HCO3 and SO4 result from solute recycling and dissolution of secondary Ca-Mg carbonate/sulfate salts initially formed by near-surface evaporation in the summer and at depth by freeze-in of the active layer and cryoconcentration in the winter. High hydraulic conductivity (10-5 to 10-4 m/s) and diurnal fluctuations of river stage during our study caused exchange of river and pore water immediately adjacent to the river channel, with a net loss of river water to the bank. Pore water >6 m from the river continuously flowed away from the river. Approximately 1-8% of the river discharge through the Sandflugtdalen was lost to the river bank during our 6.75 day study based on calculations using Darcy's Law. Although not sampled, some of this water should discharge to the river during low river stage early and late in the melt season. Elevated pore water solute concentrations in sandurs and water exchange at diurnal and seasonal frequency should impact fluxes of solutes to the ocean, although understanding the magnitude of this effect will require long

  12. The plankton community on Sukkertop and Fylla Banks off West Greenland during a spring bloom and post-bloom period: Hydrography, phytoplankton and protozooplankton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Louise K.; Reuss, N.

    2002-01-01

    The plankton community structure was investigated on Sukkertop and Fylla Banks off West Greenland during the spring bloom in May 2000 and the post-bloom period in June 1999. In May a small change in density, clearly illustrated by the profile of potential energy, was sufficient to support a spring...... the phytoplankton community. Heterotrophic biomass was low (5 +/- 1 mg C m(-3)) and an important part was comprised by heterotrophic nanoflagellates (24 +/- 1%). Protozooplankters (heterotrophic dinoflagellates and ciliates) were important grazers of the phytoplankton community in the post-bloom period (estimated...

  13. Growth, condition, and mortality of caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus in the Sisimiut Population, West Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidar Holthe

    1984-05-01

    Full Text Available Growth and condition of the Sisimiut caribou was anlysed by means of mandible length, carcass weight, and back fat indices. Mandible lenght showed unchanged growth conditions since the late 1960s, and growth stops at 4 years of age. The Sisimiut caribou seems to be smaller than North American caribous, Greenlandic semi-domesticated reindeer and of same size or smaller than Scandinavian reindeer. Carcass weight showed similar results, however cow growth rate seems not to prolong sexual maturation. Back fat deposits were less than what is known from other reindeer and caribou populations. Sex and age distribution of mandibles from various materials and survival curves based on the same material shows — an uneven distribution between bulls and cows and a relatively large proportion of old cows in the bag from the last years, which seems to be caused by a light hunting pressure when the population peaked in the 1960s. Heavy natural mortality for animals born before or after a winter with unfavorable snow conditions was also showed.Vækst, kondition og dødelighed hos vildren (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus i Sisimiut-bestanden, Vestgrønland.Abstract in Danish / Sammendrag: Vækst- og konditionsforhold for Sisimiut-vildrenbestanden i Vestgrønland er beskrevet ved hjæip af underkæbelængde, slagtevægt og rygfedt. Undersøgelsen af kæbelængde viste, at vækstforholdene havde været uforandret siden sidste halvdel af 1960-erne, at væksten standser ved 4-års alderen, samt at Sisimiut-vildrenen er mindre end de nordamerikanske caribou, Itinnera-tamrenen og på størrelse med eller mindre end skandinaviske rensdyr. Dette viste sig også ved sammenligninger af slagtevægt. Vægten af simlerne er dog ikke så ringe, at der kan iagttages nogen forsinkelse i kønsmodningen. Fedtreserverne ved indgangen til vinteren synes at være dårligere end i andre undersøgte rensdyrbestande. Køns- og aldersfordelingen blandt forskellige typer af indsamlet k

  14. Application of geochemical exploration in the Kap Franklin Area, Northern East Greenland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunzendorf, H.; Friedrich, G.H.W.; Koensler, W.; Steenfelt, A.

    1978-02-01

    More than 800 stream sediments, soil, seepage soil and water samples collected during the field seasons of 1974 and 1975 in the Kap Franklin area, northern East Greenland, were analysed for K, Ca, Ti, Mn, and Fe by radioisotope energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence, and for U by delayed-neutron counting. Samples were also analysed for V, Cu, Zn and Pb by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Areas with known mineralization are outlined by anomalous Zn and Pb contents in stream sediments and soils. A predominantly mechanical dispersion mechanism is deduced from the similarity in the chemistry of bedrock, stream sediments and soils. Narrow dispersion halos following from this observation suggest that dense sampling procedures are required. The usefulness of Cu, Zn and Pb water geochemistry is not proved. There is reasonable agreement between a reconnaissance study and detailed investigations carried out in 1974 and 1975, respectively. The distribution patterns for Cu, Zn, Pb, and U were more clearly displayed by means of the detailed sampling, and the metal contents in stream sediments were found to decrease rapidly downstream. Soil and seepage soil sampling between tributaries was shown to be advantageous. A test of daily and weekly variations of Cu, Zn, and Pb in stream sediments of selected sampling sites demonstrated changes in the metal contents of generally less than 10 per cent. Data from soil samples in the Randboeldal clearly outline the extent of U mineralisation. There is good correlation between U, and Zn and Pb in both stream sediments and soil. (author)

  15. Telemedicine in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lasse Overballe; Krebs, Hans Jørgen; Albert, Nancy M.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Telemedicine may have the possibility to provide better access to healthcare delivery for the citizens. Telemedicine in arctic remote areas must be tailored according to the needs of the local population. Therefore, we need more knowledge about their needs and their view of telemedicine......: Data collected on citizens' views about the possibilities of using telemedicine in Greenland revealed the following findings: Greenlandic citizens are positive toward telemedicine, and telemedicine can help facilitate improved access to healthcare for residents in these Greenlandic settlements...

  16. Organochlorines and heavy metals in pregnant women from the Disko Bay area in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, P; Hansen, J C

    2000-01-01

    Recent studies from Greenland and the Canadian Arctic have shown high concentrations of heavy metals, such as mercury, and organochlorines in the blood and fatty tissue of the Inuit. This is attributed in particular to their high consumption of the meat and blubber of marine mammals. In the present...... systems but the high concentrations of pollutants have so far not been shown to influence health in Greenland....

  17. Movement patterns and resource selection – insights from West Greenland caribou

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raundrup, Katrine

    2018-01-01

    and mixed migrators moved on average 57 km between ranges, whereas resident animals moved only 7 km. Average home range sizes were larger in summer than in winter (96 km2 vs. 35 km2), and were dependent on caribou body length. Furthermore, migrators had larger home ranges than residents. The caribou...... winter diet showed that lichens made up more than 60 % of the ingested forage, which stresses the importance of vegetation types rich in lichens as winter habitats. This finding occurred despite the simultaneous expansion of shrubs in the area where the distribution of the vegetation types heath...

  18. Water resources of the Cumberland area, Maryland-West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, R. R.; LeFever, F. F.; Martin, R. O. R.; Otton, E. G.

    1950-01-01

    The area covered by this report consists of Garrett and Allegany Counties, the two most westernmost counties of Maryland, and Mineral County, West Virginia. The city of Cumberland, population 37,732 (1950 census), which is the economic and commercial center of the area, is on the North Branch pf the Potomac River in Allegany County.

  19. Sources of solutes to the proglacial Watson River (Akuliarusiarsuup Kuua) near Kangerlussuaq, West Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deuerling, K. M.; Martin, J. B.; Martin, E. E.; Scribner, C. A.

    2013-12-01

    Chemical weathering of silicate rocks in glacial forelands is a potential sink for atmospheric CO2 and therefore may impact long-term climate variability. Physical weathering in glacial environments enhances the rate of chemical weathering, particularly through subglacial production of rock flour with a high surface area to volume ratio. This reactive material is transported to and chemically weathered within the proglacial system, increasing concentrations of solutes as water flows downstream. Water from proglacial rivers may also acquire solutes and draw down atmospheric CO2 through reactions driven by hyporheic zone (HZ) exchange in the broad, braided reaches of the river channel. However, few studies have addressed this process and none to date have directly examined porewater contributions. We address these questions in the Watson River/Akuliarusiarsuup Kuua (WR), which flows approximately 40 km from its headwaters, through the town of Kangerlussuaq, and into Søndre Strømfjord. We have collected river water samples five times from six sites over the 2012 and 2013 summer melt seasons and three transects of PW from sand flats located along the river. Specific conductivity (SpC), pH, and dissolved ion concentrations increase downstream, consistent with ongoing chemical weathering reactions along the flow path. Relative abundances of Na+, K+, and SiO2 increase downstream relative to Ca2+ and Mg2+ concentrations. These signals indicate preferential dissolution of biotite and/or alkali feldspar. Additionally, 206Pb/204Pb ratios become more nonradiogenic downstream, lending further evidence to dissolution of readily weathered minerals. Over the course of the melt season, SpC, pH, and dissolved ion concentrations decrease, consistent with the increase in discharge due to supraglacial melting. The greatest downstream SpC increase (~2x) occurs where the river exits largely bedrock channeled flow and enters the braided portion at the Sandflugtdalen. In general, PW

  20. Q fever in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Anders; Svendsen, Claus Bo; Christensen, Jens Jorgen

    2010-01-01

    We report a patient with Q fever endocarditis in a settlement in eastern Greenland (Isortoq, Ammassalik area). Likely animal sources include sled dogs and seals. Q fever may be underdiagnosed in Arctic areas but may also represent an emerging infection.......We report a patient with Q fever endocarditis in a settlement in eastern Greenland (Isortoq, Ammassalik area). Likely animal sources include sled dogs and seals. Q fever may be underdiagnosed in Arctic areas but may also represent an emerging infection....

  1. Catch tanks inhibitor addition 200-East and 200-West Areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palit, A.N.

    1996-01-01

    Reported is the study of 11 catch tanks in the 200-East Area and the 7 catch tanks in the 200-West Area listed as active. The location, capacity, material of construction, annual total accumulation, annual rain intrusion, waste transfer rate, and access for chemical injection in these tanks are documented. The present and future utilization and isolation plans for the catch tanks are established

  2. Mapping of a Hydrological Ice Sheet Drainage Basin on the West Greenland Ice Sheet Margin from ERS-1/2 SAR Interferometry, Ice-Radar Measurement, and Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlstrøm, Andreas P.; Bøggild, C.E.; Stenseng, L.

    2002-01-01

    importance of the potential of the ice overburden pressure compared to the bedrock topography. The meltwater run-off for the basin delineations was modelled with an energy-balance model calibrated with observed ice-sheet ablation and compared to a 25 year time series of measured basin run-off. The standard......The hydrological ice-sheet basin draining into the Tasersiaq lake, West Greenland (66°13'N, 50°30'W), was delineated, First using standard digital elevation models (DEMs) for ice-sheet surface and bedrock, and subsequently using a new high-resolution dataset, with a surface DEM derived from repeat......-track interferometric synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and a bedrock topography derived from an airborne 60 MHz ice-penetrating radar. The extent of the delineation was calculated from a water-pressure potential as a function of the ice-sheet surface and bedrock elevations and a hydraulic factor κ describing the relative...

  3. Envisioning Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Carina Bregnholm

    2012-01-01

    Currently, the traditional ‘cool’ representation of Greenland as a frozen landscape devoid of people and human structures is being challenged by an emerging vision of Greenland as ‘hot’. This article presents and describes these two versions of Greenland, showing how demarcations of what is ‘nature...

  4. P-West High Intensity Secondary Beam Area Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, A.; Currier, R.; Eartly, D.; Guthke, A.; Johnson, G.; Lee, D.; Dram, R.; Villegas, E.; Rest, J.; Tilles, E.; Vander Arend, P.

    1977-03-01

    This report gives the initial design parameters of a 1000 GeV High Intensity Superconducting Secondary Beam Laboratory to be situated in the Proton Area downstream of the existing Proton West experimental station. The area will provide Fermilab with a major capability for experimentation with pion and antiproton beams of intensities and of energies available at no other laboratory and with an electron beam with excellent spot size, intensity, and purity at energies far above that available at electron machines. Detailed beam design, area layouts, and cost estimates are presented, along with the design considerations.

  5. 200 West Groundwater Aggregate Area management study report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report presents the results of an aggregate area management study (AAMS) for the 200 West Groundwater Aggregate Area in the 200 Areas of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site in Washington State. This scoping level study provides the basis for initiating Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) activities under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) or Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), Facility Investigations (Rlq) and Corrective Measures Studies (CMS) under RCRA. This report also integrates select RCRA treatment, storage or disposal (TSD) closure activities with CERCLA and RCRA past practice investigations

  6. Linkage of the king eider population in Northeast Greenland: Migration, moult and discovery of a new offshore wintering area at Spitsbergenbanken

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosbech, Anders; Johansen, Kasper Lambert; Sonne, Christian

    In late July 2009, two female king eiders were caught on the breeding grounds in Myggbukta, Northeast Greenland and equipped with satellite transmitters. Both individuals were tracked for approximately two years. The birds remained in the Myggbukta area until the onset of the autumn migration...... arrival 6 April) where they stayed for some time before returning on the spring migration to Greenland. During a ship-based survey in the offshore winter location at Spitsbergenbanken in April 2013, a previously unknown wintering ground with approximately 10.000 king eiders was discovered. The birds were...... concentrated in a partly ice-covered area 79 km from shore and of about 20 m depth. The number of king eiders indicated that Spitsbergenbanken is a wintering area for both the East Greenland and the Svalbard breeding populations. The discovery has important conservation implications due to the expanding...

  7. Geoelectrical Study On The Area West Of Aswan Town, Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim, H. A. [حمزه احمد ابراهيم; Omran, A. A.; Selim, S. A.

    1992-01-01

    A geoelectrical resistivity survey on the area west of Aswan has been conducted in order to investigate its prevailing hydrogeological and subsurface geological conditions. The study demonstrates the occurrence of a probably water-bearing bed of irregular thickness and variable depth. The change in resistivity values within the aquifer may reflect the variation in water quality and rock texture. The aquifer is mainly recharged across the dominant joint system and through fractures from the Ni...

  8. Arctic Ocean UNCLOS Article 76 Work for Greenland Starts on Land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl-Jensen, T.; Marcussen, C.; Jackson, R.; Voss, P.

    2005-12-01

    One of the most lonely and desolate stretches of coastline on the planet has become the target for UNCLOS article 76 related research. The Danish Continental Shelf Project has launched a work program to investigate the possibilities for Greenland to claim an area outside the 200 nm limit in the Arctic Ocean. The role of the Lomonosov Ridge as a Natural Prolongation of Greenland/Canada is an important issue, and in order to better evaluate the connection between Greenland and the Lomonosov Ridge the nature of not only the ridge but also of Northern Greenland is the target of deep crustal investigations. The North Greenland Fold belt covers the ice-free part of North Greenland and continues west in the Canadian Arctic. The foldbelt was formed during the Ellesmerian orogeny, where sediments from the Franklinian Basin where compressed and deformed. The deep structure of basin and its subsequent closure are broadly unknown. Three broad band earthquake seismological stations where installed in North Greenland to supplement the existing stations at Alert (Canada) and Station Nord to the east, and the first data was available summer 2005. Crustal thickness data from these first results are presented. Plans for the spring 2006 consist of wide-angle acquisition on the sea ice from the Greenland-Canadian mainland out onto the Lomonosov Ridge, a joint Danish - Canadian project with a 400 km long profile over difficult ice conditions, 18 tons of explosives, three helicopters, a Twin Otter and about 30 participants.

  9. Drainage areas of the Potomac River basin, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Jeffrey B.; Hunt, Michelle L.; Stewart, Donald K.

    1996-01-01

    This report contains data for 776 drainage-area divisions of the Potomac River Basin, from the headwaters to the confluence of the Potomac River and the Shenandoah River. Data, compiled in downstream order, are listed for streams with a drainage area of approximately 2 square miles or larger within West Virginia and for U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging stations. The data presented are the stream name, the geographical limits in river miles, the latitude and longitude of the point, the name of the county, and the 7 1/2-minute quadrangle in which the point lies, and the drainage area of that site. The total drainage area of the Potomac River Basin downstream of the confluence of the Shenandoah River at the State boundary is 9,367.29 square miles.

  10. Gastrointestinal helminths of arctic foxes (Alopex lagopus) from different bioclimatological regions in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kapel, C. M O; Nansen, P.

    1996-01-01

    Nine species of gastrointestinal helminths were recovered from 254 arctic foxes (Alopex lagopus) from 8 different localities in Greenland. Prevalences of infection with the helminth species differed from area to area: Toxascaris leonina (3968%), Strongyloides stercoralis (0-14%), Mesocestoides...... of Greenland. In general, the composition of the helminth fauna of arctic foxes in Greenland showed distinct differences geographically. Thus, the diversity of helminth species in foxes caught in the northern districts of Greenland seems lower than in the southern districts; only nematode species with direct...... life cycles were represented equally in all parts of the country. The diversity of the surrounding fauna, and thereby the food items available for the foxes, seems to determine the spectrum of helminth species. Helminths requiring rodents as intermediate hosts were absent on the west coast, even...

  11. Telemedicine in Greenland: Citizens' Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Lasse O; Krebs, Hans J; Albert, Nancy M; Anderson, Nick; Catz, Sheryl; Hale, Timothy M; Hansen, John; Hounsgaard, Lise; Kim, Tae Youn; Lindeman, David; Spindler, Helle; Marcin, James P; Nesbitt, Thomas; Young, Heather M; Dinesen, Birthe

    2017-05-01

    Telemedicine may have the possibility to provide better access to healthcare delivery for the citizens. Telemedicine in arctic remote areas must be tailored according to the needs of the local population. Therefore, we need more knowledge about their needs and their view of telemedicine. The aim of this study has been to explore how citizens living in the Greenlandic settlements experience the possibilities and challenges of telemedicine when receiving healthcare delivery in everyday life. Case study design was chosen as the overall research design. Qualitative interviews (n = 14) were performed and participant observations (n = 80 h) carried out in the local healthcare center in the settlements and towns. A logbook was kept and updated each day during the field research in Greenland. Observations were made of activities in the settlements. Data collected on citizens' views about the possibilities of using telemedicine in Greenland revealed the following findings: Greenlandic citizens are positive toward telemedicine, and telemedicine can help facilitate improved access to healthcare for residents in these Greenlandic settlements. Regarding challenges in using telemedicine in Greenland, the geographical and cultural context hinders accessibility to the Greenlandic healthcare system, and telemedicine equipment is not sufficiently mobile. Greenlandic citizens are positive toward telemedicine and regard telemedicine as a facilitator for improved access for healthcare in the Greenlandic settlements. We have identified challenges, such as geographical and cultural context, that hinder accessibility to the Greenlandic healthcare system.

  12. Seabird colonies in the Melville Bay, Northwest Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boertmann, David; Huffeldt, Nicholas Per

    This report describes the results of a survey for breeding and colonial seabirds in a hitherto un-surveyed area of Northwest Greenland - the Melville Bay. The results shall be included as background data for oil spill sensitivity mapping, preparation of environmental impact assessments of petroleum...... activities in Baffin Bay and for the regulation (by the Greenland government) of petroleum activities. The survey showed, that compared to other coasts of West Greenland, the Melville Bay holds only few breeding colonies and low numbers of breeding seabirds. The most widespread and numerous species...... is the black guillemot followed by the glaucous gull. However, one colony is of national significance – Sabine Øer, with high numbers of breeding Arctic terns and Sabine’s gulls. Other noteworthy observations were puffins on Thom Ø and many new Iceland gull colonies that extended the known northern breeding...

  13. In defence of "anecdotal data". A case study from a caribou area in West Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otto Blehr

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available The author pleads for a modification of ethological science that allows for the presentation of even tentative hypotheses, based on what is at present disparagingly referred to as "anecdotal data". It is argued that such data are crucial for the neglected study of the habituation of free-ranging large mammals. In such studies of learning, relevant behavioural observations lie outside the ethologist's control, and can only be replicated by further chance encounters. Observations in their anecdotal form should therefore be made available to other ethologists despite their lack of quantifiable data. This would allow for the creation of a pool of more or less unique observations helping to better understand behaviour.

  14. Pneumatization and otitis media in Greenlandic Inuit before European colonization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Homøe, P; Lynnerup, N; Skovgaard, L T

    1995-01-01

    A total of 127 Greenlandic Inuit crania from before the European colonization of Greenland and deriving from the West (W), Southeast (SE), and Northeast (NE) coast of Greenland were examined for sequelae of infectious middle ear disease (IMED) and for a relationship between the size of the pneuma...

  15. Strontium geochemistry and carbon and oxygen isotopic compositions of Lower Proterozoic dolomite and calcite marbles from the Marmorilik Formation, West Greenland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garde, A.A.

    1979-01-01

    The Marmorilik Formation, Rinkian mobile belt, West Greenland, is a large, Lower Proterozoic carbonate-rock sequence, deformed and metamorphosed under greenschist to amphibolite facies conditions. The pre-deformation thickness of the sequence is at least 2000 m, with about 1400 m of dolomite marble and 350 m of calcite marble. Strontium contents of forty-two dolomite and calcite marbles range from 30 to 100 ppm and 300 to 800 ppm, respectively, whereas samples with calcite of secondary origin have strontium contents between 80 ppm and 200 ppm. Carbon and oxygen isotope ratios were determined for forty calcite and dolomite marbles as -0.2+-1.0 per 1000 delta 13 C and -9.9+-1.5 per 1000 delta 18 O (vs. PDB) and are compatible with the isotopic compositions of unmetamorphosed carbonates of similar age. Calcite from eight calciumsilicate rocks, breccias and calcite veins is significantly more negative in delta 13 C and delta 18 O. Five 13 C analyses of graphite in marble range from -9.6 to -14 per 1000. Possible post-depositional changes in the strontium content and carbon and oxygen isotope compositions are discussed. It is concluded that (a) the calcite marbles are not dedolomites and are therefore of primary origin, (b) the delta 13 C and delta 18 O values of the marbles are primary or diagenetic (i.e., pre-metamorphic), and (c) the isotopic composition of the graphite is compatible with, though not necessarily evidence for, a biogenic origin. (Auth.)

  16. Pb isotopes as tracers of mining-related Pb in lichens, seaweed and mussels near a former Pb-Zn mine in West Greenland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sondergaard, Jens, E-mail: jens@dmu.d [Department of Arctic Environment, National Environmental Research Institute, Aarhus University, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Asmund, Gert; Johansen, Poul [Department of Arctic Environment, National Environmental Research Institute, Aarhus University, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Elberling, Bo [Institute of Geography and Geology, University of Copenhagen, Oster Voldgade 10, DK-1350 Copenhagen K (Denmark); University Centre in Svalbard, NO-9171 Longyearbyen (Norway)

    2010-05-15

    Identification of mining-related contaminants is important in order to assess the spreading of contaminants from mining as well as for site remediation purposes. This study focuses on lead (Pb) contamination in biota near the abandoned 'Black Angel Mine' in West Greenland in the period 1988-2008. Stable Pb isotope ratios and total Pb concentrations were determined in lichens, seaweed and mussels as well as in marine sediments. The results show that natural background Pb ({sup 207}Pb/{sup 206}Pb: 0.704-0.767) and Pb originating from the mine ore ({sup 207}Pb/{sup 206}Pb: 0.955) have distinct isotopic fingerprints. Total Pb in lichens, seaweed, and mussels was measured at values up to 633, 19 and 1536 mg kg{sup -1} dry weight, respectively, and is shown to be a mixture of natural Pb and ore-Pb. This enables quantification of mining-related Pb and shows that application of Pb isotope data is a valuable tool for monitoring mining pollution. - Lead isotopes can be used to monitor uptake of mining-related lead in lichens, seaweed and mussels.

  17. Comparison of satellite imagery and infrared aerial photography as vegetation mapping methods in an arctic study area: Jameson Land, East Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Birger Ulf; Mosbech, Anders

    1994-01-01

    Remote Sensing, vegetation mapping, SPOT, Landsat TM, aerial photography, Jameson Land, East Greenland......Remote Sensing, vegetation mapping, SPOT, Landsat TM, aerial photography, Jameson Land, East Greenland...

  18. Shared decision making in West Africa: The forgotten area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diouf, Ndeye Thiab; Ben Charif, Ali; Adisso, Lionel; Adekpedjou, Rhéda; Zomahoun, Hervé Tchala Vignon; Agbadjé, Titilayo Tatiana; Dogba, Mama Joyce; Garvelink, Mirjam Marjolein

    2017-06-01

    Up to now, little attention has been paid to West Africa when it comes to shared decision making (SDM). West African countries seem to lag behind with regard to SDM initiatives compared to many other countries in the world. There is some interest in informed decision making or informed consent, but little in a full SDM process. Few decision-making tools are available for healthcare professionals and the majority are not designed to support decision-making with patients. Furthermore, to the best of our knowledge, there are no training programs for implementing SDM in healthcare teams. Many barriers exist to implementing SDM in West Africa, including lack of options, few or poor health resources and low levels of education. However, African countries present many opportunities for SDM as well. Existing SDM innovations developed for other populations with low literacy could be explored and adapted to the West African context, and research on implementation and outcomes in West Africa could contribute to SDM worldwide. West African countries are in an excellent position to both learn from other countries and contribute to SDM development in other parts of the world. In this paper we reflect on SDM challenges and opportunities, and propose a research agenda for West Africa. We hope to awaken interest in SDM in West Africa and encourage future collaborations on SDM with various West African stakeholders, including patients, healthcare professionals, policymakers, non-government organisations (NGOs) and academic institutions. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  19. Titanian chondrodite- and titanian clinohumite-bearing metadunite from the 3800 Ma Isua supracrustal belt, West Greenland: chemistry, petrology, and origin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dymek, R.F.; Boak, J.L.; Brothers, S.C.

    Titanian chondrodite (Ti-Ch) and clinohumite (Ti-Cl) have been discovered in a serpentinite from the 3.8 Ga Isua supracrustal belt, West Greenland, where they occur with olivine, magnesite, magnetite, and Ni-Co-Pb sulfides in a matrix of antigorite. This serpentinite has the bulk composition of a dunite, with high Ni and Cr and its REE pattern is broadly similar to those reported for cumulate dunites of igneous origin. The highly magnesian phase compositions indicate that the metadunite evolved from a serpentinite precursor, which experienced additional late serpentinization. Two different generations of olivine and antigorite, both with slightly different compositions, indicate an extremely complex history for the sample. However, the titanian humites locally occur as inclusions in olivine, indicating that they formed relatively early. Ti-Ch occurs as separate grains and also forms lamellar intergrowths with Ti-Cl. The two-phase intergrowths may represent the reaction Ti-Ch + forsterite = Ti-Cl. The sample lacks geikielite or any magnesian ilmenite, indicating that the terminal breakdown of titanian humites by the reaction titanian humites = forsterite + geikielite + H/sub 2/O was not approached. Chemographic relations for the system MgTiO/sub 3/-Mg/sub 2/SiO/sub 4/-H/sub 2/O was not approached. Chemographic relations for the system MgTiO/sub 3/-Mg/sub 2/SiO/sub 4/-H/sub 2/O reveal that Ti-Ch should be the high-pressure humite phase. The only other known occurrence of a Ti-Ch and Ti-Cl intergrowth is in kimberlite, and the possibility that Ti-Ch is a mantle phase should be reconsidered. However, the authors do not regard the Isua sample to be of mantle origin, although the intergrowths may record decompression during the polymetamorphic history of the region.

  20. Thin-layer effects in glaciological seismic amplitude-versus-angle (AVA analysis: implications for characterising a subglacial till unit, Russell Glacier, West Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Booth

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Seismic amplitude-versus-angle (AVA methods are a powerful means of quantifying the physical properties of subglacial material, but serious interpretative errors can arise when AVA is measured over a thinly-layered substrate. A substrate layer with a thickness less than 1/4 of the seismic wavelength, λ, is considered "thin", and reflections from its bounding interfaces superpose and appear in seismic data as a single reflection event. AVA interpretation of subglacial till can be vulnerable to such thin-layer effects, since a lodged (non-deforming till can be overlain by a thin (metre-scale cap of dilatant (deforming till. We assess the potential for misinterpretation by simulating seismic data for a stratified subglacial till unit, with an upper dilatant layer between 0.1–5.0 m thick (λ / 120 to > λ / 4, with λ = 12 m. For dilatant layers less than λ / 6 thick, conventional AVA analysis yields acoustic impedance and Poisson's ratio that indicate contradictory water saturation. A thin-layer interpretation strategy is proposed, that accurately characterises the model properties of the till unit. The method is applied to example seismic AVA data from Russell Glacier, West Greenland, in which characteristics of thin-layer responses are evident. A subglacial till deposit is interpreted, having lodged till (acoustic impedance = 4.26±0.59 × 106 kg m−2 s−1 underlying a water-saturated dilatant till layer (thickness < 2 m, Poisson's ratio ~ 0.5. Since thin-layer considerations offer a greater degree of complexity in an AVA interpretation, and potentially avoid misinterpretations, they are a valuable aspect of quantitative seismic analysis, particularly for characterising till units.

  1. Greenland from Archaean to Quaternary, Descriptive text to the 1995 Geological Map of Greenland 1:2 500 000, 2nd edition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalsbeek, Feiko

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The geological development of Greenland spans a period of nearly 4 Ga, from Eoarchaean to the Quaternary. Greenland is the largest island on Earth with a total area of 2 166 000 km2, but only c. 410 000 km2 are exposed bedrock, the remaining part being covered by a major ice sheet (the Inland Ice reaching over 3 km in thickness. The adjacent offshore areas underlain by continental crust have an area of c. 825 000 km2. Greenland is dominated by crystalline rocks of the Precambrian shield, which formed during a succession of Archaean and Palaeoproterozoic orogenic events and stabilised as a part of the Laurentian shield about 1600 Ma ago. The shield area can be divided into three distinct types of basement provinces: (1 Archaean rocks (3200–2600 Ma old, with local older units up to >3800Ma that were almost unaffected by Proterozoic or later orogenic activity; (2 Archaean terrains reworked during the Palaeoproterozoic around 1900–1750 Ma ago; and (3 terrains mainly composed of juvenile Palaeoproterozoic rocks (2000–1750 Ma in age.Subsequent geological developments mainly took place along the margins of the shield. During the Proterozoic and throughout the Phanerozoic major sedimentary basins formed, notably in North and North-East Greenland, in which sedimentary successions locally reaching 18 km in thickness were deposited. Palaeozoic orogenic activity affected parts of these successions in the Ellesmerian fold belt of North Greenland and the East Greenland Caledonides; the latter also incorporates reworked Precambrian crystalline basement complexes. Late Palaeozoic and Mesozoic sedimentary basins developed along the continent–ocean margins in North, East and West Greenland and are now preserved both onshore and offshore. Their development was closely related to continental break-up with formation of rift basins. Initial rifting in East Greenland in latest Devonian to earliest Carboniferous time and succeeding phases culminated with the

  2. Prevalence of antibodies against Brucella spp. in West Greenland polar bears (Ursus maritimus) and East Greenland muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Christian; Andersen-Ranberg, Emilie; Rajala, Elisabeth L.

    2018-01-01

    impact on human health due to consumption of raw meat or otherwise contact with tissues and fluids of infected game species such as muskoxen and polar bears. Here, we present serological results for Baffin Bay polar bears (Ursus maritimus) (n = 96) and North East Greenland muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus) (n...

  3. Frost flowers and sea-salt aerosols over seasonal sea-ice areas in northwestern Greenland during winter–spring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Hara

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Sea salts and halogens in aerosols, frost flowers, and brine play an important role in atmospheric chemistry in polar regions. Simultaneous sampling and observations of frost flowers, brine, and aerosol particles were conducted around Siorapaluk in northwestern Greenland during December 2013 to March 2014. Results show that water-soluble frost flower and brine components are sea-salt components (e.g., Na+, Cl−, Mg2+, K+, Ca2+, Br−, and iodine. Concentration factors of sea-salt components of frost flowers and brine relative to seawater were 1.14–3.67. Sea-salt enrichment of Mg2+, K+, Ca2+, and halogens (Cl−, Br−, and iodine in frost flowers is associated with sea-salt fractionation by precipitation of mirabilite and hydrohalite. High aerosol number concentrations correspond to the occurrence of higher abundance of sea-salt particles in both coarse and fine modes, and blowing snow and strong winds. Aerosol number concentrations, particularly in coarse mode, are increased considerably by release from the sea-ice surface under strong wind conditions. Sulfate depletion by sea-salt fractionation was found to be limited in sea-salt aerosols because of the presence of non-sea-salt (NSS SO42−. However, coarse and fine sea-salt particles were found to be rich in Mg. Strong Mg enrichment might be more likely to proceed in fine sea-salt particles. Magnesium-rich sea-salt particles might be released from the surface of snow and slush layer (brine on sea ice and frost flowers. Mirabilite-like and ikaite-like particles were identified only in aerosol samples collected near new sea-ice areas. From the field evidence and results from earlier studies, we propose and describe sea-salt cycles in seasonal sea-ice areas.

  4. Frost flowers and sea-salt aerosols over seasonal sea-ice areas in northwestern Greenland during winter-spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Keiichiro; Matoba, Sumito; Hirabayashi, Motohiro; Yamasaki, Tetsuhide

    2017-07-01

    Sea salts and halogens in aerosols, frost flowers, and brine play an important role in atmospheric chemistry in polar regions. Simultaneous sampling and observations of frost flowers, brine, and aerosol particles were conducted around Siorapaluk in northwestern Greenland during December 2013 to March 2014. Results show that water-soluble frost flower and brine components are sea-salt components (e.g., Na+, Cl-, Mg2+, K+, Ca2+, Br-, and iodine). Concentration factors of sea-salt components of frost flowers and brine relative to seawater were 1.14-3.67. Sea-salt enrichment of Mg2+, K+, Ca2+, and halogens (Cl-, Br-, and iodine) in frost flowers is associated with sea-salt fractionation by precipitation of mirabilite and hydrohalite. High aerosol number concentrations correspond to the occurrence of higher abundance of sea-salt particles in both coarse and fine modes, and blowing snow and strong winds. Aerosol number concentrations, particularly in coarse mode, are increased considerably by release from the sea-ice surface under strong wind conditions. Sulfate depletion by sea-salt fractionation was found to be limited in sea-salt aerosols because of the presence of non-sea-salt (NSS) SO42-. However, coarse and fine sea-salt particles were found to be rich in Mg. Strong Mg enrichment might be more likely to proceed in fine sea-salt particles. Magnesium-rich sea-salt particles might be released from the surface of snow and slush layer (brine) on sea ice and frost flowers. Mirabilite-like and ikaite-like particles were identified only in aerosol samples collected near new sea-ice areas. From the field evidence and results from earlier studies, we propose and describe sea-salt cycles in seasonal sea-ice areas.

  5. Holocene stratigraphy and vegetation history in the Scoresby Sund area, East Greenland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funder, S.

    1978-01-01

    The Holocene stratigraphy in Scoresby Sund is based on climatic change reflected by fluctuations in fjord and valley glaciers, immigration and extinction of marine molluscs, and the vegetation history recorded in pollen diagrams from five lakes. The histories are dated by C-14, and indirectly by emergence curves showing the patterns of isostatic uplift. From c. 10100-10400 to 9400 yr BP the major fjord glaciers showed oscillatory retreat with abundant moraine formation, the period of the Milne Land Moraines. The vegetation in the ice free areas was a sparse type of fell field vetetation but with thermophilous elements indicating temperatures similar to the present. From 9400 yr BP the fjord glaciers retreated rapidly in the narrow fjords, the few moraines formed are referred to the Roedefjord stages and indicate topographically conditioned stillstands. At 8000 yr BP the low arctic Betula nana imigrated into the area, and in the period until 5000 yr BP dense dwarf shrub heat grew in areas where it is now absent. In the fjords the subarctic Mytilus edulis and Pecten islandia lived, suggesting a climate warmer than the present. From c. 5000 yr BP the dense dwarf shrub heath began to disappear in the coastal areas, and a ''poor'' heat dominated by the high arctic Salix Arctica and Cassiope tetragona expanded. These two species, which are now extremely common, apparently did not grow in the area until c. 6000 yr BP. In lakes in the coastal area minerogenic sedimentation at c. 2800 yr BP, reflecting the general climatic deterioration. (author)

  6. An overview of the lithological and geochemical characteristics of the Mesoarchean (ca. 3075) Ivisaartoq greenstone belt, southern West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polat, A.; Frei, Robert; Appel, P.W.U.

    2008-01-01

    Archean greenstone belts in the area. The Ivisaartoq greenstone belt is the largest Mesoarchean supracrustal lithotectonic assemblage in the Nuuk region. The belt contains well-preserved primary magmatic structures including pillow lavas, volcanic breccias, and cumulate (picrite) layers. It also includes...... depleted initial Nd isotopic signatures ( Nd = +4.2 to +5.0) than gabbros, diorites, and tholeiitic basalts ( Nd = +0.3 to +3.1), consistent with a strongly depleted mantle source. In some areas gabbros include up to 15 cm long white inclusions (xenoliths). These inclusions are composed primarily (>90...

  7. Hydrogeology and water quality of the Leetown area, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozar, Mark D.; McCoy, Kurt J.; Weary, David J.; Field, Malcolm S.; Pierce, Herbert A.; Schill, William Bane; Young, John A.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey’s Leetown Science Center and the co-located U.S. Department of Agriculture’s National Center for Cool and Cold Water Aquaculture both depend on large volumes of cold clean ground water to support research operations at their facilities. Currently, ground-water demands are provided by three springs and two standby production wells used to augment supplies during periods of low spring flow. Future expansion of research operations at the Leetown Science Center is dependent on assessing the availability and quality of water to the facilities and in locating prospective sites for additional wells to augment existing water supplies. The hydrogeology of the Leetown area, West Virginia, is a structurally complex karst aquifer. Although the aquifer is a karst system, it is not typical of most highly cavernous karst systems, but is dominated by broad areas of fractured rock drained by a relatively small number of solution conduits. Characterization of the aquifer by use of fluorometric tracer tests, a common approach in most karst terranes, therefore only partly defines the hydrogeologic setting of the area. In order to fully assess the hydrogeology and water quality in the vicinity of Leetown, a multi-disciplinary approach that included both fractured rock and karst research components was needed. The U.S. Geological Survey developed this multi-disciplinary research effort to include geologic, hydrologic, geophysical, geographic, water-quality, and microbiological investigations in order to fully characterize the hydrogeology and water quality of the Leetown area, West Virginia. Detailed geologic and karst mapping provided the framework on which hydrologic investigations were based. Fracture trace and lineament analysis helped locate potential water-bearing fractures and guided installation of monitoring wells. Monitoring wells were drilled for borehole geophysical surveys, water-quality sampling, water-level measurements, and aquifer tests to

  8. Early life of key fish species, capelin Mallotus villosus and Atlantic cod Gadus morhua, in West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malanski, Evandro

    for the fish larvae during the summer. The duration of the productive season is of great importance for the early life of fish. The present thesis investigates the diets of capelin and cod in the subarctic Kapisigdlit, as well as the feeding of non-commercial larval fish in the entire Godthåbsfjord system...... species were found in the area, and 3 main assemblages were identified according to their similarities, which are related to the hydrographic zones. Fish larvae may benefit from the estuarine circulation to distribute themselves from the spawning areas through the Godthåbsfjord. The diet of the larval...... fish species varied markedly along the fjord. Prey size preferences of fish larvae were positively correlated to their mouth sizes. American plaice and sandeel were probably do not compete for food with other fish species since these, contrary to other species, had high preference for microplankton...

  9. Seismic structure of the crust and upper mantle in central-eastern Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraft, Helene Anja

    Geophysical and geological knowledge of the interior of Greenland is very limited. The lack of knowledge arises mainly due to the logistical challenges related to conducting geophysical fieldwork on the up to 3400 m thick ice sheet, which covers around 80% of the land area. This PhD thesis is based...... on the very first regional passive seismic study in central-Eastern Greenland, focusing on the area between Scoresby Sund and Summit. The study aims to image the structure of subsurface Greenland starting from the crust and down to the mantle transition zone. Furthermore, the thesis links these observations....... The receiver functions were jointly inverted for the velocity structure of the crust and delay times, and shapes of signals originating at the mantle transition zone discontinuities, P410s and P660s, were analysed. The crustal models show a deepening of the Moho from east to west from less than 20 km depth...

  10. Petrology and geochemistry of the ~2.9 Ga Itilliarsuk banded iron formation and associated supracrustal rocks, West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, Rasmus; Frei, Robert; Stendal, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    unconformably on a basement of tonalite–trondhjemite–granodiorite (TTG) lithologies. Felsic metagreywackes, meta-semipelites and thinly bedded ferruginous shales were identified intercalated with the Itilliarsuk BIF. Other associated rocks include metapelites, acidic metavolcanics and metagabbroic sills.......29. The associated supracrustal rocks in the study area have significantly higher, positive ɛNd(i) values. The 143Nd/144Nd in the Itilliarsuk BIF, therefore, contrasts world BIFs by exhibiting radiogenic, positive ɛNd(i) values in shallow seawaters where the REY's were controlled by a local, depleted continental...... crust, whereas the negative ɛNd(i) values found in the iron-rich layers suggest that the submarine hydrothermal source was influenced by an enriched mantle, possibly an older subcontinental lithospheric segment. The felsic metagreywackes are immature, first-cycle (SiO2/Al2O3 ∼ 4.4, [La/Yb >> 1]CHON...

  11. Caribou recovery and coexistence with introduced feral reindeer on the Nuussuaq Peninsula (70-71°N, West Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Cuyler

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The small native caribou population (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus of Nuussuaq Peninsula was supplemented in 1968 with 10 semi-domestic reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus. Hunting was prohibited in the early 1990s, but resumed with a quota of 100 animals in 1996 after the population was estimated to be around 400. Despite local criticism that herd size had increased, managers kept the estimate unchanged and permitted similar quotas for the next 5 years. To ascertain current status of the population, a late winter ground survey for minimum count, recruitment and distribution was done in April 2002 employing local hunters. Data collected included group size, location and animal sex/age. Only two age classes were used; calf (<1 year and "adult" (>1 year. The 2002 ground survey observed 1164 individuals and a calf percentage of approximately 30%. The bull to cow ratio was 0.32. This data did not allow a calculation of population size, because areas where maximum animal numbers were expected were preferentially sampled. Spatial segregation of these two subspecies is suggested, given the observed and unexpected dissimilar behavior, pheno-type and spatial distribution. If true, then by 2002 feral reindeer had established a successful population, while native caribou had recovered to number several hundred. Genetic sampling is necessary to examine this hypothesis. At current late winter recruitment rates animal density could increase rapidly making both range expansion and genetic mixing likely in future. Since the total non-ice covered area available is about 6000 km2, greater caribou/reindeer densities may not be compatible with sustainable range use. Harvest quotas were increased in 2002 and 2003, and may reduce densities and preserve caribou range for the future.

  12. Avoidable deaths in Greenland 1968-1985

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Peter; Juel, K

    1990-01-01

    and several showed an increasing time trend. The regional patterns were particularly clear for infectious diseases and accidents, which showed low mortality rates in the capital and other towns and high mortality rates in settlements and in the remote East Greenland, while mortality rates from suicides...... and political will of the society. A list of avoidable deaths is proposed for Greenland which includes, inter alia, meningitis, lung cancer, acute respiratory infections, suicides, boat accidents and alcohol related diseases and accidents. All were considerably more common in Greenland than in Denmark...... and alcohol related diseases were high in the capital and East Greenland and low in West Greenlandic settlements. It is concluded that further studies on preventable diseases and causes of death, in particular certain infectious diseases, accidents and suicides, are needed....

  13. Feeding habits of harp and hooded seals in Greenland waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finn O Kapel

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available Results of stomach contents analyses of harp and hooded seals collected in West Greenland waters in the period 1986-1993 are reviewed, and compared with published data and circumstantial information from local hunters.  The diet of harp seals in this region is variable but consists mainly of pelagic crustaceans (Thysanoessa spp. and Parathemisto libellula and small fish species like capelin (Mallotus villosus, sandeel (Ammodytes spp., polar cod (Boreogadus saida and Arctic cod (Arctogadus glacialis. Species of importance for commercial fisheries in Greenland, such as Northern prawn (Pandalus borealis, Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua, and Greenland halibut (Reinhardtius hippoglossoides play a minor role in the diet of harp seals in this area. Variation in the diet of hooded seals is less well documented, but in addition to the species also taken by harp seals, larger demersal fishes like Greenland halibut, redfish (Sebastes spp., cod, and wolffish (Anarhichas minor are apparently important prey items.

  14. Environmental assessment for the salvage/demolition of 200 West Area, 200 East Area, and 300 Area steam plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-10-01

    This environmental assessment has been prepared to assess potential environmental impacts associated with the US Department of Energy's proposed action: the salvage/demolition of the 200 West Area, 200 East Area, and 300 Area Steam Plants and steam distribution piping. Impact information will be used by the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office Manager, to determine if the proposed action is a major federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment. If the proposed action is determined to be major and significant, an environmental impact statement will be prepared. If the proposed action is determined not to be major and significant, a Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) will be issued and the action can proceed. The proposed action involves the salvage and demolition of the 200 West Area, 200 East Are, and 300 Area steam plants and their associated steam distribution piping, equipment, and ancillary facilities. Activities include the salvaging and recycling of all materials, wastes, and equipment where feasible, with waste minimization efforts utilized

  15. Norse Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arneborg, Jette

    2015-01-01

    human agency, landscape changes, climate changes, resilience, sustainability and adaptation are key words and research has moved from local to more global perspectives. New results from research projects in recent years have diversified the discussion claiming that the Norse Greenlanders created...

  16. Possible Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    at Greenland's structure, and ask some threshold questions. Which aspects of society are rooted in our human hardware? And, if we had the rare opportunity to build a new nation, what would we choose for ourselves? We hope this will inspire an open, imaginative and thoroughly human discussion about how...

  17. Early life of inshore fishes in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swalethorp, Rasmus

    to ensure fast growthand avoid starvation. Inshore areas may provide such favorable conditions, as these are sheltered from offshore currents and act as physical barriers that restrict dispersal and drift of eggs and larvae. Even though inshore spawning grounds of e.g. Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) has been...... a seasonal study on a West Greenlandic inshore population of Atlantic cod. I followed the distribution, development and mortality of eggs and larvae in relation to the physical conditions and the prey availability. The spawning of this population of cod was restricted to a shallow inshore area located...... from the area was limited. Later, the seasonal breakup of ice in a connecting river resulted in an increased freshwater outflow, then enhancing the dispersal of the older larvae. Throughout the study, marked spatial and temporal differences in the zooplankton community composition were observed...

  18. 77 FR 76451 - Designation for the West Sacramento, CA; Frankfort, IN; and Richmond, VA Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration Designation for the West Sacramento, CA; Frankfort, IN; and Richmond, VA Areas. AGENCY: Grain Inspection, Packers and...-Agri West Sacramento, CA(916) 374-9700.. 1/1/2013 12/31/2015 Frankfort Frankfort, IN(765) 258-3624...

  19. Climate versus in-lake processes as controls on the development of community structure in a low-arctic lake (South-West Greenland)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderson, N. John; Brodersen, Klaus Peter; Ryves, David B.

    2008-01-01

    The dominant processes determining biological structure in lakes at millennial timescales are complex. In this study, we used a multi-proxy approach to determine the relative importance of in-lake versus indirect processes on the Holocene development of an oligotrophic lake in SW Greenland (66.99°N...

  20. Transient variations in glacial mass near Upernavik Isstrøm (west Greenland) detected by the combined use of GPS and GRACE data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Bao; Liu, Lin; Khan, Shfaqat Abbas

    2017-01-01

    The continuously operating Global Positioning System (GPS) sites mounted on bedrock around the coast of Greenland provide important geodetic datasets to quantify the solid Earth’s response to historical and present-day ice mass variations. The presence of colored noise and irregular seasonal...

  1. Growth of wild muskoxen under two nutritional regimes in Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carsten Riis Olesen

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Growth of muskoxen in Jameson Land, East Greenland (EG and in Angujaartorfiup Nunaa, West Greenland (WG is affected by the different nutritional conditions in the two areas. The abundance and availability of forage plants is highest in WG. Muskoxen in WG reach sexual maturity one year earlier than muskoxen in EG. A significant proportion of female muskoxen in WG conceive at the age of 16 months and give birth to their first calf as two years olds. The horn bases of the muskox bulls in WG are fully developed during their third year of life, but their maximum body weight (BW is attained at the age of six. Average BW of adult bulls (4 yr+ in WG is 306 kg which is 23 % greater than in adult bulls in EG. BW is seasonally more variable in EG than in WG owing to greater seasonal fluctuation in food supply.

  2. Late Quaternary glaciation history of northernmost Greenland - Evidence of shelf-based ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Nicolaj K.; Kjær, Kurt H.; Funder, Svend Visby

    2010-01-01

    We present the mapping of glacial landforms and sediments from northernmost Greenland bordering 100 km of the Arctic Ocean coast. One of the most important discoveries is that glacial landforms, sediments, including till fabric measurements, striae and stoss-lee boulders suggest eastward ice......-flow along the coastal plain. Volcanic erratic boulders document ice-transport from 80 to 100 km west of the study area. We argue that these findings are best explained by local outlet glaciers from the Greenland Ice Sheet and local ice caps that merged to form a shelf-based ice in the Arctic Ocean...... and possibly confirming an extensive ice shelf in the Lincoln Sea between Greenland and Ellesmere Island. It is speculated that the shelf-based ice was largely affected by the presence of thick multiyear sea ice in the Arctic Ocean that prevented it from breaking up and forced the outlet glaciers to flow...

  3. Larval outbreaks in West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Magnus; Raundrup, Katrine; Westergaard-Nielsen, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    effects of a larval outbreak in 2011 on vegetation productivity and CO2 exchange. We estimate a decreased carbon (C) sink strength in the order of 118–143 g C m−2, corresponding to 1210–1470 tonnes C at the Kobbefjord catchment scale. The decreased C sink was, however, counteracted the following years...

  4. Recent greenland accumulation estimated from regional climate model simulations and ice core analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dethloff, K.; Schwager, M.; Christensen, J. H.

    2002-01-01

    to precipitation. Maxima of precipitation and accumulation occur at the southwestern and southeastern coasts of Greenland and are connected with cyclonic activity and the main storm tracks around Greenland. The central region of the Greenland ice sheet acts as a blocking barrier on moving weather systems...... and prohibits cyclones moving from west to east across this region and, thus prevents moisture transports....

  5. Shifts in the source and composition of dissolved organic matter in Southwest Greenland lakes along a regional hydro-climatic gradient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osburn, Christopher L.; Anderson, Nicholas J.; Stedmon, Colin A.

    2018-01-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) concentration and quality were examined from Arctic lakes located in three clusters across south-west (SW) Greenland, covering the regional climatic gradient: cool, wet coastal zone; dry inland interior; and cool, dry ice-marginal areas. We hypothesized that differe...

  6. Persistent organic pollutants and methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers in different tissues of white-tailed eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla) from West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaspers, V L B; Sonne, C; Soler-Rodriguez, F

    2013-01-01

    Greenland sampled between 1997 and 2009. High inter-individual variation in contamination was found (PCBs: 0.49-1500 μg/g lipid weight (lw), DDTs: 0.23-910 μg/g lw, PBDEs: 0.01-24 μg/g lw, MeO-PBDEs: 0.001-0.59 μg/g lw), mostly due to age-related differences and not to temporal trends. One adult female (age...

  7. Views of West Valley area residents concerning the Nuclear Fuel Services facility at West Valley, New York

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamieniecki, S.; Milbrath, L.W.

    1978-06-01

    A number of major findings have emerged from this analysis. Although most people have heard or read about the Nuclear Fuel Services plant at West Valley, few exhibit a high level of knowledge about the issue area. A clear majority of residents living in the region are concerned about the presence of the facility. Many are particularly concerned about the health dangers that can result from radioactive contamination of the environment. People want to see something done about the facility, but do not know exactly what. When forced to choose one out of three possible alternatives, twice as many people preferred to ''completely remove the plant and restore the area'' than either of the two remaining alternatives. People who are concerned about the facility tend to favor removal of the plant and restoration of the area. Nearly three-fourths of West Valley area residents who believe that the plant did not employ enough people to significantly help the economy of the region favor removal of the facility and restoration of the area. The results of this study may help policymakers choose the most acceptable course of action

  8. Development of bearing capacity of fine grained permafrost deposits in western greenland urban areas subject to soil temperature changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agergaard, Frederik Ancker; Ingeman-Nielsen, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The bearing capacity of frozen soils is high, compared to non-frozen soils of same composition. Projected climatic warming in the Arctic will increase the soil temperature, thus affecting the bearing capacity and the deformation properties. Western Greenland temperatures are projected to increase...... free samples. Unfrozen water contents are seen to be directly inversely proportional to the undrained shear strength when both are normalized, which may reduce costs for establishing reliable soil strength parameters. It is suggested that a relation to deformation parameters are investigated as well...

  9. The north-east Baffin Bay region, offshore Greenland - a new frontier petroleum exploration region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregersen, U. (Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland, Copenhagen (Denmark))

    2008-07-15

    In recent years the Arctic has come into focus for hydrocarbon exploration, and areas offshore both West and East Greenland have been evaluated as promising frontier hydrocarbon provinces. Seven hydrocarbon exploration and exploitation licenses were awarded in 2007-2008 offshore the Disko-Nuussuaq region, and two more have been awarded in the open-door region offshore south-western Greenland. In 2007, an extensive amount of new seismic and aero-magnetic data was acquired by the TGS-NOPEC Geophysical Company in the north-eastern Baffin Bay region. Geophysical mapping has been initiated by the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS) in the Melville Bugt region offshore North-West Greenland with the purpose of evaluating the hydrocarbon prospectivity. Initial interpretation of seismic and gravity data suggests the presence of deep sedimentary basins separated by structural highs. Geological information on source rock, reservoir rock and seal intervals from surrounding regions suggest that the Melville Bugt region is likely to have a significant petroleum potential. The study is based on public domain magnetic and gravity data, and all proprietary and public 2-D seismic data acquired before 2003. Seismic horizons from the 'seismic basement' to 'base Quaternary' are being interpreted regionally. Based on the seismic interpretation, a structural element map, depth-structure maps and isopach maps will be produced in order to assess the prospectivity of the Melville Bugt region. (au)

  10. Weather Test Reference Year of Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Jesper; Pedersen, Frank; Svendsen, Svend

    2005-01-01

    the construction of two test reference years of Greenland used in the work of establishing new energy frame for the coming building code of Greenland. The first test reference year is constructed using measurements of climatic parameters from the town Nuuk located in the southwestern part of Greenland. The second...... test reference year is constructed using measurements from the town Uummannaq located in the north part of Greenland on the west coast. The construction of the test reference years fulfills the procedures described in the standard EN ISO 15927-4 using the following main weather parameters: Dry bulb...... temperature, global radiation, relative humidity and mean wind speed. To construct the test reference years a program called REFYEAR was developed in MatLab. REFYEAR automatically constructs the test reference year using an input file containing the climatic measurements. The two constructed test reference...

  11. Mobility and the spread of human immunodeficiency virus into rural areas of West Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lagarde, E.; Schim van der Loeff, M.; Enel, C.; Holmgren, B.; Dray-Spira, R.; Pison, G.; Piau, J. P.; Delaunay, V.; M'Boup, S.; Ndoye, I.; Coeuret-Pellicer, M.; Whittle, H.; Aaby, P.

    2003-01-01

    In eastern and southern Africa, the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic appeared first in urban centres and then spread to rural areas. Its overall prevalence is lower in West Africa, with the highest levels still found in cities. Rural areas are also threatened, however, because of the

  12. Geologic facts for priority site selection in the area west of Simpevarp. Reports 1-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahlgren, Carl-Henric; Persson, Lena; Danielsson, Peter; Berglund, Johan; Triumf, Carl-Axel; Mattsson, Haakan; Thunehed, Hans

    2003-03-01

    The area west of Simpevarp at Oskarshamn is a candidate site for the Swedish repository for high-level radioactive waste. Since the available information of geologic structures in the area is not very detailed, measurements and interpretation of existing data have been performed in order to find inhomogeneities and local lineaments. Surveys were made air and by geophysical measurements in the field

  13. 99Tc in seawater in the West Spitsbergen Current and adjacent areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerland, Sebastian; Lind, Bjoern; Dowdall, Mark; Karcher, M.; Kolstad, Anne Kathrine

    2003-01-01

    99 Tc levels were measured in seawater samples collected between 2000 and 2002 in the West Spitsbergen Current (WSC) and along the western coast of Svalbard or Spitzbergen and compared with available oceanographic 3-D modelling results for the late 1990s. Additional data from related regions are also presented in order to support the data interpretation. The seawater in the Arctic fjord Kongsfjorden on the western coast of Svalbard is influenced by the WSC, as shown by the 99 Tc levels in surface water. By means of the WSC, 99 Tc reaches the Eastern Fram Strait, where one branch of the WSC turns west into the East Greenland Current (EGC), and another branch continues northwards into the Arctic Ocean. Surface seawater collected in the central part of the WSC during a cruise on board the R/V 'Polarstern' in the summer of 2000, showed higher levels of 99 Tc than samples measured in Kongsfjorden in the spring of 2000. However, all levels measured in surface water are of the same order of magnitude. Data from sampling of deeper water in the WSC and EGC provide information pertaining to the lateral distribution of 99 Tc. In all vertical profiling surveys (conducted in spring and summer), the highest levels of 99 Tc were found in surface water. Comparison with oceanographic 3-D modelling indicates both significant seasonal variations in the lateral stratification of the WSC and variations with depth over shorter vertical distances. This information can be applied in sampling strategies, environmental monitoring, long-range transport of pollutants and physical oceanography

  14. An aerial radiological survey of the West Valley Demonstration Project and surrounding area, West Valley, New York

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, H.A.

    1991-09-01

    An aerial radiological survey of the West Valley Demonstration Project and the surrounding area was conducted from mid-August through early September 1984 by EG ampersand G Energy Measurements, Inc. for the United States Department of Energy. The radiological survey was part of the United States Department of Energy Comprehensive Integrated Remote Sensing (CIRS) program, which provides state-of-the-art remote sensing to support the needs of the various DOE facilities. The survey consisted of airborne measurements of both natural and man-made gamma radiation emanating from the terrestrial surface. These measurements allowed an estimate of the distribution of isotopic concentrations in the area surrounding the project site. Results are reported as isopleths superimposed on aerial photographs of the area. Gamma ray energy spectra are also presented for the net man-made radionuclides. 8 refs., 16 figs., 9 tabs

  15. Scientific activities in and about Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graversen, Ebbe Krogh; Pedersen, Asger Dalsgaard

    2018-01-01

    This report presents the results of an investigation and analysis of opportunities, strengths and challenges of scientific activities involving Greenland as a research area or research object relative to other Arctic areas.......This report presents the results of an investigation and analysis of opportunities, strengths and challenges of scientific activities involving Greenland as a research area or research object relative to other Arctic areas....

  16. Differences in plankton community structure and carbon cycling along a climate gradient from the Greenland Ice Sheet to offshore waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendt, K.E.; Nielsen, Torkel Gissel; Rysgaard, S.

    Huge differences in plankton community structures and biomasses are observed along a climate gradient from the Greenland Ice Sheet to offshore waters at the West Greenland coast. The offshore region has a high biomass of copepods dominated by Calanus spp., which are capable of consuming 55....... Protozooplankton accounts for 20-38% of the carbon turnover in the offshore and inland areas. However, protozooplankton like copepods has low ability to turn over the primary production close to the Ice Sheet. Increased run of from the Greenland Ice Sheet due to global warming could displace the existing climate...... gradient. This would have a profound influence on the future plankton community structure as well as the energy transfer to higher trophic levels in Arctic coastal ecosystems....

  17. Environmental oil spill sensitivity atlas for the Northwest Greenland (75°-77° N) coastal zone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Daniel Spelling; Mosbech, Anders; Boertmann, David

    2016-01-01

    This oil spill sensitivity atlas covers the shoreline and the offshore areas of West Greenland between 75º N and 77º N. The coastal zone is divided into 53 shoreline segments, and the offshore zone into 4 areas. A sensitivity index value is calculated for each segment/area, and each segment...... rankings are shown on 15 maps (in scale 1:250,000), which also show the different elements included in the analysis and the selected areas. Coast types, logistics and proposed response methods along the coasts are shown on another 15 maps. The sensitivities of the offshore zones are depicted on four maps...

  18. Small area estimation in forests affected by wildfire in the Interior West

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. G. Moisen; J. A. Blackard; M. Finco

    2004-01-01

    Recent emphasis has been placed on estimating amount and characteristics of forests affected by wildfire in the Interior West. Data collected by FIA is intended for estimation over large geographic areas and is too sparse to construct sufficiently precise estimates within burn perimeters. This paper illustrates how recently built MODISbased maps of forest/nonforest and...

  19. The eastern Baffin Bay. A preliminary strategic environmental impact assessment of hydrocarbon activities in the KANUMAS West area; Greenland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boertmann, D; Johansen, K; Maltha Rasmussen, L; Schiedek, D; Ugarte, F; Mosbech, A; Frederiksen, M; Bjerrum, M

    2009-05-15

    The environmental impacts of exploration activities will mainly be disturbance from activities creating noise such as seismic surveys and drilling. The impacts are expected to be relatively small, local and temporary, because of the intermittent nature of the exploration activities. Furthermore, the season for exploration activities is very short and limited to the few months with light ice conditions (June-October). The activities during development, production and transport are on the other hand long-lasting, and there are several activities which have the potential to cause severe environmental impacts. Careful Health, Safety and Environment (HSE) procedures, application of Best Available Technique (BAT) and Best Environmental Practice (BEP), zero-discharge policy and planning in combination with thorough background studies and application of the Precautionary Principle can mitigate most of these. The environmentally most severe accident would be a large oil spill. This has the potential to impact the marine ecosystem on all levels from primary production to the top predators. Oil spill trajectory modelling was carried out by DMI as a part of this SEIA. In most of the modelled oil spill drift scenarios oil does not reach the coasts, but stays offshore. However, three of the 24 scenarios indicate that under certain conditions, oil may reach shores up to several hundred kilometres from the spill site. (ln)

  20. First record of Centromerus arcanus (O. P.-Cambridge, 1873) from Greenland (Araneae, Linyphiidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lissner, Jørgen; Gravesen, Eigil Vestergaard

    2017-01-01

    The linyphiid spider Centromerus arcanus (O. P.-Cambridge, 1873) is reported new to Greenland. A single female was pitfall trapped in South-West Greenland at Kobbefjord in the summer of 2016 constituting the first record of this species in the Nearctic ecozone. The habitat in which the Greenland...

  1. Why is Transparency Greenland Necessary?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Boris Brorman

    2012-01-01

    Greenland is facing significant changes in the composition of its economy, and is moving rapidly in the direction of becoming a commodities economy. Studies conducted by Transparency International in other parts of the world suggest that oil exploration and mining are among the areas of economic...

  2. High air-sea CO 2 uptake rates in nearshore and shelf areas of Southern Greenland: Temporal and spatial variability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rysgaard, Søren; Mortensen, J.; Juul-Pedersen, T.

    2012-01-01

    significant correlation between average annual gross primary production and annual air-sea flux during 2005-2010, which suggests that regulation of pCO 2 in the fjord is more complex. Despite three confined periods with supersaturated pCO 2 conditions in surface waters during 2005-2010, Godthåbsfjord can......The present study is based on hourly samplings of wind speed, monthly sampling sessions of temperature, salinity, dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, nutrients, primary productivity and vertical export in the outer sill region (station GF3) of a sub-arctic SW Greenland fjord (Godthåbsfjord......) through 2005-2010. Air-sea CO 2 fluxes varied at GF3 from c. -20gCm -2month -1 (uptake from the atmosphere) to 25gCm -2month -1 (release to the atmosphere) during 2005-10. The average annual air-sea CO 2 flux of -83 to -108gCm -2yr -1 was within the range of the local gross annual primary productivity...

  3. Greenland and Natural Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyck, Lise

    Greenland policy can delay and maybe change the future of the forecasted development of the use of natural resources. This book is relevant for anyone interested in Greenland in general and the development of Greenland both politically and economically and in relation natural resources....

  4. Success and failure of reindeer herding in Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Cuyler

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available Animal husbandry is a recent innovation in Greenland, specifically reindeer husbandry is less than 50 years old. Reindeer husbandry was first established in mid-west Greenland and later in southern Greenland. The Greenland hunter tradition and culture is, however, still dominant in many communities. During the 1980s and 1990s, the incompatibility of these two traditions resulted in the failure of reindeer husbandry in mid-west Greenland. There were neither herding nor seasonal herd movements. Animals remained year round on the winter range, which was destroyed as lichens were trampled every summer. Without seasonal herd movements both sustainable range use and control of the herd were lost. Today, there are just two semi-domestic reindeer herds left, and both are in southern Greenland. One herd is commercially successful, and the other is under development. In mid-west Greenland, semi-domestic reindeer husbandry officially ended in 1998, and a hunt was initiated to remove the remaining population. Possibly, by the year 2000 any animals left in this region will be considered wild caribou.

  5. 76 FR 56482 - Notice and Request For Comments: LSC Elimination of the West Virginia Migrant Service Area...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-13

    ... Migrant Service Area Beginning January 1, 2012 AGENCY: Legal Services Corporation. ACTION: Notice and Request for Comments. SUMMARY: The Legal Services Corporation will eliminate the West Virginia migrant service area, i.e., MWV effective January 1, 2012, because any eligible migrant population in West...

  6. Hepatitis B prevalence and incidence in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børresen, Malene Landbo; Andersson, Mikael; Wohlfahrt, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Greenland remains a highly endemic area for hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. This is in sharp contrast to other modern societies, such as Denmark. To address this discrepancy, we investigated the natural history of HBV infection in Greenland by estimating the age-specific incidence of HBV...... from all available HBV registries in Greenland to determine changes in HBV status over time. Incidence rates of HBV infection and hepatitis B surface antigen seroclearance were estimated after taking into account interval censoring. The incidence of HBV infection in 5-14-year-old subjects was less than...

  7. The peopling of Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pereira, Vania; Tomas Mas, Carmen; Sanchez, Juan J

    2015-01-01

    The peopling of Greenland has a complex history shaped by population migrations, isolation and genetic drift. The Greenlanders present a genetic heritage with components of European and Inuit groups; previous studies using uniparentally inherited markers in Greenlanders have reported evidence...... of a sex-biased, admixed genetic background. This work further explores the genetics of the Greenlanders by analysing autosomal and X-chromosomal data to obtain deeper insights into the factors that shaped the genetic diversity in Greenlanders. Fourteen Greenlandic subsamples from multiple geographical...... settlements were compared to assess the level of genetic substructure in the Greenlandic population. The results showed low levels of genetic diversity in all sets of the genetic markers studied, together with an increased number of X-chromosomal loci in linkage disequilibrium in relation to the Danish...

  8. Characteristics of Poverty in Rural Communities of Gold Mining District Area West Sumbawa

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim, Ibrahim; Baiquni, Muhammad; Ritohardoyo, Su; Setiadi, Setiadi

    2016-01-01

    The research is conducted in rural areas of gold mining with the aim to find out the characteristics of poverty in the rural area of gold mining in West Sumbawa regency. The survey method is used in this study, focusing on the rural mining area. Sample of respondents are 167 households, selected by purposive sampling from four villages, which are determined based on the first ma slope. The data analysis uses cross tabulation and frequency tables. The results showes that the poverty rate in th...

  9. Groundwater impact assessment report for the 216-S-26 Crib, 200 West Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindberg, J.W.; Evelo, S.D.; Alexander, D.J.

    1993-11-01

    This report assesses the impact of wastewater discharged to the 216-S-26 Crib on groundwater quality. The 216-S-26 Crib, located in the southern 200 West Area, has been in use since 1984 to dispose of liquid effluents from the 222-S Laboratory Complex. The 222-S Laboratory Complex effluent stream includes wastewater from four sources: the 222-S Laboratory, the 219-S Waste Storage Facility, the 222-SA Chemical Standards Laboratory, and the 291-S Exhaust Fan Control House and Stack. Based on assessment of groundwater chemistry and flow data, contaminant transport predictions, and groundwater chemistry data, the 216-S-26 Crib has minimal influence on groundwater contamination in the southern 200 West Area.

  10. Groundwater impact assessment report for the 216-S-26 Crib, 200 West Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindberg, J.W.; Evelo, S.D.; Alexander, D.J.

    1993-11-01

    This report assesses the impact of wastewater discharged to the 216-S-26 Crib on groundwater quality. The 216-S-26 Crib, located in the southern 200 West Area, has been in use since 1984 to dispose of liquid effluents from the 222-S Laboratory Complex. The 222-S Laboratory Complex effluent stream includes wastewater from four sources: the 222-S Laboratory, the 219-S Waste Storage Facility, the 222-SA Chemical Standards Laboratory, and the 291-S Exhaust Fan Control House and Stack. Based on assessment of groundwater chemistry and flow data, contaminant transport predictions, and groundwater chemistry data, the 216-S-26 Crib has minimal influence on groundwater contamination in the southern 200 West Area

  11. 1997-1998 Annual Review of the 200 West and 200 East area performance assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WOOD, M.I.

    1999-01-01

    An annual review of the 200 West and 200 East Area Performance Assessment (PA) analyses for fiscal year 1998 was completed. Burial ground disposal operations were found to be compliant with performance objectives in DOE Order 5820.2A. Other newly generated information and analyses relevant to PA assumptions and results were summarized. This report was initially submitted to the Department of Energy-Richland Office (DOE-RL) as a letter report in October, 1998

  12. Landslides in West Coast metropolitan areas: The role of extreme weather events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Biasutti

    2016-12-01

    That a news-based catalog of landslides is accurate enough to allow the identification of different landslide/rainfall relationships in the major urban areas along the US West Coast suggests that this technology can potentially be used for other English-language cities and could become an even more powerful tool if expanded to other languages and non-traditional news sources, such as social media.

  13. Small area estimation (SAE) model: Case study of poverty in West Java Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhartini, Titin; Sadik, Kusman; Indahwati

    2016-02-01

    This paper showed the comparative of direct estimation and indirect/Small Area Estimation (SAE) model. Model selection included resolve multicollinearity problem in auxiliary variable, such as choosing only variable non-multicollinearity and implemented principal component (PC). Concern parameters in this paper were the proportion of agricultural venture poor households and agricultural poor households area level in West Java Province. The approach for estimating these parameters could be performed based on direct estimation and SAE. The problem of direct estimation, three area even zero and could not be conducted by directly estimation, because small sample size. The proportion of agricultural venture poor households showed 19.22% and agricultural poor households showed 46.79%. The best model from agricultural venture poor households by choosing only variable non-multicollinearity and the best model from agricultural poor households by implemented PC. The best estimator showed SAE better then direct estimation both of the proportion of agricultural venture poor households and agricultural poor households area level in West Java Province. The solution overcame small sample size and obtained estimation for small area was implemented small area estimation method for evidence higher accuracy and better precision improved direct estimator.

  14. Geology and potency of Uranium mineralization occurrences in Harau area, West Sumatera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngadenin

    2013-01-01

    The Background of this study is due to the geological setting of Harau area and its surrounding, West Sumatera, that is identified as a favourable area for uranium accumulation which is indicated by the presence of anomalous radioactivity in the Tertiary sedimentary rocks deposited on the terrestrial environment and the presence of anomalous uranium contents in Pre-Tertiary granites in several places in West Sumatera, and the presence of radioactivity anomalous in the Pre Tertiary metamorphic rocks. The purpose of this study is to determine the potential formation of uranium mineralization in the Harau area, to be used as a basis to conduct more detailed research in order to inventory the potential of uranium resources in Indonesia. The scope of the discussion in this review includes a discussion of geology, geochemistry and radioactivity of the outcrops. The composition of regional stratigraphic from old to young is quartzite unit, phyllite unit, conglomerate unit, sandstone unit, tuff unit and alluvium river. The main fault that developed in the study area are normal faults trending southwest – northeast. The study area is splitted into two sections where the southeastern part relatives fall down of the northwest. Based on geological setting, radioactivity and uranium data then is assumed that Harau is a potential area for the formation of uranium mineralization in sandstone and its vein type. Sandstone type is expected occur in sandstone conglomerate unit of The Brani Formation and vein type is expected occur in the quartzite unit of The Kuantan Formation. (author)

  15. Floristic study of AqDagh sanctuary in Marakan protected area: west Azarbaijan province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanieh Nafisi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AqDagh sanctuary with the area 5184.7 hectares area is one of the three sanctuaries in the Marakan protected area, in west Azarbaijan province. It is located in the semi-dry to cold semi-dry climates. In this research, 227 taxa (species, subspecies and varieties belonging to 47 families and 166 genera were identified during 2008 through 2009. Among the studied plants, 205 dicots and 21 monocots and one gymnosperm were recognized. Asteraceae (with 30 species and Lamiaceae (with 26 species were the largest families followed by Brassicaceae, Caryophylaceae and Fabaceae. Astragalus (with 9 species and Gallium (with 5 species were the most diverse genera. Twenty one endemic and 6 rare taxa plus 2 monotypic genera were identified in the studied area. In addition, 11 taxa from northwest of Iran and 29 from west Azarbaijan were reported for the first time. Therophytes (with 36.57% comprised the most dominant life form, followed by hemicryptophytes (with 27.75% in this area. From the chorological point of the view, most of the flora has been influenced by the IT (31.53% and IT-ES (27.49% elements. The highest proportion of vegetation in this area belonged to bi-tri or pluriregional elements (with 59.01%.

  16. Analysis of the factors affecting the poverty in rural areas around gold mine areas in West Sumbawa Regency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available West Sumbawa Regencyis one of the regencies that are rich of natural resources managed by PT. Newmont Nusa Tenggara. However, local communities around the gold mine areas have generally to date been poor. This study was aimed to (1 examine the effect of material poverty, physical weakness, isolation, vulnerability, and powerlessness on poverty, and (2 describe the distribution of rural povertybased on land slope mapsin gold mine areas in West Sumbawa Regency.This study applied a survey technique, observation, and structured interviews to collect data. The processing and analysis of data was carried out by a quantitative method using a multiple regression analysis. The results of the study showed that the factors significantly affecting the poverty among rural communities around gold mine areas were material poverty, physical weakness, isolation, vulnerability and powerlessness (R2 = 0.715. However, the mostly dominant factor affecting the poverty was powerlessness (t = 19.715. Meanwhile, the distribution of poverty based on topographic sites showed that the poverty occurred in villages with plain topography (Goa Village, terrain topography (Maluk Village, wave topography (Belo Village, and hilly topography (Sekongkang Bawah Village. The poverties occurred in all the villages were mostly affected by powerlessness with t values of 3.489, 13.921, 11.828, and 6.504, respectively. This condition was due to minimum access and communication by local communities to local government and the gold mining company of PT. Newmont Nusa Tenggara

  17. Toxaphene in the aquatic environment of Greenland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorkamp, Katrin; Rigét, Frank F.; Dietz, Rune

    2015-01-01

    The octa- and nonachlorinated bornanes (toxaphene) CHBs 26, 40, 41, 44, 50 and 62 were analysed in Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus), shorthorn sculpin (Myoxocephalus scorpius), ringed seal (Pusa hispida) and black guillemot eggs (Cepphus grylle) from Greenland. Despite their high trophic level, ringed seals had the lowest concentrations of these species, with a Σ 6 Toxaphene median concentration of 13–20 ng/g lipid weight (lw), suggesting metabolisation. The congener composition also suggests transformation of nona- to octachlorinated congeners. Black guillemot eggs had the highest concentrations (Σ 6 Toxaphene median concentration of 971 ng/g lw). Although concentrations were higher in East than in West Greenland differences were smaller than for other persistent organic pollutants. In a circumpolar context, toxaphene had the highest concentrations in the Canadian Arctic. Time trend analyses showed significant decreases for black guillemot eggs and juvenile ringed seals, with annual rates of −5 to −7% for Σ 6 Toxaphene. The decreases were generally steepest for CHBs 40, 41 and 44. - Highlights: • Toxaphene was detected in freshwater and marine species of Greenland. • Relatively low concentrations in ringed seal suggest metabolisation. • The concentrations in Greenland appear lower than those in the Canadian Arctic. • Significant decreases were found in juvenile ringed seals and black guillemot eggs. - The banned insecticide toxaphene is widely present in the aquatic environment of Greenland, but concentrations are decreasing

  18. Identification of dust storm source areas in West Asia using multiple environmental datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Hui; Amiraslani, Farshad; Liu, Jian; Zhou, Na

    2015-01-01

    Sand and Dust storms are common phenomena in arid and semi-arid areas. West Asia Region, especially Tigris-Euphrates alluvial plain, has been recognized as one of the most important dust source areas in the world. In this paper, a method is applied to extract SDS (Sand and Dust Storms) sources in West Asia region using thematic maps, climate and geography, HYSPLIT model and satellite images. Out of 50 dust storms happened during 2000-2013 and collected in form of MODIS images, 27 events were incorporated as demonstrations of the simulated trajectories by HYSPLIT model. Besides, a dataset of the newly released Landsat images was used as base-map for the interpretation of SDS source regions. As a result, six main clusters were recognized as dust source areas. Of which, 3 clusters situated in Tigris-Euphrates plain were identified as severe SDS sources (including 70% dust storms in this research). Another cluster in Sistan plain is also a potential source area. This approach also confirmed six main paths causing dust storms. These paths are driven by the climate system including Siberian and Polar anticyclones, monsoon from Indian Subcontinent and depression from north of Africa. The identification of SDS source areas and paths will improve our understandings on the mechanisms and impacts of dust storms on socio-economy and environment of the region. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Area West of the 700 fathom Depth Contour for Pacific Fishery Management Council's June 2005 Preferred Alternative, Groundfish EFH Final EIS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — These data depict area within the West Coast Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) that is west of the 700 fathom isobath. This area was designated by the Pacific Fishery...

  20. The outbreak of West Nile virus infection in the New York City area in 1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, D; Mostashari, F; Fine, A; Miller, J; O'Leary, D; Murray, K; Huang, A; Rosenberg, A; Greenberg, A; Sherman, M; Wong, S; Layton, M

    2001-06-14

    In late August 1999, an unusual cluster of cases of meningoencephalitis associated with muscle weakness was reported to the New York City Department of Health. The initial epidemiologic and environmental investigations suggested an arboviral cause. Active surveillance was implemented to identify patients hospitalized with viral encephalitis and meningitis. Cerebrospinal fluid, serum, and tissue specimens from patients with suspected cases underwent serologic and viral testing for evidence of arboviral infection. Outbreak surveillance identified 59 patients who were hospitalized with West Nile virus infection in the New York City area during August and September of 1999. The median age of these patients was 71 years (range, 5 to 95). The overall attack rate of clinical West Nile virus infection was at least 6.5 cases per million population, and it increased sharply with age. Most of the patients (63 percent) had clinical signs of encephalitis; seven patients died (12 percent). Muscle weakness was documented in 27 percent of the patients and flaccid paralysis in 10 percent; in all of the latter, nerve conduction studies indicated an axonal polyneuropathy in 14 percent. An age of 75 years or older was an independent risk factor for death (relative risk adjusted for the presence or absence of diabetes mellitus, 8.5; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.2 to 59.1), as was the presence of diabetes mellitus (age-adjusted relative risk, 5.1; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.5 to 17.3). This outbreak of West Nile meningoencephalitis in the New York City metropolitan area represents the first time this virus has been detected in the Western Hemisphere. Given the subsequent rapid spread of the virus, physicians along the eastern seaboard of the United States should consider West Nile virus infection in the differential diagnosis of encephalitis and viral meningitis during the summer months, especially in older patients and in those with muscle weakness.

  1. Abundance of ringed seals (Phoca hispida in the Kong Oscars Fjord, Scoresby Sund and adjacent areas in eastern Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E W Born

    1998-06-01

    those reported from other Arctic areas. No significant differences in densities were found between sets of surveys of the same sub-areas. The mean density (2.00 seals/km2, SD=0.22 in the Scoresby Sund area was significantly higher than that found in Kong Oscars Fjord (1.04 seals/km\\ SD=0.15 probably reflecting a higher overall marine productivity in Scoresby Sund. The sum of the point estimates of the visible part of the population in the different sub-areas was 28,882 seals.

  2. Characteristics of Poverty in Rural Communities of Gold Mining District Area West Sumbawa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Ibrahim

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The research is conducted in rural areas of gold mining with the aim to find out the characteristics of poverty in the rural area of gold mining in West Sumbawa regency. The survey method is used in this study, focusing on the rural mining area. Sample of respondents are 167 households, selected by purposive sampling from four villages, which are determined based on the first ma slope. The data analysis uses cross tabulation and frequency tables. The results showes that the poverty rate in the research area is still low. The results of the combined value of the characteristic size of the hilly topography of poverty are 84 per cent and 83.7 per cent flat topography caused by low levels of income, quality of houses, agricultural land ownership, livestock ownership, ownership of valuables

  3. Dynamics of land - use change in urban area in West Jakarta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pangaribowo, R. L.

    2018-01-01

    This aim to research is to know how land use change in West Jakarta period 2000 - 2010. The research method used is descriptive method with a quantitative approach. Data analysis was done by using the result of research instrument to find out the driving of land change and to know the change of was analyzed using GIS (Geographic Information System) in Arc View GIS 3.3 program and Quantitative Analysis Model Location Quotient (LQ) and Shift-Share Analysis (SSA) In this study. The research instrument used in the analysis was observation and documentation. Based on the analysis conducted, the results of research on land use change in West Jakarta in the period of 10 years from 2000 until 2010 is caused by several aspects that are related to each other, namely political, economic, demographic, and cultural aspects. The land use change occurred in the area which decreased by minus 367,79 hectares (2.87%), the open space area decreased by minus 103.36 hectares (0.8%), the built up area increased by 201.13 hectares (1.57%), and the settlement area was 27.14 hectares (0.21%).

  4. East Greenland Ridge in the North Atlantic Ocean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Arne Døssing; Dahl-Jensen, T.; Thybo, Hans

    2008-01-01

    The combined Greenland-Senja Fracture Zones (GSFZ) represent a first-order plate tectonic feature in the North Atlantic Ocean. The GSFZ defines an abrupt change in the character of magnetic anomalies with well-defined seafloor spreading anomalies in the Greenland and Norwegian basins to the south...... but ambiguous and weak magnetic anomalies in the Boreas Basin to the north. Substantial uncertainty exists concerning the plate tectonic evolution of the latter area, including the role of the East Greenland Ridge, which is situated along the Greenland Fracture Zone. In 2002, a combined ocean-bottom seismometer...

  5. Beach-ridge architecture constrained by beach topography and Ground-Penetrating Radar, Itilleq (Lakse Bugt), Disko, Greenland – Implications for sea-level reconstructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emerich Souza, Priscila; Kroon, Aart; Nielsen, Lars

    2018-01-01

    Detailed topographical data and high-resolution ground-penetrating radar (GPR) reflection data are presented from the present-day beach and across successive raised beach-ridges at Itilleq (Disko, West Greenland). In the western part of our study area, the present low-tide level is well-marked by......Detailed topographical data and high-resolution ground-penetrating radar (GPR) reflection data are presented from the present-day beach and across successive raised beach-ridges at Itilleq (Disko, West Greenland). In the western part of our study area, the present low-tide level is well...... beach-ridge GPR profiles. Most of them are located at the boundary between a unit with reflection characteristics representing palaeo foreshore deposits, and a deeper and more complex radar unit characterized by diffractions, which, however, is not penetrated to large depths by the GPR signals. Based...

  6. A long-term increase in eggshell thickness of Greenlandic Peregrine Falcons Falco peregrinus tundrius

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falk, Knud; Møller, Søren; Matox, William G.

    2006-01-01

    Thickness of eggshell fragments and whole eggs from the Peregrine Falcon Falco peregrinus collected in South and West Greenland between 1972 and 2003 was measured and compared to shell thickness of pre-DDT eggs, also collected in Greenland. Linear regression yields a significant increase...

  7. Continuous gas monitoring in the West Bohemian earthquake area, Czech Republic: First results

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Faber, E.; Horálek, Josef; Boušková, Alena; Teschner, M.; Koch, U.; Poggenburg, J.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 3 (2009), s. 315-328 ISSN 0039-3169 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA205/06/1780 Grant - others:German Ministry of Economics and Labour(DE) BMWi VI A 2-27/01 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Keywords : West Bohemian earthquake area * earthquake swarms * gas monitoring * soil gas * carbon dioxide * radon * mofette * time series Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 1.000, year: 2009

  8. Historical tank content estimate for the northwest quadrant of the Hanford 200 west area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brevick, C.H.; Stroup, J.L.; Funk, J.W.

    1997-01-01

    The Historical Tank Content Estimate for the Quadrant provides historical information on a tank-by-tank basis of the radioactive mixed wastes stored in the underground single-shell tanks for the Hanford 200 West Area. This report summarized historical information such as waste history, level history, temperature history, riser configuration, tank integrity, and inventory estimates on a tank-by-tank basis. Tank farm aerial photographs and interior tank montages are also provided for each tank. A description of the development of data for the document of the inventory estimates provided by Los Alamos National Laboratory are also given in this report

  9. Mortality of vertebrates in irrigation canals in an area of west-central Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Garcia

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Mortality patterns of vertebrates in irrigation canals have been poorly studied despite their potential impact on wildlife. Concrete irrigation canals in a cropland area in west-central Spain were monitored over 13 months to assess their impact on small fauna. A total of 134 vertebrates were found dead. Most were amphibians (86.46% or mammals (20.90%, though fishes, reptiles and a bird were also recorded. Mortality peaked in autumn months. Corrective measurements are needed to reduce this cause of non-natural mortality.

  10. Expedited response action proposal (EE/CA ampersand EA) for 200 West Area carbon tetrachloride plume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    The report contains the proposal for an expedited response action (ERA) for the remediation of carbon tetrachloride contamination in the unsaturated soils beneath the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. It provides the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) with information regarding the need for the ERA and an evaluation of alternatives to reduce the mobility, toxicity, and/or volume of the carbon tetrachloride in the unsaturated soils. This report is intended to aid the EPA and Ecology in selecting a preferred alternative for implementing the ERA. This proposal does not address remediation of carbon tetrachloride in the ground water underlying the 200 West Area; nor is the radioactive waste mixed with the carbon tetrachloride in the disposal site the subject of this ERA. This report has also been prepared to address the requirements for an environmental assessment (EA). The purpose of this ERA is to prevent, or at least minimize, further migration of carbon tetrachloride contamination from the unsaturated soils to uncontaminated areas. This action is needed to ensure that the environment and public health are adequately protected and to reduce the threat of further groundwater contamination. Information on the origin, nature, and extent of carbon tetrachloride (and co-contaminants), and other site characteristics used as a basis for evaluating remedial alternatives is presented

  11. Prognosis: The Plan of Integrated Tourism Area of Kapuk Naga Beach, Tangerang, West Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuswaji Dwi Priyono

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper  tries to analyze of prognosis of the Integrated Tourism Area Planning of Kapuknnaga Beach (KWTPK Tangerang Regency West Java. The two method applied to compose the prognosis are extrapolation and indication. The extrapolation is based on the local area infomation data of contemporary knowledge in the past and presence, while the indication method utilizes the whole interrelation activities programmed with the possible consequences. Land function transformation effects of KWTPK will cause environmental destroy as annual flsh flood, salt water intrusion and polution of urban’s industry sewage. As further effect there is a raising of turbidity and nitrition degree of sedimentation which make coral-ridge degradation toward annihilation. The coral-ridge annihilation will cause the sea waves power collide with the seashore area directly which threatens KWTPK.

  12. Urban nature conservation: vegetation of natural areas in the Potchefstroom municipal area, North West Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.S. Cilliers

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available This study on the natural and degraded natural vegetation of natural areas in the Potchefstroom Municipal Area, forms part of a research programme on spontaneous vegetation in urban open spaces in the North West Province, South Africa. Using a numerical classification technique (TWINSPAN as a first approximation, the classification was refined by applying Braun-Blanquet procedures. The result is a phytosociological table from which 6 plant communities were recognised, which are subdivided in sub-communities and variants, resulting in 18 vegetation units. Some of these vegetation units are similar to communities described previously in natural areas. The presence of degraded natural communities suggests huge anthropogenic influences in certain areas. An ordination (DECORANA scatter diagram shows the distribution of the plant communities along gradients which could be related to vegetation structure, altitude, soil depth, rockiness of soil surface, wetness or dryness of the habitat and number of introduced species. This study contributes to the compilation of a guideline for a conservation orientated management plan for the area, but also created a wealth of new knowledge of the reaction of indigenous plant species under disturbed conditions.

  13. Popular music from Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otte, Andreas Roed

    a sense of place in popular music. The second probes different strategies for co-branding popular music and Greenland. The third is concerned with music consumption patterns among Greenlandic youth. And the fourth article engages with an alternative form of nationalism found within the Nuuk underground...

  14. Development of Historical Water Table Maps of the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site (1950-1970)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinney, Teena M.; McDonald, John P.

    2006-01-01

    A series of detailed historical water-table maps for the 200-West Area of the Hanford Site was made to aid interpretation of contaminant distribution in the upper aquifer. The contaminants are the result of disposal of large volumes of waste to the ground during Hanford Site operations, which began in 1944 and continued into the mid-1990s. Examination of the contaminant plumes that currently exist on site shows that the groundwater beneath the 200-West Area has deviated from its pre-Hanford west-to-east flow direction during the past 50 years. By using historical water-level measurements from wells around the 200-West Area, it was possible to create water-table contour maps that show probable historic flow directions. These maps are more detailed than previously published water-table maps that encompass the entire Hanford Site.

  15. Resources of Greenland and the possibilities of a joint Danish/Greenland exploitation of specially the energy resources in a period of economic crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taagholt, J.

    1983-01-01

    As Greenland is very dependent on imported articles and fuels, mainly petroleum, economic crisis or just an energy crisis will affect Greenland very much. To evaluate Greenlands situation in a crisis an account is given of the climatic conditions, of the present economic situation, and of planned development projects, The Greenland Area has Denmarks largest potential energy reserves of known coal deposits, of partially surveyed uranium deposits, of partially surveyed potential hydroelectric power reserves, and of petroleum and natural gas deposits not yet pointed out. An analysis is made of the utilization of the Greenland energy resources today, and the plans of future extended utilization. (LN)

  16. Assessing environmental risk of the retired filter bed area, Battelle West Jefferson

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, S.F.; Thompson, M.D.; Glennon, M.A.

    1997-04-01

    Initial investigations conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy, Chicago Operations Office, and by Argonne National Laboratory used seismic refraction profiling, electrical resistivity depth sounding, conductivity profiling, magnetic gradiometry, and ground-penetrating radar to study environmental geophysics in the area of the Battelle West Jefferson site's radiologically contaminated retired filter beds. The investigators used a combination of nonintrusive technologies and innovative drilling techniques to assess environmental risk at the filter beds and to improve understanding of the geology of the Big Darby Creek floodplain. The geophysical investigation, which showed that the preferred groundwater pathway is associated with a laterally extensive deposit of silty sand to sand that is less than 12 ft deep in the floodplain area, also guided the location of cone penetrometer test sites and piezometer installation. Cone penetrometer testing was useful for comparing continuous logging data with surface geophysical data in establishing correlations among unconsolidated materials

  17. Macro and trace elements in Paracentrotus lividus gonads from South West Atlantic areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Camacho, Carolina; Rocha, A. Cristina; Barbosa, Vera L.

    2018-01-01

    Sea urchin represents one of the most valuable seafood product being harvested and explored for their edible part, the gonads or roe. This species is generally considered a sentinel organism for ecotoxicological studies being widely used in monitoring programs to assess coastal aquatic environments...... quality, because is directly exposed to anthropogenic contaminants in their habitat. In this context, the aim of this study is to evaluate the concentrations of macro (Cl, K, P, Ca, S) and trace (Zn, Br, Fe, Sr, I, Se, Rb, Cu, Cr, Ni, As, iAs, Cd, Pb, Hg) elements in Paracentrotus lividus gonads from...... three South West Atlantic production areas subjected to distinct environmental and anthropogenic pressures. In all studied areas, the elements profile in sea urchin gonads was Cl > K > P > Ca > S > Zn > Br > Fe > Sr > I > Rb > Cu > Se > Cr > Ni, suggesting an element guide profile with special interest...

  18. Hydrology of area 8, eastern Coal Province, West Virginia and Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friel, E.A.; Ehlke, T.A.; Hobba, W.A.; Ward, S.M.; Schultz, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    The hydrology of Area 8 in the Ohio River basin in northwestern West Virginia and southeastern Ohio, is influenced by geology and geologic structure. Rocks underlying the area consist of alternating beds of sandstone, siltstone, shale, limestone, and mudstone. Minable coal is contained within the Pennsylvania and Permian rocks. Coal production in 1980 totaled 6.7 million tons from underground mines and one million tons from surface mines. There is a wide range of soil types (29 soil associations) in five land-resource areas. Precipitation averages about 41 inches annually and is greatest at higher altitudes along the eastern boundary of the area. Average annual runoff ranges from 13 to 29 inches per year. The principal land uses are forest and agriculture. Estimated water use during 1980 was 1,170 million gallons per day. Surface-water quality ranges from excellent to poor. The highest iron, manganese and sulfate concentrations were present in mined areas. Well yields range from less than 1 to 350 gallons per minute. Groundwater from the Mississippian rocks contain lesser amounts of dissolved solids than water from the Lower Pennsylvanian rocks. Water high in chloride content is present in some valley areas. (USGS)

  19. Vegetation mapping of the Mond Protected Area of Bushehr Province (south-west Iran).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrabian, Ahmadreza; Naqinezhad, Alireza; Mahiny, Abdolrassoul Salman; Mostafavi, Hossein; Liaghati, Homan; Kouchekzadeh, Mohsen

    2009-03-01

    Arid regions of the world occupy up to 35% of the earth's surface, the basis of various definitions of climatic conditions, vegetation types or potential for food production. Due to their high ecological value, monitoring of arid regions is necessary and modern vegetation studies can help in the conservation and management of these areas. The use of remote sensing for mapping of desert vegetation is difficult due to mixing of the spectral reflectance of bright desert soils with the weak spectral response of sparse vegetation. We studied the vegetation types in the semiarid to arid region of Mond Protected Area, south-west Iran, based on unsupervised classification of the Spot XS bands and then produced updated maps. Sixteen map units covering 12 vegetation types were recognized in the area based on both field works and satellite mapping. Halocnemum strobilaceum and Suaeda fruticosa vegetation types were the dominant types and Ephedra foliata, Salicornia europaea-Suaeda heterophylla vegetation types were the smallest. Vegetation coverage decreased sharply with the increase in salinity towards the coastal areas of the Persian Gulf. The highest vegetation coverage belonged to the riparian vegetation along the Mond River, which represents the northern boundary of the protected area. The location of vegetation types was studied on the separate soil and habitat diversity maps of the study area, which helped in final refinements of the vegetation map produced.

  20. Ice age plant refugia in East Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Funder, Svend Visby

    1979-01-01

    From the distribution of plants it has been inferred by some botanists that ice-free areas existed in East Greenland accommodating a flora which survived one or several ice ages in the area. Comparing this evidence with recent information on the chronology of glaciations and post-glacial vegetation...

  1. Changes in recruitment, growth, and stock size of northern shrimp (Pandalus borealis) at West Greenland: temperature and density-dependent effects at released predation pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieland, Kai

    2005-01-01

    was carried out oil a spatially disaggregated basis in order to account for the latitudinal differences in bottom temperature and shrimp density. Changes in recruitment and, with a lag of 2 years, in stock biomass were most pronounced in the northern part of its distributional range, while bottom temperature......-dependent effects have become prominent in parts of study area. (c) 2005 International Council for the Exploration of the Sea. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  2. Landslides in West Coast Metropolitan Areas: The Role of Extreme Weather Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biasutti, Michela; Seager, Richard; Kirschbaum, Dalia B.

    2016-01-01

    Rainfall-induced landslides represent a pervasive issue in areas where extreme rainfall intersects complex terrain. A farsighted management of landslide risk requires assessing how landslide hazard will change in coming decades and thus requires, inter alia, that we understand what rainfall events are most likely to trigger landslides and how global warming will affect the frequency of such weather events. We take advantage of 9 years of landslide occurrence data compiled by collating Google news reports and of a high-resolution satellite-based daily rainfall data to investigate what weather triggers landslide along the West Coast US. We show that, while this landslide compilation cannot provide consistent and widespread monitoring everywhere, it captures enough of the events in the major urban areas that it can be used to identify the relevant relationships between landslides and rainfall events in Puget Sound, the Bay Area, and greater Los Angeles. In all these regions, days that recorded landslides have rainfall distributions that are skewed away from dry and low-rainfall accumulations and towards heavy intensities. However, large daily accumulation is the main driver of enhanced hazard of landslides only in Puget Sound. There, landslide are often clustered in space and time and major events are primarily driven by synoptic scale variability, namely "atmospheric rivers" of high humidity air hitting anywhere along the West Coast, and the interaction of frontal system with the coastal orography. The relationship between landslide occurrences and daily rainfall is less robust in California, where antecedent precipitation (in the case of the Bay area) and the peak intensity of localized downpours at sub-daily time scales (in the case of Los Angeles) are key factors not captured by the same-day accumulations. Accordingly, we suggest that the assessment of future changes in landslide hazard for the entire the West Coast requires consideration of future changes in the

  3. Dirrofilariasis in Shepherd Dogs of High Altitudes Areas in West Azerbaijan-Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Hadian

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Although the biology and ecology of the arthropod vectors are different, some factors, such as global warming, the increasing abundance of mosquitoes, the movement of domestic hosts, and the abundance of wild reservoirs, can act as favourable factors for the distribution of infections. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Dirofilaria immitis infection in shepherd dogs living in the high altitude of mountainous area (i.e.1200 meters above the sea level. The study group was comprised of 160 shepherd dogs living in 4 mountainous regions (Targavar, Margavar, Kolshin and Hovarchin of west Azerbaijan where continuous movement of sheep and goat flocks resulted to have a little information about shepherd dogs in these regions. Additionally, arduous pathways have made impossible any access by car to some territories of these areas. The dogs were mostly mixed raced with different ages (from 1 to 10 years and sexes (male = 136, female = 24. Blood samples were collected from cephalic vein. Direct thin and thick blood smears and modified knott’s technique were used for detecting D.immitis microfilariae and other blood parasites. The results indicated that 40 (25 % of dogs were infected with D. immitis microfilariae. In examination of the dogs, no severe life threatening feature of the disease was diagnosed. There were no significant differences (P > 0.05 of Dirrofilaria infection among gender, age groups and geographical areas. High prevalence of asymptomatic Dirrofilariasis in shepherd dogs in this area highlights the need of controlling and preventive programs.

  4. Small area estimation for estimating the number of infant mortality in West Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anggreyani, Arie; Indahwati, Kurnia, Anang

    2016-02-01

    Demographic and Health Survey Indonesia (DHSI) is a national designed survey to provide information regarding birth rate, mortality rate, family planning and health. DHSI was conducted by BPS in cooperation with National Population and Family Planning Institution (BKKBN), Indonesia Ministry of Health (KEMENKES) and USAID. Based on the publication of DHSI 2012, the infant mortality rate for a period of five years before survey conducted is 32 for 1000 birth lives. In this paper, Small Area Estimation (SAE) is used to estimate the number of infant mortality in districts of West Java. SAE is a special model of Generalized Linear Mixed Models (GLMM). In this case, the incidence of infant mortality is a Poisson distribution which has equdispersion assumption. The methods to handle overdispersion are binomial negative and quasi-likelihood model. Based on the results of analysis, quasi-likelihood model is the best model to overcome overdispersion problem. The basic model of the small area estimation used basic area level model. Mean square error (MSE) which based on resampling method is used to measure the accuracy of small area estimates.

  5. The Application Study in Solar Energy Technology for Highway Service Area: A Case Study of West Lushan Highway Low-Carbon Service Area in China

    OpenAIRE

    Qin, Xiaochun; Shen, Yi; Shao, Shegang

    2015-01-01

    A lot of research works have been made concerning highway service area or solar technology and acquired great achievements. However, unfortunately, few works have been made combining the two topics together of highway service areas and solar energy saving to make a systemic research on solar technology application for highway service area. In this paper, taking West Lushan highway low-carbon service area in Jiangxi Province of China as the case study, the advantages, technical principles, and...

  6. Geophysical investigation of trench 4, Burial Ground 218-W-4C, 200 west area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiesler, J.P.

    1994-01-01

    This report contains the results of a geophysical investigation conducted to characterize Trench 4, located in Burial Ground 218-W-4C, 200 West Area. Trench 4 is where transuranic (TRU) waste is stored. The primary objective of these geophysical investigations was to determine the outer edges of the trench/modules and select locations for plate-bearing tests. The test locations are to be 5 to 8 ft. beyond the edges of the trench. Secondary objectives include differentiating between the different types of waste containers within a given trench, determining the amount of soil cover over the waste containers, and to locate the module boundaries. Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) and electromagnetic induction (EMI) were the methods selected for this investigation

  7. Isotopes in Greenland Precipitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Anne-Katrine

    Greenland ice cores offer a unique opportunity to investigate the climate system behaviour. The objective of this PhD project is to investigate isotope modelling of present- day conditions and conduct model-data comparison using Greenland ice cores. Thus this thesis investigates how the integration...... of model and data can be used to improve the understanding of climate changes. This is done through analysis of isotope modelling, observations and ice core measurements. This dissertation comprises three projects: (1) Modelling the isotopic response to changes in Arctic sea surface conditions, (2......) Constructing a new Greenland database of observations and present-day ice core measurements, and (3) Performance test of isotope-enabled CAM5 for Greenland. The recent decades of rapid Arctic sea ice decline are used as a basis for an observational-based model experiment using the isotope-enabled CAM model 3...

  8. Greenland climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masson-Delmotte, Valérie; Swingedouw, Didier; Landais, Amaëlle

    2012-01-01

    Climate archives available from deep-sea and marine shelf sediments, glaciers, lakes and ice cores in and around Greenland allow us to place the current trends in regional climate, ice sheet dynamics, and land surface changes in a broader perspective. We show that during the last decade (2000s......), atmospheric and sea-surface temperatures are reaching levels last encountered millennia ago when northern high latitude summer insolation was higher due to a different orbital configuration. Concurrently, records from lake sediments in southern Greenland document major environmental and climatic conditions...... regional climate and ice sheet dynamics. The magnitude and rate of future changes in Greenland temperature, in response to increasing greenhouse gas emissions, may be faster than any past abrupt events occurring under interglacial conditions. Projections indicate that within one century Greenland may...

  9. Inventorization of some ayurvedic plants and their ethnomedicinal use in Kakrajhore forest area of West Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Soumyajit; Shaw, Rupa; Bala, Sanjay; Mazumdar, Asis

    2017-02-02

    Medicinal Plant resources of forest origin are extensively used in India for various systems of medicine like Ayurveda, Unani, Homeopathy, Allopathy, Siddha and Ethnic etc. The tribal communities around the Kakrajhore forest in West Medinipur district of West Bengal have their own traditional knowledge based system of curing many diseases using the forest based plant resources similar to ayurveda. The forest comprises of one of the unique treasure and rich source of diversified ethno-botanical wealth and therefore extensive studies is required for proper documentation including ethnomedicinal knowledge of local tribes. The present study was initiated with an aim to inventorize the ayurvedic medicinal plant recourses and explore the traditional knowledge of tribal people of Kakrajhore forest to treat several diseases along with the sustainable management and conservation of medicinal plants. The information on the medicinal plant resources were gathered through floristic inventorization with proper sampling method in the study area (N22°42'57.05″, E86°34'58.02″) during the year 2015. For floristic inventorization the study area of 312 ha was delineated by using GPS Receiver. Then total mapped area was divided by virtual grid of 100m apart in both East-West and North-South direction to allocate 60 sample plots by random sampling. In addition to inventorization, the use value (UV) of the species was determined and the informant consensus factor (ICF) was calculated for the medicinal plants found in the study area based on personal interview. Further exploration was carried out to establish linkage with Ayurveda. The present survey has identified 57 numbers of ethno-medicinal plants belonging to 39 families, used for preparing medicinal remedies. The habit of the plants includes 35% trees, 28% shrubs, 23% herbs and 14% climbers. The most frequently utilized plant parts were the Roots & Tuber roots (26%), Stem which includes Bark, Tubers, Bulb, Rhizome, Gum, Wood

  10. Resilience and Renewable Energy Planning in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carruth, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Using a combination of thematic analysis and studio-based planning proposals in West Greenland, this paper proposes that there is more than one interpretation of resilience in renewable energy planning. All energy transitions, from one system to another, are protracted and unpredictable, and the ......Using a combination of thematic analysis and studio-based planning proposals in West Greenland, this paper proposes that there is more than one interpretation of resilience in renewable energy planning. All energy transitions, from one system to another, are protracted and unpredictable......, and the transition to a renewable energy system is proving no exception. Such a transition is particularly amplified in the context of Greenland – a country undergoing rapid transformation in many fields, including energy. Resilience theory offers an approach for how to plan for this energy transition, but how...... to translate resilience theory into planning practices remains underdeveloped. The paper begins by outlining some of the challenges in planning a transition to renewable energy, and sketching Greenland’s energy landscape. It then discusses the key characteristics of resilience thinking, before proposing...

  11. The Greenland shark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costantini, David; Smith, Shona; Killen, Shaun S.

    2017-01-01

    the oxidative status of the Greenland shark (Somniosus microcephalus), which has recently been found as the longest living vertebrate animal known to science with a lifespan of at least 272years. As compared to other species, the Greenland shark had body mass-corrected values of muscle glutathione peroxidase...... that the values of metrics of oxidative status we measured might be linked to ecological features (e.g., adaptation to cold waters and deep dives) of this shark species rather to its lifespan....

  12. Cholera outbreak secondary to contaminated pipe water in an urban area, West Bengal, India, 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhunia, Rama; Ramakrishnan, Ramachandran; Hutin, Yvan; Gupte, Mohan D

    2009-01-01

    Outbreaks of cholera are common in West Bengal. In April 2006, Garulia municipality reported a cluster of diarrhea cases. We investigated this cluster to identify the etiological agent, source of transmission and propose control measures. We defined a case of diarrhea as occurrence of > or =3 loose/watery stools a day among the residents of Garulia since April 2006. We searched for cases of diarrhea in health care facilities and health camp. We conducted a gender- and age-matched case-control study to identify risk factors. We inspected the sanitation and water supply system. We collected rectal swabs from diarrhea patients and water specimens from the affected areas for laboratory investigation. Two hundred and ninety-eight cases of diarrhea were reported to various health care facilities (attack rate: 3.5/1000, no deaths). The attack rate was highest among children (6.4/1000). Vibrio cholerae El Tor O1 Inaba was isolated from two of 7 rectal swabs. The outbreak started on 10 April 2006, peaked on 26 April and lasted till 6 May. Cases clustered in an area distal to leaking water pipelines. Drinking municipal water exclusively was significantly associated with the illness (OR 13, 95% CI=6.5-27). Eight of the 12 water specimens from the affected area had fecal contamination and poor chlorine content. This outbreak was due to a contaminated municipal piped water supply and V. cholera 01 Inaba was possibly the causative organism.

  13. A synthesis of the basal thermal state of the Greenland Ice Sheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacGregor, Joseph A; Fahnestock, Mark A; Catania, Ginny A; Aschwanden, Andy; Clow, Gary D; Colgan, William T; Gogineni, S Prasad; Morlighem, Mathieu; Nowicki, Sophie M J; Paden, John D; Price, Stephen F; Seroussi, Hélène

    2016-08-10

    The basal thermal state of an ice sheet (frozen or thawed) is an important control upon its evolution, dynamics and response to external forcings. However, this state can only be observed directly within sparse boreholes or inferred conclusively from the presence of subglacial lakes. Here we synthesize spatially extensive inferences of the basal thermal state of the Greenland Ice Sheet to better constrain this state. Existing inferences include outputs from the eight thermomechanical ice-flow models included in the SeaRISE effort. New remote-sensing inferences of the basal thermal state are derived from Holocene radiostratigraphy, modern surface velocity and MODIS imagery. Both thermomechanical modeling and remote inferences generally agree that the Northeast Greenland Ice Stream and large portions of the southwestern ice-drainage systems are thawed at the bed, whereas the bed beneath the central ice divides, particularly their west-facing slopes, is frozen. Elsewhere, there is poor agreement regarding the basal thermal state. Both models and remote inferences rarely represent the borehole-observed basal thermal state accurately near NorthGRIP and DYE-3. This synthesis identifies a large portion of the Greenland Ice Sheet (about one third by area) where additional observations would most improve knowledge of its overall basal thermal state.

  14. A synthesis of the basal thermal state of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacGregor, Joseph A; Fahnestock, Mark A; Catania, Ginny A; Aschwanden, Andy; Clow, Gary D.; Colgan, William T.; Gogineni, Prasad S.; Morlighem, Mathieu; Nowicki, Sophie M .J.; Paden, John D; Price, Stephen F.; Seroussi, Helene

    2016-01-01

    The basal thermal state of an ice sheet (frozen or thawed) is an important control upon its evolution, dynamics and response to external forcings. However, this state can only be observed directly within sparse boreholes or inferred conclusively from the presence of subglacial lakes. Here we synthesize spatially extensive inferences of the basal thermal state of the Greenland Ice Sheet to better constrain this state. Existing inferences include outputs from the eight thermomechanical ice-flow models included in the SeaRISE effort. New remote-sensing inferences of the basal thermal state are derived from Holocene radiostratigraphy, modern surface velocity and MODIS imagery. Both thermomechanical modeling and remote inferences generally agree that the Northeast Greenland Ice Stream and large portions of the southwestern ice-drainage systems are thawed at the bed, whereas the bed beneath the central ice divides, particularly their west-facing slopes, is frozen. Elsewhere, there is poor agreement regarding the basal thermal state. Both models and remote inferences rarely represent the borehole-observed basal thermal state accurately near NorthGRIP and DYE-3. This synthesis identifies a large portion of the Greenland Ice Sheet (about one third by area) where additional observations would most improve knowledge of its overall basal thermal state.

  15. Use of clay from kangerlussuaq in the Greenlandic construction industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belmonte, Louise Josefine; Villumsen, Arne; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2010-01-01

    Clay material from Kangerlussuaq in West Greenland was characterised and its possible use for the production of bricks, expanded clay products and inert filler material was investigated. It was generally found that it was possible to use the clay in all of the above mentioned materials, although,...

  16. Resilience and Renewable Energy Planning in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carruth, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Using a combination of thematic analysis and studio-based planning proposals in West Greenland, this paper proposes that there is more than one interpretation of resilience in renewable energy planning. All energy transitions, from one system to another, are protracted and unpredictable......, and the transition to a renewable energy system is proving no exception. Such a transition is particularly amplified in the context of Greenland – a country undergoing rapid transformation in many fields, including energy. Resilience theory offers an approach for how to plan for this energy transition, but how...... to translate resilience theory into planning practices remains underdeveloped. The paper begins by outlining some of the challenges in planning a transition to renewable energy, and sketching Greenland’s energy landscape. It then discusses the key characteristics of resilience thinking, before proposing...

  17. Greenland Ice Sheet Mass Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeh, N.

    1984-01-01

    Mass balance equation for glaciers; areal distribution and ice volumes; estimates of actual mass balance; loss by calving of icebergs; hydrological budget for Greenland; and temporal variations of Greenland mass balance are examined.

  18. Prevalence of dental caries and treatment needs in children in coastal areas of West Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dulal Das

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was carried out to measure the caries prevalence and treatment needs in school children of 6-14 year old residing in coastal areas of West Bengal. Materials and Methods: A total of 1764 children of 6-14 years age group, studying in different primary and high schools of the coastal areas were examined using World Health Organization criteria (1997 to record the prevalence of dental caries. The treatment needs were also calculated according to that given criteria. Statistical Analysis: The results were subjected to statistical analysis using the Chi-square test and unpaired ′t′ test. Results: Dental caries were founded low in the studied population. The overall all caries prevalence in the permanent dentition was 28.06%, in boys it was 25.39% and in girls it was 30.86%. Therefore caries prevalence in female was higher and which was statistically highly significant (P < 0.05. The most frequently required treatment was one surface filling followed by other treatments irrespective of sex and age group. Discussion: The presence of sea foods containing high fluoride and least availability of refined carbohydrate in the diet may be the reason of lower prevalence. Conclusion: child oral health is always a matter of concern for a developing country so further research is required to explore actual causes.

  19. Geochemical Study of Ampallas Geothermal Area, Mamuju District, West Sulawesi Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauziyyah, F.; Prabowo, T. R.; Shalihin, M. G. J.; Setiawan, D. I.; Yushantarti, A.

    2016-09-01

    Ampallas is one of the areas with geothermal potential which located in Mamuju district, near from the capital city of West Sulawesi. This research was carried out to understand the characteristic of this geothermal field based on chemistry of the surface manifestation, including fluid characteristic and soil anomaly. Geothermal research in Ampallas area focused on 4 hot springs; Ampallas, Batupane, Karema, and Gantungan. With average temperature around 34 - 67°C. Ampallas 1,2,3,4,7,8 hot springs water type is chloride - bicarbonate, which means it came from the reservoir while Batupane, Gantungan, Karema and Ampallas 5 are all bicarbonate type. Ampallas 1,2,3,4,7,8, Karema and Gantungan hot springs fluid plotted in partial equilibrium zone while Batupane and Ampallas 5 plotted in immature water zone. It means the Ampallas hot springs (except Ampallas-5) mixed with meteoric water right after reached the equilibrium state. It is also concluded that Ampallas 5 hot springs came from the same reservoir with Batupane, but not Gantungan and Karema hot springs. The speculative resource potential of Ampallas geothermal system is estimated around 30 MWe. But if detailed geophysical method was applied the result could be more accurate.

  20. Composition, diversity and foraging guilds of avifauna in a suburban area of southern West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukhopadhyay Shiladitya

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Avian communities are very good indicators of any ecosystem. Despite the alarming consequences of rapid urbanization, studies of avian diversity in the human-dominated landscapes of India are very few. Therefore, we studied the avian assemblage of Bongaon in southern West Bengal, India, a suburban area whose avifauna has thus far remained undocumented. Bird surveys were carried out from June 2015 to May 2016, following the fixed-radius (25 m point count method together with opportunistic observations. We recorded 119 avian species belonging to 53 families. Ardeidae was the most diverse avian family in the study area (RDi value = 5.882. Among the recorded avifauna, 89 species were resident, 26 species were winter visitors, three species were summer visitors, and one species was a passage migrant. Species richness of the resident and passage migrant species did not vary seasonally, while the winter and summer visitors displayed significant seasonal variation. In this suburban area, the species richness of feeding guilds varied significantly. Most birds were insectivorous (41.2%, followed by carnivorous (24.4%, omnivorous (18.5%, granivorous (7.6%, frugivorous (3.4%, nectarivorous (3.4% and herbivorous species (1.7%. Maximum species richness was recorded in November and minimum species richness in July. Black-headed Ibis Threskiornis melanocephalus and Alexandrine Parakeet Psittacula eupatria are two near-threatened species found in this region. Interestingly, six species having a globally declining trend are still very common in the study area. Long-term studies are required to monitor any change in the avian communities of this suburban landscape resulting from urbanization.

  1. TopoGreenland: Lithospheric structure and topography in Central-Eastern Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thybo, H.; Shulgin, A.; Kraft, H. A.; Vinnik, L. P.

    2017-12-01

    We present models of the seismic structure of the crust and upper mantle in the interior of Greenland based on new seismological data from the TopoGreenland experiment. Until this experiment, all seismic data in Greenland was acquired close to the coast, where the crustal structure is affected by oceanic break-up. The TopoGreenland data acquisition programme in central-eastern Greenland included the first controlled source seismic experiment in interior Greenland and deployment of 24 broadband (BB) onshore stations for 3 years, partly on the ice cap. The 320 km long seismic refraction/wide-angle reflection profile was acquired on the ice cap by a team of six people during two-months in summer of 2011. We present a 2D velocity model of the crust based on tomographic inversion and forward ray tracing modelling of the controlled source data. It shows a decrease of crustal thickness from 47 km below the centre of Greenland in the western to 40 km in its eastern part of the profile. High lower crustal velocities (Vp 6.8 - 7.3 km/s) below central Greenland may result from past collision tectonics or be related to the passage of the Iceland mantle plume. Crustal receiver functions in the surrounding area demonstrate constant structure along the coast and pronounced, relatively sharp variation in crustal thickness around the mountains at the edge of the ice cap. Surprisingly the thickest crust is observed below the lowest topography under the ice cap, whereas the crust is thin below the high mountains at its edge, and thins further below elevated topography out to the coast. Receiver Function interpretation of the mantle and transition zone structure shows a complicated mosaic variation that cannot be correlated to the variation in topography. The origin of the pronounced mountain ranges around the North Atlantic Ocean with average elevation above 1500 m and peak elevations of more than 3.5 km near Scoresby Sund in Eastern Greenland, is unknown. Our new results demonstrate

  2. Current and future darkening of the Greenland ice sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedesco, Marco; Stroeve, Julienne; Fettweis, Xavier; Warren, Stephen; Doherty, Sarah; Noble, Erik; Alexander, Patrick

    2015-04-01

    Surface melting over the Greenland ice sheet (GIS) promotes snow grains growth, reducing albedo and further enhancing melting through the increased amount of absorbed solar radiation. Using a combination of remote sensing data and outputs of a regional climate model, we show that albedo over the GIS decreased significantly from 1996 to 2012. Further, we show that most of this darkening can be accounted for by enhanced snow grain growth and the expansion of areas where bare ice is exposed, both of which are driven by increases in snow warming. An analysis of the impact of light-absorbing impurities on albedo trends detected from spaceborne measurements was inconclusive because the estimated impact for concentrations of impurities of order of magnitude found in Greenland is within the albedo uncertainty retrievable from space-based instruments. However, neither models nor observations show an increase in pollutants (black carbon and associated organics) in the atmosphere over the GIS in this time period. Additionally, we could not identify trends in the number of fires over North America and Russia, assumed to be among the sources of soot for Greenland. We did find that a 'dark band' of tilted ice plays a crucial role in decreasing albedo along the west margin, and there is some indication that dust deposition to the GIS may be decreasing albedo in this region but this is not conclusive. In addition to looking at the direct impact of impurities on albedo, we estimated the impact of impurities on albedo via their influence on grain growth and found it is relatively small (~ 1- 2 %), though more sophisticated analysis needs to be carried out. Projections obtained under different warming scenarios consistently point to a continued darkening, with anomalies in albedo driven solely by the effects of climate warming of as much as -0.12 along the west margin of the GIS by the end of this century (with respect to year 2000). Projected darkening is likely underestimated

  3. Geology and hydrology of the West Milton area, Saratoga County, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Frederick K.; Pauszek, F.H.; Crippen, John R.

    1964-01-01

    This report describes the geology, ground-water conditions, streamflow characteristics, and quality of water in the West Milton area, Saratoga County, N.Y. The West Milton area is in the east-central part of New York in the hilly region that forms a transition zone between the Adirondack Mountains and the Hudson-Mohawk valley lowland. Bedrock underlying the area consists of crystalline rocks of Precambrian age and sandstone, dolomite, limestone, and shale formations of Cambrian and Ordovician age. The formations have been moderately folded and have been displaced as much as several hundred feet' along at least three northeast-trending normal faults. The bedrock is overlain in nearly all parts of the area by a layer of unconsolidated deposits which ranges in thickness from a few feet to more than 200 feet. The unconsolidated deposits are of Pleistocene age and consist of unstratified materials (till) laid down by glacial ice at stratified sediments deposited by glacial meltwaters. The topography of the bedrock surface differs greatly from the topography of the land surface. Although not evident in the present topography, at least two channels, cut in bedrock by preglacial streams, pass through the area. Ground-water supplies adequate to satisfy domestic requirements can be obtained from wells in any part of the area. Large ground-water supplies may be taken from coarse-grained stratified deposits comprising two aquifers in the valley of Kayaderosseras Creek. The Atomic Energy Commission has pumped as much as 1 mgd from a horizontal well drawing from the uppermost aquifer which is composed of flood-plain deposits. Part of the water yielded by this well during extended periods of pumping is induced flow from the creek. Three nearby vertical wells drilled by the Commission comprise a separate well field capable of yielding at least 2 mgd and possibly as much as 3 mgd from the deeper stratified deposits underlying the valley. A pumping test showed that at near the

  4. Classification of forest-based ecotourism areas in Pocahontas County of West Virginia using GIS and pairwise comparison method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishwar Dhami; Jinyang. Deng

    2012-01-01

    Many previous studies have examined ecotourism primarily from the perspective of tourists while largely ignoring ecotourism destinations. This study used geographical information system (GIS) and pairwise comparison to identify forest-based ecotourism areas in Pocahontas County, West Virginia. The study adopted the criteria and scores developed by Boyd and Butler (1994...

  5. Black-tailed Godwits in West African winter staging areas : habitat use and hunting-related mortality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijn, D.; Kamp, van der J.; Monteiro, H.; Ndiaye, I.; Wymenga, E.; Zwarts, L.

    2010-01-01

    The persistence of the Dutch Black-tailed Godwit population depends largely on high adult survival. Adult survival may be influenced by hunting pressure and land use change in the wintering area, the West African coastal zone. Here we examine hunting pressure on and habitat use of Black-tailed

  6. Food security and coping mechanisms in marginal areas : the case of West Pokot, Kenya, 1920-1995

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nangulu, A.K.

    2009-01-01

    The major focus of the book is on food security and coping mechanisms in an arid environment; a case of West Pokot in Northwest Kenya. The area suffers from livestock and crop diseases; human and cattle raids between the Pokot and their neighbors; has no major industries or developed roads; and

  7. Stratigraphy and eruption age of the volcanic rocks in the west of Miyanoharu area, Kumamoto Prefecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamata, Hiroki

    1985-01-01

    The detailed stratigraphic survey, K-Ar age determinations and NRM measurements of the volcanic rocks in the west of Miyanoharu area revealed the volcanic history as follows: Hornblende andesite lava with plagioclase megacryst (Yoshinomoto lava) erupted during 2.8 - 2.5 Ma (Gauss normal epoch), accompanied by small amount of pyroclastic materials. After this eruption, Kamitarumizu hypersthene-augite andesite lava (1.7 - 1.3 Ma; reversed), Yabakei pyroclastic flow (0.99 Ma; Jaramillo normal event), Yamakogawa biotite rhyolite lava (0.9 Ma; reversed) and Daikanbo hypersthene-augite andesite lava (0.8 Ma; normal) erupted successively prior to the Aso-1 pyroclastic flow (0.3 - 0.4 Ma). Both the K-Ar ages and NRM data are consistent with the stratigraphic sequence (Fig. 2), which suggests that the activity of andesite and rhyolite is intercalated with each other during Pleistocene in the studied area. The compiled radiometric age data in the central-north Kyushu show that the age of volcanic activity that has previously been inferred as middle Miocene is of Pliocene, and its distribution is limited within the quadrilateral (60 km x 40 km) where the pre-Tertiary basement rocks are absent. The distribution of volcanic rocks is historically zonated such that the rocks of older age up to 5 Ma develop toward the outer rim of the quadrilateral, which coincides with the 0 mgal contour bordering the large low Bouguer anomaly. These facts suggest that the volcanic activity is remarkably relevant to the subsidence of this area, where the volcano-tectonic depression has been formed after 5 Ma to the present, and filled with lavas and pyroclastic materials with scarce sedimentary rocks in the tension stress field during Plio-Pleistocene age. (Kubozono, M.)

  8. Hydrogeochemistry and Stable Isotope Studies of Groundwater in the Ga West Municipal Area, Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saka, David

    2011-07-01

    This study assesses groundwater in the Ga West Municipal Area of Ghana using hydrogeochemistry and stable isotope approaches. High salinity groundwaters are obtained in the municipality which poses problems for current and future domestic water supply exploitation. The increase in salinity is related to the dissolution of minerals in the host rocks and the evaporative concentration of solutes. The dominant groundwater composition in both shallow and deep wells sampled is Na-Cl, with concentration increasing substantially with well depths. The mixing process between freshwater and saline water was observed in the shift from CaHCO3 facies to Ca-Cl facies. Schoeller diagrams showed that groundwater movement in the study area is mostly vertical, moving from the shallow groundwaters towards the deep groundwaters. There were however few exceptions where no relationship was established between the shallow and the deep groundwaters. The oxygen and hydrogen isotope compositions in the groundwater samples suggest that groundwater recharge is of meteoric origin, with few samples showing evidence of evaporation. An average deuterium excess of rainfall of 14.2‰ was observed, which indicates the significance of kinetic evaporation due to low humidity conditions prevalent in the study area. The d-excess also indicates modern recharge along the Akwapim-Togo Ranges. Groundwater analysis for trace metals indicates that 93% of the groundwaters have Iron concentration above recommended limits. However, Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd and Cr have values within the acceptable limits. Generally, about 40% of the groundwaters sampled are not suitable for drinking and domestic purposes based on comparison with international standards for drinking water. (au)

  9. New summer areas and mixing of two greater sandhill crane populations in the Intermountain West

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Daniel P.; Grisham, Blake A.; Conring, Courtenay M.; Knetter, Jeffrey M.; Conway, Warren C.; Carleton, Scott A.; Boggie, Matthew A.

    2016-01-01

    Population delineation throughout the annual life cycle for migratory birds is needed to formulate regional and national management and conservation strategies. Despite being well studied continentally, connectivity of sandhill crane Grus canadensis populations throughout the western portion of their North American range remains poorly described. Our objectives were to 1) use global positioning system satellite transmitter terminals to identify summer distributions for the Lower Colorado River Valley Population of greater sandhill cranes Grus canadensis tabida and 2) determine whether intermingling occurs among any of the western greater sandhill crane populations: Rocky Mountain Population, Lower Colorado River Valley Population, and Central Valley Population. Capture and marking occurred during winter and summer on private lands in California and Idaho as well as on two National Wildlife Refuges: Cibola and Sonny Bono Salton Sea National Wildlife Refuges. A majority of marked greater sandhill cranes summered in what is established Lower Colorado River Valley Population breeding areas in northeastern Nevada and southwestern Idaho. A handful of greater sandhill cranes summered outside of traditional breeding areas in west-central Idaho around Cascade Reservoir near Donnelly and Cascade, Idaho. For example, a greater sandhill crane colt captured near Donnelly in July 2014 survived to winter migration and moved south to areas associated with the Rocky Mountain Population. The integration of the greater sandhill crane colt captured near Donnelly provides the first evidence of potential intermingling between the Lower Colorado River Population and Rocky Mountain Population. We suggest continued marking and banding efforts of all three western populations of greater sandhill cranes will accurately delineate population boundaries and connectivity and inform management decisions for the three populations.

  10. West Valley Demonstration Project, Waste Management Area #3 -- Closure Alternative I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marschke, Stephen F. [Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML), New York, NY (United States)

    2000-06-30

    The Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the completion of the West Valley Demonstration Project and closure and/or long-term management of facilities at the Western New York Nuclear Service Center divided the site into Waste Management Areas (WMAs), and for each WMA, presented the impacts associated with five potential closure alternatives. This report focuses on WMA 3 (the High-Level Waste (HLW) Storage Area (Tanks 8D-1 and 8D-2), the Vitrification Facility and other facilities) and closure Alternative I (the complete removal of all structures, systems and components and the release of the area for unrestricted use), and reestimates the impacts associated with the complete removal of the HLW tanks, and surrounding facilities. A 32-step approach was developed for the complete removal of Tanks 8D-1 and 8D-2, the Supernatant Treatment System Support Building, and the Transfer Trench. First, a shielded Confinement Structure would be constructed to reduce the shine dose rate and to control radioactivity releases. Similarly, the tank heels would be stabilized to reduce potential radiation exposures. Next, the tank removal methodology would include: 1) excavation of the vault cover soil, 2) removal of the vault roof, 3) cutting off the tank’s top, 4) removal of the stabilized heel remaining inside the tank, 5) cutting up the tank’s walls and floor, 6) removal of the vault’s walls, the perlite blocks, and vault floor, and 7) radiation surveying and backfilling the resulting hole. After the tanks are removed, the Confinement Structure would be decontaminated and dismantled, and the site backfilled and landscaped. The impacts (including waste disposal quantities, emissions, work-effort, radiation exposures, injuries and fatalities, consumable materials used, and costs) were estimated based on this 32 step removal methodology, and added to the previously estimated impacts for closure of the other facilities within WMA 3 to obtain the total impacts from

  11. Greenland plateau jets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George William Kent Moore

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The high ice-covered topography of Greenland represents a significant barrier to atmospheric flow and, as a direct and indirect result, it plays a crucial role in the coupled climate system. The wind field over Greenland is important in diagnosing regional weather and climate, thereby providing information on the mass balance of the ice sheet as well as assisting in the interpretation of ice core data. Here, we identify a number of hitherto unrecognised features of the three-dimensional wind field over Greenland; including a 2500-km-long jet along the central ice sheet's western margin that extends from the surface into the middle-troposphere, as well as a similar but smaller scale and less intense feature along its eastern margin. We refer to these features as Greenland Plateau Jets. The jets are coupled to the downslope katabatic flow and we argue that they are maintained by the zonal temperature gradients associated with the strong temperature inversion over the central ice sheet. Their importance for Greenland's regional climate is discussed.

  12. 200 West Area Ash Pit Demolition Site closure plan. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruck, F.R.

    1994-01-01

    The Ash Pit Demolition Site had two known demolition events, the first occurred in November of 1984, and the second occurred in June of 1986. These demolition events were a form of thermal treatment for discarded explosive chemical products. Because the Ash Pit Demolition Site will no longer be used for this thermal activity, the site will be closed. Closure will be conducted pursuant to the requirements of the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) ''Dangerous Waste Regulations'', Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303-610 and 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 270.1. The 200 West Area Ash Pit Demolition Site Closure Plan consists of a Part A, Form 3, Dangerous Waste Permit Application (Revision 4) and a closure plan. An explanation of the Part A, Form 3, submitted with this closure plan is provided at the beginning of the Part A Section. The closure plan consists of nine chapters and five appendices. This closure plan presents a description of the Ash,Pit Demolition Site, the history of the waste treated, and the approach that will be followed to close the Ash Pit Demolition Site. Because there were no radioactively contaminated chemicals involved in the demolitions, the information on radionuclides is provided for ''information only''. Remediation of any radioactive contamination is not within the scope of this closure plan. Only dangerous constituents derived from Ash Pit Demolition Site operations will be addressed in this closure plan in accordance with WAC 173-303-610(2)(b)(i)

  13. Geochemistry of trace elements and REE in phosphate deposits of el Sibaiya west AREA, nile valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aly, M.M.; Hussein, H.A.; Elkammar, A.A.; Mahdy, A.I.

    1994-01-01

    The present work deals essentially with the study of the geochemistry of trace elements and rare earth elements (REE s) patterns in the upper cretaceous phosphate deposit in El Sibaiya west area located on the western side of the River Nile. About 20 Km south from Esna town, upper Egypt. It was evident throughout this study that the average shale normalized pattern of six analyzed rare earth elements indicates that the phosphate deposits under study were deposited under marine environment. In addition some geochemical ratios such as Cl/Br and Na/Br have been proposed as indicators of the paleosalinity of the upper cretaceous tethys compared with the nowadays sea. Uranium equilibrium status of the studied phosphate deposits suggests a remarkably secondary enrichment at the lower horizon at the expense of the upper one due to downward leaching. Such secondary enrichment of uranium is thought to take place under oxidizing vadose conditions by the action of descending meteoric water. 6 fig., 4 tab

  14. Information on the confinement capability of the facility disposal area at West Valley, New York

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholson, T.J.; Hurt, R.D.

    1985-12-01

    This report summarizes the previous NRC research studies, NRC licensee source term data and recent DOE site investigations that deal with assessment of the radioactive waste inventory and confinement capability of the Facility Disposal Area (FDA) at West Valley, New York. The radioactive waste inventory for the FDA has a total radioactivity of about 135,000 curies (Ci) and is comprised of H-3 (9,500 Ci), Co-60 (64,000 Ci), SR-90/Y-90 (24,300 Ci), Cs-137/Ba-137m (24,400 Ci), and Pu-241 (13,300 Ci). These wastes are buried in the Lavery Till, a glacial till unit comprised of a clayey silt with very low hydraulic conductivity properties. Recent studies of a tributylphosphate-kerosene plume moving through the shallow ground-water flow system in the FDA indicate a need to better assess the fracture flow components of this system particularly the weathered and fractured Lavery Till unit. The analysis of the deeper ground-water flow system studied by the USGS and NYSGS staffs indicated relatively long pathways and travel times to the accessible environment. Mass wasting, endemic to the glacial-filled valley, contributed to the active slumping in the ravines surrounding the FDA and also need attention. 31 refs., 8 figs., 8 tabs

  15. Waterborne cholera outbreak following Cyclone Aila in Sundarban area of West Bengal, India, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhunia, Rama; Ghosh, Sougata

    2011-04-01

    Following Cyclone Aila, a block of Sundarban area, West Bengal, India, reported an increased number of diarrhoea cases at the end of May 2009. This study was performed to identify the agent and source of the outbreak as well as to propose control measures. The outbreak is described by time, place and person. A matched case-control study was conducted and rectal swabs and water specimens were collected. In total, 1076 probable case patients and 14 deaths (attack rate 44/10 000) were identified. Vibrio cholerae El Tor Ogawa was isolated from two of five probable case patients' stool specimens. The outbreak started in the fourth week of May, with two peaks in the second and fourth weeks of June, and lasted until August 2009. Compared with controls, cases were more likely to drink non-chlorinated piped water [matched odds ratio (MOR)=16, 95% CI 4.9-51; population attributable fraction 58%) and were less likely to drink chlorine-treated water (MOR=0.06, 95% CI 0.02-0.18). Villagers broke the water pipelines near their houses for easy access to water. Piped water specimens and stored drinking water were positive for faecal contamination. Contaminated drinking water was the probable source of the cholera outbreak. Repairing the pipelines, chlorination at household level and educating villagers regarding the danger of breached water pipe connections controlled the outbreak. Copyright © 2010 Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The Greenland ice sheet - a model for its culmination and decay during and after the last glacial maximum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Funder, Svend Visby; Hansen, Louise

    1996-01-01

    there was little change at all. The driving factor during this step was calving caused by rising sea level. This lasted until c. 10 ka, but may have been consumated before the Younger Dryas. The second step began with a glacier-readvance between 10 and 9.5 ka, and after this the fjord glaciers began to retreat....... Maximum Holocene uplift was attained in areas of the 10 ka ice margin, indicating that the uplift is essentially a response to the melting and unloading of ice that began at this time. In suppport of this, recent results in West, North and East Greenland indicate that the...

  17. Late-Holocene environment and climatic changes in Ameralik Fjord, southwest Greenland: evidence from the sedimentary record

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Henrik S.; Jensen, Karin G.; Kuijpers, Antoon

    2006-01-01

      Sedimentological and geochemical (XRF) data together with information from diatom and benthic foraminifera records of a 3.5 m long gravity core from Ameralik fjord, southern West Greenland, is used for reconstructing late Holocene environmental changes in this area. The changes are linked...... to large-scale North Atlantic ocean and climate variability. AMS 14C-dating of benthic foraminifera indicates that the sediment core covers the last 4400 years and may include the termination of the Holocene Thermal Maximum (HTM). The late HTM (4.4-3.2 ka BP) is characterized by high accumulation rates...

  18. How Greenland melts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van den Broeke M.R.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Satellite altimetry and gravimetry show that the Greenland ice sheet has been losing volume and mass since the beginning of this century. However, from these short time series of direct measurements we cannot infer what the causes of the mass loss are, i.e. ice dynamics or surface processes, or that maybe the ice sheet returns to normal after a period of volume increase and mass gain. By modelling and observing the individual components of the ice sheet mass balance, i.e. snowfall, meltwater runoff and iceberg production, we are able to identify the processes that led to the recent mass loss. We conclude that the Greenland ice sheet is significantly out of balance. Acceleration of outlet glaciers and increased runoff have contributed equally to recent Greenland mass loss. The potential for mass loss by surface processes, however, was three times greater than actually observed, due to refreezing and enhanced snowfall.

  19. Levels and trends of radioactive contaminants in the Greenland environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlgaard, H.; Eriksson, M.; Nielsen, S.P.

    2004-01-01

    . The concentrations are expected to increase in the future, especially in East Greenland. The Bylot Sound at the Thule Airbase (Pituffik) in North-West Greenland was contaminated with plutonium and enriched uranium in a weapons accident in 1968. Biological activity has mixed accident plutonium efficiently...... into the new sediments resulting in continued high surface sediment concentrations three decades after the accident. Transfer of plutonium to benthic biota is low-and lower than observed in the Irish Sea. This is supposed to be caused by the physico-chemical form of the accident plutonium. A recent study...

  20. Life history parameters of narwhals (Monodon monoceros) from Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garde, Eva; Hansen, Steen H; Ditlevsen, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    Life history parameters for narwhals (Monodon monoceros) were estimated based on age estimates from aspartic acid racemization of eye lens nuclei. Eyes, reproductive organs, and measures of body lengths were collected from 282 narwhals in East and West Greenland in the years 1993, 2004, and 2007–...... projection matrix was parameterized with the data on age structure and fertility rates. The annual rate of increase of narwhals in East Greenland was estimated to be 3.8% while narwhals in West Greenland had a rate of increase at 2.6%. Key words:......Life history parameters for narwhals (Monodon monoceros) were estimated based on age estimates from aspartic acid racemization of eye lens nuclei. Eyes, reproductive organs, and measures of body lengths were collected from 282 narwhals in East and West Greenland in the years 1993, 2004, and 2007......–2010. Age estimates were based on the racemization of L-aspartic acid to D-aspartic acid in the nucleus of the eye lens. The ratio of D- and L-enantiomers was measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. The age equation used, 420.32X − 24.02·year where X is the D/L ratio, was determined from data...

  1. Bourdieu in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, Naimah

    2017-01-01

    . There is almost no previous research on Greenlandic media in general and journalism practice in particular. Mapping this small but contested field allows us to highlight some of the key analytical strengths of Bourdieu’s field theory and its ability to capture the dynamic actor relationships in such a complex......, structured space. At the same time, however, the “post-colonial” realities of Greenlandic journalism can help us to pose some questions about the limits – or the need for further development – of Bourdieu’s initial sketch about the journalistic field. This chapter tests the analytical concepts of capital...

  2. Multibeam Mapping of the West Florida Shelf, Gulf of Mexico, Twin Ridges Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XYZ ASCII format high-resolution bathymetry data generated from the 2002 multibeam sonar survey of the West Florida Shelf, Gulf of Mexico.

  3. Multibeam Mapping of the West Florida Shelf, Gulf of Mexico, Madison Swanson Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XYZ ASCII format high-resolution bathymetry data generated from the 2002 multibeam sonar survey of the West Florida Shelf, Gulf of Mexico.

  4. Access road from State Route 240 to the 200 West Area, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington: Environmental assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to construct an access road on the Hanford Site, from State Route (SR) 240 to Beloit Avenue in the 200 West Area. Traffic volume during shift changes creates an extremely serious congestion and safety problem on Route 4S from the Wye barricade to the 200 Areas. A Risk Evaluation (Trost 1992) indicated that there is a probability of 1.53 fatal accidents on Route 4S within 2 years. To help alleviate this danger, a new 3.5-kilometer (2.2-mile)-long access road would be constructed from Beloit Avenue in the 200 West Area to SR 240. In addition, administrative controls such as redirecting traffic onto alternate routes would be used to further reduce traffic volume. The proposed access road would provide an alternative travel-to-work route for many outer area personnel, particularly those with destinations in the 200 West Area. This proposal is the most reasonable alternative to reduce the problem. While traffic safety would be greatly improved, a small portion of the shrub-steppe habitat would be disturbed. The DOE would offset any habitat damage by re-vegetation or other appropriate habitat enhancement activities elsewhere on the Hanford Site. This Environmental Assessment (EA) provides information about the environmental impacts of the proposed action, so a decision can be made to either prepare an Environmental Impact Statement or issue a Finding of No Significant Impact.

  5. Aquatic balance in Vegoritis Lake, West Macedonia, Greece, relating to lignite mining works in the area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrakopoulos, D.; Grigorakou, E.; Koumantakis, J.

    2003-04-01

    Vegoritis Lake, which is located at Vegoritis closed Basin in West Macedonia, Greece, is the biggest lake in Greece. In 1994 the area of the lake was 35 Km2 with maximum depth 42 m at the northwestern part of the lake. It is the final receiving body of the surface runoff of the hydrological basin. Moreover, it is the surficial appearance of an enormous and not well-known karstic aquifer. Being a closed hydrological basin any interference in surface or groundwater conditions in every part of its area affects the level of the lake. The level of the lake in 1900 was 525 masl, in 1942 was 542 masl reaching the higher level of 543 masl in 1956. The increase of the level of the lake was due to the drainage of Ptolemais (Sarigiol) swamp through Soulou drain ditches that transfer the water in the lake. Since then, a continuous drawdown took place with small periods of rising of water level. Today, the level of the lake is declined in a smaller rate having reached the level of 510 masl. Water coming from the lake has been used in the past, and in some cases still does, for agricultural, industrial and domestic use, for hydropower generation and for the cooling system of power plants. Moreover, P.P.C. (Public Power Corporation of Greece) develops an intense activity in the area with the exploitation of the lignite deposits of the basin and power generation in several Power Plants. Few years ago significant quantities from Vegoritis Lake were used for hydro power of Agras Power Plant. With the elaboration of the existent data (water level measurements, recharge, discharge) the connection between the lowering of the surface of the lake and the subtracted quantities through the Arnissa Tunel the first years of its use, is obvious. The last twenty years the condition has change. Outflow through the Arnissa Tunnel for hydropower has stopped. The continued lowering of the level of the lake is caused, mainly, by overexploitation due to the intense increase of the irrigating land

  6. Atmospheric particulate matter size distribution and concentration in West Virginia coal mining and non-mining areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurth, Laura M; McCawley, Michael; Hendryx, Michael; Lusk, Stephanie

    2014-07-01

    People who live in Appalachian areas where coal mining is prominent have increased health problems compared with people in non-mining areas of Appalachia. Coal mines and related mining activities result in the production of atmospheric particulate matter (PM) that is associated with human health effects. There is a gap in research regarding particle size concentration and distribution to determine respiratory dose around coal mining and non-mining areas. Mass- and number-based size distributions were determined with an Aerodynamic Particle Size and Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer to calculate lung deposition around mining and non-mining areas of West Virginia. Particle number concentrations and deposited lung dose were significantly greater around mining areas compared with non-mining areas, demonstrating elevated risks to humans. The greater dose was correlated with elevated disease rates in the West Virginia mining areas. Number concentrations in the mining areas were comparable to a previously documented urban area where number concentration was associated with respiratory and cardiovascular disease.

  7. Organic and TRU screening for 200 West Area SST interim stabilization activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estey, S.D.

    1996-01-01

    This SD documents the preliminary work performed during the effort to better understand the magnitude and nature of transuranic (TRU) and/or complexed wastes contained in the 200 West Area single shell tank (SSTs). This preliminary work identified which of the SST interstitial liquids in question had adequate characterizations and performed a limited compatibility assessment based upon those characterizations. This allowed a determination of the TRU activity in the liquid and the waste type which describes the liquid. The waste type, complexed or non-complexed, was determined by a calculated total organic carbon (TOC) concentration when the waste containing the measured TOC value is evaporated to the composition of double-shell slurry feed (DSSF). DSSF was defined as the concentration at which aluminum bearing solids begin to precipitate (the sodium aluminate boundary), or when the OH concentration reached 8.0 as determined by the PREDICT evaporator simulation program. Two sets of results are presented. The first set identified only those tanks with adequate characterization data, and listed the remaining tanks as unknowns. These results have the higher level of confidence. The second result set used engineering judgement to estimate applicable characterization data where none existed. This allowed a tentative classification to be made for all but one of the tanks considered unknowns from the first result set. These results may have utility if decisions must be made in the absence additional, improved waste characterizations. This information was used in developing the follow-on laboratory testing to more precisely defined the magnitude and specifics of the compatibility problems

  8. SKB studies of the periglacial environment - report from field studies in Kangerlussuaq, Greenland 2008 and 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarhaell, Anders

    2011-03-01

    In order to reduce uncertainties in safety assessments of the planned repository of spent nuclear fuel, SKB identified the need to increase the understanding of glacial and periglacial environments. In collaboration with Posiva OY (Finland) and NWMO (Canada), SKB started the Greenland Analogue Project (GAP) in order to study the effect of climate cooling and glaciation on repository safety. GAP chose an area northeast of Kangerlussuaq, West Greenland, to be studied as a present-day analogue of a future glacial environment in both Scandinavia and Canada. The GAP, planned to run from 2009 until 2012, conducts in situ investigations of some of the parameters and processes needed to achieve a realistic understanding of how an ice sheet may impact a deep repository. In addition, the GAP will provide measurements, observations and data that may significantly improve safety assessments and risk analyses of glaciation scenarios /SKB 2011/. Issues regarding the periglacial surface environment are not included in GAP's primary focus, which has led SKB to initiate parallel activities in the same area. This new project is named The Greenland Analogue Surface Project (GRASP), and will conduct conceptual and numerical modelling of ecosystems, hydrology and near surface hydrogeology. Choosing the same investigation area for the two projects will facilitate common usage of base-line data and logistics in the field. Information from the GRASP will be applied for a better understanding of ecological and hydrological processes in a future periglacial environment in Forsmark. Annual and long-term dynamics of the permafrost are of special interest, as well as the impact of taliks on the transport of matter from the bedrock up towards the surface. This report primarily describes findings from the field season of 2010, but does also report on field work conducted by SKB in 2008. The report provides some background information on the area, describes preliminary results and set-up for

  9. SKB studies of the periglacial environment - report from field studies in Kangerlussuaq, Greenland 2008 and 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarhaell, Anders

    2011-03-15

    In order to reduce uncertainties in safety assessments of the planned repository of spent nuclear fuel, SKB identified the need to increase the understanding of glacial and periglacial environments. In collaboration with Posiva OY (Finland) and NWMO (Canada), SKB started the Greenland Analogue Project (GAP) in order to study the effect of climate cooling and glaciation on repository safety. GAP chose an area northeast of Kangerlussuaq, West Greenland, to be studied as a present-day analogue of a future glacial environment in both Scandinavia and Canada. The GAP, planned to run from 2009 until 2012, conducts in situ investigations of some of the parameters and processes needed to achieve a realistic understanding of how an ice sheet may impact a deep repository. In addition, the GAP will provide measurements, observations and data that may significantly improve safety assessments and risk analyses of glaciation scenarios /SKB 2011/. Issues regarding the periglacial surface environment are not included in GAP's primary focus, which has led SKB to initiate parallel activities in the same area. This new project is named The Greenland Analogue Surface Project (GRASP), and will conduct conceptual and numerical modelling of ecosystems, hydrology and near surface hydrogeology. Choosing the same investigation area for the two projects will facilitate common usage of base-line data and logistics in the field. Information from the GRASP will be applied for a better understanding of ecological and hydrological processes in a future periglacial environment in Forsmark. Annual and long-term dynamics of the permafrost are of special interest, as well as the impact of taliks on the transport of matter from the bedrock up towards the surface. This report primarily describes findings from the field season of 2010, but does also report on field work conducted by SKB in 2008. The report provides some background information on the area, describes preliminary results and set-up for

  10. China and Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Uffe

    2014-01-01

    More thorough analysis and outreach on facts about Chinese activities in the Arctic are highly needed, not least in view of the almost alarmist response in Danish political debate to the prospects of growing Chinese interest in the Arctic in general and especially in Greenland...

  11. Greenlandic Sovereignty in Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Kristian S.; Rahbek-Clemmensen, Jon

    2018-01-01

    how Greenlandic policymakers approach specific issues. It is the meeting point between independence, sovereignty, and concrete matters that shapes how the island orients itself towards the world. Understanding how threats to future independence is translated into tangible politics in public discourse...

  12. Cool or hot Greenland?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Carina Bregnholm

    2016-01-01

    shows how a Greenland of the future is portrayed and branded as a sustainable nation and destination through future scenarios. The performative approach to the exhibition and its scenarios displays how issues related to all three sides of sustainability e people, planet and profit e are enrolled...

  13. Spatiotemporal distribution of rabies in Arctic foxes in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raundrup, Katrine; Moshøj, Charlotte Margaret; Wennerberg, Sanne

    2015-01-01

    The temporal occurrence, spatial distribution, spread, and prevalence of rabies in Arctic foxes, Vulpes lagopus, in Greenland were studied using historical observations from 1969 to 2011 and survey data collected in the winters 1992 and 1993. Regionally, the prevalence of rabies ranged between 0...... and 7.1 %. Wavelet analysis was used to identify periodicities in the abundance of rabies cases based on the historical observations. No general length of the cyclic interval of rabies occurrences in Greenland could be demonstrated. The frequency of outbreaks was found to be variable but can be grouped...... as short (less than 5 years), medium (5–10 years), and long (more than 10 years). Moreover, rabies outbreaks in neighboring regions were found to be more closely correlated compared to regions further apart. In West Greenland, the temporal outbreaks of rabies were found to occur along a north...

  14. The Application Study in Solar Energy Technology for Highway Service Area: A Case Study of West Lushan Highway Low-Carbon Service Area in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaochun Qin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A lot of research works have been made concerning highway service area or solar technology and acquired great achievements. However, unfortunately, few works have been made combining the two topics together of highway service areas and solar energy saving to make a systemic research on solar technology application for highway service area. In this paper, taking West Lushan highway low-carbon service area in Jiangxi Province of China as the case study, the advantages, technical principles, and application methods of solar energy technology for highway service area including solar photoelectric technology and solar water heating technology were discussed based on the analysis of characteristics of highway low-carbon service area; the system types, operation mode, and installing tilt angle of the two kinds of solar systems suitable for highway service areas were confirmed. It was proved that the reduction of the cost by electricity savings of solar system was huge. Taking the investment of the solar systems into account, the payback period of solar photoelectric systems and solar water heating systems was calculated. The economic effect of the solar systems in West Lushan highway service area during the effective operation periods was also calculated and proved very considerable.

  15. Performance assessment for the disposal of low-level waste in the 200 West Area Burial Grounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, M.I.; Khaleel, R.; Rittmann, P.D.; Lu, A.H.; Finfrock, S.H.; DeLorenzo, T.H.; Serne, R.J.; Cantrell, K.J.

    1995-06-01

    This document reports the findings of a performance assessment (PA) analysis for the disposal of solid low-level radioactive waste (LLW) in the 200 West Area Low-Level Waste Burial Grounds (LLBG) in the northwest corner of the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. This PA analysis is required by US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A (DOE 1988a) to demonstrate that a given disposal practice is in compliance with a set of performance objectives quantified in the order. These performance objectives are applicable to the disposal of DOE-generated LLW at any DOE-operated site after the finalization of the order in September 1988. At the Hanford Site, DOE, Richland Operations Office (RL) has issued a site-specific supplement to DOE Order 5820.2A, DOE-RL 5820.2A (DOE 1993), which provides additiona I ce objectives that must be satisfied

  16. Performance assessment for the disposal of low-level waste in the 200 West Area Burial Grounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, M.I.; Khaleel, R.; Rittmann, P.D.; Lu, A.H.; Finfrock, S.H.; DeLorenzo, T.H. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Serne, R.J.; Cantrell, K.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-06-01

    This document reports the findings of a performance assessment (PA) analysis for the disposal of solid low-level radioactive waste (LLW) in the 200 West Area Low-Level Waste Burial Grounds (LLBG) in the northwest corner of the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. This PA analysis is required by US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A (DOE 1988a) to demonstrate that a given disposal practice is in compliance with a set of performance objectives quantified in the order. These performance objectives are applicable to the disposal of DOE-generated LLW at any DOE-operated site after the finalization of the order in September 1988. At the Hanford Site, DOE, Richland Operations Office (RL) has issued a site-specific supplement to DOE Order 5820.2A, DOE-RL 5820.2A (DOE 1993), which provides additiona I ce objectives that must be satisfied.

  17. Timing of millennial-scale climate change in Antarctica and Greenland during the last glacial period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blunier, T; Brook, E J

    2001-01-01

    A precise relative chronology for Greenland and West Antarctic paleotemperature is extended to 90,000 years ago, based on correlation of atmospheric methane records from the Greenland Ice Sheet Project 2 and Byrd ice cores. Over this period, the onset of seven major millennial-scale warmings in A....... This pattern provides further evidence for the operation of a "bipolar see-saw" in air temperatures and an oceanic teleconnection between the hemispheres on millennial time scales....

  18. Evaluation of granular activated carbon reactivation and regeneration alternatives for the 200 West Area carbon tetrachloride Expedited Response Action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, J.W.; Tranbarger, R.K.

    1996-07-01

    This document presents the results of an engineering study to evaluate alternative technologies for the reactivation or regeneration of granular activated carbon (GAC) resulting from remediation operations in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. The objective of the study was to determine whether there is a more cost-effective (onsite or offsite) method of regenerating/reactivating GAC than the present method of shipping the GAC offsite to a commercial reactivation facility in Pennsylvania

  19. Contrasting evidence of Holocene ice margin retreat, south-western Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levy, L. B.; Larsen, N. K.; Davidson, T. A.

    2017-01-01

    Constraining the Greenland Ice Sheet's (GrIS) response to Holocene climate change provides calibrations for ice sheet models that hindcast past ice margin fluctuations. Ice sheet models predict enhanced ice retreat in south-western Greenland during the middle Holocene; however, few geological...... observations corroborating the extensive retreat are available. We present new data from lake sediment cores from the Isua region, south-western Greenland, which provide constraints on Holocene fluctuations of the GrIS margins. Our data indicate that the main GrIS margin was 30 km west of its present...

  20. When Does the Warmest Water Reach Greenland?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grist, J. P.; Josey, S. A.; Boehme, L.; Meredith, M. P.; Laidre, K. L.; Heide-Jørgensen, M. P.; Kovacs, K. M.; Lydersen, C.; Davidson, F. J. M.; Stenson, G. B.; Hammill, M. O.; Marsh, R.; Coward, A.

    2016-02-01

    The warmest water reaching the east and west coast of Greenland is found between 200 and 600 m, in the warm Atlantic Water Layer (WL). Temperature changes within the WL have been highlighted as a possible cause of accelerated melting of tidewater glaciers and therefore are an important consideration for understanding global sea level rise. However, a limited number of winter observations of the WL have prohibited determining its seasonal variability. To address this, temperature data from Argo profiling floats, a range of sources within the World Ocean Database, and unprecedented coverage from marine-mammal borne sensors have been analyzed for the period 2002-2011. A significant seasonal range in temperature ( 1-2°C) is found in the warm layer, in contrast to most of the surrounding ocean. The magnitude of the seasonal cycle is thus comparable with the 1990s warming that was associated with an increased melt rate in a marine terminating glacier of West Greenland. The phase of the seasonal cycle exhibits considerable spatial variability; with high-resolution ocean model trajectory analysis suggesting it is determined by the time taken for waters to be advected from the subduction site in the Irminger Basin. For western Greenland, the annual temperature maximum occurs near or after the turn of the calendar year. This is significant because a recent study suggested that it is in the non-summer months when fjord-shelf exchanges allow the WL to most strongly influence glacier melt rate. However this is also the time of the year when the WL is least well observed. It is therefore clear that year-round subsurface temperature measurements are still required for a complete description of the WL seasonality, and in particular to ensure that the ice-melting potential of the WL is not underestimated.

  1. Abundance and energy requirements of eiders (Somateria spp.) suggest high predation pressure on macrobenthic fauna in a key wintering habitat in SW Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blicher, Martin Emil; Rasmussen, Lars Maltha; Sejr, Mikael Kristian

    2011-01-01

    The number of common eiders (Somateria mollissima borealis) in west Greenland declined dramatically during the twentieth century, supposedly because of human activities. However, their sensitivity to alternative drivers of variation, such as climate conditions, diseases or food availability......, remains unstudied. In this study, we describe prey availability and assess the trophic coupling between eiders and their macrobenthic prey in a shallow inlet, Nipisat Sound; a key wintering habitat in the southwest Greenland Open Water Area. Macrobenthic species abundance and biomass were studied...... was estimated at 13.9 g AFDM m-2 year-1 (317 kJ m-2 year-1). During the winters of 2008–2010, we monitored the number of common eiders (S. mollissima realis) and king eiders (Somateria spectabilis) and observed a distinct peak in abundance during winter with up to 15.000 birds in Nipisat Sound. Based...

  2. the relationships of the avifauna of the south west arid area of africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    came from the north; zoological facts suggest that African birds must have evolved within the continent, with .... discovered one in central Tanganyika, appears to have evolved in the South West Arid but to have left these ... seems to me that leucotis is more similar, in size and plumage pattern, to verticalis than to australis.

  3. the relationships of the avifauna of the south west arid area of africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some years ago, I discussed (Winterbottom 1959) the limits of the zoogeographical district well named by Chapin (1923) the South West Arid and extended it eastward to include the highveld grasslands of the Transvaal and Orange Free State which Chapin had excluded. Later, I (Winter- bottom 1966) considered its ...

  4. Oil and gas resources of the Cheat Mountain Further Planning Area (RARE II), Randolph County, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weed, E.G.

    1981-01-01

    The Wilderness Act (Public Law 88-577, September 3, 1964) and related acts require the U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Bureau of Mines to survey certain areas on Federal lands to determine their mineral resource potential. Results must be made available to the public and be submitted to the President and the Congress. This map presents an analysis of the oil and gas resources of the Cheat Mountain Further Planning Area in the Monongahela National Forest, Randolph County, West Virginia. The area was classified as a further planning area during the Second Roadless Area Review and Evaluation (RARE II) by the U.S. Forest Service, January 1979.

  5. Maps showing mines, quarries, prospects, and exposures in the Cheat Mountain Roadless Area, Randolph County, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behum, Paul T.; Hammack, Richard W.

    1981-01-01

    The Wilderness Act (Public Law 88-577, September 3, 1964) and related acts require the U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Bureau of Mines to survey certain areas on Federal lands to determine their mineral resource potential. Results must be made available to the public and be submitted to the President and the Congress. This report presents the results of a mineral survey of the Cheat Mountain Roadless Area in the Monongahela National Forest, Randolph County, West Virginia. The area was designated as a further planning area during the Second Roadless Area Review and Evaluation (RARE II) by the U.S. Forest Service, January 1979.

  6. Spirometry in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lasse Overballe; Olsen, Sequssuna; Jarbøl, D. E.

    2016-01-01

    be common. International guidelines recommend the usage of spirometry as a golden standard for diagnosing COPD. The current number of spirometries performed among patients treated with medication targeting obstructive pulmonary disease in Greenland remains unexplored. Objective. To estimate the prevalence...... of patients aged 50 years or above treated with medication targeting obstructive pulmonary disease and the extent to which spirometry was performed among them within 2 years. Design. An observational, cross-sectional study based on the review of data obtained from electronic medical records in Greenland...... of the identified users of medication targeting obstructive pulmonary disease. Information on age, gender, town and spirometry was registered for each patient within the period from October 2013 to October 2015. Results. The prevalence of patients treated with medication targeting obstructive pulmonary disease aged...

  7. Studying health in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Peter; Mulvad, Gert; Olsen, Jørn

    2003-01-01

    Health research in Greenland has contributed with several findings of interest for the global scientific community and has documented health problems and risk factors of importance for planning the local health care system. The study of how health develops in small, scattered communities during...... rapid epidemiological transition carries prospects of global significance. The Inuit are a genetically distinct people living under extreme physical conditions. Their traditional living conditions and diet are currently undergoing a transformation, which may approach their disease pattern...... to that of the industrialized world, while still including local outbreaks of tuberculosis. Health research in Greenland is logistically difficult and costly, but offers opportunities not found elsewhere in the world. A long tradition of registration enhances the possibilities for research. A number of research institutions...

  8. Children in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kløvgaard, Marius; Nielsen, Nina Odgaard; Sørensen, Thomas Lund

    2016-01-01

    in Nuuk or Ilulissat (n=332). Data on diseases and health care system contacts were extracted. Diagnoses were validated retrospectively. Primary health care contacts were reviewed for a random sample of 1:6. RESULTS: In 311 children with valid social security number, the total number of health care system......, 39.5 versus 34.6 during the study period, p=0.02. The highest annual contact rates for diseases were: hospitalisations/acute respiratory diseases 13.9:1,000; outpatient contacts/otitis media 5.1:1,000; primary care/conjunctivitis or nasopharyngitis 410:1,000 children. Outpatient screening......BACKGROUND: Previous studies of Greenlandic children's disease pattern and contacts to the health care system are sparse and have focused on the primary health care sector. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to identify the disease pattern and use of health care facilities of children aged 0-10 in two Greenlandic...

  9. Modelling Greenland icebergs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marson, Juliana M.; Myers, Paul G.; Hu, Xianmin

    2017-04-01

    The Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) is well known for carrying heat from low to high latitudes, moderating local temperatures. Numerical studies have examined the AMOC's variability under the influence of freshwater input to subduction and deep convections sites. However, an important source of freshwater has often been overlooked or misrepresented: icebergs. While liquid runoff decreases the ocean salinity near the coast, icebergs are a gradual and remote source of freshwater - a difference that affects sea ice cover, temperature, and salinity distribution in ocean models. Icebergs originated from the Greenland ice sheet, in particular, can affect the subduction process in Labrador Sea by decreasing surface water density. Our study aims to evaluate the distribution of icebergs originated from Greenland and their contribution to freshwater input in the North Atlantic. To do that, we use an interactive iceberg module coupled with the Nucleus for European Modelling of the Ocean (NEMO v3.4), which will calve icebergs from Greenland according to rates established by Bamber et al. (2012). Details on the distribution and trajectory of icebergs within the model may also be of use for understanding potential navigation threats, as shipping increases in northern waters.

  10. Analysis And Design Of A Water Purification System For The West African Area Of Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    storage tank. Prior to activating the system, all the supply and drain lines were checked for leak and ensured they are secured. The water flow valve...gallons per Marine. Consequently, to supply water to 20,000 soldiers cost about $491,140 a day in Afghanistan (Lash 2011). In West Africa for example...the borehole water system (BWS), the source of water supply mostly used, lacks capability of monitoring chemical compound, filtration, and

  11. A petrochemical investigation of a group of granitoids in the Cnydas area, West of Upington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jankowitz, J.A.C.

    1981-01-01

    Detailed mapping in the eastern Namaqualand Metamorphic Complex west of Upington, indicates that the Cnydas batholith can be divided into ten different granitoidal phases. The classification is based on the intrusive field relationships supported by variation in mineralogy, texture, petrography and geochemistry. A differentiation sequence from granodiorite through mesocratic granite to leucogranite is proposed on the basis of geochemical evidence. The chemistry and petrography suggests an I-type origin for these granitoids

  12. Trends of perfluorochemicals in Greenland ringed seals and polar bears: indications of shifts to decreasing trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigét, Frank; Bossi, Rossana; Sonne, Christian; Vorkamp, Katrin; Dietz, Rune

    2013-11-01

    Time-series of perfluorinated alkylated substances (PFASs) in East Greenland polar bears and East and West Greenland ringed seals were updated in order to deduce whether a response to the major reduction in perfluoroalkyl production in the early 2000s had occurred. Previous studies had documented an exponential increase of perfluorooctane sulphonate (PFOS) in liver tissue from both species. In the present study, PFOS was still the far most dominant compound constituting 92% (West Greenland ringed seals), 88% (East Greenland ringed seals) and 85% (East Greenland polar bears). The PFOS concentrations increased up to 2006 with doubling times of approximately 6 years for the ringed seal populations and 14 years in case of polar bears. Since then a rapid decrease has occurred with clearing half-lives of approximately 1, 2 and 4 years, respectively. In polar bears perfluorohexane sulphonate (PFHxS) and perfluorooctane sulphonamide (PFOSA) also showed decreasing trends in recent years as do perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) and perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnA). For the West Greenland ringed seal population perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), PFDA and PFUnA peaked in the mid 2000s, whereas PFNA, PFDA and PFUnA in the East Greenland population have been stable or increasing in recent years. The peak of PFASs in Greenland ringed seals and polar bears occurred at a later time than in Canadian seals and polar bears and considerably later than observed in seal species from more southern latitudes. We suggest that this could be explained by the distance to emission hot-spots and differences in long-range transport to the Arctic. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Using PS-InSAR to detect surface deformation in geothermal areas of West Java in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghsoudi, Yasser; van der Meer, Freek; Hecker, Christoph; Perissin, Daniele; Saepuloh, Asep

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, the Persistent Scatterer InSAR (PS-InSAR) technique is applied in order to investigate the ground deformation in and around two geothermal areas in West Java, Indonesia. Two time-series of ALOS PALSAR and Sentinel-1A acquisitions, covering the period from 2007 to 2009 and 2015-2016, are analysed. The first case study examines the Wayang Windu geothermal zone where the PS-InSAR analysis provides an overview of the surface deformation around a geothermal reservoir. Uplift is observed around the injection wells in the area. The second example involves the use of the PS-InSAR technique over a more recent geothermal system in Patuha field. Again, a pattern of uplift was observed around the only available injection well in the area. Due to the dense vegetation coverage of the geothermal areas in West Java, the longer wavelength ALOS PALSAR data is provides better results by identifying a larger number of PS points. Additionally, experiments have been carried out to compare the resulting deformation with another example of the fluid migration process i.e. water extraction in Bandung basin. The potential of sentinel-1A and ALOS PALSR data are compared in all the experiments.

  14. Disentangling the Roles of Atmospheric and Oceanic Forcing on the Last Deglaciation of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keisling, B. A.; Deconto, R. M.

    2017-12-01

    Today the Greenland Ice Sheet loses mass via both oceanic and atmospheric processes. However, the relative importance of these mass balance components is debated, especially their potential impact on ongoing and future mass imbalance. Discerning the impact of oceanic versus atmospheric forcing during past periods of mass loss provides potential insight into the future behavior of the ice sheet. Here we present an ensemble of Greenland Ice Sheet simulations of the last deglaciation, designed to assess separately the roles of the ocean and the atmosphere in driving mass loss over the last twenty thousand years. We use twenty-eight different ocean forcing scenarios along with a cutting-edge reconstruction of time-evolving atmospheric conditions based on climate model output and δ15N-based temperature reconstructions to generate a range of ice-sheet responses during the deglaciation. We then compare the simulated timing of ice-retreat in individual catchments with estimates based on both 10Be (exposure) and 14C (minimum-limiting) dates. These experiments allow us to identify the ocean forcing scenario that best match the data on a local-to-regional (i.e., 100-1000 km) scales, providing an assessment of the relative importance of ocean and atmospheric forcing components around the periphery of Greenland. We use these simulations to quantify the importance of the three major mass balance terms (calving, oceanic melting, and surface melting) and assess the uncertainty of the relative influence of these factors during the most recent periods of major ice loss. Our results show that mass balance components around different sectors of the ice sheet respond differently to forcing, with oceanic components driving the majority of retreat in south and east Greenland and atmospheric forcing dominating in west and north Greenland In addition, we target three areas at high spatial resolution ( 1 km) around Greenland currently undergoing substantial change (Jakobshavn, Petermann

  15. Landslide and Tsunami in Karrat Fjord, Greenland, 2017; the Event, the Response and the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langley, K.; Mätzler, E.; Barba, M.; Bojesen, M. H.; Caduff, R.; O'Cofaigh, C.; Dehls, J. F.; 1, G. W. G.; Glimsdal, S.; Harbitz, C. B.; Hermanns, R. L.; Kaab, A.; Kibenich, B.; Kvistedal, Y.; Langeland, H.; Larsen, Y.; Løvholt, F.; Lynett, P. J.; Morin, P. J.; Odermatt, L.; Rignot, E. J.; Sparrevik, P.; Wiesmann, A.; Willis, M.; Zinglersen, K. B.

    2017-12-01

    On the evening of 17 June 2017, a landslide released from a rock slope in the Karrat Fjord, West Greenland. A section 800 m in breadth detached from an elevation of 1000 m a.s.l. and plunged into the fjord below causing a tsunami. The result was loss of life and injury, devastation and evacuation of local villages, and the revelation that the mountain side is unstable in other places. The humanitarian effort, both locally and international to ease the situation for locals has been outstanding. Here we describe how the sequence of events surrounding the landslide unfolded and, thanks to the rapid response and cooperation by a multi-disciplinary, international team of geoscientists, crucial information could be provided to the Greenlandic authorities that supported and aided decision making. Photography and video from the first response teams showed the path of the landslide. Initial analysis of optical (Planet Cubesat constellation, Sentinel-2), SAR (Sentinel-1) and photogrammetric data from before and after the event confirmed the location of the landslide and the area that had detached. By extending the time series of Sentinel-1 data, it was possible to show that the section had been active since March 2017 with displacement accelerating towards failure. The new ArcticDEM was used to give an estimate of area and volume displacement in the main slide. The area where material was lost covered 760 x103 m2 and amounted to a displaced volume of >50 mio m3. These approaches all identified other parts of the mountain side that are in motion. Tsunami modelling was used to predict the on land inundation with simulations based on the landslide dimensions and a bathymetry model from multi beam surveys. The model results matched extremely well with reconstructed run-up heights manually interpreted from video and photographic footage and seismic analyses. For optimizing the guidance of the Greenlandic authorities, all results and experience from the many involved scientists

  16. Environmental radioactivity in Greenland 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarkrog, A.; Lippert, J.

    1978-07-01

    Measurements of fallout radioactivity in Greenland in 1977 are reported. Strontium-90 (and Cesium-137 in most cases) was determined in samples of precipitation, sea water, vegetation, animals, and drinking water. Estimates are given of the mean contents of 90 Sr and 137 Cs in the human diet in Greenland in 1977. (author)

  17. Distribution and drift of Atlantic cod ( Gadus morhua ) eggs and larvae in Greenland offshore waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieland, Kai; Hovgård, Holger

    2002-01-01

    Catches of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) eggs and larvae from 45 national and international ichthyoplankton surveys conducted in Greenland offshore waters during the period 1950 to 1984 have been compiled and re-analysed. Southeast and Southwest Greenland were identified as im- portant spawning areas...

  18. Greenland ice sheet surface mass balance: evaluating simulations and making projections with regional climate models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rae, J.G.L.; Aðalgeirsdóttir, G.; Edwards, T.L.; Fettweis, X.; Gregory, J.M.; Hewitt, H.T.; Lowe, J.A.; Lucas-Picher, P.; Mottram, R.H.; Payne, A.J.; Ridley, J.K.; Shannon, S.R.; van de Berg, W.J.; van de Wal, R.S.W.; van den Broeke, M.R.

    2012-01-01

    Four high-resolution regional climate models (RCMs) have been set up for the area of Greenland, with the aim of providing future projections of Greenland ice sheet surface mass balance (SMB), and its contribution to sea level rise, with greater accuracy than is possible from coarser-resolution

  19. Carbon tetrachloride contamination, 200 West Area, Hanford Site: Arid Site Integrated Demonstration for remediation of volatile organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Last, G.V.; Rohay, V.J.

    1991-01-01

    The Arid State Integrated Demonstration is a US Department of Energy (DOE) program targeted at the acquisition, development, demonstration, and deployment of technologies for evaluation and cleanup of volatile organic and associated contaminants in soils and ground waters. Several DOE laboratories, universities, and industry will participate in the program. Candidate technologies will be demonstrated in the areas of site characterization; performance prediction, monitoring, and evaluations; contaminant extraction and ex situ treatment; in situ remediations; and site closure and monitoring. The performance of these demonstrated technologies will be compared to baseline technologies and documented to promote the transfer of new technologies to industry for use at DOE facilities. The initial host site is the Hanford Site's 200 West Area. The location of the demonstration contains primarily carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ), chloroform, and a variety of associated mixed waste contaminants. Chemical processes used to recover and purify plutonium at Hanford's plutonium finishing plant (Z Plant) resulted in the production of actinide-bearing waste liquid. Both aqueous and organic liquid wastes were generated, and were routinely discharged to subsurface disposal facilities. The primary radionuclide in the waste streams was plutonium, and the primary organic was CCl 4 . This paper contains brief descriptions of the principal CCl 4 waste disposal facilities in Hanford's 200 West Area, associated hydrogeology, existing information on the extent of soil and ground-water contamination, and a conceptual outline of suspected subsurface CCl 4 distributions

  20. East Greenland Caledonides: stratigraphy, structure and geochronology: Lower Palaeozoic stratigraphy of the East Greenland Caledonides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith, M. Paul

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The Lower Palaeozoic stratigraphy of the East Greenland Caledonides, from the fjord region of North-East Greenland northwards to Kronprins Christian Land, is reviewed and a number of new lithostratigraphical units are proposed. The Slottet Formation (new is a Lower Cambrian quartzite unit, containing Skolithos burrows, that is present in the Målebjerg and Eleonore Sø tectonic windows, in the nunatak region of North-East Greenland. The unit is the source of common and often-reported glacial erratic boulders containing Skolithos that are distributed throughout the fjord region. The Målebjerg Formation (new overlies the Slottet Formation in the tectonic windows, and comprises limestones and dolostones of assumed Cambrian–Ordovician age. The Lower Palaeozoic succession of the fjord region of East Greenland (dominantly limestones and dolostones is formally placed in the Kong Oscar Fjord Group (new. Amendments are proposed for several existing units in the Kronprins Christian Land and Lambert Land areas, where they occur in autochthonous, parautochthonous and allochthonous settings.

  1. Uranium districts in South Greenland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armour-Brown, A.; Tukiainen, T.; Wallin, B.

    1981-01-01

    A short review is given of reconnaissance work in South Greenland. The work has demonstrated that there are areas in the Motzfeldt centre of at least 1 km 2 with continuously high radioactivity. If the uranium content of these radioactive zones are sufficiently high, then potential ore tonnages could prove to be substantial. The reconnaissance exploration has proved that uranium mineralization is widely distributed in the Narssaq-Narssarssuaq district. It is, no doubt, responsible for the high uranium values in the exploration geochemical samples. Although the size of the pitchblende occurences which have been found so far are small, the high grade of the mineralisation, the great frequency of the fracturing and the evidence for an all pervasive mineralising event over a wide area indicate that there is a good possibility of finding economic mineralisation within the Narssaq-Narssarssuaq area. The area as a whole may, perhaps, be termed a ''uranium mineral district''. As the potential targets are small, only detailed follow-up exploration will establish this. At the same time more detailed work on individual showings, and geological mapping to demonstrate the relative ages of the various petrological and mineralising events, will establish the possible origin of this uranium mineralisation. (author)

  2. Micro- and mesozooplankton in Southwest Greenland waters in relation to environmental factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, S.A.; Ribergaard, M.H.; Stenberg, Claus

    2005-01-01

    Plankton samples and oceanographic data were obtained during transect studies across fishing banks over the Southwest Greenland shelf in June 1999, May, and July 2000. The study gives a detailed description of micro- and mesozooplankton distributions and community structures during spring bloom...... glacialis, and Calanus hyperboreus generally dominated the micro- and mesozooplankton biomass, with Pseudocalanus spp., Metridia longa, and Oithona spp. comprising most of the remaining biomass. By number, bivalves larvae and relatively large copepod nauplii (> 200 mu m) dominated the zooplankton community....... The circulation around the banks seems to create retention areas entrapping plankton for periods. Model simulations predict that upwelling occurs west of the shelf banks and to a lesser extent in the deep channels separating the banks. This upwelling, caused by wind and tidal motions, probably increases...

  3. Levels of non-essential elements in muscle from harp seal (Phagophilus groenlandicus) and hooded seal (Cystophora cristata) caught in the Greenland Sea area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunborg, Linn Anne; Graff, Ingvild Eide; Froyland, Livar; Julshamn, Kare

    2006-01-01

    The non-essential elements, arsenic, cadmium, mercury and lead, inevitably accumulate in marine top predators such as seals. The concentration of these elements and the essential element selenium, due to its proposed protective properties against mercury toxicity in marine mammals, were measured in muscle, liver and kidney from reproductive active females of harp seal (Phagophilus groenlandicus) and hooded seal (Cystophora cristata) caught in the drift ice between Iceland and East Greenland. Arsenic levels were below 1 μg/g w.w. in all analysed samples, and were therefore low compared to other seafood products. The concentrations of arsenic found in the present study were comparable to the results reported in a similar study from 1985. Mean concentrations of total mercury in muscle from the present study were higher than levels in other seafood products. The levels of total mercury from the present study showed a tendency of lower levels in all tissue samples compared to the study from 1985. Methyl mercury displayed a trend of a lower ratio of methyl mercury to total mercury as the concentration of total mercury increased, indicating a demethylation of methyl mercury at high total mercury concentrations (e.g. mercury in liver of hooded seal). The concentration ratio of methyl mercury to total mercury in muscle samples was more than 75%, with total mercury concentration less than 0.5 μg/g w.w., whereas the ratio for liver was as low as 0.2% with a total mercury concentration of 128 μg/g w.w. The molar concentration ratios of selenium to mercury showed that selenium was present in a molar surplus to mercury in all tissues with low mercury concentration. However, there seemed to be a general mobilisation of selenium in liver and kidney tissues of harp seal and hooded seal, whereas an extraordinary mobilisation seemed to take place at hepatic mercury concentrations exceeding 50 μg/g w.w. The mean concentrations of lead in muscles in the present study were higher

  4. Environmental radioactivity in the North Atlantic region. The Faroe Islands and Greenland included. 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarkrog, A.; Boelskifte, S.; Buch, E.; Christensen, G.C.; Dahlgaard, H.; Hallstadius, L.; Hansen, H.; Holm, E.; Mattsson, S.; Meide, A.

    1984-12-01

    Measurements of fallout radioactivity in the North Atlantic region including the Faroe Islands and Greenland are reported. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 was determined in samples of precipitation, sea water, vegetation, various foodstuffs (including milk in the Faroes) and drinking water. Estimates are given of the mean contents of 90 Sr and 137 Cs in human diet in the Faroes and Greenland in 1983. Results from samplings of surface sea water and seaweed in the Norwegian and Greenland Seas and along the Norwegian and Greenland west coasts are reported. Beside radiocesium and 90 Sr some of these samples have also been anlysed for tritium,plutonium and americium. Finally technetium-99 data on seaweed samples collected in the North Atlantic region since the beginning of the sixties are presented. (author)

  5. Environmental radioactivity in the North Atlantic region. The Faroe Islands and Greenland included. 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarkrog, A.; Boelskifte, S.; Buch, E.; Christensen, G.C.; Dahlgaard, H.; Hallstadius, L.; Hansen, H.; Holm, E.

    1985-12-01

    Measurements of fallout radioactivity in the North Atlantic region including the Faroe Islands and Greenland are reported. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 was determined in samples of precipitation, sea water, vegetation, various foodstuffs (including milk in the Faroes) and drinking water. Estimates are given of the mean contents of 90 Sr and 137 Cs in human diet in the Faroes and Greenland in 1984. Results from samplings of surface sea water and seaweed in the Norwegian and Greenland Seas and along the Norwegian and Greenland west coasts are reported. Beside radiocesium and 90 Sr some of these samples have also been anlysed for tritium, polonium, plutonium and americium. Finally technetium-99 data on seaweed samples collected in the North Atlantic region since the beginning of the sixties are presented. (author)

  6. Environmental radioactivity monitoring at Rirang and Eko Remaja area Kalan West Kalimantan period 1997/1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achmad-Sorot-Soediro; Eep-Dedi

    2000-01-01

    The research has been done for the purpose of monitoring radioactivity's level in the environment at Rirang and Eko Remaja Kalan, West Kalimantan, which will be exposed the impact of radioactivity environment at Rirang and Eko Remaja Kalan. The method which was applied in the field is direct measurement and samples collecting from water, stream sediment and soil sample were taken to site at environment Rirang, Remaja tunnel and uranium processing at Lemajung. The samples were analysed using spectrophotometer and Scintillation Alpha Counter SAC - R5 Eberline at Environment and Safety laboratory. Radiation exposure level monitoring applied at 18 location point at Eko Remaja Kalan and 12 location point at Rirang by Scintillation SPP 2 NF which had been calibrated. The experiment data showed that radioactivity of U, Th, Ra-226 and radiation exposure at Eko Remaja Kalan and Rirang were below threshold of limit value

  7. Tobacco abuse among school going adolescents in a rural area of West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Anindya; Sinha, Abhik; Taraphdar, Pranita; Basu, Gandhari; Chakrabarty, Debadatta

    2012-01-01

    Adolescents are vulnerable targets of tobacco industry with all consequences of usage. Studies reveal that tobacco abuse is rising in this age group in India. A cross sectional survey was carried out in two coeducational high schools of Anandanagar village of Singur block, Hooghly district, West Bengal among 276 students of VIII-IX standard to study the knowledge and abuse of tobacco and to find out influencing socio-demographic factors. Knowledge score was higher in females, students from nuclear families, and those with literate parents. Low prevalence of tobacco intake was obtained among the students, with 9.8% reported having ever used smokeless tobacco and 4.3% ever smoked. Tobacco intake was higher among those with a history of parental tobacco intake. Continued information education and communication (IEC) activities should be conducted by the school authorities, with involvement of nongovernment organizations (NGOs) and parents for primary prevention.

  8. Sedimentary Facies of the West Crocker Formation North Kota Kinabalu-Tuaran Area, Sabah, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Azfar; Hadi Abd Rahman, Abdul; Suhaili Ismail, Mohd

    2016-02-01

    Newly outcrops exposed in the West Crocker Formation have led to the detail sedimentolgical analysis of the formation. Eight sedimentary facies have been recognised in which it was divided into three main groups: (1) sand-dominated facies (F1-F2), (2) poorly- sorted unit mixed sand and mud-dominated facies (F3), and (3) mud-dominated facies (F4-F5). These are: F1- graded sandstone (massive to planar laminated), F2-ripple-cross laminated, wavy and convolute lamination sandstone, F3-chaotic beds of mixed sandstone and mudstone blocks and clasts, F4-lenticular bedded of sandstone, and F5-shale. The studies of the formation has come out that it was deposited in a sand-rich submarine fan with specific location located at (1) inner fan channel-levee complex; (2) mid-fan channelised lobes, and (3) outer fan.

  9. Late Quaternary pollen records from the Lower Cobb Valley and adjacent areas, north-west Nelson, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shulmeister, J.; McLea, W.L.; Singer, C.; McKay, R.M.; Hosie, C.

    2003-01-01

    Ten pollen records from the Cobb Valley and adjacent areas in North-West Nelson are described. Collectively they provide a vegetation record extending from the Last Glacial Maximum to the present day. During the Last Glacial Maximum the uplands of North-West Nelson were glaciated. By about 17,000 radiocarbon years BP ice had retreated some distance up the Cobb River Valley and a podocarp heath and tussockland vegetation covered non-glaciated areas. By 14,000 radiocarbon years BP, the valley floor and adjacent lower ridges were occupied by montane podocarp forest dominated by Phyllocladus and Halocarpus. Beech forest expanded into some sites as early as 13,000 yr BP but the modern beech cover was not established until the Holocene. Forest cover has fluctuated in response to disturbance over the Holocene, but the most significant recent change, which is related to clearing for pastoralism in the last two centuries, has had surprisingly little impact on the pollen records. (author). 40 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab

  10. Implication of the displacement of the T1 primary target in the west area at the CERN SPS

    CERN Document Server

    Gatignon, L

    1999-01-01

    As soon as the transfer line T12 for proton injection into the LHC must be installed, the T1 primary target has to be at least partly dismantled, as its shielding would block the passage of the beam. Even though the installation of T12 is only foreseen for later, in view of sharing of workload related to the SLI project, it is preferred to move the primary production target T1 for the West Area to its new position already in the shutdown 1999/2000. The new position of the target requires major modifications of support structures in TCC6, of the transfer line towards T1 and of a more than 500 metres long section of the H3 secondary beam in the West Area, all to be completed in the 1999/2000 shutdown. To allow the work to be finished in time, part of it (including some civil engineering in TT4) is already done in the 1998/99 shutdown. In this memo the necessary modifications are described, cost estimates are given and a planning is provided.

  11. Uranium Districts Defined by Reconnaissance Geochemistry in South Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Armour-Brown, A.; Steenfelt, A.; Kunzendorf, Helmar

    1983-01-01

    A reconnaissance exploration survey over 14 000 km2 of Precambrian terrain in South Greenland using stream-sediment and stream-water samples delineated a central uranium district of 2000 km2 with enhanced uranium levels and smaller anomalous zones in the south of the field area. The area is under...

  12. Lime stabilization of fine-grained sediments in western Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anders Stuhr; Ingeman-Nielsen, Thomas; Skels, Peteris

    2011-01-01

    Thick deposits of fine-grained marine sediments exist in large areas of western Greenland. Many places these sediments are located above sea-level, and now complicate construction projects in urban areas. The mineralogy of the fine-grained sediments is very different from European sediments, mainly...... due to the cold climate, and it is therefore of great interest to study possible methods to improve the stability and strength properties. This project includes laboratory studies of lime stabilization on fine-grained marine sediments from Kangerlussuaq, western Greenland. The results have included...

  13. Magnitude and frequency of flooding on small urban watersheds in the Tampa Bay area, west-central Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, M.A.; Woodham, W.M.

    1983-01-01

    Hydrologic data collected on nine small urban watersheds in the Tampa Bay area of west-central Florida and a method for estimating peak discharges in the study area are described. The watersheds have mixed land use and range in size from 0.34 to 3.45 square miles. Watershed soils, land use, and storm-drainage system data are described. Urban development ranged from a sparsely populated area with open-ditch storm sewers and 19% impervious area to a completely sewered watershed with 61% impervious cover. The U.S. Geological Survey natural-basin and urban-watershed models were calibrated for the nine watersheds using 5-minute interval rainfall data from the Tampa, Florida, National Weather Service rain gage to simulate annual peak discharge for the period 1906-52. A log-Pearson Type III frequency analysis of the simulated annual maximum discharge was used to determine the 2-, 5-, 10-, 25-, 50-, and 100-year flood discharges for each watershed. Flood discharges were related in a multiple-linear regression to drainage area, channel slope, detention storage area, and an urban-development factor determined by the extent of curb and gutter street drainage and storm-sewer system. The average standard error for the regional relations ranged from + or - 32 to + or - 42%. (USGS)

  14. Catch history and status of the harbour seal (Phoca vitulina in Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aqqalu Rosving-Asvid

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The number of harbour seals (Phoca vitulina in West Greenland declined rapidly after the 1950s and the seals have now abandoned their traditional haulout locations along the Greenland west coast. However, in recent years, a previously undetected group of about 60-100 harbour seals has been observed approximately 80 km upstream in a large river, and some traditional hauloutlocations are still in use near the south-eastern tip of Greenland. A small number of harbour seals is caught annually far from any of these locations, indicating that other groups might live unnoticed. Catch statistics provide the best evidence of the presence and locations of these remnant harbour seals. Therefore efforts were made to validate the recent catch statistics and to describe the catch history for the past 60 years. The catch statistics were also used to estimate plausibleranges of past and present numbers of harbour seals based on the assumption that hunting has caused the observed decline. The total number of harbour seals in Greenland according to these estimates was about 3,000 in 1950 and fewer than 1,000 in 2007. The number of harbour seals caught in the southernmost part of Greenland has, unlike in the rest of Greenland, increased significantly in some of the recent years. This change seems to be related to changes in the amount of drift ice. Drift ice reduces the frequency of contact between hunters and harbour seals in South Greenland and above normal quantities of drift ice from the mid 1960s to the mid 1980s probably allowed these seals to increase in numbers. Record low inflow of drift ice in some of the recent years, however, has resulted in record high catches, which likely have reduced the seals again. The remaining harbour seals in Greenland are few and without protection these sealsare potentially in danger of extinction.

  15. Audit report from Greenland on nurses' tasks and perceived competency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nexøe, J; Skifte, E; Niclasen, B; Munck, A

    2012-01-01

    Despite all efforts, recruitment of healthcare personnel has become increasingly difficult in Greenland as in other remote areas. The aim of this observational study was to describe the extent of health care delivered by nurses in Greenland's healthcare system. Reasons for encounter, diagnostic procedures, treatments and need for a physician's assistance, as well as the nurses' self-perceived competency, were also analysed. A total of 42 nurses registered all patient encounters for 10 days in late autumn 2006 in 14 out of 16 healthcare districts in Greenland. Nurses treated 1117 encounters (60%) singlehandedly. The nurses felt competent in what they were doing in 1415 encounters (76%). In 525 encounters (31%), a physician's advice was sought. Either the physician was asked to come or the physician's advice was obtained by telephone. In four cases the nurses did not feel completely competent, but did not seek advice from the physician on call. Feeling competent did not depend on length of experience in Greenland. In Greenland, nurses independently receive, diagnose and treat a substantial number of primary healthcare patients. The nurses take care of the patients and perform a number of clinical and laboratory procedures with great confidence. There has been speculation that part of the difficulty in recruiting doctors and healthcare personnel in remote areas may be due to uneasiness about professional responsibilities and, to some extent, lack of confidence. At least among the registering nurses in this study, this did not seem to be a problem.

  16. A comparison of soil-moisture loss from forested and clearcut areas in West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles A. Troendle

    1970-01-01

    Soil-moisture losses from forested and clearcut areas were compared on the Fernow Experimental Forest. As expected, hardwood forest soils lost most moisture while revegetated clearcuttings, clearcuttings, and barren areas lost less, in that order. Soil-moisture losses from forested soils also correlated well with evapotranspiration and streamflow.

  17. 33 CFR 334.1275 - West Arm Behm Canal, Ketchikan, Alaska, restricted areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... minutes. (ii) Small craft may operate within 500 yards of the shoreline at speeds no greater than 5 knots... restrictions in Area #5 for a total of no more than 15 days. (iv) Transitory restrictions in Area #5 will not... Behm Canal. Special events are defined as summer holidays or celebrations, competitions, or economic...

  18. 75 FR 33239 - Rangeland Allotment Management Planning on the Fall River West and Oglala Geographic Areas, Fall...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-11

    ...The USDA, Forest Service, will prepare an environmental impact statement (EIS) analyzing the management of rangeland vegetation resources, which includes livestock grazing, on the National Forest System (NFS) lands within the Oglala Geographic Area (OGA) of the Oglala National Grassland on the Pine Ridge Ranger District and the West Geographic Area (WGA) of the Buffalo Gap National Grassland on the Fall River Ranger District of the Nebraska National Forest (Analysis Area) areas as mapped by the 2001 Nebraska National Forest Revised Land and Resource Management Plan (Forest Plan). A Notice of Intent (NOI) for this project was published February 22, 2008 (73 No. 36 FR 9760- 9762). More than six months have elapsed since the projected draft environmental impact statement (DEIS) date in that original NOI. This revised NOI is being issued to update the project schedule. There will be a record of decision (ROD) for each geographic area. Proposed management actions would be implemented beginning in the year 2012. The agency gives notice of the full environmental analysis and decision-making process that will occur on the proposal so interested and affected people may become aware of how they may participate in the process and contribute to the final decision.

  19. Sensitivity of Greenland Ice Sheet surface mass balance to surface albedo parameterization: a study with a regional climate model

    OpenAIRE

    Angelen, J. H.; Lenaerts, J. T. M.; Lhermitte, S.; Fettweis, X.; Kuipers Munneke, P.; Broeke, M. R.; Meijgaard, E.; Smeets, C. J. P. P.

    2012-01-01

    We present a sensitivity study of the surface mass balance (SMB) of the Greenland Ice Sheet, as modeled using a regional atmospheric climate model, to various parameter settings in the albedo scheme. The snow albedo scheme uses grain size as a prognostic variable and further depends on cloud cover, solar zenith angle and black carbon concentration. For the control experiment the overestimation of absorbed shortwave radiation (+6%) at the K-transect (west Greenland) for the period 2004–2009 is...

  20. Seabird Colonies in Western Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boertmann, D.; Mosbech, A.; Falk, K.

    About 1 million seabirds (indvs) breed in 1032 colonies distributed along the coasts of western Greenland (Fig. 1). However, this figure does not include the little auk colonies in Avanersuaq. These colonies are roughly estimated to hold about 20 mill. pairs. All the basic information on seabird...... colonies in Greenland is compiled in a database maintained by NERI-AE. This report presents data on distribution, population numbers and population trends of 19 species of breeding colonial seabirds in western Greenland. Distributions are depicted on maps in Fig. 18-39. It is apparent that the major...... colonies are found in the northern part of the region, viz. Upernavik and Avanersuaq. The numbers of birds recorded in the database for each species are presented in Tab. 4, and on the basis of these figures estimates of the populations in western Greenland are given (Tab. 5). The most numerous species...

  1. Petrology of offshore basalts of Bombay harbour area, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Karisiddaiah, S.M.

    glass are conspicuous. The chemical data indicate that the basalts are tholeiitic. Secondary minerals encountered support the view that the basalts are spilitised. Basalts of this area show affinities to both continental and oceanic types especially...

  2. The sedimentology of uranium-bearing sandstones on the farm Riet Kuil 307, Beaufort West area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, D.I.

    1980-10-01

    The sedimentology of four sandstones was studied in outcrop and in the subsurface on the farm Riet Kuil 307, near Beaufort West. Only two of these sandstones are mineralised. These are four surface and two subsurface uranium anomalies and one surface uranium anomaly. The sedimentological study was made by means of 47 vertical profiles measured across and adjacent to the surface anomalies as well as 11 core-logs, which intersected the subsurface anomalies. The unmineralised sandstones are included in this study. A total of 19 sedimentary facies was recognised within the fluvial sandstone sequence according to the criteria of grain-size and sedimentary structure. Transitions between the facies were subjected to a Markov chain analysis in order to delineate Markov-dependent transitions. Uranium mineralisation is almost entirely confined to the coarser-grained sedimentary facies, which probably acted as suitable aquifers for the transport of uraniferous solutions prior to the precipitation of the uranium. Horizontally bedded sandstone facies comprises 60 per cent of the total cumulative thickness of mineralisation. The nature of the bedding of this facies may have provided a more effective permeability zone for the transport of uraniferous solutions. This facies contains an abundance of carbonaceous material which acted as an important indirect reductant for the precipitation of uranium from solution. The direct reductant was most probably H 2 S produced by enaerobic bacteria acting on this carbonaceous material shortly after deposition of the sediments. Carbonaceous material also occurs in the other mineralised facies and is considered to be the major control on the mineralisation in the uranium-bearing sandstones

  3. Wastewater Treatment in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsdottir, Ragnhildur

    treatment in these regions. However, designing, constructing and operating wastewater collection systems in the Arctic is challenging because of e.g. permafrost conditions, hard rock surfaces, freezing, limited quantity of water and high costs of electricity, fuel and transportation, as well as a settlement...... or water saving toilets. This opens up for co-treatment of organic waste fractions. Freezing and thawing has also been recognised as being a cost-effective wastewater treatment method in cold regions. Thus it was chosen to concentrate on the effect of the mentioned processes, namely freezing, anaerobic...... spreading of nutrients, diseases and potential pollution issues. Due to the above mentioned challenges alternative treatment methods are needed, especially in small and remotely located communities. Decentralized solutions are well suited for Greenland. Ideal solutions should reduce the need for expensive...

  4. Annual Status Report (FY2015) Performance Assessment for the Disposal of Low-Level Waste in the 200 West Area Burial Grounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khaleel, R. [INTERA, Inc., Austin, TX (United States); Mehta, S. [CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, WA (United States); Nichols, W. E. [CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-01

    This annual review provides the projected dose estimates of radionuclide inventories disposed in the active 200 West Area Low-Level Burial Grounds (LLBGs) since September 26, 1988. These estimates area calculated using the original does methodology developed in the performance assessment (PA) analysis (WHC-EP-0645).

  5. Movements of female polar bears (Usrus maritimus) in the East Greenland pack ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiig, Øystein; Born, Erik W.; Pedersen, Leif Toudal

    2003-01-01

    The movements of two adult female polar bears (Ursus maritimus) in East Greenland and the Greenland Sea area were studied by use of satellite telemetry between the fall of 1994 and the summer of 1998. One female was tracked for 621 days, the other for 1,415 days. During this time the females used...... for a closer monitoring of the effects of this change on the East Greenland polar bear population....... movement rates varied between 0.32 and 0.76km/h. Both bears had very large home ranges (242,000 and 468,000 km(2)) within the dynamic pack ice of the Greenland Sea. The facts that the bears made extensive use of the offshore sea ice and that there is a marked reduction of the Greenland Sea ice call...

  6. Exploring Greenland: science and technology in Cold War settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymann, Matthias; Knudsen, Henrik; Lolck, Maiken L; Nielsen, Henry; Nielsen, Kristian H; Ries, Christopher J

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores a vacant spot in the Cold War history of science: the development of research activities in the physical environmental sciences and in nuclear science and technology in Greenland. In the post-war period, scientific exploration of the polar areas became a strategically important element in American and Soviet defence policy. Particularly geophysical fields like meteorology, geology, seismology, oceanography, and others profited greatly from military interest. While Denmark maintained formal sovereignty over Greenland, research activities were strongly dominated by U.S. military interests. This paper sets out to summarize the limited current state of knowledge about activities in the environmental physical sciences in Greenland and their entanglement with military, geopolitical, and colonial interests of both the USA and Denmark. We describe geophysical research in the Cold War in Greenland as a multidimensional colonial endeavour. In a period of decolonization after World War II, Greenland, being a Danish colony, became additionally colonized by the American military. Concurrently, in a period of emerging scientific internationalism, the U.S. military "colonized" geophysical research in the Arctic, which increasingly became subject to military directions, culture, and rules.

  7. Design, operations, and maintenance of the soil vapor extraction systems for the 200 West Area Carbon Tetrachloride Expedited Response Action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tranbarger, R.K.

    1996-05-01

    This report provides the design, operating, and maintenance guidelines for the soil vapor extraction (SVE) systems implemented as part of the 200 West Area Carbon Tetrachloride ERA. Additionally, this document provides general information regarding the ERA, the SVE system design, and the general approach towards soil vapor extraction. The remaining content of this document includes the following: regulatory compliance; summary of vadose zone physical and containment characteristics; past and present SVE system designs and potential design upgrades; general design and monitoring considerations for the SVE systems; descriptions of the SVE system components and their respective functions; safety requirements; operation of the SVE systems including startup, surveillances, shutdown, GAC canister changeouts, and wellfield characterization; monitoring requirements; SVE optimization; and instrument calibrations, preventive maintenance, and spare parts and site inventory requirements

  8. Effectiveness of training on infant feeding practices among community influencers in a rural area of west Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haldar, A; Ray, S; Biswas, R; Biswas, B; Mukherjee, D

    2001-01-01

    Total 34 Influencers were trained in a subcentre area of South 24-parganas district of West Bengal. Knowledge was imparted to community influencers on infant feeding practices through lecture, group discussion, question-answer session and hand-on-training by trained health workers. Pre-assessment was done before initiation of training. Repeat training was conducted at frequent intervals within a period of 3 months. Mean score of knowledge of influencers during pre-training assessment was 13.3 and improved thereafter-following training to 20.8 (1st assessment), 20.6 (2nd assessment), 23.7 (3rd assessment) and 25.2 (final-assessment). Repeat training had also desired impact.

  9. Job Satisfaction and Work Performance of Public Secondary School Teachers In Akoko North West Local Government Area Of Ondo State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aroge Stephen Talabi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the relationship between job satisfaction and work performance of secondary school teachers in Akoko North West Local Government Area of Ondo-State, Nigeria. The study population consisted of all secondary school teachers, while two hundred of them were randomly selected for the study. Regular payment of salary, opportunities for promotion, rapport with school authority, in-service training, job security, career prospect and retirement benefits were the variables considered. The questionnaire titled “Workers Opinion Survey Inventory (WOSI” and the Productivity Rating Scale (PRS which was in line with Annual Performance Evaluation Report (APPER was used to obtain information for the study. The data was analyzed using Pearson Product Correlation Moment.  One of the recommendations made include the onward review of policies, remuneration and work conditions of teachers in the public secondary schools in Nigeria for optimum productivity.

  10. Millennia of magmatism recorded in crustal xenoliths from alkaline provinces in Southwest Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smit, Matthijs; Waight, Tod Earle; Nielsen, Troels

    2016-01-01

    Neoproterozoic alkaline provinces in West Greenland: 1)Sarfartôq, which overlies Archean ultra-depleted SCLM and yielded ultra-deep mineral indicators, and 2)Sisimiut, where the SCLM is refertilized and deep xenoliths (>120km) are lacking. We focused on the rare and understudied crustal xenoliths, which preserve...

  11. First record of Taenia ovis krabbei muscle cysts in muskoxen from Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raundrup, Katrine; Al-Sabi, Mohammad M; Kapel, Christian Moliin Outzen

    2012-01-01

    A first record of Taenia ovis krabbei muscle cysts in a muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus) from the Kangerlussuaq population in West Greenland suggests that introduced muskoxen now contributes to the transmission of this parasite in addition to previous observations from caribou (Rangtfer tarandus...

  12. Tomographic SAR analysis of subsurface ice structure in Greenland: first results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banda, Francesco; Dall, Jørgen; Tebaldini, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    structure with P-band SAR tomography. First results from ESA IceSAR 2012 campaign carried out in south-west Greenland are presented. It is found that significant penetration in the upper layers of glacial subsurface can be achieved up to an extent of about 20–60 m, conditional on the different type...

  13. The peripheral olfactory organ in the Greenland shark Somniosus microcephalus (Bloch and Schneider, 1801

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Ghigliotti

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Greenland shark Somniosus microcephalus (Bloch and Schneider, 1801 is the largest predatory fish in Arctic waters. The socio-economic significance of Greenland shark is demonstrated by its impact on the fishing cultures in Greenland, Scandinavia and Iceland for centuries. The fundamental biology and ecological role of Greenland shark, on the other hand, is virtually unknown. Although knowledge of its life history is limited, increasing evidence indicates that the Greenland shark may undertake long-distance migrations and perform vertical movements from the surface to the deep sea. It is an omnivorous species feeding on carrion and a wide variety of pelagic and bottom-dwelling organisms ranging from invertebrates to mammals, and including active species such as fishes and seals. Accordingly, Greenland shark should be recognized as a top predator, with a strong potential to influence the trophic dynamics of the Arctic marine ecosystem. The sensory biology of Greenland shark is scarcely studied, and considering the importance of olfaction in chemoreception, feeding and other behavioral traits, we examined the architecture of the peripheral olfactory organ where olfactory cues are received from the environment – the olfactory rosette. The structural organization of the olfactory rosette, in terms of histological features of the sensory epithelium, number of primary lamellae and total sensory surface area, provides a first proxy of the olfactory capability of Greenland shark. Based on own results and published studies, the overall morphology of the olfactory rosette is viewed in context of the functional and trophic ecology among other elasmobranch species.

  14. Quality of life among menopausal women: A community-based study in a rural area of West Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmakar, Nabarun; Majumdar, Somak; Dasgupta, Aparajita; Das, Sulagna

    2017-01-01

    During menopausal transition, there is a lot of fluctuation in the hormone levels making the peri and postmenopausal women susceptible to various mental and physical disorders. There is considerably lack of awareness about the effects of the menopausal symptoms in women in India. Studies on issues relating to menopause, especially among rural women, are also lacking. With this background, the current study was carried out in a rural area of West Bengal with the objective to assess the quality of life (QOL) of peri-menopausal women. The study was carried out among 100 peri and postmenopausal women (40-60 years) in Dearah village of West Bengal which is the rural field practice area of All India Institute of Hygiene and Public Health during February-March 2014. The questionnaire used as study tool had two parts - Part 1: Sociodemographic characteristics. Part 2: About QOL due to menopausal symptoms based on four domains (vasomotor, psychosocial, physical, and sexual) using the 29-item Menopause-Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire. Occurrence of vasomotor symptoms was average with 60% of them reporting hot flushes and 47% sweating. Most prevalent psychosocial symptoms reported were feeling of anxiety and nervousness (94%) and overall depression (88%). Physical symptoms were quite varying in occurrence with some symptoms such as feeling tired or worn out, decrease in physical strength and lack of energy occurring in 93% of the women to only 5% suffering from growth of facial hair. Overall sexual changes were reported among 49% who reported of avoiding intimacy with a partner and 26% complained of vaginal dryness. The results support that menopause causes both physical and psychiatric problems. Education, creating awareness and providing suitable intervention to improve their QOL are important which should be imparted to menopausal women at both individual and community level.

  15. Water Resources And Geomorphologic Characteristics Of Tushka Area, West Of Lake Nasser, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elewa, H.H.

    2003-01-01

    The main geomorphologic and drainage characteristics of the Tushka area were delineated through the interpretation of Landsat TM image. The study area displays physiographic features indicative of previous wet climatic conditions. The Nubia aquifer system in the region has a wide extension in the study area and rests un conformably on the Precambrian rocks. The River Nile has its own bearing on the hydrogeological regime of the Tushka and neighbouring areas of Lake Nasser. Comparison of the available data concerning the water levels of Lake Nasser above its submerged bottom (which involves elevations ranging from 50 to 90 m. (a. s. 1.) according to the recorded data between 1964 and 1996), with the static water levels of the groundwater wells reaching the deeper horizons of the Nubia Sandstone aquifer system in the Tushka basin area, suggests that the River Nile acts mostly as an influent stream. However, in some cases, when the static water levels of some deep water-bearing horizons reaches levels above those of the bottom of the lake, water flows from the groundwater reservoirs towards the river which acts as an effluent stream. Other wells have low static water levels compared to those of the bottom of the lake, and the waters of the River Nile most probably recharge the groundwater of these deeper water-bearing horizons of the Nubian aquifer. The prepared equi potentiometric contour map confirms this conclusion as it indicates that the maximum potentiometric level is attained in the north western part of Lake Nasser (at contour 80, near Well No. 12) whereas the minimum potentiometric level is encountered in a small area around Well No. 6 (at contour 50). Hence, the groundwater flow is generally towards Lake Nasser. However, in some instances, it is also moving in an adverse direction. The hydrogeological condition of the study area was conducted based on the variation in lithology, areal extent, recharge and productivity. The study revealed that the Nubia

  16. Prevalence of hemoglobinopathy, ABO and rhesus blood groups in rural areas of West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bikash Mondal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hemoglobinopathies are a group of inherited disorders of hemoglobin synthesis. It could be formed a fatal scenario in concern of lacking of actual information. Beside this, ABO and Rh blood grouping are also important matter in transfusion and forensic medicine and to reduce new born hemolytic disease (NHD. Materials and Methods: The spectrum and prevalence of various hemoglobinopathies, ABO and rhesus (Rh blood groups was screened among patients who visited B.S. Medical College and Hospital, Bankura, West Bengal, India. This study was carried out on 958 patients of different ages ranging from child to adults from January to June 2011. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, complete blood count (CBC and hemagglutination technique were performed for the assessment of abnormal hemoglobin variants, ABO and Rh blood groups, respectively. Results: Results from this study had been shown that there was high prevalence of hemoglobinpathies (27.35% where β-thalassemia in heterozygous state occurred more frequent than other hemoglobinopathies. Out of 958 patients, 72.65% were HbAA and 27.35% were hemoglobinopathies individuals where 17.64% β-thalassemia heterozygous, 2.92% β-thalassemia homozygous, 3.86% HbAE, 1.15% HbAS trait, 1.25% HbE-β thalassemia trait and 0.52% HbS-β thalassemia trait were found. No incidence of HbSS, HbSC, HbCC, HbD and other variants of hemoglobinpathies were observed. The gene frequencies with respect to ABO systems had been shown as O > B > A > AB. Blood group O was the highest (35.8% and the least percentage distribution was blood group AB (6.68%. Rhesus positive (Rh+ were 97.7%, while the remaining was 2.3% Rhesus negative (Rh-. The frequencies of A + , B + , AB +, and O + blood groups were 22.44%, 33.61%, 6.58%, and 35.07%, respectively. Conclusions: Remarkable percentages of hemoglobinopathies were prevalent from the present study. An extensive screening of the population is needed to assess the

  17. Prevalence of hemoglobinopathy, ABO and rhesus blood groups in rural areas of West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Bikash; Maiti, Soumyajit; Biswas, Biplab Kumar; Ghosh, Debidas; Paul, Shyamapada

    2012-08-01

    Hemoglobinopathies are a group of inherited disorders of hemoglobin synthesis. It could be formed a fatal scenario in concern of lacking of actual information. Beside this, ABO and Rh blood grouping are also important matter in transfusion and forensic medicine and to reduce new born hemolytic disease (NHD). The spectrum and prevalence of various hemoglobinopathies, ABO and rhesus (Rh) blood groups was screened among patients who visited B.S. Medical College and Hospital, Bankura, West Bengal, India. This study was carried out on 958 patients of different ages ranging from child to adults from January to June 2011. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), complete blood count (CBC) and hemagglutination technique were performed for the assessment of abnormal hemoglobin variants, ABO and Rh blood groups, respectively. Results from this study had been shown that there was high prevalence of hemoglobinpathies (27.35%) where β-thalassemia in heterozygous state occurred more frequent than other hemoglobinopathies. Out of 958 patients, 72.65% were HbAA and 27.35% were hemoglobinopathies individuals where 17.64% β-thalassemia heterozygous, 2.92% β-thalassemia homozygous, 3.86% HbAE, 1.15% HbAS trait, 1.25% HbE-β thalassemia trait and 0.52% HbS-β thalassemia trait were found. No incidence of HbSS, HbSC, HbCC, HbD and other variants of hemoglobinpathies were observed. The gene frequencies with respect to ABO systems had been shown as O > B > A > AB. Blood group O was the highest (35.8%) and the least percentage distribution was blood group AB (6.68%). Rhesus positive (Rh+) were 97.7%, while the remaining was 2.3% Rhesus negative (Rh-). The frequencies of A(+), B(+), AB(+,) and O(+) blood groups were 22.44%, 33.61%, 6.58%, and 35.07%, respectively. Remarkable percentages of hemoglobinopathies were prevalent from the present study. An extensive screening of the population is needed to assess the prevalence of hemoglobinopathies, which will help in identification of

  18. COMMUNITY SCREENING FOR PCOS AMONGST ADOLESCENT GIRLS IN A SEMIURBAN AREA IN WEST BENGAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayanta Pal

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Adolescent PCOS in many cases is considered to be the forerunner of type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases in women. Therefore, early detection of PCOS existing in adolescent period and implementation of appropriate lifestyle measures will hopefully have long-term endocrinometabolic beneficial effect. The aim of the study is to assess the prevalence of PCOS in adolescent girls who are otherwise symptomless and/or having trivial symptoms, which according to such girls and their parents do not mandate any medical attention whatsoever. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of 2015 adolescent school girls of West Bengal, India, were enquired about their age of initiation of menarche and current menstrual cyclicity like oligomenorrhoea, hypomenorrhoea or secondary amenorrhoea. They were also examined for clinical features of androgen excess like acne/abnormal hair growth (hirsutism. Girls exhibiting any one such symptom or sign like history oligomenorrhoea, which is persisting two years beyond the initiation of menarche and/or having excessive acne and or hirsutism were primarily labeled as “probable PCOS” and later evaluated by endocrine assessment and sonography. RESULTS Out of 2015 adolescent girls interviewed at school premises, there were as many as 307 adolescent girls who disclosed that they have either oligomenorrhoea and/or were noticed to have acne/hirsutism giving rise to a prevalence rate of 15.23% of probable PCOS by symptom alone. But, when laboratory examinations were completed, the actual prevalence rate came down to 13.1%, because few girls neither had raised serum testosterone, the hallmark of androgen excess disorders nor do they exhibit PCOS morphology in ultrasonography. As many as 84.77% students had no abnormal history or clinical feature to suggest PCOS. But, what worries authors is that, there is raised prevalence of adolescent PCOS in comparison to a similar study carried out at South India where

  19. Greenland Ice sheet mass balance from satellite and airborne altimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Shfaqat Abbas; Bevis, M. G.; Wahr, J. M.

    Ice loss from the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) is dominated by loss in the marginal areas. Dynamic induced ice loss and its associated ice surface lowering is often largest close to the glacier calving front and may vary from rates of tens of meters per years to a few meters per year over relatively...... short distances. Hence, high spatial resolution data are required to accurately estimate volume changes. Here, we estimate ice volume change rate of the Greenland ice sheet using data from Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) laser altimeter during 2003-2009 and CryoSat-2 data during 2010...

  20. Greenlandic postcoloniality and the predicament of prosperity inducing climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars

    Greenland’s independence from its former colonial power, Denmark. In Denmark there has been an equally intense debate, which unsurprisingly is of a very different nature. Part of the debate here has been over, whether Greenland has indeed the right to decide over its resources, something agreed...... to in the agreement laying the foundation for Greenland’s self-government (2009), another part has been whether Denmark should allow Chinese workers, not working under Danish conditions, to immigrate to Greenland – an area where Denmark can still exercise its sovereignty. And there are, of course, several other...

  1. Skeletal fluorosis in relation to drinking water in rural areas of West Azerbaijan, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Ali Akbar; Yousefi, Mahmood; Yaseri, Mehdi; Jalilzadeh, Mohsen; Mahvi, Amir Hossein

    2017-12-11

    Skeletal fluorosis resulting from high fluoride level in drinking water is a major public health problem. The present study evaluated the association between exposures to drinking water fluoride and skeletal fluorosis in 5 villages of Poldasht County, Iran. All the data and information on the prevalence of bone diseases were obtained from the Health Record Department, Poldasht Health Centre. To obtain the odds ratio of bone disease problem in different risk factors, when considering the cluster effect of rural area, logistic regression in a multilevel model was used. Results showed that skeletal fluorosis of people who live in areas with high fluoride concentration is 18.1% higher than that of individuals who live in areas with low fluoride concentration. Skeletal fluorosis (54.5%) was observed in the age group of 71 years and above, and was more commonly found in females than males. According to Unadjusted, individuals who consume ≤3 unit milk and dairy products per week have almost the same level of bone diseases as compared to those that consume more than 3 units. This study indicated that, skeletal fluorosis is a general health problem in these rural areas because the results revealed that high percentage of the studied population had symptoms of skeletal fluorosis.

  2. Regional relationships between climate and wildfire-burned area in the interior West, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon M. Collins; Philip N. Omi; Phillip L. Chapman

    2006-01-01

    Recent studies have linked the Atlantic Multtidecadal Oscillation (AMO) and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) with drought occurrence in the interior United States. This study evaluates the influence of AM0 and PDO phases on interannual relationships between climate and wildfire-burned area during the 20th century. Palmer's Drought Severity Index (PDSI) is...

  3. Quantitative risk assessment of the New York State operated West Valley Radioactive Waste Disposal Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrick, B John; Stetkar, John W; Bembia, Paul J

    2010-08-01

    This article is based on a quantitative risk assessment (QRA) that was performed on a radioactive waste disposal area within the Western New York Nuclear Service Center in western New York State. The QRA results were instrumental in the decision by the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority to support a strategy of in-place management of the disposal area for another decade. The QRA methodology adopted for this first of a kind application was a scenario-based approach in the framework of the triplet definition of risk (scenarios, likelihoods, consequences). The measure of risk is the frequency of occurrence of different levels of radiation dose to humans at prescribed locations. The risk from each scenario is determined by (1) the frequency of disruptive events or natural processes that cause a release of radioactive materials from the disposal area; (2) the physical form, quantity, and radionuclide content of the material that is released during each scenario; (3) distribution, dilution, and deposition of the released materials throughout the environment surrounding the disposal area; and (4) public exposure to the distributed material and the accumulated radiation dose from that exposure. The risks of the individual scenarios are assembled into a representation of the risk from the disposal area. In addition to quantifying the total risk to the public, the analysis ranks the importance of each contributing scenario, which facilitates taking corrective actions and implementing effective risk management. Perhaps most importantly, quantification of the uncertainties is an intrinsic part of the risk results. This approach to safety analysis has demonstrated many advantages of applying QRA principles to assessing the risk of facilities involving hazardous materials.

  4. An integrated village maternity service to improve referral patterns in a rural area in West-Java.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alisjahbana, A; Williams, C; Dharmayanti, R; Hermawan, D; Kwast, B E; Koblinsky, M

    1995-06-01

    The Regionalization of Perinatal Care, an intervention study carried out in Tanjungsari, a subdistrict in rural West Java, aimed to develop a comprehensive maternal health program to improve maternal and perinatal health outcomes. The main inputs included training at all levels of the health care system (informal and formal) and the establishment of birthing homes in villages to make services more accessible. Special attention was given to referral, transportation, communication and appropriate case management, A social marketing program was conducted to inform people of the accessible birthing homes for clean delivery, located near the women, and with better transportation and communications to referral facilities should complications arise. The study design was longitudinal, following all pregnant women from early pregnancy until 42 days postpartum in an intervention and a comparison area. The population was +/- 90,000 in the intervention area and 40,000 in the comparison area. Inclusion criteria were all mother and infant units delivered between June 1st, 1992 and May 31st, 1993. Analysis showed the following results: Most women sought antenatal care (> 95%). In Tanjungsari, nearly 90% sought such care from professional providers as versus 75% in the control area of Cisalak. Most women with bleeding or bleeding and edema during pregnancy sought professional assistance in both the study and control areas. However, fever for more than 3 days received more attention in the study area versus control area (93 vs. 69%). Greater than 85% of deliveries in both areas were conducted by TBAs. However, in the study area, nearly one-third of those with intrapartum complications (17%) delivered in a health facility compared to one-tenth in the control area. This meant a hospital delivery, primarily with assistance of a doctor or doctor/midwife combination. Overall referral rates by TBAs were low -13% of women with complications in Tanjungsari and 6% in Cisalak. More women

  5. Farmers’ perceptions towards agroforestry systems in Babanosa Area, West Kordofan State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Eldin Mohammed Fadl

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in Eltemada, Boli and Umghoghai villages at Babanosa area in El-salam locality, South Kordofan State during 2012 and 2013. The objectives were to (1 identify and assess the most important agroforestry systems, (2 to investigate the main factors that affecting the sustainability of the systems, (3 to determine the important field crops that cultivated with trees and (4 to evaluate the effect of the agroforestry systems on the yield of the traditional field crops. For accomplishment of these study 80 questioners was designed and distributed in the selected villages. After the data collection data was analyzed by using descriptive statistic. The results showed that the most important agroforestry systems in the study area are parkland cropping system (58%, boundary planting (26%, wind-breaks (13% and alley cropping (3%.The most important forest trees in the study area are Acacia senegal (32%, Ziziphus spina- christia (28%, Balanites aegeyptiaca (26%, Sclerocary birrea and Guera senegalensis (3%. The main field crops in the study area are groundnut (44%, sorghum (35% and roselle (21%. The results showed that yield of groundnut and sorghum is higher under agroforestry systems compared with the mono-cropping system. The results showed that the majority of respondents (70% prefer to cultivate field crops in agroforestry system, while (30% prefer to cultivate the field crops in a mono-cropping system. The cultivation methods used in the study area include shifting cultivation (52%, mono-cropping (36% and intercropping (12%.The majority of respondents (94% showed that trees improve soil fertility in their farm land. The benefits from trees in farm land include improvement of soil properties (36%, protecting the farm land from wind erosion (28%, improvement of micro-climate (24% and source of income which was indicated by (12% of the respondents. The study recommended that modern agroforestry system such as improved fallow system

  6. Hydrologic Outlets of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Hydrologic Outlets of the Greenland Ice Sheet data set contains GIS point shapefiles that include 891 observed and potential hydrologic outlets of the Greenland...

  7. Post-colonial identity in Greenland?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gad, Ulrik Pram

    2009-01-01

    could be furthered by bringing politics back in. Based on a discourse analysis of the Greenlandic debate on language, this paper makes three claims: First, the identity projects promoted in Greenland are based on an essentialist conception of identity. Secondly, Greenlandic identity discourse combines......In the gradual unravelling of Greenland’s colonial relationship to Denmark, an essentialist conceptualization of Greenlandic identity has played a significant role. However, both our scholarly understanding of post-colonial Greenlandic identity and the process towards independence for Greenland...... elements of traditional Inuit culture and elements of colonial modernity. Thirdly, monolingual Greenlanders are those with the most to gain from abandoning the dichotomy of essentialist identities. Strategically, the paper suggests a post-post-colonial Greenlandic identity as a means of avoiding...

  8. Cadmium, mercury, zinc and selenium in ringed seals (Phoca hispida from Greenland and Svalbard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Run Dietz

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Muscle, liver, and kidney tissue from 456 ringed seals (Phoca hispida from eight areas in Greenland were analysed for cadmium, mercury, zinc and selenium. In general, cadmium concentrations were high in liver and kidney tissue, with geometric means of 7.79 and 33.5 μg/g (all data on wet weight basis, respectively. Muscle levels were considerably lower, at 0.067 μg/g. The concentration of mercury was relatively high in liver tissue with a geometric mean of 2.59 μg/g. Muscle and kidney mercury levels were somewhat lower, with geometric means of 0.210 and 0.956 μg/g, respectively. Cadmium and mercury levels were strongly dependent upon age and sampling area, as well as the interaction combinations, indicating that the accumulation of cadmium and mercury varies with age and area. Mercury accumulated in all three tissues throughout life, whereas cadmium in liver and kidneys peaked in the age group 5-10 years old where after it dropped significantly. Cadmium levels showed a tendency towards higher concentrations in the northern municipalities, which may be due to the higher cadmium levels in certain prey items in the northern areas. Mercury levels were higher in seals from East Greenland compared to West Greenland. Variations in feeding habits probably explain some of the differences in levels of cadmium and mercury in ringed seals from different geographical areas. Cadmium concentrations were correlated (both pairwise and partial in the three organs. This was true for mercury as well, whereas only half of the combinations were significant for zinc and selenium. Cadmium was strongly correlated to mercury in all three tissues and zinc only in liver and kidneys. Mercury was only correlated to selenium in liver and not to zinc. High concentrations of cadmium were found in the bile from 58 ringed seals, and were about 10-fold higher than in muscle. The concentration of mercury in bile was relatively low, being only one third of the

  9. Resistance Detection of Aedes aegypti Larvae to Cypermethrin from Endemic Area in Cimahi City West Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang Puji Astuti

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Vector control programs using chemical insecticide e.g organochlorin, organophosphate, carbamate, and pyrethroid (cypermethrin. When those insecticides were applied continuously, it may lead to vector resistance. The aim of this research was to detect any resistance of Ae. aegypti to cypermethrin in endemic areas of Cimahi. This research is a laboratory study that used biochemical test which referred to Lee’s method. Larva samples were collected from 8 villages, which are endemic area. Samples of larvae were collected from 15 villages belonged to dengue endemic areas in town of Cimahi, however, villages that meet the availability of larvae were only 8 villages. To detect the activity of monooxygenase enzyme, a biochemical assay was used in this research by created a reaction between larvae homogenate and sodium acetate substrate. The results of reaction were read using ELISA reader with spectrophotometer wave length of 595 nm. Overall, the results showed that most of the larvae in eight villages of Cimahi is still susceptible to cypermethrin. However, larvae from Cibabat village were 4% resistant, 2% tolerant, and 94% susceptible. On the other hand, Cigugur village showed that 12.7% larvae were tolerant and 87.3% still susceptible. Other villages like Cimahi, Cibeureum, Melong, Baros, Cipageran, and Pasirkaliki still remains susceptible. Resistance detection using biochemical assay of cypermethrin insecticide for Ae.aegypti resulting data stated that in 6 villages were still susceptible but in 3 other villages were already tolerant and 1 village was already resistance.

  10. Audit report from Greenland on nurses’ tasks and perceived competency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nexøe, Jørgen; Skifte, Ella; Niclasen, Birgit

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Despite all efforts, recruitment of healthcare personnel has become increasingly difficult in Greenland as in other remote areas. The aim of this observational study was to describe the extent of health care delivered by nurses in Greenland’s healthcare system. Reasons for encounter...

  11. Geochemistry of Archaean supracrustal belts in SW Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szilas, Kristoffer

    This PhD-thesis investigates the geological formation environment of c. 3200-3000 million-year-old volcanic rocks from SW Greenland, using whole-rock geochemical data in combination with U-Pb, Sm-Nd and Lu-Hf isotope data. The following three supracrustal areas were studied: (1) The Tartoq Group ...

  12. Tidal Movement of Nioghalvfjerdsfjorden Glacier, Northeast Greenland: Observations and Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reeh, Niels; Mayer, C.; Olesen, O. B.

    2000-01-01

    Nioghalvfjerdsfjorden glacier is a > 60 km long and 20 km wide floating outlet glacier located at 79 degrees 30' N, 22 degrees W, draining a large area of the northeast Greenland ice sheet. Climate, mass-balance and dynamics studies were carried out on the glacier in three field seasons in 1996...

  13. CT-scanning of ancient Greenlandic Inuit temporal bones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Homøe, P; Lynnerup, N; Videbaek, H

    1992-01-01

    Additional morphological evidence of former infectious middle ear disease (IMED) was found by CT-scanning in 5 of 6 Greenlandic Inuit crania strongly suspected for former IMED due to earlier examination revealing either bilateral hypocellularity or asymmetry of the pneumatized area of the temporal...

  14. Climatology of increased temperatures and melt at Swiss Camp, western slope of Greenland ice sheet, 1991-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffen, K.; McGrath, D.

    2013-12-01

    Climate observations (1991-2012) will be discussed from the Swiss Camp (69deg 33‧53″N, 49deg 19‧51″W, 1176 m), located at the western slope of the Greenland ice sheet, 60 km inland from Ilulissat. The mean annual temperature of -12 C increased 3.6 C between 1991 and 2012 (1.7 C per decade) with large interannual variability in all seasons. The mean spring temperature increased from -16.0 C to -13.8 C, and the fall temperature increased from -12.4 C to -11.3 C in the same time. The winter temperature showed the largest increase of 6.5 C, whereas summer temperatures increased 3.0 C during the 21 years (1991 - 2012). Radiation has been monitored continuously at Swiss Camp since 1993. Net radiation of 50 W/ m2 was recorded in 2012, the warmest summer month on record. The entire annual snow cover melted at Swiss Camp, reducing the monthly albedo value to 0.4 with bare ice exposed. Interannual variability of snow accumulation ranged between 0.07 and 0.70 m water equivalent, whereas annual snow and ice ablation varied between +0.35 (net gain) and -1.8 m (net loss) for the time period 1991-2012. The equilibrium line altitude (ELA) is no longer located at Swiss Camp (1176 m elevation) with a net surface lowering of 9.5 m since 1991. Increasing summer air temperatures have resulted in an upward migration of both the percolation facies and ablation area of the Greenland ice sheet. The 0°C isothermal migrated upward at a rate of 35 m/a over the 1995-2012 period in West Greenland. There is a 50% probability of the mean annual dry snow line migrating above Summit by 2025, at which time Summit will experience routine melt on an annual basis. The surface mass balance observations similarly indicate that the ELA has migrated upwards at a rate of 44 m/a over the 1997-2011 period in West Greenland, resulting in a more than doubling of the ablation zone width during this period. Inter-annual variability of monthly mean albedo at the Swiss Camp (1993 - 2012). Albedo at 0.5 is

  15. Inuit dietary patterns in modern Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Peter; Jeppesen, Charlotte

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to apply two different approaches of dietary pattern definition to data from Greenland and to analyse the contemporary dietary patterns of the Inuit in Greenland in relation to urbanization and socio-economic positions.......The purpose of the study was to apply two different approaches of dietary pattern definition to data from Greenland and to analyse the contemporary dietary patterns of the Inuit in Greenland in relation to urbanization and socio-economic positions....

  16. Mineralogical investigations of the area to the North-West of Qattara Depression, Western Desert, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tosson, S.; Roshdy, H.M.K.

    2000-01-01

    Petrophysical and mineralogical investigations are given for subsurface samples from this area. The paper deals with mineralogical investigations of Middle Jurassic, Lower Cretaceous and Upper Cretaceous sedimentary rocks. It includes thin section examinations for 14 samples of sandstone, siltstone and carbonates, and x-ray powder diffraction analyses of some argillaceous samples, untreated and glycolated. It was found that the kaolinite group is the main clay mineral recorded in the argillaceous sandstone and siltstone samples. Illite and montmorillonite are identified in the shale sample representing the Kharita Formation. Siderite was also recorded in the sample. Illite and montmorillonite were recorded as well as kaolinite in two siltstone samples. (Author)

  17. Biogeochemical investigations in areas of copper-tin mineralization in south-west England

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millman, A P

    1957-01-01

    Semi-quantitative methods of spectrographic analysis have been employed for the determination of Cu, Sn, Zn, Pb, and Ag in the leaves and twigs of a variety of trees growing in an area of copper-tin mineralization on the borders of Cornwall and Devon. The distribution of these ore metals in the soil profiles was also determined. Ore-negative (background) values have been derived for the trees and the soils, and these are compared with the results of earlier work in Southern Nigeria and Northern Rhodesia. 20 references, 4 tables.

  18. Prescribing practice for malaria following introduction of artemether-lumefantrine in an urban area with declining endemicity in West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conway David J

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The decline in malaria coinciding with the introduction of newer, costly anti-malarials has prompted studies into the overtreatment for malaria mostly in East Africa. The study presented here describes prescribing practices for malaria at health facilities in a West African country. Methods Cross-sectional surveys were carried out in two urban Gambian primary health facilities (PHFs during and outside the malaria transmission season. Facilities were comparable in terms of the staffing compliment and capability to perform slide microscopy. Patients treated for malaria were enrolled after consultations and blood smears collected and read at a reference laboratory. Slide reading results from the PHFs were compared to the reference readings and the proportion of cases treated but with a negative test result at the reference laboratory was determined. Results Slide requests were made for 33.2% (173 of those enrolled, being more frequent in children (0-15 yrs than adults during the wet season (p = 0.003. In the same period, requests were commoner in under-fives compared to older children (p = 0.022; however, a positive test result was 4.4 times more likely in the latter group (p = 0.010. Parasitaemia was confirmed for only 4.7% (10/215 and 12.5% (37/297 of patients in the dry and wet seasons, respectively. The negative predictive value of a PHF slide remained above 97% in both seasons. Conclusions The study provides evidence for considerable overtreatment for malaria in a West African setting comparable to reports from areas with similar low malaria transmission in East Africa. The data suggest that laboratory facilities may be under-used, and that adherence to negative PHF slide results could significantly reduce the degree of overtreatment. The "peak prevalence" in 5-15 year olds may reflect successful implementation of malaria control interventions in under-fives, but point out the need to extend such interventions to older

  19. Chldren's rights and corporal punishment in Assendabo town and the surrounding area, South West Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Admassu, Fisseha; Nida, Hailu; Belachew, Tefera; Haileamlak, Abraham

    2006-01-01

    Corporal punishment of children has been used as a disciplinary measure to modify undesirable behavior of children worldwide. This study was conducted with the aim of determining the knowledge, attitudes and the extent that corporal punishment is practiced in the study area. A cross-sectional study was conducted among the residents of Assendabo town and its surroundings area form January 8-12, 2003. A total of 368 residents with at least one child living with them were selected and interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Data were analyzed using SPSS for windows version 11.0. The study revealed 310 (87.6%) of the parents employed child corporal punishment as a method of disciplining out of which nearly half of them claimed their action was for the ultimate benefit of their children. Only 12 (3.5%) of the parents reported infliction of trauma while punishing their children. There was no significant parental difference both in attitude and practice of child corporal punishment. Family income is found to affect both attitude and practice of corporal punishment. From this study it is concluded that the knowledge about the existence of a legal framework which protects a child from any form of abuse is low. The attitude towards avoidance of child corporal punishment is unfavorable and there is a high prevalence of child corporal punishment practiced.

  20. Seismic modifications to the Hot and Suspect Repair area Argone National Laboratory - West

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, L.E.; Harris, B.G.

    1993-01-01

    The ANL-W WIPP Waste Facility Enhancement Project required substantial remodeling and upgrades to the Hot Fuels Examination Facility (HFEF) building, including the Hot and Suspect Repair Area (HSRA). The HSRA is an enclosed single-storied area inside the HFEF. It is separated into several compartments, some of which are used for handling radioactive materials. The HSRA roof consists of 18 GA steel Robertson Q decking with 1.5 in. concrete topping, and is utilized for storage. Braced steel frames support the HSRA roof, except at the north side, where the steel beams are connected to the HFEF columns. The HSRA has hollow block masonry perimeter and interior walls. Seismic evaluations concluded that the HSRA did not have a competent seismic force resisting system. The structure was upgraded by decoupling it from the HFEF framing for N/S motions, modifying two existing braced frames, adding a new braced frame that can be removed temporarily during maintenance and strengthening the roof diaphragm by a unique modification consisting of special epoxy grout and steel plates installed over the existing concrete roof

  1. Seismic modifications to the hot suspect repair area Argonne National Laboratory, West

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, L.E.; Harris, B.G.

    1993-01-01

    The ANL-W WIPP Waste Facility Enhancement Project required substantial remodeling and upgrades to the Hot Fuels Examination Facility (HFEF) building, including the Hot and Suspect Repair Area (HSRA). The HSRA is an enclosed single-stoned area inside the HFEF. It is separated into several compartments, some of which are used for handling radioactive materials. The HSRA roof consists of 18 GA steel Robertson Q decking with 1.5 in. concrete topping, and is utilized for storage. Braced steel frames support the HSRA roof, except at the north side, where the steel beams arc connected to the HFEF columns. The HSRA has hollow block masonry perimeter and interior walls. Seismic evaluations concluded that the HSRA did not have a competent seismic force resisting system. The structure was upgraded by decoupling it from the HFEF framing for N/S motions, modifying two existing braced frames, adding a now braced frame that can be removed temporarily during maintenance and strengthening the roof diaphragm by a unique modification consisting of special epoxy grout and steel plates installed over the existing concrete roof

  2. Sustainable Mobile Tourist Hut for Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qu, Jing; Villumsen, O.; Villumsen, Arne

    Greenland is experiencing growing tourism in recent years, which increases demand for tourists’ accommodation. Small huts are a traditional way for overnight stays in Greenland due to scattered population and lack of infrastructure. However, the existing huts in Greenland cannot provide satisfact...

  3. Environmental radioactivity in Greenland in 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarkrog, A.; Lippert, J.

    1975-07-01

    Measurements of fall-out radioactivity in Greenland in 1974 are reported. Strontium 90 (and Caesium-137 in most cases) was determined in samples of precipitation, sea water, vegetation, animals, and drinking water. Estimates are given of the mean contents of 90 Sr and 137 Cs in the human diet in Greenland in 1974. Three Greenlanders were measured by wholebody counting. (author)

  4. Lethal Area 50 in Patients with Burn Injuries in North West, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Mirza Aghazadeh

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In view of their considerably high rates of mortality and morbidity, burns are still viewed as one of the most important health-threatening environmental hazards imposing a significant burden on the health care system in low and middle-income countries. This study seeks to determine the lethal area fifty percent (LA50 in all burn patients admitted over a period of five years and the factors influencing mortality in burn injuries. Methods: This study was a cross-sectional carried out from 2010 to 2014 in Sina Hospital of Tabriz, 1226 participant including 319 women, 346 men, 272 girls, and 289 boys were selected through stratified sampling. The demographic and clinical data of patients ( their age, gender, burn type, TBSA, the season and consequences of burning were all extracted and then analyzed, using descriptive statistics (measures of central tendency and variability and inferential statistics(chi-square and linear regressionat a significance level of 0.05. The LA50 was calculated through determining the relationship between the total body surface area and mortality rate (The extent of the body burns measured and recorded based on Lando Chart in hospitals. Results: The highest (47.6% and the lowest (3.8% rates of burns were observed among those aged below 16 and above 65, respectively. The majority of the participants were residents of cities (55.4%, married (34.6%, illiterate (56.6%, and housewives (14.8%. Most burns were caused by accidents (98.4% at home (90.6%. Most patients had suffered first- and second-degree burns (68.4%, with no inhalation damages (99.5%. Hot liquids were the main culprit in most of the burns (58.7% and the upper extremities were the most frequently affected areas (34.8%. There was .99 rise in mortality for every percent increase in TBSA, and there seemed to be a significant relationship between the age level and the eventual outcome- the higher the age, the more likely for the incident to end in death

  5. THE IMPACT OF SHRINKING HANFORD BOUNDARIES ON PERMITS FOR TOXIC AIR POLLUTANT EMISSIONS FROM THE HANFORD 200 WEST AREA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JOHNSON, R.E.

    2005-01-01

    This presentation (CE-580. Graduate Seminar) presents a brief description of an approach to use a simpler dispersion modeling method (SCREEN3) in conjunction with joint frequency tables for Hanford wind conditions to evaluate the impacts of shrinking the Hanford boundaries on the current permits for facilities in the 200 West Area. To fulfill requirements for the graduate student project (CE-702. Master's Special Problems), this evaluation will be completed and published over the next two years. Air toxic emissions play an important role in environmental quality and require a state approved permit. One example relates to containers or waste that are designated as Transuranic Waste (TRU), which are required to have venting devices due to hydrogen generation. The Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) determined that the filters used did not meet the definition of a ''pressure relief device'' and that a permit application would have to be submitted by the Central Waste Complex (CWC) for criteria pollutant and toxic air pollutant (TAP) emissions in accordance with Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-400 and 173-460. The permit application submitted in 2000 to Ecology used Industrial Source Code III (ISCIII) dispersion modeling to demonstrate that it was not possible for CWC to release a sufficient quantity of fugitive Toxic Air Pollutant emissions that could exceed the Acceptable Source Impact Levels (ASILs) at the Hanford Site Boundary. The modeled emission rates were based on the diurnal breathing in and out through the vented drums (approximately 20% of the drums), using published vapor pressure, molecular weight, and specific gravity data for all 600+ compounds, with a conservative estimate of one exchange volume per day (208 liters per drum). Two permit applications were submitted also to Ecology for the Waste Receiving and Processing Facility and the T Plant Complex. Both permit applications were based on the Central Waste Complex approach, and

  6. Dynamic model of forest area on flood zone of Padang City, West Sumatra Province-Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewata, Indang; Iswandi, U.

    2018-05-01

    The flood disaster has caused many harm to human life, and the change of watershed characteristic is one of the factors causing the flood disaster. The increase of deforestation due to the increase of water causes the occurrence of flood disaster in the rainy season. The research objective was to develop a dynamic model of forest on flood hazard zone using powersim 10.1. In model development, there are three scenarios: optimistic, moderate, and pessimistic. The study shows that in Padang there are about 13 percent of high flood hazard zones. Deforestation of 4.5 percent/year is one cause that may increased the flooding intensity in Padang. There will be 14 percent of total forest area when management policy of forest absence in 2050.

  7. Environmental Radiation Studies in Mn-Mines at Wadi Naseib Area, South West Sinai, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Said, A.F.; El-Galy, M.M.; El-Feky, M.G.; Mohamed, M.S.

    2005-01-01

    The activity concentrations of radon and thoron decay products beside the gamma dose rate of the naturally occurring radionuclides were measured and calculated in two underground manganese mines, M1 and M2 at Wadi Naseib area in Sinai. Radon daughters and thoron daughters working levels were calculated using Rolle method after measuring the alpha activity. The measurements were taken at different stations inside the two mines. The radiation levels were calculated at seven stations inside the first mine and at ten stations inside the second mine. It was found that, the radon daughter products have major effect while the thoron daughter products and -dose have the minor effect in U/G mines. These measurements will be considered in perspective with the ventilation required to lower the radon decay products inside the mine in order to establish adequate working level that conform with proper radiation safety requirements for workers inside these mines

  8. Environmental impact monitoring of U exploration activity in river water at Kalan Area West Kalimantan 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AS Soediro; A Dedi; A Djuhara; T Wismawati; A Nugroho; S Widarti

    2010-01-01

    U exploration at Kalan (Eko Remaja, Lemajung, Semut) will produce the environment impact of flora, fauna and society. The objective monitoring is to detect and measure the environmental change quality component caused by U exploration activity in river water at Kalan area. The monitoring were done by analyze river water sample were taken at the same place previously year. Analysis river water sample such as Ca, Mg, Fe, Ni, Zn, radioactivity U at Eko Remaja, Lemajung, Semut have shown nearly equal to the result of previous years and still below the limited value. Water quality Kalan (that scale 4.9 for Eko Remaja, Lemajung and 4.8 for Semut, it means, that's safe for environment. (author)

  9. The sedimentology of uranium-bearing sandstones on the farm Kaffersfontein 328, Beaufort West area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, D.I.

    1979-10-01

    The sedimentology of uranium-bearing sandstones on the farm Kaffersfontein 328 was studied by use of 23 vertical profiles measured across and adjacent to 3 mineralised deposits. The profiles consist of 18 field sections and 5 borehole logs. The vertical profiles basically consist of a succession of sedimentary facies. A total of 18 facies were recognised within the fluvial sandstone sequence according to the criteria of grain-size and sedimentary structures. Transitions between the facies were subjected to a Markov chain analysis in order to delineate Markov-dependent transitions. Uranium mineralisation coincides with areas of thicker sandstone, usually where channel over-deepening has taken place. It always occurs above the base of a channel, which often marks the base of the fluvial sandstone sequence. Irregularities in the base of the channel probably caused interruptions to the flow of uraniferous solutions and allowed sufficient time for the precipitation of the uranium. Carbonaceous debris is always associated with the mineralisation and most likely acted as an indirect reductant for the precipitation of uranium from solution. The direct reductant was most probably H 2 S produced by anaerobic bacteria acting on the carbonaceous debris. The mineralisation is confined to the coarser-grained sedimentary facies, which suggests that permeability was an important control on the mineralisation. These facies probably acted as suitable aquifers for the transport of uraniferous solutions. Horizontally bedded sandstone facies comprises 41 per cent of the total cumulative thickness of mineralisation. This facies represents a higher stream power and may consequently contain more carbonaceous material derived from plants, which were eroded from upstream areas. The nature of the bedding may also have provided a more effective permeability zone for the transport of uraniferous solutions prior to precipitation of the uranium

  10. A New Insight into Shale-Gas Accumulation Conditions and Favorable Areas of the Xinkailing Formation in the Wuning Area, North-West Jiangxi, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shangru Li

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In north-west Jiangxi, China, most shale-gas exploration has been focused on the Lower Cambrian Hetang and Guanyintang formations, whereas the Upper Ordovician Xinkailing formation shale has been ignored for years due to heavy weathering. This study systematically analyzed gas source conditions, reservoir conditions and gas-bearing ability in order to reveal the shale-gas accumulation conditions of the Xinkailing formation. The results show that the Xinkailing formation is characterized by thick deposition of black shale (10–80 m, high organic content (with total organic carbon between 1.18% and 3.11%, on average greater than 2%, relatively moderate thermal evolution (with vitrinite reflectance between 2.83% and 3.21%, high brittle-mineral content (greater than 40%, abundant nanopores and micro-fractures, very good adsorption ability (adsorption content between 2.12 m3/t and 3.47 m3/t, on average about 2.50 m3/t, and strong sealing ability in the underlying and overlying layers, all of which favor the generation and accumulation of shale gas. The Wuning-Lixi and Jinkou-Zhelin areas of the Xinkailing formation were selected as the most realistic and favorable targets for shale-gas exploration and exploitation. In conclusion, the Wuning area has great potential and can provide a breakthrough in shale gas with further investigation.

  11. An evaluation of teeth of ringed seals (Phoca hispida) from Greenland as a matrix to monitor spatial and temporal trends of mercury and stable isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubail, Aurore, E-mail: aaubail@yahoo.fr [National Environmental Research Institute, Aarhus University, Frederiksborgvej 399, P.O. Box 358, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Littoral, Environnement et Societes (LIENSs), UMR 6250, CNRS-Universite de La Rochelle, 2 rue Olympe de Gouges, F-17000 La Rochelle (France); Dietz, Rune; Riget, Frank [National Environmental Research Institute, Aarhus University, Frederiksborgvej 399, P.O. Box 358, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Simon-Bouhet, Benoit; Caurant, Florence [Littoral, Environnement et Societes (LIENSs), UMR 6250, CNRS-Universite de La Rochelle, 2 rue Olympe de Gouges, F-17000 La Rochelle (France)

    2010-10-01

    Total mercury (Hg) concentrations were measured in teeth of ringed seals from Qeqertarsuaq, central West Greenland (1982 to 2006) and Ittoqqortoormiit, central East Greenland (1986 to 2006). Stable isotopic ratios of carbon ({sup 13}C/{sup 12}C) and nitrogen ({sup 15}N/{sup 14}N) were determined as well to provide insights into diet variations between regions or through time. Mercury concentrations decreased the first years of life of the animals suggesting that Hg had been transferred from the mother to the foetus and newborn. The Hg concentrations in teeth were significantly lesser in ringed seals from central West Greenland compared to those from central East Greenland. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotopic values measured in the animals differed also significantly between the two regions. Increasing temporal trends of dental Hg concentrations between 1994 and 2006 were observed in ringed seals from both central West Greenland and central East Greenland. These increases were attributed to global changes in environmental Hg levels since no temporal trends in {delta}{sup 15}N values were found to support the hypothesis of a diet shift over time. Furthermore, a decreasing temporal trend in {delta}{sup 13}C values was observed in the teeth of seals from central East Greenland, and explained by a likely change over time towards more pelagic feeding habits; alternatively, the so-known Seuss effect was thought to be responsible for this decrease. Finally, it was concluded that the tooth of ringed seal was a good monitoring tissue to assess Hg trends.

  12. PIXE and XRF analysis of atmospheric aerosols from a site in the West area of Mexico City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Díaz, R.V.; López-Monroy, J. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Centro Nuclear “Nabor Carrillo”, Autopista México-Toluca, Salazar, Edo. Mex. (Mexico); Miranda, J., E-mail: miranda@fisica.unam.mx [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Centro Nuclear “Nabor Carrillo”, Autopista México-Toluca, Salazar, Edo. Mex. (Mexico); Instituto de Física, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 20-364, 01000 México, DF (Mexico); Espinosa, A.A. [Instituto de Física, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 20-364, 01000 México, DF (Mexico)

    2014-01-01

    Due to geographical factors, most of the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City features, on average, similar heights above the sea level, climate, wind speed and direction, with very uniform pollution degrees in most of the frequently studied sites. A site with different characteristics, Cuajimalpa de Morelos, was studied. It is located to the West of the urban area at 2760 m above sea level, in contrast to other sites (2240 m). Here, the wind is mostly directed towards the center of the city. Then, the site should not be affected by pollutants from the Northern/Northeastern industrial zones, so lower aerosol concentrations are expected. In this work, the elemental composition of coarse (PM{sub 10-2.5}) and fine (PM{sub 2.5}) fractions of atmospheric aerosol samples collected in Cuajimalpa is studied. The sampling period covered the cold-dry season in 2004–2005 (December 1st, 2004 to March 31, 2005), exposing polycarbonate filters with a Stacked Filter Unit of the Gent design along 24 h, every two days. The samples were analyzed with Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), to obtain elemental concentrations. The EPA code UNMIX was used to determine the number of possible influencing polluting sources, which were then identified through back-trajectory simulations with the HYSPLIT modeling software. Four sources (mostly related to soil) were found in the coarse fraction, while the fine fraction presented three main sources (fuel oil, industry and biomass burning)

  13. Atmospheric corrosion performance of different steels in early exposure in the coastal area region West Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuraini, Lutviasari; Prifiharni, Siska; Priyotomo, Gadang; Sundjono, Gunawan, Hadi; Purawiardi, Ibrahim

    2018-05-01

    The performance of carbon steel, galvanized steel and aluminium after one month exposed in the atmospheric coastal area, which is in Limbangan and Karangsong Beach, West Java, Indonesia was evaluated. The corrosion rate was determined by weight loss method and the morphology of the steel after exposed was observed by Scanning Electron Microscopy(SEM)/Energy Dispersive X-Ray Analysis(EDX). The site was monitored to determine the chloride content in the marine atmosphere. Then, the corrosion products formed at carbon steel were characterized by X-Ray diffraction (XRD). The result showed the aggressively corrosion in Karangsong beach, indicated from the corrosion rate of carbon steel, galvanized steel and aluminium were 38.514 mpy; 4.7860 mpy and 0.5181 mpy, respectively. While in Limbangan Beach the corrosion rate of specimen carbon steel, galvanized steel and aluminium were 3.339; 0.219 and 0.166 mpy, respectively. The chloride content was found to be the main factor that influences in the atmospheric corrosion process in this area. Chloride content accumulated in Karangsong and Limbangan was 497 mg/m2.day and 117 mg/m2.day, respectively. The XRD Analysis on each carbon steel led to the characterization of a complex mixture of iron oxides phases.

  14. Respiratory Morbidity among Rice Mill Workers in an Urban Area of Burdwan District, West Bengal: A Cross-sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Madhab Ch; Naskar, Somnath; Roy, Ramaprasad; Das, Dilip Kr; Das, Soumya

    2018-01-01

    Rice mill workers constitute a special group from the perspective of occupational health. Unprotected dust exposure among them adversely affects their respiratory health, which needs to be evaluated. Adequate evidence is still lacking in many parts of India including West Bengal. Burdwan is one of the main rice-producing districts in the state with abundant rice mills. The aim of the study was to find out the prevalence and pattern of respiratory morbidity and associated background characteristics of rice mill workers. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted at Burdwan municipality area during July-December 2016. Considering 44.2% prevalence, 95% confidence interval, 15% allowable error, 10% non-response, a sample of 252 directly engaged rice mill workers were selected through multistage random sampling. With prior consent, the subjects were interviewed, clinically examined, and underwent spirometry; relevant records were also reviewed using a pre-designed schedule. Any abnormal spirometry finding was considered as respiratory morbidity. Ethical approval was obtained from institutional ethics committee. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20. Chi-square test and multiple logistic regression were applied. Prevalence of respiratory morbidity was 40.73% with obstructive and restrictive respiratory morbidity being 24.60% and 16.13%, respectively. Non-use of any protective measure, duration (years) of working in rice mill and average daily working hours were significant predictors of respiratory morbidity. Respiratory morbidity is quite high in the area. Proper health education and provision of personal protective equipments need to be provided.

  15. PIXE and XRF analysis of atmospheric aerosols from a site in the West area of Mexico City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Díaz, R.V.; López-Monroy, J.; Miranda, J.; Espinosa, A.A.

    2014-01-01

    Due to geographical factors, most of the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City features, on average, similar heights above the sea level, climate, wind speed and direction, with very uniform pollution degrees in most of the frequently studied sites. A site with different characteristics, Cuajimalpa de Morelos, was studied. It is located to the West of the urban area at 2760 m above sea level, in contrast to other sites (2240 m). Here, the wind is mostly directed towards the center of the city. Then, the site should not be affected by pollutants from the Northern/Northeastern industrial zones, so lower aerosol concentrations are expected. In this work, the elemental composition of coarse (PM 10-2.5 ) and fine (PM 2.5 ) fractions of atmospheric aerosol samples collected in Cuajimalpa is studied. The sampling period covered the cold-dry season in 2004–2005 (December 1st, 2004 to March 31, 2005), exposing polycarbonate filters with a Stacked Filter Unit of the Gent design along 24 h, every two days. The samples were analyzed with Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), to obtain elemental concentrations. The EPA code UNMIX was used to determine the number of possible influencing polluting sources, which were then identified through back-trajectory simulations with the HYSPLIT modeling software. Four sources (mostly related to soil) were found in the coarse fraction, while the fine fraction presented three main sources (fuel oil, industry and biomass burning)

  16. Report on joint ecogeochemical mapping and monitoring in the West Murmansk Region and the contiguous areas of Finland and Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chekushin, V.A.; Bogatyrev, I.V.; Finne, T.E.

    1993-12-01

    A series of meetings between the Central Kola Survey Expedition, Geological Survey of Finland and Geological Survey of Norway in 1991-1992 led to the implementation of a pilot project of a joint ecogeochemical study of the impacts of industrial activities on the terrestrial systems of West Kola Peninsula and adjacent areas in Finland and Norway. The main aims of this pilot project were to harmonize methods of sampling, preparation, analysis, data treatment and interpretation, focusing on heavy metals and radionuclides. A small area in the three-country field, including Nikel, Zapoljarny and Kirkenes was chosen as test territory. Experiences of the pilot project should form a base for planning a major project to cover some 170000 km 2 in the three countries. Snow cover, terrestrial moss, A 0 -horizon, A 0+2 -horizon, C-horizon, stream water, stream sediments and overbank sediments were used as sampling medias, with 15 sites in each country. A data quality assessment was carried out, and maps of pollutant elements clearly delineate patterns similar to those found by other workers. There is no indication that C-horizon is affected, but results of overbank sediments indicate that there are abnormal conditions with regards to the sediment transport and chemistry in the ''industrial desert''. Results of 134,137 Cs determinations in the uppermost 5 cm of the soil profile show no alarming levels. An attempt at modelling the flux of contaminants has also been made. 29 refs., 54 figs., 9 tabs

  17. Revealing the distinct habitat ranges and hybrid zone of genetic sub-populations within Pseudo-nitzschia pungens (Bacillariophyceae) in the West Pacific area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Ho; Wang, Pengbin; Park, Bum Soo; Kim, Joo-Hwan; Patidar, Shailesh Kumar; Han, Myung-Soo

    2018-03-01

    Genetic sub-populations (clades) of cosmopolitan marine diatom Pseudo-nitzschia pungens might have distinct habitats, and their hybrid zone is suspected in higher latitude area of the West Pacific area, however, it is still unrevealed because of technical difficulties and lack of evidences in natural environments. The aim of this study is to investigate the habitat characteristics of each clade of P. pungens on geographical distribution with the habitat temperature ranges of each clade and to reveal their hybrid zone in the West Pacific area. We employed the 137 number of nucleotide sequences of P. pungens and its sampling data (spatial and temporal scale) originated from the West Pacific area, and used field application of qPCR assay for intra-specific level of P. pungens. Only two genotypes, clade I and III, were identified in the West Pacific area. Clade I was distributed from 39 to 32.3°N, and clade III were from 1.4 to 34.4°N. The estimated habitat temperature for the clade I and clade III ranges were 8.1-26.9 °C and 24.2-31.2 °C, respectively. The latitudinal distributions and temperature ranges of each clade were significantly different. The qPCR assay employed, and results suggested that the hybrid zone for clade I and III has been observed in the southern Korean coasts, and clade III might be introduced from the Southern Pacific area. The cell abundances of clade III were strongly related with the higher seawater temperature and warm current force. This study has defined distinct habitat characteristics of genetically different sub-populations of P. pungens, and revealed its hybrid zone in natural environment for the first time. We also provided strong evidences about dispersion of the population of clade III to higher latitude in the West Pacific area. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Destination Development for Rural Tourism Area in Wanayasa, Puwakarta, West Java, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jajang Gunawijaya

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This purpose of this paper is to elaborate the understanding of destination development of rural tourism in Wanayasa, Purwakarta, Jawa Barat. It has a rich potential for the rural tourism prosperity. Then author incorporates destination development through Butler‘s Area Life Cycle. Research was conducted in August 2015 with qualitative approaches i.e. interview and focus group discussion to 120 respondents which comprises representation from several different group. In addition, some of data also produced from secondary sources such as government regulation and official website. Findings show that Wanayasa possessed their ability in developing aspect of internal factors, attractions and accommodation facilities. Apart from that quality, it is obvious that their rural tourism development is lack of destination management and chaotic strategy marketing formulation as a result of disorganized planning processes. With those conditions, it will be tough for them to formulate the true competitive advantage as a basic foundation of their tourism development. This paper illustrates a detailed analysis of the destination‘s strengths and weaknesses, and a more distinctive understanding of what facilitates a destination‘s competitive position.

  19. Fire hazards analysis for W-413, West Area Tank Farm Storage and Staging Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckfeldt, R.A.; Lott, D.T.

    1994-01-01

    In accordance with DOE Order 5480.7A, a Fire Hazards Analysis must be performed for all new facilities. The purpose of the analysis is to comprehensively assess the risk from fire within individual fire areas in relation to proposed fire protection so as to ascertain whether the fire protection objectives of the Order are met. The Order acknowledges a graded approach commensurate with the hazards involved. Tank Farms Operations must sore/stage material and equipment such as pipes, fittings, conduit, instrumentation and others related items until work packages are ready to work. Consumable materials, such as nut, bolts and welding rod, are also requires to be stored for routine and emergency work. Connex boxes and open storage is currently used for much of the storage because of the limited space at and 272WA. Safety issues based on poor housekeeping and material deteriorating due to weather damage has resulted from this inadequate storage space. It has been determined that a storage building in close proximity to the Tank Farm work force would be cost effective. This facility is classified as a safety class 4 building

  20. Charlottesville 10 x 20 NTMS area Virginia and West Virginia: data report (abbreviated)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.R.

    1981-04-01

    Data from ground water sites include (1) water chemistry measurements (pH, conductivity, and alkalinity), (2) physical measurements where applicable (water temperature, well description, etc.) and (3) elemental analyses (U, Al, Br, Cl, Dy, F, Mn, Na, and V). Data from sediment sites include (1) stream water chemistry measurements (pH, conductivity, and alkalinity), and (2) elemental analyses for sediment samples (U, Th, Hf, Al, Ce, Dy, Eu, Fe, La, Lu, Mn, Sc, Sm, Na, Ti, V, and Yb). Sample site descriptors (stream characteristics, vegetation, etc.) are also tabulated. Areal distribution maps, histograms, and cumulative frequency plots for most elements and for U/Th and U/Hf ratios are included on the microfiche. Key data from stream water sites include (1) water quality measurements (pH, conductivity, and alkalinity) and (2) elemental analyses (U, Al, Br, Cl, Dy, F, Mg, Mn, Na, and V). Uranium concentrations in the sediments range from 0.20 to 165.90 ppM with a mean of 5.19 ppM. As with the Roanoke quadrangle to the south, the geochemical data are strongly correlated with the geology of the area. All elements in the sediment symbol plot maps are aligned with the regional structure and clearly belong to several populations

  1. Formation of the chemical composition of water in channel head in postglacial areas (West Pomerania, Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurek, Małgorzata; Kruszyk, Robert; Szpikowska, Grażyna

    2016-04-01

    The channel head is a zone of hydrological changes determining the hydrochemical features of water in the final stage of groundwater flow and the start of the surface cycle. The chemistry of water flowing out of a channel head reflects not only the characteristics of groundwater feeding the zone, but also changes it undergoes in this area during the organisation of channel flow. Groundwater interacts with surface water in the hyporheic zone where water from different environments is mixed and exchanged due to high hydraulic and chemical gradients. The goal of this study was to assess spatial differences in the concentrations of nutrients and compounds produced by chemical weathering in a channel head and to establish the role of the hyporheic zone in the transformation of the chemical composition of groundwater supplying a 1st-order stream. The research area was the channel head Żarnowo, located on the southern slope of the upper Parsęta valley. Three hydrochemical mappings were conducted in the headwater alcove consisting of three parts developed in a glaciofluvial plain and an erosional-accumulative alluvial terrace. Water was sampled in places of groundwater outflow in the footslope zone (9 sites), the hyporheic zone (14 sites), and outflows in the individual alcove parts and the rivulet they formed (5 sites). Water temperature, pH, and electrical conductivity were measured in the field. Concentrations of K, Ca, Mg, Na, Fe, Mn, HCO3, Cl, NO3, PO4, SO4 and SiO2 were determined in the laboratory. The chemical composition of ground- and surface water shows the concentration of geogenic components like K, Ca, Mg, Na, HCO3, and SiO2 to be an effect of chemical weathering and the leaching of its products taking place in a zero-discharge catchment. Those ions display little spatial variability and a stability of concentration in individual measurement periods, while the greatest disproportions in their concentrations among the alcove parts were recorded for Cl, NO3

  2. GJB2 (Connexin-26) mutations are not frequent among hearing impaired patients in East Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Homoe, P.; Koch, A.; Rendtorff, Nanna Dahl

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Investigate genetic causes of HI among the Inuit populations in the Arctic with a high prevalence of hearing impairment (HI). Design: A cross-sectional survey with population-based controls. Study sample: Forty-five patients, with sensorineural or mixed HI and an available blood sample...... for GJB2 sequencing from DNA, were selected from 166 East Greenlanders by specialist audiology examination, including pure-tone air and bone conduction audiometry from 125 Hz to 8000 Hz. Controls were 108 East- and 109 West-Greenlanders. Results: Forty-five patients with HI were included, 24 males and 21...

  3. Clouds enhance Greenland ice sheet mass loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Tricht, Kristof; Gorodetskaya, Irina V.; L'Ecuyer, Tristan; Lenaerts, Jan T. M.; Lhermitte, Stef; Noel, Brice; Turner, David D.; van den Broeke, Michiel R.; van Lipzig, Nicole P. M.

    2015-04-01

    Clouds have a profound influence on both the Arctic and global climate, while they still represent one of the key uncertainties in climate models, limiting the fidelity of future climate projections. The potentially important role of thin liquid-containing clouds over Greenland in enhancing ice sheet melt has recently gained interest, yet current research is spatially and temporally limited, focusing on particular events, and their large scale impact on the surface mass balance remains unknown. We used a combination of satellite remote sensing (CloudSat - CALIPSO), ground-based observations and climate model (RACMO) data to show that liquid-containing clouds warm the Greenland ice sheet 94% of the time. High surface reflectivity (albedo) for shortwave radiation reduces the cloud shortwave cooling effect on the absorbed fluxes, while not influencing the absorption of longwave radiation. Cloud warming over the ice sheet therefore dominates year-round. Only when albedo values drop below ~0.6 in the coastal areas during summer, the cooling effect starts to overcome the warming effect. The year-round excess of energy due to the presence of liquid-containing clouds has an extensive influence on the mass balance of the ice sheet. Simulations using the SNOWPACK snow model showed not only a strong influence of these liquid-containing clouds on melt increase, but also on the increased sublimation mass loss. Simulations with the Community Earth System Climate Model for the end of the 21st century (2080-2099) show that Greenland clouds contain more liquid water path and less ice water path. This implies that cloud radiative forcing will be further enhanced in the future. Our results therefore urge the need for improving cloud microphysics in climate models, to improve future projections of ice sheet mass balance and global sea level rise.

  4. Traditions and Customs in Community Development: The Case of Nkanu West and Nkanu East Local Government Areas of Enugu State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adekola, G.; Egbo, Nwoye Charles

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the influence of traditions and customs on community development in Nkanu West and Nkanu East Local Government Areas of Enugu State. The study was carried out with three objectives and three null hypotheses. The research adopted descriptive survey design with a population of 2,125 members of community Based Organizations in the…

  5. Incorporating Sentinel-2-like remote sensing products in the hydrometeorological modelling over an agricultural area in south west France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivalland, Vincent; Gascoin, Simon; Etchanchu, Jordi; Coustau, Mathieu; Cros, Jérôme; Tallec, Tiphaine

    2016-04-01

    The Sentinel-2 mission will enable to monitor the land cover and the vegetation phenology at high-resolution (HR) every 5 days. However, current Land Surface Models (LSM) typically use land cover and vegetation parameters derived from previous low to mid resolution satellite missions. Here we studied the effect of introducing Sentinel-2-like data in the simulation of the land surface energy and water fluxes in a region dominated by cropland. Simulations were performed with the ISBA-SURFEX LSM, which is used in the operational hydrometeorological chain of Meteo-France for hydrological forecasts and drought monitoring. By default, SURFEX vegetation land surface parameters and temporal evolution are from the ECOCLIMAP II European database mostly derived from MODIS products at 1 km resolution. The model was applied to an experimental area of 30 km by 30 km in south west France. In this area the resolution of ECOCLIMAP is coarser than the typical size of a crop field. This means that several crop types can be mixed in a pixel. In addition ECOCLIMAP provides a climatology of the vegetation phenology and thus does not account for the interannual effects of the climate and land management on the crop growth. In this work, we used a series of 26 Formosat-2 images at 8-m resolution acquired in 2006. From this dataset, we derived a land cover map and a leaf area index map (LAI) at each date, which were substituted to the ECOCLIMAP land cover map and the LAI maps. The model output water and energy fluxes were compared to a standard simulation using ECOCLIMAP only and to in situ measurements of soil moisture, latent and sensible heat fluxes. The results show that the introduction of the HR products improved the timing of the evapotranspiration. The impact was the most visible on the crops having a growing season in summer (maize, sunflower), because the growth period is more sensitive to the climate.

  6. Walrus Movements in Smith Sound: A Canada - Greenland Shared Stock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heide-Jorgensen, Mads Peter; Flora, Janne; Andersen, Astrid O.

    2017-01-01

    Fifty of 58 walruses (Odobenus rosmarus rosmarus) instrumented with satellite-linked transmitters in four areas in eastern Smith Sound, Northwest Greenland, during May and June of 2010 – 13 and 2015 provided data for this study. These animals departed from the feeding banks along the Greenland...... coast in June – July (average 14th June), simultaneously with the disappearance of sea ice from these areas. Most of them moved to Canadian waters in western Smith Sound. The most frequently used summering grounds were along the coasts of Ellesmere Island: on the eastern coast, the area around Alexandra...... of Jones Sound and Lancaster Sound for short periods during the summer, though this cannot be confirmed with certainty. The return migration from western Smith Sound to the wintering area in eastern Smith Sound takes place in October. The tracked walrus showed high affinity to coastal areas, while walruses...

  7. Toward Monitoring Surface and Subsurface Lakes on the Greenland Ice Sheet Using Sentinel-1 SAR and Landsat-8 OLI Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie E. Miles

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Supraglacial lakes are an important component of the Greenland Ice Sheet's mass balance and hydrology, with their drainage affecting ice dynamics. This study uses imagery from the recently launched Sentinel-1A Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR satellite to investigate supraglacial lakes in West Greenland. A semi-automated algorithm is developed to detect surface lakes from Sentinel-1 images during the 2015 summer. A combined Landsat-8 and Sentinel-1 dataset, which has a comparable temporal resolution to MODIS (3 days vs. daily but a higher spatial resolution (25–40 vs. 250–500 m, is then used together with a fully automated lake drainage detection algorithm. Rapid (<4 days and slow (>4 days drainages are investigated for both small (<0.125 km2, the minimum size detectable by MODIS and large (≥0.125 km2 lakes through the summer. Drainage events of small lakes occur at lower elevations (mean 159 m, and slightly earlier (mean 4.5 days in the melt season than those of large lakes. The analysis is extended manually into the early winter to calculate the dates and elevations of lake freeze-through more precisely than is possible with optical imagery (mean 30 August; 1,270 m mean elevation. Finally, the Sentinel-1 imagery is used to detect subsurface lakes and, for the first time, their dates of appearance and freeze-through (mean 9 August and 7 October, respectively. These subsurface lakes occur at higher elevations than the surface lakes detected in this study (mean 1,593 and 1,185 m, respectively. Sentinel-1 imagery therefore provides great potential for tracking melting, water movement and freezing within both the firn zone and ablation area of the Greenland Ice Sheet.

  8. Towards monitoring surface and subsurface lakes on the Greenland Ice Sheet using Sentinel-1 SAR and Landsat-8 OLI imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Katie E.; Willis, Ian C.; Benedek, Corinne L.; Williamson, Andrew G.; Tedesco, Marco

    2017-07-01

    Supraglacial lakes are an important component of the Greenland Ice Sheet’s mass balance and hydrology, with their drainage affecting ice dynamics. This study uses imagery from the recently launched Sentinel-1A Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) satellite to investigate supraglacial lakes in West Greenland. A semi-automated algorithm is developed to detect surface lakes from Sentinel-1 images during the 2015 summer. A combined Landsat-8 and Sentinel-1 dataset, which has a comparable temporal resolution to MODIS (3 days versus daily) but a higher spatial resolution (25-40 m versus 250-500 m), is then used together with a fully-automated lake drainage detection algorithm. Rapid (days) and slow (> 4 days) drainages are investigated for both small (summer. Drainage events of small lakes occur at lower elevations (mean 159 m), and slightly earlier (mean 4.5 days) in the melt season than those of large lakes. The analysis is extended manually into the early winter to calculate the dates and elevations of lake freeze-through more precisely than is possible with optical imagery (mean 30 August; 1270 m mean elevation). Finally, the Sentinel-1 imagery is used to detect subsurface lakes and, for the first time, their dates of appearance and freeze-through (mean 9 August and 7 October, respectively). These subsurface lakes occur at higher elevations than the surface lakes detected in this study (mean 1593 m and 1185 m, respectively). Sentinel-1 imagery therefore provides great potential for tracking melting, water movement and freezing within both the firn zone and ablation area of the Greenland Ice Sheet.

  9. Three Decades of Volume Change of a Small Greenlandic Glacier Using Ground Penetrating Radar, Structure from Motion, and Aerial Photogrammetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marcer, M.; Stentoft, Peter Alexander; Bjerre, Elisa

    2017-01-01

    Glaciers in the Arctic are losing mass at an increasing rate. Here we use surface topography derived from Structure from Motion (SfM) and ice volume from ground penetrating radar (GPR) to describe the 2014 state of Aqqutikitsoq glacier (2.85 km) on Greenland's west coast. A photogrammetrically...... derived 1985 digital elevation model (DEM) was subtracted from a 2014 DEM obtained using land-based SfM to calculate geodetic glacier mass balance. Furthermore, a detailed 2014 ground penetrating radar survey was performed to assess ice volume. From 1985 to 2014, the glacier has lost 49.8 ± 9.4 10 m...... aerial photography. To address this issue, surface elevation in low contrast areas was measured manually at point locations and interpolated using a universal kriging approach. We conclude that ground-based SfM is well suited to establish high-quality DEMs of smaller glaciers. Provided favorable...

  10. Late-Holocene environment and climatic changes in Ameralik Fjord, southwest Greenland: evidence from the sedimentary record

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Henrik S.; Jensen, Karin G.; Kuijpers, Antoon

    2006-01-01

      Sedimentological and geochemical (XRF) data together with information from diatom and benthic foraminifera records of a 3.5 m long gravity core from Ameralik fjord, southern West Greenland, is used for reconstructing late Holocene environmental changes in this area. The changes are linked...... to large-scale North Atlantic ocean and climate variability. AMS 14C-dating of benthic foraminifera indicates that the sediment core covers the last 4400 years and may include the termination of the Holocene Thermal Maximum (HTM). The late HTM (4.4-3.2 ka BP) is characterized by high accumulation rates...... conditions were further characterised by limited sea ice probably related to a mild and relatively windy winter climate. After 3.2 ka BP lower fine-grained sedimentation rates, but a larger input from sea-ice rafted or aeolian coarse material prevailed. This can be related to colder atmospheric conditions...

  11. The 1988-2003 Greenland ice sheet melt extent using passive microwave satellite data and a regional climate model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fettweis, Xavier; Ypersele, Jean-Pascal van [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Institut d' Astronomie et de Geophysique de G. Lemaitre, Louvain-La-Neuve (Belgium); Gallee, Hubert [CNRS, Laboratoire de Glaciologie et Geophysique de l' Environnement, Grenoble (France); Lefebre, Filip [Vito-IMS (Flemish Institute for Technological Research-Integral Environmental Studies), Mol (Belgium)

    2006-10-15

    Measurements from ETH-Camp and JAR1 AWS (West Greenland) as well as coupled atmosphere-snow regional climate simulations have highlighted flaws in the cross-polarized gradient ratio (XPGR) technique used to identify melt from passive microwave satellite data. It was found that dense clouds (causing notably rainfall) on the ice sheet severely perturb the XPGR melt signal. Therefore, the original XPGR melt detection algorithm has been adapted to better incorporate atmospheric variability over the ice sheet and an updated melt trend for the 1988-2003 period has been calculated. Compared to the original algorithm, the melt zone area increase is eight times higher (from 0.2 to 1.7% year{sup -1}). The increase is higher with the improved XPGR technique because rainfall also increased during this period. It is correlated to higher atmospheric temperatures. Finally, the model shows that the total ice sheet runoff is directly proportional to the melt extent surface detected by satellites. These results are important for the understanding of the effect of Greenland melting on the stability of the thermohaline circulation. (orig.)

  12. LAND SUITABILITY AND DYNAMIC SYSTEM MODELLING TO DEFINE PRIORITY AREAS OF SOYBEAN PLANTATION IN PADDY FIELDS IN KARAWANG, WEST JAVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widiatmaka

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the agricultural public commodities in Indonesia which still cannot fulfill its domestic consumption needs is soybean. The objectives of the research, which was conducted in Karawang Regency, West Java, Indonesia, were to: (i identify the suitable area for soybean plantations in paddy fields, (ii assess the development of soybeans in land use and socio-economic context, and (iii plan the spatially soybean plantation. A soil survey and land evaluation for soybean was completed. IKONOS imagery was applied to delineate paddy fields while a dynamic system modelling was developed using Powersim 8.0 software. The results of the research showed that the suitability class for soybean plantation in the paddy fields of Karawang Regency ranges from unsuitable (N to suitable (S2, with limiting factors being temperature, fertility, nutrients retention, slope, erosion, rooting media and toxicity. Very limited arable land has been used so far for soybeans plantations due to low economic returns. The model predicts that, should the development of soybean continues in its business as usual path, a deficit of soybean will occur in 2030. The model provides alternative scenarios to reduce the deficit. Prioritization was done spatially using the suitable land gradually, corresponding to the government budget availability.

  13. Malaria survey and malaria control detachments in the South-West Pacific Area in World War 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocker, Denton W

    2009-01-01

    Malaria among troops in the South-West Pacific Area (SWPA) in World War 2 affected the military effort to the degree that special units were formed to combat it. These malaria survey detachments (MSDs) and malaria control detachments (MCDs) were self-contained and so could move quickly to wherever their services were needed. In SWPA by 25 September 1944 there were 32 MSDs and 65 MCDs. Tables of organization called for 11 enlisted men in MSDs and MCDs, two officers in MSDs and one in MCDs. Detachments served throughout the SWPA. Detailed records of the 31st MSD show that in addition to antimalarial efforts it worked at control of scrub typhus, dengue and venereal disease, at reduction of rat populations and in experimental work involving DDT and schistosomiasis. Specific locations of the 31st MSD were New Guinea (3 sites), Morotai, Leyte, Mindoro, Okinawa and Japan. The detachment served overseas for 21 months. Experience in combating malaria in SWPA in World War 2 points to the need for better and continuous training of both medical and line officers in malaria prevention and control.

  14. Crustal tomography of the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake area in West Japan using P and PmP data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haibo; Zhao, Dapeng; Huang, Zhouchuan; Xu, Mingjie; Wang, Liangshu; Nishizono, Yukihisa; Inakura, Hirohito

    2018-05-01

    A high-resolution model of three-dimensional (3-D) P-wave velocity (Vp) tomography of the crust in the source area of the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake (M 7.3) in West Japan is determined using a large number of arrival times of first P-waves and reflected P-waves from the Moho discontinuity (PmP). The PmP data are collected from original seismograms of the Kumamoto aftershocks and other local crustal events in Kyushu. Detailed resolution tests show that the addition of the PmP data can significantly improve the resolution of the crustal tomography, especially that of the lower crust. Our results show that significant low-velocity (low-V) anomalies exist in the entire crust beneath the active arc volcanoes, which may reflect the pathway of arc magmas. The 2016 Kumamoto earthquake occurred at the edge of a small low-V zone in the upper crust. A significant low-V anomaly is revealed in the lower crust beneath the source zone, which may reflect the arc magma and fluids ascending from the mantle wedge. These results suggest that the rupture nucleation of the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake was affected by fluids and arc magma.

  15. Development of Tropical Lowland Peat Forest Phasic Community Zonations in the Kota Samarahan-Asajaya area, West Sarawak, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Tarmizi Mohamad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Logging observations of auger profiles (Tarmizi, 2014 indicate a vertical, downwards, general decrease of peat humification levels with depth in a tropical lowland peat forest in the Kota Samarahan-Asajaya area in the region of West Sarawak (Malaysia. Based on pollen analyses and field observations, the studied peat profiles can be interpreted as part of a progradation deltaic succession. Continued regression of sea levels, gave rise to the development of peat in a transitional mangrove to floodplain/floodbasin environment, followed by a shallow, topogenic peat depositional environment with riparian influence at approximately 2420 ± 30 years B.P. (until present time. The inferred peat vegetational succession reached Phasic Community I at approximately 2380 ± 30 years B.P. and followed by Phasic Community II at approximately 1780 ± 30 years B.P., towards the upper part of the present, ombrogenic, peat profile. Observations of the presence of large, hollow, Shorea type trees, supports that successive vegetational zonation of the tropical lowland peat dome may have reached Phasic Community II. Some pollen types were found that are also known to occur in the inferred vegetational zonation of Phasic Community III and IV or higher. Pollen analyses indicate that estuarine and deltaic, brackish to saline water influence may have gradually ceased at approximately 0.5 m below the lithological boundary between peat and underlying soil (floodplain deposit in the tropical lowland peat basin.

  16. Exposure of birds to radionuclides and other contaminants in Special Protection Areas (SPAs) in North-West England

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, K.; Watson, S.; McDonald, P.; Copplestone, D.; Watts, S.J.

    2010-01-01

    There has been a decline in the population of some bird species at Morecambe Bay and the Solway Firth Special Protected Areas in North-West England during the last fifty years. It was suggested that the declines were caused, in part, by contaminants in the food and environment, primarily from the radioactive effluent discharge from the Sellafield Ltd nuclear fuel reprocessing plant in Cumbria. This study analysed bird feathers and tissues, vegetation and sediment for radionuclides, metals and persistent organic compounds. The non-radionuclide results were all low compared to relevant action limits. The ERICA model was used with field data to estimate the radiological dose to birds from exposure to 137 Cs and 241 Am with results between 1.26 to 3.83 μGy h -1 , below the ERICA screening level of 10 μGy h -1 and within the IAEA 40 μGy h -1 guideline value below which potential adverse impacts on biota are unlikely. The study showed no link between bird population decline and anthropogenic discharges to the SPAs.

  17. Brief communication: Getting Greenland's glaciers right - a new data set of all official Greenlandic glacier names

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørk, A. A.; Kruse, L. M.; Michaelsen, P. B.

    2015-12-01

    Place names in Greenland can be difficult to get right, as they are a mix of Greenlandic, Danish, and other foreign languages. In addition, orthographies have changed over time. With this new data set, we give the researcher working with Greenlandic glaciers the proper tool to find the correct name for glaciers and ice caps in Greenland and to locate glaciers described in the historic literature with the old Greenlandic orthography. The data set contains information on the names of 733 glaciers, 285 originating from the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) and 448 from local glaciers and ice caps (LGICs).

  18. Greenland coastal air temperatures linked to Baffin Bay and Greenland Sea ice conditions during autumn through regional blocking patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballinger, Thomas J.; Hanna, Edward; Hall, Richard J.; Miller, Jeffrey; Ribergaard, Mads H.; Høyer, Jacob L.

    2018-01-01

    Variations in sea ice freeze onset and regional sea surface temperatures (SSTs) in Baffin Bay and Greenland Sea are linked to autumn surface air temperatures (SATs) around coastal Greenland through 500 hPa blocking patterns, 1979-2014. We find strong, statistically significant correlations between Baffin Bay freeze onset and SSTs and SATs across the western and southernmost coastal areas, while weaker and fewer significant correlations are found between eastern SATs, SSTs, and freeze periods observed in the neighboring Greenland Sea. Autumn Greenland Blocking Index values and the incidence of meridional circulation patterns have increased over the modern sea ice monitoring era. Increased anticyclonic blocking patterns promote poleward transport of warm air from lower latitudes and local warm air advection onshore from ocean-atmosphere sensible heat exchange through ice-free or thin ice-covered seas bordering the coastal stations. Temperature composites by years of extreme late freeze conditions, occurring since 2006 in Baffin Bay, reveal positive monthly SAT departures that often exceed 1 standard deviation from the 1981-2010 climate normal over coastal areas that exhibit a similar spatial pattern as the peak correlations.

  19. The South Greenland uranium exploration programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armour-Brown, A.; Tukiainen, T.; Wallin, B.

    1982-11-01

    This is the final report of the reconnaissance phase of the SYDURAN Project which was initiated in 1st. December 1978 to outline areas of increased uranium potential where more detailed prospection would be warranted. Districts and smaller zones in South Greenland which have the potential for containing economically exploitable uranium occurrences were defined using airborne gamma-spectroscopic, reconnaissance geochemical and geological methods. Other districts and areas have been shown to have no uranium potential and can be eliminated. The three promising districts are: 1. a 2000 square kilometre sub-circular district surrounding Ilimaussaq complex in which there are small high grade pitchblende occurences in faults and fractures in the surrounding granite. 2. the eastern area of the Motzfeldt Centre where large parts of the centre is mineralised and may give rise to exploitable, large tonnage, low grade uranium ore with associated niobium and rare earth elements in extractable quantities. 3. uraniferous rich districts or zones associated with the migmatitic supracrustal units in the area between Kap Farvel and Lindenows Fjord. The areas which were eliminated from having any uranium potential include: the Ketilidian supracrustal unit. the Nunarssuit alkaline complex. The uranium mineralisation in South Greenland is confined to two Proterozoic episodes: a) a late phase of granitisation and migmatisation with the formation of disseminated uraninite in the Migmatite Complex in the south of the project area between 1700-1800 m.y. and, b) hydrothermal activity associated with Gardar magmatic events between 1090-1170 m.y. in the central Granite Zone. Future work should be directed towards the definition and location of drilling targets. (EG)

  20. Hydrogeology, groundwater flow, and groundwater quality of an abandoned underground coal-mine aquifer, Elkhorn Area, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozar, Mark D.; McCoy, Kurt J.; Britton, James Q.; Blake, B.M.

    2017-01-01

    The Pocahontas No. 3 coal seam in southern West Virginia has been extensively mined by underground methods since the 1880’s. An extensive network of abandoned mine entries in the Pocahontas No. 3 has since filled with good-quality water, which is pumped from wells or springs discharging from mine portals (adits), and used as a source of water for public supplies. This report presents results of a three-year investigation of the geology, hydrology, geochemistry, and groundwater flow processes within abandoned underground coal mines used as a source of water for public supply in the Elkhorn area, McDowell County, West Virginia. This study focused on large (> 500 gallon per minute) discharges from the abandoned mines used as public supplies near Elkhorn, West Virginia. Median recharge calculated from base-flow recession of streamflow at Johns Knob Branch and 12 other streamflow gaging stations in McDowell County was 9.1 inches per year. Using drainage area versus mean streamflow relationships from mined and unmined watersheds in McDowell County, the subsurface area along dip of the Pocahontas No. 3 coal-mine aquifer contributing flow to the Turkey Gap mine discharge was determined to be 7.62 square miles (mi2), almost 10 times larger than the 0.81 mi2 surface watershed. Results of this investigation indicate that groundwater flows down dip beneath surface drainage divides from areas up to six miles east in the adjacent Bluestone River watershed. A conceptual model was developed that consisted of a stacked sequence of perched aquifers, controlled by stress-relief and subsidence fractures, overlying a highly permeable abandoned underground coal-mine aquifer, capable of substantial interbasin transfer of water. Groundwater-flow directions are controlled by the dip of the Pocahontas No. 3 coal seam, the geometry of abandoned mine workings, and location of unmined barriers within that seam, rather than surface topography. Seven boreholes were drilled to intersect

  1. Crustal structure beneath Eastern Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reiche, Sönke; Thybo, H.; Kaip, G.

    2011-01-01

    is recorded by 350 Reftek Texan receivers for 10 equidistant shot points along the profile. We use forward ray tracing modelling to construct a two-dimensional velocity model from the observed travel times. These results show the first images of the subsurface velocity structure beneath the Greenland ice...

  2. Gestational diabetes mellitus in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael Lynge; Olesen, Jesper; Jørgensen, M. E.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Within the last 20 years, the prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) has been reported to be increasing worldwide in correlation with ethnic and geographic variations. The actual prevalence of GDM throughout all of Greenland remains unknown. Objective. The aim of this study...

  3. The value of Inuit participation when conserving the common eider duck in Arctic Canada and Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilchrist, Grant; Merkel, Flemming Ravn; Sonne, Christian

    , Denmark, and northerners. This presentation will review the meaningful involvement and direct participation of Inuit during many aspects of historical and ongoing eider duck conservation efforts. These include studies that examined the sustainability of harvest, the establishment of new harvest......The northern common eider duck nests in the eastern Canadian Arctic and west Greenland, and migrates to winter in Atlantic Canada and southwest Greenland. The eider is harvested for its meat, feather down and eggs and its ongoing conservation is the shared responsibility of Canada, Greenland...... regulations, long term monitoring of breeding colonies in remote coastal locations, reporting on emerging disease epidemics, and ongoing field studies which examine the impacts of polar bear predation under changing sea ice conditions. This presentation will review how working relationships were established...

  4. The East Greenland rifted volcanic margin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Kent Brooks

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Palaeogene North Atlantic Igneous Province is among the largest igneous provinces in the world and this review of the East Greenland sector includes large amounts of information amassed since previous reviews around 1990.The main area of igneous rocks extends from Kangerlussuaq (c. 67°N to Scoresby Sund (c. 70°N, where basalts extend over c. 65 000 km2, with a second area from Hold with Hope (c. 73°N to Shannon (c. 75°N. In addition, the Ocean Drilling Project penetrated basalt at five sites off South-East Greenland. Up to 7 km thickness of basaltic lavas have been stratigraphically and chemically described and their ages determined. A wide spectrum of intrusions are clustered around Kangerlussuaq, Kialeeq (c. 66°N and Mesters Vig (c. 72°N. Layered gabbros are numerous (e.g. the Skaergaard and Kap Edvard Holm intrusions, as are under- and oversaturated syenites, besides small amounts of nephelinite-derived products, such as the Gardiner complex (c. 69°N with carbonatites and silicate rocks rich in melilite, perovskite etc. Felsic extrusive rocks are sparse. A single, sanidine-bearing tuff found over an extensive area of the North Atlantic is thought to be sourced from the Gardiner complex.The province is famous for its coast-parallel dyke swarm, analogous to the sheeted dyke swarm of ophiolites, its associated coastal flexure, and many other dyke swarms, commonly related to central intrusive complexes as in Iceland. The dyke swarms provide time markers, tracers of magmatic evolution and evidence of extensional events. A set of dykes with harzburgite nodules gives unique insight into the Archaean subcontinental lithosphere.Radiometric dating indicates extrusion of huge volumes of basalt over a short time interval, but the overall life of the province was prolonged, beginning with basaltic magmas at c. 60 Ma and continuing to the quartz porphyry stock at Malmbjerg (c. 72°N at c. 26 Ma. Indeed, activity was renewed in the Miocene with

  5. Regulatory analysis and lessons learned from the LLRW [low-level radioactive waste] disposal area at West Valley, New York: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-12-01

    The New York State Energy Research and Development Authority has sponsored a project to develop an integrated set of site management plans for the West Valley low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) disposal area. The plans were directed to upgrade the disposal area so that passive custodial care and monitoring activities would be sufficient to protect public health and safety and the environment. Tasks 5 and 6, Regulatory Analysis and Lessons Learned, are the subject of this report. The regulatory analysis identified areas of inconsistencies between the historic site operations and the current state and federal LLRW disposal regulations and guidelines. The lessons learned task identified the causes of the disposal problems at West Valley, discussed the lessons learned, and described the responses developed by the NRC and industry to the lessons learned. 85 refs., 6 figs., 19 tabs

  6. Surface-atmosphere decoupling limits accumulation at Summit, Greenland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkelhammer, Max; Noone, David C; Steen-Larsen, Hans Christian; Bailey, Adriana; Cox, Christopher J; O'Neill, Michael S; Schneider, David; Steffen, Konrad; White, James W C

    2016-04-01

    Despite rapid melting in the coastal regions of the Greenland Ice Sheet, a significant area (~40%) of the ice sheet rarely experiences surface melting. In these regions, the controls on annual accumulation are poorly constrained owing to surface conditions (for example, surface clouds, blowing snow, and surface inversions), which render moisture flux estimates from myriad approaches (that is, eddy covariance, remote sensing, and direct observations) highly uncertain. Accumulation is partially determined by the temperature dependence of saturation vapor pressure, which influences the maximum humidity of air parcels reaching the ice sheet interior. However, independent proxies for surface temperature and accumulation from ice cores show that the response of accumulation to temperature is variable and not generally consistent with a purely thermodynamic control. Using three years of stable water vapor isotope profiles from a high altitude site on the Greenland Ice Sheet, we show that as the boundary layer becomes increasingly stable, a decoupling between the ice sheet and atmosphere occurs. The limited interaction between the ice sheet surface and free tropospheric air reduces the capacity for surface condensation to achieve the rate set by the humidity of the air parcels reaching interior Greenland. The isolation of the surface also acts to recycle sublimated moisture by recondensing it onto fog particles, which returns the moisture back to the surface through gravitational settling. The observations highlight a unique mechanism by which ice sheet mass is conserved, which has implications for understanding both past and future changes in accumulation rate and the isotopic signal in ice cores from Greenland.

  7. The extreme melt across the Greenland ice sheet in 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghiem, S. V.; Hall, D. K.; Mote, T. L.; Tedesco, M.; Albert, M. R.; Keegan, K.; Shuman, C. A.; DiGirolamo, N. E.; Neumann, G.

    2012-10-01

    The discovery of the 2012 extreme melt event across almost the entire surface of the Greenland ice sheet is presented. Data from three different satellite sensors - including the Oceansat-2 scatterometer, the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, and the Special Sensor Microwave Imager/Sounder - are combined to obtain composite melt maps, representing the most complete melt conditions detectable across the ice sheet. Satellite observations reveal that melt occurred at or near the surface of the Greenland ice sheet across 98.6% of its entire extent on 12 July 2012, including the usually cold polar areas at high altitudes like Summit in the dry snow facies of the ice sheet. This melt event coincided with an anomalous ridge of warm air that became stagnant over Greenland. As seen in melt occurrences from multiple ice core records at Summit reported in the published literature, such a melt event is rare with the last significant one occurring in 1889 and the next previous one around seven centuries earlier in the Medieval Warm Period. Given its rarity, the 2012 extreme melt across Greenland provides an exceptional opportunity for new studies in broad interdisciplinary geophysical research.

  8. PIXE and XRF analysis of atmospheric aerosols from a site in the West area of Mexico City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz, R.V.; López-Monroy, J.; Miranda, J.; Espinosa, A.A.

    2013-01-01

    Full text: The pollution by atmospheric aerosols in the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City (MAMC) is still presenting issues that require deeper studies. Because of geographical factors, most of the MAMC features, on average, very similar characteristics. These include height above the sea level, climate, wind speed and direction, resulting in very uniform pollution levels in most of the traditionally studied sites. A site with different characteristics with respect to them, Cuajimalpa de Morelos, was selected for the present work. It is located to the West of the MAMC at 2,760 m above sea level (a.s.l.), in contrast to other sites (2,240 m a.s.I); sub-humid area with lush vegetation, influenced by the forest of the 'Desierto de los Leones' National Park. Here, the wind for most part of the day is directed towards the center of the MAMC, joining flows that run from North to South. This prevents the site from receiving influence of pollutants generated in the Northern industrial zone, Xalostoc or Naucalpan. Thus, it is expected that this area should present lower concentration of pollutants than the rest of the MAMC. Therefore, the present work is aimed to study the elemental composition of coarse (PM 10- 2 .5 ) and fine (PM 2.5 ) fractions of atmospheric aerosol samples collected in Cuajimalpa. The sampling period covered the cold-dry season in 2004-2005 (December 1 st , 2004, to March 31, 2005), exposing polycarbonate filters with a Stacked Filter Unit (SFU) of the Gent design along 24 h, every two days. The samples were then analyzed with PIXE and X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), to obtain elemental concentrations. The EPA code UNMIX was used to determine the number of possible influencing polluting sources, which were then identified through back-trajectory simulations with the HYSPLlT modeling software. Four sources (mostly related to soil) were found for the coarse fraction, while the fine fraction presented three main sources (fuel oil, industry, and biomass

  9. Report of the workshop on strategic planning of area-wide tsetse and trypanosomiasis control in West Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Tsetse-transmitted trypanosomiasis is a disease unique to Africa affecting both humans and animals. This disease occurs in about 10 million km 2 in 37 sub-Saharan countries corresponding approximately to one-third of Africa's total land area, and threatens an estimated 50 million people, 48 million cattle and a countless population of other domestic animal species. Trypanosomiasis has a severe impact on African agriculture; estimated annual losses in cattle production alone are in the range of 1.0-1.2 billion dollars. To this, we have to add the indirect negative effects engendered by trypanosomiasis on total crop production. The disease influences where people decide to live, how they manage their livestock and the intensity of crop agriculture. The combined effects result in changes in land use, environment and affect human welfare and increase the vulnerability of agricultural activity. FAO has identified the reinforcement of agriculture as a key element in the fight against poverty and the improvement of food security in developing countries. The need to reduce poverty is particularly felt in tsetse infested areas of sub-Saharan Africa. In this region half of the population suffers from food insecurity. Approximately 85% of the poor are located in rural areas and more than 80% of the population depends on agricultural production for their livelihood. In order to respond to the need in the fight against tsetse and trypanosomiasis (T and T) in people as well as livestock, the Programme Against African Trypanosomiasis (PAAT) was endorsed in November 1997 by the FAO Conference. The Programme seeks to combine the forces of FAO, IAEA, OAU/IBAR and WHO in order to: promote and co-ordinate international alliances and efforts assisting in harmonised interventions against T and T; effectively combat the disease in Africa; and delineate the polity framework, strategies and guiding pest management principles. This workshop was primarily concerned with the development of

  10. Characteristics of peak streamflows and extent of inundation in areas of West Virginia and southwestern Virginia affected by flooding, June 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Samuel H.; Watson, Kara M.; Lotspeich, R. Russell; Cauller, Stephen J.; White , Jeremy S.; Wicklein, Shaun M.

    2017-11-17

    Heavy rainfall occurred across central and southern West Virginia in June 2016 as a result of repeated rounds of torrential thunderstorms. The storms caused major flooding and flash flooding in central and southern West Virginia with Kanawha, Fayette, Nicholas, and Greenbrier Counties among the hardest hit. Over the duration of the storms, from 8 to 9.37 inches of rain was reported in areas in Greenbrier County. Peak streamflows were the highest on record at 7 locations, and streamflows at 18 locations ranked in the top five for the period of record at U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging stations used in this study. Following the storms, U.S. Geological Survey hydrographers identified and documented 422 high-water marks in West Virginia, noting location and height of the water above land surface. Many of these high-water marks were used to create flood-inundation maps for selected communities of West Virginia that experienced flooding in June 2016. Digital datasets of the inundation areas, mapping boundaries, and water depth rasters are available online.

  11. Time trend by region of suicides and suicidal thoughts among Greenland Inuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Bjerregaard

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Suicides remain a major public health problem in Greenland. Their increase coincides with the modernization since 1950. Serious suicidal thoughts are reported by a significant proportion of participants in countrywide surveys. Objective: To analyze the time trend by region of suicides and suicidal thoughts among the Inuit in Greenland. Design: Data included the Greenland registry of causes of death for 1970–2011 and 2 cross-sectional health surveys carried out in 1993–1994 and 2005–2010 with 1,580 and 3,102 Inuit participants, respectively. Results: Suicide rates were higher among men than women while the prevalence of suicidal thoughts was higher among women. Suicide rates for men and women together increased from 1960 to 1980 and have remained around 100 per 100,000 person-years since then. The regional pattern of time trend for suicide rates varied with an early peak in the capital, a continued increase to very high rates in remote East and North Greenland and a slow increase in villages relative to towns on the West Coast. Suicidal thoughts followed the regional pattern for completed suicides. Especially for women there was a noticeable increasing trend in the villages. The relative risk for suicide was highest among those who reported suicidal thoughts, but most suicides happened outside this high-risk group. Conclusion: Suicide rates and the prevalence of suicidal thoughts remain high in Greenland but different regional trends point towards an increased marginalization between towns on the central West Coast, villages and East and North Greenland. Different temporal patterns call for different regional strategies of prevention.

  12. Stable isotope and fluid inclusion evidence for the origin of the Brandberg West area Sn-W vein deposits, NW Namibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macey, Paul; Harris, Chris

    2006-10-01

    The Brandberg West region of NW Namibia is dominated by poly-deformed turbidites and carbonate rocks of the Neoproterozoic Damara Supergoup, which have been regionally metamorphosed to greenschist facies and thermally metamorphosed up to mid-amphibolite facies by Neoproterozoic granite plutons. The meta-sedimentary rocks host Damaran-age hydrothermal quartz vein-hosted Sn-W mineralization at Brandberg West and numerous nearby smaller deposits. Fluid inclusion microthermometric studies of the vein quartz suggests that the ore-forming fluids at the Brandberg West mine were CO2-bearing aqueous fluids represented by the NaCl-CaCl2-H2O-CO2 system with moderate salinity (mean=8.6 wt% NaClequivalent).Temperatures determined using oxygen isotope thermometry are 415-521°C (quartz-muscovite), 392-447°C (quartz-cassiterite), and 444-490°C (quartz-hematite). At Brandberg West, the oxygen isotope ratios of quartz veins and siliciclastic host rocks in the mineralized area are lower than those in the rocks and veins of the surrounding areas suggesting that pervasive fluid-rock interaction occurred during mineralization. The O- and H-isotope data of quartz-muscovite veins and fluid inclusions indicate that the ore fluids were dominantly of magmatic origin, implying that mineralization occurred above a shallow granite pluton. Simple mass balance calculations suggest water/rock ratios of 1.88 (closed system) and 1.01 (open system). The CO2 component of the fluid inclusions had similar δ 13C to the carbonate rocks intercalated with the turbidites. It is most likely that mineralization at Brandberg West was caused by a combination of an impermeable marble barrier and interaction of the fluids with the marble. The minor deposits in the area have quartz veins with higher δ 18O values, which is consistent with these deposits being similar geological environments exposed at higher erosion levels.

  13. Bio leaching of Uranium - bearing material from Abu Thor area, West Central Sinai, Egypt for recovering uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El Wahab, G.M.; Amin, M.M.; Aita, S.K.

    2012-01-01

    A uranium-bearing material was recorded within the Intra-Carboniferous Paleokarst Profile of Um-Bogma Formation at Abu Thor area, West Central Sinai, Egypt. The present paper is concerned with the bio leaching of U and Cu using Aspergillus Niger (A. Niger) followed their proper recovery. The working Abu Thor representative sample assays 0.22% U as the element of interest as well as up to 25% CuO beside the other rock constituents SiO 2 (33%), Al 2 O 3 (10.4%) and CaO(8.5%). The effective bio leaching of U and Cu from Abu Thor ore sample using A.Niger was performed at the following optimum conditions: an incubation time of 6 days, sample/ liquid (S/L) ratio of 1/10, ph value of 1 and a temperature of 60 degree C. The prepared bio leach liquor assays 0.19 g/l of U and 15.8 g/l of Cu with leaching efficiencies of 97% and 79%, respectively. Uranium was recovered using 25% TBP in kerosene at O/A ratio of 1/1 and contact time of 5 min with achieved extraction efficiency of 96%. However the stripping of U was conducted by using 8% Na 2 CO 3 at A/O ratio of 1/1 and contact time of 5 min with stripping efficiency reached 99%. On the other hand, Cu was directly precipitated as CuS using the freshly released H 2 S gas with the addition of solid Na 2 S. The optimum precipitation conditions were S/L ratio of 1/100, ph 1.5 and room temperature where the precipitation efficiency of Cu achieved 99%

  14. Aspects of the sedimentology of some uranium-bearing sandstones in the Beaufort West area, Cape Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, D.I.

    1980-01-01

    The sedimentology of some uranium-bearing sandstones from the Beaufort Group in the Beaufort West area was studied by use of some 116 vertical profiles measured across and adjacent to 14 mineralized deposits. The vertical profiles consist of 91 field sections and 25 borehole logs. The sandstones are usually multistorey and alternate with a mudstone and/or siltstone succession. The vertical profiles basically consist of a succession of facies. Some 19 facies were recognised within the sandstones on the basis of texture and sedimentary structure. The facies transitions within the sandstone sequence were subjected to a one-step Markov chain analysis. The cumulative thickness of uranium mineralization for each sedimentary facies within the sandstone sequence was measured. Some 99 per cent of the total cumulative thickness occurs within the coarser-grained facies (grain sizes in excess of very fine), which suggests that permeability was an important control on the mineralization. The coarser-grained facies, which mostly represent lower point bar or channel bar deposits near the base of each storey, probably acted as suitable aquifers for the transport of uraniferous solutions. Irregularities in the base of each storey may have interrupted the flow of these solutions and allowed sufficient time for precipitation of the uranium. Carbonaceous debris is frequently associated with the mineralized deposits and most likely acted as an indirect reductant for this precipitation. Mineralization decreases upwards in the sandstone sequence and some 40 per cent of the total cumulative thickness is restricted to the initial storey. The horizontally bedded facies contain a high proportion of the total cumulative thickness of mineralization (45 per cent) and this again may be related to a more abundant content of carbonaceous debris

  15. Arsenic and other heavy metal accumulation in plants and algae growing naturally in contaminated area of West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, N K; Raghubanshi, A S; Upadhyay, A K; Rai, U N

    2016-08-01

    The present study was conducted to quantify the arsenic (As) and other heavy metal concentrations in the plants and algae growing naturally in As contaminated blocks of North-24-Pargana and Nandia district, West Bengal, India to assess their bioaccumulation potential. The plant species included five macrophytes and five algae were collected from the nine selected sites for estimation of As and other heavy metals accumulated therein by using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrophotometer (ICP-MS). Results revealed that maximum As concentration (117mgkg(-1)) was recorded in the agricultural soil at the Barasat followed by Beliaghat (111mgkg(-1)) sites of North-24-Pargana. Similarly, concentration of selenium (Si, 249mgkg(-1)), lead (Pb, 79.4mgkg(-1)), chromium (Cr, 138mgkg(-1)) was also found maximum in the soil at Barasat and cadmium (Cd, 163mgkg(-1)) nickel (Ni, 36.5mgkg(-1)) at Vijaynagar site. Among the macrophytes, Eichhornia crassipes found more dominating species in As contaminated area and accumulate As (597mgkg(-1)) in the shoot at kanchrapara site. The Lemna minor found to accumulate maximum As (735mgkg(-1)) in the leaves at Sonadanga and Pistia stratiotes accumulated minimum As (24.5mgkg(-1)) in the fronds from Ranaghat site. In case of diatoms, maximum As (760mgkg(-1)) was accumulated at Kanchrapara site followed by Hydrodictiyon reticulatum (403mgkg(-1)) at the Ranaghat site. High concentration of As and other heavy metal in soil indicates long term effects of irrigation with contaminated ground water, however, high concentration of heavy metals in naturally growing plants and algae revealed their mobilization through leaching and possible food chain contamination. Therefore, efficient heavy metal accumulator macrophytes Eichhornia crassipes, Lemna minor, Spirodela polyrhiza may be exploited in removing metals from contaminated water by developing a plant based treatment system. However, As accumulator algal species may be used as a bioresource for

  16. Mineralogy, geochemistry and low grade metamorphism of green tuffs of Karaj formation in Hesarbon area (south west Firoozkooh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiva Bahrami

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Green tuffs of middle Eocene age in Hesarbon area, south west of Firoozkuh (East of Central Alborz consist of a thick sequence of lithic-, crystal-,vitric-and calcareous-tuffs. Microscopic and x-ray diffraction studies show plagioclase (albite and oligoclase, alkali feldspar (sanidine, quartz, cristobalite, biotite and hornblende are the major minerals in the rocks studied. Secondary minerals such as analcime, chlorite, prehnite and clay minerals are mainly present in the groundmass of the rocks. Extensive tectonic activities have created a variety of structural features including numerous folds and faults and therefore, have caused the green tuffs to be crushed and converted to breccia tuffs in many parts. Veins and cavities are filled by considerable amounts of zeolitic minerals including heulandite group, clinoptilolite and natrolite along with calcite and secondary quartz. Based on geochemical data, they lie on the dacite and rhyodacite field showing a calc-alkaline nature in the corresponding diagrams. According to the chondrite and primitive mantle normalized diagrams of trace elements, negative anomalies of Eu, Nb, Ti, P and depletion of HFSE together with their position in the petrogenesis discrimination diagrams, it is most likely that these rocks are formed in the active continental margin of a subduction zone. The existence of analcime and prehnite in the groundmass demonstrate that these rocks have undergone some degrees of low-grade metamorphism due to the overburden of the layers in the temperature range 200-300 °C. The present study shows that zeolite minerals filling the fractures and cavities of tuffs are precipitated by hydrothermal fluids with a neutral pH to acidic

  17. Geophysical Investigations of Saline Permafrost at Ilulissat, Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingeman-Nielsen, Thomas; Foged, Niels Nielsen; Butzbach, Rune

    2008-01-01

    The technical properties and general state of permafrost in Greenland is not well documented. A new coordinated investigation has been initiated, for ground temperature measurements and permafrost mapping in Greenlandic towns in sporadic, discontinuous and continuous permafrost zones. We present...... investigation results from one of the sites, located at Ilulissat, in an area of discontinuous saline permafrost. We have established ground temperature measurement stations and conducted a shallow geoelectrical study. Our results show that the sediments in the studied area mainly consist of very frost...... susceptible silty clays. The area has permafrost with a maximum active layer thickness between 0.9 and 1 m. In spite of low permafrost temperatures a considerable part of the pore water is unfrozen, due to high residual salt concentrations. Consequently, the unfrozen water content dominates the technical...

  18. Perfluorinated alkyl substances (PFAS) in terrestrial environments in Greenland and Faroe Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossi, Rossana; Dam, Maria; Rigét, Frank F

    2015-06-01

    Perfluorinated alkylated substances (PFASs) have been measured in liver samples from terrestrial organisms from Greenland and the Faeroe Islands. Samples from ptarmigan (West Greenland), reindeer (southwest-Greenland), muskox (East Greenland), and land-locked Arctic char from southwest Greenland and the Faroe Islands were analyzed. In addition, PFASs levels in land-locked brown trout from Faroese lakes are reported. Of the 17 PFASs analyzed in the samples the following compounds were detected: PFOS, PFNA, PFDA, PFUnA, PFDoA, PFTrA, and PFTeA. PFNA was the compound detected in most samples and in all species. However, the compound detected at highest concentration was dependent on species, with overall highest concentrations of PFTrA and PFUnA being detected in trout liver from Lake á Mýranar (Faroe Islands). In muskox, the PFAS occurring at highest concentrations was PFDA, which was among the PFAS detected at lowest concentrations in freshwater fish, and was only detected in one individual ptarmigan. The concentration of PFOS, PFDoA and PFTrA in Arctic char from Greenland and Faroe Islands were similar, whereas the concentration of PFNA, PFDA and PFUnA were higher in Arctic char than those from Greenland. The opposite was observed for PFTeA. The PFASs occurring at highest concentrations in trout were PFTrA and PFUnA. Arctic char from Lake á Mýranar had much lower concentrations of PFTrA and PFUnA than in trout from the lakes analyzed, but a higher concentration of PFTeA than trout from the same lake. A clear pattern with odd-carbon number homologues concentrations higher than the next lower even homologue was observed in fish samples, which is consistent with the hypothesis of transport of volatile precursors to remote regions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Decreasing overweight and central fat patterning with Westernization among the Inuit in Greenland and Inuit migrants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, P; Jørgensen, M E; Andersen, S

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyse overweight, obesity and central fat patterning among the Inuit of Greenland and Inuit migrants in Denmark and their relation to Westernization. DESIGN: Cross-sectional, population-based epidemiological study. SUBJECTS: A total of 2046 adult Greenlanders (Inuit), 61% of those...... invited to participate, living in three areas of Greenland and in Denmark. MEASUREMENTS: Height, weight, waist and hip circumferences were measured and body mass index (BMI in kg/m(2)) and waist-hip ratio calculated. Sociocultural information was obtained by questionnaire and interview. Westernization...... was estimated by language and place of residence. RESULTS: The prevalence of obesity (>or=30 kg/m(2)) was 16 and 22% among men and women in Greenland (P=0.004), and 12 and 11%, respectively, in Denmark (NS). Westernization was accompanied by a decrease in the proportion of obese people, in particular among...

  20. Comparison of modelled runoff with observed proglacial discharge across the western margin of the Greenland ice sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustafa, S.; Rennermalm, A.; van As, D.; Overeem, I.; Tedesco, M.; Mote, T. L.; Koenig, L.; Smith, L. C.; Hagedorn, B.; Sletten, R. S.; Mikkelsen, A. B.; Hasholt, B.; Hall, D. K.; Fettweis, X.; Pitcher, L. H.; Hubbard, A.

    2017-12-01

    Greenland ice sheet surface ablation now dominates its total mass loss contributions to sea-level rise. Despite the increasing importance of Greenland's sea-level contribution, a quantitative inter-comparison between modeled and measured melt, runoff and discharge across multiple drainage basins is conspicuously lacking. Here we investigate the accuracy of model discharge estimates from the Modèle Atmosphérique Régionale (MAR v3.5.2) regional climate model by comparison with in situ proglacial river discharge measurements at three West Greenland drainage basins - North River (Thule), Watson River (Kangerlussuaq), and Naujat Kuat River (Nuuk). At each target catchment, we: 1) determine optimal drainage basin delineations; 2) assess primary drivers of melt; 3) evaluate MAR at daily, 5-, 10- and 20-day time scales; and 4) identify potential sources for model-observation discrepancies. Our results reveal that MAR resolves daily discharge variability poorly in the Nuuk and Thule basins (r2 = 0.4-0.5), but does capture variability over 5-, 10-, and 20-day means (r2 > 0.7). Model agreement with river flow data, though, is reduced during periods of peak discharge, particularly for the exceptional melt and discharge events of July 2012. Daily discharge is best captured by MAR across the Watson River basin, whilst there is lower correspondence between modeled and observed discharge at the Thule and Naujat Kuat River basins. We link the main source of model error to an underestimation of cloud cover, overestimation of surface albedo, and apparent warm bias in near-surface air temperatures. For future inter-comparison, we recommend using observations from catchments that have a self-contained and well-defined drainage area and an accurate discharge record over variable years coincident with a reliable automatic weather station record. Our study highlights the importance of improving MAR modeled surface albedo, cloud cover representation, and delay functions to reduce model

  1. The extent of anthelmintic Resistance on Nematodes in communally grazed sheep and goats in a Semi-Arid area of North-west Province (RSA) / Tebogo Stanely Ramotshwane

    OpenAIRE

    Ramotshwane, Tebogo Stanely

    2011-01-01

    A survey was conducted to investigate the occurrence of anthelmintic resistance of nematodes in communally grazed sheep and goat herds in the Zeerust area of the North-West Province, Republic of South Africa. The fecal egg count reduction test (FECR%) tests were used to assess the sheep and goat small holder farmers. Efficacy of albendazole, ivermectin and closantel was done on both the treatment and control animals. Anthelmintic efficacy of 80% was considered a threshold for ...

  2. Holocene environmental changes and climate development in Greenland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engels, Stefan; Helmens, Karin

    2010-12-01

    The primary aim of this report is to give an overview of the Holocene environmental and climatic changes in Greenland and to describe the development of the periglacial environment during the Holocene. Special emphasis is given to the influence of the ice sheet on its surroundings, both in terms of time (with respect to the response of the biosphere to deglaciation or ice sheet proximity) and in space (through the influence of the ice sheet on the regional climate, more specifically on temperature and aridity). Published records are reviewed, and regional trends are summarized. A range of different natural archives is available for such studies, including ice-core data, marine records, and continental sources of information, including peat profiles and lacustrine records. Because of the high number of lakes in all ice-free areas of Greenland, the lacustrine records offer the opportunity to get a spatial overview of past changes in environment and climate as well. This report focuses on (palaeo-) ecological studies, as it is intended to assemble basic information for future studies on adaptation of the biosphere to changes in climate. There is a bias towards pollen- and macro-remain-based reconstructions of past changes, as these dominate performed palaeoecological studies in Greenland; unfortunately, only a limited number of studies exist that include more modern proxies such as diatoms or chironomids (climate-indicators), but where available in the literature, these have been included. The report starts with an introduction where the current climatic and biological zonation of Greenland is discussed together with an overview of the geology of Greenland (on the full geological timescale) in order to put the following sections in perspective. Chapter 2 discusses the ice sheet history of Greenland from the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) onward where special emphasis is given to the spatial variability of deglaciation at the onset of the Holocene. To enhance the

  3. Holocene environmental changes and climate development in Greenland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engels, Stefan; Helmens, Karin (Dept. of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology, Stockholm Univ., Stockholm (Sweden))

    2010-12-15

    The primary aim of this report is to give an overview of the Holocene environmental and climatic changes in Greenland and to describe the development of the periglacial environment during the Holocene. Special emphasis is given to the influence of the ice sheet on its surroundings, both in terms of time (with respect to the response of the biosphere to deglaciation or ice sheet proximity) and in space (through the influence of the ice sheet on the regional climate, more specifically on temperature and aridity). Published records are reviewed, and regional trends are summarized. A range of different natural archives is available for such studies, including ice-core data, marine records, and continental sources of information, including peat profiles and lacustrine records. Because of the high number of lakes in all ice-free areas of Greenland, the lacustrine records offer the opportunity to get a spatial overview of past changes in environment and climate as well. This report focuses on (palaeo-) ecological studies, as it is intended to assemble basic information for future studies on adaptation of the biosphere to changes in climate. There is a bias towards pollen- and macro-remain-based reconstructions of past changes, as these dominate performed palaeoecological studies in Greenland; unfortunately, only a limited number of studies exist that include more modern proxies such as diatoms or chironomids (climate-indicators), but where available in the literature, these have been included. The report starts with an introduction where the current climatic and biological zonation of Greenland is discussed together with an overview of the geology of Greenland (on the full geological timescale) in order to put the following sections in perspective. Chapter 2 discusses the ice sheet history of Greenland from the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) onward where special emphasis is given to the spatial variability of deglaciation at the onset of the Holocene. To enhance the

  4. Environmental monitoring at the Nalunaq Gold Mine, South Greenland, 2004

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glahder, C. M.; Asmund, G.

    Monitoring was performed in the Nalunaq Gold Mine area, Nanortalik mu-nicipality, South Greenland during 20-26 August 2004. This was eight months after the first shipment of ore. Samples were collected at four marine stations in the Kirkespir Bay, Arctic char were sampled in the Kirkespir River......, and li-chens were collected at 20 stations in the Kirkespir Valley. Samples were analysed for 10 elements with an ICP-MS. Concentrations of Zn, Cu, Cr, As and Co were elevated 3-9 times compared to background concentrations found prior to mine start. The increased level of contamination in the local area...... is moderate compared to contaminations found around closed mines in Greenland, i.e. Maarmorilik, Ivittuut and Mestersvig....

  5. Net accumulation of the Greenland ice sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiilsholm, Sissi; Christensen, Jens Hesselbjerg; Dethloff, Klaus

    2003-01-01

    High-resolution (50 km) climate change simulations for an area covering the entire Arctic have been conducted with the regional climate model (RCM) HIRHAM. The experiments were forced at the lateral boundary by large-scale atmospheric conditions from transient climate change scenario simulations...... with HIRHAM for periods representing present-day (1961-1990) and the future (2071-2100) in the two scenarios. We find that due to a much better representation of the surface topography in the RCM, the geographical distribution of present-day accumulation rates simulated by the RCM represents a substantial...... improvement compared to the driving OAGCM. Estimates of the regional net balance are also better represented by the RCM. In the future climate the net balance for the Greenland Ice Sheet is reduced in all the simulation, but discrepancies between the amounts when based on ECHAM4/OPYC3 and HIRHAM are found...

  6. Late Ordovician brachiopods from eastern North Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mac Ørum Rasmussen, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Late Ordovician rhynchonelliformean brachiopods, typical of the North American Red River fauna, are found sporadically in the BOrglum River Formation of the Centrum SO area, Kronprins Christian Land, eastern North Greenland. The geographical distribution of this characteristic brachiopod fauna......) to younger strata exclusively yielding specimens of H.gigas. As H.gigas occurs in the upper part of the Cape Calhoun Formation in Washington Land, it indicates that the upper boundary of the Cape Calhoun Formation is considerably younger than previous estimates, reaching into the uppermost Katian (middle...... (Richmondian), it possesses a strong provincial signal during the later Ordovician. The new occurrences indicate that this fauna extended to the north-eastern margin of the Laurentian Craton. It lived in close association with cosmopolitan faunal elements that may have been the earliest sign of the succeeding...

  7. Spatial and temporal trends of selected trace elements in liver tissue from polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from Alaska, Canada and Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Routti, H.; Letcher, R.J.; Born, E.W.; Branigan, M.; Dietz, R.; Evans, T.J.; Fisk, A.T.; Peacock, E.; Sonne, C.

    2011-01-01

    Spatial trends and comparative changes in time of selected trace elements were studied in liver tissue from polar bears from ten different subpopulation locations in Alaska, Canadian Arctic and East Greenland. For nine of the trace elements (As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Mn, Pb, Rb, Se and Zn) spatial trends were investigated in 136 specimens sampled during 2005-2008 from bears from these ten subpopulations. Concentrations of Hg, Se and As were highest in the (northern and southern) Beaufort Sea area and lowest in (western and southern) Hudson Bay area and Chukchi/Bering Sea. In contrast, concentrations of Cd showed an increasing trend from east to west. Minor or no spatial trends were observed for Cu, Mn, Rb and Zn. Spatial trends were in agreement with previous studies, possibly explained by natural phenomena. To assess temporal changes of Cd, Hg, Se and Zn concentrations during the last decades, we compared our results to previously published data. These time comparisons suggested recent Hg increase in East Greenland polar bears. This may be related to Hg emissions and/or climate-induced changes in Hg cycles or changes in the polar bear food web related to global warming. Also, Hg:Se molar ratio has increased in East Greenland polar bears, which suggests there may be an increased risk for Hg 2+-mediated toxicity. Since the underlying reasons for spatial trends or changes in time of trace elements in the Arctic are still largely unknown, future studies should focus on the role of changing climate and trace metal emissions on geographical and temporal trends of trace elements. ?? 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  8. Spatial and temporal trends of selected trace elements in liver tissue from polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from Alaska, Canada and Greenland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Routti, Heli; Letcher, Robert J; Born, Erik W; Branigan, Marsha; Dietz, Rune; Evans, Thomas J; Fisk, Aaron T; Peacock, Elizabeth; Sonne, Christian

    2011-08-01

    Spatial trends and comparative changes in time of selected trace elements were studied in liver tissue from polar bears from ten different subpopulation locations in Alaska, Canadian Arctic and East Greenland. For nine of the trace elements (As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Mn, Pb, Rb, Se and Zn) spatial trends were investigated in 136 specimens sampled during 2005-2008 from bears from these ten subpopulations. Concentrations of Hg, Se and As were highest in the (northern and southern) Beaufort Sea area and lowest in (western and southern) Hudson Bay area and Chukchi/Bering Sea. In contrast, concentrations of Cd showed an increasing trend from east to west. Minor or no spatial trends were observed for Cu, Mn, Rb and Zn. Spatial trends were in agreement with previous studies, possibly explained by natural phenomena. To assess temporal changes of Cd, Hg, Se and Zn concentrations during the last decades, we compared our results to previously published data. These time comparisons suggested recent Hg increase in East Greenland polar bears. This may be related to Hg emissions and/or climate-induced changes in Hg cycles or changes in the polar bear food web related to global warming. Also, Hg:Se molar ratio has increased in East Greenland polar bears, which suggests there may be an increased risk for Hg(2+)-mediated toxicity. Since the underlying reasons for spatial trends or changes in time of trace elements in the Arctic are still largely unknown, future studies should focus on the role of changing climate and trace metal emissions on geographical and temporal trends of trace elements.

  9. 76 FR 33341 - Notice of Intent to prepare a Resource Management Plan for the West Eugene Wetlands Planning Area...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management [LLORE00000 L63500000.DO0000.LXSS021H0000.HAG11-0203] Notice of Intent to prepare a Resource Management Plan for the West Eugene Wetlands Planning... Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Intent. SUMMARY: In compliance with the National Environmental Policy...

  10. Dynamics of Soil Deflation Features in Kangerlussuaq, Greenland Revealed by Variations in Lichen Diameters on Exposed Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heindel, R. C.; Kelly, M. A.; Virginia, R. A.

    2013-12-01

    Little is known about the pervasive soil deflation features in the Kangerlussuaq region, West Greenland, an area deglaciated between ~6,800 and 150 years ago. While the majority of the landscape is vegetated with low-lying shrubs and graminoids, wind erosion has removed loess and vegetation from distinct patches ranging in size from a few to tens of meters across, leaving the underlying glacial till or bedrock exposed. Although previous work has considered aeolian landforms and regional loess deposition along the Watson River Valley, these deflation features have not been investigated in detail. We aim to determine both the timing and mechanisms of formation of the deflation features and will examine whether these mechanisms were related to regional climatic conditions, such as increased aridity, to fluctuations in the Greenland Ice Sheet, or to other factors. Our ongoing research investigating these features includes geomorphic mapping using field observations and satellite imagery, lichenometry of the exposed surfaces, and cosmogenic nuclide dating of boulders and bedrock within and near the deflation features. Here we present initial results from our lichenometry studies. During the summer of 2013, we measured maximum lichen (Rhizocarpon sp.) diameters on boulder and bedrock surfaces in 15 soil deflation features located between Kangerlussuaq and the ice sheet margin. Lichen diameters vary from only a few millimeters at the outer margins of deflation features to multiple centimeters (maximum ~50 mm) in the centers of the unvegetated patches. This distinct pattern suggests that the outer margins of the soil deflation features are currently active. Based on a previously established lichen growth curve for Rhizocarpon sp. in West Greenland, our results indicate that the features are expanding at a rate of ~1.5 m per 100 yrs. In addition, the large lichen diameters (~40-50 mm) that occur in the centers of deflation features suggest that the formation mechanism has

  11. COMPARATIVE STUDIES ON MAN-BITING POPULATION OF FILARIAL VECTOR Cx. quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae BETWEEN TRIBAL AND NON-TRIBAL AREAS OF BANKURA DISTRICT, WEST BENGAL INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Chandra

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available West Bengal, India is endemic for filariasis and the number of patients infected with bancroftian filariasis is increasing. There are no observation on the potential vector of filariasis from the tribal areas that make up considerable part in this state. This study investigate population of Cx. quinquefasciatus in tribal and non-tribal areas of Bankura district. Species composition of mosquitoes, per man-hour density, hourly densities of night biting Cx. quinquefasciatus, number of Cx. quinquefasciatus biting per man per day and per man per night. Preferential biting site and peak period of filarial transmission were recorded from both the study areas. Infection rate, infectivity rate of man-landing vector population and annual transmission potential were observed to be 0.31%, 0.00% and 0.00 in tribal areas and 0.73%, 0.23% and 359.71 in non-tribal areas respectively.

  12. Impact of public health research in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Peter; Curtis, Tine

    2004-01-01

    In 1992, the Greenland Home Rule Government took over the responsibility for health care. There has since been a growing cooperation between the Directorate of Health and researchers in Denmark and Greenland, for instance by the Directorate supporting workshops and funding a chair in health resea...

  13. Improving the Greenlandic Greenhouse Gas Inventory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Baunbæk, Lene; Gyldenkærne, Steen

    The project to improve the Greenlandic greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory was undertaken due to the recommendations made by the UNFCCC review team in connection with the 2008 and 2009 submissions by the Kingdom of Denmark. The improvements made to the Greenlandic GHG emission inventory were substantial...

  14. Homicide in Greenland 1985-2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Martin R; Thomsen, Asser H; Høyer, Christian B

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Homicide in Greenland has not often been investigated. The latest published study documented a dramatic rise in the homicide rate from around 1/100,000 inhabitants to more than 23/100,000 inhabitants from 1946 to 1984. The aim of our study was to characterize homicides in Greenland from ...

  15. Environmental radioactivity in Greenland in 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarkrog, A.; Lippert, J.

    1977-07-01

    Measurements of fall-out radioactivity in Greenland in 1976 are reported. Strontium-90 (and Caesium-137 in most cases) was determined in samples of precipitation, sea water, vegetation, animals, and drinking water. Estimates are given of the mean contents of 90 Sr and 137 Cs in the human diet in Greenland in 1976. (author)

  16. Balance velocities of the Greenland ice sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joughin, I.; Fahnestock, M.; Ekholm, Simon

    1997-01-01

    We present a map of balance velocities for the Greenland ice sheet. The resolution of the underlying DEM, which was derived primarily from radar altimetery data, yields far greater detail than earlier balance velocity estimates for Greenland. The velocity contours reveal in striking detail......, the balance map is useful for ice-sheet modelling, mass balance studies, and field planning....

  17. Environmental radioactivity in Greenland in 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarkrog, A.; Hansen, H.; Lippert, J.

    1979-07-01

    Measurements of fallout radioactivity in Greenland in 1978 are reported. Strontium-90 (and Cesium-137 in most cases) was determined in samples of precipitation, sea water, vegetation, animals, and drinking water. Tritium was determined in samples of drinking water. Estimates are given of the mean contents of 90 Sr and 137 Cs in the human diet in Greenland in 1978. (author)

  18. Environmental radioactivity in Greenland in 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarkrog, A.; Lippert, J.

    1976-07-01

    Measuremtns of fall-out radioactivity in Greenland in 1975 are reported. Strontium-90 (and Caesium-137 in most cases) was determined in samples of precipitation, sea water, vegetation, animals, and drinking water. Estimates are given of the mean contents of 90 Sr and 137 Cs in the human diet in Greenland in 1975. (author)

  19. The Greenland Analogue Project, Yearly Report 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-08-15

    -development and drainage characteristics of supraglacial lakes. SPB aims at making in situ measurements of the sub glacial hydrological conditions of the Greenland Ice Sheet and to conduct numerical modelling experiments focused on ice-sheet and basal conditions. SPB has focused on preparing for the hot water ice drilling that will commence in 2010. For this purpose a field reconnaissance of the ice drilling sites was carried out in the spring of 2009, during which ice penetrating radar data was also collected. Measured ice depths range from 100 to 190 metres and the ice depth generally displayed an increase with distance from the margin. SPB aims at drilling as close as possible to the ice margin during 2010 so that the ice boreholes intersect the bed above the bedrock borehole to be drilled by SPC in 2011. From the radar campaign carried out by SPB in May, 2009, it is suggested that the ice is wet based in the area of planned ice drilling. During the reconnaissance SPB also discovered that due to the ice surface topography in the near margin area the ice drilling operations will be slow. The main aim of the SPC during 2009 was to collect a suite of information supporting the planning of the deep drilling to be carried out in 2011 including groundwater information. SPC drilled two cored boreholes with hot water drilling in 2009 with the aim of: (1) obtaining knowledge about the permafrost conditions close to the ice margin; (2) demonstrating the presence of a talik under a lake; (3) collecting core material for geological and fracture studies; and (4) providing groundwater sampling and hydraulic testing opportunities. (orig.)

  20. The Greenland Analogue Project, Yearly Report 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-08-01

    -development and drainage characteristics of supraglacial lakes. SPB aims at making in situ measurements of the sub glacial hydrological conditions of the Greenland Ice Sheet and to conduct numerical modelling experiments focused on ice-sheet and basal conditions. SPB has focused on preparing for the hot water ice drilling that will commence in 2010. For this purpose a field reconnaissance of the ice drilling sites was carried out in the spring of 2009, during which ice penetrating radar data was also collected. Measured ice depths range from 100 to 190 metres and the ice depth generally displayed an increase with distance from the margin. SPB aims at drilling as close as possible to the ice margin during 2010 so that the ice boreholes intersect the bed above the bedrock borehole to be drilled by SPC in 2011. From the radar campaign carried out by SPB in May, 2009, it is suggested that the ice is wet based in the area of planned ice drilling. During the reconnaissance SPB also discovered that due to the ice surface topography in the near margin area the ice drilling operations will be slow. The main aim of the SPC during 2009 was to collect a suite of information supporting the planning of the deep drilling to be carried out in 2011 including groundwater information. SPC drilled two cored boreholes with hot water drilling in 2009 with the aim of: (1) obtaining knowledge about the permafrost conditions close to the ice margin; (2) demonstrating the presence of a talik under a lake; (3) collecting core material for geological and fracture studies; and (4) providing groundwater sampling and hydraulic testing opportunities. (orig.)