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Sample records for west 19th-century mormon

  1. Instrumental evidence of an unusually strong West African Monsoon in the 19th century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego, David; Ordoñez, Paulina; Ribera, Pedro; Peña-Ortiz, Cristina; Garcia-Herrera, Ricardo; Vega, Inmaculada; Gomez, Francisco de Paula

    2016-04-01

    The precipitation in the Sahel -which is mainly controlled by the dynamics of the West African Monsoon-, has been in the spot of the climate community for the last three decades due to the persistence of the drought period that started in the 1970s. Unfortunately, reliable meteorological series in this area are only available since the beginning of the 20th Century, thus limiting our understanding of the significance of this period from a long term perspective. Currently, our knowledge of what happened in times previous to the 20th Century essentially relies in documentary or proxy sources. In this work, we present the first instrumental evidence of a 50 year-long period characterised by an unusually strong West African monsoon in the19th Century. Following the recent advances in the generation of climatic indices based on data from ship's logbooks, we used historical wind observations to compute a new index (the so-called ASWI) for characterising the strength of the West African Monsoon. The ASWI is based in the persistence of the southwesterly winds in the [29°W-17°W;7°N-13°N] area and it has been possible to compute it since 1790 for July and since 1839 for August and September. We show that the ASWI is a reliable measure of the monsoon's strength and the Sahelian rainfall. Our new series clearly shows the well-known drought period starting in the 1970s. During this dry period, the West African Monsoon was particularly weak and interestingly, we found that since then, the correlations with different climatic patterns such as the Pacific and Atlantic "El Niño" changed significantly in relation to those of the previous century. Remarkably, our results also show that the period 1839-1890 was characterised by an unusually strong and persistent monsoon. Notwithstanding, two of the few dry years within this period were concurrent with large volcanic eruptions in the Northern Hemisphere. This latter result supports the recently suggested relationship between major

  2. Russian and Foreign Authors of the late 18th – 19th Centuries on the North-West and Central Caucasus (the Historiographical and Historical Aspects

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    Vladimir G. Ivantsov

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article contains a historiographical survey of the collections of national and foreign authors of the late 18th–19th centuries related the peoples of the North-West and Central Caucasus, as well as events that were taking place in the region. The authors note that the value of works examined in the article varies in terms of historiography. That said, alongside quite scientific works whose authors analyze prior publications starting from antiquity, as well as documentary materials of the 19th century, the major part of the collections is of an exclusively descriptive nature, containing collectively vast and diverse information of mainly an ethnographic nature.

  3. Ethnic Migration in North-West Ingermanland: The Influence of Economic Development on Local Differences in the Second Half of the 19th Century

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    Andrei Kalinitchev

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ingermanland became a destination point for migrants of many nationalities and had an inner circulation of the domestic population in the 19th century. Migratory routes, as well as the outflow and inflow volumes in the region differed for each ethnic group. A micro-historical approach enables one to assess the various reasons for the mobility of the homogeneous domestic population. There was a specific migration of orphans to Lutheran Finnish communities. Indeed the main reason for this migration was due to economic factors. A structural change of employment in the case of the closure of factories resulted in the outward movement of the population, alongside the allure of higher wages in localities with an industrial and trade infrastructure. The expansion of St. Petersburgs city border led to complex migratory processes as a result of the rapid economic development of the capital region. Ingermanland became an important part of the international market exchange that created opportunities for migrants and businesses of residents affected by the changes, who increasingly gave up agricultural production and sought other ways of earning a livelihood.

  4. Famous Funerals in 19th Century Cracow

    OpenAIRE

    Bernadeta Wilk

    2006-01-01

    Cracow, the old capital of Polish Kingdom, has always performed a particular role in the Polish history and culture. In the nineteenth century, particulary in the period of galician autonomy 1860-1914, Cracow became the spiritual capital of Poland for generations of Poles who lived in the partitioned country, which was ruled by the three foreign powers together. About this phenomenon decided not only the autonomy but also the old tradition and the symbolism of this town. In the 19 th century ...

  5. 19th Century Ankara Through Historical Poems

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    Özge Öztekin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A city is a place whose meaning is found in the poetry created there. In Kevin Lynch’s words, a city presents the imagination with an unlimited potential for “readability”. If we consider this unlimited readability through poetry, it can be said that attempts to find the zeitgeist of a city at a certain time through literary texts must evaluate the poetry, the city and the time. This is because poetry (or literature in general, just like a city, has an important memory which oscillates through ideas of its past and future. In this sense, divan poetry and one particular example of it—historical “manzume” poems—are memories which richly illustrate the ‘continuity’ and ‘change’ within a period. This work, on 19th century Ankara, aims to evaluate the traces reflected in historical manzume poems of the time they were written. Five historical manzume poems in three texts out of seventy 19th century divan collections scanned for this work were found to be about Ankara. Two of these manzumes are by Cazib, one by Ziver Pasha, and one by Mahmud Celaleddin Pasha. The first of these is on Ankara’s dervish lodge; the second on a barracks being built in Ankara; the third on Vecihi Pasha’s governorship of Ankara; the fourth on the the Mayoral Residence. In addition to these, a manzume on the construction of Hamidiye Caddesi by Mahmud Celaleddin Pasha is discovered with in scope of the work. The aim of this work is to provide a contribution to city history through a commentary on elements of 19th century poetry concerning Ankara.

  6. Famous Funerals in 19th Century Cracow

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    Bernadeta Wilk

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Cracow, the old capital of Polish Kingdom, has always performed a particular role in the Polish history and culture. In the nineteenth century, particulary in the period of galician autonomy 1860-1914, Cracow became the spiritual capital of Poland for generations of Poles who lived in the partitioned country, which was ruled by the three foreign powers together. About this phenomenon decided not only the autonomy but also the old tradition and the symbolism of this town. In the 19 th century and before the First World War, Cracow was the most influential centre of the Polish national life. In this time Crakow’s citizens decided to continue the old tradition of the royal burial. Since there were no longer any Polish monarchs, they resolved that the remains of the greatest national heroes, of writers and artists be buried on the Wawel Cathedral in the cemetery Rakowice and later in the Church of Paulinites fathers “on the rock”. Famous funerals in 19 th century Cracow, of which the best known were those of prince Joseph Poniatowski in 1817, general Thaddeus Kosciusko in 1818, king Casmir the Great in 1869 and of poet Adam Mickiewicz in 1890 alluded to royal ceremonies from the time of Polish independence. These funerals have been one of the main elements in patriotic and religious ceremonies and important part of the nation’s patriotic educations.

  7. [19th century Russian research about collective behavior].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engmann, Birk; Steinberg, Holger

    2017-05-01

    In the 19th century, collective behavior or crowd psychology was given a broad interest in psychiatric research. But until today the focus had always been on French, English or German publications neglecting the comprehensive Russian research that exists. That's why, the authors wish to elaborate 19th century Russian points of view on crowd psychology.Our research revealed that most of the Russian authors discussed imitation, suggestion, and hereditary predisposition - as did their colleagues in the West. Contrary to that, the 1881 monograph by Viktor Kandinsky could be regarded as an outstanding work because it presents an independent hypothesis on crowd psychology. Kandinsky postulated a gradual transition from normal to pathological based on neuro-anatomical und physiological presumptions. He postulated a causal chain which starts with exaltation followed by ecstasy, illusions, and at least hallucinations. He regarded exaltation to be a precondition in which a person accepts notions uncritically. Thus, in an exalted crowd one person that hallucinates may "infect" the others easily. People prone to mysticism, with a passion for mysterious things or on outstanding skills would be at a high risk of being infected. On the other hand, Kandinsky's hypothesis also implies that no one is exempt from such infection. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Wrong lovers in the 19th century Netherlands.

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    Hekma, G

    Various styles of "male love" occurring in the 19th century are introduced. Locations and public ordinances relating to these styles of love are discussed. The development of the homosexual role is broached along with the question of whether attitudes and laws of the 19th century were responsible in part for the development of normative expectations for homosexuality which might in turn have repressed its growth.

  9. The 19th Century Anglo-Yoruba Relations | Abimbola | AFRREV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the Anglo-Yoruba relations in the 19th century via the influence of the Ijebu people, a sub-group of the Yoruba; using oriki(Ijebu), a very important oral poetic genre among the Yoruba people of Southwestern Nigeria. 60 groups of oral art performers were sampled; data were drawn from 60 Ijebu towns ...

  10. Attempts to Save Tragedy in the 19th Century

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    Alicja Przybyszewska

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article outlines the issue of genre-transformation of tragedy in 19th-century Polish drama. The fundamental question is tragedy’s potential after liberation from the most important structural categories of the genre: the three unities, catharsis and anagnorisis. The discussion on the 19th-century patterns of tragedy, derived from contemporary theory, criticism, and theatrical production, are based on research by Marek Dybizbański, who presented an interesting analysis of the problem, which was an important indicator of contemporary literary thought, in his study called Tragedia polska drugiej połowy XIX wieku — wzorce i odstępstwa [The Polish Tragic Drama in Late 19th Century — Patterns and Divergence]. The issues discussed were: disproportion between expectations and effects, indicated by repertoires and contemporary debate on drama, lack of standard productions of tragedy, matched by great surplus of texts that tried to set the standard, and by programmatic declarations on how to do it. The author, following Dybizbański’s discussion, focuses on the question why the 19th century in Poland was, for tragedy, a lost time.

  11. THE DANCING SCULPTURES OF THE 19TH CENTURY EUROPEAN ART

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    Sibel ALMELEK ISMAN

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Dance has been an indispensable element of human life for centuries. Painters and sculptors have created the dynamism of dance steps either on the canvas or stone with the same excitement. Charits, Nymphs, Bacchantes and Satyrs, the Greek and Roman mythological figures who attract attention with their dances have been a source of inspiration for artists. In this research, the dancing sculptures of the 19th century which is an interesting period in European art because of its witnessing of long term styles like Neoclassicism and Romanticism and short term movements such as Realism and Impressionism are examined. Examples of sculptures which brings dance to life before and after the 19th century have also been mentioned. The likenesses as well as dissimilarities in the way the arts of painting and sculpture approach to the theme of dance has been briefly evaluated.

  12. Evolution of Electromagnetics in the 19th Century

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    I. V. Lindell

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Steps leading to the present-day electromagnetic theory made in the 19th Century are briefly reviewed. The progress can be roughly divided in two branches which are called Continental and British Electromagnetics. The former was based on Newton's action-at-a-distance principle and French mathematics while the latter grew from Faraday's contact-action principle, the concept of field lines and physical analogies. Maxwell's field theory and its experimental verification marked the last stage in the process.

  13. The development of the dementia concept in 19th century

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    Leonardo Caixeta

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The dementia concept has been reformulated through its history and the 19th century was remarkable in the construction of this concept as we understand it today. Like other syndromes, much of the history of the dementia concept comes from the attempt to separate it from other nosological conditions, giving it a unique identity. The fundamental elements for the arising of the dementia modern concept were: a correlation of the observed syndrome with organic-cerebral lesions; b understanding of the irreversibility of the dementia evolution; c its relation with human ageing; and d the choice of the cognitive dysfunction as a clinical marker of the dementia concept.

  14. Institutionalising senile dementia in 19th-century Britain.

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    Andrews, Emily Stella

    2017-02-01

    This article explains how old, poor people living with dementia came to be institutionalised in 19th-century Britain (with a focus on London), and how they were responded to by the people who ran those institutions. The institutions in question are lunatic asylums, workhouses and charitable homes. Old people with dementia were admitted to lunatic asylums, workhouses and charitable homes, but were not welcome there. Using the records of Hanwell lunatic asylum, published texts of psychiatric theory, and the administrative records that all of these institutions generated at local and national levels, this article argues that 'the senile' were a perpetual classificatory residuum in the bureaucracy of 19th-century health and welfare. They were too weak and unresponsive to adhere to the norms of the asylum regime, yet too challenging in their behaviour to conform to that of the workhouse, or the charitable home. Across all of these institutions, old people with dementia were represented as an intractable burden, many decades before the 'ageing society' became a demographic reality. © 2017 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness.

  15. [Suicide and cultural criticism in 19th century Spanish medicine].

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    Plumed Domingo, José Javier; Novella, Enric J

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the major role of suicide in the cultural criticism deployed by 19th century Spanish doctors by analysing the most important theoretical models that inspired their contributions to its aetiology. In the first half of the century, the most commonly debated causal factor was the passions, which were thought to stand in a permanent tension with a free, reflexive and conscious self, in accordance with the spiritualist doctrine that was then dominant. In the context of a growing somatisation of moral and intellectual phenomena, the notion of suicide as an act of free will was later modified, and it became considered the consequence of certain organic disturbances. However, this process did not alter the central role of suicidal behaviour within 19th-century cultural criticism, because the advent of degeneration theory meant that doctors finally had a doctrine that allowed them to combine biological determinism with the extended perception of a moral and social crisis threatening the stability and achievements of bourgeois society.

  16. Cast Iron in The 19th Century Building Equipment

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    Kwasek, Michał; Piwek, Aleksander

    2017-10-01

    Cast iron is a material, characteristics of which enable to receive extremely artistic elements. It maintains good strength properties at the same time. That combination of these seemingly contrary traits makes it a commodity that was widely used in the 19th century industry and architecture. These usages were not only as decorative elements, technical and structural ones. The production of new household utilities started, which made people’s lives more comfortable. Cast iron allowed for fast and cheap production while maintaining high aesthetic qualities. Useful elements, which often were ornamental parts of buildings were created. The aim of the article is to characterise elements of interior equipment of the 19th century building that are made of cast iron. As it appears from performed bibliography, archival and field studies, the ways of exploitation are very broad. Some were mounted into the building; the others were a mobile equipment. As it occurred they were most commonly used as functional items. Cast iron was used to produce the minor elements, which were only parts of the bigger wooden or stone items. Notwithstanding, there were also bigger ones casted as a whole, and frequently ones that were assembled from many elements. Nowadays, elements of an interior feature are one of the subjects of study during the restoration work of the buildings. They can provide important information about the building and the way people lived and are considered as the essential part of historical objects.

  17. [The technicalization of medicine in the 19th century].

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    Olsén, J E

    2001-01-01

    The paper focuses on the role that instruments played in the medical discourse of the 19th century. Towards the end of the century, instruments had imbued the medical sciences to such an extent that the situation soon was compared to the vernacular confusion of the biblical tower of Babel. Whereas the autonomical recordings of laboratory apparatus, vouched for guarantee against biased test results, clinicians and general practitioners were finding it difficult to incorporate the new techniques into their daily routines. A tension between the instrument as invention, moulded to fit a particular series of experiments, and the instrument as a reproducible item, was inevitable. Hence, the unification of the science and practice of medicine, became an important topic at the international medical meetings of the late 19th century. Seen in the light of the industrialization and urbanization of occidental culture and society, the instrumentation of medicine entailed a number of significant issues which hinged on the relationship between the biological destiny of man and the artificial wonders of technology. Grand metaphors like the organic machine and the human motor, did not only signal a scientific preoccupation with the shortcomings of the living organism as opposed to the perfection of the machine, but also indicated closer ties between the human body and technology at large. In a certain sense, medical instruments, along with apparatuses such as the camera, the steam-engine, the telegraph, the phonograph and the cinematograph, offered a new set-up of codes with which the body and its functions could be reinterpreted. In this respect, the late nineteenth-century strive for the standardisation and unification of medical instruments, was not irreconcilable with the notion of the l'homme moyen, as conceived, for example, in the work of the Belgian mathematician Adolphe Quetelet. The paper outlines the span of medical measuring devices, dating from the sphygmometer of

  18. Book advertisements in Osijek’s 19th century newspapers

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    Maja Krtalić

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates the promotion of books through advertising in the newspapers published in Osijek in the second half of the 19th century. From late 18th century and in the course of the 19th century’s intense developments in the publishing of newspapers and journals, advertising in this medium was one of the ways to promote books. Booksellers and publishers advertised books in newspaper ads, relying on the fact that newspapers had become a common and omnipresent medium for disseminating information. Book advertisements were evidence of the position of books in relation to other aspects of culture and society, of the approach to their promotion and, finally, of the importance of book promotion. In order to investigate how and how much book ads were present, and how Croatian books were promoted and reached the readership, the paper analyses daily and monthly publications, such as Esseker allgemeine illustrierte Zeitung from 1869, Die Drau from 1968 to 1877, and Branislav from 1878. Among the eleven different papers published in the second half of the 19th century in Osijek, these were selected for their content, as they were the first illustrated newspapers (Esseker allgemeine illustrierte Zeitung. The investigation focused on the influence of the newly emerged illustrated press and on the influence of the newspapers published in Croatian language (Branislav, as a possible tool for spreading and promotion of Croatian books. Another focus was on the influence of continued publication and on the growth of a steady readership (Die Drau. The papers were analysed with the aim to locate book advertisements which were then subjected to content analysis. Also provided is a brief overview of the book production and publication in Croatia and in Osijek at the time, and an overview of the emergence of newspapers in Osijek with a brief account of the titles selected for study in order to gain an insight into the context in which book ads appeared. It

  19. [Scientific methods in 19th century clinical laboratories].

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    Büttner, Johannes

    2002-06-01

    In the middle of the 19th century the first chemical laboratories were established at hospitals and clinics in Central Europe which performed chemical analyses for purposes of practical medicine and clinical research. A characteristic feature of these new laboratories was the use of measuring instruments. The results of these chemical methods could serve as "signs" in the diagnosis of diseases. A great step forward was the introduction of "quantitative" data as results of measurements. They allowed a greater differentiation in the description of phenomena compared with the "qualitative" data used before. Another important feature of the new signs is the possibility to derive from it knowledge of causal relations of physiological and pathological processes in the organism. The influence of this methodological change on the thinking of the physicians at the sickbed is discussed using several examples. The "chemical signs" were used in the description of diseases and for the "quantification of health" by use of "normal values" which allow a discrimination between health and disease. Chemical quantities became also important for the description and examination of functional systems in the body, e.g. the metabolism.

  20. Absinthism: a fictitious 19th century syndrome with present impact

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    Lachenmeier Dirk W

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Absinthe, a bitter spirit containing wormwood (Artemisia absinthium L., was banned at the beginning of the 20th century as consequence of its supposed unique adverse effects. After nearly century-long prohibition, absinthe has seen a resurgence after recent de-restriction in many European countries. This review provides information on the history of absinthe and one of its constituent, thujone. Medical and toxicological aspects experienced and discovered before the prohibition of absinthe are discussed in detail, along with their impact on the current situation. The only consistent conclusion that can be drawn from those 19th century studies about absinthism is that wormwood oil but not absinthe is a potent agent to cause seizures. Neither can it be concluded that the beverage itself was epileptogenic nor that the so-called absinthism can exactly be distinguished as a distinct syndrome from chronic alcoholism. The theory of a previous gross overestimation of the thujone content of absinthe may have been verified by a number of independent studies. Based on the current available evidence, thujone concentrations of both pre-ban and modern absinthes may not have been able to cause detrimental health effects other than those encountered in common alcoholism. Today, a questionable tendency of absinthe manufacturers can be ascertained that use the ancient theories of absinthism as a targeted marketing strategy to bring absinthe into the spheres of a legal drug-of-abuse. Misleading advertisements of aphrodisiac or psychotropic effects of absinthe try to re-establish absinthe's former reputation. In distinction from commercially manufactured absinthes with limited thujone content, a health risk to consumers is the uncontrolled trade of potentially unsafe herbal products such as absinthe essences that are readily available over the internet.

  1. Absinthism: a fictitious 19th century syndrome with present impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padosch, Stephan A; Lachenmeier, Dirk W; Kröner, Lars U

    2006-01-01

    Absinthe, a bitter spirit containing wormwood (Artemisia absinthium L.), was banned at the beginning of the 20th century as consequence of its supposed unique adverse effects. After nearly century-long prohibition, absinthe has seen a resurgence after recent de-restriction in many European countries. This review provides information on the history of absinthe and one of its constituent, thujone. Medical and toxicological aspects experienced and discovered before the prohibition of absinthe are discussed in detail, along with their impact on the current situation. The only consistent conclusion that can be drawn from those 19th century studies about absinthism is that wormwood oil but not absinthe is a potent agent to cause seizures. Neither can it be concluded that the beverage itself was epileptogenic nor that the so-called absinthism can exactly be distinguished as a distinct syndrome from chronic alcoholism. The theory of a previous gross overestimation of the thujone content of absinthe may have been verified by a number of independent studies. Based on the current available evidence, thujone concentrations of both pre-ban and modern absinthes may not have been able to cause detrimental health effects other than those encountered in common alcoholism. Today, a questionable tendency of absinthe manufacturers can be ascertained that use the ancient theories of absinthism as a targeted marketing strategy to bring absinthe into the spheres of a legal drug-of-abuse. Misleading advertisements of aphrodisiac or psychotropic effects of absinthe try to re-establish absinthe's former reputation. In distinction from commercially manufactured absinthes with limited thujone content, a health risk to consumers is the uncontrolled trade of potentially unsafe herbal products such as absinthe essences that are readily available over the internet. PMID:16722551

  2. Ethnographic research in Russia in the 19th century

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    Kerimova Marina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Systematic and structured ethnographic data collection started in Russia with the formation of the Emperor’s Academy of Science and in 1765 the Emperor’s Economic Society. In the beginning of the 18th century, the Academy had supported numerous expeditions and scientific research in Siberia. A handbook was introduced, with questions regarding peoples in the region, their customs, borders, languages and rituals. Later on, at the time of foundation of the Emperor’s Russian geographic society, in 1845, several special ethnographic programs were formulated, with the idea to facilitate data collection about many aspects of everyday life, customs and various questions related to the exclusively Russian population of the Russian Empire. In this process, a significant role was played by the Department of Ethnography and its head, the anthropologist K.M. Ber and later on, a famous publicist, art historian and ethnographer, N.I. Nadeždin. The program suggested in 1852 by N.I. Nadeždin was incorporated in “the handbook collection for Kamtchatka expedition”, undertaken by the Russian geographic society. Afterwards, many other departments and individuals had successfully continued to improve ethnographic program and design of the various data collection. For example, in the 19th century, a private ethnographic practice by prince Vjačeslav N. Tenjišev was very active, by collecting data on all life aspects among the rural population. The practice had 348 employees of various status and background. Today, the collected data and sources are being kept in the archive of the Russian Ethnographic Museum in St. Petersburg.

  3. Absinthism: a fictitious 19th century syndrome with present impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padosch, Stephan A; Lachenmeier, Dirk W; Kröner, Lars U

    2006-05-10

    Absinthe, a bitter spirit containing wormwood (Artemisia absinthium L.), was banned at the beginning of the 20th century as consequence of its supposed unique adverse effects. After nearly century-long prohibition, absinthe has seen a resurgence after recent de-restriction in many European countries. This review provides information on the history of absinthe and one of its constituent, thujone. Medical and toxicological aspects experienced and discovered before the prohibition of absinthe are discussed in detail, along with their impact on the current situation. The only consistent conclusion that can be drawn from those 19th century studies about absinthism is that wormwood oil but not absinthe is a potent agent to cause seizures. Neither can it be concluded that the beverage itself was epileptogenic nor that the so-called absinthism can exactly be distinguished as a distinct syndrome from chronic alcoholism.The theory of a previous gross overestimation of the thujone content of absinthe may have been verified by a number of independent studies. Based on the current available evidence, thujone concentrations of both pre-ban and modern absinthes may not have been able to cause detrimental health effects other than those encountered in common alcoholism. Today, a questionable tendency of absinthe manufacturers can be ascertained that use the ancient theories of absinthism as a targeted marketing strategy to bring absinthe into the spheres of a legal drug-of-abuse. Misleading advertisements of aphrodisiac or psychotropic effects of absinthe try to re-establish absinthe's former reputation. In distinction from commercially manufactured absinthes with limited thujone content, a health risk to consumers is the uncontrolled trade of potentially unsafe herbal products such as absinthe essences that are readily available over the internet.

  4. Female Nomina Professionalia in Russian Vocabulary of the 19th Century (Ssociolinguistic Analysis

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    Olga I. Eremenko

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The authors focus on female nomina professionalia, which existed in Russian language of the 19th century. The appeal to this group of feminatives is determined by the fact that at that date they constituted an actual, actively replenishing lexical category. That was caused by changes in the socio-cultural life of the 19th century. The article analyzes the basic derivational models that produce nomina professionalia, traces the dynamics of such names throughout the 19th century, which is conditioned by extra-linguistic reasons.

  5. Gypsies in 19th-Century French Literature: The Paradox in Centering the Periphery

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    W Udasmoro

    2015-01-01

    ...? How do the authors portray gypsy women? The goal of this article is to explore the operations of power in a gender-relations context, focusing on the construction of gypsy women in two 19th-century French novels.

  6. Russian Foreign Clergy in the 19th Century in Western Europe: General Tendencies and Peculiarities

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    Gogorian Kristina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to general tendencies and peculiarities of а special group of Russian clergy, located at the embassies in the countries of Western Europe. Formed in the Synodal period, this category of clergy was under a double jurisdiction. It obeyed both spiritual and secular authorities, represented by The Holy Synod and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Therefore, the status of the foreign clergy was infl uenced by many factors: religion, culture, politics, and diplomacy. The specifics of a particular region played important role. International relations of Russia and the country where service was held had influence on the foreign clergy. An Orthodox priest, as well as the diplomatic corps, was the representative of his country abroad; his duties often extended beyond Church life, and sometimes even acquired diplomatic skills. In addition, in all European countries, the position of the embassy priests was much different from the clergy in the country. Special attention in the article is paid to education, official and economic status, and other characteristics of the embassy clergy as a group. The evolution of this category took place during the 19th century. Church building was the main concern of the embassy clergy in the second half of the century, when Orthodox churches were built in different parts of Europe, to acquaint the West with Russian culture and Eastern branches of Christianity.

  7. SYNONYMIC RELATIONS OF CAUSAL PREPOSITIONS IN RUSSIAN LITERARY LANGUAGE OF THE 19th CENTURY

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    Kotnikova Kseniya Valeryevna

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to studying the prepositional synonymy in the Russian literary language of the 19th century. The work studies structures in which prepositions are a means of expressing causality – conceptual and linguistic category presented as patrimonial relative to species categories of causes, purpose and concessions. The definition of the term preposition-synonym is given. In view of lexical and morphological differentiation of prepositional synonymy in this research the lexical synonymy is analyzed. The work is based on texts of various genres of the 19th century represented in the Russian National Corpus. It characterizes some ranks of synonymic causal prepositions in the Russian literary language of the 19th century: the analysis of the use of synonyms in different contexts, combined with one of the particular values of causality – the reasons, purpose, concessions determined specifics of using separate units; it identifies some trends in the development of synonyms for over a century. The main trends in the development of synonymic ranks of causal prepositions in the 19th century are revealed. Some lexical units fade; others are established and continue to expand the field of their application. Thus, on the basis of the material studied, we can conclude that the development of means of synonymous semantic causality expression in the 19th century followed the path of verbal marking of more subtle shades of causality.

  8. Authority and leadership: the evolution of nursing management in 19th century teaching hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmstadter, Carol

    2008-01-01

    This study shows why some 19th century nursing managers were successful and some were not. With the exception of Florence Nightingale, almost nothing has been written about 19th century nursing managers. Classical historical method is used. Extensive use is made of secondary sources. Primary sources are found in the archives of the 12 London teaching hospitals, the Radcliffe Infirmary, the Convents of St John the Divine and the All Saints Sisters, and 16,000 Nightingale documents in the Collected Works of Florence Nightingale. Success in delivering a highly competent nursing service depended on the matron's leadership and legitimate authority but she also had to have the support of her hospital board to gain access to allocation of scarce resources. While the 19th century hospital environment was very different, how nurses directed under different circumstances clarifies our knowledge of successful nursing management in 2007.

  9. Reimagining a Riemannian symbology for the structural harmonic analysis of 19th-century tonal music.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Alessi Bittencourt

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the context of a preview of central topics taken from a larger research work, this article presents and explains a proposition of a functional analytical symbology which is currently being developed as a tool for the structural harmonic analysis of tonal music. This symbology constitutes a key component for a proposal of an analytical methodology for 19th century extended tonality, which is the core of the aforementioned larger research work. Based on a critical revision of the history of music theory and analysis, this methodology is mainly the result of the recasting and the amplification of thoughts and concepts developed by 19th century theorists such as Hugo Riemann and Arthur von Oettingen. The article introduces the proposed analytical symbology through a comparison to its historical counterparts, and it also highlights the ability of the proposed symbols to graph the harmonic language of 19th century extended tonality by means of a few analytical examples.

  10. [JAN JĘDRZEJEWICZ AND EUROPEAN ASTRONOMY OF THE 2ND HALF OF THE 19TH CENTURY].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siuda-Bochenek, Magda

    2015-01-01

    Jan Jędrzejewicz was an amateur astronomer who in the 2nd half of the 19th century created an observation centre, which considering the level of research was comparable to the European ones. Jędrzejewicz settled down in Plonsk in 1862 and worked as a doctor ever since but his greatest passion was astronomy, to which he dedicated all his free time. In 1875 Jędrzejewicz finished the construction of his observatory. He equipped it with basic astronomical and meteorological instruments, then began his observations and with time he became quite skilled in it. Jędrzejewicz focused mainly on binary stars but he also pointed his telescopes at the planets of the solar system, the comets, the Sun, as well as all the phenomena appearing in the sky at that time. Thanks to the variety of the objects observed and the number of observations he stood out from other observers in Poland and took a very good position in the mainstream of the 19th-century astronomy in Europe. Micrometer observations of binary stars made in Płońsk gained recognition in the West and were included in the catalogues of binary stars. Interest in Jędrzejewicz and his observatory was confirmed by numerous references in the English "Nature" magazine.

  11. Missionaries and Tonic Sol-fa Music Pedagogy in 19th-Century China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southcott, Jane E.; Lee, Angela Hao-Chun

    2008-01-01

    In the 19th century, Christian missionaries in China, as elsewhere, used the Tonic Sol-fa method of music instruction to aid their evangelizing. This system was designed to improve congregational singing in churches, Sunday schools and missions. The London Missionary Society and other evangelical groups employed the method. These missionaries took…

  12. Franciszek Neugebauer's Ichnograms as a Pioneering Diagnostic Method in Orthopedics in the 19th Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowakowska-Zamachowska, Monika

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present an original orthopedic diagnostic method from the late 19th century developed by Franciszek Neugebauer, a distinguished Polish physician. His technique of detecting skeletal abnormalities was an excellent coping method in the time before the first diagnostic imaging method - x-ray imaging - had been invented.

  13. The legal structure of households in Serbia and Bulgaria in the 19th century

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    Svirčević Miroslav M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This scholarly work treats only the legal structure of households in Serbia and Bulgaria in the 19th century. The author's intention is to describe and present similarities and differences between the most important household's structural elements (Household Council, Household Head, Household Woman and Household Members, their relationships and status in the Ottoman legal-political order.

  14. Standard of Living Effects Due to Infrastructure Improvements in the 19th Century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groote, Peter D.; Elhorst, J. Paul; Tassenaar, P. G.

    We use Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to analyze the relationship between the biological standard of living and the development of the transport network in 90 municipalities located in the rural provinces of Groningen and Drenthe, the Netherlands, in the historical context of the 19th century.

  15. Natural history in India during the 18th and 19th centuries

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 38; Issue 2. Natural history in India during the 18th and 19th centuries. Rajesh Kochhar. Perspectives Volume 38 Issue 2 June 2013 pp 201-224. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/jbsc/038/02/0201-0224. Keywords.

  16. Provincializing the Dutch State: South Holland in the 19th Century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Randeraad, Nico; Couperus, Stefan; Kaal, Harm; van Trigt, Paul

    2017-01-01

    In contrast to the image of the Netherlands as a solid state since the early modern period, this article argues that Dutch statehood was the product of a hard-won process that required a good part of the 19th century to reach any sort of administrative consolidation. We look at state building from a

  17. Seriously Popular: Rethinking 19th-Century American Literature through the Teaching of Popular Fiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatti, Lauren

    2011-01-01

    Curious about the connections between the author's students' reading tastes and those of 19th-century readers, the author read Nina Baym's excellent text "Novels, Readers, and Reviewers: Responses to Fiction in Antebellum America" to gain a sense of how readers in the 1800s might have thought about the texts that they read. Nineteenth-century…

  18. Dancetime! 500 Years of Social Dance. Volume I: 15th-19th Centuries. [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teten, Carol

    This VHS videotape recording is the first in a two-volume series that presents 500 years of social dance, music, and fashion. It focuses on the 15th-19th centuries, including Renaissance nobility, Baroque extravagance, Regency refinement, and Victorian romanticism. Each era reflects the changing relationships between men and women through the…

  19. Funeral dress and textiles in 17th and 19th century burials in Ostrobothnia, Finland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lipkin, S.; Vajanto, K.; Kallio-Seppä, T.; Kuokkanen, T.; Niinimäki, S.; Väre, T.; van Bommel, M.; Grömer, K.; Pritchard, F.

    2015-01-01

    The 17th-19th-century burial materials from northern Ostrobothnia are studied in order to consider the value, origin and meaning of textiles especially in child burials. The focus is on the preservation, quality and dyes of burial textiles unearthed at the yard of Oulu Cathedral as well as the

  20. New additional material of meteor showers during 9th -19th centuries in the Islamic history

    CERN Document Server

    Basurah, Hassan M

    2012-01-01

    This article presents twelve records of meteor showers in Arabic chronicles covering period from the 9th to the 19th century. The observations were in Egypt, Morocco, Syria and Yemen. These new addition historical records are considered to be important events which indicate a serious current interest in astronomy.

  1. The tympanostomy tube: an ingenious invention of the mid 19th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudry, Albert

    2013-02-01

    The introduction of the tympanostomy tube in the treatment of otitis media with effusion in the mid 20th century completely revolutionized its therapy. Nevertheless, it was not a new idea. The aim of this research is to elucidate the origin of prosthetic middle ear ventilation in the mid 19th century. A review of primary sources revealed at least seven different models of tympanostomy tube which were manufactured between 1845 and 1875. These included: Frank's gold tube, Lincke's rubber tube, Bonnafont's silver cannula, Politzer's hard rubber drain, Miot's metallic eyelet, Voltolini's gold ring, and Bonnafont's eyelet. Study of these early innovations shows that all of the technical and surgical principles of the tympanostomy tube were known in the mid 19th century. Widespread introduction into otological practice did not occur until the mid 20th century invention of the operating microscope. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. [Criminology and superstition at the turn of the 19th century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachhiesl, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Criminology, which institutionalised at university level at the turn of the 19th century, was intensively engaged in the exploration of superstition. Criminologists investigated the various phenomena of superstition and the criminal behaviour resulting from it. They discovered bizarre (real or imagined) worlds of thought and mentalities, which they subjected to a rationalistic regime of interpretation in order to arrive at a better understanding of offences and crimes related to superstition. However, they sometimes also considered the use of occultist practices such as telepathy and clairvoyance to solve criminal cases. As a motive for committing homicide superstition gradually became less relevant in the course of the 19th century. Around 1900, superstition was accepted as a plausible explanation in this context only if a psychopathic form of superstition was involved. In the 20th century, superstition was no longer regarded as an explanans but an explanandum.

  3. The North Black Sea Region (the 18th-19th Centuries: A Historiographical Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr A. Cherkasov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This historiographical survey examines studies concerned with the exploration of the north Black Sea region in the 18th-19th centuries. Studies into the subject can be divided into three major groups: 1. Pre-revolutionary studies (Russian and foreign works published prior to 1917; 2. Soviet studies (1917-1991; 3. Modern Russian studies (1991-2014. In conclusion, the authors point up that despite the diversity of studies into the history of the Caucasus and the Caucasian War, fragmentary attention has been devoted to the history of the north Black Sea region in the 18th-19th centuries. To this day, there have been no comprehensive studies into the history of Jigets, the Sadz, and other tribes, which means that the subject of the history of the north Black Sea region is still waiting for its researcher.

  4. Position of woman according to 19th century Montenegrin marital law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulauzov Maša

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Legal position of woman in 19th century Montenegrin marital law is examined in this paper. Provisions on entering into marriage, woman's marital infidelity, legal separation, dissolution of marriage and its legal effects as well as widow's property rights are scrutinized and critically analyzed. The author also indicates to rules of customary law regarding legal status of a married woman. Married woman had restricted legal capacity, as well as restricted property rights and no rights of succession. However, gender inequality common in patriarchal society such as Montenegrin in 19th century is particularly accentuated in case of marital infidelity. Only woman's adultery is punishable and regarded as a serious crime. Beside marital infidelity, lower position of woman is noticeable in all aspects of married life. Hence, legislative attempts to improve woman's legal status are emphasized in the article.

  5. 19th century earthquakes in Mexico: three cases, three comparative studies

    OpenAIRE

    Molina del Villar, A.

    2004-01-01

    This paper is a comparative study of the three strongest 19th century earthquakes in Mexico and their effects and impact mainly in Mexico City. The research is based on historical sources and previous investigations already published for two of the seismic events (8 March 1800 and 19 June 1858), with newly retrieved and analysed data for the 7 April 1845 earthquake. Primary and secondary sources include reports on damage to city buildings, streets and neighbourhoods and allowed a detailed ana...

  6. Biographical parallelism in Russian satirical journalism of the 19th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanko Alexander Ivanovich

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available When creating a satirical image Russian writers of the 19th century involved reception biographical parallelism. Pushkin, Belinsky, Herzen and other masters of the personal journalism in their satires, pamphlets, parodies disclosed traitors, informers, literary speculators. At the same time facts from the biographies of real people, subjected to reproof, were set out on a material of other biographies, often unreal characters. Thereby it was achieved a satirical effect and a way to avoid clashes with censorship.

  7. The Caucasian War of the 19th century:civilizational conflict and its functional specifics

    OpenAIRE

    Pashchenko, Irina; Urushadze, Amiran

    2012-01-01

    The authors rely on the civilizational approach and the theory of positive-functional conflict to discuss the nature and specific features of the Caucasian War. They supply new arguments to substantiate the civilizational nature of the Caucasian War of the 19th century. With this aim in view, they identify and analyze its functional repercussions: the emergence and development of cultural bilingualism; the transformations in imperial policy; and the appearance of the Caucasian theme in Russia...

  8. Some Phases of University Extension in Late 19th Century America

    OpenAIRE

    小池, 源吾

    1985-01-01

    This paper aims to examine the beginnings of the university extension movement in America and to place it in its proper setting in the history of university adult education. Inquiring into the way of how English university extension was accepted by American universities in the late 19th Century, the university extension movement in the 1890's was woven from three threads which run lengthwise. The first of them began when Herbert B. Adams appeared at the convention of the American Library ...

  9. THE 19th CENTURY EDITIONS OF THE LIFE OF ALEXANDER OSHEVENSKY

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    Alexander Valerievich Pigin

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to a classic of the 16th-century north Russian hagiography — The Life of Alexander Oshevensky, which is preserved as a large number of various copies and editions. The 19th-century materials recently found in the Russian archives enabled researchers to raise a question of the late period in the literary history of this Life. Three editions of this piece of writing created in the 1820’s and 1830’s by Tikhvin Monastery’s Archimandrite Hilarion (Kirillov, Alexander Svirsky Monastery’s Archimandrite Barsanuphius (Morev and Archbishop of Olonets Ignatius (Semyonov are in the focus of this paper. The new editions were written with the intention to be published to glorify St. Alexander across Russia, though respective petitions to the Most Holy Synod were not approved. This article detects sources of these editions and shows the pattern of processing of the initial texts. As the text analysis has shown, the 19th-century editions primarily developed the topoi of book learning and relationships between St. Alexander and his family. The Life used to be revised stylistically and compositionally, as well as supplemented with historical information. The published material is of interest for the research in poetics and topics of the Liеves of the Saints and their perception by the church writers of the 19th century.

  10. The psychologist as a poet: Kierkegaard and psychology in 19th-century Copenhagen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pind, Jörgen L

    2016-11-01

    Psychology had an early start at the University of Copenhagen in the first half of the 19th century, where it was taught as the major part of a compulsory course required of all first-year students. Particularly important in the establishment of psychology at the university was Frederik Christian Sibbern, who was professor of philosophy from 1813 to 1870. Sibbern wrote numerous works on psychology throughout his career. In his first book on psychology, Sibbern expressed the view that the ideal psychologist should also be a poet. Søren Kierkegaard, Sibbern's student, was precisely such a poet-psychologist. Kierkegaard discussed psychology in many of his works, reflecting the gathering momentum of psychology in 19th-century Copenhagen, Denmark. The article brings out some aspects of Kierkegaard's poetic and literary-imaginative approach to psychology. In his opinion, psychology was primarily a playful subject and limited in the questions about human nature it could answer, especially when it came up against the "eternal" in man's nature. Kierkegaard had a positive view of psychology, which contrasts sharply with his negative views on the rise of statistics and the natural sciences. In the latter half of the 19th century, psychology turned positivistic at the University of Copenhagen. This left little room for Kierkegaard's kind of poetic psychology. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. [From ancient pot collections to the modern medicines. Menier's pot collection-19th century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demouy, Isabelle

    2012-02-01

    At the beginning of the 19th century in 1816, Jean Antoine Brutus Menier founded the "Maison Centrale de Droguerie Menier". It supplied most of the pharmacies in France with drugs of animal, plant and mineral origin for the pharmaceutical preparations recommended at that time. The company provided training for many chemists and pharmacists, and as such, had a collection of pots containing over seven hundred drugs that is currently held at the head office of the Council of the College of Pharmacists in Paris. After having described the pot collection, set it against the 19th century background which experienced a real revolution within this profession, and after retracing its history, a study was then carried out in order to compare the former uses with the modern uses for each of the drugs. Thanks to this detailed, comparative analysis it is now possible to evaluate the relevance of the therapeutic range of drugs in the first half of the 19th century, before the significant rise in chemistry. The Germinal Law changed the pharmacist's profession, and with the birth of chemistry, the art of the pharmacy was revolutionised. However, the drugs, and particularly those of plant origin, have managed to keep a dominant position in today's pharmaceutical domain and in the French or European Pharmacopoeia.

  12. [Epidemic Cholera and American Reform Movements in the 19th Century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seohyung

    2015-12-01

    The 19th century was the age of great reform in American history. After constructing of the canal and railroads, the industrialization began and American society changed so rapidly. In this period, there were so many social crisis and American people tried to solve these problems within the several reform movements. These reform movements were the driving forces to control cholera during the 19th century. Cholera was the endemic disease in Bengal, India, but after the 19th century it had spread globally by the development of trade networks. The 1832 cholera in the United States was the first epidemic cholera in American history. The mortality of cholera was so high, but it was very hard to find out the cause of this fatal infectious disease. So, different social discourses happened to control epidemic cholera in the 19th century, these can be understood within the similar context of American reform movements during this period. Board of Health in New York States made a new public health act to control cholera in 1832, it was ineffective. Some people insisted that the cause of this infectious disease was the corruption of the United States. They emphasized unjust and immoral system in American society. Moral reform expanded to Nativism, because lots of Irish immigrants were the victims of cholera. So, epidemic cholera was the opportunity to spread the desire for moral reform. To control cholera in 1849, the sanitary reform in Britain had affected. The fact that it was so important to improve and maintain the water quality for the control and prevention of disease spread, the sanitary reform happened. There were two different sphere of the sanitary reform. The former was the private reform to improve sewer or privy, the latter was the public reform to build sewage facilities. The 1849 cholera had an important meaning, because the social discourse, which had emphasized the sanitation of people or home expanded to the public sphere. When cholera broke out in 1866 again

  13. A Didactic Approach between Music and History: Military Images in Early 19th-Century Concertos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Aversano

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article looks at the representation of military images in the violin and orchestra concerts of the early 19th century in a didactic perspective. It introduces a reflection on methodology that focuses on the way in which school teaching can connect the analysis of past musical forms with the history of European culture. At the same time, the essay provides an example for a possible didactic approach, conceived essentially for upper secondary schools, but also potentially useful for teachers at other school levels.

  14. Extension activities of Kazan Imperial University in the 19th century

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    Zhuravleva Evgenia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Based primarily on archival documents, this article explores the development of additional education in Kazan province, Russia, in the 19th century. Its genesis is found in the varying order of Kazan Imperial University extension activities which take the form of foreign academic and scientific mobility; individual mentoring practice of recognised scholars; masters’ advancement at Pedagogical Institute; creation of the Pedagogical Society in the framework of University Extension Movement. The historiography shows that in the course of its development additional education in Kazan Imperial University largely relied on the international experience and enthusiasm of its teaching staff.

  15. BOTANY IN GREECE DURING THE 19th CENTURY: A PERIPHERY AT THE CENTER

    OpenAIRE

    Vlahakis, George N.; Economou-Amilli, Athina

    2012-01-01

    Botany in Greece during the 19th Century: A Periphery at the CenterThe science of botany is exemplified as a blueprint of the approach of  scientific knowledge in Greece during the nineteenth century, a period in which the Greek flora is of particular interest to European researchers in the framework of general scientific missions or specific visits. In the time before theGreek Independence (1834) it seems that botanology established itself a pseudoscience and the importan...

  16. BACKGROUND OF EDUCATIONAL COMMUNITY INITIATION AS CENTERS OF CREATIVE INTELLIGENTSIA IN UKRAINE (late 19th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliia Popeleshko

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with socio-political and pedagogical background of educational communities in Ukraine as centers of forming creative intellectuals (late 19th century. Activities of educational societies of the late 19th century create a whole era in the development of education and culture history in Ukraine. Their work in the field of education has gained public appeal joining the General process of national revival. Progressive Ukrainian intelligentsia, working in societies, awakens the national consciousness, lay the foundations of mother tongue education. The emergence and activities of various public organizations in Ukraine in late 19th century are a kind of a phenomenon that has not only cultural and enlightening nature, but also an educational one. One of the main objectives is to change the content and quality of Ukrainian people’s education. Through an analysis of historical and pedagogical sources we have found that the end of the 19th century became for Ukrainians in Dnieper Ukraine the period of confrontation with the authorities for preserving the national culture. Changes in the Russian Empire began a strong push for the national awakening and intensification of national consciousness of the intelligentsia in the Ukrainian provinces. Seeing their duty in developing the national culture, Ukrainian intelegencia launched special enlightening trend. For the first time in the history of Ukrainian society pedagogical problems were widely discussed by the public, besides they became the subject of public initiatives, the country’s life was enriched with a new phenomenon – public-educational movement. The participants of the educational movement of the Ukrainian intelligentsia in cities led to the logical replacement of single individual cultural work to the activities of the whole associations, communities. In communities the future leaders of the enlightenment movement were formed. They were teachers, scientists, doctors, who

  17. Financial Development and Sectoral Output Growth in 19th century Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Diekmann, Katharina; Westermann, Frank

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we re-evaluate the hypothesis that the development of the financial sector was an essential factor behind economic growth in 19th century Germany. We apply a structural VAR framework to a new annual data set from 1870 to 1912 that was initially recorded by Walther Hoffmann (1965). With respect to the literature, the distinguishing characteristic of our analysis is the focus on different sectors in the economy and the interpretation of the findings in the context of a two-sector ...

  18. [Considerations concerning medical knowledge inherited in Mexico from 19th century: the diabetes mellitus case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García de Alba-García, Javier Eduardo; Salcedo-Rocha, Ana Leticia; Milke-Najar, María Eugenia; Alonso-Reynoso, Carlos; García de Alba-Verduzco, Javier Eugenio

    2017-01-01

    In Mexico, as in the entire Western world, during the 19th century and the beginnings of the 20th century, medical knowledge developed in a remarkable way and the case of diabetes mellitus was not the exception. This situation, which arose on the basis of the antique paradigm, and which in turn was overthrown by the positivism as the emergent paradigm (with its clinical and anatomical, as well as physiopathological and etiopathological viewpoints), was reflected during the 19th the century through its actors and the communications that opened the access of Mexican medicine to the modernity.

  19. [History of pediatric anesthesia: from the beginnings to the end of the 19th century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabourdin, N

    2013-12-01

    The first intuitions and descriptions of anesthesia can be found in the antique civilizations. In the 19th century, the invention of anesthesia took place in Boston, and quickly spread to Europe. In France, regulations and structures were created before the beginning of the 20th century to organize this new profession, for children as well as for adults. Copyright © 2013 Société française d’anesthésie et de réanimation (Sfar). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Critical analysis of documentary sources for Historical Climatology of Northern Portugal (17th-19th centuries)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorim, Inês; Sousa Silva, Luís; Garcia, João Carlos

    2017-04-01

    Critical analysis of documentary sources for Historical Climatology of Northern Portugal (17th-19th centuries) Inês Amorim CITCEM, Department of History, Political and International Studies, U. of Porto, Portugal. Luís Sousa Silva CITCEM, PhD Fellowship - FCT. João Carlos Garcia CIUHCT, Geography Department, U. of Porto, Portugal. The first major national project on Historical Climatology in Portugal, called "KLIMHIST: Reconstruction and model simulations of past climate in Portugal using documentary and early instrumental sources (17th-19th centuries)", ended in September 2015, coordinated by Maria João Alcoforado. This project began in March 2012 and counted on an interdisciplinary team of researchers from four Portuguese institutions (Centre of Geographical Studies, University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro, University of Porto, and University of Évora), from different fields of knowledge (Geography, History, Biology, Climatology and Meteorology). The team networked and collaborated with other international research groups on Climate Change and Historical Climatology, resulting in several publications. This project aimed to reconstruct thermal and rainfall patterns in Portugal between the 17th and 19th centuries, as well as identify the main hydrometeorological extremes that occurred over that period. The basic methodology consisted in combining information from different types of anthropogenic sources (descriptive and instrumental) and natural sources (tree rings and geothermal holes), so as to develop climate change models of the past. The data collected were stored in a digital database, which can be searched by source, date, location and type of event. This database, which will be made publically available soon, contains about 3500 weather/climate-related records, which have begun to be studied, processed and published. Following this seminal project, other initiatives have taken place in Portugal in the area of Historical Climatology, namely a Ph

  1. [Anorexia nervosa in German medical literature of the 19th century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habermas, T; Vandereycken, W; van Deth, R; Meermann, R

    1990-12-01

    After its first description in 1873, anorexia nervosa seems not to have attracted much attention in countries of German language. Compared to French and English literature, German publications on the subject were rather scarce in the 19th century. This article gives an overview of those writings and an explanation of the lack of interest on the part of the German-speaking physicians. Apparently, to them anorexia nervosa did not appeal as a nosological entity distinct from the popular diagnosis of "nervous dyspepsia".

  2. Immigrants from Dubrovnik, Boka Kotorska, and Venetian Albania in Pula (17th-19th century)

    OpenAIRE

    Bertoša, Slaven

    2003-01-01

    The parish registers of Pula, filed at the State Archives of Pazin, providing the researcher with a comprehensive insight into the process of continual immigration to the area, are a valuable source to a historian investigating the city of Pula and the Istrian region between the 17th and 19th century. At that time, Pula was the most developed South Istrian centre and an important port on the Venetian maritime route to Dalmatia and the Levant. For years immigration had been the only answer to ...

  3. Gender and Public Understanding of Science: Darwinism in the 19th Century Brazilian Press

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moema de Rezende Vergara

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available In the recent works about Brazilian public understanding of science, gender has been poorly used as an analytical category. This paper has as its main goal to bridge this gap by analyzing a section called ‘Letters for a Lady‘, in the journal O Vulgarizador that sought to teach all about Darwinism to women in the Brazil of the 19th century. So the notion of gender will help us understand the tension between masculinity and femininity in the text written by the literary critic Rangel S. Paio.

  4. A survey of the past earthquakesin the Eastern Adriatic (14th to early 19th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Albini

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Focusing on the Eastern Adriatic region, from Zadar in the north to Corfu in the south, the background information supporting our knowledge of the seismicity in the time-span 14th to early 19th century is discussed from the point of view of the historical earthquake records. The late 19th century seismological compilations turn out to be those responsible for the uneven spatial and temporal distribution of seismicity suggested by current parametric earthquake catalogues. This awareness asked for a comprehensive reappraisal of the reliability and completeness of the available historical earthquake records. This task was addressed by retrieving in the original version the information already known, by putting the records in the historical context in which they were produced, and finally by sampling historical sources so far not considered. Selected case histories have been presented in some detail also. This material altogether has shown that i current parameterisation of past earthquakes in the Eastern Adriatic should be reconsidered in the light of a critically revised interpretation of the available records; ii collecting new evidence in sources and repositories, not fully exploited so far, is needed. This should aim mostly at overcoming another limitation affecting the evaluation of full sets of earthquake parameters, that is the few observations available for each earthquake. In this perspective, an optimistic assessment of the potential documentation on this area is proposed.

  5. How to create a building typology?: Typological matrix for mapping 19th century synagogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klein Rudolf

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on a research that comprised 500 synagogues, this paper is the first attempt to create a comprehensive building typology of synagogue architecture. This typology is the first that takes into consideration interior arrangement (plan and section, architectural language of the interior, bearing structure, architectural language (decoration of the exterior, exterior mass composition, size and urban context - the relationship of the synagogue building towards the neighboring buildings and towards the urban context in general. This typology has been developed on Ashkenazi synagogues of 19th century Habsburg Empire, but it can be applied to other building types and other territories in the 18th and 19th centuries, up to the onset of modernism in the 1920s and 1930s. The methodology if this research maybe applied particularly well for Orthodox and Protestant churches in Vojvodina, where the state religion has been Catholicism and confessional minorities faced some restrictions. These restrictions and the common architectural context make their religious buildings in typological sense similar.

  6. Gypsies in 19th-Century French Literature: The Paradox in Centering the Periphery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udasmoro W.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The issues of liberty and views of the “Other” were common in 19th-century French literary discourse. In many aspects, the “Other” appeared to hold a position of strength. In literature, Prosper Mérimée and Victor Hugo attempted to centralize gypsy women through their narratives, even though gypsies (as with Jews had been marginalized (though present throughout French history. Mérimée’s Carmen and Hugo’s Notre Dame de Paris presented new central perspectives on the peripheral, which in this context should be understood to mean gypsies. This research paper attempts to answer the following questions: What ideology lies behind both stories’ centralization of the peripheral gypsy women? How do the authors portray gypsy women? The goal of this article is to explore the operations of power in a gender-relations context, focusing on the construction of gypsy women in two 19th-century French novels.

  7. Accounts from 19th-century Canadian Arctic explorers' logs reflect present climate conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overland, James E.; Wood, Kevin

    The widely perceived failure of 19th-century expeditions to find and transit the Northwest Passage in the Canadian Arctic is often attributed to extraordinary cold climatic conditions associated with the “Little Ice Age” evident in proxy records. However, examination of 44 explorers' logs for the western Arctic from 1818 to 1910 reveals that climate indicators such as navigability, the distribution and thickness of annual sea ice, monthly surface air temperature, and the onset of melt and freeze were within the present range of variability.The quest for the Northwest Passage through the Canadian archipelago during the 19th century is frequently seen as a vain and tragic failure. Polar exploration during the Victorian era seems to us today to have been a costly exercise in heroic futility, which in many respects it was. This perspective has been reinforced since the 1970s, when paleoclimate reconstructions based on Arctic ice core stratigraphy appeared to confirm the existence of exceptionally cold conditions consistent with the period glaciologists had termed the “Little Ice Age” (Figure 1a), with temperatures more than one standard deviation colder relative to an early 20th-century mean [Koerner, 1977; Koerner and Fisher, 1990; Overpeck et al., 1998]. In recent years, the view of the Little Ice Age as a synchronous worldwide and prolonged cold epoch that ended with modern warming has been questioned [Bradley and Jones, 1993; Jones and Briffa, 2001 ;Ogilvie, 2001].

  8. [The evolution of clinical medical books in the 19th century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Tatsuo

    2011-03-01

    Fifty clinical medical books written in the late 18th and the 19th centuries were categorized into four alternating types on the basis of the differences in composition and contents. The nosological type in the first period classified diseases into taxa, and dealt symptoms as diseases. The eclectic type in the second period contained both categories of nosological diseases and those of local diseases. The organ system type in the third period focused on the local diseases arranged in a systematic manner. The infection emphasis type put the infectious diseases at the beginning, followed by the local diseases in a systematic manner. The four types of clinical medical books evolved in accordance with the changes in clinical medicine in the 19th century, exemplified by the activities of the Parisian school, including those regarding pathological anatomy, laboratory medicine in the German universities, and discovery of pathogenic bacteria. When Western medicine was introduced in Japan, different stages of medicine, representing the four types, arrived at different times.

  9. Impacts of laboratory methodology on medical thinking in the 19th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büttner, J

    2000-01-01

    During the 19th century the first laboratories at hospitals and clinics in Central Europe were established. These 'clinical laboratories' were devoted to chemical analyses in practical medicine and clinical research. A characteristic feature of these laboratories was the use of measuring instruments, e.g. volumetric apparatus, polarimeters, spectroscopes, colorimeters, photometers. Using these techniques new phenomena were introduced into clinical medicine which could serve as signs in the diagnosis of diseases. Many of the new diagnostic signs were quantitative data as results of measurements. Their main advantage was the greater differentiation in the description of phenomena compared with the qualitative data used before. Another important characteristic of the new diagnostic signs was the discovery of causal relations to physiological and pathological processes in the organism. The physicians and chemists in the clinical laboratory were eager not only to collect empirical data but also to find causal relationships by research work similar to that carried out in physics and chemistry. Once causal chains were been identified more general relationships became clear. One example is the concept of metabolism which comprised a dynamic view on chemical processes in the body and the variation of "Stoff" (material) in time, including a quantitative input-output analysis of the body in health and disease. In the second half of the 19th century, scientifically based diagnostic signs began to replace the traditional symptoms and signs used since antiquity.

  10. Pioneers of exfoliative cytology in the 19th century: the predecessors of George Papanicolaou.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamantis, A; Magiorkinis, E

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of our study was to summarize the knowledge on exfoliative cytology during the 19th century and to track down Papanicolaou's predecessors. A thorough study of texts, medical books and reports, together with a review of the available literature in PubMed, was undertaken. The study of cytological preparations as a diagnostic procedure can be traced back to the work of the famous French microscopist Alfred François Donné. However, the systematic study and the criteria for the diagnosis of malignant cells should be attributed to Johannes Müller. The increasing interest in the cytological examination of various fluids of the human body can be confirmed by a plethora of studies published during this period. By the end of the 19th century, the invention of new techniques in pathology, such as the introduction of cell block techniques, tissue sections and new staining methods which provided the opportunity to study surgical specimens in three dimensions, led to a decrease in the interest in exfoliative cytology, which was re-discovered by George Papanicolaou almost three decades later. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Reading Societies and their Social Exclusivity: Dalmatia in the First Half of the 19th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Lakuš

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Reading societies, known as the gabinetto di lettura, or the casino, appeared in Dalmatia in the middle of the 18th century modelled on their Western European, North Italian and Austrian counterparts. They became centres of social and cultural life in the region. However, their number was very small in comparison with other Central and Western European countries. In spite of that, their statutes can serve a historian as very fertile and useful historical sources. First of all, they can reveal the importance given to books and reading as well as changing attitude towards reading in the course of time. They can also indicate social structure of the reading circles as well as the interaction and communication among the members. In addition, they can reveal the participation of women in social and cultural life, internal functioning of the society, etc. Based on the statutes of several reading societies of the 19th century, this work suggests several important issues. First, it shows that in the first half of the 19th century the membership of these societies was still select and prestigious, acquired by position on the social scale. In other words, reading societies were still confined to very narrow social circles of the educated. Although in Western parts of Europe the reading public became more heterogeneous and open, in Dalmatia reading still preserved its exclusive features. Second, the work also suggests that what some historians of book and reading called the ”reading revolution” or ”revolution in reading” occurred in Dalmatia much later, and even then mostly in urban areas. Some changes in reading habits occurred in the region, albeit to a limited extent and with less influence on society as a whole. Third, the work also demonstrates that from the 1840s reading acquired a new dimension, becoming open to the more social strata and gradually losing its exclusive character. The reading societies, lending libraries and other cultural

  12. [Animal ethics in the 19th century and Swiss animal protection law].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, I

    2018-01-01

    The development of animal ethics and animal rights from the antiquity up to modern times is described. The relationship of humans to animals was primarily based on fear and animal cult, developed by the domestication to a partnership. The philosophers of the early modern age denied the animals the reason, what was disadvantageous to the position of the animals in the society and the behavior of humans to the animals. By the end of the 19th century the animal protection concept developed with numerous postulates for legal regulations. With the Swiss animal protection law, which came into force in 1981, most of the postulates could be realised. It is shown, how animal protection has developed since that time.

  13. 19th century earthquakes in Mexico: three cases, three comparative studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Molina del Villar

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a comparative study of the three strongest 19th century earthquakes in Mexico and their effects and impact mainly in Mexico City. The research is based on historical sources and previous investigations already published for two of the seismic events (8 March 1800 and 19 June 1858, with newly retrieved and analysed data for the 7 April 1845 earthquake. Primary and secondary sources include reports on damage to city buildings, streets and neighbourhoods and allowed a detailed analysis of the national and local effects, impacts and responses to each of the three earthquakes, whose comparison allows a better understanding of specific aspects related to the investigation of historical earthquakes in Mexico.

  14. Flechsig and Freud: late 19th-century neurology and the emergence of psychoanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keegan, Eduardo

    2003-02-01

    The author analyzes the potential influences of Paul Flechsig's work on early Freudian theory, particularly on Sigmund Freud's 1966b/1895 Project for a Scientific Psychology. Gehirn und Seele, a discourse authored by Flechsig in 1894, is the focus of this analysis. The author believes that the links between the intellectual production of both German-speaking neurologists have been underrated to this day and attempts to establish that the early Freudian approach to many key issues in the history of psychoanalysis--dreams, unconscious processing, and drives, to name a few--was not unique but shared with some distinguished colleagues in neuropathology and psychiatry. Thus, he attempts to shed additional light on the transition from state-of-art neurology in the last decade of the 19th century to the creation of psychoanalysis as a discipline on its own.

  15. Between dandis and rastacueros. Approaches to Snobbery of the Latin American 19th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Goldgel

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the precedents and the articulation of snobbery in 19th-century Latin America. Focusing on a number of key figures in the literature of the period, such as the catrín, the paquete, the siútico, the rastaquouère, and the dandy, it emphasizes the tension between snobs who are challenged (like the rastaquouère, who aims in vain to become part of the grand Parisian world and snobs who triumph (like the dandy, who relies on the increasing legitimacy of fashion and the aesthetic sphere in order to show that snobbery consists not only of the exhibition  of one's own symbolic capital in pursuance of social gains but also of the effort to transform the pose into something authentic and imitation into something original.

  16. François Arago a 19th century French humanist and pioneer in astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Lequeux, James

    2016-01-01

    François Arago, the first to show in 1810 that the surface of the Sun and stars is made of incandescent gas and not solid or liquid, was a prominent physicist of the 19th century. He used his considerable influence to help Fresnel, Ampere and others develop their ideas and make themselves known. This book covers his personal contributions to physics, astronomy, geodesy and oceanography, which are far from negligible, but insufficiently known. Arago was also an important and influential political man who, for example, abolished slavery in the French colonies. One of the last humanists, he had a very broad culture and range of interests. In parallel to his biography, this title also covers the spectacular progresses of science at the time of Arago, especially in France: the birth of physical optics, electromagnetism and thermodynamics. Francois Arago’s life is a fascinating epic tale that reads as a novel.

  17. Human lead exposure in a late 19th century mental asylum population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bower, Nathan W. [Department of Chemistry, Colorado College, Colorado Springs, CO 80903-3294 (United States)]. E-mail: nbower@coloradocollege.edu; McCants, Sarah A. [Department of Chemistry, Colorado College, Colorado Springs, CO 80903-3294 (United States); Custodio, Joseph M. [Department of Chemistry, Colorado College, Colorado Springs, CO 80903-3294 (United States); Ketterer, Michael E. [Departments of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ 86011-5698 (United States); Getty, Stephen R. [Biological Sciences Curriculum Study, Colorado Springs, CO 80918 (United States); Hoffman, J. Michael [Department of Anthropology, Colorado College, Colorado Springs, CO 8090-3294 (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Lead isotope ratios and lead (Pb) levels were analyzed in 33 individuals from a forgotten cemetery at the Colorado Mental Health Institute at Pueblo, Colorado dating to 1879-1899. Isotopic ratios from healing bone fractures, cortical bone, and tooth dentine provide information about sources of Pb exposures over a range of time that illuminates individual's life histories and migration patterns. Historical records and Pb production data from the 19th century were used to create a database for interpreting Pb exposures for these African, Hispanic and European Americans. The analysis of these individuals suggests that Pb exposure noticeably impacted the mental health of 5-10% of the asylum patients in this frontier population, a high number by standards today, and that differences exist in the three ancestral groups' exposure histories.

  18. Maks Fabiani and urbanism in Vienna at the turn of the 19th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breda Mihelič

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with new concepts in urban planning at the turn of the 19th century. It represents three key persons, all architects and urban planners: Camillo Sitte, Otto Wagner and Maks Fabiani. All three left an indelible mark on urban planning in the Hapsburg Monarchy. In particular, it focuses on Maks Fabiani, whose work is closely related with the reconstruction of Ljubljana after the earthquake at the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century. Even though Fabiani was one of the most distinguished and respected urban planners in Vienna, his contribution to the history and theory of urban planning was until now relatively overlooked and not stressed enough upon in the context of the urban history within the Austro-Hungarian Empire.

  19. Prospects for using sonar for underwater archeology on the Yenisei: surveying a 19th century shipwreck

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncharov, A. E.; Mednikov, D. M.; Karelin, N. M.; Nasyrov, I. R.

    2016-11-01

    Current progress in underwater archeology is based on a rich arsenal of high-tech appliances, among which sonar technology plays a key role; it enables scientists not only to detect submerged archeological objects, but to examine them in high definition without having to conduct diving operations or use expensive underwater unmanned vehicles. While the majority of sensational scientific discoveries using sonar have been made in saltwater environments, freshwater ones, rivers in particular, have seen limited activity. The river Yenisei in central Siberia contains an unrecorded number of shipwrecks that await being discovered and studied. In this article we focus on the peculiarities of using sonar for detecting archeological sites on the Yenisei. This article is based on the results of the 2016 expedition, which has determined the location of Thames, a 19th century British steam schooner which was wrecked on the Yenisei.

  20. Epidemiological description of unmitigated cholera epidemics in 19th century Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phelps, M.; Perner, M. L.; Davidsen, E.

    Background. Cholera epidemics devastated 19th century European cities in multiple outbreaks during 1830-1900. Most Danish cities experienced only a single epidemic in 1853 and detailed data are available. This uniquely allows study of unmitigated epidemic cholera in a fully susceptible population....... These insights can be used for empirical parameterization of mathematical models of cholera transmission. Here we describe the Danish cholera experience and provide a detailed examination of the transmission and impact of cholera outbreaks in three cities including Copenhagen. Methods: We accessed cholera...... surveillance data and contemporary descriptions by physicians of the outbreaks from Danish archives. We also accessed census data and annual mortality time series data available by cause and age, and used statistical modeling to attribute age-specific cholera mortality burden. The intrinsic transmission...

  1. Lockyer's "Astronomy" among Serbs in the second half of the 19th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trajkovska, V.; Ninković, S.

    1997-08-01

    The dynamical development of astronomy in the second half of 19th century has also found its adequate response among Serbs. As a good example may serve, in the opinion of the present authors, the translation of "Astronomy" by N. Lockyer into Serbian (the book was printed in 1880 in Novi Sad). The translator was Djordje Natošević who translated not the English original, but the German translation. The authors find Natošević an interesting personality. A physician by education he devoted the best part of his life to pedagogy and to enhancing the educational level in Serbian primary and secondary schools in Austria-Hungary of those days. He spent some time also in Serbia. It was then that he translated from German the textbook "Astronomy" by Lockyer, popular in those days.

  2. [Our medicinal preparations in the mid-19th century. Part I--Introduction and chemical preparations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drábek, Pavel

    2012-08-01

    The paper deals with the development of the first editions of the Austrian Pharmacopoeia, Pharmacopoea Austriaca, since its origin in the year 1812. It demonstrates its gradual retardation in the period when nearly all medicinal substances had to be prepared only in pharmacies. The conception was changed as late as 1855 in the Fifth Edition, when it was allowed to buy many medicinal substances from producers or wholesalers. At the same time, requirements for organoleptic properties and chemical purity began to be introduced. The present communication also deals with the chemical drugs used in the mid-19th century and is based on a comparison of the pharmacopoeias of 1836 and 1855. It presents some typical examples, such as alkaloids and metal compounds.

  3. Human genetic variation and yellow fever mortality during 19th century U.S. epidemics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Lauren E; Garcia-Blanco, Mariano A

    2014-06-03

    We calculated the incidence, mortality, and case fatality rates for Caucasians and non-Caucasians during 19th century yellow fever (YF) epidemics in the United States and determined statistical significance for differences in the rates in different populations. We evaluated nongenetic host factors, including socioeconomic, environmental, cultural, demographic, and acquired immunity status that could have influenced these differences. While differences in incidence rates were not significant between Caucasians and non-Caucasians, differences in mortality and case fatality rates were statistically significant for all epidemics tested (P yellow fever have been observed across diverse populations, but this study is the first to demonstrate a statistically significant association between ancestry and the outcome of yellow fever (YF). With the global burden of mosquito-borne flaviviral infections, such as YF and dengue, on the rise, identifying and characterizing host factors could prove pivotal in the prevention of epidemics and the development of effective treatments. Copyright © 2014 Blake and Garcia-Blanco.

  4. Rape and transgression. Forensic medicine and sexual morality in Spain in the 19th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorente Carpena, Amalio

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyse the importance of the contribution of the Spanish forensic medical discourse in the 19th century, and its application in cases of sexual harassment, to legitimize the sexual moral value of the time. For that reason we will analyse the main forensic medicine treaties edited in Spain during this century.

    En este trabajo se examina la contribución del discurso médico-forense español del siglo XIX, a través de su aplicación en los casos de agresión sexual, a la legitimación del orden moral sexual de la época. Con este objetivo se analizan los principales tratados de Medicina Forense editados en nuestro país durante ese siglo.

  5. Jean-Louis Brachet (1789-1858). A forgotten contributor to early 19th century neurology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walusinski, O

    2015-10-01

    Specialists of the history of hysteria know the name of Jean-Louis Brachet (1789-1858), but few realise the influence of this physician and surgeon from Lyon, a city in the southeastern part of France. Not only a clinician, he was also a neurophysiology researcher in the early 19th century. Along with his descriptions of meningoencephalitis, including hydrocephalus and meningoencephalitis, he elucidated the functioning of the vegetative nervous system and described its activity during emotional states. He also helped describe the different forms of epilepsy and sought to understand their aetiologies, working at the same time as the better-known Louis-Florentin Calmeil (1798-1895). We present a biography of this forgotten physician, a prolific writer, keen clinical observer and staunch devotee of a rigorous scientific approach. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. The morbidification of love between women by 19th-century sexologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faderman, L

    1978-01-01

    Twentieth-century attitudes toward love between women are very different from those of previous centuries. Fiction and personal correspondence that antedate the work of Krafft-Ebing and Havelock Ellis in the late 19th century indicate that a much broader spectrum of expression of love and affection between women had been acceptable than that to which we have become accustomed. Medical science and psychology for the past 100 years have morbidified intense love relationships between women by inventing a syndrome of ills that supposedly accompany such affection, and by denying the validity or seriousness of the affection where such ills are clearly not present. The result has been that (until the lesbian-feminist movement) 20th-century women were largely forced to deny their love for other women unless they were willing to acknowledge their concomitant morbidity.

  7. Penal symbolism in Serbia in the first half of the 19th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todorović Miljana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The author explores a scarce and unusual phenomenon for the 19th century Serbia, of the emphasized nexus between crime and penalty. The author marks that special, symbolical relation of penalty, on the one hand, and sanction on the other, as 'penal symbolism'. This term refers to penalization which reflects the ties between crime and punishment by copying crime in terms of modus or place of execution, or by 'punishing' those body parts which partook in committing a crime. The author classifies the examples of preserved judgments and legislations containing penal symbolism to those referring to modus or place of execution of death penalty, those which are examples of penal symbolism related to other sanctions, and those which are examples of the symbolic talion. The author raises the questions of the origin of this phenomenon, as well as of its justification, and aims at providing answers by reconstructing legal and social framework of Serbia in the first half of the 19th century. With this objective in mind, she discusses the development of Criminal Law and its basic features, as well as the development of judiciary, the systematic institutionalization of the network of criminal courts, and, especially, the composition thereof. In the conclusion, the author rejects the possibility that penal symbolism is a product of legal transplantation or that of the continuity of Serbian medieval law. She asserts that the scarcity of material criminal law sources led to judging by 'justice and fairness', and that those facts created conditions for the primitive sense of justice to find its way into judgments and legislations as penal symbolism.

  8. One of the origins of modernity and naturalism of French literature in the 19th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chan-Kyu; Lee, Na-Mi

    2013-04-01

    Authors studied how Claude Bernard, the first founder of experimental medicine, contributed significantly to establishment of modernism and influenced European modern culture. Authors first studied his views on modernity, comparing with Descartes and Magendie, and on the similarity between "Experimental medicine" and the European literature in the 19th century. Bernard was not exclusively against vitalism, but the dogmatic misuse of vitalism. His objective thinking could be a useful model for the authors, who considered science to be an origin of modernity in literature of naturalism. Especially, Emile Zola was strongly influenced by Bernard's "An introduction to the study of Experimental medicine" and published "Experimental novel," a manifesto of naturalism. Although Bernard's experimental methodology and determinism deeply influenced modern European culture, the relationship between his Experimental medicine and modernism have not been fully investigated yet. His experimental medicine also needs to be discussed from the ecological viewpoints. His anthropo-centrism was unique since he emphasized any human theory could not surpass the principle of nature. Conventional anthropo-centrism claims that human beings are superior enough to own and govern the nature. And Bernard's the necessary determinism contains the ecological principle that all life forms and inanimate objects are organically related and intertwined to each other, irrespectively of their usefulness for the human beings. Although there were some ethical debates related to his medical experiments on living bodies of animal, his strict principle to perform experiments only after animal or human body died was worth considering as an effort to sustain ecological viewpoints. He was also unique in terms of being realistic and candid about his situation which was limited by the 19th century's scientific and medical development. In conclusion, the significance of convergence of literature and medical science

  9. How to compare the faces of the Earth? Walachia in mid-19th century and nowadays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartos-Elekes, Zsombor; Magyari-Sáska, Zsolt; Timár, Gábor; Imecs, Zoltán

    2014-05-01

    In 1864 a detailed map was made about Walachia, its title is Charta României Meridionale (Map of Southern Romania), it has 112 map sheets, it is often called after his draughtsman: Szathmári's map. The map has an outstanding position in the history of Romanian cartography, because it indicates a turning-point. Before the map, foreigners (Austrians and Russians) had made topographic maps about this vassal principality of the Ottoman Empire. The Austrian topographic survey (1855-1859) - which served as a basis for this map - was the last one and the most detailed of these surveys. The map was made between the personal-union (1859) and independence (1878) of the Danubian Principalities. This map was the first (to a certain extent) own map of the forming country. In consequence of this survey and map, the Romanian mapping institute was founded, which one - based on this survey and map - began the topographic mapping of the country. In the Romanian scientific literature imperfect and contradictory information has been published about this map. Only a dozen copies of the map were kept in few map collections; the researchers could have reached them with difficulties. During our research we processed the circumstances of the survey and mapmaking discovering its documentation in the archives of Vienna, as well as using the Romanian, Hungarian and German scientific literature. We found the copies in map collections from Vienna to Bucharest. We digitized all the map sheets from different collections. We calculated the parameters of the used geodetic datum and map projection. We published on the web, such we made the map reachable for everybody. The map can be viewed in different zoom levels; can be downloaded; settlements can be found using the place name index; areas can be exported in modern projection, so the conditions of that time could be compared with today's reality. Our poster presents on the one hand the survey and the map realized in mid-19th century and our

  10. Science Policy at the Wrong Scale and Without Adequate Political Institutions: Parallels between the U.S. 19th Century and the 21st Century Global Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCurdy, K. M.

    2012-12-01

    The Constitution of the United States is a document for economic development written by people wary of government failure at the extremes, whether too heavy handed a central government or too loose a confederation. The strong central government favored by Hamilton, Industrialists and later by forward thinking men of the 19th century created a discontinuity wherein government institutions designed to facilitate agriculture were incapable of regulating corporations operating on a national scale, which made mineral and other natural resource exploitation needed to support industrialization enormously profitable. At the same time, Agriculturalists and other conservative citizens sought to control the economy by protecting their rural interests and power. The political institutional power remained with states as agriculturalists and industrialists struggled for economic superiority in the 19th century. As Agriculture moved west, Science warned of the dangers of extending Homesteading regulations into arid regions to no avail. The west was settled in townships without concern for watersheds, carrying capacity, or climatic variability. Gold seekers ignored the consequences of massive hydraulic mining techniques. The tension resident in the Constitution between strong local control of government (states' rights) and a strong central government (nationalism) provided no institutional context to resolve mining problems or other 19th century policy problems linked to rapid population expansion and industrialization. Environmental protection in the late 20th century has been the last wave of nationalized policy solutions following the institution-building blueprint provided by electoral successes in the Progressive, New Deal, and Great Society eras. Suddenly in the 21st century, scientific warnings of dangers again go unheeded, this time as evidence of global warming mounts. Again, tension in policy making exists in all political arenas (executive, legislative and judicial at

  11. Chemistry in Serbian journals in the second half of the 19th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvjetićanin Stanko M.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is selection and analysis of articles with chemistry content in selected Serbian journals in the second half of the 19th century, which were aimed towards general public, in order to get insight into the level and quality of additional chemistry informing of readers. Two journals were selected, that contained entertaining, literature and scientific content ('Sedmica' and 'Vila', and two other, with entertainment and literature nature ('Danica' and 'Matica'. The analyzed journals primarily addressed the general public and played an important role in readers' information and education. Historical method was applied in this research. The above-mentioned journals were analyzed separately, with the short historical survey. Complete editions of these journals were analyzed, and the selection of articles was made according to the textual content or the title itself. The chemistry content presented in these journals is of the great variety. Among other things, interesting comments of the chemical schoolbooks are found, as well as lectures on science.

  12. Representation of the microcosm: the claim for objectivity in 19th century scientific microphotography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breidbach, Olaf

    2002-01-01

    Microphotography was one of the earliest applications of photography in science. The first monograph on tissue organization illustrated with microphotographs was published in 1845. In the 1860s, a large number of introductions to scientific microphotography was published by anatomists. They argued that microphotography was a means of documenting the results of microscopic analysis, uncontaminated by subjectivity of the observer. In the early decades of the 19th century, before the general acceptance of cell theory, such a technique was of special importance, so no criteria were available to distinguish between important and superficial characters in the description of tissue microstructures. Microphotography was praised as the method of choice for documenting the scientific observations of microscopic material. Some of the microphotographic practices described in these early manuals, however, did not conform with the idea of a purely mechanical process of documentation. The authors of these manuals saw photography not as a technique which produced artifacts, but as a complete and reliable substitute for the original preparations. Thus, according to these authors, the artificial world of photography was seen as the actual representation of the microworld. Consequently, they tried to understand the microcosm by analyzing photographs instead of the microscopic preparation themselves. Such attitudes discredited the use of microphotography in the sciences. Consequently, the definitive breakthrough of scientific microphotography was delayed until the 1880s and was largely due to the efforts of Robert Koch, who made microphotography a central tool of bacteriology.

  13. [About smallpox and vaccination practices in Minas Gerais (Brazil) in the 19th century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Anny Jackeline Torres; Marques, Rita de Cássia

    2011-02-01

    This article discusses the impact of smallpox and vaccination practices used against the disease used in the province of Minas Gerais, in Brazil, during the Imperial Period (1822-1889). Despite the existence of services responsible for the organization and dissemination of the vaccine in the country since the early 19th century, some administrative and cultural factors, as identified in documents produced by the province's public health authorities at the time, had a negative impact upon the full implementation of both practice and organization of services aimed at the dissemination of smallpox vaccination. Based upon historiographic sources, it is argued that despite the trend towards centralization observed at different governmental spheres during the structuring of the Imperial State, in particular, in the provision of vaccination services, there was a prevailing disharmony between the different agencies responsible for the implementation and management of such services. A further contributor to the difficulties in the service implementation was the resistance of the population to submit to the vaccination, a phenomenon that can be best understood through examination of the social construction of perceptions about diseases and the vaccination method used against the smallpox.

  14. Grey cast iron as construction material of bridges from the 18th and 19th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Rabiega

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Many bridges and railroad viaducts, which have been operated at the western and southern regions of Poland, were erected at the end ofthe 18th or beginning of the 19th century. In recent years they undergo overhauls and renovations requiring familiarity with the construction materials they have been made of. It is necessary for estimation of their load capacity (possible reinforcements and determining their suitability for further utilisation. Among the materials in the old bridges the puddled steels and cast irons predominate. Aim of the work is identification and documentation of microstructure and selected properties of the cast irons used for production of parts for the bridge in Łażany, the Old Mieszczański Bridge in Wrocław, the hanging bridge in Ozimek, as well as the columnar piers of the railroad viaduct in Wrocław. Using the methods of light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, as well as the results of hardness measurements and chemical analysis, it has been shown that the objects have been built of grey cast iron with flake graphite having the ferritic-pearlitic or pearlitic matrix. The diversification of their chemical analysis resulting from the type, size and geometry of the cast parts was indicated.The tested materials fulfil requirements of the contemporary standards related to grey cast irons of the EN-GJL-100 and EN-GJL-150grades.

  15. Shark tooth weapons from the 19th Century reflect shifting baselines in Central Pacific predator assemblies.

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    Joshua Drew

    Full Text Available The reefs surrounding the Gilbert Islands (Republic of Kiribati, Central Pacific, like many throughout the world, have undergone a period of rapid and intensive environmental perturbation over the past 100 years. A byproduct of this perturbation has been a reduction of the number of shark species present in their waters, even though sharks play an important in the economy and culture of the Gilbertese. Here we examine how shark communities changed over time periods that predate the written record in order to understand the magnitude of ecosystem changes in the Central Pacific. Using a novel data source, the shark tooth weapons of the Gilbertese Islanders housed in natural history museums, we show that two species of shark, the Spot-tail (Carcharhinus sorrah and the Dusky (C. obscurus, were present in the islands during the last half of the 19(th century but not reported in any historical literature or contemporary ichthyological surveys of the region. Given the importance of these species to the ecology of the Gilbert Island reefs and to the culture of the Gilbertese people, documenting these shifts in baseline fauna represents an important step toward restoring the vivid splendor of both ecological and cultural diversity.

  16. Chronicle of Datura Toxicity in the 18th and 19th Century

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    Michael Jonasson

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Datura stramonium is a poisonous and common flowering plant that is a member of the Solanacae family. Datura poisonings are a rare occurrence in the 21st century, making toxicological information on this plant sparse. Historical information on Datura provides useful information on the clinical symptoms and characteristics of poisonings. This review looks at the state of knowledge on Datura’s chemical properties and clinical characteristics in the 18th and 19th century. Methods: A literature review was conducted, and an online database search identified 197 articles. Ultimately 42 articles met the search criteria and were included for review. Results: Medical literature on Datura focused predominantly on clinical poisonings, medical treatments, and identifying its chemical properties. Clinical poisonings included cases of accidental and intentional poisonings, and provided information on the age of patients, their symptoms, and treatments. Datura was also used to treat a variety of conditions, including asthma, inflammatory diseases, epileptic seizures, and hallucinations. Chemical experimentation on Datura commonly looked at isolating alkaloids and assaying their concentrations in various plant organs. Conclusion: Historical literature on Datura shows that cases of poisoning were a common occurrence. These historical sources provide useful information on Datura poisoning’s clinical findings, and preliminary uses of Datura in medical treatments. Early chemical exploration of Datura also set the groundwork for future research.

  17. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation: a historical perspective leading up to the end of the 19th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekmektzoglou, Konstantinos A; Johnson, Elizabeth O; Syros, Periklis; Chalkias, Athanasios; Kalambalikis, Lazaros; Xanthos, Theodoros

    2012-01-01

    Social laws and religious beliefs throughout history underscore the leaps and bounds that the science of resuscitation has achieved from ancient times until today. The effort to resuscitate victims goes back to ancient history, where death was considered a special form of sleep or an act of God. Biblical accounts of resuscitation attempts are numerous. Resuscitation in the Middle Ages was forbidden, but later during Renaissance, any prohibition against performing cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) was challenged, which finally led to the Enlightenment, where scholars attempted to scientifically solve the problem of sudden death. It was then that the various components of CPR (ventilation, circulation, electricity, and organization of emergency medical services) began to take shape. The 19th century gave way to hallmarks both in the ventilatory support (intubation innovations and the artificial respirator) and the open-and closed chest circulatory support. Meanwhile, novel defibrillation techniques had been employed and ventricular fibrillation described. The groundbreaking discoveries of the 20th century finally led to the scientific framework of CPR. In 1960, mouth-to-mouth resuscitation was eventually combined with chest compression and defibrillation to become CPR as we now know it. This review presents the scientific milestones behind one of medicine's most widely used fields.

  18. Factors influencing the recession rate of Niagara Falls since the 19th century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Yuichi S.; Matsukura, Yukinori

    2009-09-01

    The rate of recession of Niagara Falls (Horseshoe and American Falls) in northeastern North America has been documented since the 19th century; it shows a decreasing trend from ca. 1 m y - 1 a century ago to ca. 0.1 m y - 1 at present. Reduction of the flow volume in the Niagara River due to diversion into bypassing hydroelectric schemes has often been taken to be the factor responsible, but other factors such as changes in the waterfall shape could play a role and call for a quantitative study. Here, we examine the effect of physical factors on the historically varying recession rates of Niagara Falls, using an empirical equation which has previously been proposed based on a non-dimensional multiparametric model which incorporates flow volume, waterfall shape and bedrock strength. The changes in recession rates of Niagara Falls in the last century are successfully modeled by this empirical equation; these changes are caused by variations in flow volume and lip length. This result supports the validity of the empirical equation for waterfalls in rivers carrying little transported sediment. Our analysis also suggests that the decrease in the recession rate of Horseshoe Falls is related to both artificial reduction in river discharge and natural increase in waterfall lip length, whereas that of American Falls is solely due to the reduction in flow volume.

  19. [Development of the modern biological analogy concept in the 19th century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäumer, A

    1989-01-01

    At the beginning of the 19th century the term analogy was still synonymous with similarity, as for example in the case of Georges Cuvier. Exact criteria for determining analogy are first found in the work of Etienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire. Thereupon the English scientists Sharp MacLeay, William Swainson, John Obadiah Westwood and Edwin Strickland distinguished between analogy as correspondence between certain parts of the organism, i. e. only superficial resemblance, and affinity as an essential similarity in some remarkable aspects of form. Relying on these theories Richard Owen developed his theory of analogy ("a part which has the same function as another") and homology ("the same organ in different animals under every variety of form and function"). The criteria to distinguish between these two terms had to be modified and specified when the theory of evolution was developed by Charles Darwin. In the work of Thomas Henry Huxley, Ernst Haeckel and Carl Gegenbaur the modern biological term of analogy was developed, but at the same time it lost much of its importance and homology as a criterion for natural affinity became the central objective of further biological research.

  20. Claude Bernard was a 19th century proponent of medicine based on evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morabia, Alfredo

    2006-11-01

    The French physiologist Claude Bernard (1813-1878) has the unfair reputation of being ferociously opposed to the use of probabilities and statistics in medicine. In the 19th century, he would have been included among those who opposed the emergence of what would eventually become clinical epidemiology. The truth is that Bernard valued the role of medical statistics in clinical medicine but viewed it as potentially misleading in laboratory-based physiology. He posited that clinical medicine had to be guided by probabilistic evidence as long as physiological mechanisms remained unknown. Bernard praised the clinical researches of Pierre Louis aiming to assess the efficacy of bloodletting in the treatment of pneumonitis. The real objects of Bernard's contempt were the physicians who pretended that medicine was an art strictly based on intuition and tact and who pretended that comparative trials and statistics were useless for clinical medicine. Overall, Bernard was a strong and explicit proponent of the importance of scientific evidence in medical knowledge, be it from experiments or from comparative trials.

  1. Mapping Utopia: Cartography and Social Reform in 19th Century Australia

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    Matthew Graves

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available From the 16th century on, the great Southern continent figured in the European literary and political imagination as a field for utopian thought. While we might expect such Arcadian essays to tail off as the colonisation of Australia proceeded apace in the late 18th, early 19th centuries, such was not the case: there are many examples of utopian literature set in Australia in the 19th and 20th centuries, and several examples from the 1830s , the period examined in this article. This article explores the utopian elements in the work of three near contemporaries: Edward G. Wakefield (1796-1862, Thomas J. Maslen (1787-1857 and James Vetch (1789-1869 who mapped onto Australia political and social projects that had their origin and rationale in objectives for reform in the mother country. They brought to their self-appointed task underlying assumptions and biases that reveal a range of influences, not least those of colonial expansionism, and an imperial disregard for the realities of the terrain and inhabitants of a country they had never visited. The article undertakes a close reading of the maps, systems of nomenclature and division of territory proposed by two of the three: Maslen and Vetch, and their underlying rationale and function. Both writers sought to redraw the map of Australia in order to advance projects for reform, imposing on an ‘empty land’ principles of division and sub-division claimed to be rational and scientific and yet essentially utopian.

  2. [Study on the 19(th) century puerperal fever epidemic: Semmelweis-an often neglected pioneer epidemiologist].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Q; Tang, J L

    2017-08-10

    Puerperal fever was a major cause of maternal death in Europe in the 19(th) century. Many efforts were made to investigate the cause of the epidemic but failed. In 1846, Semmelweis, a young obstetrician in Vienna General Hospital, started his historical investigation. His breakthrough was largely due to his doctor friend's accidental injury during autopsy and his consequential death. Semmelweis found the pathological findings in his friend's post mortem examination were very similar to puerperal fever. He postulated his friend's death might be caused by "cadaverous particles" from cadavers and further inferred that puerperal fever might also be caused by the cadaverous particles that doctors brought to the delivering women after autopsy classes. He advocated hand-washing with chlorinated lime solution to wash off those particles, which rapidly reduced the maternal mortality in his department by 80% (from 10.65% to 1.98%). However, what his unprecedented work brought him was only denial, mockery and career setback rather than support, honor and compliments. Under substantial psychological pressure, he had a mental breakdown and died in a psychiatry asylum at the age of 47. He was a pioneer in epidemiological investigations before John Snow and in aseptic techniques before Joseph Lister, but his work is still often neglected.

  3. Written reports on the effects of mining activities on the natural environment in Idrija in the 19th Century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Car, J.; Dizdarevic, T.

    2004-01-01

    The environmental conditions in the Idrija Mercury Mine and its broader surroundings were strongly affected in the first half of the 19th century by two disastrous pit fires. The fire could only be extinguished by flooding of the pit. The consequences of such flooding was extensive poisoning with

  4. [Eventful life stories. Members of student fraternities persecuted in Silesia in the early 19th century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Walter

    2003-01-01

    This study supplemented by three charts and a list of biographies, is, for the first time, encompassing their life-data, their resumés and even their professional careers as well as political commitments shown by more than 200 Silesian students. They, at the University of Breslau, but also at other German universities, had joined the student fraternities in the 20-ies and early 30-ies of the 19th century and, in consequence, were persecuted by state authorities, notably in Prussia and, in the majority of cases, had been sentenced to prison terms of varying degrees. The first demagogic persecution, which happened in the first half of the twenties, culminating in 1822 in the Breslau Arminen Trail and ending up with the staging of the Youth-Association-Trail in 1826, had implicated about 100 Silesians, with a smaller portion of them - apart from teh three Youth-Association Silesians who were sentenced to five years imprisonment in a fortress - getting away with a relatively short "political fortress imprisonment". Later a considerable part of them made a career in the prussian judicial authority, in the institutions of higher learning, as parish priests, physicians and scientists, whereas any political engagement remained a rare exception. Out of the 137 Silesian members of the student fraternities affected by the second wave of persecution, the overwhelming majority of them being Protestants and originating partly from the middle classes, mostly artisans, and from intellectual background, with about a hundred of them being given essentially higher sentences ranging from six years up to capital punishment and, in the event of reprieves, they had to serve their sentences between six months and four-to-six years in a fortress. The majority of them made a medium-level professional career, never exceeding the medium ranks, as judicial officers, lawyers in state or communal services, parish priests, teachers or physicians. However, from this group of persecuted persons, a

  5. Forgotten research from 19th century: science should not follow fashion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galler, Stefan

    2015-02-01

    The fine structure of cross-striated muscle and its changes during contraction were known already in considerable detail in the 19th century. This knowledge was the result of studying birefringence properties of muscle fibres under the polarization microscope, a method mainly established by Brücke (Denk Kais Akad Wiss Math Naturwiss Cl 15:69-84, 1858) in Vienna, Austria. The knowledge was seemingly forgotten in the first half of the 20th century before it was rediscovered in 1954. This rediscovery was essential for the formulation of the sliding filament theory which represents the commonly accepted concept of muscle contraction (A.F. Huxley and Niedergerke, Nature 173:971-973, 1954; H.E. Huxley and Hanson, Nature 173:973-976, 1954). The loss of knowledge was the result of prevailing views within the scientific community which could be attributed to "fashion": it was thought that the changes of cross-striations, which were observed under the microscope, were inconsequential for contraction since other types of movements like cell crawling and smooth muscle contraction were not associated with similar changes of the fine structure. The basis for this assumption was the view that all types of movements associated with life must be caused by the same mechanisms. Furthermore, it was assumed that the light microscopy was of little use, because the individual molecules that carry out life functions cannot be seen under the light microscope. This unfortunate episode of science history teaches us that the progress of science can severely be retarded by fashion.

  6. Comparison of 19th Century and Present Concentrations and Depositions of Ozone in Central Europe

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    WEIDINGER, Tamás

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ozone, one of the most important trace gases in atmosphere was discovered byChristian Friedrich Schönbein (1799–1886, a chemistry professor at the University of Basel. Themethod developed by him was used from the middle of nineteenth century until the 1920’s inmuch of the world. The measurement method is based essentially on the color-change of anindicator test paper. We obtained records for ozone measured in the Habsburg Empire usingSchönbein’s method for analyze the long term environmental processes. According to recordskept in the Habsburg Empire, ozone was measured at more than twenty sites between 1853–1856.On the territory of the Kingdom of Hungary, ozone was measured at Szeged, Buda andSelmecbánya (Schemnitz, Banska Štiavnica among others. Long term datasets are available fromBuda (1871–1898 and Ó-Gyalla (Altdala, Hurbanovo, 1898–1905. Ozone was measured duringboth day- and nighttime. Additionally meteorological variables (like air temperature, relativehumidity, air pressure, wind speed, cloud cover, precipitation were also observed several times aday. The data reported in the yearbooks were collected and evaluated in this study to reconstructthe ozone dataset. Depending on concentrations and deposition velocity over different vegetatedsurfaces the ozone deposition can be estimated. The reliability of estimations and reconstructedozone deposition values are also discussed. Finally ozone datasets from the 19th and 21st centuryand the differences in ozone concentration and deposition between rural and urban areas arecompared. Ozone concentrations and deposition are found to be approximately three times highernow than in the 19th century.

  7. Allelic Variation at the Rht8 Locus in a 19th Century Wheat Collection

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    Linnéa Asplund

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Wheat breeding during the 20th century has put large efforts into reducing straw length and increasing harvest index. In the 1920s an allele of Rht8 with dwarfing effects, found in the Japanese cultivar “Akakomugi,” was bred into European cultivars and subsequently spread over the world. Rht8 has not been cloned, but the microsatellite marker WMS261 has been shown to be closely linked to it and is commonly used for genotyping Rht8. The “Akakomugi” allele is strongly associated with WMS261-192bp. Numerous screens of wheat cultivars with different geographical origin have been performed to study the spread and influence of the WMS261-192bp during 20th century plant breeding. However, the allelic diversity of WMS261 in wheat cultivars before modern plant breeding and introduction of the Japanese dwarfing genes is largely unknown. Here, we report a study of WMS261 allelic diversity in a historical wheat collection from 1865 representing worldwide major wheats at the time. The majority carried the previously reported 164 bp or 174 bp allele, but with little geographical correlation. In a few lines, a rare 182 bp fragment was found. Although straw length was recognized as an important character already in the 19th century, Rht8 probably played a minor role for height variation. The use of WMS261 and other functional markers for analyses of historical specimens and characterization of historic crop traits is discussed.

  8. Translation from the Classical Languages in the Second Half of the 19th Century

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    Matej Hriberšek

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available In addition to affecting the Slovene education system, the Austrian denationalising policy in the second half of the 19th century had a direct impact on translation. Most of the already scarce Slovene philologists were appointed to posts outside the Slovene national territory. The conditions only began to improve in the 1860s, with the translation activity taken up by the first students of the newly established philology courses at the University of Vienna (Ladislav Hrovat, Matija Valjavec, etc.. More often than not, however, the translators were not philologists. The first longer classical texts published in Slovene were individual books of the Homeric epics, Xenophon’s Memorabilia, Plato’s dialogues Apology and Crito, Virgil's Georgics, and Sophocles' Ajax (the complete Bible, of course, had been translated much earlier, but it holds a special place in the history of translation. The translations published as books represent the first Slovene book-format editions of the ancient classics, but most appeared in magazines and newspapers . Many translations met with the same fate as a number of contemporary Slovene classical-language textbooks: they remained in manuscript because of insufficient funds (the publishers were unwilling to run the risk of such enterprises, for fear that their investment would not pay, and also because of the national-awakening emphasis on Slovene, which was accompanied by a preference for translating from other modern languages, particularly Slavic ones. A noteworthy example of these unpublished translations is Caesar’s De Bello Gallico as prepared by the Franciscan Ladislav Hrovat. From the beginnings to the present, Slovene translations of the Greek and Latin classics have displayed a marked predominance of poetry, with prose works remaining in the minority.

  9. Fire, broadax and fever relieve: southeastern Brazil and the boost toward the agrarian frontiers in early 19th century

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    Carlos Alberto Medeiros Lima

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the beginning of the 19th century, discussions about malaria by some physicians and authorities who had acted in many Atlantic regions showed the idea that deforestation would impact positively on sanitation in Brazil. This was related to a boost - unknown until then - toward the agrarian frontiers at the expense of traditional forests and strongly marked by the rural endemics. It all happened in a time marked by the growth of the Brazilian free population, by the internalization of sugarcane farms - especially in São Paulo - by the coffee expansion, by the increase of agrarian frontier as a survival strategy for poverty, by the suppression of regulations for the settlements on vacant slots in 1822, and by the Atlantic recession in the second quarter of the 19th century. The dissemination of this conception can be evaluated based on data about migration to the agrarian frontier and the impact of malaria among free people.

  10. Assistência ao nascimento na Bahia oitocentista Assisted birth in 19th century Bahia

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    Maria Renilda Nery Barreto

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Esse artigo aborda as culturas de assistência ao parto na Bahia oitocentista e trabalha com a hipótese de que, em Salvador, coexistiram duas culturas obstétricas: a dos médicos-parteiros, que faziam uso dos recursos técnicos e cognitivos disponibilizados pela obstetrícia como especialidade médica; e a das tradicionais parteiras, cujo saber era de natureza empírico-sensorial. Apesar de todo o esforço empreendido pelos médicos para angariar a confiança das famílias baianas, as parteiras continuaram hegemônicas na arte de 'aparar' crianças e de tratar das doenças de mulheres. A análise enfoca os segmentos sociais e profissionais que atuaram na assistência ao parto; o papel da Faculdade de Medicina da Bahia na formação e certificação das parteiras; e a utilização dos periódicos como meio de legitimação dos médicos-parteiros; ao tempo em que problematiza a pequena participação das parteiras nesses veículos de comunicação.This paper presents the traditions of assisted childbirth in the Brazilian state of Bahia in the 19th Century and develops the hypothesis that two obstetrical traditions coexisted in the capital, Salvador, namely the doctor-midwives - who used technical resources and knowledge acquired from obstetrics as a medical specialty - and the traditional midwives, whose know-how was purely of an empirical-sensorial nature. Despite all efforts employed by the doctors to win over the confidence of Bahian families, the midwives continued to be predominant in the art of 'delivering' children and treating female illnesses. The analysis focuses on the social and professional segments that were active in assisted birth; the role of the Bahian College of Medicine (Faculdade de Medicina da Bahia in the training and certification of midwives and the use of newspapers as a way to legitimize the doctor-midwives; it also discusses the scant coverage of the midwives in these media.

  11. Kasimov Tsardom in the Tatar Memory of the 19th century

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    V.V. Trepavlov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In August 1834, the mullah of the cathedral mosque in the town of Kasimov addressed to parishioners with a solemn speech on the occasion of majority of the successor of a throne. In this speech he made short digression to the history of Kasimov Tsardom focusing on the listing of its rulers with short characteristic of some of them. At that time, there were no professional studies on the Kasimov Tsardom, while it was almost completely ignored in general works on Russian history (of Karamzin, Polevoy, Tatishchev, Shcherbatov. Some Tatar families kept genealogies-shedzheres, but in the absolute majority, they did not record the ancestors and especially events before the 18th century. An indirect evidence about the life in Kasimov during the 15th–18th centuries contained in the eastern books (for the most part, of an apparent religious and didactic content do not give grounds for the claim that there existed a written fixation of the local history events. Tombstone inscriptions were illustrative but hardly informative evidence of the events of the 16th–17th centuries. They provide minimal information about past rulers. The writing of a Kasimov Tatar chronicler Qadyr Ali-bek of the 1830s obviously was not yet known. Researches of local ethnographers (I. Gagin, I. Krasnov could serve as a source of knowledge of the Tatars interested in history. These studies rarely appeared on the pages of periodicals including the journal “Otechestvennye zapiski” (Domestic Notes. Comparison of these publications with the speech of Abdulwahid Smailev discovers their interrelation or the use of a common source. An analysis of the mullah’s speech shows that the fragmentary information from some Russian sources published at that time and the deaf echoes of the long-standing history in Tatar oral and written tradition of the first half of the 19th century developed, in the end, in a fairly consistent picture. In general, this picture was chronologically correct

  12. Contemporary criticism on the representation of female travellers of the Ottoman harem in the 19th century: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Aimillia Mohd Ramli

    2011-01-01

    A common problem that needs addressing in the study of narratives concerning the Orient and the Ottoman harem in the 19th century, through an emphasis on gender, is the popular belief amongst certain groups in post-colonial and feminist scholarships that writings by women on these subjects are the alternative to hegemonic imperial discourse. Post-colonial and feminist critics whose research deals with women travel writers to the Middle East and North Africa—Sara Mills, Reina Lewis, Billie Me...

  13. Institutions, the cost of capital, and long-run economic growth: evidence from the 19th century capital market

    OpenAIRE

    Alquist, Ron; Cha, Ben

    2012-01-01

    Late 19th century investors demanded compensation to invest in countries with poor institutional protection of property rights. Using the monthly stock returns of 1,808 firms located in 43 countries but traded in London between 1866 and 1907, we estimate the country-specific cost of capital. We find a negative relationship between institutions that protect property rights and capital costs. Firms located in countries with weak institutions were charged a premium compared to similarly risky fi...

  14. The emergence of the confessional theology in Russia (18th – first half of the 19th centuries

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    Eugene Lyutko

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article looks at a text dealing with theology as a text dealing with the reality that stands behind this text. Based on examples of three Russian church hierarchs who tried to systematise theology in the 18th and 19th centuries — Archbishop Feofan (Prokopovich, St. Philaret (Drozdov, St. Innocent (Borisov — the paper reveals and interprets the following issues: gradual penetration of categories of history, administration and church service into the structure of theology; rejection of the socalled natural theology (theologia naturalis, which takes place at the beginning of the 19th century. Proceeding from Foucauld’s methodology, we come to a conclusion about the emergence of confession in the Russian Empire of the fi rst half of the 19th century. This was an integrated and distinct social body, the key category of which was theology. Theology unites the social space of the confession by means of three key narratives: the identity (a complex of historical disciplines, administration (the canon law, or “theologia rectrix”, and pastoral theology, participation practices (liturgics. At the end of the period in question, the category of “Church” emerges within the theological system. On the one hand, this fact refl ects the completion of the process of constructing the confession; on the other hand, it is a sign of the emergence of ecclesiology, the new practice of theological discourse that came to be dominant in the following period.

  15. Changing relationships between authors and publishers: Lithuania Major in the first half of the 19th century

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    Aušra Navickienė

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The changing relationship between authors and publishers was a phenomenon related to the model of modern book publishing business which began to emerge in Lithuania Major, as well as throughout much of Central and Eastern Europe in the early 19th century. The topic of this research is the legal framework established in 1830 as part of Russian censorship laws intended to regulate property rights of authors and publishers, which was also applied in the occupied territory of Lithuania. Different sources and methods were used in this article to answer to the following questions: “How were the rights and obligations of authors and publishers understood in documents regulating publishing activities in Lithuania Major in the first decades of the 19th century (i.e. before 1830?”; “How was this concept legitimized in the first legal enactments regulating copyrights (i.e. after the introduction of regulations?”; “How were these mutually useful relationships reflected in Lithuanian book publishing before the Russian occupational government imposed radical measures to restrict Lithuanian national culture and publishing in 1864?” The main sources of data were the 19th century official and unofficial documents regulating publishing activities (including, most importantly, the censorship laws of the time and archival materials documenting the activities of Lithuanian private publishers and book authors of the time, such as correspondence and documentation on the activities of publishing institutions.

  16. [Mortality in Nuremberg in the 19th century (about 1800 to 1913)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasold, Manfred

    2006-01-01

    Before the middle of the 19th century urban life was hazardous, life expectancy in big cities was shorter than in the countryside, it was half as high as it is today. Cities used to be called "the graves of mankind"; they were unhygienic, since their inhabitants lived under crowded, unhealthy conditions. In German cities infant mortality was extremely high, one out of three new-born children died within its first year. In most big cities more people died in any given year than were born. In 1806, when the Imperial City of Nuremberg was absorbed by the Kingdom of Bavaria, it had 25 000 inhabitants, fewer than around the year 1600. In the following decades Nuremberg grew quickly, up to 50000 in 1846 and 100000 in 1881, 330000 in 1910. Its population was living extremely crowded within the medieval city-walls, up to 58 000 (1885) in the old parts of the city, more than twice as many as in 1806. Mortality was bound to increase, as more and more people moved to Nuremberg. Mortality rose from 25.5 per thousand in the 1820's to 29.4 in the 1850's and 32.8 in the 1860's. This increase of population was mainly due to migration from outside, from the countryside. New industries settled down in Nuremberg and provided new jobs, the new factories produced lots of smoke and dangerous dust. The general living conditions of the workers were poor, people were much smaller than nowadays. During the industrialisation labor was backbreaking, working hours were extremely long, and annual working hours were more than twice as long as today. New and better legislation was written by the Northern German Confederation, founded in 1867. Now the magistrate of Nuremberg recognised that something had to be done. In the following years physicians began to collect information as to morbidity and mortality in various parts of Nuremberg. Very many people still died of infectious diseases, esp. of tubercolosis, typhoid fever, diphtheria, pertussis, scarlet fever and other infectious diseases. There

  17. The everyday life and customs of Constantinople Patriarchs in the second half of the 19th century

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    Venediktov Vadim Yuriyevich

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The author of the article analyzes the church conflicts between Greeks and Bulgarians in the second half of the 19th century. It is rather interesting to have an overlook of everyday life, customs and material status of the Constantinople Patriarchs of those times during the Church conflict. In his research the author bases on the documents from the Archive of Foreign Policy of the Russian Empire. The schism of 1872 has set on edge the tensed relations in the midst of the highest Greek hierarchy of the Constantinople Church.

  18. D Representation of the 19TH Century Balkan Architecture Using Scaled Museum-Maquette and Photogrammetry Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiou, E.; Karachaliou, E.; Stylianidis, E.

    2017-08-01

    Characteristic example of the Balkan architecture of the 19th century, consists the "Tower house" which is found in the region of Epirus and Western Macedonia, Greece. Nowadays, the only information about these heritage buildings could be abstracted by the architectural designs on hand and the model - Tower that is being displayed in the Folklore Museum of the Municipality of Kozani, Greece, as a maquette. The current work generates a scaled 3D digital model of the "Tower house", by using photogrammetry techniques applied on the model-maquette that is being displayed in the Museum exhibits.

  19. The Eco-Refurbishment of a 19th Century Terraced House: Energy and Cost Performance for Current and Future UK Climates

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Haniyeh Mohammadpourkarbasi; Steve Sharples

    2013-01-01

    ... met. This paper uses computer modeling to examine the annual operational energy performance, long term energy cost savings and internal thermal conditions for a 19th century terraced house that was eco...

  20. Maurizio Isabella & Konstantina Zanou (eds., Mediterranean Diasporas: Politics and Ideas in the Long 19th Century (London, New Delhi, New York, Sydney: Bloomsbury Academic, 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Páll Björnsson

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A review of: Maurizio Isabella and Konstantina Zanou (eds., Mediterranean Diasporas: Politics and Ideas in the Long 19th Century (London, New Delhi, New York, Sydney: Bloomsbury Academic, 2016

  1. Look What We Got! How Inherited Data Drives Decision-Making: UNC-Chapel Hill’s 19th-Century American Sheet Music Collection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Renée McBride

    2011-01-01

    ...? This article describes such an experience at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill University Library with its CONTENTdm-based 19th-Century American Sheet Music Collection, addressing...

  2. Malaria, Tarai Adivasi and the Landlord State in the 19th century Nepal: A Historical-Ethnographic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janak Rai

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the interplay between malaria, the Tarai Adivasi and the extractive landlord state in the 19th century Nepal by focusing on Dhimal, one indigenous community from the easternmost lowlands. Throughout the 19th century, the Nepali state and its rulers treated the Tarai as a state geography of extraction for land, labor, revenue and political control. The malarial environment of the Tarai, which led to the shortage people (labor force, posed a major challenge to the 19th  century extractive landlord state and the landowning elites to materialize the colonizing project in the Tarai. The shortage of labor added pressure on the malaria resistant Tarai Adivasi to reclaim and cultivate land for the state. The paper highlights the need for ethnographically informed social history of malaria in studying the changing relations between the state and the ?div?si communities in the Tarai DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/dsaj.v7i0.10438 Dhaulagiri Journal of Sociology and Anthropology Vol. 7, 2013; 87-112

  3. Sleepwalking in Italian operas: a window on popular and scientific knowledge on sleep disorders in the 19th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, Michele Augusto; Sironi, Vittorio Alessandro; Tremolizzo, Lucio; Lombardi, Carolina; De Vito, Giovanni; Ferrarese, Carlo; Cesana, Giancarlo

    2010-01-01

    There is little knowledge on sleepwalking in ancient times even though it is a very common condition. The aim of this report is to describe the backgrounds of medical knowledge on somnambulism in the 19th century, a key period in the development of neurosciences, by analysing its representation in two famous Italian operas: La Sonnambula by Vincenzo Bellini and Macbeth by Giuseppe Verdi. The 19th-century operas may be considered as a crossing point between the popular and intellectual world because they mirror popular answers to phenomena that were still awaiting scientific explanations. Shakespeare's play Macbeth was also considered. In Shakespeare's play and in Verdi's Macbeth, sleepwalking is looked upon as a neuropsychiatric disorder, a manifestation of internal anxiety. In La Sonnambula by Bellini, this condition is considered as common disorder that anticipates scientific theories. The analysed Italian operas provide two different views on sleepwalking, probably because they are based on texts belonging to different periods. Their examination allows one to understand the gradual evolution of theories on sleepwalking, from demoniac possession to mental disorder and sleep disease. At the same time, this analysis throws some light on the history of psychological illnesses. Copyright (c) 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. The culturo-historical and personal circumstances of some 19th-century missionaries teaching in South Africa

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    J. L. van der Walt

    1992-03-01

    Full Text Available Broadly speaking, two approaches to missionary education in South Africa can be distinguished: a facts and figures approach featuring mainly the historical facts, statistics and other data concerning this period in education, and a rather more critical approach intended to prove the point that missionary education was instrumental in alienating the blacks from their traditional cultural heritage and in employing black labour in the class-dominated capitalist society of South Africa. A third approach is followed in this article: the period of missionary' education is approached by way of an analysis of the prevailing Zeitgeist in South Africa, Europe and elsewhere early in (he 19th century and of the concomitant philosophical and theological trends al Ute time. The personal motives and circumstances of the missionaries are also scrutinized. By following this approach a fuller and more illuminating view of missionary’ education in the 19th-century is assured, a view which can fruitfully be applied in conjunction with the other two approaches.

  5. [Influence of pharmaceutical law on the formation of the monopoly of pharmacists in Kaunas province in the 19th century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudiene, Vilma; Lignugariene, Asta; Minevicius, Rolandas

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this work is to estimate the influence of pharmaceutical law on the development of pharmacy in Kaunas province in the 19th century. In czarist Russia of the 19th century (which covered the majority of Lithuania) the trade of medicines was regulated severely. A statute of pharmacy issued in 1836 claimed that whenever giving a permission to establish a new pharmacy, the agreement of the owners of the nearest pharmacies should have been got beforehand. In such a way the law gave an indirect right for pharmacists to influence the establishment of new pharmacies. It also became an obstacle for a natural formation of the network of pharmacies and, thus, stimulated a creation of the monopoly of pharmacists. After the proclamation of the statute, i. e. from 1836 till 1840, only two new pharmacies were opened in Kaunas province, and later, during a thirteen-year period, (1841-1853) not a single pharmacy was founded there. Pharmacists, due to the avoidance of competition and fear to lose the monopoly of the trade of medicines in a region, tried to prevent other people from the establishment of pharmacies. They used to establish pharmacies in neighbouring towns themselves, to create the branches of their pharmacies or the networks of pharmacies of their family. In fact, the unfounded decrees of the government institutions of czarist Russia ampered the formation of a sufficient network of pharmacies and the development of the care of public health in the provinces of czarist Russia.

  6. The role of fenestration in promoting daylight performance. The mosques of Alexandria since the 19th century

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    Ingy I. El-Darwish

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Mosques have always been sacred places with distinctive sustainable environments. Fenestration in the prayers’ zone whether clerestories, screened windows, dome lighting and other light features have managed to produce significant spiritual human comfort areas. This paper focuses on fenestration of divine mosques and relates them to promoting daylight performance. The research process emphasizes the importance of daylight performance by promoting simulation tools on historical mosques of Alexandria since the 19th century that has witnessed change over time. The paper is a step toward sustainable lighting schemes in prayers’ zones that help to achieve human comfort as well as minimize use of energy. This study aimed at investigating the daylight performance by the use of climate based daylighting metrics which is “Daylight Autonomy” (DA. Daylight Autonomy is evaluated in the year round for the day lighted prayer periods to evaluate the behavior of fenestration of the different selected sample of mosques since the 19th century in Alexandria on a simulation tool in order to check whether it complies with the required illuminate and glare levels. The research findings are an attempt to lead to performative design guidelines introducing a contemporary interpretation for use in enhancing new designs of these holistic buildings.

  7. Enlightenment and School History in 19th Century Greece: the Case of Gerostathis by Leon Melas (1862-1901

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    Harris Athanasiades

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Students in present-day Greek schools are taught History as a biography of the Greek nation from the Mycenaean times to the present. Over the course of three millennia, the Greek nation has experienced three periods of cultural flourishing and political autonomy: (i the period of Antiquity (from the times of legendary King Agamemnon to those of Alexander the Great, (ii the Byzantine period (from Justinian’s ascension in the 6th century to the Fall of Constantinople in 1453, and (iii the modern era (from the War of Independence in 1821 to the present day. However, in this article we argue that in the 19th century the history taught in Greek schools differed substantially from the tripartite schema described above. In support of our thesis, we examine the most popular school textbook of the 19th century, O Gerostathis, by Leon Melas. In the Gerostathis, the history of the Greek nation is identified with that of Classical Greece (i.e. from the 6th century BC to the 4th century BC, which is held up as an exemplary era worthy of emulation. In contrast, the rise of Macedon under Philip II signals the cultural decline of the Greeks and the loss of their political autonomy, which was not regained for two millennia, until the 1821 national revolution. In that period, the Greek nation ceased not to exist, but survived as a subjugate of the Macedonians, the Romans, and finally the Ottomans. The Byzantine, on the other hand, is described as an unremarkable period of decadence that is only worth mentioning in relation to its final period, that of the Palaeologus dynasty, which bestowed upon the Greeks a legacy of resistance against the Ottomans. We argue that the above reading of the Greek past owed much to the Enlightenment, which as an intellectual movement still exerted a powerful influence (albeit to a gradually diminishing degree on Greek intellectuals up to the latter third of the 19th century.

  8. The biological standard of living and mortality in Central Italy at the beginning of the 19th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppola, Michela

    2013-12-01

    The biological standard of living in Central Italy at the beginning of the 19th century is analyzed using newly collected data on the height of recruits in the army of the Papal States. The results reveal a decline in height for the cohorts born under French rule (1796-1815). Although this trend was common to many parts of Europe, the estimated magnitude of the decline suggests a worsening of the biological standard of living of the working classes in the Papal States even relative to that of other countries. Despite the differences in the economic systems within the Papal States, no significant geographical variation in height has been found: even the most dynamic and advanced regions experienced a dramatic height decline. Mortality also increased during the period under consideration. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The Genus Heliopsis: Development of Varieties and Their Use in the European Gardens After the Mid 19th Century

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    Jiří Uher

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This review summarizes data on the development of varieties in historic gardens of the once very popular Ox-eyes (Heliopsis Pers., Asteraceae: Zinniinae after the mid 19th century, with regard to the development of varietal assortments in the periods corresponding to the most important architectural styles and to their fluctuating popularity. Old varietal assortments, usually derived from large-flowered H. helianthoides var. scabra, now rapidly disappear and the oldest varieties, including the once famous Lemoine’s selections, are virtually inaccessible. Until recently the most propagated Götz’s and Förster’s varieties also disappear and are replaced by modern, relatively small-flowered selections delivered from H. helianthoides var. helianthoides or patent protected variegated varieties. Neither of these groups, however, is applicable to the restoration of historic gardens. Tables show data on the origin of about eighty both still cultivated and vanished varieties.

  10. James Edmund Reeves (1829-1896) and the contentious 19th century battle for medical professionalism in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, John M

    2015-08-01

    During his life, Dr James E Reeves was a national figure in the US. His work included multiple professional publications, civic and professional leadership positions, and the drafting of a landmark law that confirmed the right of states to regulate the medical profession. While much of Reeves' work supported the successful struggle of 19th century regular physicians to gain control of the practice of medicine, he challenged his colleagues when their self-interests conflicted with his perception of the public good. He was frequently lauded for this work by physicians and the public but he also made professional enemies. Perhaps for this reason, his considerable accomplishments were forgotten after his death. His story reminds us of the difficult contradiction that exists within the regulation of medicine, guarding the public's welfare while protecting the interests of medical professionals. It also reminds us that history may temporarily overlook those who fight our difficult battles. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. The Scandinavian Advantage: A Comparative Analysis of Life Expectancy at Birth in four European Countries during the 19th Century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torres, Catalina

    As a result of the health transition, there have been sustained gains in the average length of life (Vallin and Meslé 2009), starting as far as more than 150 years ago in some human populations. For instance, the maximum recorded levels of life expectancy at birth illustrate a linear increase since...... 1840 (Oeppen and Vaupel 2002). During the 19th century, some few countries occupied the top 1 and 2 positions in terms of life expectancy at birth (Fig. 1). In some of these countries, such as Norway and Sweden, the average length of life was longer compared to most other European populations, despite...... lower levels of living standards and a later introduction of improvements in medicine and sanitation. This study aims to illustrate the evolution of life expectancy at birth in four different countries (England and Wales 1841-1905, France 1816-1905, Norway 1846-1905, and Sweden 1800-1905) and in the 2nd...

  12. The Investigation in Terms of Design Component of Ottoman Women Entari in 19th Century and Early 20th Century

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    Saliha AĞAÇ

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to study various entaries belonging to the 19th century and early 20th century in terms of design elements and principles. As result of the studies, it was seen that the X silhouette, the straight line type, vertical line direction, velvet, and silky textures, purple color tones in the base, and golden yellow in the embroidery were mostly used. Symmetric balance and symmetric decoration are observed most and it was determined that there were no principle of motion in entari in general, the point of emphasis was in the embroidery, there was no contrast in line and color elements and all design details were in compliance with each other. This study is deemed significant in terms of attracting attention to and introduction of historical clothing important in protecting cultural heritage, and for exhibiting the refined superior aesthetics of period Ottoman Turks.

  13. Some categories of epitaphs in Moldova and neighboring countries in the 17th - early 19th centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Felea

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Epitaph is an important source for the study of attitudes towards life and death. In our opinion, the epitaphs from Moldova and neighboring countries of the 17th - early 19th centuries can be classified according to many criteria: 1 literary form; 2 volume of information; 3 epitaphs, which are based on a deep family affection, including those prepared by a person for himself; 4 subject of narration; 5 gender of the deceased; 6 age of the deceased; 7 social status of the deceased, etc. In this article, we present several types of epitaphs, which are characteristic for the Romanian territory, Russia, and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. In terms of the expression of grief in the collective mentality, epitaphs are similar regardless of the country. The heartache of parents, spouses, and relatives is expressed in the inscriptions on tombstones through a dialogue with parents, monologue, dialogue with the grave, and appeal to God.

  14. [Diphtheria in Geneva at the end of the 19th century: the emergence of bacteriology and the use of serotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaba, Mariama

    2004-01-01

    At the end of the 19th century, diphtheria was one of the infectious diseases striking children the most. With the development of laboratory medicine, appearing at this time throughout Europe, came the identification of the diphtherial bacillus, which not only causes a local infection, but also produces a poison attacking the whole organism. The discovery of this microbe will be an important vector for bacteriological research, leading to the elaboration of the antidiphtherial serum, considered the first specific and effective therapeutic product in the new experimental medicine. Through the study of diphtheria in the canton of Geneva, we examine the causes and consequences of the application of laboratory techniques and concepts in the sphere of clinical medicine.

  15. From facial expressions to bodily gestures: Passions, photography and movement in French 19th-century sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichel, Beatriz

    2016-02-01

    This article aims to determine to what extent photographic practices in psychology, psychiatry and physiology contributed to the definition of the external bodily signs of passions and emotions in the second half of the 19 th century in France. Bridging the gap between recent research in the history of emotions and photographic history, the following analyses focus on the photographic production of scientists and photographers who made significant contributions to the study of expressions and gestures, namely Duchenne de Boulogne, Charles Darwin, Paul Richer and Albert Londe. This article argues that photography became a key technology in their works due to the adequateness of the exposure time of different cameras to the duration of the bodily manifestations to be recorded, and that these uses constituted facial expressions and bodily gestures as particular objects for the scientific study.

  16. Early meteorological records from Latin-America and the Caribbean during the 18th and 19th centuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Castro, Fernando; Vaquero, José Manuel; Gallego, María Cruz; Farrona, Ana María Marín; Antuña-Marrero, Juan Carlos; Cevallos, Erika Elizabeth; Herrera, Ricardo García; de la Guía, Cristina; Mejía, Raúl David; Naranjo, José Manuel; Del Rosario Prieto, María; Ramos Guadalupe, Luis Enrique; Seiner, Lizardo; Trigo, Ricardo Machado; Villacís, Marcos

    2017-11-14

    This paper provides early instrumental data recovered for 20 countries of Latin-America and the Caribbean (Argentina, Bahamas, Belize, Brazil, British Guiana, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Ecuador, France (Martinique and Guadalupe), Guatemala, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Peru, Puerto Rico, El Salvador and Suriname) during the 18th and 19th centuries. The main meteorological variables retrieved were air temperature, atmospheric pressure, and precipitation, but other variables, such as humidity, wind direction, and state of the sky were retrieved when possible. In total, more than 300,000 early instrumental data were rescued (96% with daily resolution). Especial effort was made to document all the available metadata in order to allow further post-processing. The compilation is far from being exhaustive, but the dataset will contribute to a better understanding of climate variability in the region, and to enlarging the period of overlap between instrumental data and natural/documentary proxies.

  17. Evolution of Communal Order of tAleksandr E.he Sarepta Missionary Settlement Throughout the 19th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    [Kuryshev Andrey V.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the social and economic processes that took place in the Sarepta missionary settlement near Tsaritsyn (now Volgograd, Russia in the 19th century. Those processes eventually led to dramatic changes in the life of Sarepta residents and to the loss of status of missionary settlement. Sarepta was founded in 1765 by the Moravians to fulfill missionary activities among the Kalmyks. Initially the life in Sarepta was based on communal principles. The Sarepta Moravians were organized into groups (choirs according to their sex, age, and marital status. The choirs lived by strict rules and were supervised by superiors. The Sarepta economy was organized in a similar way with the single ruling centre and communal distribution of the production. In the course of the 19th century the Sarepta community was gradually disorganized under the pressure of a number of factors. The key factor consisted in the development of capitalism. Facing a severe competition from manufacturers of the region, Sarepta had to respond to the needs of time and introduce private entrepreneurship which was more effective but incompatible to the communal economic system. Another destructing factor was the inflow of non-Moravian population into Sarepta caused by the deficit of workforce in the settlement. Those newcomers were free from the restrictions imposed upon Sarepta Moravians by the community authorities. Alongside with the strengthening of their economic position they made more and more insistent claims on the Moravian communal property. Rights-of-ownership conflicts between Sarepta inhabitants and the Directorate of the Moravian church in Germany eventually led to exclusion of Sarepta from the system of Moravian settlements in 1892.

  18. Dos propuestas constitucionales en el Caribe del siglo XIX Two Constitutional Proposals in the 19th Century's Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana María Arpini

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available En el complejo escenario socio-político del Caribe del siglo XIX tuvieron lugar experiencias históricas de lucha por la independencia y la conquista de la libertad. Centramos la atención en dos episodios que se plasmaron en sendas propuestas de organización nacional: uno, en los albores del siglo XIX -la Constitución de 1801, redactada por disposición de Toussaint Louverture para Saint Domingue, siendo todavía colonia Francesa-; y otro, al promediar la centuria -plasmada en el texto elaborado por Eugenio María de Hostos "El programa de los independientes" de 1876, que contiene las bases de una futura organización nacional de Puerto Rico-. Nuestra lectura está orientada por el interrogante acerca de las formas de afirmación de la subjetividad que surgen de los textos y de las prácticas que ellos habilitan.In the complex sociopolitical scenario of the 19th Century's Caribbean several historical experiences of fights for independence and freedom took place. We focus our attention on two episodes, each one conveying a proposal for national organization: one in the early 19th Century -the 1801Constitution for Saint Domingue, still e French colony, written according to Toussaint Louverture's regulation-; and the other around the mid century -expressed in Eugenio María Hostos's "El programa de los independientes" from 1876, which conveys the basis for a future national organization of Puerto Rico. Our approach is determined by the question about the ways of subjectivity reinforcement in the texts and the practices rising from them.

  19. [Treatment of hysteria in the 19th century--in which way did German psychiatrists view castration?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Splett, T; Steinberg, H

    2003-01-01

    Until the late 19 th century treatment of hysteria, this inhomogeneous group of somatic, neurological and psychiatric symptoms, hardly differed from the methods of the Greco-Roman epoch. Dietetics, physical applications, and smaller surgical operations made up the standard forms of intervention for this illness which was regarded as belonging to the field of gynecology. Thus, it is not astonishing that oophorectomy (ovariectomy) was included into the therapeutic spectrum for hysteria both in Germany and beyond at the end of the 19 th century. It was above all gynecologist Alfred Hegar (1830 - 1914) who tried to extend the application of this method to nervous illnesses. This therapeutic alternative did not, however, meet with an unanimously positive response among psychiatrists. Richard von Krafft-Ebing (1840 - 1902) as a follower of the degeneration theory as well as Paul Flechsig (1847 - 1929) supported it, applying it as the ultima ratio. But since these operations produced no lasting curative impact, functional neurological disorders were regarded more important. From Emil Kraepelin (1856 - 1926) then, psychiatrists began to understand the psychological component of this illness, for which Leipzig neurologist Paul Julius Möbius (1853 - 1907) had made major contributions. Thus, surgical interventions were rejected and conservative methods of treatment were developed further considering psychological aspects. It was Adolf Strümpell (1853 - 1925) who had laid the basis for this postulating a "psychic trauma" as the cause for hysteria as early as in 1884. On the other hand, Möbius had developed a psychotherapeutic concept for the treatment of these disorders long before Sigmund Freud (1856 - 1939) came out with his psychocathartic method.

  20. Complexes of Gunfl ints of the 18th – 19th Centuries from the Crimea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolesnik Alexander V.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors address the problem of identification of the gunflints in the Modern Time complexes. Gunflints are a specific type of historical and archaeological sources. Distribution of these products is entirely connected with distribution of firearms with flintlock ignition mechanisms. The typology of gunflints is essentially similar to the typology of Stone Age microlith inserts. In both cases fragments of blades and lamellar flakes served as workpieces. The authors describe three small complexes of gunflints from the Crimea. Flints have been found on the eighteenth-century Russian military camps in Bakhchisarai and Belogorsk, also in Sevastopol. The complex from Sevastopol is connected with the Eastern War (1853–1856. The published gunflint inserts fully meet the standards of West European gunflints. A large share of flints has a lead shell which was intended to fix the flint in the hammer of ignition mechanism. Parameters of flints suggest application of guns of various calibers in the Russian army. The place of production of gunflints is still uncertain.

  1. George William Hill, the Great but Unknown 19th Century Celestial Mechanician

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbin, Brenda G.

    2012-01-01

    George William Hill (1838-1914) has long been considered one of the most famous and talented celestial mechanicians of the past century and a half. However, many people have never heard of him and his work. Simon Newcomb said he "will easily rank as the greatest master of mathematical astronomy during the last quarter of the nineteenth century.” After receiving a B.A. at Rutgers in 1859, Hill began work in 1861 at the office of the American Ephemeris and Nautical Almanac in Cambridge, MA. He moved to Washington with the group in 1882 which then became part of the U. S. Naval Observatory. Newcomb, beginning his work on planetary motion, assigned the theory of Jupiter and Saturn to him, calling it about the most difficult topic. Hill's work was published by the USNO in 1890 as A New Theory of Jupiter and Saturn. From 1898 to 1901, Hill lectured on the subject of celestial mechanics at Columbia University in a position created just for him. After 1892 and until his death, he lived at the family homestead in West Nyack, NY. He never married, was something of a recluse, and spent most of his time with his books and research. Hill was an amateur botanist and enjoyed exploring on long walks in the countryside. Many honors and awards came to him during his lifetime, both from the U.S. and abroad, including serving as president of the American Mathematical Society. All of Hill's mathematical and astronomical research was incorporated in The Collected Mathematical Works of George William Hill. This work, containing a preface in French by Poincare, was published in 4 large volumes by the Carnegie Institution of Washington in 1905.

  2. Marriage in North-Western Transylvania (2nd Half of the 19th Century – Beginning of the 20th Century). External Conditionings and Marital Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Brie, Mircea

    2009-01-01

    Marriage in North-Western Transylvania (2nd Half of the 19th Century – Beginning of the 20th Century). External Conditionings and Marital Strategies In the latter half of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century, in north-western Transylvania there was a traditional rural society, except for some urban centres and their neighbouring areas (the urban character is also proved by the analysis of the marital behaviour). The major events in the family life, such as baptism, marriage ...

  3. Church foundation and places of burial of the nobles Kozhins: the transformation of commemorative practices in 18th–19th centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budiukin Dmitrii

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the church founding activity in the country estates and choice of the place of burial in 18th-19th centuries of the nobles Kozhins, the relatives of St. Macarius of Kaliazin, as religious commemorative practices. Draws attention the significant number and great architectural quality of the churches built by Kozhins. In 18th century the most Kozhins were buried in churches in their estates, and in 19th century the most of them turn to burial in the monasteries outside churches.

  4. Establishment and modification of the border along the segment of southern Bessarabia throughout the 19th century

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    Zoreana Muţac

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available At the beginning of the 19th century the Russian Empire managed to seize the territory of the eastern part of Moldova, located between the rivers of Dniester, Prut, and Danube and the Black Sea, which has since been called Bessarabia. The inclusion of only this territory of the Romanian principalities in the Russian Empire was not the initial plan of the Russian authorities, but it was the last opportunity, in the run-up to the French offensive, at least with some result, to end the war of 1806-1812 with the Sublime Porte, a state that was considered much weaker than Russia. Although the unbending position of the Ottoman Porte in the negotiations between two parties to the armed conflict didn’t allow the Russian Empire to take possession of the two Romanian principalities, Moldova and Wallachia, which had been requested from the very beginning of the confrontation, the war ended with a cession of the Moldavian territory of the left side of the Prut in favor of the Russian Empire. At the same time, Russia for the first time in history gained access to the Danube, or more precisely to the lower reaches of this river, which had a great economic potential of international importance. Thus, the portion of this river, beginning from the point where Prut joins Danube and up to the confluence of the Chilia branch into the Black Sea, became a part of the Russian border along the Bessarabian segment. During the 19th century, this part of the border was subject to a number of changes. In 1829, after the end of the next Russian-Turkish war the border was established along the Sfantu Gheorghe stream (the southern branch. Thus, all the Danube branches were under the control of Russia, which created, both directly and indirectly, many obstacles to the free and safe navigation of foreign commercial vessels in the lower reaches of the river. This fact was the cause of concern and discontent of Western European states that took advantage of the right moment

  5. Diagnosis of Mercurial Teeth in a Possible Case of Congenital Syphilis and Tuberculosis in a 19th Century Child Skeleton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Ioannou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Without the presence of “caries sicca,” “sabre shins,” and nodes/expansion of the long bones with superficial cavitation, differential diagnosis of venereal syphilis and tuberculosis (TB may be difficult as various infections produce similar responses. However, congenital syphilis has distinctive features facilitating a diagnosis. A case study of remains of a juvenile European settler (probably male, 8–10 years old (B70 buried in the 19th century and excavated in 2000 from the cemetery of the Anglican Church of St. Marys in South Australia is presented. B70 demonstrated that the two diseases might have been present in the same individual, congenital syphilis and TB. Widespread destruction of vertebral bodies and kyphosis-related rib deformations indicate advanced TB. Severe dental hypoplasia is limited to permanent incisors and first molars; there is pitting on the palate, periosteal reaction on the skull vault, and thinned clavicles. Dental signs are not limited to “screwdriver” central incisors and mulberry molars. Apical portions of the crowns of permanent upper, lower, central, and lateral incisors have multiple hypoplastic-disorganized defects; deciduous canines have severely hypoplastic crowns while possibly hypoplastic occlusal surfaces of lower deciduous second molars are largely destroyed by extensive caries. These dental abnormalities resemble teeth affected by mercurial treatment in congenital syphilitic patients as described by Hutchinson.

  6. The negotiation of rules and state intervention in irrigation management: The Júcar Canal in the mid-19th century

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    Salvador Calatayud

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The way the rules for distributing water work in irrigation communities has been the object of numerous studies. Yet, little is known about how the negotiation process that is required to design such rules has developed historically, which is what this article focuses on. Specifically, the case of the Júcar Canal, which was built in the 13th century and went on to become the largest irrigation system in Spain after undergoing an extension in the early 19th century. As a result of said extension, there were many clashes between the old and the new irrigators, the climate of cooperation between users diminished and it became necessary to draw up a new set of regulations. Two crucial factors allowed a new agreement to be reached: the fact that the irrigators were able to redesign the institutions with a high degree of autonomy, and the intervention of representatives of the political authorities of the State who adopted the role of external arbitrators.

  7. Bright lights: disclosures from the optical, spectroscopic and chromatographic characterization of a 19th century Portuguese sedan chair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Fundação Ricardo Espírito Santo Silva (FRESS as the mission of defend, train, study, develop and implement Portuguese Fine Arts in Portugal. This paper reflects the process of Conservation-Restoration training, where students apply the most recent analytical techniques to the characterization of artwork towards enabling and supporting conservation intervention. In this study, the materials used to produce a 19th century sedan chair were characterised by optical microscopy, spectroscopic (SEM-EDS, -Raman and FTIR-imaging and chromatographic (HPLC-DAD/MS techniques. The use of natural and synthetic dyes was identified in textiles found inside the chair, including cochineal, brazilwood and fuchsine. Several paint layers with different colours and compounds, such as barite, calcium carbonate, lead white, hematite and Prussian blue, were identified in the external painted wood surface of the chair. The variety of identified materials, interspersed between layers of animal glue, reflects the different interventions that took place on the chair over time, supporting the intervention strategies reported/prescribed for the conservation-restoration procedure.

  8. [Psychophysical parallelism. On a discursive figure in the field of scientific changes in the late 19th century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegener, Mai

    2009-01-01

    The article traces the rise and fall of "psychophysical parallelism" - which was the most advanced scientific formulation of the mind / body relationship in the second half of the 19th century - through an interdisciplinary and broad geographical spectrum. It sheds light on the extremely different positions that rallied round this discursive figure, ranging from Fechner, Hering, Mach, Wundt, Bain, Hughlings Jackson, and Taine to Freud and Saussure. The article develops the thesis that the psychophysical parallelism functioned as a 'hot zone' within and a symptom of the changes in the order of sciences at that time. Against that background, the criticism of the psychophysical parallelism which became prominent around 1900 (Stumpf, Busse, Bergson, Mauthner et. al.) indicates the cooling of this 'hot zone' and the establishment of a new order within the scientific disciplines. The article pays particular attention to the position of this figure in contemporaneous language theories. Its basic assumption is that the relationship between the body and the psyche is itself constituted by language.

  9. THE LATVIAN LANGUAGE IN THE LINGUISTIC LANDSCAPE OF DAUGAVPILS (THE MIDDLE OF THE 19TH CENTURY - TODAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solvita Pošeiko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper will focus on the LL of Daugavpils from a diachronic point of view in order to describe the usage of the Latvian language in the public space since the middle of the 19th century until today, as well as the socio-economic and political factors which influence the language situation. Research sources are old photos which depict legible signboards, and photos obtained during LL research 2013. The role of the Latvian language in public information increased during the first period of independence, when ideas of nationalism become widespread and the first normative documents about language usage were approved. However, the stability of Latvian as the main language of the public was only established during the first Latvian Republican period at the end of the 20th century, when the State Language Law was passed and implemented in linguistic practice. Currently, the linguistic landscape reflects the political, socio-pragmatic, and social identity motivations of the owners of public texts, but within the confines of the restrictions imposed by language laws

  10. Theodor Waitz's theory of feelings and the rise of affective sciences in the mid-19th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romand, David

    2015-11-01

    The German psychologist Theodor Waitz (1821-1864) was an important theorist of affectivity in the mid-19th century. This article aims to revisit Waitz's contribution to affective psychology at a crucial moment of its history. First, I elaborate the context in which Waitz's ideas were carried out by showing how affective sciences emerged as an autonomous field of investigation between about 1770 and 1910. Second, I discuss the principles of Waitz's model of affectivity and their contextual significance. Third, I deal with the first major category of affective states identified by Waitz, namely, "formal feelings," which are supposed to be involved in the appraisal of the relational properties between representations. Fourth, I investigate "qualitative feelings," the second major category of affective states identified by Waitz, which refer to affective processes that relate to specific representational contents, namely, intellectual, aesthetic, and moral feelings. In conclusion, I emphasize the genealogical link between Waitz's pioneering research on musical feelings and current research on emotion and expectation in music. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Geopolitical perspectives in Spain: from the Iberismo of the 19th century to the Hispanoamericanismo of the 20th

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Rodríguez-Esteban

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available The changes which took place in the balance of power in Europe in the last thirty years of the 19th century, together with the process of colonial expansion and partition, led Spanish geographers to see the need to combine the territorial projects and interests of Spain and Portugal with the aim of defending what remained of their colonial empires, coveted by English-speaking countries. This gave new life to a school of thought known as "Iberismo", which now extended to include France in the formula of a "triple alliance of the South" based on the common interests of Latin countries. The failure of both attempts at rapprochement gave rise to these ideas being transferred, by the beginning of the 20th century, to the Spanish-speaking countries of America. Iberismo was to become "Hispano-Americanismo", and the defence of strategic and material interests was to begin with a reaffirmation of the moral and spiritual qualities of peoples sharing common roots and a common language. Ideas and arguments along these lines were then developed on both sides of the Atlantic, crossing boundaries into other spheres of intellectual activity.

  12. Medical and Social Aspects of Syphilis in the Balkans from the mid-19th Century to the Interwar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiamis, Costas; Vrioni, Georgia; Poulakou-Rebelakou, Effie; Gennimata, Vasiliki; Murdjeva, Mariana А; Tsakris, Athanasios

    2016-03-01

    The current study presents some aspects of syphilis in the Balkan Peninsula from the 19th century until the Interwar. Ever since the birth of modern Balkan States (Greece, Bulgaria, Turkey and Serbia), urbanization, poverty and the frequent wars have been considered the major factors conducive to the spread of syphilis. The measures against sex work and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) were taken in two aspects, one medical and the other legislative. In this period, numerous hospitals for venereal diseases were established in the Balkan countries. In line with the international diagnostic approach and therapeutic standards, laboratory examinations in these Balkan hospitals included spirochete examination, Wassermann reaction, precipitation reaction and cerebrospinal fluid examination. Despite the strict legislation and the adoption of relevant laws against illegal sex work, public health services were unable to curb the spread of syphilis. Medical and social factors such as poverty, citizen's ignorance of STDs, misguided medical perceptions, lack of sanitary control of prostitution and epidemiological studies, are highlighted in this study. These factors were the major causes that helped syphilis spread in the Balkan countries during the 19th and early 20th century. The value of these aspects as a historic paradigm is diachronic. Failure to comply with the laws and the dysfunction of public services during periods of war or socioeconomic crises are both factors facilitating the spread of STDs.

  13. THE POPULATION AND TRANSFORMATION FEAUTURES OF NATURAL LANDSCAPES OF THE UPPER PECHORA IN THE 15TH – 19TH CENTURIES

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    А. A. Aleynikov

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Traditional nature management is a significant factor of forming modern landscapes. International literature holds huge amounts of material on different aspects of nature management history. In Russia this theme is not properly studied despite the fact that general theoretical concepts and verbal reconstructions of potential ecosystem cover have been developed. The forests in the Upper Pechora basin are part of a large intact forest landscape along the Western macroslope of the Northern Urals. Compared to Southern and Western areas the Upper Pechora became inhabited by Russians only in the early 19th century. Earlier there were only two population centers: Ust-Volosnitsa and Ust-Pozheg. The analysis of ethnographic literature shows that before the Russian colonization the Upper Pechora basin belonged to the Voguls (Mansi from the 12th century. The economic complex of Voguls is attributed by researchers to the type of semi-settled taiga hunters and fishermen with rudiments of reindeer breeding. This type is widespread in the northern latitudes. Hunting, fishing and reindeer breeding were the main occupations of Voguls for many centuries. Berry-gathering and gathering of cedar pine nuts were of secondary importance. Hunting and reindeer breeding had the greatest ecological significance in the transformation of the natural environment of the Upper Pechora basin.

  14. The "Abyssal Society". François-Alphonse Forel and the Case of Deep Fauna in Late 19th Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campanella, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Ichthyological investigations and technological advancements, such as the laying of submarine telegraph cables, promoted new dredging methods in the second half of the 19th century. In contrast to the idea of a lifeless deep ocean (Edward Forbes' azoic hypothesis), the discovery of deep water fauna and the challenge of defining its systematics opened up new theoretical perspectives. In this frame, which was already marked by the impact of Darwin's theory, naturalistic surveys in freshwater environments in western Switzerland intertwined with those of oceanographic expeditions. The study of the fauna in the depths of subalpine lakes by the Swiss savant François-Alphonse Forel was one of the most striking examples of this turning point, because the relatively recently evolution of its freshwater fauna allowed him to investigate: (a) the role of isolation, (b) the progressive differentiation of species from a common ancestor, and (c) the constitution of a species-specific category in form transition, from a genealogical viewpoint to an ecological one.

  15. The Black Cholera Comes to the Central Valley of America in the 19th Century - 1832, 1849, and Later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Walter J.

    2008-01-01

    In mid-19th Century, cholera was epidemic throughout the world. Small towns of the American Midwest were not spared. The disease was blamed on miasmas arising from local causes, so flight from affected localities were logical and common. Flight, added to mortality, caused virtual depopulation of many small towns. Drinking water was drawn from rivers or shallow wells, often near seeping cesspools. Local merchants tried unsuccessfully to calm panic by suppressing information. Cholera was not good for business. Business was depressed. Organized religion thrived. National and state days of prayer were appointed to appease an angry God. During these frightening times, the people learned nothing about the infectiousness of cholera or about its prevention through sanitation. Their experiences tended to reinforce their belief in miasmas or divine retribution. The great epidemics of mankind describe human behavior in times of unavoidable and incurable crisis. Nineteenth Century cholera experiences illustrate a people's reaction to catastrophic disease, which they believed was incurable and unpreventable. PMID:18596846

  16. Amazonian Brazilian medicinal plants described by C.F.P. von Martius in the 19th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitbach, Ulrike B; Niehues, Michael; Lopes, Norberto P; Faria, Jair E Q; Brandão, Maria G L

    2013-05-02

    Information regarding the use of beneficial, native Brazilian plants was compiled by European naturalists during the 19th century. The German botanist C.F.P. von Martius was one of the most prominent naturalists and described the use of several Brazilian plants. To present data on Amazonian medicinal plants documented by von Martius in his books. Data on Amazonian medicinal plants were obtained from three books published by von Martius. Traditional information about these plants was translated from Latin and the cited plant species reorganised according to current taxonomic criteria. Correlated pharmacological studies were obtained from different scientific databases. A total of 92 native medicinal species from the Amazon were recorded in von Martius' books. These accounts described 117 different medical uses for these plants. Several parts of the plants were used, including many exudates. The principal use of the species recorded was the treatment of dermatological problems, followed by gastro-intestinal, urinary and respiratory disorders. Few species were recorded as purgatives and febrifuges, a result that differs from the observations of other naturalists. The efficacy of the recorded traditional uses has been confirmed for the few species that have been subjected to laboratory studies. The data recorded by the German naturalist von Martius represent a rich, unexplored source of information about the traditional uses of Brazilian plants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The birth of sexual medicine: Paolo Mantegazza as pioneer of sexual medicine in the 19th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigusch, Volkmar

    2008-01-01

    It is generally assumed that modern sexual medicine was founded by German psychiatrists and dermatologists. Fequently mentioned are, for example, Richard von Krafft-Ebing and Iwan Bloch. History of modern sexual medicine began, indeed, decades earlier so that nowadays we look back over 150 years-not 100 years-of research, praxis, and teaching. AIM; The goal of this report is an acknowledgement of the achievements of the Italian professor of pathology and anthropology, Paolo Mantegazza (1831-1910). In several European countries, literary historical studies about the history of sexual science and sexual medicine have been conducted for over more than 30 years. It became evident that Paolo Mantegazza possesses already the whole width of modern sexual-medical activities, from laboratory experiments to cultural-critical and ethnological studies. Curiously enough, his books, translated in many languages, were almost completely forgotten after his death. Modern sexual medicine originates in the second half of the 19th century, decades before the studies of Albert Moll, Havelock Ellis, Sigmund Freud, Iwan Bloch, or Magnus Hirschfeld. But its present name was coined generally only three or four researcher generations later.

  18. [An unrivalled physician? Family strategies for child care in the late 19th century South Tyrolean countryside].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unterkircher, Alois

    2012-01-01

    Who was responsible for the treatment of sick children in the countryside during the second half of the 19th century? This paper investigates the medical complaint accusing the rural population of only reluctantly bringing their sick offspring to academic physicians. The following analyses the role Franz v. Ottenthal (1818-1899), a 'representative' of a private rural medical practice, played in the specialised medical market attending to childhood diseases. An exemplary survey of Ottenthal's medical records for patients from the age of one to 14 years throughout the 1890s has shown that children contributed a relevant percentage of the whole of the physician's patient distribution. It may therefore be assumed that Ottenthal knew how to successfully merchandise his specific therapies. On the demand side, however, parents of sick children were not solely reliant upon this physician. Evidence from the medical records provides information as to when parents regarded medical self-help as no longer supporting the recovery of their children, the cures of lay healers failed, or cases when parents were not satisfied with the therapeutic treatments other physicians had to offer and therefore consulted Ottenthal.

  19. Medical and Social Aspects of Syphilis in the Balkans from the mid-19th Century to the Interwar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsiamis Costas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The current study presents some aspects of syphilis in the Balkan Peninsula from the 19th century until the Interwar. Ever since the birth of modern Balkan States (Greece, Bulgaria, Turkey and Serbia, urbanization, poverty and the frequent wars have been considered the major factors conducive to the spread of syphilis. The measures against sex work and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs were taken in two aspects, one medical and the other legislative. In this period, numerous hospitals for venereal diseases were established in the Balkan countries. In line with the international diagnostic approach and therapeutic standards, laboratory examinations in these Balkan hospitals included spirochete examination, Wassermann reaction, precipitation reaction and cerebrospinal fluid examination. Despite the strict legislation and the adoption of relevant laws against illegal sex work, public health services were unable to curb the spread of syphilis. Medical and social factors such as poverty, citizen’s ignorance of STDs, misguided medical perceptions, lack of sanitary control of prostitution and epidemiological studies, are highlighted in this study. These factors were the major causes that helped syphilis spread in the Balkan countries during the 19th and early 20th century. The value of these aspects as a historic paradigm is diachronic. Failure to comply with the laws and the dysfunction of public services during periods of war or socioeconomic crises are both factors facilitating the spread of STDs.

  20. (Re)Constructions of Etymology of the Term "Electricity" in French German and Modern Greek Textbooks of Physics of 18th-19th Centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patsopoulos, Dimitrios

    2005-01-01

    The different and contrasting versions of the etymology of the term "electricity" in Modern Greek textbooks of Physics of the 18th and 19th century, which are influenced by French and German textbooks, are not mere (re)constructions that serve the didactic purposes and objectives of their authors. They are (in)directly related to the social and…

  1. Advertising as a socio-cultural institution in the life of Russian society during the second half of the 19th century

    OpenAIRE

    Sergei Galanin

    2014-01-01

    The paper argues that advertising, and the first newspaper in the second half of the 19th century became an important part of the life of Russian society. The article considers the questions of the relation to advertising, its place in the economic life of Russia, its general characteristics of both the creators and consumers of advertising.

  2. With the best intentions. Wax-resin lining of Danish Golden Age paintings (early 19th century) on canvas and changed response to RH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Cecil K.; Mecklenburg, Marion F.; Scharff, Mikkel

    2014-01-01

    Wax-resin lining treatments in the 20th century were chosen specifically for many of the 19th century Danish Golden Age paintings on canvas to counteract their suspected response to moisture. This is a study of the response of painting samples and mock-ups to changing relative humidity (RH) before...

  3. Bookreview Food supply, demand and trade: aspects of the economic relationship between town and countryside (Middle Ages – 19th century)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curtis, D.R.

    Piet van Cruyningen and Erik Thoen, eds., Food supply, demand and trade: aspects of the economic relationship between town and countryside (middle ages–19th century) (Turnhout: Brepols, 2012). Pp. x + 245. 48 figs. 27 tabs. ISBN 9782503512839 Pbk. €69)

  4. The Restoration of Paintings at the Imperial Hermitage (Saint-Petersburg at the Beginning of the 19th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariam Nikogosyan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Le début du XIXe siècle fut une période charnière pour l’histoire de la formation des restaurateurs en Russie. F.K. Labensky, conservateur de la Galerie de l’Ermitage de 1797 à 1850, met en place un atelier de restauration avec un personnel permanent, travaillant sur la collection de la peinture impériale. Assistant de Labensky, restaurateur A.F. Mitrokhine, apprend toutes les techniques connues de restauration mécanique - doublage, parquetage et même transposition des peintures, - et les développe. Une école spéciale est créée près de l’atelier de l'Ermitage à 1819, supervisé par Mitrokhine, ou les jeunes diplômés de l'Académie impériale de l'Art se familiarise à la fois avec la restauration mécanique et picturale des peintures. Les apprentis de l'école de Mitrokhine transmettent ensuite ses techniques à la prochaine génération de restaurateurs de l’Ermitage.The beginning of the 19th century was a period of formation of restoration school in Russia. F.K.Labensky, Curator of the Hermitage Picture Gallery from 1797 onwards till 1850, arranged a restoration studio with a permanent staff working on Imperial painting collection.  Labensky’s assistant, a restorer A.F. Mitrokhin learned all known techniques of mechanical restoration – relining, cradling and even transfer of paintings, - and developed them on his own. A special school was established by the Hermitage studio in 1819, supervised by Mitrokhin, were young graduates of Imperial Academy of Art were taught both mechanical and painting restoration. The apprentices of Mitrokhin school passed his techniques to next generation of Hermitage restorers.

  5. Two intense decades of 19th century whaling precipitated rapid decline of right whales around New Zealand and East Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Emma L; Jackson, Jennifer A; Paton, David; Smith, Tim D

    2014-01-01

    Right whales (Eubalaena spp.) were the focus of worldwide whaling activities from the 16th to the 20th century. During the first part of the 19th century, the southern right whale (E. australis) was heavily exploited on whaling grounds around New Zealand (NZ) and east Australia (EA). Here we build upon previous estimates of the total catch of NZ and EA right whales by improving and combining estimates from four different fisheries. Two fisheries have previously been considered: shore-based whaling in bays and ship-based whaling offshore. These were both improved by comparison with primary sources and the American offshore whaling catch record was improved by using a sample of logbooks to produce a more accurate catch record in terms of location and species composition. Two fisheries had not been previously integrated into the NZ and EA catch series: ship-based whaling in bays and whaling in the 20th century. To investigate the previously unaddressed problem of offshore whalers operating in bays, we identified a subset of vessels likely to be operating in bays and read available extant logbooks. This allowed us to estimate the total likely catch from bay-whaling by offshore whalers from the number of vessels seasons and whales killed per season: it ranged from 2,989 to 4,652 whales. The revised total estimate of 53,000 to 58,000 southern right whales killed is a considerable increase on the previous estimate of 26,000, partly because it applies fishery-specific estimates of struck and loss rates. Over 80% of kills were taken between 1830 and 1849, indicating a brief and intensive fishery that resulted in the commercial extinction of southern right whales in NZ and EA in just two decades. This conforms to the global trend of increasingly intense and destructive southern right whale fisheries over time.

  6. Climate of migration? How climate triggered migration from southwest Germany to North America during the 19th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Glaser

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper contributes to the ongoing debate on the extent to which climate and climatic change can have a negative impact on societies by triggering migration, or even contribute to conflict. It summarizes results from the transdisciplinary project Climate of migration (funded 2010–2014, whose innovative title was created by Franz Mauelshagen and Uwe Lübken. The overall goal of this project was to analyze the relation between climatic and socioeconomic parameters and major migration waves from southwest Germany to North America during the 19th century. The article assesses the extent to which climatic conditions triggered these migration waves. The century investigated was in general characterized by the Little Ice Age with three distinct cooling periods, causing major glacier advances in the alpine regions and numerous climatic extremes such as major floods, droughts and severe winter. Societal changes were tremendous, marked by the warfare during the Napoleonic era (until 1815, the abolition of serfdom (1817, the bourgeois revolution (1847/48, economic freedom (1862, the beginning of industrialization accompanied by large-scale rural–urban migration resulting in urban poverty, and finally by the foundation of the German Empire in 1871.The presented study is based on quantitative data and a qualitative, information-based discourse analysis. It considers climatic conditions as well as socioeconomic and political issues, leading to the hypothesis of a chain of effects ranging from unfavorable climatic conditions to a decrease in crop yields to rising cereal prices and finally to emigration. These circumstances were investigated extensively for the peak emigration years identified with each migration wave. Furthermore, the long-term relations between emigration and the prevailing climatic conditions, crop yields and cereal prices were statistically evaluated with a sequence of linear models which were significant with explanatory power

  7. Savings: alternative for the purchase of manumission in Brazil (2nd half of the 19th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grinberg, Keila

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to discuss the relationship between slaves and their descendants and the monetary economy of Brazil in the second half of the 19th century. Focusing on the Caixa Econômica savings accounts of slaves, we argue that saving money was one of the strategies used to purchase manumission for themselves and their family, mainly after the Law of the Free Womb was enacted in 1871.Este artículo tiene por objeto discutir la relación entre los esclavos y sus descendientes y la economía monetaria en el Brasil en la segunda mitad del siglo XIX. Abordando principalmente las cartillas de ahorro de cautivos de la Caixa Econômica, se pretende argumentar que el ahorro fue una de las estrategias de compra de la manumisión para sí y sus familiares, principalmente a partir de la promulgación de la Ley del Vientre Libre en 1871. [pt] Este artigo tem por objetivo discutir a relação entre os escravos e seus descendentes e a economia monetária no Brasil na segunda metade do século XIX. Abordando principalmente as cadernetas de poupança de cativos da Caixa Econômica, pretende-se argumentar que a poupança foi uma das estratégias de compra de alforria para si próprios e seus familiares, principalmente a partir da promulgação da Lei do Ventre Livre em 1871.

  8. Paleontology and Darwin's Theory of Evolution: The Subversive Role of Statistics at the End of the 19th Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamborini, Marco

    2015-11-01

    This paper examines the subversive role of statistics paleontology at the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th centuries. In particular, I will focus on German paleontology and its relationship with statistics. I argue that in paleontology, the quantitative method was questioned and strongly limited by the first decade of the 20th century because, as its opponents noted, when the fossil record is treated statistically, it was found to generate results openly in conflict with the Darwinian theory of evolution. Essentially, statistics questions the gradual mode of evolution and the role of natural selection. The main objections to statistics were addressed during the meetings at the Kaiserlich-Königliche Geologische Reichsanstalt in Vienna in the 1880s. After having introduced the statistical treatment of the fossil record, I will use the works of Charles Léo Lesquereux (1806-1889), Joachim Barrande (1799-1833), and Henry Shaler Williams (1847-1918) to compare the objections raised in Vienna with how the statistical treatment of the data worked in practice. Furthermore, I will discuss the criticisms of Melchior Neumayr (1845-1890), one of the leading German opponents of statistical paleontology, to show why, and to what extent, statistics were questioned in Vienna. The final part of this paper considers what paleontologists can derive from a statistical notion of data: the necessity of opening a discussion about the completeness and nature of the paleontological data. The Vienna discussion about which method paleontologists should follow offers an interesting case study in order to understand the epistemic tensions within paleontology surrounding Darwin's theory as well as the variety of non-Darwinian alternatives that emerged from the statistical treatment of the fossil record at the end of the 19th century.

  9. Climate of migration? How climate triggered migration from southwest Germany to North America during the 19th century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Rüdiger; Himmelsbach, Iso; Bösmeier, Annette

    2017-11-01

    This paper contributes to the ongoing debate on the extent to which climate and climatic change can have a negative impact on societies by triggering migration, or even contribute to conflict. It summarizes results from the transdisciplinary project Climate of migration (funded 2010-2014), whose innovative title was created by Franz Mauelshagen and Uwe Lübken. The overall goal of this project was to analyze the relation between climatic and socioeconomic parameters and major migration waves from southwest Germany to North America during the 19th century. The article assesses the extent to which climatic conditions triggered these migration waves. The century investigated was in general characterized by the Little Ice Age with three distinct cooling periods, causing major glacier advances in the alpine regions and numerous climatic extremes such as major floods, droughts and severe winter. Societal changes were tremendous, marked by the warfare during the Napoleonic era (until 1815), the abolition of serfdom (1817), the bourgeois revolution (1847/48), economic freedom (1862), the beginning of industrialization accompanied by large-scale rural-urban migration resulting in urban poverty, and finally by the foundation of the German Empire in 1871.The presented study is based on quantitative data and a qualitative, information-based discourse analysis. It considers climatic conditions as well as socioeconomic and political issues, leading to the hypothesis of a chain of effects ranging from unfavorable climatic conditions to a decrease in crop yields to rising cereal prices and finally to emigration. These circumstances were investigated extensively for the peak emigration years identified with each migration wave. Furthermore, the long-term relations between emigration and the prevailing climatic conditions, crop yields and cereal prices were statistically evaluated with a sequence of linear models which were significant with explanatory power between 22 and 38 %.

  10. Aspects of the History of Twin Research: Statistical Congresses in the 19th Century and Hellin's Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellman, Johan

    2018-02-01

    In the 19th century, a series of international statistical congresses began that were important for population studies, including twin research. The introduction of common rules for the national demographic registers enabled scientists to contribute to the genesis of statistical research. The congress in St. Petersburg in 1872, in particular, focused on the movements of the population, and how they should be registered. Among the facts to be recorded were in multiple births, the sex and number of children born alive or still-born, whether legitimate or illegitimate, and the age of the mother at the date of the births. During the history of twin research, Hellin's law has played a central role because it is an approximately correct association between the rates of multiple maternities. It has been mathematically proven that Hellin's law does not hold as a general rule. Analyses show divergences from the law that are difficult to explain and/or eliminate. Varying improvements of this law have been proposed. The majority of all studies of Hellin's law are based on empirical rates of multiple maternities, ignoring random errors. Such studies can never confirm the law, but only identify errors with respect to Hellin's law that are too large to be characterized as random. It is of particular interest to note and explain why the rates of higher multiple maternities are sometimes too high or too low when Hellin's law is used as a benchmark. Studies have shown that there were investigators before Hellin who have contributed substantially to Hellin's law. In this article, we re-examine some old data sets and contributions in which Hellin's law has been evaluated and also analyze recent data.

  11. The Impacts of Advancing Glaciers and Jökulhlaups on the 19th Century Farming Community in the Suðursveit District South of Vatnajökull Glacier, Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurmundsson, F. S.; Gísladóttir, G.; Erlendsson, E.

    2014-12-01

    Few areas in Iceland were as vulnerable to climate changes during the 19th century as the region south of Vatnajökull glacier. The region was repeatedly affected by glacier advance and jökulhlaups (glacier outburst floods) during the Little Ice Age AD 1300-1900 (LIA). The land area between the glacier and the coast was occupied by farming community. The aim of this research is to quantify and map the size of lost vegetated area in the 19th century during the glacial advance in the climax of the LIA and the impact these events had on the community, land-use, ownership, value of estates and livelihood. This research employs historical written sources to investigate changes in the cultural and natural landscape. Historical data and field observations will be collected and stored in a GIS database designed for the research, allowing data to be analyzed and presented on maps. The first recorded impact on the settlement is from 1794 when the Breiðármerkurjökull outlet glacier advanced and devastated pastures and crofts belonging in west of the district. Seventy five years later, in 1868, the largest estate was completely destroyed by a jökulhlaup. In 1829 a farm site in the middle of the district was moved due to repeated jökulhlaup. The outlet glacier Brókarjökull initiated annual jökulhlaups during 1820 -1870, devastating pastures and hayfields and woodlands of a total of 3 prominent estates in the area (by 1200 ha), causing devaluation of 33-66% on these estates. In the eastern part extensive jökulhlaups changed the glacial river channel causing the river to flow over vast area devastating 80 % of the eastern most estate causing its abandonment in 1892. The climate change and accompanied hazards during the 19th century changed the landscape of the Suðursveit district significantly. By the turn of the 20thcentury the vegetated land in the district had been reduced by 35% and areas of sediments increased by 25% and glaciated area increased by 10%. These

  12. Social and Health Care Access for the Physically Disabled in 19th Century French-Speaking Switzerland : A Double Process of Exclusion and Integration

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    Kaba, Mariama

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available During the 19th century, an unprecedented process of medicalisation and institutionalisation took place in Europe. The parallel development of urbanised and industrialised areas furthered the densification of a network of care institutions such as infirmaries and dispensaries, whilst medical tourism was developed among the upper classes stimulating the founding of new private clinics. A more institutional kind of care structure for people suffering from a disability also emerged. This medical and/or social care structure was part of a process of integration or exclusion, according to whether the disabled person’s state of health was likely to improve or not. This paper will focus on physically disabled persons, who were vaguely referred to as invalids or as “incurable” in 19th century institutional documents. Being mainly interested in French-speaking Switzerland, I will present the access to social and health care in the cantons of Geneva, Vaud and Neuchâtel.

  13. Policy commercializing nonprofits in health: the history of a paradox from the 19th century to the ACA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Daniel M

    2015-03-01

    the health sector since the late 19th century remains influential in health policy, especially for the allocation of resources. However, aspects of the implementation of the ACA may constrain some of the effects of the paradox. © 2015 Milbank Memorial Fund.

  14. Contemporary criticism on the representation of female travellers of the Ottoman harem in the 19th century: A review

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    Aimillia Mohd. Ramli

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US KO AR-SA /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi; mso-ansi-language:EN-US; mso-fareast-language:EN-US;} A common problem that needs addressing in the study of narratives concerning the Orient and the Ottoman harem in the 19th century, through an emphasis on gender, is the popular belief amongst certain groups in post-colonial and feminist scholarships that writings by women on these subjects are the alternative to hegemonic imperial discourse. Post-colonial and feminist critics whose research deals with women travel writers to the Middle East and North Africa—Sara Mills, Reina Lewis, Billie Melman, Susan Meyer and Shirley Foster—have all argued that since women were not directly involved in the imperial project, their writings on the Orient and the Ottoman harem should be considered as articulating alternative views in colonial narratives. One of the aims of this paper is to present evidence that suggests that narratives by women, as well as those by men, did not necessarily bear a counter-hegemonic imprint. It argues that in most cases, they display, through the attention to gender and race in relation to the Orient and the Ottoman harem, ambivalences that neither completely support nor subvert the imperialist subject.

  15. Catholic proselytism on the territories of Constantinople Patriarchy in the second half of the 19th century (the case of the Greek-Bulgarian church contradictions

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    Venediktov Vadim Yuriyevich

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The author of the article analyzes the church conflicts between Greeks and Bulgarians in the second half of the 19th century. We can see a very sad picture how the two antagonistic orthodox communities of Constantinople Patriarchy separate from each other. The author bases on the documents from the Russian State Library Fund of Manuscripts and Archive of Foreign Policy of the Russian Empire. The church conflict ended with schism of 1872 and gave stimulus for Catholic proselytism.

  16. How “beneficial” virus of popular education “contaminated” Sardinia island, in the first half of the 19th century

    OpenAIRE

    Pruneri, Fabio

    2009-01-01

    Popular education has played an important role in order to build the national Italian identity. Many researchers show that, after unification of Italy (1861), the government paid attention to primary schools: teachers not only taught reading, writing and calculating but also spread new values such as patriotism, positivism, rationalism. The aim of my paper is to study this kind of schools in the first half of 19th century, when Italy was shared in many States, everyone wit...

  17. The War which was not:Russian, Turkish and Western Historiography on the North-Western Caucasus of the 19th Century

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    Veronika V. Tsibenko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper we analysed in a historical perspective the formation of the key concepts concerning the military actions in the North-Western Caucasus of the 19th century in Russian, Turkish and Western historiography. We didn't set before ourselves the task to find out, “what really happened in the western North Caucasus”, but rather how actually “what happened in the western North Caucasus” is interpreted in different historiographical traditions. Our study has shown that Russian, Turkish and Western historiography on the North-Western Caucasus of the 19th century so strongly depends on local traditions that we can say about three separate historiographies. Current situation is noticeable for the development of Circassian ‘auto-historiography’ which is characterised by ethnocentrism and victimisation due to the trends of counter-history. In spite of interaction between Russian, Turkish and Western historiographies, each of them was formed according to own logic of development. Thus, the misunderstandings in the terminology on the North-Western Caucasus of the 19th century (in particular, with the term ‘Caucasian War’ lean on the differences of historiographical traditions leading to the conflicts of interpretations.

  18. The Ghost-Image on Metropolitan Borders—In Terms of Phantom of the Opera and 19th-Century Metropolis Paris

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    Changnam Lee

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews Gaston Leroux’s Phantom of the Opera in the context of the social and cultural changes of the metropolis Paris at the end of the 19th century. The Phantom of the Opera, a success in the literary world and widely proliferated in its musical and film renditions afterward, is considered and interpreted mainly in the literary and artistic tradition. In this paper, however, this work will be considered from an urban sociological perspective, especially from that of Walter Benjamin, who developed the theory of the urban culture, focusing on the dreaming collectives at the end of the 19th century. Leroux’s novel can be regarded as an exemplary social form of the collective dreams of the period expressed in arts, architectures, popular stories and films and other popular arts. Given the premise that the dream images in the novel, so-called kitsch, reflect the fears and desires of the bourgeois middle class that were pathologized in the figure of the ghost, this paper reveals the cultural, social and transnational implications of the Ghost-Image in relation to the rapidly changing borders of the 19th century metropolis.

  19. The role of accounting in the industrialization efforts of the Ottoman Empire in the 19th century

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    Batuhan Güvemli

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available When the need for industrialization surfaced in the 19th century, Ottoman Empire aimed to establish state-led, profit-oriented enterprises after the Imperial Edict of 1839, which is also known as Tanzimat. Experienced accountants of the state tried to do the investment calculations of an iron factory in the 1840s (Istanbul by benefiting from the merdiban accounting method, which was initially developed to record the revenues and expenditures of the state. This study contributes to the relevant literature by analyzing the adequacy of this statist-centralist accounting method within a profit-oriented environment and its role in this failed attempt towards industrialization. Merdiban allows the separation of investments as actual construction, still projected and shows the payment status of investments in details. As one of the first profit oriented investment project in the history of the Ottoman Empire, accountants mislead critical pieces of information like plans for procurement of raw materials, projected sales, payback time, capacity and depreciation. Findings indicate that neither accountants nor the method were ready to operate in a for-profit organization, eventually resulting diminish of this old accounting method in 1879. Cuando en el siglo XIX surgió la necesidad de la industrialización, el Imperio Otomano se propuso establecer empresas dirigidas por el estado y con fines de lucro después del Edicto Imperial de 1839, también conocido como Tanzimat. Contadores experimentados del estado intentaron hacer los cálculos de inversión de una fábrica de hierro en la década de 1840 (Estambul al beneficiarse del método de contabilidad merdiban, que se desarrolló inicialmente para registrar los ingresos y los gastos del estado. Este estudio contribuye a la literatura relevante mediante el análisis de la adecuación de este método de contabilidad estatista-centralista dentro de un entorno orientado a los beneficios y su papel en este

  20. The institutions forming the socioeconomic structure of Turkish private enterprises between the 13th and the 19th centuries

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    Mehmet Özbirecikli

    2015-04-01

    principios éticos de la vida empresarial, en esencia, son los mismos. Dentro de este contexto, nos atrevemos a sugerir que las raíces del código ético de la vida empresarial turca se retrotraen en la historia a hace más de 800 años. Además, la similitud entre el funcionamiento presente y pasado indica que el origen de la formación de los aprendices para las empresas turcas tiene, igualmente, más de 800 años de historia.This study investigates three institutions forming the socioeconomic structure of Turkish private enterprises between the 13th and 19th Centuries: Akhism (13th-16th century, the Lonca System (the Guilds (16th-18th century, and the Gedik (Monopoly System (18th-20th century. The study particularly focuses on the social and economic rules, vocational training process, and organizational structure of the said institutions in order to discuss the effects of the socioeconomic structure of Turkish enterprises on economic and social development of private enterprises. The study also struggles to link between the relevant current applications and the applications in the past such as the social rules and vocational training. From economic point of view, both the statist structure of the State and the economic rules of the institutions herein caused private enterprises to remain small, and prevented them from having a competitive environment and having capital accumulation. As a result, enterprises could not benefit from new production techniques and the Turkish enterprise mentality fell behind modern developments On the other hand, although these three systems were completely abolished in the early 20th Century, it is seen that especially traces of the Akhism and Lonca systems have still been surviving. Both the most of rules of Akhism and some of the duties of the board of directors of Lonca such as keeping moral standards of production and trade remind us of professional code of ethics of today's modern business life. In other saying, there was code of

  1. Self-portrait of a city. City and Architecture in Bologna in the maps between the 18th and 19th centuries

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    Gabriele Bitelli

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The plan, being project tool and representation at the same time, allows an understanding, by means of ancient cartography, of the ancient city as an entity with its own identity connotation, whose definition derives mainly from the clarity of the construction rule which permitted its realization. The present study analyzes the main theoretical and technical questions which concern the urban architecture of Bologna between the 18th and 19th centuries, by means of historical maps and in particular the Gregorian Cadastre.

  2. THE MIGRATION OF EUROPEANS TO THE UNITED STATES AT THE MIDDLE OF THE 19TH CENTURY – THE IRISH AND GERMAN WAVE

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    Sorin-Stefan Maha

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the contribution of the second wave of immigrants to the United States to the formation of the young American people. Unlike other states, the USA is a nation founded on waves of immigrants coming from different parts of the world. This paper includes the second wave of immigrants in US history in the four waves and presents the migration of the Irish and Germans to the USA at the middle of the 19th century. They had an important contribution to the increase of American population and were a source of consumption and workforce for agriculture and various industries.

  3. Look What We Got! How Inherited Data Drives Decision-Making: UNC-Chapel Hill’s 19th-Century American Sheet Music Collection

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    Renée McBride

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Have you inherited a digital collection containing valuable, but inconsistent metadata? And wondered how to transform it into a usable, quality resource while accepting that it can’t meet your idea of perfection? This article describes such an experience at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill University Library with its CONTENTdm-based 19th-Century American Sheet Music Collection, addressing issues such as field construction, the use of controlled vocabularies, development of a project data dictionary, and metadata clean-up.

  4. The Absolutist Reformism: Projects of Political Reforms in Russia (2nd half of 18th century – 1st quarter of 19th century

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    Konstantin D. Bugrov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the phenomenon of absolutist reformism – a form of political culture that chronologically spans from the mid-18th century to 19th century, and is determined by both communicative context (genre, pragmatic purpose, and the social and political status of its participants, the members of court-administrative elite. The author argues that the principal reformers, who belonged to the court and administrative elite of Russian Empire, were competing with each other, and the reform proposals allowed the competitors to simultaneously improve their own positions within the structure of state governance and enact the absolute power of the monarch to bring the reform forth. However, that meant that the monarch was appearing in the reform proposals as an omnipotent arbiter capable of creating the social and political institutions by his will. Consequently, these reform proposals – starting from the early projects of the 1750es – 1760es, and finishing with the intense production of reform plans under Alexander I – were aimed at increasing the power of monarch, assuring its benevolent character, and protecting it from the potential usurpation from the inside of the bureaucratic apparatus. This logic of argumentation, which places the monarch against the bureaucracy, was to flourish later on in Russian 19th century.

  5. By their words ye shall know them: evidence of genetic selection against general intelligence and concurrent environmental enrichment in vocabulary usage since the mid 19th century

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    Michael Anthony Woodley of Menie

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available It has been theorized that declines in g due to negative selection stemming from the inverse association between completed fertility and IQ, and the Flynn effect co-occur, with the effects of the latter being concentrated on less-heritable non-g sources of intelligence variance. Evidence for this comes from the observation that 19th Century populations were more intellectually productive, and also exhibited faster simple reaction times than modern ones, suggesting higher g. This co-occurrence model is tested via examination of historical changes in the utilization frequencies of words from the highly g-loaded WORDSUM test across 5.9 million texts spanning 1850 to 2005. Consistent with predictions, words with higher difficulties (δ parameters from Item Response Theory and stronger negative correlations between pass-rates and completed fertility presented a steeper decline in use over time, than less difficult and less negatively selected words, which increased in use over time, suggestive of a Flynn effect. These findings persisted when explicitly controlled for word age, literacy rates and temporal autocorrelation. These trends constitute compelling evidence that both producers and consumers of text have experienced declines in g since the mid-19th Century.

  6. [The mind on the stage of justice: the formation of criminal psychology in the 19th century and its interdisciplinary research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vec, Milos

    2007-09-01

    Criminal psychology emerges at the end of the 18th century as a new academic discipline in lectures and publications. It has recently been investigated by a considerable number of contributions from researchers of different academic backgrounds. In many respects criminal psychology can be seen as a predecessor of criminology. Its subject is the analysis of the origins of crime and its causes and determinants in the human mind. Criminal psychology embraced at that time philosophical, medical, legal and biological aspects. The latter increase in importance in the second half of the 19th century. The conditions of individual responsibility were generally codified in penal law, but had to be individually investigated in crucial cases through expertise in court. There a conflict emerged between medical experts and judges about their ability and competence to decide. At the end of the 19th century criminal psychology is used to fulfil the needs and interests of a criminal law which understands itself as increasingly utilitarian. Force and new instruments of treatment of offenders were legitimized by scientists who were very optimistic about their own epistemological abilities.

  7. The Uses of the Juridical System: Rhetoric and Violence in a Claim for Communal Lands. Amaicha Del Valle, 19 th Century

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    Lorena B. Rodríguez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the late colonial period and throughout the 19 th century, the indigenous people of the community of Amaicha del Valle led several lawsuits and deployed various strategies to defend their communal lands. The aim of this paper is to analyze, from an anthropological and historical perspective, the responses implemented by the community in the dispute with different actors (state, private, etc.. To this end, we use a series of unpublished documents from the Historic Archive of Tucumán, that refer to the conflict around the lands of Calchaqui valley. In general, we seek to characterize not only the socio-economic and ethnic dynamics experienced by the different indigenous peoples of the NOA during the 19 th century and to provide new data to the discussions focused on national and provincial state formations. We also intend to understand the phenomenon of ethnic de-characterization on which the nation was built, thus framing the current ethnic re-emergence that has recently taken place in our country.

  8. STRUCTURE OF SALT GLANDS OF PLUMBAGINACEAE. REDISCOVERING OLD FINDINGS OF THE 19th CENTURY: ‘METTENIUS’ OR ‘LICOPOLI’ ORGANS?

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    Marius Nicusor GRIGORE

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Salt (chalk glands of Plumbaginaceae represent interesting structures involved in the excretion of calcium carbonate outside plants’ organs, especially on leaves surfaces. These chalk-glands, nominated by some authors as ‘Licopoli’ or ‘Mettenius’ organs are also very important from taxonomical point of view. Their structure has been a matter of debate for decades and a historical analysis reveals that there are still some inconsistencies regarding the contributions of earlier botanists in discovering and describing chalk-glands. The present work tries to provide a picture of historical progress recorded in the 19th century related to investigation of these structures, focusing especially on the two important names usually mentioned in relation to them: Mettenius and Licopoli. In this respect, several useful clarifications are made, with emphasis on the role played by the two botanists in the stimulation of research interest for these glands among the generations of botanists to come.

  9. Die Entstehung des „Judenbildes“ in den Alltagsmedien des 19. Jahrhunderts The Formation of Antisemitic Sterotypes in Press-Media of the 19th Century

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    Ute Wrocklage

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available In der zweiten Hälfte des 19. Jahrhunderts beginnen, Illustratoren und Zeichner von Bildwitzen und Karikaturen das stereotype und in der Folge antisemitische Bild vom Juden herauszubilden. Es findet schnell Eingang in die illustrierten Zeitschriften und Bilderbögen der Zeit. In diesen drei untersuchten Bildmedien kennzeichnen neben der Physiognomie diskriminierende Attribute den Juden als Typus. Dieser Entwicklung und der Herausbildung der Stereotype zum antisemitischen Judenbild geht die Arbeit nach.The stereotypes of Jews are developed in visual jokes and caricatures in the second half of 19th century. Immediately they were copied in illustrated magazines and picture-sheets of that period. Within these three visual mediums some attributes characterise the Jewish figure beside its physiognomy. The book follows the stereotypes’ development and formation into the anti-Semitic picture.

  10. Imperialism, faith, and show: the participation of the Christian Churches at the colonial and international exhibitions of the 19th century

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    Luis Ángel Sánchez Gómez

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Both International and Colonial Exhibitions were the most representative examples of the economic development and the overseas expansion of the most powerful European States during the second half of the 19th century. The objective of this article is to analyze the way Christian Churches, both Catholic and Protestant, approached the organization of these events and to reexamine their channels of participation using the exhibitions that were organized in England, France, the Netherlands, Spain, Belgium, Germany and Italy as reference. We will take a look at the initial difficulties that were documented, the different ways of interpreting the expositive phenomenon among the Churches and, finally, we will examine the most important international and colonial exhibitions which had an ecclesiastic presence. We found that this participation basically involved a display of the missionary work they carried out as a way to conciliate (partially at least the interest of both the organizing States and the Churches.

  11. Changes in the utilization of wild green vegetables in Poland since the 19th century: a comparison of four ethnobotanical surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luczaj, Lukasz

    2010-03-24

    The aim of this paper is to compare the presence of wild green vegetables in four ethnobotanical questionnaires. This range of surveys offers a rich diachronic perspective, possibly unique in ethnobotany. Four archival questionnaires (by other researchers), whose results have been only partly published, were analyzed. They are Rostafiński's questionnaire of 1883-1909, the Gajek team's questionnaires of 1948-1949 and 1964-1969, and Stolicná and Kłodnicki's questionnaire of 2000-2003. Green shoots or leaves of least 58 species (belonging to 43 genera) of wild plants have been used as green vegetables or culinary herbs for nutritional purposes since the 19th century. The disappearance of wild green vegetables from the Polish diet was a gradual process, in which the sequence of disappearance of the species from diet was as follows: (1) Aegopodium & Heracleum, (2) Cirsium, Sinapis & Raphanus, (3) Urtica, (4) Chenopodium, (5) Oxalis, (6) Rumex. In Poland, within the studied time scale, there was no tradition of incorporating more than a few species of wild greens in one dish. Local people usually utilized a small number of taxa, but in large quantities, resorting to some other available species only in times of famine. The relatively low number of wild green vegetables utilized has gradually decreased to practically none, mainly due to replacement by a few cultivated vegetables. This process must have started well before the 19th century, but became most dramatic throughout the 20th century. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. [The physician between the ideal and reality: medical profession and popular attitude towards health and medicine in the 19th century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeleznik, Urska

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies the attitude of the society towards the medical profession, which was torn between high social expectations and ideals and medical practice confronted with real-life obstacles. In the 19th century, the physician's position was still precarious and called for a renegotiation in the community. Physician's work was faced with people's distrust and resistance, superstitions and prejudices, folk medicine and religion. Even such ideal qualities as dignity, conscientiousness, and courage, would quickly be called into question by events such as epidemics. Particularly in 19th century rural areas, the physician's position was far from acknowledged and official medicine had yet to win people's trust. This paper explores the polyvalent attitude of people towards medicine and health. It investigates the discourse used to describe health and medicine in daily press, professional and popular literature, as well as in official medical documents of the time. It shows a long struggle of public health care to gain people's approval. During cholera epidemics, which apart from presenting serious threat to human life were an opportunity for medicine to win people's trust and obedience, the attitude towards health gradually began to change. To some extent this was a result of medical advances, new scientific discoveries, and increasing success in abating the epidemics. At the same time, as the society became more secular, medicine slowly gained people's trust and gradually replaced the healing methods of folk medicine. Health was less and less understood as a result of God's will and mercy, and the attitude towards disease began to evolve from passive resignation to an active battle for health.

  13. Laps(epõlv 19. sajandi teise poole Eestis omaelulooliste tekstide näitel. Child(hood in 19th Century Estonia: a Study of Autobiographical Texts

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    Ave Mattheus

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article I discuss autobiographical texts which focus on children and childhood in late 19th century Estonia. Childhood memories as well as other autobiographical material became popular in Estonia in the 1920s-1930s, when most of the studied works--the memoirs by Anna Haava, Mait Metsanurk, Jaan Lattik, Jaan Vahtra, Friedebert Tuglas, August Kitzberg and Marta Sillaots--were written. Some texts come from the 19th century (e.g. Lilli Suburg’s autobiographical works or early 20th century (e.g. manuscripts by Hans Leoke, and Johannes Kõrv. Childhood as described in these autobiographical texts covers a period of circa 1850-1900, and the majority of the authors come from the families of South-Estonian peasants or manorial servants. In addition to being written in Estonian and having the same theme, they were all also written by authors of fiction for children or by people who had close contact with children, such as schoolteachers. The article offers a novel approach in the Estonian context by presenting a typology of childhood stories and looking at childhood recollections as an important part of childhood studies. The researchers of childhood investigate how society understands and values children and childhood, what children’s everyday life is like, what possibilities there are for development and if there exists a specific children’s culture in society (such as clothing, food, language, leisure activities, or independent creative work. Childhood studies as a separate discipline does not exist in Estonia, although some important works have been published by educational scholars and art historians. The autobiographical texts under discussion show that in the late 19th century, the majority of Estonian children lived in the countryside in patriarchal families, and childhood was short because children had to help their parents with farmwork quite early, at the age of six. The boundary of childhood was around the age of 10-11, when

  14. [The transformation of the dental services market and the battle over a monopoly in 19th century dental practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Cristiana Leite

    2006-01-01

    The article analyzes the process by which dentistry acquired the status of a profession. The setting is the mid-nineteenth-century United States, where the West's first professional dental organizations were founded, and the focus is on some aspects of the development of a dental market and on the professional disputes among practitioners of the dental trade, who wanted a monopoly within this field of knowledge. Certain outside factors played a major role in the emergence of the profession, including changes in patterns of sugar consumption (which spread dental caries disease throughout society) as well as the expansion of the dental service market. The subsequent proliferation of distinct groups of dental practitioners--both qualified and unqualified to practice dentistry--and their competition for a place in the dental market reflect the battle waged to establish jurisdiction in this field and the emergence of dentistry as a 'modern profession'.

  15. [The Changing Value of Mother's Milk. Feeding Premature and Sick Newborns Since the Late 19th Century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunder-Plaßmann, A

    2016-12-01

    In the 1960s/early 70s there was a widespread conviction in West Germany that mother's milk was no longer essential even for premature infants given the availability of improved industrial milk products. But today the superiority of human milk is again undisputed, and progress in neonatology has created a growing target group of extremely premature infants who show clear benefits from being fed with human milk, particularly regarding improved outcomes. Currently there is a revival of donor milk banks (FMB). Globally there are around 500, 15 in Germany. Until the 1960s, mother's milk was the preferred means of German pediatricians to counter infant mortality. During the German Empire and the Weimar Republic doctors widely recommended nursing and engaged wet nurses to meet the demand for human milk and the first donor milk banks were set up; during the Nazi regime there were dozens. The GDR continued using donor milk, while FRG milk banks were shut down in the 70s. The history of milk banks has been shaped not only by science, but also by culture, politics and economics. In the German Empire and the Weimar Republic, social, national and eugenic considerations became intertwined in the struggle against infant mortality. In Nazi Germany human milk was used to strengthen the "German Volksgemeinschaft" ("community of the German people"), particularly individuals who were considered as "erbgesund" ("hereditarily healthy"). Massive advertising of the baby food industry in the West and public debate about pollutants and HIV/AIDS increased doubts about the advantages of natural feeding. In East Germany the planned economy, state health system and censored media significantly contributed to the survival of milk banks. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Christian Theodor Vaupell, a Danish 19th century naturalist and a pioneering developer of the Quaternary geoscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, J. K.; Helama, S.

    2012-09-01

    Christian Theodor Vaupell (1821-1862) was a Danish scholar with pioneering investigations particularly on the late Quaternary development of bog forests, but also microscopy of plant anatomy and vegetative reproduction. His studies contributed to the early scientific thinking of the Quaternary environmental changes. Before his academic efforts, he had already survived the war between Prussia and Denmark albeit he became severely wounded and his left arm was amputated. The drama of his academic efforts, on the other hand, lies in the more or less suspicious dispute of his first doctoral thesis and his dismissal from the academic world during the following years. At the same time, he earned praise for his first thesis (never accepted as thesis but published as a regular book) from abroad; he was also able to attract private foundations for financial support of his scientific work. Following the enthusiasm of his time, Vaupell became attracted to the pine megafossils known to have been preserved in the bogs in north-west Europe. The megafossils led him to study not only the life systems of the ancient and modern bog forests but also their associations with Earth processes. As an interesting detail of his research, Vaupell made compound interpretations on the occurrence of megafossil stumps and their tree-ring growth patterns. In the course of the 20th century, Vaupell's studies have been cited as a general reference of post-glacial vegetation change and plant succession rather than clearly pioneering investigations of palaeoecology, an angle that we would like put into a contrasting perspective. To do so, we provide a brief portrait of Christian Vaupell and his research career. In conclusion, we wish to emphasize the comprehensiveness of Vaupell's views on the late Quaternary vegetation changes and the role of plant succession in that development.

  17. Christian Theodor Vaupell, a Danish 19th century naturalist and a pioneering developer of the Quaternary geoscience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. K. Nielsen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Christian Theodor Vaupell (1821–1862 was a Danish scholar with pioneering investigations particularly on the late Quaternary development of bog forests, but also microscopy of plant anatomy and vegetative reproduction. His studies contributed to the early scientific thinking of the Quaternary environmental changes. Before his academic efforts, he had already survived the war between Prussia and Denmark albeit he became severely wounded and his left arm was amputated. The drama of his academic efforts, on the other hand, lies in the more or less suspicious dispute of his first doctoral thesis and his dismissal from the academic world during the following years. At the same time, he earned praise for his first thesis (never accepted as thesis but published as a regular book from abroad; he was also able to attract private foundations for financial support of his scientific work. Following the enthusiasm of his time, Vaupell became attracted to the pine megafossils known to have been preserved in the bogs in north-west Europe. The megafossils led him to study not only the life systems of the ancient and modern bog forests but also their associations with Earth processes. As an interesting detail of his research, Vaupell made compound interpretations on the occurrence of megafossil stumps and their tree-ring growth patterns. In the course of the 20th century, Vaupell's studies have been cited as a general reference of post-glacial vegetation change and plant succession rather than clearly pioneering investigations of palaeoecology, an angle that we would like put into a contrasting perspective. To do so, we provide a brief portrait of Christian Vaupell and his research career. In conclusion, we wish to emphasize the comprehensiveness of Vaupell's views on the late Quaternary vegetation changes and the role of plant succession in that development.

  18. American Education Policy Towards Indian Tribes (the End of the 18th – Beginning of 19th Century

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    Nelin Timur Vladimirovich-

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article studies the policy of the first presidential administrations of the USA in relation to the Native Americans. The policy was established during the period of George Washington’s presidency. The key factor of this policy was the education of aboriginals, the inurement of skills necessary for the integration with white people. The development of trade relations between nations became the beginning of this process. Trade relations required competent management and special laws regulating the process of trade and intercourse with the Native Americans. Government trading houses (factories had to urge the process of civilization. The author shows the influence of the Enlightenment philosophy of Thomas Jefferson on his idea to educate the aboriginals. The close attention is paid not only to the political views of the third president of the USA, but also to his activity in the process of realizing the educational policy towards the Natives. Educational programs had a purpose to integrate aboriginal tribes into the US society. It was uneasy task and the government tried to find more constructive forms of working instead of common trade and intercourse acts with the Indians. The Louisiana Purchase gave new opportunities for developing the federal policy. Lewis and Clark explored the West and collected comprehensive information about its tribes, their habits and way of life. It was very useful for the government in its idea to civilize the indigenous peoples. The author studies the letters of Thomas Jefferson to some American politics and to the Natives, that the president wrote about his plans about the future of the American Indians. Revival movement of the Second Great Awaking found good allies for the US government. The author shows the role of protestant missionaries in the educational policy of the USA towards the Natives.

  19. RUSSIAN-GERMAN CONNECTIONS IN THE EDITING PRACTICE IN THE MID-19TH CENTURY: VASILIY ZHUKOVSKY AND JUSTINUS KERNER

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    Natalia Egorovna Nikonova

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article reconstructs the history of creative communication between the German romanticist, J. Kerner (1786-1862, and V.A. Zhukovsky (1783-1852, a Russian poet, cultural and political figure and mentor of Alexander II. It also introduces the first edition of German authorized translations of Zhukovsky’s works, «Ostergabe für das Jahr 1850» (Baden-Baden, 1850, as well as a separate edition and the result of this international cooperation, «Das Märchen von Iwan Zarewitsch und dem grauen Wolf», which became popular in Germany.Purpose: The purpose of the article is to reconstruct the context of international co-operation in editing practice between V.A. Zhukovsky, a Russian poet and mentor of the impe-rial family, and a famous German romanticist, mystic and lite-rary man J. Kerner.Methodology. The research methodology combines culture-historical, problem-chronological and historico-genetical analysis methods.Results. The study ascertains new important facts of Russian-German co-operation, as well as introduces new sources of fundamental importance that may play a significant role for researchers and publishers dealing with V.A. Zhukovsky’s heritage.Practical implications. The findings allow to widen and deepen the knowledge of Russian romanticism, V.A. Zhukovsky’s creative biography and heritage, as well as the character of Russian-West-European intercultural contacts in the XIX century; the research findings can be used in teaching various disciplines of the historic-literary, translation and culturological profiles.

  20. Capital Investment and Market Segmentation: Making Movies for Mormon Audiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Newell D.; Larsen, Val

    2014-01-01

    Is there a commercially viable market in the United States for movies made for Mormons? David "Dutch" Richards, a graduate of Brigham Young University's School of Film, thinks there is. He believes that in the Western United States, especially in Utah and the Intermountain West, there are enough Mormons who would pay to watch a film by,…

  1. Human impacts of hydrometeorological extremes in the Bohemian-Moravian Highlands derived from documentary sources in the 18th-19th centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolák, Lukáš; Brázdil, Rudolf; Valášek, Hubert

    2014-05-01

    The extent of damage caused by hydrometeorological events or extremes (HME) has risen up in the entire world in the last few years. Especially the floods, flash floods, torrential rains and hailstorms are the most typical and one of the most frequent kind of natural disasters in the central Europe. Catastrophes are a part of human history and people were forced to cope with their consequences (e. g. material damage, economical losses, impacts on agriculture and society or losses of human lives). This paper analyses the human impacts of HME in the Bohemian-Moravian Highlands (central part of the Czech Republic) on the basis of documentary sources from the 18th-19th centuries. The paper presents various negative impacts of natural disasters on lives and property and subsequent inconveniences of Czech peasants. The preserved archival documents of estates or domains became the primary sources of data (e. g. taxation reliefs, damaged records, reports of afflicted farmers, administrative correspondence etc.). Particularly taxation reliefs relate to taxation system in the Czech lands during the 17th-19th centuries allowing to farmers to ask for tax alleviation when their crops were significantly damaged by any HME. These archival documents are a highly valuable source for the study of human impacts of natural disasters. Devastating consequences of these extremes affected individual farmers much more than the aristocracy. Floods caused inundations of farmer's fields, meadows, houses and farm buildings, washed away the arable land with crops, caused losses of cattle, clogged the land with gravel and mud and destroyed roads, bridges or agricultural equipment. Afflicted fields became worthless and it took them many years to become became fertile again. Crop was also damaged by hailstorms, droughts or late/early frosts. All these events led to lack of food and seeds in the following year and it meant the decrease of living standard, misery and poverty of farmers. Acquired

  2. Liberal-Conservative Synthesis: the Experience of Creating the Concept of Evolutionary Modernization of Russia in the Second half of the 19th Century

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    Maxim N. Krot

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to consideration of the liberal-conservative conception of Russia formed in the second half of the 19th century by a number of Russian public figures and statesmen, the most prominent of which were B.N. Chicherin, K.D. Cavelin and A.D. Gradovsky. The author reveals the main stages of modernization of the social and political system in Russia suggested by the liberals. The author deals with the concrete projects of changes and reforms, characterizes the methods of achieving these aims. The article reveals the essence of the liberal-conservative "anticonstitutionalism" of the 60s and the first half of the 70s of the 19th century, identifies the main arguments, used by the representatives of this social thought trend for proving their opinion. One issue is considered separately: the draft of the administrative reform by K.D. Kavelin, having offered a wide reorganization of the supreme bodies of state administration and the nature of their formation in order to prepare the basis for establishing of representative government in Russia in the future. The article characterizes the situation in Russia at the turn of 1870 - 1880s, under the circumstances of which there is a gradual transition of liberal conservatives to the idea of immediate creation of representative bodies in Russia. The author analyzes in detail the following: the main arguments and motivations, having induced them to introducing the requirements as well as the projects themselves, devoted to the establishment of elected representative bodies that were supposed to be integrated into the existing government management, complementing and improving it. In the article special attention is drawn to the harmonious combination of liberal - reformational and conservative-preserving principles that, according to its authors, on the one hand, must have promoted the evolution of social and political relations in the country, have avoided their stagnation and degradation

  3. Italian horticultural and culinary records of summer squash (Cucurbita pepo, Cucurbitaceae) and emergence of the zucchini in 19th-century Milan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lust, Teresa A; Paris, Harry S

    2016-07-01

    Summer squash, the young fruits of Cucurbita pepo, are a common, high-value fruit vegetable. Of the summer squash, the zucchini, C. pepo subsp. pepo Zucchini Group, is by far the most cosmopolitan. The zucchini is easily distinguished from other summer squash by its uniformly cylindrical shape and intense colour. The zucchini is a relatively new cultivar-group of C. pepo, the earliest known evidence for its existence having been a description in a book on horticulture published in Milan in 1901. For this study, Italian-language books on agriculture and cookery dating from the 16th to 19th centuries have been collected and searched in an effort to follow the horticultural development and culinary use of young Cucurbita fruits in Italy. The results indicate that Cucurbita fruits, both young and mature, entered Italian kitchens by the mid-16th century. A half-century later, round and elongate young fruits of C. pepo were addressed as separate cookery items and the latter had largely replaced the centuries-old culinary use of young, elongate bottle gourds, Lagenaria siceraria Allusion to a particular, extant cultivar of the longest fruited C. pepo, the Cocozelle Group, dates to 1811 and derives from the environs of Naples. The Italian diminutive word zucchini arose by the beginning of the 19th century in Tuscany and referred to small, mature, desiccated bottle gourds used as containers to store tobacco. By the 1840s, the Tuscan word zucchini was appropriated to young, primarily elongate fruits of C. pepo The Zucchini Group traces its origins to the environs of Milan, perhaps as early as 1850. The word zucchini and the horticultural product zucchini arose contemporaneously but independently. The results confirm that the Zucchini Group is the youngest of the four cultivar-groups of C. pepo subsp. pepo but it emerged approximately a half-century earlier than previously known. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany

  4. Understanding Edward Muybridge: historical review of behavioral alterations after a 19th-century head injury and their multifactorial influence on human life and culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjila, Sunil; Singh, Gagandeep; Alkhachroum, Ayham M; Ramos-Estebanez, Ciro

    2015-07-01

    Edward Muybridge was an Anglo-American photographer, well known for his pioneering contributions in photography and his invention of the "zoopraxiscope," a forerunner of motion pictures. However, this 19th-century genius, with two original patents in photographic technology, made outstanding contributions in art and neurology alike, the latter being seldom acknowledged. A head injury that he sustained changed his behavior and artistic expression. The shift of his interests from animal motion photography to human locomotion and gait remains a pivotal milestone in our understanding of patterns in biomechanics and clinical neurology, while his own behavioral patterns, owing to an injury to the orbitofrontal cortex, remain a mystery even for cognitive neurologists. The behavioral changes he exhibited and the legal conundrum that followed, including a murder of which he was acquitted, all depict the complexities of his personality and impact of frontal lobe injuries. This article highlights the life journey of Muybridge, drawing parallels with Phineas Gage, whose penetrating head injury has been studied widely. The wide sojourn of Muybridge also illustrates the strong connections that he maintained with Stanford and Pennsylvania universities, which were later considered pinnacles of higher education on the two coasts of the United States.

  5. The exhibition of otherness. The travels of an Eskimo and her impresario in France, Italy and the Habsburg Empire in the first half of the 19th century

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    Bertino, Francesca

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Azil was a young Eskimo who featured in a singular European tour organized by Signor Paganini between 1827 and 1843. She was exhibited in courts, salons and scientific cabinets, and also starred in a stage play in which she appeared as herself with a troupe of actors. In this article we try to reconstruct the modalities of exhibition of Azil taking as a reference a small pamphlet, republished several times in the years 1827-1843. The story of Azil makes a very interesting addition to the studies that have recently established the dimensions of the ethnoanthropological phenomenon of the exhibition of otherness. It emerges that in the Kingdom of Italy, above all in the liberal and fascist periods, this phenomenon was quite considerable and can take its place in the broader panorama of ethnoexhibitions featuring living human beings in Europe during the colonial and imperialist age. The episode we have reconstructed certainly does not suffice to be able to state that the exhibition of living human beings was common practice in Italy in the first half of the 19th century, but it does show how instances that originated in other European nations, where spectacles of this kind were more familiar, could readily find fortune in Italy.

  6. The Eco-Refurbishment of a 19th Century Terraced House: Energy and Cost Performance for Current and Future UK Climates

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    Haniyeh Mohammadpourkarbasi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The UK government, responding to concerns over climate change impacts, has undertaken to reduce CO2 emissions to 80% of 1990 levels by 2050. This scale of reduction will require major improvements in the energy efficiency of the existing UK building stock, which is the dominant consumer of fossil fuel-generated energy. Housing is a key sector, and since 70% of all current homes in the UK will still exist in 2050 then low carbon refurbishment is critical if CO2 reduction goals are to be met. This paper uses computer modeling to examine the annual operational energy performance, long term energy cost savings and internal thermal conditions for a 19th century terraced house that was eco-refurbished to near a Passivhaus standard. The dwelling was modeled for three locations (Edinburgh, Manchester and London using current and future climate scenarios (2020s and 2050s under high carbon emission scenarios. Simulation results suggest that there would be very little diminution in heating demand in the future for the house with no refurbishment, whilst the eco-refurbishment produced a significant reduction in energy demand and CO2 emissions. Analysis of the payback period and net present value indicate that the economic optimum varies according to energy prices and that the high construction costs incurred for an eco-refurbishment to a near Passivhaus standard could not be justified in terms of a cost/benefit analysis.

  7. Examining the ground layer of St. Anthony from Padua 19th century oil painting by Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vančo, Ľubomír; Kadlečíková, Magdaléna; Breza, Juraj; Čaplovič, Ľubomír; Gregor, Miloš

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we studied the material composition of the ground layer of a neoclassical painting. We used Raman spectroscopy (RS) as a prime method. Thereafter scanning electron microscopy combined with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) were employed as complementary techniques. The painting inspected was of the side altar in King St. Stephen's Church in Galanta (Slovakia), signed and dated by Jos. Chr. Mayer 1870. Analysis was carried out on both covered and uncovered ground layers. Four principal compounds (barite, lead white, calcite, dolomite) and two minor compounds (sphalerite, quartz) were identified. This ground composition is consistent with the 19th century painting technique used in Central Europe consisting of white pigments and white fillers. Transformation of lead white occurred under laser irradiation. Subdominant Raman peaks of the components were measured. The observed results elucidate useful partnership of RS and SEM-EDS measurements supported by X-ray powder diffraction as well as possibilities and limitations of non-destructive analysis of covered lower layers by RS.

  8. Scientific Investigation of the Materials and Techniques Used in a 19th Century Egyptian Cemetery Wall Painting (Hawsh Al-Basha

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    Sawsan Sayed DARWISH

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The present research was carried out to obtain more information on materials and painting techniques used in Egyptian wall paintings during the 19th century. The Hawsh al-Basha courtyard, dating back to Mohammed Ali's family period (1805-1952, was studied for this purpose. The obtained results will be used to set up a scientific plan for restoration and preservation. Pigments, including white zincite, earth green, blue synthetic ultramarine, yellow massicot, black a mixture of magnetite & graphite, brownish red lead and brass were identified. The binding medium in the painting was identified as animal glue. Two preparation layers were identified: the inner coarse ground layer, composed of gypsum as a major component, with calcite and small amounts of quartz and the outer, fine ground layer, composed of calcite only. Optical Microscopy (OM, Scanning Electron Microscopy coupled with Energy Dispersive X-ray Microanalysis (SEM-EDX, X-ray Diffraction (XRD and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy with Attenuation Total Reflection (FTIR-ATR were used in our study.

  9. Waters, Fountains and Water Sellers: A reflection on the water supply of Nossa Senhora do Desterro in the 19th century

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    Aline Gabriela Klauck

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the debate of the historian with his time the environmental theme becomes more and more present, and, within this, the theme related to water, its uses in different times and in different societies, it is certainly a very relevant topic. In this way, this text proposes a prospective analysis of the water supply of the city of Nossa Senhora do Desterro (present Florianópolis in the 19th century, with emphasis on the material and cultural aspects of the relations established between the habitants of the city and its waters. As sources are used official documents, such as reports of the President of the Province, minutes and official communication of Florianópolis City Hall, as well as the Code of Municipal Postures, in order to understand how the public power, through laws, regulations and decrees, sought to regulate use and access to the resource. It is sought, under the bias of Environmental History, to focus on the relation of subjects to the natural world which surrounds them, and, above all, to the uses of the natural water resource, considering the place and role that the environment occupies in social transformations historically determined. The present historiographical approach, without leaving behind a consideration of a reality about the misuse of water resource, sought to observe the other aspects of the historical conditions of the use and management of this natural resource in the city of Desterro, showing sociabilities, conflicts, gestures and sensitivities, among others related issues.

  10. The networks of prostitution in the Spain of the 19th century. The city of Cartagena in the beginnings of the Restoration

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    Pedro María EGEA BRUNO

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The regulation of the «old trade» was assumed during the 19th century by the local and provincial authorities. The surveillance on that group spread with particular emphasis during the period of the Restoration. Medical and police control, had become a way to discipline women and to control dangerous classes. The figure of the prostitute was, then, supported by the established power. Cartagena —military port and working nucleus— emerges as a pioneering model in such an intervention, when the profession was regulated in 1874 and it was established the register of prostitutes. The source gives us a whole series of considerations: the development in the family area, structure of the brothels, urban geography of the activity and the Spanish prostitution network connections. Other variables of interest are: marital status and age, while the previous occupation indicates us the majority presence of the popular classes. Anthometric parameters are also included from height to the eyes colour, appearing scars, which indicate violence of genre. The last point includes personal problems, which allows understanding their decisions and their experiences in life. Selling their bodies was the only possible option for many of them to face up misery. Genre and classes agreed in that exploitation.  

  11. Quantitative analysis of human remains from 18(th)-19(th) centuries using X-ray fluorescence techniques: The mysterious high content of mercury in hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessanha, Sofia; Carvalho, Marta; Carvalho, Maria Luisa; Dias, António

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we report the unusual concentration of mercury in the hair of an individual buried in the 18th to mid-19th centuries and the comparison with the elemental composition of other remains from the same individual. Two energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) setups, one with tri-axial geometry and the second one with micro-beam capabilities and a vacuum system, for light elements detection, have been used. Quantitative evaluation of the obtained spectra were made by fundamental parameters and winAXIL program by compare mode method. The levels of Hg in the hair of buried samples presented a concentration over 5% (w/w), a significantly lower presence of this element in the cranium, and no Hg in the remaining organs. Furthermore, there was no evidence of Hg in the burial soil, which has been also analyzed. From this result, we could conclude that the possibility of post-mortem contamination from the burial surroundings is very unlikely. The obtained results are indicative of the apparent use of a mercury-based compound for medical purposes, most likely lice infestation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Manuel Tamayo y Baus’s Un Drama Nuevo (1867 and the Reception of Hamlet in 19th-Century Spain

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    Rocío G. Sumillera

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The present article discusses how Tamayo y Baus appropriates and refashions in Un drama nuevo (1867 the figures of Shakespeare and Yorick, as well as different elements of a number of tragedies by Shakespeare (Hamlet, Romeo and Juliet, Othello, in order to render homage to Shakespearean drama by means of a play that, even if set at the beginning of 17th-century England, particularly addresses the tastes and concerns of 19th-century Spanish audiences. Additionally, this article considers the extent to which the contemporary audience of Tamayo y Baus was acquainted with Shakespeare and Hamlet, taking into account both the translations into Spanish of the play and its performances in Spain up until 1867. The purpose of such an analysis is to speculate on the reception and interpretation of Un drama nuevo at the time of its release, and on the role it had in raising or renewing interest in Hamlet within the Spanish-speaking world.

  13. KSbOSiO4 microcrystallites as a source of corrosion of blue-green lead-potassium glass beads of the 19th century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuryeva, T. V.; Afanasyev, I. B.; Morozova, E. A.; Kadikova, I. F.; Popov, V. S.; Yuryev, V. A.

    2017-01-01

    Presently, deterioration of glass beads is a significant problem in conservation and restoration of beaded exhibits in museums. Glass corrosion affects nearly all kinds of beads but cloudy blue-green ones are more than others subjected to disastrous destruction. However, physical and chemical mechanisms of this phenomenon have not been understood thus far. This article presents results of a study of elemental and phase composition of glass of the blue-green beads of the 19th century obtained from exhibits kept in Russian museums. Using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray microanalysis, and X-ray powder analysis, we have detected and investigated Sb-rich microinclusions in the glass matrix of these beads and found them to be micro crystallites of KSbSiO5. These crystallites were not detected in other kinds of beads which are much less subjected to corrosion than the blue-green ones and deteriorate in a different way. We believe that individual precipitates of KSbSiO5 and especially their clusters play a major role in the blue-green bead deterioration giving rise to slow internal corrosion of the bead glass.

  14. The influence of 19th century Dutch Colonial Orientalism in spreading Kubah (Islamic Dome and Middle-Eastern architectural styles for mosques in Sumatra

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    Kemas Ridwan Kurniawan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper researches the possible representation of Orientalism and the spread of Middle Eastern inspired architecture in Indonesia, particularly in Dutch colonial practices in the 19th-century. It challenges the dominant opinion of the people that the Middle Eastern merchants in the East Indies were the only ones that introduced the use of kubah (dome shape to mosque architecture in Indonesia. Consequently, this paper has two objectives: firstly, by looking at the historical relationship between religious architecture and colonial politics, especially in the construction of the Baiturrahman Mosque in Aceh and secondly, by considering Orientalism (besides those beliefs existing in Moslem communities to be one of important intellectual agencies for mixing architectural cultural symbols. The socio-political narrative is analyzed in the context of an Indonesian-Islamic building typology and the relationship between space, people, power, and time. The research itself is based on literature searches specifically related to colonialism and orientalism, along with archive studies and field investigations, including interviews with related historical experts. In order to replace 'non-architectural' traditional roofs, which were considered as representing a less-developed civilization, Dutch political interests were instrumental in bringing the universally-styled Middle Eastern architectural elements into mosque architecture of the Netherland Indies. This political motivation ultimately led to the spread of kubah (dome as an architectonic element in Indonesian mosque architecture throughout the archipelago, specifically in Sumatra.

  15. Patterns of long bone growth in a mid-19th century documented sample of the urban poor from Bethnal Green, London, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ives, Rachel; Humphrey, Louise

    2017-05-01

    Studies of male and female long bone growth in past populations are limited and usually constrained by the lack of personal identification. This article aimed to evaluate long bone growth in a series of mid-19th century documented burials associated with the urban poor from Bethnal Green, London, UK. Maximum diaphyseal lengths from 74 males and 70 females (2 months to 12 years) were compared to modern reference data from North America. Diaphyseal lengths were expressed as a percentage of expected length and an average percentage value was calculated across all available long bones. An index of growth progression was introduced to explore differences in the progress of males and females towards their projected adult size. Deviation from the expected growth attainment was evident in both sexes in the archaeological series by 2-4 months of age. Only 19.4% (28/144) of the children had attained an average long bone length >90% of the predicted mean in the reference series. The percentage of expected growth attainment decreased steadily in both sexes during infancy and early childhood. Overall, females deviated further from their expected growth progression than males. Growth faltering in both males and females was established during infancy (growth. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Analysis of 19th century ceramic fragments excavated from Pirenópolis (Goiás, Brazil) using FT-IR, Raman, XRF and SEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Renato P; Coelho, Filipe A; Felix, Valter S; Pereira, Marcelo O; de Souza, Marcos André Torres; Anjos, Marcelino J

    2018-03-15

    This study used Raman, FT-IR and XRF spectroscopy and SEM to analyze ceramic fragments dating from the 19th century, excavated from an old farm in the municipality of Pirenópolis, Goiás, Brazil. The results show that the samples were produced in an open oven at a firing temperature below 500°C, using raw materials including kaolinite, hematite, magnetite, quartz, microcline, albite, anhydrite, calcite, illite, orthoclase and MnO 2 . Although the analyses showed similarities in the manufacturing process and the presence of many minerals was common in all samples, multivariate statistical methods (PCA) allowed a more detailed assessment of similarities and differences in the mineral composition of the samples. The results of the PCA showed that the samples excavated in one of the slave quarters (senzalas) group with those excavated at the farmhouse, where the landowner lived, which indicates a paternalistic attitude towards captives, including the sharing of ceramic materials of everyday use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. An Aspect of Colonialism and Anti-Colonialism: A Comparative Study between the Traces of British Imperialism in English Literature and the Counterpoint of Anti-Colonialism in Bengali Literature of 19th Century

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    Farhana Haque

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In Mansfield Park, Jane Austen has exhibited the English identity lies on property earned by the slave trade in Caribbean Islands. If we go deep inside of the history of Britain we could able to see their awareness and concern over a national identity, and consider American colonies a poor reflection on Britain. The traits of British colonization always stretched their dominating wings soar above in the sky of ruling. The tyrannical rule on the Caribbean Islands and other places, where they have set the subjugation upon the destitute subjects. Such as West Indies, Jamaica, Haiti, Indian sub-continent and many more countries which they consider inferior in front of them. This was the ideology of English people and their smug of English identity. In the first part of my research paper, I am suppose to depict that, how the English superiority discern its voice through the narrative of the 19th century English novels. The great example of English superiority proved by the reading of Mansfield Park, and this novel will also explore the deepest meaning of coveted Englishness. Jane Austen’s Mansfield Park, which has written based on English identity earned by slave trade and also the English people who are very much obsessed with property, money, status, elite class attitudes and heedless towards their subordinate people. On the other hands, Kazi Nazrul Islam upholds the position of anti colonial writer. He was very much against the British rule and their despotic rulers.  Therefore, Kazi Nazrul Islam has established the notion of anti British ideology and activities through his writings and showed the world about his rebellious nature. Keywords: Mansfield Park, British colonialism, Caribbean Islands, Anti-colonialism, Rebellion

  18. Toomas Siitan, Kristel Pappel, Anu Sõõro (Hrsg.). Musikleben des 19. Jahrhunderts im nördlichen Europa = 19th-century musical life in Nothern Europe / Karsten Brüggemann ; tõlkinud Anu Schaper

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Brüggemann, Karsten, 1965-

    2012-01-01

    Arvustus: Toomas Siitan, Kristel Pappel, Anu Sõõro (Hrsg.). Musikleben des 19. Jahrhunderts im nördlichen Europa = 19th-century musical life in Nothern Europe. Hildesheim/Zürich/New York : Georg Olms Verlag, 2010. (Studien und Materialien zur Musikwissenschaft ; 60)

  19. "Do Not Turn a Deaf Ear or a Blind Eye on Me, as I Am Your Son": New Conceptions of Childhood and Parenthood in 18th- and 19th-Century Jewish Letter-Writing Manuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogman, Tal

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses on the cultural functions of Hebrew letter-writing manuals published in German-speaking countries in the 18th and 19th centuries, aimed at young people. I argue that these books, which were used frequently as textbooks for studying Hebrew writing, conveyed modern ideological values and at the same time corresponded to the…

  20. [Historical sketch of modern pharmaceutical science and technology (Part 3). From the second half of the 19th century to World War II].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamakawa, K

    1995-01-01

    The history of modern pharmaceutical science and technology, from the second half of the 19th century to the end of World War II, is divided into nine sections for the purpose of discussion. 1. The European medical and pharmaceutical science and technology at the end of the 19th century is reviewed. Pharmacology, bacteriology and biochemistry were built in this period. 2. The Meiji Government accepted Western medicine and medical law and regulations in 1883. Consequently, the Japanese physician changed from Eastern (Kanpooi) to Western (Seiyooi). 3. Modern scientific and engineering education had been accepted in America, England, Germany, and France etc. Foreign scientists and engineers (Oyatoi-gai-kokujin) were educated by practice and theory. The Faculty of Engineering was established in the universities in Japan. This fact is one of the differences in the history of universities in Europe and America. 4. Pharmaceutical education in the Meiji period (1873-1911). Twenty-nine schools of pharmacy were built in this period. However, 20 schools of pharmacy had been closed. Pharmacy and pharmaceutical industry was not established in the Meiji era. 5. The profession of pharmacist in 1873-1944. The policy of medicine was changed by the Meiji Government in 1889, when Western physicians were allowed to prepare medicines for patients, and this practice continues today. Political and technological power of Japanese pharmacists was weak, so their role was not estimated. 6. Consequences of world War I, and the establishment of the pharmaceutical industry. The Sino-Japanese War (1894-95) and Russo-Japanese War (1904-05) were won fortunately. The first pharmaceutical company was established in 1885. At this times, many pharmaceutical manufacturing companies, which were converted from whole sale merchants, were built. Then started the manufacturing of commercial drugs. 7. Hygienic chemistry and some problems of public hygiene. The causes of diseses unique to Japan, such as

  1. The Sommersdorf mummies—An interdisciplinary investigation on human remains from a 17th-19th century aristocratic crypt in southern Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellinghaus, Manuel; Jackowski, Christian; Shved, Natallia; Rühli, Frank; Maixner, Frank; Zink, Albert; Rosendahl, Wilfried; Lösch, Sandra

    2017-01-01

    Sommersdorf Castle (Bavaria, Germany) is a medieval castle complex which has been inhabited by the aristocratic family von Crailsheim. The deceased were entombed in a crypt located in the parapets underneath the castle’s church, resulting in mummification of the bodies. Based on the family chronicle and oral history, identities have been ascribed to the mummies. The aim of the study is therefore to test the accuracy of the historical records in comparison to archaeological, anthropological and genetic data. Today, the crypt houses eleven wooden coffins from the 17th to 19th century AD. In ten of these, mummified and scattered human remains were found. Archive records were studied in order to identify names, ancestry, titles, occupation, date of birth and death, and place of interment of the individuals. The coffins were visually inspected and dated by typo-chronology, and the mummified and scattered skeletal remains were subjected to a physical anthropological examination. In total, the crypt contains the remains of a minimum number of nine individuals, among them three adult males, five adult females and one infant. A detailed scientific examination, including prior conservation, ancient DNA analyses, and computed tomography (CT), was performed on five mummies. By means of the CT data age at death, sex, body height, pathologies, and anatomical variants were investigated. CT analysis further showed that the bodies were naturally mummified. Mitochondrial DNA analyses revealed that the tested individuals are not maternally related. In addition, health, living conditions and circumstances of death of the entombed individuals could be highlighted. Being confronted with the strengths, weaknesses and limitations of each methodological approach, probable identification was achieved in two cases. PMID:28859116

  2. The Sommersdorf mummies-An interdisciplinary investigation on human remains from a 17th-19th century aristocratic crypt in southern Germany.

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    Amelie Alterauge

    Full Text Available Sommersdorf Castle (Bavaria, Germany is a medieval castle complex which has been inhabited by the aristocratic family von Crailsheim. The deceased were entombed in a crypt located in the parapets underneath the castle's church, resulting in mummification of the bodies. Based on the family chronicle and oral history, identities have been ascribed to the mummies. The aim of the study is therefore to test the accuracy of the historical records in comparison to archaeological, anthropological and genetic data. Today, the crypt houses eleven wooden coffins from the 17th to 19th century AD. In ten of these, mummified and scattered human remains were found. Archive records were studied in order to identify names, ancestry, titles, occupation, date of birth and death, and place of interment of the individuals. The coffins were visually inspected and dated by typo-chronology, and the mummified and scattered skeletal remains were subjected to a physical anthropological examination. In total, the crypt contains the remains of a minimum number of nine individuals, among them three adult males, five adult females and one infant. A detailed scientific examination, including prior conservation, ancient DNA analyses, and computed tomography (CT, was performed on five mummies. By means of the CT data age at death, sex, body height, pathologies, and anatomical variants were investigated. CT analysis further showed that the bodies were naturally mummified. Mitochondrial DNA analyses revealed that the tested individuals are not maternally related. In addition, health, living conditions and circumstances of death of the entombed individuals could be highlighted. Being confronted with the strengths, weaknesses and limitations of each methodological approach, probable identification was achieved in two cases.

  3. Adamantios Korais and the Greek Language Policy at the Turn of the 18th to the 19th Centuries (translated by Jerneja Kavčič

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    Predrag Mutavdžić

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study outlines and examines the attempts at a standardisation of the Modern Greek language made during the crucial period of national formation, which coincided with the Greek Enlightenment (Νεοελληνικός Διαφωτισμός. The turn of the 18th to the 19th centuries was the period when the Greek language question (το ελληνικό γλωσσικό ζήτημα first appeared in Greek society. Marked by the complicated diglossia situation, this question itself and the suggested solutions were strongly influenced by four different socio-political visions of an independent Greek society, as well as by the conflicting opinions on, and calls for, language codification and standardisation. Although several proposals for a language reform were put forward, none of them was found satisfactory or widely accepted, since they were unable to solve the diglossia and offer a good language basis for the education of the generations to come. In terms of language policy and language planning, the proposal of the first modern Greek linguist, Adamantios Korais, represented a so-called ‘middle way’ (μέση οδός. Korais neither fully accepted common vernacular Greek nor rejected Ancient Greek, which was impossible to neglect with its weight of ancient heritage. While his proposal initially seemed likely to solve the Greek diglossic situation, it unfortunately failed to do so and in fact exacerbated the situation.

  4. Georg Büchner, Sigmund Freud and the "Schädelnerven" (cranial nerves) - research on the brain and soul in the 19th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Gerhard; Ruppert, Christina; Stienen, Martin N; Surbeck, Werner

    2014-10-01

    One of the authors' encounter with one of Sigmund Freud's original works about the anatomy of the human brain stem and his interest in the scientist, anatomist, philosopher, writer and revolutionary Georg Büchner led to re-examination and review of the original writings of two major 19th century protagonists of brain anatomy research. The aim of the authors is to highlight the achievements of both Freud and Büchner in the field of comparative brain morphology. The medical and philosophical publications of Georg Büchner were reviewed with reference to the historical-critical edition of his complete works and writings (the so-called Marburg edition). Evaluation of the neuroanatomical achievements of Sigmund Freud was based on a summary of his publications and also partially on his autobiographical writings. After careful review of their publications both Freud and Büchner should be acknowledged as brain scientists focusing particularly on comparative morphology. Both chose fish as the subject of their macroscopic (Büchner) and microscopic (Freud) neuroanatomical studies, and both cut across their own language and cultural space by continuing their work in France. In interpreting their findings both were influenced by their respective contemporary methodological schools of thought. Büchner became a soul scientist/psychologist by turning to the writing of literary texts, heralding the end of his idealistic and metaphysical interpretation of life. Likewise, Freud increasingly devoted himself to the destiny of man and his "conditio humana," eventually turning away from anatomical brain research. Review of the biographies and medical-scientific, as well as philosophical publications, of Georg Büchner and Sigmund Freud reveal striking parallels between the two researchers in addition to common insights that have generally been ignored or only marginally addressed in the past. Both should be appreciated and remembered as forerunners of today's neuroscientific

  5. The organisation of solfège pedagogy in Serbia from the second half of the 19th century until today - achievements and attainments

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    Parezanović Kristina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This research focuses on the development of art music, music pedagogy and teaching solfège in Serbia in the long period stretching from the second half of the 19th century until the present day. In this article I present a chronology of the institutionalisation of the music education system in Serbia; then, I discuss the origins of the influence of Western European artistic-pedagogical practices on Serbian teaching, through the testimonies by Stevan Hristić, Berthold Hartmann, Miloje Milojević, Stanislav Vinaver, Milan Grol and others. I finish with the presentation of the most important Serbian music pedagogues and their achievements in the period before World War II (Stevan Stojanović Mokranjac, Isidor Bajić, Miloje Milojević, Miodrag Vasiljević in parallel with the results and practices of the Western European and global music pedagogy. My goal is to observe Serbian approaches to music pedagogy in relation to the question of the possibilities, realistic or hypothetical, to use the educational principles which were in expansion in Europe at the end of the 19 th and beginning of the 20th centuries in Serbian music pedagogy. After examining the methods of teaching solfège in the period from the end of World War II until today, I conclude that Serbia has developed its own pedagogic style (even though it is based on the complementarity of several autochthonous and foreign methodical solutions, built upon and supperted by the experience and knowledge of Serbian and foreign attainments in music pedagogy.

  6. Cancer mortality among Mormons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enstrom, J E

    1975-09-01

    Preliminary results show that the 1970-72 cancer mortality rate among California Mormon adults is about one-half to three-fourths that of the general California population for most cancer sites, including many sites with an unclear etiology. Furthermore, the cancer death rate in the predominately Mormon state of Utah is about two-thirds to three-fourths of the United States rate, and the lowest in the entire country. Mormons are a large, health-conscious religious group whose Church doctrine forbids the use of tobacco, alcohol, coffee, and tea, and recommends a nutritious diet. Initial indications are that Mormons as a whole smoke and drink about half as much as the general population, and that active Mormons abstain almost completely from tobacco and alcohol. However, they appear to be fairly similar to the general white population in other respects, such as socioeconomic status and urbanization. The significance of these findings is discussed.

  7. Lifting and transport by sea of great stone columns: evidence of traditional methods used in 18th and 19th century building programs as a clue to reconstructing Roman marble transport processes

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    Paolo Barresi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this paper is to investigate the traditional technologies of lifting and sea transport of large stone blocks (time spent for sea transport, ways of charging and stewing large stone pieces, number of people engaged with evidence from 18th and 19th century Italy, as a key to understand ancient Roman practices. I shall use data from reconstruction of the 5th century Christian basilica of St. Paul at Rome, burnt in 1823, where new granite shafts, mainly from Italian quarries, replaced the Roman ones. Other documentary sources help to understand some details related to heavy transport, otherwise unknown for Roman period. It should be obviously dangerous to induce directly that the same technologies used for lifting and transport of columns in 18th or 19th century were in use also in Roman Imperial age, but the study of such processes can help us to put in the right view our reconstruction of ancient reality.

  8. The influence of cartographic techniques development on the images of the Slovenian territory: from 16th to the 19th century

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    Jerneja Fridl

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTPurpose: The paper presents the most important maps of the present-day Slovenian territory from 16th to 19th century contributed by many foreign and local authors. Due to technological, social, political, economic, cultural, and ideological conditions their image was constantly changing. Some of them are highlighting the key turning points in a centuries-long cartographic development.Methodology/approach: The survey is based on the analysis of primary sources held in the Map Collection of the National and University Library as well as in Geographical museum of Scientific Research Centre of the Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Arts. The existing secondary sources, particularly the literature and the results of selected projects, are also critically evaluated. From the scientific point of view the paper is interdisciplinary although its content mostly affects the scope of cartography.Results: The inductive method offers conclusions on the role of maps as a medium for transferring different information. Maps are presented either in the light of their communicative value or in the light of using modern cartographic principles. Maps as graphic images captured on paper demonstrate technological development of selected historical periods and characteristics of different countries, their people, and especially the emergence of individual countries and national border changes.Research limitation: Due to limitations in the length of the study text we focus only on the selected items of the cartographic collection and their authors. As usually, we were unable to avoid important cartographers, such as Valvasor, Florjančič and Kozler. The major national cartographic materials held by a two institutions, the National and University Library and GIAM ZRC SAZU Geographical Museum are exposed.Originality/practical implications: The originality of this paper lies mainly in the fact that we deal with maps and their authors together with the impact of

  9. Estudos sobre desenvolvimento humano no século XIX: da biologia à psicogenia Studies about human development in the 19th century: from biology to psychogeny

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    Maria Cristina Soares de Gouvêa

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available A escola historicamente erigiu-se como instituição privilegiada de formação de um extrato da população definido pelo seu pertencimento geracional, qual seja, a infância. Essa operação significou a produção e circulação de saberes voltados para compreensão dos processos de desenvolvimento individual, que sustentassem a aprendizagem escolar. É ao longo do século XIX que tais saberes constituem um campo científico específico, desde os estudos ontogenéticos, referidos à Biologia, a posterior configuração da chamada psicogenia. Busca-se neste estudo, pelo levantamento e análise das obras dos principais autores do período, resgatar o percurso de conformação do campo. Tem-se em vista compreender as permanências e os deslocamentos ocorridos no interior de tal produção, analisando a configuração de uma identidade científica. Verifica-se que, ao longo do período estudado, a embriologia, a biologia darwiniana e lamarkiana, a estatística e a antropometria constituíram-se como referências privilegiadas para a construção de um espaço de saber sobre o desenvolvimento individual, entendido como racialmente determinado.School has historically been established as a privileged institution of education offered to a part of the population defined by their generational belonging, that is, childhood. This process meant the production and circulation of knowledges directed towards the understanding of the processes of individual development, which supported school learning. It was throughout the 19th century that such knowledges turned out to be a specific scientific field from the ontogenetic studies related to Biology to the late configuration of the so-called psychogeny. By means of a survey and analysis of works by major authors of that period, this study seeks to resume the path that led to the configuration of the field. The objective is to understand the permanence and shifts occurred within such a production by examining

  10. Aspects of public health within accreditation of public healthcare management specialists in ukraine and russia in the late 18th - early 19th century (dedicated to the 250th anniversary of a prominent professor Mukhin E.O.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinzovsky, A M

    2016-01-01

    Public healthcare management and supply of qualified medical personnel attained state significance in the early 19th century, the issue to be regulated by special and general law regulations. Public health promotion was the duty of medical authorities, which required professional training in this branch. The article contains the requirements for the employers' knowledge and skills in the mentioned area of medicine. The author reveals the main questions which medical authorities were concerned with and the main requirements for academic examinations.

  11. XIX. Yüzyılda Doğu Akdeniz’de İngiliz-Fransız Rekabeti ve Osmanlı Devleti
    British-French Rivalry and Ottoman Empire in Eastern Mediterranean in 19th Century

    OpenAIRE

    AKALIN, Durmuş; ÇELİK, Cemil

    2012-01-01

    East Mediterranean is an important and strategic region at theintersection of Asia, Africa and Europe. Many states and societies havebeen inhabiting in Eastern Mediterranean. Ottoman Empire was themost significant country in this area in 19th century and before. Therewas peace and comfort in Eastern Mediterranean with Ottoman rulewhich the most prominant power in the region. But political tusslestarted up because of European (especially British and French) power’sinterest on the area. At the ...

  12. Criticisms of the University of Oxford in the Early 19th Century and the Formation of Newman’s Idea of a University: Focusing on attacks in the Edinburgh Review

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Chen

    2017-01-01

    This article retraces the infamous controversies between the Edinburgh Review and Oxford in the early 19th century. It seeks to broaden the understanding of the origins and background of John Henry Newman’s idea of a university by analyzing the connections and differences on both sides of the controversies, drawing from writers such as Sidney Smith, E. Copleston, W. Hamilton, and Newman himself. The article suggests that the controversies were one of the important bases for the formation of N...

  13. Sexual education of youth in the light of the 19th century paraenetic guidebooks [Wychowanie seksualne młodzieży w świetle XIX-wiecznych poradników parenetycznych

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    Mateusz SZUBERT

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available https://doaj.org/pu9th century. The analysis of moralistic treaties and parental guidebooks, perceived as important cultural texts, allows investigation of the process of changes taking place in – what is called – the sexual pedagogy. The turn of the 18th and the 19th centuries can be interpreted as a visible increase in the interest in human sexuality at the level of a paraenetic narrative. Thus, a moral discourse is combined with the discourse of hygiene. From the perspective of cultural history, special attention should be paid to the increased popularity of the category of shame understood as a regulator of social bonds (including family bonds. The transformation of intimacy in the culture of the 19th century seems to be important and interesting evidence of the formation of double morality (overt and covert as well as of the functioning of conflicting tendencies for tabooing and, at the same time, speaking about sexual experiences. The fear of social condemnation effectively shaped everyday life. Scandals and social embarrassment were avoided almost as much as a detriment to one’s health or a risk of sudden death. The second half of the 19th century was the time of a rapid increase in the popularity of educational and social guides. Emotions and spontaneous behaviour become inappropriate, and the social life became dominated by mechanisms and self-disciplinary tendencies. Social life was under heavy peer pressure and – by the same token – individual gestures and tendencies were eradicated. The culture of the 19th century is a particularly interesting reservoir of matrimonial and parental models. The education of children and teenagers focuses on teaching one how to play desired social roles: of virtuous misses from good families or, a little less restrictive, of model bachelors, potential ideal husbands and fathers. The theatricalisation of everyday life reached its peak in the 19th century culture. At the same time, it must be

  14. An analytical comparison of two commercial consolidating products applied to eocene sandstones from 16th and 19th century monuments in San Sehastián, northern Spain

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    García-Garmilla, F.

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The conservation of buildings in the Basque Country made of Eocene sandstone is somewhat problematical, because this type of rock is relatively unstable. This instability is due to the variable content of carbonate cement (0-28% and the presence of K-feldspar grains (1-13% which appear to have been dissolved by both diagenetic and environmental processes. We have compared the results of the application of two commercial consolidating products: Sicof SM 296 (product A and Consistone FS-hA (product B, both ethylsilicates, on Eocene sandstones of the Oquendo Admiral House (16th century and the Gipuzkoa Provincial Government Palace (19th century, which are both located in the city of San Sebastián (Province of Gipuzkoa, Basque Country, Northern Spain. On the basis of different chemical and physical laboratory tests, together with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM analysis, product A seems to be more efficient in consolidating such Eocene sandstone materials, since it penetrates into the first 8 mm of the rock, occupies very homogeneously even the smallest pore spaces and leaves a certain degree of remaining porosity which allows ventilation of the rock. In contrast, product B seems to be more appropriate for larger pore-sized rocks, because it only penetrates into the first 3 mm of the Eocene sandstone samples due to the thin pores of the matter. Our results demonstrate that the suitability of a commercial product depends not only on its own chemical composition, but also on the textural and lithological features of the rock material upon which it is to be applied.

    La conservación de los edificios del País Vasco construidos con areniscas del Eoceno es problemática porque este tipo de roca es relativamente inestable debido a su contenido variable en cemento carbonatado (0-28% y a la presencia de granos de feldespato potásico (1-13% disueltos tanto por procesos diagenéticos como ambientales. Hemos aplicado dos consolidantes comerciales

  15. The institutions forming the socioeconomic structure of Turkish private enterprises between the 13th and the 19th centuries: Akhism, the Lonca system and the Gedik system

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    Mehmet Özbirecikli

    2010-12-01

    principios éticos de la vida empresarial, en esencia, son los mismos. Dentro de este contexto, nos atrevemos a sugerir que las raíces del código ético de la vida empresarial turca se retrotraen en la historia a hace más de 800 años. Además, la similitud entre el funcionamiento presente y pasado indica que el origen de la formación de los aprendices para las empresas turcas tiene, igualmente, más de 800 años de historia.This study investigates three institutions forming the socioeconomic structure of Turkish private enterprises between the 13th and 19th Centuries: Akhism (13th-16th century, the Lonca System (the Guilds (16th-18th century, and the Gedik (Monopoly System (18th-20th century. The study particularly focuses on the social and economic rules, vocational training process, and organizational structure of the said institutions in order to discuss the effects of the socioeconomic structure of Turkish enterprises on economic and social development of private enterprises. The study also struggles to link between the relevant current applications and the applications in the past such as the social rules and vocational training. From economic point of view, both the statist structure of the State and the economic rules of the institutions herein caused private enterprises to remain small, and prevented them from having a competitive environment and having capital accumulation. As a result, enterprises could not benefit from new production techniques and the Turkish enterprise mentality fell behind modern developments. On the other hand, although these three systems were completely abolished in the early 20th Century, it is seen that especially traces of the Akhism and Lonca systems have still been surviving. Both the most of rules of Akhism and some of the duties of the board of directors of Lonca such as keeping moral standards of production and trade remind us of professional code of ethics of today’s modern business life. In other saying, there was code of

  16. The city in motions : circulations, commercial exchanges and materiality of the city : a systemic approach of the factors of Parisian fabric evolution between the 15th century and the 19th century

    OpenAIRE

    Hermenault, Léa

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we sought to understand effects of circulations on the Parisian urban fabric between the 15th and the first third of the 19th century, and, in particular, we sought to understand how it is evolving according to the interactions that develop at different scales between the materiality of the city and potentialities of exchange. The mapping of several corpus of planimetric and written data allow us to build our own geohistoric data, while theirs integration in a GIS bas made compa...

  17. List of subscribers as the source of data on book history and the history of reading: case study of book subscribers' lists printed in Dalmatia in the early 19th century

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    Jelena Lakuš

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Customer networks or lists of subscribers as a new publishing phenomenon first occurred in Dalmatia in the early 19th century. It was a model of collective funding of book, magazine and newspaper publishing, which gradually replaced the earlier system of individual patronage. It resulted in the publication of lists of subscribers that contained the names of all those who financially supported the printing of a book. The data on names of subscribers, their occupation, place of residence and number of copies ordered, which was the usual content of subscribers, lists, make them very valuable sources for research on the history of books and reading. This paper tries to show the research potential of such lists by presenting a case-study of five preserved and available subscribers' lists found in publications printed between 1835 and 1848 in the Zadar print shop of Battara brothers. The paper analyses the quantitative data on subscribers, their geographical distribution, professional profile and gender, which does not exhaust their research potential in full. The analysis has shown that despite the austere educational opportunities, high incidence of unemployment, and many other limitations, there were people who treasured the written word. The subscribers mostly came from coastal cities like Zadar, Split and Dubrovnik, which were the most important publishing and cultural centres. Even though the subscribers came from Austria, Military Border, Italy, Croatia proper and Slavonia, as well as Bosnia and Herzegovina, which was then part of the Ottoman Empire, they make up only one eight of the total number of subscribers in the corpus. The subscribers are both Roman-Catholic and Orthodox, who mostly subscribed to books printed in the Cyrillic script. The subscribers come from a wide range of professions, mostly from the church circles in Dalmatia, and the fewest of them were professors and teachers, members of the army and the police. As expected

  18. Psychotherapy and the Mormon faith.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Stephanie J

    2013-06-01

    The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, also known as the Mormon Church, is a Christian faith with a large presence across the globe. Although Mormon doctrine suggests that faith in Jesus allows people to overcome weakness and heal from pain, Mormon people are not immune from experiencing periods of mental and emotional suffering. The deeply held religious beliefs of Mormons can influence the nature of the psychological difficulties a Mormon individual is prone to experiencing, how and when they choose to seek treatment, as well as the types of treatment that may be most beneficial.

  19. "Novaya Uranometriya" Fridrikha Vil'gel'ma Argelandera v nebesnoj kartografii XIX veka %t "The New Uranometry" by F. W. Argelander in the celestial cartography of the 19th century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuz'min, A. V.

    The 19th century A.D. was an epoch of cardinal changes in the celestial map. Proceeding from an antiquated scheme preserving all the features of the European maps of the 16th century, which were predominantly based on the star catalogue by C. Ptolemy (2nd century A.D.), the 19th century's scientific search resulted in an almost total refusal from all kinds of didactic elements, such as the sky division into constellations or the usage of a letter code for individual stars. Only the equatorial coordinate scale was preserved. To a great extent, it was due to the works of Friedrich Wilhelm Argelander (1799 - 1875) that the tradition of sky mapping revived through the end of the 19th and the whole 20th century and the constellations "returned" back to the sky together with their historic names. His fundmental work Uranometria nova (The New Uranometry), published in 1843, had truly formed a basis for the contemporary constellations' nomenclature and for a new structure of the celestial map, still actual at the present day. The total number of constellations was confined to 88, and their new borders, finally approved by the IAU World Congress in 1922, also came to coincide with the general outlines determined in the afore-cited work.

  20. Lietuvių ir lenkų istoriografija apie lietuvių mitologiją XIX a. pirmoje pusėje | Lithuanian and Polish historiography on Lithuanian mythology of the first half of the 19th century

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    Gintaras Beresnevičius

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the short-term “project” – to write Lithuanian mythology of one of the most influential public organisations of the 19th century in Vilnius – shubravci, which was close to masons. The majority of shubravci were quite positive about the “project” – Poles, Vilnius University professors – and chose pseudonyms of Lithuanian mythology characters by making a promise to collect material about each character. This rather marginal project among such people – the writing of mythology – was discussed in the publication Street News, Wiadomości brukowe, the official approach of the union to this idea from very enthusiastic transformed into very unacceptable and even became the object of mockery. However, the impulse of shubravci was captured by a lot of Lithuanians of the first quarter of the 19th century; later this idea was developed from Simonas Daukantas to Kajetonas Neazabitauskis, from D. Poška, to whom the idea of Vilnius professors became a “lightning-conductor” to his previous works. This idea among shubravci was supported by two persons – K. Kontrimas ir J. Šimkevičius; reaction in the union itself was fast, the idea was abandoned and suppressed. We can also observe the moment when processes which led to T. Narbutas, J. I. Kraševskis, S. Daukantas till Jonas Basanavičius ideology; the processes which contributed to the birth of liberation ideology at the beginning of XX century and were reiterated in the 20th century in Romuva and Ethos ideology line, which is still alive.

  1. Wives of 19th century deportees as organisers of family life in Siberia [Żony XIX-wiecznych zesłańców jako organizatorki życia rodzinnego na Syberii

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    Barbara JĘDRYCHOWSKA

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available 19th century deportations to Siberia have been one of the most painful experiences of Poles of that age and they are a permanent element of Polish history. Mostly due to the literature of Polish Romanticism, and then also of visual art, the lives of transUralian exiles has for a long time been presented only in the context of martyrdom. It was the Polish Sybiraks, returning to the homeland after many years, who have themselves changed this image. In their testimonies (memoirs, diaries, journals, letters published back in the 19th century, one can find interesting descriptions not only of everyday struggles with the difficult reality of the deportation but also about functioning in the community of deportees and their families. As Russian law allowed the deportees to Siberia to be accompanied by their wives, some of them voluntarily went for “katorga” (deportation or occupancy with their husbands. Most of them had decided to take their children with them. After crossing the Ural mountains they were subject to the same restrictions as were the convicts – they could return to the homeland only after their husbands have served their deportation sentences or after they had died. They strived to make their families’ lives in exile not very distinct from the life in freedom: they took care of the households, raised children, personally educated them or organised secret lessons. They prepared in their houses religious and national holidays, concerts and children’s theatres. Their giving up of a comfortable life in the homeland and the decision of a Siberian exile along with their husbands had been a part of the romantic image of the Polish woman–patriot, but it was also an expression of love and dedication for the family.

  2. Russian Contribution to the International Kant Studies from the Late 19th Century until the Present Day: An Analysis of Publications in “Kant-Studien”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Salikov

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This article gives a general characteristic of the publications of the Russian philosophers in the oldest Kantian Journal “Kant-Studien”. The study embraces the entire period of the existence of this magazine, from the very beginning down to our days. In general, after compiling all materials related to Russia published in “Kant-Studien”, I became aware of get a picture of a significant presence of Russian philosophers in this periodical. This gives me a good reason to conclude that even if the impact of the Russian philosophical thought on the international Kant studies was not decisive, then, at least, it was tangible. This influence was due to the phenomenon which was later called the “Silver Age of Russian philosophy”, as well as the phenomenon of Russian emigration, arising as a result of wars and revolutions in Russia and the exodus of the Russian philosophers of the West, where one of their main initial shelters was Germany.

  3. A tale of two commons. Some preliminary hypotheses on the long-term development of the commons in Western and Eastern Europe, 11th-19th centuries

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    Miguel Laborda Pemán

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we present our hypotheses regarding the divergence in the development of common-property regimes between Eastern and Western Europe. The latter area developed formalized arrangements for the collective exploitation of natural resources particularly early, and it was chosen not only by farmers, but also in the cities – by craftsmen – to deal with the economic and social problems during the late medieval and early modern times. In the East the development of such institutions for collective action started – we believe – much later, due to a number of factors. Whereas in the West population growth and urbanization occurred together with a speedy commercialization of the economy, putting pressure on natural resources and hence leading to an increasing demand by peasants to formalize the collective use of their land, the peasants east of the Elbe River lacked the agency to demand such change in the governance regime of their land. They were limited in their behaviour by the strictures of the second serfdom, which was accompanied by lesser urbanization and commercialization. In this article, we offer some explanatory frameworks to understand and study this long-term development – or lack thereof – of institutions for collective action across the European continent.

  4. Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR FT-IR) Spectroscopy as a Forensic Method to Determine the Composition of Inks Used to Print the United States One-cent Blue Benjamin Franklin Postage Stamps of the 19th Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brittain, Harry G

    2016-01-01

    Through the combined use of infrared (IR) absorption spectroscopy and attenuated total reflectance (ATR) sampling, the composition of inks used to print the many different types of one-cent Benjamin Franklin stamps of the 19th century has been established. This information permits a historical evaluation of the formulations used at various times, and also facilitates the differentiation of the various stamps from each other. In two instances, the ink composition permits the unambiguous identification of stamps whose appearance is identical, and which (until now) have only been differentiated through estimates of the degree of hardness or softness of the stamp paper, or through the presence or absence of a watermark in the paper. In these instances, the use of ATR Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) spectroscopy effectively renders irrelevant two 100-year-old practices of stamp identification. Furthermore, since the use of ATR sampling makes it possible to obtain the spectrum of a stamp still attached to its cover, it is no longer necessary to identify these blue Franklin stamps using their cancellation dates. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Combined Survey Format (CSF) Archaeogeophysical (Metal Detecting, Radiometrics and Resistivity) and Archaeochemical (XRF) Investigations of the 19th Century La Hacienda Y Presidio of Babocomari Military Site in Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundin, R. J.; Aydin, N.; Brackett, C.

    2007-05-01

    Recent archaeological investigations of Historic Era Mexican and Anglo-American and Prehistoric and Protohistoric Hohokam and Sobaipuri culture sites on the Babacomari Land Grant near Sierra Vista Arizona by Carothers Environmental, LLC (CE), Wondjina Research Institute (WRI) and DMG Four Corners Research (FCR) led to the discovery of two major 19th Century military sites that were known from the literature but had not been scientifically investigated. It was decided by WRI and BABACOMARI RANCH that this project was ideal for an experimental cooperative training program for archaeologists and geologists from the anthropology and geology departments of UA, ASU, NAU, PC, and members of AAS, AAHS, AAC, THS and USFS personnel in the use of the new CSF archaeogeophysical, archaeochemical and airbourne remote sensing technologies and field techniques that have just been recently introduced in the US. WRI, CE and Statistical Research Inc. (SRI) conducted CSF VLF Metal Detecting, Radiometrics and Resistivity studies and portable X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) archaeochemical studies. The results will be presented along with suggestions as to use of these technologies in CSF studies.

  6. School teaching of Spanish language in Andalucía on the Eve of the 19th Century: an introduction to the «Ortographic Dialogue» by A. Balbina Lozano

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    Lola PONS RODRÍGUEZ

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The Ortographic Dialogue by Antonio Balbina Lozano, a school teacher from Cádiz, is a little-known manuscript written at the end of the 18th century or the beginning of the 19th century. Meant to be used in schools, it summarizes Spanish spelling rules according to the Spanish Royal Academy in the 18th Century and the main parts of the sentence, and at the end provides an alphabetical list with doubtful spellings, especially for Balbina’s Andalusian pupils who had a dialectal pronunciation. This work is framed in the pedagogical context of the time in Andalucía and Spain, in the clash between the old First Reader Book from Valladolid and the new pedagogical methods of the Enlightenment. Furthermore, its sources are discussed: the works of the Spanish Royal Academy in the 18th century, above all the Ortography of the Castilian Language, but also the works by Mañer, Cortés Moreno, Palomares and Gayoso.

  7. Tribute and weapons in Bolivia. Indigenous communities and strategies of visibility citizen, 19th century Tributo y armas en Bolivia. Comunidades indígenas y estrategias de visibilización ciudadana, Siglo XIX

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    Marta Irurozqui Victoriano

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with national action and transforming political processes capacity exerted by the Bolivian indigenous communities during the 19th century from the performance of the civic functions trabajador-contribuyente and militia soldier. Did such activities subject and object of a complex process of improvement and desciudadanizacion in a context of suffrage based on which violence and the law helped in the process of institutionalization of the State.El artículo aborda la acción y la capacidad transformadoras de los procesos políticos nacionales ejercidas por las comunidades indígenas bolivianas a lo largo del siglo XIX, a partir del desempeño de las funciones cívicas de trabajador-contribuyente y de soldado de milicias. Tales actividades las hicieron sujeto y objeto de un complejo proceso de ciudadanización y desciudadanización en un contexto de sufragio censitario en el que la violencia y la ley coadyuvaron en el proceso de institucionalización del Estado.

  8. Fine particles and carbon monoxide from wood burning in 17th-19th century Danish kitchens: Measurements at two reconstructed farm houses at the Lejre Historical-Archaeological Experimental Center

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryhl-Svendsen, Morten; Clausen, Geo; Chowdhury, Z.

    2010-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) and particulate matter (PM2.5) were measured in two reconstructed Danish farmhouses (17-19th century) during two weeks of summer. During the first week intensive measurements were performed while test cooking fires were burned, during the second week the houses were monitored...... the first week the concentration Of PM2.5 averaged daily between 138 and 1650 mu g m(-3) inside the hearths and 21-160 mu g m(-3) in adjacent living rooms. CO averaged daily between 0.21 and 1.9 ppm in living areas, and up to 12 ppm in the hearths. Highest concentrations were measured when two fires were...... lit at the same time, which would cause high personal exposure for someone working in the kitchens. 15 min averages of up to 25 400 mu g m(-3) (PM2.5) and 260 ppm CO were recorded. WHO air quality guidelines were occasionally exceeded for CO and constantly for PM2.5. However, air exchange and air...

  9. New anthropological research on the urban population inhabiting the city of Iaşi during the medieval age. The necropolis of the Banu Church (16th-19th centuries

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    Vasilica-Monica Groza

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the authors present the results of a bioanthropological research conducted upon a small osteological series (67 skeletons unearthed from the necropolis of the old Banu Church, called at the time “The Falling Asleep of the Virgin Mary” Church. According to the information provided by those in charge of the digging (Stela Cheptea, PhD and C.S.I archaeologist and her collaborators, the necropolis was used from the first half of the 16th century to the beginning of the 19th century. The unearthed osteological material is mostly derived from reinhumation tombs and includes 67 skeletons or skeletal remains, of which 18 children (0-14 years: approximately 27%, three adolescents (14-20 years: approximately 4%, two adults, 40 matures (approximately 60% and four seniles. The average life span, both for the entire series (0-x years and by gender (20-x years is similar to that of the late medieval populations who inhabited the Central Moldavian Plateau. The analysis of the conformative and morphoscopic biometric features revealed typological elements which indicate a Dinaric-Mediterranean-Alpine background, with rare Nordoid or East-Europoid influences. The Alpine elements give a distinctive mark to this population group.

  10. Cuerpos abandonados y rescatados. La educación física en los orfanatos españoles del siglo XIX. // Abandoned and rescued bodies. Physical education in Spanish orphanages during 19th century.

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    XavierTorrebadella-Flix

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available (ES La sociedad decimonónica española promovió la institucionalización asistencial de los niños expósitos. Los orfanatos se convirtieron en centros de formación en los que se desarrolló un currículo oculto con el objeto de proteger la infancia desamparada, pero también para el aprovechamiento biopolítico de una sociedad que para progresar necesitaba seres fuertes y dóciles. En estos centros de beneficencia se procuró una educación física a través de una gimnástica militarizada que trató de modelar una doctrina educativa ambigua y clasista al servicio de la sociedad dominante. // (EN The 19th century Spanish society promoted the institutionalization of foundlings’ assistance. The orphanages became training centres in which a hidden curriculum was developed ot only with the objective to protect helpless children, but also to make a better biopolitical use of a society which, to be able to advance, needed strong and docile citizens. In these types of charitable institutions, they introduced physical education through militarized gymnastics which tried to model an ambiguous and classist educational doctrine at the service of a dominant society.

  11. [Proceedings of the VII international symposium 'Cultural heritage in geosciences, mining and metallurgy : libraries, archives, museums' : "Museums and their collections" held at the Nationaal Natuurhistorisch Museum Leiden (The Netherlands), 19-23 May, 2003 / Cor F. Winkler Prins and Stephen K. Donovan (editors)]: Written reports on the effects of mining activities on the natural environment in Idrija in the 19th Century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Car, J.; Dizdarevic, T.

    2004-01-01

    The environmental conditions in the Idrija Mercury Mine and its broader surroundings were strongly affected in the first half of the 19th century by two disastrous pit fires. The fire could only be extinguished by flooding of the pit. The consequences of such flooding was extensive poisoning with

  12. Dateline USA: Settling the West, 1800-1900.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatton, Barbara; O'Laughlin, Michael

    1998-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography of titles related to the theme "Settling the West" which are appropriate for primary, elementary, and middle grades. Topics include overviews of Western history; early 19th century; the gold rush; the pony express; travelers by trail, rail, and ship; settling the West; cowboys and cattle; and the…

  13. Clear cutting (10-13th century) and deep stable economy (18-19th century) as responsible interventions for sand drifting and plaggic deposition in cultural landscapes on aeolian sands (SE-Netherlands).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Mourik, Jan; Vera, Hein; Wallinga, Jakob

    2013-04-01

    landscapes, characterized by deflation plains (gleyic arenosols) and complexes of inland dunes (haplic arenosols). Clear cutting was responsible for the mediaeval first large scale expansion of drift sand landscapes. In such driftsand landscapes, the majority of the podzolic soils in coversand has been truncated by aeolian erosion. Only on scattered sheltered sites in the landscape, palaeopodzols were buried under mono or polycyclic driftsand deposits. They are now the valuable soil archives for palaeoecological research. During the 18th century, the population growth and regional economic activity stimulated the agricultural productivity. Farmers introduced the innovative 'deep stable' technique to increase the production of fertilizers. Farmers started sod digging, including the top of the Ah horizon of the humus forms. This consequently promoted heath degradation and sand drifting, resulting in the extension of driftsand landscapes. Deep stable economy and sod digging was responsible for the 18th century second large scale expansion of drift sand landscapes. During the 19th century, farmers tried to find alternative fertilizers and authorities initiated reforestation projects. The invention of chemical fertilizers at the end of the 19th century marked the end of the period of heath management and plaggic agriculture. The heath was no longer used for the harvesting of plaggic matter and new land management practices were introduced. Heath was reclaimed to new arable land or reforested with Scotch pine. Geomorphological features as inland dunes and plaggic covers survived in the landscape and are now included in the geological inheritance.

  14. El juego de las apariencias: las connotaciones del vestido a fines del siglo XIX en la ciudad de México The game of appearances: clothing connotations by the end of the 19th century in Mexico City

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    Florencia Gutiérrez

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Las elites porfirianas de fines del siglo XIX intentaron transformar determinados hábitos y conductas de las clases populares de la ciudad de México por considerar que contravenían las exigencias de la civilización y el progreso y retrasaban la consolidación de la urbe capitalina como referente de la modernidad. En este contexto, el deseo por modificar los atuendos y costumbres higiénicas de los sectores populares constituyó una preocupación destacada de la administración de Porfirio Díaz. El objetivo de este artículo es analizar las connotaciones que la indumentaria tuvo para la dirigencia mexicana y estudiar las respuestas sociales frente a las coerciones destinadas a modificar la forma de vestir y asearse de ciertos segmentos de la población capitalina.Late 19th-century elites tried to change certain habits and behaviour of Mexico City's popular classes, which were considered to run counter to the demands of civilization and progress thus delaying the consolidation of the capital city's urbanization as a referent of modernity. In this context, the wish to modify clothes and hygiene habits of popular sectors became a paramount concern for Porfirio Diaz's administration. The aim of this article is to analyze the connotations clothing had for Mexico's leading sectors and to study the social response to the coercion destined to alter dressing and sanitation habits in a given group of capital-city dwellers.

  15. "Cartas a uma senhora": questões de gênero e a divulgação do darwinismo no Brasil Gender and public understanding of science: darwinism in the 19th century Brazilian press

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    Moema de Rezende Vergara

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Os recentes trabalhos sobre a história da divulgação científica no Brasil têm praticamente ignorado a categoria de gênero em suas análises. Assim, este artigo pretende fazer uma contribuição ao se constituir num estudo sobre uma prática específica de divulgação científica dos oitocentos, como as "cartas a uma senhora" escritas por Rangel S. Paio e publicadas n'O Vulgarizador. Nesse sentido, o conceito de gênero auxiliaria na compreensão das tensões entre o masculino e o feminino numa série de cartas de divulgação científica, na qual o conteúdo de gênero foi dado de antemão pelo próprio autor, ao direcionar sua atenção para o público de senhoras no Brasil do Segundo Reinado.In the recent works about Brazilian public understanding of science, gender has been poorly used as an analytical category. This paper has as its main goal to bridge this gap by analyzing a section called 'Letters for a Lady', in the journal O Vulgarizador that sought to teach all about Darwinism to women in the Brazil of the 19th century. So the notion of gender will help us understand the tension between masculinity and femininity in the text written by the literary critic Rangel S. Paio.

  16. [Changes of medico-pharmaceutical profession and private practice from the late 19th century to the early 20th century: ebb and flow of western pharmacies and clinics attached to pharmacy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Heung-Ki

    2010-12-31

    This article examined i) how traditional medico-pharmaceutical custom from the late 19th century influenced such changes, ii) how medical laws of Daehan Empire and early colonial period influenced the differentiation of medico-pharmaceutical profession, and iii) what the responses of medico-pharmaceutical professionals were like, and arrived at following conclusions. First, in late Chosun, there was a nationwide spread of pharmacies (medicine room, medicine store) as general medical institutions in charge of prescription and medication as well as diagnosis. Therefore, Koreans' perception of Western medicine was not very different from that of traditional pharmacy. Second, Western pharmacies were established by various entities including oriental doctors, Western doctors and drug manufacturers.Their business ranged from medical consultation, prescription, medication and drug manufacture. This was in a way the extension of traditional medico-pharmaceutical custom, which did not draw a sharp line between medical and pharmaceutical practices. Also, regulations on medical and pharmaceutical business of Daehan Empire did not distinguish oriental and Western medicine. Third, clinics attached to pharmacy began to emerge after 1908, as some Western pharmacies that had grown their business based on selling medicine began to hire doctors trained in Western medicine. This trend resulted from Government General's control over medico-pharmaceutical business that began in 1908, following a large-scale dismissal of army surgeons trained in medical schools in 1907. Fourth, as specialization increased within medico-pharmaceutical business following the colonial medical law in early 1910s, such comprehensive business practices as Western pharmacy disappeared and existing businesses were differentiated into dealers of medical ingredients, drug manufacturer, patent medicine businessmen and herbalists. And private practice gradually became the general trend by establishment of medical

  17. Contribution of pharmacists to the Development of Healthcare culture in Vranje by the end of the 19th century and in the first half of the 20th century

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    Arsić Jasmina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Healthcare enlightenment and healthcare culture in Vranje and its region were under Turkish influence until the liberation in 1878, when the organization of education, schooling and healthcare were initiated in the Vranje region Objective. The aims of this study were to shed light on the beginning of the development of pharmaceutical personnel, and their contribution to healthcare culture development in Vranje and its region, with a focus on healthcare legislation and its impact on pharmaceutical service availability, and the analysis of pharmaceutical personnel development within the healthcare services. Methods. We used the methods of documentation analysis and the desk analysis of the secondary information. Results. At the beginning of the 19th century healthcare services in Vranje were still inexistent. After the liberation from the Turks, Naum’s medical office with pharmacy was opened in Vranje. Although it did not comply with regulations, it presented the only formal source of supply of medications and sanitary material, and as such it gave its contribution to healhcare service at that time in Vranje. Mr ph. Stevan Varjacic, 1st class pharmacy assistant, worked at a temporary hospital from 1880 until January 1881, suppling with medications soldiers and residents of Vranje. The development of pharmaceutical schooling began in 1883, when a pharmacy was opened by the pharmacist Velimir Karic according to the Law on Healthcare Organization and People’s Healthcare Maintenance. By the end of the 1930s there were ten civilian healthcare institutions in Vranje, even three of which were pharmacies. By the end of 1948, they were nationalized, and were renamed the City National Pharmacy of Vranje. Conclusion. By the end of the 10th century, passing of the legislation on the regulations of pharmaceutical industry within healthcare services had an impact on Vranje that resulted in opening pharmacies with educated pharmaceutical

  18. Once Again to the Question of the Hordes’ Color Terms in the Ulus of Jochi (the Boz-Horde term in the sources of the 16th–19th centuries »

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    I.A. Mustakimov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Article discusses the features of using the term of Boz Horde in the territory of the ulus of Jochi. By involving the Turkic and Mongolian sources of the 16th–19th centuries, the author compares the term of Boz Horde with widespread color designations of Aq Horde and Kok Horde that were used in the Golden Horde. Thus, the author attempts to clarify the semantics, time, and circumstances of the emergence of this color term. Initially, there was a legend in the Dasht-i Kipchak about how Genghis Khan granted Batu and Ordu, the eldest sons of Jochi, with Aq Horde and Kok Horde symbolizing the two wings of the ulus of Jochi. According to the author, the emergence of the term of Boz Horde could be associated with the strengthening of Shibanids in the Golden Horde and the need to justify their claim to the throne of Sarai in the second half of the 14th century. Later, as a result of the Golden Horde dissolution and degradation of possessions of the heirs of this State, along with the term of “Aq Horde”, the term of “Boz Horde”, apparently, began labeling in general the khan’s yurt / horde / inheritance without specific dynastic affiliation of particular khan. On the other hand, it should be noted that the white color was not only a symbol of the White Horde precedence over the Blue Horde in the wings’ system of the “White Horde – Blue Horde”, but could also be used outside this dichotomy along with the term of the Golden Horde, as equivalent to the term “great, regal”. Thus, we can assume that the representatives of different Jochid branches could appropriate the term of Aq Horde for reasons of prestige in a changing political environment of the ulus of Jochi.

  19. Eesti patsient. Haiguse ja haige inimese kujutamise mudel 19. sajandi eesti kultuuris ja kirjasõnas. The Estonian Patient: A Model for the Representation of Illness and the Ill in 19th Century Estonian Culture and Letters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janek Kraavi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The portrait of the 18th and 19th century „Estonian patient” sketched in this article is a theoretical model of the ill person, based mainly on literary texts, but with reference to a variety of scientific and popular-scientific material. The point of departure is the classic postcolonial theorist, Frantz Fanon, in whose writings medicine, healing, and discourse on such topics are seen as the functioning of a specific colonial practice. The most notable characteristic of the figure of the Estonian patient is non-communicativeness. Communication is avoided and feared primarily because it has to be directed toward those in higher positions of power, or to institutions that embody power (the apothecary, the hospital. While these traits also characterize the separation between peasants and their rulers more generally, in a situation of illness the exclusion is felt with a double intensity. Sickness casts the peasant in a double bind: when in need of help or healing, contact across the divide between social rank, and – more broadly, between two cultures and ways of understanding the world, becomes unavoidable. In such situations, illness signifies an intensification of the gap in social standing. The ill person, who already stands on a lower rung of the social hierarchy, becomes all the more marginalized. In keeping with these observations, the real reason behind indecisiveness and refusal of medical treatment may well be an effort to avoid or postpone humiliation on the basis of lower social standing. Other contributing factors might include unconscious resistance – or even a conscious model of resistance – in the psyche, which manifests as an avoidance of communication. The content and motivating force for the model is not heroism, but rather a sense of shame. Indeed, behind the context of medical culture lurks ethnic and material isolation. The individual’s economic situation, living conditions, education and – most important – his

  20. A three-variable chaotic system for the epidemic of bubonic plague in Bombay by the end of the 19th century and its coupling to the epizootics of the two main species of rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangiarotti, Sylvain

    2016-04-01

    A plague epidemic broke out in Bombay by the end of the 19th century. A committee was first appointed by the Bombay City [1] in order to stop the epidemic before the rain season started. Unfortunately, the disease could not be stopped and the epidemic became endemic. After several years, another Advisory Committee [2] was appointed that tried to investigate the causes of plague in all possible directions. An impressing quantity of information was gathered during the period 1907-1911 and published. In particular, it was noticed that the epidemic was systematically preceded by epizootics of rats. For this reason, the populations of the main species of rodents were systematically monitored. This data set is revisited here by using a multivariate version of the global modeling technique [3]. The aim of this technique is to obtain a set of Ordinary Differential Equations directly from time series. Three observational time series are considered: the number of person died of bubonic plague per half month (1), and the number of captured infected black rats Mus rattus (2) and brown rats Mus decumanus (3). Several models are obtained, all based on the same algebraic basic structure. These models are, either directly chaotic, or close to chaos (chaos could easily be obtained by tuning one model parameter). The algebraic structure of the simplest model obtained is analyzed in more details. Surprisingly, it is found that the interpretation of the coupling between the three variables can be done term by term. This interpretation is in quite good coherence with the conclusions of the Advisory Committee published one hundred years ago. This structure also shows that the human action to slow down the disease during this period was obviously effective, although insufficient to stop the epidemic drastically. This result suggests that the global modeling technique can be a powerful tool to detect causal couplings in epidemiology, and, more generally, among observational variables from

  1. Brief communication "Historical glacier length changes in West Greenland"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leclercq, P.W.; Weidick, A.; Paul, F.; Bolch, T.; Citterio, M.; Oerlemans, J.

    2012-01-01

    Past glacier fluctuations provide insight into glacier dynamics, climate change, and the contribution of glaciers to sea-level rise. Here, the length fluctuations since the 19th century of 18 local glaciers in West and South Greenland are presented, extending and updating the study by Weidick

  2. Journal of Mormon History Vol. 17, 1991

    OpenAIRE

    1991-01-01

    TWENTY-FIFTH YEAR REFLECTIONS --Taking Stock: The Mormon History Association after Twenty-five Years Davis Bitton, 1 --A Community of Heart Paul M. Edwards, 28 --In Praise of Amateurs Leonard J. Arlington, 35 --"Feme Covert": Journey of a Metaphor Carol Cornwall Madsen, 43 --The Mormon Message in the Context of Maori Culture Peter Lineham, 62 --Hiram Clark and the First LDS Hawaiian Mission: A Reappraisal Donald R. Shaffer, 94 --Waging Holy War: Mormon...

  3. Pensar o homem como corpo: a cunhagem Simbólica em Portugal e Espanha (século 19 - Thinking man as body: symbolic coinage in Portugal and Spain (19th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Viegas Brás

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo investigamos a construção do corpo pelos manuais de civilidade publicados em Portugal e em Espanha no século 19. Os manuais de civilidade constituíram um mecanismo de poder-saber disciplinador da burguesia em ascensão eque marcaram certo processo de subjectivação. A partir do corpo estabeleceu-se uma nova ordem, que elevou o orgânico ao funcional e simbólico, em sintonia com a classe burguesa em ascensão, e que buscou orientar cada indivíduo a constituir-se como um sujeito moral, dando-lhe distinção e prestígio.Palavras-chave: corpo, história, manuais, civilidade.THINKING MAN AS BODY: SYMBOLIC COINAGE IN PORTUGAL AND SPAIN (19TH CENTURYAbstractIn this paper, we study the construction of the body through civility course books published in Portugaland Spainin the 19th century. The civility course books were a mechanism of power-knowledge relationship disciplinary of the rising bourgeoisie which un le as he da certain process of subjectivity. From the body a new order was set up, which raised the organic to functional and symbolic-in line with the growing bourgeois class-and guide de ach individual to establish him/herself as a moral subject, giving him/her distinction and prestige.Key-words: body, history, manuals, civility.PENSANDO EN EL HOMBRE COMO CUERPO: INVENCIÓN SIMBÓLICAEN PORTUGAL Y ESPAÑA (SIGLO 19ResumenEn este trabajo, investigamos la construcción del cuerpo a través de los manuales de civilidad publicado en Portugal y en España en el siglo 19. Los manuales de civilidad eran un mecanismo de poder-saber disciplinador de la burguesía naciente que marcaron cierto proceso de subjetividad. Partiendo del cuerpo, si establece un nuevo orden que eleva el orgánico al funcional y simbólico, según la naciente burguesía, y que guío a cada individuo para constituirse como sujeto moral, dándole prestigio y distinción.Palabras-clave: cuerpo, historia, manuales, civilidad.PENSER L'HOMME COMME CORPS

  4. Aprendendo a ser professor(a no século XIX: algumas influências de Pestalozzi, Froebel e Herbart Learning to be a teacher in the 19th century: influences from Pestalozzi, Froebel, and Herbart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Jane Alves Durães

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available No final do século XVIII e, sobretudo, ao longo do século XIX, com as teorias de Pestalozzi, Froebel e Herbart, foram modificadas radicalmente as concepções de professor(a, ensino e método. Essas mudanças propiciaram o que hoje em dia se entende por escola moderna. Dos reflexos das teorias propostas por esses três pedagogos, este estudo tem por objetivo apresentar, especificamente, algumas mudanças e sugestões relativas à formação de professores e professoras para a escola primária a partir dos centros de formação e/ou escolas normais. Entre as qualidades requeridas para eles e elas encontravam-se as características de cuidado, afetividade e carinho para com os meninos e meninas. Com a influência das ciências da educação (sobretudo da Pedagogia e da Psicologia, as escolas normais disseminaram novas concepções sobre a infância e passaram a propagar modelos pelos quais a prática do professor(a deveria ser regida: racionalidade científica mesclada com atributos femininos. Em consequência, o espaço da sala de aula passou a ser, cada vez mais, evocado como ideal para as mulheres. Em suma, a discussão aqui realizada se centra na análise iniciada por Pestalozzi sobre o conceito de mulher como mãe-educadora e o fato de que Froebel foi o primeiro a incorporá-la como profissional da educação.At the end of the 18th century and, particularly, during the 19th century, with the theories by Pestalozzi, Froebel, and Herbart, the conceptions of teacher, teaching, and method were radically changed. These changes resulted in what is today understood by modern school. Out of the consequences of the theories proposed by these three pedagogues the present article intends to present, specifically, some changes and suggestions related to the formation of teachers for primary education at formation centers and/or normal schools. Among the qualities required of teachers were traits of care, affectivity and tenderness towards young boys

  5. Between tradition and innovation: the anthropoligical investigation of Karl von den Steinen in the region of the Xingú headwaters (1883-1887 and their significance for the German Americanism of the 19th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebok, Sandra

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This essay attempts to analyze the anthropological and ethnographical studies realized by the German traveller and scientist Karl von den Steinen at the end of the 19th century in the region of the river Xingu in Central Brazil. First a short overview will be given of both expeditions directed by him and their scientific concerns. Then the ideological and thematical orientation of the americanism of this epoch will be contrasted with the research undertaken by Karl von den Steinen in Brazil, in order to illustrate the ways in which he worked in the tradition of his time and in which aspects he departed from this framework and effected innovations in his research. After this analysis of the contributions of Karl von den Steinen to the development of German americanism, this article focuses on the question of, to which point his studies are still relevant today and if his methodology and its results continue to be valid in our time. Finally, the relationship of his ideological orientation with those of his predecessors and his successors will be thematized in order to explore Karl von den Steinen’s influences and whom he, in turn, influenced.Este artículo analiza los estudios antropológicos llevados a cabo por el viajero y científico alemán Karl von den Steinen a finales del siglo XIX en la región del río Xingú en Brasil Central. En primer lugar se ofrece una breve introducción sobre las dos expediciones por él dirigidas así como sobre los intereses científicos que las motivaron. A continuación se contrapone la orientación ideológica y temática del americanismo de la época con la investigación de Karl von den Steinen en Brasil, con objeto de ver en qué sentido ha trabajado siguiendo las pautas metodológicas habituales de su época y en qué aspectos ha abandonado ese marco tradicional a fin de desarrollar innovaciones en la investigación. Tras este análisis de la contribución de von den Steinen al desarrollo del

  6. O Suicídio: reavaliando um clássico da literatura sociológica do século XIX Durkheim's Suicide: reassessment of a classic from 19th-century sociological literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everardo Duarte Nunes

    1998-01-01

    reference to the main authors that have studied it. Amongst other qualities, the book's importance lies in the fact that it associates an elaborate theoretical construction with the empirical data, working within the possibilities provided by late 19th-century moral statistics. The article stresses Durkheim's perspective of dealing with the impact of the macrostructures over micro-level phenomena. The distribution of suicides is also reviewed, updating information and the relationship between suicides and professional groups, for example. The paper also provides a critique of authors who stress the importance of "meanings" in the analysis of suicides, with some notes on the relationship between suicide and mental disease.

  7. XIX. Yüzyılda Doğu Akdeniz’de İngiliz-Fransız Rekabeti ve Osmanlı Devleti British-French Rivalry and Ottoman Empire in Eastern Mediterranean in 19th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durmuş AKALIN

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available East Mediterranean is an important and strategic region at theintersection of Asia, Africa and Europe. Many states and societies havebeen inhabiting in Eastern Mediterranean. Ottoman Empire was themost significant country in this area in 19th century and before. Therewas peace and comfort in Eastern Mediterranean with Ottoman rulewhich the most prominant power in the region. But political tusslestarted up because of European (especially British and French power’sinterest on the area. At the same time, the recession of Ottoman Empireaccelerated this course.British and French were two of the most important actors inEurope in 19th century. These two powers were interested in Asia andAfrica because of Indian Road and colonialism. Especially, EasternMediterranean was at the key point here. Hereinafter, these two powersbattled on Cyprus, Egypt, and all East Mediterranean coasts and thisstruggle effected Ottoman Empire and its policies.The British-French rivalry which affected Ottoman Empirefocused on particular aspects. One of the most important rivalry areaswas the concern about being the superior on seas. Being superior onseas which was considered as one of the most important measure ofbeing a great government became a subject of rivalry between twogovernments. Another rivalry subject was to be able to be influential onOttoman Empire’s lands. The land around Middle east and EastMediterranean coasts which was increasing in value and where theOttoman government was in difficulty about management became morevaluable. The rivalry was not limited at this region but also became asubject in the agenda and discussion of Europe.While Ottoman Empire was in endeavor of survive which was themost important problem of it, the ownership rivalry of British andFrench even other Europan Powers on East Mediterranean is verystriking. Although Ottoman Empire was very weak in military andfinancial aspects, it continued to compete. The British-French rivalry on

  8. Faculdades da alma e suas implicações para a educação: saberes divulgados no século XIX Faculties of the soul and their implications for education: knowledges circulated in the 19th century

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    Raquel Martins de Assis

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo descreve resultados de uma pesquisa que buscou investigar como o tema das faculdades da alma e de suas implicações no desenvolvimento humano e na educação da pessoa foi divulgado, ao final do século XIX, pela imprensa periódica. Esperando contribuir para a história da psicologia e da educação, o artigo apresenta a análise de escritos sobre educação moral e educação estética de uma Secção Scientífica ou Pedagógica assinada por José Miguel de Siqueira e publicada no jornal O Baependyano (1877-1889. Inicialmente, são feitas breves descrições do periódico e de sua posição na conjuntura da época, bem como do lugar em que foi publicado. Em seguida, tratamos da definição de pedagogia apresentada pelo jornal, levando em consideração as apropriações de autores estrangeiros comumente presentes no campo da educação. A pedagogia considerada moderna é definida em tais escritos como a expansão e o desenvolvimento das forças animais, racionais e morais do ser humano; sua finalidade seria a formação do homem social pronto para o trabalho e para o serviço da sociedade e do Estado. Partindo dessa discussão, abordamos as concepções de educação espontânea, educação regular e instrução contidas no periódico. A educação é entendida como a unidade entre cultura e instrução, sendo a cultura a principal responsável pelo direcionamento das faculdades da alma e pela formação moral; a instrução, por sua vez, é tomada como aquisição de conhecimentos, mas também desempenha um papel importante na formação de hábitos e costumes.The article describes the results of a research that investigated how the theme of the faculties of the soul and of their implications for human development and for the education of a person was made available in the late 19th century by the circulating press. In an attempt to contribute to the history of psychology and education, the article presents the analysis of

  9. Astronomy Teaching in Argentina in the 19th Century. (Spanish Title: La Enseñanza de la Astronomía en la Argentina del Siglo XIX.) O Ensino de Astronomia na Argentina no Século XIX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norberto Cornejo, Jorge; Santilli, Haydée

    2010-12-01

    Sarmiento believed that Copernican astronomy was one of the critical scientific disciplines to the formation of a "modern" citizen. In this work, we shall study astronomical science from two points of view: from the scientific knowledge and the educational presentation of such knowledge. Our study will address in Argentina in 19th century, starting from the initiative of Bernardino Rivadavia in 1821, who founded an astronomic observatory at Buenos Aires, until the first activities of the observatories at Córdoba and La Plata. On both lines, scientific and educative, we shall analyze the influence of positivist ideas. We shall highlight epistemological differences between both observatories, Córdoba's based on French positivism and La Plata's based on German positivism. We shall also show the different attitude of both observatories towards education. We shall see the way in which positivist ideas had great relevance in the training of elementary school teachers. We shall also establish the relevant influence of the socio-historical context over the astronomical development, and show that astronomy was a fundamental social factor at Argentina history. Domingo F. Sarmiento consideraba que la astronomía copernicana era una de las disciplinas científicas fundamentales para la conformación de un ciudadano "moderno". En este trabajo estudiaremos la ciencia astronómica desde dos vertientes: la referida específicamente al conocimiento científico y aquella vinculada con la presentación educativa de dicho conocimiento. Nuestro estudio se desarrollará en Argentina durante el siglo XIX, desde la iniciativa de Bernardino Rivadavia en 1821, de establecer en Buenos Aires un observatorio astronómico, hasta las primeras actividades de los observatorios de Córdoba y de La Plata. En ambas vertientes, científica y educativa, analizaremos la influencia de las ideas positivistas. Resaltaremos las diferencias epistemológicas entre los dos observatorios, orientado el primero

  10. Journal of Mormon History Vol. 18, No. 1, 1992

    OpenAIRE

    1992-01-01

    PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS --The Mormon-RLDS Boundary, 1852-1991: Walls to Windows Richard P. Howard, 1 --Seniority in the Twelve: The 1875 Realignment of Orson Pratt Gary James Bergera, 19 --The Jews, the Mormons, and the Holocaust Douglas F. Tobler, 59 --Ultimate Taboos: Incest and Mormon Polygamy Jessie L. Embry, 93 --The Mormon Boundary Question in the 1849-50 Statehood Debates Glen M. Leonard, 114 --TANNER LECTURE Mormon "Deliverance" and the Closing of the...

  11. « This, I told myself, was really Africa ».Des territoires et des femmes. Récits féminins de voyage en Afrique Australe à la fin du XIXe siècle “This, I told myself, was really Africa”. Of Territories and Women.Women’s Travel Narratives in Late 19th Century Southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila Ommundsen

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In Victorian Britain, travel writing was informed by an unprecedented colonial expansion — in particular, the “scramble for Africa”— and the rise of the women’s movement in the late 19th century. Fuelled by the notions of motherhood and domesticity that characterized late imperial society, the presence of women in colonies served the purpose of domesticating the South. Yet, as geographical conquest merges with sexual conquest, the narratives of some female travellers in Southern Africa unveil unexpected territories that manifest specific territorialities. Although conjuring up feminist utopias, weren’t these female writers trying to construct a conspicuous literary ghetto?

  12. Collector at the Crossroads. Jan Działyński and the Kórnik Collection of Works of Art in the Second Half of the 19th Century: An Exhibition between the Romantic Spirit of Patriotism and a Modern Scientific Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kłudkiewicz, Kamila

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In the second half of the 19th century, a tendency for a scientific approach to collecting became visible in Europe. Collectors established contacts with art experts and art researchers in order to assemble works of high class. A Polish aristocrat, Jan Działyński, presented a collection of works of art in a specially prepared castle room of his family estate in Kórnik. The exhibition of his collection bears features characteristic for a systematic and scientific approach to collecting; nevertheless, certain elements still testify to inspiration in Romantic collecting of national tokens, popular at the beginning of the 19thcentury in Poland.

  13. Les Rȇves de la Fée Verte : L’absinthe dans les romans de la deuxième moitié du XIXe siècle (Dreams of The Green Fairy: Absinthe in The Novels of The Second Half of The 19th Century)

    OpenAIRE

    Eva Voldřichová Beránková

    2016-01-01

    Fabricated from the end of the 18th century, popularized after 1830 by French soldiers returning from Algeria, crowned the green fairy of the Parisian boulevards around 1860, the absinthe dominates the fin-de-siècle imagination as the principal means of transport “anywhere out of the world”. This article resumes the paradoxical mythology of this beverage that appears in French novels in the second half of the 19th century. Octave Féré, Jules Cauvain and the Goncourt brothers give a warning ag...

  14. Lo urbano-rural en la historiografía agraria rioplatense. Del final de la Colonia al inicio del siglo XIX/The Urban and the Rural in the Agrarian Historiography of the River Plate Area. From the End of the Colonial Period to the Beginning of the 19th Century/O urbano-rural na historiografia agrária rio-platense. Do final da Colônia ao início do século XIX

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ciliberto, María Valeria

    2014-01-01

    The traditional historiographical demarcation established a field of analysis for the rural history of the River Plate area during the Colonial period and the beginning of the 19th century that was...

  15. Lo urbano-rural en la historiografía agraria rioplatense. Del final de la Colonia al inicio del siglo XIX/The Urban and the Rural in the Agrarian Historiography of the River Plate Area. From the End of the Colonial Period to the Beginning of the 19th Century/O urbano-rural na historiografia agrária rio-platense. Do final da Colônia ao início do século XIX

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    María Valeria Ciliberto; Andrea Rosas Principi

    2014-01-01

      The traditional historiographical demarcation established a field of analysis for the rural history of the River Plate area during the Colonial period and the beginning of the 19th century that was...

  16. A Question That Counts in French West Indies Maritime Archaeology: Linking Historical and Archaeological Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Guibert, Jean-Sébastien

    2014-01-01

    International audience; This paper presents part of the results of historical research for a PhD thesis focusing on seafaring and maritime activityin Guadeloupe, French West Indies (FWI). Additionally, it discusses the possible identification of five shipwreck sitesthat appear to date to the 19th century: Anse à la Barque, Pointe-à-Pitre, Baie des Saintes, Sainte-Anne and Le Mouleshipwrecks.

  17. Cancer and total mortality among active Mormons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enstrom, J E

    1978-10-01

    Based on Church records for 15,500 California Mormons during 1968 to 1975 and for 55,000 Utah Mormons during 1970 and 1975, the ratio of age-adjusted death rates for religiously active Mormon males compared with U.S. white males is 38% for ages 35 to 64 years and 50% for ages 35 years and above. The remaining life expectancy for active Mormon men at age 35 is about 44 years, over 7 years greater than for U.S. white males. Their standardized mortality ratio is 50% for all cancer, being 23% for smoking-related cancer sites and 68% for all other sites. Active Mormons, defined here to be High Priests and Seventies, abstain almost completely from the use of tobacco, alcohol, coffee, and tea, but appear to be fairly similar to other white males with regard to socioeconomic status, urbanization, and diet. Active Mormons are healthier than Mormons as a whole and rank among the lowest in mortality when compared with other groups of healthy males.

  18. Exportul de mărfuri din Principatul Moldova în Imperiul Rus la sfârşitul sec. al XVIII-lea - începutul sec. al XIX-lea / The export of goods from the Principality of Moldova into the Russian Empire at end of the 18th century - the beginning of the 19th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Cereş

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available : In the given article the author analyzes the export of goods from the Principality of Moldova into the Russian Empire at the end of the 18th century - the beginning of the 19th century. As a result it was found that the main export goods in the trade between the Principality of Moldova and the Russian Empire during 1791-1812 were wine, salt, fresh and dried fruits, nuts, cattle, etc. The export of goods from the Principality of Moldova into the Russian Empire was not free from the influence of political factors. The analysis of unpublished archival sources allowed the author to conclude that export of goods from the Principality of Moldova into the Russian Empire at the end of the 18th century - the beginning of the 19th century had a permanent and traditional character. Therefore, the thesis by some researchers that during the Russo-Turkish War of 1806-1812 the Moldavian trade was reoriented from traditional European markets into Russian domestic market is incorrect.

  19. Eloquence (‘Beredsamkeit’ and Rhetoric (‘Rhetoric’ as Terms and Lexemes. The Concept of Rhetoric in the Dictionary Deutsches Wörterbuch of Jacob und Wilhelm Grimm in the Context of European Idea of the ‘National Language’ in the 19th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fee-Alexandra Haase

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the European heritage of rhetoric in the 18th century within the dictionary Deutsches Wörterbuch by the brothers Jacob und Wilhelm Grimm as a case of transformation of knowledge from the classical language of scholarship - Latin - to the vernacular of Germany in scholarly literature. The dictionary Deutsches Wörterbuch begun by the Grimm brothers was finally edited in the 20th century. It is a source for the historical terms used in the German language in the written and published books prior to the first half of the 19th century. The Deutsches Wörterbuch presents historical terms, which are documents of the usage of the German language since the time of Luther, and also newly created terms resulting from translations. The concept of «rhetoric» in the dictionary demonstrates this dichotomy. The effects this dictionary had on its readers’ understanding of language will be shown in contrast to other European movements of national identity in the 19th century.

  20. Mormon and Jewish views of the afterlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, David; Portner, Jodi; Sierra, Duvan

    2004-12-01

    In their responses to a questionnaire, undergraduates, 60 Mormons, viewed the afterlife as less pleasant than did the 37 Jews, while the Jews were more concerned with sin and judgment and more often believed in reincarnation.

  1. Mormons and Mormon History as Reflected in U.S. Government Documents. 1830 to 1907.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Carol W.

    This annotated bibliography contains over 250 sources on Mormons and Mormon history from 1830 to 1907 found in government publications. The nineteenth century documents reflect the controversy, issues, and sentiments concerning the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints, and with the twentieth century, mark a new era of tolerance and…

  2. Les Rȇves de la Fée Verte : L’absinthe dans les romans de la deuxième moitié du XIXe siècle (Dreams of The Green Fairy: Absinthe in The Novels of The Second Half of The 19th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Voldřichová Beránková

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Fabricated from the end of the 18th century, popularized after 1830 by French soldiers returning from Algeria, crowned the green fairy of the Parisian boulevards around 1860, the absinthe dominates the fin-de-siècle imagination as the principal means of transport “anywhere out of the world”. This article resumes the paradoxical mythology of this beverage that appears in French novels in the second half of the 19th century. Octave Féré, Jules Cauvain and the Goncourt brothers give a warning against its pernicious power, while Emile Zola’s attitude to the absinthe is more ambiguous. The magical potential of the green fairy seems to be tempting the father of naturalism who mixes science and mythology, the probable and the grotesque, the strict laws of heredity and the supernatural lightness of a blue flame coming from the “spontaneous combustion”.

  3. Alfabetizare politică prin lexic, instituții și modele teoretice englezești: România în a doua jumătate a secolului al XIX-lea (Political Literacy through English Lexic, Institutions and Models. Romania in the Second Hald of the 19th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana PATRAȘ

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present article endeavours to explore the political terminology of Anglo-Saxon origin, as well as to emphasize the influence of the Anglo-American political model through the analysis of some speeches delivered in various political contexts by the most appreciated Romanian orators of the 19th century. The assumption that, besides the interactions with French and German models, a third influence (the English, the British or the American may be taken into consideration has been already suggested by several historians’ research. However, our hypothesis is that the Anglo-Saxon model can be emphasized not only in the “archives” of immediate economic or diplomatic interests, but as a cultural „mediator” between the French culture’s “modelling influence” and the German culture’s “catalytic influence” (according to Lucian Blaga’s theories. The relationship between the beginning of the Romanian political civilization (the stage of political literacy and the Anglo-Saxon tradition shall be inquired from three perspectives: 1. As a step-by-step evolution; 2. As an ideal standard of political civilization; 3. As a mediation formula between opposite realities and principles (absolutism – democracy/ constitutional monarchy; centralisation – local autonomy/ federalism etc.. In the first part of the article, I propose a list of English words that are imported in the Romanian language of the 19th century and are put into circulation by the speeches delivered in the Romanian Parliament. In complementarity with the lexicographic analysis, I will emphasize the fragments where works by Edmund Burke, Benjamin Disraeli, William Ewart Gladstone, Thomas Babington Macauley, Thomas Hare, James Stuart Mill, Henry Wheaton and others are mentioned by the Romanian orators, and follow the track of their dissemination through either English originals or Romanian/ French translations.

  4. Evaluation of Little Ice Age cooling in Western Central Andes, suggested by paleoELAs, in contrast with global warming since late 19th century deduced from instrumental records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubeda, Jose; Palacios, David; Campos, Néstor; Giraldez, Claudia; García, Eduardo; Quiros, Tatiana

    2015-04-01

    small (averaging 0.05 and 0.12 °C) suggesting that the product GTV•ΔELA may be a good indicator of climate cooling during glacial expansion phases. However, the role played by precipitation has not yet been determined, and this will be examined in future research. Campos (2012). Glacier evolution in the South West slope of Nevado Coropuna (Cordillera Ampato, Peru). Master Thesis. Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain), pp. 55. http://eprints.ucm.es/19889/. García, E. (2013). Evolución glaciar del cuadrante noroeste del Nevado Coropuna. Master Thesis. Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain), p. 50. http://eprints.ucm.es/23671/. Giráldez, C. (2011). Glacier evolution in the South West slope of Nevado Hualcán (Cordillera Blanca, Peru). Master Thesis. Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain), p. 125. http://eprints.ucm.es/14013/. IPCC (2013). Climate Change 2013. The Physical Science Basis. Working Group I Contribution to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge (UK) y New York (USA), 1535 pp. Research funded by Cryocrisis (CGL2012-35858) and www.cryoperu.pe.

  5. 19th Century Textbook Illustrations - XLI, Hero's Fountain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenslade, Thomas B.

    1982-01-01

    Presents background information on and instructions for constructing a Hero's water fountain. Includes photographs of the apparatus from old textbooks and one in the collection of the National Museum of History and Technology at the Smithsonian Institution. (SK)

  6. 19th Century American Journals of Natural History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dexter, Ralph W.

    1976-01-01

    This article presents a brief list of journals containing information for historians and naturalists. The journals are presented in two lists from 1810-1875 and from 1876-1900. Each list is further classified into general natural history, microscopy, botany, entomology, conchology, ornithology, and geology and paleontology. (MR)

  7. The Transformation of International Law in the 19th century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lev, Amnon

    2011-01-01

    The chapter analyzes the structural changes to the state system which took place in the aftermath of the Napoleonic Wars, giving rise to modern international legal discourse.......The chapter analyzes the structural changes to the state system which took place in the aftermath of the Napoleonic Wars, giving rise to modern international legal discourse....

  8. Why Read the Great 19th-Century Historians?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clive, John

    1978-01-01

    Clive comments on the literary power of Karl Marx (The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Napoleon), Alexis de Tocqueville (The Old Regime and the Revolution), Thomas Carlyle (French Revolution), and Jakob Burkhardt (The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy); and notes Macaulay's sensitivity to the "public mind" (History of England). (SJL)

  9. Hispanic women in doctoral medical education in 19th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Fernández-Cano

    2016-10-01

    Conclusions: A key conclusion is that Hispanic women have produced six pioneering dissertations of singular importance with a multidisciplinary medical scope covering the topics, such as women education, hygiene, ophthalmology, gynecology, and pharmacology.

  10. Digital data and the 19th century teratology collection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baljet, B.; Oostra, R. J.

    1999-01-01

    The golden age of descriptive teratology (congenital anomalies) was between 1750 and 1850. During that period, the study of human congenital malformations, especially those dramatic examples designated as 'monsters', attracted special attention. One of the finest collections in this field was Museum

  11. 19th Century Christian Benevolence and the Unwritten Constitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-01

    steady loyalty over sporadic displays of zeal. The board of managers wanted to induce greater regularity into ABS operations, knowing that immigration...as 1820;42 the idea of paid, full-time employees gained the attention of some within the organization. The British and Foreign Bible Society had made...proof rested with the whistleblowers to supply a reason why institutionalized 109 3 0 t•h Annual Report, (87) 蔾 3 0 th Annual Report, (220-224

  12. Absinthism: a fictitious 19th century syndrome with present impact

    OpenAIRE

    Lachenmeier Dirk W; Padosch Stephan A; Kröner Lars U

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Absinthe, a bitter spirit containing wormwood (Artemisia absinthium L.), was banned at the beginning of the 20th century as consequence of its supposed unique adverse effects. After nearly century-long prohibition, absinthe has seen a resurgence after recent de-restriction in many European countries. This review provides information on the history of absinthe and one of its constituent, thujone. Medical and toxicological aspects experienced and discovered before the prohibition of ab...

  13. The ascent of Mary Somerville in 19th century society

    CERN Document Server

    Strickland, Elisabetta

    2016-01-01

    This biography traces the life and work of Mary Fairfax Somerville, whose extraordinary mathematical talent only came to light through fortuitous circumstances. Barely taught to read and write as a child, all the science she learned and mastered was self taught. In this delightful narrative the author takes up the challenge of discovering how Somerville came to be one of the most outstanding British women scientists and, furthermore, a popular writer. Particular attention is paid to the gender aspects of Somerville's success in what was, to put it mildly, a predominantly male domain.

  14. William Burchell's medical challenges: A 19th-century natural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The medical perspective on his travels has yet to receive attention. He identified and recorded illnesses of the indigenous peoples with whom he came into contact. He also described the medical care he administered to his companions and to himself; in doing so, he revealed a profound care for his 'fellow creatures'.

  15. William Burchell's medical challenges: A 19th-century natural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cartographer; his Map of the Extratropical Parts of Southern Africa was a milestone in the cartography of the country. Because of his knowledge of geology and keen observation, he discovered asbestos near Prieska. Burchell was an accomplished ethnographer and developed good relationships with the local inhabitants, ...

  16. Avô imigrante, pai lavrador, neto cafeicultor: análise de trajetórias intergeracionais na América Portuguesa (séculos XVIII e XIX Immigrant grandfather, farmer father, coffee producer grandson: analysis of intergenerational trajectories in the Portuguese America (18th and 19th centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Ribeiro de Oliveira

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo tem como ponto de partida o acompanhamento de três trajetórias individuais inseridas no contexto da história de Minas Gerais, entre os séculos XVIII e XIX. Analisaremos as formas de ascensão social e o processo de diferenciação desses indivíduos uma vez que suas origens não se prendiam às carreiras clássicas dos conquistadores, homens de negócios e burocratas. Ao longo prazo, estas trajetórias resultaram na integração dessas gerações a elite rural do sudeste brasileiro.The present article has as its starting point the following of three individual trajectories placed in the context of the history of Minas Gerais, between the 18th and 19th Centuries. We will analyze the forms of social ascension and the process of differentiation of these individuals since their origins did not stick to the classic carriers of the conquerors, business men and bureaucrats. In the long term, these trajectories resulted in the integration of these generations with the rural elite of the southeast region of Brazil.

  17. Escolas mistas, escolas normais: a coeducação e a feminização do magistério no século XIX Mixed and normal schools: coeducation and the feminization of teaching in Brazil in the 19th century

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    June E Hahner

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A presente discussão objetiva explorar aspectos históricos sobre o lugar da coeducação no momento em que o magistério primário passou da ocupação majoritariamente masculina, em meados do século XIX, para a ocupação feminina, no século XX. A educação de meninas e a feminização do magistério, ocorridas ainda no século XIX, são analisadas no fluxo das reformas que aconteceram no final do século XIX e só podem ser entendidas a partir da ideia de modernização instaurada no país, na transição do século XIX para o século XX.The discussion here presented aims at exploring historical aspects of the place of coeducation at the moment that elementary school teaching changed from a predominantly male occupation, in mid-nineteenth-century, to a feminine career in the 20th century. The education of girls and the feminization of teaching are analyzed as part of the reforms which took place at the end of the 19th century and which can be understood in the context of the spirit of modernization which characterized Brazil at the turn of the last century.

  18. Conformando uma Argentina leitora: educação pública, bibliotecas e mercado editorial entre fins do século XIX e meados do século XX Building a reading Argentina: state schools, libraries and the publishing market in late -19th century and in the first half of 20th century

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    Gabriela Pellegrino Soares

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo pretende lançar luz sobre políticas públicas de promoção da leitura que tiveram lugar na Argentina de fins do século XIX e primeira metade do XX, e sobre a forma como essas interagiram com o mercado editorial em desenvolvimento no país. A preocupação em cultivar e orientar desde cedo nos cidadãos a prática da leitura fez das crianças alvo privilegiado de iniciativas educacionais e editoriais, às quais dedicarei particular atenção.This article aims at shedding light on public policies of reading practices’ promotion, that took place in Argentina in late 19th century and in the first half of 20th century, and on the way they affected the country’s developing publishing market. The purpose of motivating reading practices since the citizens’ early years turned children into an important goal of educational and publishing initiatives, which shall here receive special focus.

  19. The realism between the image technologies and the scopic regimes: photography, cinema and the “imagery turnaround” of the 19th century O realismo entre as tecnologias da imagem e os regimes de visualidade: fotografia, cinema e a “virada imagética” do Século XIX

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    Daniel B. Portugal

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The article begins with a discussion of theoretical and methodological concerning about the relation between scopic regimes and image technologies. Then, it questions the objectivity of the notion of realism and, avoiding technological deterministic approaches, seeks to analyze some historical transformations that deeply affect the scopic regimes in the 19th century and that may help to explain why, in this specific moment, the development of the photography and afterwards, of the cinema became viable, thinkable and desirable. O artigo começa com uma discussão de cunho teóricometodológico acerca da relação entre regimes de visualidade etecnologias da imagem. Em seguida, questiona a objetividade da noção de “realismo” e, rechaçando o determinismo tecnológico, procura analisar algumas transformações históricas que afetaram profundamente os regimes de visualidade do século XIX e que podem ajudar a explicar porque, neste momento, tornou-se viável, pensável e desejável o desenvolvimento da fotografia e, posteriormente, do cinema.

  20. Appartenance confessionnelle et allégeances politiques : William Hale White (« Mark Rutherford » et l’évolution de la non conformité religieuse en Grande-Bretagne au XIXe siècle Denominational Membership and Political Allegiances: William Hale White and the Evolution of Religious Nonconformity in Great Britain in the 19th Century

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    Jean-Michel Yvard

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In his fictional autobiographical writings, William Hale White describes the agonies of religious doubt in the middle of the 19th century. But he also adopts a sociological approach in many of his narratives, in which the fragmentation of the British religious scene is described with great subtlety, and even irony. This article studies this dimension of his writings, proposing a few more contemporary perspectives concerning the differences that have characterized the link between religion and politics in France and in Great Britain.

  1. Identificação de termos oitocentistas relacionados às plantas medicinais usadas no Mosteiro de São Bento do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Identification of 19th century terms for medicinal plants used in the São Bento Monastery of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    Maria Franco Trindade Medeiros

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Em busca da identificação das plantas utilizadas na medicina do século XIX, este trabalho se deteve à análise dos seis códices intitulados "livros de receitas de medicamentos", depositados no Arquivo do Mosteiro de São Bento do Rio de Janeiro (Brasil. O levantamento foi concretizado através da leitura sistemática dos mesmos visando à elaboração de uma listagem geral dos termos que faziam alusão às plantas usadas na prática diária da enfermaria e botica (farmácia do mosteiro do Rio de Janeiro, no período de 1837 a 1840, 1860 e 1880. Assim, criou-se uma categoria de nomes populares presentes nas formulações, qual seja, a "referência direta", que passou a agrupar todos os nomes populares que faziam menção diretamente ao nome de um vegetal. Este grupo passou por um processo de identificação por meio de consulta à bibliografia especializada e de especialistas botânicos. Ao final desta etapa pode-se chegar às pistas taxonômicas referentes aos termos ligados às plantas. São, portanto, 150 referências diretas, das quais 92% (138 puderam ser identificadas botanicamente. Ao todo foram identificadas 152 espécies e variedades, pertencentes a 123 gêneros, englobados em 67 famílias. Estes documentos que versam sobre a prática médica brasileira, mais especificamente no tocante às plantas utilizadas em épocas passadas, constituem-se em fontes primárias de informação sobre o repertório de espécies conhecidas.In order to identify plants used for medicinal purposes in the 19th century, this work analyzed six codices entitled "books of medicinal formulations" kept in the archives of the São Bento Monastery of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The survey was carried out by way of a systematic reading of the six volumes and preparation of a list of terms that refer to plants used on a regular basis in the infirmary and pharmacy at the monastery in Rio de Janeiro from 1837 to 1840, and from 1860 to 1880. It was therefore possible to

  2. Islam and the West

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    Mohd. Kamal Hassan

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available The scientific and technological developments during the 18th and' the 19th centuries ensured material progress of the West, as well as emergence of the West as the dominating power which colonized the rest of the world. During the post-colonial phase, Islam emerged as a revitalized sociopolitical force. This has been mistaken as a threat by the West, and Islam has been portrayed as the "new enemy after the demise of communism. This is partly an effort to establish a Western identity, which is disintegrating due to lack of a challenge; and partly a reflection of the failure of Muslims to realize the social and ethical ideals of Islam.

  3. The Cortes of Cádiz in the first half of 19th Century Spanish Literature: Poetry (1810-1840 Las Cortes de Cádiz en la literatura española de la primera mitad de siglo XIX: la poesía (1810-1840

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    Alberto ROMERO FERRER

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article the author traces an outline of how literature portrayed the Cortes of Cádiz and their significance. After a brief presentation of the Cortes of Cádiz as a literary topic between 1810 and 1978; this article focuses on the perspective of poetic texts during the first half of the 19th Century; from the cultured creations of Quintana and Sánchez Barbero to Romantic authors such as the Duke of Rivas and the creations José Joaquín de Mora: an attempt is made to determine what persisted of the view of those events in the literature written during the Spanish Revolution and what was new in the literature written between 1814 and 1840 about the Cortes of Cádiz after it had ended.El autor traza en este artículo un breve panorama sobre la visión de la literatura en torno a las Cortes de Cádiz; dentro del contexto general de la Revolución española. Tras una introducción de corte más general sobre la reflexión literaria doceañista entre 1810 y 1978; se centra en la perspectiva del texto poético durante la primera mitad del siglo XIX; desde las creaciones cultas de Quintana y Sánchez Barbero hasta las creaciones románticas de autores como el duque de Rivas o José Joaquín de Mora: qué imagen pervive durante los años del proceso constitucional y cuál fue su trayectoria posterior; de 1814 hasta 1840. 

  4. La feminización de las masas: construcción de identidades sociales en la argentina de fines del siglo XIX The feminization of the crowds: construction of social identities in the argentina of the late 19th century

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    Yazmin Chayo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo realizar una lectura de Las multitudes argentinas de José María Ramos Mejía desde una perspectiva histórica, política y de género. Se realiza un análisis de las analogías presentes en la obra ya que contribuye a la comprensión histórica de la producción discursiva del autor. Se destacan aquéllas efectuadas entre las masas y las mujeres y, apelando a estudios históricos y de género, se contemplan aspectos del imaginario social acerca de éstas. La tesis sostenida en este trabajo, basada en la teoría de Ernesto Laclau, plantea que, en la obra Las multitudes argentinas, las analogías entre las masas y las mujeres constituyen un recurso retórico relevante que da lugar a un juego de equivalencias y diferencias que contribuye a la conformación de las identidades sociales de la Argentina finisecular.The goal of the present paper is to make an interpretation of José María Ramos Mejia's Las Multitudes Argentinas from a historical, political and gender point of view. An analysis is performed on the analogies present in his work, for it contributes to a historical understanding of the author's discursive production. Those made between women and the crowds are highlighted and, based on historical and gender studies, aspects of the social imaginary about these analogies are evaluated. The thesis sustained in this paper, based on Ernesto Laclau's theory, argues that, in Las Multitudes Argentinas, the analogies between women and the crowds constitute a relevant rhetorical device that allows for a game of differences and equivalencies that contributes to the conformation of the social identities of the late 19th century Argentina.

  5. Torrente de loucos: a linguagem da degeneração na psiquiatria portuguesa da transição do século XIX Torrent of madmen: the language of degeneration in Portuguese psychiatry at the close of the 19th century

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    Luís Quintais

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O propósito do presente artigo é mostrar a importância de um modelo das acções humanas fortemente naturalizado que, tomando por eixo uma explicação hereditária, terá sido amplamente usado pela psiquiatria portuguesa da transição do século XIX, em continuidade com o que se passava no contexto europeu. A 'degeneração' instituiu-se como uma espécie de mapa a partir do qual se classificou e descreveu experiências com contornos eventualmente ameaçadores para uma certa concepção de ordem social e política. Fenómenos vários, nosologicamente descritos de formas diferenciadas, viriam a ser integrados na linguagem da degeneração. O seu carácter expansivo e pretensamente metateórico viria a estar implicado na sua agonia, vindo a ser progressivamente substituído por um outro modelo, a psicanálise.The scope of this article is to show the importance of a highly naturalized model of human actions that, taking as its pivotal point a hereditary explanation, was widely used by Portuguese psychiatry at the close of the 19th century, in continuity with what was happening in the European context. 'Degeneration' was instituted as a species of chart, based on which experiences were classified and described with occasionally threatening contours for a certain conception of the social and political order. Various phenomena, nosologically described in differentiated forms, came to be integrated into the language of degeneration. Its expansive and supposed metatheoretical character became involved in its death throes, coming to be progressively replaced by another model, psychoanalysis.

  6. ¿El "salto" de la modernidad?: notas sobre literatura, mercado y modernización en el siglo XIX O salto da modernidade?: notas sobre literatura, mercado e modernização no século XIX The "leap" of modernity?: notes on literature, market and modernization in the 19th century

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    Hernán Pas

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available El presente texto propone una relectura de algunos aspectos centrales vinculados a la periodización cultural y literaria del siglo XIX - entre ellos, la cuestión del mercado, la tensión entre prensa y literatura, las demandas del nuevo público lector, los formatos y circuitos de circulación de los textos, los procesos de expansión de la lectura, la ideologización de las capacidades lingüísticas, la incidencia o experiencia de las políticas de alfabetización en la constitución de una cultura literaria o lectora - . A partir de la producción crítica e historiográfica de las últimas décadas, se bosqueja una revisión de algunos presupuestos teóricos y críticos sobre el proceso de modernización literaria en Latinoamérica y se tientan algunas hipótesis para la confección de nuevos enfoques relativos al tema.The present paper proposes a re-reading of some central aspects linked to the cultural and literary periodization of the 19th century - among them, the question of the market, the tension between press and literature, the demands of the new reading public, text formats and their channels of circulation, the processes of reading expansion, the ideologization of linguistic abilities, the impact (and the experience of literacy policies on the constitution of a literary or reading culture - . By looking at the critical and historiographical production of the last decades, a review of some theoretical and critical assumptions on the process of literary modernization in Latin America is sketched and some hypotheses are suggested for the elaboration of new approaches to the matter.

  7. 'Amas mercenárias': o discurso dos doutores em medicina e os retratos de amas - Brasil, segunda metade do século XIX 'Mercenary wet-nurses': the discourse of medical doctors and portraits of the wet-nurses - Brazil in the second half of the 19th century

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    Sandra Sofia Machado Koutsoukos

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Explora o tema das amas-de-leite em fotografias e teses dos doutores em medicina da segunda metade do século XIX. Os médicos de então condenavam o emprego indiscriminado de amas-de-leite e tentavam estimular a construção da imagem da 'nova mãe', que devia amamentar seus próprios filhos. Abordam-se a complexidade do assunto amamentação (por mãe, ama, animal ou objeto na época e os problemas dele decorrentes para as partes envolvidas: o bebê branco, o bebê negro, a ama, a mãe do bebê branco, a família senhorial abrangente e os doutores em medicina. Destacam-se fotos de amas com crianças, em atitude que se pretendia 'positiva', a demonstrar harmonia e afeto e, aparentemente, em contradição com os debates que envolviam seu emprego.The article explores the theme of wet-nurses using photographs and theses of medical doctors during the second half of the 19th century. The doctors at that time condemned the indiscriminate use of wet-nurses and tried to encourage construction of the 'new mother' image, one who ought to breast feed her own children. They approached the complexity of the feeding subject (by mother, wet-nurse, animal or object at that time and the problems arising from it for the parties involved: the white baby, the black baby, the wet-nurse, the mother of the white baby, the seignorial family involved and medical doctors. Photos are highlighted of wet-nurses with children in an attitude that was intended to be 'positive', to demonstrate harmony and affection and, apparently, contradicting the debates regarding them.

  8. Renovation, overpainting, inpainting: strategies of the painter-restorer in Portugal, from the 16th to 19th century. Ideological reasons for the iconoclast and the iconofylic practices, or the concept of «utilitarian restoration» versus «scientific restoration»

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    Vitor Serrão

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of Portuguese art during the Modern Age, and the very recurrent activity of «painting restoration», concludes that the dominant practice then referenced as «retoque» (inpainting, «repinte» (overpainting, «renovação» (renovation and even «restauro» (restoration, herein designated as «corrective and utilitarian restoration», was common to the best artists during the period between the 16th and the 18th centuries.Those interventions, which were commended by the church and the nobility, were nearly always considered a noble activity. The terminologies and the techniques then used are explained as well as the various reasons (moral, theological, aesthetic, decorous, and others for undertaking that type of work, which is assumed as the precursor of the 19th century «scientific restoration». «Renovation» criteria, iconoclast and iconofylic practice related to this «utilitarian restoration» are discussed herein and important figures of Portuguese painting such as Francisco Venegas, Diogo Teixeira, André Reinoso, António Pereira Ravasco, Francisco Vieira Lusitano, amongst others, were also «painters-restorers» within those existing concepts. It is further reminded that to be a «painter-restorer», always in the perspective of an artistic «re-creation», was a motive for added pride for artists such as Pietro Guarienti,Vieira Lusitano, Pereira Pegado or Inácio Coelho Valente.

  9. La disputa por el dominio del suelo en la región pampeana cordobesa, Argentina, segunda mitad del siglo XIX The Dispute for Land Control in the Pampas Region of Cordoba, Argentina, during the Second Half of the 19th Century

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    Luis Tognetti

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se indaga acerca del conflicto por el control de las tierras ganadas en la frontera, ubicadas en los extremos sureste y sur de Córdoba entre 1860 y 1880, territorio que fue incorporado bajo la soberanía del Estado por el avance del ejército durante los años sesenta. A partir de caracterizar la disputa por el dominio del suelo entre la nación y las provincias, se destaca la fragilidad del orden político surgido en la segunda mitad del siglo XIX y su dificultad para alcanzar una solución consensuada al problema aludido. En particular, se analiza el marco legal y las medidas complementarias que adoptó el Estado cordobés para declarar la propiedad fiscal sobre el suelo de la frontera. Asimismo, se practica un análisis detenido en torno al uso que tanto el sector público como los particulares hicieron de antiguos títulos coloniales para expandir el territorio o para apropiarse de la tierra.This paper explores the conflict over the control of land seized at the border, located in the far southeast and south of Cordoba between 1860 and 1880. This land was brought under state sovereignty by the advance of the army during the '60s. The description of the fight for the control of land between the nation and the provinces highlights the fragility of the political order that emerged during the second half of the 19th century and the difficulty of arriving at a consensual solution to the problem. In particular, it analyzes the legal framework and complementary measures adopted by the Córdoba state to declare the land on the border government property. It also conducts a detailed analysis of the use that both the public sector and private individuals made of old colonial property deeds to expand the territory or appropriate the land.

  10. O darwinismo e o sagrado na segunda metade do século XIX: alguns aspectos ideológicos e metafísicos do debate Darwinism and "the sacred" during the second half of the 19 th century: some ideological and metaphysical features of the debate

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    Juanma Sánchez Arteaga

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo analisa alguns aspectos ideológicos e metafísicos da transformação do imaginário ocidental sobre a origem da espécie humana - a velha questão, "quem somos?", respondida de formas diversas pelo cristianismo e pela biologia evolutiva - na segunda metade do século XIX. Nesse período passa-se do predomínio da antropogênese cristã ao das explicações evolucionistas. Analisa-se a confrontação histórica que teve lugar, nesse período, entre alguns dos principais defensores científicos do evolucionismo materialista - Haeckel, Clémence Royer e Huxley - e os defensores de uma antropologia anti-evolucionista e cristã. Analisam-se brevemente os pontos principais da crítica de Darwin à religião e algumas similitudes e discrepâncias de sua crítica ao pensamento religioso com relação à realizada por Marx no mesmo período. Determinados aspectos ideológico-metafísicos foram componentes essenciais do discurso darwinista na sua luta para se impor às narrativas do cristianismo sobre a origem do ser humano.This paper analyzes some of the ideological and metaphysical features of the historical transformation of Western imaginary on human origins, during the second half of 19th Century. In this period, predominance of the Christian Natural Theology accounts about anthropogenesis gave place to a new paradigm, based on evolutionary biological explanations. We thus analyze the historical confrontation that took place between prominent materialistic scientists - Haeckel, Royer, Huxley - defending evolutionary theories, on one hand, and advocates of a non-evolutionist anthropology linked to Christian believe in Creation, on the other. This paper analyzes the main features of Darwin's criticism of religious thought, based on naturalistic basis, and presents some similarities and differences with the critique of religion made by Marx in the same period. Darwinism included some metaphysical and ideological elements as essential parts of

  11. Melhor o cozinheiro? Um percurso sobre a dimensão de gênero da preparação da comida (Europa ocidental, séculos XVI-XIX A male cook, is it better? An overview on the gender dimension of cooking ( Western Europe, 16th to 19th centuries

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    Raffaella Sarti

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa a preparação da comida na Europa ocidental (séculos XVI a XIX, enfocando sua dimensão de gênero. São consideradas três principais variáveis: estratificação social, geografia e tempo. Sugere que na Itália, Espanha e França, no início do período moderno, os cozinheiros empregados nas cortes e pela aristocracia eram geralmente homens; a feminização da preparação da comida começou na França a partir do século XVIII. Na Europa central e do norte, as mulheres das classes mais altas estavam muito mais envolvidas na preparação da comida, embora a moda da cozinha francesa nos séculos XVII e XVIII tenha implicado no recurso crescente de homens cozinheiros. O artigo sugere explicações para essas diferenças e tendências através dos tempos, e discute o papel da nutrição e cozinha na definição da identidade feminina em contextos diferentes.This paper analyses the preparation of food in Western Europe (16th-19th centuries, focusing on its gendered dimension. Three main variables are considered: social stratification, geography and time. It suggests that in Italy, Spain and France in early modern times the cooks employed at the courts and by the aristocracy were generally men; a feminization of the preparation of food started in France from the 18th century onwards. In Central and Northern Europe women were much more involved in the preparation of food in the upper classes, too, even though the fashion for French cuisine in the 17th and 18th centuries implied a growing recourse to male cooks. The paper suggests explanations of these differences and trends over time and discusses the role of nurturing and cooking for the definition of the female identity in different contexts.

  12. Antiikvärsimõõdud eesti tõlgetes 19. sajandi lõpul – 20. sajandi esimesel poolel / Ancient Meters in Estonian Translations at the End of the 19th Century – the First Half of the 20th Century

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    Maria-Kristiina Lotman

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Although ancient verse has also been translated into Estonian with different non-equimetrical strategies, from the very beginning the equimetrical way of translation has prevailed, the purpose of which has been to convey the meter of a source text in the target text. Ancient meters are found in the Estonian tradition of translation from the end of the 19th century, when several authors undertook the translation of voluminous hexametrical texts. During the following decades, hexameter became an important meter both in original and translated poetry, first in accentual-syllabic or syllabic-accentual versification systems, later different quantitative forms were added. In the case of Estonian quantitative hexameter, a two-way evolution can be observed: the aim of the first direction is to accommodate hexameter in the prosodic reality of the Estonian language and develop a form that allows licences in the metrical structure rather than deform language, the aim of the second is to create a verse form, which, first of all, follows the patterns of ancient verse and, if necessary, forms artificial rules of quantity in order to accommodate Estonian language with the structure of hexameter.The incidence of other ancient meters, including different Ionic and Aeolic verse forms, is  considerably  lower.  During  the  obser  ved  period,  Aeolic meter s  are  conveyed  in  two  dif  fe -rent forms: in syllabic-accentual verse, where quantity plays only a rhythmic role, and syllabic-accentual-quantitative form, where the number of syllables is always strictly fixed, the distribution  of  accent s  is  governed  by  cer tain  rule s,  while  quantit y  is  more  impor tant  in strong positions and less regulated in weak positions.At the same time, we come across non-equimetrical translations as well, where instead of the original meter some other verse form has been chosen for the translation. Such rendition can be a functional

  13. 19. Yüzyıl Türkistan Şair ve Tarihçilerinden Mûnis’in Avaz Inak’a Mersiyesi Funeral Song (Mersiye That Was Written By Munis Who Turkistan Poetry And Historian In The 19th Century For Avaz Inak

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    Hayrullah KAHYA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The pathetic texts specifically express kindness and sorrowsbecause of deaths of famous people after their death as written in verse.This texts called sagu in Before Islamism Turkish Literature, ağıt inTurkish Public Literature, mersiye in Divan Literature. Funeral songsare important in Turkish literature. This sort of verses which are seenfrom Orhun inscriptions on which have been written caused by death ofmasters, princeses, statesmen and sultans.Despite availability of many works on the pre-classical period,especially the classical period of Chagatai Turkish, studies about thelast period of it are remarkably insufficient. The most important reasonfor this is that it had been hard to obtain the documents andinformation about the period given that the whole region was under thesovereignty of the Soviet Russia. In the post-Soviet period works on thisperiod increased rapidly.This study concerns funeral song (mersiye that was written byMunis Harezmi (1778-1829 who was a famous Uzbek poet andhistorian in the 19th century in consequence death of Avaz Inak (1791-1804 who was Khiva’s master. Avaz Inak is son’s Muhammad AminInak.In study, it has been given the knowledges about firstly biographyof Munis and then biography of Avaz Inak according to a handwrittenmanuscript that called Firdaws al-iqbal which was written by Munis.Lastly we have been dealt with funeral song (mersiye that was writtenby Munis Harezmi due to death of Avaz Inak. This poetry has beenwritten with the 19th century Chagatay Turkish which has beenreceived from manuscript copy of Istanbul of Firdaws al-iqbal.Mentioned poetry is style of terkib-i bend and it has nine bent. Besideswe were added vocabulary of the poem at end of the study. In theconclusion section the most remarkable linguistic features of the text arhighlighted. Meşhur kişilerin ölümlerinden sonra onların iyiliklerini, ölümlerinden duyulan acıları manzum olarak belli bir makamla ifade eden ac

  14. Sobre a varíola e as práticas da vacinação em Minas Gerais (Brasil no século XIX About smallpox and vaccination practices in Minas Gerais (Brazil in the 19th century

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    Anny Jackeline Torres Silveira

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa o impacto da varíola e da prática da vacinação antivariólica em Minas Gerais durante o período imperial brasileiro (1822-1889. Apesar da presença de órgãos que visavam à organização e à propagação da vacina no país desde o início do século XIX, identifica-se, pela documentação relativa à saúde pública produzida pelas autoridades provinciais, uma série de fatores de natureza administrativa e cultural que influenciaram negativamente na plena implementação quer da vacina quer da estrutura organizada no período visando à sua difusão. Seguindo as proposições da historiografia dedicada ao tema, discute-se que, apesar da tendência à centralização observada em diferentes esferas da administração no processo de estruturação do Estado Imperial, no âmbito da saúde e, particularmente, no âmbito do serviço de vacinação antivariólica, prevaleceu uma desarticulação entre os diferentes agentes responsáveis pela implementação e o controle desse serviço. Outro aspecto que contribuiu para as dificuldades relativas à implementação desse serviço foi a grande resistência da população em submeter-se à vacina e que pode ser entendida pela análise das percepções sociais construídas sobre a doença e o método da vacinação.This article discusses the impact of smallpox and vaccination practices used against the disease used in the province of Minas Gerais, in Brazil, during the Imperial Period (1822-1889. Despite the existence of services responsible for the organization and dissemination of the vaccine in the country since the early 19th century, some administrative and cultural factors, as identified in documents produced by the province's public health authorities at the time, had a negative impact upon the full implementation of both practice and organization of services aimed at the dissemination of smallpox vaccination. Based upon historiographic sources, it is argued that despite

  15. Estudantes ou ouvintes? O público das faculdades de letras e ciências no século 19 (1808-1878 - Pupils or listeners? The audience of the faculties of letters and sciencesin the 19th century (1808-1878

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Noguès, France

    2011-05-01

    formação nos cursos e generaliza para todos os estudantes inscritos as conferências e os trabalhos dirigidos que lhe são reservados.Palavras-chaves: ensino superior, curso magistral, modelo educativo, França, século 19. PUPILS OR LISTENERS? THE AUDIENCE OF THE FACULTIES OF LETTERS AND SCIENCESIN THE 19TH CENTURY (1808-1878AbstractThis study contrasts two categories of people within the audience of the faculties of Letters and Sciences in the 19th century: the pupils, who sought training, and the listeners, for whom attending the lectures was above all a leisure activity. The decrees organizing the Imperial University, in 1808, provided courses for students. But during the Restoration (1815-1830, the faculty courses became places of political expression, social representation or, more simply, entertainment and culture for the French high society who had time to waste. In Letters particularly, a course was a spectacle without a scientific program or training goals. The value of the teacher was measured in terms of its rhetorical qualities, rather than its scientific capabilities. Yet from 1837 onwards, criticism could be heard against this trend. It pointed to the inability of such a system to properly train scientists and they were based on comparison with practices abroad (London and Turin were quoted in 1840, before the German model became the reference in the 1860s. If the government did not respond immediately, teaching practices partly filled the deficiencies, through the establishment of closed conferences or private lessons, held at the personal initiative of a particular teacher. The official reorientation of the courses was done gradually, starting in 1855 for political reasons (focus education on science contents prevented faculties from becoming places of contestation and economic reasons (industrialized France needed managerial staff. In 1868, the Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes was created after the German model; it was open only to selected students

  16. A organizaçâo contabilística no sector conserveiro entre o final do século XIX e a primeira metade do século XX: o caso Júdice Fialho = The accounting model in the Portuguese canned-fish industry between the end of the 19th century and the first...

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Rita Faria

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio tiene como objetivo analizar la organización contable de Júdice Fialho, una de las mayores empresas de la industria de conservas de pescado de Portugal, entre finales del sigo XIX y la primera mitad del siglo XX. También pretende confrontar la organización contable existente en la empresa con los modelos divulgados en la literatura contable portuguesa publicada en el mismo período.La justificación para su realización reside en la escasez de estudios basados en el análisis de registros contables originales y en la disponibilidad, en el Archivo Histórico del Museo Municipal de Portimâo (Algarve, de documentación contable relativa a esta gran empresa.El estudio concluye que, en ausencia de un conjunto de reglas y principios contables comunes a todas las empresas, Júdice Fialho procuró adoptar, considerando la diversidad de soluciones contables divulgadas en la literatura de la especialidad, la más adecuada a sus características y necesidades reales. La contabilidad de la empresa está organizada para proporcionar información sobre los resultados particulares de cada segmento de la organización (fábrica, sección, oficina, depósito y no sobre las ganancias o las pérdidas de la venta de diversos productos. El estudio también concluye que, durante el período analizado, la contabilidad de la empresa no sufrió alteraciones significativas. La constitución de una sociedad general en 1938, cuatro años después de la muerte de su fundador, podría haber sido un factor de cambio, pero tal cosa no sucedió.This study examines the accounting records of one of the most important companies in Portuguese canned-fish industry –Júdice Fialho– during the period between the ends of the 19th century to the first half of the 20th century. It aims at comparing the company’s accounting system with the standards and models shown in the Portuguese accounting literature published at the time.The shortage of articles on the

  17. La transformation des Landes de Gascogne (18e-19e, de la mise en valeur comme colonisation intérieure ? The transformation of the Moors of Gascony (18th-19th centuries, development as interior colonization? A transformação da Landas da Gasconha (séculos 18 e 19, o desenvolvimento pela colonização interna?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Aldhuy

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Lorsqu’on évoque la mise en valeur des Landes de Gascogne, on pense à la transformation de cette région au 19e siècle par l’extension d’un boisement de pins maritimes suite à un drainage systématique. Cette simplification héritée de l’histoire de l’affirmation de l’Etat-Nation français soulève deux problèmes. Premièrement, elle réduit la transformation des Landes de Gascogne à une histoire locale décontextualisée par rapport aux idées et aux enjeux de l’époque. Deuxièmement, une telle réduction favorise une lecture désocialisée de la production de cet espace car, de la transformation des Landes de Gascogne, on ne retient que les moyens de l’action (le drainage et son résultat (la forêt de pin. Une telle posture implique une vision dénuée d’acteurs et de rapports de domination entre ceux qui disqualifient l’espace et justifient l’action compensatrice et ceux qui l’habitent. Nous montrerons dans cet article qu’une fois mis en contexte dans le concert des idées de l’époque et une fois la place de ses acteurs restituée, la mise en valeur des Landes de Gascogne peut être envisagée comme une forme de colonisation intérieure.When one evokes the development of the Moors of Gascony, one thinks of the transformation of this area at the 19th century by a forestation with maritime pines thanks to a systematic drainage. This simplification inherited of the history of the French Nation-State raises two problems. Firstly, it reduces the transformation of the Moors of Gascony to a decontextualized local history, without links with the ideas and the stakes of the time. Secondly, such a reduction supports a dissocialized reading of the production of this space because, one only retains the means of the action (the drainage and its result (the forest of pine. Such a posture implies a vision devoid of actors and of relationship of domination between those which disqualify space and justify the compensation

  18. Life and traditions of Caucasian Circassians: historical-comparative probe of travelogues of European travellers from the beginning of the 16th century to the half of the 19th century (Život a zvyky kaukazských Čerkesov: historicko-komparatívna sondáž cestopisov európskych cestovateľov od začiatku 16. do polovice 19. storočia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Šmigeľ

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to clarify evolution of life and traditions of Circassian society in a historically comparative perspective. It is based on published travelogues and diaries of European travellers who visited various parts of Caucasian Circassia from the 16th century to the half of the 19th century. Although they had described various aspects of life of this varied mountain ethnic group, the study focuses on just a few of them: anthropological appearance, language, religion, clothing, traditions, social activities and social structure of the Circassians. This data shows that Circassia embodied tribal formation that was split, speaking different languages without existence of any mutual language of interethnic communication. Despite this fact, different tribes had been somehow connected. This variedness was based on the Circassians mentality and religious issues as well. Isolation of the Circassia area, underdevelopment of external relations, absence of migration processes and peculiarities of the population mentality conditioned weak development of craft, industry, trade and character of social activities at all.

  19. Living the divine divide: A phenomenological study of Mormon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... interpretative phenomenological analysis, of the use, as a conflict-controlling strategy, of sanctification, or the sacred aspects of life, in the religious cultural navigation of 16 religious Mormon women who maintain full-time professional careers in the fields of law, medicine, education, science, administration or engineering, ...

  20. Journal of Mormon History Vol. 22, No. 2, 1996

    OpenAIRE

    1996-01-01

    CONTENTS ARTICLES --Joseph Smith's 1891 Millennial Prophecy: The Quest for Apocalpytic Deliverance Dan Erickson, 1 --The Mantle of Joseph: Creation of a Mormon Miracle Reid L Harper, 35 --From Tolerance to "House Cleaning": LDS Leadership Response to Maori Marriage Customs, 1890-1990 Marjorie Newton, 72 --Before Stakehood: The Mission Years in Brisbane, Australia Ross Geddes, 92 --Colonizing the Muddy River Valley: A New ...

  1. Comércio e circulação de livros entre França e Portugal na virada do século XVIII para o XIX ou Quando os ingleses atiraram livros ao mar Commerce and circulation of books between France and Portugal at the turn of the 18th to the 19th century or When the British threw books overboard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio DeNipoti

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho busca investigar algumas formas de comércio e circulação de livros em Portugal, na virada do século XVIII para o XIX, através do estudo da correspondência que Marino Miguel Franzini trocou com livreiros europeus - franceses, em especial - e agentes comerciais responsáveis pela aquisição e transporte dos livros até Portugal. A documentação concentra-se principalmente nas décadas anteriores ao movimento liberal, compondo-se de listas de livros (solicitadas ou entregues, catálogos de obras, faturas, listas de livrarias e cartas trocadas entre Franzini e pessoas ligadas ao comércio de livros. As pistas fornecidas pela documentação reforçam a noção de que a literatura filosófica iluminista e liberal em Portugal foi amplamente disseminada por mecanismos que variavam da compra direta, intermediada por livreiros, marinheiros e mercadores, até o contrabando e a contrafação, realizada por imigrantes e agitadores liberais de diversas nacionalidades.This is an attempt at investigating some of the ways books were circulated in Portugal in the late 18th and early 19th Century, analyzing the letters exchanged between Marino Miguel Franzini and European booksellers - particularly French, or in France - and commercial agents responsible for acquiring or dispatching the books to Portugal. The documents are concentrated in the decades immediately preceding the liberal movement, and are made up of lists of books (ordered or delivered, book catalogues, invoices and personal letters. These papers show information which strengthens the idea that, in Portugal, the philosophical enlightened literature was broadly spread, through processes which varied from direct purchase, mediated by booksellers, sailors and merchants, to contraband and counterfeiting, done by immigrants and liberal agitators of various nationalities.

  2. Egypt and Mormonism: Oriental Traits of the Latter-Day Saints

    OpenAIRE

    Fronk, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    In his lecture, Dr. Francaviglia presents a fascinating framework in which to understand American history and culture, as well as Mormons specifically. Orientalism was defined for the lecture as the assimilation or imitation of that which is oriental in religious or philosophical thought, or in art. Through various mediums, including architectural examples, quotes from Mormons and their detractors, and travel literature, Dr. Francaviglia demonstrates that not only Mormons were compared to Ori...

  3. Past and present status of the Indian Tiger in northern West Bengal, India: an overview

    OpenAIRE

    J.K. Mallick

    2010-01-01

    Changes in the distribution range and the estimates of Tiger (Panthera tigris) populations in northern West Bengal from the late 19th century to 2009 were examined in detail. According to a 2004 census there were 70 tigers in the region, while a 2008 estimate put the number at 8-12. The tiger survives only in protected areas of terai and duars extending over about 1000km2 of Buxa, Jaldapara, Neora Valley and Mahananda, the Panighat and Bamanpokhri Ranges of Kurseong Division and the Chilapata...

  4. Journal of Mormon History Vol. 36, No. 2, Spring 2010

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    ARTICLES --The Mormons and America’s Empires Walter Nugent, 1 --Religion and National Construction in the Age of Lincoln Richard Carwardine, 29 --The Church of Christ (Temple Lot) and the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints: 130 Years of Crossroads and Controversies R. Jean Addams, 54 --Relief Society Birth and Death Rituals: Women at the Gates of Mortality Susanna Morrill, 128 --Walking on Water: Nineteenth-Century Prophets and a Legend of Religious Impostu...

  5. Journal of Mormon History Vol. 35, No. 2, 2009

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    TANNER LECTURE --Letting Go: Understanding Mormon Growth in Africa Philip Jenkins, 1 ARTICLES --California Provided the Answer John K. Carmack, 27 --The RLDS Church on the Pacific Slope Ronald E. Romig, 43 --The Tragic Matter of Louie Wells and John Q. Cannon Kenneth L. Cannon II, 126 --Handcarts Going East: The 1857 Missionaries Karen Ann Griggs, 191 REVIEWS --Ronald W. Walker, Richard E. Turley Jr., and Glen M. Leonard. Massacre at Mountain Meadows: An American Tr...

  6. La enseñanza escolar de la lengua española en Andalucía en los umbrales del XIX: introducción al «Diálogo ortográfico» de A. Balbina Lozano School teaching of Spanish language in Andalucía on the Eve of the 19th Century: an introduction to the «Ortographic Dialogue» by A. Balbina Lozano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lola PONS RODRÍGUEZ

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available El Diálogo ortográfico del maestro gaditano de primeras letras Antonio Balbina Lozano es un manuscrito poco conocido, escrito a finales del siglo XVIII o principios del siglo XIX. Con finalidad escolar, resume las reglas de ortografía de la lengua española según la Real Academia Española en el siglo XVIII y las principales partes de la oración, y al final proporciona una lista alfabética con palabras de ortografía dudosa, especialmente para los alumnos andaluces de Balbina, con pronunciación dialectal. La obra se encuadra en el contexto pedagógico de la época en Andalucía y España, en la pugna entre la antigua Cartilla de Valladolid y los nuevos métodos pedagógicos de la Ilustración. Asimismo, se discuten sus fuentes: las obras de la Real Academia Española en el siglo XVIII, sobre todo la Ortografía de la lengua castellana, pero también los trabajos de Mañer, Cortés Moreno, Palomares y Gayoso.The Ortographic Dialogue by Antonio Balbina Lozano, a school teacher from Cádiz, is a little-known manuscript written at the end of the 18th century or the beginning of the 19th century. Meant to be used in schools, it summarizes Spanish spelling rules according to the Spanish Royal Academy in the 18th Century and the main parts of the sentence, and at the end provides an alphabetical list with doubtful spellings, especially for Balbina’s Andalusian pupils who had a dialectal pronunciation. This work is framed in the pedagogical context of the time in Andalucía and Spain, in the clash between the old First Reader Book from Valladolid and the new pedagogical methods of the Enlightenment. Furthermore, its sources are discussed: the works of the Spanish Royal Academy in the 18th century, above all the Ortography of the Castilian Language, but also the works by Mañer, Cortés Moreno, Palomares and Gayoso.

  7. A Selective and Evaluative Bibliographic Essay on Mormonism: For Use in Public, Academic, and Special Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laughlin, David L.

    The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS) was established in 1830 by six men led by Joseph Smith. Today this group, commonly called Mormons, numbers approximately seven million members worldwide. Mormonism has sometimes been the object of public, political, and ecclesiastical animosity and misinformation. There is now a vast amount of…

  8. Mormons and Muslims: Living in an Intolerant World

    OpenAIRE

    Bagley, Matt

    2011-01-01

    September 11. Osama Bin Laden. Suicide bombers. Taliban. Terrorism. Cult. Allah. Muslim. These are just a few of the many words that instinctively slip to the tip of the tongue as the average American is asked to verbalize his or her thoughts on the Middle East. Not only are these some of the first words and images that come to mind, they are oftentimes the only words and images that one might have in regards to this group of people. Cult. Joseph Smith. The Book of Mormon. Polygamy. Gold b...

  9. The Unsung Past: Afro-American Women Writers of 19th Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simson, Renate

    Pointing to the widespread neglect afforded to the works of nineteenth century Afro-American women authors, this paper discusses, and presents excerpts from, the works of many of these authors to show the types of concerns they wrote about. Among the works discussed are the following: the slave narratives of Harriet Jacobs and Elizabeth Keckley;…

  10. Julius Thomsen and 19th-century speculations on the complexity of atoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Helge

    1982-01-01

    In the history of chemistry, the Danish chemist Julius Thomsen (1826-1909) is best known for his contributions to thermochemistry. Throughout his life, he was a pronounced atomist and a tireless advocate of neo-Proutian views as to the constitution of matter. On many occasions, especially in his ...... as to the constitution of matter, the periodic system and the noble gases, may be seen as typical of this vigorous trend in fin de si cle chemistry....

  11. Gestural Enthymemes: Delivering Movement in 18th- and 19th-Century Medical Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Sara

    2009-01-01

    This article contributes to recent efforts to add life and movement to rhetorical studies by focusing on the representation of movement in medical texts. More specifically, this study examines medical texts, illustrations, and photographs involving movement by Johann Casper Lavater, G. B. Duchenne de Bologne, Charles Darwin, and Etienne-Jules…

  12. Fluid Mechanics and Complex Variable Theory: Getting Past the 19th Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Paul K.

    2017-01-01

    The subject of fluid mechanics is a rich, vibrant, and rapidly developing branch of applied mathematics. Historically, it has developed hand-in-hand with the elegant subject of complex variable theory. The Westmont College NSF-sponsored workshop on the revitalization of complex variable theory in the undergraduate curriculum focused partly on…

  13. Malaria in Pula in the seventies of the 19th century and the epidemic in 1879

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cigui, Rino

    2012-01-01

    Malaria played a leading role in the complex Istrian sanitary history. From the beginning of the 18th century, wars, famine, and epidemics depopulated large areas and favoured the spread of the diseases...

  14. Following its inception in the late 19th century, the commercial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    denise

    2002-11-01

    Nov 1, 2002 ... The frame was made of welded mild steel, with two rigid, funnel-shaped entrances, one on either of its ... attached to the frame and used as a codend. The entire trap was covered with polypropylene ... hoopnets are still employed in shallow waters that are inaccessible to the larger craft; during the latter.

  15. Jean-Martin Charcot's Role in the 19th Century Study of Music Aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Julene K.; Lorch, Marjorie; Nicolas, Serge; Graziano, Amy

    2013-01-01

    Jean-Martin Charcot (1825-93) was a well-known French neurologist. Although he is widely recognized for his discovery of several neurological disorders and his research into aphasia, Charcot's ideas about how the brain processes music are less well known. Charcot discussed the music abilities of several patients in the context of his "Friday…

  16. Polynesia and polygenism: the scientific use of travel literature in the early 19th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carhart, Michael C

    2009-04-01

    Christoph Meiners (1747-1810) was one of 18th-century Europe's most important readers of global travel literature, and he has been credited as a founder of the disciplines of ethnology and anthropology. This article examines a part of his final work, "Untersuchungen über die Verschiedenheiten der Menschennaturen" [Inquiries on the differences of human natures], published posthumously in the 1810s. Here Meiners developed an elaborate argument, based on empirical evidence, that the different races of men emerged indigenously at different times and in different places in natural history. Specifically this article shows how a sedentary scholar who never left Europe constructed a narrative of human origins and migrations on the basis of (1) French theory from the 1750s (Charles de Brosses and Simon Pelloutier) and (2) data gathered by explorers as reported in travel literature (J.R. Forster, Pérouse, Cook, Marsden).

  17. The beginnings of the academic degrees system in Russia in the early 19th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreev Andrei

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the first period of the academic degrees system in Russia (“Candidate”-“Master”-“Doctor”, from its state approval by the Preliminary Rules of Public Education 1803 up to the introduction of the new Regulations on the promotions to the academic degrees 1819. The details are revealed, which describe the implementation of this system of degrees in the Russian universities, and the misbalance and certain incompleteness of the initial law base of this system are shown. The practices of the fi rst promotions in Moscow, Kharkov and Kazan’ universities were subjected to thorough study. It is demonstrated, that the transfer of certain principles of corporation promotion (based on the traditions of the European universities in the Middle Ages came into collision with the requirements of the state attestation given to the universities. Thus a general conclusion has been made on the character of the processes of state regulation on this sphere which corresponded the same calims of university “modernization” as were formulated in Europe, led to the new image of “classical” university.

  18. Mathematical Estimation of Mobility of Peasants in Vilnius Governorate in the 19th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanišauskas Vaidotas

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the problem of local mobility of peasants in Vilnius Governorate in the nineteenth century. To solve the problem, statistical-demographical data from the “Memory Books” permanently issued by the Tsarist Russian government was used. Pure demographic data brings little information, unless it is properly mathematically processed. Such processing leads to the discovering of new proportions concerning inhabitants, villages and farmsteads. Such proportions are related to the administrative territorial unit under investigation and show how many people reside in a farmstead and how many farmsteads are comprised in a village. In the course of time, numbers of villages and farmsteads change, and these numbers show the numbers of people taking part in local mobility of inhabitants. The higher are changes in villages and farmsteads, the higher is mobility of inhabitants.

  19. Ports and maritime activities of Orissa (16th to 19th centuries)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.

    stream_size 11 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Ship-Building_Navigation_I.O_Region_1997_155.pdf.txt stream_source_info Ship-Building_Navigation_I.O_Region_1997_155.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text...

  20. Atomic Pioneers Book 1 From Ancient Greece to the 19th Century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiebert, Ray [University of Maryland; Hiebert, Roselyn

    1970-01-01

    This brief booklet gives a snapshot view of 25 men, each of whom contributed an important building block to the foundations of atomic science. The 25 men are: Anaxagoras; Archimedes; Avogadro, Amedeo; Berthollet, Claude Louis; Berzelius, Jons Jakob; Boyle, Robert; Bruno, Giordano; Copernicus; Dalton, John; Davy, Humphry; Democritus; Descartes, Rene; Empedocles; Fpicurus; Franklin, Benjamin; Galilei, Galileo; Gassendi, Pierre; Gay-Lussac, Joseph Louis; Lavoisier, Antoine; Leucippus; Lucretius; Newton, Isaac; Proust, Joseph Louis; Pythagoras; and Wollaston, William Hyde.

  1. Reconstruction of climate in China during 17th-19th centuries using Chinese chronological records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pao; Lin, Kuan-Hui; Liao, Yi-Chun; Lee, Shih-Yu; Liao, Hsiung-Ming; Pai, Pi-Ling; Fan, I.-Chun

    2017-04-01

    Chinese historical documents are an extremely useful source from which much climate information can be retrieved if treated carefully. This is especially relevant to the reconstruction of climate in East Asia in the last 2000 years as the Chinese has kept official chronicles since 500BC and China also represents a large portion of East Asia's land. In addition, there are also local records in many cities and counties. When available, such documentary sources are often superior to environmental proxy data, especially in the time resolution as they usually provide at least annual resolution and even as high as daily records in some cases. This research will report on our recent advances on using a new REACHS dataset that collects primarily documented meteorological records from thousands of imperial and local chronicles in the Chinese history for more than 2000 years. The meteorological records were digitized and coded in the relational database management system in which accurate time (from yearly to daily), space (from province to city/county) and event (from meteorological to phonological and social) information is carefully reserved for analysis. We then formed digital climate series and performed time series and spatial analysis on them to obtain their temporal and spatial characteristics. Our present research results on the annual and seasonal temperature reconstruction during 17th-19th indicates lower temperature in the 17th century. There were also strangely high occurrence frequency of summer snowfall records in the lower reaches of Yangtze River during the Maunder Minimum. Reconstructed precipitation series fluctuated with strong regional character in the Northeast, Central-east and Southeast China. Spectral analysis shows that precipitation series have significant periodicity of 3-5 and 8-12 years during the period, suggesting strong interannual variability and different regional signatures. Flood happened frequently but long lasting drought was more frequently occurred in the 17th than in the following century. Furthermore drought is highly correlated with locust records, especially in the 17th century. The temporal and spatial variability of the climate reconstruction implies hierarchical and multi-scaled climate variability and a likely changing regime of monsoon: its spatial distribution, pattern and intensity. More detailed spatial-temporal analysis will be applied to analyze the dynamism.

  2. A historical social overview of athletics in 19th century Cape Colony ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These activities were engaged in by all social classes of people in open spaces. As the nineteenth century closed, society became more class conscious and the middle classes began agitating for clubs and enclosed spaces. They were successful; thus in 1898 athletic activity was organised within the club movement.

  3. Height, income, nutrition, and smallpox in the Netherlands : the (second half of the) 19th century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, Jan; Tassenaar, Vincent

    2002-01-01

    Recent contributions to growth theory stress the importance of localized innovation for the performance of more backward countries. In earlier papers, analyses by means of DEA techniques confirmed this intuition. In this paper, we extend this type of analysis by relaxing the macroeconomic viewpoint

  4. Teaching of History of 19th Century Russia in the Visegrád Group Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kmet, Miroslav

    2017-01-01

    The study focuses on the content and extent of teaching of Russian history, or history of Russian culture and civilization, in the teaching of history in the states of the Visegrád Group (i.e. in Hungary, the Czech Republic, Poland and Slovakia). In each of these states, the subject of history (sometimes in different names) has a different status,…

  5. Discussing ethnohistory: The Blin between periphery and international politics in the 19th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolbert G.C. Smidt

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Les pays frontaliers sont souvent soumis à des tensions en tous genres et peuvent être considérées comme des laboratoires pour des nouveaux projets politiques ou culturels. Le pays du peuple Blin, situé au centre-nord de l’Érythrée actuelle, en est un parfait exemple, tout particulièrement entre les années 1840 et les années 1880. À l’origine, ce pays était paisible du fait de son isolement, et la vie politique s’organisait de façon autonome, avec un minimum d’interventions extérieures. L’intrusion de l’Égypte, en 1840, dans la région adjacente du Taka, au Soudan, changea la donne. Dans les années 1850 des « brokers » de tous pays – religieux, comme des missionnaires catholiques, ainsi qu’académiques-explorateurs, comme des orientalistes – apparurent dans la région, immédiatement suivis des représentants de l’impérialisme occidental: les vice consuls britanniques et franc,ais du port de Massaoua. À la même époque l’Ethiopie réunie essaya de regagner son influence perdue sur ses régions frontalières et notamment la province de Hamasen, dont les Blins du Bogos étaient traditionnellement les vassaux. L’expansion de l’Egypte au Soudan avait pour conséquence des raids violents et récurrents sur le territoire des Blins, ce qui donna l’occasion aux consuls et missionnaires – et leurs collaborateurs académiques concernés – d’intervenir, de déclarer le peuple Blin sous leur protection, et de libérer des femmes et des hommes Blins qui vivaient sous le joug de l’esclavage. Les orientalistes, les missionnaires et les consuls apparurent aux Blins comme les vecteurs d’une seule et même idée: l’inclusion des Blins dans une sphère d’influence européenne. Ils relevèrent activement les défis qui s’offraient à eux de toutes parts. Pendant que les Blins du Bogos acceptaient leur allégeance aux /Hamasen, ils assurèrent aussi leur protection internationale en se convertissant massivement au catholicisme. Les Blins du /Hal/hal se convertirent à l’Islam, afin de parer aux raids futurs des vassaux du Soudan Égyptien. Cet article vise a montrer que la stratégie principale des Blins a été de participer activement à la nouvelle présence des pouvoirs dominants, que ce soit sur le plan politique ou religieux, et que cette adaptation leur a permis de préserver leur système très sophistiqué d’autonomie interne, fondé sur une confédération non centralisée, un réseau reliant entre eux les différents chefs Blins.Borderlands, which are often experiencing challenges of different kind, can be regarded as a "laboratory" for new political or cultural projects or solutions. The country of the Blin ethnic group in northern-central Eritrea was such a land, especially between the 1840’s to 1880’s. Originally living in peaceful isolation, autonomously organizing their political live with a minimum of external intervention, this changed with the arrival of expanding Egypt in the adjacent Sudanese region of Taka in 1840. In the 1850’s, international brokers of religion – Catholic missionaries – and of academic exploration – Orientalists – appeared in the region, immediately followed by agents of imperialism – the British and French vice consuls of the port of Massawa. Simultanously reuniting Ethiopia sought to regain lost influence in the borderregions, including the Hamasen province, with the Blin of Bogos as their historic vassals. The Egyptian expansion resulted in the regular appearance of violent raids against the Blin, which gave a chance to the consuls and missionaries – with the few academics involved as their collaborators – to intervene, declare the Blin as protected by them and free the enslaved Blin men and women. Orientalists, the mission and consuls appeared to the Blin as agents of one idea: the inclusion of the Blin into the sphere of European influence. The Blin actively responded to the new challenges from all sides. While the Blin of Bogos accepted their vassalry towards /Hamasen, they also assured international protection by converting to Catholicism in great numbers. The Blin of Halhal converted to Islam, thus avoiding future raids from vassals of Egyptian Sudan. This article argues that the main strategy of the Blin was that of an active adaptation to political and religious domination by greater powers, which allowed them to preserve their highly developed internal autonomy, based on an age-old non-centralized confederacy (network of Blin leaders.

  6. Louis Figuier translated in Brazil: science popularizers in the last quarter of 19th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaori Kodama

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to address aspects of the history of the divulgation of sciences in Brazil in the nineteenth century, through the analysis of the circulation of some translations into Portuguese of the works of French popularizer of science, Louis Figuier. His works, which were translated to different languages, received editions in Brazil and Portugal since late 1860. During this period, a model of popularization of science for non-specialists - working class, women and youth - with emphasis on applied science was gaining terrain. However, this model was also marked by limitations and discontinuities that reflect social issues in the passage to the twentieth century. This paper attempts to highlight the role of translators and editors, understood as mediators of science, whose projects of social reform was primarily focused in popular instruction.

  7. Landscape designers, doctors, and the making of healthy urban spaces in 19th century America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert Martensen

    2009-01-01

    One of 18 articles inspired by the Meristem 2007 Forum, "Restorative Commons for Community Health." The articles include interviews, case studies, thought pieces, and interdisciplinary theoretical works that explore the relationship between human health and the urban...

  8. How respiratory diseases were treated at the beginning of the 19th century

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    Jacek Starzyk

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory diseases were quite common in the past. A treatment procedure for an acute respiratory disorder, most probably pneumonia, in a 72-year-old man was presented based on archival source materials dating from 1801. The treatment was provided by a doctor, barber surgeon “nurse” and pharmacist, who were practicing in Koniecpol in 1801. The patient was given mucolytic, antitussive, cardiac, antipyretic and analgesic medications and appetite stimulants. From the medical point of view that prevailed at that time, the treatment was correct. The patient was also given medications recommended under the humoral theory, which was still being followed at that time. According to that theory, the human body was thought to contain four humours: blood, phlegm, yellow bile and black bile. An imbalance of humours resulted in a disease. The treatment was designed to restore the proper humoral balance by techniques such as enemas, diuretics and bloodletting. From the present medical point of view, the treatment was incorrect. It caused anaemia and disturbances in water, electrolyte and acid-base homeostasis. The treatment resulted in the patient’s death. However, one can hardly blame doctor Tichi, as his treatment was fully compliant with the scientific views prevailing at that time.

  9. Linking buildings, archives and museums of the 19th century Turin's Cultural Heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamborrino, R.; Rinaudo, F.

    2015-08-01

    The documentation of Cultural Heritage asset is the basis for all the interventions and policies on Cultural heritage conservation and management. The documentation is mainly based on historic knowledge and metric survey. As far as historic knowledge is concerned many information are still recorded and preserved inside written documents that are usually not easy to reach and correctly understandable by all the experts that have specific responsibilities on Cultural Heritage. The digitalization of documents (hardly faced in the last years) is not sufficient to guarantee the effective access to the historical information useful inside a documentation process. The documentation always needs an historical interpretation based on a critical reading produced by linking heterogeneous materials. Iconography also is an important source when it is correctly interpreted and linked to other sources. IT development and digital technology diffusion allowed offering new way to record, organize and share historical information: GIS and 3D modeling can be used as standard approaches to transfer the historical knowledge in a proper way to specialists involved in Cultural Heritage conservation and management. They have been generally used as tool to represent information for different targets, the ones mostly for specialized users, the others for edutainment. GIS are largely diffused yet in the Cultural Heritage management, and 3D modeling is wide spread used in museums communication. Nevertheless, both of them have more potential. They could be integrated in order to manage different data set related with the same matter. They could be used to make new research by surveying and improving interpretation in a way ready to transmit the outcomes. To produce a new generation of affordable digital historical products is necessary that the GIS and 3D modeling design and realization would be developed in a multidisciplinary approach that must be explained and demonstrated to the people that in the future will offer to the community this expertise. The paper describes a teaching and research training experience started two years ago at the Politecnico di Torino in the master course on Architecture (Conservation).

  10. Cultural patterns of trauma among 19th-century-born males in cadaver collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Cova, Carlina

    2010-01-01

    Comprehending violence among bioarchaeological and historical groups is a topic of recent interest among biological anthropologists. This research examines trauma among African American and Euro-American males of low socioeconomic status born between 1825 and 1877. A total of 651 male skeletons from the Cobb, Terry, and Hamann-Todd anatomical collections were macroscopically evaluated for skeletal trauma, based on the presence of fractures and weapon-related wounds, and statistically analyzed according to ancestry, birth (Antebellum, Civil War, Reconstruction), combined ancestry - birth, and collection cohorts. Results indicated that African Americans and Euro-Americans expressed ethnic differences in regard to interpersonal violence. To interpret these disparities, documentary data were used to reconstruct the socioeconomic and cultural environment of these individuals. This research emphasizes the importance of evaluating skeletal data within the context of class, culture, and environment so that behavioral patterns observed in the skeleton can be better understood.

  11. Development of Concepts and Models of Performance Evaluation from the 19th Century to the Present

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hornungová Jana

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this paper is to provide a framework of concepts and models from the area of performance measurement. Due to the fact that the business environment is con-stantly changing, changes also occur in the trends relating to performance. Traditional financial performance measures have been highly criticized and the need identified to integrate non-financial perspectives, such as level of innovation, degree of motivation, intellectual capital and other criteria. Intellectual capital is often a crucial factor in the creation of value in a company. This paper provides a literature review supplemented by the author’s research in the field of performance. The article shows that the performance appraisal system is currently focused on several areas that could affect the performance of the company, which is also part of the overall performance of the economy in the form of GDP growth. Based on the research, it can be said that, for the sample tracked, the selection of performance evaluation system does not depend on the legal form of the business.

  12. The Scandinavian Connection: The Roots of Darwinian Archaeology in 19th-Century Scandinavian Archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Riede

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available ‘Evolution’ is without doubt one of archaeology’s favourite, most used and perhaps most overused words. However, ‘evolution’ comes in many guises and it is only really in the last ten years that an explicitly Darwinian approach to the archaeological record has begun to emerge. Today, the number of papers using Darwinian Theory grows almost exponentially, reflecting perhaps the current popularity of applying Darwinian Theory to human behaviour, including culture, in more general terms (Aunger 2000; Barrett et al. 2002; Laland andamp; Brown 2002; Mesoudi et al. 2004; Ziman 2000. The field has developed its own technical jargon (Hart andamp; Terrell 2002 and enjoys increasing public funding. Here is not the place to list, let alone discuss the entire corpus of works (but see http://cladistics.coas.missouri.edu/pubs.html and http://www.ceacb.ucl.ac.uk/resources. Instead this brief papers attempts to address some historical aspects of Darwinian thinking in archaeology. Although there is considerable diversity within this Darwinian or Evolutionary Archaeology (EA, this paper will focus primarily on its two most vocal American proponents: Michael J. O’Brien and Richard Lee Lyman. In a long series of publications they have not only put forward a “radically empiricist” (Shennan 2002a: 255, yet eminently workable Darwinian approach to artefact analysis, but they have also traced the intellectual ancestry of EA back to a number of key figures in early 20th century Americanist archaeology (Lyman et al. 1997b; Lyman andamp; O’Brien 1997, 1999, 2000a, 2001, 2003, 2004; Lyman et al. 1997a, 1997b; Lyman et al. 1998; O’Brien et al. 2005. Despite the impressive amount of scholarship that has gone into these works and the exemplary publication strategy, which has been instrumental in promoting this particular approach, their version of the history of archaeology can be criticised as the writing of “partial histories” (Murray 2002a: 234. As Murray (2002a has noted such histories are commonly used by archaeologists to justify their particular approach and to lend gravitas to a new method by linking it to some venerable founding father of the discipline. In this spirit this paper takes issue with O’Brien andamp; Lyman’s history of EA, first and foremost on the basis of additional archival evidence that demonstrates that not only vague references to Darwin’s theory of descent with modification, but indeed explicit consideration of the application of Darwinian Theory to archaeological material go back as far as 1884 in Europe.

  13. Health and demography in late 19th century Kimberley : a palaeopathological assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merwe, Alie Emily van der

    2010-01-01

    One-hundred-and-forty-five unmarked graves were accidentally uncovered outside the Gladstone cemetery in Kimberley, South Africa, in 2003. This study aimed to describe the archaeological findings, demographic composition and health of the unknown human remains excavated from the site. Fifteen graves

  14. Accepting Pain Over Comfort: Resistance to the Use of Anesthesia in the Mid-19th Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Rachel; Desai, Sukumar P

    2015-10-01

    News of the successful use of ether anesthesia on October 16, 1846, spread rapidly through the world. Considered one of the greatest medical discoveries, this triumph over man's cardinal symptom, the symptom most likely to persuade patients to seek medical attention, was praised by physicians and patients alike. Incredibly, this option was not accepted by all, and opposition to the use of anesthesia persisted among some sections of society decades after its introduction. We examine the social and medical factors underlying this resistance. At least seven major objections to the newly introduced anesthetic agents were raised by physicians and patients. Complications of anesthesia, including death, were reported in the press, and many avoided anesthesia to minimize the considerable risk associated with surgery. Modesty prevented female patients from seeking unconsciousness during surgery, where many men would be present. Biblical passages stating that women would bear children in pain were used to discourage them from seeking analgesia during labor. Some medical practitioners believed that pain was beneficial to satisfactory progression of labor and recovery from surgery. Others felt that patient advocacy and participation in decision making during surgery would be lost under the influence of anesthesia. Early recreational use of nitrous oxide and ether, commercialization with patenting of Letheon, and the fighting for credit for the discovery of anesthesia suggested unprofessional behavior and smacked of quackery. Lastly, in certain geographical areas, notably Philadelphia, physicians resisted this Boston-based medical advance, citing unprofessional behavior and profit seeking. Although it appears inconceivable that such a major medical advance would face opposition, a historical examination reveals several logical grounds for the initial societal and medical skepticism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Urbanity manuals in 19th century Colombia: Modernity, pedagogy and body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Isabel Afanador Contreras

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to review the literature on the relationship between the concepts of modernity, pedagogy and body, emphasizing the speeches of some manuals of etiquette published in Colombia during the nineteenth century. To do this, it was studied the most relevant literature published in recent years on these points and four manuals of civility, to inquire about how the bodies of men and women were portrayed and explicitly or implicitly cast, how were idealized their behaviors and how they were educated for a modern nation-state and civilized. This meant understand how etiquette manuals exposed the private and public spaces and understand how these spaces were constitutive of subjectivity of genres. All with the aim of linking the discourses on civility and academic arguments of researchers who have studied these texts.

  16. Blandowski misses out: ichthyological etiquette in 19th-century Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, Paul

    2003-12-01

    Wilhelm Blandowski, a Prussian émigré, arrived in Australia in 1849 with hopes of exploring and documenting the natural history of this still relatively scientifically nai;ve colony. After several years travelling, surveying and mining gold, he became the first government zoologist at the infant National Museum of Victoria and was a key player in the burgeoning scientific establishment. Chosen to lead a collecting expedition to the junction of the Murray and Darling Rivers in 1856, Blandowski and his faithful companion Gerard Krefft brought back a wealth of new material, including many species of undescribed freshwater fishes. Unfortunately, Blandowski's attempts to 'honour' members of the Philosophical Institute of Victoria backfired and a scandal ensued. A disillusioned Blandowski left Australia just ten years after his arrival. A reanalysis of his descriptions of the fish and comparison with a contemporary work suggests that Blandowski deserves recognition as one of pioneers in the natural history of Australian freshwater fish. The loss of taxonomic authority for eight fish species by this energetic, imaginative, but stubborn scientist, left the way open for future workers to make their mark, whereas Blandowski's name and achievements remain obscure.

  17. Bukovina and the “Humdinger Plague” of the 19th Century: Cholera

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    Harieta Mareci-Sabol

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The issue of natural disasters and their impact on the population of Bukovina may represent a field of research for biologists and historians, demographers and sociologists. The nineteenth century was less auspicious in the history of the province that has experienced many harmful effects of destructive factors: from hostile weather conditions, to famine and epidemics. Population of Bukovina was not spared by the great waves of epidemics, and the quarantine measures were more or less effective in preventing the spread of diseases. A large number of people, mostly adults, fell victim to cholera. The aim of the article is to illustrate the impact of the epidemic – known as the “Humdinger plague” – on demographic and socio-cultural evolution of the province.

  18. The Antisemitic Press in Bulgaria at the End of the 19th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veselina Kulenska

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available With the Russo-Turkish War of 1877/78, the history of Bulgaria entered a new stage. According to the regulations enacted in July 1878 at the Congress of Berlin, summoned by the representatives of the Great Powers, the modern Bulgarian state was founded. Its constitution, proclaimed a year later, provided civic and political equality for the religious and ethnic minorities residing in the country, including the Jews. Although the young state was in many ways relatively backwards compared to other European countries, ideas and demands of the new political antisemitism found their echo here, too. In the 1890s, a series of antisemitic newspapers, magazines, brochures and leaflets were issued in Bulgaria, the authors of which saw the “country’s liberation from the Jewish yoke” as their main task. These antisemitic publications were short lived; their demands, however, found a certain audience and were discussed in the Bulgarian parliament at the turn of the century.

  19. A Middle Miocene rhinoceros find in Transylvania: 19th century forgotten correspondence

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    Vlad A. Codrea

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The single report in Romania of the Middle Miocene rhinoceros Brachypotherium brachypus, a rare species in our country or elsewhere in Europe, is from Petros locality in Hațeg basin. This find is an old one, nearly a century and half ago. A fragmentary letter written by the Hațeg naturalist Ádám Buda to Prof. Antal Koch retrieved in the Paleontological Museum of Babeș-Bolyai University Cluj-Napoca brings some light about this find. The letter was probably written around 1881-1882 and reveals the active exchanges of scientific data between the professor from Cluj and country people interested in natural sciences.

  20. Present-day central African forest is a legacy of the 19th century human history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin-Rivat, Julie; Fayolle, Adeline; Favier, Charly; Bremond, Laurent; Gourlet-Fleury, Sylvie; Bayol, Nicolas; Lejeune, Philippe; Beeckman, Hans; Doucet, Jean-Louis

    2017-01-01

    The populations of light-demanding trees that dominate the canopy of central African forests are now aging. Here, we show that the lack of regeneration of these populations began ca. 165 ya (around 1850) after major anthropogenic disturbances ceased. Since 1885, less itinerancy and disturbance in the forest has occurred because the colonial administrations concentrated people and villages along the primary communication axes. Local populations formerly gardened the forest by creating scattered openings, which were sufficiently large for the establishment of light-demanding trees. Currently, common logging operations do not create suitable openings for the regeneration of these species, whereas deforestation degrades landscapes. Using an interdisciplinary approach, which included paleoecological, archaeological, historical, and dendrological data, we highlight the long-term history of human activities across central African forests and assess the contribution of these activities to present-day forest structure and composition. The conclusions of this sobering analysis present challenges to current silvicultural practices and to those of the future. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.20343.001 PMID:28093097

  1. Decadal variations in estimated surface solar radiation over Switzerland since the late 19th century

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    A. Sanchez-Lorenzo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Our knowledge on trends in surface solar radiation (SSR involves uncertainties due to the scarcity of long-term time series of SSR, especially with records before the second half of the 20th century. Here we study the trends of all-sky SSR from 1885 to 2010 in Switzerland, which have been estimated using a homogenous dataset of sunshine duration series. This variable is shown to be a useful proxy data of all-sky SSR, which can help to solve some of the current open issues in the dimming/brightening phenomenon. All-sky SSR has been fairly stable with little variations in the first half of the 20th century, unlike the second half of the 20th century that is characterized also in Switzerland by a dimming from the 1950s to the 1980s and a subsequent brightening. Cloud cover changes seem to explain the major part of the decadal variability observed in all-sky SSR, at least from 1885 to the 1970s; at this point, a discrepancy in the sign of the trend is visible in the all-sky SSR and cloud cover series from the 1970s to the present. Finally, an attempt to estimate SSR series for clear-sky conditions, based also on sunshine duration records since the 1930s, has been made for the first time. The mean clear-sky SSR series shows no relevant changes between the 1930s to the 1950s, then a decrease, smaller than the observed in the all-sky SSR, from the 1960s to 1970s, and ends with a strong increase from the 1980s up to the present. During the three decades from 1981 to 2010 the estimated clear-sky SSR trends reported in this study are in line with previous findings over Switzerland based on direct radiative flux measurements. Moreover, the signal of the El Chichón and Pinatubo volcanic eruption visible in the estimated clear-sky SSR records further demonstrates the potential to infer aerosol-induced radiation changes from sunshine duration observations.

  2. American Populism and Its Ontario Offshoots in the Late 19th Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Paul W.

    1988-01-01

    Briefly discusses the nineteenth century agrarian movements in Canada and the U.S., examining the similarities between Populism and the Canadian agricultural movement. Presents the American Populist Party Platform of 1892 and the Patrons of Industry Platform of 1891 to illustrate the agrarian ideas and political policies of each country. (GEA)

  3. METACOMMUNICATIVE ASPECTS OF IM/POLITENESSIN MID-19TH CENTURY ROMANIAN PRINCIPALITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela-Viorica CONSTANTINESCU

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the im/politeness lexicon in mid - nineteenth century Romanian, based on the analysis of a literary corpus (belonging to the Forty-Eighter writers. The observations try to account for the diachro nic variability of im/politeness appraisal in the Romanian Principalities. The results based on the mid - nineteenth century corpus are compared with those of our previous studies on im/politeness in the Romanian princely courts (seventeenth-early eighteenth century chronicles corpus. The article focuses on the relationships between im/politeness and emotion, intentionality, self image, tracing the marks of a politeness continuum.

  4. Cooking up a culinary identity for Belgium. Gastrolinguistics in two Belgian cookbooks (19th century).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parys, Nathalie

    2013-12-01

    The notion of cookbooks as socio-historic markers in a society is generally accepted within food studies. As both representations and prescriptions of food practices, perceived habits and attitudes towards food, they represent a certain identity for their readers. This paper investigates the nature of the identity that Belgian cookbooks constructed through their rhetoric. An important part of this study is to explore how and to what extent explicit reference to Belgium was made. To this end recipe titles/labels and recipe comments used in two leading bourgeois cookbooks from nineteenth-century Belgium were subjected to a quantitative and qualitative content analysis. The analysis showed that clear attention was paid to national culinary preferences. In terms of a domestic culinary corpus, it became apparent that both the Dutch and French editions of these cookbooks promoted dishes that were ascribed a Belgian origin. Internationality, however, was also an important building block of Belgian culinary identity. It was part of the desire of Belgian bourgeoisie to connect with an international elite. It fit into the 'search for sophistication', which was also expressed through the high representation of the more costly meats and sweet dishes. In addition, other references associated with bourgeois norms and values, such as family, convenience and frugality, were additional building blocks of Belgian culinary identity. Other issues such as tradition, innovation and health, were also matters of concerns to these Belgian cookbooks. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. H.C.Ørsted, Science and "Dannelse" in the early 19th century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellebæk, Jens Jakob

    philosophers/professors in humanities in creating a new idea about school curriculum and content. An idea based on the Humboldtian movement with the concept "Algemeine bildung" in the center of reforming the educational system, but in contrast to this movement with a focus on "naturvidenskabelig almendannelse...

  6. The real and the complex a history of analysis in the 19th century

    CERN Document Server

    Gray, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    This book contains a history of real and complex analysis in the nineteenth century, from the work of Lagrange and Fourier to the origins of set theory and the modern foundations of analysis. It studies the works of many contributors including Gauss, Cauchy, Riemann, and Weierstrass. This book is unique owing to the treatment of real and complex analysis as overlapping, inter-related subjects, in keeping with how they were seen at the time. It is suitable as a course in the history of mathematics for students who have studied an introductory course in analysis, and will enrich any course in undergraduate real or complex analysis.

  7. 19th century pioneers of intensive therapy in North America. Part 1: George Edward Fell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trubuhovich, Ronald V

    2007-12-01

    For three decades after Marshall Hall's 1856 strictures against "forcing methods" and bellows for artificial ventilation (AV), human "forced respiration" (equivalent to intermittent positive pressure ventilation) was virtually abandoned. Various arm-chest manoeuvres often proved inadequate to save life. After doctor and engineer George Fell, of Buffalo (New York) (1849-1918), failed to save the life of an opiate-poisoned patient using Silvester's popular method, he resolved to try his animal laboratory AV method (bellows and tracheotomy). Following his first success in a landmark case (1887), he better adapted the apparatus for human use and soon succeeded with further difficult cases, but was unable to raise enthusiasm for his "Fell method" of AV. His reports of successful rescues to prestigious Washington Congresses met derision (1887) and indifference (1893), although by then they detailed 28 "human lives saved", mostly after opiate poisoning, and a switch from tracheotomies to face masks (simpler, but with a few complications). Continuing with rescues throughout the 1890s, Fell personally achieved recoveries after AV for as long as 73.5 hours (1896), and over 78 hours (1899). He argued for his method repeatedly with many talks, much documentation, and pleas for its use in other ventilatory crises. Despite his endeavours and successes, Fell was unable to secure widespread uptake of forced respiration, but others adopted his principles. Joseph O'Dwyer modified Fell's face mask-tracheotomy system by incorporating an intralaryngeal tube, and this "Fell-O'Dwyer apparatus" was used for neurosurgical cases (1894), also revolutionising intrathoracic surgery (1899).

  8. Mathematics of the 19th century mathematical logic, algebra, number theory, probability theory

    CERN Document Server

    Yushkevich, A

    1992-01-01

    This multi-authored effort, Mathematics of the nineteenth century (to be fol­ lowed by Mathematics of the twentieth century), is a sequel to the History of mathematics fram antiquity to the early nineteenth century, published in three 1 volumes from 1970 to 1972. For reasons explained below, our discussion of twentieth-century mathematics ends with the 1930s. Our general objectives are identical with those stated in the preface to the three-volume edition, i. e. , we consider the development of mathematics not simply as the process of perfecting concepts and techniques for studying real-world spatial forms and quantitative relationships but as a social process as weIl. Mathematical structures, once established, are capable of a certain degree of autonomous development. In the final analysis, however, such immanent mathematical evolution is conditioned by practical activity and is either self-directed or, as is most often the case, is determined by the needs of society. Proceeding from this premise, we intend...

  9. The worldwide impact of Donati's comet on art and society in the mid-19th century

    CERN Document Server

    Gasperini, Antonella; Nenzi, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Donati's comet was one of the most impressive astronomical events of the nineteenth century. Its extended sword-like tail was a spectacular sight that inspired several literary and artistic representations. Traces of Donati's comet are found in popular magazines, children's books, collection cards, and household objects through the beginning of the twentieth century.

  10. The Cartography of post-Medieval Famagusta: from the 16th to the 19th Centuries

    OpenAIRE

    Arkan, Merve Senem

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Since the late 15th century, urban maps have illustrated with greater accuracy and reliability, detailed information about cities and towns. Such maps, in addition to offering the physical appearance of cities, have also given us an insight into the social and political contexts of the era. Cyprus, with its turbulent history, is no exception. Famagusta as a harbour city, in particular, has been occupied by various powers, in which time historical and cultural contexts of the city ha...

  11. Relationship between Spain and the United States during the 18th and 19th Centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-03-21

    Franklin, y Lee Is inteligencia do los puntos quo so tocason, ai no los concebian bien. y a mi igualmente por Ia explicac16n de ellba. *Preguntd al Dr...In inl inteligencia en loR mieinbros del Congreso". Respondi6 mii lucintamente qtie no. Pitni shritles tin poco el diiilflO, y que no ettrtfaasn Ian

  12. Professional Responsibility and the Welfare System in Spain at the Turn of the 19th Century

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    León Sanz, Pilar

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available This essay analyzes the attitudes of physicians prior to the establishment of a social welfare system in Spain, based on professional sources from 1890-1910. Firstly we revised the Systems of Collectivised Assistance during the Transition from the 19th to the 20th Century; then, the article discusses the corporativist reaction of Physicians to the different Welfare Systems. We observe that the criticism of insurance companies was unanimous. Nonetheless, there was a diversity of opinions regarding mutual societies and the associations of mutual assistance. The professional arguments used against the associations, mutuals and insurance companies were formulated around, in addition to the professional instability of the times, the changes in civil and criminal responsibility of the physician as a result of new legal regulations. We found physicians in favour of establishing a welfare system that was not exclusively public and which, in addition to benefiting the needy, would benefit the interests of the profession as well.

  13. Long 19th Century? Long 20th? Retooling that Last Chunk of World History Periodization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stearns, Peter N.

    2009-01-01

    As in any historical endeavor, periodization is an attempt to manage change, and present it coherently, by noting points where key breaks in framework occur. In world history, periodization has come to convey, particularly, shifts in the pattern of interactions and contacts among many, though not always all, major societies. In this article, the…

  14. Eta Carina: What was the Great Eruption in the 19th Century?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gull, Theodore; Eta Carina Bunch

    2018-01-01

    In the 1840’s, Eta Carina brightened to rival Sirius in apparent magnitude only to fade to naked-eye visibility for 5 decades, brightened somewhat in the 1890s and faded again until the 1940’s when it began a progressive brightening that continues. Today Eta Carina is a massive binary (100 Mo and 30 Mo) with a 5.54-year period, immersed in a massive (>40Mo) dusty, bipolar nebula. The radiation and kinetic energy of the 1840s event rivals that of a supernova, but the binary survived. While Eta Carina is suggested to be a supernova imposter, most imposters, seen in nearby galaxies, lead to actual supernova events months to years afterwards, yet the binary, Eta Carina, is still with us 170 years after the outburst.With modern observatories we are gaining much insight on the massive binary--followed by many ground-based telescopes, the fossil wind structures--mapped with HST/STIS, the Little Homunculus--discovered with HST/STIS and Homunculus--now being studied with ALMA. 3D models are able to explain much of the structures, but potentially much material remains hidden in the form of molecules on the far side of the Homunculus in the equatorial skirt region, where Herschel observations indicate the bulk of dust-emitting continuum resides.Was there a third star that became a supernova? Did one of the two stars go through a near supernova experience?This poster will summarize observations and modeling of the current system in hopes that theorists will become interested in providing scenarios and models that led to the ejecta and binary we observe today.

  15. The Metaphor of the Body as a House in 19th Century English Novels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Boghian

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims at identifying the way in which the human body functions as a metaphor for the concept of the house. The metaphorical process will be approached from a semiopoetic perspective, while the textual support will be provided by such novels as: Great Expectations, Dombey and Son, Oliver Twist, David Copperfield, by Charles Dickens, The Return of the Native, by Thomas Hardy, Wuthering Heights, by Emily Brontë, Jane Eyre, by Charlotte Brontë. Clothes will be approached as extensions, boundaries and modifiers of the human body and of the way in which human bodies are perceived.

  16. To the study of conventual health in the beginning of 19th century: the pharmacies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pessa de Oliveira, Ricardo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The institution Junta do Exame do Estado Actual e Melhoramento Temporal das Ordens Regulares (Examination Council for the Actual State and Temporal Improvement of the Religious Orders was created in November of 1789. Among other things, each Religious House should inform that institution about its heritage either the movables and the landed estates. The inventorying included all the goods belonging to wards and drugstores. In this paper we aim to study those places using records obtained from a variety of Religious Houses with no regional or Religious Order preferences. We will try to give answers to questions related to that spaces such as: “Which objects could be found inside the Houses?”; “Were they prorperly equiped?” and “Were there big differences between them in what concerns Religious Orders and Houses locations?”[pt] Em Novembro de 1789 foi criada a Junta do Exame do Estado Actual e Melhoramento Temporal das Ordens Regulares. Entre outros aspectos cada casa religiosa devia dar a conhecer à Instituição o seu património móvel e imóvel. De entre os bens inventariados contavam-se os pertencentes às enfermarias e boticas. No presente artigo pretendemos estudar estes espaços recorrendo a registos de uma série de casas religiosas escolhidas sem preferência regional ou Ordem religiosa. Tentaremos responder a questões tais como: quais os objetos que formavam estes espaços, se estariam bem apetrechados e ainda se existiriam grandes diferenças consoante Ordem religiosa e localização da Casa.

  17. Location of the 19th century warship "Russalka" / Vello Mäss

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mäss, Vello

    2004-01-01

    2003. aasta 22. juulil avastas Eesti Meremuuseumi uurimislaev "Mare" 1893. aasta septembrikuus teekonnal Tallinnast Helsingisse kadumaläinud soomuslaeva "Russalka" vraki. Tuukriülevaatus lubas modelleerida "Russalka" hukkumise käigu ja mõista selle asjaolusid

  18. The politics of the self: psychological science and bourgeois subjectivity in 19th century Spain

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    Novella, Enric J.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers an analysis of the process of institutionalization of psychological knowledge in Spain following the educative reforms implemented during the second third of the 19th century, which prescribed its inclusion in the curricular program of the new secondary education. After a detailed examination of the theoretical orientation, the ideological assumptions and the sociopolitical connections of the contents transmitted to the students throughout the century, its militant spiritualism is interpreted as a highly significant attempt on the part of the liberal elites to articulate a pedagogy of subjectivity intended to counteract the trends toward reduction, naturalization and fragmentation of psychic life inherent to the development of modern science.

    En este artículo se ofrece un análisis del proceso de institucionalización del conocimiento psicológico en España por obra de las reformas educativas implementadas durante el segundo tercio del siglo XIX, que prescribieron su inclusión en el programa curricular de la nueva educación secundaria. Tras un examen detenido de la orientación doctrinal, los supuestos ideológicos y la filiación sociopolítica de los contenidos transmitidos a los alumnos durante la mayor parte de la centuria, se interpreta su espiritualismo militante como un intento muy significativo por parte de las élites liberales de articular una pedagogía de la subjetividad destinada a contrarrestar las tendencias de reducción, naturalización y fragmentación del psiquismo alentadas por el desarrollo de la ciencia moderna.

  19. The Geger Banten of 1888: An Anthropological Perspective of 19th Century Millenarianism in Indonesia

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    Dadi Darmadi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper tries to analyse the millenarian response of the Bantenese to the Western colonization from an anthropological perspective. The his­tory of Banten at the end of the 19th and beginning of the 20th century was marked by various indigenous unrest, rebellion, and resistance against the colonial power. In 1888, several religious leaders of Sufi brotherhoods and community leaders in Cilegon, Banten led a revolt against the Dutch colonial government. This uprising was provoked by the Dutch’s trade regulation, a new economic system, and was fuelled by enduring religious sentiments against the Dutch. While most schol­ars frame the event as a religious or social political movement, this study focuses on to what some of the Bantenese Muslims perceived as “unjust” social situations of the colonized world: poverty, inequality, religious restriction, social and political marginalization.

  20. Fish and fishery historical data since the 19th century in the Adriatic Sea, Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortibuoni, Tomaso; Libralato, Simone; Arneri, Enrico; Giovanardi, Otello; Solidoro, Cosimo; Raicevich, Saša

    2017-09-01

    Historic data on biodiversity provide the context for present observations and allow studying long-term changes in marine populations. Here we present multiple datasets on fish and fisheries of the Adriatic Sea covering the last two centuries encompassing from qualitative observations to standardised scientific monitoring. The datasets consist of three groups: (1) early naturalists' descriptions of fish fauna, including information (e.g., presence, perceived abundance, size) on 255 fish species for the period 1818-1936 (2) historical landings from major Northern Adriatic fish markets (Venice, Trieste, Rijeka) for the period 1902-1968, Italian official landings for the Northern and Central Adriatic (1953-2012) and landings from the Lagoon of Venice (1945-2001) (3) trawl-survey data from seven surveys spanning the period 1948-1991 and including Catch per Unit of Effort data (kgh‑1 and/or nh‑1) for 956 hauls performed at 301 stations. The integration of these datasets has already demonstrated to be useful to analyse historical marine community changes over time, and its availability through open-source data portal will facilitate analyses in the framework of marine historical ecology.

  1. Limits on the "Freed" Press of 18th- and 19th-Century Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruud, Charles A.

    1979-01-01

    Surveys the status of freedom of the press in eighteenth and nineteenth century Europe, noting that although preliminary censorship was abolished in most of Europe by 1850, governments devised other means to influence what appeared in print. (GT)

  2. Then and Now: Fundraising during a Fiscal Crisis--Lessons from the 19th Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscatelli, Anton; Mackay, Francesca

    2011-01-01

    A housing and municipal construction bubble popped and generated a lending crisis in which interbank lending rates became impossibly high. The banking crisis, which spread across Europe and the United States, eventually impacted other industries, leading to a stock market crash and an economic contraction lasting several years. This was not in…

  3. [Alsatian chemists in Paris in the 19th century: a network, a school?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, A; Pigeard, N

    1997-11-01

    During the nineteenth century French chemistry was marked by an outstanding number of Alsatian chemists whose scientific contributions cannot be ignored. Especially following the Franco-Prussian War, their regional origin was given a particular importance as a means of affirming their singularity on the French scientific scene. However, some questions may be raised: can we distinguish the Alsatians from other French chemists before 1870? Were they a homogeneous group sharing a common origin? The aim of this article therefore, is, to show that by their theoretical options within chemistry, their personal and professional relationships, as well as by their participation in various common initiatives, they organized themselves both formally and informally within the Parisian scientific community. Amongst these forms of organization the research school of Charles Adolphe Wurtz (1817-84) emerges as the nucleus of what we may envisage as a network of Alsatian chemists working in Paris, in the second half of the nineteenth century.

  4. The treatment of tuberculosis in Ferrara (Italy) in the 19th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicentini, Chiara Beatrice; Mares, Donatella; Guidi, Enrica; Angelini, Lauretta; Contini, Carlo; Manfredini, Stefano

    2010-12-01

    The present work is a review of the remedies in use in Ferrara against tuberculosis in the 1800s. The work started from the discovery of accounts describing methods and remedies. These remedies were also in use world wide. Of particular interest is the work by Antonio Campana, a famous professor of Pharmaceutical Chemistry and Botany in Ferrara, who wrote a pharmacopoeia which had several editions between 1797 and 1841. The Farmacopea Ferrarese was addressed to the apothecaries of Ferrara. Nevertheless, due to its great reputation it had an international distribution. It provided us with an exhaustive view about the medical field in Ferrara in the early 1800s. The remedies adopted in the city in the second half of the century were in line with those present abroad. The work was also supported by the discovery of statistical accounts of the Sant'Anna hospital from 1871. The manuscript written by Alessandro Bennati enabled elucidation of the methods used to treat tuberculosis in the second half of the century. Bennati's work is an historical document completed by the work of the physician Cesare Minerbi.

  5. Deported Ñáñigos to Fernando Po in the 19th century.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the society, the punishment is carried out at the drum (Aranzadi, 2009:174) in Malabo as well as in Cuba (Trujillo and Monagas 1882:366). In the colonial period, at Epiphany the Governor used to give the “aguinaldo” (Christmas bonus) to the association in Havana (1882:365) as he did in Fernando Po. At Christmas many.

  6. Organizational issues in the first graded schools of Lisbon (second half of the 19th century

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    Carlos Manique da Silva

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study is focused on the graded schools of Lisbon (Casa Pia and municipal schools in the second half of the nineteenth century. The aim was to understand how the dysfunctions of the graded school model were being «corrected». Indeed, it was inconceivable for the model to be contested (as the research shows, – it simply had to work better. The greatest organizational difficulty in such schools resulted from the teacher’s task of looking after students with different cognitive levels and needs. During the 1880s, this classroom heterogeneity resulted in several classroom management problems in the institutional context of the Lisbon Casa Pia, even though the graded school model had proved its effectiveness there in the 1860s. Among other measures introduced to counter such problems, the school board was set up with the idea of overcoming organizational difficulties by involving teachers in the decision-making process. However, the extremely strict criteria that needed to be met to pass onto a higher grade hampered the flux of students in the municipal schools of Lisbon, making grade retention an ordinary procedure – particularly in the first grades. The school boards proposed several solutions to this problem, among which curriculum segmentation.

  7. More than a “Subspecies of American Literature”: Obstacles toward a Transnational Mormon Novel

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    Scott Hales

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the mid-twentieth century, the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormons has become an increasingly international organization with more than half of its members currently living outside US borders. Still, because of its US origins, strongly centralized Salt Lake City headquarters, and doctrinal traditions that privilege the United States as a Promised Land, Mormonism remains an American church in the eyes of much of the world. This essay explores Mormonism’s struggle to internationalize through the lens of Mormon novels about transnational Mormon experiences. Specifically, it shows how these novels have sometimes embraced and sometimes resisted the hegemonic narrative of US Mormonism in order to understand how these works consider and reconsider long-standing assumptions about the value of the boundaries and central gathering places that have traditionally defined Mormonism’s physical, cultural, and ideological landscapes. Focusing on Margaret Blair Young’s Salvador (1993, Toni Sorenson Brown’s Redemption Road (2005, and Ryan McIlvain’s Elders (2012, this essay also looks at ways Mormon novels imagine transnational utopian spaces that seek to conceptualize a future where Mormonism is less tied to bordered concepts like nation, state, and America, and more open to border crossings. While these utopian spaces are not altogether unproblematic or free of Americentric assumptions, this essay argues that a look at how these novels use these spaces reveals much about the genre’s potential to explore Mormonism’s possibilities as a transnational community and rethink its relationship to its US headquarters.

  8. Religion and attitudes toward the environment: a comparison of Mormons and the general U.S. population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Lori M; Toney, Michael B

    2005-01-01

    Religion has been shown to influence attitudes toward an array of social issues. This manuscript focuses specifically on environmental issues, with empirical examination of the distinctiveness of contemporary Mormon environmental perspectives as contrasted with the general U.S. population. A belief in the importance of dominion over the environment is noted, by some, to be reflected in anti-environmental stance characterizing Mormon Culture Region political leaders and church members [Foltz, R. C. (2000). Mormon values and the Utah environment. Worldviews: Environment, Culture, Religion, 4, 1-19]. Yet, a set of highly regarded essays by a diverse group of Mormons, including some in church leadership positions, expresses strong personal commitments to environmental causes and point to Mormon teachings and doctrines promoting environmentalism (Williams, Smith, and Gibbs, 1998). We examine variation in environmental concern as expressed by Mormons in a local community survey undertaken in Logan, Utah, as contrasted with the nationally-representative General Social Survey (1993). We find substantial differences between Mormons and the national sample; While Mormons tended to express greater levels of environmental concern, they were less likely to have undertaken specific behaviors reflective of such concern.

  9. Toward Theological Inclusivism: The Effects of a World Religions Course in a Mormon University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Properzi, Mauro

    2017-01-01

    Inclusivist, exclusivist, and pluralist attitudes toward other religions interact in complex ways within the Mormon faith. Hence, a course on the world's religions at LDS-sponsored Brigham Young University presents an interesting case study in this context. Through survey data and statistical analysis this article attempts to examine the effect of…

  10. Gender Role Perceptions of Mormon Women from Divorced Families: An Adult-Developmental Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafkas, Sara McPhee

    2012-01-01

    More American families now have shifting family forms and gender role practices, but some religious faiths still subscribe to traditional family and gender roles. Following these ideals in modern society can challenge adherents. This qualitative study examined one such faith, considering the perceptions of Mormon (i.e., Latter-day Saint) women…

  11. Mormon Clients' Experiences of Conversion Therapy: The Need for a New Treatment Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckstead, A. Lee; Morrow, Susan L.

    2004-01-01

    Perspectives were gathered of 50 Mormon individuals who had undergone counseling to change their sexual orientation. The data were analyzed using the constant comparative method and participant verification, thereby developing a grounded theory. A model emerged that depicted participants' intrapersonal and interpersonal motivations for seeking…

  12. Dealing with Social Change: The Mormon Church's Response to Change in Women's Roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannaccone, Laurence R.; Miles, Carrie A.

    1990-01-01

    After two decades of resistance, the Mormon church has begun accommodating change in women's roles. Accommodation increases participation among younger and less experienced members but decreases participation among older and more experienced members, suggesting that successful churches must balance accommodation and resistance to social change.…

  13. Coral by-catch in shrimp bottom trawl surveys in West Greenland waters (2010 – 2012)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensbye, Helle; Arboe, Nanette Hammeken

    There have been zoological expeditions in Greenland waters since the 19th century documenting the sea life, including cold water corals. Coral trees (vernacular name for Paragorgia arborea) are mentioned as early as 1741 in the first natural history book about Greenland (Egede 1741). Due...... to the many expeditions and opportunistic collections by Greenlandic fisheries surveys, the species composition of West Greenlandic corals is fairly well known (Tendal and Heiner 2002), although observations of species new to Greenland are still being made (Jørgensen et al. 2013, Tendal et al. 2013......). The earlier collections of corals were not systematic and distribution patterns are poorly understood. Thus, more recently the Greenland Institute of Natural Resources started to collect cold water corals in a more systematic way to document the occurrence of corals in the bottom trawls made for the annual...

  14. Religion and attitudes toward the environment: a comparison of Mormons and the general U.S. population

    OpenAIRE

    Hunter, Lori M.; Toney, Michael B.

    2005-01-01

    Religion has been shown to influence attitudes toward an array of social issues. This manuscript focuses specifically on environmental issues, with empirical examination of the distinctiveness of contemporary Mormon environmental perspectives as contrasted with the general U.S. population. A belief in the importance of dominion over the environment is noted, by some, to be reflected in anti-environmental stance characterizing Mormon Culture Region political leaders and church members [Foltz, ...

  15. Face facts: a history of physiognomy from ancient Mesopotamia to the end of the 19th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkinson, J

    1997-01-01

    Inscribed on the face is a code, the translation of which has entertained and eluded humankind for many centuries. The practice of reading the face dates back as early as the paleobabylonian period in Mesopotamia. It wasn't until much later, however, that this ancient tradition was named.

  16. A Child in a Working Class Family in the Kingdom of Poland at the Turn of the 19th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta BOŁDYREW

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available From the point of view of studies in humanities and social science (pedagogy, history of education, sociology, ethnology an important issue of discussion is the position and the role of a child in a workingclass family, the conditions of his sohttps://doaj.org/publisher/metacializing and the norms of education at the time of intensive social and economic changes. Financial situation, the structure of a family, emotional ties, cultural message of the environment influenced the methods and aims of bringing up children. The reconstruction of the phenomenon is possible due to the archive sources (for instance, the documents of social organizations which supported poor town families, newspapers, guide books, diaries, statistic data, acts of law (for instance, laws concerning children and young people, ethnologic materials, literature, photographs, and numerous methodological solutions used at that timedata

  17. Examines the motives and experiences of migrants to Cuba from the British Isles in the 19th Century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curry Machado, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Migrants from the British Isles played a hitherto little recognised part in the development of Cuban society and economy in the nineteenth century. Although not a numerically large migration, British and Irish merchants, professionals and, above all, workers had a significance for Cuba out of

  18. Reflections on 19th-Century Experience with Knowledge Diffusion: The Sixth Annual Howard Davis Memorial Lecture, April 11, 1991.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Carol H.

    1991-01-01

    Provides the text of the Howard Davis Memorial Lecture, which was presented to the Knowledge Utilization Society in 1991. The lecture describes the work of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge, which was active in Great Britain the nineteenth century and compares it with current practices in the field of knowledge utilization. (12…

  19. In search of the plague. The Greek peninsula faces the black death, 14th to 19th centuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostis, K P

    1998-01-01

    Histories of the plague are based on the belief that we can locate epidemics in the related sources and classify them according to present-day medical categories. This article rests upon the assumption that present day medical discourse which is based upon laboratory observation is totally incompatible with history which lacks analogous techniques in constructing its own discourse. It explores the possibilities and the limits of a history of the plague based upon the phenomenology of the disease as recorded in the sources that concern the period of the second pandemic of the plague.

  20. From Undernutrition to Overnutrition: The Evolution of Overweight and Obesity among Young Men in Switzerland since the 19th Century

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    Kaspar Staub

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The global obesity epidemic continues, new approaches are needed to understand the causes. We analyzed data from an evolutionary perspective, stressing developmental plasticity. Methods: We present diachronical height, weight, and BMI data for 702,902 Swiss male conscripts aged 18-20 years, a representative, standardized and unchanged data source. Results: From 1875 to 1879, the height distribution was slightly left-skewed; 12.1% of the conscripts were underweight, overweight and obesity were rare. The BMI-to-height relationship was positive but not linear, and very short conscripts were particularly slim. Since the 1870s, Swiss conscripts became taller, a trend that markedly slowed in the 1990s. In contrast, weight increased in two distinct steps at the end of the 1980s and again after 2002. Since 2010, BMI did not increase but stabilized at a high level. Conclusions: The body of young men adapted differently to varying living conditions over time: First, less investment in height and weight under conditions of undernutrition and food uncertainty; second, more investment in height under more stable nutritional conditions; third, development of obesity during conditions of plateaued height growth, overnutrition, and decreasing physical activity. This example contributes to the evaluation of hypotheses on human developmental plasticity.

  1. Tangible and Intangible Legacy of the 19th Century Zappas Olympics and their Implications for Contemporary Sport Tourism

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    Margaritis George

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available As has been shown in the article, the Zappas Olympics generously contributed to the revival of the Olympic Games in the nineteenth century. The course of these competitions has been described, and a brief summary of Zappas’s work, which does not often attract a lot of attention in, for example, Polish academics, has also been made. The fact that the Zappas Olympics mainly enhanced the national identity of the Greeks following Turkish captivity has also been highlighted. The Zappas Olympics allowed the Greeks to become more familiar with sports and fair play. The knowledge that the Greeks acquired from the organization of this event was useful for the organization of the first modern Olympic Games in Athens. These days, material remains of this event serve touristic and cultural functions. The significance of such facilities as the Zappeion and the Panathenaic Stadium have also been underlined. For example, the Zappeion and the Panathenaic Stadium host cultural events and welcome tourists interested in sports history or Greek culture. These are the authorities responsible for touristic policy in Greece and they may decide whether such historic sites and sporting facilities will be included in thematic routes for tourists. According to the authors of the present paper, these sites may effectively compete with mass and recreational attractions in Greece.

  2. The music printing development with Popovtsy in the 19th century and at the beginning of the 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Sawicki

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this article’s author is to describe the beginnings of the music printing with the Old Believers acknowledging priests (Popovtsy. The first attempts of printing the orthodox songbooks containing notes have been pioneering. However, there were quite a few editorial as well as printing flaws. The current author, by analyzing priest’s professor Dymitr Razumowski contribution into the whole process of songbooks printing, proves that it has been possible to organize edition only thanks to the cooperation between the editor and publisher. Further, there are explained the causes of printed songbooks rejection among the Old Believers not only in Russia but also among those who emigrated. The second part of this work is dedicated to Lasar Kalashnikov’s editorial activity carried in Kiev and afterwards in Moscow, especially his great contribution into popularization of different forms of the Old Believers’ church singing. Based on the accessible sources, it is described that Kalashnikov’s editorial successes have been only possible owing to the fact of the orthodox church authorities’ support and political favourable for the Old Believers circumstances.

  3. Monotony, Isolation and Backward Agriculture. Travel Accounts of 19th Century and Agrarian History of Bogota Plateau (Colombia

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    Katherinne Giselle Mora Pacheco

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Different works of Agrarian History reproduce a similar description of Bogota Plateau (Colombia throughout the nineteenth century: agricultural use since colonial times; vast fields of wheat and barley; abrupt replacement of crops by cattle; agricultural crisis linked to the agro-export booms and the demand for tropical products that could not be obtained above 2000 meters. This paper discusses how this approach has perpetuated descriptions of travelers who visited the region during the nineteenth century and wrote up their notebooks based on their origins, objectives, political and economic interests, or from affirmations of their guides and informants. This article rebuilds a profile of travelers that are most often quoted by historians, their views about the Plateau landscape and its farming and ranching, and their influence on today reconstructions of the agrarian history of Bogota Plateau along nineteenth century. This text invites to contrast the travel accounts among themselves and with another sources, and also to incorporate the results of the research about the Colonial period and the biophysical conditions of the regions under study in the analysis.

  4. Congenital syphilis in the skeleton of a child from Poland (Radom, 18th–19th century AD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomczyk Jacek

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available An incomplete skeleton of a 3-year-old child with suspected congenital syphilis was found in the Radom area of Poland. Squama frontalis and zygomatic bones are characterized by significant bone loss. Radiographic pictures show a geographic destructive lesion of a serpiginous shape surrounded by a zone of reactive osteosclerosis in the squama frontalis. The radiographic findings included a slight widening and contour irregularities of the distal humeral metaphyses. The appearance of teeth did not suggest Hutchinson teeth, but the examination of the permanent molars showed signs of mulberry molars. Two teeth were tested for the presence of mercury. Chemical analysis did not indicate mercury accumulation (enamel: 0.07 μg/g, dentine: 0.14 μg/g, bone: 0.11 μg/g. Mercury values obtained for the examined samples were similar to those that are typical of healthy teeth in today’s individuals.

  5. The image of Algeria in the writings of Francisco Zavala, a Spanish journalist in Algeria during the 19th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayet Guenoun

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Los Espanoles eran la comunidad Europea la mas numerosa que habia emigrado a Argelia visto a la dura situacion que atraveso Espana a lo largo del siglo xix. Una serie de crisis socio-economicas,politicas favoricio la emigracion de los campesiones,obreros en paro,refugiados politicos hacia Argelia. Segun algunos autores,los Espanoles formaban una comunidad cerrada a la influencia Frances y guardaban su personalidad y su modo de vivir espanol. Entre los defensores de la comunidad Espanola en Argelia , el Espanol Francisco Zavala periodista refugiado en Argelia en 1879.Al llegar a argelia fue director de la sociedad amistad Espanola en argel,cuya preocupacion era crear actividades culturales tipicamente espanolas . El patuet periodico fundado por aquella asociacion cuyo director fue zavala entre 1882-1883. En 1883 Zavala creo la fraternidad obrera hasta 1884, y en 1887 Zavala marcho a Oran donde continuo la publicacion de la Fraternidad hasta 1888 ano de su expulsion del territorio Argelino por las autoridades Francesas. Antes de su expulsion,Zavala publico su obra:La Bandera Espanola en Argelia,es una obra que resume toda la historia de la presencia Espanola en Argelia desde 1505 hasta 1792 su preocupacion iba mas de 1792 pues relata hechos posteriores a dicho ano tocando la colonizacion Francesa .El titulo de la obra (la bandera Espanola en Argelia pone en evidencia la importancia de la presencia Espanola en Africa del norte y specificamente en Argelia Zavala luchaba por medio de la Fraternidad para mejorar la situacion de los Espanoles residentes en argelia . defendia sus derechos morales y materiales y luchaba contra la difamacion que eran victimas .y en la Bandera Espanola en Argelia se preocupaba mas bien de la civilizacion y de la historia. Zavala a traves de su obra quiere ensenar la historia de la presencia Espanola en Argelia a los hijos de los Epanoles nacidos en Argelia para que segun el sepan que tienen los mismos derechos que los hijos Frances en Argelia .y de otra parte quiere mostrar a los Espanoles lo que era Espana como potencia en Europa y sobre todo en Africa del norte, Zavala quiere despertar el patriotismo en todo Espanol. En conclusion , Zavala luchaba para su comunidad y defendia sus derechos morales y materiales en Argelia pero ignora a los Argelinos que en realidad son los mas explotados en la colonia . Un elemento puede ser paradojico es la mentalidad colonial de Zavala , profundamente estaba indignado para el comportamiento de los politicos y agente de policia a los Espanoles y tambien a los Argelinos , pero para sus compatriotas Zavala exige los mismos derechos como los Franceses, y para los Argelinos Zavala admite el hecho colonial, en su espiritu la mission civilizada de Europa en Africa del norte es innegable..

  6. Smith’s theory of wages and its impact on the theory of wages in the 19th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Božo

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Adam Smith has not accepted subsistence theory of wages as an explanation of wages. He can be marked not only as a founder of wages-fund theory, but also of the bargaining theory of wages. Wage-fund doctrine dominated the next hundred years of English economics. Besides, Smith’s explanation of the differentials in wage rates among occupations were accepted by his successors for a century. That was the first step into direction of human capital theory.

  7. Frege - The Unintentional Linguist. On Frege's Views of Language in the Context of 19th Century German Linguistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Karsten Hvidtfelt

    2009-01-01

    Igennem hele sin professionelle kariere betragtede Frege sproget som en farlig trussel mod den videnskabelige erkendelse. Jeg viser først hvorledes Frege udviklede sin matematiske sproglogik i ofte uintenderet overensstemmelse med samtidige tendenser både inden for tysk lingvistik (Becker......, Steinthal, Paul, Wundt) og sprogkritik (Gruppe, Nietzsche, Mauthner) og hvorledes hans kamp mod sproget endte med et bittert personligt og professionelt nederlag. Derefter foretager jeg en rekonstruktion af Freges logiske grammatik samt af det argument som blev afgørende for Freges accept af...... sprogskepticisme (Freges såkaldte paradoks). Artiklen slutter med en evaluering af Freges relevans for moderne lingvistik...

  8. Mapping the Elephants of the 19th Century East African Ivory Trade with a Multi-Isotope Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutu, Ashley N; Lee-Thorp, Julia; Collins, Matthew J; Lane, Paul J

    2016-01-01

    East African elephants have been hunted for their ivory for millennia but the nineteenth century witnessed strongly escalating demand from Europe and North America. It has been suggested that one consequence was that by the 1880s elephant herds along the coast had become scarce, and to meet demand, trade caravans trekked farther into interior regions of East Africa, extending the extraction frontier. The steady decimation of elephant populations coupled with the extension of trade networks have also been claimed to have triggered significant ecological and socio-economic changes that left lasting legacies across the region. To explore the feasibility of using an isotopic approach to uncover a 'moving frontier' of elephant extraction, we constructed a baseline isotope data set (δ13C, δ15N, δ18O and 87Sr/86Sr) for historic East African elephants known to have come from three distinct regions (coastal, Rift Valley, and inland Lakes). Using the isotope results with other climate data and geographical mapping tools, it was possible to characterise elephants from different habitats across the region. This baseline data set was then used to provenance elephant ivory of unknown geographical provenance that was exported from East Africa during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries to determine its likely origin. This produced a better understanding of historic elephant geography in the region, and the data have the potential to be used to provenance older archaeological ivories, and to inform contemporary elephant conservation strategies.

  9. The Influence of Delsarte’s Work in the United States: Late 19th Century and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Lee Chalfa Ruyter

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the influence of François Delsarte on bodily motion, theater, and elocution in the United States from the late nineteenth century. It presents his main ideas and how they were developed and transformed in the country since 1870, becoming, in their last phase, which began in the 1880s, a theory that was applied to all aspects of life, independent from its European form. The contributions of Steele Mackaye, Genevieve Stebbins, Henrietta Hovey and others are mentioned.

  10. The Huguenot identity in 19th century music: The "Sechs Sprüche zum Kirchenjahr" by Felix Mendelssohn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Weeda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hierdie artikel gaan oor die komponiste Felix Mendelssohn en Giacomo Meyerbeer. Meyerbeer die komponis van die opera Les Huguenots, en Mendelssohn, 'n Jood wat 'n "Calvinis" geword het. Meyerbeer vertel in die opera (1836, geanker aan die Lutherse melodie "'n Vaste Burg is onse God" die verhaal van die Bartolomeusnagmoorde. Mendelssohn, 'n bekeerling tot die sg Hugenote-religie, verwoord sy opregte geloof gedurende die jare 1843-1846 in die voortreflike musikaleuitdrukkings Sechs Sprüche zum Kirchenjahr (Ses Spreuke vir die Kerkjaar wat opgeneem is in die gereformeerde liturgie vir die Brandenburg gemeente. Op 'n bepaalde manier vertel albei komponiste ons iets van die Hugenote-identiteit in die negentiende-eeuse musiek.

  11. The Huguenot identity in 19th century music: The "Sechs Sprüche zum Kirchenjahr" by Felix Mendelssohn

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Weeda

    2012-01-01

    Hierdie artikel gaan oor die komponiste Felix Mendelssohn en Giacomo Meyerbeer. Meyerbeer die komponis van die opera Les Huguenots, en Mendelssohn, 'n Jood wat 'n "Calvinis" geword het. Meyerbeer vertel in die opera (1836), geanker aan die Lutherse melodie "'n Vaste Burg is onse God" die verhaal van die Bartolomeusnagmoorde. Mendelssohn, 'n bekeerling tot die sg Hugenote-religie, verwoord sy opregte geloof gedurende die jare 1843-1846 in die voortreflike musikaleuitdrukkings Sechs Sprüche zum...

  12. Demonstration of LED Retrofit Lamps at an Exhibit of 19th Century Photography at the Getty Museum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Naomi J.; Druzik, Jim

    2012-03-02

    This document is a report of observations and results obtained from a lighting demonstration project conducted under the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) GATEWAY Demonstration Program. The program supports demonstrations of high-performance solid-state lighting (SSL) products in order to develop empirical data and experience with in-the-field applications of this advanced lighting technology. The DOE GATEWAY Demonstration Program focuses on providing a source of independent, third-party data for use in decision-making by lighting users and professionals; this data should be considered in combination with other information relevant to the particular site and application under examination. Each GATEWAY Demonstration compares SSL products against the incumbent technologies used in that location. Depending on available information and circumstances, the SSL product may also be compared to alternate lighting technologies. Though products demonstrated in the GATEWAY program may have been prescreened for performance, DOE does not endorse any commercial product or in any way guarantee that users will achieve the same results through use of these products. This report reviews the installation and use of LED PAR38 lamps to light a collection of toned albument photographic prints at the J. Paul Getty Museum in Malibu, California. Research results provided by the Getty Conservation Institute are incorporated and discussed.

  13. Government’s Fear of Newspapers in Russia and France in the Second Half of the 19th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valery F. Blokhin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to one of the measures of administrative influence on the publishers of periodicals in the form of a ban on the retail sale of newspapers and magazines in the imperial Russia and France. The author argues that this policy was introduced in Russia due to adoption of foreign experience of direct and indirect censorship, especially the French experience. So, the article seeks to access the difference between the original approach of the French empire and the Russian version of the policy. Also the article bridges the gap between the current Russian historiography and the existing archive materials with help of discourse analysis and comparative method. First, the author reviews the literature on Russian and French censorship in the second half of XIX century. This allows us to describe the original policy motives of leadership in France in area of media coverage and censorship. Second, the author presents some comparative parallels in the particular area of study of censorship and its institutional basis. Using official documents, data on discussions of the alleged measures and the reasons for their introduction, author shows features of approaches of the Russian Ministry of internal Affairs and a member of his censorship Departmen t to highligh t the key issues of social development, to enhance the effectiveness of state censorship policy. The article gives the significant boost towards new approaches in research of indirect censorship in Russia and France as well as the role models for such a policy. Also the article allows us to reconsider the diffusionist paradigm with regard to state's policy experience circulation between European empires and their reaction to the emergence of modern media.

  14. The influence of water saturation on mechanical properties of ceramic bricks – tests on 19th- century and contemporary bricks

    OpenAIRE

    Matysek, P.; Stryszewska, T.; Kańka, S.; Witkowski, M.

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents test results concerning ceramic bricks produced in 1880’s. Bricks were obtained from a building erected as part of Archduke Rudolf barracks in Krakow. The tests helped to specify changes in brick compressive strength and hardness, caused by water saturation in the ceramic material. For comparison purposes, tests were also carried out on contemporary bricks. Tests showed that mechanical properties of the ceramic bricks in the water saturation state were worse than in the dry...

  15. The Rise of the Cult of Rembrandt : Reinventing an Old Master in 19th-century France

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McQueen, Alison

    2003-01-01

    Rembrandt's life and art had a mythical resonance among ninetheenth-century French artists, writers and collectors. Artists and critics used Rembrandt's artistic persona as a benchmark and justification for their own goals and some reconstructed and falsified history while making making Rembrandt

  16. The role of vertical land movements on late 19th century sea level rise at Cuxhaven, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niehüser, Sebastian; Jensen, Jürgen; Wahl, Thomas; Dangendorf, Sönke; Hofstede, Jacobus

    2015-04-01

    Tide gauges, located along the world's coastlines, represent one of the most important data sources with information about sea level change back into the 17th century, bridging the gap between paleo proxies and modern remote sensing data sources. While the worldwide coverage of tide gauges has increased considerably since the mid-20th century, there are only a few gauges available providing information about regional sea level changes before 1900. Furthermore, these tide gauge measurements are often contaminated by local vertical land movements (VLM) resulting from tectonic processes or local anthropogenic interventions. Such non-climatic effects need to be removed from the raw data to uncover climate signals, which are important, for instance, for answering the question whether and when sea level started to accelerate from the nearly constant rates over the past 2000 years. Here we focus on one of these long tide gauge records: Cuxhaven, which is located in the German Bight and provides uninterrupted digital time series of tidal high and low water levels since 1843. The record has been extensively studied during the past decades with respect to regional and global sea level rise. However, a question that still remains is the role of local subsidence before 1900 at the lighthouse of Cuxhaven, located close to the tide gauge. In 1855 Lentz installed a granite height mark at the lighthouse, which was later used as a proxy for VLMs of the tide gauge itself. The height of the control mark was derived by a levelling between Hamburg and Cuxhaven. These levellings were repeated five times between 1855 and 1900 and later evaluated by Siefert and Lassen (1985) with respect to the role of local subsidence. Based on a linear regression of individual levellings Siefert and Lassen (1985) concluded that the lighthouse subsided by an average rate of 2.8 mm/yr (1855-1875: 4.2 mm/yr; 1876-1890: 2 mm/yr; 1890-1900: 1.2 mm/yr). However, due to the massive uncertainties of these early levellings (especially the first by Lentz in 1855), the correction has been questioned several times in the recent years (e.g. Jensen et al. 1992; Wahl et al. 2011; Jensen et al. 2011). Here, we choose a different approach and compare the record of Cuxhaven to 18 nearby stations from the North and Baltic Sea region. Based on visual inspections, linear regression and correlation analyses before and after applying the correction we find that the Cuxhaven record compares best to the other sites if the correction is not applied. Therefore, we conclude that the correction remains still questionable and should not be applied to the raw data. References Jensen, J.; Mügge, H.-E. and Schönfeld, W.: Analyse der Wasserstandsentwicklung und Tidedynamik in der Deutschen Bucht, Die Küste, 53, 1992. Jensen, J.; Frank, T.; Wahl, T. and Dangendorf, S.: Analyse von hochaufgelösten Tidewasserständen und Ermittlung des MSL an der deutschen Nordseeküste (AMSeL), Abschlussbericht, Siegen, 2011. Siefert, W. and Lassen, H.: Gesamtdarstellung der Wasserstandsverhältnisse im Küstenvorfeld der Deutschen Bucht nach neuen Pegelaufzeichnungen, Die Küste, 42, 1985. Wahl, T.; Mudersbach, C. and Jensen J.: Assessing the hydrodynamic boundary conditions for risk analyses in coastal areas: A stochastic storm surge model, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci. 11, 2925-2939, doi:10.5194/nhess-11-2925-2011, 2011.

  17. An Intensive Cultural Resource Survey for the Bank Stabilization Project: A Late 19th Century Stoneware Manufacturing Site, Bonaparte, Iowa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-11-01

    were used for separating eggs, while the largest specimens, with diameters of 24 inches and body heights of 12 inches, found utility as bread dough ...was called to the great beyond, and March 28th 1893 the wife and mother followed. Feb. 12th, 1902, he was married to Emily J. Calamane, at Alton

  18. The influence of water saturation on mechanical properties of ceramic bricks – tests on 19th- century and contemporary bricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matysek, P.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents test results concerning ceramic bricks produced in 1880’s. Bricks were obtained from a building erected as part of Archduke Rudolf barracks in Krakow. The tests helped to specify changes in brick compressive strength and hardness, caused by water saturation in the ceramic material. For comparison purposes, tests were also carried out on contemporary bricks. Tests showed that mechanical properties of the ceramic bricks in the water saturation state were worse than in the dry state. The impact of strong brick moisture on changes of mechanical parameters is essential in terms of safety assessment for brick structures.En el artículo se presentan los resultados del estudio de los ladrillos cerámicos producidos en los años 80 del siglo XIX. Los ladrillos se obtuvieron del edificio que forma parte de un conjunto de cuarteles del archiduque Rudolfo en Cracovia en Polonia. En los estudios se han determinado los cambios de la resistencia a la compresión y la dureza de los ladrillos, por efecto de la saturación de agua del material cerámico. A efectos comparativos, se han realizado también estudios de ladrillos producidos en la actualidad. Se ha comprobado que la saturación de agua de los ladrillos cerámicos lleva consigo una considerable disminución de las propiedades mecánicas. Por lo tanto, el impacto de la alta humedad de los ladrillos sobre el cambio de las propiedades mecánicas constituye un factor significativo en la evaluación de la seguridad en las construcciones de ladrillo.

  19. A 20th century miracle in a 19th century village--infant mortality...zero... Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, M

    1983-01-01

    Sawauchi Village (Wage District, Iwate Prefecture) in Japan once had the reputation of being a place of poverty, sickness, and heavy snowfalls. These conditions have changed thanks to the efforts of the late Mr. Masao Fukazawa who became the Village Mayor in 1967. Fukazawa put special emphasis on public health administration, first, by buying bulldozers to clear the village's roads in the winter. This action enabled access to the hospitals. The bulldozers that cleared the snow in winter displayed their usefulness in summer as well. The machines turned uncultivated land into farmland and reinforced the irrigation systems. Fukazawa hammered out various concrete measures in health administration, including the establishment of a Health Committee, the appointment of the Committee members as well as 2 public health nurses, the initiation of regular health examination for babies, and a 10-year plan to reduce infant mortality to half the level of the past. The Committee, which became the Council on Community Health in 1975, became famous throughout Japan in 1977 when it started complete examinations for degenerative diseases. The overall physical examination is given to all residents within the 35-39 age group, in addition to those who wish to be examined. Dr. Susumu Masuda, Director of the Sawauchi Village Hospital, has greatly contributed to health care improvement in Sawauchi Village, which is known to be 1 of the first villages in Japan that succeeded in reducing the infant mortality rate to zero. It is also famous for its maternal and child health activities. Sawauchi Village, which once suffered from a high birth rate just as today's developing nations, is now anticipating a lower birth rate and an aging society, an inevitable outcome of the village's development.

  20. Writing and social behavior: Dom Obá II in the pages of Rio de Janeiro 19th century newspapers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian do Rocio Borba

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to focus on the writings of Candido da Fonseca Galvão (1845-1890, Dom Obá II d’África, as a strategy for visibility and social mobility. Galvão was a free black man during slavery Brazil. Son of a free African of Yoruba origin, he published a series of articles in newspapers of Rio de Janeiro in the late nineteenth century. This case study is theoretically based on historical sociolinguistics in dialogue with studies related to social history, a historiographic trend that uses evidence from various aspects of the diverse agents of everyday history, especially those participating in subordinate roles in history, the so-called “history from below”. The social meaning assigned to the writings by Cândido Galvão is an important element to discuss the use of language as a social behavior (Labov, 2008 [1972], especially the desire for social mobility. The writings of this individual of the nineteenth century witnessed a social behavior deeply connected with the values related to the written practices of the society of that time. By means of participation in writing practices, the historical subject of this research imposed himself as a citizen, constituting the identity of a writing subject.

  1. Quantifying pollen-vegetation relationships to reconstruct forests using 19th-century forest composition and pollen data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Andria; Paciorek, Christopher J.; McLachlan, Jason S.; Goring, Simon; Williams, John W.; Jackson, Stephen T.

    2016-01-01

    Mitigation of climate change and adaptation to its effects relies partly on how effectively land-atmosphere interactions can be quantified. Quantifying composition of past forest ecosystems can help understand processes governing forest dynamics in a changing world. Fossil pollen data provide information about past forest composition, but rigorous interpretation requires development of pollen-vegetation models (PVMs) that account for interspecific differences in pollen production and dispersal. Widespread and intensified land-use over the 19th and 20th centuries may have altered pollen-vegetation relationships. Here we use STEPPS, a Bayesian hierarchical spatial PVM, to estimate key process parameters and associated uncertainties in the pollen-vegetation relationship. We apply alternate dispersal kernels, and calibrate STEPPS using a newly developed Euro-American settlement-era calibration data set constructed from Public Land Survey data and fossil pollen samples matched to the settlement-era using expert elicitation. Models based on the inverse power-law dispersal kernel outperformed those based on the Gaussian dispersal kernel, indicating that pollen dispersal kernels are fat tailed. Pine and birch have the highest pollen productivities. Pollen productivity and dispersal estimates are generally consistent with previous understanding from modern data sets, although source area estimates are larger. Tests of model predictions demonstrate the ability of STEPPS to predict regional compositional patterns.

  2. Creating the comfortable cow - discourses on animal protection and production in late 19th century Danish agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerløff, Anne Katrine

    2009-01-01

    En analyse af kvægavlslitteraturen og af dyrebeskyttelsesarbejdt i 1800-tallets slutning viser et generelt accepteret lighedstegn mellem husdyrs høje ydelse og høj velfærd. I landbrugets selvforståelse var landbrugets overgang til intensiv animalsk produktion således ikke kun til fordel for landm...

  3. From the Island of the Blue Dolphins: A unique 19th century cache feature from San Nicolas Island, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlandson, Jon M.; Thomas-Barnett, Lisa; Vellanoweth, René L.; Schwartz, Steven J.; Muhs, Daniel R.

    2013-01-01

    A cache feature salvaged from an eroding sea cliff on San Nicolas Island produced two redwood boxes containing more than 200 artifacts of Nicoleño, Native Alaskan, and Euro-American origin. Outside the boxes were four asphaltum-coated baskets, abalone shells, a sandstone dish, and a hafted stone knife. The boxes, made from split redwood planks, contained a variety of artifacts and numerous unmodified bones and teeth from marine mammals, fish, birds, and large land mammals. Nicoleño-style artifacts include 11 knives with redwood handles and stone blades, stone projectile points, steatite ornaments and effigies, a carved stone pipe, abraders and burnishing stones, bird bone whistles, bone and shell pendants, abalone shell dishes, and two unusual barbed shell fishhooks. Artifacts of Native Alaskan style include four bone toggling harpoons, two unilaterally barbed bone harpoon heads, bone harpoon fore-shafts, a ground slate blade, and an adze blade. Objects of Euro-American origin or materials include a brass button, metal harpoon blades, and ten flaked glass bifaces. The contents of the cache feature, dating to the early-to-mid nineteenth century, provide an extraordinary window on a time of European expansion and global economic development that created unique cultural interactions and social transformations.

  4. A Building Designed for Punishment: the Penitentiary’s Utopia in Paraná, Brazil, 19th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clóvis Gruner

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is intended to be an explanation of the modernization process of Brazil’s legal system during the Second Kingdom starting, mainly, from the constitution and repercussions of the Empire’s Criminal Code of 1830, principally, the prison system. Particularly, an analysis of the attempted creation in the Province of Paraná, southern Brazil, of the first penitentiary: an endeavor understood as being part of a broader policy to suppress crime. In speeches of the provincial authorities of the time, the problem of criminal violence was grouped together with immigration issues of the recently emancipated province, which was already showing signs of urban growth.

  5. Sergey Sukhanov, a Russian Physician in Professor Arthur Van Gehuchten's Lab - Based on Original 19th Century Documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vein, Alla A; Aubert, Geneviève

    2016-01-01

    In 1898, Russian physician Sergey Alexeevich Sukhanov (1867-1915) spent a 3-month traineeship in Professor Arthur Van Gehuchten's anatomy laboratory in Louvain (Belgium). A folder containing 17 handwritten documents in Russian was recently discovered in the archives of the Museum of the History of Medicine, First Moscow State Medical University. The letters give a lively account of Sukhanov's everyday observations, experiences and opinions while he was in Van Gehuchten's lab. We took a selection of these notes and put them into medical and historical context. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Sergey Sukhanov, a Russian Physician in Professor Arthur Van Gehuchten's Lab - Based on Original 19th Century Documents

    OpenAIRE

    Alla A. Vein; Aubert, Genevi?ve

    2016-01-01

    In 1898, Russian physician Sergey Alexeevich Sukhanov (1867-1915) spent a 3-month traineeship in Professor Arthur Van Gehuchten's anatomy laboratory in Louvain (Belgium). A folder containing 17 handwritten documents in Russian was recently discovered in the archives of the Museum of the History of Medicine, First Moscow State Medical University. The letters give a lively account of Sukhanov's everyday observations, experiences and opinions while he was in Van Gehuchten's lab. We took a select...

  7. The evolution of anatomical illustration and wax modelling in Italy from the 16th to early 19th centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, Alessandro; Conti, Gabriele; Solinas, Paola; Loy, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    Although the contribution to anatomical illustration by Vesalius and his followers has received much attention, less credit has been given to Veslingius and particularly Fabricius. By 1600, Fabricius had amassed more than 300 paintings that together made the Tabulae Pictae, a great atlas of anatomy that was highly admired by his contemporaries. Many of his new observations were incorporated into subsequent books, including those by Casserius, Spighelius, Harvey and Veslingius. Also of importance were the Tabulae by Eustachius (1552), which, although only published in 1714, greatly influenced anatomical wax modelling. In 1742, Pope Benedict XIV established a Museum of Anatomy in Bologna, entrusting to Ercole Lelli the creation of several anatomical preparations in wax. Felice Fontana realised that the production of a large number of models by the casting method would make cadaveric specimens superfluous for anatomical teaching and in 1771 he asked the Grand Duke to fund a wax-modelling workshop in Florence as part of the Natural History Museum, later known as La Specola. Fontana engaged Giuseppe Ferrini as his first modeller and then the 19-year-old Clemente Susini who, by his death in 1814, had superintended the production of, or personally made, more than 2000 models. In 1780, the Austrian Emperor Joseph II visited La Specola and ordered a great number of models for his Josephinum museum; these were made by Fontana with the help of Clemente Susini and supervised by the anatomist Paolo Mascagni. It is, however, in Cagliari that some of Susini’s greatest waxes are to be found. These were made when he was free of Fontana’s influence and were based on dissections made by Francesco Antonio Boi (University of Cagliari). Their distinctive anatomical features include the emphasis given to nerves and the absence of lymphatics in the brain, a mistake made on earlier waxes. The refined technical perfection of the anatomical details demonstrates the closeness of the cooperation between Susini and Boi, whereas the expressiveness of the faces and the harmony of colours make the models of Cagliari masterpieces of figurative art. PMID:19900181

  8. The Status of Woman in Family and Society in 19th Century Anatolia (A Case Study in Ayntab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bülent Çukurova

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the ancient times, in states that have been established in Anatolia (Asia Minor women have had a special place in the family and in the society. Until the acceptance of Islamic traditions by the Anatolian people, women were considered to be equal to men in terms of legal and social standing. Even in the administration of governmental affairs women used to have a say equal to that of men or the khan. Islamic traditions have been shaped by Arab and Iranians more than any other people or culture. Both cultures have had a strong influence on Anatolian people after the acceptance of Islamic traditions. To understand how such influences of Arabic and Iranian cultures are reflected on Anatolia today, one needs to examine the role of women in the family and in the society. In general, when we observe Anatolia in terms of women’s right to inherited property and marital decisions and affairs as well as other socioeconomic rights we see different traditions and rules applied depending on location of living whether women living in rural or urban areas of the country. We also observe differences in terms of society’s treatment of women based on the ethnicity or religious affinity

  9. [Traces of blood. The significance of blood in criminology at the turn of the 19th century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachhiesl, Christian

    2010-03-01

    In late 19th and early 20th century, criminology became institutionalized as an independent branch of science. Methodologically it focused on the 'exact' methods of the natural sciences, but also it tried to integrate the methods of the humanities. This mix of methods becomes visible in the treatment of blood, which on the one hand was an object of then brand new methods of scientific analysis (identification of human blood by the biological or precipitin method), and on the other hand was analyzed as a product of the magic and superstitious mentalities of criminals. The methodical tension resulting from this epistemological crossbreeding did not disturb the criminologists, for whom the reconciliation of opposite ways of thinking and researching seemed to be possible. In this encyclopaedic analysis of blood early criminology tried to combine the anthropological exploration of vampirism with the chemical and microscopic detection of antibodies and haemoglobin, thus mirroring the positivistic optimism that was then prevalent.

  10. Peter Mark Roget: physician, scientist, systematist; his thesaurus and his impact on 19th-century neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Lawrence; Finger, Stanley

    2013-01-01

    Peter Mark Roget (1779-1869) is best known for his Thesaurus, a project completed late in his long life. He trained as a physician, practiced medicine, and was interested in many branches of science. Much of his life was dedicated to the systematization of knowledge and identifying relationships. Although not an experimentalist in the modern sense of the word, he contributed to "neuroscience" in journal and encyclopaedia articles, as well as in books and lectures. He wrote extensively on comparative physiology, sensory systems, phrenology, optics, and various disorders affecting the nervous system. He viewed his two-volume Bridgewater Treatise of 1834 as his most significant achievement, turning to physiology and comparative anatomy to argue that God's existence can be seen in how living forms and their components are designed. Roget was active in many scholarly organizations, most notably the Royal Society of London, where he served for more than two decades as its secretary before "retiring" to pursue his Thesaurus. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Quantifying pollen-vegetation relationships to reconstruct ancient forests using 19th-century forest composition and pollen data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Andria; Paciorek, Christopher J.; McLachlan, Jason S.; Goring, Simon; Williams, John W.; Jackson, Stephen T.

    2016-04-01

    Mitigation of climate change and adaptation to its effects relies partly on how effectively land-atmosphere interactions can be quantified. Quantifying composition of past forest ecosystems can help understand processes governing forest dynamics in a changing world. Fossil pollen data provide information about past forest composition, but rigorous interpretation requires development of pollen-vegetation models (PVMs) that account for interspecific differences in pollen production and dispersal. Widespread and intensified land-use over the 19th and 20th centuries may have altered pollen-vegetation relationships. Here we use STEPPS, a Bayesian hierarchical spatial PVM, to estimate key process parameters and associated uncertainties in the pollen-vegetation relationship. We apply alternate dispersal kernels, and calibrate STEPPS using a newly developed Euro-American settlement-era calibration data set constructed from Public Land Survey data and fossil pollen samples matched to the settlement-era using expert elicitation. Models based on the inverse power-law dispersal kernel outperformed those based on the Gaussian dispersal kernel, indicating that pollen dispersal kernels are fat tailed. Pine and birch have the highest pollen productivities. Pollen productivity and dispersal estimates are generally consistent with previous understanding from modern data sets, although source area estimates are larger. Tests of model predictions demonstrate the ability of STEPPS to predict regional compositional patterns.

  12. Interannual variability of cloudiness in the Norwegian, Barents and Kara Seas from the late 19th century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernokulsky, Alexander V.; Esau, Igor; Bulygina, Olga N.; Davy, Richard; Mokhov, Igor I.; Outten, Stephen; Semenov, Vladimir A.

    2017-04-01

    The Arctic is a highly sensitive region where numerous processes combine to generate the so-called Arctic amplification. One of the important climate feedbacks is related to the role of clouds. The limited observational record is one of the major challenges in the assessment of Arctic clouds. Here, a long-term climatology of cloudiness over the Norwegian, Barents and Kara Seas (NBK) based on visual surface observations is presented. Annual mean total cloud cover (TCC) over the NBK is almost equal over solid-ice (SI) and open-water (OW) parts of NBK (73±3% and 76±2% respectively). In general, TCC has higher intra- and inter-annual variability over SI than over OW. A decrease of TCC in the middle of the 20th century and an increase in the last few decades was found at individual stations and for the NBK as a whole. In most cases these changes are statistically significant with magnitudes exceeding the data uncertainty that is associated with the surface observations. The most pronounced trends are observed in autumn when the largest changes to the sea-ice concentration (SIC) occur. TCC over SI correlates significantly with SIC in the Barents Sea, with a statistically significant correlation coefficient between annual TCC and SIC of -0.38 for the period 1936-2013. Cloudiness over OW shows non-significant correlation with SIC. An overall increase in the frequency of broken and scattered cloud conditions, and a decrease in the frequency of overcast and cloudless conditions were found over OW. These changes are statistically significant and likely to be connected with the long-term changes of morphological types (an increase of convective and a decrease of stratiform cloud amounts).

  13. [The first record of the delivery of conjoined twins in the Srem county in the 19th century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksimović, Jovan; Maksimović, Marko

    2016-12-01

    In this paper is presented the first original document of the delivery of conjoined twins on the territory of the present-day Vojvodina. The document number 1224 consists of two handwritten quires. On the first page of the first quire are a description and a drawing of the delivered twins. The delivery was described and drawn by Dr. Ernest Furjaković, a shire physician in Ruma and the secondary physicus of the Srem County, who attended and handled the delivery. The conjoined twins were delivered in the night between 2 and 3 April 1852 in Mali Radinci, a small village in the Srem County nearby Ruma, in the far south of the Habsburg Monarchy. The twins, preserved in alcohol, were sent to Budapest to the professor of anatomy "for the purposes of medical science", as he wrote in the report. The second quire of the same document refers to the proof that the Commissariat in Ruma forwarded the doctor's report to the High Land Government in Timisoara. In the introduction, the authors displayed the known facts on the occurrence of conjoined twins in the world, which were used to compare with the described case. The data refer to the incidence of conjoined twins in the population, theory of its embryonic origin, their classification, treatment in cases of diagnosed pregnancy and the manner of their delivery. They also refer to the procedures of modern diagnostics, the possibilities of their surgical disjoin and related ethical questions. After that comes a part of the work dedicated to the analysis of the shown document, and the comparison of the several cases of the most significant conjoined twins in the world with these from Srem, as the authors named them. The authors showed short biography of the physician who delivered them, as well. At the end, they conclude that this work gives the first description of document of the delivery of the first known conjoined twins on the territory of the present-day Vojvodina.

  14. Two Intense Decades of 19th Century Whaling Precipitated Rapid Decline of Right Whales around New Zealand and East Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Carroll, Emma L.; Jackson, Jennifer A.; David Paton; Tim D Smith

    2014-01-01

    Funding for the review and report preparation was provided by the New Zealand Ministry of Fisheries through Project ZBD200505 to the National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA), Oregon State University General Research Fund to JJ and CS Baker and the Lenfest Ocean Program of the Pew Charitable Trust to SR Palumbi. EC was supported by a fellowship from the Tertiary Education Commission and TS through the History of Marine Animal Populations (HMAP) project. Right whales (Euba...

  15. Modernity in medicine and hygiene at the end of the 19th century: the example of cremation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Porro

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Medicine in the second half of the nineteenth century takes on some characteristics of modernity. These characteristics are worthy of our attention because they help us to understand better some of the current problems of hygiene and public health. One of the topics that was most discussed in the scientific-academic milieu of the second half of the nineteenth century was cremation. There was a poetic precedent: the cremation of Percy Bysse Shelley (1792-1822. The earliest apparatus to completely destroy the corpse was made in Italy and Germany in the 1870s. As far as hygiene was concerned, the reasons for cremation were not to pollute the water-bearing strata and an attempt to streamline the cemetery structure. As in an apparent schizophrenia, scientists of the day worked to both destroy and preserve corpses. There is also the unusual paradox that when the first cremations took place, the corpses were first preserved then to be destroyed later. The catholic world (mainly in Italy and forensic scientists opposed cremation. It was left to the hygienists to spread the practice of cremation. An analysis of scientific literature shows us that if we leave out the related forensic and ethical problems, recent years have seen attention paid to any harmful emissions from crematoria equipment which have poured into the environment. Another issue is the assessment of inadvertent damage which may be caused by the condition of the corpse. Some topics, however, such as the need for preventive autopsies (first proposed in 1884 in Milan are still a subject of debate, and seem to pass virtually unchanged from one generation to the next.

  16. Remnant Oak Savanna Acts as Refugium for Meadow Fescue Introduced During 19th Century Human Migrations in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 1990, an unknown forage grass was discovered growing in the shade of a remnant oak savanna in southwestern Wisconsin. Over 12 years, the practice of feeding mature hay on winter pastures spread this grass onto over 500 ha via seedling recruitment. Analysis of amplified fragment length polymorph...

  17. Human Capital and Economic Growth : Operationalising Growth Theory, with Special Reference to the Netherlands in the 19th Century"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albers, Ronald

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents new estimates of the stock of human capital in the Netherlands between 1800 and 1913. The estimates of human capital are derived from data on primary, secondary and tertiary schooling. It is argued that the measure of human capital presented here is conceptually better than

  18. From sermons in stone to studies in science: The transformation of 19th-century juvenile natural history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyson, Jon-Paul Charles

    This dissertation seeks to explain the social, cultural, and economic factors that transformed the ways nineteenth-century American children learned about, encountered, and understood the natural world. It highlights the interests, tastes, and fears of the middle-class as key factors in the transformation of children's relationship to nature. Developments such as the quest for gentility and refinement, the evolution of religious practices and beliefs, the print revolution, the popularity of Romanticism, the marginalization of women, the rise of professionalization, the impact of industrialization, and the growth of cities all helped shape nineteenth-century children's relationship to nature. For much of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries adults had taught children to see nature as a world of wonders in which God acted out his Providential design. During the early republic, however, Americans, especially women, increasingly valued more refined and genteel interpretations of nature that invoked discrete segments of nature for their ability to cultivate morals, evidence the existence of God, and mold children's behavior. The print revolution that swept America during this period abetted this process. During the second quarter of the nineteenth century, increasing numbers of adults began to use religious publications, schoolbooks, literature, and domestic amusements to involve children with the natural world in ways that were variously religious or Romantic. As a result nature became an accepted and valued segment of middle-class life. Ironically, however, these efforts also helped separate religious from secular interpretations of nature, and changes in fashions, literary techniques, and parenting techniques allowed children more autonomy to interpret nature as they wished. In the last half of the nineteenth century, adults continued to rely on nature as a means of training up children in the ways they should go. Writers, teachers, and reformers increasingly encouraged children's interactions with nature as means of buttressing the values, goals, and property of the middle-class. In the process of doing this, male cultural authorities emphasized the importance of children's contact with (and conquest of) nature, even as they marginalized older religious and feminine approaches to nature that had focused on getting children to see meanings and messages that supposedly inhered in nature.

  19. Living with asthma in 19th-century France: The doctor, Armand Trousseau, and the patient, Emile Pereire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Helen M

    2018-01-01

    Major advances in the French medical system following the French Revolution have stimulated a rich historiography of which Michel Foucault's Naissance de la clinique: une archéologie du regard médical (1963) and Erwin H. Ackerknecht's Medicine at the Paris Hospital, 1794-1848 (1967) are of lasting significance. Changes in the organisation and structure of hospitals accompanied the development and availability of new medical technologies and procedures and encouraged a more intense study of the aetiology and pathology of disease. Theories about asthma and its treatment profited from this dynamic environment as Classical Greek doctrines about the effect of the humours on bodily imbalance gave way to an increasingly more precise understanding of the nature and cause of asthma. The clinician and teacher, Armand Trousseau (1801-1867), who held the chair of Clinical Medicine at the Hôtel-Dieu in Paris and was himself an asthmatic, promoted new theories about the illness and developed innovative ways of dealing with its effects. Among his patients was the banker and financier, Emile Pereire (1800-1875), a lifelong asthmatic. Based on the Pereire Family Archives (hereafter AFP), the case of Emile Pereire provides a preface to the later case of that other, more famous, asthmatic, Marcel Proust.

  20. Pathfinders in oncology from the end of the Middle Ages to the beginning of the 19th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajdu, Steven I

    2017-06-01

    During the 3 centuries reviewed herein, all that was known regarding cancer was limited to Italy, France, Germany, and England. Practically nothing was written about cancer in the rest of the known world, including the newly discovered geographic areas in the Americas, Africa, and Australia. The 7 pioneer physicians considered in this review lived through some of the most turbulent geopolitical, social, and religious upheavals that Europe had experienced during the Renaissance. Despite their diverse social, political, and religious backgrounds and disparate personalities, they were united in their commitment to the advancement of medicine and oncology and to spreading knowledge through printed texts. Collectively, they established the groundwork for modern anatomy, physiology, chemistry, pathology, surgical oncology, and chemotherapy. It perhaps is noteworthy that 5 of the 7 physicians who contributed the most to the advancement of surgery and surgical oncology served in various wars as army surgeons. Considering everything together, the refusal of physicians of this epoch to use the microscope is a historical enigma. Cancer 2017;123:1888-1897. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  1. The institutions forming the socioeconomic structure of Turkish private enterprises between the 13th and the 19th centuries

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mehmet Özbirecikli

    2015-01-01

    El presente trabajo estudia tres instituciones que constituyen la estructura socioeconómica de las empresas privadas turcas desde el siglo XIII al XIX: Akhismo (siglos XIII-XVI), el sistema Lonca (Gremios) (siglos XVI-XVIII...

  2. Effects of temperature and moisture on Mormon cricket reproduction with implications for responses to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srygley, Robert B

    2014-06-01

    During the last decade, populations of flightless Mormon crickets Anabrus simplex (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae) increased suddenly over vast areas of the Western United States, suggesting that climate is an important factor driving outbreaks. Moreover summer temperatures are predicted to increase and precipitation is expected to decrease in most areas of the U.S. Great Basin, but little is known of the response of Mormon crickets to changes in temperature and soil moisture. In a laboratory study, we varied ambient temperature and lighting and measured the propensity of mating pairs to mate, and the proportion of eggs that developed into embryos. We found that reproduction was optimal when ambient temperature reached 30°C and the insects were beneath broad-spectrum lights such that maternal body and soil temperatures reached 35°C. Fewer eggs that developed fully were laid when maternal body and soil temperatures reached 30°C or 37-39°C. We also varied initial soil moisture from 0% to 100% saturated and found that more eggs reached embryonic diapause when initial soil moisture was 25% or 50% of saturated volume. However more of the developed eggs hatched when treated in summer soils with 0-25% of saturated moisture. We conclude that small changes in temperature had large effects on reproduction, whereas large changes in moisture had very small effects on reproduction. This is the first report of Mormon crickets mating in a laboratory setting and laying eggs that hatched, facilitating further research on the role of maternal and embryonic environments in changes in population size. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Dancing as an Aspect of Early Mormon (Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints) and Utah Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbrook, Leona

    Dance has often been a significant part of a cultural heritage. Most of the religious organizations which were formed just after the United States achieved its independence, however, rejected many European religious customs, including dance. Despite this, the Mormon church not only allowed dance, but advocated and sponsored it. Dance was an…

  4. The social context of cannibalism in migratory bands of the Mormon cricket.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sepideh Bazazi

    Full Text Available Cannibalism has been shown to be important to the collective motion of mass migratory bands of insects, such as locusts and Mormon crickets. These mobile groups consist of millions of individuals and are highly destructive to vegetation. Individuals move in response to attacks from approaching conspecifics and bite those ahead, resulting in further movement and encounters with others. Despite the importance of cannibalism, the way in which individuals make attack decisions and how the social context affects these cannibalistic interactions is unknown. This can be understood by examining the decisions made by individuals in response to others. We performed a field investigation which shows that adult Mormon crickets were more likely to approach and attack a stationary cricket that was side-on to the flow than either head- or abdomen-on, suggesting that individuals could reduce their risk of an attack by aligning with neighbours. We found strong social effects on cannibalistic behaviour: encounters lasted longer, were more likely to result in an attack, and attacks were more likely to be successful if other individuals were present around a stationary individual. This local aggregation appears to be driven by positive feedback whereby the presence of individuals attracts others, which can lead to further crowding. This work improves our understanding of the local social dynamics driving migratory band formation, maintenance and movement at the population level.

  5. The Social Context of Cannibalism in Migratory Bands of the Mormon Cricket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazazi, Sepideh; Ioannou, Christos C.; Simpson, Stephen J.; Sword, Gregory A.; Torney, Colin J.; Lorch, Patrick D.; Couzin, Iain D.

    2010-01-01

    Cannibalism has been shown to be important to the collective motion of mass migratory bands of insects, such as locusts and Mormon crickets. These mobile groups consist of millions of individuals and are highly destructive to vegetation. Individuals move in response to attacks from approaching conspecifics and bite those ahead, resulting in further movement and encounters with others. Despite the importance of cannibalism, the way in which individuals make attack decisions and how the social context affects these cannibalistic interactions is unknown. This can be understood by examining the decisions made by individuals in response to others. We performed a field investigation which shows that adult Mormon crickets were more likely to approach and attack a stationary cricket that was side-on to the flow than either head- or abdomen-on, suggesting that individuals could reduce their risk of an attack by aligning with neighbours. We found strong social effects on cannibalistic behaviour: encounters lasted longer, were more likely to result in an attack, and attacks were more likely to be successful if other individuals were present around a stationary individual. This local aggregation appears to be driven by positive feedback whereby the presence of individuals attracts others, which can lead to further crowding. This work improves our understanding of the local social dynamics driving migratory band formation, maintenance and movement at the population level. PMID:21179402

  6. Measuring sexual selection on females in sex-role-reversed Mormon crickets (Anabrus simplex, Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, L J; Gwynne, D T

    2010-07-01

    Although many studies examine the form of sexual selection in males, studies characterizing this selection in females remain sparse. Sexual selection on females is predicted for sex-role-reversed Mormon crickets, Anabrus simplex, where males are choosy of mates and nutrient-deprived females compete for matings and nutritious nuptial gifts. We used selection analyses to describe the strength and form of sexual selection on female morphology. There was no positive linear sexual selection on the female body size traits predicted to be associated with male preferences and female competition. Instead, we detected selection for decreasing head width and mandible length, with stabilizing selection as the dominant form of nonlinear selection. Additionally, we tested the validity of a commonly used instantaneous measure of mating success by comparing selection results with those determined using cumulative mating rate. The two fitness measures yielded similar patterns of selection, supporting the common sampling method comparing mated and unmated fractions.

  7. Autecology of the common mormon butterfly, Papilio polytes (Lepidoptera : Rhopalocera : Papilionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atluri, J B; Ramana, S P Venkata; Reddi, C Subba

    2002-04-01

    The adults of the common mormon butterfly Papilio polytes Linn. feed on a variety of floral species. The larval food plants in the study area included Citrus limon and Murraya koenigii both of the family Rutaceae. The eggs are laid singly, and the hatching time is three days. The larvae pass through five instars. The larval growth is directly correlated with the quantity of food consumed. The AD (approximate digestibility) values decreased from first instar to the last, whereas the ECD (efficiency of conversion of digested food) and ECI (efficiency of conversion of ingested food) values increased, thus bearing an inverse relationship with AD. The development time from egg to adult is 28-30, giving 11-12 generations in a year, but with better breeding during August-February. Thus P. polytes is multivoltine.

  8. Past and present status of the Indian Tiger in northern West Bengal, India: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.K. Mallick

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the distribution range and the estimates of Tiger (Panthera tigris populations in northern West Bengal from the late 19th century to 2009 were examined in detail. According to a 2004 census there were 70 tigers in the region, while a 2008 estimate put the number at 8-12. The tiger survives only in protected areas of terai and duars extending over about 1000km2 of Buxa, Jaldapara, Neora Valley and Mahananda, the Panighat and Bamanpokhri Ranges of Kurseong Division and the Chilapata and Kodalbusty Ranges under Wildlife-III Division. Tigers became extinct in Chapramari Sanctuary about a decade back; Gorumara sightings were recorded up to the 1980s. The species has already lost about 1000km2 of its historic range in the territorial forest divisions of Darjeeling, Jalpaiguri, Cooch Behar, Dinajpur and Malda Districts. The State Forest Department has undertaken efforts involving regular monitoring, protection measures and habitat improvements and tigers are now being sighted in areas where they were absent for years. Resident tigers appear to be expanding their ranges to new areas, sometimes at higher altitudes as in Neora Valley National Park and Buxa Tiger Reserve crossing into Bhutan and Sikkim.

  9. Spatial Structure of the Mormon Cricket Gut Microbiome and its Predicted Contribution to Nutrition and Immune Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Chad C; Srygley, Robert B; Healy, Frank; Swaminath, Karthikeyan; Mueller, Ulrich G

    2017-01-01

    The gut microbiome of insects plays an important role in their ecology and evolution, participating in nutrient acquisition, immunity, and behavior. Microbial community structure within the gut is heavily influenced by differences among gut regions in morphology and physiology, which determine the niches available for microbes to colonize. We present a high-resolution analysis of the structure of the gut microbiome in the Mormon cricket Anabrus simplex , an insect known for its periodic outbreaks in the western United States and nutrition-dependent mating system. The Mormon cricket microbiome was dominated by 11 taxa from the Lactobacillaceae, Enterobacteriaceae, and Streptococcaceae. While most of these were represented in all gut regions, there were marked differences in their relative abundance, with lactic-acid bacteria (Lactobacillaceae) more common in the foregut and midgut and enteric (Enterobacteriaceae) bacteria more common in the hindgut. Differences in community structure were driven by variation in the relative prevalence of three groups: a Lactobacillus in the foregut, Pediococcus lactic-acid bacteria in the midgut, and Pantoea agglomerans , an enteric bacterium, in the hindgut. These taxa have been shown to have beneficial effects on their hosts in insects and other animals by improving nutrition, increasing resistance to pathogens, and modulating social behavior. Using PICRUSt to predict gene content from our 16S rRNA sequences, we found enzymes that participate in carbohydrate metabolism and pathogen defense in other orthopterans. These were predominately represented in the hindgut and midgut, the most important sites for nutrition and pathogen defense. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA sequences from cultured isolates indicated low levels of divergence from sequences derived from plants and other insects, suggesting that these bacteria are likely to be exchanged between Mormon crickets and the environment. Our study shows strong spatial variation

  10. No Place to Call Home: The 1807-1857 Life Writings of Caroline Barnes Crosby, Chronicler of Outlying Mormon Communities

    OpenAIRE

    Lyman, Edward Leo; Payne, Susan Ward; Ellsworth, S. George

    2005-01-01

    Caroline Crosby's life took a wandering course between her 1834 marriage to Jonathan Crosby and conversion to the infant Mormon Church and her departure for her final home, Utah, on New Year's Day, 1858. In the intervening years, she lived in many places but never long enough to set firm roots. Her adherence to a frontier religion on the move kept her moving, even after the church began to settle down in Utah. Despite the impermanence of her situation, perhaps even because of it, Caroline Cro...

  11. Present and Historical Climate Variability and its Ecological Impact on Vegetation in South West England

    Science.gov (United States)

    (Sasha) Kosanic, Aleksandra; Harrison, Stephan; Anderson, Karen; Turkington, Thea

    2014-05-01

    West Cornwall is the most south westerly part of the United Kingdom with a strong maritime climate. This study analyses the earliest archived instrumental meteorological records collected in West Cornwall (SW England). Records were obtained from the Met Office archive (Camborne 1957-2010; Culdrose 1985-2011), Trengwainton Garden (1940-2010), and from the Royal Cornwall Polytechnic Society, data for Falmouth (1880-1952) and Helston (1843-1888). Homogeneity tests were used (Levene and Brown-Forsythe tests) to exclude any trends not related to climate variability. The data exhibit trends in annual mean and maximum temperatures over the timescales analysed, and show a general temperature increase in the 20th and 21st century. Annual and seasonal temperature changes are found to vary locally with strongly positive trends in autumn, spring and summer seasons. Trends in precipitation are positive only for the 19th century and only for one station. Correlation with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index shows negative results for precipitation data. However correlation with the NAO index is positive with temperature, especially in the winter season. Return period analysis showed a decrease in intensity and frequency of extreme precipitation events in the post-1975 period (Camborne and Trengwainton Garden stations). Climate change in the 20th century, and future continued warming is likely to have major implications on biodiversity in this region. The second part of this research analyses changes in the geographical distribution of plant species over West Cornwall using herbarium and current vegetation records. Also we examine whether Ellenberg values could be used as an environmental change indicator. This research will clearly contribute to a better identification of the climate change impact in West Cornwall, but will also benefit policy developing strategies to identify areas at risk of climate impacts at the regional and local scale.

  12. For the love of love: neoliberal governmentality, neoliberal melancholy, critical intersectionality, and the advent of solidarity with the other Mormons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wenshu

    2012-01-01

    This article performs critical intellectual labor for social and political change against neoliberalism in three ways. First, it explores and connects neoliberal governmentality and neoliberal melancholy, two anchor experiences in our twenty-first century political quotidian. Second, it engages in the sense making of Proposition 8 (a California voter initiative to ban same-sex marriage, which was narrowly passed in 2008) as a case study of religious organizations (the Mormon Church and their religious allies) and their complicity with neoliberal states to foster subjection and subjectivation through critical intersectionality that goes beyond the identity trinity of race, class, and gender. Finally, the article suggests two technologies as a new hand to outplay the excess of neoliberalism for the triumph of our common humanity: 1) mourning over the devastation brought about by neoliberalism and 2) loving our love for those with whom we usually do not form affinity connections, such as the other Mormons, those who are othered because of their departure from church orthodoxy.

  13. Multiple differences in calling songs and other traits between solitary and gregarious Mormon crickets from allopatric mtDNA clades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bailey William V

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In acoustic species, traits such as male calling song are likely to diverge quickly between allopatric populations due to sexual selection, and divergence in parameters such as carrier frequency, chirp structure, and other important song characters can influence sexual isolation. Here we make use of two forms of Mormon crickets to examine differences in a broad suite of traits that have the potential to influence speciation via sexual isolation. Mormon crickets in "gregarious" populations aggregate into dense migratory bands, and females are the sexually competitive sex (sex-role reversal. There is also a non-outbreak "solitary" form. These two forms are largely but not perfectly correlated with a significant mtDNA subdivision within the species that is thought to have arisen in allopatry. Combined information about multiple, independently evolving traits, such as morphology and structural and behavioural differences in calling song, provides greater resolution of the overall differences between these allopatric populations, and allows us to assess their stage of divergence. We test two predictions, first that the forms differ in song and second that gregarious males are more reluctant to sing than solitary males due to sex role reversal. We also tested for a difference in the relationship between the size of the forewing resonator, the mirror, and carrier frequency, as most models of sound production in crickets indicate that mirror size should predict carrier frequency. Results Multivariate analyses showed that solitary and gregarious individuals from different populations representing the two mtDNA clades had almost non-overlapping distributions based on multiple song and morphological measurements. Carrier frequency differed between the two, and gregarious males were more reluctant to sing overall. Mirror size predicted carrier frequency; however, the relationship between mirror size and surface area varied between

  14. [The pure being of writing. Ecriture automatique in 19th century psychiatry and early surrealism (Breton/Soupault: Les champs magnétiques)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergengruen, Maximilian

    2009-03-01

    Ecriture automatique and psychoanalysis are often lumped together in literary studies, almost as a knee-jerk reaction. However, on closer inspection it can be seen that the discoverers of automatic writing--the surrealists--were more interested in the hysteria research that prevailed around the year 1900 (Pierre Janet, Alfred Binet) and in parapsychology (Frederic Myers). In these two branches of medicine, the theory and practice of automatic writing are based on an experimental constellation in which the relationship between the psychiatrist/experiment organiser and the patient/participant takes centre stage. Here, the latter writes in response to an order or question from the former, mostly while overcoming a physical or memory block. André Breton and Philippe Soupault set up a very similar constellation in the Champs magnétiques, though with some key alterations. Indeed, surrealism liberates the patient engaging in automatic writing from the dictates of the psychiatrist--but only to submit him to a yet more overwhelming force, a pure violence of writing, so to speak: the automatism of a 'higher reality'.

  15. Women's Rights and Wedding Bells: 19th-Century Pro-Family Rhetoric and (Re)Enforcement of the Gender Status Quo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Michele

    2007-01-01

    Researchers suggest that backlashes to feminism may appear in the form of pro-family campaigns. Social scientists have observed themes in the current pro-marriage movement to support this claim; others note historical cycles of pro-family backlash to feminism. This article is a sociohistorical analysis of texts from a leading organized advocate of…

  16. Mapping Human Induced Landscape Changes in Israel Between the end of the 19Th Century and the Beginning of the 21Th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schaffer Gad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines changes in Israel's landscape by comparing two time periods, 1881 and 2011. For this purpose we compared land cover derived from the Palestine Exploration Fund historical map to a present land cover map that was compiled from 38 different present-day GIS layers. The research aims were (1 to quantitatively examine what were the changes in Israel's landscape between 1881 and 2011; (2 to identify and explain spatial patterns in these landscape changes. Landscape transformation was categorized into five classes: 'residual bare' (no change in natural vegetation, mostly in desert areas; 'residual' (i.e. remnant; no change in natural vegetation class; 'transformed' (changes between different natural vegetation areas; 'replaced' (area which became managed; 'removed' (no or minimal natural vegetation. We found that only 21% of the area retained similar landscape classes as in the past, with the largest changes taking place in ecoregions that were favorable for developing agriculture - Jezreel Valley and the Sharon Plain. Two physical factors had a strong effect on the type of change in the landscape: (1 most of the agricultural areas and human settlements were found in areas ranging between 400-600 mm/year (2 natural land cover features were more common in areas with steeper slopes. We found that the majority of protected areas, 54.6%, are comprised of remnant vegetation classes (i.e. residual transformation class however more than half of protected areas are located in desert areas and are thus biased in their representation of land cover classes.

  17. Characterisation of the rare cadmium chromate pigment in a 19th century tube colour by Raman, FTIR, X-ray and EPR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Marie Bitsch; Sørensen, Mikkel Agerbæk; Sanyova, Jana

    2017-01-01

    In an investigation of the artists' materials used by P. S. Krøyer the contents of the tube colours found in Krøyer's painting cabinet were examined. In most cases, the results of the pigment analyses were as expected based on our knowledge of artists' colours used in the late 1800s and early 1900s....... The yellow colour of the paint sample taken from the tube had a greenish hue, which became even more prominent upon storage and drying. EPR analysis of the sample showed the presence of paramagnetic degradation products containing Cr(III) and Cr(V)....

  18. The history of botany in Moscow and Russia in the 18th and early 19th centuries in the context of the Linnaean Collection at Moscow University (MW).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokoloff, Dmitry D; Balandin, Sergey A; Gubanov, Ivan A; Jarvis, Charles E; Majorov, Sergey R; Simonov, Sergey S

    2002-01-01

    The Herbarium of Moscow State University, Russia, possesses a relatively small (63 specimens), but historically interesting, collection of herbarium specimens linked with Carl Linnaeus (1707-1778). Some of these originally formed part of Linnaeus' own herbarium while others, although never his property, were nevertheless studied by him and may be original material for the typification of his plant names. This paper discusses the broad historical background to the gathering of these specimens, their study by Linnaeus and their subsequent fate. Specimens linked with Linnaeus have been encountered in each of the four largest historical collections of the Herbarium of Moscow State University, i. e., in the herbaria of J. F. Ehrhart, G. F. Hoffmann, C. B. von Trinius and C. L. Goldbach. Ehrhart's General Herbarium contains 31 sheets, which were more or less certainly collected or studied by Linnaeus. Ehrhart, a pupil of Linnaeus, received some specimens directly from the latter, while others came to him from Linnaeus filius, A. Dahl, and P. J. Bergius. Ehrhart's collections were purchased by G. F. Hoffmann, later, the first head of the Department of Botany at Moscow University, who took them to Russia. Hoffmann's General Herbarium contains three specimens that may be connected with Linnaeus. They were received from C. P. Thunberg, J. A. Murray, and an unknown person, respectively. At least five specimens from Trinius' collection, although certainly never seen by Linnaeus, are probable duplicates of material that was studied by him. Some of them are almost certainly iso-lectotypes of Linnaean names. Finally, 24 specimens linked with Linnaeus were found in Goldbach's herbarium. The majority of them were collected in the Lower Volga Region by J. Lerche and during the Second Kamchatka Expedition (Great Northern Expedition) by J. G. Gmelin and G. W. Steller.

  19. [The suspicion of simulation. A psychiatric case history between appropriation and disciplinary action at the end of the 19th century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretthauer, Annett; Hess, Volker

    2009-01-01

    This case history explores how the question of agency was dealt with historically in two developing, normative orders of deviant behaviour. Examining the institutional career of the supposed adulterer, marriage swindler, and craft baker, we can trace the different observation regimes and systems of knowledge acquisition in the prison and in psychiatry, in both institutions there was talk of simulated madness; the explanations, however, were different. For the prison doctors and civil servants, the baker was a criminal; his deviant behaviour was a matter of consciously planned-out deception. For the examining psychiatrist, on the other hand, he was mentally ill and could not be held responsible for his own behaviour. The case also shows how the suspicion of simulated madness stabilized an intermediate space between the two regimes that can be seen in the incoherence of the historical sources. This conflict was never resolved; the very indecisiveness marked the defiance and agency of the historical actor that could not be clearly decided within the institutional observation regimes and their methods of recording.

  20. Hydraulic Study of the Water Supply to the City of Seville through Its Aqueduct between the 17th and 19th Centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandrés, Candela; Robador, María Dolores; Albardonedo, Antonio

    2017-10-01

    The aqueduct of the Caños de Carmona was in operation from 1172 until its demolition in 1912.Its infrastructure was an essential resource to supply water to the city of Seville. This study attempts to analyse the supply and distribution system used in the city in the Modern Age. The research is focused mainly on obtaining water from the Santa Lucia spring to 19 km in Alcala de Guadaira, its route through the aqueduct, the division for the distribution between different users in the general partition ark and its subsequent distribution to the final destinations. This study aims to develop a hypothesis about the principles of water distribution through the city and to estimate the percentage of water going to each client based on the theoretical concession that should reach each home.

  1. A brief survey of the fight against corruption in the Russian and Ottoman Empire in the first half of the 19th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorgić Kristina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available For the Russian and Turkish Empire the nineteenth century is the period of adopting reform laws to modernize the country in order to be competitive in the course of time. Although the reform process in Russia was obstructed by the Arakcheyev regime and reactionary politics of Nicholas I of Russia, the government made a serious step in the fight against systemic corruption, enacting the Criminal Code of 1845. On the other hand, Turkey was undoubtedly under considerable foreign pressure concerning modernization processes. The Tanzimat period represents a significant epoch in which Turkey, among other countries, was faced with widespread corruption. The crown success of reformatory work in Turkey was adoption of the Criminal Code of 1856. This paper analyzes the specific laws which sanctioned corruption in these two empires.

  2. Architectural, spatial and composite features of the temples location in Saint-Petersburg and the surrounding counties in the 18th - 1st half of 19th centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krylova Severina Vyacheslavovna

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article shows the interdependences of territorial distribution of temples and their architectural-spatial and compositional features in St. Petersburg and the counties. The author revealed two different approaches to temple arrangement depending on the type of environment - in urban areas and rural areas. The construction of a temple in St. Petersburg was strictly regulated: its space-planning solution, accommodation, the place assigned for parish church, etc. The article draws attention to the particular choice of solutions, removal of land for construction, and certain architectural features of the temples. The author generally distinguishes four types of space-planning decisions of religious buildings: hall multiplex (The Basilica in the form of a Latin cross, centric (cross dome as the most common types of churches, combined. In turn, these types of temples were correlated with various types of accommodation identified by the author. Spatial distribution of temples include: a the location of temples in the natural landscape system and b with respect to the location of the man-made temples' environment (historical and cultural, in correlation with the buildings and / or communications (land and water communications, c the formation of a spatially-visual network (system of the city and surrounding area. For a better understanding of the revealed dependences chronological phase analysis was used, since the time prior to Saint Petersburg construction and till 1850. The periodization of temple architecture development during 1703-1850 was identified. The period before Saint Petersburg was also considered, though less detailed. The stages are minimal chronological segments, within which settlement system was unified by spatial and social characteristics, as well as uniform rules of specific territorial, economic and social development. As chronological boundaries, specific dates of the events were identified, which determined the transition to new stages. This approach allowed to gradually track changes in the methods of selecting and placing three-dimensional solution of various temples. The studies revealed that the temple was a member of the system, which includes urban development, individual settlements and their groups, the natural landscape. They were all interrelated, representing the idea of continuity, harmony with each other and the environment (natural and manmade. Such an organic fusion of church and surroundings have a mutual influence: the temple on the environment and the environment on the object.

  3. Historiographie als Erziehung. Zur Konstitution der padagogischen Geschichtsschreibung im 19. Jahrhundert (Historiography as Education--On the Constitution of Pedagogical Historiography in the 19th Century).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonon, Philipp

    1999-01-01

    Addresses a model provided by Karl von Raumer that focuses on the biographies and attitudes of prominent personalities with model function. The main objective, mediated through history, consists in contributing to the creation of a professional ethics for future teachers. (CMK)

  4. ‘The 19th-century construction of the Renaissance’: Katherine Wheeler, Victorian Perceptions of Renaissance Architecture, Farnham England and Burlington, Vermont: Ashgate, 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medina Lasansky

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Katherine Wheeler’s Victorian Perceptions of Renaissance Architecture provides a study of the architecture profession and the history of Renaissance architecture in nineteenth century England. Establishing a canon of Renaissance architectural history was key to the rise of architectural professionalism as well as the education of the architect. As we discover, the study of the Renaissance influenced design in England on all scales while also influencing the design of the architect himself.

  5. The first measurement of the deflection of the vertical in longitude -- The figure of the earth in the early 19th century

    CERN Document Server

    Schrimpf, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    During the summer of 1837 Christian Ludwig Gerling, a former student of Carl Friedrich Gau{\\ss}'s, organized the world wide first determination of the deflection of the vertical in longitude. From a mobile observatory at the Frauenberg near Marburg (Hesse) he measured the astronomical longitude difference between C.F. Gau{\\ss}'s observatory at G\\"ottingen and F.G.B. Nicolai's observatory at Mannheim within an error of 0.4". To achieve this precision he first used a series of light signals for synchronizing the observatory clocks and, second, he very carefully corrected for the varying reaction time of the observers. By comparing these astronomical results with the geodetic--determined longitude differences he had recently measured for the triangulation of Kurhessen, he was able to extract a combined value of the deflection of the vertical in longitude of G\\"ottingen and Mannheim. His results closely agree with modern vertical deflection data.

  6. Sacred History for a Central Asian TownSaints, Shrines, and Legends of Origin inHistories of Sayrām, 18th-19th Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devin DeWeese

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Cet article étudie les mythes historiques concernant Sayrām, une petite ville du sud de l'actuel Kazakhstan, cas exemplaire de concepts indigènes d'identité communautaire en Asie centrale pré-soviétique. Ces traditions sont conservées dans un ensemble de travaux en turc, sous le titre générique de « Histoire de Sayrām », qui combine une « histoire sacrée » de la ville avec une « géographie sacrée » sous la forme d'un catalogue de mausolées locaux ; ces deux composantes situent ainsi Sayrām à la fois dans le temps et dans l'espace, à l'intérieur d'un univers sacré défini en tant qu'islamique. Elles offrent une vision de la participation de cette ville à un cadre historique déterminé par l'hommage sanctificateur du Prophète Muhammad à Sayrām, et une affirmation de la présence continue et de la protection, à travers leurs mausolées, d'une multitude de saints musulmans (comprenant aussi bien des personnages purement locaux que d'autres bien connus dans le folklore islamique. Ces ouvrages, compilés vraisemblablement au XVIIIe siècle et répandus très largement dans la seconde moitié du XIXe siècle, reflètent souvent d'anciennes traditions narratives évocatrices du rôle de Sayrām au début de l'islamisation de l'Asie centrale. Mais elles montrent également l'importance capitale de la définition par la religion des identités locales et régionales, au sein de la population sédentaire d'Asie centrale, avant les changements induits par la conquête russe, l'établissement du pouvoir soviétique et la formulation des nouvelles identités « nationales » qui perdurent aujourd'hui.

  7. Sociology and positivism in 19th-century France: the vicissitudes of the Société de sociologie (1872-4).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilbron, Johan

    2009-10-01

    Little is known about the world's first sociological society, Emile Littré's Société de Sociologie (1872-4). This article, based on prosopographic research, offers an interpretation of the foundation, political-intellectual orientation and early demise of the society. As indicated by recruitment and texts by its founding members, the Société de Sociologie was in fact conceived more as a political club than a learned society. Guided in this by Littré's heterodox positivism and the redefinition of sociology he proposed around 1870, the Société de Sociologie was intended first and foremost to accompany intellectually the political changes that Littré considered imperative in the early years of the Third Republic (1870-1940). This expectation found little echo among the members of the society, and it seems possible that Littré himself and his closest associates were the ones to interrupt the society's meetings. Some of its members' general studies on the status of the social sciences and their main divisions were continued in the framework of the journal "La Philosophie positive" (1867-83), but the authors most committed to those studies were on the margins of the Littré network. Neither the dominant positivist republicanism, centered around Littré and Dubost, nor the general sociology of the more peripheral members of the network (Mesmer, Roberty, Vitry) represented an important intellectual contribution to the formation of academic sociology in France. Given that the Société de Sociologie did contribute to diffuse the project of a sociological science and developed forms of sociology coherent enough to be rejected by the pioneers of university sociology, the group constitutes a significant case of failure in the history of the discipline.

  8. Structure of "Ventilation and Warming" in Notes on Nursing Written by Florence Nightingale in 19th Century: Introduction of Basic Physics to Nursing Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogoh, Kazutoshi

    "Basic Natural Science" for freshmen at Miyazaki Prefectural Nursing University has a component including physics. Here students learn three principles of thermal transfer; conduction, radiation, and convection through a series of experiments. The purpose of these experiments is to understand the structure of a method for the caring of breathing and temperature of patients as written in "Ventilation and Warming", the first chapter of F. Nightingale's Notes on Nursing. Students can then apply this structure to retain fresh air in today's hospital rooms, and can then appreciate studying real physics incorporated into fundamental knowledge for nursing practice.

  9. Small money, big problems: how an investigation on small Latin American republics shaped the financial market for sovereign debt in the 19th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Augusto Ribas Miranda

    Full Text Available Abstract In 1875 the British Parliament set up a Committee to investigate frauds on loans underwritten by British and French banks to the Republics of Honduras, Costa Rica, Santo Domingo and Paraguay, reaching an amount of £12 million. The reports of the Committee and the press coverage issue revealed financial malpractices by banks and diplomats in order to induce millionaire defaults at expense of the bondholders, whilst the loan agents were living in luxuriant mansions in southern France. After the investigation, these shoddy practices were exposed to the public, reshaping the loan business for the rest of the century.

  10. The coming of age of the academic career : Differentiation and professionalization of German academic positions from the 19th century to the present

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waaijer, C.J.F.

    2015-01-01

    In modern academic career systems there are a large number of entry positions, much smaller numbers of intermediate positions, and still fewer full professorships. We examine how this system has developed in Germany, the country where the modern academic system was introduced, tracing the historical

  11. Frege – The Unintentional Linguist. On Frege’s Views of Language in the Context of 19th Century German Linguistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karsten Hvidtfelt Nielsen

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Sein ganzes berufliches Leben hindurch betrachtete Frege die Sprache als eine gefährliche Bedrohung des wissenschaftlichen Erkennens, der mit allen Mitteln der Logik zu begegnen war. Im ersten Teil des Aufsatzes wird aufgezeigt, wie Frege diese Auffassung in oft unbewusster und ungewollter Übereinstimmung mit gleichzeitigen Tendenzen sowohl in der deutschen Linguistik (Becker, Steinthal, Paul, Wundt als auch in der deutschen Sprachkritik (Gruppe, Nietzsche, Mauthner entwickelte und wie sein epistemologischer ‚Kampf gegen die Sprache’ mit einer bitteren persönlichen und professionellen Niederlage endete. Der zweite Teil des Aufsatzes enthält eine Rekonstruktion von Freges logischer Grammatik sowie eine Darstellung des linguistischen Argumentes, das für Freges endgültiges (und tragisches Akzept vom Sprachskeptizismus entscheidend wurde (das sogenannte Fregesche Paradox. Der Aufsatz schließt mit einer Evaluierung der Relevanz des Fregeschen Paradoxes für die heutige Linguistik.

  12. Frege – The Unintentional Linguist. On Frege’s Views of Language in the Context of 19th Century German Linguistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karsten Hvidtfelt Nielsen

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Sein ganzes berufliches Leben hindurch betrachtete Frege die Sprache als eine gefährliche Bedrohung des wissenschaftlichen Erkennens, der mit allen Mitteln der Logik zu begegnen war. Im ersten Teil des Aufsatzes wird aufgezeigt, wie Frege diese Auffassung in oft unbewusster und ungewollter Übereinstimmung mit gleichzeitigen Tendenzen sowohl in der deutschen Linguistik (Becker, Steinthal, Paul, Wundt als auch in der deutschen Sprachkritik (Gruppe, Nietzsche, Mauthner entwickelte und wie sein epistemologischer ‚Kampf gegen die Sprache’ mit einer bitteren persönlichen und professionellen Niederlage endete. Der zweite Teil des Aufsatzes enthält eine Rekonstruktion von Freges logischer Grammatik sowie eine Darstellung des linguistischen Argumentes, das für Freges endgültiges (und tragisches Akzept vom Sprachskeptizismus entscheidend wurde (das sogenannte Fregesche Paradox. Der Aufsatz schließt mit einer Evaluierung der Relevanz des Fregeschen Paradoxes für die heutige Linguistik.

  13. The number of missing teeth in people of the Edo period in Japan in the 17th to 19th centuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Hisashi

    2012-06-01

    The aims of this study were to examine the number of missing teeth in the people of the Edo period (or number of remaining teeth) and to contribute to the 8020 movement proposed in Japan to help people retain 20 or more of their own teeth until the age of 80. The study of dentition in ancient skeletal remains of our ancestors from multiple perspectives can yield information that can contribute to the study of physical anthropology and the leading edge of modern dental research. The materials were 82 excavated individuals (52 males and 30 females) from 1603 to 1868 whose maxillas and mandibles were both examinable. The age and sex were estimated by anthropological methods, and the individuals were divided into five groups. The status of missing teeth was compared between groups, and a chi-square test was used to test significant differences between groups. The rates of tooth loss were examined in the maxillas and mandibles. In the people of the Edo period, many teeth remained in good condition until early to late middle age. There were more remaining teeth in these individuals than in modern-day individuals. However, the Edo people clearly showed increased tooth loss with age. There were no differences in tooth loss by sex. The tooth type with a high rate of tooth loss was posterior teeth, but incisor loss also occurred with ageing. Mandibular canines were most likely to be remaining. The Edo people had more remaining teeth than modern-day society. This finding was unexpected. The notion that "people of long past ages lost more teeth more quickly" does not seem to apply to people in the Edo period in Japan. © 2011 The Gerodontology Society and John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  14. Disagreements among the bourgeoisie of Gipuzkoa about free trade and the transfer of customs from 18th to 19th centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Aragón

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to demonstrate and to analyse the disagreements and the variety of opinions among the core of the bourgeoisie in Gipuzkoa, throughout the Ancient Regime, about the faculty of Basque ports to trade directly with American colonies and the transfer of the customs from the interior to the coast. So that, we will turn to the vast historiography focused on the issue and we will make a critical analysis of several reports sent by dissident merchants, to deepen into the debate about both topics, which developed from the beginning of the 18th century to decree of 1841. Despite the univocal approach that Basque historiography has carried out, according to what only two blocks, perfectly different from each other, took part, the archival sources show a bigger diversity of the standpoints. Consequently, some disagreements and divisions can be notice inside the bourgeoisie. Although it is true that at the beginning of the debate these two blocks had a belligerent discourse, and despite there were some common agreements, as time went on, as a result of new political and economical circumstances of within Basque history, their positions became more radical and diverse, building a major diversity.

  15. [Natural science vs. natural philosophy: Friedrich Theodor von Frerichs and the emergence of modern western medicine in the 19th century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Werner

    2016-12-01

    The beginnings of modern western medicine reach to about 1800 when under the liberating influence of French Revolution observation of diseases was started to follow more scientifically justified criteria. At that time speculative doctrines prevailed, e. g. those set up natural philosopher Schelling. In this context Internist Friedrich Theodor von Frerichs at Berlin Charité University Hospital gained great merits because of his struggle for a scientifically-based experimental clinical medicine. This is demonstrated nicely in a recently found autograph document. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Cannons of the late 18th - early 19th century from he Fortress of Kuressaare and Their Conservation / Jüri Peets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Peets, Jüri, 1952-

    2013-01-01

    1980. aastatel leiti Kuressaare vallikraavi puhastustöödel 6 malmsuurtükki. Oli selge, et metalli korrosioon ei ole ainult pindmine. Suurtükkide konserveerimine algas 2011. aasta sügisel ja tööd lõpetati 2013. aasta kevadel

  17. Comparison of 19th century ship log wind data and adjoining land-based Royal Observatory data (1843 to 1855): Spot the difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Alexa; Lennard, Chris; Grab, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    Historical weather and climate data are essential for the establishment of long-term climate patterns and future projections. For South Africa, where there is a paucity of such long-term climate data, it undermines the ability to establish climate changes and variability over longer periods of the past few centuries. Consequently, analyses of climate change in the region have relied on relatively poor resolution proxy records. Yet, the recently discovered instrumental meteorological records of the Royal Astronomical Observatory in Cape Town provides South Africa's (and possibly the southern hemisphere's) longest continuous time series of daily recorded weather measurements, including temperature, rainfall, barometric pressure and wind (1835 to present). Wind specifically is a reliable indicator of dynamic atmospheric circulation and lends supporting data for understanding the Mediterranean climate of the region. This project has manually digitized, pre-processed and validated wind data from the earliest records by comparing these data with the only other known wind data for that time in the region - namely ship log data. Ship log data, recovered and digitized by the CLIWOC project, are used for statistical correlation (using wavelet query analysis) and trend analysis for the period 1843 to 1855. Both data sources indicate the same general wind climatological trends. The similarly decreasing trend in average wind velocity over the time period investigated, suggests that the data have been adequately captured and that ship log data are representative of adjoining land-based synoptic conditions. It is hoped that short term cyclic/extreme events can be extracted using a wavelet query analysis by correlating the data at various time steps. Differences in the timing of recordings and spatial scales between data sets present challenges for such a comparison. This work is part of a larger digitization project which is analysing Cape instrumental and documentary weather/climate records between the mid-17th century and the present, in an attempt to construct an annual chronology spanning almost 400 years.

  18. An international campaign of the 19th century to determine the solar parallax - The US Naval expedition to the southern hemisphere 1849 - 1852

    CERN Document Server

    Schrimpf, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    In 1847 Christian Ludwig Gerling, Marburg (Germany), suggested the solar parallax to be determined by measuring the position of Venus close to its inferior conjunction, especially at the stationary points, from observatories on nearly the same meridian but widely differing in latitude. James M. Gilliss,astronomer at the newly founded U.S. Naval Observatory, enthusiastically adopted this idea and procured a grant for the young astronomical community of the United States for an expedition to Chile. There they were to observe several conjunctions of Venus and oppositions of Mars, while the accompanying measurements were to be taken at the US Naval Observatory in Washington D.C. and the Harvard College Observatory at Cambridge, USA. This expedition was supported by A. v. Humboldt, C.F. Gau{\\ss}, J.F. Encke, S.C. Walker, A.D. Bache, B. Peirce and others. From 1849 to 1852 not only were astronomical, but also meteorological and magnetic observations and measurements recorded, mainly in Santa Lucia close to Santiago...

  19. Transformation of Manor of the Nobility in Russian Culture-Historical space of 18th –19th Centuries (Materials of Chernozem Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjyana V. Kovaleva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a manor of the nobility phenomenon as part of the Chernozem region cultural space in XVIII–XIX centuries, its forming and development factors and the country estate landscape components. The household, economic and cultural characteristics of the manors in the Central Black Soil region are examined as well as their importance for the region development. The manor landscape is described as the wholeness of natural and cultural origins. The paper generalizes it as the best achievements of Russian and Western European cultures and a synthesis of urban and rural lifestyles.

  20. Bites, nibbles, sips and puffs: new exotic goods in Norway in the 18th and the first half of the 19th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, Ragnhild

    2011-01-01

    The slow but significant changes in the material culture of European households that took place in the pre-industrial period are visible in several ways, such as in the changing patterns of housing, furnishing and clothing which have been illustrated in several studies. However, most of these studies focus on the pre-industrial economic leaders, often ignoring the changes taking place on the margins of the economic growth centres. This article seeks to rectify this by looking at changes in the material culture in one such 'marginal' country, namely Norway. The goods focused upon in this case are sugar, tobacco and coffee, which are often termed as exotic goods. These were new commodities in the 18th century and precisely because of their novelty and foreign origin, it is in many cases possible to trace how they spread in rural society, as well as how they impacted it. The emphasis has been put on rural areas for the simple reason that this was where the overall majority of Norwegians lived at the time.

  1. Family and Society in North-Western Transylvania(2nd Half of the 19th Century – Beginning of the 20th Century)

    OpenAIRE

    Brie, Mircea

    2008-01-01

    The historical-demographic approach of family in their relationship with society with different transitory societal or community typologies is a complex initiative that needs a methodological approach including peripheral elements as well, besides a deep analysis on the central defining elements. Due to its feature as a fundamental social group, the family has different characteristics specific to the community under external influence. From the perspective of such an approach, any major chan...

  2. Aportación española a la farmacia cubana decimonónica Spain's contribution to pharmacy in 19th century Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel González de la Peña Puerta

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available La llegada de los españoles a Cuba supuso una organización que fue un reflejo de la establecida en la metrópoli. En materia farmacéutica, se intentó regularizar el ejercicio de la misma y formar profesionales. Con este objetivo, entre otros, se constituyó en 1711 el Real Tribunal del Protomedicato de La Habana, sustituido en 1833 por las Reales Juntas Superiores Gubernativas de Medicina y Cirugía y de Farmacia hasta 1842, cuando quedaron en manos de la Universidad de La Habana sus competencias en lo relativo a la enseñanza. Durante este tiempo, la Facultad de Farmacia en Cuba permaneció unida a la de medicina, hasta 1863. No podemos dejar sin mencionar la Real Academia de Ciencias Médicas, Físicas y Naturales de La Habana y las publicaciones científicas sobre farmacia de mediados de siglo.With the arrival of the Spanish in Cuba, society was organized along the lines of what already existed in the metropolis. In the area of pharmacy, this meant standardizing the practice of pharmacy and training professionals. It was with this and other purposes in mind that the Real Tribunal del Protomedicato de La Haban was established in 1711. In 1833 it was replaced by the Reales Juntas Superiores Gubernativas de Medicina y Cirugía y de Farmacia until 1842, when educational responsibilities were transferred to the Universidad de La Habana. Throughout this period, the Facultad de Farmacia in Cuba kept its links with the Facultad de Medicina, until 1863. Another contribution are the Real Academia de Ciencias Médicas, Físicas y Naturales de La Habana and the scientific publications on pharmacy in the midle the century.

  3. Flood magnitudes in the Tagus River (Iberian Peninsula) and its stochastic relationship with daily North Atlantic Oscillation since mid-19th Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgueiro, Ana Rita; Machado, Maria J.; Barriendos, Mariano; Pereira, Henrique Garcia; Benito, Gerardo

    2013-10-01

    This paper presents a new methodological approach in the analysis of the influence of the North Atlantic circulation on the flood magnitude of the Tagus River, the largest Atlantic draining river of the Iberian Peninsula. This methodology is based on Correspondence Analysis viewed as a qualitative regression tool. A daily scale database (sea level atmospheric pressure, river discharge, rainfall) was used for this study. The selected streamflow station, Vila Velha de Rodão (Portugal, near the Spanish border), holds the longest continuous daily river discharge register of the Iberian Peninsula (over 160 years, since 1852). The annual maximum flood magnitudes were classified into seven categories according to their specific recurrence intervals (T). The qualitative regression approach was used to relate annual peak flood occurrence with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index mode (positive or negative) registered, during the preceding 40 days (divided in 8 successive 5-day periods). Large floods (categories 1-2 of T > 50 years and category 3, T ˜25-50 years) were found to be associated with a very high frequency of the negative NAO mode during the initial 20-25 days (within a total 40 days period length) before de flood peak. The lack of significant association of these flood categories with a predominant NAO mode during the immediately preceding 15 days, prior to the flood, suggest a time lag of 15 days before the peak. Minor flooding (category 7, T dam-regulated regimes (before and after the construction of dams ca 1960) revealed no changes in the behaviour of major floods (responding to a period of 25 days with a dominant negative NAO index mode). Moderate flooding of category 4 (T: 10-25 years), that during the pre-dam construction period were linked to the existence of an initial 5-15 days of negative NAO mode, were not documented during the post-dam period, probably due to flood peak discharge attenuation by reservoirs. The clear climatic control (rainfall accumulation and number of persisting NAO negative mode days) in the onset of flood category 3 (T: 25-50 years) was also statistically blurred during the post-dam period, due to the effective role of dam operation in flood management during wet winters. This dam management effect does not seem to mask the meteorologically related largest flood magnitude events (T > 50 years), indicating that catastrophic events will likely occur under the NAO negative daily and seasonal patterns defined in this work. The robustness of the model was assessed by the phenomenological analysis of misclassified Flood/NAO events. Results also indicate that flood management practises may benefit from improved climate scenarios and forecasting of the NAO index.

  4. [Portable pharmacies during the 19th century, starting from the example of Reichard' pharmacy in his guided for travelers in Europe (1805)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnemain, Bruno

    2015-09-01

    The portable pharmacy of Reichard, in his 1805 Guide for travelers in Europe is an example among others of a growing determination to answer the needs of the people to have access to drugs even in absence of health care professionals. One can observe the ultimate result by looking at portable pharmacies offered for sale by companies such as Menier and Pharmacie Centrale de France, but also by individual pharmacists. In spite of favorable changes of health care in all countries during the XXe century, portable pharmacy and kits are still widely proposed for sale, on Internet for example, for frequent diseases, including for pets!

  5. Stony realms: mineral collections as markers of social, cultural and political spaces in the 18th and early 19th Century

    OpenAIRE

    Vogel, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    "As mineral collecting and classifying various rock types constituted an important cultural and scientific practice of enlightened societies in Europe in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth century, the paper analyses the sometimes extremely different spatial dimensions the mineral collections embodied, amongst which the exhibits mediated. It shows how the development of scientific mineralogy at the end of the eighteenth century not only accentuated universally-scientific claims and clas...

  6. Convergences conceptuelles en Birmanie : la transition du xixe siècle Conceptual Convergences in Burma : the 19th Century Period of Transition

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    Aurore Candier

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Les conceptions politiques birmanes ont évolué au fil des siècles, échafaudées sur des interprétations renouvelées d’emprunts conceptuels à l’étranger, afin de rester en phase avec une réalité sociopolitique changeante. Le contact avec l’Occident a été à l’origine de l’une des « greffes » conceptuelles des plus prolifiques. Entre 1820 et 1880, les rois birmans ont subi deux défaites contre les Anglais et ont dû céder plusieurs provinces avant l’annexion définitive de leur pays en 1886. Pendant cette période, les élites politiques et religieuses de la cour birmane ont été confrontées à la pénétration progressive des idées et des valeurs du vainqueur. L’analyse historique et linguistique d’ouvrages contemporains de l’époque révèle l’évolution de leurs représentations sociopolitiques. La pensée politique moderne a nettement influencé les lettrés à partir des années 1830. Ils ont dès lors commencé de rationaliser et d’adapter les concepts, qu’ils soient locaux ou empruntés au pāli, à une représentation du monde en transformation. Ces convergences conceptuelles n’ont véritablement donné corps à un nouveau système de pensée que dans les années 1870. L’idée de roi universel a été délaissée, alors que l’accent a été mis sur l’aspect social de la norme de conduite royale. La conception moderne de la réforme, portant les notions d’amélioration et de progrès, a fait son apparition dans les projets de loi. Les valeurs occidentales de classification raciale, de définition territoriale, de communauté de langue et de culture ont été adoptées. Mais ces emprunts n’ont pas fondamentalement altéré la conception birmane traditionnelle de l’humanité, sous-tendue par les lois du kamma, de l’impermanence et de l’interdépendance entre l’ordre social et cosmique.Burmese political conceptions have varied through centuries, borrowing and adapting certain foreign concepts according to the changing sociopolitical context. In this sense, the contact with the Western political thinking was very productive. Between 1820 and 1880, the Burmese kings lost two wars against the British and had to give away several territories before the final annexation of their country in 1886. During this period, the Burmese political and religious elites were confronted to the progressive penetration of British ideas and values. A historical and linguistic investigation of significant texts shows the gradual changes of their sociopolitical representations. Modern political thinking had a strong influence on the Burmese literati from the 1830’ onwards. They gradually rationalized and adapted concepts, whether local or borrowed from the pāli, to a changing conception of the world. These conceptual convergences gave shape to a new way of thinking in the 1870’. The idea of universal king was neglected, when the literati emphasized the social interpretation of the laws of kinship conduct. The modern conception of the reform, conveying the notion of progress, was used to draft new laws. Western notions of racial classification, territorial definition, linguistic and cultural communities, were adopted. But these borrowings did not dramatically alter the Burmese traditional conception of humanity, based on the laws of kamma and impermanence, and the interdependence between the social and the cosmic order as well.

  7. From the History of Lace Craft in the South Black Earth Russia (2nd Half of the 19th Century - Beginning of the 20th Century

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    Grigorova Viktoriya A.

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The author studies the specifics of lace in the territory of the South Black Earth Russia in the 19th – early 20th centuries. The author has analyzed the history of lace crafts in the Yelets and Mtsensk districts of the Orlovsk province, and in the Zadonsk district of the Voronezh province. Based on archive materials the article determines such features of lace crafts development as the uniqueness of lace; the dependence of the growth of the influence of buyers on the pace of industry development; presence of the qualitative indicators of the manufacturing process inversely proportional to the quantitative; expanding the range of manufactured lace; the expansion of the sales area of lace; activation of the attention of individuals and public institutions to revive the specificity and individuality of local products lace. It was concluded that the impact of identified features on the pace of development of the lace industry in the South Black Earth Russia and on the development of Russian business in general. Analyzing the history of lace crafts, the author describes the conditions of industrial activity lace, which showed the formation of the capitalist forms of lace makers’ work. The features of the capitalist forms of labour which characterized crafts activity are pointed out. The peculiarities of lace sales organization in local and distant markets are studied. In addition to interprovince and interdistrict markets the author investigates the material on exporting goods abroad. The main reasons for the expansion of sales geography determine the change in product mix. The author raises the issue related to the history of the preservation of unique lace made following the traditions of Russian folk art of their ancestors. The problem consisted in the fact that the buyers were not interested in the originality and identity of the goods. As a result, this led to the reduction of the original performance by increasing the amount of work on the standard models.

  8. The Place of Identity Dissonance and Emotional Motivations in Bio-Cultural Models of Religious Experience: A Report from the 19(th) Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Adam

    2017-01-01

    Durham University's 'Hearing the Voice' project involves a multi-disciplinary exploration of hallucinatory-type phenomena in an attempt to revaluate and reframe discussions of these experiences. As part of this project, contemporaneous religious experiences (supernatural voices and visions) in the United States from the first half of the nineteenth century have been analysed, shedding light on the value and applicability of contemporary bio-cultural models of religious experience for such historical cases. In particular, this essay outlines four historical cases, seeking to utilise and to refine four theoretical models, including anthropologist Tanya Luhrmann's 'absorption hypothesis', by returning to something like William James' concern with 'discordant personalities'. Ultimately, the paper argues that emphasis on the role of identity dissonance must not be omitted from the analytical tools applied to these nineteenth-century examples, and perhaps should be retained for any study of religious experience generally.

  9. AMERICAN MULTI-DWELLING ARCHITECTURE OF THE SECOND HALF OF THE 19TH CENTURY AND FIRST HALF OF THE 20TH CENTURY

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    Srđan Nađ

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available At the end of the 19th and beginning of the 20th century, the evolution of American multiple-dwelling architecture was marked by the passage from the standard construction of single-family standalone homes and row houses to a new housing typology which corresponded to all of the new urban planning rules and requirements of the contemporary way of life in cities. New York was the first American city to face the problem of dense settlement in limited spaces. The »U, E, H« ground plan designs were developed and were most commonly used during the period when the Building Zone Resolution adopted in 1916 by New York City was in force. The Building Zone Resolution introduced another novelty into New York town planning, i.e. the setting back of exterior walls above a determined height. Consequently, this gave rise to buildings with stepped profiles and many more storeys. The solutions developed by the New York residential architecture were adopted by other cities and further developed in line with specific local influences. Chicago is the most interesting of these cities; between 1924 and 1929 several quality housing complexes were built there which strongly deviated from the then housing construction in New York by the consistent ground plan designs of structures and apartment designs.

  10. In search of the lost Century. The imperial claim to the rescue of the 19th Century during the consolidation of the Franco Era

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    Ferrán GALLEGO

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article sets up the role of historical essay in the constitution of Spanish nationalist discourse in the years of early civil postwar and initial consolidation of Franco’s regime. It explores the transition of studies basically related to imperial Spain to those examining decadence. Moreover, it evaluates the irruption of a new intellectual consideration of Spanish Nineteenth Century. These last elements —the new analysis of modern decadence and the vindication of regeneration criticism—, were congruent with an intellectual and political need of Francoism. This was the urgency of strengthening its singularity and its will of permanence,when the destruction of international fascist experience could be seen as a contingent circumstance opening way for the recovering of the Spanish universal enterprise essence.

  11. TYPOLOGY OF HISTORIC BUILDINGS, END OF THE 19 TH CENTURY AND THE BEGINNING OF 20 TH CENTURY, ON EXAMPLE OF WESTERN KAZAKHSTAN, ATYRAU CITY

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    Elmira KANAYEVA

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to determine the current state of the streets Balgimbayeva and Isenova in Atyrau city, analyze historical stages of development, to identify issues and the importance of traditional structures of these streets, as well as to propose the protection of the city.

  12. [The science of nutrition--between experiment and popular medicine in Sweden during the second half of the 19th century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qvarsell, Roger

    2007-01-01

    In 1886 a physiological laboratory was opened at the Karolinska institute in Stockholm and the same year Robert Tigerstedt was appointed as professor and head of the department. Tigerstedt started the following years physiological experiments about nutrion and he also gave a series of lectures concerning the physiological principles of nutrion. This can be seen as a stating point for the more particular investigations which was undertaken during the following decade by Tigerstedt himself and some of his students. Together with the medical chemists the physiologist participateted in the public debate about nutrion, the value of Justus von Liebig's meat extract, the price of different food stufs and other questions. The relations between the science of nutrition, agricultural interests and some popular health movements was complicated and the public debate anticipated the conflicts of interest which was to become more evident during the first half of the 20th century.

  13. Pathfinders in oncology from the beginning of the 19th century to the inauguration of the first cancer hospital in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajdu, Steven I

    2017-11-17

    The fields of medicine and oncology made substantial progress between 1800 and 1885. The first half of this period was dominated by the spectacular progress in physiology, cytology, histology, histopathology, and diagnostic microscopy. In the second half of the period, advancements in surgical techniques, anesthesia, asepsis, and laboratory medicine, including bacteriology, chemistry, and biochemistry, led to the development of medical specialties, including surgical pathology and surgical oncology. Although wars, revolutions, and socioeconomic upheavals interrupted the daily life of the populace, distinguished artists, scientists, and physicians continued, against all odds, to advance their field of interest. Among the many eminent individuals, there were 7 renowned physicians (4 pathologists and 3 surgeons) who revolutionized medical and oncology thinking in ways that are still felt today. They were polyglots with formidable erudition, beloved teachers, and mentors, and are remembered eponymically for their contributions to oncology to this day. As a passing note, the 3 surgeons also were skillful microscopists. Cancer 2017. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  14. Amusement places in Chişinău. Cafe Man’kov (Late 19th century - the 30ies of 20th century

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    Ana Griţco

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Collections of postcards are a chronicle in images that captivate us with variety of topics, the study of which can extract from the darkness of oblivion different scenes of everyday life in certain historical periods. In this sense, interesting is a postcard from the museum collection, which depicts Cafe Man'kov - a place where more than a century ago the Chişinău cream of society loved spending time. The history of this coffee house is associated with the name of A.I. Man'kov, a prosperous businessman of the second half of 19th - early 20th centuries. Initially, in the 1880s, it was located in the building of the Diocesan House (the Alexandrovskaia Street, where A. Man'kov rented premises, and since 1901 it has moved into the Schwartzman's House (the Pushkinskaia Street, a rented space as well. In 1905, the cafe was opened in a specially built building in Fountain Lane (between the Sinadinovskaia and Pushkinskaia Streets known as Cafe Man'kov, with an interesting architecture, "European" interior, and tastefully furnished terraces. Cafe Man'kov was one of the first buildings in Chişinău which was electrified (1907. It soon became a favorite place of leisure for Chişinău dwellers, where one could drink tea or coffee with Swiss chocolate, enjoy a delicious cake, as well as have lunch or dinner. The cafe existed until 1934, when A. Man'kov died at the age of 92 years. In Soviet times, the building was demolished, and now in its place there is the Press House (the area between the streets of Pushkin and Vlaicu Pârcălab.

  15. Frequency and duration of historical droughts from the 16th to the 19th centuries in the Mexican Maya lands, Yucatan Peninsula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendoza, B.; Velasco, V.; Jauregui, E.; Diaz-Sandoval, R. [Instituto de Geofisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Garcia-Acosta, V. [Centro de Investigaciones y Estudios Superiores en Antropologia Social, Juarez 87, 14000 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2007-07-15

    Using unprecedented catalogues of past severe drought data for the Yucatan Peninsula between 1502 and 1900 coming from historical written documentation, we identified five conspicuous time lapses with no droughts between 1577-1647, 1662-1724, 1728-1764, 1774-1799 and 1855-1880, as well as time epochs with most frequent droughts between 1800 and 1850. Moreover, the most prominent periodicity of the historical drought time series was that of 40 years. Using the Palmer Drought Severity Index for the Yucatan Peninsula for the period 1921-1987 we found prominent negative phases between 1942-1946 and 1949-1952, 1923-1924, 1928-1929, 1935-1936, 1962-1963, 1971-1972 and 1986-1987. Two prominent periodicities clearly appear at 5 and 10 years. Most modern and historical severe droughts lasted 1 year, and share a quasi-decadal frequency. Also, in the first 66 years of the twentieth century the frequency of occurrence of severe drought has been lower compared with the nineteenth century. Some of the major effects and impacts of the most severe droughts in the Yucatan region are examined. We also studied the relation between historical and modern droughts and several large scale climate phenomena represented by the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) and the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI). Our results indicate that historical droughts and the cold phase of the AMO coincide, while the influence of the SOI is less clear. The strongest coherence between historical droughts and AMO occurred at periodicities of 40 years. For modern droughts the coherence of a drought indicator (the Palmer Drought Severity Index) is similar with AMO and SOI, although it seems more sustained with the AMO. They are strongest at 10 years and very clearly with the AMO cold phase. Concerning the solar activity proxies and historical droughts, the coherence with a record of beryllium isotope Be10, which is a good proxy of cosmic rays, is higher than with Total Solar Irradiance. We notice that the strongest coherence between historical droughts and Be10 occurs at periods 60-64 years. When studying modern droughts and solar activity, frequencies of 8 years appear, and the coherences are similar for both sunspots and cosmic rays. Comparing natural terrestrial and solar phenomena, we found that the most sustained and strongest modulation of historical drought occurrence is at 60-64 years and is between the historical drought series and the solar proxy Be10. For modern droughts we notice that the coherence is similar among AMO, SOI and the solar indices. We can conclude that the sea surface temperatures (AMO) and solar activity leave their signal in terms of severe droughts in the Maya lands, however in the long term, the influence of the SOI on this type of phenomenon is less clear.

  16. Economic Activities of Maraş during the Ottoman Period: At the End of 19th Century and at the Begining of 20th Century

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    Harun Şahin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study includes end of the nineteenth century and the begining of twentieth century. In this study, we have tried to put forward at the economic activities of Marash. For this, we have used Ottoman archival documents and Aleppo Province Salnames. Marash, geographical location and because of arable land throughout history has been home to many civilizations. For this reason, Marash became an important commercial and manufacturing center in the past. Aleppo and Marash have been major textile manufacturing center of the country during the Ottoman period. At the end of nineteenth century, traditional industrial products were exported to Europe and away from markets. Marash textile sector has been an increase in the number of businesses in line with the growing population. At the begining of the twentieth century, economic vitality increased in the city. Agriculture and animal husbandry in the region advanced. Accordingly, the agro-based industries have developed

  17. Strength of materials and theory of elasticity in 19th century Italy a brief account of the history of mechanics of solids and structures

    CERN Document Server

    Capecchi, Danilo

    2015-01-01

    This book examines the theoretical foundations underpinning the field of strength of materials/theory of elasticity, beginning from the origins of the modern theory of elasticity. While the focus is on the advances made within Italy during the nineteenth century, these achievements are framed within the overall European context. The vital contributions of Italian mathematicians, mathematical physicists, and engineers in respect of the theory of elasticity, continuum mechanics, structural mechanics, the principle of least work, and graphical methods in engineering are carefully explained and discussed. The book represents a work of historical research that primarily comprises original contributions and summaries of work published in journals. It is directed at those graduates in engineering, but also in architecture, who wish to achieve a more global and critical view of the discipline and will also be invaluable for all scholars of the history of mechanics.

  18. La importancia social del trabajo en el México del siglo XIX Social importance of work in the 19th century Mexico

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    Pedro Miranda Ojeda

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Durante el siglo XIX la sociedad mexicana emprendió la constitución de un nuevo modelo de nación que incorporó el valor moral por el trabajo. La modernización y el progreso figuraron como elementos configuradores y se estimó al individuo según su grado de capacidades de contribución nacional. La imagen de ciudadano se vincula estrechamente con el trabajo y, por este motivo, las personas ociosas, jugadoras o sin oficio pertenecían al rango de los inútiles.During the nineteenth century Mexican society began the constitution of a new model of Nation which has incorporated the moral value related to work. Modernization and progress were pivotal elements for that, and the individual has started to be considered for his capacity of contributing with the Nation. The citizen image was closely related to work. In consequence, idlers, gamblers, and unemployed were classified as useless.

  19. The teaching of reading, calculus and religious doctrine in the schools of primary education of the province of Goiás in the 19th century

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    Sandra Elaine Aires de Abreu

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Based on the analysis of existing sources and educational historiographic production in Goiás, the aim of this article is to analyse teaching pratices from the standpoint of legal prescription and to emphasize the actions praticsed by teachers in their teaching activies wich were not explicitly mentioned in the legislation. The research refers to the period from 1835 to 1893. The process of institutionalization of the primary education was straightly related to the social demand for the acquisition of the skills of reading, writing, counting, and praying.

  20. [Artur Wołyński--A forgotten Polish historian in Italy in the second half of the 19th century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piskurewicz, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Artur Wołyński (1844-1893) was, undoubtedly, one of the most interesting personages of Polish émigrés after January Uprising. He belonged to these circles of Polish émigrés, who were able to reconcile their patriotic aspirations with realities and interest of the countries that entertained them. As far as Wołyński is concerned, it found its expression in the efforts that were made in order to assimilate two nations--Polish and Italian people--appealing to the common history and familiar cultural traditions. An important element of integrating all the above-discussed actions was his scientific activity. The mentioned activity included, first of all, his studies on Nicolaus Copernicus and Galileo Galilei. In the article were analyzed more comprehensive scientific descriptions dedicated to Copernicus and Galileo prepared by Wołyński, and their significance and opinions on them of the learned, whose works treated on Copernicus and Galileo as well. Secondly, in the field of scientific activity of Wołyńiski, one can also observe his researches and the process of elaborating sources for Polish and Italian his tory, particularly concerning the 17th century. However, most of his attention Wołyński paid to collecting and working out the materials concerning January Uprising. Speaking a modern language, one can say that Wołyński in a way polled the insurgents of January Uprising sending to them an appropriate list of questions, additionally allowing for their biographies. In the paper was also included a detailed description of this broad initiative together with its results. Up till now, not much attention has been paid to this significant scientific activity and its contexts. So, the present article is to remind of meritorious personage of Wołyński, and particularly of his output within the realm of history of science, history of Polish and Italian relationships, and of the role he played in bequeathing memory of January Uprising.