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Sample records for wesel kernkraftwerk vahnum

  1. Edificios industriales, en Wesel, Alemania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henn, Walter

    1966-02-01

    Full Text Available The set of buildings constructed in Wesel by Siemens-Schuckertwerke is a factory of industrial turbines. The site has a railway siding, which greatly helps the transport of raw materials and finished articles. In addition to the industrial naves, there are offices, social amenities, and administrative buildings. The workshop naves have a reinforced concrete structure, and on the inner columns, longitudinal reinforced concrete girders support a travelling crane. The roof of these naves is provided with skylights, inclined at 45° to the horizontal, and symmetrically arranged in pairs. The roof is protected with a Siporex insulating layer, covered with two sheets of bitumen impregnated cardboard. The glazing of the skylights is Thermolux.El complejo de edificios industriales construidos en Wesel por Siemens-Schuckertwerke, está destinado a la fabricación de turbinas industriales. Se levanta sobre un extenso solar con acceso a una vía férrea, lo cual facilita el suministro de materias primas y expedición de los productos fabricados. El conjunto está formado por un edificio para la administración, otro de carácter social y recreo, otro para oficinas y varias naves para producción, almacenes y bancos de prueba. Las naves tienen estructuras de hormigón armado. En su interior se ha instalado un puente-grúa en sentido longitudinal, que se apoya en los soportes interiores. Para la suspensión de los carriles del puente-grúa se han construido vigas longitudinales de hormigón armado. La cubierta tiene una serie de lucernarios, de dos faldones a 45° que culminan en su caballete. Todas las superficies de cubierta se han protegido con una capa aislante de siporex recubierta con otras dos de cartón embreado. Las cristaleras y lucernarios son de thermolux.

  2. [Legitimation of Andries Van Wesele, Andreas Vesalius's father, by the Holy Roman Emperor Charles the Fifth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi, Hyonosuke

    2006-06-01

    Andries van Wesele, Andreas Vesalius's father and a court pharmacist of the Holy Roman Emperor Charles the fifth, was an illegitimate son of Everard van Wesele, a court physician of the Hapsburgs. In the year of 1531, Andries was legitimated by the Emperor. The legitimation letter was written in French. The author tried to translate and analyze the letter. By this legitimation, not only Andries himself was legitimated but also his successors were approved to succeed Andries. By this letter, Andreas Vesalius obtained his position as a hereditary member of a family serving the court of the Hapsburgs, and as a result, he started his career as a physician of the court.

  3. Kernkraftwerke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allelein, H. J.

    Die Nutzung der Kernenergie ist untrennbar mit dem Element Uran verknüpft. Da die Umwandlung eines Elements in ein anderes auf chemischem Weg nicht möglich ist, muss das heute vorhandene Uran durch kosmische Prozesse vor Entstehung der Erde entstanden sein. Reines Uran ist ein silberweiß glänzendes, relativ weiches Schwermetall. In der Elementhäufigkeit steht Uran vor Gold, Silber oder Quecksilber.

  4. BWR MOX core monitoring at Kernkraftwerk Gundremmingen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noel, Alejandro [Studsvik Scandpower (Suisse) GmbH, Nussbaumen AG (Switzerland); Holzer, Robert [NIS Ingenieurgesellschaft GmbH, Alzenau (Germany); Anton, Gerd [Studsvik Scandpower GmbH, Norderstedt (Germany); Smith, Kord [Studsvik Scandpower Inc., Idaho Falls (United States)

    2008-07-01

    The replacement of the core monitoring system for twin KWU Boiling Water Reactors (BWR) is presented. The reactors, Kernkraftwerk Gundremmingen B and C (KGG), are located in Germany. Core monitoring for KGG is more challenging than for most BWR reactors due to its core composition with about 30% MOX fuel assemblies. The objectives of this paper are to discuss the specific MOX modelling aspects in CASMO-4/Simulate-3, the impact of the MOX fuel on several core monitoring aspects like the LPRM detector modelling and to present some core monitoring results since the beginning of GARDEL's operation. The available core monitoring results confirm the accuracy of the underlying physical methods. The core monitoring system replacement att KGG was a common project of Studsvik Scandpower and NIS Ingenieurgesellschaft GmbH, where Studsvik Scandpower supplied its standard core monitoring system GARDEL and NIS was responsible for the computer hardware, system integration and plant specific add-ons. (authors)

  5. Perancangan Data Warehouse dan Penerapan Teknik Clustering Spatial pada Wesel: Studi Kasus PT XXX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arief Dwi Hartadi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available By setting up the right service and product for the customer, the company may increase its marketing effectiveness as well as sales. For that purpose, information on company’s product and sales is highly needed in order to help on decision making process, which expectedly enables company to create value and eventually gain competitive advantage. This research attempts to develop a Data warehouse for PT XXX, which is expected to exhibit useful information for the company without disturbing its operational system. The Data warehouse is developed with Oracle 11g. Apart from that, this research also aims to gather information and knowledge with spatial database. The data mining is conducted by using WEKA application, which compares the algorithm of DBSCAN, K-Means, and EM clustering. Data mining from the spatial data is expected to create area map which indicates sales rate of PT Pos Indonesia’s products. Through this it is hoped that the company may focus more in marketing certain product with particular advantage in one particular area to produce effectiveness. The research outcome indicates that the Data warehouse being developed has already managed to exhibit the receipt report of postal money order (wesel pos, retail stock, as well as retail sales. 

  6. German nuclear power plants: 1994 performance. Excerpt from the report of the ABE Committee; Deutsche Kernkraftwerke: Betriebsergebnisse 1994. Auszug aus dem Bericht des ABE-Ausschusses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1995-06-01

    The compact survey of the performance of the nineteen nuclear power plants in operation in Germany covers the year 1994, starting with a general survey and information and continuing with detailed, separate reports on the various generating units. The data include the 1993 operating results. (UA) [Deutsch] Im vorliegenden Bericht werden die Betriebsergebnisse des Jahres 1994 der in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland betriebenen Kernkraftwerke zusammenfassend dargestellt. Nach einem einleitenden Ueberblick werden abschnittsweise die einzelnen Kernkraftwerke behandelt, wobei die Betriebsergebnisse 1993 wiedergegeben werden. (UA)

  7. Decommissioning of the Wuergassen nuclear power plant, a commercial challenge; Stillegung Kernkraftwerk Wuergassen, eine kommerzielle Aufgabe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albrecht, S. [Kernkraftwerk Wuergassen (Germany); Schiffer, K.J. [Kernkraftwerk Wuergassen (Germany)

    1996-06-01

    In response to the inspection results which detected cracks in the core shroud, economic aspects have induced PreussenElektra to opt for decommissioning and dismantling of the Wuergassen reactor. As this shutdown of the nuclear power plant is not a planned shutdown, costs arising in addition to the original decommissioning framework studies have to be assessed, especially the expenditure for the adjusted plant manpower requirements, and the additional operating and phase-out costs. Experience has shown that the decommissioning of a nuclear power plants does not pose problems in terms of safety or technology, but still is a commercial challenge. Expense forecasts have to be adjusted in response to the unplanned shutdown. PreussenElektra therefore has set up a modified project and operating structure. The analysis and evaluation of the first decommissioning phase will show whether the cost assessment approaches are in agreement with reality. (orig.) [Deutsch] PreussenElektra hat aufgrund der Risse im Kernmantel und der damit verbundenen wirtschaftlichen Betrachtungen die Stillegung und den Direkten Rueckbau des Kernkraftwerkes Wuergassen beschlossen. Da es sich bei der Stillegung des KWW um eine ungeplante Stillegung handelt, sind ueber die urspruenglichen Studien hinaus zusaetzliche Kostenbloecke zu betrachten. Insbesondere sind hierbei die Kosten fuer den angepassten Eigenpersonaleinsatz und die zusaetzlichen Betriebs- und Auslaufkosten zu erwaehnen. Wie die Erfahrungen zeigen ist die Stillegung von kerntechnischen Anlagen technisch und sicherheitstechnisch kein Problem. Es bleibt die Herausforderung der Wirtschaftlichkeit. Die bisherigen Kostenprognosen muessen aufgrund der ungeplanten Stillegung angepasst werden. Der Herausforderung tritt PreussenElektra mit einer angepassten Projekt- und Betriebsstruktur entgegen. Die Auswertung der ersten Stillegungsphase wird zeigen, ob die vorgestellten Ansaetze die Realitaet richtig beschreiben koennen. (orig.)

  8. Impacts of the amended radiological protection regulations for clearance and exemption from regulatory control on dismantling of a nuclear power plant; Wechselwirkung zwischen den neuen Freigaberegelungen und dem Rueckbau eines Kernkraftwerks: Erwartungen und Erfahrungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollmann, E. [PreussenElektra Kernkraft GmbH und Co. KG, Kernkraftwerk Wuergassen, Beverungen (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    The fundamental objectives of the Wuergassen power plant dismantling project relate to : - Ensuring efficient general and radiological protection at work throughout project activities,- optimizing economic efficiency,- maintaining a continuous, rapid mass flow in waste management activities. The project for dismantling of the Wuergassen reactor is of significance as kind of a pioneering project, to establish experience for future reactor dismantling activities in Germany. (orig./CB) [German] Die uebergeordneten Ziele des gesamten Projektes sind: - Allgemeiner und radiologischer Arbeitsschutz, - Optimierung der Wirtschaftlichkeit, - hoher, kontinuierlicher Massenfluss zur Entsorgung. Der Rueckbau des Kernkraftwerkes Wuergassen hat Prototyp-Charakter fuer industriellen Rueckbau von Kernkraftwerken in Deutschland. (orig./SR)

  9. German nuclear power plants: 1995 performance data. Excerpt from the report of the ABE-Committee; Deutsche Kernkraftwerke: Betriebsergebnisse 1995. Auszug aus dem Bericht des ABE-Ausschusses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1996-05-01

    The 1995 Annual Report published by the Technical Committee for the Exchange of Operating Experience (ABE Committee) within the Technical Association of Operators of Large Power Plants (VGB) contains a summary record of the performance of the nuclear power plants operated in Germany. The nineteen nuclear generating units operated in Germany in 1995 (Muelheim-Kaerlich was down also throughout 1995, as was Wuergassen), with a cumulated installed capacity of 22,063 MWe, converted a total of 154,144 GWh of nuclear power into electricity, which is approx. 2% more than the 151,163 GWh of 1994. The share contributed to the public electricity supply amounted to 33%. The ABE report also mentions the AVR experimental nuclear power station in Juelich, which is currently being decommissioned. (orig.) [Deutsch] Im Jahresbericht 1995 des Fachausschusses fuer Austausch von Betriebserfahrungen (ABE-Ausschuss) in der VGB Technischen Vereinigung der Grosskraftwerksbetreiber werden die Betriebsergebnisse der in Deutschland betriebenen Kernkraftwerke dargestellt. Die 19 im Jahre 1995 in Deutschland in Betrieb gewesenen Kernkraftwerksbloecke (Muelheim-Kaerlich war auch 1995 nicht in Betrieb, Wuergassen war das ganze Jahr ueber abgeschaltet und wird endgueltig stillgelegt) mit einer installierten Leistung von 22 063 MWe (brutto) haben insgesamt 154 114 GWh aus Kernenergie in elektrische Arbeit umgewandelt. 2% mehr als 1994 mit 151 163 GWh. Der Anteil an der oeffentlichen Versorgung betrug wie in den Vorjahren seit 1988 etwa ein Drittel, der Anteil am Primaerenergiebedarf rd. 10%. Der ABE-Bericht geht ferner ein auf das in der Stillegung befindliche Versuchskernkraftwerk der Arbeitsgemeinschaft Versuchsreaktor (AVR) in Juelich. (orig.)

  10. 1996: German nuclear power plants` performance data. Excerpt from the report of the ABE Committee; 1996: Betriebsergebnisse deutscher Kernkraftwerke. Auszug aus dem Bericht des ABE-Ausschusses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1997-05-01

    The 1996 Annual Report published by the Technical Committee for the Exchange of Operating Experience (ABE Committee) within the Technical Association of Operators of Large Power Plants (VGB) contains a summary record of the performance of the nuclear power plants operated in Germany. The nineteen nuclear generating units operated in Germany in 1996 (Muelheim-Kaerlich was down also throughout 1996, as was Wuergassen), with a cumulated installed capacity of 22,149 MWe, converted a total of 161,702 GWh of nuclear power into electricity, which is approx. 4,9% more than the 154,144 GWh of 1995. The share contributed to the public electricity supply amounted to 33%. The ABE report also mentions the AVR experimental nuclear power station in Juelich, which is currently being decommissioned. (orig.) [Deutsch] Im Jahresbericht 1996 des Fachausschusses fuer Austausch von Betriebserfahrungen (ABE-Ausschuss) in der VGB Technischen Vereinigung der Grosskraftwerksbetreiber werden die Betriebsergebnisse der in Deutschland betriebenen Kernkraftwerke dargestellt. Die 19 im Jahre 1996 in Deutschland in Betrieb gewesenen Kernkraftwerksbloecke (Muelheim-Kaerlich war auch 1996 nicht in Betrieb, Wuergassen wird endgueltig stillgelegt) mit einer installierten Leistung von 22 149 MWe (brutto) haben insgesamt 161 702 GWh aus Kernenergie in elektrische Arbeit umgewandelt, 4,9% mehr als 1995 mit 154 144 GWh. Der Anteil an der oeffentlichen Versorgung betrug wie in den Vorjahren seit 1988 etwa ein Drittel, der Anteil am Primaerenergiebedarf rd. 10%. Der ABE-Bericht geht ferner ein auf das in der Stillegung befindliche Versuchskernkraftwerk der Arbeitsgemeinschaft Versuchsreaktor (AVR) in Juelich. (orig.)

  11. Official notice concerning a licence issued in compliance with paragraph 15, sub-sec. 3 and paragraph 17 of the Nuclear Installations Ordinance, for modification of the Wuergassen nuclear power plant, issued on 23 September 1994, representing the 4th supplementing permit to licensing notice No. 7/10 KWW. As of 11 November 1994; Hinweis auf die oeffentliche Bekanntmachung gemaess Para. 15 Abs. 3 und Para. 17 der Atomrechtlichen Verfahrensverordnung (AtVfV) ueber eine Aenderungsgenehmigung vom 23. September 1994 fuer das Kernkraftwerk Wuergassen 4. Ergaenzung zum Bescheid Nr. 7/10 KWW. Vom 11. November 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-11-19

    Licence for the erection of a new filtering system building and a filtering system for optional use, to accept radwaste and radioactive remnants for interim storage, and for the installation of two cranes in the nuclear power plant. [Deutsch] Genehmigung zum Bau eines neuen Filtergebaeudes und einer Bedarfsfilteranlage, zur Lagerung radioaktiver Abfaelle und Reststoffe, sowie zur Errichtung von 2 Krananlagen im Kernkraftwerk

  12. Notifiable events in facilities for fission of nuclear fuels in the Federal Republic of Germany. Nuclear power plants and research reactors with a maximum continuous thermal output of more than 50 kW. Fourth quarterly report 1997; Meldepflichtige Ereignisse in Anlagen zur Spaltung von Kernbrennstoffen in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. Kernkraftwerke und Forschungsreaktoren, deren Hoechstleistung 50 kW thermische Dauerleistung ueberschreitet. 4. Quartal 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-08-01

    The report presents a brief survey of notifiable events in German nuclear power plants and research reactors of the given output category, covering the last quarter of the year 1997. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Der vorliegende Bericht enthaelt die Uebersicht ueber die meldepflichtigen Ereignisse in Anlagen zur Spaltung von Kernbrennstoffen (Kernkraftwerke und Forschungsreaktoren, deren Hoechstleistung 50 kW thermische Dauerleistung ueberschreitet) der Bundesrepublik Deutschland fuer das vierte Vierteljahr 1997. (orig./AJ)

  13. Nuclear power. BGH ruling of 16.1.1997 (Az: III ZR 117/95) relating to the action for damages in the matter of the shut-down Muehlheim-Kaerl-Kaerlich Reactor; Kernenergie. BGH-Urteil vom 16.1.1997 (Az.: III ZR 117/95) zum Schadensersatzprozess wegen des Kernkraftwerks Muelheim-Kaerlich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1997-04-01

    The German Federal High Court (BGH) non-appealably rejected part of the claims for damages of the owner/operator of the Muehlheim-Kaerlich nuclear power station asserted in an action against the Federal State of Rhineland-Palatinate and remanded the case to the lower court for clarification of the remaining claims. The plant operator claimed compensation for damage incurred in the wake of the annulment of the first partial permit issued for the nuclear power plant in 1975 and declared to be void for reasons of non-compliance with the licensing provisions of section 7, sub-section 2 AtG (Atomic Energy Act), and breach of official duty of civil servants of the licensing authority of Rhineland-Palatinate. Due to this decision of the Federal Administrative Court, the plant was shut down in 1988. The claims asserted by the operator relate among other items to compensation for construction, operation and shut-down operation costs. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Der Bundesgerichtshof hat einen Teil der Schadensersatzansprueche der Betreiberin des Kernkraftwerks Muehlheim-Kaerlich gegen das Land Rheinland-Pfalz endgueltig abgewiesen und zur Klaerung der verbleibenden Ansprueche den Rechtsstreit an die Vorinstanz zurueckverwiesen. In diesem Verfahren ging es um Schadensersatz infolge der Aufhebung der ersten Teilgenehmigung fuer das Kernkraftwerk aus dem Jahre 1975, wegen Nichterfuellung der Genehmigungsvoraussetzungen des paragraph 7 Abs. 2 AtG und Amtspflichtverletzung der Genehmigungsbehoerde des Landes. Aufgrund der nachfolgenden Stillegung des Kraftwerks 1988 verlangte die Betreiberin Schadensersatz u.a. fuer ihren Errichtungs- und Betreibungsaufwand und die Betriebskosten fuer den Stillegungsbetrieb. (orig./CB)

  14. Notifiable events in facilities for fission of nuclear fuels in the Federal Republic of Germany. Nuclear power plants and research reactors with a maximum continuous thermal output of more than 50 kW. Second quarterly report 1998; Meldepflichtige Ereignisse in Anlagen zur Spaltung von Kernbrennstoffen in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. Kernkraftwerke und Forschungsreaktoren, deren Hoechstleistung 50 kW thermische Dauerleistung ueberschreitet. Vierteljahresbericht 2. Quartal 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    The report contains the documentation of notifiable events in the defined reactors recorded over the second quarter of 1998. The documentation is prepared according to the national notification and reporting system prescribed by the relevant law in Germany, and is filed to the national atomic energy supervisory authorities in Germany for documentation in the national record. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Der vorliegende Bericht enthaelt die Uebersicht ueber die meldepflichtigen Ereignisse in Anlagen zur Spaltung von Kernbrennstoffen (Kernkraftwerke und Forschungsreaktoren, deren Hoechstleistuung 50 kW thermische Dauerleistung ueberschreitet) der Bundesrepublik Deutschland fuer das zweite Vierteljahr 1998. Meldepflichtige Ereignisse in Kernkraftwerken der Bundesrepublik Deutschland werden seit 1975 nach bundeseinheitlichen Meldekriterien in der jeweils gueltigen Fassung an die atomrechtlichen Aufsichtsbehoerden gemeldet und in einer zentral gefuehrten Liste erfasst. (orig.)

  15. Expert report of ENSI on the request of KKN AG for a general license - Project 'New nuclear power plant Niederamt'; Gutachten des ENSI zum Rahmenbewilligungsgesuch der KKN AG. Neubauprojekt Kernkraftwerk Niederamt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-09-15

    The 'Kernkraftwerk Niederamt AG' (KKN) Company submitted to the Swiss Federal Inspectorate of Nuclear Safety (ENSI) a request for a general license for a new power plant to be built near to the Goesgen power plant. According to the law, all damage risks with a probability higher than 10{sup -4}/a must be taken into account through protection measures. The considered risks concern the power plant itself as well as the population in the neighbourhood and the environment. The purpose of the general license is to demonstrate that the site chosen for the foreseen power plant is acceptable and that the risks can be counteracted through adequate measures. The buildings of the power plant and their partition over the two banks of the Aare River are briefly described. The reactor is a Light Water Reactor of third generation with a maximum thermal power of 5.8 GW{sub th}. The main cooling is provided by a hybrid system of water evaporation and air heating, what reduces the plume at the exit of the cooling tower. First, it is demonstrated that, in the case of a very unlikely severe accident in the power plant, the people in the neighbourhood can be evacuated quickly. Then, numerous types of possible accidents in the neighbourhood of the power plant are analyzed in order to settle their possible negative influence on the operation of the power plant: bursting of gas containers on the neighbouring roads and railways, fires of all types of hydrocarbons, air pollution through chloride gas, etc. The check by ENSI of the KKN studies on the potential danger for the power plant through neighbouring industrial plants, roads or railways demonstrated that none of the considered accidents presents an unacceptable risk for the power plant: on the one hand, these plants are located too far from the power plant, so that a sensible injury to the power plant safety can be excluded; on the other, the protection of the power plant can be guaranteed through appropriate technical

  16. The Human Factors System of VGB. The body of measures implemented by the NPP operating companies for HF management and optimisation of the man-machine interface; VGB-Human-Factors-System. Human-Factors-Massnahmen der Kernkraftwerks Betreiber zur Optimierung der Mensch-Maschine-Schnittstelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisgruber, H.; Janssen, G. [RWE Energie AG, Essen (Germany)

    1999-04-01

    One way of ensuring high human reliability is to systematically record, analyse and optimise the identified human factors influencing the safety of operation of NPPs. There are two kinds of human factors to be considered: Those identified and characterised in their actual influence on the man-machine system after an event has happened, and the potential human factors, as far as they are known. The purpose of the paper presented is to: - explain the man-machine interface on the basis of the descriptions delivered by work science, as well as with the information model (acquisition, processing and application of information); - explain their influence on the human performance; - identify the organisational units/competences of a nuclear power plant with respect to responsibility for dealing with those factors influencing human performance; - describe suitable joint action of the responsible organisational units; - present results of HF system reviews and modifications. (orig./CB) [German] Das hohe Mass an menschlicher Zuverlaessigkeit wird u.a. durch eine systematische Erfassung, Analyse und Optimierung menschlicher Einflussfaktoren auf Bedienvorgaenge im Kernkraftwerk sichergestellt. Es sind einerseits die Einflussfaktoren, die tatsaechlichen in einem Mensch-Maschine-System wirksam geworden sind und andererseits die Einflussfaktoren, die potentiell vorhanden sein koennen. Ziel dieser Abhandlung ist es: - Die Mensch-Maschine-Schnittstelle auf Basis ihrer arbeitswissenschaftlichen Definition und des Informationsmodells (Informationsaufnahme, Informationsverarbeitung, Informationsumsetzung) fuer Praktiker im Kraftwerk zu erlaeutern und die Einfluesse auf die menschliche Leistung beispielhaft darzulegen. - Abteilungen/Zustaendigkeiten des Kraftwerkes fuer die Behandlung von Einfluessen auf die menschliche Leistungsfaehigkeit aufzuzeigen. - Das Zusammenwirken der zustaendigen Abteilungen im Kraftwerk bei der Behandlung von leistungsbeeinflussenden Faktoren zu beschreiben

  17. Nuclear power plant with a containment. Kernkraftwerk mit einer Sicherheitshuelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barthelmes, C.P.

    1982-03-25

    In nuclear power plants there is usually a containment incorporating components bearing activity. If in the cladding free hydrogen develops, controlled oxidation must be ensured by means of a recombination device, in order to prevent oxyhydrogen explosions. For this purpose, a permanent thorough mixing of the gases in the containment is required. This can be achieved by vertical shafts reaching to at least half the height of the containment and provided with heating devices to initiate the gas circulation by the stack effect. These heating devices mainly serve as a thermal recombinator.

  18. Sicherheitsanforderungen für zukünftige Kernkraftwerke

    OpenAIRE

    Kugeler, K.; Phlippen, R. H.; Alkan., Z.; Kugeler, M.

    2000-01-01

    Presently, about 450 different nuclear power plants, partly highly developed, are operating worldwide. Thereby a great contribution to the worldwide current supply is made by nuclear energy. With a capacity amounting to 360 GWI, these nuclear plants meet 17% of the total energy demand. The use of nuclear energy will become more and more important on a longterm basis, if attention is paid to aspects of resource saving, economic efficiency and care of the environment, with special regard to the...

  19. KWL Lingen nuclear plant. Technical annual report 2016; KWL Kernkraftwerk Lingen. Technischer Jahresbericht 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2017-07-01

    The technical annual report 2016 for KWL (Lingen nuclear plant) covers the following sections: dismantling project management and operation, monitoring and clearance; waste management, technical qualification, security and safety, central tasks; licensing and supervision procedures, operational data, radiation monitoring, radioactive materials, in-service inspections.

  20. Safety culture in nuclear power plants. Proceedings; Sicherheitskultur im Kernkraftwerk. Seminarbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-01

    As a consequence of the INSAG-4 report on `safety culture`, published by the IAEA in 1991, the Federal Commission for the Safety of Nuclear Power Plants (KSA) decided to hold a one-day seminar as a first step in this field. The KSA is an advisory body of the Federal Government and the Federal Department of Transport and Energy (EVED). It comments on applications for licenses, observes the operation of nuclear power plants, assists with the preparation of regulations, monitors the progress of research in the field of nuclear safety, and makes proposals for research tasks. The objective of this seminar was to familiarise the participants with the principles of `safety culture`, with the experiences made in Switzerland and abroad with existing concepts, as well as to eliminate existing prejudices. The main points dealt with at this seminar were: - safety culture from the point of view of operators, - safety culture from the point of view of the authorities, - safety culture: collaboration between power plants, the authorities and research organisations, - trends and developments in the field of safety culture. Invitations to attend this seminar were extended to the management boards of companies operating Swiss nuclear power plants, and to representatives of the Swiss authorities responsible for the safety of nuclear power plants. All these organisations were represented by a large number of executive and specialist staff. We would like to express our sincerest thanks to the Head of the Federal Department of Transport and Energy for his kind patronage of this seminar. (author) figs., tabs., refs.

  1. Nuclear power station with a water-cooled reactor pressure vessel. Kernkraftwerk mit einem wassergekuehlten Reaktordruckbehaelter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, R.; Brunner, G.; Jost, N.

    1987-10-29

    Nuclear radiation produces radiolysis gases, which are undesirable for corrosion and oxyhydrogen gas reasons. To limit the proportion of this radiolysis gas, the invention provides that catalytic surfaces should be introduced into the primary circuit, to produce recombination of hydrogen and oxygen. These surfaces can be accommodated in the upper part of the reactor pressure vessel. The live steam screen can also have a catalytic surface.

  2. German nuclear power plants: Performance in 1993. Deutsche Kernkraftwerke: Betriebsergebnisse 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1994-05-01

    The compact survey of the performance of the nineteen nuclear power plants in operation in Germany covers the year 1993, starting with a general survey and information and continuing with detailed, separate reports on the various generating units. (UA)

  3. German nuclear power plants: 1992 performance data. ABE report. Deutsche Kernkraftwerke: Betriebsergebnisse 1992. ABE-Bericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1993-05-01

    The report presents the 1992 performance data of the nuclear power plants in operation in the Federal Republic of Germany. The data include information on incidents of relevance to safety of operation, important modifications, and radioactivity emissions in the reporting year. The individual nuclear power plant data also include the 1992 operating diagrams. (orig.)

  4. Nuclear knowledge-management. A core competence of VGB; Uebergreifendes Wissensmanagement fuer Kernkraftwerke. Eine VGB-Kernkompetenz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pamme, Hartmut [RWE Power AG, Essen (Germany). Steuerung Kernkraftwerke

    2009-07-01

    It is a well established expectation that utilities/operators of nuclear power plants communicate their own operational situation and are able to comment promptly on any findings and events in the international nuclear scene. In order to gain synergies on knowledge management, utilities have been using VGB as common platform for many years. The paper describes the generic expectations concerning knowledge management towards an association like VGB. It is analysed which elements and peculiarities of modern knowledge management are already established within VGB in the nuclear field. (orig.)

  5. Source Term Analysis for the Nuclear Power Station Goesgen-Daeniken; Quelltermanalysen fuer das Kernkraftwerk Goesgen-Daeniken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosemann, J.P.; Megaritis, G.; Guentay, S.; Hirschmann, H.; Luebbesmeyer, D.; Lieber, K.; Jaeckel, B.; Birchley, J.; Duijvestijn, G

    2001-08-01

    Analyses are performed for three accident scenarios postulated to occur in the Goesgen Nuclear Power Plant, a 900 MWe Pressurised Water Reactor of Siemens design. The scenarios investigated comprise a Station Blackout and two separate cases of small break loss-of-coolant accident which lead, respectively, to high, intermediate and low pressure conditions in the reactor system. In each case the accident assumptions are highly pessimistic, so that the sequences span a large range of plant states and a damage phenomena. Thus the plant is evaluated for a diversity of potential safety challenges. A suite of analysis tools are used to examine the reactor coolant system response, the core heat-up, melting, fission product release from the reactor system, the transport and chemical behaviour of those fission products in the containment building, and the release of radioactivity (source term) to the environment. Comparison with reference values used by the licensing authority shows that the use of modern analysis tools and current knowledge can provide substantial reduction in the estimated source term. Of particular interest are insights gained from the analyses which indicate opportunities for operators to reduce or forestall the release. (author)

  6. The spent fuel and waste management concept of German nuclear power plants. Konzept der Entsorgung deutscher Kernkraftwerke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nickel, H. (Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Reaktorwerkstoffe Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Reaktorwerkstoffe und Brennelemente)

    1992-07-01

    The spent fuel and waste management concept of German nuclear power plants comprises the basic legal preconditions and responsibilities, the spent fuel and radioactive waste arisings, their reprocessing and direct disposal, and the status of the Konrad, Gorleben and Morsleben repositories. Spent fuel and waste arisings also include the contaminated and activated components originating from the decommissioning of nuclear facilities. In order to close the nuclear fuel cycle, the German electricity utilities have entered into reprocessing contracts with firms in France and the United Kingdom, thereby ensuring spent fuel management up to the year 2005. All German final storage concepts provide for the emplacement of all waste, i.e. waste generating only negligible amounts of heat, in underground geologic formations. (orig.).

  7. Stade nuclear power station (KKS): four giants on tour; Kernkraftwerk Stade - KKS: Vier Riesen gehen auf Reisen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beverungen, M.; Viermann, J. [GNS Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Service mbH, Essen (Germany)

    2008-04-15

    The Stade nuclear power station was the first nuclear power plant in the Federal Republic of Germany to deliver heat in addition to electricity. Since 1984, district heat was distributed to a saltworks nearby. The power plant, which is situated on the banks of the river Elbe, was commissioned in 1972 after approximately 4 years of construction. Together with the Wuergassen plant, it was among the first commercial nuclear power plants in this country. E.ON Kernkraft holds a 2/3 interest, Vattenfall Europe a 1/3 interest in the nuclear power plant. The Stade nuclear power station was decommissioned on November 14, 2003 for economic reasons which, in part, were also politically motivated. In September 2005, the permit for demolition of the nuclear part was granted. The release from supervision under the Atomic Energy Act is expected for 2014. In the course of demolition, the 4 steam generators of the Stade nuclear power station were removed. These components, which have an aggregate weight of approx. 660 tons, are to be safely re-used in Sweden. In September 2007, the steam generators were loaded on board the Swedish special vessel, MS Sigyn, by means of a floating crane. After shipment to Sweden, heavy-duty trucks carried the components to the processing hall of Studsvik AB for further treatment. After 6 months of treatment, the contaminated inner surfaces of the tube bundles of the steam generators have been decontaminated successfully, among other items. This has increased the volume of material available for recycling and thus decreased the volume of residues. (orig.)

  8. Cutting and conditioning of the reactor pressure vessel in the NPP Wuergassen; Zerlegung und Konditionierung des Reaktordruckgefaesses im Kernkraftwerk Wuergassen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraps, Uwe [AREVA NP GmbH, Erlangen (Germany); Duwe, Peter [E.ON Kernkraft GmbH, Bewerungen (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    NPP Wuergassen was shutdown in 1995 after 23 years of operation. Since 1997 the nuclear power plant is being dismantled. The cutting of the reactor pressure vessel internals was performed between 2003 and 2008. After decontamination the cylindrical parts of the reactor pressure vessel were dissected, the process was finalized in 2010. AREVA has now a 30 years-experience concerning repair, replacement and dismantling of reactor components. In the contribution the authors describe the process planning, manufacture and testing of appropriate remote handled tools, decontamination, dissection of the pressure vessel (320 t), conditioning, packaging and transport of the radioactive waste including radiation protection monitoring.

  9. Decommissioning of Wuergassen NPP - work on the reactor service floor; Rueckbau des Kernkraftwerkes Wuergassen - Arbeiten auf der Reaktorbedienungsebene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehlert, A.; Winnefeld, M. [E.ON Kernkraft GmbH, Kernkraftwerk Wuergassen, Beverungen (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    Wuergassen NPP (KWW) is located on the River Weser, some 50 km north of Kassel. It is a single unit boiling water reactor with an installed electrical generation capacity of 670 MW. The plant was constructed by AEG between 1968 and 1971 and went into operation in late 1971. Wuergassen NPP generated a total of 73 billion kWh of electricity during its period of commercial operation. Cracks were discovered in the core shroud of the reactor pressure vessel while carrying out inspection work during the annual scheduled refuelling outage in 1994. As a result of this, the plant was shut down, Various alternatives as to how to proceed further where evaluated within one year. PreussenElektra AG, the operator at the time, ultimately decided to finally shut the plant down in 1995 and to immediately begin with the decommissioning. Several independent of each other phases have been planned for the decommissioning of the nuclear power plant. The plant components are to be dismantled beginning with the non and low contaminated parts up to the more concentrated or activated installations. The whole decommissioning has been divided into a total of six phases. Theses phases are roughly depicted in fig. 1. Now that the Ministry of Economy and Small Business, Energy and Transport for the State of North Rhine Westphalia has granted permission for phases 1 to 5, all work within the framework of the direct decommissioning of Wuergassen Nuclear Power Plant can be carried out. There are at the present time approximately 500 people actively working on site. This number is made up of about 170 staff from E.ON Kernkraft GmbH and some 330 employees from outside contractors. The decommissioning tasks presented here describe the work that has been carried out in the area of the reactor service floor and specifically in the proximity of the reactor vessel. Therefore, particular requirements were necessary for the technology employed, as well as for the importance of practical radiation protection and the disposal of waste material. (orig.)

  10. Safety requirements for nuclear power plants. Content, legal validity and execution; Sicherheitsanforderungen an Kernkraftwerke. Inhalt, rechtlicher Geltungsanspruch und Vollzug

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller-Dehn, Christian [E.ON Kernkraft GmbH, Hannover (Germany). Nuclear Regulation and Policy

    2014-05-15

    With the approval of the 'Safety Requirements for Nuclear Power Plants' in November 2012 and the key fitting 'Interpretations' in November 2013, the decade-lasting trial on the development and actualisation of the nuclear technical regulations were successfully concluded. In terms of content the safety requirements stipulate the requirements for damage precaution as well as further safety optimisations according to paragraph 7d Atomic Energy Act (AtG). Even thought they are no international law, they tie all responsible authorities related to atomic law in the framework of existing regulations in the borders of the respective approval parameters and existing laws. In its regulations priority is given at the supervisory process to the existing approval situation and the application of safety requirements in the approval process are only acknowledged in the scope of technical modifications. (orig.)

  11. The lawfulness of a licence for the dismantling of a nuclear power plant. Zur Rechtmaessigkeit einer Genehmigung fuer den Abbau eines Kernkraftwerks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1989-12-01

    The action was for annulment of a licence for the dismantling of the Niederaichbach nuclear power plant (KKN). The action was brought by the local government of Landshut, the argument being that the dismantling work might bring about additional release of radiation affecting the land owned by the town. The local authority had agreed in a previous hearing to the dismantling and removal of the power plant subject to certain conditions and obligations, reserving the right to make further objections, which however were not filed. The action was judged to be admissible, though without merits, as official dose assessments do not indicate a possible radiation release beyond the maximum permissible limits set by section 45 Radiation Protection Ordinance. This section requires consideration of all radiation doses possibly emanating from normal operation, and incidents or accidents in a nuclear power plant at home or abroad. The preclusive effect does not extend to facts emerging after end of the period allowed for raising objections. Any new facts emerging after that period need not be introduced in the licensing procedure by way of a motion to restore the original status, but can be asserted by way of raising objections or bringing an action in court. Regensburg Administrative Court, decision of 13 March 1989, - RN 5 K 88 1274 -. (orig./HP).

  12. Retrofitting and service of nuclear power plants in operation, including those in Eastern Europe; Nachruestungen und Service fuer laufende Kernkraftwerke einschliesslich Osteuropa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schomer, E.

    1995-12-31

    We understand the term ``retrofitting`` to include all measures which serve to increase safety or improve efficiency which are taken after the granting of the operation authorisation required under atomic energy law. These measures also ensure that the plant is updated to conform to the state of the art, i.e. is go into shape. The term ``service`` is an umbrella term, encompassing all routine services which are intended to guarantee a high availability and maintain the value of the plant. Keywords representing important service activities are listed here: regular non-destructive testing, monitoring and diagnostic systems, materials advice, repair engineering, staff training, operational analysis. (orig./UA) [Deutsch] Wir verstehen unter dem Begriff ``Nachruestung`` alle Massnahmen, die zur Erhoehung der Sicherheit oder zur Verbesserung der Wirtschaftlichkeit nach der Erteilung der atomrechtlichen Betriebsgenehmigung dienen. Mit diesen Massnahmen wird also sichergestellt, dass die Anlage mit fortschreitendem Alter dem Stand der Technik folgt, also ertuechtigt wird. Unter dem Begriff ``Service`` werden alle routinemaessigen Dienstleistungen zusammengefasst, die der Gewaehrleistung einer hohen Verfuegbarkeit sowie der Werterhaltung der Anlage dienen. Als Schlagworte wesentlicher Service-Aktivitaeten seien hier angefuehrt: wiederkehrende zerstoerungsfreie Pruefungen, Ueberwachungs- und Diagnosetechnik, Werkstoffberatung, Reparaturtechnik, Personalschulung, Betriebsanalyse. (orig./UA)

  13. Nuclear power plants in Germany. Recent developments in off-site nuclear emergency preparedness and response; Kernkraftwerke in Deutschland. Neue Entwicklungen im anlagenexternen Notfallschutz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gering, Florian [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Oberschleissheim/Neuherberg (Germany). Abt. SW 2.2 Entscheidungshilfesysteme, Lageermittlung und Kommunikation

    2014-10-15

    The reactor accident in Fukushima, Japan, in 2011 triggered a thorough review of the off-site emergency preparedness and response for nuclear power plants in Germany. ''Off-site emergency preparedness and response'' includes all actions to protect the public outside the fence of a nuclear power plant. This review resulted in several changes in off-site emergency preparedness and response, which are briefly described in this article. Additionally, several recent activities are described which may influence emergency preparedness and response in the future.

  14. Implementation of a radiological emergency monitoring system for Bruce Power nuclear power plant (Canada); Implementierung eines radiologischen Umgebungsueberwachungsmesssystems fuer das Kernkraftwerk Bruce Power (Kanada)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madaric, M. [Saphymo GmbH, Frankfurt (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The Bruce Power nuclear power plant (BP NPP) in Ontario, Canada, is the largest nuclear generating station in the world, operating 8 nuclear reactors producing 6300 MW. In correlation with Bruce Power's safety culture, ''Safety first'' and continuous improvements are essential and substantial parts of the Bruce Power philosophy and management system. After the Fukushima nuclear accident the existing radiological emergency monitoring was analyzed and improved.

  15. Self-sustaining emergency power supply for the nuclear power plant Beznau. Project AUTANOVE; Autarke Notstrom-Versorgung fuer das Kernkraftwerk Beznau (KKB). Projekt AUTANOVE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaeser, Roland [Axpro AG - Kernenergie, Beznau (Switzerland). Kernkraftwerk Beznau

    2010-05-15

    The NPP Beznau is sited close to the Aare with sufficient cooling water supply so that no cooling tower is necessary. The author describes the project AUTANOVE, an self-sustaining emergency power supply for the NPP Beznau, including an evaluation of the reliability for the accidental situations fire and internal flooding, external flooding and low-water, air plane crash and safety earthquake. The new system includes two new seismic qualified, physically separated emergency diesel generators, for each unit. Deterministic and probabilistic safety analyses show further increase of the already high safety level.

  16. Ultrasonic findings in the NPP Beznau. Report on the planned further procedure of the licensee; Ultraschallbefunde des Kernkraftwerks Beznau. Stellungnahme zum geplanten weiteren Vorgehen des Betreibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohr, Simone; Pistner, Christoph

    2016-03-15

    Due to the ultrasonic findings in the reactor pressure vessel of NPP Beznau-1 in 2015 the licensee had to provide a new structural integrity analysis based on the changed material properties. The authors discuss the interpretation of the findings in Beznau with in relation to similar findings in the Belgian NPPS Doel-3 and Tihange-2. A doubtless metallurgical characterization of the irregularities in the RPV wall as not possible based on ultrasonic testing only. Destructive testing of samples from the reactor pressure vessel is also not possible since no original material bearing irregularities is available.

  17. Is it possible at all to compare nuclear power plants and wind power systems?; Ist eine ganzheitliche Vergleichanalyse eines Kern-Kraftwerkes und einer Windkraftanlage ueberhaupt moeglich?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eliasz, J.; Biwan, A. [Technische Univ. Szczecin (Poland). Lehrstuhl fuer Waermetechnik

    2005-07-01

    At first glance, it appears impossible to compare power generation technologies that are as different in their conception as nuclear power plants and wind power systems. On the other hand, if one uses a holistic approach it may be possible. The contribution lists the preconditions that are required, e.g. parameters like the life cycle of a technology, the various stages of modelling energy and mass exchange of subsystems, and the interactions between the various branches of a power generation technology. (orig.)

  18. Replacement of the feedwater pipe system in reactor building outside containment at the nuclear power plant Philippsburg; Austausch der Speisewasserleitung im Reaktorgebaeude ausserhalb SHB im Kernkraftwerk Philippsburg I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kessler, A. [Energie-Versorgung Schwaben AG, Stuttgart (Germany); Labes, M. [Siemens AG Unternehmensbereich KWU, Offenbach am Main (Germany); Schwenk, B. [Kernkraftwerk Philippsburg GmbH (Germany)

    1998-11-01

    After full replacement of the feedwater pipe system during the inspection period in 1997, combined with a modern materials, manufacturing and analysis concept, the entire pipe system of the water/steam cycle in the reactor building of KKP 1 now consists of high-toughness materials. The safety level of the entire plant has been increased by leaving aside postulation of F2 breaks in the reactor building and providing for protection against 0.1 leaks. Based on fluid-dynamic calculations for the cases of pump failure and pipe break, as well as pipe system calculations in 5 extensive calculation cycles, about 130 documents were filed for inspection and approval (excluding preliminary test documents on restraints). Points of main interest for safety analysis in this context were the optimised closing performance of the 3rd check valves and the integrity of the nozzle region at the RPV. (oirg./CB) [Deutsch] Durch den Restaustausch der Speisewasserleitungen in der Revision 1997, verbunden mit einem modernen Werkstoff-, Fertigungs- und Nachweiskonzept, sind im Reaktorgebaeude von KKP 1 in den Hauptleitungen des Wasser-Dampf-Kreislaufes nur noch hochzaehe Werkstoffe eingesetzt. Durch den Verzicht auf das Postulat von 2F-Bruechen im Reaktorgebaeude und durch die Auslegung gegen 0,1F-Lecks wird das Sicherheitsniveau der Anlage insgesamt gesteigert. Ausgehend von fluiddynamischen Berechnungen fuer Pumpenausfall und Rohrbruch sowie Rohrsystem-Berechnungen in 5 umfangreichen Berechnungskreisen wurden fuer die Genehmigung und Begutachtung ca. 130 Unterlagen (ohne Halterungs-Vorpruefunterlagen) eingereicht und vom Gutachter geprueft. Schwerpunkte der Nachweisfuehrung waren die Optimierung des Schliessverhaltens der 3. Rueckschlagarmaturen sowie der Integritaetsnachweis des RDB-Anschlusses. (orig./MM)

  19. Consequences of changed nuclear power plant lifetimes in Germany. Scenario analyses until 2035; Auswirkungen veraenderter Laufzeiten fuer Kernkraftwerke in Deutschland. Szenarioanalysen bis zum Jahre 2035

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blesl, Markus; Bruchof, David; Fahl, Ulrich; Kober, Tom; Kuder, Ralf; Beestermoeller, Robert; Goetz, Birgit; Voss, Alfred

    2011-06-01

    The report is aimed to discuss the implications of changed NPP lifetimes in Germany on energy policy, environment, energy cost and macroeconomics. An extensive scenario analysis is used considering the effects on the German energy system in the frame of the European context. It is shown that a nuclear phase-out until 2017 is technically feasible, but needs adequate replacement options that will change the German energy system in the medium term. The study shows that the time of nuclear phase-out has no significant influence on the use of renewable energies.

  20. No nuclear power plant - now final repository? What to do with small amounts of waste?; Kein Kernkraftwerk - kein Endlager? Wohin mit wenig Abfaellen?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feinhals, Joerg [DMT GmbH und Co. KG, Hamburg (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Countries with nuclear power plants try to find a solution for the disposal of radioactive waste. Countries that have no nuclear power plants but produce radioactive waste in medicine, industry and research and operate research reactors have a problem: the challenging question of an appropriate disposal concept. Possibilities for such a concept are discussed in this contribution, for instance a multinational final repository, near-surface disposal of low- and medium-level radioactive wastes or a small scale disposal facility (SSDF). In any case safety analyses are required.

  1. The new digital neutron flux measuring system in Wuergassen nuclear power plant. Das neue digitale Neutronenfluss-Messsystem im Kernkraftwerk Wuergassen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilhofer, K.H. (PreussenElektra AG, Kernkraftwerk Wuergassen (KWW), Beverungen (Germany))

    1994-06-01

    The 670 MW boiling water reactor of Wuergassen Nuclear Power Plant became critical for the first time on October 22, 1971. A very important criterion for all components is the reliability. With the dew digital neutron flow-measuring system TK250, the development of the failure rate is very positive. On the occasion of the 1993 revision, the existing 12 electronic cubicles were replaced by 4 new ones. Within only three weeks, all connections to the detectors, to the safety system, the control room, the signal system and the process calculator have been made. (orig.)

  2. Handling of radioactive materials in relation to the dismantling of the nuclear power plant Wuergassen; Behandlung von radioaktiven Stoffen im Zuge des Rueckbaus des Kernkraftwerkes Wuergassen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, T. [Schmutz GmbH, Weil am Rhein (Germany); Korth, P. [E.ON Kernkraft GmbH, Hannover (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    During the decommissioning activities of the nuclear power plant Wuergassen (KWW) the decontamination of power plant components to minimise radioactive waste takes a high priority in the processing of waste material. In the illustration the operation of the two abrasive blasting units (SA 1 and SA 2) and the installations of the ''decont station'' the decontamination technology and the processing of the dismantled components is described. Examples demonstrate the success of the decontamination measures. Statements regarding the development steps made to the abrasive blasting unit 1 (SA 1) and the protective clothing used complete the illustration. (orig.)

  3. Introduction of REVK for the decommissioning of the Wuergassen nuclear power plant; Einfuehrung des ReVK beim Rueckbau des Kernkraftwerkes Wuergassen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenther, S. [E.ON Kernkraft GmbH, Kernkraftwerk Wuergassen, Beverungen (Germany); Gruendler, D.; Haider, C. [Institut fuer Sicherheitstechnologie GmbH, Koeln (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    Since the introduction of the waste management tool ReVK, planning, controlling and supervision of decommissioning at the Wuergassen nuclear power plant is supported by an integrated IT System, which in its basic functions has already been used by EWN at Greifswald nuclear power plant. The entire planning, controlling and supervision of the decommissioning at the Wuergassen nuclear powerplant is supported by the waste management tool ReVK, which in its basic functions has already been used by EWN at Greifswald nuclear power plant. The entire planning, controlling and supervision of the decommissioning at the Wuergassen nuclear power plant is supported by the waste management tool ReVK, which in its basic functions has already been used by EWN at Greifswald nuclear power plant. Integration and design of the documentation system ReVK appeared to be a challenge for the decommissioning management aiming to ensure a frictionless progress of decommissioning the NPP Wuergassen. Most important steps in this process were the check of all working instructions for any modification of operational procedures and the integration of special parts of the existing workflow into the structure of the ReVK software. All these processes are subsequently documented from the position of ReVK users. (orig.)

  4. Recycling of scrap metal from the deconstruction of the Wuergassen nuclear power plant; Recycling von Metallschrotten aus dem Rueckbau des Kernkraftwerks Wuergassen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viermann, J. [GNS Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Service mbH, Essen (Germany); Pollmann, E.; Sander, H. [E.ON Kernkraft GmbH, Beverungen (Germany); Krause, G. [Sina Industrieservice GmbH, Pforzheim (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    After the decision to decommission the Wuergassen nuclear power plant (KWW) was reached in 1995, deconstruction was started in April 1997. The planning provides for the power plant being completely deconstructed by 2008 with the exception of the UNS building and the transport preparation hall and the plant being released from nuclear law monitoring. Up to now (31{sup st} December 2002), approx. 9,500 Mg various materials (e.g. metal scrap, cable, insulation) have been deconstructed and disposed of. In addition, radioactive waste occurs during deconstruction and this is e.g. incinerated or compacted. Most of the deconstructed masses obtained release according to release operating plans co-ordinated with experts and authorities and the tests and measurements provided for in these plans (Paragraph 29 of the Radiation Protection Laws in 2001 [1]) and were handed over to scrap dealers or landfills. This method of disposal is not possible or is not economically justifiable for approx. 30% of the quantity deconstructed, generally dismantled parts of the plant, due to the type and extent of contamination present or activation of the material. (orig.)

  5. Brennilis. First use of industrial robots in the demolition of a French nuclear power plant; Brennilis. Erster Einsatz von Industrierobotern fuer den Rueckbau eines franzoesischen Kernkraftwerks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bienia, Harald; Noll, Thomas [NUKEM Technologies GmbH, Alzenau (Germany)

    2012-05-15

    A share of approx. 80 % nuclear electricity makes France the country with the world's largest proportion of nuclear electricity. A considerable number of French plants were commissioned more than 30 years ago. At the present time, 58 nuclear power plants out of this population are in operation, twelve have already been decommissioned and are about to be, or are being, demolished. France thus is one of the most interesting and most dynamic countries as far as future demolition projects are concerned. Current demolition projects in France have a kind of model or pilot character for the future French demolition strategy and are under particularly close supervision and inspection by the operator, Electricite de France. One of these projects is the current demolition of the CO{sub 2}-cooled heavy water reactor (EL 4) of Brennilis in Brittanny which was decommissioned in 1985. Demolition of the reactor, its primary system and ancillary systems is handled by a Franco-German consortium composed of ONET Technologies Grands Projets, France, and NUKEM Technologies, Germany. Because of the special design features of the Brennilis reactor and the boundary conditions this created, it was not possible in many cases to transfer directly German demolition techniques. The demolition technique adopted is based on the use of remotely operated robot systems not only performing disassembly but, step by step, also building up infrastructure of their own in the reactor compartment as demolition progresses. Besides the special technical features and challenges arising in this project there are also differences in licensing regulations and cultural differences which play a major role. The report concludes with a brief summary of experience accumulated. (orig.)

  6. Methods and data of probabilistic safety analysis for nuclear power plants. Status May 2015; Methoden und Daten zur probabilistischen Sicherheitsanalyse fuer Kernkraftwerke. Stand: Mai 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2016-09-15

    The supplement for the methodology of probabilistic safety analyses includes modifications, extensions and actualizations based on recent experiences. The chapter on personnel actions has been reorganized and adapted to the status of science and technology. Especially the possibility of decision fault identification and evaluation has been included. The chapters on floods and earthquakes are revised with respect to the actual regulatory developments and the new safety requirements. An extension of the spectra of PSA methods and data for the non-power operation has not been revised with respect to the Fukushima experiences. Based on fire experiences during power operation a new section on fire during non-power operation was included.

  7. Expertise on the Goesgen-Daeniken nuclear power plant on the granting of a licence for the construction and operation of a water storage pool for fuel assemblies at the site of the power plant; Gutachten zum Gesuch der Kernkraftwerk Goesgen-Daeniken AG um Erteilung der Bewilligung fuer den Bau und Betrieb eines Brennelement-Nasslagers auf dem Areal des Kernkraftwerks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-04-15

    On June 26, 2002, the Goesgen-Daeniken AG nuclear power plant (KKG) delivered a request to the Swiss Federal Council for the granting of a licence for the construction and operation of a water storage pool for the on-site storage of the power plant's fuel assemblies. The present report contains the results of the examination of the request by the Federal Agency for the Safety of Nuclear Installations (HSK), to check that the projected storage pool satisfies the legal requirements from the point of view of nuclear safety and protection against radioactivity. A water storage pool already exists in the reactor building of KKG. It was conceived for a fuel cycle based on the reprocessing of the spent fuel assemblies. Its capacity is not sufficient when the spent fuel assemblies are no longer reprocessed but have to be transferred and stored in the Central Intermediate Storage Facility (ZWILAG) in Wuerenlingen because their heat production is too high. The capacity of the actual water pool allows a maximum cooling time of 5-6 years, while 7-10 years are required before transfer to ZWILAG. The projected new water storage pool has to be aircraft crash and earthquake proof, in the same way that the reactor building itself has to be. It can store a maximum of 1008 fuel assemblies. The water in the pool as well as the pool walls shield the radiation from of the fuel assemblies almost completely. Each fuel assembly is put into a square steel channel. The channel walls are lined with 6.11 mg/cm{sup 2} of the neutron absorbing nuclide B-10, which guaranties the subcriticality of the water pool even if the storage pool would be entirely filled with non-irradiated fuel assemblies with the maximal allowed enrichment or the maximal allowed content of Plutonium in case of MOX fuel assemblies, which is a very conservative assumption. The heat released by decay in the spent fuel assemblies is transferred to the pool water. Storage pool cooling is carried out by natural circulation through two cooling towers which release the heat to the environment. The cooling system is designed for a maximum cooling power of 1 MW. With this system the temperature of the pool water does not exceed 80 {sup o}C. When they are retrieved from the reactor core, the fuel assemblies are first transferred to the present water storage pool within the reactor building where they remain for at least two years. During this time, most of the short-life radioactive nuclides decay such that their contribution to the production of heat becomes negligible. In the new storage pool, the total radioactivity at full loading will amount to about 10{sup 19} Bq, i.e. one order of magnitude less than the maximal activity in the present pool. As far as the volatile radio-nuclides are concerned, all noble gases except Kr-85 and all iodine isotopes except I-129 have already decayed; as a consequence, the radiological risk in the new storage pool is much lower than in the old one. As the heating rate in the new pool is more than one order of magnitude lower than that of the present one, a possible failure in the heat release system produces only a slow increase of pool water temperature of less than 1 K per hour with the maximum heating power of 1 MW. In the first phase, it is foreseen to limit the cooling power to 0.5 MW and the number of stored fuel assemblies to 504. As the number of retrieved fuel assemblies from the reactor core is about 40 per year, the first phase will last at least 10 years. After closing of the nuclear power plant at the end of its working time and its dismantling, the storage can still work independently. After examination of the whole project for the new water storage pool, HSK concludes that under some additional conditions the concept presented can be the basis for the safe operation of the pool foreseen

  8. Expertise about the request of the nuclear power plant Leibstadt for increasing the power to 3600 MW{sub th}; Gutachten zum Gesuch des Kernkraftwerks Leibstadt um Leistungserhoehung auf 3600 MW{sub th}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-15

    On July 31, 1992, the nuclear power plant Leibstadt AG (KKL) submitted a request for a modification of its operation license for increasing the reactor thermal power to 3600 MW. In its examination, the Federal Agency for the Safety of Nuclear Installations (HSK) investigated the effects of the power increase on reactor safety, especially on the safety criteria which can limit the power. In doing this, a distinction has to be made between normal operation, design incidents and out-of-design accidents. KKL is a boiling water reactor (BWR) with a current maximum thermal power of 3,138 MW with 648 fuel assemblies in the core. Since the start of operation in February 1984, the reactor has been continuously improved and now almost fulfils the present state-of-the-art of science and technology for BWRs. After some incidents during the early years, the plant shows a high level of availability. During the past 6 years some fuel assembly damage has cast a shadow on good operational experience, but until now the collective irradiation dose of the plant staff and the environment has remained mostly below legal limits, as well as for the release of radioactive materials to the atmosphere and to the Rhine River. Calculations of core loading with the fuel assemblies presently used at KKL have shown that the operation and safety limits of the reactor core can still be preserved with a thermal power of 3600 MW. For normal operation, no objection can be raised against the power increase. This increase, however, has to be carried out step-by-step in order to gain experience concerning plant behaviour. With the higher power rating, increased dose rates are expected on systems and components, in plant rooms and in the plant area, which also leads to increased dose rates to the staff and environment. This increase has to be estimated and, possibly, correction measures will have to be taken in order to reduce them. Especially to be monitored is the dose rate increase in the machine hall. In the case of design incidents too, all safety-relevant limits and the maximal tolerable dose rates in the environment must be respected. In the context of design incidents, the 'transitory' group also constitutes the limiting case with the higher power. For the complete judgement of the safety of a nuclear power plant it is not sufficient to estimate the effects of a design incident through deterministic methods. The evaluation of the effects of out-of-design accidents needs a probabilistic safety analysis which determines the frequency as well as the consequences of an accident. The results show that KKL represents a very small risk for the environment. In KKL the measures necessary for safe operation and protection of mankind and environment at a thermal power of 3600 MW have already been taken or will be taken shortly. According to its examination, HSK concludes that there are no safety-relevant reasons speaking against an operational license for the increased thermal power. The increase will, however, have to be carried out in 4 steps of 1 year each in order to gain operational experience

  9. Target: The green meadow. How much knowledge is needed for the dismantling of nuclear power plants?; Ziel: die Gruene Wiese. Wieviel Know-how man braucht, um ein Kernkraftwerk zurueckzubauen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bach, Friedrich-Wilhelm; Hassel, Thomas [Unterwassertechnikum Hannover (UWTH), Hannover (Germany). Inst. fuer Werkstoffkunde

    2013-07-01

    As from the year 2022, there will no nuclear power plant exist in Germany. In the contribution under consideration two scientists from the Institute of Materials Science (Hanover, Federal Republic of Germany) report on the preparations and the necessary technical knowledge in order to dismantle the highly complex nuclear facilities and to recultivate former nuclear power plant sites.

  10. Occupational safety in the nuclear power plant. The contribution of sociology to the development of a communication tool for the elimination of hazardous situations; Arbeitssicherheit im Kernkraftwerk. Der Beitrag der Sozialpsychologie zur Entwicklung eines Kommunikationsinstrumentes fuer die Behebung von Gefaehrdungssituationen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zedler, Christien [IAOP - Institut fuer Arbeitspsychologie, Organisation und Prozessgestaltung, Berlin (Germany); Huber, Veit [E.ON Kernkraft GmbH (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    Nuclear power plant companies make efforts to enhance the operational safety in the plant. Despite a variety of measures the number of accidents at work is still too high, esp. for external personnel. Social psychological considerations were used to develop communication tools for the elimination of hazardous situations, for instance by safety dialogues between employees. The observation of hazardous situations should trigger communication and discussion on the risk of the specific situation. In the contribution practical experiences and recommendations for the realization of a safety dialogue culture in the NPP Grafenrheinfeld are summarized and illustrated by examples.

  11. 1991 results of German nuclear power plant operation. Pt. 1. Nuclear generating units of up to 1000 MW power. Deutsche Kernkraftwerke: Betriebsergebnisse 1991. T. 1. Kernkraftwerksbloecke bis 1000 MWe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1992-05-01

    This first part of the survey lists the operating performance data of the eight German nuclear generating units of up to 1000 MW power. The various reactors are reviewd separately, and the operating diagram of the year 1991 presents the general survey. (UA).

  12. 1990 results of German nuclear power plant operation. Pt. 1. Nuclear generating units of up to 1000 MW power. Betriebsergebnisse der westdeutschen Kernkraftwerke 1990. T. 1. Kernkraftwerksbloecke bis 1000 MWe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1991-05-01

    The twenty nuclear generating units with an aggregate gross installed capacity of 22,365 MWe in operation in the Federal Republic of Germany in 1990 converted 147,243 GWh of nuclear power into electricity; this is 1.5% less than the 1989 production of 149,453 GWh. The seven units of 1000 MWe maximum rated power with an aggregate gross 5152 MWe supplied 28,746 GWh in 1990 at an average availability in terms of time of 69.9% and a net capacity utilization of 63.4%. No accident occured in the nuclear power plants in the Federal Republic of Germany in 1990 which could have endangered personnel in the plants or the population in the vicinity. The operating performance data of the nuclear generating units of up to 1000 MW power are published in Part 1 of the article as excerpts from the 1990 Annual Report by the Operating Experiences Committee (ABE Committee) of the Technical Association of Operators of Large Power Plants (VGB). Part 2 of the article, which will be published at a later date, will contain the performance data of nuclear generating units of more than 1000 MW power. (orig.).

  13. Transfer of financial obligations for the disposal of nuclear waste and decommissioning of German NPP's. Legal aspects of a trust model; Sicherstellung der finanziellen Entsorgungsvorsorge fuer die Stilllegungs- und Rueckbaukosten der deutschen Kernkraftwerke. Rechtliche Randbedingungen eines Stiftungsmodells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schewe, Markus; Wiesendahl, Stefan [Kuemmerlein Rechtsanwaelte und Notare, Essen (Germany)

    2015-04-15

    The nuclear power plant operators have to bear the costs associated with the closure and the decommissioning of the German nuclear power plants as well as the costs for the disposal of nuclear waste. For that purpose, the operators have to build up sufficient reserves for the decommissioning phase. These reserves at the end of 2013 amounted to approximately 36 billion Euro. Changing this system is discussed very so often. Last in May 2014, a public debate started dealing with the so called trust model (''Stiftungsmodell''). The press published deliberations of several operators to transfer their entire nuclear business to the Federal Republic of Germany. Under this deliberation the current nuclear power plant operations, as well as closure obligations would be contributed to trust. Further, also the reserves should be ''transferred'' to the trust. RAG-Foundation (RAG-Stiftung) - which will assume the financial obligations in connection with Germany's closure of underground coal mining activities - sometimes is cited as a role model. The article covers elements of German trust law and atomic energy law regarding such deliberations. In trust law e.g. it can be debated whether the trust should be established under public or - as in the case of RAG-Foundation - under private law. In this context we will set out the major differences between those two options. In the public law part we will notably address issues arising from individual licensing requirements for nuclear power plants and focus on questions concerning reliability, requisite qualification and organizational structures.

  14. Use of an ultrafiltration system in the Gundremmingen nuclear power plant for the treatment of nuclear process water; Einsatz einer Ultrafiltration im Kernkraftwerk Gundremmingen zur Aufbereitung von nuklearen Prozesswaessern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krumpholz, Udo [Kernkraftwerk Gundremmingen GmbH, Gundremmingen (Germany). Teilbereich Ueberwachung - Chemie/Entsorgung; George, Carsten [Kernkraftwerk Gundremmingen GmbH, Gundremmingen (Germany). Teilbereich Technik - Maschinentechnik; Berger, Joerg [Gruenbeck Wasseraufbereitung GmbH, Hoechstaedt a.d. Donau (Germany). Energiezentralen

    2014-07-01

    Over the years, membrane filtration systems have successfully been used in conventional water treatment systems. The use of an ultrafiltration system has proven effective in the treatment of particle contaminated process water. In 2012 an ultrafiltration system was designed, installed and commissioned for the treatment of particle contaminated backwash and transport water from the condensate polishing system in the Gundremmingen nuclear power plant, units B and C. Performance data surpass the client's requirements with respect to permeate quality, flow-rate and backwash behaviour. The technology applied has proven well. (orig.)

  15. (1818-1858). Die kerklike Afskeiding wat in 1859 in Suid-Afrika ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    Die sinode het dan ook met 23 teen 7 stemme die oefenaarskap met die volgende besluit afgeskaf: „dat 't oefenen gelijk zulks tot nog toe in sommige gemeenten heeft plaats gevonden, niet langer behoort te ge schieden"^). Hierdie opvatting van ds. Van Velzen was in ooreenstem- ming met die Konvent van Wesel wat in ...

  16. Dismantling according to schedule. Shotpeening facilitates dismantling of Wuergassen nuclear power plant; Rueckbau laeuft auf Hochtouren. Trockenstrahlverfahren erleichtert Rueckbau des KKW Wuergassen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franken, M.

    1999-07-01

    Wuergassen nuclear power station was decommissioned in April 1997. Dismantling activities are preceding according to schedule and will be finished by 2010. [Deutsch] Seit April 1997 ist das Kernkraftwerk Wuergassen atomrechtlich stillgelegt. Seitdem gehen die Arbeiten der ersten Rueckbauphase zuegig voran. Bis zum Jahre 2010 wird die Demontage dauern. (orig.)

  17. Decommissioning and disposal of nuclear core parts; Abbau und Entsorgung von Kernbauteilen. Strahlenschutzmassnahmen am Beispiel der Stillegungsprojekte Gundremmingen (KRB A) und Kahl (VAK)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duempelmann, W.; Steiner, H. [Kernkraftwerk Betriebsgesellschaft mbH, Gundremmingen (Germany); Eickelpasch, N.; Hackel, W. [Versuchsatomkraftwerk Kahl GmbH (VAK), Kahl (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    The authors describe the operational procedures, the measures for radiation protection, and the experience gained in decommissioning the shut-down nuclear power plants of Gundremmingen (KRB A) and Kahl (VAK). (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Autoren beschreiben das praktische Vorgehen, die Strahlenschutzmassnahmen und die Erfahrungen beim Abbau der stillgelegten Kernkraftwerke Gundremmingen (KRB A) und Kahl (VAK). (orig.)

  18. Subcellular co-localization of aluminum (III) phthalocyanine chloride tetrasulphonate with fluorescent markers in the human melanoma cell-line HT-144

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ndhundhuma, I

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available , and bladder cancer. Methyl- tetrahydroxyphenyl chlorin (Temoporfin) is approved in the European Union, Norway and Iceland for palliative treatment of head and neck cancer [8]. Other approved photosensitizers are 5-aminolevulinic acid (approved in USA..., NR) was purchased from Biochrom AG (Berlin, Germany) and used according to the manufacturer's instructions. Cell culture Cultures of human metastatic melanoma cell line (HT-144 cells, ATCC No HTB-63TM, LGC Standards GmbH, Wesel, Germany) were...

  19. Grohnde. Documentation of the police operation during the demonstration against the NPP Grohnde on 19.03.1977 and the evacuation of the occupied cooling tower site on 23.08.1977; Grohnde. Dokumentation der Polizeieinsaetze anlaesslich der Demonstration gegen das Kernkraftwerk Grohnde am 19.03.1977 und der Raeumung des besetzten Kuehlturmgelaendes am 23.08.1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stricker, Michael

    2014-07-01

    The documentation of the police operation during the demonstration against the NPP Grohnde on 16.03.1977 and the evacuation of the occupied cooling tower site on 23.08.1977 covers the following issues: involved action forces: police Niedersachsen, police Nordrhein-Westfalen, police Schleswig-Holstein, police Bremen and the Bundesgrenzschutz; concept of the police operation, provisions (lodging and board) for the police, operating resources, details of the operation sequence; post-processing of the operation; the Grohnde trials.

  20. Die Energiewerke Nord GmbH. From operator of a decommissioned Russian nuclear power plant to one of Europe's leading decommissioning companies; Die Energiewerke Nord GmbH. Der Weg vom Betreiber eines stillgelegten russischen Kernkraftwerkes zu einem fuehrenden Stilllegungsunternehmen in Europa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philipp, Marlies [Energiewerke Nord GmbH, Rubenow (Germany)

    2011-03-15

    EWN GmbH is a state-owned company with these duties: - decommissioning and demolition of the Greifswald and Rheinsberg nuclear power stations; - safe operation of the Zwischenlager Nord interim store; - development of the 'Lubminer Heide' industrial and commercial estate. Other projects for which EWN GmbH uses its know-how: - disposal of 120 decommissioned Russian nuclear submarines in Murmansk; - decommissioning and dismantling of the Juelich, NRW, AVR experimental reactor; - demolition of nuclear plants; running the Central Decontamination Operations Department at Karlsruhe, BW. Since 2008, EWN GmbH has held 25% of the shares of Deutsche Gesellschaft zum Bau- und Betrieb von Endlagern fuer Abfallstoffe mbH (DBE), a firm building and operating nuclear repositories. (orig.)

  1. Comments on conceptual questions concerning the clearance of wastes for disposal on a dump site during the decommissioning and dismantling of the nuclear power plant Obrigheim (KWO); Stellungnahme zu konzeptionellen Fragen der Freigabe zur Beseitigung auf einer Deponie bei Stilllegung und Abbau des Kernkraftwerks Obrigheim (KWO)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kueppers, Christian

    2015-08-03

    The comments on conceptual questions concerning the clearance of wastes for disposal on a dump site during the decommissioning and dismantling of the nuclear power plant Obrigheim (KWO) cover the following issues: fundamentals of the 10 micro-Sv concept for clearance; specific regulations for the clearance of wastes from the dismantling of KWO for disposal on a dump site; disposal concept at shutdown and dismantling of KWO; measurements and control during clearance for disposal during shutdown and dismantling of KWO; documentation and reports.

  2. The development of engineered safeguards for nuclear power plants in the political and technical environment in the Federal Republic of Germany since 1955; Die Entwicklung der Sicherheitstechnik fuer Kernkraftwerke im politischen und technischen Umfeld der Bundesrepublik Deutschland seit dem Jahr 1955

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laufs, P. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Philosophische-Historische Fakultaet

    2007-01-15

    The safety of nuclear power plants is determined largely by the integrity of the internally pressurized coolant containment system. The highly radioactive materials (fission products) generated within this pressurized containment (primary system) in the reactor core during nuclear power plant operation constitute an extremely great potential hazard. Catastrophic failure of the primary system, and the release into the environment of the radioactive inventory, must be avoided at all costs. Because of the high coolant pressure and the high power density, pressurized water reactors (PWR) impose particularly strict requirements with respect to reactor safety. German nuclear power plants equipped with light water reactors enjoy the reputation of being among the safest plants in the world. This frequent statement is justified in the light of the research and development work performed jointly by industry, government agencies, science, and expert bodies between the 1960s and the 1990s. The research projects, which implied considerable financial expenditures, their internationally acknowledged results, and the resultant additional backfitting measures conducted in German nuclear power plants at many billions of expenditures, were hardly noticed by the German body politic. (orig.)

  3. Notifiable events in facilities for fission of nuclear fuels in the Federal Republic of Germany. Nuclear power plants and research reactors with a maximum continuous thermal output of more than 50 kW. Annual report 1996; Meldepflichtige Ereignisse in Anlagen zur Spaltung von Kernbrennstoffen in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. Kernkraftwerke und Forschungsreaktoren, deren Hoechstleistung 50 kW thermische Dauerleistung ueberschreitet. Jahresbericht 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    There were 139 notifiable events reported from nuclear power plants in Germany, and 14 reported from research reactors. These events have been anlysed for the annual report 1996 under a variety of aspects. The results do not indicate any systematics of occurrence. None of the reported events resulted in any release of radioactivity exceeding the regulatory limits, so that there were no off-site risks involved. Among the reported events, there were two belonging to category E (prompt notification), the other 133, or 14, respectively, were at lowest scale, N, and there were none belonging to scale S. (orig./DG) [Deutsch] Im Jahr 1996 wurden aus den Kernkraftwerken der Bundesrepublik Deutschland urspruenglich insgesamt 136 und aus den Forschungsreaktoren 14 Ereignisse gemeldet. Fuer den Jahresbericht wurden diese Ereignisse nach verschiedenen Gesichtspunkten analysiert. Systematische Schwachstellen wurden dabei nicht festgestellt. Bei keinem der gemeldeten Ereignisse traten Abgaben radioaktiver Stoffe oberhalb genehmigter Grenzwerte auf. Eine Gefaehrdung von Personen und der Umgebung war in keinem Fall gegeben. Im Berichtsjahr wurden zwei Ereignisse in der Kategorie E (Eilmeldung) gemeldet. Die anderen 133 bzw. 14 Ereignisse lagen in der niedrigsten Meldekategorie N (Normalmeldung). Ereignisse der Kategorie S (Sofortmeldung) traten nicht auf. (orig./DG)

  4. Studies on the deterministic and probabilistic assessment of external effects. Deterministic investigation of the robustness of German nuclear power plants against external effects under consideration of actual findings on the events to be assumed; Untersuchungen zur deterministischen und probabilistischen Bewertung von Einwirkungen von aussen (EVA-Ereignisse). Deterministische Untersuchung der Widerstandsfaehigkeit deutscher Kernkraftwerke gegen Einwirkungen von aussen, unter Beruecksichtigung aktueller Erkenntnisse hinsichtlich der anzusetzenden Einwirkungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sperbeck, Silvio; Strack, Christian; Thuma, Gernot

    2013-11-15

    The aim of the analyses on natural hazards described in this report was to evaluate the advantages of innovative hazard assessment methods available today over the hazard assessment methods commonly applied for German nuclear power plant sites in the past. For each hazard under consideration (earthquake, flooding, and wind loads) it has been assessed whether the new methods provide additional insights that could call for their mandatory application in future site specific hazard assessments. If no additional insights are gained, the hitherto applied methods can be considered adequate according to today's standards. In the context of this work, no areas could be identified where the hazard assessment methods stipulated in German (nuclear) regulations are generally inadequate. These methods that are commonly applied in practice do not seem to be prone to significantly underestimate the site specific hazard. Nevertheless, some newer methods allow for more precise (reduction of uncertainties) and more comprehensive (consideration of additional hazard characteristics) hazard assessments. Therefore, depending on the hazard under consideration, it could be advisable to supplement future site specific hazard assessments by some additional analyses. As the methods for some of these additional analyses are not yet fully developed, further research will be necessary to enable these amendments.

  5. Scientific-technical cooperation with foreign (esp. Europe and INSC partner countries) nuclear regulatory authorities and their technical support organizations in the fields of nuclear safety of operating nuclear power plants and on the concept evaluation of generation 3+ plants. Final report; Wissenschaftlich-Technische Zusammenarbeit (WTZ) mit auslaendischen (insbesondere in Europa und INSC-Partnerstaaten) atomrechtlichen Behoerden und deren Sachverstaendigenorganisationen zur nuklearen Sicherheit in Betrieb befindlicher Kernkraftwerke und zur Konzeptbewertung von Generation-3+-Anlagen. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolff, Holger

    2016-09-15

    The BMUB/BfS-Project 3614I01512 forms the frame of the GRS for the scientific-technical cooperation with Technical Support Organisations and Nuclear Regulatory Authorities in the field of nuclear safety in operating NPPs and for the concept evaluation of generation 3{sup +} plants in Europe and INSC Partner Countries. In the present final project report results are described which were gained within the project duration 15.10.2014 up to the 30.09.2016 in the following working packages: Investigations following the catastrophe of Fukushima Daiichi, Evaluation of selected National Action Plans, DBA and severe accident analyses for NPP with PWR (WWER-440, WWER-1000), cooperation with INSC partner countries on DBA, BDBA and severe accident analyses for WWER plants of generation 3{sup +} and building NRA and safety evaluation capacities and decommissioning of nuclear facilities and disposal of radioactive waste. The results are preceded by an outline on the activities related to the project management and to the planning of the bilateral work.

  6. Notifiable events in facilities for fission of nuclear fuels in the Federal Republic of Germany. Nuclear power plants and research reactors with a maximum continuous thermal output of more than 50 kW. First quarterly report 1997; Meldepflichtige Ereignisse in Anlagen zur Spaltung von Kernbrennstoffen in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. Kernkraftwerke und Forschungsreaktoren, deren Hoechstleistung 50 kW thermische Dauerleistung ueberschreitet. Vierteljahresbericht 1. Quartal 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    In the reporting period, there were 24 notifiable events reported from nuclear power plants in Germany, and one from a research reactor. The tabulated list shows all events and their event-scale categories, none involving release of radioactivity exceeding the regulatory limits or posing off-site hazards to the population or the environment. All events belong to the lowest German scale category, N, standard communication of safety significance. 23 Events, or 1, respectively, belong to the INES category 0, (no or below-scale safety significance), while one incident was classified into INES category 1 (operational anomaly, no radiological significance). (orig./DG) [Deutsch] Im I. Quartal 1997 wurden 24 meldepflichtige Ereignisse aus den Kernkraftwerken und eines aus Forschungsreaktoren der Bundesrepublik Deutschland erfasst. Die Uebersichtsliste enthaelt alle 24 Ereignisse, die in diesem Zeitraum gemeldet wurden. Abgaben radioaktiver Stoffe oberhalb genehmigter Grenzwerte traten in diesem Zeitraum nicht auf. Eine Gefaehrdung von Personen und der Umgebung war in keinem Fall gegeben. Alle meldepflichtigen Ereignisse lagen in der niedrigsten behoerdlichen Meldekategorie N (Normalmeldung). Ereignisse der behoerdlichen Meldekategorie E (Eilmeldung) und der Kategorie S (Sofortmeldung) waren nicht zu verzeichnen. 23 bzw. 1 meldepflichtiges Ereignis wurde der INES-Stufe 0 (keine oder sehr geringe sicherheitstechnische, bzw. keine radiologische Bedeutung) zugeordnet. Ein Ereignis wurde der INES-Stufe 1 (betriebliche Stoerung, keine radiologische Bedeutung) zugeordnet. (orig./DG)

  7. Notifiable events in facilities for fission of nuclear fuels in the Federal Republic of Germany. Nuclear power plants and research reactors with a maximum continuous thermal output of more than 50 kW. Fourth quarterly report 1996; Meldepflichtige Ereignisse in Anlagen zur Spaltung von Kernbrennstoffen in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. Kernkraftwerke und Forschungsreaktoren, deren Hoechstleistung 50 kW thermische Dauerleistung ueberschreitet. Vierteljahresbericht 4. Quartal 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    In the 4th quarter 1996, there were 28 notifiable events reported from nuclear power plants in Germany, and 4 from research reactors, all being classified and shown in a tabulated survey. There was no event resulting in release of radioactivity exceeding the regulatory limits, and there were no off-site risks to the population or the environment. All events reported belong to the lowest category N (normal communication of safety significance), and there were non of categories E or S. All reported events belonged to INES category 0 (no or below-scale safety or radiological significance). (orig./DG) [Deutsch] Im IV. Quartal 1996 wurden 28 meldepflichtige Ereignisse aus den Kernkraftwerken und 4 aus den Forschungsreaktoren der Bundesrepublik Deutschland erfasst. Die Uebersichtsliste enthaelt alle 28 Ereignisse, die in diesem Zeitraum gemeldet wurden. Abgaben radioaktiver Stoffe oberhalb genehmigter Grenzwerte traten in diesem Zeitraum nicht auf. Eine Gefaehrdung von Personen und der Umgebung war in keinem Fall gegeben. Alle meldepflichtigen Ereignisse lagen in der niedrigsten behoerdlichen Meldekategorie N (Normalmeldung). Ereignisse der behoerdlichen Meldekategorie E (Eilmeldung) und der Kategorie S (Sofortmeldung) waren nicht zu verzeichnen. Alle meldepflichtigen Ereignisse wurden der INES-Stufe 0 (keine oder sehr geringe sicherheitstechnische, bzw. keine radiologische Bedeutung) zugeordnet. (orig./DG)

  8. Some basic insights into nuclear power plant decommissioning; Einige grundsaetzliche Erkenntnisse fuer die Stillegung von Kernkraftwerken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eickelpasch, N. [Kernkraftwerke Gundremmingen Betriebsgesellschaft mbH (Germany); Steiner, H. [Kernkraftwerke Gundremmingen Betriebsgesellschaft mbH (Germany)

    1996-06-01

    There are 14 projects running in Germany for decommissioning of a nuclear power plant, 11 of them are performed under the responsibility of the state, and 3 are projects of industrial enterprises. The two most advanced projects are that for shutdown of unit A of the KRB Gundremmingen station, and the VAK project at Kahl (VAK experimental reactor station). Both plants are operated as subsidiaries, of the utilities RWE and Bayernwerk. The conference paper gives some basic insights obtained in the course of these two projects, covering a period of several years. The results are: The two different disposal strategies allowed by the law, i.e. ``materials recycling`` and ``ultimate disposal``, should be assessed and analysed by two separate studies. Quantities and qualities of the liquid wastes to be managed after final shutdown of a plant differ from those of the preceding phase and require specific waste management planning. It is recommended to perform a radiologic analysis of the task of decontamination of the primary loop prior to dismantling work, as shown by the activities for VAK decommissioning. (orig.) [Deutsch] In Deutschland gibt es 14 stillgelegte Kernkraftwerke, 11 davon sind staatliche Projekte, 3 kommerzielle. Die beiden am weitesten fortgeschrittenen Projekte sind der Block A des Kernkraftwerkes Grundremmingen (KRB) und das Versuchsatomkraftwerk Kahl (VAK) - beides Tochtergesellschaften des RWE und Bayernwerks. Aus der Vielzahl der Erfahrungen aus dem langjaehrigen Abbau dieser Kraftwerke sollen einige wenige grundsaetzliche Erkenntnisse aufgezeigt werden. Dies sind im einzelnen - eine insbesondere wirtschaftliche Bewertung der beiden vom Gesetz her gleichwertigen Materialwege `Wiederverwertung` und `Endlager`, - die Tatsache, dass sich nach der endgueltigen Stillegung eines Kernkraftwerkes die Menge und Qualitaet der fluessigen Abfaelle wesentlich veraendert und besondere Massnahmen erfordert, - eine strahlenschutzmaessige Bewertung der Primaerkreis

  9. Announcement of the official publication in accordance with section 15, (3), and section 17 of the Nuclear Installations Ordinance, of a licence for modifications in the Wuergassen reactor station, issued on 27 April 1990, 2nd supplement to permit no. 7/10 KWW. As of 20 July, 1990. Hinweis auf die oeffentliche Bekanntmachung gemaess Paragraph 15 Abs. 3 und Paragraph 17 der Atomrechtlichen Verfahrensverordnung ueber eine Aenderungsgenehmigung vom 27. April 1990 fuer das Kernkraftwerk Wuergassen, 2. Ergaenzung zum Bescheid Nr. 7/10 KWW. Vom 20. Juli 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1990-07-20

    The notice refers to the licence issued for installation and operation of a system for inertisation of the reactor containment as a fire protection measure, for enhancement of the sampling system to include a further O{sub 2}-measuring equipment, and for replacement of two exhaust air flaps in the pressure suppression system. (orig./HP).

  10. Requirements of modernization strategies; Anforderungen an Erneuerungsstrategien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinbuch, R. [Bayernwerk AG, Muenchen (Germany)

    1997-11-01

    Instrumentation and control contributed a major share to the current level of safety, economic efficiency, and availability of the German nuclear power plants. German NPPs occupy a top position in this respect at international level, but novel instrumentation and digital control technology alone will not guarantee further enhancements. Therefore, the owner/operators established carefully devised maintenance and modernization strategies in order to safeguard their NPPs top position in the long run. The German NPPs are the most thoroughly automated plants of the world. In addition to the sweeping modernization strategies recommended by the plant manufacturers, based on computer-supported control, alternative modernization strategies have been considered in the evaluation process. This approach provides for room for maneuvre, for manufacturers as well as managers responsible for risk and cost optimization, which is a major task in view of the changing regulatory framework in the electricity market. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Die Leittechnik hat an der erreichten Sicherheit, Wirtschaftlichkeit und Verfuegbarkeit der deutschen Kernkraftwerke erheblichen Anteil. Die im weltweiten Vergleich erreichten Spitzenpositionen unserer Kernkraftwerke koennen auch durch neue digitale Leittechniksysteme nicht mehr gesteigert werden. Wesentliches Ziel der Betreiber ist deshalb, diese Positionen durch sorgfaeltige Erhaltungs- und Erneuerungsstrategien auch langfristig sicherzustellen. Die deutschen Kraftwerke sind die am umfassendsten automatisierten Anlagen der Welt. Neben den von den Herstellern empfohlenen umfassenden Erneuerungsstrategien, auf der Grundlage rechnerbasierter Leittechnik, wurden alternative Erneuerungsstrategien in die Bewertung mit einbezogen. Hierdurch wurden Handlungsspielrueme geschaffen, fuer eine groessere Herstellerunabhaengigkeit und fuer die erforderliche Risiko- und Kostenoptimierung, die vom kuenftigen Strommarkt erzwungen werden. (orig./DG)

  11. Evaluation of load case ``switch-off of the high pressure pump of the emergency core cooling system``, measures of verification and in situ-test; Einstufung des Lastfalls ``Ausfall der TH-Hochdruckeinspeisepumpe``, Massnahmen zur Verifikation bis hin zum Grossversuch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trobitz, M.; Mattheis, A. [Kernkraftwerke Gundremmingen Betriebsgesellschaft m.b.H. (Germany); Kerkhof, K.; Hippelein, K. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Staatliche Materialpruefungsanstalt; Gurr-Beyer, C. [Buero fuer Baudynamik, Stuttgart (Germany); Hofstoetter, P. [Technischer Ueberwachungs-Verein Rheinland e.V., Koeln (Germany)

    1998-11-01

    Within the framework of periodic safety inspection of the Gundremmingen power station (RWE-Bayernwerk - KRB II), the load collectives used for the design of safety-relevant systems and components were checked for their consistency with latest updates of the design basis. It was found that there was no analytical information or study available describing a particular process and its effects, namely switch-off of the high-pressure feedwater pump of the emergency core cooling system. The paper reports the work performed for closing the gap, including preparatory analyses, accompanying measures such as vibration measurements during plant shut-down, as well as the preparation and performance of the in-situ test. The experimental results and the comparative evaluation of calculated and experimental data are presented. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Im Rahmen der periodischen Sicherheitsueberpruefung des Kernkraftwerkes Gundremmingen (Kernkraftwerke RWE-Bayernwerk - KRB II) wurden u.a. die Lastkollektive, die zur Auslegung sicherheitstechnisch relevanter Systeme und Komponenten herangezogen wurden, auf Aktualitaet ueberprueft. Dabei zeigte sich, dass bislang fuer eine Betriebsweise - naemlich das Abschalten der Hochdruckeinspeisepumpe des nuklearen Not- und Nachkuehlsystems (TH-HD-Pumpe) - keine analytischen Untersuchungen vorliegen. Vorbetrachtungen fuer analytische Untersuchungen, begleitende Massnahmen wie Schwingungsmessungen waehrend des Anlagenstillstandes, sowie der Versuchsaufbau und die Versuchsdurchfuehrung des Anlagenversuches werden hier dargestellt. Die Ergebnisse und der Vergleich Rechnung-Messung zum Grossversuch werden in diesem Beitrag vorgestellt. (orig.)

  12. Wuergassen to be decommissioned. Cracks in the core shroud did not create a hazard; Stillegung von Wuergassen beschlossen. Risse am Kernmantel stellten keine Gefaehrdung dar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuchs, M. [PreussenElektra AG, Hannover (Germany); Bruns, J. [Kernkraftwerk Wuergassen, Beverungen (Germany)

    1995-12-01

    Cracks in the core shroud have been detected in several boiling water reactor plants in the United States of America, Japan, Taiwan, Switzerland and Sweden. To this date, findings of this type have been made in a total of 23 plants. Also visual inspection of the core shroud of the Wuergassen Nuclear Power Station revealed cracks during the 1994 revision. The cause was found to be intergranular stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in 1.4550 type austenitic material sensitized by heat treatment. Safety assessment indicated no impairment of functional reliability either during normal operation or under accident conditions. Economic and licensing constraints prevented repair of the core shroud, although this has been achieved successfully in the United States and in Japan. Consequently, replacement of the core shroud was prepared in the planning stage, and the feasibility of this step was demonstrated. However, the fundamental modernization of the entire plant, which would have been necessary in case of replacement of the core shroud, caused PreussenElektra to decide on decommissioning the Wuergassen plant on economic grounds. This is the first decommissioning decision about a commercial nuclear power plant in the old German federal states. Inspections of the other German boiling water reactor plants did not result in any indications of cracks in the core shroud area. (orig./GL) [Deutsch] In mehreren Siedewasserreaktoranlagen in den USA, Japan, Taiwan, der Schweiz und Schweden wurden Rissbefunde am Kernmantel festgestellt. Bisher liegen in insgesamt 23 Anlagen Befunde vor. In der Revision 1994 durchgefuehrte visuelle Inspektionen am Kernmantel des Kernkraftwerkes Wuergassen ergaben ebenfalls Rissanzeigen. Als Ursache wurde interkristalline Spannungsrisskorrosion (IKSpRK) in einem durch Waermebehandlung sensibilisierten austenitischen Material 1.4550 ermittelt. Die sicherheitstechnische Bewertung ergab keine Beeintraechtigung der Funktionstuechtigkeit sowohl im Normalbetrieb

  13. Operating experience with nuclear power stations 1994; Betriebserfahrungen mit Kernkraftwerken 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1995-04-01

    Within the VGB Technical Committee `Exchange of Operating Experience` - ABE - (Nuclear Engineering), an active exchange of experience has been cultivated over a period of more than 25 years. It embraces 28 nuclear power stations in Germany, Finland, France, the Netherlands, Sweden, Switzerland and Spain. This paper reports on operating results obtaned in 1994 and also on safety-related incidents, important rehabilitation measures and annual discharge rates of radio activity. (orig.) [Deutsch] Innerhalb des VGB-Fachausschusses `Austausch von Betriebserfahrungen` - ABE - (Kerntechnik) wird seit mehr als 25 Jahren ein reger Erfahrungsaustausch gepflegt. Er schliesst 28 Kernkraftwerke in Deutschland, Finnland, Frankreich, den Niederlanden, Schweden, der Schweiz und Spanien ein. Ueber die im Jahre 1994 erzielten Betriebsergebnisse sowie ueber sicherheitsrelevante Ereignisse, wichtige Umruestmassnahmen und Jahresabgaberaten an Radioaktivitaet wird berichtet. (orig.)

  14. Operating experience with nuclear power stations 1995; Betriebserfahrungen mit Kernkraftwerken 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1996-04-01

    For more than 25 years, an active exchange of experience has been cultivated within the VGB Technical Committee `Exchange of Operating Experience` - ABE - (Nuclear Engineering). It embraces 28 nuclear power stations in Germany, Finland, France, The Netherlands, Sweden, Switzerland and Spain. The paper reports operating results achieved in 1995 and also safety-related incidents, important retrofitting measures and annual emission rates of radioactivity. (orig.) [Deutsch] Innerhalb des VGB-Fachausschusses `Austausch von Betriebserfahrungen` - ABE - (Kerntechnik) wird seit mehr als 25 jahren ein reger Erfahrungsaustausch gepflegt. Er schliesst 36 Kernkraftwerke in Deutschland, Finnland, Frankreich, den Niederlanden, Schweden, der Schweiz und Spanien ein. Ueber die im Jahre 1995 erzielten Betriebsergebnisse sowie ueber sicherheitsrelevante Ereignisse, wichtige Umruestmassnahmen und Jahresabgaberaten an Radioaktivitaet wird berichtet. (orig.)

  15. Operating experience from nuclear power plants in 1996; Betriebserfahrungen mit Kernkraftwerken 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1997-04-01

    Within the VGB Technical Committee `Exchange of Operating Experience` (ABE), a regular exchange of experience has been cultivated for more than 25 years. It involves 28 nuclear power plants in Germany, Finland, France, The Netherlands, Sweden, Switzerland and Spain. This paper reports operating results obtained in 1996 and safety-related incidents, important retrofit measures and annual discharge rates of radioactivity. (orig.) [Deutsch] Innerhalb des VGB-Fachausschusses `Austausch von Betriebserfahrungen` - ABE - (Kerntechnik) wird seit mehr als 25 Jahren ein reger Erfahrungsaustausch gepflegt. Er schliesst 36 Kernkraftwerke in Deutschland, Finnland, Frankreich, den Niederlanden, Schweden, der Schweiz und Spanien ein. Ueber die im Jahre 1996 erzielten Betriebsergebnisse sowie ueber sicherheitsrelevante Ereignisse, wichtige Umruestmassnahmen und Jahresabgaberaten an Radioaktivitaet wird berichtet. (orig.)

  16. Impact of parental education and income inequality on children's food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sausenthaler, Stefanie; Kompauer, Iris; Mielck, Andreas; Borte, Michael; Herbarth, Olf; Schaaf, Beate; von Berg, Andrea; Heinrich, Joachim

    2007-01-01

    To analyse the association between socio-economic indicators and diet among 2-year-old children, by assessing the independent contribution of parental education and equivalent income to food intake. The analysis was based on data from a prospective birth cohort study. Information on diet was obtained using a semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire. Low and high intake of food was defined according to the lowest and the highest quintile of food consumption frequency, respectively. Four German cities (Munich, Leipzig, Wesel, Bad Honnef), 1999-2001. Subjects Subjects were 2637 children at the age of 2 years, whose parents completed questionnaires gathering information on lifestyle factors, including parental socio-economic status, household consumption frequencies and children's diet. Both low parental education and low equivalent income were associated with a low intake of fresh fruit, cooked vegetables and olive oil, and a high intake of canned vegetables or fruit, margarine, mayonnaise and processed salad dressing in children. Children with a low intake of milk and cream, and a high intake of hardened vegetable fat, more likely had parents with lower education. Low butter intake was associated with low equivalent income only. These findings may be helpful for future intervention programmes with more targeted policies aiming at an improvement of children's diets.

  17. The decommissioning guide. A practical help for practice?; Der Leitfaden Stillegung. Eine Erleichterung fuer die Praxis?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klonk, H. [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Salzgitter (Germany); Weil, L. [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Salzgitter (Germany)

    1997-07-01

    Atomkernenergie - Hauptausschuss - hat auf seiner Sitzung am 4. und 5.6.96 beschlossen, den `Leitfaden zur Stillegung von Anlagen nach Paragraph 7 Atomgesetz` als Hilfsmittel - im Sinne einer Zusammenstellung rechtlich und fachlich relevanter Aspekte - fuer die Planung und Durchfuehrung von Genehmigungsverfahren und die staatliche Aufsicht im Zusammenhang mit kerntechnischen Stillegungsvorhaben heranzuziehen. Der Text des Leitfadens wurde am 12.11.96 im `Bundesanzeiger` veroeffentlicht. Inwiefern dieser Leitfaden eine tatsaechliche Erleichterung fuer die Praxis darstellt, soll im folgenden eroertert werden. In den letzten Jahren sind erhebliche Erfolge auf dem Gebiet der Stillegung von Leistungs- und Forschungsreaktoren in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland erreicht worden. Dies betrifft die technische Durchfuehrung der Demontage- und Abbauarbeiten ebenso wie die atomrechtliche Genehmigungs- und Aufsichtspraxis: Das Kernkraftwerk Niederaichbach ist vollstaendig abgebaut und der Standort freigegeben worden. Die Stillegung und die Demontage von Gundremmingen A, des MZFR, des Kernkraftwerks VAK sowie des FR-2 und des KNK II gehen planmaessig voran. Fuer die abgeschalteten Kernkraftwerke Greifswald und Rheinsberg wurden - rechtzeitig, bevor die von den Behoerden der DDR erteilten Betriebsgenehmigungen ihre Gueltigkeit verloren - von den zustaendigen Behoerden der Laender Mecklenburg-Vorpommern und Brandenburg umfassende Stillegungsgenehmigungen nach Paragraph 7 Abs. 3. AtG erteilt; die Demontage- und Zerlegungsverfahren machen Fortschritte. Bei der Konzipierung, Diskussion und Formulierung des Leitfadens Stillegung in den Jahren 1991 bis 1996 haben Vertreter aller atomrechtlichen Landesbehoerden mitgewirkt, in deren Zustaendigkeit die vorgenannten und andere Stillegungsvorhaben fallen. Es kann deshalb davon ausgegangen werden, dass bereits in der Diskussionsphase Rueckkopplungseffekte zur und mit der Praxis stattgefunden haben. (orig.)

  18. Expectations of a local radio station in connection with an emergency situation; Erwartungen eines lokalen Radiosenders im Ereignisfall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staerkle, C. [Radio Argovia (Switzerland)

    1997-12-31

    The aspect to be discussed here actually is not what the radio station expects to happen in the event of an emergency, but rather what the population expects the radio station to do as the fastest news medium in the area in the event of a nuclear power plant incident. The radio station has to fulfill the three standard functions of providing information, entertainment, and services for the general public. The inhabitants in the area expect the radio station to broadcast information, helpful hints, and services needed in such a situation. The radio station is obliged to do its best or utmost without hesitation, thus performing one of its very specific tasks in times of an emergency. (There are four NPPs in the broadcasting area of Radio Argovia: Leibstadt, Beznau I, Beznau II, and Goesgen). The population wants information about the incident that happened, the very actual situation and the risks and hazards involved, and expected development of the situation as well as consequences. And they want it within minutes or even seconds, at any time of the day. Information given must be suitably competent, reliable and from authentic sources. This information falling short of the population`s needs or expectations, the population will have recourse to any other help within reach.(Orig./CB) [Deutsch] Es kann bei einem Ereignisfall oder besser `Stoerfall` nicht so sehr von den Erwartungen des schnellsten Mediums gesprochen werden. Vielmehr ist von den Erwartungen der Bevoelkerung an das schnellste Medium, dem Rundfunk, im Stoerfall eines Kernkraftwerkes auszugehen. Dabei hat sich das Radio seiner drei Saeulen Information, Unterhaltung und Service Public zu bedienen. Die vom Ereignis betroffenen Hoererinnen erwarten Informationen, Hilfestellungen und Dienstleistungen jeglicher Art. Diese Aufgaben kommen dem Rundfunk zu. Dieser hat sie ohne `wenn und aber` zu erfuellen. Seine Existenzberechtigung ist vor allem in Kriesenfaellen gegeben. (Im Einzugsgebiet von Radio Argovia

  19. Mechanized radiation testing of austenitic pipe welds. Testing of media filled pipes and determination of the flaw depth by tomosynthesis; Mechanisierte Durchstrahlungspruefung von Rundschweissnaehten. Pruefung mediengefuellter Rohrleitungen und Tiefenlagenbestimmung durch Tomosynthese

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewert, U.; Redmer, B. [Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung (BAM), Berlin (Germany); Mueller, J. [COMPRA GmbH, Frechen (Germany); Trobitz, M. [Kernkraftwerke Gundremmingen Betriebsgesellschaft mbH, Gundremmingen (Germany); Baranov, V.A. [Institute for Introscopy, Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    1999-08-01

    A compact detection system was built for multi-angle inspection of pipes, consisting of a high-sensitivity radiometric line scanner and an ultrasonic manipulator. Improved flaw imaging quality is achieved with this system as compared to film radiography. Measurements have been carried out on site in a nuclear power plant and in a laboratory. Better flaw imaging quality was also achieved in the testing of water-filled pipes. Non-linear tomosynthesis was applied for processing and interpretation of measured data. The system delivers considerably better images of planary materials inhomogeneitites, (such as cracks and lack-of-bond defects). (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Eine hoch empfindliche radiometrische Zeilenkamera wurde mit einem Ultraschall-Manipulator zu einem Gesamtsystem aufgebaut und fuer Mehrwinkel-Inspektionen von Rohrleitungen angewandt. Bei der Inspektion von Rundschweissnaehten an Rohren mit ca. 8... 20 mm Wanddicke wurde eine Verbesserung der Bildqualitaet im Vergleich zur Filmradiographie erreicht. Diese Messungen wurden in einem Kernkraftwerk unter Vor-Ort-Bedingungen sowie im Labor ausgefuehrt. Ein signifikantes Ansteigen der Bildqualitaet wurde auch bei der Pruefung von wassergefuellten Rohren erzielt. Methoden der nicht-linearen Tomosynthese wurden fuer die Verarbeitung und Interpretation der gemessenen Projektionsdaten genutzt. Das entwickelte System gestattet eine erhebliche Verbesserung der Anzeige von planaren Materialinhomogenitaeten (z.B. Risse und Bindefehler). (orig./DGE)

  20. Analysis of core stability measurement data of advanced 9 x 9 fuel assembly in a BWR core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuda, Katsuhiro; Itami, Akira; Kubo, Yuichiro; Shakudo, Taketomi [Nuclear Fuel Industries Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Kreuter, D.; Anegawa, Takafumi; Kitamura, Hideya; Ishikawa, Masumi

    1997-05-01

    The core stability measurements were taken during the cycle-9 startup of the 1,300 MWe BWR, Kernkraftwerk Kruemmel (KKK). The core contained advanced 9 x 9 type high burn-up design reload fuel with a higher enrichment than current 8 x 8 fuel. A design feature of the advanced 9 x 9 fuel assembly (FA) is a large square water channel for enhanced neutron moderation. The measurement data as a function of core flow and power showed almost the same stability characteristics as those of the past measurement during the cycle-3 startup of the KKK core with the 8 x 8 FA. The local power range monitors (LPRM) detected neutron flux oscillations in both core-wide in-phase and half-core out-of-phase modes. The frequency-domain stability analysis using the STAIF-PK code well reproduced the measurement result that the onset of unstable operation in KKK first occurs when about half of the reactor internal pumps are operating and the other half are stopped. The stability performance of the advanced 9 x 9 FA in the core was compared with the 8 x 8 FA by a design parameter analysis with respect to thermal-hydraulic and neutronic design. It has been demonstrated by the analysis that the stability performance of the advanced 9 x 9 FA is comparable with current 8 x 8 FA. (author)

  1. Method for microbiology control in the coolant loop of Goesgen nuclear power plant using a product based on H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-silver; Verfahren zur Kontrolle der Mikrobiologie im Kuehlwasser-Kreislauf des KKW-Goesgen mit einem Produkt auf Basis H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-Silber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun, D.; Goemoeri, J.

    1997-12-31

    To ensure the intended high reliability and safety of nuclear power plants, treatment of the water in all loops is of high importance, as fouling may impair heat transfer, corrosive processes may damage components and pipework, entailing long periods of shut-down for repair, and high repair cost. In the Goesgen NPP, cooling of the turbine condenser is performed by an open-cycle cooling system with a natural draft cooling tower. Conditioning of the circulating water is an essential task discussed by the paper. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Um die angestrebte hohe Verfuegbarkeit und Betriebssicherheit von Kernkraftwerken zu gewaehrleisten, kommt der Behandlung des Wassers in allen Kreislaeufen grosse Bedeutung zu, denn Ablagerungen aller Arten koennen den Waermeuebergang behindern, Korrosion kann Komponenten sowie Rohre schaedigen und zu hohen Reparaturkosten mit langen Stillstandszeiten fuehren. Im Kernkraftwerk Goesgen wird die Kuehlung des Turbinenkondensators ueber ein offenees Rueckkuehlsystem mit Naturzugkuehlturn sichergestellt. Um die eingangs gestellten Forderungen zu erfuellen, kommt der Konditionierung des Umlaufwassers besondere Bedeutung zu. (orig.)

  2. High-resolution gamma spectroscopy with whole-body and partial-body counters. Experience, recommendations. Report; Hochaufloesende Gamma-Spektrometrie an Ganz- und Teilkoerperzaehlern. Erfahrungen, Empfehlungen. Bericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahre, P. [comp.

    1997-12-01

    The application of high-resolution gamma spectroscopy with whole-body and partial-body counters shows a steadily rising upward trend over the last few years. This induced the ``Arbeitskreis Inkorporationsueberwachung`` of the association ``Fachverband fuer Strahlenschutz e.V.`` to organise a meeting for joint elaboration of a guide on recommended applications of this measuring technique, based on a review of existing experience and results. A key item on the agenda of the meeting was the comparative evaluation of the Ge semiconductor detector and the NaI solid scintillation detector. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Der Einsatz der hochaufloesenden Gammaspektroskopie in Ganz- und Teilkoerperzaehlern hat in den letzten Jahren stetig zugenommen. Der ``Arbeitskreis Inkorporationsueberwachung`` des Fachverbandes fuer Strahlenschutz e.V. hat darum bisherige Erfahrungen zusammengetragen und Empfehlungen fuer den Einsatz dieser Messtechnik erarbeitet. Der Schwerpunkt der Tagung lag beim Vergleich von Germaniumhalbleiter- mit Natriumjodid-Festszintillationsdetektoren.Tl-Detektoren eignen sich v.a. beim Vorhandensein bekannter und zeitlich konstanter Nuklidvektoren (Kernkraftwerke, Nuklearmedizin). Bei unbekanntem bzw. variablem Nuklidvektor (Stoerfall, Unfall, Forschung) sollen Ge-Detektoren benutzt werden (orig./ABI)

  3. Recent developments in Great Britain`s electricity market - The current situation; Entwicklung des Elektrizitaetsmarktes in Grossbritanien - Ein Lagebericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolben, G. [Electricity Association, London (United Kingdom)

    1998-01-26

    Next year, electricity consumers in Great Britain will be in the position to choose their electricity supplier according to their own conditions. This will mean the last and most challenging phase of the transition to a deregulated electricity market. In 1990 already, a restructurization of the electricity sector in Great Britain had installed a more competition-oriented regime along with a sweeping privatisation of the entire sector (except for long-existing power plants). The article here is arrranged in five main sections: Review of the current structure of the electricity sector, the regimes of competition in electric power generation and in electricity supply to consumers, the conditions governing electric power transmission and network operators, including legal aspects, and finally aspects of price policy. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Erst im naechsten Jahr werden alle 26 Mio Kunden in Grossbritannien in der Lage sein, ihren Stromlieferanten selbst auszuwaehlen. Dies wird die letzte und herausfordernste Stufe des Uebergangs in einen Wettbewerbsmarkt sein. Die Umstrukturierung der Elektrizitaetswirtschaft in Grossbritannien im Jahr 1990 fuehrte zu zwei Aenderungen: Der Einfuehrung eines Wettbewerbsrahmens und der Privatisierung des gesamten Sektors (mit Ausnahme der aelteren Kernkraftwerke). Dieser Aufsatz ist in fuenf Hauptabschnitte unterteilt: Eine Uebersicht ueber die Struktur der Elektrizitaetswirtschaft, Wettbewerb in der Erzeugung, Wettbewerb in der Versorgung, das Verteilungsgeschaeft und die Regulierung und schliesslich Preisentwicklungen. (orig./RHM)

  4. Advantages and limits of preventive maintenance to ensure the quality of mechanical components; Moeglichkeiten und Grenzen der vorbeugenden Instandhaltung zur Absicherung der erforderlichen Qualitaet von mechanischen Komponenten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoeckle, F. [Amtec Messtechnischer Service GmbH, Lauffen (Germany); Bartonicek, J. [EnBW Kernkraft GmbH, Neckarwestheim (Germany); Waidele, H.; Kockelmann, H. [Materialpruefungsanstalt (MPA), Univ. Stuttgart (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    In accordance with their safety relevance, mechanical components of a nuclear power plant can be grouped as follows: 1. Integrity concept; 2. Preventive maintenance; 3. Failure-oriented maintenance. The contribution focuses on group 2. Specifications here comprise strength, sealing quality and function, which are to be ensured by maintenance, inspection and repair in consideration of the latest state of the art. In the case of inspections, only the effects of effective damage mechanisms are considered. Inspections may be time-based or condition-based. (orig.) [German] Die mechanischen Komponenten eines Kernkraftwerks koennen entsprechend den Anforderungen an die Qualitaet im Betrieb a) Gewaehrleistung der Qualitaet (Versagen ist nicht zulaessig), b) Qualitaet ist zu erhalten (Ausfall bzw. Versagen ist im Einzelfall zulaessig), c) keine Anforderungen, in drei Gruppen eingeteilt werden: 1. Integritaetskonzept, 2. vorbeugende Instandhaltung, 3. ausfallorientierte Instandhaltung. Die erforderliche Qualitaet der Komponenten in der Gruppe 2 ''vorbeugende Instandhaltung'' wird durch die Einhaltung von Vorgaben aus Spezifikationen erreicht, die auch den Umfang der Nachweise hinsichtlich Festigkeit, Dichtheit und Funktion beinhalten. Die Erhaltung dieser anforderungsgerechten Qualitaet im Betrieb erfolgt durch Massnahmen der Wartung, Inspektion und Instandsetzung in Verbindung mit der Verfolgung des Standes von Wissenschaft und Technik. Bei den Inspektionen werden nur die Folgen von wirksamen betrieblichen Schaedigungsmechanismen erfasst. Diese Inspektionen koennen zeit- oder zustandsorientiert durchgefuehrt werden. (orig.)

  5. Comparison calculation/experiment on the load case ``shutdown of TH high pressure pumps under consideration of fluid structure interaction``; Vergleich Rechnung/Messung zum Lastfall ``Abschaltung der TH-Hochdruckpumpen unter Beruecksichtigung der Fluid-Struktur-Wechselwirkung``

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erath, W.; Nowotny, B.; Maetz, J. [KED, Rodenbach (Germany)

    1998-11-01

    Measurements of an experiment in a pipe system with pump shutdown and valve closing have been performed in the nuclear power plant KRB II. Comparative calculations of fluid and structure including interaction show an excellent agreement with the measured results. Theory and implementation of the fluid/structure interaction and the results of the comparison are described. It turns out that the consideration of the fluid/structure interaction is mostly a significant increase of the effective structural damping. (orig.) [Deutsch] Es wurden Messungen am nuklearen Nachkuehlsystem des Kernkraftwerks Gundremmingen (KRB II) bei einem Versuche mit Pumpenabschalten und Ventilschliessen durchgefuehrt. Vergleichsrechnungen der Fluid-Strukturdynamik unter echter Beruecksichtigung der Wechselwirkung ergaben eine ausgezeichnete Uebereinstimmung der Rechnung mit den Messungen. Es werden Theorie und Implementierung der Koppelung der Fluid- und Struktur-Berechnungen sowie die Vergleiche von Messung und Rechnung beschrieben. Es ergibt sich, dass die Beruecksichtigung der Wechselwirkung notwendig ist zur genaueren Berechnung von `weichen` Rohrleitungsystemen. Eine wichtige Folge der Wechselwirkung ist meist eine deutliche Erhoehung der effektiven Strukturdaempfung. (orig.)

  6. Intercrystalline stress-corrosion cracking in Nb-stabilized austenitic steel used for core internals of a BWR; Interkristalline Spannungsrisskorrosion an Nb-stabilisiertem austenistischem Stahl in Kerneinbauten eines Siedewasserreaktors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wachter, O. [PreussenElektra AG, Hannover (Germany); Bruns, J. [PreussenElektra AG, Hannover (Germany); Wesseling, U. [Siemens/KWU, Erlangen (Germany); Kilian, R. [Siemens/KWU, Erlangen (Germany)

    1996-06-01

    Cracks detected in pipes for hot cooling water transport in German boiling water reactors have shown: titanium and Nb-stabilized materials are susceptible to intergranular stress-corrosion cracking in a hot water environment. In the Wuergassen nuclear power plant, cracks of this type were detected in the upper and lower support ring of the core shroud, and in the reinforcing rings of the upper and lower core support grid plates. The overall length of numerous single cracks was distributed over 75 up to 90% of the circumferential surface, sometimes crack depths amounted to approx. 30 mm. The cracks are caused by chromium carbide segregations at the grain interfaces. The corrosive agent primarily is H{sub 2}O{sub 2} formed by radiolysis. [Deutsch] Rissbefunde in mit heissem Reaktorwasser beaufschlagten Rohrleitungen deutscher Siedewasserreaktoren zeigten: Mit Titan- und Nb-stabilisierte Werkstoffe koennen unter den Wasserbedingungen interkristalline Spannungsrisskorrosion (IKSpRK) erleiden. Im Kernkraftwerk Wuergassen betrafen sie den oberen und unteren Auflagering des Kernmantels sowie die Verstaerkungsringe der oberen und unteren Gitterplatte. Die Gesamtlaenge zahlreicher Einzelrisse erstreckte sich auf 75 bis 90% des Umfanges, stichprobenweise wurden Risstiefen von etwa 30 mm ermittelt. Die Rissursache lag in Chromcarbid-Ausscheidungen auf den Korngrenzen. Das Korrosionspotential wird hauptsaechlich durch das radiolytisch enstehende H{sub 2}O{sub 2} gepraegt. (orig.)

  7. The probabilistic safety analysis as seen from the point of view of the Technical Inspectorates TUeV Bavaria and Saxonia; Probabilistische Sicherheitsanalyse aus der Sicht des TUEV Bayern Sachsen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinzens, K. [TUEV Bayern Sachsen e.V., Muenchen (Germany); Sacher, H. [TUEV Bayern Sachsen e.V., Muenchen (Germany)

    1994-07-01

    Probabilistics safety analysis (PBA) has been developed to a useful tool for an in-depth assessment of the safety of nuclear power plant. PSA methods permit a quantification of engineered plant safety covering all parameters, including in particular also the human factors. The goal pursued with PSA is not only the numeric data describing the plant safety. The systematic approach covering all parameters offers the possibility of detecting design-basis reserves for improvement, or weak points linked to certain events, possibilities of detecting contributions of plant systems to the occurrence of risky situations or accidents that cannot be managed. (orig./HP) [Deutsch] Mittlerweile haben sich probabilistische Sicherheitsanalysen zu einem nuetzlichen Werkzeug fuer die umfassende Beurteilung der Sicherheit von Kernkraftwerken entwickelt. Die angewandte Methodik erlaubt eine Quantifizierung der Anlagensicherheit unter Einbeziehung aller Einflussgroessen, inbesondere auch menschlicher Faktoren. Die Zielsetzung von Probabilistischen Sicherheitsanalysen liegt nicht allein in der zahlenmaessigen Bestimmung der Sicherheit des Kernkraftwerks. Die systematische Vorgehensweise unter Einbeziehung aller Einflussgroessen eroeffnet die Moeglichkeit, Auslegungsreserven deutlich zu machen, Schwachstellen im Zusammenhang mit bestimmten Ereignissen aufzudecken und Beitraege systemtechnischer Einrichtungen zu nicht beherrschten Ereignissen oder Gefaehrdungszustaenden zu minimieren. (orig./HP)

  8. Residential Air Pollution, Road Traffic, Greenness and Maternal Hypertension: Results from GINIplus and LISAplus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Jendrossek

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The public health burden of hypertension is high, but its relationship with long-term residential air pollution, road traffic, and greenness remains unclear. Objective: To investigate associations between residential air pollution, traffic, greenness, and hypertension among mothers. Methods: Information on doctor-diagnosed maternal hypertension was collected at the 15-year follow-up of two large population-based multicenter German birth cohorts—GINIplus and LISAplus (n=3063. Residential air pollution was modelled by land use regression models within the ESCAPE and universal kriging within the APMoSPHERE projects. Road traffic was defined as traffic load on major roads within a 100-m buffer around residences. Vegetation level (ie, greenness was defined as the mean Normalized Difference Vegetation Index in a 500-m buffer around residences and was assessed from Landsat 5 TM satellite images. All the exposure variables were averaged over three residential addresses during the last 10 years and categorized into tertiles or dichotomized. The individual associations between each of the exposure variables and hypertension were assessed using logistic regression analysis. Results: No significant and consistent associations across different levels of adjustment were observed between the exposures of interest and hypertension. The only significant estimate was found with coarse particulate matter concentrations (OR 1.66, 95% CI 1.01 to 2.74; 3rd vs 1st tertile among mothers residing in the Wesel area. No significant associations were observed with traffic load or greenness. Conclusion: This study does not provide evidence on detrimental effects of air pollution and road traffic or beneficial effects of greenness on hypertension among German adults.

  9. [Andreas Vesalius and surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hee, R

    1993-01-01

    By publishing De Humani Corporis Fabrica Libri Septem in 1543, Andries van Wesel (1514-1564) gave surgical science an immense impulse. The revolutionary renovation in the knowledge of man's anatomical structure changed slowly and progressively into topographical and physiological understanding of surgical diseases. At the same time, this made better aimed and more secure operations possible. Apart from the importance of this anatomical publication, Andreas Vesalius also won his spurs as a surgeon. He taught surgery in Padua for many years. He was appointed court physician and surgeon at the Habsburg Court of Charles V and Philip II. He personally performed lots of operations known at the time as major ones. He not only quickly adopted the surgical innovations of his fellow-surgeon Ambroise Paré, but he even performed operations that had been forgotten during several centuries, among which thoracocentesis for pleural empyema. His clinical perspicacity in discovering the indication for some operations was staggering and was appreciated by all great monarchs of Europe in the 16th century. In his several consilia, numerous pieces of advice were given for the treatment of surgical patients. The surgical practice which Vesalius had in Brussels for many years, consequently became most successful. Many publications by Vesalius about surgery and blood-letting are well-known. His Chirurgia magna in septem Libros digesta still remains controversial; these books were published by Prospero Borgarruccio (1560) in 1568 by the Venetian editor Valgrisi. This book gives an excellent survey of surgical pathology as it was taught and treated in the 16th century. The scientific method that Vesalius used, not only in his anatomical studies but also in his surgical practice, deserves not only our full appraisal but should still be studied in our own time.

  10. Insights from the IAEA extrabugetary program on the safety of WWER and RBMK nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lederman, L. [IAEA, Vienna (Austria). Div. of Nuclear Instalation Safety; Goodison, D. [Nuclear Installation Inspectorate (NII), Formby (United Kingdom); Chakraborty, S. [Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (HSK), Villingen (Switzerland). Safety Research and International Affairs

    1999-06-01

    An IAEA Extrabudgetary Program commenced in 1990. The objective of the Program was to assist regulators and operators of WWER and RBMK nuclear power plants to evaluate safety aspects related to the design and operation of these plants. The program terminated in 1998 and a comprehensive final report was published by the IAEA. The results showed that despite the improvements in safety already achieved, much remains to be done at individual NPPs, particularly at the WWER and RBMK plants of the first generation. Safety improvement work for these plants is essential if they are not decommissioned in the near future. The IAEA is continuing to provide specific assistance to Member States with WWER and RBMK NPPs. A specific project on WWER and RBMK safety has already been included in the IAEA Nuclear Safety program for 1999-2000. Three ongoing regional Technical Co-operation projects are also being extended until the year 2000. An important element of this assistance is to strengthen the national regulatory authorities in the countries operating these NPPs on the basis of IAEA recommendations and good international regulatory practices. Of utmost importance is to ensure that the operating organisations draw up a safety case for each NPP based on a plant specific safety analysis and that it is reviewed and approved by the national regulatory authorities. This will allow an assessment of the overall safety impact of plant modifications. (orig.) [Deutsch] Im Jahr 1990 begann ein Zusatzprogramm zum Haushalt der IAEO (Internationale Atomenergie-Organisation). Das Ziel dieses Programms war die Unterstuetzung der Regulierer und Betreiber der Kernkraftwerke des Typs WWER und RBMK bei der Bewertung der Sicherheitsaspekte hinsichtlich der Konstruktion und des Betriebs dieser KKWs. Das Programm lief im Jahr 1998 aus und die IAEO veroeffentlichte einen umfangreichen Abschlussbericht. Die Ergebnisse zeigten, dass trotz der bereits erreichten sicherheitstechnischen Verbesserungen bei

  11. Altered calibration frequency due to performance of sensor tests; Foeraendrade kalibreringsintervall paa grund av genomfoerda sensortester

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergdahl, Bengt-Goeran [GSE Power Systems AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    2006-02-15

    The quality of the instrument components has improved since the 1970s. Nevertheless calibration is performed with the same frequency and extent today in many reactors. The maintenance routines are still the same with the result that many of the components seldom or never need to be adjusted in connection to the calibration. The calibration can furthermore only make sure the static character of the instrument components, which means that dynamic defects like filtering and delay times are missed. The report displays results from KKM (Kernkraftwerk Muehleberg in Switzerland), where dynamic investigations of the instrument system are performed annual since 1994 in cooperation with GSE Power Systems AB. The results are stored in a database with a graphic user interface, which is an important tool for the maintenance of the instrument components. HSK (nuclear power inspectorate in Switzerland) has as a result accepted an extended calibration interval from one to two years for the instrument components, as from year 2000. Calibration results from KKM are presented in the report for the instrument systems: Jet pump flow, steam flow and external recirculation flow during the years 1993-1999. The issue indicates that calibration seldom or never results in adjustment of the components. The performance of calibration demand a lot of work, this fact is also clear with numbers in the report, executed during the regular outage of the plant. The extended calibration interval at KKM since year 2000 implies that work is transferred from the hectic outage to the calm full power operation. It is therefore the author's conclusion that the introduction of this technique at KKM, in a better way than before, reaches the goal with a dynamic and static working instrument system. The fact that the introduction resulted in a reduced demand in calibration and less work during outage is an important economic advantage.

  12. A reactor noise analysis methodology for BWR core stability evaluation: application and assessment to Leibstadt stability tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dokhane, A. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Dokhane, A.; Ferroukhi, H.; Zimmermann, M.A. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Lab. for Reactor Physics and Systems Behavior, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Aguirre, C. [Kernkraftwerk Leibstadt, CH-5325 Leibstadt (Switzerland)

    2005-07-01

    As a first step towards establishing a best-estimate methodology for the evaluation of BWR core stability parameters, i.e. the decay ratio and resonance frequency, from measured reactor noise signals, a systematic approach has recently been developed and adopted at PSI for the analysis of the Swiss BWRs. The aim is to evaluate stability tests in a consistent manner at any operating condition in the power/flow map and for any operating cycle. This methodology principally consists in a general reactor noise analysis where as much as possible information recorded during the tests is investigated prior to determining 'core representative' stability parameters along with an associated uncertainty range. A central part in this approach is that a time series analysis of all measured neutron flux signals, rather than only one or few signals, is performed. In addition, for each signal, three different model-order optimization methods are systematically employed to take into account the sensitivity upon the model-order. The adopted methodology is then applied to the evaluation of the core stability measurements performed at the Kernkraftwerk Leibstadt nuclear power plant, Switzerland, during cycles 10, 13 and 19. A total of 28 tests are hence analyzed. This is primarily done in order to obtain a broad range of tests to serve as basis for the validation of the coupled neutronic/thermal-hydraulic codes used at PSI for BWR stability calculations. In addition, in order to assess the results obtained with the current methodology, a comparative study has been carried out with respect to results from previously developed and applied procedures. The results show a good agreement between the current method and the other methods. (authors)

  13. Power engineering. Systems for energy conversion. Compact knowledge for study and profession. 4. upd. and enl. ed.; Energietechnik. Systeme zur Energieumwandlung. Kompaktwissen fuer Studium und Beruf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahoransky, Richard A.

    2009-07-01

    This textbook imparts to the reader a fundamental understanding for relations of energy conversion processes. It comprises the total spectra of energy engineering, starting with fundamentals of energy process engineering via description of operating power plants (all types) to energy distribution and - storage. Main topics are sustainable energy systems from renewable energy sources. combined systems (e.g. Gas/steam turbine power plants) and plants with cogeneration (e.g. modular cogeneration plants). A new chapter Kyoto-Protocol was created as a concept of emissions-free coal-fired power plants. A new wording for deregulation of energy markets was received. Numerous texts and graphs were been revised. Chapter 18 ''Deregulation of Energy Markets'' is newly revised. Due to its didactic concepts the book directs not only to students but also everybody, who is inerested into actual questions of energy engineering. (org./GL) [German] Dieses Lehrbuch vermittelt dem Leser ein grundlegendes Verstaendnis fuer die Zusammenhaenge der Energieumwandlungsprozesse. Es umfasst die gesamte Bandbreite der Energietechnik. Die Schwerpunkte reichen von nachhaltigen, erneuerbaren Energietechniken, Kombianlagen (z.B. Gas- und Dampfturbinen-Kraftwerke) ueber Anlagen mit Kraft-Waerme-Kaelte-Kopplung bis hin zum Kyoto-Protokoll. Die 4. Auflage beinhaltet erstmals Uebungsaufgaben mit ausfuehrlichen Loesungen zu den einzelnen Kapiteln. Mehrere Kapitel sind aktualisiert. Das Kapitel 18 ''Liberalisierung der Energiemaerkte'' ist neu gefasst. Aus dem Inhalt Energietechnische Grundlagen - Dampfkraftwerke - Kernkraftwerke - Gasturbinen - Kombinationskraftwerke - Stationaere Kolbenmotoren - Brennstoffzellen - Kraft-Waerme-Kaelte-Kopplung - Wasserkraft - Solartechnik - Windenergie - Biomasse - Geothermie - Energetische Muellverwertung - Energieverteilung und -speicherung - Liberalisierung der Energiemaerkte - Kyoto-Protokoll. (orig.)

  14. Transparency and efficiency through plant operations management systems; Transparenz und Effizienz durch Betriebsfuehrungssysteme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ladage, L. [RWE Power AG, Essen (Germany). Informationsmanagement

    2001-04-01

    Plant operations management systems, being IT application systems, provide integral support of the business processes making up plant operations management. The use of plant operations management systems improves mutually interdependent factors, such as high economic performance, high availability, and maximum safety. Since its commissioning in 1988, the Emsland nuclear power station (KKE) has been run with the IBFS plant operations management system. The work flow management system (WfMS), a module of IBFS, is described as an example of job order processing. IBFS-WfMS is to optimize all processes, thus cutting costs and ensuring that processes are run and documented reliably. Assessing the savings effect achieved through the use of IBFS-WfMS clearly reveals the savings in work/time achieved by the system. These savings are quoted as approx. 4 minutes and DM 10, respectively, per working step, which corresponds to several dozens of manyears or several million DM per annum in the KKE plant under consideration. This result can be extrapolated to other plants. (orig.) [German] Betriebsfuehrungssysteme stuetzen als EDV-Anwendungssystem integral die Geschaeftsprozesse der Kraftwerksbetriebsfuehrung. Durch den Einsatz von Betriebsfuehrungssystemen werden die in gegenseitiger Abhaengigkeit befindlichen Faktoren hohe Wirtschaftlichkeit, hohe Verfuegbarkeit und groesstmoegliche Sicherheit im Verbund gefoerdert. Im Kernkraftwerk Emsland (KKE) wird seit Inbetriebnahme der Anlage im Jahr 1988 das Betriebsfuehrungssystem IBFS eingesetzt. Am Beispiel des Workflowmanagementsystems (WfMS), einem Modul des IBFS, wird die Abwicklung von Arbeitsauftraegen dargestellt. Das IBFS-WfMS soll dabei durch Optimierung aller Prozesse sowohl kostensenkend wirken als auch sicherstellen, dass die Prozesse verlaesslich abgewickelt und dokumentiert werden. Eine Abschaetzung des Einspareffektes des IBFS-WfMS zeigt deutlich die durch das System erzielten Ersparnisse an Arbeits-/Zeitaufwand auf

  15. Biological cleaning method for radioactive waste water; Biologisches Reinigungsverfahren fuer radioaktive Abwaesser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lasch, M.; Krumpholz, U. [Kernkraftwerke Gundremmingen Betriebsgesellschaft (Germany); Eickelpasch, N.; Schohe, W. [VAK Kahl (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    Depending on the size of power plants, the waste water consisting of laundry drains and rinsing liquids from the nuclear laundry and the wash rooms within the controlled area may vary between some hundred and some thousand cubic meters. Common practice so far for water cleaning is careful filtration/sedimentation for extraction of radioactive substances, and subsequent discharge into the draining body. If radioactivity removal is insuffient, the water is evaporated for enhancing purification. The paper describes a biological method developed at the Gundremmingen reactor station. The organic matter in the waste water is removed by bacterial biodegradation, boosted by air. The time required for waste water treatment in the collecting tanks of the power plant for removal of the washing agents is approx. 10 hours, and the resulting waste water is then filtered for radioactivity removal from the water, which in the absence of detergents is much more efficient. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] In Kernkraftwerken fallen, je nach Anlagengroesse, einige hundert bis zu einigen tausend Kubikmetern Waschlaugen und Spuelwaesser aus der nuklearen Waescherei sowie aus den Duschen innerhalb des Kontrollbereichs an. Bisherige Praxis ist es, diese Waesser einer sorgfaeltigen Filtration/Sedimentation zur Abtrennung der Radioaktivitaet zu unterwerfen, um sie dann an den Vorfluter abgeben zu koennen. Sofern die Abscheidung der Radioaktivitaet nicht befriedigend moeglich ist, koennen solche Waesser durch Verdampfung gereinigt werden. Im Kernkraftwerk Gundremmingen wurde ein biologisches Verfahren zur Reinigung von Wasch- und Duschwaessern entwickelt. Dabei werden diese Waesser unter Einblasen von Luft bakteriell von organischen Bestandteilen befreit. Behandlungszeiten von ca. 10 Stunden in den im Kraftwerk vorhandenen Sammelbehaeltern reichen aus, um die Waschmittel weitestgehend abzubauen. Wenn die Waschmittel aus der Loesung entfernt worden sind, kann die Abfiltration der radioaktiven

  16. The Kruemmel ruling and its consequences; Das Kruemmel-Urteil und die Folgen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, H. [Hochschule fuer Verwaltungswissenschaften, Speyer (Germany). Forschungsinstitut fuer Oeffentliche Verwaltung

    1997-02-01

    In its forthcoming ruling on the main issue the Higher Administrative Court is going to confirm the gist of its ruling in the interlocutory proceedings and dismiss the action brought against the permit of a modified reactor core (GE-11 fuel elements). Should an appeal be lodged against this expected ruling on points of law, the Federal Administrative Court, in line with its points argued in its ruling of August 21, 1996, will confirm the ruling by the Higher Administrative Court. At this point, at the latest, the issue will be settled formally. In the main, the ruling by the Higher Administrative Court in the interlocutory proceedings already established a remarkable degree of clarity. It is to be hoped that this clarification by the courts of law will inject some objectivity and calm into the political debate about the Kruemmel Nuclear Power Station. (orig.) [Deutsch] Das OVG wird bei seiner anstehenden Entscheidung in der Hauptsache seinen Beschluss im einstweiligen Verfahren im Ergebnis bestaetigen und die Klage gegen die Genehmigung eines veraenderten Reaktorkerns (GE-11-BE) abweisen. Fuer den Fall der Revision gegen dieses zu erwartende Urteil, wird das Bundesverwaltungsgericht entsprechend seinen eigenen Vorgaben im Urteil vom 21.8.96 das Urteil des OVG bestaetigen. Spaetenstens dann ist die Sache formell abgeschlossen; in der Sache selbst herrscht mit dem Beschluss des OVG im einstweiligen Verfahren bereits eine erfreuliche Klarheit. Es bleibt zu hoffen, dass diese gerichtliche Klarstellung ein Stueck Sachlichkeit und Unaufgeregtheit in die politische Diskussion um das Kernkraftwerk Kruemmel bringt. Dann haetten OVG und Bundesverwaltungsgericht ihre friedenstiftende Funktion erfuellt. Das Urteil des Bundesverwaltungsgerichts wird auf die Genehmigungspraxis keine ueber die bisherige Situation hinausgehenden gravierenden Auswirkungen haben - jedenfalls dann nicht, wenn der Bundesminister fuer Umwelt, Naturschutz und Reaktorsicherheit als Bundesaufsicht die

  17. Predicting long-term average concentrations of traffic-related air pollutants using GIS-based information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochadel, Matthias; Heinrich, Joachim; Gehring, Ulrike; Morgenstern, Verena; Kuhlbusch, Thomas; Link, Elke; Wichmann, H.-Erich; Krämer, Ursula

    Global regression models were developed to estimate individual levels of long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollutants. The models are based on data of a one-year measurement programme including geographic data on traffic and population densities. This investigation is part of a cohort study on the impact of traffic-related air pollution on respiratory health, conducted at the westerly end of the Ruhr-area in North-Rhine Westphalia, Germany. Concentrations of NO 2, fine particle mass (PM 2.5) and filter absorbance of PM 2.5 as a marker for soot were measured at 40 sites spread throughout the study region. Fourteen-day samples were taken between March 2002 and March 2003 for each season and site. Annual average concentrations for the sites were determined after adjustment for temporal variation. Information on traffic counts in major roads, building densities and community population figures were collected in a geographical information system (GIS). This information was used to calculate different potential traffic-based predictors: (a) daily traffic flow and maximum traffic intensity of buffers with radii from 50 to 10 000 m and (b) distances to main roads and highways. NO 2 concentration and PM 2.5 absorbance were strongly correlated with the traffic-based variables. Linear regression prediction models, which involved predictors with radii of 50 to 1000 m, were developed for the Wesel region where most of the cohort members lived. They reached a model fit ( R2) of 0.81 and 0.65 for NO 2 and PM 2.5 absorbance, respectively. Regression models for the whole area required larger spatial scales and reached R2=0.90 and 0.82. Comparison of predicted values with NO 2 measurements at independent public monitoring stations showed a satisfactory association ( r=0.66). PM 2.5 concentration, however, was only slightly correlated and thus poorly predictable by traffic-based variables ( rtraffic-related pollutants, and that GIS-based regression models offer a promising

  18. Effects of air pollution on exhaled nitric oxide in children: results from the GINIplus and LISAplus studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chuang; Flexeder, Claudia; Fuertes, Elaine; Cyrys, Josef; Bauer, Carl-Peter; Koletzko, Sibylle; Hoffmann, Barbara; von Berg, Andrea; Heinrich, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    Most previous studies which have investigated the short-term effects of air pollution on airway inflammation, assessed by an increase of exhaled nitric oxide (eNO), have been conducted among asthmatic children. Few studies have considered this potential association among non-asthmatics. Furthermore, although both short- and long-term effects of air pollution on eNO had been reported separately, studies which include both are scarce. We explored associations between 24h NO2 and PM10 (particles with aerodynamic diameters below 10μm) mass with eNO in 1985 children (192 asthmatics and 1793 non-asthmatics) aged 10 years and accounted for the long-term effects of air pollution by adjusting for annual averages of NO2, PM10 mass, PM2.5 mass (particles with aerodynamic diameters below 2.5μm) and PM2.5 absorbance, using data from two German birth cohorts in Munich and Wesel. In total, robust associations between 24h NO2 and eNO were observed in both single-pollutant (percentage change: 18.30%, 95% confidence interval: 11.63-25.37) and two-pollutant models (14.62%, 6.71-23.11). The association between 24h PM10 mass and eNO was only significant in the single-pollutant model (9.59%, 4.80-14.61). The same significant associations were also observed in non-asthmatic children, while they did not reach significant levels in asthmatic children. Associations between annual averages of ambient air pollution (NO2, PM10 mass, PM2.5 mass and PM2.5 absorbance) and eNO were consistently null. In conclusion, significantly positive associations were observed between short-term ambient air pollution and eNO. No long-term effects of air pollution on eNO were found in this study. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. The associations between traffic-related air pollution and noise with blood pressure in children: results from the GINIplus and LISAplus studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chuang; Fuertes, Elaine; Tiesler, Carla M T; Birk, Matthias; Babisch, Wolfgang; Bauer, Carl-Peter; Koletzko, Sibylle; von Berg, Andrea; Hoffmann, Barbara; Heinrich, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    Although traffic emits both air pollution and noise, studies jointly examining the effects of both of these exposures on blood pressure (BP) in children are scarce. We investigated associations between land-use regression modeled long-term traffic-related air pollution and BP in 2368 children aged 10 years from Germany (1454 from Munich and 914 from Wesel). We also studied this association with adjustment of long-term noise exposure (defined as day-evening-night noise indicator "Lden" and night noise indicator "Lnight") in a subgroup of 605 children from Munich inner city. In the overall analysis including 2368 children, NO2, PM2.5 mass (particles with aerodynamic diameters below 2.5μm), PM10 mass (particles with aerodynamic diameters below 10μm) and PM2.5 absorbance were not associated with BP. When restricting the analysis to the subgroup of children with noise information (N=605), a significant association between NO2 and diastolic BP was observed (-0.88 (95% confidence interval: -1.67, -0.08)). However, upon adjusting the models for noise exposure, only noise remained independently and significantly positively associated with diastolic BP. Diastolic BP increased by 0.50 (-0.03, 1.02), 0.59 (0.05, 1.13), 0.55 (0.03, 1.07), and 0.58 (0.05, 1.11)mmHg for every five decibel increase in Lden and by 0.59 (-0.05, 1.22), 0.69 (0.04, 1.33), 0.64 (0.02, 1.27), and 0.68 (0.05, 1.32)mmHg for every five decibel increase in Lnight, in different models of NO2, PM2.5 mass, PM10 mass and PM2.5 absorbance as the main exposure, respectively. In conclusion, air pollution was not consistently associated with BP with adjustment for noise, noise was independently and positively associated with BP in children. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. ILK statement about higher-level conclusion drawn from the event at KKP-2 in connection with the 2001 revision; ILK-Stellungnahme zu uebergeordneten Schlussfolgerungen aus den Ereignissen in KKP 2 in Zusammenhang mit der Revision 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-09-01

    The International Committee on Nuclear Technology (ILK), in its most recent statement, deals with general higher-level aspects resulting from the existing documentation of the events at the Philippsburg 2 nuclear power station (KKP-2) in connection with the 2001 revision. Consequences are treated with respect to safty, safety culture, and the observance of criteria. The ILK feels that the events at Philippsburg are reason enough, above and beyond their direct consequences, to deal with a number of fundamental aspects, and also is of the opinion that a number of useful findings have been made which pertain not only to this plant. Among others, these are the following findings: Safety margins are integral parts of the concept of safety staggered in depth. They must be created to the extent necessary, and they must be available. A safety-oriented organization of the operator must be set up in a planned way, and must be expanded continuously. The relationship between the operator and the regulatory authority must be characterized by the objective of achieving constructive, useful solutions, but must also contain clear requirements to be met by the operator. Requirements and specifications must be formulated unequivocally. As far as the specific events at KKP-2 are concerned, the ILK notes that the operator outlined and analyzed the sequence of events in a way easy to follow, and that the measures derived are adequate. (orig.) [German] Die Internationale Laenderkommission Kerntechnik (ILK) behandelt in ihrer aktuellen Stellungnahme generelle, uebergeordnete Gesichtspunkte, die sich auf den vorliegenden Unterlagen zu den Ereignissen im Kernkraftwerk Philippsburg 2 (KKP-2) im Zusammenhang mit der Revision 2001 ergeben. Es werden Folgerungen fuer die Sicherheit, Sicherheitskultur und die Einhaltung von Vorgaben behandelt. Die ILK ist der Auffassung, dass die Vorkommnisse in Philippsburg Anlass sind, ueber die unmittelbaren Konsquenzen hinaus, einige grundlegende

  1. The practical aspects of discontinuation of nucler plant operation; Die Stillegung kerntechnischer Anlagen in der Praxis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eickelpasch, N. [Kernkraftwerk Gundremmingen Betriebsgesellschaft mbh (Germany)]|[Versuchsatomkraftwerk Kahl (Germany); Guethoff, B. [Preussen Elektra Kernkraft, Kernkraftwerk Wuergassen (Germany); Jungmann, C.R. [Wiederaufbereitungsanlage, Karlsruhe (Germany); Rittscher, D. [Energiewerke Nord GmbH, Lubmin (Germany); Steiner, H. [Kernkraftwerk Gundremmingen Betriebsgesellschaft mbh (Germany)

    1999-05-01

    Dosisbelastung fuer das Personal, einer ueberschaubaren Menge an radioaktiven Abfaellen und unter vernuenftigen wirtschaftlichen Randbedingungen durchgefuehrt werden kann. Die zu treffende Entscheidung zwischen `Sofortigem Abbau` und `Abbau nach Sicherem Einschluss` kann dabei nicht pauschal getroffen werden, sondern haengt von den spezifischen Randbedingungen der Anlage ab - dazu gehoeren die Personalsituation, die Infrastruktur am Ort, Moeglichkeiten zur Endlagerung, aber vor allem finanztechnische Ueberlegungen. Benoetigt werden kuenftig vor allem intelligente Zerlegetechniken - in dem Sinne, dass bekannte Verfahren auch in feindlicher Umgebung, wie hohem Strahlenfeld und grosser Wassertiefe - moeglichst zuverlaessig arbeiten und bei Versagen Reparaturmoeglichkeiten eingeplant werden koennen. Die Behauptung, dass die Stillegung eines Kernkraftwerkes nur mit einem hohen Aufwand an Fernhantiertechnik moeglich sei, hat sich nicht bestaetigt - ihr Einsatz ist hauptsaechlich auf Unterwasserarbeiten beschraenkt. Gerade im Hinblick auf die Endlagerproblematik ist es wichtig, die Menge des radioaktiven Abfalls zu reduzieren. Dafuer muessen dringend leistungsfaehige Dekontaminationsverfahren entwickelt werden, wie z.B. die chemische Dekontamination des Primaerkreises oder das Strahlen von Anlagenteilen mit Stahlkies. (orig.)

  2. On-site Interim Stores for Decommissioning Waste; Standort-Zwischenlager fuer Rueckbauabfaelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geiser, H. [Wissenschaftlich - Technische Ingenieurberatung GmbH (WTI), Juelich (Germany)

    2003-05-01

    Periods of interim storage of radioactive waste above ground perhaps up until 2040 must be bridged in case a repository will not be available in time. Ongoing operation of nuclear power plants and, especially, the increasing rate of decommissioning and demolition of power reactors add to the need to plan for the management of waste arising in operation and demolition. Most of the existing interim storage capacity has been earmarked for waste arising in plant operation. It will become necessary to create additional interim storage capacity in order to allow plants to be decommissioned and demolished speedily and, at the same time, make the necessary provisions for interim storage pending final storage. Government institutions and research centers (FZK, FZJ, VKTA, and EWN) created new storage capacity in recent years. The waste arising from decommissioning and demolition of the Hanau nuclear plants will also be emplaced in a new on-site interim store. At a number of sites where power reactors are going to be decommissioned and demolished, operators also are planning for new interim storage capacity for radioactive waste. An overview is given of the on-site interim stores newly built and the new interim stores currently in the planning phase on various sites where plants are to be dismantled. (orig.) [German] Fuer den Fall, dass ein Endlager nicht rechtzeitig zur Verfuegung steht, sind Zwischenlagerzeitraeume fuer die oberirdische Lagerung von radioaktiven Abfaellen u.U. bis 2040 zu ueberbruecken. Durch den laufenden Betrieb der Kernkraftwerke und insbesondere durch den jetzt verstaerkt einsetzenden Rueckbau der Leistungsreaktoren ergibt sich ein zusaetzlicher Planungszwang als Vorsorge fuer die Entsorgung der Betriebs- und Rueckbauabfaelle. Die bestehenden Zwischenlagerkapazitaeten sind weitgehend fuer die Aufnahme von Betriebsabfaellen verplant. Es wird zukuenftig notwendig werden, weitere Zwischenlagerkapazitaeten zu schaffen, damit ein zuegiger Rueckbau moeglich

  3. Optimization potential in maintenance; Optimierungspotenzial in der Instandhaltung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janisch, H. [EnBW Kraftwerke AG, Kernkraftwerk Philippsburg (Germany)

    2001-04-01

    hohen Zuverlaessigkeit der Anlagen sind diese kapazitaetsbestimmenden Einfluesse auf die Erzeugungskosten aber praktisch ausgeschoepft. Somit steht der Kostenterm im Blickpunkt von Optimierungsansaetzen, d.h. bei den bestehenden Kernkraftwerken insbesondere die Instandhaltungskosten. Bei einem hohen und sich weiter entwickelnden Sicherheitsniveau kann dabei mit den zunehmenden Betriebserfahrungen von der vorbeugenden Instandhaltung auf die kostenoptimierte zustandsorientierte Instandhaltung uebergegangen werden. Weitere Massnahmen fuer fortgeschrittene Instandhaltungsstrategien betreffen die Arbeitsorganisation, das Personalmanagement sowie standortuebergreifende Planungen fuer den Personal- und Anlageneinsatz. Wichtige Komponenten sind EDV-gestuetzte Betriebsfuehrungssysteme, mit denen die komplexen Aufgaben geplant, durchgefuehrt, kontrolliert und analysiert werden koennen. Ziel dieser Massnahmen ist ein weiter optimierter Betrieb der Kernkraftwerke mit hoechster, dem technischen Fortschritt folgender, Sicherheit, bei demonstrierten wettbewerbsfaehigen Stromerzeugungskosten. (orig.)

  4. Causes, consequences, and therapy of the Radiophobia syndrome; Ursachen, Folgen und Therapie des Radiophobie-Syndroms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, K.

    2004-03-01

    The final storage of high-level radioactive waste, which is said to be still open while, in fact, it was solved technically a long time ago and is only being blocked for political reasons, as well as alleged technical risks of German nuclear power plants which have never been demonstrated or proven, are listed again and again as grounds for opting out of the use of nuclear power. There is hardly any doubt that one of the main causes underlying also these arguments, and thus the main reason for the insufficient public acceptance of nuclear power in Germany at the present time as a safe, inexpensive, and non-polluting source of primary energy, is the widespread fear of radiation (radiophobia). Consequently, solutions proposed for successfully managing this radiophobia must be examined. Continued scientific studies of the subject do not seem to be promising, as funds are available at present only for continuing the search for negative biological effects. Important preconditions for a change in attitude are the appropriate initiatives to be taken by the relatively small number of sufficiently independent experts of proven scientific repute. Initiatives of this kind can now be observed in numerous countries and regions in the world. It must be pointed out in this connection, as is underlined again and again by experienced experts, that risk acceptance is not a matter of factual arguments, but of emotions. Psychological and pedagogic sensitivity certainly are important elements in changing public opinion in the interest of a more realistic assessment of the radiation risk and the acceptance of nuclear power. (orig.) [German] Die angeblich noch offene, tatsaechlich aber laengst technisch geloeste und nur politisch blockierte Frage der Endlagerung hochradioaktiver Abfaelle, ebenso wie vorgebliche, tatsaechlich aber nie nachgewiesene technische Risiken der deutschen Kernkraftwerke werden immer wieder als Ausstiegsgruende fuer die Kernenergie genannt. Es bestehen kaum

  5. Reports within the area of nuclear power plant instrumentation: Part 1: Laboratory test of analogue and digital instrument components. Part 2: Dynamic deviations in reactor pressure water level signals caused by sensing lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergdahl, Bengt-Goeran [GSE Power Systems AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    2004-11-01

    type TDE220. The transmitters exhibited deviating dynamics during ordinary sensor tests. The laboratory test confirms the observed deviation in comparison with transmitters of other types. The construction with Bourdon tube is judged to be the reason for the deviations. The report also presents results from trouble shooting with steam pressure transmitters at KKM (Kernkraftwerk Muehleberg m Switzerland). It was possible to identify the intermittent sensor error with the aid of controlled pressure changes. Service of the transmitter pointed out a crack on the electronic filter unit. This was judged to be the reason for the intermittent signal interrupts. Finally, two possibilities used at KKM to investigate the dynamics of temperature sensors are described. Both methods are based on artificial cooling of the sensor. One of them is applied during power operation of the plant and the other during outage. (The present report is a translation of the Swedish language report SKI-R--03-07, published Dec 2002)

  6. VAK Kahl - decommissioning and demolition continued under new auspices; VAK Kahl - Fortsetzung des Rueckbaus unter neuem Vorzeichen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackel, W.; Runge, H. [RWE NUKEM GmbH, Alzenau (Germany)

    2001-11-01

    The Kahl experimental nuclear power station (VAK), the first German nuclear power plant, was decommissioned after 25 years of operation (1961 to 1985). The BWR plant generated approx. 2 million kWh of electricity in 150,000 hours of operation at a gross power of MWe. After the operator, VAK GmbH, had filed an application for decommissioning, the first of four decommissioning permits was issued in 1988. The plant is to be demolished completely so that the site will no longer be within the scope of the Atomic Energy Act. By 2001, demolition work covered by the first decommissioning permit had been finished, also the 2nd and 3rd decommissioning permits had largely been completed, and work under the 4th decommissioning permit had been begun. To acquire technical and organization experience and know-how, the decommissioning and demolition phases are accompanied by research and development work carried out by the operators and by VAK shareholders RWE and E.ON. After the bulk of the work had been completed, the radioactive inventory had been removed from the plant, and the end of the project was in sight, RWE NUKEM GmbH was commissioned to carry on. The main objectives now are speedy completion of the jobs still to be finished, further development for other projects of the know-how acquired, and job protection. The main work still to be carried out includes dismantling of systems no longer needed and of the biological shield as well as decontamination of building structures accompanied by the clearance of buildings and open areas for subsequent conventional demolition. The waste arising will be packaged in accordance with its classification, and will be removed into interim storage or managed in the conventional way. The project is to be completed in the 3rd quarter of 2006. (orig.) [German] Das Versuchsatomkraftwerk Kahl (VAK) mit Siedewasserreaktor, das erste deutsche Kernkraftwerk, wurde nach 25 Betriebsjahren (1961 bis 1985) stillgelegt. Die Siedewasserreaktoranlage

  7. Perfluorinated surfactants in surface and drinking waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skutlarek, Dirk; Exner, Martin; Färber, Harald

    2006-09-01

    In this paper recent results are provided of an investigation on the discovery of 12 perfluorinated surfactants (PS) in different surface and drinking waters (Skutlarek et al. 2006 a, Skutlarek et al. 2006 b). In the last years, many studies have reported ubiquitous distribution of this group of perfluorinated chemicals, especially perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in the environment, particularly in wildlife animal and human samples (Giesy and Kannan 2001, Houde et al. 2006, Prevedouros et al. 2006). Perfluorinated surfactants (e.g. PFOS and PFOA) have shown different potentials for reproductory interference and carcinogenity in animal experiments as well as partly long half-lives in humans (Guruge et al. 2006, FSA UK 2006a, FSA UK 2006b, 3M 2005, OECD 2002, Yao and Zhong 2005). They possess compound-dependent extreme recalcitrance against microbiological and chemical degradation and, in addition, they show variable potentials for bioaccumulation in animals and humans (Houde et al. 2006). Surface and drinking water samples were collected from different sampling sites: Surface waters: samples taken from the rivers Rhine, Ruhr, Moehne and some of their tributaries. Further samples were taken from the Rhine-Herne-Canal and the Wesel-Datteln-Canal. Drinking waters: samples taken in public buildings of the Rhine-Ruhr area. After sample clean-up and concentration by solid-phase extraction, the perfluorinated surfactants were determined using HPLC-MS/MS. All measured concentrations (sum of seven mainly detected components) in the Rhine river and its main tributaries (mouths) were determined below 100 ng/L. The Ruhr river (tributary of the Rhine) showed the highest concentration (94 ng/L), but with a completely different pattern of components (PFOA as major component), as compared with the other tributaries and the Rhine river. Further investigations along the Ruhr river showed remarkably high concentrations of PS in the upper reaches of

  8. Expert report of ENSI on the request of EKKM AG for a general license - Project 'New nuclear power plant to replace the Muehleberg plant'; Gutachten des ENSI zum Rahmenbewilligungsgesuch der EKKM AG. Neubauprojekt Ersatzkernkraftwerk Muehleberg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-09-15

    The 'Ersatz Kernkraftwerk Muehleberg AG' (EKKM) Company submitted to the Swiss Federal Inspectorate of Nuclear Safety (ENSI) a request for a general license for a new power plant to be built near to the Muehleberg power plant. According to the law, all damage risks with a probability higher than 10{sup -4}/a must be taken into account through protection measures. The considered risks concern the power plant itself as well as the population in the neighbourhood and the environment. The purpose of the general license is to demonstrate that the site chosen for the foreseen power plant is acceptable and that the risks can be counteracted through adequate measures. The buildings of the power plant and their partition on the left side of the Aare River are briefly described. The reactor is a Light Water Reactor of third generation with a maximum electrical power of 1.6 GW{sub el}. The European Pressurized water Reactor, which is of the same power class, can be taken as an example for planning that will follow. The main cooling is provided by one or, if needed, two cooling towers using a hybrid system of water evaporation and air heating, what reduces the plume at the exit of the cooling towers. The population density in the neighbourhood of the power plant is low; it is demonstrated that, in the case of a very unlikely severe accident in the power plant, the people in the neighbourhood can be evacuated quickly. Then, numerous types of possible accidents in the neighbourhood of the power plant are analyzed in order to settle their possible negative influence on the operation of the power plant: bursting of gas containers on the neighbouring roads and railways, fires of all types of hydrocarbons, air pollution through chloride gas, etc. The check by ENSI of the EKKM studies on the potential danger for the power plant through neighbouring industrial plants, roads or railways demonstrated that none of the considered accidents presents an unacceptable risk for the

  9. Expert report of ENSI on the request of EKKB AG for a general license - Project 'New nuclear power plant to replace the Beznau plant'; Gutachten des ENSI zum Rahmenbewilligungsgesuch der EKKB AG. Neubauprojekt Ersatzkernkraftwerk Beznau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-09-15

    The 'Ersatz Kernkraftwerk Beznau AG' (EKKB) Company submitted to the Swiss Federal Inspectorate of Nuclear Safety (ENSI) a request for a general license for a new power plant to be built near to the Beznau power plants. According to the law, all damage risks with a probability higher than 10{sup -4}/a must be taken into account through protection measures. The considered risks concern the power plant itself as well as the population in the neighbourhood and the environment. The purpose of the general license is to demonstrate that the site chosen for the foreseen power plant is acceptable and that the risks can be counteracted through adequate measures. The buildings of the power plant and their partition on the Beznau Island in the Aare River are briefly described. The reactor is a Light Water Reactor of third generation with a maximum electrical power of 1450 MW{sub el} {+-}20%. The main cooling is provided by a hybrid system of water evaporation and air heating, what reduces the plume at the exit of the cooling tower. First, it is demonstrated that, in the case of a very unlikely severe accident in the power plant, the people in the neighbourhood can be evacuated quickly. Then, numerous types of possible accidents in the neighbourhood of the power plant are analyzed in order to settle their possible negative influence on the operation of the power plant: bursting of gas containers on the neighbouring roads and railways, fires of all types of hydrocarbons, air pollution through chloride gas, etc. The check by ENSI of the EKKB studies on the potential danger for the power plant through neighbouring industrial plants, roads or railways demonstrated that none of the considered accidents presents an unacceptable risk for the power plant: on the one hand, these plants are located too far from the power plant, so that a sensible injury to the power plant safety can be excluded; on the other, the protection of the power plant can be guaranteed through