WorldWideScience

Sample records for wends

  1. World Energy Data Systems (WENDS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lareau, William E.

    The World Energy Data System (WENDS) allows qualified users on-line access to non-classified management level data on worldwide energy technology and research and development activities. Information is arranged on textual pages and available by means of a simple accessing procedure. Described in this report are the WENDS concept and approach, the…

  2. World Energy Data System (WENDS). Volume VI. International agreement profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-06-01

    The World Energy Data System contains organized data on those countries and international organizations that may have critical impact on world energy. The international agreement profiles in WENDS are all energy-related and are organized by energy technology. These are: coal; conservation; fusion; geothermal; nuclear fission; oil, gas, and shale; solar, wind, and ocean thermal; and other (cooperation in electrical power equipment acquisition, energy, energy research, etc.). The agreement profiles are accessible by energy technology and alphabetically by country.

  3. World Energy Data System (WENDS). Volume V. International organization data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-06-01

    The World Energy Data System contains organized data on those countries and international organizations that may have critical impact on the world energy scene. WENDS has acquired and organized information on the following energy-related organizations: Asian Development Bank; European Economic Community; Inter-American Development Bank; International Atomic Energy Agency; International Energy Agency; Nuclear Energy Agency; United Nations; and World Bank. Within each organizational grouping most of the following topics are addressed: organization background, government background, energy background (energy policy and objectives), energy research and development activities, and international activities.

  4. Die Wende in Deutschland im Spiegel der zeitgenössischen deutschen Literatur

    OpenAIRE

    Soldat, Hans-Georg

    2010-01-01

    Was Wende ist, hat in der Literatur eine enorme Spanne. Wende als Aufhebung geographischer Trennungen (bei Christa Schmidt in "Rauhnächten") und noch mehr örtlicher Einschränkungen (Irina Liebmann in ihrem Roman "In Berlin"). Wende weiter als gewissermaßen "Vorher-Nacherher"-Betrachtungen, als Räsonnement, als verbale Auseinandersetzung mit der eigenen Rolle im gesellschaftlichen Geflecht der früheren DDR. Volker Braun hat diese Form in der >Unterhaltung< (wie er es selbst nennt) "Der Wendeha...

  5. Die Wende der ägyptischen Germanistik von der Kontrastiven zur Interkulturellen Linguistik. Eine herausfordernde Chance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoda Lotfy

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Im Zeitalter der Globalisierung ist der Begriff der Interkulturalität in  den Vordergrund bzw. ins Zentrum verschiedener Disziplinen gerückt. Von einer interkulturellen Wende, die die Sprachwissenschaft auch nicht unangetastet ließ, ist die Rede. Zeittypische Impulse auf internationaler Ebene haben die In- und Auslandsgermanistik gleichermaßen erfasst. Hierbei deutet der Forschungsstand auf eine noch weitgehend undefinierte bzw. unstrukturierte (Teil-Disziplin hin.In ihrer allgemeinen Ausrichtung kann die Germanistische Linguistik in Ägypten (GLÄ seit ihren Anfängen in den siebziger Jahren auf         eine lange Forschungstradition im Bereich der Kontrastiven Linguistik (KL zurückblicken.  Der vorliegende Beitrag versucht chronologisch den Spuren nachzugehen, die hinter einer möglichen Hinwendung      der GLÄ von der kontrastiven zur interkulturellen Linguistik (IL stecken. Das zentrale Anliegen des Aufsatzes ist es die Frage zu beantworten, ob es sich hierbei in Bezug auf außersprachlichen Bedingungen um eine Chance, eine Herausforderung oder etwa         eine herausfordernde Chance für die GLÄ - als Linguistikvariante       der Auslandsgermanistik -  handelt, um  im weiteren Verlauf zur Ausformulierung bzw. Etablierung einer zeittypischen wissenschaftlich fundierten interkulturellen (Teil- Disziplin mit exakt definierten Forschungsgegenständen, Zielen und Methoden einen Beitrag zu leisten.

  6. Ready for tacking?; Klar zur Wende?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franken, Marcus

    2011-06-15

    The article presents a sailing boat whose diesel engine was replaced by a wind rotor, solar cells, and a small hydro-turbine. The boat was used on a demonstration journey to visit solar projects around the baltic Sea.

  7. Konjunktur aktuell: Zyklische Wende in Deutschland steht unmittelbar bevor

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    Das IWH nimmt die Veröffentlichung der gesamtwirtschaftlichen Ergebnisse für 2001 durch das Statistische Bundesamt zum Anlass, seine Konjunkturprognose für Deutschland und für Ostdeutschland vom Dezember 2001 für das laufende Jahr zu aktualisieren. Zugleich gibt es eine erste Vorausschätzung für das Jahr 2003 ab.

  8. 2650-IJBCS-Article-Tapsoba Fidèle Wend Benedo

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    Etude de l'évolution des éléments précurseurs d'eutrophisation des eaux du. Barrage n°3 de .... taux d'accès à l'eau potable en milieu urbain est évalué à .... eaux usées et par Rodier (2009) et avec la ..... MAH (Ministère de l'Agriculture et de.

  9. World Energy Data System (WENDS). Volume XI. Nuclear fission program summaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-06-01

    Brief management and technical summaries of nuclear fission power programs are presented for nineteen countries. The programs include the following: fuel supply, resource recovery, enrichment, fuel fabrication, light water reactors, heavy water reactors, gas cooled reactors, breeder reactors, research and test reactors, spent fuel processing, waste management, and safety and environment. (JWR)

  10. World Energy Data System (WENDS). Volume III. Country data, LY-PO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-06-01

    The World Energy Data System contains organized data on those countries and international organizations that may have critical impact on the world energy scene. Included in this volume, Vol. III, are Libya, Luxembourg, Malaysia, Mexico, Netherlands, New Zealand, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Peru, Philippines, Poland, and Portugal. The following topics are covered for most of the countries: economic, demographic, and educational profiles; energy policy; indigenous energy resources and uses; forecasts, demand, exports, imports of energy supplies; environmental considerations of energy supplies; power production facilities; energy industries; commercial applications of energy; research and development activities of energy; and international activities.

  11. World Energy Data System (WENDS). Volume II. Country data, CZ-KS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-06-01

    The World Energy Data System contains organized data on those countries and international organizations that may have critical impact on the world energy scene. Included in this volume, Vol. II, are Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Egypt, Finland, France, Germany (East), Germany (West), Greece, Guinea, India, Indonesia, Iran, Italy, Japan, and Korea (South). The following topics are covered for most of the countries: economic, demographic, and educational profiles; energy policy; indigenous energy resources and uses; forecasts, demand, exports, imports of energy supplies; environmental considerations of energy use; power production facilities; energy industries; commercial applications of energy; research and development activities of energy; and international activities.

  12. Kopernikanische Wende in der sowjetischen Völkerrechtstheorie / Henn-Jüri Uibopuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Uibopuu, Henn-Jüri, 1929-2012

    1988-01-01

    Vastukaja artiklile Мюллерсон, Рейн, Верещетин, Владлен. Новое мышление и международное право // Советское государство и право (1988) nr. 3, lk. 3-9

  13. Kopernikanische Wende in der sowjetischen Völkerrechtstheorie / H.-J. Uibopuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Uibopuu, Henn-Jüri, 1929-2012

    1988-01-01

    Vastukaja artiklile Мюллерсон, Рейн, Верещетин, Владлен. Новое мышление и международное право // Советское государство и право (1988) nr. 3, lk. 3-9

  14. Kopernikanische Wende in der sowjetischen Völkerrechtstheorie / H.-J. Uibopuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Uibopuu, Henn-Jüri, 1929-2012

    1988-01-01

    Vastukaja artiklile Мюллерсон, Рейн, Верещетин, Владлен. Новое мышление и международное право // Советское государство и право (1988) nr. 3, lk. 3-9

  15. World Energy Data System (WENDS). Volume VII. Nuclear facility profiles, AG--CH. [Brief tabulated information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-06-01

    In this compendium each profile of a nuclear facility is a capsule summary of pertinent facts regarding that particular installation. The facilities described include the entire fuel cycle in the broadest sense, encompassing resource recovery through waste management. Power plants and all US facilities have been excluded. To facilitate comparison the profiles have been recorded in a standard format. Because of the breadth of the undertaking some data fields do not apply to the establishment under discussion and accordingly are blank. The set of nuclear facility profiles occupies four volumes; the profiles are ordered by country name, and then by facility code. Each nuclear facility profile volume contains two complete indexes to the information. The first index aggregates the facilities alphabetically by country. It is further organized by category of facility, and then by the four-character facility code. It provides a quick summary of the nuclear energy capability or interest in each country and also an identifier, the facility code, which can be used to access the information contained in the profile.

  16. World Energy Data System (WENDS). Volume VIII. Nuclear facility profiles, CO--HU. [Brief tabulated information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-06-01

    In this compendium each profile of a nuclear facility is a capsule summary of pertinent facts regarding that particular installation. The facilities described include the entire fuel cycle in the broadest sense, encompassing resource recovery through waste management. Power plants and all US facilities have been excluded. To facilitate comparison the profiles have been recorded in a standard format. Because of the breadth of the undertaking some data fields do not apply to the establishment under discussion and accordingly are blank. The set of nuclear facility profiles occupies four volumes; the profiles are ordered by country name, and then by facility code. Each nuclear facility profile volume contains two complete indexes to the information. The first index aggregates the facilities alphabetically by country. It is further organized by category of facility, and then by the four-character facility code. It provides a quick summary of the nuclear energy capability or interest in each country and also an identifier, the facility code, which can be used to access the information contained in the profile.

  17. World Energy Data System (WENDS). Volume X. Nuclear facility profiles, PO--ZA. [Brief tabulated information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-06-01

    In this compendium each profile of a nuclear facility is a capsule summary of pertinent facts regarding that particular installation. The facilities described include the entire fuel cycle in the broadest sense, encompassing resource recovery through waste management. Power plants and all US facilities have been excluded. To facilitate comparison the profiles have been recorded in a standard format. Because of the breadth of the undertaking some data fields do not apply to the establishment under discussion and accordingly are blank. The set of nuclear facility profiles occupies four volumes; the profiles are ordered by country name, and then by facility code. Each nuclear facility profile volume contains two complete indexes to the information. The first index aggregates the facilities alphabetically by country. It is further organized by category of facility, and then by the four-character facility code. It provides a quick summary of the nuclear energy capability or interest in each country and also an identifier, the facility code, which can be used to access the information contained in the profile.

  18. World Energy Data System (WENDS). Volume IX. Nuclear facility profiles, IN--PL. [Brief tabulated information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-06-01

    In this compendium each profile of a nuclear facility is a capsule summary of pertinent facts regarding that particular installation. The facilities described include the entire fuel cycle in the broadest sense, encompassing resource recovery through waste management. Power plants and all US facilities have been excluded. To facilitate comparison the profiles have been recorded in a standard format. Because of the breadth of the undertaking some data fields do not apply to the establishment under discussion and accordingly are blank. The set of nuclear facility profiles occupies four volumes; the profiles are ordered by country name, and then by facility code. Each nuclear facility profile volume contains two complete indexes to the information. The first index aggregates the facilities alphabetically by country. It is further organized by category of facility, and then by the four-character facility code. It provides a quick summary of the nuclear energy capability or interest in each country and also an identifier, the facility code, which can be used to access the information contained in the profile.

  19. Alles Banane? Fiktionale Erinnerung an DDR und Wende in den ersten zwanzig Jahren nach dem Mauerfall

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maczka, Iwona Maria

    2010-01-01

    How are the GDR and the fall of the Berlin Wall remembered? The dissertation “Alles Banane?” deals with this question. It assumes that identity, individual as well as collective, is a social, cultural and political construction based on the memory of the past. This construction is not only pre-shape

  20. Kopernikanische Wende in der sowjetischen Völkerrechtstheorie / Henn-Jüri Uibopuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Uibopuu, Henn-Jüri, 1929-2012

    1988-01-01

    Vastukaja artiklile Мюллерсон, Рейн, Верещетин, Владлен. Новое мышление и международное право // Советское государство и право (1988) nr. 3, lk. 3-9

  1. World Energy Data System (WENDS). Volume I. Country data, AF-CO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-06-01

    The World Energy Data System contains organized data on those countries and international organizations that may have critical impact on the world energy scene. Volumes 1 through 4 include energy-related information concerning 57 countries. Additional volumes (5 through 11) present review information on international organizations, summaries of energy-related international agreements, and fact sheets on nuclear facilities. Country data on Afghanistan, Algeria, Argentina, Australia, Austria, Bangladesh, Belgium, Bolivia, Brazil, Burma, Canada, China, and Colombia are included in Volume 1. The following topics are covered for most of the countries: economic, demographic, and educational profiles; energy policy; indigenous energy resources and uses; forecasts, demand, exports, imports of energy supplies; environmental considerations; power production facilities; energy industries; commercial applications of energy; research and development activities of energy; and international activities.

  2. World Energy Data System (WENDS). Volume IV. Country data, SG-YO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-06-01

    The World Energy Data System contains organized data on those countries and international organizations that may have critical impact on the world energy scene. Included in this volume, Vol. IV, are Senegal, South Africa, Soviet Union, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Turkey, United Kingdom, United States, Upper Volta, Venezuela, and Yugoslavia. The following topics are covered for most of the countries: economic, demographic, and educational profiles; energy policy; indigenous energy resources and uses; forecasts, demand, exports, imports of energy supplies; environmental considerations of energy supplies; power production facilities; energy industries; commercial applications of energy; research and development activities of energy; and international activities.

  3. Berufserfolg im Transformationsprozeß : eine theoretisch empirische Studie über die Gewinner und Verlierer der Wende in Ostdeutschland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kropp, Per Bruno

    1998-01-01

    This study focuses on the explanation of changes in occupational success in East Germany since the political turnover in 1989. The theoretical considerations, which are used in this study, are mainly based on results of labor market research in western economies (i.e., theories on labor market segme

  4. Berufserfolg im Transformationsprozeß : eine theoretisch empirische Studie über die Gewinner und Verlierer der Wende in Ostdeutschland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kropp, Per Bruno

    1998-01-01

    This study focuses on the explanation of changes in occupational success in East Germany since the political turnover in 1989. The theoretical considerations, which are used in this study, are mainly based on results of labor market research in western economies (i.e., theories on labor market segme

  5. Hepatoprotective and Antioxidant Effects of Saponarin, Isolated from Gypsophila trichotoma Wend. on Paracetamol-Induced Liver Damage in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rumyana Simeonova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The hepatoprotective potential of saponarin, isolated from Gypsophila trichotoma, was evaluated in vitro/in vivo using a hepatotoxicity model of paracetamol-induced liver injury. In freshly isolated rat hepatocytes, paracetamol (100 μmol led to a significant decrease in cell viability, increased LDH leakage, decreased levels of cellular GSH, and elevated MDA quantity. Saponarin (60–0.006 μg/mL preincubation, however, significantly ameliorated paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in a concentration-dependent manner. The beneficial effect of saponarin was also observed in vivo. Rats were challenged with paracetamol alone (600 mg/kg, i.p. and after 7-day pretreatment with saponarin (80 mg/kg, oral gavage. Paracetamol toxicity was evidenced by increase in MDA quantity and decrease in cell GSH levels and antioxidant defence system. No changes in phase I enzyme activities of AH and EMND and cytochrome P 450 quantity were detected. Saponarin pretreatment resulted in significant increase in cell antioxidant defence system and GSH levels and decrease in lipid peroxidation. The biochemical changes are in good correlation with the histopathological data. Protective activity of saponarin was similar to the activity of positive control silymarin. On the basis of these results, it can be concluded that saponarin exerts antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity against paracetamol liver injury in vitro/in vivo.

  6. Vom Tod als Experiment im Leben zum Kino der ethischen Handlungsmacht: Fatih Akin und die 'Ethische Wende'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsaesser, T.; Schick, T.; Ebbrecht, T.

    2011-01-01

    Wie für viele meiner Generation war die Liebe zum Kino stets mehr als Unterhaltung. Es ging auchimmer um die Frage, welchen Platz Kino im öffentlichen Raum einnahm, und welche Rolle der Film für eine fortschritt liche Politik spielen konnte. Nachden entt äuschten Hoffnungen der 1960er Jahre mutierte

  7. Julia Obertreis, Anke Stephan (Hg.: Erinnerungen nach der Wende. Oral History und (postsozialistische Gesellschaften. Essen: Klartext Verlag 2009.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Kittel

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Im Sammelband wird eine breite Palette von Forschungen zu Postsozialismus und biographischen Erinnerungen an die sozialistische Vergangenheit vorgestellt. Autorinnen und Autoren aus zwölf Ländern diskutieren laufende oder gerade abgeschlossene Dissertationsprojekte, die alle auf Oral-History-Interviews basieren. Indem die Erinnerungen der Menschen Ausgangspunkt der Betrachtung sind, gelingt es in dem Band, unterschiedlichste Lebenswelten und individuelle Umgangsweisen mit der vergangenen sozialistischen Welt und die fortdauernde Aushandlung verschiedener Versionen von Vergangenheitsdeutung in Südost- und Mitteleuropa vorzustellen. Die Sammlung der vielfältigen Erfahrungshorizonte von Frauen und Männern, Alten und Jungen, ehemaligen Opfern und heutigen Aktivist/-innen stellt eine Systematisierung der Erkenntnisse allerdings vor Probleme: Können, sollen oder müssen Erinnerungs- oder Erfahrungsmuster von Frauen in einem eigenen Kapitel diskutiert werden?The anthology presents a wide range of research on post-socialism and biographical retrospections on the socialist past. The authors, hailing from twelve different countries, discuss current or recently finished dissertation projects that are all based on oral-history-interviews. Taking the interviewees’ retrospections as point of departure for the observations, the anthology succeeds in presenting very diverse environments and individual ways of handling the past socialist world and the ongoing negotiations of different versions in interpreting the past in South-Eastern and Central Europe. However, the collection of the various horizons of experience of women and men, old and young, former victims and modern activists poses a problem to the systematization of the findings: can, should or must women’s patterns of retrospection and experience be discussed in a separate chapter?

  8. Julia Obertreis, Anke Stephan (Hg.): Erinnerungen nach der Wende. Oral History und (post)sozialistische Gesellschaften. Essen: Klartext Verlag 2009.

    OpenAIRE

    Sabine Kittel

    2011-01-01

    Im Sammelband wird eine breite Palette von Forschungen zu Postsozialismus und biographischen Erinnerungen an die sozialistische Vergangenheit vorgestellt. Autorinnen und Autoren aus zwölf Ländern diskutieren laufende oder gerade abgeschlossene Dissertationsprojekte, die alle auf Oral-History-Interviews basieren. Indem die Erinnerungen der Menschen Ausgangspunkt der Betrachtung sind, gelingt es in dem Band, unterschiedlichste Lebenswelten und individuelle Umgangsweisen mit der vergangenen sozi...

  9. Energy - the problem and the transition in physics, technics, and environment; Energie - das Problem und die Wende in Physik, Technik und Umwelt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stierstadt, Klaus

    2015-11-01

    What existed first, the energy problem or the energy transition? For the clarification of this question the author gives a survey about the actual situation of our energy demand and the means and ways to its satisfaction. The reader learns to know the function of numerous energy transformers, from the wind mill via the automobile motor until the solar cell. The advantages and disadvantages of the different transformers are explained, just so their efficiencies and cost as well as the physical natural laws, which they must obey. A perpetuum mobile doesn't exist, but indeed an almost inexhaustible energy source, the sun, which can meet many thousandfold our demand, if we use it intelligently. Who has read this book can go confidently in each discussion about the energy problem and the energy transition.

  10. Rezension von: Julia Obertreis, Anke Stephan (Hg.): Erinnerungen nach der Wende. Oral History und (post)sozialistische Gesellschaften. Essen: Klartext Verlag 2009.

    OpenAIRE

    Sabine Kittel

    2011-01-01

    Im Sammelband wird eine breite Palette von Forschungen zu Postsozialismus und biographischen Erinnerungen an die sozialistische Vergangenheit vorgestellt. Autorinnen und Autoren aus zwölf Ländern diskutieren laufende oder gerade abgeschlossene Dissertationsprojekte, die alle auf Oral-History-Interviews basieren. Indem die Erinnerungen der Menschen Ausgangspunkt der Betrachtung sind, gelingt es in dem Band, unterschiedlichste Lebenswelten und individuelle Umgangsweisen mit der vergangenen sozi...

  11. Land’s End: A History of the New Orleans District, U. S. Army Corps of Engineers, and Its Lifelong Battle with the Lower Mississippi and Other Rivers Wending Their Way to the Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    formation of the ice sheet had meantime emptied the Embayment, and across this land, which had lately been seabottom, a new river began to incise its...General Andrew Jackson, Commander of the Department of the South, on the conditions of the Florida fortifications, especially of Barrancas in...was destroying navigation by the "correspondingly rapid formation and growth of the already extensive sand bar upon the opposite side" of the river

  12. Two factors defining humus as a key structural component of soil organic matter and as a physicochemical speciation of carbon in its turnover wending its way through the micro environment of soil, sediments and natural waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksandrova, Olga

    2016-04-01

    Over the last 40-50 years, the scientific community started to question the model of soil organic matter. Close consideration has been given to the following models: the classic model that regards a significant part of soil organic matter as large, covalently bonded 'humus polymers', which are formed via "humification", and the continuum model that considers soil organic matter as 'supra molecular aggregates of degradation fragments'[1]. The underlying cause of a contradiction between 'humus polymers' model and continuum model of SOM implies that 'the vast majority of operationally defined humic material in soils is a very complex mixture of microbial and plant biopolymers and their degradation products but not a distinct chemical category'. Furthermore, authors [1] of the continuum model suggested 'to turn to modern, evidence based concept, and to abandon the operational proxies of the past' that means to consider term 'humus' as an out-of-date model. However, micro cosmos of organic matter in soil implies not only an assemblage of molecular units but also a system of interactions of different types [2]. Peculiar interactions in SOM allow us to understand a lot of physicochemical phenomena observed in soil samples, for example by EPR and SL EPR examinations [3, 4, 5]. Among specific interactions in soil, mention should be made of hydrogen (H) bonds and hydrophobic interaction. Spin Labeling EPR examination of natural and labeled soil samples showed that in SOM, there are stable and roaming H-bonds. Stable H-bonds are typical of a part of SOM, which can be isolated as humus, whereas a non-humified part of SOM is rich in roaming hydrogen bonds. Addition of some water (more than maximal moisture) to soil leads to disintegration of some weak H-bond. Other solvents influence SOM the same way but they disintegrate stronger or weaker H-bonds in dependence on used solvent. Thus in soil, different environmental conditions (like moisture, temperature or pollution) influence on a change in the partitioning of roaming H-bonds, and in turn, define components, into which non-humified SOM can be disintegrated. Therefore, some physicochemical species of SOM, which can be observed in physicochemical processes of carbon turnover in soil, originate from disintegrated SOM bulged at the seams of weak H-bonds, and doesn't reveal strong properties of humus because humus structure is still bound to SOM via stronger H-bonds. Also, SL EPR examination of native and labeled soil samples revealed the substantial influence of hydrophobic interaction on physicochemical speciation of carbon in soil, and this interaction is mediated by humus [3]. Among different effects of hydrophobic interaction, the formation of condensed matter is of great interest. Condensed matter mediated by humic acids is shown to reveal specific quantum properties and invoke hydrodynamic instability on the surface of plant roots that results in uptake of the whole nano-pieces of humus by plant roots, as it was observed in [6, 7]. Considered effects of H-bonds with different bonding energy and hydrophobic interaction in SOM show that a carbon turnover in soil is mediated by humus, and humus play a substantial role as the physicochemical speciation in carbon turnover. Thus, model of 'humus' is still an up-to-date model. 1.Lehmann J. &Kleber H. (2015). Nature, 528, Issue 7580, 60 - 68. 2. M. Hutta, R. Gora, R. Halko, et al., (2011). J. Chromatogr. A., 1218, 8946. 3. Alexanderova O.N. (2015). J Soils Sediments, DOI 10.1007/s11368-015-1195-2 4. Aleksandrova O.N., Kholodov V.A., Perminova I.V. (2015). Russian Journal of Physical Chemistry A, 2015, Vol. 89, No. 8, pp. 1407-1413. 5. Aleksandrova O.N. (2013). J Geochem Explor 129:6-13. 6. Smirnov A.I. et al. (1991). J. of Magnetic Resonance 91, 386-391 7. Kulikova N.V. et al. (2012). Conference HIT-2012.

  13. In the wind of change. The wind power as pacesetters and guide to a fast turn to renewable energies; Im Wind des Wandels. Die Windkraft als Schrittmacher und Wegweiser zu einer schnellen Wende zu Erneuerbaren Energien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheer, H.; Alt, F.

    2007-07-01

    All renewable energy potentials (water power, bioenergy, wave power, geothermal energy) clearly are widespread as oil, natural gas, coal or uranium. For these potentials there are natural, spatial restrictions. In contrast to this, there exist any spatial restrictions for solar power and wind force. Under this aspect, the author of the contribution under consideration reports on wind force as a pacesetter and guide to a fast turn to renewable energy. Solar energy and wind energy have two crucial advantages of realizations: (a) The solar power plants and wind power plants can be installed faster than all other plants for generation of electrical power; (b) Solar power plants and wind power plants enable a radical shortening and simplification for the power supply. The generation and supply of electricity from solar power and wind power are also economically undefeatable. It is not a utopia to increase the contribution of the wind energy at the German power generation on basis of the renewable energy law in few years on over 40 %. The thesis, a further development of the wind power only is possible with offshore installations, because no suitable locations are present in the inland, is not correct. The emphasis of the use of wind power must remain with onshore plants. A broad dispersion of wind power plants should have priority, because the grid entrance is more easily realizable. The political attention must be directed toward the overcoming of the permission obstacles. Wind energy enables the passing of electricity from the shade of atomic and fossil power supply.

  14. The German-German history of the nuclear power plant Greifswald. Nuclear power between east and west. 2. ed.; Die deutsch-deutsche Geschichte des Kernkraftwerkes Greifswald. Atomenergie zwischen Ost und West

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoegselius, Per [Technische Hochschule Stockholm (Sweden). Bereich Gesellschaft, Wissenschaft und Technik

    2015-07-01

    The historical study covers the chapters The nuclear power plant Greifswald; Lubmin shortly before the ''Wende'' 1989; the German ''Wende''; from the last vote for the ''Volkskammer (parliament of the German Democratic Republic) to the German reunification; Lubmin in reunified Germany; conclusions and perspectives. In the attachment technical data about the reactors WWER-440/W-230 are summarized, including a list of WWERs in the former eastern bloc countries.

  15. Educación formal, no formal e informal en el Espacio Europeo: nuevas exigencias para los procesos de formación en educación

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández García, Carmen María; Rodríguez Menéndez, María del Carmen

    2005-01-01

    El año 2010 se vislumbra como el horizonte que marcará el inicio de interesantes cambios en el ámbito de la Educación Superior. Las razones que explican esta circunstancia son variadas: deficiencias observadas en algunos modelos nacionales de Educación Superior, insuficiente competitividad de las instituciones de Educación Superior Europea o la necesidad de ajustar la formación universitaria a las demandas sociales o del mercado laboral, son algunas de ellas (Van Der Wende, 2000; Van Der Wend...

  16. The Role of Social Work in the Defense of Reproductive Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Alice; Davis, Liane V.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses barriers to abortion in terms of funding and access and examines available literature on how abortion affects pregnant woman and how being denied abortion affects mother and child. Describes other threats to reproductive freedom currently wending their way through state legislatures or being applied by courts: states' responses to…

  17. The Abstraction Engine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fortescue, Michael David

    The main thesis of this book is that abstraction, far from being confined to higher forms of cognition, language and logical reasoning, has actually been a major driving force throughout the evolution of creatures with brains. It is manifest in emotive as well as rational thought. Wending its way...

  18. Toleration, Synthesis or Replacement?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtermann, Jakob v. H.; Madsen, Mikael Rask

    2016-01-01

    to have considerable problems keeping a clear focus on the key question: What are the implications of this empirical turn in terms of philosophy of legal science, of the social understanding of IL, and, not least, of the place of doctrinal scholarship after the alleged Wende? What is needed, we argue...

  19. Pursue A New Horizon in the China Skies——Lufthansa, the 80th Anniversary in China Accompanied by Ample Market Opportunities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Yan; Sun Yongjian

    2006-01-01

    @@ Lufthansa German Airline, one of the leading international airlines in the world, is celebrating the 80th anniversary of its business in China. In October, China's Foreign Trade interviewed Mr. Gregor Wende, Chief Representative of Lufthansa China. He stressed that Lufthansa China is making full preparations to meet the 2008 Olympic Games in Beijing. The follows are his answers.

  20. Teaching Language, Teaching Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddicoat, Anthony J., Ed.; Crozet, Chantal, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    Essays and research reports on the relationship between teaching second languages and teaching culture include: "Teaching Culture as an Integrated Part of Language Teaching: An Introduction" (Chantal Crozet, Anthony J. Liddicoat); "Primary Socialization and Cultural Factors in Second Language Learning: Wending Our Way through Semi-Charted…

  1. Simpler methods do it better: Success of Recurrence Quantification Analysis as a general purpose data analysis tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webber, Charles L., E-mail: cwebber@lumc.ed [Department of Cell and Molecular Physiology, Loyola University Medical Center, Maywood, IL (United States); Marwan, Norbert, E-mail: marwan@pik-potsdam.d [Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research (PIK), 14412 Potsdam (Germany); Facchini, Angelo, E-mail: a.facchini@unisi.i [Center the Study of Complex Systmes and Department of Information Enginering, University of Siena, 53100 Siena (Italy); Giuliani, Alessandro, E-mail: alessandro.giuliani@iss.i [Environment and Health Department, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Roma (Italy)

    2009-10-05

    Over the last decade, Recurrence Quantification Analysis (RQA) has become a new standard tool in the toolbox of nonlinear methodologies. In this Letter we trace the history and utility of this powerful tool and cite some common applications. RQA continues to wend its way into numerous and diverse fields of study.

  2. Gum Disease May Be Linked to Cancer Risk in Older Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... report was published Aug. 1 in the journal Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention . SOURCES: Jean Wactawski-Wende, Ph.D., ... Hill Hospital, New York City; Aug. 1, 2017, Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention HealthDay Copyright (c) 2017 HealthDay . All ...

  3. Johannes die doper (II: Sy prediking en Doop.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. J. Snyman

    1959-03-01

    Full Text Available In die vorige artikel is getrag om belyning te gee aan hierdie groot gestalte aan die wending van die eeue, deur Christus genoem die grootste van alle mensekinders. In wat volg word dieselfde gedoen met betrekking tot sy optrede.

  4. Textsorten - natürliche Sprachformen oder kulturelle Sprachformen?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Müller

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Hinsichtlich dieser Problematik befinden wir uns in der textlinguistischen Begriffsbildung. Textsorte ist ein Begriff der Textlinguistik, der seit der Wende von den 60er zu den 70er Jahren etablierten Disziplin der Sprachwissenschaft. Diese galt damals als neu.1

  5. Monika Maron: Love and writing in a political climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. van Luxemburg

    1997-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the relationship between the love story and official history in Animal triste by the German novelist Monika Maron. Despite suggestions that the love story could have happened at any time or place, a strong case can be made for a special interwovenness of the personal and the political in this Wende novel. Timelessness thus gives way to the intertwinement of a love story with a period in history, the Wende, the period of political change in Germany in 1989-1990. On the other hand, the love story's political dimensions contribute to another form of timelessness, a kind of religious belief in the eternity of love. Before discussing Animal triste, I trace the relationship between love and politics in Maron's earlier novels.

  6. Kroniek roeping: ‘toneel’ of werklikheid?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial Office

    1977-03-01

    Full Text Available Enigiemand wat praat van ’n krisis in ons tyd sal aan die gemecn- skap tot wie hy horn rig, ’n guns bewvs as hy hom dccglik verge - wis van die staanplek wat hy innecm tecnoor die afloop van die krisis. Wanneer ’n krisis beskryl word as „die beslissende wending van ’n saak”, dan is dit duidelik dat die krisis slegs deel is van ’n proses. Die krisis is die punt waar die wending hom moct begin afwen. lets moet begin verander. Al sal alle uiterlike omstandig- hede ook uiteindelik presies dieselfde wees as voorheen, sal ten minste die diepte en die intensiteit van die belewing daarvan nie meer dieselfde kan wees nie.

  7. Schöneweide - neu kollagiert. Ein künstlerisches Forschungsprojekt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Markert

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Der Berliner Stadtteil Schöneweide – einst AEG-Areal und Wiege der Elektrifizierung Berlins - war bis zur Wende einer der größten Industriestandorte Europas. Nach der Wende schlossen nahezu alle Industriebetriebe. Seitdem stehen die meisten Fabrikhallen leer. Seit einiger Zeit wandelt sich Oberschöneweide: Die Hochschule für Technik und Wirtschaft hat seit einigen Jahren hier ihren Hauptstandort; eine international expandierende Kunstgießerei hat eine neue Produktionsstätte eröffnet; der kanadische Rocksänger und Fotograf Bryan Adams plant, ein Kulturzentrum zum internationalen Austausch in einer der ehemaligen Produktionshallen zu etablieren. Seit einigen Jahren ziehen zahlreiche Designer_innen, Künstler_innen und Student_innen nach Schöneweide und prägen zunehmend das Erscheinungsbild des Stadtteils (...

  8. Targeting the Ron-DEK Signaling Axis in Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    prompts the stabilization and activation of β-catenin and can promote proliferation in triple - negative breast cancer.53 Wnt10b is an early marker of...Wend K, Anchondo B, Yesayan M, Jardon M et al.WNT10B/beta- catenin signalling induces HMGA2 and proliferation in metastatic triple - negative breast cancer...about the importance of these pathways with respect to overall tumor growth and metastatic dissemination. Our laboratories have shown that mammary

  9. China Confronts Afghan Drugs: Law Enforcement Views of The Golden Crescent

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    Illegal Drug Crimes in the Southwest Region and of the Policy Direction in Counternarcotics” (Shi lun Xibu diqu dupin fanzui de yanjun xingshi ji Jindu...Boyang, “On Counternarcotics Intelligence Cooperation in China’s Western Regions” (Lun xibu diqu de jindu qingbao xiezuo; 论西部毒品的进度情报协作), Journal of...and its Impact on Our Country’s Regional Stability,” (Zhongya dupin wenti de guojihua ji qi dui Woguo Diqu Wending de Yingxiang; 中亚毒品问题国际化及其对我国稳定的影

  10. Lebendige Erzählungen: Die Rolle der Forschenden bei der Erzählung von Lebensgeschichten

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Narrative Forschung erlaubt, das "Innenleben" analytischer Texte "zu enthüllen", das sonst üblicherweise im Dunkeln bleibt, und ist insoweit eine machtvolles Instrument in der Werkzeugkiste der Forschenden. Der interpretative Charakter narrativer Forschung geht über das bloße Dokumentieren und Wiedergeben von Daten hinaus. In diesem Beitrag beschäftige ich mich mit ethischen Implikationen der narrative Wende in der Sozialforschung, so u.a. mit der Frage, wem eine Geschichte gehört, nachd...

  11. III. Zweiter Aufzug

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    1. Erstes Bild (II 1) a) Einleitung Libanus kehrt unverrichteter Dinge vom Forum zurück (zu dem sich in Verbindung mit der Auffälligkeit von 117~126 ergebenen Anstoß siehe Einleitung I 1). In einem Auftrittsmonolog, der in überraschender Wende in ein auspicium mündet, ermahnt er sich zur Intrige (249-58). Die Vogelschau (259-66) wird durch den heranstürmenden Leonida zum Abschluss gebracht. In Av. 593ff. spielt Aristophanes parodistisch auf die mannigfaltigen Auslegungen der Vogelzeichen an (...

  12. Nationwide Genomic Study in Denmark Reveals Remarkable Population Homogeneity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Athanasiadis, Georgios; Cheng, Jade Y; Vilhjálmsson, Bjarni J;

    2016-01-01

    polygenic predictions of phenotypic traits in adolescents. We observed remarkable homogeneity across different geographic regions, although we could still detect weak signals of genetic structure reflecting the history of the country. Denmark presented genomic affinity with primarily neighboring countries...... with overall resemblance of decreasing weight from Britain, Sweden, Norway, Germany and France. A Polish admixture signal was detected in Zealand and Funen and our date estimates coincided with historical evidence of Wend settlements in the south of Denmark. We also observed considerably diverse demographic...

  13. Power Down

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Cai Wending and his colleague Xie Changsheng have been living out of a suitcase for the past two months.The pair,managers at a coal-fired power plant in Hunan Province,have been staying in a modest three-star hotel in Jincheng,a small city in Shanxi Province.They are not the only long-term residents of the hotel.Numerous power plant officials have been drawn to Jincheng from across China,all for the same purpose-to buy coal.

  14. Metateoretiese vertrekpunte ten opsigte van wetenskaplike navorsing in die Liturgiek

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barend J. de Klerk

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Om die nuwe ontwikkelings in die Liturgiek grondig te kan beoordeel, moet na die metateoretiese onderbou van die verskillende standpunte gekyk word. Wanneer ’n navorser op die terrein van die Liturgiek nie hierdie wendings in sy metateoretiese vertrekpunte verreken nie, kan sodanige navorser of meegesleur word deur hierdie denkrigtings, of aan die ander kant, impulsief reaksionêr ’n onwetenskaplike oordeel daaroor uitspreek. Die navorsingsartikel het daarom ten doel om die eie reformatoriese metateoretiese vertrekpunte ten opsigte van die Liturgiek te probeer formuleer en om vas te stel wat die invloed daarvan is in die konteks van wendings in die denkklimaat asook die leefwêreld en kultuur waarin die wetenskaplike taak uitgevoer word. Hierdie navorsingsartikel het verder ten doel om ’n voorbeeld daar te stel hoe hierdie metateoretiese beskouing ’n navorsingsprojek kan stuur. Die wyse waarop God in die doop werksaam is en die effek daarvan op vergifnis en versoening in die Suid-Afrikaanse konteks, is die voorbeeld van hoe ’n navorsingsprojek in die wetenskap van die Liturgiek aangepak kan word.

  15. Wider den Skeptizismus Contrary to Skepticism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin Hönig

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Die feministische Wissenschaftskritik leide seit einiger Zeit unter einer problematischen erkenntnistheoretischen Wende; so lautet die Diagnose von Sharyn Clough. Dabei verfehle sie ihr eigentliches Geschäft, nämlich die Kritik wissenschaftlicher Praxis. Die Konzentration auf erkenntnistheoretische Fragen rufe außerdem einen globalen Skeptizismus auf den Plan, der sich verheerend auf die Glaubwürdigkeit feministischer Erkenntnisansprüche auswirke. Mit einem antirepräsentationalistischen Ansatz soll diesem Problem begegnet werden.Feminist scientific criticism has been suffering for some time under a problematic turn to cognitive theory; such is Sharyn Clough’s diagnosis. The criticism thereby falls short of its actual task: the critique of scientific praxis. In addition, the concentration on questions of cognitive theory makes global skepticism the order of the day, which disastrously affects the believability of feminist cognitive claims. This problem is to be tackled with an anti-representational approach.

  16. Will Your Next Supercomputer Come from Costco?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farber, Rob

    2007-04-15

    A fun topic for April, one that is not an April fool’s joke, is that you can purchase a commodity 200+ Gflop (single-precision) Linux supercomputer for around $600 from your favorite electronic vendor. Yes, it’s true. Just walk in and ask for a Sony Playstation 3 (PS3), take it home and install Linux on it. IBM has provided an excellent tutorial for installing Linux and building applications at http://www-128.ibm.com/developerworks/power/library/pa-linuxps3-1. If you want to raise some eyebrows at work, then submit a purchase request for a Sony PS3 game console and watch the reactions as your paperwork wends its way through the procurement process.

  17. 网络与通信技术发展现状及趋势分析%Network and Communication Technology Development Status and Trend Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏宏德; 黄静波

    2011-01-01

    The development of network communication technology, social progress has played a huge role in promoting,in addition to traditional multimedia technology, mobile communications networks,optical communications and other existing development and breakthroughs,it also appeared in satellite communieatioris,nano-optical communications and other new wends.%网络通信技术的发展对社会的进步起到了巨大的推动作用,除了传统的多媒体技术、移动网络通信、光通信等现有的发展与突破以外,还出现了卫星通信、纳米光通信等新型的发展趋势。

  18. Gelebter Mythos als Garant der Unsterblichkeit. Formen individueller und kollektiver Fontane-Verehrung in Günter Grass' Roman ›Ein weites Feld‹

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frauke Géraldine Bayer

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Der Umgang einer Gesellschaft mit ihren klassischen Autoren sagt viel über deren Stellenwert im kulturellen Gedächtnis aus. Kollektiv verehrt und dabei missverstanden – zu diesem ernüchternden Resultat kommt Günter Grass kurz nach der Wende angesichts gesamtdeutsch praktizierter Formen einer Denkmalsetzung, die den Menschen hinter dem Autor negierten. Vor dem Hintergrund der Zuschreibung einer mythologisierenden Funktion von Literatur schafft Grass in seinem 1995 erschienenen Roman Ein weites Feld einen anderen Typus einer mythischen Verehrung: Unter Weiterentwicklung des von Thomas Mann entworfenen Postulats eines mythischen In-Spuren-Gehens gelingt es ihm, in der Gestalt des Fonty Leben und Werk Theodor Fontanes gleichermaßen zu spiegeln und den öffentlichen Gedächtniskulturen gegenüberzustellen.

  19. Risiko Energiewende Wege aus der Sackgasse

    CERN Document Server

    Kleinknecht, Konrad

    2015-01-01

    Der Ausstieg aus der Nutzung der Kernenergie in Deutschland wurde im Sommer 2011 im Eiltempo beschlossen. Jetzt zeigt sich, dass es keinen realistischen Plan für den Umbau der Energieversorgung in der vorgesehenen Frist von zehn Jahren gibt. Für die Umstellung unserer gesamten Stromversorgung und damit unserer Wirtschaft ist der Zeitraum zu kurz. Es fehlt eine belastbare empirische Begründung, die Fragen der Versorgungssicherheit, der Finanzierbarkeit, der Auswirkungen auf die wirtschaftliche Entwicklung und die soziale Gerechtigkeit behandeln müsste. Somit droht diese Wende an ihren Widersprüchen zu scheitern. Konrad Kleinknecht versucht in seinem Buch, die Probleme zu benennen und Antworten zu finden. Für ihn stellen sich die folgenden Fragen: Welche Möglichkeit haben wir, mit Windkraft und Solarenergie einen Teil der Stromversorgung zu ersetzen? Welche Stromquellen bieten gesicherte Leistung? Können wir auf Kohlekraftwerke verzichten? Brauchen wir neue Stromtrassen? Wie lässt sich Strom speichern?...

  20. Civilian Loan Marke Needs Regulation and Standardization exemplified by 3,331 farming households from Shanxi,Hubei,Henan,Jiangsu and Jilin Provinces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史清华; 卓建伟

    2007-01-01

    Loans have become a common occurrence in many households,contributing to household activities and productivity.An empirical analysis and comparative study on the loan wends of 3,331 farming households from the five provinces of Shanxi,Hubei,Henan.Jiangsu and Jilin are the focus of this study.Findings indicate that civilian loans are prevalent in China’s rural areas and play an important part in the livelihoods of many farming households.Loan action is found to be rational;reflecting differences in government policies,in various periods and locations.The study also looks at the popularity of"affection"loans,the relation between loan length and repayment amount and the propensity of loan contracts,as well as considering the impacts of gender,age and educational level on a households loan activity.

  1. O DOCUMENTÁRIO POÉTICO PERFORMÁTICO E A VOZ DO CORPO DANÇANTE COMO INTER(TRANS)TEXTO DE SI MESMA: PAS DE DEUX WENDERS-BAUSCH

    OpenAIRE

    Wosniak, Cristiane do Rocio

    2015-01-01

    Nesta tese intitulada O documentário poético performático e a voz do corpo dançante como inter(trans)texto de si mesma: pas de deux Wenders-Bausch problematizo uma imbricação entre as signagens dança e cinema, por meio de procedimentos de análise fílmica de cunho semiótico. O objetivo central da tese é suscitar reflexões acerca do problema de pesquisa que norteia a investigação: de que forma e com que meios as vozes icônicas cinéticas do corpo dançante em Pina (2011), documentário de Wim Wend...

  2. Toleration, Synthesis or Replacement?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtermann, Jakob v. H.; Madsen, Mikael Rask

    2016-01-01

    to have considerable problems keeping a clear focus on the key question: What are the implications of this empirical turn in terms of philosophy of legal science, of the social understanding of IL, and, not least, of the place of doctrinal scholarship after the alleged Wende? What is needed, we argue......, in order to answer is not yet another partisan suggestion, but rather an attempt at making intelligible both the oppositions and the possibilities of synthesis between normative and empirical approaches to law. Based on our assessment and rational reconstruction of current arguments and positions, we...... therefore outline a taxonomy consisting of the following three basic, ideal-types in terms of the epistemological understanding of the interface of law and empirical studies: toleration, synthesis and replacement. This tripartite model proves useful with a view to teasing out and better articulating...

  3. Regional discrimination and propagation of local rearrangements along the ribosomal exit tunnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jianli; Deutsch, Carol

    2014-12-12

    All proteins, from bacteria to man, are made in the ribosome and are elongated, one residue at a time, at the peptidyl transferase center. This growing peptide chain wends its way through the ribosomal tunnel to the exit port, ~100Å from the peptidyl transferase center. We have identified locations in the tunnel that sense and respond to single side chains of the nascent peptide to induce local conformational changes. Moreover, side-chain sterics and rearrangements deep in the tunnel influence the disposition of residues 45Å away at the exit port and are consistent with side-chain-induced axial retraction of the peptide backbone. These coupled responses are neither haphazard nor uniform along the tunnel. Rather, they are confined to discriminating zones in the tunnel and are sequence specific. Such discerning communication may contribute to folding events and mechanisms governing sequence-specific signaling between different regions of the tunnel during translation.

  4. Protective effects of the apigenin-O/C-diglucoside saponarin from Gypsophila trichotoma on carbone tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in vitro/in vivo in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simeonova, Rumyana; Kondeva-Burdina, Magdalena; Vitcheva, Vessela; Krasteva, Ilina; Manov, Vassil; Mitcheva, Mitka

    2014-01-15

    This study investigated the hepatoprotective activity of saponarin, isolated from Gypsophila trichotoma Wend., using in vitro/in vivo hepatotoxicity model based on carbone tetrachloride (CCl₄)-induced liver damage in male Wistar rats. The effect of saponarin was compared with those of silymarin. In vitro experiments were carried out in primary isolated rat hepatocytes. Cell incubation with CCl₄ (86 μmol l⁻¹) led to a significant decrease in cell viability, increased LDH leakage, decreased levels of cellular GSH and elevation in MDA quantity. Cell pre-incubation with saponarin (60-0.006 μg/ml) significantly ameliorated CCl₄-induced hepatic damage in a concentration-dependent manner. These results were supported by the following in vivo study. Along with decreased MDA quantity and increased level of cell protector GSH, seven day pre-treatment of rats with saponarin (80 mg/kg bw; p.o.) also prevented CCl₄ (10%, p.o.)-caused oxidative damage by increasing antioxidant enzyme activities (CAT, SOD, GST, GPx, GR). Biotransformation phase I enzymes were also assessed. Administered alone, saponarin decreased EMND and AH activities but not at the same extent as CCl₄ did. However, pre-treatment with saponarin significantly increased enzyme activities in comparison to CCl₄ only group. The observed biochemical changes were consistent with histopathological observations where the hepatoprotective effect of saponarin was comparative to the effects of the known hepatoprotecor silymarin. Our results suggest that saponarin, isolated from Gypsophila trichotoma Wend., showed in vitro and in vivo hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity against CCl₄-induced liver damage.

  5. Western United States beyond the Four Corners

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The breathtaking beauty of the western United States is apparent in this image from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer on NASA's Terra spacecraft. Data from 16 different swaths acquired between April 2000 and September 2001by MISR's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera were used to create this cloud-free natural-color image mosaic. The image is draped over a 100-meter (328-foot)shaded relief Digital Terrain Elevation Model from the United States Geological Survey.Among the prominent features are the snow-capped Rocky Mountains traversing Montana, Wyoming, Colorado and New Mexico. In the northern portion of the image, the Columbia Plateau stretches across Washington, Oregon and Idaho. Many major rivers originate in this region, including the Missouri to the east of the Continental Divide, the Snake to the west, and the Colorado which wends across Utah and Arizona. The Colorado Plateau and vibrant red-colored rocks of the Painted Desert extend south from Utah into Arizona. In the southwestern portion of the image, California's San Joaquin Valley and the Mojave Desert of California and Nevada give way to the Los Angeles basin and the Pacific Ocean.The Terra spacecraft is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, a long-term research and technology program designed to examine Earth's land, oceans, atmosphere, ice and life as a total integrated system.

  6. A multi-method study to determine the effectiveness of, and student attitudes to, online instructional videos for teaching clinical nursing skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Mary; Lyng, Colette; McGrath, Mary; Cannon, Gerald

    2009-04-01

    E-learning is regularly promoted in higher education settings as a way of fostering more flexible approaches to learning. It has been argued however that the 'potential benefits of new information and communication technology instruments in education' have not been subjected to critical scrutiny (Debande, O., 2004. ICTs and the development of e-learning in Europe: the role of the public and private sectors. European Journal of Education 39 (2), 191-208, p. 192). This paper outlines a multi-method evaluation of an e-learning innovation designed to teach clinical skills to student nurses. Responding to the challenges of teaching clinical skills to large class sizes, we developed a set of instructional videos for one undergraduate skills-based module, which are now integral to the module and available online to students on a continuous basis. Evaluation suggests that students' performance outcomes are unchanged. The students view the flexible and self-management aspects of this method of learning positively, with some attitudinal differences between male and female, and mature and non-mature students. However, it is best used to complement rather than replace lecturer demonstration, lending support to a 'blended' model (Collis, B., van der Wende, M., 2002. Models of Technology and Change in Higher Education: An International Comparative Survey on The Current and Future Use of ICT in Higher Education, University of Twente, Center for Higher Education Policy Studies, The Netherlands).

  7. Frauengerechte Weiterbildung in Fernlehrgängen Just Further Education for Women in Long-Distance Learning Courses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Carstens

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Gisela Pravda untersucht in ihrer 2002 an der Humboldt Universität Berlin vorgelegten Dissertation berufsbildende Fernlehrgänge in Deutschland aus feministischer Perspektive. Sie richtet ihren Blick auf die dort verwendeten Unterrichtsmaterialien und analysiert Sprache und Inhalt daraufhin, inwieweit traditionelle Geschlechterrollen reproduziert und Frauen damit als Lernende behindert oder ausgeschlossen werden. Ihr Befund ist deprimierend: Auch an der Wende vom 20. zum 21. Jahrhundert orientieren sich Sprache und Inhalt im Fernlernen an traditionellen androzentrischen Mustern, werden jahrzehntelange Frauenbewegung und -forschung ignoriert. Pravda bleibt bei der Analyse nicht stehen, sondern entwickelt konkrete Checklisten, mit deren Hilfe Lernmaterialien gendergerecht umgestaltet werden können.In her dissertation presented at the Humboldt University Berlin in 2002, Gisela Pravda examines occupational long-distance learning courses in Germany from a feminist perspective. She considers the applied learning materials and analyzes to what extent the language and content reproduce traditional gender roles and, with this, the extent to which women are hindered or excluded as learners. Her results are depressing: Also at the turn of the 20th to 21st century, the language and content of long-distance learning are oriented toward traditional androcentric patterns, and the women’s movement and women’s studies of the last decades are ignored. Pravda not only offers analyses, but also develops concrete check lists that can be used to restructure learning material to adequately include gender.

  8. IN MEMORIAM: W J RICHARDS 21 Mei 1922 – 28 April 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Cilliers

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Willem Johannes Richards is op 21 Mei 1922 in Middelburg, Transvaal, gebore asdie oudste van nege kinders. Nadat hy hier gematrikuleer het, gaan hy na diePotchefstroomse Universiteit vir Christelike Hoër Onderwys waar hy in 1942 dieBComm-graad behaal. Hierna verander hy van studierigting, en na die neem vanaanvullende vakke by die Universiteit van Suid-Afrika verkry hy in 1947BA-status (Klassieke Tale aan die Universiteit van Pretoria. In 1952 wend hy homtot die Teologie en slaag dan ook in daardie jaar sy eerste jaar BD.Sy belangstelling in die Klassieke is egter sterker en hy sit sy studies in hierdierigting voort; in 1956 behaal hy die MA-graad in Latyn onder prof. H L Gonin asstudieleier. Na verkryging van die doktoraal in Klassieke Tale (met lof aan dieUniversiteit van Pretoria in 1959 sit hy sy studies voort in Utrecht, Nederland,waar hy van 1962 tot 1964 studeer en sy D Litt. behaal met ’n proefskrif getiteldGebed by Seneca, die Stoïsyn, onder leiding van prof. H L W Nelson. Na syterugkeer na Suid-Afrika studeer hy verder in Wysbegeerte, waarin hy in 1968 dieBA Hons.-graad met lof verwerf. In 1972 doen hy weer ’n jaar lank navorsing inEuropa en spandeer sy tyd veral in Duitsland, Nederland, Switserland en Engeland.

  9. 1989 und die Folgen. Deutsche Gegenwartsgeschichte im Nachwendefilm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf G. Renner

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Schlöndorffs Filme Die verlorene Ehre der Katharina Blum und Die Stille nach dem Schuss spiegeln in signifikanter Weise einen Wandel des intellektuellen Diskurses über Politik in Deutschland nach 1945, zugleich konturieren sie ihn mit unterschiedlichen ästhetischen Mitteln. Die Verlorene Ehre der Katharina Blum rekonstruiert die ideologische Situation des Jahres 1968, in der Schlöndorff in enger Zusammenarbeit mit Böll eine markante Position bezieht, die Stille nach dem Schuss skizziert demgegenüber eine Bewusstseinslage, in der erstmals nach der Wende des Jahres 1989 die politischen und ideologischen Widersprüche innerhalb der früheren DDR und die Aufarbeitung der Stasivergangenheit offen thematisiert werden. Dabei beleuchtet Schlöndorff zugleich kritisch die eigene Haltung als westlicher Intellektueller gegenüber der DDR und im vereinigten Deutschland. Dagegen machen die neueren Filme Der Baader Meinhof Komplex und Die innere Sicherheit auf je unterschiedliche Weise die Neubewertung der Außerparlamentarischen Opposition und der Baader Meinhof Gruppe deutlich, die ebenfalls nach 1989 einsetzt. Dabei führt der Film von Eichinger und Edel zu einer Historisierung und ideologiekritischen Entheroisierung, seine Präsentation einer Phase der politischen Opposition in Deutschland wird mit Mitteln des action-Films entfaltet. Petzolds Film dagegen zeigt die Folgen dieser Bewegung in der für die „Berliner Schule" typischen Konzentration auf das Private.

  10. Wiskunde in Suid-Afrika*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J. Van Rooy

    1965-03-01

    Full Text Available By ’n geleentheid soos hierdie is die versoeking nogal sterk om retrospektief te w erk te gaan en 'n poging aan te wend om die verlede soos dit in eie persoon belewe is, die revue te laat passeer. Dit is miskien nie m eer as natuurlik nie dat ’n mens dan m eer geneig voel om op die afgelegde weg terug te kyk as om jou aan koersaanwysing vir die toekoms te waag. Vir die m eeste van u, geagte oudstudente, is w at verby is nie van soveel belang as wat die hede aanbied of die toekoms in sy skoot het nie. My taak nader sy einde, u werk lê hopelik nog vir die grootste gedeelte voor u. Wei is dit ’n troosryke gedagte w at u my sal vergun om te koester, dat die band wat daar tussen u en my gelê is, ook in vakkundige opsig nie finaal deurgesny is toe die dae van regstreekse, persoonlike kontak verby was nie. Die onderwyser is nou m aar eenmaal so onbe- skeie om in die loopbaan en prestasies van sy leerling tot 'n mate ’n verlengstuk van sy eie werk te sien.

  11. In Memoriam - Dr J.P. Duvenage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. N. Coetzee

    1965-03-01

    Full Text Available By ’n geleentheid soos hierdie is die versoeking nogal sterk om retrospektief te w erk te gaan en 'n poging aan te wend om die verlede soos dit in eie persoon belewe is, die revue te laat passeer. Dit is miskien nie m eer as natuurlik nie dat ’n mens dan m eer geneig voel om op die afgelegde weg terug te kyk as om jou aan koersaanwysing vir die toekoms te waag. Vir die m eeste van u, geagte oudstudente, is w at verby is nie van soveel belang as wat die hede aanbied of die toekoms in sy skoot het nie. My taak nader sy einde, u w erk lê hopelik nog vir die grootste gedeelte voor u. Wei is dit ’n troosryke gedagte w at u my sal vergun om te koester, dat die band wat daar tussen u en my gelê is, ook in vakkundige opsig nie finaal deurgesny is toe die dae van regstreekse, persoonlike kontak verby was nie. Die onderwyser is nou m aar eenmaal so onbe- skeie om in die loopbaan en prestasies van sy leerling tot 'n m ate ’n verlengstuk van sy eie werk te sien.

  12. 基于STP战略的体验营销探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊名宁; 张勇

    2013-01-01

    经济形态的演变从农业经济、工业经济、服务经济发展到了体验经济阶段。伴随着体验经济的出现,体验营销成为了企业实现营销突破的新的营销模式。菲利普·科特勒(Philip Kotler)博士完善和发展了由美国营销学者温德尔·史密斯(Wended Smith)自1956年提出的市场细分理论,并提出了成熟的STP营销战略理论。本文在这样一种战略视角下,探讨企业如何实行体验营销以及进行具体的战术决策。

  13. THE SCOPE OF GENETIC ALGORITHMS IN DEALING WITH FACILITY LAYOUT PROBLEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kundu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The paper presents a state-of-the-art review of the application of the Genetic Algorithm (GA, an important methodology in facility layout problems that can be used to gauge current and emerging trends in new design objectives and methodologies that address combinatorial optimisation aspects. The new developments in layout research analysed in this study provide a perspective on what the future of the field of study will be like. A tendency to use meta-heuristics like GA, which lean toward multi-objective approaches to layout and material handling system design, is observed.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Hierdie artikel bied ‘n hedendaagse oorsig oor die aanwending van die Genetiese Algoritme (GA. DIt is ‘n belangrike metodologie vir fasiliteitsuitlegprobleme wat gebruik kan word om die huidige en ontluikende tendense te bepaal in nuwe ontwerpdoelwitte- en metodologieë wat kombinatoriese optimisasie aspekte aanspreek. Die nuwe ontwikkelinge in uitlegnavorsing wat in hierdie artikel ondersoek word, verskaf ‘n perspektief op die toekoms van die studieveld. ‘n Tendens wat waargeneem word, is om meta-heuristiek soos GA aan te wend wat neig tot multi-doelwit-benaderings vir uitleg- en materiaalhanteringsontwerp.

  14. Ein nicht-erwerbszentrierter Blick auf die Geschlechterverhältnisse in der DDR und Ostdeutschland A Look at Gender Relations in the GDR and East Germany, Focussing on the Social, Domestic, and Family Sphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylka Scholz

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Im Mittelpunkt des Buches von Susanne Stolt steht die Frage nach alltäglichen Geschlechterbeziehungen in Ostdeutschland nach der Wende und der individuellen Suche nach Anerkennung von Männern und Frauen. Theoretisch stützt Stolt sich dabei v.a. auf den psychoanalytisch geprägten Ansatz von Jessica Benjamin mit der Fokussierung auf das Anerkennungsproblem und empirisch auf qualitative Interviews von Frauen und Ehepaaren. Sie distanziert sich von „erwerbszentrierten Perspektiven“, die die Dominanz des Erwerbssystems und die Abwertung von Fürsorgearbeit fortschreiben und damit die in die Erwerbssphäre eingeschriebene männliche Herrschaft reproduzieren.Stolt’s work investigates everyday gender relations in post-socialist East Germany, focusing on the search for recognition of individual men and women. Stolte’s work is informed by Jessica Benjamin’s psychoanalytical work on the search for recognition; furthermore, Stolte draws on qualitative interviews which she conducted with women and with heterosexual couples. Stolte makes a point of distancing herself from approaches which focus on the sphere of “gainful employment,” arguing that approaches which focus on a narrowly defined sphere of work do not problematise dominant ideas about the value of unpaid work (e.g., caretaking, and thus serve to reproduce male bias and male dominance which are intrinsic to the sphere of gainful employment.

  15. Game of Thrones – Fernsehserien als Artikulation gesellschaftlich-unbewusster Phantasien

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald Poscheschnik

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Kulturelle Produkte, wie z.B. Fernsehserien, lassen sich als Artikulationsformen gesellschaftspolitischer Phantasien verstehen, die bewusste und unbewusste Elemente in sich bergen. Game of Thrones, ein furioses Fantasy-Mittelalterspektakel, aufgeladen mit Gewalt und Sex, scheint auf den ersten Blick nur wenig tagesaktuelle Bezüge aufzuweisen. Eine psychoanalytische Untersuchung, die die Serie ihres manifesten Gewands entkleidet, legt wesentliche Elemente und ihre Relationen frei, die frappante Parallelen zu rezenten gesellschaftspolitischen Phantasien offenlegen. Die Verhältnisse am fiktiven Kontinent Westeros bieten sich als Zeitdiagnose einer niedergehenden Kultur an, deren Potentaten völlig von einem Ränkespiel um Macht und Einfluss absorbiert sind und ihre Wahrnehmung all dem verweigern, was nicht ihrem eigenen Machterhalt dient. Der durch eine Mauer abgeschottete Norden des Landes kann als Deponie für die verdrängten Nebenwirkungen des eigenen Treibens, wie z.B. Umweltzerstörung und menschliches Elend, verstanden werden, deren deletäre Wirkung letztlich die eigene Existenz bedroht. Der ferne Kontinent Essos repräsentiert die Hoffnung, es könnte noch eine Wende oder Alternative entstehen. Die Medienpädagogik kann einen bildungstheoretischen Beitrag zum Verständnis moderner Fernsehserien leisten, benötigt dazu aber auch den interdisziplinären Austausch.

  16. Kalbančios sienos Wolfgango Hilbigo romane Laikinumas ir Sigito Parulskio romane Murmanti siena | Die Sprechenden Mauern in den Romanen Das Provisorium von Wolfgang Hilbig und Die Murmelnde Mauer von Sigitas Parulskis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Katinienė

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Seit der Wende 1989 wird das Problem der Grenze in der neuesten deutschen Literatur viel diskutiert. Die­ses allgemeinmenschliche Thema ist auch in Litau­en, als einem postsowjetischen Staat, aktuell. Nach dem Zerfall der äußeren Grenzen sind jedoch im Bewusstsein der Menschen die innerlichen Grenzen geblieben. In diesem Artikel wird anhand von zwei Romanen (Murmanti siena/Die murmelnde Mauer, 2008 von Sigitas Parulskis und Das Provisorium/Laikinumas, 2000 von Wolfgang Hilbig das Phäno­men der Existenz an der Grenze näher betrachtet. In beiden Romanen erscheint die Grenze als real exi­stierend und als innerlicher Zustand. In der Metapher der Grenze sind Überschreitung, Überwindung, das Treffen mit dem Anderen, ein Schwellenzustand ver­borgen. Die Protagonisten beider Romane befinden sich an der Schwelle, in der Grenzzone, die sie be­ängstigt, aber auch die Schwelle (oder sich selbst zu überwinden – die Grenze zu überschreiten – zwingt. Das Ziel dieser Arbeit ist es Fragen aufzuwerfen, die in Verbindung mit dem Phänomen der Grenze, den Versuchen sie zu überwinden in Verbindung stehen. Die Erfahrungen, die sich in den Texten offenbaren, werden anhand phänomenologischer Begriffe unter­sucht. Die aufgeworfenen Fragen könnten später zu tieferen Erkenntnissen führen.

  17. Hoofstuk 2 - Die Klein Begin 1916−1933

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.P. Oberholzer

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Die opleiding neem ‘n aanvang met een kerklike dosent, J.H.J.A. Greyventein, en ‘n aantal universiteitsdosente. Die studentetal groei stadig. Die vertrek van professor Paterson en die koms van S.P. Engelbrecht in 1921 bring ‘n belangrike wending. Wanneer B. Gemser in 1926 toetree, is daar drie dosente wat tegelyk ampsdraers van die Nederduitsch Hervormde Kerk is. Gemser is dosent in Teologie sowel as in Lettere en Wysbegeerte waar hy begin met die vestiging van ‘n sterk departement Semitiese Tale. Engelbrecht se kundigheid omvat Kerkgeskiedenis sowel as ‘n unieke kennis van die Voortrekker- en ou Tansvaalse geskiedenis en dit kom die Departement Geskiedenis ten goede. Die akademiese gehalte van die opleiding neem toe, en so ook die studentetal. ‘n Bedreiging vir die voortbestaan van die Fakulteit teologie is afgeweer deur die tydige optrede van S.P. Engelbrecht en die tussenkoms van die Eerste Minister. Die selfstandigwording van die Universiteit van Pretoria en die Afrikaanswording van die Universiteit bring ‘n veranderde konteks.

  18. Exponential Stability of Traveling Pulse Solutions of a Singularly Perturbed System of Integral Differential Equations Arising From Excitatory Neuronal Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Linghai Zhang

    2004-01-01

    We establish the exponential stability of fast traveling pulse solutions to nonlinear singularly perturbedsystems of integral di.erential equations arising from neuronal networks. It has been proved that exponentialstability of these orbits is equivalent to linear stability. Let L be the linear di.erential operator obtainedby linearizing the nonlinear system about its fast pulse, and let σ(L) be the spectrum of L. The linearizedstability criterion says that if max{Reλ: λ∈σ(L), λ ≠ 0} ≤ .D, for some positive constant D, and λ = 0 is asimple eigenvalue of L(ε), then the stability follows immediately (see [13] and [37]). Therefore, to establish theexponential stability of the fast pulse, it su.ces to investigate the spectrum of the operator L. It is relativelyeasy to .nd the continuous spectrum, but it is very di.cult to .nd the isolated spectrum. The real part ofthe continuous spectrum has a uniformly negative upper bound, hence it causes no threat to the stability. Itremains to see if the isolated spectrum is safe.Eigenvalue functions (see [14] and [35,36]) have been a powerful tool to study the isolated spectrum of the associatedlinear di.erential operators because the zeros of the eigenvalue functions coincide with the eigenvaluesof the operators. There have been some known methods to de.ne eigenvalue functions for nonlinear systems ofreaction di.usion equations and for nonlinear dispersive wave equations. But for integral di.erential equations,we have to use di.erent ideas to construct eigenvalue functions. We will use the method of variation of parametersto construct the eigenvalue functions in the complex plane C. By analyzing the eigenvalue functions, we.nd that there are no nonzero eigenvalues of L in {λ∈ C: Reλ≥ .D} for the fast traveling pulse. Moreoverλ = 0 is simple. This implies that the exponential stability of the fast orbits is true.

  19. 聚氨酯/碳纳米管功能复合材料的电学性能研究%Electrical Properties of Polyurethane/Carbon Nanotubes Composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余桂英; 李小兵

    2012-01-01

    采用溶液共混法制备了聚氨酯( PUR)/碳纳米管(CNTs)功能复合材料,并分别利用磁力分散和超声分散方法对CNTs进行分散,探讨了CNTs含量对PUR/CNTs复合材料电学性能的影响.结果表明,利用超声分散方法比磁力分散方法获得的CNTs在基体中的分散效果更好,并且随着超声分散时间的延长,分散效果越好;当分散时间为2h、CNTs的质量分数为5%时,PUR/CNTs复合材料的体积电阻率趋于稳定,可以降到50 MΩ·cm,比纯PUR的体积电阻率下降了6个数量级.%Polyurethane / carbon nanotubes composites were produced by solution-Wending method. The physical dispersion methods of carbon nanotubes ( CNTs ) were studied such as ultrasonic dispersion and magnetic dispersion. The impact of CNTs content on its electrical properties were analyzed. The result indicated that the dispersion effect was better by ultrasonic dispersion than magnetic dispersion, and with extension in time the dispersion effect was more and more good. When the dispersion time with 2 hours and the content of CNTs was 5%, the volume resistivity was tending towards stability and reduced to 50 MO -cm, which was decreased by 6 orders of magnitude than pure polyurethane.

  20. Trend zur Transdisziplinarität – Kritische Einordnung einer ambivalenten Praxis qualitativer Stadtforschung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Streule

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Dieser Beitrag befasst sich mit der Rolle von transdisziplinären Herangehensweisen innerhalb der Stadtforschung mittels einer theoretisch-methodischen Besprechung dieses Forschungsfeldes. Ausgehend von einem kurzen Rückblick auf die Methodengeschichte und die wichtigsten epistemologischen Debatten der empirischen Stadtforschung diskutiere ich die Frage, welche neue Erkenntnis ein transdisziplinärer Zugang in der Betrachtung des Städtischen bringt, genauer: Wie kann Transdisziplinarität produktiv in eine kritische Forschungspraxis umgesetzt und als Strategie für Stadtforschung fruchtbar gemacht werden? Der Beitrag beschreibt die empirische Prägung der westeuropäischen Stadtforschungspraxis durch vorerst überwiegend intuitive transdisziplinäre Zugänge. Dabei zeige ich auf, dass insbesondere die aus der postmodernen und poststrukturalistischen Wende resultierende wissenschaftliche Reflexivität, die neu bewertete Ethnografie und der Fokus auf die soziale Produktion von Raum als zentrale sozialwissenschaftliche und erkenntnistheoretische Stränge die Stadtforschung auf inhaltlicher und struktureller Ebene bis heute durchziehen. In der kritischen Weiterentwicklung ebendieser methodischen und theoretischen Grundlagen der Stadtforschung sehe ich eine wesentliche Voraussetzung für Forschende, um Transdisziplinarität heute in eine explizite empirische Praxis zu übersetzen. Die große Bandbreite aktueller transdisziplinärer Ansätze bündle ich schließlich schematisch und lote ihre Möglichkeiten und Grenzen für die Stadtforschung aus. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1401175

  1. The soil carbon dilemma: shall we hoard it or use it?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janzen, H.H. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Lethbridge (Canada)

    2006-03-15

    Rapidly rising concentrations of atmospheric CO{sub 2} have prompted a flurry of studies on soils as potential carbon (C) 'sinks'. Sequestering C in soils is often seen as a 'win-win' proposition; it not only removes excess CO{sub 2} from the air, but also improves soils by augmenting organic matter, an energy and nutrient source for biota. But organic matter is most useful, biologically, when it decays. So we face a dilemma: can we both conserve organic matter and profit from its decay? Or must we choose one or the other? In this essay, I contemplate the merits, first of building soil C and then of decaying (losing) it, partly from a historical perspective. I then consider the apparent trade-off between accrual and decay, and reflect on how the dilemma might be resolved or assuaged. These fledgling thoughts, offered mostly to stir more fruitful debate, include: finding ways to increase C inputs to soil; seeking to optimize the timing of decay; and understanding better, from an ecosystem perspective, the flows of C, rather than only the stocks. Carbon sequestration is a sound and worthy goal. But soil organic matter is far more than a potential tank for impounding excess CO{sub 2}; it is a relentless flow of C atoms, through a myriad of streams-some fast, some slow-wending their way through the ecosystem, driving biotic processes along the way. Now, when we aim to regain some of the C lost, we may need new ways of thinking about soil C dynamics, and tuning them for the services expected of our ecosystems. This objective, perhaps demanding more biology along with other disciplines, is especially urgent when we contemplate the stresses soon to be imposed by coming global changes. (author)

  2. Konversion des kulturellen Erbes für die Forschung: Volltextbeschaffung und -bereitstellung als Aufgabe der Bibliotheken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Stäcker

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Mit der Transformation des gedruckten Buch zum elektronischen Text verändern sich zentrale Rahmenbedingungen der Bibliothek. Die theoretischen Grundlagen des ‚Buches‘ müssen unter dem Gesichtspunkt des Digitalen neu durchdacht und auf ihre praktischen Konsequenzen hin geprüft werden. Vor allem die Transitivität, spezifische Schriftlichkeit und Prozessierbarkeit elektronischer Texte sind Eigenschaften, die Konsequenzen für eine ganze Reihe bibliothekarischer Kernaufgaben haben. Mit Blick auf das kulturelle Erbe, das in Bibliotheken verwahrt wird, stellt sich die Aufgabe, auf diesen Paradigmenwechsel angemessen zu reagieren und Sorge dafür zu tragen, dass das schriftliche und gedruckte Kulturgut auch in einer adäquaten maschinenlesbaren Form zur Verfügung steht. Nach gut 10 Jahren erfolgreicher Imagedigitalisierung muss daher jetzt, nach der Entwicklung entsprechender Techniken der nächste Schritt zur Herstellung, Aufbereitung und Bereitstellung von Volltext getan werden, um neuen, sich aus der digitalen Wende ergebenden Forschungsanforderungen und Forschungsfragen, die sich mit Begriffen wie Stilometrie, Clusteranalyse, Topic Modeling etc. verbinden, zu genügen. Den Bibliotheken wächst vor diesem Hintergrund in der Transformation des schriftlichen Kulturgutes und Bereitstellung von Volltexten eine neue Aufgabe zu. Sie können darin einen wichtigen Beitrag zum Aufbau einer Infrastruktur für eine digital arbeitende Geistes- und Kultwissenschaft bzw. die Digital Humanities leisten. The transformation of the book into an electronic text has led to constitutive changes in the functional frameworks of the library. Basic concepts of the notion of the ‘book’ have to be reconsidered and to be evaluated in view of the practical consequences. Above all, the transitivity of such texts, the specific mode of writing employed, and their ability to be processed are aspects that have considerable impact on several core tasks of the library. In

  3. Species and Application Status Quo of Indoor Ornamental Plant in Beijing and Shenzhen%北京深圳两市室内观赏植物种类及应用现状研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋冬月; 王晓玉; 王予婧

    2011-01-01

    The species of indoor ornamental plant in public places (flower market, hotel, office building, etc.) in Beijing and Shenzhen and its application status were investigated randomly. The results showed that there are 2S7 species of common indoor plants (including varieties and breed), which belong to 225 genera and 103 families; there were 107 species of woody plant which account for 37.28%, and there were 180 species of herbaceous plant which account for 62.72%; the common indoor plants mainly are foliage plants, in which Scindapsus aureun, Chrysalidocarpus lutescens H. Wend], Pachira macrocarpa, Dracaena fragrans and Anthurium andraeanum have higher applying frequency; the landscape application of indoor plant usually uses configuration modes of spot, line and plane. In the end, the differences and common in application of indoor plants between Beijing and Shenzhen were compared to each other; the problems in application of indoor plants were analyzed, then the corresponding counlermeasures were proposed.%采用随机抽样调查的方法对北京、深圳两地的花卉市场、酒店及写字楼等公共场所室内观赏植物的种类和应用情况进行了调研.结果表明:常见的室内植物287种(包括变种和品种),隶属于225属,1 03科,其中木本植物107种,占37.28%,草本植物180,占62.72%;常见室内植物以观叶植物为主,应用频率较高的植物有绿萝、散尾葵、马拉巴栗、巴西铁、红掌等;室内植物景观应用多采用点状、线状、面状配置模式.最后对比两地室内植物应用的异同,对室内植物应用中存在的问题进行了分析,并提出了对策.

  4. Good bye Lenin! Of dreamworlds, catastrophes and empires, now and then Adeus Lênin! De dreamworlds, catástrofes e impérios, agora e então

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Böhm

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a symptom: that of an ideological change, a historical break in the fantasmatic production of social organization – the transition from East to West. Following Žižek’s recommendation to ‘enjoy your symptom’, I explore my own historical experience of the Eastern European ‘Wende’ from ‘realexisting socialism’ to ‘real-existing capitalism’. This exploration is done through a variety of different images, the most recognizable being perhaps the well-known film Good Bye Lenin, which deals with the complexities of the transitions of not only political and economic regimes but their implications for the make up of subjectivities. The paper ends with an affi rmative outlook, as it claims that history has not ended, and that breaks in the ideological and fantasmatic production of society are still possible today. Keywords: Ideology. Transition. Capitalism. Socialism. Change. Resistance. Este artigo trata de um sintoma: o de uma mudança ideológica, uma fratura histórica na produção fantasmática da organização social - a transição de Leste para Oeste. Ao seguir a recomendação de Žižek para “usufruir do sintoma”, exploro minha própria experiência histórica do “Wende” europeu Oriental de “socialismo real existente” para “capitalismo real existente”. Esta exploração é feita através de uma variedade de imagens diferentes, sendo, talvez, o famoso filme Adeus, Lênin! a mais reconhecida, que lida não apenas com as complexidades das transições de regimes políticos e econômicos, mas também das suas implicações na construção de subjetividades. O artigo é concluído com perspectiva afirmativa, enquanto reinvindica que a história não terminou e que fraturas na fantasmática e ideológica produção da sociedade são possíveis ainda hoje. Palavras-chave: Ideologia. Transição. Capitalismo. Socialismo. Mudança. Resistência.

  5. Evolutionary theory, human uniqueness and the image of God

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gijsbert van den Brink

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, I examined what might be called the evolutionary argument against human uniqueness and human dignity. After having rehearsed briefly the roots of the classical Judeo- Christian view on human uniqueness and human dignity in the first chapters of Genesis, I went on to explore and delineate the nature of the evolutionary argument against this view. Next, I examined whether Christian theology might widen the concept of imago Dei so as to include other beings as well as humans, thus giving up the idea of human uniqueness. I concluded, however, that this move is deeply problematic. Therefore, I turned to a discussion of some recent attempts to define both human uniqueness and the image of God in theological rather than empirical terms. One of these, which is based on the concept of incarnation, is found wanting, but another one is construed in such a way that it enables us to reconcile the idea of human uniqueness as encapsulated in the doctrine of the imago Dei with contemporary evolutionary theory. Thus, this article can be seen as an exercise in bringing classical Christian theology to terms with evolution, further highlighting this theology’s ongoing vitality.Evolusieteorie, menslike uniekheid and die beeld van God. In hierdie artikel ondersoek ek die sogenaamde evolusionêre argument teen menslike uniekheid en menswaardigheid. Na ‘n kort oorsig oor die oorsprong van die klassieke Joods-Christelike siening van menslike uniekheid en menswaardigheid soos uit die eerste vyf hoofstukke van Genesis blyk, ondersoek en beeld ek die aard van die evolusionêre argument hierteenoor uit. Vervolgens word die vraag ondersoek of die Christelike teologie die konsep van imago Dei sodanig kan verbreed dat dit ook ander wesens behalwe mense kan insluit, waardeur die idee van menslike uniekheid dus prysgegee word. Ek kom egter tot die slotsom dat hierdie skuif hoogs problematies is. Daarom wend ek my tot ’n bespreking van onlangse pogings om

  6. Verstaanbare prediking is eenvoudige prediking: ’n Prakties-teologiese besinning oor die styl van prediking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdinand P. Kruger

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Prediking is intensioneel en wil verandering bewerk. Onder die prediking vind interaksie en kommunikasie tussen prediker en hoorder plaas. Die oomblik wanneer die prediker skryf of praat, maak hy of sy van styl gebruik. Styl is vir die prediker soos die kleur wat ’n kunstenaar gebruik. Die navorsingshipotese in die artikel is dat gebrekkige styl daartoe bydra dat God nie reg gehoor word in die prediking nie. In hierdie artikel word van ’n driedeling gebruik gemaak waarin ’n analiserende beskrywing van die prakties-teologiese situasie gebied word. Aan die hand van basisteoretiese perspektiewe word die normatiewe gesigspunte gestel, waarna veranderingstrategieë voorgestel word. Vanuit die Jakobusbrief word perspektiewe na vore gebring wat die noodsaak van goeie styl in die prediking benadruk. In die metateoretiese besinning word die kontoere van die Kunsgeskiedenis asook Kommunikasiekunde verken. In die praktykteoretiese perspektiewe wat bespreek word, word die ruimte wat stylvolle prediking moet skep, aangestip. Sodoende word dit benadruk dat enige styl nie noodwendig die korrekte styl is nie. ’n Goeie styl wend die regte woorde op die regte plekke in die preek aan en daarom is goeie styl eenvoudig en verstaanbaar.Comprehensible preaching is simple preaching: A practical-theological reflection on preaching style. There is interdependence between preaching and transformation in the lives of hearers. There is a relationship of interaction and communication between preacher and hearers, exists in the act of preaching. When preachers open their mouths, style is used. Artists use colour in their paintings, but preachers use words to colour the content of their message. The research question for this investigation is therefore: What is the effect of an unclear style in sermons? The hypothesis for this research is that an unclear style in sermons does not change lives and fails to bring hearers into the presence of God. The research field is

  7. PREFACE: International Conference "Trends in Spintronics and Nanomagnetism" (TSN-2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruccio, Giuseppe; Sanvito, Stefano; Hoffmann, Germar; Wiesendanger, Roland; Rowan, Alan

    2011-03-01

    Conference banner The International Conference "Trends in Spintronics and Nanomagnetism" (TSN-2010), was organized by partners of the EU-project SpiDME and held in the historical city of Lecce, Italy from 23-27 May 2010, at the Ecotekne Campus, University of Salento. The conference provided an international forum to discuss recent progress and future trends in the field. In particular, the aim was to bring together the community of more conventional spin-transport, with that of molecular and nano-magnetism. The main topics of TSN-2010 were: MATERIALSSPIN-PHYSICS AND THEORY - Molecular Magnets- Spin injection - Magnetic nanoparticles and nanowires- Domain walls, spin torque and vortex dynamics - Magnetic semiconductors- Numerical modeling of organic nanomagnetism - Multiferroics and transition metal oxides APPLICATIONSADVANCES IN CHARACTERIZATION - Magnetic Multilayers- Magneto-optical characterization and spin manipulation - Spin-photonics- Intrinsic spin transport mechanism in organics - Molecular and nano-spintronics- Organometallic molecules on surfaces - Spin-based quantum computation- Single molecular magnets on surfaces - Magnetism for sensing and nanomedicine- Nanoscale characterization and spin-sensitive SPM The scientific programme started on Monday 24 May and ended on Thursday 27 May. The Nobel Laureate A Fert attended the conference giving a plenary talk and the programme also featured invited presentations by (in alphabetical order): M Aeschlimann, M Affronte, N Atodiresei, P A Bobbert, A Dediu, N Kioussis, L W Molenkamp, J Moodera, V Prigodin, M Ruben, R Sessoli, R Tan, and H Wende. TSN2010 had 150 attendees who came from around the globe to present their latest research in 100 oral presentations. Contributed talks were selected by the program committee, composed of Giuseppe Maruccio, Ross Rinaldi, Valentina Arima, Fabio Della Sala, Maurizio Martino (Universitá del Salento, NNL Institute Nanoscience-CNR, Lecce, Italy), Stefano Sanvito (Trinity College

  8. Blinded by Sight: Divining the Future of Anthropology in Africa Die Erforschung des Elefanten: Zur Zukunft der Ethnologie in Afrika

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis B. Nyamnjoh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Using the metaphor of the elephant and the three blind men, this paper discusses some elements of the scholarly debate on the postcolonial turn in academia, in and of Africa, and in anthropology in particular. It is a part of the context in which anthropology remains unpopular among many African intellectuals. How do local knowledge practices take up existential issues and epistemological perspectives that may interrogate and enrich more global transcultural debates and scholarly reflexivity? Many an anthropologist still resists opening his or her mind up to life-worlds unfolding themselves through the interplay between everyday practice and the manifold actions and messages of humans, ancestors and non-human agents in sites of emerging meaning-production and innovative world-making. African anthropologists seeking recognition find themselves contested or dismissed by fellow anthropologists for doing “native”, “self” or “insider” anthropology, and are sometimes accused of perpetuating colonial epistemologies and subservience by fellow African scholars who are committed to scholarship driven by the need to valorise ways of being and knowing endogenous to Africa. This essay calls on anthropologists studying Africa to reflect creative diversity and reflexivity in the conceptualisation and implementation of research projects, as well as in how they provide for co-production, collaboration and co-implication within anthropology across and beyond disciplines.Unter Rückgriff auf die Fabel vom Elefanten und den drei weisen Männern diskutiert dieser Beitrag einige Elemente der Debatte zur postkolonialen Wende in der Wissenschaft – innerhalb und außerhalb Afrikas und insbesondere in Bezug auf die Ethnologie. Unter vielen afrikanischen Intellektuellen ist die Ethnologie immer noch unbeliebt. Inwieweit greifen lokale Wissenspraktiken existentielle Fragen und epistemologische Perspektiven auf und stellen damit die globale transkulturelle

  9. Literatūros mokslas ir teologija: dialogiško santykio realijos ir krikščioniškos mistinės tradicijos laukas. Literaturwissenschaft und Theologie: Realien des dialogischen Verhältnisses und das Feld der mystischen Erfahrung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalia Jakaitė

    2011-01-01

    Gemeinsamkeiten im Bereich der Weltauffassung und des Stils auf und kann mit der Kunst- und Poesieauffassung moderner Autoren verglichen werden. Das Verständnis der Mysterie der „poetischen Versuchung“ und des mystischen Wissens in Arbeiten von Clemens von Alexandria erscheint erneut in der Kunstmetaphysik von Steiner und Kuschel, in der Reflexion der Beziehung zwischen der Literatur und Theologie. Für die moderne Problematik der Beziehung zwischen Literatur und Theologie sind wichtig die metaphysische Raum- und Lichtsymbolik in Schriften von Augustinus, der Vergleich Gottes und der menschlichen Kunst, die Anpreisung Gottes und seiner Schöpfung in der Theologie von Bonaventura. Das Offensein für die mystische Tradition ist im Begriff der Theoart bei Tschuggnall sehr deutlich, die Kunstkonzeption von Pannenberg weist bestimmte Ähnlichkeiten mit Auerbach auf: die Zusammenwirkung der Inspiration und der Prophezeiung, der Kreativität und der visionären Ansicht. Durch Aktualisierung der mittelarterlichen und modernen Mystikquellen zeigt Krenski die Rolle der mystischen Tradition in der Balthasars Poesiereflexion. Die Wichtigkeit der mystischen Einheitlichkeit wird in Sölles Versuchen Beziehung zwischen Gebet und Poesie zu finden erkennbar. In die Suche nach Dialog zwischen der Literatur und Theologie zieht Sölle auch die Problematik des mytischen Narrativs heran. Die Zusammenwirkung der Mystik und des Mythos wird in vielen theoretischen und praktischen Reflexionen der analysierten Autoren erkennbar. Die Mysteriösität der Kunst rekonstruiert Steiner durch die Wende zur Verschmelzung von Mythos und Religion in der Kunst. Die für die Kunstmetaphysik aktuellen Grenzzonen von Mythos und Mystik werden in der Kontemplation des Karsamstags deutlich.

  10. Qui primus Romanorum principum maiestatem Dei singularis ac veri cognovisti: Einige Überlegungen zum Konstantinbild bei lateinischen christlichen Geschichtsschreibern des 4. und 5. Jahrhunderts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleš Maver

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Obwohl Konstantin als der erste christliche Kaiser im Bewusstsein der Christen seit Jahrtunderten einen besonderen Platz eingenommen hat, sind dabei trotzdem einige nicht notwendig geringe Unterschiede zwischen der West- und Ostkirche zu beobachten. Die kommen symbolisch in der Tatsache zum Ausdruck, dass im Westen Konstantin niemals als Heiliger verehrt wurde, was auch die zu Teil stürmische Kritik an seine Person seit der Aufklärung erleichterte. Der Autor mochte in diesem Aufsatz die Frage beantworten, wie es mit dem Konstantinbild in der frühesten Geschichtsschreibung der Westkirche steht. Zu diesem Zweck analysierte er einige typische Konstantinstellen bei Laktanz, Hieronymus in seiner Chronik, Rufin von Concordia, Orosius und schliesslich auch das Konstantineulogium in De civitate Dei Augustins. Dabei zeigte sich, dass lediglich Rufin in seiner, von östlichen Einflussen stark geprägten Kirchengeschichte dem östlichen Eusebianischen Model treu folgte und den Kaiser in erster Reihe als vorbildlichen Christen, dem der Fortschritt des christlichen Glaubens alles bedeutet, schilderte. Alle andere herangezogenen Geschichtsschreiber zeigen zu Teil erhebliche Abweichungen davon, die meist auf Grund der kirchenpolitischen Zusammenhänge, in denen sie wirkten, verstanden werden können. Das trifft schon für das Konstantinbild bei Laktanz zu. Konstantin in De mortibus persecutorum ist zwar makellos und vom Anfang an ein grosser Befürworter des Christentums, muss sich jedoch auf Grund der frühen Entstehungszeit der Schrift unmittelbar nach der Konstantinischen Wende seinen erhobenen Platz mit seinem Mitkaiser Licinius teilen, was bei den Lesern aus den späteren Jahrhunderten für Verwirrung sorgte. Ganz anders stehen die Dinge bei Hieronymus. Er macht Konstantin für die Ausbreitung des Arianismus verantwortlich, was alle seine Erfolge überschattet und in einem düsteren Bild des ersten christlichen Kaisers resultiert, wobei alle

  11. Kinematics of the Torcal Shear Zone: transpressional tectonics shaping orogenic curves in the northern Gibraltar Arc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcos, Leticia; Balanyá, Juan Carlos; Díaz-Azpiroz, Manuel; Expósito, Inmaculada; Jiménez-Bonilla, Alejandro

    2014-05-01

    Structural trend line patterns of orogenic arcs depict diverse geometries resulting from multiple factors such as indenter geometry, thickness of pre-deformational sequences and rheology of major decollement surfaces. Within them, salient-recess transitions often result in transpressive deformation bands. The Gibraltar Arc results from the Neogene collision of a composite metamorphic terrane (Alboran Domain, acting as a relative backstop) against two foreland margins (Southiberian and Maghrebian Domains). Within it, the Western Gibraltar Arc (WGA) is a protruded salient, 200 km in length cord, closely coinciding with the apex zone of the major arc. The WGA terminates at two transpressional zones. The main structure in the northern (Betic) end zone is a 70 km long and 4-5 km wide brittle deformation band, the so-called Torcal Shear Zone (TSZ). The TSZ forms a W-E topographic alignment along which the kinematic data show an overall dextral transpression. Within the TSZ strain is highly partitioned into mainly shortening, extensional and strike-slip structures. The strain partitioning is heterogeneous along the band and, accordingly, four distinct sectors can be identified. i) The Peñarrubia-Almargen Transverse Zone (PATZ), located at the W-end of the TSZ presents WNW-ESE folds and dextral faults, together with normal faults that accommodate extension parallel to the dominant structural trend. WNW ESE dextral faults might be related with synthetic splays at the lateral end of the TSZ. ii) The Sierra del Valle de Abdalajís (SVA) is characterized by WSW-ENE trending folds and dextral-reverse faults dipping to SSE, and NW-SE normal faults. The southern boundary of the SVA is a dextral fault zone. iii) The Torcal de Antequera Massif (TAM) presents two types of structural domains. Two outer domains located at both margins characterized by E-W trending, dextral strike-slip structures, and an inner domain, characterized by en echelon SE-vergent open folds and reverse shear

  12. Risk energy transition. Ways out of the impasse; Risiko Energiewende. Wege aus der Sackgasse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleinknecht, Konrad [Muenchen Univ., Garching (Germany). Fakultaet fuer Physik

    2015-07-01

    The exit of the use of nuclear energy in Germany, it was decided in the summer of 2011 in a rush. Now it is becoming obvious that there is no realistic plan for the conversion of energy supply in the envisaged deadline of ten years. For the conversion of our entire power supply and therefore our economy the period is too short. It lacks a robust empirical reason that have to deal with the issues of security of supply, the affordability, the impact on economic development and social justice. Thus, this treansition threatens to fail at their contradictions. Konrad Kleinknecht tries in his book, to name the problems and to find answers. For him, arise the following questions: What are our opportunity to replace with wind and solar power to replace a part of the power supply? What power sources provide secured capacity? Can we dispense with coal-fired plants? Do we need new power lines? How power may be stored? How real is the risk of blackouts in windless nights? Will the power prices continue to rise? Can be avoided the major risks of the energy transition with a fundamental reform of the Renewable Energies Act (EEG)? The power supply must serve the common good and benefit the industrial site Germany. A blackout would be a disaster for the whole country, it must be avoided at all events. How can we manage this, the author present in his evocative book. [German] Der Ausstieg aus der Nutzung der Kernenergie in Deutschland wurde im Sommer 2011 im Eiltempo beschlossen. Jetzt zeigt sich, dass es keinen realistischen Plan fuer den Umbau der Energieversorgung in der vorgesehenen Frist von zehn Jahren gibt. Fuer die Umstellung unserer gesamten Stromversorgung und damit unserer Wirtschaft ist der Zeitraum zu kurz. Es fehlt eine belastbare empirische Begruendung, die Fragen der Versorgungssicherheit, der Finanzierbarkeit, der Auswirkungen auf die wirtschaftliche Entwicklung und die soziale Gerechtigkeit behandeln muesste. Somit droht diese Wende an ihren Widerspruechen zu

  13. Antitumor effect of iRGD-modified liposomes containing conjugated linoleic acid–paclitaxel (CLA-PTX on B16-F10 melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du R

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Ruo Du,1 Ting Zhong,1 Wei-Qiang Zhang,1 Ping Song,1 Wen-Ding Song,1 Yang Zhao,1 Chao-Wang,1 Yi-Qun Tang,3 Xuan Zhang,1,2 Qiang Zhang1,2 1Department of Pharmaceutics, 2State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Peking University, Beijing, 3Department of Clinical Pharmacy, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China Abstract: In the present study, we prepared a novel delivery system of iRGD (CRGDK/RGPD/EC-modified sterically stabilized liposomes (SSLs containing conjugated linoleic acid–paclitaxel (CLA-PTX. The anti-tumor effect of iRGD-SSL-CLA-PTX was investigated on B16-F10 melanoma in vitro and in vivo. The in vitro targeting effect of iRGD-modified SSLs was investigated in a real-time confocal microscopic analysis experiment. An endocytosis-inhibition assay was used to evaluate the endocytosis pathways of the iRGD-modified SSLs. In addition, the in vitro cellular uptake and in vitro cytotoxicity of iRGD-SSL-CLA-PTX were evaluated in B16-F10 melanoma cells. In vivo biodistribution and in vivo antitumor effects of iRGD-SSL-CLA-PTX were investigated in B16-F10 tumor-bearing mice. The induction of apoptosis by iRGD-SSL-CLA-PTX was evaluated in tumor-tissue sections. Real-time confocal microscopic analysis results indicated that the iRGD-modified SSLs internalized into B16-F10 cells faster than SSLs. The identified endocytosis pathway of iRGD-modified SSLs indicated that energy- and lipid raft-mediated endocytosis played a key role in the liposomes’ cellular uptake. The results of the cellular uptake experiment indicated that the increased cellular uptake of CLA-PTX in the iRGD-SSL-CLA-PTX-treated group was 1.9-, 2.4-, or 2.1-fold compared with that in the CLA-PTX group after a 2-, 4-, or 6-hour incubation, respectively. In the biodistribution test, the CLA-PTX level in tumor tissues from iRGD-SSL-CLA-PTX-treated mice at 1 hour (1.84±0.17 µg/g and 4 hours (1.17±0

  14. New Frontiers Facing Urban Sociology at the Millennium%世纪之交的城市社会学新前沿

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    萨斯基娅·萨森; 朱力; 杨逸

    2011-01-01

    本文总结了世纪末城市社会学面临的一些主要挑战.这些挑战来自于主要的宏观社会发展趋势与它们特有的空间模式的交织.城市和大都市区是这些宏观社会趋势物质化的战略性场所,因此成为研究的对象.这些趋势包括全球化和新的信息技术的涌现,跨国和跨地区动态的增强,以及社会文化多样性的逐渐加强.对于城市及其理论和研究来说,每一种趋势都有着特定的发展条件、内容和结果.城市是这些趋势以独特而复杂的方式相互作用的场所,而这种相互作用几乎是不可能在其他环境中发生的.因而,正如当初城市在社会学的起源中所发挥的作用一样,城市再次成为研究宏观社会趋势演变的重要窗口.城市社会学能否应对这些挑战,能否再次为理解这些宏观转型提供一些有力的分析工具?%The article examines some of the major challenges facing urban sociology at century' s end given its traditions and lineages. These challenges arise out of the intersection of major macrosocial trends and their particular spatial patterns. The city and the metropolitan region emerge as one of the strategic sites where these macrosocial trends materialize and hence can be constituted as an object of study. Among these wends are globalization and the rise of the new information technologies, the intensifying of transnational and translocal dynamics, and the strengthening presence and voice of specic types of socio-cultural diversity. Each one of these trends has its own specific conditionalifies, contents and consequences for cities, and for theory and research. Cities are also sites where each of these trends interacts with the others in distinct, often complex manners, in a way they do not in just about any other setting.The city emerges once again as a strategic lens for the study of major macrosocial transformations as it was in the origins of sociology. Can urban sociology address these

  15. Die Anfaenge der Melker Bibliothek - Neue Erkenntnisse zu Handschriften und Fragmenten aus der Zeit vor 1200

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaßner, Christine; Haidinger, Alois

    1996-04-01

    Untersuchung der zeitnahen Eintragungen in diese Handschrift gelang es, die Tätigkeit von zumindest drei wichtigen, im 12. Jahrhundert in Melk identifizierbaren, namentlich nicht bekannten Schreibern chronologisch zuzuordnen. Erstmals wurden die nur fragmentarisch als Makulatur in den Bucheinbänden erhaltenen Handschriften in die Untersuchung einbezogen, so dass für die Wende vom 12. zum 13. Jahrhundert ein Bücherbestand von 68 Handschriften erschlossen werden konnte. Besonders hervorzuheben ist, dass in der Sonderausstellung von 1996 und im Begleitband erstmals eingehend die Bedeutung der ältesten Melker Handschrift, Cod. 412 aus dem frühen 9. Jahrhundert mit naturwissenschaftlichen Texten des Beda Venerabilis, als Vorlage für drei weitere Handschriften diente: Vatikan, Cod. Vat. lat. 643, abgeschrieben wahrscheinlich in Melk, davon abhängig Zwettl, Cod. 296, und Klosterneuburg, Cod. 685. Die Abschriften der Melker Beda-Handschrift sind inhaltlich fast identisch, allerdings um den im Mittelalter fälschlicherweise Beda Venerabilis zugeschriebenen Sternbilderkatalog erweitert.

  16. Emancipatory discourse in the names of children of the present generation: Some attempts of balancing power relations with special reference to Tshivenḓa naming practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Sengani

    2015-03-01

    toeken. Om hierdie rede was daar voortdurend konfliksituasies binne families en gemeenskappe wat moeilike situasies geskep het. Enige poging wat aangewend is om van senior familielede te verskil, is beskou as ’n aanslag op tradisie, as ongehoord en is dus op neergesien in Afrikagemeenskappe. Hierdie referaat het ten doel om te demonstreer dat nieteenstaande die feit dat grootouers in sommige gevalle steeds voortgaan met naamgewing aan kleinkinders sonder die goedkeuring van die ouers, hul kinders tog op eie stoom voortgaan om hierdie praktyk met subtiele diplomasie toe te pas. Name wat hedendaags gekies word is daarom vry van die gebruiklike konflik, twis en verskille waarmee ouers as kinders moes saamleef terwyl hul self gewoonlik niks daarmee te doen gehad het nie. Kinders wend oor die algemeen ’n poging aan om brûe tussen generasies te bou deur hulle kinders na groot-grootouers asook na geslagte verder terug, te vernoem.

  17. Long Term Effect of the Treatment Method of Strengthening Vital Qi, Transforming Phlegm and Clearing Heat for 46 Cases of Bronchiectasis%扶正化痰清热法治疗支气管扩张症46例远期疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄海茵; 彭晓敏; 宋花玲; 吴银根; 杨佩兰; 汤杰; 郎莹莹; 张谊; 宋文宝; 姚亮; 王振伟; 潘夏萍

    2012-01-01

    including sputum drainage and short term use of antibiotics, while Zhikuo Wending Formula (formula for bronchiectasis) was added in the Chinese medication group. One year after the treatment, the frequency of acute exacerbations, scores from the St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) and pulmonary function parameters were observed and compared. Results After treatment, the annual frequency of acute exacerbations in the Chinese medication group decreased significantly (P0. 05) except FVC% (P<0. 05). The value of FEV1 in the Chinese medication group was stable with significant difference between the control group (P<0. 05). The decline rates of FEV1 and FEV1 % in the Chinese medication group were significantly lower than those in the control group (P<0. 01). Conclusion The therapy of strengthening vital qi, transforming phlegm and clearing heat is effective and safe for bronchiectasis. It could reduce the annual frequency of acute exacerbations, improve the quality of life, slow down the decline of FEV1, and improve long term efficay.

  18. [Academy idea and Curiositas as leitmotif of the early modern Leopoldina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, Laetitia

    2008-01-01

    Founded in 1652, the Academia Naturae Curiosorum fiercely defended this name, which it wished to bear. On the occasion of the founder's 400th birthday, this article will try to examine the objectives of the concept of academia and the understanding of curiositas in its historical context, with a focus on the early history of the academy up to its receipt of imperial privilege in 1687/88. This is done in four chapters (I-IV). The memorial occasion suggests a preliminary note on our contemporary situation: I. The Jubilee Triangle--Berlin (Berlin academies), Halle-Wittenberg (university), Schweinfurt-Halle (Leopoldina)--considering the fate of the different historical models of scholarly organizations before and after the political turnaround (die "Wende") in 1989/90. The main questions about the 17th century orient themselves around the founding documents, the imperial status of the foundational city, as well as the Bausch family's places of study, educational travels, and library.--II. The Imperially Privileged Leopoldina--"Academy" or "Society"? This question's point of departure is the incipient engagement--the year after J. L. Bausch died (1665)--of G. W. Leibniz, who had likewise earned his doctorate at the University of Altdorf. He was engaged for his state-based vision of society that considered scholarly critique of hitherto extant academies, including the curiosité of the Collegium Medicorum. The summing up of the naturae-curiosi's pursuit of imperial privilege emphasizes the denominational controversy, which pitted the imperial counsellors against the societal Nomen preferred by Vienna. The attempt to interpret both sides of the argument deals on the one hand with the semantic expansion to universities of the concept of academia, inspired by humanism and the reception of Roman law; this expansion also affected the imperial reservation rights (exemplary references to legal argumentation from the work on imperial publicity by Ch. Besold). On the other hand

  19. 抑制p53缺失和突变型白血病细胞PPP2R5A表达后细胞生物学变化%Cytobiological effect on the leukemia cells with p53 deletion and mutation by inhibiting PPP2R5A expression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付书贞; 孙晓莉; Abdallah Dlykan; 贾宇; 魏园玉; 刘帅; 岳保红

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the cytobiological effect on the leukemia cells with p 53 deletion and mutation by inhibiting PPP2R5A expression, laying a foundation of finding the signal transduction pathway independently on p53. Methods Transfected siRNA-PPP2R5A to the leukemia cells HL-60,THP4 and Raji by liposome transfect technology to silent the PPP2R5A. Test the transfect effect by RT-PCR and immunocytochemistry to find the best concentration of siRNA-PPP2R5A and transfect time. Observe the cells growth by inverted microscope. Observe the cells form by Wright-Giemsa dye. Test the change of cell apoptosis and cell cycle by FCM . Results Under the inverted microscope ,the cells' growth state become different. Wright-Giemsa dye showed that the cells form to apoptotic body. When we analysis the result of cell apoptosis and cell cycle , we find the apoptosis cells in treatment group were more than control groups ,wend the cells at G1 phase and G2/M phase in treatment group were more than control groups , while the cells at S phase were less than control groups , which indicates that the proliferation become weak. Conclusions We test and verify the relation between PPP2R5A and cell apoptosis and differentiation, laying a foundation of finding the signal transduction pathway independently on p 53.%目的 探讨在p53缺失和突变型白血病细胞内PPP2R5A表达量的下降与细胞生物学变化之间的关系,为寻找核干细胞因子(NS)的非p53依赖性信号转导通路提供依据.方法 利用脂质体转染技术将针对PPP2R5A的siRNA转染到p53缺失或突变型的白血病细胞HL-60、THP-1和Raji细胞内,沉默PPP2R5A基因.RT-PCR法和免疫细胞化学法检测siRNA的转染效果并找出最佳转染浓度和时间.倒置显微镜观察转染组和对照组细胞的生长状态并绘制细胞生长曲线.瑞-吉染色观察转染组和对照组细胞的胞核、染色质及形态改变.流式细胞术Annexin V/PI双染

  20. 血清食欲素A对儿童阻塞性睡眠呼吸暂停低通气综合征的诊断价值%Diagnostic values of serum orexin-A levels in children with obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阿布来提·阿布都哈尔; 徐佩茹; 多力坤

    2008-01-01

    diagnostic predictor to screen patients with OSAHS in children.Methods Serum orexin-A concentration was measured with enzyme immunoassay(EIA)kit in 60 patient with snoring before performing polysomnography(PSG).Subsequently all the subjects underwent PSG test.Forty subjects were diagnosed as having OSAHS,and twenty subjects had no OSAHS.These 20 non-OSAHS subjects served as controls.Compared with the PSG results the clinical usefulness of the measurement of orexin-A concentration in serum was assessed as a diagnostic predictor to screen patients with OSAHS.Correlation between orexin-A levels and apnea hypoventilation index(AHI),micro-arousal index(MAI)and lowest SaO2(LSaO2)were analyzed.Resuits The serum orexin-A levels in the OSAHS group[(0.49±0.10)μg/L]was significantly higher than that of the control group[(0.28±0.11)μg/L,P0.05).The serum orexin-A levels in the OSAHS children after who under wend tosiletomy and adenoidectomy significantly decreased(P<0.05)3 months after surgery as compared with pre-operation level.Condusion These findings suggest that the serum level of orexin-A could be used as a predictor in screening for OSAHS children and a biological marker of the severity of OSAHS children.

  1. ХРОНОЛОГІЧНИЙ ПРИНЦИП КЛАСИФІКАЦІЇ ФРАНЦУЗЬКИХ ОЙКОНІМІВ (КЕЛЬТСЬКО – ДОКЕЛЬТСЬКІ УТВОРЕННЯ / СRONOLOGICAL ORDER OF FRENCH OIKONYMS CLASSIFICATION (CELTIC- PRECELTIC LEXICAL FORMATIONS

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    Олександр РАК

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Rak O. Principe de classement chronologique des oiconymes français (formations celtique-préceltique. Preceding views of scholars on the history of the names of settlements in different chronological periods and at the time of their formation give us grounds to claim that placenames are quite permanent onomastic formations, notwithstanding the fact that the language of the whole nation tended to undergo considerable changes. Our research sets chronological classification as a principle and, thus, we try to divide French placenames of CelticPreceltic periods according to various strata of linguistic legacy. We would like to refer to the fact that in terms of our research we have found a number of scientific statements on Celtic-Slavic linguistic ties. It is quite possible that the placenames Galych, Galychyna, Galicia are associated with the name of the Galatians (hypothesis, which is adhered to in our research. It should be taken into account that Celtic-Slavic linguistic and ethnic contacts are still considered to be controversial. Although the ancient Celtic-Wends of Indo-Europeans in the middle of I millennium BC were settled over vast areas of Europe, namely from Gaul to Galicia (Spain to Ukrainian Galicia and Turkish Galatia. Very little information have we as of today regarding the Celtic language and even less regarding its grammar and linguistic rules, which in its turn, makes it almost impossible to competently evaluate its real impact on the Roman and Germanic languages. Celtic Indo-European language, being the resemblance of Old Germanic and Scandinavian languages, bears traces of many ancient peoples like the Greeks, Macedonians, Romans, Marseilles, Belgians, Iberians, Ligurians and others. At that time Gauls were operating Celtic language as the basic means of communication, the written variant of which was not legally unified or codified. There has not been discovered any evidence of texts, the authorship of which could be

  2. Editorial: Medienkompetenz

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    Heinz Moser

    2000-03-01

    ärkten empirischen Ausrichtung der Medienpädagogik im Zusammenhang, wie sie im Rahmen der «realistischen Wende» der Erziehungswissenschaft ab den Sechzigerjahren verstärkt auf den Plan trat. Dabei waren auch diese Bestrebungen zu Beginn noch stark auf die bewahrpädagogische Grundstruktur bezogen, wie sie mit den Konzepten der damaligen Wirkungsforschung verbunden war. Man wollte die problematischen Wirkungen der Medien - und nun vor allem des Fernsehens - empirisch erhärten; doch dies war nicht möglich, ohne gehaltvolle empirische Hypothesen zu bilden. Um nur ein prominentes Beispiel zu nennen: Die Untersuchungen von Herta Sturm (Sturm 1985 zur «fehlenden Halbsekunde» konnten nicht einfach normative Empfehlungen formulieren, sondern mussten das Konstrukt der Medienwirkung auf empirisch gehaltvolle Weise ausdifferenzieren. Aufgrund der damit gesetzten Ansprüche waren einfache Antworten immer weniger möglich. So betonte Dieter Baacke 1973, der Begriff der «Massenmedien» sei kein kulturkritischer, sondern ein deskriptiver Begriff. Es sei vielmehr problematisch, Begriffe wie «Massengesellschaft» zu assoziieren, da Öffentlichkeit in der heutigen Gesellschaft keine ungegliederte und amorphe Masse darstelle (vgl. Baacke 1973, S. 13 f.. Immer stärker fanden seither Diskussionen aus dem medienwissenschaftlichen und kulturellen Bereich Eingang in die medienpädagogische Disziplin: So waren Theoreme mit wie die Wissenskluft-Theorie oder das im Rahmen der cultural studies entwickelte Konzept des active reader geeignet, die Annahme gleichförmiger Wirkungen von Medien auf die Population der Kinder und Jugendlichen zu hinterfragen und die Position des Rezipienten nicht einfach aus einer Opferolle heraus zu thematisieren. In den letzten zwanzig Jahren hat zudem das neue Medium des Computers pädagogische Fragen aufgeworfen, die auf verschiedensten Ebenen Diskussionen auslösten. Gesellschaftlich stand zur Diskussion, inwieweit die heutige Gesellschaft als Medien- oder

  3. Die Bedeutung von Husserls Logischen Untersuchungen für die Realistische Phänomenologie - Und die Kritik Realistischer Phänomenologen an einigen Husserl’schen Thesen

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    Josef Seifert

    2015-08-01

    , durch die wir in sich selber notwendige apriorische Sachverhalte in einer, für alle denkenden Wesen, inklusive Gottes, gültigen und vor allem in sich wahren kategorialen Anschauung erkennen, bildete einen Durchbruch zu den Dingen an sich. Es ist der Zugang zu den Dingen an sich, den viele Philosophen seit Kant verloren glaubten. Husserl identifiziert diese notwendigen logischen Gesetze, mit denen sich die reine Wissenschaft der Logik beschäftigt, als entscheidende Grundlage allen Denkens und aller Wahrheit. Allein der Zugriff auf zeitlose, ideale Gesetze bietet eine rationale Grundlage, und sichert die Würde der Logik. Trotz dieser gigantischen Errungenschaften fordern eine beträchtliche Anzahl von Irrtümern in den LU und vor allem in späteren Werken Husserls seit 1905 (1913 eine Widerlegung, ohne die die LU ihre Rolle als Grundlage für den phänomenologischen Realismus nicht erfüllen kann. Husserls Einsicht, dass keine Erkenntnis möglich ist, in welcher wir Gegenstände erkennen, ohne daß diese intentionale Gegenstände unserer je eigenen Akte wären, muß von einer anderen widersprüchlichen und falschen Meinung Husserls scharf unterschieden werden. Nach dieser Auffassung könnte das Subjekt von nichts wissen, daß es mehr ist als nur ein rein intentionaler Gegenstand des Bewußtseins, was weder wahr ist noch aus der erwähnten Erkenntnis folgt. Diese Verwirrung ist vielleicht der wesentlichste Grund für Husserls Verlassen des philosophischen Realismus gewesen und ist Gegenstand unserer Kritik. Husserls Behauptung einer wirkursächlichen Determination aller wirklichen Seienden ist ein zweiter Grund für seine transzendentale Wende: Sie führt zu der irrigen Annahme, dass eine reale individuelle Person vollkommen unfähig wäre, ihre eigene kausal determinierte Subjektivität zu transzendieren und jene Wesenheiten und Wahrheiten zu erreichen, die völlig unabhängig vom Subjekt sind. Um daher die von Husserl verteidigte apriorische Erkenntnis zu begr