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  1. Rebuilding Schools after the Wenchuan Earthquake: China Visits OECD, Italy and Turkey

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    CELE Exchange, 2009

    2009-01-01

    As the reconstruction efforts continue in China in the wake of the Great Wenchuan earthquake in May 2008, the China Development Research Foundation, with the support of the OECD Centre for Effective Learning Environments, organised an International Training Programme on the Post-Earthquake Reconstruction of Public Facilities from 1 to 11 December…

  2. The Wenchuan, China M8.0 Earthquake: A Lesson and Implication for Seismic Hazard Mitigation

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    Wang, Z.

    2008-12-01

    The Wenchuan, China M8.0 earthquake caused great damage and huge casualty. 69,197 people were killed, 374,176 people were injured, and 18,341 people are still missing. The estimated direct economic loss is about 126 billion U.S. dollar. The Wenchuan earthquake again demonstrated that earthquake does not kill people, but the built environments and induced hazards, landslides in particular, do. Therefore, it is critical to strengthen the built environments, such buildings and bridges, and to mitigate the induced hazards in order to avoid such disaster. As a part of the so-called North-South Seismic Zone in China, the Wenchuan earthquake occurred along the Longmen Shan thrust belt which forms a boundary between the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and the Sichuan basin, and there is a long history (~4,000 years) of seismicity in the area. The historical records show that the area experienced high intensity (i.e., greater than IX) in the past several thousand years. In other words, the area is well-known to have high seismic hazard because of its tectonic setting and seismicity. However, only intensity VII (0.1 to 0.15g PGA) has been considered for seismic design for the built environments in the area. This was one of the main reasons that so many building collapses, particularly the school buildings, during the Wenchuan earthquake. It is clear that the seismic design (i.e., the design ground motion or intensity) is not adequate in the Wenchuan earthquake stricken area. A lesson can be learned from the Wenchuan earthquake on the seismic hazard and risk assessment. A lesson can also be learned from this earthquake on seismic hazard mitigation and/or seismic risk reduction.

  3. Rebuilding Schools after the Wenchuan Earthquake: China Visits OECD, Italy and Turkey. CELE Exchange 2009/7

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    OECD Publishing (NJ1), 2009

    2009-01-01

    As the reconstruction efforts continue in China in the wake of the Great Wenchuan earthquake in May 2008, the China Development Research Foundation, with the support of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Centre for Effective Learning Environments, organised an International Training Programme on the Post-Earthquake…

  4. The 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake and the Rise and Fall of Earthquake Prediction in China

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    Chen, Q.; Wang, K.

    2009-12-01

    Regardless of the future potential of earthquake prediction, it is presently impractical to rely on it to mitigate earthquake disasters. The practical approach is to strengthen the resilience of our built environment to earthquakes based on hazard assessment. But this was not common understanding in China when the M 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake struck the Sichuan Province on 12 May 2008, claiming over 80,000 lives. In China, earthquake prediction is a government-sanctioned and law-regulated measure of disaster prevention. A sudden boom of the earthquake prediction program in 1966-1976 coincided with a succession of nine M > 7 damaging earthquakes in the densely populated region of the country and the political chaos of the Cultural Revolution. It climaxed with the prediction of the 1975 Haicheng earthquake, which was due mainly to an unusually pronounced foreshock sequence and the extraordinary readiness of some local officials to issue imminent warning and evacuation order. The Haicheng prediction was a success in practice and yielded useful lessons, but the experience cannot be applied to most other earthquakes and cultural environments. Since the disastrous Tangshan earthquake in 1976 that killed over 240,000 people, there have been two opposite trends in China: decreasing confidence in prediction and increasing emphasis on regulating construction design for earthquake resilience. In 1976, most of the seismic intensity XI areas of Tangshan were literally razed to the ground, but in 2008, many buildings in the intensity XI areas of Wenchuan did not collapse. Prediction did not save life in either of these events; the difference was made by construction standards. For regular buildings, there was no seismic design in Tangshan to resist any earthquake shaking in 1976, but limited seismic design was required for the Wenchuan area in 2008. Although the construction standards were later recognized to be too low, those buildings that met the standards suffered much less

  5. Risk factors of suicidal ideation among adolescents after Wenchuan earthquake in China.

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    Ran, Mao-Sheng; Zhang, Zhen; Fan, Mei; Li, Rong-Hui; Li, Yuan-Hao; Ou, Guo Jing; Jiang, Zhe; Tong, Yu-Zhen; Fang, Ding-Zhi

    2015-02-01

    Suicidal ideation is a common phenomenon in survivors after disaster event. To identify the change of suicidal ideation, and to test hypotheses concerning the suicidal ideation, depression and PTSD symptoms among adolescent survivors after the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake in China. The suicidal ideation among high school students at 6, 12 and 18 months after the Wenchuan earthquake were investigated. Subjects included 737 student survivors in an affected high school. The PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version (PCL-C) and the Chinese Beck Depression Inventory (C-BDI) were used to measure the symptoms of PTSD and depression. The rates of suicidal ideation among the adolescent survivors at 6-, 12- and 18-month after the earthquake were 35.6%, 35.6% and 30.7% respectively. Depression symptoms in the 18-month follow-up, suicidal ideations at 6 and 12 months after the earthquake were the independent risk factors of suicidal ideation in the 18-month follow-up. Depression symptoms were the strongest predictor of suicidal ideation after earthquake. An increased rate of suicidal ideation after the earthquake may be mainly due to depression but not to PTSD symptoms. The disaster-related psychological sequelae and the risk factors of suicidal ideation, especially depression symptoms, should be considered in the mental health services and suicide prevention. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Dynamic Source Parameters of the 2008 Wenchuan 8.0, China, Earthquake

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    Yu, X.; Zhang, W.

    2013-12-01

    On May 12, 2008, a huge earthquake with magnitude Ms 8.0 occurred in the Wenchuan, Sichuan Province of China. This event was the most devastating earthquake in the mainland of China since the Great 1976 M7.8 Tangshan earthquake. It resulted in tremendous losses of life and property. Due to occur in the mountainous area, this great earthquake and the following thousands aftershocks also caused many other geological disasters, such as landslide, mud-rock flow and "quake lakes" which formed by landslide-induced reservoirs. This earthquake occurred along the Longmenshan fault, as the result of motion on a northeast striking reverse fault or thrust fault on the northwestern margin of the Sichuan Basin. The earthquake's epicenter and focal-mechanism are consistent with it having occurred as the result of movement on the Longmenshan fault or a tectonically related fault. The earthquake reflects tectonic stresses resulting from the convergence of crustal material slowly moving from the high Tibetan Plateau, to the west, against strong crust underlying the Sichuan Basin and southeastern China. In this study, the spatial and temporal distribution of the stress on the fault plane of this great earthquake is estimated from the inversion results (Qin & Zhang, 2013) by solving the elastodynamic equations. Then, the dynamic source parameters are determined and the relations between the shear stress and the slip, the shear stress and the slip-rate for all grid positions on the fault are investigated. Finally, the frictional law for the source rupture is inferred from the dynamic source parameters. Based on the obtained dynamic source parameters, we try to rebuild the dynamic rupture process of this event and discuss the characteristics of this great earthquake.

  7. Remotely triggered seismicity in north China following the 2008 M w 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake

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    Peng, Zhigang; Wang, Weijun; Chen, Qi-Fu; Jiang, Tao

    2010-11-01

    We conduct a systematic survey of remote triggering of earthquakes in north China following the 2008 M w 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake. We identify triggered earthquakes as impulsive seismic energies with clear P and S arrivals on 5 Hz high-pass-filtered three-component velocity seismograms during and immediately after the passage of teleseismic waves. We find clearly triggered seismic activity near the Babaoshan and Huangzhuang-Gaoliying faults southwest of Beijing, and near the aftershock zone of the 1976 M W 7.6 Tangshan earthquake. While several earthquakes occur during and immediately after the teleseismic waves in the aftershock zone of the 1975 M w 7.0 Haicheng earthquake, the change of seismicity is not significant enough to establish the direct triggering relationship. Our results suggest that intraplate regions with active faults associated with major earthquakes during historic or recent times are susceptible to remote triggering. We note that this does not always guarantee the triggering to occur, indicating that other conditions are needed. Since none of these regions is associated with any active geothermal or volcanic activity, we infer that dynamic triggering could be ubiquitous and occur in a wide range of tectonic environments.

  8. Life events, coping, and posttraumatic stress symptoms among Chinese adolescents exposed to 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake, China.

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    Yuhong Zheng

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To examine the relationship between negative life events, coping styles, and symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD among adolescent survivors exposed to 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake, China. METHODS: A survey was conducted in a sample of 2250 adolescent students from two schools in Dujiangyan District, a seriously damaged area, 20 kilometers away from the epicenter, 6 months after the earthquake. Participants completed a self-administered questionnaire including demographics, negative life events, coping styles, and PTSD symptoms. RESULTS: Academic pressure was the strongest predictor of adolescents' PTSD symptoms among all negative life events. Main effects of negative life events, positive coping and negative coping on PTSD symptoms were significant in both younger adolescents and older adolescents, while the moderator effects of two coping styles were found significant only within older adolescents. CONCLUSIONS: Coping may play a role to moderate the relationship between post-earthquake negative life events and PTSD symptom, but the function seems to depend on the age of participants. Psychosocial coping skills training may be important in the prevention and intervention of mental health problems in adolescent survivors of traumatic earthquake.

  9. Environmental impact of the landslides caused by the 12 May 2008, Wenchuan, China earthquake

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    Highland, Lynn; Sun, Ping; Edited by Margottini, Claudio; Canuti, Paolo; Sassa, Kyoji

    2013-01-01

    The magnitude 7.9 (Mw) Wenchuan, China, earthquake of May 12, 2008 caused at least 88,000 deaths of which one third are estimated to be due to the more than 56,000 earthquake-induced landslides. The affected area is mountainous, featuring densely-vegetated, steep slopes through which narrowly confined rivers and streams flow. Numerous types of landslides occurred in the area, including rock avalanches, rock falls, translational and rotational slides, lateral spreads and debris flows. Some landslides mobilized hundreds of million cubic meters of material, often resulting in the damming of rivers and streams, impacting river ecosystems and morphology. Through an extensive search of both Chinese- and English-language publications we provide a summary of pertinent research on environmental effects, emphasizing key findings. Environmental effects caused by landslides include the alteration of agriculture, changes to natural ecosystems, changes in river morphology due to landslide dams and other effects such as sedimentation and flooding. Damage by landslides to the giant panda reserve infrastructure and habitat, was severe, threatening the survival of one of the world’s rarest species. The Panda reserves are of national significance to China, and to the vital tourism economy of the region. One of the major impacts to both the natural and built environment is the complete relocation of some human populations and infrastructure to new areas, resulting in the abandonment of towns and other areas that were damaged by the earthquake and landslides. The landslide effects have affected the biodiversity of the affected area, and it has been hypothesized that strict forest preservation measures taken in the years preceding the earthquake resulted in a reduction of the environmental damage to the area.

  10. Structural heterogeneities in the source area of the Mw 7.9 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z.; Fukao, Y.; Pei, S.

    2008-12-01

    The Mw 7.9 Wenchuan Earthquake occurred on May 12, 2008 (06:28:01 UTC) in the Longmen-Shan fault zone at the eastern margin of Tibet and adjacent to the Sichuan foreland basin, where as much as 9 m of coseismic slip was observed. This is the most significant earthquake to have struck China since the 1976 Tangshan Earthquake (Mw 7.6). Chinese authorities estimated more than 69,000 people were killed and 374,176 injured. About 1,485,000 people were forced into temporary shelters (http://www.gov.cn). The coseismic faulting zone coincides roughly with this aftershock distribution. The extent of the great damage may have resulted from the variation of crustal structures along the tectonic thrust faulting and strike slipping zone, causing significant coseismic displacement and acceleration on a regional scale. For a better understanding of what may have triggered this earthquake and how the rupture proceeded after the initiation, we conducted an investigation of the seismic structure in the Wenchuan earthquake source area. A large number of arrival time data of P and Pn, S and Sn phases from local earthquakes were collected and inverted jointly for the three-dimensional P- and S-wave velocity (Vp and Vs) models. The Poisson's ratio model was then calculated from these velocity models. The overall patterns of Vp and Vs anomalies are similar to each other at any of these three depths. The Sichuan Basin is a distinct entity in tomographic images, anomalously slow at 13 km depth and anomalously fast at 20 km depth, in sharp contrast to the anomalies on the mountain side across the Longmen-Shan fault zone. The area of the fault zone is characterized in general by high Vp and Vs anomalies at a depth of 13 km, although a low Vp and Vs anomaly patch is present in the middle of a total fault length of 300 km. At depths around 20 km, low Vp and Vs anomalies dominate on the mountain side including its eastern margin, where the shallower (˜13 km) and deeper (˜30 km) depths are

  11. Landslides Triggered by the 12 May 2008, M 7.9 Wenchuan, China Earthquake

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    Harp, E.; Jibson, R.; Godt, J.

    2009-04-01

    The 12 May 2008, M 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake in eastern Sichuan Province of China triggered tens of thousands of rock falls, rock slides, rock avalanches, and deep, complex, landslides. Of the approximately 87,000 deaths caused by the earthquake, more than 20,000 have been attributed to landsides. Numerous villages were buried by large landslides. Air-blasts resulting from the rapid failure and movement of landslides were observed and documented from numerous eye-witness accounts. More than 100 landslide-dammed lakes were created by the earthquake, 33 of which were evaluated to determine if spillway construction was necessary to minimize flooding by future breaching of the landslide dams. Spillways were ultimately constructed on at least 16 landslide dams. Preliminary observations in the field and from satellite imagery indicate that the most common types of landslides were rock falls and rock slides that ranged in size from several hundred cubic meters to several hundred thousand cubic meters in volume. There were hundreds to perhaps as many as one thousand landslides exceeding 1 million cubic meters in volume. The largest landslide identified using Jaxa's Alos/Prism satellite imagery (2.5 m resolution) is nearly 1 billion cubic meters in volume and is located approximately 12 km north-northeast of the city of Hanwang. This landslide appears to have resulted from the failure of a 1.5-km section of ridge crest that now occupies most of the adjacent valley to the northeast; its toe spills over the next ridge crest to the northeast. The satellite imagery of 4 June 2008 shows two small lakes dammed by the slide debris. Within the mountainous areas in the near-field zone of shaking, rock slides dammed chains of lakes in many drainages. Sections of streams 2-3 km long have been completely covered by rock debris as of the 4 June imagery The debris from the triggered landslides is being redistributed rapidly by post-earthquake rainfall. A 100-year rainstorm in September

  12. Family functioning and its predictors among disaster bereaved individuals in China: eighteen months after the Wenchuan Earthquake.

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    Xiaoyi Cao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The 2008 Wenchuan earthquake in China resulted in great loss of life and property, and previous studies have focused on psychopathological symptoms in survivors after disasters. This study examined perceived family functioning and its predictors in disaster bereaved individuals eighteen months after the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. METHODOLOGY/FINDINGS: This was a cross-sectional study of a convenience sample of 264 bereaved individuals. The instruments used in the study included Family APGAR Index, Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation ScaleãÀ, Emotional and Social Loneliness Scale, and a range of items eliciting demographic characteristics and disaster-related variables. The results indicated that the rates of moderate family dysfunction and severe family dysfunction in bereaved individuals were 37.1% and 12.9%, respectively. Less financial loss during the earthquake was a significant predictor for positive family function. Better self-rated health status after the earthquake was significantly related to positive family function, cohesion, and adaptability. Scores on family cohesion and adaptability in bereaved individuals from extended or nuclear families were significantly higher than those from single-parent families. The ability to give birth to another baby of bereaved parents was a significant predictor for positive family function and cohesion. Poorer family function, cohesion and adaptability were significantly related to greater loneliness. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study found a high prevalence of family dysfunction in bereaved individuals eighteen months after the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. Strategies can be designed to facilitate post-disaster recovery, particularly for the bereaved at high risk for family dysfunction. The study provides useful information for post-disaster rebuilding and relief work.

  13. Role of the professional helper in disaster intervention: examples from the Wenchuan Earthquake in China.

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    Wang, Xiying; Lum, Terry Y

    2013-01-01

    This article highlights the different roles that social workers played in disaster intervention after the Wenchuan earthquake. Using 3 stages (i.e., rescue, temporary relocation, and reconstruction) as a time framework, we describe social workers' roles, their performance, and the achievements and challenges they faced while providing service to the people and communities affected by the earthquake. Moreover, we draw conclusions on best practices and lessons learned, and make recommendations for future practices and research.

  14. Comparison of injury epidemiology between the Wenchuan and Lushan earthquakes in Sichuan, China.

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    Hu, Yang; Zheng, Xi; Yuan, Yong; Pu, Qiang; Liu, Lunxu; Zhao, Yongfan

    2014-12-01

    We aimed to compare injury characteristics and the timing of admissions and surgeries in the Wenchuan earthquake in 2008 and the Lushan earthquake in 2013. We retrospectively compared the admission and operating times and injury profiles of patients admitted to our medical center during both earthquakes. We also explored the relationship between seismic intensity and injury type. The time from earthquake onset to the peak in patient admissions and surgeries differed between the 2 earthquakes. In the Wenchuan earthquake, injuries due to being struck by objects or being buried were more frequent than other types of injuries, and more patients suffered injuries of the extremities than thoracic injuries or brain trauma. In the Lushan earthquake, falls were the most common injury, and more patients suffered thoracic trauma or brain injuries. The types of injury seemed to vary with seismic intensity, whereas the anatomical location of the injury did not. Greater seismic intensity of an earthquake is associated with longer delay between the event and the peak in patient admissions and surgeries, higher frequencies of injuries due to being struck or buried, and lower frequencies of injuries due to falls and injuries to the chest and brain. These insights may prove useful for planning rescue interventions in trauma centers near the epicenter.

  15. Chest injuries associated with earthquakes: an analysis of injuries sustained during the 2008 Wen-Chuan earthquake in China.

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    Hu, Jia; Guo, Ying-Qiang; Zhang, Er-Yong; Tan, Jin; Shi, Ying-Kang

    2010-08-01

    The goal of this study was to analyze the patterns, therapeutic modalities, and short-term outcomes of patients with chest injuries in the aftermath of the Wen-Chuan earthquake, which occurred on May 12, 2008 and registered 8.0 on the Richter scale. Of the 1522 patients who were referred to the West China Hospital of Sichuan University from May 12 to May 27, 169 patients (11.1%) had suffered major chest injuries. The type of injury, the presence of infection, Abbreviated Injury Score (AIS 2005), New Injury Severity Score (NISS), treatment, and short-term outcome were all documented for each case. Isolated chest injuries were diagnosed in 129 patients (76.3%), while multiple injuries with a major chest trauma were diagnosed in 40 patients (23.7%). The mean AIS and the median NISS of the hospitalized patients with chest injuries were 2.5 and 13, respectively. The mortality rate was 3.0% (5 patients). Most of the chest injuries were classified as minor to moderate trauma; however, coexistent multiple injuries and subsequent infection should be carefully considered in medical response strategies. Coordinated efforts among emergency medical support groups and prior training in earthquake preparedness and rescue in earthquake-prone areas are therefore necessary for efficient evacuation and treatment of catastrophic casualties.

  16. Magnetic properties of cores from the Wenchuan Earthquake Fault Scientific Drilling Hole-2 (WFSD-2), China

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    Zhang, L., Jr.; Sun, Z.; Li, H.; Cao, Y.; Ye, X.; Wang, L.; Zhao, Y.; Han, S.

    2015-12-01

    During an earthquake, seismic slip and frictional heating may cause the physical and chemical alterations of magnetic minerals within the fault zone. Rock magnetism provides a method for understanding earthquake dynamics. The Wenchuan earthquake Fault Scientific Drilling Project (WFSD) started right after 2008 Mw7.9 Wenchuan earthquake, to investigate the earthquake faulting mechanism. Hole 2 (WFSD-2) is located in the Pengguan Complex in the Bajiaomiao village (Dujiangyan, Sichuan), and reached the Yingxiu-Beichuan fault (YBF). We measured the surface magnetic susceptibility of the cores in WFSD-2 from 500 m to 1530 m with an interval of 1 cm. Rocks at 500-599.31 m-depth and 1211.49-1530 m-depth are from the Neoproterozoic Pengguang Complex while the section from 599.31 m to 1211.49 m is composed of Late Triassic sediments. The magnetic susceptibility values of the first part of the Pengguan Complex range from 1 to 25 × 10-6 SI, while the second part ranges from 10 to 200 × 10-6 SI, which indicate that the two parts are not from the same rock units. The Late Triassic sedimentary rocks have a low magnetic susceptibility values, ranging from -5 to 20 × 10-6 SI. Most fault zones coincide with the high value of magnetic susceptibility in the WFSD-2 cores. Fault rocks, mainly fault breccia, cataclasite, gouge and pseudotachylite within the WFSD-2 cores, and mostly display a significantly higher magnetic susceptibility than host rocks (5:1 to 20:1). In particular, in the YBF zone of the WFSD-2 cores (from 600 to 960 m), dozens of stages with high values of magnetic susceptibility have been observed. The multi-layered fault rocks with high magnetic susceptibility values might indicate that the YBF is a long-term active fault. The magnetic susceptibility values change with different types of fault rocks. The gouge and pseudotachylite have higher values of magnetic susceptibility than other fault rocks. Other primary rock magnetism analyses were then performed to

  17. Seismic properties of the Longmen Shan complex: Implications for the moment magnitude of the great 2008 Wenchuan earthquake in China

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    Sun, Shengsi; Ji, Shaocheng; Wang, Qian; Wang, Hongcai; Long, Changxing; Salisbury, Matthew

    2012-09-01

    The 12 May 2008 Wenchuan earthquake is the largest active tectonic event reported to date in Sichuan (China). We have experimentally calibrated, up to 800 MPa, seismic and elastic properties of 12 representative samples from the Longmen Shan complex in which this great earthquake took place and its coseismic ruptures nucleated and propagated. Most of the samples show little Vp or Vs anisotropy at pressures above the microcrack-closure pressure (Pc = 200-300 MPa), and so the variation of anisotropy with pressure provides important hints for the preferred orientation of microcracks in the nonlinear poroelastic regime below Pc. Geothermal and rheological profiles indicate that the focal depth (~ 19 km) corresponds to the base of the schizosphere, below which the Longmen Shan complex switches from the brittle to ductile behavior. The investigation reveals that the crust of the Longmen Shan range consists of 4 layers from the surface to the Moho: Layer 1: Vp < 4.88 km/s (0-3 km thick, sedimentary rocks such as limestone, sandstone, conglomerate, and mudstone); Layer 2: Vp = 5.95-6.25 km/s (25-28 km thick, felsic rocks); Layer 3: Vp = 6.55 km/s (10 km thick, 67.5% felsic and 32.5% mafic rocks); and Layer 4: Vp = 6.90 km/s (8 km thick, 20.0% felsic and 80.0% mafic rocks). The average Vp/Vs ratio of 1.71 or Poisson's ratio of 0.24 calculated for the whole crust is consistent with the results measured using teleseismic receiver function techniques. This study also offers necessary information for broadband simulations of strong ground motions in the assessment and forecast of earthquake hazards in the region. Furthermore, the study, which yields a moment magnitude of 7.9-8.0 given the variation in the dip of the coseismic ruptures and the uncertainty in the depth to which the coseismic rupture may propagate downwards below the depth of the mainshock hypocenter, presents the first accurate quantification of the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake's size.

  18. Monitoring shallow resistivity changes prior to the 12 May 2008 M 8.0 Wenchuan earthquake on the Longmen Shan tectonic zone, China

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    Lu, Jun; Xie, Tao; Li, Mei; Wang, Yali; Ren, Yuexia; Gao, Shude; Wang, Lanwei; Zhao, Jialiu

    2016-04-01

    An active source measurement of shallow resistivity using fixed-electrode quasi-Schlumberger arrays has been conducted at Pixian, Jiangyou and Wudu stations on the Longmen Shan tectonic zone in western China, with the hope of detecting earthquake-associated changes. For the duration of the monitoring experiment, a gradual decrease of apparent resistivity of up to 6.7% several years prior to the 12 May 2008 M 8.0 Wenchuan earthquake had been recorded clearly at Pixian station, approximately 35 km from the epicenter. The change of apparent resistivity was monitored with a fixed Schlumberger array of AB/MN spacings of 736 m/226 m in the direction of N57.5°E, giving precisions in measured daily averages of 0.16% or less. A coseismic resistivity drop of up to 5.3% was observed at Jiangyou station, using a Schlumberger array of AB/MN spacings of 710 m/90 m in the direction of N10°E. No fluctuation of resistivity was detected at Wudu station at the time of the Wenchuan mainshock. While the focus of this paper is on monitoring or tracking resistivity variations prior to, during, and after the Wenchuan earthquake, we also aim to compare resistivity records of the Wenchuan earthquake to those of the M 7.8 Tangshan and M 7.2 Songpan earthquakes of 1976. Attempts to explain the observed resistivity variations have been made. The results show that the resistivity variations observed at all three stations are in approximate agreement with resistivity-stress behavior deduced from in situ experiments, focal mechanisms, a simplified dynamical model, static stress analyses, and field investigations from along the Longmen Shan fault zone.

  19. Water and soil loss from landslide deposits as a function of gravel content in the Wenchuan earthquake area, China, revealed by artificial rainfall simulations.

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    Gan, Fengling; He, Binghui; Wang, Tao

    2018-01-01

    A large number of landslides were triggered by the Mw7.9 Wenchuan earthquake which occurred on 12th May 2008. Landslides impacted extensive areas along the Mingjiang River and its tributaries. In the landslide deposits, soil and gravel fragments generally co-exist and their proportions may influence the hydrological and erosion processes on the steep slopes of the deposit surface. Understanding the effects of the mixtures of soil and gravels in landslide deposits on erosion processes is relevant for ecological reconstruction and water and soil conservation in Wenchuan earthquake area. Based on field surveys, indoor artificial rainfall simulation experiments with three rainfall intensities (1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 mm·min-1) and three proportions of gravel (50%, 66.7% and 80%) were conducted to measure how the proportion of gravel affected soil erosion and sediment yield in landslide sediments and deposits. Where the proportion of gravel was 80%, no surface runoff was produced during the 90 minute experiment under all rainfall intensities. For the 66.7% proportion, no runoff was generated at the lowest rainfall intensity (1.0 mm·min-1). As a result of these interactions, the average sediment yield ranked as 50> 66.6> 80% with different proportions of gravel. In addition, there was a positive correlation between runoff generation and sediment yield, and the sediment yield lagging the runoff generation. Together, the results demonstrate an important role of gravel in moderating the mobilization of landslide sediment produced by large earthquakes, and could lay the foundation for erosion models which provide scientific guidance for the control of landslide sediment in the Wenchuan earthquake zone, China.

  20. Retrospective cohort analysis of chest injury characteristics and concurrent injuries in patients admitted to hospital in the Wenchuan and Lushan earthquakes in Sichuan, China.

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    Zheng, Xi; Hu, Yang; Yuan, Yong; Zhao, Yong-Fan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare retrospectively the characteristics of chest injuries and frequencies of other, concurrent injuries in patients after earthquakes of different seismic intensity. We compared the cause, type, and body location of chest injuries as well as the frequencies of other, concurrent injuries in patients admitted to our hospital after the Wenchuan and Lushan earthquakes in Sichuan, China. We explored possible relationships between seismic intensity and the causes and types of injuries, and we assessed the ability of the Injury Severity Score, New Injury Severity Score, and Chest Injury Index to predict respiratory failure in chest injury patients. The incidence of chest injuries was 9.9% in the stronger Wenchuan earthquake and 22.2% in the less intensive Lushan earthquake. The most frequent cause of chest injuries in both earthquakes was being accidentally struck. Injuries due to falls were less prevalent in the stronger Wenchuan earthquake, while injuries due to burial were more prevalent. The distribution of types of chest injury did not vary significantly between the two earthquakes, with rib fractures and pulmonary contusions the most frequent types. Spinal and head injuries concurrent with chest injuries were more prevalent in the less violent Lushan earthquake. All three trauma scoring systems showed poor ability to predict respiratory failure in patients with earthquake-related chest injuries. Previous studies may have underestimated the incidence of chest injury in violent earthquakes. The distributions of types of chest injury did not differ between these two earthquakes of different seismic intensity. Earthquake severity and interval between rescue and treatment may influence the prevalence and types of injuries that co-occur with the chest injury. Trauma evaluation scores on their own are inadequate predictors of respiratory failure in patients with earthquake-related chest injuries.

  1. Retrospective cohort analysis of chest injury characteristics and concurrent injuries in patients admitted to hospital in the Wenchuan and Lushan earthquakes in Sichuan, China.

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    Xi Zheng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to compare retrospectively the characteristics of chest injuries and frequencies of other, concurrent injuries in patients after earthquakes of different seismic intensity. METHODS: We compared the cause, type, and body location of chest injuries as well as the frequencies of other, concurrent injuries in patients admitted to our hospital after the Wenchuan and Lushan earthquakes in Sichuan, China. We explored possible relationships between seismic intensity and the causes and types of injuries, and we assessed the ability of the Injury Severity Score, New Injury Severity Score, and Chest Injury Index to predict respiratory failure in chest injury patients. RESULTS: The incidence of chest injuries was 9.9% in the stronger Wenchuan earthquake and 22.2% in the less intensive Lushan earthquake. The most frequent cause of chest injuries in both earthquakes was being accidentally struck. Injuries due to falls were less prevalent in the stronger Wenchuan earthquake, while injuries due to burial were more prevalent. The distribution of types of chest injury did not vary significantly between the two earthquakes, with rib fractures and pulmonary contusions the most frequent types. Spinal and head injuries concurrent with chest injuries were more prevalent in the less violent Lushan earthquake. All three trauma scoring systems showed poor ability to predict respiratory failure in patients with earthquake-related chest injuries. CONCLUSIONS: Previous studies may have underestimated the incidence of chest injury in violent earthquakes. The distributions of types of chest injury did not differ between these two earthquakes of different seismic intensity. Earthquake severity and interval between rescue and treatment may influence the prevalence and types of injuries that co-occur with the chest injury. Trauma evaluation scores on their own are inadequate predictors of respiratory failure in patients with earthquake

  2. Rupture history of the 2008 Mw 7.9 Wenchuan, China, earthquake: Evaluation of separate and joint inversions of geodetic, teleseismic, and strong-motion data

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    Hartzell, Stephen; Mendoza, Carlos; Ramírez-Guzmán, Leonardo; Zeng, Yuesha; Mooney, Walter

    2013-01-01

    An extensive data set of teleseismic and strong-motion waveforms and geodetic offsets is used to study the rupture history of the 2008 Wenchuan, China, earthquake. A linear multiple-time-window approach is used to parameterize the rupture. Because of the complexity of the Wenchuan faulting, three separate planes are used to represent the rupturing surfaces. This earthquake clearly demonstrates the strengths and limitations of geodetic, teleseismic, and strong-motion data sets. Geodetic data (static offsets) are valuable for determining the distribution of shallower slip but are insensitive to deeper faulting and reveal nothing about the timing of slip. Teleseismic data in the distance range 30°–90° generally involve no modeling difficulties because of simple ray paths and can distinguish shallow from deep slip. Teleseismic data, however, cannot distinguish between different slip scenarios when multiple fault planes are involved because steep takeoff angles lead to ambiguity in timing. Local strong-motion data, on the other hand, are ideal for determining the direction of rupture from directivity but can easily be over modeled with inaccurate Green’s functions, leading to misinterpretation of the slip distribution. We show that all three data sets are required to give an accurate description of the Wenchuan rupture. The moment is estimated to be approximately 1.0 × 1021 N · m with the slip characterized by multiple large patches with slips up to 10 m. Rupture initiates on the southern end of the Pengguan fault and proceeds unilaterally to the northeast. Upon reaching the cross-cutting Xiaoyudong fault, rupture of the adjacent Beichuan fault starts at this juncture and proceeds bilaterally to the northeast and southwest.

  3. Numerical Modeling on Co-seismic Influence of Wenchuan 8.0 Earthquake in Sichuan-Yunnan Area, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L.; Li, H.; Lu, Y.; Li, Y.; Ye, J.

    2009-12-01

    In this paper, a three dimensional finite element model for active faults which are handled by contact friction elements in Sichuan-Yunnan area is built. Applying the boundary conditions determined through GPS data, a numerical simulations on spatial patterns of stress-strain changes induced by Wenchuan Ms8.0 earthquake are performed. Some primary results are: a) the co-seismic displacements in Longmen shan fault zone by the initial cracking event benefit not only the NE-direction expanding of subsequent fracture process but also the focal mechanism conversions from thrust to right lateral strike for the most of following sub-cracking events. b) tectonic movements induced by the Wenchuan earthquake are stronger in the upper wall of Longmen shan fault belt than in the lower wall and are influenced remarkably by the northeast boundary faults of the rhombic block. c) the extrema of stress changes induced by the main shock are 106Pa and its spatial size is about 400km long and 100km wide. The total stress level is reduced in the most regions in Longmen shan fault zone, whereas stress change is rather weak in its southwest segment and possibly result in fewer aftershocks in there. d) effects induced by the Wenchuan earthquake to the major active faults are obviously different from each other. e) triggering effect of the Wenchuan earthquake to the following Huili 6.1 earthquake is very weak.

  4. Hybrid Simulations of the Broadband Ground Motions for the 2008 MS8.0 Wenchuan, China, Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, X.; Zhang, W.

    2012-12-01

    The Ms8.0 Wenchuan earthquake occurred on 12 May 2008 at 14:28 Beijing Time. It is the largest event happened in the mainland of China since the 1976, Mw7.6, Tangshan earthquake. Due to occur in the mountainous area, this great earthquake and the following thousands aftershocks also caused many other geological disasters, such as landslide, mud-rock flow and "quake lakes" which formed by landslide-induced reservoirs. These resulted in tremendous losses of life and property. Casualties numbered more than 80,000 people, and there were major economic losses. However, this earthquake is the first Ms 8 intraplate earthquake with good close fault strong motion coverage. Over four hundred strong motion stations of the National Strong Motion Observation Network System (NSMONS) recorded the mainshock. Twelve of them located within 20 km of the fault traces and another 33 stations located within 100 km. These observations, accompanying with the hundreds of GPS vectors and multiple ALOS INSAR images, provide an unprecedented opportunity to study the rupture process of such a great intraplate earthquake. In this study, we calculate broadband near-field ground motion synthetic waveforms of this great earthquake using a hybrid broadband ground-motion simulation methodology, which combines a deterministic approach at low frequencies (f < 1.0 Hz) with a theoretic Green's function calculation approach at high frequency ( ~ 10.0 Hz). The fault rupture is represented kinematically and incorporates spatial heterogeneity in slip, rupture speed, and rise time that were obtained by an inversion kinematic source model. At the same time, based on the aftershock data, we analyze the site effects for the near-field stations. Frequency-dependent site-amplification values for each station are calculated using genetic algorithms. For the calculation of the synthetic waveforms, at first, we carry out simulations using the hybrid methodology for the frequency up to 10.0 Hz. Then, we consider for

  5. Longitudinal relationships between gratitude, deliberate rumination, and posttraumatic growth in adolescents following the Wenchuan earthquake in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiao; Wu, Xinchun

    2015-10-01

    To examine the longitudinal relationship between gratitude, deliberate rumination and posttraumatic growth (PTG) in the adolescent survivors after the Wenchuan earthquake, 217 adolescent survivors were randomly selected from several primary and secondary schools in the county of Wenchuan, and were assessed by questionnaires at three and a half years (T1), four and a half years (T2), five and a half years (T3) after the Wenchuan earthquake, respectively. The results found that there was a one-way predictive relationship of gratitude onto PTG from T1 to T3, and gratitude predicted deliberate rumination from T1 to T2 but not T2 to T3. Deliberate rumination only had a significant positive effect on PTG from T2 to T3, and PTG only predicted deliberate rumination from T1 to T2. These results indicated that gratitude could be a stable predictive factor for the development of PTG, and gratitude could also affect PTG by deliberate rumination. In addition, the predictive effect between deliberate rumination and PTG is unstable with time change. © 2015 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Long-Term Monitoring of the Impacts of Disaster on Human Activity Using DMSP/OLS Nighttime Light Data: A Case Study of the 2008 Wenchuan, China Earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Li

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Time series monitoring of earthquake-stricken areas is significant in evaluating post-disaster reconstruction and recovery. The time series of nighttime light (NTL data collected by the defense meteorological satellite program-operational linescan system (DMSP/OLS sensors provides a unique and valuable resource to study changes in human activity (HA because of the long period of available data. In this paper, the DMSP/OLS NTL images’ digital number (DN is used as a proxy for the intensity of HA since there is a high correlation between them. The purpose of this study is to develop a methodology to analyze the changes of intensity and distribution of HA in different areas affected by a 2008 earthquake in Wenchuan, China. In order to compare the trends of HA before and after the earthquake, the DMSP/OLS NTL images from 2003 to 2013 were processed and analyzed. However, their analysis capability is greatly limited owing to a lack of in-flight calibration. To improve the continuity and comparability of DMSP/OLS NTL images, this study developed an automatic intercalibration method to systematically correct NTL data. The results reveal that: (1 compared with the HA before the earthquake, the reconstruction and recovery of the Wenchuan earthquake have led to a significant increase of HA in earthquake-stricken areas within three years after the earthquake; (2 the fluctuation of HA in a severely-affected area is greater than that in a less-affected area; (3 recovery efforts increase development in the most affected areas to levels that exceeded the rates in similar areas which experienced less damage; and (4 areas alongside roads and close to reconstruction projects exhibited increased development in regions with otherwise low human activity.

  7. A 2-year follow-up survey of 523 cases with peripheral nerve injuries caused by the earthquake in Wenchuan, China

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    Chun-qing He

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We performed a 2-year follow-up survey of 523 patients with peripheral nerve injuries caused by the earthquake in Wenchuan, Sichuan Province, China. Nerve injuries were classified into three types: type I injuries were nerve transection injuries, type II injuries were nerve compression injuries, and type III injuries displayed no direct neurological dysfunction due to trauma. In this study, 31 patients had type I injuries involving 41 nerves, 419 had type II injuries involving 823 nerves, and 73 had type III injuries involving 150 nerves. Twenty-two patients had open transection nerve injury. The restoration of peripheral nerve function after different treatments was evaluated. Surgical decompression favorably affected nerve recovery. Physiotherapy was effective for type I and type II nerve injuries, but not substantially for type III nerve injury. Pharmacotherapy had little effect on type II or type III nerve injuries. Targeted decompression surgery and physiotherapy contributed to the effective treatment of nerve transection and compression injuries. The Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center score for nerve injury severity declined with increasing duration of being trapped. In the first year after treatment, the Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center score for grades 3 to 5 nerve injury increased by 28.2% to 81.8%. If scores were still poor (0 or 1 after a 1-year period of treatment, further treatment was not effective.

  8. Automatic recognition of seismic intensity based on RS and GIS: a case study in Wenchuan Ms8.0 earthquake of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiuwen; Zhang, Yan; Yang, Xiaohong; Su, Bin

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, earthquakes have frequently occurred all over the world, which caused huge casualties and economic losses. It is very necessary and urgent to obtain the seismic intensity map timely so as to master the distribution of the disaster and provide supports for quick earthquake relief. Compared with traditional methods of drawing seismic intensity map, which require many investigations in the field of earthquake area or are too dependent on the empirical formulas, spatial information technologies such as Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographical Information System (GIS) can provide fast and economical way to automatically recognize the seismic intensity. With the integrated application of RS and GIS, this paper proposes a RS/GIS-based approach for automatic recognition of seismic intensity, in which RS is used to retrieve and extract the information on damages caused by earthquake, and GIS is applied to manage and display the data of seismic intensity. The case study in Wenchuan Ms8.0 earthquake in China shows that the information on seismic intensity can be automatically extracted from remotely sensed images as quickly as possible after earthquake occurrence, and the Digital Intensity Model (DIM) can be used to visually query and display the distribution of seismic intensity.

  9. Automatic Recognition of Seismic Intensity Based on RS and GIS: A Case Study in Wenchuan Ms8.0 Earthquake of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiuwen Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, earthquakes have frequently occurred all over the world, which caused huge casualties and economic losses. It is very necessary and urgent to obtain the seismic intensity map timely so as to master the distribution of the disaster and provide supports for quick earthquake relief. Compared with traditional methods of drawing seismic intensity map, which require many investigations in the field of earthquake area or are too dependent on the empirical formulas, spatial information technologies such as Remote Sensing (RS and Geographical Information System (GIS can provide fast and economical way to automatically recognize the seismic intensity. With the integrated application of RS and GIS, this paper proposes a RS/GIS-based approach for automatic recognition of seismic intensity, in which RS is used to retrieve and extract the information on damages caused by earthquake, and GIS is applied to manage and display the data of seismic intensity. The case study in Wenchuan Ms8.0 earthquake in China shows that the information on seismic intensity can be automatically extracted from remotely sensed images as quickly as possible after earthquake occurrence, and the Digital Intensity Model (DIM can be used to visually query and display the distribution of seismic intensity.

  10. NGO collaboration in community post-disaster reconstruction: field research following the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yi; Xu, Jiuping

    2015-04-01

    The number of communities affected by disasters has been rising. As a result, non-governmental organisations (NGOs) that attend community post-disaster reconstruction are often unable to deliver all requirements and have to develop cooperative approaches. However, this collaboration can cause problems because of the complex environments, the fight for limited resources and uncoordinated management, all of which result in poor service delivery to the communities, adding to their woes. From extensive field research and case studies conducted in the post-Wenchuan earthquake-stricken communities, this paper introduces an integrated collaboration framework for community post-disaster reconstruction with the focus on three types of NGOs: international, government organised and civil. The proposed collaboration framework examines the three interrelated components of organisational structure, operational processes and reconstruction goals/implementation areas. Of great significance in better promoting collaborative participation between NGOs are the crucial concepts of participatory reconstruction, double-layer collaborative networks, and circular review and revision. © 2015 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2015.

  11. Distributed and hierarchical object-based image analysis for damage assessment: a case study of 2008 Wenchuan earthquake, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Sun

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Object-based image analysis (OBIA is an emerging technique for analyzing remote sensing image based on object properties including spectral, geometry, contextual and texture information. To reduce the computational cost of this comprehensive OBIA and make it more feasible in disaster responses, we developed a unique approach – distributed and hierarchical OBIA approach for damage assessment. This study demonstrated a completed classification of YingXiu town, heavily devastated by the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake using Quickbrid imagery. Two distinctive areas, mountainous areas and urban, were analyzed separately. This approach does not require substantial processing power and large amounts of available memory because image of a large disaster-affected area was split in smaller pieces. Two or more computers could be used in parallel to process and analyze these sub-images based on different requirements. The approach can be applicable in other cases whereas the established set of rules can be adopted in similar study areas. More experiments will be carried out in future studies to prove its feasibility.

  12. Mineralogical compositions of fault rocks from surface ruptures of Wenchuan earthquake and implication of mineral transformation during the seismic cycle along Yingxiu-Beichuan fault, Sichuan Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Jiaxiang; Zhou, Yongsheng; He, Changrong; Ma, Shengli

    2018-06-01

    There are two co-seismic bedrock surface ruptures from the Mw 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake in the northern and central parts of the Beichuan-Yingxiu fault, Sichuan Province, southwest China. In this study, we report on the macrostructure of the fault rocks and results from X-ray powder diffraction analysis of minerals from rocks in the fault zone. The most recent fault gouge (the gouge produced by the most recent co-seismic fault movement) in all the studied outcrops is dark or grayish-black, totally unconsolidated and ultrafine-grained. Older fault gouges in the same outcrops are grayish or yellowish and weakly consolidated. X-ray powder diffraction analysis results show that mineral assemblages in both the old fault gouge and the new fault gouge are more complicated than the mineral assemblages in the bedrock as the fault gouge is rich in clay minerals. The fault gouge inherited its major rock-forming minerals from the parent rocks, but the clay minerals in the fault gouge were generated in the fault zone and are therefore authigenic and synkinematic. In profiles across the fault, clay mineral abundances increase as one traverses from the bedrock to the breccia to the old gouge and from the old gouge to the new gouge. Quartz and illite are found in all collected gouge samples. The dominant clay minerals in the new fault gouge are illite and smectite along the northern part of the surface rupture and illite/smectite mixed-layer clay in the middle part of the rupture. Illite/smectite mixed-layer clay found in the middle part of the rupture indicates that fault slip was accompanied by K-rich fluid circulation. The existence of siderite, anhydrite, and barite in the northern part of the rupture suggests that fault slip at this locality was accompanied by acidic fluids containing ions of Fe, Ca, and Ba.

  13. Numerical simulation of multiple-physical fields coupling for thermal anomalies before earthquakes: A case study of the 2008 Wenchuan Ms8.0 earthquake in southwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Z.

    2017-12-01

    It has become a highly focused issue that thermal anomalies appear before major earthquakes. There are various hypotheses about the mechanism of thermal anomalies. Because of lacking of enough evidences, the mechanism is still require to be further researched. Gestation and occurrence of a major earthquake is related with the interaction of multi-physical fields. The underground fluid surging out the surface is very likely to be the reason for the thermal anomaly. This study tries to answer some question, such as how the geothermal energy transfer to the surface, and how the multiple-physical fields interacted. The 2008 Wenchuan Ms8.0 earthquake, is one of the largest evens in the last decade in China mainland. Remote sensing studies indicate that distinguishable thermal anomalies occurred several days before the earthquake. The heat anomaly value is more than 3 times the average in normal time and distributes along the Longmen Shan fault zone. Based on geological and geophysical data, 2D dynamic model of coupled stress, seepage and thermal fields (HTM model) is constructed. Then using the COMSOL multi-physics filed software, this work tries to reveal the generation process and distribution patterns of thermal anomalies prior to thrust-type major earthquakes. The simulation get the results: (1)Before the micro rupture, with the increase of compression, the heat current flows to the fault in the footwall on the whole, while in the hanging wall of the fault, particularly near the ground surface, the heat flow upward. In the fault zone, heat flow upward along the fracture surface, heat flux in the fracture zone is slightly larger than the wall rock;, but the value is all very small. (2)After the occurrence of the micro fracture, the heat flow rapidly collects to the faults. In the fault zones, the heat flow accelerates up along the fracture surfaces, the heat flux increases suddenly, and the vertical heat flux reaches to the maximum. The heat flux in the 3 fracture

  14. Combined effects of climate, restoration measures and slope position in change in soil chemical properties and nutrient loss across lands affected by the Wenchuan Earthquake in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yongming; Deng, Haojun; Du, Kun; Rafay, Loretta; Zhang, Guang-Shuai; Li, Jian; Chen, Can; Wu, Chengzhen; Lin, Han; Yu, Wei; Fan, Hailan; Ge, Yonggang

    2017-10-15

    The MS 8.0Wenchuan Earthquake in 2008 caused huge damage to land cover in the northwest of China's Sichuan province. In order to determine the nutrient loss and short term characteristics of change in soil chemical properties, we established an experiment with three treatments ('undestroyed', 'destroyed and treated', and 'destroyed and untreated'), two climate types (semi-arid hot climate and subtropical monsoon climate), and three slope positions (upslope, mid-slope, and bottom-slope) in 2011. Ten soil properties-including pH, organic carbon, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, total potassium, Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ , alkaline hydrolysable nitrogen, available phosphorus, and available potassium-were measured in surface soil samples in December 2014. Analyses were performed to compare the characteristics of 3-year change in soil chemical properties in two climate zones. This study revealed that soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, Ca 2+ content, alkaline hydrolysable nitrogen, available phosphorus, and available potassium were significantly higher in subtropical monsoon climate zones than in semi-arid hot climate zones. However, subtropical monsoon climate zones had a higher decrease in soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, total potassium, and alkaline hydrolysable nitrogen in 'destroyed and untreated' sites than in semi-arid hot climate zones. Most soil chemical properties exhibited significant interactions, indicating that they may degrade or develop concomitantly. 'Destroyed and treated' sites in both climate types had lower C:P and N:P ratios than 'destroyed and untreated' sites. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that the first, second, and third principal components explained 76.53% of the variation and might be interpreted as structural integrity, nutrient supply availability, and efficiency of soil; the difference of soil parent material; as well as weathering and leaching effects. Our study indicated that the characteristics of short term

  15. Ground-Motion Simulations of the 2008 Ms8.0 Wenchuan, China, Earthquake Using Empirical Green's Function Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, W.; Zhang, Y.; Yao, X.

    2010-12-01

    On May 12, 2008, a huge earthquake with magnitude Ms8.0 occurred in the Wenhuan, Sichuan Province of China. This event was the most devastating earthquake in the mainland of China since the 1976 M7.8 Tangshan earthquake. It resulted in tremendous losses of life and property. There were about 90,000 persons killed. Due to occur in the mountainous area, this great earthquake and the following thousands aftershocks also caused many other geological disasters, such as landslide, mud-rock flow and “quake lakes” which formed by landslide-induced reservoirs. This earthquake occurred along the Longmenshan fault, as the result of motion on a northeast striking reverse fault or thrust fault on the northwestern margin of the Sichuan Basin. The earthquake's epicenter and focal-mechanism are consistent with it having occurred as the result of movement on the Longmenshan fault or a tectonically related fault. The earthquake reflects tectonic stresses resulting from the convergence of crustal material slowly moving from the high Tibetan Plateau, to the west, against strong crust underlying the Sichuan Basin and southeastern China. In this study, we simulate the near-field strong ground motions of this great event based on the empirical Green’s function method (EGF). Referring to the published inversion source models, at first, we assume that there are three asperities on the rupture area and choose three different small events as the EGFs. Then, we identify the parameters of the source model using a genetic algorithm (GA). We calculate the synthetic waveforms based on the obtained source model and compare with the observed records. Our result shows that for most of the synthetic waveforms agree very well with the observed ones. The result proves the validity and the stability of the method. Finally, we forward the near-field strong ground motions near the source region and try to explain the damage distribution caused by the great earthquake.

  16. A Preliminary Analysis on the Dynamics of the Ms8.0 Great Wenchuan, Sichuan, China Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, W.

    2008-12-01

    On May 12, 2008, a huge earthquake with magnitude Ms8.0 occurred in the Wenhuan, Sichuan Province of China. This event was the most devastating earthquake in the mainland of China since the 1976 M7.8 Tangshan earthquake. It resulted in tremendous losses of life and property. So far, there are 69,181 persons killed, and 18,522 still missing. Due to occur in the mountainous area, this great earthquake and the following thousands aftershocks also caused many other geological disasters, such as landslide, mud-rock flow and "quake lakes" which formed by landslide-induced reservoirs. This earthquake occurred along the Longmenshan fault, as the result of motion on a northeast striking reverse fault or thrust fault on the northwestern margin of the Sichuan Basin. The earthquake's epicenter and focal-mechanism are consistent with it having occurred as the result of movement on the Longmenshan fault or a tectonically related fault. The earthquake reflects tectonic stresses resulting from the convergence of crustal material slowly moving from the high Tibetan Plateau, to the west, against strong crust underlying the Sichuan Basin and southeastern China. In this study, the spatial and temporal distribution of the stress on the fault plane of this great earthquake is estimated from the inversion results (Chen Ji, 2008) by solving the elastodynamic equations. Then, the dynamic source parameters are determined and the relations between the shear stress and the slip, the shear stress and the slip-rate for all grid positions on the fault are investigated. Finally, the frictional law for the source rupture is inferred from the dynamic source parameters. Based on the obtained dynamic source parameters, we try to rebuild the dynamic rupture process of this event and discuss the characteristics of this great earthquake.

  17. Mapping the b-values along the Longmenshan fault zone before and after the 12 May 2008, Wenchuan, China, MS 8.0 earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Z. Zhao

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The b-value in the Gutenberg-Richter frequency-magnitude distribution, which is assumed to be related to stress heterogeneity or asperities, was mapped along the Longmenshan fault zone which accommodated the 12 May 2008, Wenchuan, MS 8.0 earthquake. Spatial distributions of b-value before and after the Wenchuan earthquake, respectively, were compared with the slip distribution of the mainshock. It is shown that the mainshock rupture nucleated near to, but not within, the high-stress (low b-value asperity in the south part of the Longmenshan fault, propagating north-eastward to the relatively low stress (high b-value region. Due to the significant difference between the rupture process results from different sources, the comparison between slip distribution and pre-seismic b-value distribution leads to only conclusion of the rule-of-thumb. The temporal change of b-value before the mainshock shows a weak trend of decreasing, being hard to be used as an indicator of the approaching of the mainshock. Distribution of b-values for the aftershocks relates the termination of the mainshock rupture to the harder patch along the Longmenshan fault to the north.

  18. Interpretation of earthquake-induced landslides triggered by the 12 May 2008, M7.9 Wenchuan earthquake in the Beichuan area, Sichuan Province, China using satellite imagery and Google Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, H.P.; Harp, E.L.

    2009-01-01

    The 12 May 2008 M7.9 Wenchuan earthquake in the People's Republic of China represented a unique opportunity for the international community to use commonly available GIS (Geographic Information System) tools, like Google Earth (GE), to rapidly evaluate and assess landslide hazards triggered by the destructive earthquake and its aftershocks. In order to map earthquake-triggered landslides, we provide details on the applicability and limitations of publicly available 3-day-post- and pre-earthquake imagery provided by GE from the FORMOSAT-2 (formerly ROCSAT-2; Republic of China Satellite 2). We interpreted landslides on the 8-m-resolution FORMOSAT-2 image by GE; as a result, 257 large landslides were mapped with the highest concentration along the Beichuan fault. An estimated density of 0.3 landslides/km2 represents a minimum bound on density given the resolution of available imagery; higher resolution data would have identified more landslides. This is a preliminary study, and further study is needed to understand the landslide characteristics in detail. Although it is best to obtain landslide locations and measurements from satellite imagery having high resolution, it was found that GE is an effective and rapid reconnaissance tool. ?? 2009 Springer-Verlag.

  19. Predictors of quality of life and depression in older people living in temporary houses 13 months after the Wenchuan earthquake in western China: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xia; Chen, Yanling; Chen, Hong; Au, Alma; Guo, Hongxia

    2017-06-01

    In this study, we explored the predictors of quality of life and depressive features in older people living in temporary housing 13 months after the Wenchuan earthquake in western China. Anonymous data were collected via questionnaires in a cross-sectional survey of 189 older people living in temporary housing 13 months after the earthquake. To explore the predictors of the outcomes of interest, Pearson correlation and multiple linear regression analysis were used. The results indicated that interests/hobbies, subjective support, and family function were positive predictors of quality of life, whereas instrumental activities of daily living and depressive symptoms were its negative predictors. In addition, we found that a higher level of instrumental activities of daily living predicted a greater likelihood of depression. These results suggested that developing strategies to decrease the instrumental activities of daily living score of these people helps improve their quality of life and depression. To enhance the quality of life of these individuals, healthcare providers should also focus on developing their interests/hobbies and provide them with adequate social support, especially subjective support. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  20. Postseismic deformation associated with the 2008 Mw 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake, China: Constraining fault geometry and investigating a detailed spatial distribution of afterslip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhongshan; Yuan, Linguo; Huang, Dingfa; Yang, Zhongrong; Chen, Weifeng

    2017-12-01

    We reconstruct two types of fault models associated with the 2008 Mw 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake, one is a listric fault connecting a shallowing sub-horizontal detachment below ∼20 km depth (fault model one, FM1) and the other is a group of more steeply dipping planes further extended to the Moho at ∼60 km depth (fault model two, FM2). Through comparative analysis of the coseismic inversion results, we confirm that the coseismic models are insensitive to the above two type fault geometries. We therefore turn our attention to the postseismic deformation obtained from GPS observations, which can not only impose effective constraints on the fault geometry but also, more importantly, provide valuable insights into the postseismic afterslip. Consequently, FM1 performs outstandingly in the near-, mid-, and far-field, whether considering the viscoelastic influence or not. FM2 performs more poorly, especially in the data-model consistency in the near field, which mainly results from the trade-off of the sharp contrast of the postseismic deformation on both sides of the Longmen Shan fault zone. Accordingly, we propose a listric fault connecting a shallowing sub-horizontal detachment as the optimal fault geometry for the Wenchuan earthquake. Based on the inferred optimal fault geometry, we analyse two characterized postseismic deformation phenomena that differ from the coseismic patterns: (1) the postseismic opposite deformation between the Beichuan fault (BCF) and Pengguan fault (PGF) and (2) the slightly left-lateral strike-slip motions in the southwestern Longmen Shan range. The former is attributed to the local left-lateral strike-slip and normal dip-slip components on the shallow BCF. The latter places constraints on the afterslip on the southwestern BCF and reproduces three afterslip concentration areas with slightly left-lateral strike-slip motions. The decreased Coulomb Failure Stress (CFS) change ∼0.322 KPa, derived from the afterslip with viscoelastic influence

  1. Environmental impact of CO2, Rn, Hg degassing from the rupture zones produced by Wenchuan M s 8.0 earthquake in western Sichuan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaocheng; Chen, Zhi; Cui, Yueju

    2016-10-01

    The concentrations and flux of CO2, (222)Radon (Rn), and gaseous elemental mercury (Hg) in soil gas were investigated based on the field measurements in June 2010 at ten sites along the seismic rupture zones produced by the May 12, 2008, Wenchuan M s 8.0 earthquake in order to assess the environmental impact of degassing of CO2, Rn and Hg. Soil gas concentrations of 344 sampling points were obtained. Seventy measurements of CO2, Rn and Hg flux by the static accumulation chamber method were performed. The results of risk assessment of CO2, Rn and Hg concentration in soil gas showed that (1) the concentration of CO2 in the epicenter of Wenchuan M s 8.0 earthquake and north end of seismic ruptures had low risk of asphyxia; (2) the concentrations of Rn in the north segment of seismic ruptures had high levels of radon, Maximum was up to level 4, according to Chinese code (GB 50325-2001); (3) the average geoaccumulation index I geo of soil Hg denoted the lack of soil contamination, and maximum values classified the soil gas as moderately to strongly polluted in the epicenter. The investigation of soil gas CO2, Rn and Hg degassing rate indicated that (1) the CO2 in soil gas was characterized by a mean [Formula: see text] of -20.4 ‰ and by a mean CO2 flux of 88.1 g m(-2) day(-1), which were in the range of the typical values for biologic CO2 degassing. The maximum of soil CO2 flux reached values of 399 g m(-2) day(-1) in the epicenter; (2) the soil Rn had higher exhalation in the north segment of seismic ruptures, the maximum reached value of 1976 m Bq m(-2) s(-1); (3) the soil Hg flux was lower, ranging from -2.5 to 18.7 n g m(-2) h(-1) and increased from south to north. The mean flux over the all profiles was 4.2 n g m(-2) h(-1). The total output of CO2 and Hg degassing estimated along seismic ruptures for a survey area of 18.17 km(2) were approximately 0.57 Mt year(-1) and 688.19 g year(-1). It is recommended that land-use planners should

  2. Landslide-dammed lake at Tangjiashan, Sichuan province, China (triggered by the Wenchuan Earthquake, May 12, 2008): Risk assessment, mitigation strategy, and lessons learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, P.; Dang, C.; Zhuang, J.; You, Y.; Chen, X.; Scott, K.M.

    2012-01-01

    Landslides and rock avalanches triggered by the 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake produced 257 landslide dams, mainly situated along the eastern boundary of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau where rivers descend approximately 3,000 m into the Sichuan Basin. The largest of these dams blocked the Tongkou River (a tributary of the Fujiang River) at Tangjiashan. The blockage, consisting of 2. 04 ?? 10 7 m 3 of landslide debris, impounded a lake with a projected maximum volume of 3. 15 ?? 10 8 m 3, potentially inundating 8. 92 km 2 of terrain. Its creation during the rainy season and the possibility of an uncontrolled release posed a serious, impending threat to at least 1. 3 million people downstream that could add substantially to the total of 69,200 individuals directly killed by the earthquake. Risk assessment of the blockage indicated that it was unlikely to collapse suddenly, and that eventual overtopping could be mitigated by notching the structure in order to create an engineered breach and achieve safe drainage of the lake. In addition to the installation of monitoring and warning instrumentation, for emergency planning we estimated several outburst scenarios equivalent to 20, 25, 33, and 50% of the dam failing suddenly, creating, respectively, 3. 35, 3. 84, 4. 22, and 4. 65 km 2 of flooded area, and overbank water depths of 4. 6, 5. 1, 5. 7, and 6. 2 m, respectively, in Mianyang, the second largest city in Sichuan Province, 48 km downstream from the blockage. Based on these scenarios, recommendations and plans for excavating a sluiceway, draining the lake, and downstream evacuation were proposed and later were implemented successfully, with the blockage breached by overtopping on June 10, less than a month after dam emplacement. The peak discharge of the release only slightly exceeded the flood of record at Mianyang City. No lives were lost, and significant property damage was avoided. Post-breaching evaluation reveals how future similar mitigation can be improved. Although

  3. Management of limb fractures in a teaching hospital: comparison between Wenchuan and Yushu earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Li; Tu, Chong-qi; Liu, Lei; Zhang, Wen-li; Yi, Min; Song, Yue-ming; Huang, Fu-guo; Yang, Tian-fu; Pei, Fu-xing

    2013-01-01

    To comparatively analyze the medical records of patients with limb fractures as well as rescue strategy in Wenchuan and Yushu earthquakes so as to provide references for post-earthquake rescue. We retrospectively investigated 944 patients sustaining limb fractures, including 891 in Wenchuan earthquake and 53 in Yushu earthquake, who were admitted to West China Hospital (WCH) of Sichuan University. In Wenchuan earthquake, WCH met its three peaks of limb fracture patients influx, on post-earthquake day (PED) 2, 8 and 14 respectively. Between PED 3-14, 585 patients were transferred from WCH to other hospitals outside the Sichuan Province. In Yushu earthquake, the maximum influx of limb fracture patients happened on PED 3, and no one was shifted to other hospitals. Both in Wenchuan and Yushu earthquakes, most limb fractures were caused by blunt strike and crush/burying. In Wenchuan earthquake, there were 396 (396/942, 42.0%) open limb fractures, including 28 Gustilo I, 201 Gustilo II and 167 Gustilo III injuries. But in Yushu earthquake, the incidence of open limb fracture was much lower (6/61, 9.8%). The percent of patients with acute complications in Wenchuan earthquake (167/891, 18.7%) was much higher than that in Yushu earthquake (5/53, 3.8%). In Wenchuan earthquake rescue, 1 018 surgeries were done, composed of debridement in 376, internal fixation in 283, external fixation in 119, and vacuum sealing drainage in 117, etc. While among the 64 surgeries in Yushu earthquake rescue, the internal fixation for limb fracture was mostly adopted. All patients received proper treatment and survived except one who died due to multiple organs failure in Wenchuan earthquake. Provision of suitable and sufficient medical care in a catastrophe can only be achieved by construction of sophisticated national disaster medical system, prediction of the injury types and number of injuries, and confirmation of participating hospitals?exact role. Based on the valuable rescue experiences

  4. Management of limb fractures in a teaching hospital: comparison between Wenchuan and Yushu earthquakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIN Li

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: To comparatively analyze the medical records of patients with limb fractures as well as rescue strategy in Wenchuan and Yushu earthquakes so as to provide references for post-earthquake rescue. Methods: We retrospectively investigated 944 patients sustaining limb fractures, including 891 in Wenchuan earth-quake and 53 in Yushu earthquake, who were admitted to West China Hospital (WCH of Sichuan University. Results: In Wenchuan earthquake, WCH met its three peaks of limb fracture patients influx, on post-earthquake day (PED 2, 8 and 14 respectively. Between PED 3-14, 585 patients were transferred from WCH to other hospitals out-side the Sichuan Province. In Yushu earthquake, the maxi-mum influx of limb fracture patients happened on PED 3, and no one was shifted to other hospitals. Both in Wenchuan and Yushu earthquakes, most limb fractures were caused by blunt strike and crush/burying. In Wenchuan earthquake, there were 396 (396/942, 42.0% open limb fractures, includ-ing 28 Gustilo I, 201 Gustilo II and 167 Gustilo III injuries. But in Yushu earthquake, the incidence of open limb frac-ture was much lower (6/61, 9.8%. The percent of patients with acute complications in Wenchuan earthquake (167/891, 18.7% was much higher than that in Yushu earthquake (5/53, 3.8%. In Wenchuan earthquake rescue, 1 018 surgeries were done, composed of debridement in 376, internal fixation in 283, external fixation in 119, and vacuum sealing drainage in 117, etc. While among the 64 surgeries in Yushu earthquake rescue, the internal fixation for limb fracture was mostly adopted. All patients received proper treatment and sur-vived except one who died due to multiple organs failure in Wenchuan earthquake. Conclusion: Provision of suitable and sufficient medi-cal care in a catastrophe can only be achieved by construc-tion of sophisticated national disaster medical system, pre-diction of the injury types and number of injuries, and con-firmation of

  5. Liquefaction macrophenomena in the great Wenchuan earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Longwei; Yuan, Xiaoming; Cao, Zhenzhong; Hou, Longqing; Sun, Rui; Dong, Lin; Wang, Weiming; Meng, Fanchao; Chen, Hongjuan

    2009-06-01

    On May 12, 2008 at 14:28, a catastrophic magnitude M s 8.0 earthquake struck the Sichuan Province of China. The epicenter was located at Wenchuan (31.00°N, 103.40°E). Liquefaction macrophenomena and corresponding destruction was observed throughout a vast area of 500 km long and 200 km wide following the earthquake. This paper illustrates the geographic distribution of the liquefaction and the relationship between liquefaction behavior and seismic intensity, and summarizes the liquefaction macrophenomena, including sandboils and waterspouts, ground subsidence, ground fissures etc., and relevant liquefaction features. A brief summary of the structural damage caused by liquefaction is presented and discussed. Based on comparisons with liquefaction phenomena observed in the 1976 Tangshan and 1975 Haicheng earthquakes, preliminary analyses were performed, which revealed some new features of liquefaction behavior and associated issues arising from this event. The site investigation indicated that the spatial non-uniformity of liquefaction distribution was obvious and most of the liquefied sites were located in regions of seismic intensity VIII. However, liquefaction phenomena at ten different sites in regions of seismic intensity VI were also observed for the first time in China mainland. Sandboils and waterspouts ranged from centimeters to tens of meters, with most between 1 m to 3 m. Dramatically high water/sand ejections, e.g., more than 10 m, were observed at four different sites. The sand ejections included silty sand, fine sand, medium sand, course sand and gravel, but the ejected sand amount was less than that in the 1976 Tangshan earthquake. Possible liquefaction of natural gravel soils was observed for the first time in China mainland.

  6. What we have learned from the 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake and its aftermath: A decade of research and challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fan, Xuanmei; Juang, Hsein; Wasowski, Janusz; Huang, Runqiu; Xu, Qiang; Scaringi, Gianvito; van Westen, C.J.; Havenith, Hans-Balder

    2018-01-01

    The 2008 Mw 7.9 Wenchuan Earthquake (Sichuan, China) was possibly the largest and most destructive recent earthquake as far as the geo-hazards are concerned. Of the nearly 200,000 landslides triggered originally, many remobilized within a few years after the initial event by rainfall, which often

  7. Natech accidents at industrial facilities. The case of the Wenchuan earthquake

    OpenAIRE

    Krausmann , Elisabeth; Cruz , Ana Maria; Affeltranger , Bastien

    2009-01-01

    International audience; Natural disasters can trigger chemical accidents (so-called Natech accidents) with severe consequences on man or the environment. This work highlights the main characteristics of earthquake-triggered Natechs by describing our insights from a field trip to chemical facilities in the area affected by the 12 May, 2008, Wenchuan earthquake in China. Our preliminary results indicate that damage was most severe in older facilities with masonry and un- or poorly reinforced co...

  8. Investigation on Transmission and Substation Facilities of Sichuan Power Grid in Wenchuan Earthquake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Yongqing; Li Guangfan; Li Peng; Zhu Quanjun; Yuan Dalu; Wang Chengyu; Li Jinzhong; Huang Huang; Li Lixin; Zhang Xinghai; Liu Jingmin

    2009-01-01

    @@ On May 12,2008,an earthquake of Ms 8.0 hit the area around Wenchuan County,Sichuan Province,China.It has been one of the most destructive earthquakes since the founding of P.R.China in 1949.The quake caused not only tremendous loss of life and wealth,but also severe damage to transmission and substation facilities.After the disaster,an expert group from China Electric Power Research Institute (CEPRI)was sent for on-site investigation.This paper is a summary of the investigation,in which suggestions for electric equipment to resist earthquake disasters are also proponed.

  9. The Landscape Change of Qiang’s Settlements in the Upper Reaches of Minjiang River after Wenchuan Earthquake

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaofei Wen; Ying Meng; Changliu Wang

    2015-01-01

    Qiang ethnic group is one of the oldest ethnic groups in China, mainly living in upper reaches of Minjiang River in southwest of China. Qiang’s traditional settlements are valuable cultural heritages. Unfortunately, most of Qiang’s settlements were damaged during Wenchuan earthquake in 2008 in different degree. After the earthquake, settlements were reconstructed in different ways. The landscape of Qiang’s settlements had been changed greatly by dual influences, the destruction of earthquake ...

  10. Discovery of amorphous carbon veins in the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake fault zone: implications for the fault weakening mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, B.; Li, H.

    2013-12-01

    -03 Togo. T., Shimamoto, T., Ma, S., Wen. X., and He. H., 2011, Internal structure of the Longmenshan fault zone at Hongkou outcrop, Sichuan, China, that caused the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. Earthquake Science, 24: 249-265

  11. Measuring county resilience after the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X.; Lam, N.; Qiang, Y.; Li, K.; Yin, L.; Liu, S.; Zheng, W.

    2015-01-01

    The catastrophic earthquake in 2008 has caused serious damage to Wenchuan County and the surrounding area in China. In recent years, great attention has been paid to the resilience of the affected area. This study applied a new framework, the Resilience Inference Measurement (RIM) model, to quantify and validate the community resilience of 105 counties in the affected area. The RIM model uses cluster analysis to classify counties into four resilience levels according to the exposure, damage, and recovery conditions, and then applies discriminant analysis to quantify the influence of socioeconomic characteristics on the county resilience. The analysis results show that counties located right at the epicenter had the lowest resilience, but counties immediately adjacent to the epicenter had the highest resilience capacities. Counties that were farther away from the epicenter returned to normal resiliency. The socioeconomic variables, including sex ratio, per capita GDP, percent of ethnic minority, and medical facilities, were identified as the most influential socio-economic characteristics on resilience. This study provides useful information to improve county resilience to earthquakes and support decision-making for sustainable development.

  12. Characteristic behavior of water radon associated with Wenchuan and Lushan earthquakes along Longmenshan fault

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye, Qing; Singh, Ramesh P.; He, Anhua; Ji, Shouwen; Liu, Chunguo

    2015-01-01

    In China, numerous subsurface, surface water well and spring parameters are being monitored through a large network of stations distributed in China sponsored by China Earthquake Administration (CEA). All the data from these network is managed by China Earthquake Network Center (CENC). In this paper, we have used numerous data (water radon, gas radon, water level, water temperature) available through CENC for the period 2002–2014 and studied the behavior and characteristics of water 222 radon [Rn(w)]. The observed parameters were also complemented by rainfall data retrieved from Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite. Our detailed analysis shows pronounced changes in the observed parameters (especially water and gas radon) prior to the earthquake. The changes in water radon, ground water level and rainfall showing characteristics behavior for Wenchuan and Lushan earthquakes. The long term data analysis of water radon and water level at various locations around epicenters of two major earthquakes along Longmenshan fault show a positive and negative relation of water radon and water level prior to these earthquakes. It is difficult to find any trend of water radon and changes in water radon pattern with these two earthquakes that could prove as a reliable precursor of earthquakes. Changes in the water radon concentrations from one location to other may be associated with the changes in ground water regime and geological settings in the epicentral and surrounding regions. - Highlights: • Long trend of water radon measured in China during 2003–2014 at six stations round Longmenshan fault. • Water radon shows characteristics behavior associated with Wenchuan and Lushan earthquakes. • Water radon shows one to one relation with rainfall and ground water level variations. • Sharp increase or decrease in water radon concentrations are found few days prior to the earthquake

  13. Why Did the Fault Rupture of the 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake Propagate Predominately Northeastwards?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, S.; Yuan, J.

    2017-12-01

    The rupture processes of the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake are much complex. The rupture propagated northeastward a large distance as long as 300 km, but rupture length is short in the southwest direction. Although a great deal of attention has been paid to why the rupture propagated preponderantly northeastward in the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake, the physical mechanism remains unclear. By means of finite element model, in which bimaterial contrast across the Longmen Shan fault is taken into account, nucleation process is initiated at the center of the fault, ruptures then spread out outward spontaneously in both directions. The simulated results show that the different materials between both sides of the fault lead to tensile changes of normal stresses on the fault, which enhance the propagation of the ruptures in northeastward direction. We found that bimaterial mechanism is important for earthquake ruptures, and mode II rupture evolves with propagation distance along a bimaterial interface to a unilateral wrinkle-like Weertman pulse in the direction of slip on the more compliant side of the fault, namely in the positive direction (i.e, the northeast direction in the study). The Weertman pulse can be self-amplified, self-sustained and self-healing, which gives rise to little frictional energy and long propagation distance. This may be the reason why the Wenchuan earthquake is a unilateral fault rupture and a high seismic magnitude. In addition, the modelling results suggest that the rupture distance is much smaller if the material in the model is homogeneous, in which no huge earthquakes can occur like the 2008 Wenchan event. This research was jointly supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (41574041), Beijing Natural Science Foundation (8152034), and by Basic Research Project (ZDJ2017-08).

  14. Monitoring Geologic Hazards and Vegetation Recovery in the Wenchuan Earthquake Region Using Aerial Photography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenwang Li

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available On 12 May 2008, the 8.0-magnitude Wenchuan earthquake occurred in Sichuan Province, China, triggering thousands of landslides, debris flows, and barrier lakes, leading to a substantial loss of life and damage to the local environment and infrastructure. This study aimed to monitor the status of geologic hazards and vegetation recovery in a post-earthquake disaster area using high-resolution aerial photography from 2008 to 2011, acquired from the Center for Earth Observation and Digital Earth (CEODE, Chinese Academy of Sciences. The distribution and range of hazards were identified in 15 large, representative geologic hazard areas triggered by the Wenchuan earthquake. After conducting an overlay analysis, the variations of these hazards between successive years were analyzed to reflect the geologic hazard development and vegetation recovery. The results showed that in the first year after the Wenchuan earthquake, debris flows occurred frequently with high intensity. Resultantly, with the source material becoming less available and the slope structure stabilizing, the intensity and frequency of debris flows gradually decreased with time. The development rate of debris flows between 2008 and 2011 was 3% per year. The lithology played a dominant role in the formation of debris flows, and the topography and hazard size in the earthquake affected area also had an influence on the debris flow development process. Meanwhile, the overall geologic hazard area decreased at 12% per year, and the vegetation recovery on the landslide mass was 15% to 20% per year between 2008 and 2011. The outcomes of this study provide supporting data for ecological recovery as well as debris flow control and prevention projects in hazard-prone areas.

  15. Ductile gap between the Wenchuan and Lushan earthquakes revealed from the two-dimensional Pg seismic tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Shunping; Zhang, Haijiang; Su, Jinrong; Cui, Zhongxiong

    2014-09-30

    A high-resolution two-dimensional Pg-wave velocity model is obtained for the upper crust around the epicenters of the April 20, 2013 Ms7.0 Lushan earthquake and the May 12, 2008 Ms8.0 Wenchuan earthquake, China. The tomographic inversion uses 47235 Pg arrival times from 6812 aftershocks recorded by 61 stations around the Lushan and Wenchuan earthquakes. Across the front Longmenshan fault near the Lushan earthquake, there exists a strong velocity contrast with higher velocities to the west and lower velocities to the east. Along the Longmenshan fault system, there exist two high velocity patches showing an "X" shape with an obtuse angle along the near northwest-southeast (NW-SE) direction. They correspond to the Precambrian Pengguan and Baoxing complexes on the surface but with a ~20 km shift, respectively. The aftershock gap of the 2008 Wenchuan and the 2013 Lushan earthquakes is associated with lower velocities. Based on the theory of maximum effective moment criterion, this suggests that the aftershock gap is weak and the ductile deformation is more likely to occur in the upper crust within the gap under the near NW-SE compression. Therefore our results suggest that the large earthquake may be hard to happen within the gap.

  16. Health behaviors of victims and related factors in Wenchuan earthquake resettlement sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiaolan; Zhou, Hongyu; Zhou, Huan; Yang, Yang; Yang, Xiaoyan; Yu, Lingyun; Qiu, Peiyuan; Ma, Xiao

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the health behaviors of earthquake victims related to gastrointestinal and respiratory infectious diseases in the centralized transitional earthquake resettlement sites in Wenchuan, China; and to identify key factors related to health behaviors that may inform local infectious diseases prevention and control strategies. Data were collected using a questionnaire that included questions about socio-demographic characteristics and health beliefs and behaviors. In total, 1411 participants were included through a two-stage random sampling strategy. A bivariate multilevel model was used to explore the related factors. Approximately 67% of the participants wash their hands after going to lavatories every time, and 87% felt uncomfortable spitting on the ground. The more the participants perceived their susceptibility to and the severity of infectious diseases, the better their health-related behaviors (P resettlement sites (P resettlement sites. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Impact of intensity and loss assessment following the great Wenchuan Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yifan

    2008-09-01

    The great Wenchuan Earthquake occurred on May 12, 2008 in the Sichuan Province of China, and had a magnitude of 8.0. It is the most serious earthquake disaster in China since the great Tangshan Earthquake ( M s=7.8, July 28, 1976). According to official reports, there were 69,225 deaths, 379,640 injuries and 17,939 missing as of Aug. 11, 2008. The China Earthquake Administration quickly sent hundreds of experts to the field immediately after the event, to investigate the damage and assess the economic losses. This paper emphasizes the impact of seismic intensity and presents a preliminary loss assessment. A brief description of the geological features of the affected region is provided, followed by a summary of the earthquake damage. An isoseismal map is developed that shows that the high intensity region is distributed like a belt around the seimogenic fault, and that the epicentral intensity reached XI (Chinese Intensity Scale, similar to the Modified Mercalli Scale). The direct economic loss resulting from the earthquake is 692 billions RMB (about 100 billions US).

  18. Compositional, mechanical and transport properties of carbonate fault rocks and the seismic cycle in limestone terrains : A case study of surface exposures on the Longmenshan Fault, Sichuan, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Jianye

    2015-01-01

    Destructive earthquakes are common in tectonically active regions dominated by carbonate cover rocks. The catastrophic Wenchuan earthquake that struck Sichuan, China, also affected a section of carbonate cover terrain. Numerous studies have focused on characterizing the compositional, transport and

  19. Scientific Research Database of the 2008 Ms8.0 Wenchuan Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, C.; Yang, Y.; Yu, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Nearly 5 years after the 2008 Ms8.0 Wenchuan Earthquake, the Ms7.0 Lushan earthquake stroke 70km away along the same fault system. Given the tremendous life loss and property damages as well as the short time and distance intervals between the two large magnitude events, the scientific probing into their causing factors and future seismic activities in the nearby region will continue to be in the center of earthquake research in China and even the world for years to come. In the past five years, scientists have made significant efforts to study the Wenchuan earthquake from various aspects using different datasets and methods. Their studies cover a variety of topics including seismogenic environment, earthquake precursors, rupture process, co-seismic phenomenon, hazard relief, reservoir induced seismicity and more. These studies have been published in numerous journals in Chinese, English and many other languages. In addition, 54 books regarding to this earthquake have been published. The extremely diversified nature of all publications makes it very difficult and time-consuming, if not impossible, to sort out information needed by individual researcher in an efficient way. An information platform that collects relevant scientific information and makes them accessible in various ways can be very handy. With this mission in mind, the Earthquake Research Group in the Chengdu University of Technology has developed a website www.wceq.org to attack this target: (1) articles published by major journals and books are recorded into a database. Researchers will be able to find articles by topics, journals, publication dates, authors and keywords e.t.c by a few clicks; (2) to fast track the latest developments, researchers can also follow upon updates in the current month, last 90days, 180 days and 365 days by clicking on corresponding links; (3) the modern communication tools such as Facebook, Twitter and their Chinese counterparts are accommodated in this site to share

  20. New site selection for the immigrant transit of the post-disaster reconstruction of Wenchuan earthquake region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wunian; Hu, Guochao; Liu, Hanhu; Peng, Li

    2009-06-01

    The strong earthquake struck on 12 May 2008 destroyed numerous houses in Wenchuan, Sichuan, China. This earthquake escalated the scale of existing geological disasters, undermined the stability of earthquake-prone zones, and triggered landslides and many other hidden disasters. In addition, many aftershocks and heavy rainfalls have prompted secondary disasters and consequently, the actual damages have been doubled in terms of scale and magnitude. Since some regions there are no longer appropriate for people to live, temporary housing and post-disaster reconstruction are badly needed. Recent advances in remote sensing and geospatial technologies have promoted their successful applications in siting engineering. Because of different research backgrounds, geological disasters and vegetation density were rarely incorporated as primary parameters for siting assessment. Based on the principles of avoiding active faults and encouraging synthetic prevention of geological disasters, we performed a locating analysis using part of the Wenchuan County as a case. Six major parameters were used to build a siting model, including geological disasters, vegetation index, stream systems, faults, terrain slope, and elevation. The results show that the proposed method can provide useful information for decision-making in the selection of temporary housing and post-disaster reconstruction.

  1. [Comparative analysis of the clinical characteristics of orthopedic inpatients in Lushan and Wenchuan earthquakes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiao-Jun; Wang, Guang-Lin; Pei, Fu-Xing; Song, Yue-Ming; Yang, Tian-Fu; Tu, Chong-Qi; Huang, Fu-Guo; Liu, Hao; Lin, Wei

    2013-10-18

    To systematically analyze and compare the clinical characteristics of orthopedic inpatients in Lushan and Wenchuan earthquake, so as to provide useful references for future earthquakes injury rescue. Based on the orthopedic inpatients in Lushan and Wenchuan earthquakes, the data of the age, gender, injury causes, body injured parts and speed of transport were classified and compared. The duration of patients admitted to hospital lasted long and the peak appeared late in Wenchuan earthquake, which is totally opposed to Lushan earthquake. There was no significant difference in the patient's age and gender between the two earthquakes. However, the occurrence rate of crush syndrome, amputation, gas gangrene, vascular injury and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) in Wenchuan earthquake was much higher than that in Lushan earthquake. Blunt traumas or crush-related injuries (79.6%) are the major injury cause in Wenchuan earthquake, however, high falling injuries and falls (56.8%) are much higher than blunt trauma or crush-related injuries (39.2%) in Lushan earthquake. The incidence rate of foot fractures, spine fractures and multiple fractures in Lushan earthquake was higher than that in Wenchuan earthquake, but that of open fractures and lower limb fractures was lower than that in Wenchuan earthquake. The rapid rescue scene is the cornerstone of successful treatment, early rescue and transport obviously reduce the incidence of the wound infection, crush syndrome, MODS and amputation. Popularization of correct knowledge of emergency shelters will help to reduce the damage caused by blindly jumping or escaping while earthquake happens.

  2. Estimation of co-seismic stress change of the 2008 Wenchuan Ms8.0 earthquake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun Dongsheng; Wang Hongcai; Ma Yinsheng; Zhou Chunjing [Key laboratory of Neotectonic movement and Geohazard, Ministry of Land and Resources, Beijing 100081 (China) and Institute of Geomechanics, Chinese academy of Geological Sciences, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2012-09-26

    In-situ stress change near the fault before and after a great earthquake is a key issue in the geosciences field. In this work, based on the 2008 Great Wenchuan earthquake fault slip dislocation model, the co-seismic stress tensor change due to the Wenchuan earthquake and the distribution functions around the Longmen Shan fault are given. Our calculated results are almost consistent with the before and after great Wenchuan earthquake in-situ measuring results. The quantitative assessment results provide a reference for the study of the mechanism of earthquakes.

  3. Screening ultrasonography of 2,204 patients with blunt abdominal trauma in the Wenchuan earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jixiang; Huang, Jiwei; Wu, Hong; Jiang, Hui; Zhang, Heqing; Prasoon, Pankaj; Xu, Yinglong; Bai, Yannan; Qiu, Jianguo; Zeng, Yong

    2012-10-01

    Abdominal injuries constitute a small proportion of all earthquake-related traumas; however, it often resulted in fatal hemorrhage. Ultrasonography has been described as an effective triage tool in the evaluation of blunt abdominal trauma. We aimed to present an overview of the diagnostic accuracy of screening ultrasonography for patients with blunt abdominal trauma admitted to various hospitals during the Wenchuan earthquake in China. We retrospectively analyzed the patients with blunt abdominal trauma who underwent ultrasonography after admission to various hospitals. Ultrasonography findings were considered positive if evidence of free fluid or a parenchymal injury was identified. Ultrasonography findings were compared with the findings of computed tomography, diagnostic peritoneal lavage, repeated ultrasonography, cystography, operation, and/or the clinical course. Findings from 2,204 ultrasonographic examinations were evaluated. Findings of 199 ultrasonographic examinations (9.0%) were considered positive. Of the patients, 12 (0.5%) had a false-negative ultrasonographic findings; of this group, 3 (25%) required exploratory laparotomy. Ultrasonography had a sensitivity of 91.9%, specificity of 96.9%, and an accuracy of 96.6% for detection of abdominal injuries. Positive predictive value was 68.3%, and negative predictive value was 99.4%. Screening ultrasonography is highly reliable in the setting of blunt abdominal trauma after earthquake. It should be used as an initial diagnostic modality in the evaluation of most blunt abdominal trauma. Diagnostic study, level III.

  4. Post-Disaster Business Recovery and Sustainable Development: A Study of 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lifang Huang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Business sectors are essential for community prosperity, and thus it is important to investigate the recovery of businesses after disasters. However, current studies on business recovery after natural disasters are limited, particularly a lack of empirical observations in developing countries. Our observations of the patterns and transformations of small businesses in the recovery process after the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake in China can bridge this gap and provide a valuable contribution to academia. We conducted research through a four-year longitudinal study to track small business recovery in Beichuan County since 2014. Field observations, repeat photography, and semi-structured interviews were used to collect data. The operating status, business type, and spatiotemporal changes of small businesses in the new business district, Banaqia, were demonstrated. Overall, less than 50% of the planned shops were occupied and in operation, and this figure keeps declining from 2014 to 2017. Catering, garments, and souvenirs are the primary business types, but they show individual patterns in terms of sustainable development and spatial configuration. The results help to inform the development of recovery policies following disasters in developing countries.

  5. Victims' time discounting 2.5 years after the Wenchuan earthquake: an ERP study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Zhen Li

    Full Text Available Time discounting refers to the fact that the subjective value of a reward decreases as the delay until its occurrence increases. The present study investigated how time discounting has been affected in survivors of the magnitude-8.0 Wenchuan earthquake that occurred in China in 2008.Nineteen earthquake survivors and 22 controls, all school teachers, participated in the study. Event-related brain potentials (ERPs for time discounting tasks involving gains and losses were acquired in both the victims and controls.The behavioral data replicated our previous findings that delayed gains were discounted more steeply after a disaster. ERP results revealed that the P200 and P300 amplitudes were increased in earthquake survivors. There was a significant group (earthquake vs. non-earthquake × task (gain vs. loss interaction for the N300 amplitude, with a marginally significantly reduced N300 for gain tasks in the experimental group, which may suggest a deficiency in inhibitory control for gains among victims.The results suggest that post-disaster decisions might involve more emotional (System 1 and less rational thinking (System 2 in terms of a dual-process model of decision making. The implications for post-disaster intervention and management are also discussed.

  6. Victims' time discounting 2.5 years after the Wenchuan earthquake: an ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin-Zhen; Gui, Dan-Yang; Feng, Chun-Liang; Wang, Wen-Zhong; Du, Bo-Qi; Gan, Tian; Luo, Yue-Jia

    2012-01-01

    Time discounting refers to the fact that the subjective value of a reward decreases as the delay until its occurrence increases. The present study investigated how time discounting has been affected in survivors of the magnitude-8.0 Wenchuan earthquake that occurred in China in 2008. Nineteen earthquake survivors and 22 controls, all school teachers, participated in the study. Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) for time discounting tasks involving gains and losses were acquired in both the victims and controls. The behavioral data replicated our previous findings that delayed gains were discounted more steeply after a disaster. ERP results revealed that the P200 and P300 amplitudes were increased in earthquake survivors. There was a significant group (earthquake vs. non-earthquake) × task (gain vs. loss) interaction for the N300 amplitude, with a marginally significantly reduced N300 for gain tasks in the experimental group, which may suggest a deficiency in inhibitory control for gains among victims. The results suggest that post-disaster decisions might involve more emotional (System 1) and less rational thinking (System 2) in terms of a dual-process model of decision making. The implications for post-disaster intervention and management are also discussed.

  7. Wenchuan Ms8.0 earthquake coseismic slip distribution inversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongbo Tan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available By using GPS and gravity data before and after the Wenchuan Ms8.0 earthquake and combining data from geological surveys and geophysical inversion studies, an initial coseismic fault model is constructed. The dip angle changes of the fault slip distribution on the fault plane are inversed, and the inversion results show that the shape of the fault resembles a double-shovel. The Yingxiu–Beichuan Fault is approximately 330 km long, the surface fault dip angle is 65.1°, which gradually reduces with increasing depth to 0° at the detachment layer at a depth of 19.62 km. The Guanxian–Jiangyou Fault is approximately 90 km long, and its dip angle at the surface is 55.3°, which gradually reduces with increasing depth; the fault joins the Yingxiu–Beichuan Fault at 13.75 km. Coseismic slip mainly occurs above a depth of 19 km. There are five concentrated rupture areas, Yingxiu, Wenchuan, Hanwang, Beichuan, and Pingwu, which are consistent with geological survey results and analyses of the aftershock distribution. The rupture mainly has a thrust component with a small dextral strike–slip component. The maximum slip was more than 10 m, which occurred near Beichuan and Hanwang. The seismic moment is 7.84 × 1020 Nm (Mw7.9, which is consistent with the seismological results.

  8. Topographic changes and their driving factors after 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, C.; Wang, M.; Xie, J.; Liu, K.

    2017-12-01

    The Wenchuan Ms 8.0 Earthquake caused topographic change in the stricken areas because of the formation of numerous coseismic landslides. The emergence of new landslides and debris flows and movement of loose materials under the driving force of heavy rainfall could further shape the local topography. Dynamic topographic changes in mountainous areas stricken by major earthquakes have a strong linkage to the development and occurrence of secondary disasters. However, little attention has been paid to continuously monitoring mountain environment change after such earthquakes. A digital elevation model (DEM) is the main feature of the terrain surface, in our research, we extracted DEM in 2013 and 2015 of a typical mountainous area severely impacted by the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake from the ZY-3 stereo pair images with validation by field measurement. Combined with the elevation dataset in 2002 and 2010, we quantitatively assessed elevation changes in different years and qualitatively analyzed spatiotemporal variation of the terrain and mass movement across the study area. The results show that the earthquake stricken area experienced substantial elevation changes caused by seismic forces and subsequent rainfalls. Meanwhile, deposits after the earthquake are mainly accumulated on the river-channels and mountain ridges and deep gullies which increase the risk of other geo-hazards. And the heavy rainfalls after the earthquake have become the biggest driver of elevation reduction, which overwhelmed elevation increase during the major earthquake. Our study provided a better understanding of subsequent hazards and risks faced by residents and communities stricken by major earthquakes.

  9. The relationship between PTSD and suicidality among Wenchuan earthquake survivors: The role of PTG and social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jing; Liu, Chengcheng; Kong, Dexia; Solomon, Phyllis; Fu, Mingqi

    2018-08-01

    Previous studies have found that suicide rates are likely to increase after the occurrence of earthquakes. Most existing studies that examined the relationship between PTSD and suicidality focus on risk factors. It remains unclear whether protective factors, such as post-traumatic growth (PTG) and social support, play a role in this relationship. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of PTG and social support in the association between PTSD and suicidality, using data from a cross-sectional study conducted in China. 1,369 participants were recruited from two study sites that were severely affected by the Wenchuan earthquake. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were conducted to examine the relationship between PTSD, PTG, social support, and suicidality. The results indicate that the prevalence of suicidal ideation, suicide plans, and suicide attempts among adult survivors were 9.06%, 2.97% and 3.31%, respectively, even after 8 years following the Wenchuan earthquake. Furthermore, the findings show that PTSD was significantly associated with suicidality (OR = 1.96; 95% CI = 1.53, 2.52). Additionally, individuals reporting lower levels of social support and the acquisition of PTSD (OR = 5.99; 95% CI = 1.66, 21.56) were significantly related to suicidality. Moreover, compared to individuals who reported no presence of PTSD and high PTG, those who lived with PTSD and lower levels of PTG (OR = 2.33; 95%CI = 1.00, 5.42) were more likely to report suicidality. The cross-sectional design of this study limits our ability to determine causal relationships. Effects of other related factors, such as cultural and life events, were not examined in this study. Suicidality is a long-term health issue among survivors of the Wenchuan earthquake. PTG and social support play important roles on the association between PTSD and suicidality and are important contributing factors to understanding this relationship. These results contribute

  10. Coseismic Strain Steps of the 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake Indicate EW Extension of Tibetan Plateau and Increased Hazard South to Epicenter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, G.; Shen, X.; Tang, J.; Fukuda, Y.

    2008-12-01

    The 2008 Wenchuan earthquake (Ms8.0) occurred at the east edge of Tibetan Plateau. It is the biggest seismic disaster in China since the 1976 Tangshan earthquake. To determine the effects of the earthquake on the deformation field of Tibetan Plateau, we collect and analyze continuing strain data of three stations before and after the earthquake in Tibetan Plateau observed by capacitance-type bore-hole strainmeters (Chi, 1985). We collect strain data in NS, EW, NE-SW and NW-NS directions at each borehole. Then we deduce the co-seismic strain steps at time point 14:28 of May 12, 2008 (at this time point the earthquake occurred) with the data before and after the earthquake using the least squares method. Our observation shows that in Tibetan Plateau significant co-seismic strain steps are accompanied with the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. Extension in EW direction is observed at interior and north Tibetan Plateau which indicates a rapid EW extension of the whole Plateau. Field investigation shows that the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake is a manifestation of eastward growth of the Tibetan Plateau (Dong et al., 2008). Eastwards growth of the Tibetan Plateau results naturally in the extension of the Plateau in EW direction. Our co-seismic strain observation agrees well with the conclusion from surface rupture investigation. The magnitude of co-seismic strain step equals to five times of average year extensional strain rate throughout the plateau interior. Shortening in SE- NW direction is observed at the east edge of the Plateau. As hints that the eastward extension of Tibetan Plateau is resisted by Sichuan rigid basin which increases the potential earthquake hazard around the observation station, manifests the declaration from co-seismic stress changes calculation (Persons et al., 2008). Our observed co-seismic strain steps are in total lager than theoretical calculations of dislocation theories which indicate that magnitude of the great earthquake should be bigger than 7.9. Due

  11. Atlas of Wenchuan-Earthquake Geohazards : Analysis of co-seismic and post-seismic Geohazards in the area affected by the 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tang, Chuan; van Westen, C.J.

    2018-01-01

    This atlas provides basic information and overviews of the occurrence of co-seismic landslides, the subsequent rainstorm-induced debris flows, and the methods used for hazard and risk assessment in the Wenchuan-earthquake affected area. The atlas pages are illustrated with maps, photos and graphs,

  12. Traumatic severity and trait resilience as predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder and depressive symptoms among adolescent survivors of the Wenchuan earthquake.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liuhua Ying

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To examine the associations between trauma severity, trait resilience, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD and depressive symptoms among adolescent survivors of the Wenchuan earthquake, China. METHODS: 788 participants were randomly selected from secondary schools in the counties of Wenchuan and Maoxian, the two areas most severely affected by the earthquake. Participants completed four main questionnaires including the Child PTSD Symptom Scale, the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale for Children, the Connor and Davidson's Resilience Scale, and the Severity of Exposure to Earthquake Scale. RESULTS: After adjusting for the effect of age and gender, four aspects of trauma severity (i.e., direct exposure, indirect exposure, worry about others, and house damage were positively associated with the severity of PTSD and depressive symptoms, whereas trait resilience was negatively associated with PTSD and depressive symptoms and moderated the relationship between subjective experience (i.e., worry about others and PTSD and depressive symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Several aspects (i.e., direct exposure, indirect exposure, worry about others, and house damage of earthquake experiences may be important risk factors for the development and maintenance of PTSD and depression. Additionally, trait resilience exhibits the beneficial impact on PTSD and depressive symptoms and buffers the effect of subjective experience (i.e., worry about others on PTSD and depressive symptoms.

  13. Influence of the Wenchuan earthquake on self-reported irregular menstrual cycles in surviving women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Hong; Qin, Lang; Hu, Han; Luo, Shan; Li, Lei; Fan, Wei; Xiao, Zhun; Li, Ying-Xing; Li, Shang-Wei

    2011-09-01

    To explore the influence of stress induced by the Wenchuan earthquake on the menstrual cycles of surviving women. Self-reports of the menstrual cycles of 473 women that survived the Wenchuan earthquake were analyzed. Menstrual regularity was defined as menses between 21 and 35 days long. The death of a child or the loss of property and social resources was verified for all surviving women. The severity of these losses was assessed and graded as high, little, and none. About 21% of the study participants reported that their menstrual cycles became irregular after the Wenchuan earthquake, and this percentage was significantly higher than before the earthquake (6%, p irregularity after the earthquake. Association analyses showed that some stressors of the Wenchuan earthquake were strongly associated with self-reports of menstrual irregularity, including the loss of children (RR: 1.58; 95% CI: 1.09, 2.28), large amounts of property (RR: 1.49; 95% CI: 1.03, 2.15), social resources (RR: 1.34; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.80) and the hormonal contraception use (RR: 1.62; 95% CI: 1.21, 1.83). Self-reported menstrual irregularity is common in women that survived the Wenchuan earthquake, especially in those who lost children, large amounts of property and social resources.

  14. Environmental risk evaluation to minimize impacts within the area affected by the Wenchuan earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Pengfei; Chen, Jining; Chen, Chao; Liu, Yi; Liu, Jianguo; Wang, Hongtao; Zhang, Xiaojian

    2012-01-01

    Earthquakes can be devastating to built infrastructure and the natural environment, as evidenced by the March 2011, M = 9.0 earthquake, and subsequent tsunami, in Japan. As seen in the Japanese event, environmental damage caused by secondary disasters (tsunami, leakage from a nuclear reactor) can equal or exceed the impacts of the primary event. In order to develop an environmental assessment system to examine secondary disasters, a comprehensive environmental impact evaluation was conducted after the Wenchuan earthquake that occurred on 12 May 2008 in the Sichuan Province, China. This evaluation focused on several key environmental elements such as wastewater, drinking water, soil, solid waste, radiation, and ecosystem-level effects. As part of this assessment, an analysis of root causes and potential solutions was conducted for key issues such as population relocation and resettlement in temporary dwellings, recovery of environmental protection functions, industrial development strategies and production recovery. Methods for post-quake environmental assessment were developed, utilizing GIS-based techniques for spatial evaluation of primary and secondary disaster patterns. The goal of this exercise was the development of effective assessment methods that can be rapidly applied in a post-disaster situation to reduce and mitigate damage caused by secondary disasters, and facilitate the recovery of impaired environmental management structure and function. - Highlights: ► A comprehensive post-quake environmental risk evaluation system was developed. ► The research identifies potential long-term environmental risks in many aspects. ► The research analyzes potential solutions for many typical post-disaster issues. ► Effective assessment methods can be applied in a post-disaster situation to reduce damage caused by secondary disasters.

  15. Environmental risk evaluation to minimize impacts within the area affected by the Wenchuan earthquake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Pengfei, E-mail: dupf@tsinghua.edu.cn; Chen, Jining, E-mail: jchen1@tsinghua.edu.cn; Chen, Chao, E-mail: chen_water@tsinghua.edu.cn; Liu, Yi, E-mail: yi.liu@tsinghua.edu.cn; Liu, Jianguo, E-mail: jgliu@tsinghua.edu.cn; Wang, Hongtao, E-mail: htwang@tsinghua.edu.cn; Zhang, Xiaojian, E-mail: zhangxj@tsinghua.edu.cn

    2012-03-01

    Earthquakes can be devastating to built infrastructure and the natural environment, as evidenced by the March 2011, M = 9.0 earthquake, and subsequent tsunami, in Japan. As seen in the Japanese event, environmental damage caused by secondary disasters (tsunami, leakage from a nuclear reactor) can equal or exceed the impacts of the primary event. In order to develop an environmental assessment system to examine secondary disasters, a comprehensive environmental impact evaluation was conducted after the Wenchuan earthquake that occurred on 12 May 2008 in the Sichuan Province, China. This evaluation focused on several key environmental elements such as wastewater, drinking water, soil, solid waste, radiation, and ecosystem-level effects. As part of this assessment, an analysis of root causes and potential solutions was conducted for key issues such as population relocation and resettlement in temporary dwellings, recovery of environmental protection functions, industrial development strategies and production recovery. Methods for post-quake environmental assessment were developed, utilizing GIS-based techniques for spatial evaluation of primary and secondary disaster patterns. The goal of this exercise was the development of effective assessment methods that can be rapidly applied in a post-disaster situation to reduce and mitigate damage caused by secondary disasters, and facilitate the recovery of impaired environmental management structure and function. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A comprehensive post-quake environmental risk evaluation system was developed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The research identifies potential long-term environmental risks in many aspects. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The research analyzes potential solutions for many typical post-disaster issues. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effective assessment methods can be applied in a post-disaster situation to reduce damage caused by secondary disasters.

  16. Stress triggering of the Lushan M7. 0 earthquake by the Wenchuan Ms8. 0 earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Jianchao

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The Wenchuan Ms8. 0 earthquake and the Lushan M7. 0 earthquake occurred in the north and south segments of the Longmenshan nappe tectonic belt, respectively. Based on the focal mechanism and finite fault model of the Wenchuan Ms8. 0 earthquake, we calculated the coulomb failure stress change. The inverted coulomb stress changes based on the Nishimura and Chenji models both show that the Lushan M7. 0 earthquake occurred in the increased area of coulomb failure stress induced by the Wenchuan Ms8. 0 earthquake. The coulomb failure stress increased by approximately 0. 135 – 0. 152 bar in the source of the Lushan M7. 0 earthquake, which is far more than the stress triggering threshold. Therefore, the Lushan M7. 0 earthquake was most likely triggered by the coulomb failure stress change.

  17. The Analysis of the Resilience of Adults One Year after the 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min; Xu, Jiuping; He, Yuan; Wu, Zhibin

    2012-01-01

    Resilience, the ability to spring back from adversity and successfully adapt to it, is becoming an increasingly popular focus in research on the intervention and prevention of mental breakdown. This article aims to assess the resilience of adults exposed to the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake 1 year after the occurrence of the earthquake, to explore the…

  18. The Role of Personality and Subjective Exposure Experiences in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Depression Symptoms among Children Following Wenchuan Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiacan; Xu, Jiajun; Li, Bin; Li, Na; Guo, Wanjun; Ran, Mao-Sheng; Zhang, Jun; Yang, Yanchun; Hu, Junmei

    2017-12-08

    This study aims to investigate the role of personality traits and subjective exposure experiences in posttraumatic stress disorder and depression symptoms. In Qingchuan, 21,652 children aged 7 to 15 years were assessed using face-to-face interviews one year after the Wenchuan earthquake in China. The Junior Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, a modified earthquake exposure scale, the UCLA Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Reaction Index (adolescent), and the Adolescent Depression Inventory were used to assess personality characteristics, trauma experiences, posttraumatic stress disorder and depression symptoms, respectively. The measurement was completed with 20,749 children. After adjusting for other factors by multinomial logistic regression analysis, neuroticism, having felt unable to escape from the disaster and having been trapped for a longer time were risk factors of posttraumatic stress disorder and depression symptoms. Socialization was a protective factor of them. Having felt extreme panic or fear was a risk factor of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms. For depression symptoms, introversion and psychoticism were risk factors, and extraversion was a protective factor. This study was conducted with the largest representative sample of child survivors of a natural, devastating disaster in a developing country. These results could be useful for planning psychological intervention strategies for children and for influencing further research.

  19. Debris-flows scale predictions based on basin spatial parameters calculated from Remote Sensing images in Wenchuan earthquake area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Huaizhen; Chi, Tianhe; Liu, Tianyue; Wang, Wei; Yang, Lina; Zhao, Yuan; Shao, Jing; Yao, Xiaojing; Fan, Jianrong

    2014-01-01

    Debris flow is a common hazard in the Wenchuan earthquake area. Collapse and Landslide Regions (CLR), caused by earthquakes, could be located from Remote Sensing images. CLR are the direct material source regions for debris flow. The Spatial Distribution of Collapse and Landslide Regions (SDCLR) strongly impact debris-flow formation. In order to depict SDCLR, we referred to Strahler's Hypsometric analysis method and developed 3 functional models to depict SDCLR quantitatively. These models mainly depict SDCLR relative to altitude, basin mouth and main gullies of debris flow. We used the integral of functions as the spatial parameters of SDCLR and these parameters were employed during the process of debris-flows scale predictions. Grouping-occurring debris-flows triggered by the rainstorm, which occurred on September 24th 2008 in Beichuan County, Sichuan province China, were selected to build the empirical equations for debris-flows scale predictions. Given the existing data, only debris-flows runout zone parameters (Max. runout distance L and Lateral width B) were estimated in this paper. The results indicate that the predicted results were more accurate when the spatial parameters were used. Accordingly, we suggest spatial parameters of SDCLR should be considered in the process of debris-flows scale prediction and proposed several strategies to prevent debris flow in the future

  20. Lessons learnt from the Wenchuan earthquake: performance evaluation of treatment of critical injuries in hardest-hit areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jie; Li, Youping; Huang, Xiaolin; Li, Bing; Su, Lin; Zhong, Dake; Shi, Chenghu; Li, Mingxu; Shan, Juan; Chen, Yin

    2012-08-01

    transfer guided by accurate injury information determine rescue effect for the injured, while there is large space to fulfill as for treatment for critical diseases among the hardest-hit areas under extreme conditions after the Wenchuan earthquake. © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd and Chinese Cochrane Center, West China Hospital of Sichuan University.

  1. Scientific Information Platform for the 2008 Great Wenchuan Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, C.

    2012-12-01

    The 2008 MS 8.0 Wenchuan earthquake is one of the deadliest in recent human history. This earthquake has not just united the whole world to help local people to lead their life through the difficult time, it has also fostered significant global cooperation to study this event from various aspects: including pre-seismic events (such as the seismicity, gravity, electro-magnetic fields, well water level, radon level in water etc), co-seismic events (fault slipping, landslides, man-made structure damages etc) and post-seismic events (such as aftershocks, well water level changing etc) as well as the disaster relief efforts. In the last four years, more than 300 scientific articles have been published on peer-reviewed journals, among them about 50% are published in Chinese, 30% in English, and about 20% in both languages. These researches have advanced our understanding of earthquake science in general. It has also sparked open debates in many aspects. Notably, the role of the Zipingpu reservoir (built not long ago before the earthquake) in the triggering of this monstrous earthquake is still one of many continuing debates. Given that all these articles are ssporadically spread out on different journals and numerous issues and in different languages, it can be very inefficient, sometimes impossible, to dig out the information that are in need. The Earthquake Research Group in the Chengdu University of Technology (ERGCDUT) has initiated an effort to develop an information platform to collect and analyze scientific research on or related to this earthquake, the hosting faults and the surrounding tectonic regions. A preliminary website has been setup for this purpose: http://www.wenchuaneqresearch.org. Up to this point (July 2012), articles published in 6 Chinese journals and 7 international journals have been collected. Articles are listed journal by journal, and also grouped by contents into four major categories, including pre-seismic events, co-seismic events, post

  2. Review of unprecedented ULF electromagnetic anomalous emissions possibly related to the Wenchuan MS = 8.0 earthquake, on 12 May 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Tan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This work presents ground based ultra low frequency (ULF electromagnetic field measurements in the frequency range 0.1–10 Hz from January 2007 to December 2008. In this time period a strong earthquake series hits the Wenchuan region with a main shock of magnitude MS = 8.0 on 12 May 2008. The Hebei ULF electromagnetic observation network includes eight observation stations in north China and the observation system named E-EM is employed to record the electric potential difference between two electrodes with an analog automatic real-time continuous pen recorder. First, weak electric signals appeared on 11 October 2007 at Ningjin station, most of which are with relative long periods ~0.4–3 s and unequal amplitudes ~0.5–20 mm. Then, similar signals appeared at Gaobeidian station at the end of October. Abnormal behavior with various time intervals appeared randomly and not every day. At the beginning of April 2008, one and a half months before the Wenchuan MS = 8.0 earthquake, the anomalies were gradually subject to an intensive increase mainly in Gaobeidian SN direction and Ningjin EW direction. The abnormal behavior appeared almost every day and the amplitudes of electric signals, with short periods of ~0.1–0.3 s, enhanced to ~3–30 mm. Qingxian station started to record marginally high frequency signals in SN and EW components in the middle of April. On 9 May, 3 days before the main shock, the amplitude of high frequency information increased sharply at the same time in two components at Gaobeidian station and the maximum amplitude was up to 70 mm, i.e. 1.3 mV m−1 for the electric field. This situation did not stop until 17 May, 5 days after the main event. However, this kind of climax phenomena did not happen at Ningjin station and Qingxian station. Then weak anomalous information lasted about four months again, and strong signals appeared again for a short time before several powerful aftershocks. It is the first time that an

  3. The Landscape Change of Qiang’s Settlements in the Upper Reaches of Minjiang River after Wenchuan Earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofei Wen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Qiang ethnic group is one of the oldest ethnic groups in China, mainly living in upper reaches of Minjiang River in southwest of China. Qiang’s traditional settlements are valuable cultural heritages. Unfortunately, most of Qiang’s settlements were damaged during Wenchuan earthquake in 2008 in different degree. After the earthquake, settlements were reconstructed in different ways. The landscape of Qiang’s settlements had been changed greatly by dual influences, the destruction of earthquake and reconstruction after earthquake. Researching the changing process of Qiang’s settlements landscape has great significance to the protection of cultural heritage and the inheritance of culture, especially in the period after earthquake. At first, Qiang’s settlements are classified into five types with typology method after field research, according to the different degree of destruction and the different model of reconstruction. The five types are settlements restored to original forms in original location, settlements rebuilt to traditional forms in original location, settlements transformed to traditional forms in original location, settlements rebuilt in new location according to unified planning and settlements rebuilt in new location by villagers themselves. Secondly, the five types of settlements are compared with traditional settlements from several aspects including geographical environment, location of settlements, forms of settlements, space structure, building materials and construction technology, in order to research for the change of the landscape characteristics. Finally, the changing processes of each type of settlements landscape are analyzed. The change of villagers’ demands for settlements space are analyzed with the changes of their production model, life style, traditional customs, cultural communication, national religion and spiritual pursuit. Based on this analysis, the main factors influencing the changes of Qiang

  4. Machine-Learning Inspired Seismic Phase Detection for Aftershocks of the 2008 MW7.9 Wenchuan Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, L.; Li, Z.; Li, C.; Wang, B.; Chen, Z.; McClellan, J. H.; Peng, Z.

    2017-12-01

    Spatial-temporal evolution of aftershocks is important for illumination of earthquake physics and for rapid response of devastative earthquakes. To improve aftershock catalogs of the 2008 MW7.9 Wenchuan earthquake in Sichuan, China, Alibaba cloud and China Earthquake Administration jointly launched a seismological contest in May 2017 [Fang et al., 2017]. This abstract describes how we handle this problem in this competition. We first used Short-Term Average/Long-Term Average (STA/LTA) and Kurtosis function to obtain over 55000 candidate phase picks (P or S). Based on Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR), about 40000 phases (P or S) are selected. So far, these 40000 phases have a hit rate of 40% among the manually picks. The causes include that 1) there exist false picks (neither P nor S); 2) some P and S arrivals are mis-labeled. To improve our results, we correlate the 40000 phases over continuous waveforms to obtain the phases missed by during the first pass. This results in 120,000 events. After constructing an affinity matrix based on the cross-correlation for newly detected phases, subspace clustering methods [Vidal 2011] are applied to group those phases into separated subspaces. Initial results show good agreement between empirical and clustered labels of P phases. Half of the empirical S phases are clustered into the P phase cluster. This may be a combined effect of 1) mislabeling isolated P phases to S phases and 2) clustering errors due to a small incomplete sample pool. Phases that were falsely detected in the initial results can be also teased out. To better characterize P and S phases, our next step is to apply subspace clustering methods directly to the waveforms, instead of using the cross-correlation coefficients of detected phases. After that, supervised learning, e.g., a convolutional neural network, can be employed to improve the pick accuracy. Updated results will be presented at the meeting.

  5. Rapid exposure and loss estimates for the May 12, 2008 Mw 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake provided by the U.S. Geological Survey's PAGER system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earle, P.S.; Wald, D.J.; Allen, T.I.; Jaiswal, K.S.; Porter, K.A.; Hearne, M.G.

    2008-01-01

    One half-hour after the May 12th Mw 7.9 Wenchuan, China earthquake, the U.S. Geological Survey’s Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response (PAGER) system distributed an automatically generated alert stating that 1.2 million people were exposed to severe-to-extreme shaking (Modified Mercalli Intensity VIII or greater). It was immediately clear that a large-scale disaster had occurred. These alerts were widely distributed and referenced by the major media outlets and used by governments, scientific, and relief agencies to guide their responses. The PAGER alerts and Web pages included predictive ShakeMaps showing estimates of ground shaking, maps of population density, and a list of estimated intensities at impacted cities. Manual, revised alerts were issued in the following hours that included the dimensions of the fault rupture. Within a half-day, PAGER’s estimates of the population exposed to strong shaking levels stabilized at 5.2 million people. A coordinated research effort is underway to extend PAGER’s capability to include estimates of the number of casualties. We are pursuing loss models that will allow PAGER the flexibility to use detailed inventory and engineering results in regions where these data are available while also calculating loss estimates in regions where little is known about the type and strength of the built infrastructure. Prototype PAGER fatality estimates are currently implemented and can be manually triggered. In the hours following the Wenchuan earthquake, these models predicted fatalities in the tens of thousands.

  6. Anomalous tremor before 2008 Ms8. 0 Wenchuan earthquake: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Xiaoguang

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we give a review of several previously published papers on anomalous tremors observed before the 2008 Ms8. 0 Wenchuan earthquake. Based on the observed time and frequency shifts between coastal and inland stations, we discussed some methods to distinguish different kinds of microseisms, and speculated that a pre-earthquake typhoon might have caused a “mainland-originated microseism” which in turn triggered the earthquake.

  7. Application and analysis of debris-flow early warning system in Wenchuan earthquake-affected area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, D. L.; Zhang, S. J.; Yang, H. J.; Zhao, L. Q.; Jiang, Y. H.; Tang, D.; Leng, X. P.

    2016-02-01

    The activities of debris flow (DF) in the Wenchuan earthquake-affected area significantly increased after the earthquake on 12 May 2008. The safety of the lives and property of local people is threatened by DFs. A physics-based early warning system (EWS) for DF forecasting was developed and applied in this earthquake area. This paper introduces an application of the system in the Wenchuan earthquake-affected area and analyzes the prediction results via a comparison to the DF events triggered by the strong rainfall events reported by the local government. The prediction accuracy and efficiency was first compared with a contribution-factor-based system currently used by the weather bureau of Sichuan province. The storm on 17 August 2012 was used as a case study for this comparison. The comparison shows that the false negative rate and false positive rate of the new system is, respectively, 19 and 21 % lower than the system based on the contribution factors. Consequently, the prediction accuracy is obviously higher than the system based on the contribution factors with a higher operational efficiency. On the invitation of the weather bureau of Sichuan province, the authors upgraded their prediction system of DF by using this new system before the monsoon of Wenchuan earthquake-affected area in 2013. Two prediction cases on 9 July 2013 and 10 July 2014 were chosen to further demonstrate that the new EWS has high stability, efficiency, and prediction accuracy.

  8. The 2008 M7.9 Wenchuan earthquake - a human-caused event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klose, C. D.

    2013-12-01

    A catalog of global human-caused earthquakes shows statistical evidence that the triggering of earthquakes by large-scale geoengineering activities depends on geological and tectonic constrains (in Klose 2013). Such geoengineering activities also include the filling of water reservoirs. This presentation illuminates mechanical and statistical aspects of the 2008 M7.9 Wenchuan earthquake in light of the hypothesis of being NOT human-caused. However, available data suggest that the Wenchuan earthquake was triggered by the filling of the Zipungpu water reservoir 30 months prior to the mainshock. The reservoir spatially extended parallel and near to the main Beichuan fault zone in a highly stressed reverse fault regime. It is mechanically evident that reverse faults tend to be very trigger-sensitive due to mass shifts (static loads) that occur on the surface of the Earth's crust. These circumstances made a triggering of a seismic event of this magnitude at this location possible (in Klose 2008, 2012). The data show that the Wenchuan earthquake is not an outlier. From a statistical view point, the earthquake falls into the upper range of the family of reverse fault earthquakes that were caused by humans worldwide.

  9. China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segal, G.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the reason for China's future nuclear policy. First, assuming a continued decline in superpower influence, China's focus will be on regional issues. The policies of Japan, the NICs and other Chinese neighbors will be more relevant than those of the superpowers. Second, Chinese domestic politics will have to resume the road to reform. A more unstable and suspicious Chinese leadership will perceive a more hostile and unstable world. Even when China was on the path to reform, its foreign relations were not always peaceful. However, it would be wrong to suggest that even a more xenophobic and unstable Chinese leadership would necessarily expand China's nuclear capability or lead China into a major war. Even at the height of the Cultural Revolution, Chinese foreign policy was careful, nuclear proliferation was avoided and crises were well-managed. Still China's basic domestic and foreign policy needs will likely remain unfulfilled for the foreseeable future. Furthermore, although the East Asian balance of power may not appear to be particularly dangerous at present, there is enough uncertainty to ensure that China remains a nuclear power and a maverick one at that at least in the near term

  10. A survey of the practice of nurses' skills in Wenchuan earthquake disaster sites: implications for disaster training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Huahua; He, Haiyan; Arbon, Paul; Zhu, Jingci

    2011-10-01

    To determine nursing skills most relevant for nurses participating in disaster response medical teams; make recommendations to enhance training of nurses who will be first responders to a disaster site; to improve the capacity of nurses to prepare and respond to severe natural disasters. Worldwide, nurses play a key role in disaster response teams at disaster sites. They are often not prepared for the challenges of dealing with mass casualties; little research exists into what basic nursing skills are required by nurses who are first responders to a disaster situation. This study assessed the most relevant disaster nursing skills of first responder nurses at the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake disaster site. Data were collected in China in 2008 using a self-designed questionnaire, with 24 participants who had been part of the medical teams that were dispatched to the disaster sites. The top three skills essential for nurses were: intravenous insertion; observation and monitoring; mass casualty triage. The three most frequently used skills were: debridement and dressing; observation and monitoring; intravenous insertion. The three skills performed most proficiently were: intravenous insertion; observation and monitoring; urethral catheterization. The top three ranking skills most important for training were: mass casualty transportation; emergency management; haemostasis, bandaging, fixation, manual handling. The core nursing skills for disaster response training are: mass casualty transportation; emergency management; haemostasis, bandaging, fixation, manual handling; observation and monitoring; mass casualty triage; controlling specific infection; psychological crisis intervention; cardiopulmonary resuscitation; debridement and dressing; central venous catheter insertion; patient care recording. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Advanced Nursing © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Associations between economic loss, financial strain and the psychological status of Wenchuan earthquake survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yunong; Wong, Hung; Tan, Ngoh Tiong

    2015-10-01

    This study examines the effects of economic loss on the life satisfaction and mental health of Wenchuan earthquake survivors. Economic loss is measured by earthquake impacts on the income and houses of the survivors. The correlation analysis shows that earthquake impact on income is significantly correlated with life satisfaction and depression. The regression analyses indicate that earthquake impact on income is indirectly associated with life satisfaction and depression through its effect on financial strain. The research highlights the importance of coping strategies in maintaining a balance between economic status and living demands for disaster survivors. © 2015 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2015.

  12. Comprehensive Understanding of the Zipingpu Reservoir to the Ms8.0 Wenchuan Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, H.; Pang, Y. J.; Zhang, H.; Shi, Y.

    2014-12-01

    After the Wenchuan earthquake occurred, whether the big earthquake triggered by the storage of the Zipingpu Reservoir has attracted wide attention in international academic community. In addition to the qualitative discussion, many scholars also adopted the quantitative analysis methods to calculate the stress changes, but due to the different results, they draw very different conclusions. Here, we take the dispute of different teams in the quantitative calculation of Zipingpu reservoir as a starting point. In order to find out the key influence factors of quantitative calculation and know about the existing uncertainty elements during the numerical simulation, we analyze factors which may cause the differences. The preliminary results show that the calculation methods (analytical method or numerical method), dimension of models (2-D or 3-D), diffusion model, diffusion coefficient and focal mechanism are the main factors resulted in the differences, especially the diffusion coefficient of the fractured rock mass. The change of coulomb failure stress of the epicenter of Wenchuan earthquake attained from 2-D model is about 3 times of that of 3-D model. And it is not reasonable that only considering the fault permeability (assuming the permeability of rock mass as infinity) or only considering homogeneous isotropic rock mass permeability (ignoring the fault permeability). The different focal mechanisms also could dramatically affect the change of coulomb failure stress of the epicenter of Wenchuan earthquake, and the differences can research 2-7 times. And the differences the change of coulomb failure stress can reach several hundreds times, when selecting different diffusion coefficients. According to existing research that the magnitude of coulomb failure stress change is about several kPa, we could not rule out the possibility that the Zipingpu Reservoir may trigger the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. However, for the background stress is not clear and coulomb failure

  13. Integrated core-log interpretation of Wenchuan earthquake Fault Scientific Drilling project borehole 4 (WFSD-4)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konaté, Ahmed Amara; Pan, Heping; Ma, Huolin; Qin, Zhen; Traoré, Alhouseiny

    2017-08-01

    Understanding slip behavior of active fault is a fundamental problem in earthquake investigations. Well logs and cores data provide direct information of physical properties of the fault zones at depth. The geological exploration of the Wenchuan earthquake Scientific Fault drilling project (WFSD) targeted the Yingxiu-Beichuan fault and the Guanxian Anxian fault, respectively. Five boreholes (WFSD-1, WFSD-2, WFSD-3P WFSD-3 and WFSD-4) were drilled and logged with geophysical tools developed for the use in petroleum industry. WFSD-1, WFSD-2 and WFSD-3 in situ logging data have been reported and investigated by geoscientists. Here we present for the first time, the integrated core-log studies in the Northern segment of Yingxiu-Beichuan fault (WFSD-4) thereby characterizing the physical properties of the lithologies(original rocks), fault rocks and the presumed slip zone associated with the Wenchuan earthquake. We also present results from the comparison of WFSD-4 to those obtained from WFSD-1, WFSD-3 and other drilling hole in active faults. This study show that integrated core-log study would help in understanding the slip behavior of active fault.

  14. Epidemiological features of 1 281 patients with head injuries arising from the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YANG Chao-hua

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: To analyze the epidemiologi-cal features of patients with head injuries in the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. Methods: Medical records of patients with head inju-ries who were admitted to 14 hospitals in Deyang, Mianyang and Chengdu cities after the earthquake were retrospec-tively analyzed. The patients’ age, gender, cause of injury, diagnosis, and outcome were analyzed retrospectively. Results: A total of 1 281 patients with 807 males and 474 females were included. According to Glasgow Coma Scale score at admission, 1 029 patients presented with mild injury, 161 moderate injury and 91 severe injury. The major cause of injuries (83% was bruise by collapsed buildings. Open head injuries accounted for 60.8%. A total of 720 pa-tients underwent surgical treatment. Good recovery was achieved in 1 056 patients, moderate disability in 106, se-vere disability in 71, coma in 29 and death in 19. Conclusions: In this series, male patients were more than female patients. The main cause of injury was hit by falling objects due to building collapse. Minor and open craniocerebral injuries were most common. The epidemio-logical features of head injuries in Wenchuan earthquake may be helpful to preparation for future rescue. Key words: Brain injuries; Epidemiology; Earthquakes; Rescue work

  15. Urban design for post-earthquake reconstruction: A case study of Wenchuan County, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, L.X.; Lin, Y.L.; Wang, S.F.

    2014-01-01

    Urban design for post-earthquake reconstruction emphasizes strategies, safety, memorials and institutional arrangements. It is closely related to earthquake recovery plans. This article reviews general studies on urban design for post-earthquake reconstruction, before focussing on the case of

  16. Depressive symptoms and associated psychosocial factors among adolescent survivors 30 months after 2008 Wenchuan earthquake: A follow-up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuliang eShi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available AbstractPurpose: This study longitudinally investigated the changes of depressive symptoms among adolescent survivors over two years and a half after the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake in China, as well as the predictive effects of demographic characteristics, earthquake exposure, negative life events, social support and dispositional resilience on the risk of depressive symptoms at two time points after the earthquake.Methods: Participants were 1573 adolescent survivors (720 males and 853 females, mean age at initial survey =15 ± 1.26, whose depressive symptoms were assessed at 6 months (T6m and 30 months (T30m post-earthquake. Data on demographics, earthquake exposure and dispositional resilience were collected at T6m. Negative life events and social support were measured at T6m and 24 months (T24m post-earthquake.Results: The prevalence rates of probable depression, 27.5% at T6m and 27.2% at T30m, maintained relatively stable over time. Female gender was related with higher risk of depressive symptoms at both T6m and T30m, while being only-child could only predict higher risk of depressive symptoms at T30m. Negative life events and social support at T6m, as well as earthquake exposure, were concurrently associated with increased risk of depressive symptoms at T6m, but not associated with the risk of depressive symptoms at T30m, while negative life events and social support at T24m could predict depressive symptoms at T30m, all of which suggested that these variables may have strong but short-term effect on adolescents’ depressive symptoms post-earthquake. Besides, dispositional resilience was evidenced as a relatively stable negative predictor for depressive symptoms.Conclusions: These findings could inform mental health professionals regarding how to screen adolescent survivors at high risk for depression, so as to provide them with timely and appropriate mental health services based on the identified risk and protective factors for depressive

  17. Motor function and activities of daily living capacity of patients with fractures sustained during the Wenchuan earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin-Long; He, Hong-Chen; Lin, Hai-Dan; Luo, Qing-Lu; Xia, Lu; Li, Sha-Sha; He, Cheng-Qi

    2011-05-01

    On the afternoon of May 12, 2008, a 8.0-magnitude earthquake hit Sichuan Province, a mountainous region in Western China, killing about 70 000 people and leaving over 18 000 missing. What about the survivors motor functions and activities of daily living (ADL) capacity, especially for fractures? We need the data to guide the rehabilitation for the seismic wounded and it's important to collect the data for the future. We study the survivors to understand the motor functions and ADL capacity of patients with fractures sustained in the Wenchuan earthquake, to provide a basis for rehabilitation and treatment. We used the Manual Muscle Testing method to evaluate muscle strength, the joint angle scale to measure joint range of motion (ROM), and the Barthel index to evaluate the activities of daily living status. SPSS 13.0 software was used to analyze the data and the results were tested using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). The number of seismic wounded amounted to 487; 81.1% of patients had fractures. Most of the injured had fractures in multiple regions (53.9% of all fracture patients), followed by fractures of the upper limb (34.0% of patients); cranial fractures were rare (2.3%). Totally 82.0% had restricted range of motion, 23.5% had decreased muscle force, and 72.2% of the patients had restricted activities of daily living capacities. With time the activities of daily living capacity of female increased (P 0.05). The difference between the patients' ages and ADL capacities did not reach statistical significance (P > 0.05), nor was there a significant difference between their ages and the numbers of days in hospital (P > 0.05). Fractures were the main issue in the seismic wounded, many of them had reductions in the ROM, muscle force and ADL capacities. The physicians involved in rehabilitation should pay greater attention to muscle force exercises, joint mobilization, and occupational therapy during the early phases post disaster.

  18. Frictional melt generated by the 2008 Mw 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake and its faulting mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H.; Li, H.; Si, J.; Sun, Z.; Zhang, L.; He, X.

    2017-12-01

    Fault-related pseudotachylytes are considered as fossil earthquakes, conveying significant information that provide improved insight into fault behaviors and their mechanical properties. The WFSD project was carried out right after the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake, detailed research was conducted in the drilling cores. 2 mm rigid black layer with fresh slickenlines was observed at 732.6 m in WFSD-1 cores drilled at the southern Yingxiu-Beichuan fault (YBF). Evidence of optical microscopy, FESEM and FIB-TEM show it's frictional melt (pseudotachylyte). In the northern part of YBF, 4 mm fresh melt was found at 1084 m with similar structures in WFSD-4S cores. The melts contain numerous microcracks. Considering that (1) the highly unstable property of the frictional melt (easily be altered or devitrified) under geological conditions; (2) the unfilled microcracks; (3) fresh slickenlines and (4) recent large earthquake in this area, we believe that 2-4 mm melt was produced by the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. This is the first report of fresh pseudotachylyte with slickenlines in natural fault that generated by modern earthquake. Geochemical analyses show that fault rocks at 732.6 m are enriched in CaO, Fe2O3, FeO, H2O+ and LOI, whereas depleted in SiO2. XRF results show that Ca and Fe are enriched obviously in the 2.5 cm fine-grained fault rocks and Ba enriched in the slip surface. The melt has a higher magnetic susceptibility value, which may due to neoformed magnetite and metallic iron formed in fault frictional melt. Frictional melt visible in both southern and northern part of YBF reveals that frictional melt lubrication played a major role in the Wenchuan earthquake. Instead of vesicles and microlites, numerous randomly oriented microcracks in the melt, exhibiting a quenching texture. The quenching texture suggests the frictional melt was generated under rapid heat-dissipation condition, implying vigorous fluid circulation during the earthquake. We surmise that during

  19. Model testing on rainfall-induced landslide of loose soil in Wenchuan earthquake region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Fang

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the formation process of rainfall-induced landslide for slopes composed of loose soil in the Wenchuan earthquake region. Experimental investigations have been performed on the landslide's formation and the variation of the controlling soil parameters under various artificial rainfall conditions. The landslide triggering mechanisms can be described in the following way. Firstly, the large porosity of the loose soil facilitated the infiltration of water, which increased the pore water pressure and reduced the shear strength of the soil significantly. In addition, the rainfalls probably caused the concentration of finer particles at a certain depth of the valley slopes. This concentration within the soil increased the pore water pressure significantly, and consequently reduced both the porosity ratio and permeability. Therefore, when the pore water pressure reached a critical state, the effective shear strength of the soil diminished, inducing the landslide's formation.

  20. Fracture Modes and Identification of Fault Zones in Wenchuan Earthquake Fault Scientific Drilling Boreholes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, C.; Pan, H.; Zhao, P.; Qin, R.; Peng, L.

    2017-12-01

    After suffering from the disaster of Wenchuan earthquake on May 12th, 2008, scientists are eager to figure out the structure of formation, the geodynamic processes of faults and the mechanism of earthquake in Wenchuan by drilling five holes into the Yingxiu-Beichuan fault zone and Anxian-Guanxian fault zone. Fractures identification and in-situ stress determination can provide abundant information for formation evaluation and earthquake study. This study describe all the fracture modes in the five boreholes on the basis of cores and image logs, and summarize the response characteristics of fractures in conventional logs. The results indicate that the WFSD boreholes encounter enormous fractures, including natural fractures and induced fractures, and high dip-angle conductive fractures are the most common fractures. The maximum horizontal stress trends along the borehole are deduced as NWW-SEE according to orientations of borehole breakouts and drilling-induced fractures, which is nearly parallel to the strikes of the younger natural fracture sets. Minor positive deviations of AC (acoustic log) and negative deviation of DEN (density log) demonstrate their responses to fracture, followed by CNL (neutron log), resistivity logs and GR (gamma ray log) at different extent of intensity. Besides, considering the fact that the reliable methods for identifying fracture zone, like seismic, core recovery and image logs, can often be hampered by their high cost and limited application, this study propose a method by using conventional logs, which are low-cost and available in even old wells. We employ wavelet decomposition to extract the high frequency information of conventional logs and reconstruction a new log in special format of enhance fracture responses and eliminate nonfracture influence. Results reveal that the new log shows obvious deviations in fault zones, which confirm the potential of conventional logs in fracture zone identification.

  1. The Trembling Earth Before Wenchuan Earthquake: Recognition of Precursory Anomalies through High Frequency Sampling Data of Groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, F.

    2017-12-01

    With a magnitude of MS8.0, the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake is classified as one of the "great earthquakes", which are potentially the most destructive, since it occurred at shallow depth close to a highly populated area without prediction, due to no confirmative precursors which were detected from a large amount of newly carried out digital observation data. Scientists who specilize in prediction routine work had been condemned and self-condemned for a long time then. After the pain of defeat passed, scientists have been some thinking to analyze the old observation data in new perspectives from longer temporal process, multiple-disciplinaries, and in different frequency. This presentation will show the preliminary results from groundwater level and temperature observed in 3 wells which distribute along the boundaries of tectonic blocks nearby and far from Wenchuan earthquake rupture.

  2. Seismo-Traveling Ionospheric Disturbances Triggered by the 12 May 2008 M 8.0 Wenchuan Earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jann-Yenq Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A network of 6 ground-based GPS receivers in East Asia was employed to study seismo-traveling ionospheric disturbances (STIDs triggered by an M 8.0 earthquake which occurred at Wenchuan on 12 May 2008. The network detected 5 STIDs on the south side of the epicenter area. A study on the distances of the detected STIDs to the epicenter versus their associated traveling times shows that the horizontal speed is about 600 m s-1. Applying the circle method, we find that the 5 circles intercept at a point right above the epicenter when the horizontal speed of 600 m s-1 is given. Global searches of the ray-tracing and the beam-forming techniques confirm that the STIDs are induced by vertical motions in the Earth¡¦s surface during the Wenchuan Earthquake.

  3. Evaluation of the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the Resilience Scale in Wenchuan earthquake survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Ming; Li, Chao; Xiao, Xiao; Qiu, Jiang; Dai, Yan; Zhang, Qinglin

    2012-07-01

    Resilience refers to the ability to effectively cope and positively adapt after adversity or trauma. This study investigated the factor structure and psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the Resilience Scale (RS) for college students with Wenchuan earthquake exposure. A total of 888 Chinese college students with Wenchuan earthquake exposure completed a set of scales, including the RS, the Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Self-rating Scale, the Zung Self-rating Depression Scale, the Zung Self-rating Anxiety Scale, and the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire Short Scale for Chinese. The internal consistency and concurrent validity were investigated. Sex and regional differences were also examined. The results of exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis showed that the 4-factor structure was suitable for both Chinese samples 1 and 2. The Cronbach α coefficient was .94 (P split-half reliability coefficient was .92 (P disorder (r = -0.21; P < .01), depression (r = -0.45; P < .01), anxiety(r = -0.34; P < .01), and neuroticism (r = -0.23; P < .01), and correlated positively with extraversion (r = 0.23; P < .01). Men showed higher resilience scores than women, and people living in the high earthquake-exposure areas reported higher level of resilience than those from low earthquake-exposure areas. The Chinese version of the RS was demonstrated to be a reliable and valid measurement in assessing resilience for Wenchuan earthquake survivors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The role of the 2008 Mw 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake in topographic evolution: seismically induced landslides and the associated isostatic response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Z.; Zhang, Z.; Zhang, H.; Zheng, W.; Zhang, P. Z.

    2017-12-01

    The widely held understanding that reverse-faulting earthquakes play an important role in building mountains has been challenged by recent studies suggesting that co-seismic landslides of the 2008 Mw 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake led to a net co-seismic lowering of surface height. We use precise estimates of co-seismic landslide volumes to calculate the long-term isostatic response to landsliding during the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. The total isostatic respond volume is 2.0 km3 which did not change much associated with thickness of Te, however, the distribution of the rebound changes associated with thickness of Te. The total co-seismic mass change could be 1.8 km3. The maximum isostatic response due to Wenchuan earthquake may have been as high as 0.9 meters in the highest Pengguan massif of the central Longmen Shan. We also find that the average net uplift is 0.16 meters within the total landslide region due to the Wenchuan earthquake. Our findings suggest that the local topographic evolution of the middle Longmen Shan region is closely related to repeated tectonic events such as the 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake.

  5. [Characteristics of Raman spectra of minerals in the veins of Wenchuan earthquake fault zone].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Chao; Zhou, Ben-gang; Liu, Lei; Zhou, Xiao-cheng; Yi, Li; Chen, Zhi; Cui, Yue-ju; Li, Jing; Chen, Zheng-wei; Du, Jian-guo

    2015-01-01

    Quartz in the veins at the Shenxigou section of Wenchuan earthquake fault zone was investigated by micro-Raman spectroscopic measurement, and the distribution of compressive stress in the fault zone was estimated by the frequency shifts of the 464 cm-1 vibrational mode of quartz grains in the veins. It was showed that the 464 cm-1 peak arising from the quartz grains in the veins near the fault plane shifts by 3. 29 cm-1 , and the corresponding compressive stress is 368. 63 MPa, which is significantly lower than the stress accumulation on both sides due to multi-stage events. Stress accumulation increased with moving away from the fault plane in the footwall with the offset of the 464 cm-1 peak arising from the quartz grains in the veins increasing, which can reach 494. 77 MPa at a distance of 21 m with a high offset of 4. 40 cm-1 of the 464 cm-1 peak. The compressive stress gets the maximum value of 519.87 MPa at a distance of 10 m from the fault plane in the hanging wall with the offset of the 464 cm-1 peak arising from the quartz grains in the veins being 4. 62 cm-1, followed by a sudden drop in stress accumulation, and it drops to 359. 59 MPa at a distance of 17 m. Because of moving away from the foult plane at the edge of the foult zone, the stress drops to 359. 59 MPa with a small value of 464 cm-1 peak offset 3. 21 cm-1 at a distance of 27 m from the fault plane in the hanging wall due to the little effect by the fault activity. Therefore, the stress of Wenchuan earthquake fault zone is partially released, but the rest of the stress distribution is uneven, and there is also a high stress accumulation in somewhere in the fault zone, which reflects that the mechanical properties of the rocks in the fault zone have a characteristic of unevenness in space.

  6. Influence of crustal layering and thickness on co-seismic effects of Wenchuan earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Hongbo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Using the PSGRN/PSCMP software and the fault model offered by USGS and on the basis of finite rectangular dislocation theory and the local layered wave velocity structures of the crust-upper-mantle, the influences of crustal layering and thickness on co-seismic gravity changes and deformation of Wenchuan earthquake have been simulated. The results indicate that; the influences have a relationship with the attitude of faults and the relative position between calculated points and fault. The difference distribution form of simulated results between the two models is similar to that of co-seismic effect. For the per centum distribution, it’s restricted by the zero line of the co-seismic effects obviously. Its positive is far away from the zero line. For the crustal thickness, the effect is about 10% – 20%. The negative and the effect over 30% focus around the zero line. The average influences of crustal layering and thickness for the E-W displacement, N-S displacement, vertical displacement and gravity changes are 18.4%,18.0%, 15.8% and 16.2% respectively, When the crustal thickness is 40 km, they are 4.6%, 5.3%, 3.8% and 3.8%. Then the crustal thickness is 70 km, the average influences are 3.5%, 4.6%, 3.0% and 2.5% respectively.

  7. Fault Structural Control on Earthquake Strong Ground Motions: The 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake as an Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Dongli; Li, Xiaojun; Huang, Bei; Zheng, Wenjun; Wang, Yuejun

    2018-02-01

    Continental thrust faulting earthquakes pose severe threats to megacities across the world. Recent events show the possible control of fault structures on strong ground motions. The seismogenic structure of the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake is associated with high-angle listric reverse fault zones. Its peak ground accelerations (PGAs) show a prominent feature of fault zone amplification: the values within the 30- to 40-km-wide fault zone block are significantly larger than those on both the hanging wall and the footwall. The PGA values attenuate asymmetrically: they decay much more rapidly in the footwall than in the hanging wall. The hanging wall effects can be seen on both the vertical and horizontal components of the PGAs, with the former significantly more prominent than the latter. All these characteristics can be adequately interpreted by upward extrusion of the high-angle listric reverse fault zone block. Through comparison with a low-angle planar thrust fault associated with the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake, we conclude that different fault structures might have controlled different patterns of strong ground motion, which should be taken into account in seismic design and construction.

  8. Assessment of risks of loose landslide deposits formed by the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, S.; Zhang, L. M.; Peng, M.; Zhang, L. L.; Zhao, H. F.; Chen, H. X.

    2012-05-01

    A Geographic Information System (GIS)-based quantitative risk assessment methodology was adopted to evaluate the risks of loose deposits formed by the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake along a highway near the epicenter. A total of 305 loose deposits with a total volume of 4.0 × 107 m3 has been identified. A physical model was used to determine the failure probability of these loose deposits under six rainfall scenarios, assuming the loose deposits as infinite slopes. The calculated probability of rain-induced slope failures is verified by the recorded landslides at the same site during a storm in 2010. Seventy-nine out of the 112 rain-induced loose deposit failures are predicted by the reliability analysis, with an accuracy of 71%. The results of reliability analysis and information on the consequence of these rain-induced landslides enable the estimation of the annual societal and individual risks of the loose deposits. Under the rainfall scenarios of 30 mm/12 h and 70 mm/12 h, the estimated annual societal risks reach 8.8 and 7.5, respectively, and the individual risks reach 0.05 and 0.04, respectively, which are very high compared with present risk acceptance criteria. The preliminary assessment provides a benchmark for studying the long-term risks of these loose deposits and engineering decision.

  9. Structural and physical property characterization in the Wenchuan earthquake Fault Scientific Drilling project — hole 1 (WFSD-1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haibing; Xu, Zhiqin; Niu, Yixiong; Kong, Guangsheng; Huang, Yao; Wang, Huan; Si, Jialiang; Sun, Zhiming; Pei, Junling; Gong, Zheng; Chevalier, Marie-Luce; Liu, Dongliang

    2014-04-01

    The Wenchuan earthquake Fault Scientific Drilling project (WFSD) started right after the 2008 Mw 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake to investigate its faulting mechanism. Hole 1 (WFSD-1) reached the Yingxiu-Beichuan fault (YBF), and core samples were recovered from 32 to 1201.15 m-depth. Core investigation and a suite of geophysical downhole logs (including P-wave velocity, natural gamma ray, self-potential, resistivity, density, porosity, temperature, magnetic susceptibility and ultrasound borehole images) were acquired in WFSD-1. Integrated studies of cores and logs facilitate qualitative and quantitative comparison of the structures and physical properties of rocks. Logging data revealed that the geothermal gradient of the volcanic Pengguan complex (above 585.75 m) is 1.85 °C/100 m, while that of the sedimentary Xujiahe Formation (below 585.75 m) is 2.15 °C/100 m. In general, natural gamma ray, resistivity, density, porosity, P-wave velocity and magnetic susceptibility primarily depend on the rock lithology. All major fault zones are characterized by high magnetic susceptibility, low density and high porosity, with mostly low resistivity, high natural gamma ray and sound wave velocity. The high magnetic susceptibility values most likely result from the transformation of magnetic minerals by frictional heating due to the earthquake. The YBF exposed in WFSD-1 can be subdivided into five different parts based on different logging responses, each of them corresponding to certain fault-rocks. The high gamma radiation, porosity and P-wave velocity, as well as low resistivity and temperature anomalies indicate that the Wenchuan earthquake fault zone is located at 585.75-594.5 m-depth, with an average inclination and dip angle of N305° and 71°, respectively. The fact that the fracture directions in the hanging wall and footwall are different suggests that their stress field direction is completely different, implying that the upper Pengguan complex may not be local.

  10. Co-seismic strain changes of Wenchuan Mw7. 9 earthquake recorded by borehole strainmeters on Tibetan plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Guangyu

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Co-seismic strain changes of the Wenchuan Mw7. 9 earthquake recorded with three four-component borehole strainmeters showed NW-SE and roughly EW extensions, respectively, at two locations in the interior and northern part of Tibetan plateau, and NS shortening at a location south of the epicenter, in agreement with the tectonic stress field of this region. The observed values of as much as 10−7 are, however, larger than theoretical values obtained with half-space and spherical-earth dislocation theories, implying the existence of other effects, such as local crustal structure and initial stress.

  11. Post-traumatic stress disorder status in a rescue group after the Wenchuan earthquake relief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Junhua; Liu, Qunying; Li, Jinliang; Li, Xuejiang; You, Jin; Zhang, Liang; Tian, Changfu; Luan, Rongsheng

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that the incidence of post-traumatic stress disorder in earthquake rescue workers is relatively high. Risk factors for this disorder include demographic characteristics, earthquake-related high-risk factors, risk factors in the rescue process, personality, social support and coping style. This study examined the current status of a unit of 1 040 rescue workers who participated in earthquake relief for the Wenchuan earthquake that occurred on May 12th, 2008. Post-traumatic stress disorder was diagnosed primarily using the Clinician-Administered Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Scale during structured interviews. Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were used to examine major risk factors that contributed to the incidence of post-traumatic stress disorder. Results revealed that the incidence of this disorder in the rescue group was 5.96%. The impact factors in univariate analysis included death of family members, contact with corpses or witnessing of the deceased or seriously injured, near-death experience, severe injury or mental trauma in the rescue process and working at the epicenter of the earthquake. Correlation analysis suggested that post-traumatic stress disorder was positively correlated with psychotic and neurotic personalities, negative coping and low social support. Impact factors in multivariate logistic regression analysis included near-death experience, severe injury or mental trauma, working in the epicenter of the rescue, neurotic personality, negative coping and low social support, among which low social support had the largest odds ratio of 20.42. Findings showed that the occurrence of post-traumatic stress disorder was the result of the interaction of multiple factors. PMID:25206499

  12. Post-traumatic stress disorder status in a rescue group after the Wenchuan earthquake relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Junhua; Liu, Qunying; Li, Jinliang; Li, Xuejiang; You, Jin; Zhang, Liang; Tian, Changfu; Luan, Rongsheng

    2013-07-15

    Previous studies have suggested that the incidence of post-traumatic stress disorder in earthquake rescue workers is relatively high. Risk factors for this disorder include demographic characteristics, earthquake-related high-risk factors, risk factors in the rescue process, personality, social support and coping style. This study examined the current status of a unit of 1 040 rescue workers who participated in earthquake relief for the Wenchuan earthquake that occurred on May 12(th), 2008. Post-traumatic stress disorder was diagnosed primarily using the Clinician-Administered Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Scale during structured interviews. Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were used to examine major risk factors that contributed to the incidence of post-traumatic stress disorder. Results revealed that the incidence of this disorder in the rescue group was 5.96%. The impact factors in univariate analysis included death of family members, contact with corpses or witnessing of the deceased or seriously injured, near-death experience, severe injury or mental trauma in the rescue process and working at the epicenter of the earthquake. Correlation analysis suggested that post-traumatic stress disorder was positively correlated with psychotic and neurotic personalities, negative coping and low social support. Impact factors in multivariate logistic regression analysis included near-death experience, severe injury or mental trauma, working in the epicenter of the rescue, neurotic personality, negative coping and low social support, among which low social support had the largest odds ratio of 20.42. Findings showed that the occurrence of post-traumatic stress disorder was the result of the interaction of multiple factors.

  13. Posttraumatic stress disorder and posttraumatic growth coexistence and the risk factors in Wenchuan earthquake survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhibin; Xu, Jiuping; Sui, Yan

    2016-03-30

    Various studies have assessed the negative and/or positive changes in the aftermath of traumatic events. Yet few of these have addressed the factors associated with the coexistence of both negative and positive changes after a devastating earthquake. The aim of this study is to assess the relationship between the negative and positive changes and elucidate the risk factors of such changes one year after Wenchuan earthquake. A total of 2080 survivors from 19 counties participated in a self-report questionnaire survey which included the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) Check list-Civilian, the posttraumatic growth PTG Inventory (PTGI). The prevalence of PTSD and moderate PTG was found to be 40.1% (95% CI [37.9% 42.3%]) and 51.1% (95% CI [48.9% 53.3%]). The PTSD and moderate PTG coexistence was 19.6% (95% CI [17.8% 21.4%]). PTSD symptom severity was significantly positively associated with the PTG score. Middle aged groups (31-40 and 41-50 years old, OR=2.323, 95% CI [1.059, 5.095] and OR=2.410, 95% CI [1.090, 5.329] respectively), those with lower income levels (OR=8.019, 95% CI [2.421, 26.558]), those living in temporary house (OR=1.946, 95% CI [1.280, 2.956]), and those who had had less social support (OR=1.109, 95% CI [1.076, 1.143]) had a significantly higher possibility for the presence of PTSD and moderate PTG coexistence. The results indicated the widespread positive changes in earthquake survivors. Better income levels and living conditions and higher social support were suggested to promote PTG in those with PTSD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Magnetic behaviors of cataclasites within Wenchuan earthquake fault zone in heating experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L.; Li, H.; Sun, Z.; Chou, Y. M.; Cao, Y., Jr.; Huan, W.; Ye, X.; He, X.

    2017-12-01

    Previous rock magnetism of fault rocks were used to trace the frictional heating temperature, however, few studies are focus on different temperatures effect of rock magnetic properties. To investigate rock magnetic response to different temperature, we conducted heating experiments on cataclasites from the Wenchuan earthquake Fault Scientific Drilling borehole 2 (WFSD-2) cores. Samples of cataclasites were obtained using an electric drill with a 1 cm-diameter drill pipe from 580.65 m-depth. Experiments were performed by a Thermal-optical measurement system under argon atmosphere and elevated temperatures. Both microstructural observations and powder X-ray diffraction analyses show that feldspar and quartz start to melt at 1100 ° and 1300 ° respectively. Magnetic susceptibility values of samples after heating are higher than that before heating. Samples after heating at 700 and 1750 ° have the highest values of magnetic susceptibility. Rock magnetic measurements show that the main ferromagnetic minerals within samples heated below 1100 ° (400, 700, 900 and 1100 °) are magnetite, which is new-formed by transformation of paramagnetic minerals. The χferri results show that the quantity of magnetite is bigger at sample heated by 700° experiment than by 400, 900 and 1100° experiments. Based on the FORC diagrams, we consider that magnetite grains are getting finer from 400 to 900°, and growing coarser when heated from 900 to 1100 °. SEM-EDX results indicate that the pure iron are formed in higher temperature (1300, 1500 and 1750 °), which present as framboids with size values of samples when heated at 400, 700, 900 and 1100°, while the neoformed pure iron is responsible to the higher magnetic susceptibility values of samples when heated at 1300, 1500 and 1750°.

  15. Postseismic relaxation process and lithospheric rheology inferred from eight years of postseismic deformation after the 2008 Mw7.9 Wenchuan earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, B.; Burgmann, R.; Rui, X.; Wang, D.; Yu, J.; He, K.

    2017-12-01

    Current inferences of postseismic deformation mechanisms and lithospheric rheology in the eastern Tibetan Plateau strongly depend on spatial and temporal observations of postseismic transients following the 2008 Mw=7.9 Wenchuan earthquake. We processed regional continuously operating and survey-mode GPS data from the Crustal Movement Observation Network of China and Sichuan Continuous Operation Reference System. These data cover a broad region and time intervals of up to eight years. The determined amplitude of postseismic displacements show clear contrast between the Sichuan Basin and eastern Tibet. In addition to significant amounts of deformation in the region between the Longmen Shan and Longriba fault, reliable deformation transients are also visible in the far field, such as regions to the west of the Longriba fault and along the left-lateral Xianshuihe fault. In contrast, no more than 10 mm of postseismic transients are observed in the Sichuan Basin. Guided by previous studies, we conducted multiple-mechanism models of afterslip and viscoelastic relaxation. We first explored a series of forward viscoelastic relaxation models using a heterogeneous rheological earth structure, and then inverted corresponding afterslip distributions on the shallowly dipping detachment to explain the remaining residuals. Our preliminary results indicate the viscoelastic relaxation in the lower crust and upper mantle dominantly contributed to the mid- and far-field observations, whereas afterslip below the coseismic asperities and on small patches near the surface can explain the near-field measurements. Time-dependent slip inversions illustrate that afterslip decays more rapidly on the shallow portions of the fault interface than on the shallowly dipping detachment. Relatively long-lived right-lateral afterslip is revealed in the north segment of the Beichuan fault, suggesting variations of frictional properties along strike of the fault zone. Our results also support previous

  16. Width of the Surface Rupture Zone for Thrust Earthquakes and Implications for Earthquake Fault Zoning: Chi-Chi 1999 and Wenchuan 2008 Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boncio, P.; Caldarella, M.

    2016-12-01

    We analyze the zones of coseismic surface faulting along thrust faults, whit the aim of defining the most appropriate criteria for zoning the Surface Fault Rupture Hazard (SFRH) along thrust faults. Normal and strike-slip faults were deeply studied in the past, while thrust faults were not studied with comparable attention. We analyze the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan (Mw 7.6) and 2008 Wenchuan, China (Mw 7.9) earthquakes. Several different types of coseismic fault scarps characterize the two earthquakes, depending on the topography, fault geometry and near-surface materials. For both the earthquakes, we collected from the literature, or measured in GIS-georeferenced published maps, data about the Width of the coseismic Rupture Zone (WRZ). The frequency distribution of WRZ compared to the trace of the main fault shows that the surface ruptures occur mainly on and near the main fault. Ruptures located away from the main fault occur mainly in the hanging wall. Where structural complexities are present (e.g., sharp bends, step-overs), WRZ is wider then for simple fault traces. We also fitted the distribution of the WRZ dataset with probability density functions, in order to define a criterion to remove outliers (e.g., by selecting 90% or 95% probability) and define the zone where the probability of SFRH is the highest. This might help in sizing the zones of SFRH during seismic microzonation (SM) mapping. In order to shape zones of SFRH, a very detailed earthquake geologic study of the fault is necessary. In the absence of such a very detailed study, during basic (First level) SM mapping, a width of 350-400 m seems to be recommended (95% of probability). If the fault is carefully mapped (higher level SM), one must consider that the highest SFRH is concentrated in a narrow zone, 50 m-wide, that should be considered as a "fault-avoidance (or setback) zone". These fault zones should be asymmetric. The ratio of footwall to hanging wall (FW:HW) calculated here ranges from 1:5 to 1:3.

  17. Determination of three-dimensional stress orientations in the Wenchuan earthquake Fault Scientific Drilling (WFSD) hole-1: A preliminary result by anelastic strain recovery measurements of core samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, J.; Lin, W.; Wang, L.; Tang, Z.; Sun, D.; Gao, L.; Wang, W.

    2010-12-01

    A great and destructive earthquake (Ms 8.0; Mw 7.9), Wunchuan earthquake struck on the Longmen Shan foreland trust zone in Sichuan province, China on 12 May 2008 (Xu et al., 2008; Episodes, Vol.31, pp.291-301). As a rapid response scientific drilling project, Wenchuan earthquake Fault Scientific Drilling (WFSD) started on 6 November 2008 shorter than a half of year from the date of earthquake main shock. The first pilot borehole (hole-1) has been drilled to the target depth (measured depth 1201 m MD, vertical depth 1179 m) at Hongkou, Dujianyan, Sichuan and passed through the main fault of the earthquake around 589 m MD. We are trying to determine three dimensional in-situ stress states in the WFSD boreholes by a core-based method, anelastic strain recovery (ASR) method (Lin et al., 2006; Tectonophysics, Vol4.26, pp.221-238). This method has been applied in several scientific drilling projects (TCDP: Lin et al., 2007; TAO, Vol.18, pp.379-393; NanTtoSEIZE: Byrne et al., 2009; GRL, Vol.36, L23310). These applications confirm the validity of using the ASR technique in determining in situ stresses by using drilled cores. We collected total 15 core samples in a depth range from 340 m MD to 1180 m MD, approximately for ASR measurements. Anelastic normal strains, measured every ten minutes in nine directions, including six independent directions, were used to calculate the anelastic strain tensors. The data of the ASR tests conducted at hole-1 is still undergoing analysis. As a tentative perspective, more than 10 core samples showed coherent strain recovery over one - two weeks. However, 2 or 3 core samples cannot be re-orientated to the global system. It means that we cannot rink the stress orientation determined by the core samples to geological structure. Unfortunately, a few core samples showed irregular strain recovery and were not analyzed further. The preliminary results of ASR tests at hole-1 show the stress orientations and stress regime changes a lot with the

  18. Rupture imaging of the Mw 7.9 12 May 2008 Wenchuan earthquake from back projection of teleseismic P waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan; Koper, Keith D.; Sufri, Oner; Zhu, Lupei; Hutko, Alexander R.

    2009-04-01

    The Mw 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake of 12 May 2008 was the most destructive Chinese earthquake since the 1976 Tangshan event. Tens of thousands of people were killed, hundreds of thousands were injured, and millions were left homeless. Here we infer the detailed rupture process of the Wenchuan earthquake by back-projecting teleseismic P energy from several arrays of seismometers. This technique has only recently become feasible and is potentially faster than traditional finite-fault inversion of teleseismic body waves; therefore, it may reduce the notification time to emergency response agencies. Using the IRIS DMC, we collected 255 vertical component broadband P waves at 30-95° from the epicenter. We found that at periods of 5 s and greater, nearly all of these P waves were coherent enough to be used in a global array. We applied a simple down-sampling heuristic to define a global subarray of 70 stations that reduced the asymmetry and sidelobes of the array response function (ARF). We also considered three regional subarrays of seismometers in Alaska, Australia, and Europe that had apertures less than 30° and P waves that were coherent to periods as short as 1 s. Individual ARFs for these subarrays were skewed toward the subarrays; however, the linear sum of the regional subarray beams at 1 s produced a symmetric ARF, similar to that of the groomed global subarray at 5 s. For both configurations we obtained the same rupture direction, rupture length, and rupture time. We found that the Wenchuan earthquake had three distinct pulses of high beam power at 0, 23, and 57 s after the origin time, with the pulse at 23 s being highest, and that it ruptured unilaterally to the northeast for about 300 km and 110 s, with an average speed of 2.8 km/s. It is possible that similar results can be determined for future large dip-slip earthquakes within 20-30 min of the origin time using relatively sparse global networks of seismometers such as those the USGS uses to locate

  19. Rupture imaging of the Mw 7.9 12 May 2008 Wenchuan earthquake from back projection of teleseismic P waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Y.; Koper, K.D.; Sufri, O.; Zhu, L.; Hutko, Alexander R.

    2009-01-01

    [1] The Mw 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake of 12 May 2008 was the most destructive Chinese earthquake since the 1976 Tangshan event. Tens of thousands of people were killed, hundreds of thousands were injured, and millions were left homeless. Here we infer the detailed rupture process of the Wenchuan earthquake by back-projecting teleseismic P energy from several arrays of seismometers. This technique has only recently become feasible and is potentially faster than traditional finite-fault inversion of teleseismic body waves; therefore, it may reduce the notification time to emergency response agencies. Using the IRIS DMC, we collected 255 vertical component broadband P waves at 30-95?? from the epicenter. We found that at periods of 5 s and greater, nearly all of these P waves were coherent enough to be used in a global array. We applied a simple down-sampling heuristic to define a global subarray of 70 stations that reduced the asymmetry and sidelobes of the array response function (ARF). We also considered three regional subarrays of seismometers in Alaska, Australia, and Europe that had apertures less than 30?? and P waves that were coherent to periods as short as 1 s. Individual ARFs for these subarrays were skewed toward the subarrays; however, the linear sum of the regional subarray beams at 1 s produced a symmetric ARF, similar to that of the groomed global subarray at 5 s. For both configurations we obtained the same rupture direction, rupture length, and rupture time. We found that the Wenchuan earthquake had three distinct pulses of high beam power at 0, 23, and 57 s after the origin time, with the pulse at 23 s being highest, and that it ruptured unilaterally to the northeast for about 300 km and 110 s, with an average speed of 2.8 km/s. It is possible that similar results can be determined for future large dip-slip earthquakes within 20-30 min of the origin time using relatively sparse global networks of seismometers such as those the USGS uses to locate

  20. Health education and promotion at the site of an emergency: experience from the Chinese Wenchuan earthquake response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xiangyang; Zhao, Genming; Cao, Dequan; Wang, Duoquan; Wang, Liang

    2016-03-01

    Theories and strategies of social mobilization, capacity building, mass and interpersonal communication, as well as risk communication and behavioral change were used to develop health education and promotion campaigns to decrease and prevent injuries and infectious diseases among the survivors of the Wenchuan earthquake in May 2008. We evaluated the effectiveness of the campaigns and short-term interventions using mixed-methods. The earthquake survivors' health knowledge, skills, and practice improved significantly with respect to injury protection, food and water safety, environmental and personal hygiene, and disease prevention. No infectious disease outbreaks were reported after the earthquake, and the epidemic level was lower than before the earthquake. After a short-term intervention among the students of Leigu Township Primary and Junior School, the proportion of those with personal hygiene increased from 59.7% to 98.3% (pearthquakes play an important role in preventing injuries and infectious diseases among survivors. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. The effects of extraversion, social support on the posttraumatic stress disorder and posttraumatic growth of adolescent survivors of the Wenchuan earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xuji; Ying, Liuhua; Zhou, Xiao; Wu, Xinchun; Lin, Chongde

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationships among extraversion, social support, posttraumatic stress disorder and posttraumatic growth among adolescent survivors of the Wenchuan earthquake. Six hundred thirty-eight participants were selected from the survivors of the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. Participants completed four main questionnaires, including the Extraversion Subscale, the Social Support Scale, the Child PTSD Symptom Scale, and the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory. A bivariate correlation analysis revealed significant correlations among extraversion, social support, posttraumatic stress disorder and posttraumatic growth. Extraversion had significant indirect effects on posttraumatic stress disorder (β = -.037, p posttraumatic growth (β = .077, p posttraumatic growth and a nonsignificant direct effect on posttraumatic stress disorder. Social support fully mediates the relationship between extraversion and posttraumatic stress disorder and partially mediates the relationship between extraversion and posttraumatic growth. Psychological interventions and care for survivors of the earthquake should include the various functions and sources of social support and how they serve to benefit individuals.

  2. Crustal deformation characteristics of Sichuan-Yunnan region in China on the constraint of multi-periods of GPS velocity fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Caiya; Dang, Yamin; Dai, Huayang; Yang, Qiang; Wang, Xiankai

    2018-04-01

    In order to obtain deformation parameters in each block of Sichuan-Yunnan Region (SYG) in China by stages and establish a dynamic model about the variation of the strain rate fields and the surface expansion in this area, we taken the Global Positioning System (GPS) sites velocity in the region as constrained condition and taken advantage of the block strain calculation model based on spherical surface. We also analyzed the deformation of the active blocks in the whole SYG before and after the Wenchuan earthquake, and analyzed the deformation of active blocks near the epicenter of the Wenchuan earthquake in detail. The results show that, (1) Under the effects of the carving from India plate and the crimping from the potential energy of Tibetan Plateau for a long time, there is a certain periodicity in crustal deformation in SYG. And the period change and the earthquake occurrence have a good agreement. (2) The differences in GPS velocity fields relative Eurasian reference frame shows that the Wenchuan earthquake and the Ya'an earthquake mainly affect the crustal movement in the central and southern part of SYG, and the average velocity difference is about 4-8 mm/a for the Wenchuan earthquake and 2-4 mm/a for the Ya'an earthquake. (3) For the Wenchuan earthquake, the average strain changed from 10 to 20 nanostrian/a before earthquake to 40-50 nanostrian/a after the earthquake, but before and after the Ya'an earthquake, the strain value increased from about 15 nanostrian/a to about 30 nanostrian/a. (4) The Wenchuan earthquake has changed the strain parameter of each active block more or less. Especially, the Longmen block and Chengdu block near the epicenter. The research provides fundamental material for the study of the dynamic mechanism of the push extrusion from the north-east of the India plate and the crimp from Qinghai Tibet Plateau, and it also provides support for the study of crustal stress variation and earthquake prediction in Sichuan Yunnan region.

  3. Analysis on Two Typical Landslide Hazard Phenomena in The Wenchuan Earthquake by Field Investigations and Shaking Table Tests

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    Changwei Yang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Based on our field investigations of landslide hazards in the Wenchuan earthquake, some findings can be reported: (1 the multi-aspect terrain facing empty isolated mountains and thin ridges reacted intensely to the earthquake and was seriously damaged; (2 the slope angles of most landslides was larger than 45°. Considering the above disaster phenomena, the reasons are analyzed based on shaking table tests of one-sided, two-sided and four-sided slopes. The analysis results show that: (1 the amplifications of the peak accelerations of four-sided slopes is stronger than that of the two-sided slopes, while that of the one-sided slope is the weakest, which can indirectly explain the phenomena that the damage is most serious; (2 the amplifications of the peak accelerations gradually increase as the slope angles increase, and there are two inflection points which are the point where the slope angle is 45° and where the slope angle is 50°, respectively, which can explain the seismic phenomenon whereby landslide hazards mainly occur on the slopes whose slope angle is bigger than 45°. The amplification along the slope strike direction is basically consistent, and the step is smooth.

  4. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR Interferometry for Assessing Wenchuan Earthquake (2008 Deforestation in the Sichuan Giant Panda Site

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    Fulong Chen

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic aperture radar (SAR has been an unparalleled tool in cloudy and rainy regions as it allows observations throughout the year because of its all-weather, all-day operation capability. In this paper, the influence of Wenchuan Earthquake on the Sichuan Giant Panda habitats was evaluated for the first time using SAR interferometry and combining data from C-band Envisat ASAR and L-band ALOS PALSAR data. Coherence analysis based on the zero-point shifting indicated that the deforestation process was significant, particularly in habitats along the Min River approaching the epicenter after the natural disaster, and as interpreted by the vegetation deterioration from landslides, avalanches and debris flows. Experiments demonstrated that C-band Envisat ASAR data were sensitive to vegetation, resulting in an underestimation of deforestation; in contrast, L-band PALSAR data were capable of evaluating the deforestation process owing to a better penetration and the significant coherence gain on damaged forest areas. The percentage of damaged forest estimated by PALSAR decreased from 20.66% to 17.34% during 2009–2010, implying an approximate 3% recovery rate of forests in the earthquake impacted areas. This study proves that long-wavelength SAR interferometry is promising for rapid assessment of disaster-induced deforestation, particularly in regions where the optical acquisition is constrained.

  5. A contrast study of the traumatic condition between the wounded in 5.12 Wenchuan earthquake and 4.25 Nepal earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Sheng; Hu, Yonghe; Zhang, Zhongkui; Wang, Ting

    2015-01-01

    5.12 Wenchuan earthquake and 4.25 Nepal earthquake are of the similar magnitude, but the climate and geographic environment are totally different. Our team carried out medical rescue in both disasters, so we would like to compare the different traumatic conditions of the wounded in two earthquakes. The clinical data of the wounded respectively in 5.12 Wenchuan earthquake and 4.25 Nepal earthquake rescued by Chengdu Military General Hospital were retrospectively analyzed. Then a contrast study between the wounded was conducted in terms of age, sex, injury mechanisms, traumatic conditions, complications and prognosis. Three days after 5.12 Wenchuan earthquake, 465 cases of the wounded were hospitalized in Chengdu Military General Hospital, including 245 males (52.7%) and 220 females (47.3%) with the average age of (47.6±22.7) years. Our team carried out humanitarian relief in Katmandu after 4.25 Nepal earthquake. Three days after this disaster, 71 cases were treated in our field hospital, including 37 males (52.1%) and 34 females (47.9%) with the mean age of (44.8±22.9) years. There was no obvious difference in sex and mean age between two groups, but the age distribution was a little different: there were more wounded people at the age over 60 years in 4.25 Nepal earthquake (pearthquake (pearthquake had a higher rate of bruise injury and crush injury (pearthquake had a higher rate of falling injury (pearthquake, 4.25 Nepal earthquake has a much higher incidence of limb fractures (pearthquakes of the similar magnitude can cause different injury mechanisms, traumatic conditions and complications in the wounded under different climate and geographic environment.When an earthquake occurs in a poor traffic area of high altitude and large temperature difference, early medical rescue, injury control and wounded evacuation as well as sufficient warmth retention and food supply are of vital significance.

  6. A Study on the Innovations of Rural Planning and Management of Chengdu, Sichuan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zeng; Fan; Qiu; Jian

    2016-01-01

    China has adopted a dual urban-rural administration system for many years which gives far more attention to cities than to rural areas. Designated as a National Comprehensive Reform Experiment Area for Coordinated Urban-Rural Development, Chengdu is one of several areas in China where the practice of rural planning was fi rstly carried out. After the earthquakes in Wenchuan in 2008 and Lushan in 2013, the post-disaster reconstruction further enriched the local capabilities of rural planning and management. The practice of Chengdu demonstrates that the success of rural planning and management depends on two aspects, a well-organized and well-developed legal systems and institutions and bottom-up selfadministration of local residents which incorporates the social relationships of local communities based on clan and blood kinships. This paper introduces the positive experience of Chengdu in rural planning and management that could be benefi cial for other areas in the country.

  7. Seismic Response of Tunnel Lining for Shallow-Bias Tunnel with a Small Clear Distance under Wenchuan Earthquake

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    Yang Hui

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the internal force characteristics of shallow-bias tunnel with a small clear distance in earthquake, a large-scale shaking table slope model test was designed, and the geometric scale was 1 : 10. In the model test, the Wenchuan (WC seismic wave was used as the excitation wave. Then, the three-dimensional numerical model was established by using MIDAS-NX, and the reliability of the numerical model was verified by comparing the acceleration of the test results. The axial force, bending moment, and shear force of the tunnel cross section and longitudinal direction were calculated by the numerical model under different excitation directions included the horizontal direction (X, the vertical direction (Z, and the horizontal and vertical direction (XZ. The results show the following. (1 The internal force of right arch foot of left hole and the left arch foot of right hole is larger than other part of the tunnels because the distance between the two tunnels is smaller and they interact with each other. (2 The loading direction of single direction loading method is different and the variation trend of tunnel force are different, so the loading direction of seismic wave has a significant influence on the seismic force response of the tunnel. (3 All of the internal force values of tunnel lining under the seismic wave action in bidirection are larger than those in single direction. The value is not a simple superposition of two directions and has some coupling effect. The influence of the vertical seismic wave cannot be ignored in dynamic response research. These results improve the understanding of the rock slope with small spacing tunnel under seismic action.

  8. Quality of life, physical diseases, and psychological impairment among survivors 3 years after Wenchuan earthquake: a population based survey.

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    Jin Wen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Few research studies have addressed the long-term effects caused by catastrophes, and no study has ever explored the life quality, physical diseases, and psychological impairment of earthquake survivors at the same time. This study seeks to reveal survivors' quality of life, physical diseases, and mental health. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted through multi-stage sampling approach three years after the Wenchuan earthquake. RESULTS: A total of 2525 subjects were interviewed. Symptoms of PTSD were reported by 8.8% of the respondents from the seriously affected areas and 0.5%, the less hit areas. Prevalence of chronic diseases was 39.2% and 22.1% respectively, and two-week prevalence rate, 24.9% and 12.7% respectively. In the multivariate analysis, two-week prevalence, displacement, no regular income, receiving mental health support after the disaster, family members died or missing, injured due to the quake, and person who witnessed someone being killed or injured were independently associated with higher prevalence for symptoms of PTSD. Most subscales of SF-12 negatively correlated with age, chronic diseases, two-week prevalence, injured due to the disaster, home or property loss, and score of the 3-year PTSD symptoms, but positively correlated with higher education and higher household income. CONCLUSIONS: The rates of physical diseases and symptoms of PTSD were relatively high, and the quality of life was poor among victims in the hard-hit areas 3 years after the earthquake. Physical impairment correlated with symptom of PTSD, and both were negatively associated with quality of life.

  9. Mental health problems among survivors in hard-hit areas of the 5.12 Wenchuan and 4.20 Lushan earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zongtang; Xu, Jiuping; Wu, Zhibin

    2017-02-01

    Earthquake exposure has often been associated with psychological distress. However, little is known about the cumulative effect of exposure to two earthquakes on psychological distress and in particular, the effect on the development of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety and depression disorders. This study explored the effect of exposure on mental health outcomes after a first earthquake and again after a second earthquake. A population-based mental health survey using self-report questionnaires was conducted on 278 people in the hard-hit areas of Lushan and Baoxing Counties 13-16 months after the Wenchuan earthquake (Sample 1). 191 of these respondents were evaluated again 8-9 months after the Lushan earthquake (Sample 2), which struck almost 5 years after the Wenchuan earthquake. In Sample 1, the prevalence rates for PTSD, anxiety and depression disorders were 44.53, 54.25 and 51.82%, respectively, and in Sample 2 the corresponding rates were 27.27, 38.63 and 36.93%. Females, the middle-aged, those of Tibetan nationality, and people who reported fear during the earthquake were at an increased risk of experiencing post-traumatic symptoms. Although the incidence of PTSD, anxiety and depression disorders decreased from Sample 1 to Sample 2, the cumulative effect of exposure to two earthquakes on mental health problems was serious in the hard-hit areas. Therefore, it is important that psychological counseling be provided for earthquake victims, and especially those exposed to multiple earthquakes.

  10. Integration of Landscape Metrics and Variograms to Characterize and Quantify the Spatial Heterogeneity Change of Vegetation Induced by the 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake

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    Ling Wang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The quantification of spatial heterogeneity can be used to examine the structure of ecological systems. The 2008 Wenchuan earthquake caused severe vegetation damage. In addition to simply detecting change, the magnitude of changes must also be examined. Remote sensing and geographic information system techniques were used to produce landscape maps before and after the earthquake and analyze the spatial-temporal change of the vegetation pattern. Landscape metrics were selected to quantify the spatial heterogeneity in a categorical map at both the class and landscape levels. The results reveal that the Wenchuan earthquake greatly increased the heterogeneity in the study area. In particular, forests experienced the most fragmentation among all of the landscape types. In addition, spatial heterogeneity in a numerical map was studied by using variogram analysis of normalized difference vegetation indices derived from Landsat images. In comparison to before the earthquake, the spatial variability after the earthquake had doubled. The structure of the spatial heterogeneity represented by the range of normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI variograms also changed due to the earthquake. Moreover, the results of the NDVI variogram analysis of three contrasting landscapes, which were farmland, broadleaved forest, and coniferous forest, confirm that the earthquake produced spatial variability and changed the structure of the landscapes. Regardless of before or after the earthquake, farmland sites are the most heterogeneous among the three landscapes studied.

  11. Multiple injuries after earthquakes: a retrospective analysis on 1,871 injured patients from the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu-Ping, Zhao; Rodriguez-Llanes, Jose Manuel; Qi, Wu; van den Oever, Barbara; Westman, Lina; Albela, Manuel; Liang, Pan; Gao, Chen; De-Sheng, Zhang; Hughes, Melany; von Schreeb, Johan; Guha-Sapir, Debarati

    2012-05-17

    Multiple injuries have been highlighted as an important clinical dimension of the injury profile following earthquakes, but studies are scarce. We investigated the pattern and combination of injuries among patients with two injuries following the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. We also described the general injury profile, causes of injury and socio-demographic characteristics of the injured patients. A retrospective hospital-based analysis of 1,871 earthquake injured patients, totaling 3,177 injuries, admitted between 12 and 31 May 2008 to the People's Hospital of Deyang city (PHDC). An electronic, webserver-based database with International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-10-based classification of earthquake-related injury diagnoses (IDs), anatomical sites and additional background variables of the inpatients was used. We analyzed this dataset for injury profile and number of injuries per patient. We then included all patients (856) with two injuries for more in-depth analysis. Possible spatial anatomical associations were determined a priori. Cross-tabulation and more complex frequency matrices for combination analyses were used to investigate the injury profile. Out of the 1,871 injured patients, 810 (43.3%) presented with a single injury. The rest had multiple injuries; 856 (45.8%) had two, 169 (9.0%) patients had three, 32 (1.7%) presented with four injuries, while only 4 (0.2%) were diagnosed with five injuries. The injury diagnoses of patients presenting with two-injuries showed important anatomical intra-site or neighboring clustering, which explained 49.1% of the combinations. For fractures, the result was even more marked as spatial clustering explained 57.9% of the association pattern. The most frequent combination of IDs was a double-fracture, affecting 20.7% of the two-injury patients (n = 177). Another 108 patients (12.6%) presented with fractures associated with crush injury and organ-soft tissue injury. Of the 3,177 injuries, 1,476 (46.5%) were

  12. Which Fault Segments Ruptured in the 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake and Which Did Not? New Evidence from Near‐Fault 3D Surface Displacements Derived from SAR Image Offsets

    KAUST Repository

    Feng, Guangcai; Jonsson, Sigurjon; Klinger, Yann

    2017-01-01

    The 2008 Mw 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake ruptured a complex thrust‐faulting system at the eastern edge of the Tibetan plateau and west of Sichuan basin. Though the earthquake has been extensively studied, several details about the earthquake, such as which fault segments were activated in the earthquake, are still not clear. This is in part due to difficult field access to the fault zone and in part due to limited near‐fault observations in Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) observations because of decorrelation. In this study, we address this problem by estimating SAR image offsets that provide near‐fault ground displacement information and exhibit clear displacement discontinuities across activated fault segments. We begin by reanalyzing the coseismic InSAR observations of the earthquake and then mostly eliminate the strong ionospheric signals that were plaguing previous studies by using additional postevent images. We also estimate the SAR image offsets and use their results to retrieve the full 3D coseismic surface displacement field. The coseismic deformation from the InSAR and image‐offset measurements are compared with both Global Positioning System and field observations. The results indicate that our observations provide significantly better information than previous InSAR studies that were affected by ionospheric disturbances. We use the results to present details of the surface‐faulting offsets along the Beichuan fault from the southwest to the northeast and find that there is an obvious right‐lateral strike‐slip component (as well as thrust faulting) along the southern Beichuan fault (in Yingxiu County), which was strongly underestimated in earlier studies. Based on the results, we provide new evidence to show that the Qingchuan fault was not ruptured in the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake, a topic debated in field observation studies, but show instead that surface faulting occurred on a northward extension of the Beichuan fault during

  13. Which Fault Segments Ruptured in the 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake and Which Did Not? New Evidence from Near‐Fault 3D Surface Displacements Derived from SAR Image Offsets

    KAUST Repository

    Feng, Guangcai

    2017-03-15

    The 2008 Mw 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake ruptured a complex thrust‐faulting system at the eastern edge of the Tibetan plateau and west of Sichuan basin. Though the earthquake has been extensively studied, several details about the earthquake, such as which fault segments were activated in the earthquake, are still not clear. This is in part due to difficult field access to the fault zone and in part due to limited near‐fault observations in Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) observations because of decorrelation. In this study, we address this problem by estimating SAR image offsets that provide near‐fault ground displacement information and exhibit clear displacement discontinuities across activated fault segments. We begin by reanalyzing the coseismic InSAR observations of the earthquake and then mostly eliminate the strong ionospheric signals that were plaguing previous studies by using additional postevent images. We also estimate the SAR image offsets and use their results to retrieve the full 3D coseismic surface displacement field. The coseismic deformation from the InSAR and image‐offset measurements are compared with both Global Positioning System and field observations. The results indicate that our observations provide significantly better information than previous InSAR studies that were affected by ionospheric disturbances. We use the results to present details of the surface‐faulting offsets along the Beichuan fault from the southwest to the northeast and find that there is an obvious right‐lateral strike‐slip component (as well as thrust faulting) along the southern Beichuan fault (in Yingxiu County), which was strongly underestimated in earlier studies. Based on the results, we provide new evidence to show that the Qingchuan fault was not ruptured in the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake, a topic debated in field observation studies, but show instead that surface faulting occurred on a northward extension of the Beichuan fault during

  14. A data-based model to locate mass movements triggered by seismic events in Sichuan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Fabio Teodoro

    2014-01-01

    Earthquakes affect the entire world and have catastrophic consequences. On May 12, 2008, an earthquake of magnitude 7.9 on the Richter scale occurred in the Wenchuan area of Sichuan province in China. This event, together with subsequent aftershocks, caused many avalanches, landslides, debris flows, collapses, and quake lakes and induced numerous unstable slopes. This work proposes a methodology that uses a data mining approach and geographic information systems to predict these mass movements based on their association with the main and aftershock epicenters, geologic faults, riverbeds, and topography. A dataset comprising 3,883 mass movements is analyzed, and some models to predict the location of these mass movements are developed. These predictive models could be used by the Chinese authorities as an important tool for identifying risk areas and rescuing survivors during similar events in the future.

  15. Five parameters for the evaluation of the soil nonlinearity during the Ms8.0 Wenchuan Earthquake using the HVSR method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yefei; Wen, Ruizhi; Yao, Xinxin; Ji, Kun

    2017-08-01

    The consideration of soil nonlinearity is important for the accurate estimation of the site response. To evaluate the soil nonlinearity during the 2008 Ms8.0 Wenchuan Earthquake, 33 strong-motion records obtained from the main shock and 890 records from 157 aftershocks were collected for this study. The horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio (HVSR) method was used to calculate five parameters: the ratio of predominant frequency (RFp), degree of nonlinearity (DNL), absolute degree of nonlinearity (ADNL), frequency of nonlinearity (fNL), and percentage of nonlinearity (PNL). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the soil nonlinearity level of 33 strong-motion stations and to investigate the characteristics, performance, and effective usage of these five parameters. Their correlations with the peak ground acceleration (PGA), peak ground velocity (PGV), average uppermost 30-m shear-wave velocity ( V S30), and maximum amplitude of HVSR ( A max) were investigated. The results showed that all five parameters correlate well with PGA and PGV. The DNL, ADNL, and PNL also show a good correlation with A max, which means that the degree of soil nonlinearity not only depends on the ground-motion amplitude (e.g., PGA and PGV) but also on the site condition. The fNL correlates with PGA and PGV but shows no correlation with either A max or V S30, implying that the frequency width affected by the soil nonlinearity predominantly depends on the ground-motion amplitude rather than the site condition. At 16 of the 33 stations analyzed in this study, the site response showed evident (i.e., strong and medium) nonlinearity during the main shock of the Wenchuan Earthquake, where the ground-motion level was almost beyond the threshold of PGA > 200 cm/s2 or PGV > 15 cm/s. The site response showed weak and no nonlinearity at the other 14 and 3 stations. These results also confirm that RFp, DNL, ADNL, and PNL are effective in identifying the soil nonlinearity behavior. The identification

  16. Disaster, Civil Society and Education in China: A Case Study of an Independent Non-Government Organization Working in the Aftermath of the Wenchuan Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menefee, Trey; Nordtveit, Bjorn Harald

    2012-01-01

    In May 2008 nearly 90,000 people died in the most powerful earthquake in modern Chinese history. Many were students killed in substandard schools, creating a sensitive disaster zone inside a nation whose civil society organizations are beginning to flourish. This paper examines the education earthquake relief program of an international NGO, and…

  17. Large-Area Landslides Monitoring Using Advanced Multi-Temporal InSAR Technique over the Giant Panda Habitat, Sichuan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panpan Tang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The region near Dujiangyan City and Wenchuan County, Sichuan China, including significant giant panda habitats, was severely impacted by the Wenchuan earthquake. Large-area landslides occurred and seriously threatened the lives of people and giant pandas. In this paper, we report the development of an enhanced multi-temporal interferometric synthetic aperture radar (MTInSAR methodology to monitor potential post-seismic landslides by analyzing coherent scatterers (CS and distributed scatterers (DS points extracted from multi-temporal l-band ALOS/PALSAR data in an integrated manner. Through the integration of phase optimization and mitigation of the orbit and topography-related phase errors, surface deformations in the study area were derived: the rates in the line of sight (LOS direction ranged from −7 to 1.5 cm/a. Dozens of potential landslides, distributed mainly along the Minjiang River, Longmenshan Fault, and in other the high-altitude areas were detected. These findings matched the distribution of previous landslides. InSAR-derived results demonstrated that some previous landslides were still active; many unstable slopes have developed, and there are significant probabilities of future massive failures. The impact of landslides on the giant panda habitat, however ranged from low to moderate, would continue to be a concern for conservationists for some time in the future.

  18. Automatic Event Detection and Picking of P, S Seismic Phases for Earthquake Early Warning: A Case Study of the 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    WANG, Z.; Zhao, B.

    2015-12-01

    We develop an automatic seismic phase arrival detection and picking algorithm for the impending earthquakes occurred with diverse focal mechanisms and depths. The polarization analysis of the three-component seismograms is utilized to distinguish between P and S waves through a sliding time window. When applying the short term average/long term average (STA/LTA) method to the polarized data, we also construct a new characteristics function that can sensitively reflect the changes of signals' amplitude and frequency, providing a better detection for the phase arrival. Then an improved combination method of the higher order statistics and the Akaike information criteria (AIC) picker is applied to the refined signal to lock on the arrival time with a higher degree of accuracy. We test our techniques to the aftershocks of the Ms8.0 Wenchuan earthquake, where hundreds of three-component acceleration records with magnitudes of 4.0 to 6.4 are treated. In comparison to the analyst picks, the results of the proposed detection algorithms are shown to perform well and can be applied from a single instrument within a network of stations for the large seismic events in the Earthquake Early Warning System (EEWS).

  19. Numerical Simulation on Slabs Dislocation of Zipingpu Concrete Faced Rockfill Dam during the Wenchuan Earthquake Based on a Generalized Plasticity Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available After the Wenchuan earthquake in 2008, the Zipingpu concrete faced rockfill dam (CFRD was found slabs dislocation between different stages slabs and the maximum value reached 17 cm. This is a new damage pattern and did not occur in previous seismic damage investigation. Slabs dislocation will affect the seepage control system of the CFRD gravely and even the safety of the dam. Therefore, investigations of the slabs dislocation’s mechanism and development might be meaningful to the engineering design of the CFRD. In this study, based on the previous studies by the authors, the slabs dislocation phenomenon of the Zipingpu CFRD was investigated. The procedure and constitutive model of materials used for finite element analysis are consistent. The water elevation, the angel, and the strength of the construction joints were among major variables of investigation. The results indicated that the finite element procedure based on a modified generalized plasticity model and a perfect elastoplastic interface model can be used to evaluate the dislocation damage of face slabs of concrete faced rockfill dam during earthquake. The effects of the water elevation, the angel, and the strength of the construction joints are issues of major design concern under seismic loading.

  20. Characteristics of coseismic water level changes at Tangshan well for the Wenchuan M S8.0 earthquake and its larger aftershocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Baojun; Ma, Li; Chen, Huizhong; Huang, Jianping; Zhang, Chaojun; Wang, Wuxing

    2009-04-01

    Coseismic water level changes which may have been induced by the Wenchuan M S8.0 earthquake and its 15 larger aftershocks ( M S≥5.4) have been observed at Tangshan well. We analyze the correlation between coseismic parameters (maximum amplitude, duration, coseismic step and the time when the coseismic reach its maximum amplitude) and earthquake parameters (magnitude, well-epicenter distance and depth), and then compare the time when the coseismic oscillation reaches its maximum amplitude with the seismogram from Douhe seismic station which is about 16.3 km away from Tangshan well. The analysis indicates that magnitude is the main factor influencing the induced coseismic water level changes, and that the well-epicenter distance and depth have less influence. M S magnitude has the strongest correlation with the coseismic water level changes comparing to M W and M L magnitudes. There exists strong correlation between the maximum amplitude, step size and the oscillation duration. The water level oscillation and step are both caused by dynamic strain sourcing from seismic waves. Most of the times when the oscillations reach their maximum amplitudes are between S and Rayleigh waves. The coseismic water level changes are due to the co-effect of seismic waves and hydro-geological environments.

  1. [PTSD-positive screening and factors influencing the mental state in victims evacuated/ not evacuated from Wenchuan earthquake area within 1 month].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xueping; Luo, Xingwei

    2009-06-01

    To explore posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) positive screening and factors influencing the mental state in victims who were evacuated/were not evacuated from Wenchuan earthquake area within 1 month. The 3 groups included 235 victims who were not evacuated from Shifang territory (the incident scene, Group A), 44 victims who were evacuated to Second Xiangya Hospital (the wounded, Group B) and 36 relatives (the relatives, Group C). The mental state of all subjects was evaluated by Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) and other tools. (1) One month after the disaster, and the positive rate of PTSD screening in these survivors was 35.56%, the positive rate in women was significantly higher than that in men (chi(2)=16.27,PGender, place of residence and evacuating from the earthquake area or not were factors of PTSD symptoms. One month after the earthquake, the victims suffered psychologically. PTSD symptoms, anxiety and depression symptoms were their major mental problems, more attention to especially women victims. The protection factors include dispersing victims to the secure place as soon as possible, expanding and strengthening society support. Early psychological interventions will help victims to raise their psychological endurance and prevent PTSD effectively.

  2. Use of spectral gamma ray as a lithology guide for fault rocks: A case study from the Wenchuan Earthquake Fault Scientific Drilling project Borehole 4 (WFSD-4).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amara Konaté, Ahmed; Pan, Heping; Ma, Huolin; Qin, Zhen; Guo, Bo; Yevenyo Ziggah, Yao; Kounga, Claude Ernest Moussounda; Khan, Nasir; Tounkara, Fodé

    2017-10-01

    The main purpose of the Wenchuan Earthquake Fault Scientific drilling project (WFSD) was to produce an in-depth borehole into the Yingxiu-Beichuan (YBF) and Anxian-Guanxian faults in order to gain a much better understanding of the physical and chemical properties as well as the mechanical faulting involved. Five boreholes, namely WFSD-1, WFSD-2, WFSD-3P, WFSD-3 and WFSD-4, were drilled during the project entirety. This study, therefore, presents first-hand WFSD-4 data on the lithology (original rocks) and fault rocks that have been obtained from the WFSD project. In an attempt to determine the physical properties and the clay minerals of the lithology and fault rocks, this study analyzed the spectral gamma ray logs (Total gamma ray, Potassium, Thorium and Uranium) recorded in WFSD-4 borehole on the Northern segment of the YBF. The obtained results are presented as cross-plots and statistical multi log analysis. Both lithology and fault rocks show a variability of spectral gamma ray (SGR) logs responses and clay minerals. This study has shown the capabilities of the SGR logs for well-logging of earthquake faults and proves that SGR logs together with others logs in combination with drill hole core description is a useful method of lithology and fault rocks characterization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. China Emerging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-14

    historical components to the disputes in the South China Sea that have bearing on the issue. China, Taiwan, Vietnam, Malaysia , the Philippines...government for needed efficiency. It becomes more and more untenable for an authoritative government to enforce censorship , political repression, state

  4. Joint inversion of GNSS and teleseismic data for the rupture process of the 2017 M w6.5 Jiuzhaigou, China, earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi; Tan, Kai; Wang, Dong Zhen; Zhao, Bin; Zhang, Rui; Li, Yu; Qi, Yu Jie

    2018-05-01

    The spatio-temporal slip distribution of the earthquake that occurred on 8 August 2017 in Jiuzhaigou, China, was estimated from the teleseismic body wave and near-field Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) data (coseismic displacements and high-rate GPS data) based on a finite fault model. Compared with the inversion results from the teleseismic body waves, the near-field GNSS data can better restrain the rupture area, the maximum slip, the source time function, and the surface rupture. The results show that the maximum slip of the earthquake approaches 1.4 m, the scalar seismic moment is 8.0 × 1018 N·m ( M w ≈ 6.5), and the centroid depth is 15 km. The slip is mainly driven by the left-lateral strike-slip and it is initially inferred that the seismogenic fault occurs in the south branch of the Tazang fault or an undetectable fault, a NW-trending left-lateral strike-slip fault, and belongs to one of the tail structures at the easternmost end of the eastern Kunlun fault zone. The earthquake rupture is mainly concentrated at depths of 5-15 km, which results in the complete rupture of the seismic gap left by the previous four earthquakes with magnitudes > 6.0 in 1973 and 1976. Therefore, the possibility of a strong aftershock on the Huya fault is low. The source duration is 30 s and there are two major ruptures. The main rupture occurs in the first 10 s, 4 s after the earthquake; the second rupture peak arrives in 17 s. In addition, the Coulomb stress study shows that the epicenter of the earthquake is located in the area where the static Coulomb stress change increased because of the 12 May 2017 M w7.9 Wenchuan, China, earthquake. Therefore, the Wenchuan earthquake promoted the occurrence of the 8 August 2017 Jiuzhaigou earthquake.

  5. China Biobanking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Li, Qiyuan; Wang, Xian; Zhou, Xiaolin

    2015-01-01

    Biobanks are playing increasingly important roles in clinical and translational research nowadays. China, as a country with the largest population and abundant clinical resources, attaches great importance to the development of biobanks. In recent years, with the increasing support from the Chinese government, biobanks are blooming across the country. This paper provides a detailed overview of China biobanking, which is further divided in the following four parts: (i) general introduction of the number, category and distribution of current biobanks; (ii) summarization of the current development status, and issues that Chinese biobanks are faced with; (iii) international cooperation between China and the global biobanking community; (iv) prospect of the modern twenty-first century Chinese biobanks, which would achieve standardized operation, systematic specimen management, and extensive collaboration, and thus provide support for the robust research discoveries and personalized medicine etc.

  6. China's revival

    OpenAIRE

    Isachsen, Arne Jon

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to reflect on China's unique economic experience over the last three decades. What lessons can be learned from China’s blend of visible central guidance at the macro level and fierce competition at the micro level?

  7. China White

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnoldi, Jakob; Lash, Scott

    2012-01-01

    This article reflects on some themes in Harrison White’s work in the context of China, where the social and cultural construction of markets is quite literal. We explore how we get markets where previously there were no markets and draw on White’s central themes of ‘uncertainty’, ‘value’ and ‘order...

  8. Ephemeral China/Handmade China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Ruan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A China that is in a frenzied state of economic boom and potential social instability, which is most vividly represented in its architectural and urban developments, is, I hope I will convince you, ephemeral. A quite different China, perhaps is not so visible as its new buildings and cities, is metaphorically ‘handmade’. I should like to extend the meanings of the handmade to the more stable and long lasting attitudes towards social life, and even mortality. My sources for the second China are partially from literature (not from architecture. With the construction boom since the mid-1990s, mainstream Western architectural journals and galleries have been racing to expose new architecture in China; celebrity Western architects have been winning major commissions in China: the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games is a case in point. The sheer quantity and speed of China’s development, as evidenced in architecture and urbanisation, causes an ‘unbearable lightness of being’ (to paraphrase Milan Kundera. Does all this then suggest that China, as solidified in its buildings and cities, is no longer ‘handmade’ in the sense that memory and a sense of history are redundant (particularly for a country that has a recorded history of more than 5000 years, which have been so lovingly recorded in handmade artefacts? The true meaning of the handmade, which absorbs labour — an ‘honourable labour’ as Joseph Conrad lovingly put it in his Mirror of the Sea, as well as memory, like that of a home, is a static artefact, which harbours our changing emotion, the frailties of human life, and indeed, the growing awareness that comes with time of our mortality: the handmade offers the necessary enshrinement of life’s vulnerability. Let me assure you, the seemingly fast-changing China, as represented in its new architecture and city forms, as well in its frenzied urbanisation and booming economy, is but a smoke screen. It is, in other words, ephemeral. The

  9. Resilience of an Earthquake-Stricken Rural Community in Southwest China: Correlation with Disaster Risk Reduction Efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Ke; Han, Ziqiang; Wang, Dongming

    2018-02-27

    Disaster risk reduction (DRR) activities have given growing attention to building community resilience, but the effects of such efforts on community resilience are still under-investigated, especially in China where the concept of community resilience has only just emerged. Using the Communities Advancing Resilience Toolkit Assessment Survey, data on self-perceived community resilience were collected in 2017 from a post-disaster Chinese rural community in Yingxiu Town, which was the epicenter of the Wenchuan earthquake (Magnitude = 8.0) in the year 2008. Linear regression analyses were conducted to explore the correlations between residents' DRR behaviors and perceived community resilience with the control of their socio-demographic characteristics including age, ethnicity, gender, education, income level, employment status and marital status. Results indicate that residents who volunteered for DRR activities received geological disaster education, participated in evacuation drills, and reported higher income levels had a perception of higher community resilience. Practice research is suggested to help clarify the cause and effect of DRR work on the enhancement of community resilience to disasters in China and abroad. Attention is also called to the development of a Chinese indigenous community resilience concept and assessment instrument.

  10. Flood Simulation Using WMS Model in Small Watershed after Strong Earthquake -A Case Study of Longxihe Watershed, Sichuan province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, B.

    2017-12-01

    Mountain watershed in Western China is prone to flash floods. The Wenchuan earthquake on May 12, 2008 led to the destruction of surface, and frequent landslides and debris flow, which further exacerbated the flash flood hazards. Two giant torrent and debris flows occurred due to heavy rainfall after the earthquake, one was on August 13 2010, and the other on August 18 2010. Flash floods reduction and risk assessment are the key issues in post-disaster reconstruction. Hydrological prediction models are important and cost-efficient mitigation tools being widely applied. In this paper, hydrological observations and simulation using remote sensing data and the WMS model are carried out in the typical flood-hit area, Longxihe watershed, Dujiangyan City, Sichuan Province, China. The hydrological response of rainfall runoff is discussed. The results show that: the WMS HEC-1 model can well simulate the runoff process of small watershed in mountainous area. This methodology can be used in other earthquake-affected areas for risk assessment and to predict the magnitude of flash floods. Key Words: Rainfall-runoff modeling. Remote Sensing. Earthquake. WMS.

  11. Assessing China's Hegemonic Ambitions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ng, Chad-Son

    2005-01-01

    ... whether continued economic growth will lead to increasing hegemonic tendencies. This thesis employs a China-centric approach--China's history, classical strategic literature, strategic trends, and sources from the People's Republic of China (PRC...

  12. Is China different?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tingvall, Patrik Gustavsson; Ljungwall, Christer

    2012-01-01

    We examine whether China has benefited more from exports than other countries. The results show that exports have been more significant for growth in China than in other countries, even when China is compared with other transition economies.......We examine whether China has benefited more from exports than other countries. The results show that exports have been more significant for growth in China than in other countries, even when China is compared with other transition economies....

  13. Is China Different?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljungwall, Christer; Tingvall, Patrick Gustavsson

    2013-01-01

    We examine whether China has benefited more from financial development than other countries. The results show that financial development has been less significant for growth in China than in other countries, even when China is compared with other transition economies.......We examine whether China has benefited more from financial development than other countries. The results show that financial development has been less significant for growth in China than in other countries, even when China is compared with other transition economies....

  14. Regional-Scale Differential Time Tomography Methods: Development and Application to the Sichuan, China, Dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H.; Thurber, C.; Wang, W.; Roecker, S. W.

    2008-12-01

    We extended our recent development of double-difference seismic tomography [Zhang and Thurber, BSSA, 2003] to the use of station-pair residual differences in addition to event-pair residual differences. Tomography using station- pair residual differences is somewhat akin to teleseismic tomography but with the sources contained within the model region. Synthetic tests show that the inversion using both event- and station-pair residual differences has advantages in terms of more accurately recovering higher-resolution structure in both the source and receiver regions. We used the Spherical-Earth Finite-Difference (SEFD) travel time calculation method in the tomographic system. The basic concept is the extension of a standard Cartesian FD travel time algorithm [Vidale, 1990] to the spherical case by developing a mesh in radius, co-latitude, and longitude, expressing the FD derivatives in a form appropriate to the spherical mesh, and constructing"stencil" to calculate extrapolated travel times. The SEFD travel time calculation method is more advantageous in dealing with heterogeneity and sphericity of the Earth than the simple Earth flattening transformation and the"sphere-in-a-bo" approach [Flanagan et al., 2007]. We applied this method to the Sichuan, China data set for the period of 2001 to 2004. The Vp, Vs and Vp/Vs models show that there is a clear contrast across the Longmenshan Fault, where the 2008 M8 Wenchuan earthquake initiated.

  15. The relevance of western crisis communication theories to authoritarian Chinese practices : a study on the SARS epidemic and the Wenchuan earthquake

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Renna

    2009-01-01

    The theoretical field of crisis management has just been established and developed since 1970s and in the past three decades, most of such theories were western-oriented and US-dominated. Inspired by Huang, Lin and Su (Taiwan) and Lee (Hong Kong)‘s explorations of cultural context in crisis communication, this thesis applied crisis communication theories to governmental practices in the mainland China examining the relevancy between theory and practice in a non-western context. The thesis spe...

  16. China Energy Primer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ni, Chun Chun

    2009-11-16

    Based on extensive analysis of the 'China Energy Databook Version 7' (October 2008) this Primer for China's Energy Industry draws a broad picture of China's energy industry with the two goals of helping users read and interpret the data presented in the 'China Energy Databook' and understand the historical evolution of China's energy inustry. Primer provides comprehensive historical reviews of China's energy industry including its supply and demand, exports and imports, investments, environment, and most importantly, its complicated pricing system, a key element in the analysis of China's energy sector.

  17. China Pop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steen, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Popular culture in China is a dynamic and contested sphere of activities, conflicts and negotiations. The effects of globalization as well as new media and communication technologies challenge the authorities and enrich cultural creativity. Today, the state maintains it omnipresence in this cultu......Popular culture in China is a dynamic and contested sphere of activities, conflicts and negotiations. The effects of globalization as well as new media and communication technologies challenge the authorities and enrich cultural creativity. Today, the state maintains it omnipresence...... in this cultural sector while promoting a policy of dialogue, integration and exclusion. Cooperation with the state is attractive because it is rewarded with unlimited access to official media, audiences and commercial success. The article focuses on recent trends in China’s most important genres of popular music......: Mandopop, (red) mainstream music and rock music. It argues that the Chinese state’s success in raising the popularity of the mainstream is based on its constant promotion, patriotic education, a general pride in China’s strength, nationalism and – equally important – adaptation and the commercial...

  18. China opens the door

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starke, K.

    1997-01-01

    The door to China`s vast market for power generation was opened a bit further for foreign firms in November. That is when power ministry head Shi Dazhen said the country would rely on overseas investors for 20 percent of the funding needed to boost output--double the amount foreigners were previously allowed to contribute. Through 1995, foreigners invested $12.2 billion in China`s electricity industry, accounting for 10 percent of total investment. According to Shi, foreign investors will be asked to provide about $17 billion of the $84 billion China plans to invest in the sector over the next five years. Under China`s Ninth Five-Year Plan (1996-2000), the government aims to boost the country`s power generation capacity at the rate of 15,000 MW to 20,000 MW annually by the year 2000. Since China`s public external debt balance already exceeds $80 billion, however, the government would seem to have little choice but to allow foreigners a greater role. Shi also said that foreigners would be allowed 100 percent ownership of PRC power projects. This is discouraged under China`s current industry guidelines. It is, however, expected to be permitted under China`s first build-operate-transfer (BOT) law, which was anticipated by the end of 1996, says Susan Urkevich, director of project finance at HSBC Investment Bank Asia in Hong Kong. Indeed, China`s first BOT is already happening.

  19. Exploring geological and socio-demographic factors associated with under-five mortality in the Wenchuan earthquake using neural network model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yi; Wang, Jinfeng; Li, Xiaohong; Ren, Dan; Driskell, Luke; Zhu, Jun

    2012-01-01

    On 12 May 2008, a devastating earthquake occurred in Sichuan Province, China, taking tens of thousands of lives and destroying the homes of millions of people. Among the large number of dead or missing were children, particularly children aged less than five years old, a fact which drew significant media attention. To obtain relevant information specifically to aid further studies and future preventative measures, a neural network model was proposed to explore some geological and socio-demographic factors associated with earthquake-related child mortality. Sensitivity analysis showed that topographic slope (mean 35.76%), geomorphology (mean 24.18%), earthquake intensity (mean 13.68%), and average income (mean 11%) had great contributions to child mortality. These findings could provide some clues to researchers for further studies and to policy makers in deciding how and where preventive measures and corresponding policies should be implemented in the reconstruction of communities.

  20. IDRC in China

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2012. Grantee: Chinese Academy of Social Sciences. More than 200 million migrant workers in. China are self-employed or work without contracts, benefits, or legal protection. IDRC- supported research in both India and China has examined ...

  1. Have Fun in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen Xingqi

    2008-01-01

    @@ As a most important part of service industry in China,tourism attracts much attention.Tourism has been developing quickly for a loilg term since China's opening-up and reform and has become Pillar industry in many Places.

  2. China's 'Hot Money' Problems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martin, Michael F; Morrison, Wayne M

    2008-01-01

    .... The recent large inflow of financial capital into China, commonly referred to as "hot money," has led some economists to warn that such flows may have a destabilizing effect on China's economy...

  3. Global China Insights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Segers, Rien; Fischer, Ingrid

    Journal in which the Groningen Confucius Institute (GCI) shares different perspectives on China and provides insights into China from as many different aspects as possible. GCI aims to provide a full view of real China to the readers as well as featuring international and comprehensive perspectives,

  4. On China dream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卿恒健

    2016-01-01

    What is china dream? Different people may have different opinions. But there is no doubt everyone to the understanding of the Chinese dream is good. every Chinese yearning for a better life with this kind of good , and hope for a wealthy and prosperous China is saddled with everyone, this dream is a dream that every Chinese people, and is also the China dream.

  5. Debating China's assertiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Kai; Feng, Huiyun

    2012-01-01

    Engaging the recent debate on China's assertive foreign policy, we suggest that it is normal for China – a rising power – to change its policy to a confident or even assertive direction because of its transformed national interests. We argue also that it is better to understand future US–China re...

  6. Global China Insights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Segers, Rien; Havinga, Marieke; Fischer, Ingrid

    2013-01-01

    Journal in which the Groningen Confucius Institute (GCI) shares different perspectives on China and provides insights into China from as many different aspects as possible. GCI aims to provide a full view of real China to the readers as well as featuring international and comprehensive perspectives,

  7. The Long-term deformation of the Longmen Shan (Sichuan, China), a key to understand the present structure of the eastern Tibet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airaghi, Laura; de Sigoyer, Julia; Guillot, Stéphane; Lanari, Pierre; Warren, Clare J.; Robert, Alexandra

    2017-04-01

    The Longmen Shan thrust belt, at the eastern border of Tibetan plateau, is a tectonically active region as demonstrated by the Mw 7.9 Wenchuan (2008) and Mw 6.6 Lushan (2013) earthquakes. The Moho discontinuity deepens across the Longmen Shan (below the along-strike Wenchuan fault) from ˜40 km beneath the Sichuan basin to more than 60 km beneath the Songpan-Ganze block. Such a thickness is not compatible with the only ˜35 km of shortening estimated at the front of the belt during the Cenozoic-Quaternary compressive reactivation. The geological inheritance may thus play a key role in the present structure of the Longmen Shan. However the long-term history of the belt is still poorly documented. The major Wenchuan fault separates medium-grade metamorphic rocks to the West (internal domain of the Longmen Shan) to the greenschist metamorphic rocks to the East (external domain). In the hanging and footwall of the fault the South China basement also crops out. Metamorphic rocks, exhumed from depth, offer the opportunity to investigate the deep processes occurred in the Longmen Shan. We have characterized and dated the metamorphism in the central part of the belt by combining structural and microstructural observations with high-resolution X-ray mapping and chemical analyses of metamorphic minerals related to the different stages of deformation. In situ 40Ar/39Ar dating on mica and in situ U-Pb/Th dating on allanite (REE-rich epidote) allowed the different phases of metamorphism and deformation to be dated. Our results show that the Longmen Shan underwent a complex Mesozoic tectono-metamorphic history, articulated in a succession of pulses of deformation (burial or uplifting) and periods of quiescence. A first phase of rapid thin-skinned deformation occurred about 200 Ma ago. Internal sedimentary units were strongly deformed and buried down to 11±1 kbar, 550±30˚ C. This phase was followed by a period of slow exhumation between 200 and 170 Ma. A second pulse of

  8. China's Organic Revolution

    OpenAIRE

    Paull, John

    2008-01-01

    Agriculture in China is at the onset of an Organic Revolution. From 2000 to 2006, China has moved from 45th to 2nd position in the world in number of hectares under organic management. China now has more land under organic horticulture than any other country. In the year 2005/2006, China added 12% to the world’s organic area. This accounted for 63% of the world’s annual increase in organic land, and China now has 11% of the world’s organically managed land. The antecedents to China’s Organic ...

  9. Green markets in China?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tjernshaugen, Andreas

    2002-01-01

    The great cities of China have enormous pollution problems. The World Bank has estimated that the economic losses in deaths and health damage caused by outdoor air pollution corresponds to 4.5 per cent of China's GNP. If the authorities of China should want to clean the air, that would greatly impact the global climate policy. China has the next largest emission of carbon dioxide of all countries in the world, and these emissions often have the same source as the hazardous particles and gases. China is now probing economical instruments in the environmental policy, and some industrial areas will try quota trade as a road to cleaner air

  10. Headache care in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shengyuan; Zhang, Mingjie; Zhou, Jiying; Liu, Ruozhuo; Wan, Qi; Li, Yansheng

    2014-04-01

    Headache disorders are problematic worldwide. China is no different. A population-based door-to-door survey revealed that the 1-year prevalence of primary headache disorders in China was 23.8%, constituting a major societal burden. Many headache centers and clinics have been established in China, and headache disorders (and associated stress) are receiving an increased level of expert attention. This review summarizes the outcomes of the epidemiological survey and the progress of clinical and basic research in China, describes the present situation in terms of headache diagnosis and treatment, and discusses the future of headache care in China. © 2014 American Headache Society.

  11. Design and application of the emergency response mobile phone-based information system for infectious disease reporting in the Wenchuan earthquake zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jiaqi; Zhou, Maigeng; Li, Yanfei; Guo, Yan; Su, Xuemei; Qi, Xiaopeng; Ge, Hui

    2009-05-01

    To describe the design and application of an emergency response mobile phone-based information system for infectious disease reporting. Software engineering and business modeling were used to design and develop the emergency response mobile phone-based information system for infectious disease reporting. Seven days after the initiation of the reporting system, the reporting rate in the earthquake zone reached the level of the same period in 2007, using the mobile phone-based information system. Surveillance of the weekly report on morbidity in the earthquake zone after the initiation of the mobile phone reporting system showed the same trend as the previous three years. The emergency response mobile phone-based information system for infectious disease reporting was an effective solution to transmit urgently needed reports and manage communicable disease surveillance information. This assured the consistency of disease surveillance and facilitated sensitive, accurate, and timely disease surveillance. It is an important backup for the internet-based direct reporting system for communicable disease. © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd and Chinese Cochrane Center, West China Hospital of Sichuan University.

  12. Understanding China's Transformations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xing

    The objective of this paper is to offer a framework of understanding the dialectical nexus between China's internal evolutions and the external influences with a focus on the century-long "challenge-response" dynamism. That is to explore how external factors helped shaping China's internal...... transformations, i.e. how generations of Chinese have been struggling in responding to the external challenges and attempting to sinicize external political ideas in order to change China from within. Likewise, it is equally important to understand how China's inner transformation contributed to reshaping...... the world. Each time, be it China's dominance or decline, the capitalist world system has to adjust and readjust itself to the opportunities and constraints brought about by the "China factors"....

  13. Innovation in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacDonald, Greg; Yow, Yit-Seng; Li, Xing

    China's economy is growing quickly, and is innovation-led.  Europe can relate to China through joint R&D, programmes which offer an alternative vehicle of engagement to the traditional political and economic approaches. Innovation in China: The Dawning of the Asian Century promotes an awareness...... of the dynamics of innovation in China. It examines Chinese and European approaches to science and technology and contends that the ‘rules for survival' in R&D and education are changing in favour of China, in terms of base R&D parameters such as research expenditure, scientists trained, papers published...... and patents awarded. The authors recommend options for Europe and China to connect through longitudinal R&D  projects and ‘carrousel-training exchanges' in environmental and health related fields....

  14. On China's Nuclear Doctrine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Liping

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear weapons have played an important role in China's national strategy. China’s nuclear doctrine has a very strong continuity. Nevertheless, China has made readjustments in its nuclear doctrine according to the changes of its internal and external situation and its general strategic threat perception. China’s nuclear doctrine has experienced a process of evolution from anti-nuclear blackmail to minimum deterrence. There are five major parts in China's nuclear doctrine: policy of declaration, nuclear development, nuclear deployment, nuclear employment, and nuclear disarmament. Because China is faced with a different situation from other nuclear powers and has its own strategic culture, China has a nuclear doctrine with its own characteristics. China’s nuclear doctrine has been affiliated with and has served the national development strategy, national security strategy, national defense policy and military strategy of China.

  15. South China Sea Dispute

    OpenAIRE

    Tanderup, Kasper Buch; Grinderslev, Emil Juhler; Tønnesen-Højbjerg, Asser Laurits Svend

    2017-01-01

    China is rising rapidly in terms of economics, military spending, sphere of influence and claims to in their view former territory. This paper has aimed to discuss the latter through analysis of the present dispute concerning islands and maritime territory in the South China Sea. The Chinese have become increasingly assertive in their claims formulated through a U-shaped line entailing most of the area within the South China Sea. The claims are contested by Vietnam, the Philippines, Indonesia...

  16. China's renewables law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Li

    2005-01-01

    The paper discusses China's Renewable Energy Promotion Law which will come into force in January 2006. The law shows China's commitment to renewable energy sources. The target is to raise the country's energy consumption from renewables to 10% by 2020. Data for current capacity, and expected capacity by 2020, are given for wind power, solar power, biomass and hydroelectric power. The financial and technological hurdles which China must overcome are mentioned briefly

  17. Nuclear Parity with China?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    nuclear force structure. It even is conceivable that a slow but steady expansion could have been accomplished without triggering a reaction by...Russia’s reactions , which would likely not be benign. • Achieving nuclear parity is not a matter of honor for China. Chinese leaders never have...analyzes that information, defines its interests, and decides how to act. China and the United States are exact opposites in this typography : China

  18. Should Latin America Fear China?

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Lora

    2005-01-01

    This paper compares growth conditions in China and Latin America to assess fears that China will displace Latin America in the coming decades. China`s strengths include the size of the economy, macroeconomic stability, abundant low-cost labor, the rapid expansion of physical infrastructure, and the ability to innovate. China`s weaknesses, stemming from insufficient separation between market and state, include poor corporate governance, a fragile financial system and misallocation of savings. ...

  19. Assessment of the ripple effects and spatial heterogeneity of total losses in the capital of China after a great catastrophic shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Zhang

    2017-03-01

    introduce the sectors' losses caused by the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake (2008 WCE in Beijing, utilizing the Adaptive Regional Input–Output (ARIO model and the Inter-regional ripple effect (IRRE model. The purpose is to assess the ripple effects of indirect economic loss and spatial heterogeneity of both direct and indirect economic loss at the scale of the smallest administrative divisions of China (streets, villages, and towns. The results indicate that the district of Beijing with the most severe indirect economic loss is the Chaoyang District; the finance and insurance industry (15, see Table 1 of Chaowai Street suffers the most in the Chaoyang District, which is 1.46 times that of its direct economic loss. During 2008–2014, the average annual GDP (gross domestic product growth rate of Beijing was decreased 3.63 % by the catastrophe. Compared with the 8 % of GDP growth rate target, the decreasing GDP growth rate is a significant and noticeable economic impact, and it can be efficiently mitigated by increasing rescue effort and by supporting the industries which are located in the seriously damaged regions.

  20. China's Economic Conditions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morrison, Wayne M

    2006-01-01

    ...), the state banking system, and fixed exchange rate system. In addition, China faces several other difficult challenges, such as pollution and growing income inequality, that threaten social stability...

  1. China Report, Economic Affairs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1987-01-01

    .... This report contains articles from China dealing with Economic Affairs. The Topics include National Affairs and Policy, Foreign Trade and Investment, Economic Zones, Finance and Banking, and Agriculture.

  2. China's Economic Conditions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morrison, Wayne M

    2008-01-01

    .... However, China faces a number of challenges, including the fallout from the global financial crisis, widespread government corruption, an inefficient banking system, over-dependence on exports...

  3. Carbon emissions in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Zhu

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzes the spatial-temporal pattern and processes of China's energy-related carbon emissions. Based on extensive quantitative analysis, it outlines the character and trajectory of China's energy-related carbon emissions during the period 1995-2010, examining the distribution pattern of China's carbon emissions from regional and sectoral perspectives and revealing the driving factors of China's soaring emission increase. Further, the book investigates the supply chain carbon emissions (the carbon footprints) of China's industrial sectors. Anthropogenic climate change is one of the most serious challenges currently facing humankind. China is the world's largest developing country, top primary energy consumer and carbon emitter. Achieving both economic growth and environmental conservation is the country's twofold challenge. Understanding the status, features and driving forces of China's energy-related carbon emissions is a critical aspect of attaining global sustainability. This work, for the first time, presents both key findings on and a systematic evaluation of China's carbon emissions from energy consumption. The results have important implications for global carbon budgets and burden-sharing with regard to climate change mitigation. The book will be of great interest to readers around the world, as it addresses a topic of truly global significance.

  4. China's Innovation Paradox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    China aims to become an innovation-led nation by 2020, but its leadership is generally sceptical--and oftentimes hostile--to the market forces, open exchange of ideas, and creative destruction that have unlocked innovation in other countries. Instead, Beijing hopes to promote innovation in China through a massive expansion in higher education,…

  5. China's 'recycling economy'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlsen, Camilla

    2009-01-01

    Climate change and sustainability are hot topics in China, but it is hard to find research addressing the outcomes of Education for Sustainable Development, says Associate Professor Yi Jin.......Climate change and sustainability are hot topics in China, but it is hard to find research addressing the outcomes of Education for Sustainable Development, says Associate Professor Yi Jin....

  6. Carbon emissions in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Zhu [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States). Sustainability Science Program

    2016-07-01

    This study analyzes the spatial-temporal pattern and processes of China's energy-related carbon emissions. Based on extensive quantitative analysis, it outlines the character and trajectory of China's energy-related carbon emissions during the period 1995-2010, examining the distribution pattern of China's carbon emissions from regional and sectoral perspectives and revealing the driving factors of China's soaring emission increase. Further, the book investigates the supply chain carbon emissions (the carbon footprints) of China's industrial sectors. Anthropogenic climate change is one of the most serious challenges currently facing humankind. China is the world's largest developing country, top primary energy consumer and carbon emitter. Achieving both economic growth and environmental conservation is the country's twofold challenge. Understanding the status, features and driving forces of China's energy-related carbon emissions is a critical aspect of attaining global sustainability. This work, for the first time, presents both key findings on and a systematic evaluation of China's carbon emissions from energy consumption. The results have important implications for global carbon budgets and burden-sharing with regard to climate change mitigation. The book will be of great interest to readers around the world, as it addresses a topic of truly global significance.

  7. Trilogy of China's Banking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Banks of China will face declining profit rate and slightly increasing non-performing loans ratio in a short term during 2009, but government policies will reduce the negative impact of financial crisis, and China's financial environment is still relatively safe in a global comparison.

  8. Outsourcing to China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jacqueline

    2004-12-01

    To enhance competitive advantage in the face of increasing globalisation, companies need to consider moving certain operations to China, if they have not done so already. This article describes the evolving nature of outsourcing to China and what companies need to consider to be successful in this business model.

  9. Action Learning in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquardt, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Action learning was introduced into China less than 20 years ago, but has rapidly become a valuable tool for organizations seeking to solve problems, develop their leaders, and become learning organizations. This article provides an historical overview of action learning in China, its cultural underpinnings, and five case studies. It concludes…

  10. China and nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fouquoire-Brillet, E.

    1999-01-01

    This book presents the history of nuclear power development in China from the first research works started in the 1950's for the manufacturing of nuclear weapons to the recent development of nuclear power plants. This study tries to answer the main questions raised by the attitude of China with respect to the civil and military nuclear programs. (J.S.)

  11. Is China Different?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljungwall, Christer; Tingvall, Patrik Gustavsson

    We examine whether China has benefited more than other countries from financial sector development by performing a meta-analysis of the relevant literature covering a large number of countries at different stages of development. Although the results for China are inconclusive, they indicate...

  12. Heat roadmap China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiong, Weiming; Wang, Yu; Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2015-01-01

    District heating is regarded as a key element of energy saving actions in the Chinese national energy strategy, while space heating in China is currently still dominated by coal boilers. However, there is no existing quantitative study to analyse the future heat strategy for China. Therefore...

  13. Financial Derivatives in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Francis Repka sees bright prospects for the future development of the financial derivatives market in China. Repka,Vice President of the Asian Bond Finance Department of Societe Generale, says the situation in France just after the birth of derivatives was very similar to the situation in China today.

  14. China's water crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Dijk, B.

    2008-01-01

    After the devastating natural disasters that have hit China recently, another crisis is looming, Drought, pollution and heavy usage in the fast-developing megacities have resulted in a shortage of water. A huge construction effort is underway to divert water from the south to the north. But experts warn that it will not solve China's structural water problems

  15. Educational Technology in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meifeng, Liu; Jinjiao, Lv; Cui, Kang

    2010-01-01

    This paper elaborates the two different academic views of the identity of educational technology in China at the current time--advanced-technology-oriented cognition, known as Electrifying Education, and problem-solving-oriented cognition, known as Educational Technology. It addresses five main modes of educational technology in China: as a…

  16. Private power in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniel, Martin

    1999-10-01

    Contains Executive Summary and Chapters on: Introduction; Political and economic background; Energy supply; The Chinese electricity sector; Private power in China; Issues for private investors; Fuel choice in private projects; Private investors in China; Listed Chinese generators; Private power prospects; Implemented private generation projects; Planned private Generation Projects; Plants owned by listed Chinese generators. (Author)

  17. Hazardous waste and environmental trade: China`s issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma Jiang [National Research Center for Science and Technology for Development, Beijing (China)

    1996-12-31

    By presenting some case studies, this paper analyzes China`s situation with regard to hazardous waste: its environmental trade, treatment, and management. The paper describes China`s experiences with the environmental trade of hazardous waste in both the internal and international market. Regulations for managing the import of waste are discussed, as are China`s major approaches to the trading of hazardous waste both at home and overseas. The major reasons for setting up the Asian-Pacific Regional Training Center for Technology Transfer and Environmental Sound Management of Wastes in China and the activities involved in this effort are also described. 1 tab.

  18. AREVA in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    China has a great need for secure, safe, and economic energy supplies that combat the greenhouse effect and global warming. Since January 2002, China, the most heavily populated country with more than 1.3 billion inhabitants in a territory of 9.5 million km 2 (17 times larger than France), has a nuclear capacity of 9 GWe with 11 nuclear plants on line. Forecasts of electricity consumption report a need for 900 to 1,000 GWe per year through 2020, and at this time the country's objective is to increase nuclear generated electricity from 1% to 4% of its total output. This means a need for additional 30 GWe, which is the equivalent of twenty 1,500 MWe reactors. In addition to nuclear power, China is pushing renewable energy. With the passage of the 2005 Renewable Energy Law, China's government imposed a national renewable energy requirement that is expected to boost the use of renewable energy capacity from 10 to 12 percent by 2020, up from 3% in 2003. This law requires power operators to buy electricity from alternative energy providers and gives economic incentives to these providers. Consequently, China is expanding its interests in renewable energy sources including wind and bio-energies, among others. It is in this context that AREVA, a world expert in energy, creates and offers solutions to generate, transmit, and distribute electricity for China. Based on its long experience and global presence, AREVA has become the worldwide leader for nuclear energy in the areas of construction, equipment, and services for nuclear power plants, and for the whole nuclear fuel cycle. AREVA is also a world leader in electrical power-grid equipment and systems. This document presents: China's need for energy; the Sources of China's energy mix; the challenges of China's nuclear program; AREVA's action in supporting China's ambitious nuclear program; the strong opportunities in renewable energy; and the high potential market for AREVA's T and D Division

  19. China from a regional perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    The paper explains the political economic background for China's insertion to the world system. It furthermore expands on a critical perspective on China's soft power strategy. It goes on to discuss China's foreign policy strategy towards Southeast Asia and China's rivalry with the US in the region....

  20. Holography applications in recent China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Dahsiung

    2000-10-01

    Reports on recent developments on holography applications in China are given in this paper, including the development of anti-counterfeiting Holograms from 1986-2000, China issued Banknotes in 1999 with holograms and OVIs, the developments in Machine Readable Holograms in China, the developments in Anti-counterfeiting Information Networks in China.

  1. China's power policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, M.

    2006-01-01

    Whether the People's Republic of China may develop to an economical super-government in future depends on the amount of power and resources of this land. The security of power supply is in an extremely prominent position in the Agenda of the Chinese government. Under this aspect the author of the contribution under consideration reports on the power policy of China. The main aspects of this contribution are: (a) Trends of power consumption, productions and imports of power; (b) Power political targets, measures and instruments of China; (c) Characteristics, national and international impacts of the power policy of China. Due to the economical activities of the chinese oil industry worldwide as well as due to the increasing dependence from imports of petroleum and natural oil, China becomes a global player. Thus, one may expect an intensification of Beijing's economical activities with an increased military component. Nevertheless, the power policy of China is an important factor in the global competition according to fossil resources. In order to understand the future behaviour of China's power policy, one may have to take notice of the strategies relating the power policy and relating to foreign affairs. Furthermore, trends and problematic areas concerning the securitization of the power supply in the national area have to be observed

  2. China's oil resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiesegart, K

    1981-03-01

    The United Nations International Meeting on Petroleum Geology is being held this month from 18-25 in China, a country whose oil reserves up to mid-sixties had been judged by foreign observers to be minute and the development of her oil sector of no major importance. Today, with an annual crude output of 106 mn tons, China already ranks ninth among the world's oil producers. And, with the prospect of a further advance towards leadership among producers and exporters of the coveted energy material, the West is showing growing interest in China's energy potential. How real is this prospect forms the subject of this article. 3 tables.

  3. Playing Against China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nadvi, Khalid; Lund-Thomsen, Peter; Xue, Hong

    2011-01-01

    The rise of China as the global factory raises challenges for many developing countries and their producers. The football-manufacturing sector is a case in which China has emerged as a global player. It is also a sector where compliance with international labour standards is considered critical...... football production. We draw on evidence from three of the main production locations – China, Pakistan and India. It appears that compliance with labour standards not only has different implications for the three production locations, but also that compliance alone is an insufficient basis for competing...

  4. Networking with China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cottrell, R.L.A.; Granieri, C.; Fan, Lan; Xu, Rongsheng; Karita, Yukio

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents the history and current status of computer networking between IHEP in Beijing, China and the rest of the world, starting with no links at the beginning of 1987 through X.25 public networks and dial up links, to the installing, in March 1993, of one of the first dedicated 64 kbps satellite computer links between China and the outside world. In May 1994, IHEP became the first operational worldwide Internet connection. Experience with this dedicated link between SLAC and IHEP will be presented together with future plans to add a land line between KEK and IHEP and to extend the links within China

  5. Is China Different?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljungwall, Christer; Tingvall, Patrik Gustavsson

    In this paper we examine whether China has benefited more from spending on R&D than other countries by conducting a meta-analysis of the relevant literature on a large number of countries at different stages of economic development. The results suggest that the growth-enhancing effect of R......&D spending in China has been significantly weaker than that of other countries. It is thus unlikely that R&D spending has been successful as a key contributing factor to economic growth in China....

  6. Is China Different?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljungwall, Christer; Tingvall, Patrik Gustavsson

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we examine whether China has benefited more from spending on R&D than other countries by conducting a meta-analysis of the relevant literature on a large number of countries at different stages of economic development. The results suggest that the growth-enhancing effect of R......&D spending in China has been significantly weaker than that of other countries. It is thus unlikely that R&D spending has been successful as a key contributing factor to economic growth in China....

  7. Energy supply in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weidou Ni; Niendak Sze

    1995-01-01

    Coal is the main primary energy source in China. How to use coal cleanly and efficiently is the extremely important problem in China. Energy conservation and technology innovation are the key measures for mitigation of the pressure of energy supply. Import of energy (petroleum, LNG and high calorific coal) is inevitable. China has quite abundant energy resources, but the energy resource per capita is rather low. Because of the structure of industry and backwardness of technology, the energy consumption per unit GNP is also very low

  8. Venezuela and China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agustin, Oscar Garcia

    2016-01-01

    of a political and economic model which can inspire or be followed by other countries. Although China's influence and increasing power in Venezuela is unquestionable in economic terms, the Venezuelan government uses its agreements with China strategically to legitimate its policies, in the name of a South...... draws on this context of 'interdependent hegemony' to explore the existing relationship between Venezuela, as a swing state, and China, as one of the Big Three global powers. Particularly, I focus on Venezuelan efforts to develop, at the domestic and regional level, a counterhegemonic political project...

  9. China's Military Potential

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wortzel, Larry

    1998-01-01

    The People's Republic of China (PRC) is seen by many as an economic powerhouse with the world's largest standing military that has the potential to translate economic power into the military sphere...

  10. IDRC in China

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    reduced poverty in China, rural ... INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT RESEARCH CENTRE. FL. IC. K. R. /D. A. V ... Chinese research institutions collaborate in regional, IDRC-supported research ... part of a regional consortium that is building.

  11. China's Economic Conditions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morrison, Wayne M

    2008-01-01

    ... (the fastest annual growth since 1994). While China is expected to continue to enjoy rapid economic growth in the years ahead and could become the world's largest economy within a decade or so, it faces a number of challenges, including...

  12. Assessing China's Hegemonic Ambitions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ng, Chad-Son

    2005-01-01

    China's gross domestic product (GDP) growth rate over the past twenty years has been phenomenal and if continued even at a slightly slower pace, could exceed the GDP of the United States (US) by 2020...

  13. China Report, Economic Affairs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1987-01-01

    .... This report from China contains the topics: NATIONAL POLICY AND ISSUES, PROVINCIAL AFFAIRS, ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ZONES, ECONOMIC PLANNING, ECONOMIC MANAGEMENT, FINANCE AND BANKING, INDUSTRY, SMALL- SCALE ENTERPRISES, CONSTRUCTION, DOMESTIC...

  14. The EU and China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zank, Wolfgang

    In September 2004 David Shambaugh, of George Washington University, published a small article under the heading: “China and Europe: The Emerging Axis.” In his view, one “of the most important, yet least appreciated developments … has been the dramatic growth in ties between China and Europe......” (Shambaugh 2004, 243). He pointed, firstly, at the strong growth in trade relations; the EU also became the largest foreign supplier of technology and equipment, in the form of direct investment, but also through a number of joint technology projects. The EU-China Framework Program became the world’s largest...... common research project. As to political cooperation, numerous meetings have been institutionalised, among them, at the top level an annual EU-China Summit. The contacts have resulted in a number of agreements, for instance on group tourism. According to estimates 100,000 Chinese Students went...

  15. Service innovation in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slepniov, Dmitrij; Jin, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – The aim of this paper is to advance our understanding of service innovation in China and to identify the major drivers and impediments for manufacturing companies pushing into services in China. Design/methodology/approach – By employing an in-depth longitudinal case of a Chinese company...... Chinese cities. Both internal and external factors played a significant role in influencing the development and implementation of service innovation in the case. The paper details and discusses the factors that affect service innovation in China. Research Limitations – The study is exposed...... in informing our expectations about the push of many Chinese manufacturing companies into services. The paper provides insights into the development and diffusion of service innovation in many fast transforming industrial companies in China. Lessons for other developing countries can also be drawn from...

  16. One Health in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianyong Wu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available As a result of rapid economic growth over the previous three decades, China has become the second largest economy worldwide since 2010. However, as a developing country with the largest population, this rapid economic growth primarily based on excessive consumption and waste of resources. Thus, China has been facing particularly severe ecological and environmental problems in speeding up industrialization and urbanization. The impact of the health risk factors is complex and difficult to accurately predict. Therefore, it is critical to investigate potential threats in the context of the human-animal-environment interface to protect human and animal health. The “One Health” concept recognizes that human health is connected to animal and environmental health. This review primarily discusses specific health problems in China, particularly zoonoses, and explains the origin and development of the One Health approach, as well as the importance of a holistic approach in China.

  17. China's coal industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karmazin, V A

    1988-09-01

    Presents data on China's coal industry. China's coal reserves are estimated to be 4,000 million Mt; annual production is over 800 Mt. Eleven new mining projects have been recently completed. They were financed with participation of foreign capital (US$ 1,400 million). Twenty-five new mines with 32.27 Mt production capacity were planned to be put into operation in 1988. Annual coal production is expected to increase to 870 Mt in 1990 at a cost of US$ 8,500 million. Numerical data on China's individual coal basins, new schemes, capital outlay and foreign capital participation are given. The dynamic development of China's coal industry since 1949 is briefly reviewed and management methods are explained.

  18. China's Economic Conditions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morrison, Wayne M

    2007-01-01

    .... China is expected to continue to enjoy rapid economic growth over the next several years, provided that it continues to implement needed reforms, particularly in regard to its inefficient state-owned...

  19. China's water scarcity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yong

    2009-08-01

    China has been facing increasingly severe water scarcity, especially in the northern part of the country. China's water scarcity is characterized by insufficient local water resources as well as reduced water quality due to increasing pollution, both of which have caused serious impacts on society and the environment. Three factors contribute to China's water scarcity: uneven spatial distribution of water resources; rapid economic development and urbanization with a large and growing population; and poor water resource management. While it is nearly impossible to adjust the first two factors, improving water resource management represents a cost-effective option that can alleviate China's vulnerability to the issue. Improving water resource management is a long-term task requiring a holistic approach with constant effort. Water right institutions, market-based approaches, and capacity building should be the government's top priority to address the water scarcity issue.

  20. China's energy future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horsnell, Paul

    1997-01-01

    The influence of China's growing energy demand on world oil markets is considered. Starting from a very low base of energy consumption per capita, China's potential for growth in oil demand is likely still to be subject to the extremely strong impact of a stop-go economic policy in which the availability of oil is used as a macroeconomic control variable to counter inflation. This has led to considerable monthly variations in oil import levels. While this situation continues, the buying pressure from China will tend to alternate between a trickle and a flood with consequent destabilizing impacts on the market. The markets potentially involved are those of Asia, the Middle East, West Africa and the Mediterranean with knock-on effects in the North Sea and Rotterdam. China is likely to constitute a major indirect force in these markets as a volatile source of demand at the margin. (UK)

  1. Assessing China's Hegemonic Ambitions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ng, Chad-Son

    2005-01-01

    .... Given China's domination of Tibet, incursions into the Spratly Islands, run-ins with the US and Japan, and a host of other seemingly assertive behavior, the purpose of this thesis is to investigate...

  2. Food irradiation in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Jiang

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, the author discussed the recent situation of food irradiation in China, its history, facilities, clearance, commercialization, and with emphasis on market testing and public acceptance of irradiated food. (author)

  3. Geoinformatics Education in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, D.; Gong, J.; Yue, P.

    2014-04-01

    The paper will give an overview of the current status of education in Geoinformatics in China. First, the paper will provide a general review of the scientific and technological development of Geoinformatics in China. It then presents how the development affects the education and training in China. In the paper, universities and institutes in China that can award academic degrees related to Geoinformatics will be summarized. Next, the paper will report the work having been done by the expert group on Surveying and Mapping, including the revision of discipline catalogue and guide for graduate education and requirements. A list of typical curriculain Geoinformatics education is suggested. Finally, activities on promoting the graduate student exchange platform will be presented.

  4. China Food Trade Promotes the Development of SIAL China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Audrey Guo

    2011-01-01

    @@ According to SIAL CHINA, the 13th China International Food and Beverages Exhibition (SIAL China 2012) will be held in Shanghai New International Expo Center On May 9, 2012.It is hosted together by COMEXPOSIUM and China Business Development Center.Since it was introduced in China for the first time in 2000, SIAL CHINA has maintained a developed speed.Especially in recent years, relying on both foreign and domestic markets, it expanded the influences quickly and became one of the most important food trade exhibitions in Asia, despite of the financial crisis.

  5. All change for China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, David

    2000-01-01

    This article reports on China's petrochemical industry and its planned raising of foreign investment and reform of the industry in preparation for international competition with the opening up of China's domestic market as part of the accession process to the World Trade Organisation. Details are given of the reorganisation of the industry, its financing, and the consumption of petrochemicals in the agriculture sector and construction, textile and packaging industries

  6. China energy databook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinton, J.E.; Levine, M.D.; Feng Liu; Davis, W.B. [eds.] [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Jiang Zhenping; Zhuang Xing; Jiang Kejun; Zhou Dadi [eds.] [Energy Research Inst., Beijing, BJ (China)

    1992-12-31

    The Energy Analysis Program (EAP) at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) first became involved in Chinese energy issues through a joint China-US symposium on markets and demand for energy held in Nanjing in November of 1988. Discovering common interests, EAP began to collaborate on projects with the Energy Research Institute (ERI) of China`s State Planning Commission. In the course of this work it became clear that a major issue in the furtherance of our research was the acquisition of reliable data. In addition to other, more focused activities-evaluating programs of energy conservation undertaken in China and the prospects for making Chinese industrics morc energy-efficient, preparing historical reviews of cncrgy supply and demand in the People`s Republic of China, sponsoring researchers from China to work with experts at LBL on such topics as energy efficiency standards for buildings, adaptation of US energy analysis software to Chinese conditions, and transportation issues-we decided to compile, assess, and organize Chinese energy data. Preparing this volume confronted us with a number of difficult issues. The most frustrating usually involved the different approaches to sectoral divisions taken in China and the US. For instance, fuel used by motor vehicles belonging to industrial enterprises is counted as industrial consumption in China; only fuel use by vehicles belonging to enterprises engaged primarily in transportation is countcd as transportation use. The estimated adjustment to count all fuel use by vehicles as transportation energy use is quite large, since a large fraction of motor vehicles belong to industrial enterprises. Similarly, Chinese industrial investment figures are skewed compared to those collected in the US because a large portion of enterprises` investment funds is directed towards providing housing and social services for workers and their families.

  7. China's Innovation System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gu, Shulin; Schwaag Serber, Sylvia; Lundvall, Bengt-Åke

    2016-01-01

    In their 2006 article on innovation in China in this journal, Gu and Lundvall pointed to some weaknesses and challenges for China’s growth and they also outlined ideas for policy action to overcome those. In this short note, written in collaboration with Sylvia Schwag Serger, they go back...... and assess China's social and economic development in the 10 years that followed in the light of their original analysis of challenges and ideas for policy action...

  8. Biofuels in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Tianwei; Yu, Jianliang; Lu, Jike; Zhang, Tao

    2010-01-01

    The Chinese government is stimulating the biofuels development to replace partially fossil fuels in the transport sector, which can enhance energy security, reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and stimulate rural development. Bioethanol, biodiesel, biobutanol, biogas, and biohydrogen are the main biofuels developed in China. In this chapter, we mainly present the current status of biofuel development in China, and illustrate the issues of feedstocks, food security and conversion processes.

  9. Factors associated with self-concept in adolescent survivors of an 8.0-magnitude earthquake in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dongmei; Jiang, Xiaolian; Ho, Kit-Wan; Duan, Lijuan; Zhang, Weiqing

    2014-01-01

    Experiencing a major natural disaster is a stressful event that challenges survival and sense of self. Adolescents are undergoing rapid developmental change in self-concept, and their sense of self is particularly susceptible to such stressful events. Although many studies have investigated adolescent self-concept, few have examined self-concept in relation to experiencing a natural disaster. Following the Great Wenchuan Earthquake in Sichuan Province, China, in 2008, this study aimed to (a) describe disaster experiences; (b) describe social support, coping, and self-support; and (c) identify disaster experiences, social support, and coping factors associated with self-concept of adolescent survivors 3 months after the earthquake. This was a large-scale cross-sectional study. A total of 1,976 adolescents living where the earthquake caused the most severe damage took part. The Tennessee Self-Concept Scale; Coping Styles Scale; and Internality, Powerful Others, and Chance Scales were used to assess self-concept, coping strategy, and locus of control, respectively. Sociodemographic characteristics, earthquake experiences, and social support were also obtained by self-report. Three months after the disaster, adolescent self-concept was generally positive. Locus of control centered on powerful others was the strongest predictor of total self-concept. The negative coping strategy, "abreacting," was a positive predictor of negative self-concept (self-criticism). Close attention to adolescents who use negative coping strategies and who tend to lack a sense of control is needed after major disaster events. Studies that examine long-term relationships between earthquake and other major disaster experiences and self-concept of adolescent survivors are needed.

  10. Bioethics in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, En-Chang

    2008-09-01

    Historically, the preconditions for the emergence of bioethics in China. were political reforms and their applications. The Hanzhong Euthanasia Case and the publication of Qiu Ren-zong's academic work Bioethics played a significant role in the development of bioethics in China. Other contributory factors include the establishment of the Chinese Society of Medical Ethics/Chinese Medical Association (C.M.A), the publication of the Journal of Chinese Medical Ethics, and the teaching and education of bioethics in China. Major achievements of bioethics in China include the establishment of ethics committee and ethics review system, active international communication and cooperation among the academic circles, and the successful management of the 8th World Congress of Bioethics in Beijing in 2006. Chinese bioethics focus on native Chinese realities and conditions, absorb the international research achievements in relevant fields, and combine international ideas with traditional Chinese doctrines. Admittedly, there are still some aspects to be improved, yet bioethics has attracted a lot of attention from the core leadership in China and has gained sound financial support, which augers well for its further development. This article also briefly introduces the development of bioethics in Hong Kong and Taiwan, China.

  11. China And The International Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    existing order, it stated that China will “take an active part in reforming and developing 13 Feng Zhang, “Chinese Thinking on the South China Sea and the...interests and those that do not align as closely with U.S. interests. China might be challenging 19 Zhang’s “Chinese Thinking on the South China...China Bets on Sensitive U.S. Start-Ups, Worrying the Pentagon,” New York Times, March 22, 2017a; Paul Mozur and Jane Perlez, “China Tech Investment

  12. South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Brian; Blackmore, Graham

    2001-01-01

    The South China Sea is poorly understood in terms of its marine biota, ecology and the human impacts upon it. What is known is most often contained in reports and workshop and conference documents that are not available to the wider scientific community. The South China Sea has an area of some 3.3 million km2 and depths range from the shallowest coastal fringe to 5377 m in the Manila Trench. It is also studded with numerous islets, atolls and reefs many of which are just awash at low tide. It is largely confined within the Tropic of Cancer and, therefore, experiences a monsoonal climate being influenced by the Southwest Monsoon in summer and the Northeast Monsoon in winter. The South China Sea is a marginal sea and, therefore, largely surrounded by land. Countries that have a major influence on and claims to the sea include China, Malaysia, the Philippines and Vietnam, although Thailand, Indonesia and Taiwan have some too. The coastal fringes of the South China Sea are home to about 270 million people that have had some of the fastest developing and most vibrant economies on the globe. Consequently, anthropogenic impacts, such as over-exploitation of resources and pollution, are anticipated to be huge although, in reality, relatively little is known about them. The Indo-West Pacific biogeographic province, at the centre of which the South China Sea lies, is probably the world's most diverse shallow-water marine area. Of the three major nearshore habitat types, i.e., coral reefs, mangroves and seagrasses, 45 mangrove species out of a global of 51, most of the currently recognised 70 coral genera and 20 of 50 known seagrass species have been recorded from the South China Sea. The island groups of the South China Sea are all disputed and sovereignty is claimed over them by a number of countries. Conflicts have in recent decades arisen over them because of perceived national rights. It is perhaps because of this that so little research has been undertaken on the South

  13. South China Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morton, Brian [Hong Kong Univ., Swire Inst. of Marine Science, Hong Kong (China); Hong Kong Univ., Dept. of Ecology and Biodiversity, Hong Kong (China); Blackmore, Graham [Hong Kong Univ. of Science and Technology, Dept. of Biology, Hong Kong (China)

    2001-07-01

    The South China Sea is poorly understood in terms of its marine biota, ecology and the human impacts upon it. What is known is most often contained in reports and workshops and conference documents that are not available to the wider scientific community. The South China Sea has an area of some 3.3 million km{sup 2} and depths range from the shallowest coastal fringe to 5377m in the Manila Trench. It is also studded with numerous islets, atolls and reefs many of which are just awash at low tide. It is largely confined within the Tropic of Cancer and, therefore, experiences a monsoonal climate being influenced by the Southwest Monsoon in summer and the Northeast Monsoon in winter. The South China Sea is a marginal sea and, therefore, largely surrounded by land. Countries that have a major influence on and claims to the sea include China, Malaysia, the Philippines and Vietnam, although Thailand, Indonesia and Taiwan have some too. The coastal fringes of the South China Sea are home to about 270 million people that have had some of the fastest developing and most vibrant economics on the globe. Consequently, anthropogenic impacts, such as over-exploitation of resources and pollution, are anticipated to be huge although, in reality, relatively little is known about them. The Indo-West Pacific biogeographic province, at the centre of which the South China Sea lies, is probably the world's most diverse shallow-water marine area. Of three major nearshore habitat types, i.e., coral reefs, mangroves and seagrasses, 45 mangrove species out of a global total of 51, most of the currently recognised 70 coral genera and 20 of 50 known seagrass species have been recorded from the South China Sea. The island groups of the South China Sea are all disputed and sovereignty is claimed over them by a number of countries. Conflicts have in recent decades arisen over them because of perceived national rights. It is perhaps because of this that so little research has been undertaken

  14. China Dimensions Data Collection: China Maps Bibliographic Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — China Maps Bibliographic Database is an historical collection of bibliographic information for more than 400 maps of China. The information resides in a searchable...

  15. China Dimensions Data Collection: Priority Programme for China's Agenda 21

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Priority Programme for China's Agenda 21 consists of full-text program descriptions supporting China's economic and social development. The descriptions represent 69...

  16. Is South China Sea the new 'inalienable' part of China?

    OpenAIRE

    Jash, Amrita

    2016-01-01

    China’s growing military posture and unilateral behavior in South China Sea has raised red alarms in international politics, vehemently challenging the existing status quo. What is apparent is that China’s uncompromising attitude in the South China Sea presents China’s obsession over its territorial claims, wherein, South China Sea can be called the ‘new inalienable part’ of China.

  17. China's South China Sea Conundrum - No Easier Pass

    OpenAIRE

    Jash, Amrita

    2016-01-01

    On July 12, 2016, The Hague- based Permanent Court of Arbitration (PCA) finally hit the hammer on the verdict of the landmark case of South China Sea arbitration. This case was unilaterally initiated by the Republic of the Philippines on January 22, 2013, on its relevant disputes in the South China Sea with the People’s Republic of China. At the very outset, this case brought China at crossroads to its international repute given Philippines’ allegations against its assertive and unlawful clai...

  18. China energy databook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinton, J.E.; Levine, M.D.; Feng Liu; Davis, W.B. (eds.) (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)); Jiang Zhenping; Zhuang Xing; Jiang Kejun; Zhou Dadi (eds.) (Energy Research Inst., Beijing, BJ (China))

    1992-01-01

    The Energy Analysis Program (EAP) at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) first became involved in Chinese energy issues through a joint China-US symposium on markets and demand for energy held in Nanjing in November of 1988. Discovering common interests, EAP began to collaborate on projects with the Energy Research Institute (ERI) of China's State Planning Commission. In the course of this work it became clear that a major issue in the furtherance of our research was the acquisition of reliable data. In addition to other, more focused activities-evaluating programs of energy conservation undertaken in China and the prospects for making Chinese industrics morc energy-efficient, preparing historical reviews of cncrgy supply and demand in the People's Republic of China, sponsoring researchers from China to work with experts at LBL on such topics as energy efficiency standards for buildings, adaptation of US energy analysis software to Chinese conditions, and transportation issues-we decided to compile, assess, and organize Chinese energy data. Preparing this volume confronted us with a number of difficult issues. The most frustrating usually involved the different approaches to sectoral divisions taken in China and the US. For instance, fuel used by motor vehicles belonging to industrial enterprises is counted as industrial consumption in China; only fuel use by vehicles belonging to enterprises engaged primarily in transportation is countcd as transportation use. The estimated adjustment to count all fuel use by vehicles as transportation energy use is quite large, since a large fraction of motor vehicles belong to industrial enterprises. Similarly, Chinese industrial investment figures are skewed compared to those collected in the US because a large portion of enterprises' investment funds is directed towards providing housing and social services for workers and their families.

  19. Ancient Chinese Precedents in China

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Geddis, Robert

    1999-01-01

    ... classics from ancient china. The assumption is that since China's political and military leaders state openly that their strategy is based on traditional Chinese strategic concepts, a study of ancient classics on strategy...

  20. China's roadmap for planetary exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yong; Yao, Zhonghua; Wan, Weixing

    2018-05-01

    China has approved or planned a string of several space exploration missions to be launched over the next decade. A new generation of planetary scientists in China is playing an important role in determining the scientific goals of future missions.

  1. Foreign direct investment in China

    OpenAIRE

    Bredero, Q.S.

    2007-01-01

    Foreign Direct Investment in China is one of the most comprehensive studies of FDI in China and provides a remarkable background of information on the evolution of China’s FDI policies over the last 30 years.

  2. China's place in global geopolitics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brødsgaard, Kjeld Erik; Heurlin, Bertel

    This text studies the major internal and external pressures and constraints as China emerges as an economic power.......This text studies the major internal and external pressures and constraints as China emerges as an economic power....

  3. China energy databook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinton, J.E.; Levine, M.D.; Feng Liu; Davis, W.B. (eds.) (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)); Jiang Zhenping; Zhuang Xing; Jiang Kejun; Zhou Dadi (eds.) (Energy Research Inst., Beijing, BJ (China))

    1992-11-01

    The Energy Analysis Program (EAP) at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) first becamc involved in Chinese energy issues through a joint China-US symposium on markets and demand for energy held in Nanjing in November of 1988. Discovering common interests, EAP began to collaborate on projects with the Energy Research Institute (ERI) of China's State Planning Commission. In the course of this work it became clear that a major issue in the furtherance of our research was the acquisition of reliable data. In addition to other, more focused activities-evaluating programs of energy conservation undertaken in China and the prospects for making Chinese industries more energy-efficient, preparing historical reviews of energy supply and demand in the People's Republic of China, sponsoring researchers from China to work with experts at LBL on such topics as energy efficiency standards for buildings, adaptation of US energy analysis software to Chinese conditions, and transportation issues-we decided to compile, assess, and organize Chinese energy data. We are hopeful that this volume will not only help us in our work, but help build a broader community of Chinese energy policy studies within the US.

  4. Exploring Servitization in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raja, Jawwad Z.; Frandsen, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Previous research has predominately focused on the servitization strategies of Western manufacturers in advanced economies, neglecting the potential for servitization in those which are emerging, such as China. This paper explores the role of the external service partner network of a Eur......Purpose: Previous research has predominately focused on the servitization strategies of Western manufacturers in advanced economies, neglecting the potential for servitization in those which are emerging, such as China. This paper explores the role of the external service partner network...... of a European manufacturer providing services in China, in order to develop a better understanding of the resulting and associated challenges. Design/methodology/approach: An in-depth case study approach was used to examine the parent company, its subsidiary in China and the related service partner network....... Data collection involved all three actors and took place in Denmark and China. Findings: The findings suggest that motivation, opportunity and ability (MOA) need not only be mutually reinforcing for the organization attempting to move towards services but also aligned between organizational units...

  5. China urges rapid growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendry, S.

    1993-01-01

    This time last year China's paramount leader, Deng Xiaoping, launched the country on another bout of fast-paced economic growth and restructuring. After three years of riding out political and economic clampdown, foreign chemical companies were jerked awake by major changes in China's chemical industry. As the state becomes less involved with managing the economy, unleashing 12% gross national product growth, closer involvement with domestic factories has become attractive and essential. MCI officials say government funds will now be channeled toward clearing energy and transport bottlenecks, and chemical enterprises will be given more chance to turn a profit. They will be allowed to issue shares, seek foreign investment partners themselves, and bypass trading companies like China National Import-Export Corp. (Sinochem), the former state monopoly. Foreign analysts question whether China's finances and oil resources can support expansion. Even if they can, Cai estimates that ethylene imports will remain around the present level of 1 million tons. To further guarantee chemical supplies, China has invested in urea and polypropylene plants in the US and polystyrene plant in Hong Kong

  6. Pension Reform in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Sun, Li

    2016-01-01

    This article analyzes China's pension arrangement and notes that China has recently established a universal non-contributory pension plan covering urban non-employed workers and all rural residents, combined with the pension plan covering urban employees already in place. Further, in the latest reform, China has discontinued the special pension plan for civil servants and integrated this privileged welfare class into the urban old-age pension insurance program. With these steps, China has achieved a degree of universalism and integration of its pension arrangement unprecedented in the non-Western world. Despite this radical pension transformation strategy, we argue that the current Chinese pension arrangement represents a case of "incomplete" universalism. First, its benefit level is low. Moreover, the benefit level varies from region to region. Finally, universalism in rural China has been undermined due to the existence of the "policy bundle." Additionally, we argue that the 2015 pension reform has created a situation in which the stratification of Chinese pension arrangements has been "flattened," even though it remains stratified to some extent.

  7. Coal combustion technology in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Z.X.

    1994-01-01

    Coal is the most important energy source in China, the environmental pollution problem derived from coal burning is rather serious in China. The present author discusses coal burning technologies both in boilers and industrial furnaces and their relations with environmental protection problems in China. The technological situations of Circulating Fluidized Bed Coal Combustor, Pulverized Coal Combustor with Aerodynamic Flame Holder and Coal Water Slurry Combustion have been discussed here as some of the interesting problems in China only. (author). 3 refs

  8. Teaching about Ethnicities in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stedman, Caryn White

    2010-01-01

    A unit on China's ethnicities provides students rich opportunities to explore multiple themes in the social studies while helping them to develop a deeper understanding of recent events in western China. Studying China's ethnic minorities encompasses such topics as stereotyping, cultural diversity, the creation of ethnic identities, and key…

  9. Development in China and Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, Shiwei

    2014-01-01

    My dissertation studies the development of China and Africa over the past two decades. First, China has maintained a high rate of economic growth in the past twenty years. At the same time, we observe a rapid growth in the African export flows to China, even faster than those to the US and EU. We

  10. Household Wealth in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yu; Jin, Yongai

    2015-01-01

    With new nationwide longitudinal survey data now available from the China Family Panel Studies (CFPS), we study the level, distribution, and composition of household wealth in contemporary China. We find that the wealth Gini coefficient of China was 0.73 in 2012. The richest 1 percent owned more than one-third of the total national household wealth, while the poorest 25 percent owned less than 2 percent. Housing assets, which accounted for over 70 percent, were the largest component of household wealth. Finally, the urban-rural divide and regional disparities played important roles in household wealth distribution, and institutional factors significantly affected household wealth holdings, wealth growth rate, and wealth mobility. PMID:26435882

  11. Networking with China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cottrell, R L.A.; Granieri, C [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Fan, Lan; Xu, Rongsheng [Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing, BJ (China); Karita, Yukio [National Lab. for High Energy Physics, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1944-04-01

    This paper presents the history and current status Of computer networking between IHEP in Beijing, China and the rest of the world, starting with no links at the beginning of 1987 thru X.25 public networks and dial up links, to the installing, in March 1993, of one of the first dedicated 64 kbps satellite computer links between China and the outside world. In May 1994, IHEP became the first Chinese institution to have a fully operational world-wide Internet connection. Experience with this dedicated link between SLAC and IHEP will be presented together with future plans to add a land line between KEK and IHEP and to extend the links within China.

  12. China's petroleum industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boykiw, A.; Katsuris, D.

    1997-01-01

    Petroleum and natural gas resources, industry organization, production, pipeline construction and other transportation issues, refining and business aspects of the Chinese petroleum and natural gas industries were reviewed. The need for large amounts of foreign capital and western technology to stem the deficit in domestic hydrocarbon supply were emphasized as being responsible for the creation in China of favourable conditions for foreign participation in oil and gas exploration, and for the growing confidence for Western investment in China. The most important considerations for successful participation in the economic development of China include: understanding the roles of networking, cultural affinity and reciprocity; hands-on management; finding an appropriate business partner, agent/distributor, or joint venture partner; and understanding local peculiarities and customs. 3 refs

  13. CHILI: China Lijiang IFU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Lei

    2014-07-01

    Wide-field IFU technology on medium-size telescope provides a unique science capability that compliments larger future facilities. Here I introduce a program to employ a VIRUS-like unit on the 2.4 meter telescope in GaoMeiGu Observatory in LiJiang, China. We name the instrument "CHILI (China Lijiang IFU)". It will be an IFU with very large field of view at 1.8'x3.6'. We discuss its science capabilities and its potential benefit to the Chinese astronomical community.

  14. NEV Technology in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Yingqi; Kokko, Ari

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of the paper is to identify the main determinants of the development of the neighbourhood electric vehicle (NEV) industry in China, including influences from private stakeholders as well as the government, and domestic as well as foreign interest groups. Particular emphasis...... – The findings are useful for understanding the development of the NEV industry in China. Originality/value – The current paper is the first application of the GIST (Governance of Innovation towards Sustainability Technology) framework to the case of the Chinese NEV industry....

  15. China Satellite Navigation Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Jingnan; Fan, Shiwei; Wang, Feixue

    2016-01-01

    These Proceedings present selected research papers from CSNC2016, held during 18th-20th May in Changsha, China. The theme of CSNC2016 is Smart Sensing, Smart Perception. These papers discuss the technologies and applications of the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), and the latest progress made in the China BeiDou System (BDS) especially. They are divided into 12 topics to match the corresponding sessions in CSNC2016, which broadly covered key topics in GNSS. Readers can learn about the BDS and keep abreast of the latest advances in GNSS techniques and applications.

  16. China Satellite Navigation Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Jingnan; Yang, Yuanxi; Fan, Shiwei; Yu, Wenxian

    2017-01-01

    These proceedings present selected research papers from CSNC2017, held during 23th-25th May in Shanghai, China. The theme of CSNC2017 is Positioning, Connecting All. These papers discuss the technologies and applications of the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), and the latest progress made in the China BeiDou System (BDS) especially. They are divided into 12 topics to match the corresponding sessions in CSNC2017, which broadly covered key topics in GNSS. Readers can learn about the BDS and keep abreast of the latest advances in GNSS techniques and applications.

  17. Nuclear Industry in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cong, W., E-mail: eweike@263.net.cn [Bureau of Geology, China National Nuclear Corporation, Beijing (China)

    2014-05-15

    The paper presents an overview of the present situation and future plans for the development of nuclear power in China. In particular it looks at the present electricity generation system, future demand and plans for nuclear power plants to meet the increasing demands for electrical power in the country. It summarizes the state of uranium exploration activities and planned production of uranium resources, both nationally and internationally. In addition, it provides a brief overview of the existing administrative situation in the nuclear power industry in China and sets out the main challenges to future development. (author)

  18. China's income inequality in the global context

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Jin; Zhao, Qingxia; Zhang, Mengnan

    2016-01-01

    Although China's GDP has become the world's second largest, China's long-term economic growth with high speed and long-lasting “efficiency first” policy guidance, has brought China into a complicated situation, therein serious inequality exists in China and it has become one of the most serious problems in China nowadays. This paper focuses on China's inequality issues in the context of the world, especially on comparison between China and the European countries, concerning of our common purs...

  19. China energy databook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinton, J.E.; Fridley, D.G.; Levine, M.D. [eds.

    1996-06-01

    The response to the first edition of the China Energy Databook was overwhelmingly positive, and has encouraged us to issue this revised, updated, and expanded edition. It has been a natural counterpart to the Energy Analysis Program`s continuing program of collaborative research with the Energy Research Institute. No other current reference volume dedicated to China`s energy system contains a similar variety and quality of material. We have revised some of the categories and data that appeared in the old volume. The adjustment for energy consumption in the transportation sector, for instance, has been slightly changed to include some fuel use in the commercial sector, which was previously left out. As another example, natural gas consumption statistics in the first edition greatly overstated electric utility use; we have rectified that error. Some tables have changed as statistical collection and reporting practices change in China. Figures on gross output value by sector stop with 1992, and economic output in subsequent years is covered by various measures of value-added, such as national income and gross domestic product.

  20. Trepanation in Ancient China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobert, Leah; Binello, Emanuela

    2017-05-01

    Trepanation, the process of making a burr hole in the skull to access the brain, is an ancient form of a primitive craniotomy. There is widespread evidence of contributions made to this practice by ancient civilizations in Europe, Africa, and South America, where archaeologists have unearthed thousands of trepanned skulls dating back to the Neolithic period. Little is known about trepanation in China, and it is commonly believed that the Chinese used only traditional Chinese medicine and nonsurgical methods for treating brain injuries. However, a thorough analysis of the available archeological and literary evidence reveals that trepanation was widely practiced throughout China thousands of years ago. A significant number of trepanned Chinese skulls have been unearthed showing signs of healing and suggesting that patients survived after surgery. Trepanation was likely performed for therapeutic and spiritual reasons. Medical and historical works from Chinese literature contain descriptions of primitive neurosurgical procedures, including stories of surgeons, such as the legendary Hua Tuo, and surgical techniques used for the treatment of brain pathologies. The lack of translation of Chinese reports into the English language and the lack of publications on this topic in the English language may have contributed to the misconception that ancient China was devoid of trepanation. This article summarizes the available evidence attesting to the performance of successful primitive cranial surgery in ancient China. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. WAVFH delegates' reports: China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Mingyi

    1986-01-01

    The work of radiation protection has been given great attention in China. The Ministry of Health is the competent authority in charge of the work. Before the accident at Chernobyl, the government had formulated and promulgated laws and regulations concerning the radiation protection, such as the Basic Standard for Radiation Protection, the Basic Standard for Radiation Protection of Nuclear Plants, the institutions and organizations for monitoring radioactive pollution at national level and provincial level had been set up. After the accident at Chernobyl, each of the monitoring institutions and organizations took samples of air, subsided substances of atmosphere, rainwater, terrestrial surface water from various sources, vegetables, milk and thyroid glands of sheep and goats immediately, for the detection of radiation contamination. As far as we know that the samples had small extent contamination, the extent of contamination of samples in the south of China is smaller than that of samples in the north of China, that the content of nuclides in various samples is lower than the limits of radioactive substances set in national standard, and that radiation dosage subjected by residents of China caused by the contamination is also lower than the set quota in the national standard. The contamination did not interfere with the regular life of the residents

  2. JPRS Report, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-07-07

    not ask him for help?" Comrade Yaobang immediately wrote a letter of recommendation for the man. Comrade Yaobang’s honesty and kindness were also...relatively low technology and small amounts of capital. This was the sweatshop era. China Investors Taking ’Wait-and-See’ Attitude HK0306070989 Hong

  3. China: Demographic Billionaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tien, H. Yuan

    1983-01-01

    This document reviews China's population trends and policies since the People's Republic was founded in 1949. Areas addressed include: population growth before 1949, population growth from 1949-1982, and policy responses to population growth (including wan xi shao: later marriages, longer intervals between birth, and fewer children); mortality…

  4. China's Vocational Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiernan, Owen B.

    1978-01-01

    The author describes his observations on Chinese society and education during his 1978 visit with the official delegation of United States educators. He notes what Americans would consider primitive facilities and programs, the tremendous problems of China's size and population, and the overriding influence of political concerns on education. (MF)

  5. China's Economic Conditions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morrison, Wayne M

    2008-01-01

    ... (the fastest annual growth since 1994). While China is expected to continue to enjoy rapid economic growth in the years ahead and could become the world s largest economy within a decade or so, it faces a number of challenges, including...

  6. 4th CHINA AUTOMOTIVE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    <正> 9-10 September 2002·Shanghai JC Mandarin Hotel, Shanghai CHINA Key issues ■ Industry Updates & Consumer Insights ■ Imported Car v.s. Domestic Car: Combat Price Reduction ■ Sales Networks & Auto Finance ■ Global Sourcing & Supply Chain Management

  7. Interlinguistics in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haitao, Liu

    1998-01-01

    Reviews the history of interlinguistics in China through scientific and specialist journals, tracing a path from early discussions of language policy through growing recognition of Esperanto as an object of scientific study to the application of interlinguistics in computing and terminology. (Author/JL)

  8. China, South Korea, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    Intended for Canadian readers, this popular account was suggested by the Sixth Pacific Basin Nuclear Conference. Economic, political, geographic, sociological and historical aspects of the nuclear programmes of China, South Korea and Japan are discussed. The importance of past, present and future Canadian nuclear trade with the area is indicated

  9. Road Traffic in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jie, L.; Van Zuylen, H.J.

    2014-01-01

    Traffic is tightly related to the social and economic development in a country. In China the development of the economy has been very fast in the past 30 years and this is still continuing. The transport infrastructure shows a similar pattern, while traffic is also rapidly growing. In urban areas

  10. Geothermal studies in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ji-Yang; Chen Mo-Xiang; Wang Ji-An; Deng Xiao; Wang Jun; Shen Hsien-Chieh; Hsiung Liang-Ping; Yan Shu-Zhen; Fan Zhi-Cheng; Liu Xiu-Wen

    1981-01-01

    Geothermal studies have been conducted in China continuosly since the end of the 1950's with renewed activity since 1970. Three areas of research are defined: (1) fundamental theoretical research of geothermics, including subsurface temperatures, terrestrial heat flow and geothermal modeling; (2) exploration for geothermal resources and exploitation of geothermal energy; (3) geothermal studies in mines. (orig./ME)

  11. Narrating Self and China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Irina

    about China and its people. Thus this study explores the questions of how these women writers adopted the roles of cultural interpreters, which allowed them to position themselves as authoritative and representative voices and, at the same time, rejuvenate China’s image in the global arena...

  12. EMNEs from China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slepniov, Dmitrij

    2014-01-01

    and innovation in Western companies gained momentum some decades ago. However, the recent developments in the field also include the spread of the phenomenon to companies from the emerging economies. In the past two decades, China has earned the reputation of the ‘manufacturing power house’ of the world. Chinese...

  13. Smart grid in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Simon; Ma, Zheng; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

    2015-01-01

    China is planning to transform its traditional power grid in favour of a smart grid, since it allows a more economically efficient and a more environmentally friendly transmission and distribution of electricity. Thus, a nationwide smart grid is likely to save tremendous amounts of resources...

  14. A Fragmented China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Poncet

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThis paper studies the degree of integration of China's domestic market and investigates the determinants of inter-provincial trade barriers under the rubric endogenous trade policy theory. I rely on industry-level trade flows extracted from provincial input-output tables to develop a

  15. China - energy situation 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The energy situation of China is reviewed on the basis of relevant data. Data on the country's national and international energy policy are followed by an outline of trends in energy sources and electric power generation. Key figures are presented on the country's external trade and balance of payments. (UA) [de

  16. The Case of China

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    pwust

    This report examines the motivations, operations, and collaboration methods of ... Research for development is the use of science and technology to reduce poverty in developing countries through practical, long-term solutions to social, economic, and ..... expenditure of central and local governments” table, China Statistical.

  17. Urban development in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brakman, Steven; Garretsen, J.H.; van Marrewijk, J.G.M.

    2016-01-01

    Urbanization is important for economic development. As the largest country in the world in terms of population, China has experienced a remarkable history of urbanization; one 1000 years ago it housed the largest cities in world, it went through a counter-urbanization revolution during the Mao

  18. China and Coexistence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Liselotte

    through a comparative study of aspiring powers in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. She explores its role in China’s border disputes in the South China Sea and with Russia and India; in diplomacy in the UN Security Council over Iran, Sudan, and Myanmar; and in China’s handling of challenges...

  19. Greening China Naturally

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shixiong Cao; Ge Sun; Zhiqiang Zhang; Liding Che; Qi Feng; et. al.

    2011-01-01

    China leads the world in afforestation, and is one of the few countries whose forested area is increasing. However, this massive “greening” effort has been less effective than expected; afforestation has sometimes produced unintended environmental, ecological, and socioeconomic consequences, and has failed to achieve the desired ecological benefits. Where afforestation...

  20. China: The Awakened Dragon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    United States should abandon the issues of human rights or censorship ; however, U.S. leaders should limit open criticism of China over issues the...Paracels, Spratlys, Macclesfield Bank, and Pratas. Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia , Vietnam, the Philippines, and Taiwan also in part, lay claim to the

  1. Murdoch Retreats from China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jessy Zhang

    2006-01-01

    @@ News Corp's Asian flagship enterprise Star Group announced in early June it would sell a 19.9 percent stake in Phoenix Satellite Television to China Mobile. This move is widely interpreted as a signal that Rudolf Murdoch, the helmsman of News Corp,might have lost his patience and could eventually retreat from the Chinese media market.

  2. Biotechnology in China

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hamer, Dean H; Kung, Shain-dow

    1989-01-01

    ... and Shain-dow Kung Center for Agricultural Biotechnology Maryland Biotechnology Institute Department of Botany University of Maryland College Park, Maryland Committee on Scholarly Communication with the People's Republic of China National Academy of Sciences National Academy Press Washington, DC 1989 i Copyrightthe cannot be not from bo...

  3. Malaysian perceptions of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Abu Bakar

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Malasia que consistía en Malaya, Sabah, Sarawak y Singapur ganó su independencia de los Británicos el 16 de septiembre de 1963. Malaya ganó su independencia de los británicos el 31 de agosto de 1957. En 1965 Singapur era independiente de Malasia. Malasia es una democracia parlamentaria y capitalista. Por otra parte, es una nación multi-religiosa y multirracial. Malasia ha sido poblada por los Malays, los Chinos, los Indios y otros. Los Malays son musulmanes y el Islam es la religión de la federación de Malasia. La nación tiene una larga historia con China pero esa nunca colonizó ningún área en Malasia. Los estados occidentales, fundamentalmente Portugueses y Olandeses colonizaron ciertas áreas en Malasia y luego los Británicos colonizaron la entera región. La percepción malasiana de China está influenciada por muchos factores internos y externos tales como el factor ideologico-político, el desarrollo económico así como las relaciones y la diplomacia nacionales, regionales e internacionales. Este breve artículo presenta la percepción malasiana de China desde un punto de vista cultural, político y económico._____________ABSTRACT:Malaysia consisting of Malaya, Sabah, Sarawak and Singapore gained her independence from the British on 16 September 1963. Malaya gained her independence from the British on 31 August 1957. In 1965 Singapore was independent from Malaysia. Malaysia is a parliamentary democratic and capitalistic nation. Moreover, Malaysia is a multi-religious and multiracial nation. Malaysia has been populated by the Malays, Chinese, Indians and others. The Malays are Muslims and Islam is the religion of the Federation of Malaysia. Malaysia has a very long history with China but China never colonized any area in Malaysia. The Western nations namely the Portuguese and the Dutch colonized certain areas in Malaysia and then the British colonized the whole Malaysia. Malaysian perceptions of China are influenced by many

  4. ADS National Programmes: China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    In China the conceptual study of an ADS concept which lasted for about five years ended in 1999. As one project of the National Basic Research Programme of China (973 Programme) in energy domain, which is sponsored by the China Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST), a five year programme of fundamental research of ADS physics and related technology was launched in 2000 and passed national review at the end of 2005. From 2007, another five year 973 Programme Key Technology Research of Accelerator Driven Subcritical System for Nuclear waste Transmutation started. The research activities were focused on HPPA physics and technology, reactor physics of external source driven subcritical assembly, nuclear data base and material study. For HPPA, a high current injector consisting of an ECR ion source, LEBT and an RFQ accelerating structure of 3.5 MeV has been built and were being improved. In reactor physics study, a series of neutron multiplication experimental study has been carrying out. The VENUS I facility has been constructed as the basic experimental platform for neutronics study in ADS blanket. VENUS I a zero power subcritical neutron multiplying assembly driven by external neutron produced by a pulsed neutron generator or 252Cf neutron source. The theoretical, experimental and simulation studies on nuclear data, material properties and nuclear fuel circulation related to ADS are carried out in order to provide the database for ADS system analysis. China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE), Institute of High Energy Physics (IHEP) and other Chinese institutes carried out the MOST project together. Besides CIAE, China Academy of Science (CAS) pays more and more attention to Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles (ANFC). A large programme of ANFC, including ADS and Th based nuclear fuel cycle, has been launched by CAS

  5. China energy databook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinton, J.E.; Levine, M.D.; Liu, Feng; Davis, W.B.; Jiang Zhenping; Zhuang Xing; Jiang Kejun; Zhou Dadi

    1993-06-01

    The Energy Analysis Program at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) first became involved in Chinese energy issues through a joint China-US symposium on markets and demand for energy held in Nanjing in November of 1988. Discovering common interests, EAP began to collaborate on projects with the Energy Research Institute of China's State Planning Commission. In the course of this work it became clear that a major issue in the furtherance of our research was the acquisition of reliable data. In addition to other, more focused activities-evaluating programs of energy conservation undertaken in China and the prospects for making Chinese industries more energy-efficient, preparing historical reviews of energy supply and demand in the People's Republic of China, sponsoring researchers from China to work with experts at LBL on such topics as energy efficiency standards for buildings, adaptation of US energy analysis software to Chinese conditions, and transportation issues, we decided to compile, assess, and organize Chinese energy data. We are hopeful that this volume will not only help us in our work, but help build a broader community of Chinese energy policy studies within the US. In order to select appropriate data from what was available we established several criteria. Our primary interest was to use the data to help understand the historical evolution and likely future of the Chinese energy system. A primary criterion was thus that the data relate to the structure of energy supply and demand in the past and indicate probable developments (e.g., as indicated by patterns of investment). Other standards were accuracy, consistency with other information, and completeness of coverage. This is not to say that all the data presented herein are accurate, consistent, and complete, but where discrepancies and omissions do occur we have tried to note them

  6. 中国灾区重建对口支援政策之分析——以汶川地震为例%An Analysis on Counterpart Assistance Policy for Wenchuan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈文伟; 黄月珍

    2012-01-01

    本文就Popple&Leighninger’s(2011)“抉择分析”(ChoiceAnalysis),针对中国汶川救灾重建《对口支援》政策进行四个层面的分析:(一)筛选基础;(二)资金开源;(三)政策推行;(四)受益类型。进而,带出中国垂直的政策制定结构的特点,供国外治理灾害参考、对比。%The aim of this paper is to contribute to knowledge on the post-disaster restoration in China, within the context of a twinned provinces assistance policy. Using Popple & Leighninger's (2011) "choice analysis", this paper examines four dimensions of China's counterpart assistance policy decisions : bases of allocations; financing benefits; delivery structure; and types of benefits. Furthermore, much scholarship on China emphasizes its vertical policy-making structure and does not pay as much attention to its horizontal approach of policy administration. China's counterpart assistance policy serves to illustrate the horizontal nature of partnerships in China.

  7. [Medical rescue of China National Earthquake Disaster Emergency Search and Rescue Team in Lushan earthquake].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ya-hua; Yang, Hui-ning; Liu, Hui-liang; Wang, Fan; Hu, Li-bin; Zheng, Jing-chen

    2013-05-01

    To summarize and analyze the medical mission of China National Earthquake Disaster Emergency Search and Rescue Team (CNESAR) in Lushan earthquake, to promote the medical rescue effectiveness incorporated with search and rescue. Retrospective analysis of medical work data by CNESAR from April 21th, 2013 to April 27th during Lushan earthquake rescue, including the medical staff dispatch and the wounded case been treated. The reasonable medical corps was composed by 22 members, including 2 administrators, 11 doctors [covering emergency medicine, orthopedics (joints and limbs, spinal), obstetrics and gynecology, gastroenterology, cardiology, ophthalmology, anesthesiology, medical rescue, health epidemic prevention, clinical laboratory of 11 specialties], 1 ultrasound technician, 5 nurses, 1 pharmacist, 1 medical instrument engineer and 1 office worker for propaganda. There were two members having psychological consultants qualifications. The medical work were carried out in seven aspects, including medical care assurance for the CNESAR members, first aid cooperation with search and rescue on site, clinical work in refugees' camp, medical round service for scattered village people, evacuation for the wounded, mental intervention, and the sanitary and anti-epidemic work. The medical work covered 24 small towns, and medical staff established 3 medical clinics at Taiping Town, Shuangshi Town of Lushan County and Baoxing County. Medical rescue, mental intervention for the old and kids, and sanitary and anti-epidemic were performed at the above sites. The medical corps had successful evacuated 2 severe wounded patients and treated the wounded over thousands. Most of the wounded were soft tissue injuries, external injury, respiratory tract infections, diarrhea, and heat stroke. Compared with the rescue action in 2008 Wenchuan earthquake, the aggregation and departure of rescue team in Lushan earthquake, the traffic control order in disaster area, the self-aid and buddy aid

  8. Rheumatic Diseases in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Qing Yu; Chen, Ren; Darmawan, John; Xiao, Zheng Yu; Chen, Su Biao; Wigley, Richard; Le Chen, Shun; Zhang, Nai Zheng

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Epidemiological studies of rheumatic diseases have been conducted during the past 20 years in China. The aim of this study was to clarify prevalence rates of common rheumatic diseases in China. Methods Relevant reports of population-based surveys conducted from 1980 to 2006 were retrieved. Studies using the World Health Organization-International League of Associations for Rheumatology COPCORD (Community Oriented Program for Control of Rheumatic Diseases) protocol and those that did not employ this protocol but were published in recognized journals were identified and analyzed. Results Thirty-eight surveys including 241,169 adults from 25 provinces/cities were pooled for analysis. The prevalence of rheumatic complaints ranged from 11.6% to 46.4%, varying by locality, study protocol and age of the people surveyed. Prevalence of symptomatic osteoarthritis (OA) varied from 5.1% to 20.8%, with common sites of involvement being the lumbar spine, knee joint and cervical spine. Compared with rates of radiographic and symptomatic knee OA in the USA, elderly men in Beijing exhibited similar prevalence rates and elderly women exhibited a higher prevalence. The prevalence of hip OA and hand OA was much lower in Chinese than in Caucasian populations, but both kinds of OA were more common in coal miners. The prevalence of ankylosing spondylitis ranged from 0.2% to 0.54% among Han ethnic Chinese and were lower among mixed ethnic populations. The prevalence of psoriatic arthritis ranged from 0.01% to 0.1%, and that of reactive arthritis was 0.02%; undifferentiated spondyloarthropathy was identified in 0.64% to 1.2% of the individuals included in the surveys. The prevalence of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) ranged from 0.2% to 0.93%, with the highest rate being reported from a Taiwan urban area. In mainland China there were no significant differences in prevalence of RA between the northern and southern parts of China, or between different ethnic groups. The prevalence of

  9. Countering Chinas Economic Statecraft in the South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-09

    Economic Statecraft in the South China Sea 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER Bradford D...created and employed a vision and strategy to control it. China continually demonstrates its economic might in the region and conducts economic ...power to counter China’s rising influence in the South China Sea. The policy and strategy should incorporate establishing strong economic ties in

  10. Raman spectra of carbonaceous materials in a fault zone in the Longmenshan thrust belt, China; comparisons with those of sedimentary and metamorphic rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouketsu, Yui; Shimizu, Ichiko; Wang, Yu; Yao, Lu; Ma, Shengli; Shimamoto, Toshihiko

    2017-03-01

    We analyzed micro-Raman spectra of carbonaceous materials (CM) in natural and experimentally deformed fault rocks from Longmenshan fault zone that caused the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake, to characterize degree of disordering of CM in a fault zone. Raman spectral parameters for 12 samples from a fault zone in Shenxigou, Sichuan, China, all show low-grade structures with no graphite. Low crystallinity and δ13C values (-24‰ to -25‰) suggest that CM in fault zone originated from host rocks (Late Triassic Xujiahe Formation). Full width at half maximum values of main spectral bands (D1 and D2), and relative intensities of two subbands (D3 and D4) of CM were variable with sample locations. However, Raman parameters of measured fault rocks fall on established trends of graphitization in sedimentary and metamorphic rocks. An empirical geothermometer gives temperatures of 160-230 °C for fault rocks in Shenxigou, and these temperatures were lower for highly sheared gouge than those for less deformed fault breccia at inner parts of the fault zone. The lower temperature and less crystallinity of CM in gouge might have been caused by the mechanical destruction of CM by severe shearing deformation, or may be due to mixing of host rocks on the footwall. CM in gouge deformed in high-velocity experiments exhibits slight changes towards graphitization characterized by reduction of D3 and D4 intensities. Thus low crystallinity of CM in natural gouge cannot be explained by our experimental results. Graphite formation during seismic fault motion is extremely local or did not occur in the study area, and the CM crystallinity from shallow to deep fault zones may be predicted as a first approximation from the graphitization trend in sedimentary and metamorphic rocks. If that case, graphite may lower the friction of shear zones at temperatures above 300 °C, deeper than the lower part of seismogenic zone.

  11. Space Law and China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tronchetti, Fabio

    2017-08-01

    Over the past few years, China has made remarkable achievements in the space sector and become one of the most relevant players in the outer space domain. Highlights of this process have been the deployment in orbit of the first Chinese space station, Tiangong-1, on September 29, 2011; and the landing of the Yutu rover on the lunar surface on December 14, 2013. While technological developments have occurred at such a rapid pace, the same cannot be said of the regulatory framework governing Chinese space activities, which still lays at its infant stage. Indeed, unlike other major space-faring countries, China lacks comprehensive and uniform national space legislation; as of now, China has enacted two low-level administrative regulations addressing the issues of launching and registration of space objects. With the growth of the Chinese space program, such a lack of a structured national space law is beginning to show its limits and to create concerns about its negative impact on business opportunities and the ability of China to fully comply with international obligations. One should keep in mind that the international space treaties (China is part to four international space law treaties) are not self-executing, thus requiring States to adopt domestic measures to ensure their effective implementation. Importantly, Chinese authorities appear to be aware of these issues; as stated by the secretary-general of the Chinese National Space Administration (CNSA) in 2014, national space law has been listed in the national legislation plan and the CNSA is directly engaged in such a process. However, questions remain as to how this drafting process will be conducted and what legal form and content the law will have. For example, China could either decide to proceed with a gradual approach, consisting in the adoption of laws addressing selected issues to be eventually assembled into one single law; or to directly move to the adoption of one comprehensive law. In any case, if

  12. Geothermal studies in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji-Yang, Wang; Mo-Xiang, Chen; Ji-An, Wang; Xiao, Deng; Jun, Wang; Hsien-Chieh, Shen; Liang-Ping, Hsiung; Shu-Zhen, Yan; Zhi-Cheng, Fan; Xiu-Wen, Liu; Ge-Shan, Huang; Wen-Ren, Zhang; Hai-Hui, Shao; Rong-Yan, Zhang

    1981-01-01

    Geothermal studies have been conducted in China continuously since the end of the 1950's with renewed activity since 1970. Three areas of research are defined: (1) fundamental theoretical research on geothermics, including subsurface temperatures, terrestrial heat flow and geothermal modeling; (2) exploration for geothermal resources and exploitation of geothermal energy; and (3) geothermal studies in mines. Regional geothermal studies have been conducted recently in North China and more than 2000 values of subsurface temperature have been obtained. Temperatures at a depth of 300 m generally range from 20 to 25°C with geothermal gradients from 20 to 40°C/km. These values are regarded as an average for the region with anomalies related to geological factors. To date, 22 reliable heat flow data from 17 sites have been obtained in North China and the data have been categorized according to fault block tectonics. The average heat flow value at 16 sites in the north is 1.3 HFU, varying from 0.7 to 1.8 HFU. It is apparent that the North China fault block is characterized by a relatively high heat flow with wide variations in magnitude compared to the mean value for similar tectonic units in other parts of the world. It is suggested that although the North China fault block can be traced back to the Archaean, the tectonic activity has been strengthening since the Mesozoic resulting in so-called "reactivation of platform" with large-scale faulting and magmatism. Geothermal resources in China are extensive; more than 2000 hot springs have been found and there are other manifestations including geysers, hydrothermal explosions, hydrothermal steam, fumaroles, high-temperature fountains, boiling springs, pools of boiling mud, etc. In addition, there are many Meso-Cenozoic sedimentary basins with widespread aquifers containing geothermal water resources in abundance. The extensive exploration and exploitation of these geothermal resources began early in the 1970's. Since then

  13. Introduction to "Islam in China/China in Islam"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew S. Erie

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Rather than China versus Islam, the overarching theme of this special issue is “Islam in China/China in Islam.” In thinking through “Islam in China,” we argue that the relationship between China and Islam is not one of opposition, but rather one of cultural, linguistic, and economic imbrication. Indeed, it is difficult to describe Islam and China as two separate or essentialized entities. For some Muslim minorities in certain regions of China, there is no distinction between neo-Confucianism and Islam or between the nation-state and the global umma (community of Muslims. Through intellectual labor, modes of prayer and worship, art, calligraphy, architecture, cuisine, linguistic creoles, and legal pluralism, these Muslims embody multiple cultural referents. For other Muslim minorities in other regions in China, political and economic circumstances present challenges to living in accordance with Islam while also being a citizen of the PRC. In other words, the Muslim experience in China encompasses a complex mosaic of accommodation, adjustment, preservation, and, at times, resistance. Thus, generalizations about this incredibly diverse population are unhelpful, and careful attention must be paid to history, politics, and place...

  14. Nuclear energy and environment of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Kunmin

    1993-01-01

    The paper included following contents: China needs to develop nuclear energy; China pays attention to the radiation environment management; the role of China National Environmental Protection Agency in nuclear energy and the environment

  15. China and BEPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reuven Avi-Yonah

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an overview of China’s reaction to the G20/OECD Base Erosion and Profit Shifting (BEPS project. From 2013 to 2015, the OECD developed a series of actions designed to address BEPS activities by multinational enterprises, culminating in a final report of 15 action steps. The article reviews and explains China’s reaction to the BEPS project and its actions in detail, with a particular focus on transfer pricing issues. It shows that China has actively participated in both developing and implementing the BEPS project. The article further suggests that in the post-BEPS era, China is expected to implement the BEPS project in a more consistent and coherent way, and will take whatever measures necessary to guarantee the successful implementation of the BEPS package in collaboration with the global community.

  16. El enigma de China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Xin

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Alongside China's material growth, there has come a gradual but steady change in its mentality of governance. This article tries to show one crucial aspect of such a change, having taken place in the past couple of decades, which has given that social giant a new global outlook. The article, based on ethnographic field research, hopes to shed light on the process of statisticalization that, supposedly scientific and modern, has turned itself into a predominant official means for management and administration. The goal is to demonstrate the problematic nature of such a transformation, occurring on the Maoist ruins and generating a number of social sentiments that reflect the growing economic disparity already an undeniable social fact for today's China.

  17. Environmental Biotechnology in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuang Jiang; Liu, Lei; Chaudhry, Muhammad Tausif; Wang, Lei; Chen, Ying Guang; Zhou, Qi; Liu, He; Chen, Jian

    Environmental biotechnology has emerged as an important measure to tackle the environmental pollution as China experiences great economic success. Over the past decade, much emphasis has been paid to the following fields in environmental biotechnology: microbial degradation of toxic and organic chemicals, bio-treatment of wastewater, waste recycling. The Chinese researchers have done a lot of work to understand the natural degradation processes for organic and toxic compounds and finally to clean these compounds from polluted environments. For the treatment of wastewater, many new processes were proposed and optimized to meet the more strict effluent standards in China. Finally, more and more attention has been paid to the reuse of discharged wastes. In this chapter we review the development in the above fields.

  18. Technology licensing in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yuandi; Li-Ying, Jason; Chen, Jin

    2015-01-01

    We explore the landscape of technology licensing among Chinese entities in the period 2000–12, using a unique database on technological licensing from the State Intellectual Property Office of China. We find that: first, among Chinese licensee organizations, firms have dominated in terms...... of the number of licensed technologies; second, the geographical distribution of licensed technologies among the provinces has gradually reached a new quantitative balance; third, utility models are the most popular technologies to be licensed and the majority of technology licensing in China has been between...... Chinese entities, and most transactions have been local within provinces; and finally, Chinese firms have gradually in-licensed newer and newer technologies, but the technologies in-licensed from foreign sources are by no means state-of-the-art. We make several suggestions for innovation policy...

  19. Transport infrastructure development in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouraima Mouhamed Bayane

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the historical configuration process of transportation systems in China and examines the relationship between economic development and transport system at three different levels. The current status of transport infrastructure system development in China is summarized at national and regional level. The investment trends for transport infrastructure in China are also depicted. The keys issues relating to government initiatives are presented.

  20. Perfil de mercado de China

    OpenAIRE

    Cabrales, Ana; Hincapié, Vanessa; Ruiz, Liseth

    2015-01-01

    El presente estudio analiza las importaciones desde China hacia Colombia y abarca temas estadísticos, análisis regionales, políticas de comercio exterior y revisiones geopolíticas del papel comercial de China en el mundo, dentro de otros aspectos. Es importante hacer el análisis sobre los contextos del comercio exterior colombiano reciente y vincularlo con el papel de China.

  1. Nuclear energy in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gourievidis, G.

    1984-01-01

    Having first outlined the main problems China must resolve in the field of energy supply, this paper presents the nuclear option trends established by the government, recalls the different stages in the nuclear Chinese development programme, achievements and projects. The organization of nuclear research and industry, as also the fuel cycle situation and uranium resources are then described. Finally, the international nuclear cooperation policy carried out by the chinese government and more particularly the agreement settled with France are presented [fr

  2. Chinas Response to Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    regulations regarding terrorism and related activities (e.g., the 2006 Anti- Money iv Laundering Law), most notably the 2015 Counterterrorism... Money Laundering ASEAN Association for Southeast Asian Nations CASS Chinese Academy of Social Sciences CCP Chinese Communist Party CICIR China...the Financing of Terrorism” in 2006, and passed a new law governing money laundering in an effort to restrict access to funds available to terrorists

  3. China Report, Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-12

    than 50 percent; the breeding of valuable seafoods such as scallops, sea cucumbers and so on all showed considerable growth. Shandong’s great...over 900 yuan in economically developed areas. Grain output will average 415-429 kg per capita, edible oil and sugar,.about six kg, meat , about 23...country, trees will cover 20 percent of the land and timber output will reach 100 million cubic meters. China anticipates an annual meat output of

  4. China's Work Safety Report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang Jiakun

    2005-01-01

    @@ General Situation of China's Work Safety in 2004 In 2004, the national work safety situation remained stable as a whole and gained momentum to improve. The totality of accidents held the line and began to drop. The safety conditions in industrial,mining, and commercial/trading enterprises improved. Progress was made in ensuring work safety in the relevant industries and fields. The safety situation in most provinces (autonomous regions, municipalities directly under the Central Government) kept stable.

  5. China Report, Science & Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-30

    Distribution of Scientists, Engineers Discussed (CHINA DAILY, various dates) 37 Little Freedom of Movement , by Niu Qiuxia 37 ’Imbalanced...the masses to monitor foreshocks. "A few years ago we had such concoctions as ’indigenous telluric electricity,’ ’indigenous geomagnetism,’ and...skills. It is easier and more feasible than movements of skilled personnel. One might say that it is using "nearby water to slake nearby thirst

  6. JPRS Report, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-07-10

    Supervision and Management of the People’s Republic of China, abroad), Office of Agriculture, Office of Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Medicine , Office of...prefectures, counties, and even townships should have been consid- ered as semi-open separatist economic regimes. The reason that many counterfeit ... medicine , wine, and name- brand products can be mass produced and circulated through official channels is because they are supported by local government

  7. JPRS Report China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-08-05

    by the goal of China’s price reform, except for a few monopolized industries where prices should be set by the state, most products of industrial... monopolized and assigned procurement has enabled the market mechanism to infiltrate many areas of rural economy. Except for grain and cotton which are...access. This very brief article explains the serological tests performed on white mice to identify the toxin, and offers suggestions on how to

  8. JPRS Report China

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-10-05

    the diatomite deposit is one of the largest in the world. But for various reasons, China’s stone products industry still remains backward despite...conservancy construction and strive to improve the conditions for agricultural production. 3. Do a good job in improving the soil and its fertility. 4...Beijing Steelworks Eyes World Market, ’International Prestige’ 23 Export Volume in Beijing Sets Record 24 Guangdong Regulations Stimulate

  9. Renewable Energy in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valery I. Salygin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available China is the most densely populated country in the world with high rate of economic growth resulting in higher demand for energy resources and in strive to guarantee stable supply of these resources. Chinese annual GDP growth in 2012 and 2013 was down to 7.7% comparing to 10% in 2000-2011 [7]. In 2012 and 2013 economic growth stumbled because of slowdown in manufacturing and exports, taking into account that Chinese government was eager to cut inflation and excessive investments in some segments of the market. Speaking about energy sector Chinese government is aimed at promotion of market-based pricing systems, activities for advanced energy efficiency and higher competition between energy companies, and increased investment in renewable energy resources. Considering renewables as one of many ways to diversify energy supplies, lower dependence on coal and improve environmental situation Chinese government actively supports and develops programs aimed at support of renewable energy industry in China. Chinese economic development is tightly attached to five-year plans. It seems important to mention the fact that main energy goals for current 12-th "five-year plan" are to achieve 15% renewables consumption and CO2 sequestration up to 40-45% by2020 in order to lower dependency on coal and improve environmental situation. As a result of Chinese state policy to develop renewables China achieved certain results in wind energy, helioenergetics, hydroenergetics and energy from waste recycling.

  10. Extreme Energy in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khanna, Nina [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fridley, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Cai, Lixue [China Petrochemical Corporations (China)

    2013-06-01

    Over the last decade, China has focused its policies simultaneously on moderating the rapid energy demand growth that has been driven by three decades of rapid economic growth and industrialization and on increasing its energy supply. In spite of these concerted efforts, however, China continues to face growing energy supply challenges, particularly with accelerating demand for oil and natural gas, both of which are now heavily dependent on imports. On the supply side, the recent 11th and 12th Five-Year Plans have emphasized accelerating conventional and nonconventional oil and gas exploration and development through pricing reforms, pipeline infrastructure expansions and 2015 production targets for shale gas and coal seam methane. This study will analyze China’s new and nonconventional oil and gas resources base, possible development paths and outlook, and the potential role for these nonconventional resources in meeting oil and gas demand. The nonconventional resources currently being considered by China and included in this study include: shale gas, coal seam methane (coal mine methane and coal bed methane), tight gas, in-situ coal gasification, tight oil and oil shale, and gas hydrates.

  11. Nuclear medicine in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Shihchen; Liu, Xiujie

    1986-01-01

    Since China first applied isotopes to medical research in 1956, over 800 hospitals and research institutions with 4000 staff have taken up nuclear technology. So far, over 120 important biologically active materials have been measured by radioimmunoassay in China, and 44 types of RIA kit have been supplied commercially. More than 50,000 cases of hyperthyroidism have been treated satisfactorily with 131 I. Radionuclide imaging of practically all organs and systems of the human body has been performed, and adrenal imaging and nuclear cardiology have become routine clinical practice in several large hospitals. The thyroid iodine uptake test, renogram tracing and cardiac function studies with a cardiac probe are also commonly used in most Chinese hospitals. The active principles of more than 60 medicinal herbs have been labelled with isotopes in order to study the drug metabolism and mechanism of action. Through the use of labelled neurotransmitters or deoxyglucose, RIA, radioreceptor assay and autoradiography, Chinese researchers have made remarkable achievements in the study of the scientific basis of acupuncture analgesia. In 1980 the Chinese Society of Nuclear Medicine was founded, and since 1981 the Chinese Journal of Nuclear Medicine has been published. Although nuclear medicine in China has already made some progress, when compared with advanced countries, much progress is still to be made. It is hoped that international scientific exchange will be strengthened in the future. (author)

  12. Capital outflows from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Cieślik

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Following the success in opening the economy and attracting inward foreign direct investment, China has rapidly become an important source of outward foreign direct investment (ODI and portfolio investments in recent years. Since China adopted a Going Global strategy, the stock of Chinese ODI has tripled. China’s outward investments are quite small compared with the inward flows. The change of ODI forms, structure and destinations has made China more and more similar to developed countries. Chinese ODI has accumulated in the service sector and high-tech manufacturing. More recently, China’s financial institutions are starting to play a more substantial role in the foreign financial sector. With the concentration of Chinese ODI in foreign advanced sectors, a lot of China’s funds flow into resource sectors in the developing countries. This double-track approach to outward foreign investment is probably beneficial for China’s economic development and is favourable to the process of catching-up with the developed countries.

  13. Meningococcal Disease in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhujun Shao

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Neisseria meningitides is one of the leading causes of bacterial meningitis. The epidemiology of invasive meningococcal disease varies in different countries and regions. This review summarizes the available data from China describing the burden of meningococcal disease, N. meningitidis serogroups, and vaccination programs. Meningococcal serogroup A (MenA was predominant for several decades in China. However, since 2000, invasive meningococcal disease caused by MenC, MenW, or MenB has increased. MenC, belonging to a hyperinvasive clonal sequence type ST-4821 (CC4821, emerged in Anhui Province and was subsequently disseminated over two-thirds of all Chinese provinces. Serogroup W (CC11 is endemic and causes death. Serogroup B (CC4821 originated from serogroup C (CC4821 via a capsular switching mechanism. Polysaccharide A and C meningococcal vaccines have been introduced into national routine immunization programs and have effectively reduced invasive meningococcal disease. However, the vaccination strategy must be revised based on the epidemic trends in meningococcal disease in China.

  14. Toilet revolution in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shikun; Li, Zifu; Uddin, Sayed Mohammad Nazim; Mang, Heinz-Peter; Zhou, Xiaoqin; Zhang, Jian; Zheng, Lei; Zhang, Lingling

    2018-06-15

    The wide-spread prevalence of unimproved sanitation technologies has been a major cause of concern for the environment and public health, and China is no exception to this. Towards the sanitation issue, toilet revolution has become a buzzword in China recently. This paper elaborates the backgrounds, connotations, and actions of the toilet revolution in China. The toilet revolution aims to create sanitation infrastructure and public services that work for everyone and that turn waste into value. Opportunities for implementing the toilet revolution include: fulfilling Millennium Development Goals and new Sustainable Development Goals; government support at all levels for popularizing sanitary toilet; environmental protection to alleviate wastewater pollution; resource recovery from human waste and disease prevention for health and wellbeing improvement. Meanwhile, the challenges faced are: insufficient funding and policy support, regional imbalance and lagging approval processes, weak sanitary awareness and low acceptance of new toilets, lack of R&D and service system. The toilet revolution requires a concerted effort from many governmental departments. It needs to address not only technology implementation, but also social acceptance, economic affordability, maintenance issues and, increasingly, gender considerations. Aligned with the ecological sanitation principles, it calls for understanding issues across the entire sanitation service chain. Public-private partnership is also recommended to absorb private capital to make up the lack of funds, as well as arouse the enthusiasm of the public. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Control: China Story Yearbook 2016

    OpenAIRE

    2017-01-01

    ‘More cosmopolitan, more lively, more global’ is how the China Daily summed up the year 2016 in China. It was also a year of more control. The Chinese Communist Party laid down strict new rules of conduct for its members, continued to assert its dominance over everything from the Internet to the South China Sea and announced a new Five-Year Plan that Greenpeace called ‘quite possibly the most important document in the world in setting the pace of acting on climate change’. The China Story Y...

  16. Key China Energy Statistics 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, Mark [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fridley, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Lu, Hongyou [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fino-Chen, Cecilia [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-05-01

    The China Energy Group at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) was established in 1988. Over the years the Group has gained recognition as an authoritative source of China energy statistics through the publication of its China Energy Databook (CED). The Group has published seven editions to date of the CED (http://china.lbl.gov/research/chinaenergy-databook). This handbook summarizes key statistics from the CED and is expressly modeled on the International Energy Agency’s “Key World Energy Statistics” series of publications. The handbook contains timely, clearly-presented data on the supply, transformation, and consumption of all major energy sources.

  17. Key China Energy Statistics 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, Mark [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fridley, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Lu, Hongyou [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fino-Chen, Cecilia [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-01-15

    The China Energy Group at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) was established in 1988. Over the years the Group has gained recognition as an authoritative source of China energy statistics through the publication of its China Energy Databook (CED). In 2008 the Group published the Seventh Edition of the CED (http://china.lbl.gov/research/chinaenergy-databook). This handbook summarizes key statistics from the CED and is expressly modeled on the International Energy Agency’s “Key World Energy Statistics” series of publications. The handbook contains timely, clearly-presented data on the supply, transformation, and consumption of all major energy sources.

  18. The petroleum industry in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    A review is presented of China's petroleum industry. In recent years China has ranked as the world's fifth or sixth largest oil producer, providing ca 20% of China's energy needs and generating US $45 billion in exports during 1988-89. However, domestic oil consumption is rapidly outpacing growth in production, and China may become a net oil importer as early as March 1994 if trends continue. In order to slow declining production rates, China must: introduce modern management techniques, equipment and technology; accelerate exploration to find new reserves; employ the latest equipment and technology, consulting services and foreign training to develop new reserves as quickly as possible; and improve the efficiency with which petroleum is used and traded. Key players including the China National Petroleum Corporation, China National Oil Development Corporation, China National United Oil Company, and China National Offshore Oil Corporation are described. Current Chinese petroleum industry priorities are discussed, together with Canadian capabilities relevant to these activities, and recent bilateral agreements in the sector

  19. Cadaveric organ donation in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yijin; Elliott, Robert; Li, Linzi; Yang, Tongwei; Bai, Yusen; Ma, Wen

    2018-01-01

    Abstract In this paper, we will discuss several ethical issues concerning cadaveric organ donation from the perspective of sociocultural factors that are unique to China under the condition that China has ended the use of executed prisoner's organs for transplants. It is found that though great developments have been made in organ transplantation, the ethical issues relating to organ transplantation still face dilemmas in China. It is argued that organ donation and transplantation in China could make further progress if the ethical issues proposed in this paper can be carefully considered. PMID:29517702

  20. Petroleum in the South China Sea : a Chinese national interest

    OpenAIRE

    Snildal, Knut

    2000-01-01

    The thesis analyses the relationship between China's petroleum policies and China's involvement in the South China Sea conflict. The aim of the thesis is to determine what China's national interest are in the South China Sea, and to detect who forms, and how, China's South China Sea policy. The thesis discusses whether China's assumed interest in the South China Sea of exploiting the petroleum reserves of the territorially disputed areas of the South China Sea is a short-term national interes...

  1. China's new path

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yingling

    2008-01-01

    The recent policy tools have also consolidated and advanced traditional renewable energy industries, including hydropower and solar thermal panels, where China has already been a world leader. The technologies are comparatively simple and low-cost, and the country has developed fairly strong construction, manufacturing and installation industries for both sources. They are still dominant in China's renewable energy use, and are expected to see continuous strong growth. Hydropower accounts for about two-thirds of China's current renewable energy use. It has grown by over 8 per cent annually from 2002 to 2006, and installed capacity will reach 190 GW by 2010 and 300 GW by 2020. China also has nearly two-thirds of the world's solar hot water capacity: more than one in every ten households bathe in water heated by the sun. Such solar thermal has witnessed 20-25 per cent annual growth in recent years, with installed capacity rising from 35 million square metres in 2000 to 100 million square metres by the end of 2006. The government aims for 150 million square metres by 2010 and double that figure by 2020. A more optimistic prediction envisages 800 million square metres installed capacity by 2030, which would mean that more than half of all Chinese households would be using solar energy for water heating. Renewable energy has become a strategic industry in China. The country has more than 50 domestic wind turbine manufacturers, over 15 major solar cell manufacturers and roughly 50 companies constructing, expanding or planning for polysilicon production lines, the key components for solar PV systems. Those two industries together employ some 80,000 people. The country also has thousands of hydropower manufacturers and engineering and design firms. More than a thousand solar water heater manufacturers throughout the country - and associated design, installation and service providers - provide some 600,000 jobs. As renewable industries are scaled up, costs will come down

  2. Congenital malaria in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Yong Tao

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Congenital malaria, in which infants are directly infected with malaria parasites from their mother prior to or during birth, is a potentially life-threatening condition that occurs at relatively low rates in malaria-endemic regions. It is recognized as a serious problem in Plasmodium falciparum-endemic sub-Saharan Africa, where recent data suggests that it is more common than previously believed. In such regions where malaria transmission is high, neonates may be protected from disease caused by congenital malaria through the transfer of maternal antibodies against the parasite. However, in low P. vivax-endemic regions, immunity to vivax malaria is low; thus, there is the likelihood that congenital vivax malaria poses a more significant threat to newborn health. Malaria had previously been a major parasitic disease in China, and congenital malaria case reports in Chinese offer valuable information for understanding the risks posed by congenital malaria to neonatal health. As most of the literature documenting congenital malaria cases in China are written in Chinese and therefore are not easily accessible to the global malaria research community, we have undertaken an extensive review of the Chinese literature on this subject. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we reviewed congenital malaria cases from three major searchable Chinese journal databases, concentrating on data from 1915 through 2011. Following extensive screening, a total of 104 cases of congenital malaria were identified. These cases were distributed mainly in the eastern, central, and southern regions of China, as well as in the low-lying region of southwest China. The dominant species was P. vivax (92.50%, reflecting the malaria parasite species distribution in China. The leading clinical presentation was fever, and other clinical presentations were anaemia, jaundice, paleness, diarrhoea, vomiting, and general weakness. With the exception of two cases, all patients

  3. China's Pork Miracle? : Agribusiness and Development in China's Pork Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.L. Schneider (Mindi); S. Sharma (Shefali)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstractEXECUTIVE SUMMARY Agriculture has helped fuel the “China miracle.” Since 1978, agricultural and food output has soared, Chinese agribusiness firms have become key players in domestic and international markets, and by all accounts, China has been highly successful in overcoming land

  4. Satellite SAR wind resource mapping in China (SAR-China)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badger, Merete

    The project ‘Off-Shore Wind Energy Resource Assessment and Feasibility Study of Off-Shore Wind Farm Development in China’ is funded by the EU-China Energy and Environment Programme (EEP) and runs for one year (August 2008 - August 2009). The project is lead by the China Meteorological Administrat...

  5. Climate Responsive Buildings in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haase, M.; Amato, A.; Heiselberg, Per

    2006-01-01

    ) and discusses its usefulness for Hong Kong and China. Special focus was put on the description of the different climates in China and a detailed analysis revealed its potential for energy conservation strategies. It could be shown that Natural Ventilation (NV) has the potential to increase thermal comfort up...

  6. CDM Country Guide for China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Under the Integrated Capacity Strengthening for the CDM (ICS-CDM) programme, IGES presents the CDM Country Guides, a series of manuals on CDM project development for Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Thailand. These guidebooks aim at facilitating CDM project developments in Asia by providing essential information to both project developers and potential investors. This volume is on China

  7. China: An Unlikely Economic Hegemon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Chinese cul- ture favors male offspring, leading to some female infanticide, or more commonly, sex - selective abortions . Therefore, “In about 20 or 25...Crisis.” 71. Ibid. 72. Meyer, China or Japan, 56. 73. Somnath Chatterji et al., “The Health of Aging Populations in China and India ,” Health Affairs 27

  8. Early Childhood Intervention in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yuzhu; Maude, Susan P.; Brotherson, Mary Jane

    2015-01-01

    With rapid economic development and increasing awareness of the importance of early childhood intervention (ECI), China is re-examining its social and educational practices for young children with disabilities. This re-examination may have a significant impact on young children with disabilities in China. It may also set an example for other…

  9. Teaching about China. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jeffrey R.

    In spring 1989, the United States watched intently as televised reports relayed the events unfolding in Beijing's (China) Tiananmen Square. This concern for a people whose culture and political institutions are significantly different reflects a continuing and compelling interest in China. Although historians and journalists in the United States…

  10. Building server capabilities in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adeyemi, Oluseyi; Slepniov, Dmitrij; Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to further our understanding of multinational companies building server capabilities in China. The paper is based on the cases of two western companies with operations in China. The findings highlight a number of common patterns in the 1) managerial challenges related...

  11. Market survey China. Wind Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-07-01

    The title survey presents an overview of the wind developments in China, an analysis of the key market players in this sector, and an assessment of the potential future market for wind-related activities in China. The survey is concluded with a number of conclusions and recommendations

  12. Getting “China Ready”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Matias Thuen; Ren, Carina Bregnholm

    2015-01-01

    Lately, the Scandinavian tourism sector has identified the Chinese market as attractive, but difficultly accessible. As a consequence, initiatives have been undertaken in order to make Scandinavia ‘China ready’. In this article, we use an extensive literature review, an example of such an initiat...... people into stale and stereotypical representations and takes an important step towards getting truly ‘China ready’....

  13. Assessing China's Relations with Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chifaou.amzat

    2013-10-15

    Oct 15, 2013 ... of dollars in aid to the country as an incentive to do so. By January ... China has followed up this diplomatic success over Taiwan with cooperation .... Gono, in a meeting with the deputy governor of the People's Bank of China,.

  14. China's Environmental Governance in Transition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, A.P.J.; Carter, N.T.

    2006-01-01

    In the face of unprecedented economic and industrial growth levels, China is rapidly developing its system of environmental governance. Coming from a conventional command-and-control approach to environmental policy, which fitted well its centrally planned economy, transitional China is swiftly

  15. Internationalisierung der Versicherungsrechnungslegung in China

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Xian

    2010-01-01

    In der vorliegenden Dissertation wird untersucht, inwiefern die Vorschriften zur Rechnungslegung von Versicherungsunternehmen in China mit denjenigen nach IFRS konvergieren, d.h., wie sich China durch Reformen des Rechnungslegungsrechts schrittweise an die IFRS annähert. Hierbei wird der gegenwärtige chinesische Rechnungslegungsrahmen auch kritisch diskutiert.

  16. Income inequality in today's China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yu; Zhou, Xiang

    2014-05-13

    Using multiple data sources, we establish that China's income inequality since 2005 has reached very high levels, with the Gini coefficient in the range of 0.53-0.55. Analyzing comparable survey data collected in 2010 in China and the United States, we examine social determinants that help explain China's high income inequality. Our results indicate that a substantial part of China's high income inequality is due to regional disparities and the rural-urban gap. The contributions of these two structural forces are particularly strong in China, but they play a negligible role in generating the overall income inequality in the United States, where individual-level and family-level income determinants, such as family structure and race/ethnicity, play a much larger role.

  17. China: economy: living standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The livelihood of the urban and rural population continued to improve last year, when the average consumption/person reached 224 yuan, according to the latest data released by the State Statisitical Bureau. The bureau, which is responsible for the collection, compilation, and analysis of economic and social statistics, said that after ajustment for inflationary factors, the per capital consumption reflected an increase of 99% since 1952 or an average of 2.5% annually (Table 1). The sustained annual increase was attributed mostly to the remarkable improvement in production, which in turn led to the rise in Chinese peasants' income (L,8049). The Ministry of Agriculture said the average income of each rural inhabitant in China in 1980 was 155 yuan, which compared with 152.69 yuan in 1979, 143.17 yuan in 1978 and 133.94 yuan in 1977. As a result of the increased income, the people's purchasing power also improved. Compared with 1952, each Chinese consumed 8.2% more grain last year, 9.8% more vegetable oil, 88.6% more pork, and 320% more sugar. In the World Banks's 1st extensive report on China, published last June, the improvement in the people's livelihood was cited as the country's most remarkable achievement, although "marked rural inequality and poverty still exist in some areas." The Statistical Bureau's data also revealed a significant decline in infant mortality--from 139/1000 in 1954 to 20 in 1980. In contrast with the fall in mortality rate, the average life expectancy in China increased from 57 years in 1957 to 68 years in 1980, a development which was also hailed by the World Bank. full text

  18. Is China falling apart?

    OpenAIRE

    Isachsen, Arne Jon

    2012-01-01

    On 1 October 1949 Mao proclaimed the People’s Republic of China. On Tiananmen Square that day was Li Shenzhi, together with tens of thousand of other young, idealistic and excited Communists. “China”, wrote Li when later he was to describe this day, “had said farewell forever to the past … to backwardness, to poverty and to ignorance, and had set out on a completely new road, to liberty, equality and fraternity”. But this is not how it turned out. “The nearly thirty years of th...

  19. China: Ingestion study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Diet samples in China were collected according to the sampling strategy devised for the 'First Total Diet Study in China' in 1990 by the Institute of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, Chinese Academy of Preventive Medicine. Based on geographic location, dietary habits and cooking style, the whole of China was divided into 4 regions and from each region one province was selected for the survey. In each of these provinces, 3 survey points (one town and two countryside) were identified, from where 30 families were randomly chosen. The diet composition and the consumption of various food items were recorded by means of weight record for three successive days. Some of these details are given in second total diet study, carried out in China in 1992 [48]. The total diet composition as well as the average daily consumption of each food for Chinese adults, engaged in light physical activity was calculated for each region. Based on the composition of diet and individual food materials, all foods and the products derived from them were classified into the following 13 types: (1) Grain; (2). Beans and nuts; (3) Yam; (4) Meat (including poultry); (5) Egg; (6) Aquatic foods; (7) Milk; (8) Vegetable; (9) Fruits and its salads, etc.; (10) Sugar; (11) Soft beverages and drinking water; (12) Alcoholic beverages; (13) Spices and cooking oil. These foods were collected in 1997 from nearby vegetable markets, subsidiary food stores and farmer markets within the three-survey points in each region. Various foods thus collected were treated and cooked according to the local dietary habit in assigned restaurants and kitchens. Cooked foods were then ground and mixed in the blender. In all, 48 individual food samples were obtained representing the four regions. Samples under frozen condition were shipped to the analytical laboratory for further processing and analysis. All possible precautions already stated in the sampling and quality control chapter were taken to avoid contamination of samples

  20. Computational mathematics in China

    CERN Document Server

    Shi, Zhong-Ci

    1994-01-01

    This volume describes the most significant contributions made by Chinese mathematicians over the past decades in various areas of computational mathematics. Some of the results are quite important and complement Western developments in the field. The contributors to the volume range from noted senior mathematicians to promising young researchers. The topics include finite element methods, computational fluid mechanics, numerical solutions of differential equations, computational methods in dynamical systems, numerical algebra, approximation, and optimization. Containing a number of survey articles, the book provides an excellent way for Western readers to gain an understanding of the status and trends of computational mathematics in China.

  1. India : the new China?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nanavaty, K. [Reliance Industries Ltd., Mumbai (India). Cracker and Polymer Div.

    2006-07-01

    India is emerging as a strong force in the global economy. The population of China is 1.2 times that of India, and its gross domestic product is 2.5 times that of India. However, analyses of per capita gross domestic product (GDP) indicate that if India continues its rate of growth, its' consumption and production will reach China's current levels in less than 15 years. This represents a significant investment opportunity in basic industry, particularly since a growing middle class will ensure a boom in consumer products consumption. This presentation compared India and China, in terms of economic approaches and challenges for India. Implications for the petrochemical industry were also discussed with reference to Reliance Industries Ltd. and its full integration in the value chain with petroleum refining. Reliance Industries Ltd. claims that India's captive utilities and labour productivity provide the company with conversion costs that are among the lowest in the industry. In terms of agriculture, India is one of the largest producers of agricultural commodities in the world and is well supported by varying agro-climates and fertile land. This presentation also included an agro-commodities yield comparison for rice, wheat and cereal. The Indian manufacturing industry is also competitive, focusing on cutting cost, increasing productivity and innovation. It was noted that although China has the advantage of a well established infrastructure on a global and domestic scale as well as job opportunities and quick policy implementation, it has lax labour laws, poor pollution laws and a challenging banking system. In contrast, India has the entrepreneurial advantage as well as global scale information technology, a globally competitive manufacturing industry, an independent regulatory framework and world class capital markets and banking system. India's challenge lies in its lack of a world-class infrastructure, complicated tax structure and slow

  2. competencia con China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena de la Paz Hernández Águila

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo ofrece un diagnóstico del desempeño de la industria mexicana del calzado desde la década de los ochenta hasta la actualidad. Analiza la problemática que ha enfrentado esta rama industrial a partir del proceso de apertura comercial y de la competencia en su mercado interno con productos provenientes de países asiáticos, particularmente China. Problematiza al respecto los retos y las perspectivas que a mediano plazo enfrentará este sector empresarial y sobre las posibilidades de competir en el mercado globalizado.

  3. Geothermal fields of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearey, P.; HongBing, Wei

    1993-08-01

    There are over 2500 known occurrences of geothermal phenomena in China. These lie mainly in four major geothermal zones: Xizang (Tibet)-Yunnan, Taiwan, East Coast and North-South. Hot water has also been found in boreholes in major Mesozoic-Cenozoic sedimentary basins. This paper presents a summary of present knowledge of these geothermal zones. The geological settings of geothermal occurrences are associated mainly with magmatic activity, fault uplift and depressional basins and these are described by examples of each type. Increased multipurpose utilisation of geothermal resources is planned and examples are given of current usages.

  4. Shooting Stars over China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, John

    International cultural exchange and education in the sciences and arts is one of the chief aims of the British Council (BC). The 1998 Leonids Meteor Shower was recognised by the BC in China as an event that would offer an opportunity, both to promote the public understanding of space science at an international level, and to encourage on-going cultural links between the United Kingdom and China. Predictions suggested that the 1998 shower, which was likely to be the most intense for more than three decades, would be best viewed in north-east Asia. The BC contracted the Orbital Mechanics Educational Network, an independent organisation that promotes space education amongst young people, to organise several activities aimed particularly at teenagers. The culmination of the project was a visit to Beijing by a party of British teenagers, to take part in meteor observation at China's Mi Yun Observatory. The paper focusses on the practicalities of organising and running such a project and reports on the achievements and shortcomings of the overall venture. It also reports on the observations and findings that were made by the UK group and their Chinese student partners, all of whom were observing a meteor shower for the first time. It reports on the techniques of observing that were tried, the observations themselves and the findings that were made by the group. It also offers advice to those who might wish to set up similar bi-lateral ventures, particularly with China and the UK, and outlines plans to continue and improve the relationships that have been established. (Please note: I realise this is topic not directly covered by the Conference, but how the subject of the meteor phenomenon in particular and, for that matter, science in general is conveyed to the " man in the street" should be important to all scientists, not least because they depend on external funding and public goodwill! Perhaps a suitable slot can be made for this presentation on Tuesday, which is the

  5. Food legume production in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Li

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Food legumes comprise all legumes grown for human food in China as either dry grains or vegetables, except for soybean and groundnut. China has a vast territory with complex ecological conditions. Rotation, intercropping, and mixed cropping involving pulses are normal cropping systems in China. Whether indigenous or introduced crops, pulses have played an important role in Chinese cropping systems and made an important contribution to food resources for humans since ancient times. The six major food legume species (pea, faba bean, common bean, mung bean, adzuki bean, and cowpea are the most well-known pulses in China, as well as those with more local distributions; runner bean, lima bean, chickpea, lentil, grass pea, lupine, rice bean, black gram, hyacinth bean, pigeon pea, velvet bean, winged bean, guar bean, sword bean, and jack bean. China has remained the world's leading producer of peas, faba beans, mung beans, and adzuki beans in recent decades, as documented by FAO statistics and China Agriculture Statistical Reports. The demand for food legumes as a healthy food will markedly increase with the improvement of living standards in China. Since China officially joined the World Trade Organization (WTO in 2001, imports of pea from Canada and Australia have rapidly increased, resulting in reduced prices for dry pea and other food legumes. With reduced profits for food legume crops, their sowing area and total production has decreased within China. At the same time, the rising consumer demand for vegetable food legumes as a healthy food has led to attractive market prices and sharp production increases in China. Vegetable food legumes have reduced growing duration and enable flexibility in cropping systems. In the future, production of dry food legumes will range from stable to slowly decreasing, while production of vegetable food legumes will continue to increase.

  6. China and India, 2025: A Comparative Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    in China, see Banister, Bloom, and Rosenberg (2010). 13 For a discussion of inequality in India, see Bardhan (2003). population trends in China and...WorkingPapers/2010/PGDA_WP_53.pdf 132 China and India, 2025: A Comparative Assessment Bardhan , Pranab, “Crouching Tiger, Lumbering Elephant: A China-India

  7. New Face of China's Telecom Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Ping

    2008-01-01

    @@ On October 15 2008, China Unicorn merged with China Netcom, the latter declaring withdrawal from the market. Both agreed, to rename "China Unicorn Limited" as 'China Unicorn (HongKong) Limited ', which happened just after China Mobile had announced that would become its wholly-owned subsidiary and China Telecom had proclaimed that it would take over the CDMA business from China Unicorn since October 1 2008. It means that the "six to three" reorganization has finally become a reality and marks the beginning of an era of All-Service Operation for the telecom industry. The three new telecom operators will surely undergo profound changes in corporate strategy and operation areas, it is foreseeable that the merging of China Netcom with China Unicorn will rewrite the history of the development of China's telecom industry.

  8. General aviation in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaosi

    In the last four decades, China has accomplished economic reform successfully and grown to be a leading country in the world. As the "world factory", the country is able to manufacture a variety of industrial products from clothes and shoes to rockets and satellites. But the aviation industry has always been a weak spot and even the military relies on imported turbofan engines and jet fighters, not to mention the airlines. Recently China has launched programs such as ARJ21 and C919, and started reform to change the undeveloped situation of its aviation industry. As the foundation of the aviation industry, the development of general aviation is essential for the rise of commercial aviation. The primary goal of this study is to examine the general aviation industry and finds the issues that constrain the development of the industry in the system. The research method used in this thesis is the narrative research of qualitative approach since the policy instead of statistical data is analyzed. It appears that the main constraint for the general aviation industry is the government interference.

  9. Anticounterfeit holograms in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Dahsiung; Zhou, Jing; Pei, Wen; Li, Qiang; Huang, Xuhuai; Cao, Yulin

    1995-02-01

    The Chinese holography industry has been given an enormous boost by the energetic sales and technology transfer of several western businesses. It is a fast growing industry which can keep up with domestic demand for anti-counterfeit embossed holograms because product counterfeiting is so rife internally. Tax papers, stamps, plastic cards, identification cards, and many packaged goods are authenticated with embossed holograms. Up to now, about 1,000 kinds of products in China have used holograms to protect themselves. Anti-counterfeit holograms with secret codes have also been used. After dependence on imports, China is rapidly developing its own sources of equipment, holographic materials, and embossing substrates. The quality of this equipment and materials is improving. The new Chinese Holography Association, a national industry association aiming to develop the application of holograms and to promote cooperation between organizations, was established in 1993. The CHA has requested affiliation to the International Hologram Manufacturers Association, a move which should improve the communication between the Chinese industry and the rest of the world industry.

  10. Environmental issues in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Travis, P.S.

    1991-10-01

    Global concern about the environment is increasing, and the People's Republic of China (PRC) is not immune from such concerns. The Chinese face issues similar to those of many other developing nations. The US Department of Energy is particularly interested in national and world pollution issues, especially those that may infringe on other countries' economic growth and development. The DOE is also interested in any opportunities that might exist for US technical assistance and equipment in combating environmental problems. Our studies of articles in the China Daily, and English-language daily newspaper published by the Chinese government, show that population, pollution, and energy are major concerns of the Chinese Communist Party. Thus this report emphasizes the official Chinese government view. Supporting data were also obtained from other sources. Regardless of the severity of their various environmental problems, the Chinese will only try to remedy those problems with the greatest negative effects on its developing economy. They will be looking for foreign assistance, financial and informational, to help implement solutions. With the Chinese government seeking assistance, the United States has an opportunity to export basic technical information, especially in the areas of pollution control and monitoring, oil exploration methods, oil drilling technology, water and sewage treatment procedures, hazardous waste and nuclear waste handling techniques, and nuclear power plant safety procedures. In those areas the US has expertise and extensive technical experience, and by exporting the technologies the US would benefit both economically and politically. 59 refs., 3 figs.

  11. Environmental issues in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travis, P.S.

    1991-10-01

    Global concern about the environment is increasing, and the People's Republic of China (PRC) is not immune from such concerns. The Chinese face issues similar to those of many other developing nations. The US Department of Energy is particularly interested in national and world pollution issues, especially those that may infringe on other countries' economic growth and development. The DOE is also interested in any opportunities that might exist for US technical assistance and equipment in combating environmental problems. Our studies of articles in the China Daily, and English-language daily newspaper published by the Chinese government, show that population, pollution, and energy are major concerns of the Chinese Communist Party. Thus this report emphasizes the official Chinese government view. Supporting data were also obtained from other sources. Regardless of the severity of their various environmental problems, the Chinese will only try to remedy those problems with the greatest negative effects on its developing economy. They will be looking for foreign assistance, financial and informational, to help implement solutions. With the Chinese government seeking assistance, the United States has an opportunity to export basic technical information, especially in the areas of pollution control and monitoring, oil exploration methods, oil drilling technology, water and sewage treatment procedures, hazardous waste and nuclear waste handling techniques, and nuclear power plant safety procedures. In those areas the US has expertise and extensive technical experience, and by exporting the technologies the US would benefit both economically and politically. 59 refs., 3 figs

  12. The changing hues of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenz, A.

    2006-01-01

    Six years ago, PetroChina hired an Italian economist responsible for privatizing Italy's national oil company. His influence has helped engineer a reversal of PetroChina's fortunes. Its market capitalization has increased eight-fold since he joined the PetroChina board. The Chinese have since been purchasing international assets rapidly, and many American congressional leaders view China's acquisition of Canadian oil sands assets as a threat to American energy security. Although there is no clear national energy strategy towards China in Canada, the movement towards greater co-operation appears to be gaining momentum. Canadian Natural Resources is currently negotiating with a Chinese company to bring Chinese labourers to work on oilsands projects. Additionally, Canadian energy expertise may be valuable to China. The Chinese use 40 to 50 per cent more energy per unit of gross domestic product (GDP) than North Americans due to inefficiencies. The Chinese government has set a goal of getting the country to be 20 per cent more energy-efficient in the next 5 years. Canadian expertise may also be needed in environmental mitigation strategies, as the Chinese government wants at least 15 per cent of the gasoline sold by 2020 to include biofuels. Currently, 58 per cent of China's rivers are too polluted to serve as drinking water. 2 figs

  13. Social Darwinism in modern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Jilin; XIAO Zhiwei

    2012-01-01

    After evolutionary theory was introduced in China,Herbert Spencer's interpretation of it in the form of social Darwinism persuaded the Chinese that if they wanted to strengthen their nation,they would have to accept the brutal truth of natural selection,in which the principle of survival of the fittest rules.This version of evolutionary theory,when combined with the pragmatic thrust of Confucianism and the realpolitik of legalism from China's indigenous tradition,started a storm of materialism and utilitarianism in modern China.In the process,the traditional social order based on the rule of propriety (li) was completely subverted and replaced by a new order predicated on the rule of competition and power.This development produced a new mental outlook that privileged power over everything else,seriously undermined the rules of ethics and caused serious political consequences in the late Qing and early Republican period.This intellectual development may have contributed to ending the dynastic rule in China,but it was also responsible for ruining the newborn Republican China.The Chinese intellectuals of the May Fourth era critically reflected on this problematic legacy.While still believing in the notion of progress,they abandoned social Darwinism and embraced the idea of evolution through mutual assistance.Thus began a historical shift in modern China from focusing on wealth and power to focusing on civilization as China's salvation.

  14. Fusion research activities in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Xiwen

    1998-01-01

    The fusion program in China has been executed in most areas of magnetic confinement fusion for more than 30 years. Basing on the situation of the power supply requirements of China, the fusion program is becoming an important and vital component of the nuclear power program in China. This paper reviews the status of fusion research and next step plans in China. The motivation and goal of the Chinese fusion program is explained. Research and development on tokamak physics and engineering in the southwestern institute of physics (SWIP) and the institute of plasma physics of Academic Sinica (ASIPP) are introduced. A fusion breeder program and a pure fusion reactor design program have been supported by the state science and technology commission (SSTC) and the China national nuclear corporation (CNNC), respectively. Some features and progress of fusion reactor R and D activities are reviewed. Non fusion applications of plasma science are an important part of China fusion research; a brief introduction about this area is given. Finally, an introductional collaboration network on fusion research activities in China is reported. (orig.)

  15. U.S.-China Relations: Policy Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    China Relations: Policy Issues Congressional Research Service 8 Center; the U.S.-China Energy Efficiency Action Plan; and the U.S.-China Energy...January 25, 2010. 28 Liu Shengjun, “How to Better Use Forex Reserves,” China Daily, January 13, 2010. 29 Paul R. La Monica, “China Still Likes Us…For...or commercialization of carbon capture and sequestration technology, improve energy efficiency , or renewable energy sources. H.R. 2454 Waxman

  16. Paleoearthquakes and long-term seismic regime in the Longmenshan fault zone, Southwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J.; Rodina, S. N.; Rogozhin, E. A.

    2017-11-01

    The collected paleoseismological data about the ancient earthquakes are analyzed for the zone of the Wenchuan earthquake. Four earthquakes with magnitude M = 8.0 occurred over a period of 10000 years and two earthquakes with magnitude 7.5 occurred over 1200 years. The obtained data allowed us to reconstruct the long-term seismic regime within the studied territory by constructing the frequency-magnitude relationship based on the instrumental, historical, and paleoseismological data.

  17. China's nuclear programs and policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, C.

    1983-01-01

    Economics and the futility of arms competition with the US and USSR has forced China to shift its nuclear effort to peaceful uses, although its current nuclear-deterrent warrants including China in arms negotiations. China's nuclear program began during the 1950s with an emphasis on weaponry and some development in space technology. Proponents of nuclear power now appear to have refuted the earlier arguments that nuclear-plant construction would be too slow, too dangerous and polluting, and too expensive and the idea that hydro resources would be adequate. The current leadership supports a serious nuclear-power-plant construction program. 6 references

  18. Satellite SAR wind resource mapping in China (SAR-China)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badger, M.

    2009-07-15

    The project 'Off-Shore Wind Energy Resource Assessment and Feasibility Study of Off-Shore Wind Farm Development in China' is funded by the EU-China Energy and Environment Programme (EEP) and runs for one year (August 2008 - August 2009). The project is lead by the China Meteorological Administration (CMA) and supported by SgurrEnergy Ltd. Risoe National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy at the Technical University of Denmark (Risoe DTU) has been commissioned to perform a satellite based wind resource analysis as part of the project. The objective of this analysis is to map the wind resource offshore at a high spatial resolution (1 km). The detailed wind resource maps will be used, in combination with other data sets, for an assessment of potential sites for offshore wind farm development along the coastline from Fujian to Shandong in China. (au)

  19. Powering China: Reforming the electric power industry in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi-Chong Xu

    2002-01-01

    The book reports on the rapidly changing face of the electricity business in China. Reforms by the central government and the need for more and more electric power have pushed the electricity sector from a central planned economy to a markets-based system. The international ramifications of China's reform programme are discussed. The author describes electricity industry reform in other countries including the USA and UK. The author points out that in China after 1998 there was a move to recentralise control but by then it was too late to reverse the reforms. The problems of tariff policies, pricing, and sources of new investments, including from foreign countries, are discussed. The final section of the book deals with problems arising from the need for massive retrenchment of power-section workers, cross-subsidies, and triangular debts. The book is said to provide a sound description of the political economy of power reform in China without getting bogged down in economic modelling

  20. Radar-based quantitative precipitation estimation for the identification of debris flow occurrence over earthquake-affected regions in Sichuan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zhao; Wei, Fangqiang; Chandrasekar, Venkatachalam

    2018-03-01

    Both Ms 8.0 Wenchuan earthquake on 12 May 2008 and Ms 7.0 Lushan earthquake on 20 April 2013 occurred in the province of Sichuan, China. In the earthquake-affected mountainous area, a large amount of loose material caused a high occurrence of debris flow during the rainy season. In order to evaluate the rainfall intensity-duration (I-D) threshold of the debris flow in the earthquake-affected area, and to fill up the observational gaps caused by the relatively scarce and low-altitude deployment of rain gauges in this area, raw data from two S-band China New Generation Doppler Weather Radar (CINRAD) were captured for six rainfall events that triggered 519 debris flows between 2012 and 2014. Due to the challenges of radar quantitative precipitation estimation (QPE) over mountainous areas, a series of improvement measures are considered: a hybrid scan mode, a vertical reflectivity profile (VPR) correction, a mosaic of reflectivity, a merged rainfall-reflectivity (R - Z) relationship for convective and stratiform rainfall, and rainfall bias adjustment with Kalman filter (KF). For validating rainfall accumulation over complex terrains, the study areas are divided into two kinds of regions by the height threshold of 1.5 km from the ground. Three kinds of radar rainfall estimates are compared with rain gauge measurements. It is observed that the normalized mean bias (NMB) is decreased by 39 % and the fitted linear ratio between radar and rain gauge observation reaches at 0.98. Furthermore, the radar-based I-D threshold derived by the frequentist method is I = 10.1D-0.52 and is underestimated by uncorrected raw radar data. In order to verify the impacts on observations due to spatial variation, I-D thresholds are identified from the nearest rain gauge observations and radar observations at the rain gauge locations. It is found that both kinds of observations have similar I-D thresholds and likewise underestimate I-D thresholds due to undershooting at the core of convective

  1. Indigenous innovation in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jin, Jun; Slepniov, Dmitrij

    2012-01-01

    champions. However, recently growing number of Chinese companies are seeking to create a foundation for growth and development based on innovation. As a result of this, many of them spread their operations to the countries of the traditional industrial ‘triad’ of North America, Europe and Japan to capture...... a foothold in these markets and to tap into the advanced technologies and concepts originating from this developed context. Another category of Chinese companies includes those who seek to move from routine transactional tasks to more innovation-intensive concepts while remaining in China and relying...... on their own in-house resources. The development and implementation of indigenous innovation solutions for these companies is an imperative which has not been adequately addressed in the literature. Therefore, by employing an explorative case of a Chinese company behind an innovative logistics concept...

  2. HTR Development in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Dazhong

    2014-01-01

    The roles of HTRs in China: 1. Due to the inherent safety features, high efficiency of electricity generation, site flexibility, the modular HTR can act as a supplement to LWR for small and medium size power generation. 2. Co-generation to supply steam up to 600℃, for petroleum refinery, oil sand and oil shale processing, sea water desalination and district heating, etc. 3. Hydrogen production at 900~1000 ℃ by V/HTR. Conclusions and prospects: • China’s energy system will experience transition and reform in the future; • Nuclear energy will play an irreplaceable role in China’s energy development; • Due to the excellent features of inherent safety, the HTR is a promising technology for electricity generation and process heat utilization; • Further international cooperation and exchanges need to be enhanced

  3. Nationalist Netizens in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bislev, Ane Katrine

    2014-01-01

    The Chinese government is currently performing a delicate act of balance: attempting to foster a “healthy” nationalism among the young generation in China while at the same time having to deal with the at times rather loud and uncompromising expression of this nationalism online. By examining......-called patriotic education campaign and the rhetoric used online. Even though the viewpoints expressed in the two debates vary widely, the central theme of how to deal with China’s past is plays a strong role in both debates. I argue that though the Chinese government has been rather successful in promoting...... this reliance on a certain historical perspective to understand present day China’s place in the world, the online nationalist expressions take on a life of their own partly due to China’s very special Internet culture....

  4. China's early space activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilin, Zhu

    1994-05-01

    China's space exploration began in the late 1950s in response to the launch of the Soviet Sputnik. The Chinese Academy of Science formed a team which was responsible for establishing three design institutes. The Shanghai Institute for Machine and Electricity Design was established. When the plan for the other design institutes was abandoned, the Shanghai Institute began to develop a sounding rocket. In 1960 the liquid-propellant sounding rocket 'T-7' was launched. The T-7 was modified and improved. A series of interplanetary flight symposia were held to discuss developmental approaches to Chinese space technology. Academic research results and technical development achievements laid a solid foundation for the launch in 1970 of the first artificial satellite.

  5. Sociosexuality in mainland China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wei Jun; Zhou, Xu Dong; Wang, Xiao Lei; Hesketh, Therese

    2014-04-01

    The construct of sociosexuality or sociosexual orientation describes the extent to which people will have casual, uncommitted sexual relationships. The Sociosexual Orientation Inventory (SOI) has been used to measure sociosexuality in many countries, but not in China. The aims of this study were to explore sociosexuality in a cross-section of the Chinese adult population, to quantify sex differences in sociosexuality, and to examine the sociodemographic correlates and the impact of the high sex ratio. The study consisted of a cross-sectional survey using a self-completion questionnaire. It was administered to adults of reproductive age in three provinces: Zhejiang, Guizhou, and Yunnan. While questionnaires were received from 7,424 participants, total SOI scores could be computed only for the 4,645 (63 %) who completed all seven items of the SOI. The mean score for men and women combined was 21.0, very low compared with most other countries, indicating restricted sociosexuality. The men (n = 2,048) had a mean of 27, showing more restricted sociosexuality than in all other countries where the SOI has been used. Wealth was the strongest independent correlate of high (unrestricted) sociosexuality in men and women. The effect size for the difference between the sexes was moderate (Cohen's d = .64), and comparable to more developed countries, perhaps reflecting relative gender equality in contemporary China. Despite the very high sex ratio, which is theorized to lead to restricted sexuality, its influence was difficult to determine, since differences in sociosexuality between high and low sex ratio areas within this population were inconsistent.

  6. China Energy Databook. Revision 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinton, J. E.; Fridley, D. G.; Levine, M. D.; Yang, F.; Zhenping, J.; Xing, Z.; Kejun, J.; Xiaofeng, L.

    1996-09-01

    The Energy Analysis Program at LBL first became involved in Chinese energy issues through a joint China-US symposium on markets and energy demand held in Nanjing Nov. 1988. EAP began to collaborate on projects with the Energy Research Institute of China`s State Planning Commission. It was decided to compile, assess, and organize Chinese energy data. Primary interest was to use the data to help understand the historical evolution and likely future of the Chinese energy system; thus the primary criterion was to relate the data to the structure of energy supply and demand in the past and to indicate probable developments (eg, as indicated by patterns of investment). Caveats are included in forewords to both the 1992 and 1996 editions. A chapter on energy prices is included in the 1996 edition. 1993 energy consumption data are not included since there was a major disruption in energy statistical collection in China that year.

  7. Uranium Supply Strategy of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Shangxiong; Zhang Decun; Zhang Yi

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: With the rapid development of nuclear power in the next few years, uranium demand will increase accordingly. Overseas uranium development will be the major channel to meet the future requirement of NPP demand in China.

  8. China's Maritime Strategy Peaceful Rise

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Horrell, Steven L

    2008-01-01

    .... As a result the global maritime environment will be key to this continental power's continued growth As a subset of maritime strategy China's naval strategy and accompanying People's Liberation Army...

  9. Education of dentists in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komabayashi, Takashi; Zhu, Qiang; Jiang, Jin; Hu, De-Yu; Kim, Kang-Ju; Toda, Shinji; Tanne, Yuki; Tanimoto, Kotaro; Kirkland, Mark D; Bird, William F

    2006-10-01

    China is geographically located in the east of Asia and its population exceeds 1.3 billion. An understanding of dental education in China is thus of interest. However, as there is little published information on this topic, this paper provides information about China regarding its dental history, dental school system including curriculum and dental licensure. High school graduates take a nationwide entrance examination to apply for dental school, of which there are more than 50 in China. A five year dental education leads to the BDS degree. Dental school graduates must then pass the nationwide licensure examination to practise dentistry. Currently, there are not adequate numbers of dentists to provide the necessary oral health care for people living outside metropolitan areas.

  10. CHINA ACCOUNTING REVIEW(CAR)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    China Accounting Review(CAR)is a new accounting journal in Chinese,spon- sored by Peking University,Tsinghua University,Beijing National Accounting Insti- tute and ten more universities,and published by the Peking University Press.

  11. China Mobile: Expanding "Blue Ocean"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Driving force is crucial for realizing high-speed growth. The strong driving force from "Blue Ocean Strategy" is an important advantage for China Mobile to realize harmonious and leap-forward development.

  12. July 1976 Tangshan, China Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Northeastern China. Damage: $5,600 million. The death toll (240,000) was one of largest in recorded history from an earthquake. In addition, around 800,000 were...

  13. Climate change issues in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye Ruqiu (China National Environmental Protection Agency, Beijing (China))

    China is vulnerable to global climate change because of its specific geographical and climatic conditions. Recent climate change trends in China are briefly described. To deal with climate change and reduce the increase in greenhouse gas emissions, a set of strategic measures aimed at harmonizing environmental protection and economic development have been worked out. Special attention has been given to the analysis of problems of energy efficiency and energy structure. Preliminary policy consideration is discussed. 8 refs., 3 tabs.

  14. Climate change issues in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Ruqiu

    1994-01-01

    China is vulnerable to global climate change because of its specific geographical and climatic conditions. Recent climate change trends in China are briefly described. To deal with climate change and reduce the increase in greenhouse gas emissions, a set of strategic measures aimed at harmonizing environmental protection and economic development have been worked out. Special attention has been given to the analysis of problems of energy efficiency and energy structure. Preliminary policy consideration is discussed. (author). 8 refs, 3 tabs

  15. Renewable energy development in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junfeng, Li

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents the resources availability, technologies development and their costs of renewable energies in China and introduces the programs of renewable energies technologies development and their adaptation for rural economic development in China. As the conclusion of this paper, renewable energies technologies are suitable for some rural areas, especially in the remote areas for both household energy and business activities energy demand. The paper looks at issues involving hydropower, wind energy, biomass combustion, geothermal energy, and solar energy.

  16. SAE-China Congress 2015

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    These proceedings gather outstanding papers submitted to the 2015 SAE-China Congress, the majority of which are from China, the biggest car maker as well as most dynamic car market in the world. The book covers a wide range of automotive topics, presenting the latest technical achievements in the industry. Many of the approaches presented can help technicians to solve the practical problems that most affect their daily work.

  17. SAE-China Congress 2014

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    These Proceedings gather outstanding papers submitted to the 2014 SAE-China Congress, the majority of which are from China, the most dynamic car market in the world. The book covers a wide range of automotive topics, presenting the latest technical achievements in the industry. Many of the approaches it presents can help technicians to solve the practical problems that most affect their daily work.

  18. Developing a new perspective to study the health of survivors of Sichuan earthquakes in China: a study on the effect of post-earthquake rescue policies on survivors' health-related quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Ying; Wang, Xiukun

    2013-10-29

    Sichuan is a province in China with an extensive history of earthquakes. Recent earthquakes, including the Lushan earthquake in 2013, have resulted in thousands of people losing their homes and their families. However, there is a research gap on the efficiency of government support policies. Therefore, this study develops a new perspective to study the health of earthquake survivors, based on the effect of post-earthquake rescue policies on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of survivors of the Sichuan earthquake. This study uses data from a survey conducted in five hard-hit counties (Wenchuan, Qingchuan, Mianzhu, Lushan, and Dujiangyan) in Sichuan in 2013. A total of 2,000 questionnaires were distributed, and 1,672 were returned; the response rate was 83.6%. Results of the rescue policies scale and Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36 (SF-36) scale passed the reliability test. The confirmatory factor analysis model showed that the physical component summary (PCS) directly affected the mental component summary (MCS). The results of structural equation model regarding the effects of rescue policies on HRQOL showed that the path coefficients of six policies (education, orphans, employment, poverty, legal, and social rescue policies) to the PCS of survivors were all positive and passed the test of significance. Finally, although only the path coefficient of the educational rescue policy to the MCS of survivors was positive and passed the test of significance, the other five policies affected the MCS indirectly through the PCS. The general HRQOL of survivors is not ideal; the survivors showed a low satisfaction with the post-earthquake rescue policies. Further, the six post-earthquake rescue policies significantly improved the HRQOL of survivors and directly affected the promotion of the PCS of survivors. Aside from the educational rescue policy, all other policies affected the MCS indirectly through the PCS. This finding indicates relatively large differences in

  19. “Malaysia-China Friendship Evening 2009”Held

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Our Staff Reporter

    2009-01-01

    <正>The CPAFFC, the Embassy of Malaysia in China, the Malaysia-China Friendship Association and the Malaysia-China Business Council jointly hosted the "Malaysia-China Friendship Evening 2009"at the Conference Hall of the Chi-

  20. Oil shale activities in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, D.; Jialin, Q.

    1991-01-01

    China has abundant oil shale resources, of the Early Silurian to Neogene age, the most important being the Tertiary period. The proved oil shale reserves in Fushun amount to 3.6 billion t, in Maoming 4.1 billion t. In Fushun, oil shale is produced by open-pit mining as a byproduct of coal, in Maoming it is also mined in open pits, but without coal. In China, scale oil has been produced from oil shale for 60 years. Annual production of crude shale oil amounts to about 200 000 t. The production costs of shale oil are lower than the price of crude petroleum on the world market. China has accumulated the experience and technologies of oil shale retorting. The Fushun type retort has been elaborated, in which the latent and sensible heat of shale coke is well utilized. But the capacity of such retort is relatively small, therefore it is suitable for use in small or medium oil plants. China has a policy of steadily developing shale oil industry. China is conducting oil shale research and developing oil shale processing technology. Much attention is being pay ed to the comprehensive utilization of oil shale, shale oil, and to environmental problems. In China, oil shale is mostly used for producing shale by retorting, attention will also be paid to direct combustion for power generation. Great achievements in oil shale research have been made in the eighties, and there will be a further development in the nineties. (author), 12 refs., 3 tabs

  1. China energy databook. 1992 Edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinton, J.E.; Levine, M.D.; Feng Liu; Davis, W.B. [eds.] [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Jiang Zhenping; Zhuang Xing; Jiang Kejun; Zhou Dadi [eds.] [Energy Research Inst., Beijing, BJ (China)

    1992-11-01

    The Energy Analysis Program (EAP) at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) first becamc involved in Chinese energy issues through a joint China-US symposium on markets and demand for energy held in Nanjing in November of 1988. Discovering common interests, EAP began to collaborate on projects with the Energy Research Institute (ERI) of China`s State Planning Commission. In the course of this work it became clear that a major issue in the furtherance of our research was the acquisition of reliable data. In addition to other, more focused activities-evaluating programs of energy conservation undertaken in China and the prospects for making Chinese industries more energy-efficient, preparing historical reviews of energy supply and demand in the People`s Republic of China, sponsoring researchers from China to work with experts at LBL on such topics as energy efficiency standards for buildings, adaptation of US energy analysis software to Chinese conditions, and transportation issues-we decided to compile, assess, and organize Chinese energy data. We are hopeful that this volume will not only help us in our work, but help build a broader community of Chinese energy policy studies within the US.

  2. China's coal export and inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiaodong Li

    1993-01-01

    With the development of world's business and trade, coal has become a large part of the import and export goods in the international market. The total amount of coal trade has risen a lot. China is rich in coal resources. According to the estimate made by some experts, the reserve which has been explored recently could be exploited hundreds of years. China's output of raw coal has risen a lot during the past forty years. China coal industry has developed rapidly since the 1980s. It is possible for China to become a big coal export country since it has rich resources and increasing output. The paper suggests four steps which must be taken to expand coal exports in China: improve the level of management and administration of coal mines so as to raise the economic benefit; the follow-up production capacity of the present mines must be enhanced rapidly; step up construction of new large-scale mines; and China's coal washing capacity must be improved speedily since the low capacity has seriously influenced the improvement of coal quality. The paper describes the inspection bureaus and companies that have developed to perform inspection of exports in order to guarantee the quality of export coal

  3. Schistosomiasis control in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Chang Yuan

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available After three decades' efforts, schistosomiasis japonica were controlled in one-third (4/12 of endemic provinces and 68.2 (259/380 of endemic counties throughout the country. The remaining 121 endemic counties are located primarily in the lake and mountainous regions. The epidemiological and ecological features of the lake and mountainous areas are different from the other endemic areas. The major schistosomiasis control efforts in China can be characterized as follows: (1 Application of centralized leadership and management, since schistosomiasis control is a task not only of the Ministry of Public Health, but also of all local governments in the endemic areas; (2 Integration of actions taken by various departments or bureaus, such as agriculture, water conservation and public health; (3 Promotion of mass participation; (4 Organization of strong professional teams; (5 Raising sufficient funds. Strategies on schistosomiasis control applied in different areas are divided into three levels: (1 In the areas where the schistosomiasis has been successfully controlled, surveillance must be maintained and immediate action should be taken where new infections occur and/or vector snails are found, so that control can be reestablished quickly; (2 In the areas where schistosomiasis has been partially controlled, any residents and/or live-stock infected should be examined and treated promptly with due care, and environment modifying and/or mollusciding must be used to eliminate the remaining snails; (3 In the areas where transmission has not been controlled, the main strategy is to control morbidity. Mass or selective chemotherapy with praziquental should be applied to both infected persosns and the live-stock, and environment modification for the snail-ridden areas should be taken but should be coordinated with agriculture where possible. Advance cases must be treated; and epidemics of Katayama fever prevented; water supply and sanitation shoud be improved

  4. China: Tradition and Transformation. Curriculum Projects. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad Program, 2002 (China).

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Committee on United States-China Relations, New York, NY.

    This collection of 15 curriculum projects is the result of a summer seminar in China for teachers and scholars. Projects in the collection are: (1) "Perspectives on Modern Political/Social Issues in China" (Sandy Conlon); (2) "Ancient History X Projects/China" (Michael Corey); (3) "Education and Development: China, a Case…

  5. Matthew Crabbe, Myth-Busting China's Numbers: Understandig and Using China's Statistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grünberg, Nis

    2014-01-01

    Book review of: Matthew Crabbe: Myth-Busting China's Numbers: Understandig and Using China's Statistics. Houndmills, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2014. 268 pp.......Book review of: Matthew Crabbe: Myth-Busting China's Numbers: Understandig and Using China's Statistics. Houndmills, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2014. 268 pp....

  6. China: the long wait

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    The repercussions of Tiananmen Square coupled with worse than expected balance of payments problems have been made it even more difficult than usual to discern the likely future direction of China's nuclear power programme. Currently there are three power reactors under construction, an indigenously designed 300MWe PWR at Qinsham and the two 900MWe Framatome units at Daya Bay, Guang-dong. Prior to the events of June the most likely way forward, beyond these units under construction, appeared to be development of 600MWe units for Chinese conditions in a joint venture with Western companies. There are strong pressures to ''go indigenous'', and attempt to develop a home grown 600MWe design or, perhaps more likely, go for repeats of the 300 MWe plant - assuming it can be operated successfully, a point on which some factions of the Chinese nuclear industry have their doubts. Nuclear district heating still has strong advocates, as an environmentally sound way of meeting the country's huge projected increases in primary energy consumption over the coming years. Construction of a 5MWt district heating reactor at Tsinghua University, Beijing, started in 1986, entered operation at the end of 1989 following a test phase and is now supplying 3MWt to heating of university buildings. (author)

  7. Masturbation in urban China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Aniruddha; Parish, William L; Laumann, Edward O

    2009-02-01

    This study examined the prevalence and sources of masturbatory practice in a nationally representative sample from China completed in the year 2000, with analysis of sources focused on 2,828 urban respondents aged 20-59. In this subpopulation, 13% (95% CI, 10-18) of women and 35% (CI, 26-44) of men reported any masturbation in the preceding year. Prevalence for people in their 20s was higher, and closer to US and European levels, especially for men. Particularly for women, masturbation not only compensated for absent partners but also complemented the high sexual interests of a subset of participants. For both women and men, practicing masturbation appeared to be a two-step process. In the first step, events such as sexual contact in childhood, early puberty, and early sex were related to sexualization and the "gateway event" of adolescent masturbation. In the second step, other factors, such as liberal sexual values and sexual knowledge, further increased the current probability of masturbation. Overall, the results suggest that masturbation is readily adopted even at more modest levels of economic and social development, that masturbation is often more than simply compensatory behavior for regular partnered sex, that masturbatory patterns are heavily influenced by early sexualization, and that a complex model is needed to comprehend masturbatory practice, particularly for women.

  8. China-U.S. Trade Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morrison, Wayne M

    2005-01-01

    .... With a huge population and a rapidly expanding economy, China is becoming a large market for U.S. exporters. Yet, U.S.-China commercial ties have been strained by a number of issues, including a surging...

  9. China-Taiwan: What Kind of Unification

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wynnyczok, Martha-Jean H

    1994-01-01

    .... This paper will review the nature of recent economic development in China, the potential impact of that development on the political unity of China, Taiwan's contribution to the mainland's economy...

  10. China's Energy Equation: A Strategic Opportunity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Burke, James

    2001-01-01

    .... Continued economic growth, which is the key to China's future, is constrained by a skewed energy equation in which domestic and foreign energy supplies are far removed from China's burgeoning population...

  11. China and the New International Order

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Yang

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews the book "China and the New International Order," edited by Wang Gungwu and Zheng Yongnian.......This article reviews the book "China and the New International Order," edited by Wang Gungwu and Zheng Yongnian....

  12. Review and Outlook of China's Oil Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gong Jinshuang

    2006-01-01

    @@ Major features of China's oil market in 2005 China's oil market is changing under the influence of domestic economy and the international oil market, witnessing different characteristics from time to time.

  13. 75 FR 24969 - Glyphosate From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-06

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 731-TA-1178 (Preliminary)] Glyphosate From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice of withdrawal of petition in... investigation concerning glyphosate from China (investigation No. 731-TA-1178 (Preliminary)) is discontinued...

  14. 75 FR 17768 - Glyphosate From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 731-TA-1178 (Preliminary)] Glyphosate From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Institution of antidumping investigation... States is materially retarded, by reason of imports from China of glyphosate, provided for in subheadings...

  15. BP Investment Exceeds $4 Bln in china

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Ping

    2008-01-01

    @@ British Petroleum (BP) recently signed a series of agreements with China including those in clean energy and wind power generation, during British Prime Minister Gordon Brown's visit to China in mid-January.

  16. Sustainable automotive energy system in China

    CERN Document Server

    CAERC, Tsinghua University

    2014-01-01

    This book identifies and addresses key issues of automotive energy in China. It covers demography, economics, technology and policy, providing a broad perspective to aid in the planning of sustainable road transport in China.

  17. Breastfeeding in China: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binns Colin W

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This review aims to describe changes in breastfeeding and summarise the breastfeeding rates, duration and reasons of discontinuing 'any breastfeeding' or 'exclusive breastfeeding' in P.R. China. Breastfeeding rates in China fell during the 1970s when the use of breast milk substitutes became widespread, and reached the lowest point in the 1980s. As a result many efforts were introduced to promote breastfeeding. The breastfeeding rate in China started to increase in the 1990s, and since the mid-1990s 'any breastfeeding' rates in the majority of cities and provinces, including minority areas, have been above 80% at four months. But most cities and provinces did not reach the national target of 'exclusive breastfeeding' of 80%. The 'exclusive breastfeeding' rates in minority areas were relatively lower than comparable inland provinces. The mean duration of 'any breastfeeding' in the majority of cities or provinces was between seven and nine months. The common reasons for ceasing breastfeeding, or introducing water or other infant food before four months, were perceived breast milk insufficiency, mother going to work, maternal and child illness and breast problems. Incorrect traditional perceptions have a strong adverse influence on 'exclusive breastfeeding' in less developed areas or rural areas. China is a huge country, geographically and in population size, and there is considerable ethnic diversity. Therefore breastfeeding rates in different parts of China can vary considerably.

  18. Unconventional uranium resources in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi Fucheng; Zhang Zilong; Li Zhixing; Wang Zhiming; He Zhongbo; Wang Wenquan

    2011-01-01

    Unconventional uranium resources in China mainly include black-rock series, peat, salt lake and evaporitic rocks. Among them, uraniferous black-rock series, uraniferous phosphorite and uranium-polymetallic phosphorite connected with black-rock series are important types for the sustainable support of uranium resources in China. Down-faulting and epocontinental rift in continental margin are the most important and beneficial ore-forming environment for unconventional uranium resources of black-rock series in China and produced a series of geochemistry combinations, such as, U-Cd, U-V-Mo, U-V-Re, U-V-Ni-Mo and U-V-Ni-Mo-Re-Tl. Unconventional uranium resources of black-rock series in China is related to uranium-rich marine black-rock series which are made up of hydrothermal sedimentary siliceous rocks, siliceous phospheorite and carbonaceous-siliceous-pelitic rock and settled in the continental margin down-faulting and epicontinental rift accompanied by submarine backwash and marine volcano eruption. Hydrothermal sedimentation or exhalation sedimentary is the mechanism to form unconventional uranium resources in black-rock series or large scale uranium-polymetallic mineralization in China. (authors)

  19. China's energy efficiency target 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Ming

    2008-01-01

    The Chinese government has set an ambitious target: reducing China's energy intensity by 20%, or 4.36% each year between 2006 and 2010 on the 2005 level. Real data showed that China missed its target in 2006, having reduced its energy intensity only by 1.3%. The objective of this study is to evaluate the feasibility and potential of the Chinese to achieve the target. This paper presents issues of macro-economy, population migration, energy savings, and energy efficiency policy measures to achieve the target. A top-down approach was used to analyse the relationship between the Chinese economic development and energy demand cycles and to identify the potentials of energy savings in sub-sectors of the Chinese economy. A number of factors that contribute to China's energy intensity are identified in a number of energy-intensive sectors. This paper concludes that China needs to develop its economy at its potential GDP growth rate; strengthen energy efficiency auditing, monitoring and verification; change its national economy from a heavy-industry-dominated mode to a light industry or a commerce-dominated mode; phase out inefficient equipment in industrial sectors; develop mass and fast railway transportation; and promote energy-efficient technologies at the end use. This paper transfers key messages to policy makers for designing their policy to achieve China's energy efficiency target

  20. Canada-China power experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, A.

    1995-01-01

    International energy opportunities were reviewed, with emphasis on China, and on Canada-China Power Inc., alternatively known as 'Team Canada'. Canada-Chine Power Inc., is a company founded by three of Canada's leading engineering consulting firms, i.e., Monenco AGRA Inc., SNC Lavalin Inc., and Acres International Limited. An office was established in Beijing in January 1994. Other Canadian manufacturers and engineering companies also have been actively pursuing hydro power opportunities in China for several years in view of China's enormous demand for power. It was estimated that by the year 2000, China will install 137 GW of new capacity, and foreign investment will account for approximately a third of the growth. AGRA is working on a 5400 MW thermal plant on Hainan Island, and is in final negotiations with the Yangtze Three Gorges Development Corporation for a management information system for their 18200 MW multi-purpose project. Criteria used by AGRA to identify international opportunities include: (1) a large capital spending program in fields with capabilities, expertise and past experience, (2) access to international funding, (3) competitive Canadian technology, and (4) an acceptable business and cultural climate. In assessing the opportunities, AGRA decided to concentrate on providing technologies in greatest need, such as project management systems, computer engineering and CAD systems, and clean coal technology

  1. Review of Vegetable Market Development in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chaoping; LUO; Yuandong; NI; Qiong; ZHAI

    2013-01-01

    This paper has reviewed vegetable market development from vegetable circulation system, the develop history of the liberalize vegetable market and the growth of the vegetable wholesale market in China. From the development of vegetables market in China and its characteristics: the development of vegetable market in China is related to vegetable market system, the change of institution, some technology development and infrastructure. this paper has put forward some related measures to perfect the vegetable market and improve the vegetable circulation efficiency in China.

  2. China Likely to Resume Oil Futures Soon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chang Tianle

    2002-01-01

    @@ China is likely to resume operation of its oil futures this year, according to reports from the media about a futures conference organized by the Shanghai Futures Exchange (SHFE) in late May. "As China has become an important oil producer and consumer,the demand for our own oil futures market emerges,which will help China oil-related enterprises hedge risks," said Li Ruisheng, vice president of PetroChina's refining and marketing company.

  3. Sewage Sludge Treatment for Energy Purpose in China : Waste Treatment in China

    OpenAIRE

    Nyyssönen, Ville

    2015-01-01

    This thesis is made for ANDRITZ China Technology to find out sludge incineration potential in China. ANDRITZ is looking for markets and customers for ANDRITZ sewage sludge incineration technology in China. In addition ANDRITZ China manufactures centrifuges, skeleton model filter presses, belt presses and rotatory drums to treat the sludge. Sludge in China has become a major problem. It is considered to be toxic waste, because it contains pathogens, which are dangerous for human health. Th...

  4. The anatomy of China's export growth

    OpenAIRE

    Amiti, Mary; Freund, Caroline

    2008-01-01

    Decomposing China's real export growth, of over 500 percent since 1992, reveals a number of interesting findings. First, China's export structure changed dramatically, with growing export shares in electronics and machinery and a decline in agriculture and apparel. Second, despite the shift into these more sophisticated products, the skill content of China's manufacturing exports remained ...

  5. 75 FR 19657 - Barium Chloride From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-15

    ... China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice of Commission determination... China. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice that it will proceed with a full review pursuant to... antidumping duty order on barium chloride from China would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of...

  6. 77 FR 71017 - Hardwood Plywood From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-28

    ...)] Hardwood Plywood From China Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject... plywood from China that are allegedly subsidized and sold in the United States at less than fair value... and subsidized imports of hardwood plywood from China. Accordingly, effective September 27, 2012, the...

  7. Africa and China : a strategic partnership?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Looy, van de J.; Haan, de L.J.

    2006-01-01

    Relations between Africa and China have increased over the years and become more dominated by China's economic interests. With an annual growth rate of 8-9 per cent, and a booming economy, China's dependency on accessing natural resources is a top priority and has accordingly expanded its horizons.

  8. Africa and China: a strategic partnership?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. van de Looy (Judith); L.J. de Haan (Leo)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractRelations between Africa and China have increased over the years and become more dominated by China's economic interests. With an annual growth rate of 8-9 per cent, and a booming economy, China's dependency on accessing natural resources is a top priority and has accordingly expanded

  9. NIDI scenario. Strong population decline in China

    OpenAIRE

    de Beer, J.A.A.

    2016-01-01

    United Nations projections assume that by the end of this century one third of the world population will live in India, China or Nigeria. While population growth in India will slow down and the population size of China will decline, population growth in Nigeria will accelerate. A new NIDI scenario projects less population growth in Nigeria and sharp population decline in China.

  10. Characteristics of Phytophthora infestans isolates from China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Y.; Lee, van der T.A.J.; Zhu, J.; Jin, G.; Lan, C.; Liu, B.; Zhang, R.; Zhao, Z.; Yang, Y.; Huang, S.; Jacobsen, E.

    2009-01-01

    In several of the main potato production area’s in China the climate is favorable for P. infestans and consequently, potato late blight is one of the most serious threats to potato production in China. As part of a comprehensive monitoring program that we could establish for China we started

  11. 77 FR 5844 - Furfuryl Alcohol From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-06

    ... China Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject five-year review, the United... from China would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury to an industry in... contained in USITC Publication 4302 (January 2012), entitled Furfuryl Alcohol From China: Investigation No...

  12. 76 FR 8771 - Glycine From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-15

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 731-TA-718 (Third Review)] Glycine From China... order on glycine from China. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice that it will proceed with a... determine whether revocation of the antidumping duty order on glycine from China would be likely to lead to...

  13. 75 FR 877 - Drill Pipe From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-06

    ... Pipe From China AGENCY: International Trade Commission. ACTION: Institution of antidumping and... States is materially retarded, by reason of imports from China of drill pipe, provided for in subheadings... Government of China. Unless the Department of Commerce extends the time for initiation pursuant to sections...

  14. 77 FR 32998 - Foundry Coke From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-04

    ... China Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject five-year review, the United... China would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury to an industry in the... Publication 4326 (May 2012), entitled Foundry Coke from China: Investigation No. 731-TA-891 (Second Review...

  15. 77 FR 20649 - Silicon Metal From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-05

    ... China Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject five-year review, the United... China would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury to an industry in the...), entitled Silicon Metal from China: Investigation No. 731-TA-472 (Third Review). By order of the Commission...

  16. 76 FR 42730 - Paper Clips From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-19

    ... China Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject five-year review, the United... China would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury to an industry in the...), entitled Paper Clips from China: Investigation No. 731-TA-663 (Third Review). By order of the Commission...

  17. 75 FR 4584 - Wire Decking From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-28

    ... Decking From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Scheduling of the final... subsidized and less-than-fair-value imports from China of wire decking, provided for in subheadings 9403.90... China of wire decking, and that such [[Page 4585

  18. 76 FR 55109 - Glycine From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-06

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 731-TA-718 (Third Review)] Glycine From China... U.S.C. 1675(c)), that revocation of the antidumping duty order on glycine from China would be likely... contained in USITC Publication 4255 (August 2011), entitled Glycine from China: Investigation No. 731-TA-718...

  19. 76 FR 11267 - Cased Pencils From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    ... China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Scheduling of an expedited five-year review concerning the antidumping duty order on cased pencils from China. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby... cased pencils from China would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury within...

  20. 76 FR 67208 - Artists' Canvas From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-31

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 731-TA-1091 (Review)] Artists' Canvas From China... U.S.C. 1675(c)), that revocation of the antidumping duty order on artists' canvas from China would... China: Investigation No. 731-TA-1091 (Review). By order of the Commission. Issued: October 25, 2011...

  1. 76 FR 69284 - Pure Magnesium From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-08

    ... China Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject five-year review, the United... China would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury to an industry in the...), entitled Pure Magnesium from China: Investigation No. 731-TA-696 (Third Review). Issued: November 2, 2011...

  2. 75 FR 33824 - Barium Chloride From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... China Determination On the basis of the record\\1\\ developed in the subject five-year review, the United... China would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury to an industry in the... contained in USITC Publication 4157 (June 2010), entitled Barium Chloride from China: Investigation No. 731...

  3. 75 FR 21346 - Chloropicrin From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-23

    ... China Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject five-year review, the United... China would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury to an industry in the...), entitled Chloropicrin from China: Investigation No. 731-TA-130 (Third Review). By order of the Commission...

  4. 76 FR 38697 - Cased Pencils From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    ... China Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject five-year review, the United... China would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury to an industry in the... Publication 4239 (June 2011), entitled Cased Pencils from China: Investigation No. 731-TA-669 (Third Review...

  5. Highlights of Electric Power Industry in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@Reform and Development of Electric Power Management Before 1978, China's electric power industry,managed by the Central Government, was a vertically monopoly sector. Along with China's reformation of economy structure started in 1978, electric power industry has step on its road of restructuring and deregulation. Up to now administration of China's electric power industry underwent following reciprocative changes:

  6. 75 FR 23298 - Potassium Permanganate From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-03

    ... Permanganate From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Institution of a five-year review concerning the antidumping duty order on potassium permanganate from China. SUMMARY: The... on potassium permanganate from China would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of...

  7. 75 FR 51112 - Potassium Permanganate From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ... Permanganate From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Scheduling of an expedited five-year review concerning the antidumping duty order on potassium permanganate from China... of the antidumping duty order on potassium permanganate from China would be likely to lead to...

  8. China's "Great Leap" toward Madison Avenue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Michael H.

    1981-01-01

    Examines the expanding use of advertising in China. Discusses the impact of transnational corporations in communication and other areas on the development of China, and the implications that the introduction of advertising has for China's role as one of the models for developing countries. (JMF)

  9. 75 FR 80527 - Aluminum Extrusions From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-22

    ...)] Aluminum Extrusions From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Scheduling of... of subsidized and less-than-fair-value imports from China of aluminum extrusions, primarily provided... contained in Aluminum Extrusions From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Preliminary Determination of...

  10. Groundwater arsenic contamination throughout China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Lado, Luis; Sun, Guifan; Berg, Michael; Zhang, Qiang; Xue, Hanbin; Zheng, Quanmei; Johnson, C Annette

    2013-08-23

    Arsenic-contaminated groundwater used for drinking in China is a health threat that was first recognized in the 1960s. However, because of the sheer size of the country, millions of groundwater wells remain to be tested in order to determine the magnitude of the problem. We developed a statistical risk model that classifies safe and unsafe areas with respect to geogenic arsenic contamination in China, using the threshold of 10 micrograms per liter, the World Health Organization guideline and current Chinese standard for drinking water. We estimate that 19.6 million people are at risk of being affected by the consumption of arsenic-contaminated groundwater. Although the results must be confirmed with additional field measurements, our risk model identifies numerous arsenic-affected areas and highlights the potential magnitude of this health threat in China.

  11. Nuclear agricultural sciences in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Bujin

    2004-01-01

    Nuclear technique is a powerful scientific tool in agricultural research, an area with fruitful achievements in China. Nuclear technique application in agriculture based on the development of related science and technology is of a high technical area, and also a meaningful aspect of non-electrical power application of nuclear technique. Nuclear Agricultural Sciences is an important component of agricultural science and technology, and has been made a lot of significant achievements, which has made remarkable contribution to the development in economy, society and ecology of China. This article reviews the achievements and present situation of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences in China briefly. For promoting its development, the author strongly suggests that Chinese government bodies should put more attention to the study on the application of nuclear technique in agriculture to make further more contributions to Chinese society and agriculture. (authors)

  12. Climate change mitigation in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Bo

    2012-07-01

    China has been experiencing great economic development and fast urbanisation since its reforms and opening-up policy in 1978. However, these changes are reliant on consumption of primary energy, especially coal, characterised by high pollution and low efficiency. China's greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, with carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) being the most significant contributor, have also been increasing rapidly in the past three decades. Responding to both domestic challenges and international pressure regarding energy, climate change and environment, the Chinese government has made a point of addressing climate change since the early 2000s. This thesis provides a comprehensive analysis of China's CO{sub 2} emissions and policy instruments for mitigating climate change. In the analysis, China's CO{sub 2} emissions in recent decades were reviewed and the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis examined. Using the mostly frequently studied macroeconomic factors and time-series data for the period of 1980-2008, the existence of an EKC relationship between CO{sub 2} per capita and GDP per capita was verified. However, China's CO{sub 2} emissions will continue to grow over coming decades and the turning point in overall CO{sub 2} emissions will appear in 2078 according to a crude projection. More importantly, CO{sub 2} emissions will not spontaneously decrease if China continues to develop its economy without mitigating climate change. On the other hand, CO{sub 2} emissions could start to decrease if substantial efforts are made. China's present mitigation target, i.e. to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions per unit of GDP by 40-45 % by 2020 compared with the 2005 level, was then evaluated. Three business-as-usual (BAU) scenarios were developed and compared with the level of emissions according to the mitigation target. The calculations indicated that decreasing the CO{sub 2} intensity of GDP by 40-45 % by 2020 is a challenging but hopeful target. To

  13. China joins Alberta oilsands research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that China's state oil company has bought a stake in an in situ oilsands research project in northern Alberta. China National Petroleum Corp. (CNPC) will invest $6.5 million in the Underground Test Facility (UTF) operated by Alberta Oilsands Technology and Research Authority (Aostra) near Fort McMurray. It is the first foreign research investment for CNPC. The UTF is a joint venture by provincial agency Aostria, the Canadian federal government, and commercial partners in underground mining techniques to extract crude oil from bitumen. Alberta opened a trade office in Beijing in 1991 and now sells several hundred million dollars a year in petroleum equipment and services to China. A horizontal well in situ steam injection process is approaching the production stage at the UTF. It is to begin producing at a rate of 2,000 b/d this fall. The current project is a followup to a pilot project

  14. Ex situ Flora of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwen Huang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The role of living collections-based research and discovery has been a prominent feature throughout the history of evolution and advance of botanical science: such research is the core and soul of the botanical gardens. Currently, there are c. 162 Chinese botanical gardens, harboring c. 20,000 species in China. As an example of initiatives to utilize the garden cultivated flora to address plant diversity conservation and germplasm discovery for sustainable agriculture and the bio-industries, the Ex situ Flora of China project aims to catalog and document this mega-diversity of plants that are cultivated in the Chinese botanical gardens. The concept of Ex situ Flora of China is a complete new formulation of species, based on garden cultivated individuals and populations, to obtain better morphological descriptions, provide multi-purpose applicability and a fundamental data service that will support national bio-strategies and bio-industries. It emphasises integrative information, accurately collected from living collections across different Chinese botanical gardens, on biology, phenology, cultivation requirements and uses of plant resources, which are normally not available from traditional Floras based on herbarium specimens. The ex situ flora should provide better information coverage for taxonomy, biological and introduction and collection data and color photos of stems, leaves, flowers, fruits and seed, as well as useful information of cultivation key points and main use of each plant. In general, the Ex situ Flora of China provides more useful information than the traditional Flora Reipublicae Popularis Sinicae. The project of Ex situ Flora of China is planned to be one of the most important initiatives of the plant diversity research platform for sustainable economic and social development in China.

  15. China Changes the Development Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grażyna Rzeszotarska

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The last decades of the twentieth century fundamentally changed the situation in the global economy. China's spectacular economic success has increased an interest in this country. The short time in which China moved on from the a poor agricultural country into a global economic power is admirable. China's model combines conflicted elements of different economic systems: the bureaucratic planning, island-capitalism, simple goods production and natural economy. The current development and transformation of the economy have brought about spectacular achievements and successes. However, the "the world's manufacturer" produces goods designed in other countries. In contrast, the modern idea is to build a modern and independent Chinese industry. The possibilities of the current model of economic development based on simple reserves and large statedriven infrastructure projects, which no longer drive the economy to the extent they previously did, dried out. Thus, the "Middle Kingdom" will have to compete against the rest of the world on quality and innovation. Therefore the development of the new model is a prerequisite to ensure progress in the future. Discussion on further development has been expedited in 2011, when it became abundantly clear that the Chinese economy would share the experience of the effects of the global crisis. The Chinese look at the challenges that the economy is facing realistically in thinking about the modern technology which begins to dominate the country. China is determined to become the leading technological superpower of the world. Today, many developing countries are looking towards China watching the development model implemented there with the hope of its adaptation in their economies. However, China is a unique entity. Therefore, it may be that adaptation of the Chinese model of development in other countries is not possible.

  16. China struggles to reform giants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, Paul

    1999-01-01

    This article examines the struggle to reform the Chinese oil industry. Topics discussed include the defending of state monopolies, the capital injections required by the three main national oil companies, the bidding of the China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC) for oilfields in Kazakhstan resulting in the need for large investment, and CNPC's failure to meet its spending commitments in the Middle East. Expenditure on exploration, the funding of gas development, and the plans of the China Petroleum Corporation (Sinopec) to raise funds overseas are discussed, and competition problems are considered. (UK)

  17. 2016 SAE-China Congress

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This proceedings volume gathers outstanding papers submitted to the 2016 SAE-China Congress, the majority of which are from China, the biggest car maker as well as most dynamic car market in the world. The book includes insights into the current challenges that the whole industry is currently facing, and it offers possible solutions to problems such as emission controls, environmental pollution, the energy shortage, traffic congestion and sustainable development. It also presents the latest technical achievements in the automotive industry. Many of the approaches it presents can help technicians to solve the practical problems that most affect their daily work.

  18. The Great Pratfall of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tyler; Roney

    2013-01-01

    With China on its way out of the dark as spring gets into swing,we feel the Northern Hemisphere could use a bit of a chuckle.Liu Jue dug through annals of clowns,tricksters and fools to shed some light on the history of jesters in China with'Don’t Pity the Fool.'encompassing thousands of years of these lowly entertainers who could once speak truth to power.From derisive dwarfs to mordant musicians,the Chinese fool hits on all sides of history,with stories of brave men harassing their emperors with sarcasm and cutting parody for the public good.

  19. China's Involvement in Economic Globalization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ As China's fast-growing economy attracts the world's largest multinational companies to pour billions of dollars into the nation to capitalize on the business opportunities. China's companies, for their part, have also significantly increased the amount of their overseas investment. Research data recently released shows that, through mid-October, there were 43investment deals made by Chinese companies, up from 39 for all of last year. The total value of the deals, which were mergers and acquisitions overseas, was US$1.93 billion, compared with US$2.2 billion for all of 2003.

  20. A review of China`s energy policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, F. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Duan, N. [Environment Management Institute, Beijing (China); Zhijie, H. [Energy Research Institute, Beijing (China)

    1994-12-01

    In 1992 China`s primary energy production reached 1075 million tons of coal equivalent by far the largest in the developing world. Because coal is the primary commercial fuel, rapid growth of carbon dioxide emissions is certain. Thus the attitude of the Chinese government toward energy and environmental issues becomes increasingly important to those involved in the study and analysis of global climate change and energy issues. This report is intended to provide a basic understanding of the development of China`s energy policymaking over the past four decades. The paper first reviews institutional development and policymaking and then describes the transition to the market-oriented system. While energy has consistently received a great deal of attention from the central government, the institutional basis for setting and implementing policies has shifted often. Reforms during the past 15 years have been incremental, piecemeal, and occasionally contradictory, but overall have freed a large portion of the energy industry from the strictures of a planned economy and laid the basis for broad price liberalization. Responsibility for energy planning is now dispersed among a number of organizations, rendering coordination of energy development difficult. Economic reform has rendered obsolete most of the policy-implementation means of the planning era. Although the new tools of central control are not fully effective, the trend toward decentralized decisionmaking has been strengthened. The report ends with a summary of energy forecasts used by Chinese policymakers, highlighting current policy goals and the issues that will shape future policy.

  1. Malayan Chinese Who Were Deported to China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hara Fujio

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Relying on two volumes of Who’s Who published by ex-Malayan Chinese who were forced to come to China between 1948 and 1963, this author intends to investigate (1 where these deportees were born / originated and in which province they settled, (2 their occupations in Malaya and in China, (3 their political affiliations / activities both in Malaya and in China, (4 their educational background both in Malaya and China, (5 their condition in China, and (6 correlations among some of these factors.

  2. Cogeneration development and market potential in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, F.; Levine, M.D.; Naeb, J. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Xin, D. [State Planning Commission of China, Beijing, BJ (China). Energy Research Inst.

    1996-05-01

    China`s energy production is largely dependent on coal. China currently ranks third in global CO{sub 2} emissions, and rapid economic expansion is expected to raise emission levels even further in the coming decades. Cogeneration provides a cost-effective way of both utilizing limited energy resources and minimizing the environmental impacts from use of fossil fuels. However, in the last 10 years state investments for cogeneration projects in China have dropped by a factor of 4. This has prompted this study. Along with this in-depth analysis of China`s cogeneration policies and investment allocation is the speculation that advanced US technology and capital can assist in the continued growth of the cogeneration industry. This study provides the most current information available on cogeneration development and market potential in China.

  3. History of protein crystallography in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Zihe

    2007-06-29

    China has a strong background in X-ray crystallography dating back to the 1920s. Protein crystallography research in China was first developed following the successful synthesis of insulin in China in 1966. The subsequent determination of the three-dimensional structure of porcine insulin made China one of the few countries which could determine macromolecular structures by X-ray diffraction methods in the late 1960s and early 1970s. After a slow period during the 1970s and 1980s, protein crystallography in China has reached a new climax with a number of outstanding accomplishments. Here, I review the history and progress of protein crystallography in China and detail some of the recent research highlights, including the crystal structures of two membrane proteins as well as the structural genomics initiative in China.

  4. Spotlight. China. Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brophy, G

    1989-04-01

    China's 1-child policy was promulgated in 1979. Those couples who pledged to have 1 child could receive monetary bonuses, preferential treatment for housing, plot and grain allocation, health care, education, and job opportunities. The precise value of the package varied substantially. By 1981 47.3% of births were 1st births; in 1970, 21% were 1st births. Couples' renouncement of the 1-child pledge varied by province from less than 5% to 34%; 12.5% of holders who had had a girl renounced their pledge, compared to 6.7% who had had a boy. Despite a 1950 law designed to improve women's status,inequalities persist, and privileges accorded to 1-child certificate children, who are more likely to be male, may inadvertently perpetuate inequality. A provision of the 1980 Marriage Law making daughters as well as sons responsible for old age support and the development of handicraft and sideline occupations in rural areas may increase perception of daughters as economic assets. Although fertility may have declined, it remains a fundamentally important Chinese institution. Fertility is concentrated among women in the 20s, with urban fertility more compressed into shorter age interval than is the case in rural areas. There were campaigns to encourage abortion, sterilization, and IUD insertion in late 1982 and early 1983. The number of sterilizations/year increased from 5.1 million in 1982 to 20.8 million in 1983. As of 1983, the mix of contraceptive methods ranged as follows: 50% sterilization, 41% IUD, and 9% others. From 1984-85, the proportion of 1st births declined from 56% to 50%, with 2nd births absorbing the increase. In 1986-88, following a period of relative leniency, family planning goal became somewhat more stringent, and to responsibility systems, such as goal management in which couples together with multiple administrative levels must guarantee compliance with program objectives, are being emphasized. At the same time, several pilot programs allowing a 2nd child

  5. CHINA'S FIRST 'KISS' IN SPACE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN PUMIN

    2011-01-01

    At 1:36 a.m.on November 3,nearly two days after it was launched,the unmanned spacecraft Shenzhou 8 docked with space lab module Tiangong-1,or Heavenly Palace-Ⅰ.The docking represents another significant milestone for China's space program.

  6. China: Big Changes Coming Soon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowen, Henry S.

    2011-01-01

    Big changes are ahead for China, probably abrupt ones. The economy has grown so rapidly for many years, over 30 years at an average of nine percent a year, that its size makes it a major player in trade and finance and increasingly in political and military matters. This growth is not only of great importance internationally, it is already having…

  7. China's population planning after Tiananmen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tien, H Y

    1990-09-01

    The author reports on the meeting of the China Demographic Society in Beijing in January 1990. The one-child policy is reviewed, and political changes that have taken place since the events in Tiananmen Square and their effect on the family planning policy are discussed.

  8. Modernizing Information Training in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Harry

    1985-01-01

    Discusses strains on China's existing library resources and personnel as affected by modernization, growth of foreign literature collections, Chinese publishing expansion, and increase in educated population. Training facilities available in Beijing and Shanghai, activities of national information college at Wuhan University, and opportunities for…

  9. China: A Problem of Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, R. F.

    1981-01-01

    Using as examples the questions of size of the primary school population and size and qualifications of the teaching force, the author illustrates certain difficulties in obtaining an informed picture of the school system in the People's Republic of China, plus the nature and limitations of available information sources. (Author/SJL)

  10. Internal Waves, South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Subsurface ocean currents, frequently referred to as internal waves, are frequently seen from space under the right lighting conditions when depth penetration can be achieved. These internal waves observed in the South China Sea off the SE coast of the island of Hainan (18.5N, 110.5E) visibly demonstrate turbidity in the ocean's depths at the confluence of conflicting currents.

  11. Tropospheric NO2 over China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A, van der R.J.; Peters, D.H.M.U.; Kuenen, J.J.P.; Eskes, H.J.; Boersma, K.F.; Roozendael, Van M.; Smedt, de I.; Zhang, P.; Kelder, H.M.; Lacoste, H.; Ouwehand, L.

    2006-01-01

    The results are presented of a study to tropospheric NO2 over China, based on measurements from the satellite instruments GOME and SCIAMACHY. A data set of 10 year tropospheric NO2 has been processed from GOME and SCIAMACHY observations using a combined retrieval/assimilation approach. This approach

  12. Outsourcing CO2 within China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Kuishuang; Davis, Steven J; Sun, Laixiang; Li, Xin; Guan, Dabo; Liu, Weidong; Liu, Zhu; Hubacek, Klaus

    2013-07-09

    Recent studies have shown that the high standard of living enjoyed by people in the richest countries often comes at the expense of CO2 emissions produced with technologies of low efficiency in less affluent, developing countries. Less apparent is that this relationship between developed and developing can exist within a single country's borders, with rich regions consuming and exporting high-value goods and services that depend upon production of low-cost and emission-intensive goods and services from poorer regions in the same country. As the world's largest emitter of CO2, China is a prominent and important example, struggling to balance rapid economic growth and environmental sustainability across provinces that are in very different stages of development. In this study, we track CO2 emissions embodied in products traded among Chinese provinces and internationally. We find that 57% of China's emissions are related to goods that are consumed outside of the province where they are produced. For instance, up to 80% of the emissions related to goods consumed in the highly developed coastal provinces are imported from less developed provinces in central and western China where many low-value-added but high-carbon-intensive goods are produced. Without policy attention to this sort of interprovincial carbon leakage, the less developed provinces will struggle to meet their emissions intensity targets, whereas the more developed provinces might achieve their own targets by further outsourcing. Consumption-based accounting of emissions can thus inform effective and equitable climate policy within China.

  13. Quantifying China's regional economic complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jian; Zhou, Tao

    2018-02-01

    China has experienced an outstanding economic expansion during the past decades, however, literature on non-monetary metrics that reveal the status of China's regional economic development are still lacking. In this paper, we fill this gap by quantifying the economic complexity of China's provinces through analyzing 25 years' firm data. First, we estimate the regional economic complexity index (ECI), and show that the overall time evolution of provinces' ECI is relatively stable and slow. Then, after linking ECI to the economic development and the income inequality, we find that the explanatory power of ECI is positive for the former but negative for the latter. Next, we compare different measures of economic diversity and explore their relationships with monetary macroeconomic indicators. Results show that the ECI index and the non-linear iteration based Fitness index are comparative, and they both have stronger explanatory power than other benchmark measures. Further multivariate regressions suggest the robustness of our results after controlling other socioeconomic factors. Our work moves forward a step towards better understanding China's regional economic development and non-monetary macroeconomic indicators.

  14. On China's Education Marketization Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ru, Ning

    2005-01-01

    The education market emerged in China since 1990s, which triggered heated debate among education circle. This paper explores the development forms which education market took on, analyses its pros and cons and investigates the measures should be adopted to revamp the holes of the unripe education market. (Contains 6 footnotes.)

  15. Green lights program in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dadi, Zhuo; Hong, Liu [Beijing Energy Efficiency Center (China)

    1996-12-31

    In China`s 9th 5-year plan (1996-2000), the Chinese government has placed high priority on energy conservation. The China Green Lights Program (CGLP) is listed as one of the key projects of energy conservation. The basic strategy of the CGLP is to mobilise all of the potential contributors to participate in the program, and to use market signals and supplementary non-market instruments to facilitate its implementation. Governmental funds and loans will be used as seed money to attract private participation in the program. The program contains the following elements: (1) Information dissemination to educate the public on the economic and other values of the program and to provide CGLP information to increase consumer awareness and, as a result, increase the demand for energy-efficient lighting systems. (2) Development of standards and codes for lighting systems, establishment of product specifications, and enforcement of product standards. (3) Development of quality certification and labelling system to provide assurances to consumers that the products they are purchasing will meet their performance and cost saving expectations. (4) Highlighted support and financing for production technology development and production capacity expansion. (5) Demonstration and pilot projects to boost consumer confidence in green lighting systems and to demonstrate new production technologies and processes. (6) International co-operation to expand the international exchange and absorb advanced technology and experience for implementation of the China Green Lights Program.

  16. All the coal in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lessen, N.

    1993-01-01

    Unless this giant nation embraces a new strategy for producing and using energy. Its fast-growing economy could overwhelm international efforts to control greenhouse warming. Carbon emissions in China have increased 65% in the past decade, largely due to a sharp rise in coal burning. China's growing economy, low energy prices, and government policies are fueling the increase in coal use. China's leaders dismiss the notion that concern over global warming should alter their energy strategy. However, the important question is not whether the Chinese have the right to follow a carbon-intensive energy path, but whether it is in their interest to do so. Raising energy efficiency is essential to boost living standards; more efficient industrial processes, maintainance, operating procedures, and energy efficient construction all are needed. In the long run China will need to develop its own alternatives to coal;natural gas, solar, wind, biomass, and geothermal energy all have enormous potential. Price adjustments, international support, and education will all be needed in the long run

  17. Who Leads China's Leading Universities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Futao

    2017-01-01

    This study attempts to identify the major characteristics of two different groups of institutional leaders in China's leading universities. The study begins with a review of relevant literature and theory. Then, there is a brief introduction to the selection of party secretaries, deputy secretaries, presidents and vice presidents in leading…

  18. China Wind Power Outlook 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junfeng, Li; Pengfei, Shi; Hu, Gao

    2010-10-01

    China's wind power can reach 230 GW of installed capacity by 2020, which is equal to 13 times the current capacity of the Three Gorges Dam; its annual electricity output of 464.9 TWh could replace 200 coal fire power plants. In 2009, China led the world in newly installed wind-energy devices, reaching a capacity of 13.8 GW (10,129 turbines) - a rate of one new turbine every hour. In terms of overall capacity, China ranks second, at 25.8 GW. The report projects that by 2020, China's total wind power capacity will reach at least 150GW, possibly up to 230GW, which, if realized, could cut 410 million tons of CO2 emission, or 150 million tons of coal consumption. Compared to multinationals, many Chinese companies are young and lack a strong basis for research and development. Despite a renewable energy policy requiring grid companies to purchase all electricity from wind farms, access to wind power for the grid is frequently lagging behind an unstable, out-dated grid infrastructure. There is also the problem of a lack of incentives and penalties for grid companies, and slow progress in more wind energy technologies.

  19. Primary Science Education in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pook, Gayle

    2013-01-01

    Consider the extent to which primary science teaching has evolved since it became a core subject in England with the introduction of the National Curriculum in 1988, and the pace at which theory-driven classroom practice has advanced. It is no wonder that, given the recent economic restructuring and boom in technological development in China,…

  20. China Wind Power Outlook 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junfeng, Li; Pengfei, Shi; Hu, Gao [Chinese Renewable Energy Industries Association CREIA, Beijing (China)

    2010-10-15

    China's wind power can reach 230 GW of installed capacity by 2020, which is equal to 13 times the current capacity of the Three Gorges Dam; its annual electricity output of 464.9 TWh could replace 200 coal fire power plants. In 2009, China led the world in newly installed wind-energy devices, reaching a capacity of 13.8 GW (10,129 turbines) - a rate of one new turbine every hour. In terms of overall capacity, China ranks second, at 25.8 GW. The report projects that by 2020, China's total wind power capacity will reach at least 150GW, possibly up to 230GW, which, if realized, could cut 410 million tons of CO2 emission, or 150 million tons of coal consumption. Compared to multinationals, many Chinese companies are young and lack a strong basis for research and development. Despite a renewable energy policy requiring grid companies to purchase all electricity from wind farms, access to wind power for the grid is frequently lagging behind an unstable, out-dated grid infrastructure. There is also the problem of a lack of incentives and penalties for grid companies, and slow progress in more wind energy technologies.

  1. Assessing China's Relations with Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chifaou.amzat

    2013-10-15

    Oct 15, 2013 ... of the world's largest recipients of foreign direct investment (FDI), having attracted .... 2006, China concluded agreements with a number of African states on the deportation of ..... displacement of domestic production and the negative impact of such .... In Liberia's case, Beijing introduced a tax exemption.

  2. China’s Economic Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-20

    major U.S. investors in China (based on 2003 sales volumes) include Motorola ($5.8 billion in sales volume), General Motors ($2.2 billion), Dell ...data of many of its trading partners. a. Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) member countries are Indonesia, Malaysia , the Philippines

  3. Pricing Carbon Emissions in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); T.K. Mai (Te-Ke); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2018-01-01

    markdownabstractThe purpose of the paper is to provide a clear mechanism for determining carbon emissions pricing in China as a guide to how carbon emissions might be mitigated to reduce fossil fuel pollution. The Chinese Government has promoted the development of clean energy, including

  4. School Counseling in China Today

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomason, Timothy C.; Qiong, Xiao

    2008-01-01

    This article provides a brief overview of the development of psychological thinking in China and social influences on the practice of school counseling today. Common problems of students are described, including anxiety due to pressure to perform well on exams, loneliness and social discomfort, and video game addiction. Counseling approaches used…

  5. China's move to food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wedekind, L.H.

    1986-01-01

    The Chinese officials outlined China's past and future directions at a recent international food irradiation seminar in Shanghai sponsored by the FAO and IAEA. The meeting was attended by about 170 participants from China and 22 other countries, primarily from the Asian and Pacific region. Three food irradiation plants currently are operating in the region and 14 more are planned over the next 5 years. It was reported that China continues to suffer high food losses, up to 30% for some commodities, primarily due to preservation and storage problems. In January 1986, the first of five regional irradiation facilities planned in China officially opened in Shanghai. The Shanghai irradiation centre plans to process up to 35,000 tons of vegetables a year, as well as some spices, fruits, and non-food products. The Ministry of Public Health has approved seven irradiated foods as safe human diets: rice, potatoes, onions, garlic, peanuts, mushrooms and pork sausages; approval for apples is expected shortly. The Chinese officials at the Shanghai meeting stressed their openness to foreign participation and cooperation in food irradiation's development

  6. Environmental Information Disclosure in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, L.; Mol, A.P.J.; Yang, Shuai

    2017-01-01

    The past decade has seen remarkable progress made in the field of environmental information disclosure in China. While the overall institutional changes and the motivation/willingness of the government to open up information are important conditions, China’s encounter with revolutionary Information

  7. Press kit. Areva in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-10-01

    The results achieved in the nuclear energy field illustrate the exemplary nature of the cooperation between France and China. Over 20 years, China has developed the nuclear technology for generating electricity, using the expertise and knowledge of the AREVA Group. AREVA has been present in China since 1986 and now employs 3,500 staff there. The group supplied the nuclear islands for 4 reactors at Daya Bay and Ling Ao as well as technology and equipment for 4 more reactors at the Qinshan II and Tianwan plants. AREVA has developed an ambitious program for transferring technology to the Chinese industry and developing local skills. The group's objective is to remain China's partner of choice in terms of its nuclear program. During an official visit to France in June 2004, China's Vice Premier Zeng Peiyan said he was in favor of 'overall and long-lasting cooperation between China and France in the field of nuclear energy'. AREVA took the opportunity to sign two letters of intent for cooperation over technology from its next generation of nuclear reactors. Electricity consumption forecasts report a need for 900 GW through 2020 and the country's objective is to increase nuclear-generated electricity from 1% to 4% of its total output (36 GW: the equivalent of around twenty 1,500 MWe reactors). An official decision to build 4 new reactors was announced in July 2004 and a further decision concerning another 4 reactors is expected in the near future. Various construction sites are being considered, mainly along the country's eastern coast. An official decision to build four duplicate reactors was announced n July 2004. In addition to these four duplicate reactors to be built on existing sites, China has decided to build four 3. generation reactors at Yangjiang and Sanmen. An international call for tender was launched on September 28, 2004. AREVA will reply to the tender by offering its EPR model. AREVA also aims to expand its Chinese operations into exploring and extracting

  8. Enhanced nitrogen deposition over China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xuejun; Zhang, Ying; Han, Wenxuan; Tang, Aohan; Shen, Jianlin; Cui, Zhenling; Christie, Peter; Zhang, Fusuo [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); Vitousek, Peter [Department of Biology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Erisman, Jan Willem [VU University Amsterdam, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Goulding, Keith [The Sustainable Soils and Grassland Systems Department, Rothamsted Research, Harpenden AL5 2JQ (United Kingdom); Fangmeier, Andreas [Institute of Landscape and Plant Ecology, University of Hohenheim, 70593 Stuttgart (Germany)

    2013-02-28

    China is experiencing intense air pollution caused in large part by anthropogenic emissions of reactive nitrogen. These emissions result in the deposition of atmospheric nitrogen (N) in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, with implications for human and ecosystem health, greenhouse gas balances and biological diversity. However, information on the magnitude and environmental impact of N deposition in China is limited. Here we use nationwide data sets on bulk N deposition, plant foliar N and crop N uptake (from long-term unfertilized soils) to evaluate N deposition dynamics and their effect on ecosystems across China between 1980 and 2010. We find that the average annual bulk deposition of N increased by approximately 8 kilograms of nitrogen per hectare (P < 0.001) between the 1980s (13.2 kilograms of nitrogen per hectare) and the 2000s (21.1 kilograms of nitrogen per hectare). Nitrogen deposition rates in the industrialized and agriculturally intensified regions of China are as high as the peak levels of deposition in northwestern Europe in the 1980s, before the introduction of mitigation measures. Nitrogen from ammonium (NH4+) is the dominant form of N in bulk deposition, but the rate of increase is largest for deposition of N from nitrate (NO3-), in agreement with decreased ratios of NH3 to NOx emissions since 1980. We also find that the impact of N deposition on Chinese ecosystems includes significantly increased plant foliar N concentrations in natural and semi-natural (that is, non-agricultural) ecosystems and increased crop N uptake from long-term-unfertilized croplands. China and other economies are facing a continuing challenge to reduce emissions of reactive nitrogen, N deposition and their negative effects on human health and the environment.

  9. Erosion Associated with Seismically-Induced Landslides in the Middle Longmen Shan Region, Eastern Tibetan Plateau, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhikun Ren

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The 2008 Wenchuan earthquake and associated co-seismic landslide was the most recent expression of the rapid deformation and erosion occurring in the eastern Tibetan Plateau. The erosion associated with co-seismic landslides balances the long-term tectonic uplift in the topographic evolution of the region; however, the quantitative relationship between earthquakes, uplift, and erosion is still unknown. In order to quantitatively distinguish the seismically-induced erosion in the total erosion, here, we quantify the Wenchuan earthquake-induced erosion using the digital elevation model (DEM differential method and previously-reported landslide volumes. Our results show that the seismically-induced erosion is comparable with the pre-earthquake short-term erosion. The seismically-induced erosion rate contributes ~50% of the total erosion rate, which suggests that the local topographic evolution of the middle Longmen Shan region may be closely related to tectonic events, such as the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. We propose that seismically-induced erosion is a very important component of the total erosion, particularly in active orogenic regions. Our results demonstrate that the remote sensing technique of differential DEM provides a powerful tool for evaluating the volume of co-seismic landslides produced in intermountain regions by strong earthquakes.

  10. O confucianismo e a china de hoje Confucianism and china

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Maurício Domingues

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O confucianismo desponta hoje na China em termos intelectuais, sendo também adoptado pelo governo chinês como elemento de legitimação. Os trabalhos de Daniel Bell permitem uma visão mais próxima das potencialidades e limites desse “novo confucianismo”, que deve ser contudo inserido dentro do processo mais geral da cultura chinesa contemporânea e dos desenvolvimentos da modernidade como uma civilização global.Confucianism is returning to the fore in China today in intellectual terms, and has been adopted by the Chinese government as an element of legitimization. The works of Daniel Bell allow for a closer view of the potentialities and limits of this “new confucianism”, which must, however, be placed into the more general process of contemporary Chinese culture, and of the developments of modernity as a global civilization.

  11. Testimony before the US-China Economic Security Review Commission: China's Agriculture Policy and US Access to China's Market

    OpenAIRE

    Dermot J. Hayes

    2013-01-01

    Testimony before the US-China Economic and Security Review Commission on April 25, 2013, by Dermot Hayes, professor of Economics and Finance, Iowa State University. Testimony covers impacts on food demand from China's rising incomes and urbanization; the viability of China's attempt to remain self-sufficient in meat and key staple crop production under inherent supply constraints, and the possible technological- and policy-based measures they may pursue in regard of such constraints; and, the...

  12. China Dimensions Data Collection: China Administrative Regions GIS Data: 1:1M, County Level, 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — China Administrative Regions GIS Data: 1:1M, County Level, 1990 consists of geographic boundary data for the administrative regions of China as of 31 December 1990....

  13. Development of the Geothermal Heat Pump Market in China; Renewable Energy in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2006-03-01

    This case study is one in a series of Success Stories on developing renewable energy technologies in China for a business audience. It focuses on the development of the geothermal heat pump market in China.

  14. China Dimensions Data Collection: Fundamental GIS: Digital Chart of China, 1:1M, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Fundamental GIS: Digital Chart of China, 1:1M, Version 1 consists of vector maps of China and surrounding areas. The maps include roads, railroads, drainage systems,...

  15. China Dimensions Data Collection: Agricultural Statistics of the People's Republic of China: 1949-1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Agricultural Statistics of the People's Republic of China, 1949-1990 is an historical collection of agricultural statistical data compiled by China's State...

  16. China's Soft Power and Growing Influence in Southeast Asia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hwang, Edward F

    2008-01-01

    .... By no means is China able to surpass the United States soft power capabilities. As China's economy and influence in the region continue to grow however, China as an alternative to the United States can become a reality...

  17. China as A Growing Strategic Market for German Business

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Zijun

    2011-01-01

    @@ German Companies view China as a more strategically important market, despite their concerns over China's regulatory environment, according to a re-port from the German Chamber of Commerce in China.

  18. The current status of utilization of research reactors in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luzheng, Yuan

    2004-01-01

    Seminars on utilization of research reactors were held to enhance experience exchanging among institutes and universities in China. The status of CARR (China Advanced Research Reactor) project is briefly described. The progress in BNCT program in China is introduced. (author)

  19. Metallogenic epoch of the Jiapigou gold belt, Jilin Province, China

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Metallogenic epoch of the Jiapigou gold belt, Jilin Province, China: ... The Jiapigou gold belt is located on the northern margin of the North China Craton, and is one of the ... 29, Xueyuan Road, Beijing 100083, People's Republic of China.

  20. Biosafety Management of Genetically Modified Crops (China) | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Biosafety Management of Genetically Modified Crops (China). Since 1990, China's ... Country(s). China, Far East Asia, Central Asia, South Asia ... Call for new OWSD Fellowships for Early Career Women Scientists now open. In partnership ...

  1. China on the move: Oil price explosion?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skeer, Jeffrey; Wang Yanjia

    2007-01-01

    Rapid expansion of highway and jet traffic in China has created a surge of demand for oil products, putting pressure on world energy markets and petroleum product prices. This paper examines trends in freight and passenger traffic to assess how growth in China's transport demand relates to growth in China's economy, as well as the energy intensity of transport. Based on assumptions about demand elasticity and energy intensity, a range of scenarios is developed for China's oil demand through 2020. Incremental oil demand from China's transport sector is then compared with world oil demand projections to assess the likely impact on world oil prices. The finding is that new demand from China's transport sector would likely raise world oil prices in 2020 by 1-3% in reference scenarios or by 3-10% if oil supply investment is constrained

  2. Development of natural gas vehicles in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zongmin, Cheng

    1996-12-31

    Past decade and current status of development of natural gas vehicles (NGVs) in China is described. By the end of 1995, 35 CNG refueling stations and 9 LPG refueling stations had been constructed in 12 regions, and 33,100 vehicles had been converted to run on CNG or LPG. China`s automobile industry, a mainstay of the national economy, is slated for accelerated development over next few years. NGVs will help to solve the problems of environment protection, GHGs mitigation, and shortage of oil supply. The Chinese government has started to promote the development of NGVs. Projects, investment demand, GHG mitigation potential, and development barriers are discussed. China needs to import advanced foreign technologies of CNGs. China`s companies expect to cooperate with foreign partners for import of CNG vehicle refueling compressors, conversions, and light cylinders, etc.

  3. Explaining Spatial Convergence of China's Industrial Productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deng, Paul Duo; Jefferson, Gary H.

    2011-01-01

    This article investigates the conditions that may auger a reversal of China's increasingly unequal levels of regional industrial productivity during China's first two decades of economic reform. Using international and Chinese firm and industry data over the period 1995–2004, we estimate a produc...... movement towards reversing growth in spatial income inequality.......This article investigates the conditions that may auger a reversal of China's increasingly unequal levels of regional industrial productivity during China's first two decades of economic reform. Using international and Chinese firm and industry data over the period 1995–2004, we estimate...... a productivity growth–technology gap reaction function. We find that as China's coastal industry has closed the technology gap with the international frontier, labour productivity growth in the coastal region has begun to slow in relation to the interior. This may serve as an early indicator of China's initial...

  4. History of Neurology in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Xinde

    2000-01-01

    @@In 1921, the first independent department of neurology was established in Beijing. Before 1949, all over China only 12 professional doctors lectured neurology in medical colleges. Only 30 medically trained personnel were engaged in the neurological departments. The neurological departments contained roughly 200 beds. The thesis on stroke was written by Zhang Shanlei and published in 1922. Author discussed the cerebral stroke on basis of Chinese traditional medicine and European medicine. The first Textbook of Neurology in China was written by Professor Cheng Yu-lin and was published in 1939. In 1952, the Chinese Society of Neurology and Psychiatry of Chinese Medical Association was established. In 1955, the first issue of the Chinese Journal of Neurology and Psychiatry was published.

  5. Regulation of GMOs in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yinliang

    2008-12-01

    Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are created by biotechnology to serve people with much benefit while may impose risks to ecological environment and human health and therefore need careful regulation. During the past two decades, GMOs have been well developed in China and so has their corresponding regulation. This paper reviews and comments the multiple aspects of mainly the agricultural GMOs, including their safety assessment, control measures, trade activities, import, labels, and GM food, which have been prescribed by the corresponding laws, regulations and administrative measures. It is held that till present a framework for regulation of agricultural GMOs and GM food has been established basically in China, while a more comprehensive system for regulation of all kinds of GMOs and all kinds of related activities is still needed at present and in the future.

  6. Petroleum refining industry in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walls, W.D.

    2010-01-01

    The oil refining industry in China has faced rapid growth in oil imports of increasingly sour grades of crude with which to satisfy growing domestic demand for a slate of lighter and cleaner finished products sold at subsidized prices. At the same time, the world petroleum refining industry has been moving from one that serves primarily local and regional markets to one that serves global markets for finished products, as world refining capacity utilization has increased. Globally, refined product markets are likely to experience continued globalization until refining investments significantly expand capacity in key demand regions. We survey the oil refining industry in China in the context of the world market for heterogeneous crude oils and growing world trade in refined petroleum products. (author)

  7. Post-earthquake denudation and its impacts on ancient civilizations in the Chengdu Longmenshan region, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ningsheng; Li, Jun; Liu, Lihong; Yang, Chenglin; Liu, Mei

    2018-05-01

    This study characterizes significant changes in denudation and disasters in mountainous areas induced in the humid Chengdu Longmenshan region by the Wenchuan Earthquake in 2008. A study focusing on the Longxi-Baisha River Basin was conducted to investigate the amount of denudation triggered by specific flash flood and debris flow events in 2009-2014. The following results were obtained through a comparison of pre-seismic regional denudation rates and denudation characteristics of other seismically active mountain regions. (1) Regional denudation processes occurred in a wave-like process of initial increase then decline, with a peak exhibiting a hyperbolic attenuation trend. This trend indicates that the denudation rate in the Chengdu Longmenshan region is expected to return to the pre-seismic rate of 0.3 mm a-1 after 81 years. In 22 years after the earthquake (Year 2030), debris flow disasters are expected to be rare. (2) Disasters increased significantly in the Chengdu Longmenshan region after the Wenchuan earthquake, with an average of 29.5 people missing or dead per year (22 times greater than the pre-earthquake rate) and average economic losses of 192 million Yuan per year (1.6 times greater than the pre-earthquake rate). (3) The denudation process was jointly controlled by the quantities of loose solid material and precipitation after the Wenchuan earthquake. The amount of loose solid material influenced the extent of denudation, while vegetation coverage rates and soil consolidation determined the overall denudation trend in the region, and changes in precipitation led to denudation fluctuations. (4) The results can be used to analyze the relationship between the potential flash flood-debris flow disasters after earthquakes in the ancient Shu kingdom and changes in historical social settlements. The results can also be used to predict denudation processes and disaster risks from earthquakes in humid mountainous regions around the world, such as the southern

  8. China's position on nuclear non-proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian Jiadong.

    1986-01-01

    The paper discusses China's position on nuclear non-proliferation, in view of the fact that China does not subscribe to the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT). China refuses to accede to the NPT because it considers the treaty to be discriminatory, and reasons are given for this point of view. However its stand for nuclear disarmament and disapproval of nuclear proliferation are declared. Nuclear arms race, prevention of nuclear war, and nuclear disarmament are also considered. (UK)

  9. The conscious of Nightmares in ancient China

    OpenAIRE

    西林, 眞紀子

    2006-01-01

    The analaysis concerns Nightmares in ancient China. People in ancient China were very afraid of Nightmares. Nightmares are described in the『春秋左氏傳』etc. The exocis Nightmares is described in the『周禮』. The ceremony "難" of exocis Nightmares in the『禮記』. In the characters Meng (夢) had the conscious of Nightmares in ancient China. The analaysis is about the characters 'Meng', about the characters of the relationship 'Meng'

  10. Government funded renewable energy innovation in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Cui; Su, Jun; Zhao, Xiaoyuan; Sui, Jigang; Ru, Peng; Zhang, Hanwei; Wang, Xin

    2012-01-01

    With the rapid development of the economy, China is facing pressures caused by traditional energy deficiency and environmental pollution in recent years, which has forced the Chinese government to start to pay attention to the development and utilization of renewable energy (RE). This article, based on data and statistics available up to 2008, studies features of China's RE technology innovation and problems thereof. It finds that national science and technology programs are the main aspect of China's RE technology innovation, and most of R and D funds for the RE technology come from China's three main national programs. Besides, the overall expenditures on RE technology innovation constitute only a small proportion of China's total domestic R and D funding and seem not enough. This paper also finds that, compared with research and development stages of RE technology, the demonstration and diffusion of RE technology in China are given less attention and thus are relatively less sufficient. Furthermore, influenced by China's traditional scientific research system, there appears lack of sufficient incentives and opportunities for private sectors to fully participate in RE technology innovation because most national programs are undertaken by universities or research institutes. - Highlights: ► We study statistically China's renewable energy technology innovation (RETI). ► National science and technology (S and T) programs are the main aspect of China's RETI. ► Most of R and D funds come from China's three main national (S and T) programs. ► The overall expenditure on RETI is small proportion of China's total domestic R and D funding. ► The demonstration and diffusion of RETI in China are relatively less sufficient.

  11. Attributable causes of colorectal cancer in China

    OpenAIRE

    Gu, Meng-Jia; Huang, Qiu-Chi; Bao, Cheng-Zhen; Li, Ying-Jun; Li, Xiao-Qin; Ye, Ding; Ye, Zhen-Hua; Chen, Kun; Wang, Jian-Bing

    2018-01-01

    Background Colorectal cancer is the 4th common cancer in China. Most colorectal cancers are due to modifiable lifestyle factors, but few studies have provided a systematic evidence-based assessment of the burden of colorectal cancer incidence and mortality attributable to the known risk factors in China. Methods We estimated the population attributable faction (PAF) for each selected risk factor in China, based on the prevalence of exposure around 2000 and relative risks from cohort studies a...

  12. Population structure of Staphylococcus aureus in China

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Xiaomei

    2015-01-01

    The present PhD research was aimed at analysing the population structure of Staphylococcus aureus in China. Between 2000 and 2005 we found that patients from a single Chinese hospital showed increasing trends in antimicrobial resistance. Among methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), resistance against rifampicin doubled to 68%. Staphylococcal food poisoning (SFP) is frequent in China. Two predominant S. aureus lineages, ST6 and ST943, were identified causing outbreaks of SFP in Southern China...

  13. Countering China’s Maritime Territorial Disputes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-31

    television, newspaper, and social media campaigns. Media warfare is one of the domains through which China conducts psychological and legal warfare. The...resolve regional economic, social , and cultural issues through intergovernmental cooperation among its members. All of the South China Sea claimants are...influence the Senkaku Island dispute, and in 2012, China restricted produce trade and tourism trade with the Republic of the Philippines in order to

  14. STATE OF BUSINESS IN HOSPITALITY IN CHINA

    OpenAIRE

    Yi Yu

    2014-01-01

    The article deals with the state of business in the hospitality industry in China, domestic tourism, inbound tourism in China as entrepreneurial activity, outbound tourism from China to other countries. Hospitalityis one of the most important parts of thevast services market, and is a fast-growingand highly profitable industry that coulddirectly, indirectly, so as to infl uence the formation of conditions for sustainable socio-economic growth.

  15. STATE OF BUSINESS IN HOSPITALITY IN CHINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the state of business in the hospitality industry in China, domestic tourism, inbound tourism in China as entrepreneurial activity, outbound tourism from China to other countries. Hospitalityis one of the most important parts of thevast services market, and is a fast-growingand highly profitable industry that coulddirectly, indirectly, so as to infl uence the formation of conditions for sustainable socio-economic growth.

  16. Brazil, China, US: a triangular relation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José-Augusto Guilhon-Albuquerque

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is divided in three sections. The first one explores the so-called "strategic partnership" between Brazil and China. In the second section we shall examine how US-China relations in the global system could affect both Brazil-US, and Brazil-China bilateral relations. A final section presents some recommendations for Brazil strategic orientations regarding the current systemic transition in the allotment of global power.

  17. Improvement of tofu texture in China

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Yongqiang

    2004-01-01

    Nowadays, in China, the problem of protein inadequacy still exists. To solve this problem,low cost, good quality vegetable proteins are considered to be one of the best choices. Amongthem, as a good vegetable protein resource, soybean has aroused the attention of manyresearchers. Tofu, a kind of soybean product, was invented in ancient time in China andnowadays, it is still a popular daily dish in some Asian countries like China, Japan, Korea, etcand is considered as a good vegetable protein ...

  18. Analysis of China's energy utilization for 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Ming; Wang Wenwen

    2011-01-01

    China is the world's second-largest energy producer and consumer, so that it is very necessary to analyze China's energy situation for saving energy consumption and reducing GHG emission. Energy flow chart is taken as a useful tool for sorting out and displaying energy statistics data. Energy statistics data is the premise and foundation for analyzing energy situation. However, there exit many differences between China and foreign energy balance. Based on the international criterion of energy balance and some advices given by related experts, the author properly adjusts China's energy balance. And the purpose of this paper is to draft China's energy flow chart for 2007, which is used to study the characteristics of energy production and consumption in China. We find that: (1) coal is the main energy in China, which accounted for 73.2% of total energy supply in 2007; (2) thermal power accounted for 83.2% of the total electricity supply, and 78.43% thermal power was based on coal; (3) in 2007, the secondary industrial sector consumed about 69.93% of energy; (4) China's energy utilization efficiency was about 33.23% in 2007. - Research highlights: → Based on the international criterion of energy balance and some advices given by related experts, the author properly adjusts China's energy balance. → The purpose of this paper is to draft China's energy flow chart for 2007, which is used to study the characteristics of energy production and consumption in China. → We find that China's energy utilization efficiency was about 33.23% in 2007.

  19. Estimating network effects in China's mobile telecommunications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    A model is proposed along with empirical investigation to prove the existence of network effects in China's mobile telecommunications market. Futhernore, network effects on China's mobile telecommunications are estimated with a dynamic model. The structural parameters are identified from regression coefficients and the results are analyzed and compared with another literature. Data and estimation issues are also discussed. Conclusions are drawn that network effects are significant in China's mobile telecommunications market, and that ignoring network effects leads to bad policy making.

  20. People's Republic of China's Technological Capability

    OpenAIRE

    Jon Sigurdson

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the importance of the People's Republic of China in the global economy by exemplifying industrial sectors where it has established a strong competitive advantage. The author accounts for China's growth by looking at factors such as direct foreign investment and investment in research and development. This paper discusses several economic sectors including the textile, electronics, semiconductor, and aircraft industries as cases where China has upgraded its technological p...