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Sample records for welsh onion allium

  1. Development of Polymorphic Genic SSR Markers by Transcriptome Sequencing in the Welsh Onion (Allium fistulosum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liuyi Yang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Transcriptome analysis is an efficient way to explore molecular markers in plant species, for which genome sequences have not been published. To address the limited number of markers published for the Welsh onion, this study found 6486 loci of genic simple sequence repeats (SSR, which consisted of 1–5 bp repeat motifs, based on next-generation sequencing (NGS technology and the RNA-Seq approach. The most abundant motif was mononucleotide (52.33%, followed by trinucleotide (31.96%, and dinucleotide (14.57%. A total of 2525 primer pairs were successfully designed, and 91 out of 311 tested primers were polymorphisms. Overall, 38 genic SSR markers were randomly selected to further validate the degree of genetic diversity, and 22 genic SSR markers (57.89% showed high levels of polymorphism. The average polymorphism information content (PIC value and the number of alleles (Na were 0.63 and 5.27, respectively, and the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic average (UPGMA cluster analysis grouped the 22 Allium accessions into three groups with Nei’s similarity coefficients ranging from 0.37 to 0.99. This result suggested that these genic SSR markers could be used to develop a higher resolution genetic map and/or to analyze the phylogenetic relationships among Allium plants in the near future.

  2. The effect of cultivar, sowing date and transplant location in field on bolting of Welsh onion (Allium fistulosum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Bolting reduces the quality and commercial yield of Welsh onion (Allium fistulosum L.) in production. However, seed production is directly dependent on flower induction and bolting. The Welsh onion belongs to the green plant vernalisation type, specific seedling characteristics and sufficient accumulated time at low temperature are indispensible for the completion of its vernalisation process. Only if these conditions for vernalisation are fulfilled, the plants will bolt in the following year. The present investigation evaluated the effects of cultivar, sowing date and transplant location in field on the bolting of Welsh onion at the Horticultural Farm of the College of Horticulture, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shannxi Province, China in two succeeding production years: 2010–2011 and 2011–2012. A strip split plot layout within a randomised complete block design with three replications was used. Results The results revealed that all three factors (cultivar, sowing date and transplant location) and their interaction had significant effects on the initiation and final rate of bolting observed by 30 April. The earliest bolting date (14 February, 2011 and 15 February, 2012) and the highest bolting rate (100% in 2011 and 62% in 2012) occurred when the JinGuan cultivar was sown on 20 August and transplanted in a plastic tunnel, whereas the latest date and lowest rate (no bolting observed until 30 April) of bolting occurred when the XiaHei cultivar was sown on 29 September and transplanted in an open field. Conclusions These results suggest that we can control bolting in Welsh onion production by choosing an appropriate cultivar, sowing date and transplant location. Choosing a late bolting cultivar, such as cultivar XiaHei, sowing around October, and transplanting in the open field can significantly delay bolting, while a sowing date in late August should be selected for seed production, and the seedlings should be transplanted in a plastic tunnel to

  3. Response of welsh onion to various rates of compost application

    OpenAIRE

    Maryati,; Warjana; Isnaini, Soni

    2011-01-01

    This research???s objective was to study effect of various rates of compost on growth and yield of welsh onion (Allium fistulosum L.) in Sekincau, West Lampung. An experiment was conducted in dry season of 2004, started from August and harvested in November 2004. It was arranged in a randomized completed block design. Treatments were no-compost, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, and 10.0 t ha-1 compost. Results revealed that compost increased plant height, tiller number, root length, number of dr...

  4. Occurrence of Anthracnose on Welsh Onion Caused by Colletotrichum circinans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Wan Gyu; Hong, Sung Kee; Kim, Jin Hee

    2008-12-01

    Anthracnose occurred frequently on leaf sheaths of Welsh onions grown in Gangwha island, Korea in November, 2007. The disease incidence was as high as 30% in five fields investigated. A total of 20 single spore isolates of Colletotrichum species were obtained from the affected plants, and all the isolates were identified as Colletotrichum circinans based on their morphological and cultural characteristics. Three isolates of the fungus caused anthracnose symptoms on the leaf sheaths of Welsh onions by artificial inoculation, which were similar to those observed during the field survey. In this study, the mycological and pathological characteristics of C. circinans identified as causing anthracnose of Welsh onions are clarified.

  5. Genetic and Pathogenic Variability of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepae Isolated from Onion and Welsh Onion in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Kazunori; Nakahara, Katsuya; Tanaka, Shuhei; Shigyo, Masayoshi; Ito, Shin-ichi

    2015-04-01

    Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepae causes Fusarium basal rot in onion (common onion) and Fusarium wilt in Welsh onion. Although these diseases have been detected in various areas in Japan, knowledge about the genetic and pathogenic variability of F. oxysporum f. sp. cepae is very limited. In this study, F. oxysporum f. sp. cepae was isolated from onion and Welsh onion grown in 12 locations in Japan, and a total of 55 F. oxysporum f. sp. cepae isolates (27 from onion and 28 from Welsh onion) were characterized based on their rDNA intergenic spacer (IGS) and translation elongation factor-1α (EF-1α) nucleotide sequences, vegetative compatibility groups (VCGs), and the presence of the SIX (secreted in xylem) homologs. Phylogenetic analysis of IGS sequences showed that these isolates were grouped into eight clades (A to H), and 20 onion isolates belonging to clade H were monophyletic and assigned to the same VCG. All the IGS-clade H isolates possessed homologs of SIX3, SIX5, and SIX7. The SIX3 homolog was located on a 4 Mb-sized chromosome in the IGS-clade H isolates. Pathogenicity tests using onion seedlings showed that all the isolates with high virulence were in the IGS-clade H. These results suggest that F. oxysporum f. sp. cepae isolates belonging to the IGS-clade H are genetically and pathogenically different from those belonging to the other IGS clades.

  6. RNA-Seq reveals leaf cuticular wax-related genes in Welsh onion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qianchun; Wen, Changlong; Zhao, Hong; Zhang, Liying; Wang, Jian; Wang, Yongqin

    2014-01-01

    The waxy cuticle plays a very important role in plant resistance to various biotic and abiotic stresses and is an important characteristic of Welsh onions. Two different types of biangan Welsh onions (BG) were selected for this study: BG, a wild-type covered by wax, which forms a continuous lipid membrane on its epidermal cells, and GLBG, a glossy mutant of BG whose epidermal cells are not covered by wax. To elucidate the waxy cuticle-related gene expression changes, we used RNA-Seq to compare these two Welsh onion varieties with distinct differences in cuticular wax. The de novo assembly yielded 42,881 putative unigenes, 25.41% of which are longer than 1,000 bp. Among the high-quality unique sequences, 22,289 (52.0%) had at least one significant match to an existing gene model. A total of 798 genes, representing 1.86% of the total putative unigenes, were differentially expressed between these two Welsh onion varieties. The expression patterns of four important unigenes that are related to waxy cuticle biosynthesis were confirmed by RT-qPCR and COG class annotation, which demonstrated that these genes play an important role in defense mechanisms and lipid transport and metabolism. To our knowledge, this study is the first exploration of the Welsh onion waxy cuticle. These results may help to reveal the molecular mechanisms underlying the waxy cuticle and will be useful for waxy gene cloning, genetics and breeding as well as phylogenetic and evolutionary studies of the Welsh onion.

  7. Efficacy of onion (Allium cepa l.) and garlic (Allium sativum l.) juice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Meat contains high nutrients that make it get spoilt readily and currently used preservatives like soluble nitrites are carcinogenic. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of Onion (Allium cepa L.) and Garlic (Allium sativum L.) juice as alternative preservatives. Efficacy of the single preservatives an d their ...

  8. RESPONSE OF ONION (Allium cepa L.) BULB YIELD TO DAY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF EKWUEME

    2012-06-17

    Jun 17, 2012 ... An experiment was carried out between October 2007 and March 2008 at the permanent site of the University of Jos. (08°53'E, 09°57'N; 1,159 m above mean sea level) to investigate the effect of day length extension on the yield of onion bulb (Allium cepa L.). Two varieties of onion ('Violet de Galmi' and ...

  9. [Inhibitory effect on Microcystis aeruginosa as well as separation and identification of the allelochemicals of welsh onion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yang; Li, Yuan; Li, Cheng; Liu, Lu; Zhang, Tingting

    2013-11-01

    To study the inhibition of welsh onion on Microcystis aeruginosa, and separat and identify of the allelochemicals from welsh onion. METHEDS: The inhibitory effect of different concentrations of fistular onion stalk and fistular onion leaf water extracts on M. aeruginosa were studied; besides, separation and identification of the allelochemicals of welsh onion were also studied. Both fistular onion stalk and fistular onion leaf water extracts had, to different degree, inhibitory effect on the growth of M. aeruginosat. Compared with the control group, the fluorescence intensity of fistular onion stalk and fistular onion leaf were lower than the control group in the same period, and the inhibitory effect were more obvious with the increase of the water extract concentrations, to the fifth day, M. aeruginosa almost completely dead of the highest concentration(50 ml/L) of fistular onion stalk water extract treated group, the EC50 of water extract from fistular onion stalk to M. aeruginosa was 12.7 ml/L, equivalent to fresh weight 1.27 g/L. Main allelochemicals in fistular onion stalk includes allyl mercaptan, cyclopentyl mercaptan, and so on. The inhibiting assay on M. aeruginosa showed that the EC50 of allyl mercaptan and cyclopentyl mercaptan respectively were 0.03 and 0.02 g/L. The fistular onion stalk water extracts has very good algicidal effect, allelopathic algal inhibiting substances primarily are sulfocompound, which have the potential to develop into biological algicide.

  10. SNP-markers in Allium species to facilitate introgression breeding in onion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, Olga E.; Kaauwen, van Martijn P.W.; Shahin, Arwa; Hendrickx, Patrick M.; Keizer, Paul; Burger-Meijer, Karin; Heusden, van Sjaak; Linden, van der Gerard; Vosman, Ben

    2016-01-01

    Background: Within onion, Allium cepa L., the availability of disease resistance is limited. The identification of sources of resistance in related species, such as Allium roylei and Allium fistulosum, was a first step towards the improvement of onion cultivars by breeding. SNP markers linked to

  11. Bacterial Blight of Welsh Onion : A New Disease Caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. allii pv. nov.

    OpenAIRE

    Ikuo, KADOTA; Katsue, UEHARA; Hirosuke, Shinohara; Koushi, NISHIYAMA; Okinawa Agricultural Research Center:Okinawa Prefectural Agricultural College; National Institute of Agro-Environmental Sciences

    2000-01-01

    In June of 1998, a new bacterial disease was observed on Welsh onion in Okinawa Prefecture, Japan. Infected plants in nursery boxes were stunted with tip dieback, and heavily infected plants died. In fields, the disease appeared on leaves as irregular gray spots or elliptical spots with creases in the center. These spots enlarged and spread rapidly continued cloudy or rainy weather, and formed blight lesions on outer leaves. Yellow mucoid bacterial colonies were consistently isolated from the...

  12. Studies on the Ecology and Control of Welsh Onion Root Rot Caused by Fusarium redolens(Abstracts of the Research by the Winners of the Young Scientist Award)

    OpenAIRE

    Akinori, SHINMURA; Hokkaido Prefecture Donan Agricultural Experiment Station

    2002-01-01

    A previously unreported disease was found on welsh onion grown in a plastic-film greenhouse on Hokkaido, Japan in 1996. Symptoms included leaf blight, plant stunting and root rot. A Fusarium sp. was consistently isolated from rotting roots of welsh onion. We had reported the causal agent was Fusarium oxysporum and named the disease welsh onion root rot, but when I reexamined the classification of this Fusarium, I identified it as Fusarium redolens. The objectives of our study were to determin...

  13. Response of Onion ( Allium cepa L.) to spacing and inorganic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two field experiments were carried out during the 2010/2011 and 2011/2012 dry cropping seasons of October–March to investigate the effects of 0, 40, 80 and 120 kg/ha NPK 15:15:15 and crop spacings on the growth and yield of onion plant (Allium cepa L.). The experiment was a factorial combination of three spacings 15 ...

  14. Screening and incorporation of rust resistance from Allium cepa into bunching onion (Allium fistulosum) via alien chromosome addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wako, Tadayuki; Yamashita, Ken-ichiro; Tsukazaki, Hikaru; Ohara, Takayoshi; Kojima, Akio; Yaguchi, Shigenori; Shimazaki, Satoshi; Midorikawa, Naoko; Sakai, Takako; Yamauchi, Naoki; Shigyo, Masayoshi

    2015-04-01

    Bunching onion (Allium fistulosum L.; 2n = 16), bulb onion (Allium cepa L. Common onion group), and shallot (Allium cepa L. Aggregatum group) cultivars were inoculated with rust fungus, Puccinia allii, isolated from bunching onion. Bulb onions and shallots are highly resistant to rust, suggesting they would serve as useful resources for breeding rust resistant bunching onions. To identify the A. cepa chromosome(s) related to rust resistance, a complete set of eight A. fistulosum - shallot monosomic alien addition lines (MAALs) were inoculated with P. allii. At the seedling stage, FF+1A showed a high level of resistance in controlled-environment experiments, suggesting that the genes related to rust resistance could be located on shallot chromosome 1A. While MAAL, multi-chromosome addition line, and hypoallotriploid adult plants did not exhibit strong resistance to rust. In contrast to the high resistance of shallot, the addition line FF+1A+5A showed reproducibly high levels of rust resistance.

  15. Response of Onion(Allium cepa L.) to Nutrient Sources and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Onion is an important vegetable in Nigeria, but its production and quality are often low due to inappropriate agronomic practices like good nutrient sources and proper weed control. A study was carried out for two years to investigate the response of onion (Allium cepa L.) to nutrient sources and weeding regimes on the bulb ...

  16. Genetic analyses of bolting in bulb onion (Allium cepa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Samantha; Revanna, Roopashree; Pither-Joyce, Meeghan; Shaw, Martin; Wright, Kathryn; Thomson, Susan; Moya, Leire; Lee, Robyn; Macknight, Richard; McCallum, John

    2014-03-01

    We present the first evidence for a QTL conditioning an adaptive trait in bulb onion, and the first linkage and population genetics analyses of candidate genes involved in photoperiod and vernalization physiology. Economic production of bulb onion (Allium cepa L.) requires adaptation to photoperiod and temperature such that a bulb is formed in the first year and a flowering umbel in the second. 'Bolting', or premature flowering before bulb maturation, is an undesirable trait strongly selected against by breeders during adaptation of germplasm. To identify genome regions associated with adaptive traits we conducted linkage mapping and population genetic analyses of candidate genes, and QTL analysis of bolting using a low-density linkage map. We performed tagged amplicon sequencing of ten candidate genes, including the FT-like gene family, in eight diverse populations to identify polymorphisms and seek evidence of differentiation. Low nucleotide diversity and negative estimates of Tajima's D were observed for most genes, consistent with purifying selection. Significant population differentiation was observed only in AcFT2 and AcSOC1. Selective genotyping in a large 'Nasik Red × CUDH2150' F2 family revealed genome regions on chromosomes 1, 3 and 6 associated (LOD > 3) with bolting. Validation genotyping of two F2 families grown in two environments confirmed that a QTL on chromosome 1, which we designate AcBlt1, consistently conditions bolting susceptibility in this cross. The chromosome 3 region, which coincides with a functionally characterised acid invertase, was not associated with bolting in other environments, but showed significant association with bulb sucrose content in this and other mapping pedigrees. These putative QTL and candidate genes were placed on the onion map, enabling future comparative studies of adaptive traits.

  17. Effect of different exposed lights on quercetin and quercetin glucoside content in onion (Allium cepa L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Ko, Eun Young; Nile, Shivraj Hariram; Sharma, Kavita; Li, Guan Hao; Park, Se Won

    2014-01-01

    Quercetin and quercetin glucosides are the major flavonols present in onion (Allium cepa L.) and are predominantly present as quercetin, quercetin-3,4′-diglucoside and quercetin-4′-glucoside. Effect of different light wavelengths on onion after harvest and storage, with fluorescent, blue, red and ultra violet light influenced the quercetin and quercetin glucosides profile. In a peeled onion, all the light treatments elevated quercetin content in bulb. Among them, particularly fluorescent ligh...

  18. Anthocyanins from red onion, Allium cepa, with novel aglycone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossen, Torgils; Andersen, Øyvind M

    2003-04-01

    Four anthocyanins with the same novel 4-substituted aglycone, carboxypyranocyanidin, have been isolated from acidified, methanolic extracts of the edible scales as well as from the dry outer scales of red onion, Allium cepa L. The structures of 1 and 2 were identified as the 3-O-beta-glucopyranoside and 3-O-(6"-O-malonyl-beta-glucopyranoside) of 5-carboxypyranocyanidin, respectively. This aglycone, 5-carboxy-2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-3,8-dihydroxy-pyrano[4,3,2-de]-1-benzopyrylium, is with exception of the substitution pattern on the phenyl ring similar to carboxypyranomalvidin (vitisidin A) recently isolated from red wines. In addition to 1 and 2, two analogues of 2 methylated at the terminal carboxyl group of the acyl moiety (3) or at the aglycone carboxyl (4), respectively, were also identified. These latter compounds are most probably formed by esterification of 2 with the solvent (acidified methanol) during the isolation process. The structures were elucidated by 2D NMR spectroscopy and LC-MS. Copyright 2003 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  19. Anthocyanins with 4'-glucosidation from red onion, Allium cepa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossen, Torgils; Slimestad, Rune; Andersen M, Øyvind M

    2003-12-01

    The anthocyanins, cyanidin 3-O-(3"-O-beta-glucopyranosyl-6"-O-malonyl-beta-glucopyranoside)-4'-O-beta-glucopyranoside, cyanidin 7-O-(3"-O-beta-glucopyranosyl-6"-O-malonyl-beta-glucopyranoside)-4'-O-beta-glucopyranoside, cyanidin 3,4'-di-O-beta-glucopyranoside, cyanidin 4'-O-beta-glucoside, peonidin 3-O-(6"-O-malonyl-beta-glucopyranoside)-5-O-beta-glucopyranoside and peonidin 3-O-(6"-O-malonyl-beta-glucopyranoside) have been isolated in minor amounts from pigmented scales of red onion, Allium cepa, in addition to six known anthocyanins. The structures were established mainly by extensive use of 2D NMR spectroscopy and electrospray LC-MS. With exception of cyanidin 4'-glucoside and cyanidin 3,4'-diglucoside reported from Hibiscus esculentus with inadequate documentation, this is the first identification of anthocyanins with 4'-glycosidation. Compared to cyanidin 3-glycosides the cyanidin 4'-glucoside derivatives showed hypsochromic shifts of visible lambda(max) and hyperchromic effects on wavelengths around 440 nm, similar to pelargonidin 3-glycosides.

  20. Flavonol glucoside profile of southern Italian red onion (Allium cepa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaccorsi, Paola; Caristi, Corrado; Gargiulli, Claudia; Leuzzi, Ugo

    2005-04-06

    High-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) coupled with electron spray mass spectrometry (ESI-MS-MS) was used to determine the flavonol profile in southern Italian red onions (Allium cepa L.). This on-line technique allowed the identification of seven flavonols in southern Italian red onion, quercetin 4'-glucoside and quercetin 3,4'-diglucoside being the most abundant components. Five minor flavonols have been recognized, offering a characteristic profile of such compounds in red onions under study. Quercetin 3-glucoside, quercetin 7,4'-diglucoside, quercetin 3,7,4'-triglucoside, and isorhamnetin 4'-glucoside have been previously reported as minor flavonoid components in Allium cepa, while isorhamnetin 3,4'-diglucoside was previously found in Allium ascalonicum. Traces of isorhamnetin 3-glucoside and free quercetin were also detected.

  1. Response of onion ( Allium cepa L.) bulb yield to day length extension

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was carried out between October 2007 and March 2008 at the permanent site of the University of Jos (08°53'E, 09°57'N; 1,159 m above mean sea level) to investigate the effect of day length extension on the yield of onion bulb (Allium cepa L.). Two varieties of onion ('Violet de Galmi' and 'Red Creole') were ...

  2. Comparative studies of bioactive organosulphur compounds and antioxidant activities in garlic (Allium sativum L.), elephant garlic (Allium ampeloprasum L.) and onion (Allium cepa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sunyoung; Kim, Dan-Bi; Jin, Wenjie; Park, Junghyuck; Yoon, Wonjin; Lee, Yunyeol; Kim, Soyoung; Lee, Sanghee; Kim, Sungsoo; Lee, Ok-Hwan; Shin, Dongbin; Yoo, Miyoung

    2017-05-05

    We evaluated organosulphur compounds in Allium vegetables, including garlic, elephant garlic and onion, using high-performance liquid chromatography. Among organosulphur compounds, elephant garlic had considerable γ-glutamyl peptides, and garlic had the highest alliin content. Onion had low level of organosulphur compounds than did elephant garlic and garlic. In addition, antioxidant capacities were evaluated by oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) values and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging assay. The results showed that garlic had the highest antioxidant capacity, followed by elephant garlic and onion. Furthermore, a positive correlation was observed between antioxidant activities and organosulphur compounds (R > 0.77). Therefore, our results indicate that there was a close relationship between antioxidant capacity and organosulphur compounds in Allium vegetables.

  3. SNP-markers in Allium species to facilitate introgression breeding in onion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholten, Olga E; van Kaauwen, Martijn P W; Shahin, Arwa; Hendrickx, Patrick M; Keizer, L C Paul; Burger, Karin; van Heusden, Adriaan W; van der Linden, C Gerard; Vosman, Ben

    2016-08-31

    Within onion, Allium cepa L., the availability of disease resistance is limited. The identification of sources of resistance in related species, such as Allium roylei and Allium fistulosum, was a first step towards the improvement of onion cultivars by breeding. SNP markers linked to resistance and polymorphic between these related species and onion cultivars are a valuable tool to efficiently introgress disease resistance genes. In this paper we describe the identification and validation of SNP markers valuable for onion breeding. Transcriptome sequencing resulted in 192 million RNA seq reads from the interspecific F1 hybrid between A. roylei and A. fistulosum (RF) and nine onion cultivars. After assembly, reliable SNPs were discovered in about 36 % of the contigs. For genotyping of the interspecific three-way cross population, derived from a cross between an onion cultivar and the RF (CCxRF), 1100 SNPs that are polymorphic in RF and monomorphic in the onion cultivars (RF SNPs) were selected for the development of KASP assays. A molecular linkage map based on 667 RF-SNP markers was constructed for CCxRF. In addition, KASP assays were developed for 1600 onion-SNPs (SNPs polymorphic among onion cultivars). A second linkage map was constructed for an F2 of onion x A. roylei (F2(CxR)) that consisted of 182 onion-SNPs and 119 RF-SNPs, and 76 previously mapped markers. Markers co-segregating in both the F2(CxR) and the CCxRF population were used to assign the linkage groups of RF to onion chromosomes. To validate usefulness of these SNP markers, QTL mapping was applied in the CCxRF population that segregates for resistance to Botrytis squamosa and resulted in a QTL for resistance on chromosome 6 of A. roylei. Our research has more than doubled the publicly available marker sequences of expressed onion genes and two onion-related species. It resulted in a detailed genetic map for the interspecific CCxRF population. This is the first paper that reports the detection of

  4. Evidence for an in vitro Anticoagulant Activity of Red Onion ( Allium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Haemostasis is the process that retains the blood within the vascular system during periods of injury, localizes the reactions involved to the site of injury, repairs and re-establishes blood flow through the injured vessel. Onion (Allium cepa) is a largely universal staple herb popular throughout history as both food ...

  5. Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated transformation of Allium cepa L.: the production of transgenic onions and shallots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, S.J.; Khrustaleva, L.I.; Henken, G.; Sofiari, E.; Jacobsen, E.; Kik, C.; Krens, F.A.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a reliable transformation protocol for onion and shallot (Allium cepa L.) which can be used year-round. It is based on Agrobacterium tumefaciens as a vector, with three-week old callus, induced from mature zygotic embryos, as target tissue. For the development

  6. Effect of different exposed lights on quercetin and quercetin glucoside content in onion (Allium cepa L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Eun Young; Nile, Shivraj Hariram; Sharma, Kavita; Li, Guan Hao; Park, Se Won

    2014-01-01

    Quercetin and quercetin glucosides are the major flavonols present in onion (Allium cepa L.) and are predominantly present as quercetin, quercetin-3,4′-diglucoside and quercetin-4′-glucoside. Effect of different light wavelengths on onion after harvest and storage, with fluorescent, blue, red and ultra violet light influenced the quercetin and quercetin glucosides profile. In a peeled onion, all the light treatments elevated quercetin content in bulb. Among them, particularly fluorescent light effect was more eminent which stimulates the maximum synthesis of quercetin in onion. In case of whole onion bulb, skin and pulp showed different responses to light treatment, respectively. The pulp had the highest quercetin glucosides under blue light, whereas the lowest under fluorescent light. Onion skin showed nearly opposite pattern as compared to the pulp. In particular, light treatment proved to be a better way to increase the level of quercetin content in onions which might be utilized for industrial production of bioactive compounds from onion and onion waste products. PMID:26150744

  7. Effect of different exposed lights on quercetin and quercetin glucoside content in onion (Allium cepa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Eun Young; Nile, Shivraj Hariram; Sharma, Kavita; Li, Guan Hao; Park, Se Won

    2015-07-01

    Quercetin and quercetin glucosides are the major flavonols present in onion (Allium cepa L.) and are predominantly present as quercetin, quercetin-3,4'-diglucoside and quercetin-4'-glucoside. Effect of different light wavelengths on onion after harvest and storage, with fluorescent, blue, red and ultra violet light influenced the quercetin and quercetin glucosides profile. In a peeled onion, all the light treatments elevated quercetin content in bulb. Among them, particularly fluorescent light effect was more eminent which stimulates the maximum synthesis of quercetin in onion. In case of whole onion bulb, skin and pulp showed different responses to light treatment, respectively. The pulp had the highest quercetin glucosides under blue light, whereas the lowest under fluorescent light. Onion skin showed nearly opposite pattern as compared to the pulp. In particular, light treatment proved to be a better way to increase the level of quercetin content in onions which might be utilized for industrial production of bioactive compounds from onion and onion waste products.

  8. Towards onions and shallots (Allium cepa L.) resistant to beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua Hübner) by transgenesis and conventional breeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, S.J.

    2000-01-01

    Onion ( Allium cepa L. group Common Onion) and shallot ( A. cepa L. group Aggregatum) are two subspecies of A. cepa . Both onion and shallot together with other Allium species like garlic ( A.

  9. De Novo Transcriptome Analysis of Allium cepa L. (Onion Bulb to Identify Allergens and Epitopes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemalatha Rajkumar

    Full Text Available Allium cepa (onion is a diploid plant with one of the largest nuclear genomes among all diploids. Onion is an example of an under-researched crop which has a complex heterozygous genome. There are no allergenic proteins and genomic data available for onions. This study was conducted to establish a transcriptome catalogue of onion bulb that will enable us to study onion related genes involved in medicinal use and allergies. Transcriptome dataset generated from onion bulb using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 technology showed a total of 99,074,309 high quality raw reads (~20 Gb. Based on sequence homology onion genes were categorized into 49 different functional groups. Most of the genes however, were classified under 'unknown' in all three gene ontology categories. Of the categorized genes, 61.2% showed metabolic functions followed by cellular components such as binding, cellular processes; catalytic activity and cell part. With BLASTx top hit analysis, a total of 2,511 homologous allergenic sequences were found, which had 37-100% similarity with 46 different types of allergens existing in the database. From the 46 contigs or allergens, 521 B-cell linear epitopes were identified using BepiPred linear epitope prediction tool. This is the first comprehensive insight into the transcriptome of onion bulb tissue using the NGS technology, which can be used to map IgE epitopes and prediction of structures and functions of various proteins.

  10. Structural analyses and immunomodulatory properties of fructo-oligosaccharides from onion (Allium cepa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, V Prasanna; Prashanth, K V Harish; Venkatesh, Y P

    2015-03-06

    Onion (Allium cepa) is an immune-boosting food rich in fructans. The major aim of this study is to characterize and investigate the immunomodulatory properties of onion fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS). FOS was isolated from onion bulbs by hot 80% ethanol extraction (yield: ∼4.5 g/100 g fw) followed by gel permeation chromatography. NMR of onion FOS revealed unusual β-D-Glc terminal residue at the non-reducing end. TLC and ESI-MS analyses showed that onion FOS ranged from trisaccharides to hexasaccharides. Onion FOS (50 μg/mL) significantly increased (∼3-fold) the proliferation of mouse splenocytes/thymocytes vs. control. Further, onion FOS enhanced (∼2.5-fold) the production of nitric oxide by peritoneal exudates cells (PECs) from Wistar rats; intracellular free radicals production and phagocytic activity of isolated murine PECs were also augmented. Our structural and in vitro results indicate that onion FOS comprising of tri- to hexasaccharide units belongs to inulin-type fructans, and possess immunostimulatory activities towards murine lymphocytes and macrophages. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. De Novo Transcriptome Analysis of Allium cepa L. (Onion) Bulb to Identify Allergens and Epitopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkumar, Hemalatha; Ramagoni, Ramesh Kumar; Anchoju, Vijayendra Chary; Vankudavath, Raju Naik; Syed, Arshi Uz Zaman

    2015-01-01

    Allium cepa (onion) is a diploid plant with one of the largest nuclear genomes among all diploids. Onion is an example of an under-researched crop which has a complex heterozygous genome. There are no allergenic proteins and genomic data available for onions. This study was conducted to establish a transcriptome catalogue of onion bulb that will enable us to study onion related genes involved in medicinal use and allergies. Transcriptome dataset generated from onion bulb using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 technology showed a total of 99,074,309 high quality raw reads (~20 Gb). Based on sequence homology onion genes were categorized into 49 different functional groups. Most of the genes however, were classified under 'unknown' in all three gene ontology categories. Of the categorized genes, 61.2% showed metabolic functions followed by cellular components such as binding, cellular processes; catalytic activity and cell part. With BLASTx top hit analysis, a total of 2,511 homologous allergenic sequences were found, which had 37-100% similarity with 46 different types of allergens existing in the database. From the 46 contigs or allergens, 521 B-cell linear epitopes were identified using BepiPred linear epitope prediction tool. This is the first comprehensive insight into the transcriptome of onion bulb tissue using the NGS technology, which can be used to map IgE epitopes and prediction of structures and functions of various proteins.

  12. The root systems of onion and Allium fistulosum in the context of organic farming: a breeding approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melo, de P.

    2003-01-01

    Keywords: Allium cepa , Allium roylei , Japanese bunching onion, introgression breeding, organic agriculture, linkage map, AFLP, QTL analysis, Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi, in vitro multiplication

    Hepatoprotective effects of Allium cepa (onion) extracts against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Liver damage due to paracetamol hepatotoxicity is a major health challenge worldwide. It is against this background that this study was designed to determine the hepatoprotective effects of the increasing dosage of Allium cepa methanolic extracts on paracetamol induced hepatotoxic rats. Fifty-four (54) adult male albino ...

  13. Hepatoprotective effects of Allium cepa (onion) extracts against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-06-25

    Jun 25, 2014 ... Liver damage due to paracetamol hepatotoxicity is a major health challenge worldwide. It is against this background that this study was designed to determine the hepatoprotective effects of the increasing dosage of Allium cepa methanolic extracts on paracetamol induced hepatotoxic rats. Fifty-four (54).

  14. The Onion (Allium cepa L.) R2R3-MYB Gene MYB1 Regulates Anthocyanin Biosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwinn, Kathy E.; Ngo, Hanh; Kenel, Fernand; Brummell, David A.; Albert, Nick W.; McCallum, John A.; Pither-Joyce, Meeghan; Crowhurst, Ross N.; Eady, Colin; Davies, Kevin M.

    2016-01-01

    Bulb color is an important consumer trait for onion (Allium cepa L., Allioideae, Asparagales). The bulbs accumulate a range of flavonoid compounds, including anthocyanins (red), flavonols (pale yellow), and chalcones (bright yellow). Flavonoid regulation is poorly characterized in onion and in other plants belonging to the Asparagales, despite being a major plant order containing many important crop and ornamental species. R2R3-MYB transcription factors associated with the regulation of distinct branches of the flavonoid pathway were isolated from onion. These belonged to sub-groups (SGs) that commonly activate anthocyanin (SG6, MYB1) or flavonol (SG7, MYB29) production, or repress phenylpropanoid/flavonoid synthesis (SG4, MYB4, MYB5). MYB1 was demonstrated to be a positive regulator of anthocyanin biosynthesis by the induction of anthocyanin production in onion tissue when transiently overexpressed and by reduction of pigmentation when transiently repressed via RNAi. Furthermore, ectopic red pigmentation was observed in garlic (Allium sativum L.) plants stably transformed with a construct for co-overexpression of MYB1 and a bHLH partner. MYB1 also was able to complement the acyanic petal phenotype of a defined R2R3-MYB anthocyanin mutant in Antirrhinum majus of the asterid clade of eudicots. The availability of sequence information for flavonoid-related MYBs from onion enabled phylogenetic groupings to be determined across monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous species, including the identification of characteristic amino acid motifs. This analysis suggests that divergent evolution of the R2R3-MYB family has occurred between Poaceae/Orchidaceae and Allioideae species. The DNA sequences identified will be valuable for future analysis of classical flavonoid genetic loci in Allium crops and will assist the breeding of these important crop species. PMID:28018399

  15. Determination of quercetins in onion (Allium cepa) using infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiaonan; Ross, Carolyn F; Powers, Joseph R; Rasco, Barbara A

    2011-06-22

    The rapid quantification of flavonoid compounds in onions by attenuated total reflectance (ATR) Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy combined with multivariate analysis was evaluated as a possible alternative to high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. Quercetin content in onion varieties (yellow, red, and sweet) was quantified using ATR FT-IR (4000 to 400 cm⁻¹) spectroscopy and HPLC methods. Quercetin-3,4'-O-diglucoside (3,4'-Qdg) and quercetin-4'-O-glucoside (4'-Qmg) comprised >80% of the total flavonol content detected in the studied varieties. The quercetin compounds (3,4'-Qdg and 4'-Qmg) and total flavonol conjugates were quantified by HPLC, and results correlated closely with ATR-IR values (R > 0.95). Cross-validated (leave-one-out) partial least-squares regression (PLSR) models successfully predicted concentrations of these quercetins. The standard errors of cross-validation (SECV) of 3,4'-Qdg and 4'-Qmg, total quercetin, and total flavonol contents of onions were 20.43, 21.18, and 21.02 mg/kg fresh weight, respectively. In addition, supervised and unsupervised segregation analyses (principal component analysis, discriminant function analysis, and soft independent modeling of class analogue) were performed to classify onion varieties on the basis of unique infrared spectral features. There was a high degree of segregation (interclass distances > 3.0) for the different types of onion. This study indicated that the IR technique could predict 3,4'-Qdg, 4'-Qmg, total quercetin, and total flavonol contents and has advantages over the traditional HPLC method in providing a valid, efficient, and cost-effective method requiring less sample preparation for the quantification of quercetins in onion.

  16. POTASSIUM AND ITS EFFECT ON THE CONTENT OF POLYPHENOLS IN ONION (ALLIUM CEPA L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Kavalcová

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Onion (Allium cepa L. is rich of chemoprotective compounds as polyphenols, flavonoids, anthocyanins, vitamins, sulphur compounds which have potential beneficial properties for human health. Potassium as important mineral abundant plays many vital roles in plant nutrition (reduces respiration, activates enzyme. In generally, potassium increases crop yield and improves quality of onion bulbs. The objectives of this work were to compare and evaluate the impact of potassium on the content of total polyphenols and antioxidant activity of onion (Allium cepa L.. The content of the total polyphenols was determined by using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent (FCR. The absorbance was measured at 765 nm of wave length against blank. Antioxidant activity was measured using a compound DPPH˙ (2.2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl at 515.6 nm in the spectrophotometer. The content of total polyphenols in samples of onion during vegatation period moved in the range from 505.6 mg GAE/kg ±25.18 to 621.49 mgGAE/kg ±13.41. In this work was watched also the influence of potassium on antioxidant activity, where values were in interval from 32.20 %± 0.58 to 44.67 % ±0.68.

  17. Glu-Phe from onion (Allium Cepa L.) attenuates lipogenesis in hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yu Geon; Cho, Jeong-Yong; Hwang, Eom Ji; Jeon, Tae-Il; Moon, Jae-Hak

    2017-07-01

    A Glu-Phe (EF) was isolated from onion (Allium cepa L. cv. Sunpower). The chemical structure of EF was determined by nuclear magnetic resonance and electrospray ionization-mass (ESI-MS) spectroscopy. We showed that EF reduced lipid accumulation in mouse hepatocytes by inhibiting the expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) and its lipogenic target genes. We also found that AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) was required for the inhibitory effect of EF on lipid accumulation in mouse hepatocytes. Furthermore, EF was qualified in nine onion cultivars by selective multiple reaction-monitoring detection of liquid chromatography-ESI-MS. These results suggest that EF could contribute to the beneficial effect of onion supplement in maintaining hepatic lipid homeostasis.

  18. Amelioration of Purple Blotch Disease in Onion ( Allium cepa L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pot experiments with transplanted onion seedlings were evaluated for management of purple blotch disease. Sets of 100,150 and 200g of poultry droppings, cattle dung, neem leaves, rice husk and a mixture of rice husk and poultry droppings (1:1) were incorporated per kilogram of soil. Spore suspension of Alternaria porri ...

  19. ( Tetracarpidium conophorum ) leaf and onion ( Allium cepa ) bulb ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study assessed the effect of Walnut Leaf (WL) and Onion Bulb (OB) residues on disease resistance of Clarias gariepinus juveniles against infection with the bacteria pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Clarias gariepinus juveniles were fed with diets containing 0 (control), OB2 (0.5%), OB3 (1.0%), OB4 (1.5%), OB5 ...

  1. Elemental Sulphur Content Of Onion Bulb (Allium cepa L.) as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acer

    the traditional daily diet. It is a major spice item, and ranks among the top 5 vegetables in. Nigeria, (NIHORT, 1986). The bulb is used traditionally as a medicinal herb for the treatment of measles, pneumonia, cold and catarrh. Recent studies have confirmed that onion helps in fighting osteoporosis or bone loss (Biochemist ...

  2. Yield Performance of Four Onion ( Allium Cepa L.) Varieties ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results obtained showed that while variety 'Onion Orient\\' was the earliest to maturity, variety 'CAL 606\\' recorded the highest number of leaves, bulb size, biological bulb weight, economic bulb weight, dry bulb weight and best yield which were significantly (P≤0.05) increased by 34.6 %, 23.9 %, 16.8 %, 28.6 %, 35.0 ...

  3. First Report of the Virus Diseases in Victory Onion (Allium victorialis var. platyphyllum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seok-Jin Park

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In 2005, a survey was conducted to identify virus diseases on victory onion, Allium victorialis var. platyphyllum grown in Ulleung island located in the East Sea. A total of 61 samples were collected from victory onion in the neighborhood of Seonginbong. The identification of viruses from the samples were carried out by electron microscopy and RT-PCR using primers species specific to GCLV, LYSV, SLV, OYDV and genus specific to Allexivirus, respectively. From sixty-one samples, filamentous rod particles (600-900 nm were detected from four victory onion samples in EM, three samples containing SLV and one sample containing both SLV and Allexivirus in RT-PCR analysis, respectively. Victory onions naturally infected by the viruses were asymptomatic apparently. The viruses detected by RT-PCR were further characterized by the nucleotide sequence analysis of the coat protein region. Three isolates of SLV showed approximately 99% identities in the nucleotide and amino acid sequences, suggesting that they were likely to be the same strain. On the other hand, they showed approximately 75.7~83.7% identities in the nucleotide and 89.2~97.0% in amino acid sequences compared with the previously reported SLV isolates in Allium. The CP gene of the Allexivirus showed approximately 99.2% nucleotide identities and 98.8% amino acid identities with Garlic virus A. However, there was relatively low homology ranging from 60.6% to 81.5% compared with other Allexiviruses (GarV-C, GarV-E, GarV-X, GMbMV, and Shal-X. These data suggested that two viruses, SLV and GarV-A identified from victory onion, are named SLV-Ulleungdo and GarV-A-Ulleungdo, respectively. This is the first report of viruses infecting victory onion.

  4. Strip Tillage and Early-Season Broadleaf Weed Control in Seeded Onion (Allium cepa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Gegner-Kazmierczak

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Field experiments were conducted in 2007 and 2008 near Oakes, North Dakota (ND, USA, to evaluate if strip tillage could be incorporated into a production system of seeded onion (Allium cepa to eliminate the standard use of a barley (Hordeum vulgare companion crop with conventional, full width tillage, yet support common early-season weed control programs. A split-factor design was used with tillage (conventional and strip tillage as the main plot and herbicide treatments (bromoxynil, DCPA, oxyfluorfen, and pendimethalin as sub-plots. Neither tillage nor herbicide treatments affected onion stand counts. Common lambsquarters (Chenopodium album densities were lower in strip tillage compared to conventional tillage up to three weeks after the post-emergence applied herbicides. In general, micro-rate post-emergence herbicide treatments provided greater early-season broadleaf weed control than pre-emergence herbicide treatments. Onion yield and grade did not differ among herbicide treatments because the mid-season herbicide application provided sufficient control/suppression of the early-season weed escapes that these initial weed escapes did not impact onion yield or bulb diameter. In 2007, onion in the strip tillage treatment were larger in diameter resulting in greater total and marketable yields compared to conventional tillage. Marketable onion yield was 82.1 Mg ha−1 in strip tillage and 64.9 Mg ha−1 in conventional tillage. Results indicate that strip tillage use in direct-seeded onion production was beneficial, especially when growing conditions were conducive to higher yields and that the use of strip tillage in onion may provide an alternative to using a companion crop as it did not interfere with either early-season weed management system.

  5. Leaf and Onion ( Allium Cepa ) Bulb Residues on the Tissue ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the effect of walnut leaf (WL) and onion bulb (OB) residues on tissue bacteriology of Clarias gariepinus juveniles by dietary intake was investigated. Nine experimental diets: control (0%), OB2 (0.5%), OB3 (1.0%), OB4 (1.5%), OB5 (2.0%), WL6 (0.5%), WL7 (1.0%), WL8 (1.5%) and WL9 (2.0%) were formulated ...

  6. HS-SPME-GC-MS Analysis of onion (Allium cepa L. and shallot (Allium ascalonicum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D’Auria, M.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The volatile organic compounds of onion and shallot were determined via HS-SPME-GC-MS. The main components were dipropyldisulphide and allylpropyldisulphide. Thiopropanal S-oxide were detected only in onion volatiles. In shallot is interesting the presence of 2-methyl-2-pentenal, a compound with an intense fruity aroma, that can characterize the different aroma between onion and shallot. The SPME-GC-MS analysis of shallot after absorption on the SPME fiber at 50°C showed the presence of new compounds, whose structures have been discussed.

  7. Quality assessment of diced onion ( Allium cepa l.) using an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation de la qualité d'oignon (Allium cepa L.) coupé en cube utilisant le nez électronique (nez - E) détecteur polymère à conducteur 32 qui est potentiellement plus efficace était enquêtée. L'oignon brun coupé en cube (ca. 6 mm3) était emballé dans les sachets en polyéthylène de 50 μm épais et mis en stock pour 3, 6, ...

  8. The onion (Allium cepa L. R2R3-MYB gene MYB1 regulates anthocyanin biosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathy Schwinn

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Bulb colour is an important consumer trait for onion (Allium cepa L., Allioideae, Asparagales. The bulbs accumulate a range of flavonoid compounds, including anthocyanins (red, flavonols (pale yellow and chalcones (bright yellow. Flavonoid regulation is poorly characterised in onion and in other plants belonging to the Asparagales, despite being a major plant order containing many important crop and ornamental species. R2R3-MYB transcription factors associated with the regulation of distinct branches of the flavonoid pathway were isolated from onion. These belonged to sub-groups (SGs that commonly activate anthocyanin (SG6, MYB1 or flavonol (SG7, MYB29 production, or repress phenylpropanoid/flavonoid synthesis (SG4, MYB4, MYB5. MYB1 was demonstrated to be a positive regulator of anthocyanin biosynthesis by the induction of anthocyanin production in onion tissue when transiently overexpressd and by reduction of pigmentation when transiently repressed via RNAi. Furthermore, ectopic red pigmentation was observed in garlic (A. sativum L. plants stably transformed with a construct for co-overexpression of MYB1 and a bHLH partner. MYB1 also was able to complement the acyanic petal phenotype of a defined R2R3-MYB anthocyanin mutant in Antirrhinum majus of the asterid clade of eudicots. The availability of sequence information for flavonoid-related MYBs from onion enabled phylogenetic groupings to be determined across monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous species, including the identification of characteristic amino acid motifs. This analysis suggests that divergent evolution of the R2R3-MYB family has occurred between Poaceae/Orchidaceae and Allioideae species. The DNA sequences identified will be valuable for future analysis of classical flavonoid genetic loci in Allium crops and will assist the breeding of these important crop species.

  9. The effect of aqueous preparation of Allium cepa (onion) and Allium sativa (garlic) on erythrocyte osmotic fragility in Wistar rats: in vivo and in vitro studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salami, H A; John, A I; Ekanem, A U

    2012-06-07

    Allium cepa (onion) and Allium sativa (garlic) are bulbous herbs used as food item, spice and medicine in different parts of the world. The effects of onion and garlic on the osmotic fragility of red blood cells in albino rats were assessed in vivo and in vitro. In the in vivo studies, five albino rats weighing between 150 - 200g composed each of three study groups. Group A were administered 150mg/Kg body weight aqueous onion preparation; Group B 75mg/Kg body weight aqueous onion and 75mg/Kg body weight garlic preparations; and Group C served as the control and were administered distilled water. The treatment regimens were orally administered thrice a week, for a period of four weeks by gavages. The in vitro erythrocyte osmotic fragility was also evaluated in 12 Wistar rats that were not pre-treated with either onion alone or onion and garlic. The animals were divided into three groups. Blood samples from group A rats were treated with 150mg onion while blood from group B rats was treated with 75mg onion and 75mg garlic extracts. Group C served as the control and were treated with normal saline and osmotic fragility assays were carried out. The degree of haemolysis was greater in the treatment group compared to control and the percentage haemolysis was greater in blood samples with onion and garlic compared to the onion group. The same observation was made in the in vitro study, but the degree of haemolysis was significantly higher in in vitro than the in vivo experiments. It is concluded that onion and garlic increase the osmotic fragility of red blood cells in albino rats.

  10. SELENIUM AND ITS INFLUENCE ON THE CONTENT OF POLYPHENOL COMPOUNDS IN ONION (ALLIUM CEPA L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judita Bystrická

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Onions (Allium cepa L. are important source of bioactive compounds including polyphenols and have potential beneficial properties for human health. Selenium (Se is an essential micronutrient that is required in small amounts. The aim of the research was to find out how selenium (Se treatment affects on the quality of onion (Allium cepa L.. The content of the total polyphenols was determined by using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent (FCR. Antioxidant activity was measured using a compound DPPH˙ (2.2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl.The Se treatment increased the content of total polyphenols (TCA and antioxidant activity (AA. The content of total polyphenols in samples of onion during vegatation period moved in the range from 508.16±27.59 to 607.56±23.15. In this work was watched also the influence of potassium on antioxidant activity, where values were in interval from 25.90±0.47 to 39.72±2.64.

  11. Effect of processing and cooking conditions on onion (Allium cepa L.) induced antiplatelet activity and thiosulfinate content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavagnaro, Pablo F; Galmarini, Claudio R

    2012-09-05

    Allium vegetables serve as sources of antiplatelet agents that may contribute to the prevention of cardiovascular disease. However, onion and garlic, the major Allium species, are usually cooked before consumption. Here, we examined the effect of cooking on onion in vitro antiplatelet activity (IVAA). Two different cooking systems (convection oven and microwaves) and several time-temperature variables were tested on whole bulbs, quarters of bulbs, and completely crushed bulbs, monitoring the degradation of sulfur antiplatelet compounds (e.g., thiosulfinates) by analysis of pyruvate levels. Although heating was, in general, detrimental for onion IVAA, the extent of this effect varied greatly, from unaffected antiplatelet activity (AA) (i.e., similar to raw onion) to a complete lost of activity, depending upon the manner in which onions were prepared prior to heating, the cooking method, and the intensity of the heat treatment. "Whole", "quarters", and "crushed" onions lost their IVAA after 30, 20, and 10 min of oven heating, respectively. The longer retainment of AA in intact bulbs was attributed to a later alliinase inactivation. Proaggregatory effects observed in samples subjected to the most intense oven and microwave heat treatments suggest that extensively cooked onions may stimulate rather than inhibit platelet aggregation. The efficacy of Allium species as antiplatelet agents, as affected by preparation and cooking conditions, is discussed.

  12. Influence of pesticide effluent on Allium cepa L. (onion plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumkum Mishra

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available An investigation was made to find out the effect of different doses (25, 50, 75 and 100% of pesticide effluents (Indian Pesticide Ltd on plant growth and certain metabolic parameters (height, total chlorophyll, carotenoid, protein and sugar contents, MDA content, catalase and peroxidase activity in Allium cepa L. plants. Plant growth in terms of its height, total chlorophyll, carotenoid, protein and sugar contents were found to be decreased at increasing doses of pesticide effluents. However, other activities of two antioxidative iron viz. catalase and peroxidase also the MDA (Malondialdehyde content were found to be progressively stimulated at increasing doses of the effluent. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v4i2.12629 International Journal of Environment Vol.4(2 2015: 95-105

  13. [Analysis of pesticides including chlorine in welsh onions and mushrooms using gas chromatograph with an atomic emission detector (GC-AED)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tateishi, Yukinari; Takano, Ichiro; Kobayashi, Maki; Tamura, Yasuhiro; Tomizawa, Sanae; Sakai, Naoko; Kamijo, Kyoko; Nagayama, Toshihiro; Kamata, Kunihiro

    2004-12-01

    An analytical method for the determination of 32 kinds of pesticide residues in onions, Welsh onions and mushrooms using gas chromatograph with an atomic emission detector (GC-AED) was developed. The pesticides were extracted with acetone-n-hexane (2:3) mixture. The crude extract was partitioned between 5% sodium chloride and ethyl acetate-n-hexane (1:4) mixture. The extract was passed through a Florisil mini-column for cleanup with 10 mL of acetone-n-hexane (1:9) mixture. Although the sensitivity of GC-AED was inferior to that of GC-ECD, GC-AED has a superior element-selectivity. Therefore pesticide residues in foods could be analyzed more exactly by using GC-AED. Thirty-two pesticides including chlorine in onion, Welsh onion and shiitake mushroom were detected without interference. Recoveries of these pesticides from samples determined by GC-AED were 64-114%, except for a few pesticides.

  14. Light Intensity and Carbon Dioxide Availability Impact Antioxidant Activity in Green Onions (Allium fistulosumm L)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Lanfang; Bisbee, Patricia; Pare, Paul

    The prospect of long-duration manned space missions poses many challenges, including the development of a sustainable life support system and effective methods of space-radiation protection. To mitigate the risk of increased space-radiation, functional foods rich in antioxidant properties such as green onions are of particular interest. However it has yet to be established whether antioxidant properties can be preserved or enhanced in space environment where carbon dioxide, lighting intensity, gravity and pressure differ from which plants have acclimated to on earth. In this study, green onions (Allium fistulosumm L. cultivar Kinka) rich in antioxidant flavonoids are used as a model system to investigate variations in antioxidant capacity with plants grown under varying light intensities and CO2 concentrations. The antioxidant potential is determined using both radical cation scavenging and oxygen radical absorbance assays. For all light intensities assayed, antioxidant potential in water extract of green onions per gram biomass declined with CO2 increases up to 1200 ppm, and then leveled off with further CO2 increase to 4000 ppm. This inverse carbon dioxide versus antioxidant activity correlation suggests lower accumulation rates for water soluble antioxidant compounds compared to total biomass under increasing CO2 concentrations. The effect of increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration on antioxidant activity of ethanol extracts were light intensity dependent. The implications of these findings are discussed in the context of traditional plant antioxidants including vitamin C and the major onion flavonoid quercetin.

  15. Design of an automatic sprinkler irrigation system for the Welsh onion growing, in La Puerta farm (Tota-Boyacá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Armando Pinto-Medina

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design for automating sprinkler irrigation system in a Welsh onion growing, which poses the required parameters, establishes the differences, advantages and results related to the traditional irrigation system used in this region (Tota, Boyacá. Starting from the resources owned by the farming unit, calculations of water requests of the plant, taking into account the crop evapotranspiration, the irrigation planning with certain factors on the basis of effective storage of soils. Two different technologies for the design are presented: hard-wired and programmable logic. The hard-wired logic system is developed as an automatic cyclical sequence with four work timed stages; on the other hand, the programmable logic controller PLC used, is the Easy-512-DC of Moller, which is provided with eight digital inputs and four relay outputs, programmed in Ladder according to the sequence of the process.

  16. Effect of Humic Substances on Nutrient Status and Yield of Onion (Allium Cepa L.) in Field Conditions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Anita Osvalde; Andis Karlsons; Gunta Čekstere; Solveiga Maļecka

    2012-01-01

    .... The goal of the present study was to evaluate the effect of pre-plant (bulblet soaking) and foliar application of commercially-produced peat and vermicompost-derived HS preparations on nutrient status and yield of onion (Allium cepa L...

  17. Genetic variation among Fusarium isolates from onion, and resistance to Fusarium basal rot in related Allium species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galván, G.A.; Koning-Boucoiran, C.F.S.; Koopman, W.J.H.; Burger-Meijer, K.; Gonzáles, P.H.; Waalwijk, C.; Kik, C.; Scholten, O.E.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this research was to study levels of resistance to Fusarium basal rot in onion cultivars and related Allium species, by using genetically different Fusarium isolates. In order to select genetically different isolates for disease testing, a collection of 61 Fusarium isolates, 43 of them

  18. Proteomic Characterization of Differential Abundant Proteins Accumulated between Lower and Upper Epidermises of Fleshy Scales in Onion (Allium cepa L.) Bulbs

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Si; Ning, Fen; Wu, Xiaolin; Wang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    The onion (Allium cepa L.) is widely planted worldwide as a valuable vegetable crop. The scales of an onion bulb are a modified type of leaf. The one-layer-cell epidermis of onion scales is commonly used as a model experimental material in botany and molecular biology. The lower epidermis (LE) and upper epidermis (UE) of onion scales display obvious differences in microscopic structure, cell differentiation and pigment synthesis; however, associated proteomic differences are unclear. LE and U...

  19. Obtaining botany seed onion (Allium cepa L. under natural conditions in Topes de Collantes, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elian Bravo Alé

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The investigation was carried out in Topes de Collantes with the objective of evaluating two me -thods of “vernalization” of Allium cepa L. var., Caribe 71 in natural conditions. Two groups of bulblets (from the previous harvest were selected and subjected to methods different vernalization, the conventional (storage in cold storage at temperatures between 2 and 3 0C, for 100 days and natural (storage during 125 days within a rustic house with walls of palm board and a thatched roof, at room temperature. The bulblets from both treatments were planted randomly in different field plots. During the development of the plantation were eva-luated, agronomic variables related to seed production and the yield of onion bulbs. The conventional method was tatistically superior to natural, on the seed production; although the natural method was superior in the commercial yield of the onion bulbs. It is concluded that can be used method of natural vernalization in the climatic conditions of Topes de Collantes , because the seeds production are lower than the conventional ver-nalization, but higher yields of commercial onion bulbs are obtained, and is an economical method accessible to the producers

  20. Vesicle formation in the membrane of onion cells (Allium cepa) during rapid osmotic dehydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assani, Akym; Moundanga, Sylvie; Beney, Laurent; Gervais, Patrick

    2009-12-01

    Optimization of osmotic dehydration in different plant cells has been investigated through the variation of parameters such as the nature of the sugar used, the concentration of osmotic solutions and the processing time. In micro-organisms such as the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the exposure of a cell to a slow increase in osmotic pressure preserves cell viability after rehydration, while sudden dehydration involves a lower rate of cell viability, which could be due to membrane vesiculation. The aim of this work is to study cytoplasmic vesicle formation in onion epidermal cells (Allium cepa) as a function of the kinetics of osmotic pressure variation in the external medium. Onion epidermal cells were submitted either to an osmotic shock or to a progressive osmotic shift from an osmotic pressure of 2 to 24 MPa to induce plasmolysis. After 30 min in the treatment solution, deplasmolysis was carried out. Cells were observed by microscopy during the whole cycle of dehydration-rehydration. The application of an osmotic shock to onion cells, from an initial osmotic pressure of 2 MPa to a final one of 24 MPa for osmotic shift, from an initial osmotic pressure of 2 MPa to a final one of 24 MPa for 30 min, no vesicles were observed. Additionally, the absence of Hechtian strand connections led to the bursting of vesicles in the case of the osmotic shock. It is concluded that the kinetics of osmotic dehydration strongly influence vesicle formation in onion cells, and that Hechtian strand connections between protoplasts and exocytotic vesicles are a prerequisite for successful deplasmolysis. These results suggest that a decrease in the area-to-volume ratio of a cell could cause cell death following an osmotic shock.

  1. Sulphur management in onion (Allium cepa) cultivation in hills of Himachal Pradesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaggi, R C; Sharma, R K

    2010-05-01

    Field experiment were conducted at CSK HPKV Research Farm, Palampur during Rabi seasons of 2000-01 and 2001-02, to study the response of onion (Allium cepa var Patna red) at four sulphur levels (0, 15, 30 and 60 kg ha(-1)) applied through Gypsum and S95. The analysis was done to allocate the limited availability of sulphur for maximizing net profit over fertilizer cost. The results show that the dose of sulphur under its full availability is 43.02 kg ha(-1). But under its scarce availability the maximum benefit would occur when it is applied up to 32.11 kg ha(-1) followed by even distribution of fertilizer i.e. 20 kg ha(-1). The returns following sulphur application at these rates, would be Rs 69340, 73092 and 68700 ha(-1) respectively.

  2. Arbuscular mycorrhiza improves yield and nutritional properties of onion (Allium cepa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozpądek, Piotr; Rąpała-Kozik, Maria; Wężowicz, Katarzyna; Grandin, Anna; Karlsson, Stefan; Ważny, Rafał; Anielska, Teresa; Turnau, Katarzyna

    2016-10-01

    Improving the nutritional value of commonly cultivated crops is one of the most pending problems for modern agriculture. In natural environments plants associate with a multitude of fungal microorganisms that improve plant fitness. The best described group are arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). These fungi have been previously shown to improve the quality and yield of several common crops. In this study we tested the potential utilization of Rhizophagus irregularis in accelerating growth and increasing the content of important dietary phytochemicals in onion (Allium cepa). Our results clearly indicate that biomass production, the abundance of vitamin B1 and its analogues and organic acid concentration can be improved by inoculating the plant with AM fungi. We have shown that improved growth is accompanied with up-regulated electron transport in PSII and antioxidant enzyme activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Antispasmodic saponins from bulbs of red onion, Allium cepa L. var. Tropea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corea, Gabriella; Fattorusso, Ernesto; Lanzotti, Virginia; Capasso, Raffaele; Izzo, Angelo A

    2005-02-23

    A phytochemical analysis of the polar extract from the red bulbs of Allium cepa L. var. Tropea, typical of Calabria, a southern region of Italy, was performed extensively for the first time, leading to the isolation of four new furostanol saponins, named tropeoside A1/A2 (1a/1b) and tropeoside B1/B2 (3a/3b), along with the respective 22-O-methyl derivatives (2a/2b and 4a/4b), almost certainly extraction artifacts. High concentrations of ascalonicoside A1/A2 (5a/5b) and ascalonicoside B (6), previously isolated from Allium ascalonicum Hort., were also found. This is the first report of furostanol saponins in this A. cepa variety. The chemical structures of the new compounds were established through a combination of extensive nuclear magnetic resonance, mass spectrometry and chemical analyses. High concentrations of quercetin, quercetin 4(I)-glucoside, taxifolin, taxifolin 7-glucoside, and phenylalanine were also isolated. The new saponins were found to possess antispasmodic activity in the guinea pig isolated ileum; such an effect might contribute to explaining the traditional use of onion in the treatment of disturbances of the gastrointestinal tract.

  4. Effects of Pterocaulon polystachyum DC. (Asteraceae on onion (Allium cepa root-tip cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Frainer Knoll

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil leaf infusions of the plant Pterocaulon polystachyum DC (Asteraceae are used to treat digestive problems. We used plants from six P. polystachyum populations to prepare fresh aqueous leaf infusions at the concentration normally used in Brazil (2.5 g L-1 and at twice (5 g L-1 and four times (10 g L-1 this concentration. We rooted onion bulbs in a water control or one of the infusions for 24 h and used the in vivo onion (Allium cepa root-tip cell test to investigate the potential mutagenicity of the infusions by calculating the mitotic index for the control and the experimental treatments and comparing them using the Chi-squared test (chi2, p = 0.05. There was a highly significant decrease in the mitotic index of root-tip cells treated with infusion as compared to those exposed to water only. These results indicate that P. polystachyum infusions present cytotoxic and anti-proliferative activity and therefore have therapeutic potential.

  5. Tyrosinase inhibitory effect of quercetin 4'-O-β-D-glucopyranoside from dried skin of red onion (Allium cepa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arung, Enos Tangke; Wijaya Kusuma, Irawan; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi; Kondo, Ryuichiro

    2011-02-01

    In an effort to find a new whitening agent, we focused our attention on Allium cepa (red onion). Based on biologically guided fractionation using mushroom tyrosinase, quercetin 4'-O-β-D-glucopyranoside was isolated from the dried skin of A. cepa. Quercetin 4'-O-β-D-glucopyranoside showed tyrosinase inhibitory activity using L-tyrosine or L-DOPA as a substrate, with IC(50) values of 4.3 and 52.7 µM, respectively. Based on the results obtained, the dried skin of red onion possesses ingredients with potential for skin-whitening cosmetics with anti-tyrosinase activity.

  6. The role of gamma irradiation on the extraction of phenolic compounds in onion (Allium cepa L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Eun In; Lee, Eun Mi; Kim, Young Soo; Chung, Byung Yeoup

    2012-08-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation on the content of total phenolic compounds, especially quercetin (Q), in onion (Allium cepa L.) skin was investigated. Onion skin extracts contained two predominant flavonoid compounds, Q and quercetin-4'-glucoside (Q4'G). After 10 kGy gamma irradiation, the yield of Q in the extracts increased significantly from 36.8 to 153.9 μg/ml of the extract, and the Q4'G content decreased slightly from 165.0 to 134.1 μg/ml. In addition, the total phenolic compound content also increased after irradiation at 10 kGy, from 228.0 μg/g of fresh weight to 346.6 μg/g; negligible changes (237.1-256.7 μg/g) occurred at doses of up to 5 kGy. As we expected, radical-scavenging activity was enhanced remarkably (by 88.8%) in the 10 kGy irradiated sample. A dose-dependent increase in the peak intensity of the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra was observed in all irradiated samples, with a maximum increase at 10 kGy. The intensity relative to that of the control was 0.15, and it increased to 1.10 in 10 kGy irradiated samples. The optimum gamma irradiation dose, which is sufficient to break the chemical or physical bonds and release soluble phenols of low molecular weight in onion skin, is about 10 kGy.

  7. Transcriptome Analysis of Sucrose Metabolism during Bulb Swelling and Development in Onion (Allium cepa L.

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    Yi Liang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Allium cepa L. is a widely cultivated and economically significant vegetable crop worldwide, with beneficial dietary and health-related properties, but its sucrose metabolism is still poorly understood. To analyze sucrose metabolism during bulb swelling, and the development of sweet taste in onion, a global transcriptome profile of onion bulbs was undertaken at three different developmental stages, using RNA-seq. A total of 79,376 unigenes, with a mean length of 678 bp, was obtained. In total, 7% of annotated Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG were involved in carbohydrate transport and metabolism. In the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG database, starch and sucrose metabolism (147, 2.40% constituted the primary metabolism pathway in the integrated library. The expression of sucrose transporter genes was greatest during the early-swelling stage, suggesting that sucrose transporters participated in sucrose metabolism mainly at an early stage of bulb development. A gene-expression analysis of the key enzymes of sucrose metabolism suggested that sucrose synthase, cell wall invertase and invertase were all likely to participate in the hydrolysis of sucrose, generating glucose and fructose. In addition, trehalose was hydrolyzed to two molecules of glucose by trehalase. From 15 to 40 days after swelling (DAS, both the glucose and fructose contents of bulbs increased, whereas the sucrose content decreased. The growth rate between 15 and 30 DAS was slower than that between 30 and 40 DAS, suggesting that the latter was a period of rapid expansion. The dataset generated by our transcriptome profiling will provide valuable information for further research.

  8. Transcriptome Analysis of Sucrose Metabolism during Bulb Swelling and Development in Onion (Allium cepa L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunsha; Zhang, Hongwei; Zhan, Zongxiang; Liu, Bingjiang; Chen, Zhentai; Liang, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Allium cepa L. is a widely cultivated and economically significant vegetable crop worldwide, with beneficial dietary and health-related properties, but its sucrose metabolism is still poorly understood. To analyze sucrose metabolism during bulb swelling, and the development of sweet taste in onion, a global transcriptome profile of onion bulbs was undertaken at three different developmental stages, using RNA-seq. A total of 79,376 unigenes, with a mean length of 678 bp, was obtained. In total, 7% of annotated Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG) were involved in carbohydrate transport and metabolism. In the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database, “starch and sucrose metabolism” (147, 2.40%) constituted the primary metabolism pathway in the integrated library. The expression of sucrose transporter genes was greatest during the early-swelling stage, suggesting that sucrose transporters (SUTs) participated in sucrose metabolism mainly at an early stage of bulb development. A gene-expression analysis of the key enzymes of sucrose metabolism suggested that sucrose synthase, cell wall invertase, and invertase were all likely to participate in the hydrolysis of sucrose, generating glucose, and fructose. In addition, trehalose was hydrolyzed to two molecules of glucose by trehalase. From 15 to 40 days after swelling (DAS), both the glucose and fructose contents of bulbs increased, whereas the sucrose content decreased. The growth rate between 15 and 30 DAS was slower than that between 30 and 40 DAS, suggesting that the latter was a period of rapid expansion. The dataset generated by our transcriptome profiling will provide valuable information for further research. PMID:27713754

  9. De Novo Transcriptome Analysis of Allium cepa L. (Onion) Bulb to Identify Allergens and Epitopes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rajkumar, Hemalatha; Ramagoni, Ramesh Kumar; Anchoju, Vijayendra Chary; Vankudavath, Raju Naik; Syed, Arshi Uz Zaman

    2015-01-01

    .... There are no allergenic proteins and genomic data available for onions. This study was conducted to establish a transcriptome catalogue of onion bulb that will enable us to study onion related genes involved in medicinal use and allergies...

  10. The effectiveness evaluation of indigenous microorganism (IMO preparations in the growth of onion (Allium cepa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Liriano González

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was done at the Credit and Services Cooperative (CCS “Juan de Mata Reyes”, in Pedro Betancourt municipality, Matanzas. The objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of indigenous microorganisms (IMO preparations on the growth of onion (Allium cepa L., variety Texas Early Grano. Five treatments were studied (control, a 2 mL.m2 treatment before transplantion, a 4 mL.m2 treatment before transplantation, and both 2 and 4 mL.m2 treatments 20 days after transplantion. The experiment was conducted in a randomized block design. The professional statistical pack STATISTICA, version 6.0 for WINDOWS was used for data processing. The results were statistically processed using simple analysis of variance and the Duncan´s multiple comparison Test for media with a level of significance of pd”0.05. The native microorganisms in the preparations were characterized. 60 days after transplantation, the parameters height of plant, number of leaves and diameter of the false stem were evaluated; and at harvest time, the total yield (t.ha-1 and the number of bulbs in diameter category were determined. The best results concerning the height of the plant (cm, diameter of false stem (mm and total yield (t.ha-1.were obtained with the preparation of 2 mL.m2 at the moment of transplantion, and 20 days after the application.

  11. Estudio microbiológico de ajo(Allium sativum L. y cebolla (Allium cepa L. deshidratados Microbiological study of garlic (Allium sativum L. and onion (Allium cepaL. dehydrated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.R. Fuselli

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se efectuó un estudio microbiológico durante la deshidratación y el almacenamiento de ajo (Allium sativum L. y de cebolla (Allium cepa L.. Al ajo se le efectuó un proceso de escaldado y a la cebolla un salmuereado previo a la deshidratación. En las materias primas los recuentos promedio expresados en UFC/g fueron: bacterias aerobias mesófilas entre 1,2 x 102y 1,6 x 103, mohos y levaduras entre 60 y 1,6 x 103, Lactobacillus spp. y Leuconostocmesenteroidessubesp. mesenteroides entre 10 y 50.Se identificaron: Penicillium spp., Monilia spp. Lactobacillus brevis,Leuconostoc mesenteroides subesp. mesenteroides y levaduras en ajo; Mucor spp., Penicillium spp., Monilia spp., Lactobacillus brevis y levaduras en dos tipos de cebolla. Leuconostoc mesenteroides subesp. mesenteroides sólo se detectó en un tipo de cebolla. En ajos deshidratados y durante el almacenamiento se hallaron Penicillium spp., Monilia spp., Lactobacillus brevis y levaduras mientras que los mismos con escaldado no presentaron desarrollo. Mucor spp., Penicillium spp., Monilia spp. y Lactobacillus brevis se identificaron en los dos tipos de cebolla deshidratadas. Con la incorporación del salmuereado la microflora se redujo significativamente hallándose solamente Penicillium spp. La utilización de barreras adicionales de control microbiano tales como escaldado y salmuereado produce un aporte importante a la estabilidad microbiológica de los productos.A microbiological study during the process and the storage of garlic (Allium sativum L. and onion (Allium cepa L. dehydrated, with the additional barriers of blanching or brine immersion, was made. In all raw materials the average counts of aerobic mesophilic bacteria expressed in CFU/g ranged from 1.2 x 102to 1.6 x 103, molds and yeasts from 60 to 1.6 x 103, Lactobacillus spp. and Leuconostocmesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides between 10 and 50. Microorganisms identified were Penicillium spp., Monilia spp

  12. Antioxidant activity of phenolic extracts from different cultivars of Italian onion (Allium cepa) and relative human immune cell proliferative induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisanti, Antonella; Formica, Vincenzo; Ianni, Federica; Albertini, Barbara; Marinozzi, Maura; Sardella, Roccaldo; Natalini, Benedetto

    2016-01-01

    The total antioxidant activity (TAC) may vary considerably between onion cultivars. Immunological effects of onion phenolic compounds are still underestimated. The objective of this study is to determine the total phenol content (TPC) and the relative TAC of three Allium cepa L. (Liliaceae) onion cultivars cultivated in Cannara (Italy): Rossa di Toscana, Borettana di Rovato, and Dorata di Parma, and to evaluate the phenol extracts ability to induce human immune cell proliferation. TPC was determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method, TAC with FRAP, TEAC/ABTS, and DPPH methods. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy human donors were incubated for 24 h at 37 °C with 1 ng/mL of phenolic extract in PBS, immunostained, and then analyzed by 4-color flow cytometry for the phenotypic characterization of T helper cells (CD4+ cells), cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CD8+ cells), T regulatory cells (CD25high CD4+ cells), and natural killer cells/monocytes (CD16+ cells). Rossa di Toscana displayed the highest TPC (6.61 ± 0.87 mg GA equivalents/g onion bulb DW) and the highest TAC with the experienced methods: FRAP, 9.19 ± 2.54 μmol Trolox equivalents/g onion bulb DW; TEAC/ABTS, 21.31 ± 0.41 μmol Trolox equivalents/g onion bulb DW; DPPH, 22.90 ± 0.01 μmol Trolox equivalents/g onion bulb DW. Incubation with Rossa di Toscana extract determined an increase in the frequency of the antitumor/anti-infection NK CD16+ immune cells (23.0 ± 0.4%). Content of health-promoting phenols and the deriving antioxidant and immunostimulating activity vary considerably among the investigated cultivars. Rossa di Toscana can be considered as a potential functional food.

  13. Effect of dietary supplementation with onion (Allium cepa L. on performance, carcass traits and intestinal microflora composition in broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Goodarzi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine the effect of onion (Allium cepa L. as an antibiotic growth promoter substitute on growth performance, carcass traits, and microflora composition in broiler chickens. Methods: A total of 192 one-day old mixed sex broiler chicks (Ross 308 were weighed and randomly allocated to four treatment groups, each with 4 replicate pens of 12 chicks. The dietary treatments consisted of the basal diet (control, antibiotic (15 mg virginiamycin/kg, and control+10 or 30 g fresh onions bulb/kg diet. Body weights of broilers were determined at Day 1, 21, and 42, feed intake was determined at the same periods, and feed conversion ratio was calculated accordingly. At Day 42, two birds per replicate were slaughtered for determination of carcass and organ weights. The populations of Lactobacilli spp. and Escherichia coli were enumerated in ileum by conventional microbiological techniques using selective agar media. Results: Dietary supplementation of 30 g/kg onion increased final body weight of broilers at 42 d of age compared to that of the other treatments (P<0.05. Birds fed 30 g onion/kg in the diet had the highest feed intake than other treatments at different growth periods (P<0.05. Feed conversion ratio, carcass yield and internal organ weights were not affected by the dietary treatments at Day 42. The Lactobacilli spp. population in birds supplemented with onion at the level of 30 g/ kg significantly was higher than other groups at 42 d of age (P<0.05. The lowest Escherichia coli loads were detected in broilers fed diets containing 15 mg virginiamycin/kg. The Escherichia coli loads significantly decreased in broilers fed diets containing 10 or 30 g onion/kg (P<0.05. Conclusions: In conclusion, the results of the current study indicated that supplementing broiler diet with 30 g onion/kg could induce favorable influences on performance and ileum microflora composition.

  14. Relations between boiling water test, standard germination test and field emergence of leek (Allium porrum L. and onion (Allium cepa L. seeds

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    Ismail Guvenc

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine relations occurring between boiling water test, standard germination test and field emergence of leek (Allium porrum L. and onion (Allium cepa L. seeds. In this study, seeds of six lots ('Kalem', 'Ala', 'Ínegöl-A, B, C and D' from three cultivars of leek and seven onion cultivars ('Early Texas Grano' (ETG, 'Panku', 'Storm', 'Banko', 'Aki', 'Kisagün' and 'Banka' seeds were used as plant material and their viability was evaluated in boiling water test (BWT, standard germination test (SGT and field emergence (FE. The percentage of field emergence was evaluated at three sowing times: 20 May (FE-I, 10 June (FE-II and 20 July (FE-III. The mean germination of leek seeds varied from 77.5% to 100.0% and from 36.0% to 61.0% in SGT and BWT, respectively. While the range of results obtained in the boiling water test was from 38.5% to 60.0%, the range of results of the standard germination test was from 81.0% to 100.0% in onion seeds. The range of field emergence was between 18.5% ('Kisagün', FE-III and 72.0% (İnegöl-C', FE-II. Besides, the boiling water test was correlated highly significantly with SGT (r = 0.670**, FE-I (r = 0.923**, FE-II (r = 0.906** and FE-III (r = 0.939** in leek seeds. Similarly, BWT showed positive correlation with SGT (r = 0.568**, FE-I (r = 0.844**, FE-II (r = 0.933** and FE-III (r = 0.858** in onion seeds. In conclusion, the boiling water test is a new and reliable technique to test seed viability and it has a great potential to test rapidly germination and field emergence of leek and onion seeds at different sowing times.

  15. Assessment of antioxidant capacities and phenolic contents of nigerian cultivars of onions (Allium cepa L) and garlic (Allium sativum L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyeoziri, Ukoha Pius; Romanus, Ekere Nwachukwu; Onyekachukwu, Uzodinma Irene

    2016-07-01

    This report assessed and compared the antioxidant potentials, quantities of ascorbic acid and phenolic compounds in methanolic extract of varieties of onions and garlic cultivars in Nigeria. The pH and total acidity of the extracts were equally determined. Antioxidancy of the cultivars were analysed using the in vitro assay techniques with 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl Hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging and ferric reducing capacity. Ascorbic acid phenolic content were determined by volumetric and Folin-Ciocalteu's method respectively. The pH and total acidity were respectively 5.65 and 0.150mmol/L (red onion), 5.69 and 0.123mmol/L (white onion) and 6.94 and 0.105mmol/L (garlic). Red onion had the highest value of total phenols, ascorbic acid and free radical scavenging activity of 14.25±0.35mg GAE/ml, 229.098mg/100g, 66.44% respectively. In DPPH assay, red and white onion showed higher tendency to inhibit auto-oxidation when compared to garlic. The ferric reducing ability was greatest in garlic and least in white onions. These data indicate that with respect to antioxidant activity, red onion variety has highest health promoting potential among others.

  16. Characterization of onion lectin (Allium cepa agglutinin) as an immunomodulatory protein inducing Th1-type immune response in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasanna, Vaddi K; Venkatesh, Yeldur P

    2015-06-01

    Onion (Allium cepa), a bulb crop of economic importance, is known to have many health benefits. The major objective of the present study is to address the immunomodulatory properties of onion lectin (A. cepa agglutinin; ACA). ACA was purified from onion extract by D-mannose-agarose chromatography (yield: ~1 mg/kg). ACA is non-glycosylated and showed a molecular mass of ~12 kDa under reducing/non-reducing SDS-PAGE; glutaraldehyde cross-linking indicated that ACA is a non-covalent tetramer of ~12 kDa subunits. Its N-terminal sequence (RNVLLNNEGL; UniProt KB Accn. C0HJM8) showed 70-90% homology to mannose-specific Allium agglutinins. ACA showed specific hemagglutination activity of 8200 units/mg and is stable in the pH range 6-10 and up to 45° C. The immunomodulatory activity of ACA was assessed using the macrophage cell line, RAW264.7 and rat peritoneal macrophages; at 0.1 μg/well, it showed a significant increase (6-8-fold vs. control) in the production of nitric oxide at 24h, and significantly stimulated (2-4-fold vs. control) the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-12) at 24h. ACA (0.1 μg/well) enhanced the proliferation of murine thymocytes by ~4 fold (vs. control) at 24h; however, ACA does not proliferate B cell-enriched rat splenocytes. Further, it significantly elevated the expression levels of cytokines (IFN-γ and IL-2) over the control in murine thymocytes. Taken together, purified ACA induces a Th1-type immune response in vitro. Though present in low amounts, ACA may contribute to the immune-boosting potential of the popular spice onion since considerable amounts are consumed on a daily basis universally. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparison of the ability of fifteen onion (Allium cepa L. cultivars to accumulate nitrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Wojciechowska

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of a two-year study was to characterise selected Allium cepa L. genotypes with regard to their ability to accumulate nitrates in bulbs as well as to search for a possible relation between NO3- concentration and dry matter content. Fifteen cultivars of edible onion, mostly of long-day genotype with different growing periods, bulb size and skin colour, were taken for the experiment. Seeds of particular cultivars were obtained from the following seed companies: Spójnia Nochowo (‘Labrador’, ‘Takstar F1’,‘Tęcza’, ‘Warna’, ‘Zorza’, Polan (‘Polanowska’, ‘Topolska’, PlantiCo Gołębiew (‘Alibaba’, ‘Efekt’, ‘Kristine’, ‘Niagara F1’,and PlantiCo Zielonki (‘Bila’, ‘Irka’, ‘Wenta’, ‘Zeta’. Plants produced from seedlings were grown in the experimental field of the University of Agriculture in Kraków. After crop harvesting and additional drying, nitrate and dry matter content in bulbs of all cultivars were measured. The following cultivars: ‘Efekt’, ‘Labrador’ and red-skinned ‘Wenta’, were characterized by the lowest ability to accumulate NO3- in bulbs. The highest nitrate content was noted in bulbs of ‘Takstar F1’ (a very early-season cultivar, followed by ‘Bila’ and ‘Tęcza’. A weak, yet statistically significant negative correlation between nitrate and dry matter content was observed. The highest dry matter content was determined in bulbs of white-skinned ‘Alibaba’, while the lowest – in brown-skinned ‘Labrador’.

  18. Identification of imidacloprid metabolites in onion (Allium cepa L.) using high-resolution mass spectrometry and accurate mass tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurman, E Michael; Ferrer, Imma; Zavitsanos, Paul; Zweigenbaum, Jerry A

    2013-09-15

    Imidacloprid is a potent and widely used insecticide on vegetable crops, such as onion (Allium cepa L.). Because of possible toxicity to beneficial insects, imidacloprid and several metabolites have raised safety concerns for pollenating insects, such as honey bees. Thus, imidacloprid metabolites continue to be an important subject for new methods that better understand its dissipation and fate in plants, such as onions. One month after a single addition of imidacloprid to soil containing onion plants, imidacloprid and its metabolites were extracted from pulverized onion with a methanol/water-buffer mixture and analyzed by liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC/QTOF-MS) using a labeled imidacloprid internal standard and tandem mass spectrometric (MS/MS) analysis. Accurate mass tools were developed and applied to detect seven new metabolites of imidacloprid with the goal to better understand its fate in onion. The accurate mass tools include: database searching, diagnostic ions, chlorine mass filters, Mass Profiler software, and manual use of metabolic analogy. The new metabolites discovered included an amine reduction product (m/z 226.0854), and its methylated analogue (m/z 240.1010), and five other metabolites, all of unknown toxicity to insects. The accurate mass tools were combined with LC/QTOF-MS and were able to detect both known and new metabolites of imidacloprid using fragmentation studies of both parent and labeled standards. New metabolites and their structures were inferred from these MS/MS studies with accurate mass, which makes it possible to better understand imidacloprid metabolism in onion as well as new metabolite targets for toxicity studies. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Characterization of industrial onion wastes (Allium cepa L.): dietary fibre and bioactive compounds.

    OpenAIRE

    Benítez, Vanesa; Mollá, Esperanza; Martín-Cabrejas, María A.; Aguilera, Yolanda; López-Andréu, Francisco J.; Cools, Katherine; Terry, Leon A.; Esteban, Rosa M.

    2011-01-01

    The food industry produces a large amount of onion wastes, making it necessary to search for possible ways for their utilization. One way could be to use these onion wastes as a natural source of high-value functional ingredients, since onion are rich in several groups of compounds, which have perceived benefits to human health. The objective of this work is to gain knowledge of any differences between the different onion wastes obtained from industry and non-commercial bulb...

  20. Allium discoloration: the precursor and formation of the red pigment in giant onion (Allium giganteum Regel) and some other subgenus Melanocrommyum species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucerová, Petra; Kubec, Roman; Simek, Petr; Václavík, Lukás; Schraml, Jan

    2011-03-09

    The precursor of the orange-red pigment formed upon wounding the bulbs of Allium giganteum (Allium subg. Melanocrommyum) was isolated and shown to be S-(2-pyrrolyl)cysteine S-oxide. In addition, two other pyrrolylsulfinyl derivatives were found in an extract from the bulbs, namely, 3-(2-pyrrolylsulfinyl)lactic acid and S-(3-pyrrolyl)cysteine S-oxide. Contrary to a previous report, the latter compound was shown not to serve as the precursor of the pigment, being in fact only an artifact formed during isolation. The formation of pyrrolyl-containing compounds following disruption of A. giganteum bulbs was studied by a combination of LC-MS, LC-NMR and DART-MS. It was found that S-(2-pyrrolyl)cysteine S-oxide is cleaved by a C-S lyase (alliinase) to yield 2-pyrrolesulfenic acid. Two molecules of the latter compound give rise to highly reactive S-(2-pyrrolyl) 2-pyrrolethiosulfinate which in turn converts into red 2,2'-epidithio-3,3'-dipyrrole (dipyrrolo[2,3-d:2',3'-e]-1,2-dithiin). Several other pyrrolyl-containing compounds were detected in A. giganteum for the first time, including S-methyl 2-pyrrolethiosulfinate, S-(2-pyrrolyl) methanethiosulfinate, di(2-pyrrolyl) disulfide, and S-(2-pyrrolyl) 2-pyrrolethiosulfonate. It can be concluded that the formation of the orange-red pigment in Allium subg. Melanocrommyum species, despite sharing several analogous features, is of a different nature than the pink discoloration of onion (A. cepa).

  1. EFFECT OF CONCENTRATION AND FREQUENCY CROCOBER PLUS AS ORGANIC LIQUID FERTILIZER GIVING ON THE ONION CROPS (Allium ascalonicum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamilah Munir Munir

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Research on the effect of liquid organic fertilizer (POC Crocober plus and frequency of application to the crop of onion (Allium ascalonicum L. had been conducted in Sub Kajai, District lemur, Solok regency for 3 months starting from May to July 2015. The goal was to get the POC concentration and Crocober plus frequency to increase growth and yield of onion. Experiments using a randomized block design in a factorial form that consists of 2 factors. Factor 1 was 5 degree of concentration POC was 0% (P0, 2.5% (P1, 5% (P3, 7.5% (P4 and 10% (P5 while Factor 2, was the frequency of POC consists of two levels ie ; The data obtained and analyzed variance. If the F count larger than F table 5% followed by a test of Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT. The experimental results indicated that application of 5% POC Crocober plus concentration given weekly was the exact interaction to improve the growth and yield of onion with the result reached 13.83 tons/ha.Doi: 10.22216/jit.2014.v8i2.340

  2. Flavonol Glucoside and Antioxidant Enzyme Biosynthesis Affected by Mycorrhizal Fungi in Various Cultivars of Onion (Allium cepa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollavali, Mohanna; Bolandnazar, Saheb Ali; Schwarz, Dietmar; Rohn, Sascha; Riehle, Peer; Zaare Nahandi, Fariborz

    2016-01-13

    The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of mycorrhizal symbiosis on qualitative characteristics of onion (Allium cepa L.). For this reason, five onion cultivars with different scale color and three different strains of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (Diversispora versiformis, Rhizophagus intraradices, Funneliformis mosseae) were used. Red cultivars, mainly 'Red Azar-shahr', showed the highest content in vitamin C, flavonols, and antioxidant enzymes. Mycorrhizal inoculation increased total phenolic, pyruvic acid, and vitamin C of onion plants. Considerable increase was observed in quercetin-4'-O-monoglucoside and isorhamnetin-4'-O-monoglucoside content in plants inoculated with Diversispora versiformis, but quercetin-3,4'-O-diglucoside was not significantly influenced. Analyses for phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and antioxiodant enzyme activities such as polyphenol oxidase (PPO), catalase (CAT), and peroxidase (POD) revealed that all except PPO were enhanced by mycorrhizal inoculation. Overall, these findings suggested that mycorrhizal inoculation influenced biosynthesis of flavonol glucosides and antioxidant enzymes by increasing nutrient uptake or by induction of the plant defense system.

  3. An experimental study of hemolysis induced by onion (Allium cepa) poisoning in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, X; Xia, Z; Yu, J

    2008-04-01

    The mechanism of hemolysis induced by onion poisoning in dogs was studied. Six adult, clinically normal Pekingese dogs were fed cooked onions at 30 g/kg body weight/day for 2 days. Blood samples were collected on days 1, 3, 5, 8, 12, 18 and 24 after onion administration, and urine was collected the day after bleeding. Red blood cell counts, hemoglobin and hematocrit were decreased from day 1, and significantly so on day 5 (P onion poisoning in dogs causes hemolytic anemia.

  4. Incidence of Thrips tabaci on Onion ( Allium cepa L.) and their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Primary data were generated on insect pests of onion using structured questionnaire on one hundred farmers from Kebbi and Sokoto States. Results obtained indicated that all farmers identify the major insect pest affecting onion as tiny, whitish or brownish insect, present mostly in hot season. Majority of the farmers use ...

  5. Drying kinetics and quality aspects during heat pump drying of onion (Allium cepa L.)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nihar Ranjan Sahoo; Uma Sankar Pal; Sanjaya Kumar Dash; M.D. K. Khan

    2012-01-01

    .... Onions, of Nasik red variety were peeled, trimmed and sliced to 2 mm thickness. The onion slices were dried in the heat pump dryer at 35ºC (32 % R.H.), 40ºC (26 % R.H.), 45ºC (19 % R.H.) and 50ºC (15 % R.H...

  6. Towards a framework PCR-based map of onion (Allium cepa L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McCallum, J.; Pither-Joyce, M.; Clarke, A.; Kik, C.; Heusden, van A.W.; Jakse, J.; Havey, M.

    2004-01-01

    Genetic analysis of onion has been hampered by a lack of portable co-dominant markers based on the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The public release of a relatively large set of non-redundant onion expressed sequence tags (ESTs) in 2003 has provided the opportunity to develop such markers for use

  7. Effect of Planting Methods on Maturity and Yield of Onion (Allium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    are a big business in many developed countries (Serra and Currah, 2002). However, information on onion planting method ... the field on the same date. Plants from direct sowing were thinned 40 days .... In general, bigger sized bulbs were obtained from transplanted and set planted onion and smaller ones from direct ...

  8. Quercetin and isorhamnetin in sweet and red cultivars of onion (Allium cepa L.) at harvest, after field curing, heat treatment, and storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Marie E; Gustavsson, Karl-Erik; Vågen, Ingunn M

    2010-02-24

    Effects of heat treatment and storage on quercetin and isorhamnetin content, major and minor components of isorhamnetin, and quercetin glucosides and aglycone, were investigated in onion (Allium cepa L.). The sweet onion 'Recorra' and red onions 'Hyred' and 'Red Baron' were cultivated in the south part of Norway and thereafter stored for eight months. The onions were either not field dried, but stored directly, or field dried and then stored, or field dried and then heat treated before storage. Neither storage nor heat treatment caused any major differences in total flavonol content in the investigated sweet onion as well as in the red onion cultivars. The two major quercetin glucosides differed in their changes in content during storage; quercetin-4'-glucoside did not show any consistent changes during storage in the two red cultivars, independent of treatment, whereas quercetin-3,4'-diglucoside increased significantly by 30 or 51%, respectively, during storage in 'Hyred' and 'Red Baron' in the 24 h heat treated onions. Isorhamnetin-4'-glucoside, which might possibly be of special interest from a human health point of view, was present at 2-3 times higher amount in the sweet onion cultivar than in the two red cultivars. Some of the quercetin glucosides present at lower concentrations, isorhamnetin-3,4'-diglucoside, quercetin-3,7,4'-triglucoside, and quercetin-7,4'-diglucoside, increased during storage in all treatments in both 'Hyred' and 'Red Baron', though sometimes a decrease was found at the end of storage.

  9. Proteomic Characterization of Differential Abundant Proteins Accumulated between Lower and Upper Epidermises of Fleshy Scales in Onion (Allium cepa L. Bulbs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si Wu

    Full Text Available The onion (Allium cepa L. is widely planted worldwide as a valuable vegetable crop. The scales of an onion bulb are a modified type of leaf. The one-layer-cell epidermis of onion scales is commonly used as a model experimental material in botany and molecular biology. The lower epidermis (LE and upper epidermis (UE of onion scales display obvious differences in microscopic structure, cell differentiation and pigment synthesis; however, associated proteomic differences are unclear. LE and UE can be easily sampled as single-layer-cell tissues for comparative proteomic analysis. In this study, a proteomic approach based on 2-DE and mass spectrometry (MS was applied to compare LE and UE of fleshy scales from yellow and red onions. We identified 47 differential abundant protein spots (representing 31 unique proteins between LE and UE in red and yellow onions. These proteins are mainly involved in pigment synthesis, stress response, and cell division. Particularly, the differentially accumulated chalcone-flavanone isomerase and flavone O-methyltransferase 1-like in LE may result in the differences in the onion scale color between red and yellow onions. Moreover, stress-related proteins abundantly accumulated in both LE and UE. In addition, the differential accumulation of UDP-arabinopyranose mutase 1-like protein and β-1,3-glucanase in the LE may be related to the different cell sizes between LE and UE of the two types of onion. The data derived from this study provides new insight into the differences in differentiation and developmental processes between onion epidermises. This study may also make a contribution to onion breeding, such as improving resistances and changing colors.

  10. Proteomic Characterization of Differential Abundant Proteins Accumulated between Lower and Upper Epidermises of Fleshy Scales in Onion (Allium cepa L.) Bulbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Si; Ning, Fen; Wu, Xiaolin; Wang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    The onion (Allium cepa L.) is widely planted worldwide as a valuable vegetable crop. The scales of an onion bulb are a modified type of leaf. The one-layer-cell epidermis of onion scales is commonly used as a model experimental material in botany and molecular biology. The lower epidermis (LE) and upper epidermis (UE) of onion scales display obvious differences in microscopic structure, cell differentiation and pigment synthesis; however, associated proteomic differences are unclear. LE and UE can be easily sampled as single-layer-cell tissues for comparative proteomic analysis. In this study, a proteomic approach based on 2-DE and mass spectrometry (MS) was applied to compare LE and UE of fleshy scales from yellow and red onions. We identified 47 differential abundant protein spots (representing 31 unique proteins) between LE and UE in red and yellow onions. These proteins are mainly involved in pigment synthesis, stress response, and cell division. Particularly, the differentially accumulated chalcone-flavanone isomerase and flavone O-methyltransferase 1-like in LE may result in the differences in the onion scale color between red and yellow onions. Moreover, stress-related proteins abundantly accumulated in both LE and UE. In addition, the differential accumulation of UDP-arabinopyranose mutase 1-like protein and β-1,3-glucanase in the LE may be related to the different cell sizes between LE and UE of the two types of onion. The data derived from this study provides new insight into the differences in differentiation and developmental processes between onion epidermises. This study may also make a contribution to onion breeding, such as improving resistances and changing colors.

  11. Integrative structural annotation of de novo RNA-Seq provides an accurate reference gene set of the enormous genome of the onion (Allium cepa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seungill; Kim, Myung-Shin; Kim, Yong-Min; Yeom, Seon-In; Cheong, Kyeongchae; Kim, Ki-Tae; Jeon, Jongbum; Kim, Sunggil; Kim, Do-Sun; Sohn, Seong-Han; Lee, Yong-Hwan; Choi, Doil

    2015-02-01

    The onion (Allium cepa L.) is one of the most widely cultivated and consumed vegetable crops in the world. Although a considerable amount of onion transcriptome data has been deposited into public databases, the sequences of the protein-coding genes are not accurate enough to be used, owing to non-coding sequences intermixed with the coding sequences. We generated a high-quality, annotated onion transcriptome from de novo sequence assembly and intensive structural annotation using the integrated structural gene annotation pipeline (ISGAP), which identified 54,165 protein-coding genes among 165,179 assembled transcripts totalling 203.0 Mb by eliminating the intron sequences. ISGAP performed reliable annotation, recognizing accurate gene structures based on reference proteins, and ab initio gene models of the assembled transcripts. Integrative functional annotation and gene-based SNP analysis revealed a whole biological repertoire of genes and transcriptomic variation in the onion. The method developed in this study provides a powerful tool for the construction of reference gene sets for organisms based solely on de novo transcriptome data. Furthermore, the reference genes and their variation described here for the onion represent essential tools for molecular breeding and gene cloning in Allium spp. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Kazusa DNA Research Institute.

  12. Genotypic variation in the sulfur assimilation and metabolism of onion (Allium cepa L.) I. Plant composition and transcript accumulation

    KAUST Repository

    McCallum, John A.

    2011-06-01

    Organosulfur compounds are major sinks for assimilated sulfate in onion (Allium cepa L.) and accumulation varies widely due to plant genotype and sulfur nutrition. In order to better characterise sulfur metabolism phenotypes and identify potential control points we compared plant composition and transcript accumulation of the primary sulfur assimilation pathway in the high pungency genotype \\'W202A\\' and the low pungency genotype \\'Texas Grano 438\\' grown hydroponically under S deficient (S-) and S-sufficient (S+) conditions. Accumulation of total S and alk(en)yl cysteine sulfoxide flavour precursors was significantly higher under S+ conditions and in \\'W202A\\' in agreement with previous studies. Leaf sulfate and cysteine levels were significantly higher in \\'W202A\\' and under S+. Glutathione levels were reduced by S- treatment but were not affected by genotype, suggesting that thiol pool sizes are regulated differently in mild and pungent onions. The only significant treatment effect observed on transcript accumulation in leaves was an elevated accumulation of O-acetyl serine thiol-lyase under S-. By contrast, transcript accumulation of all genes in roots was influenced by one or more treatments. APS reductase transcript level was not affected by genotype but was strongly increased by S-. Significant genotype × S treatment effects were observed in a root high affinity-sulfur transporter and ferredoxin-sulfite reductase. ATP sulfurylase transcript levels were significantly higher under S+ and in \\'W202A\\'. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. ESTIMATING THE PREVALENCE OF POLYPHENOLIC COMPOUNDS IN ONIONS (ALLIUM CEPA L. AND THEIR PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Lachowicz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Onion is vegetable with good nutrition and its growth could stand different kinds condition. It’s medical properties attract researchers attention. The author characterized the preparations and the phenolic compounds from fresh onions (red, yellow, white and shallots mild pickles in brine and syrup using ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometer (UPLC-PDA-MS. The results are reasonable and analysis is acceptable. The test material was identified: quercetin, isorhamnetin and derivatives of these compounds. The total content of phenolic compounds in fresh onions ranged from 0.72 to 89.47 mg.100g-1 dry weight, mild pickles in brine from 5.39 to 0.31 mg.100g-1, syrup from 2.85 to 0.31 mg.l-1. Polyphenol content was highest in fresh onions, and much lower in the material subjected marinating process.

  14. Response of Onion ( Allium cepa L.) to Irrigation Intervals and Plant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    08 at the Teaching and Research Farm of the College of Agriculture, Zuru, Kebbi State, Nigeria. The objective was to investigate the response of onion to irrigation interval and plant population density. The treatments consisted of factorial ...

  15. A comparison study on the anti-leech effects of onion (Allium cepa L) and ginger (Zingiber officinale) with levamisole and triclabendazole

    OpenAIRE

    Bahmani Mahmoud; Vakili-Saatloo Naiema; Gholami-Ahangaran Majid; Karamati Seyed Ahmad; Banihabib Ebrahimkhalil; Hajigholizadeh Ghader; Borjian Sayfollah

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Leech may indwell in mucosa of the pharynx, tonsil, esophagus, nose, nasopharyngeal and rarely in larynx of hosts, however, the effective drugs against this parasite is scarce. This study was aimed to evaluate and compare the anti-leech effect of methanolic extract of onion (Allium cepa L) and ginger (Zingiber officinale) with levamisole and triclabendazole. Materials and Methods: In this study, 60 leeches (Limnatis nilotica) were collected from south of Ilam. The anti-leech eff...

  16. Clinical hypoglycemic effects of allium cepa (Red Onion) in Type 1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Type 1 diabetes mellitus is an autoimmune disease caused by destruction of pancreatic islet beta cells and characterized by defect in insulin secretion. Objectives: The present study was carried out to investigate the hypoglycemic effects of Allium cepa in patients with type 1 diabetic patients. Results: In the ...

  17. Localized chiasmata and meiotic nodules in the tetraploid onion Allium porrum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stack, S M; Roelofs, D

    Allium porrum L. (cultivated leek) (2n = 4x = 32) is a fertile tetraploid that forms bivalents with pericentric chiasmata at metaphase I. To investigate the basis of this unusual behavior for a tetraploid, we describe the karyotype, axial cores, synaptonemal complexes (SCs), and meiotic nodules of

  18. Characterization of industrial onion wastes (Allium cepa L.): dietary fibre and bioactive compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benítez, Vanesa; Mollá, Esperanza; Martín-Cabrejas, María A; Aguilera, Yolanda; López-Andréu, Francisco J; Cools, Katherine; Terry, Leon A; Esteban, Rosa M

    2011-03-01

    The food industry produces a large amount of onion wastes, making it necessary to search for possible ways for their utilization. One way could be to use these onion wastes as a natural source of high-value functional ingredients, since onion are rich in several groups of compounds, which have perceived benefits to human health. The objective of this work is to gain knowledge of any differences between the different onion wastes obtained from industry and non-commercial bulbs to use them as food ingredients rich in specific compounds. The results showed that brown skin and top-bottom could be potentially used as functional ingredient rich in dietary fibre, mainly in insoluble fraction, and in total phenolics and flavonoids, with high antioxidant activity. Moreover, brown skin showed a high concentration of quercetin aglycone and calcium, and top-bottom showed high concentration of minerals. Outer scales could be used as source of flavonols, with good antioxidant activity and content of dietary fibre. However, inner scales could be an interesting source of fructans and alk(en)yl cystein sulphoxides. In addition, discarded onions (cvs Recas and Figueres) could be used as a good source of dietary fibre, and cv Recas also as a source of phenolics compounds.

  19. Fate of flavonoids in the outer skins of onion (Allium cepa L.) throughout curing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cools, Katherine; Chope, Gemma A; Terry, Leon A

    2010-11-24

    Reducing the current U.K. curing temperature from 28 to 20 °C would help to reduce energy costs; however, onion skin appearance and consumer acceptability may be detrimentally affected. The aim of this study was to elucidate the compounds responsible for the difference in color between brown and red onions cured at 20 and 28 °C by monitoring dynamic biochemical changes in the skin at set intervals during curing and after storage from two years' data. Sugar concentrations appeared to play no role in the difference in onion skin appearance when cured at different temperatures. Using regression, principal component, and partial least-squares discriminant analyses, the decrease in skin H° after the curing of brown onion cultivars at 28 °C was linked to a decrease in individual flavonol concentrations, possibly due to their oxidation at higher temperatures into brown pigmented compounds. Red onion cultivars cured at lower temperatures and for a shorter curing period had higher concentrations of individual anthocyanins as well as a darker skin color. Skin water content was reduced significantly in only the first 6 days of curing. Taken together, this suggests that current U.K. curing practice could be carried out at a lower temperature (20 °C) and/or for a shorter duration, resulting in reduced curing costs and possibly improved skin appearance.

  20. Variation of quercetin glycoside derivatives in three onion (Allium cepa L.) varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Jung-Ho; Seo, Jeong Min; Kim, Na-Hyung; Arasu, Mariadhas Valan; Kim, Sunggil; Yoon, Moo Kyoung; Kim, Sun-Ju

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify the contents of individual quercetin glycosides in red, yellow and chartreuse onion by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) analysis. Acid hydrolysis of individual quercetin glycosides using 6 M hydrochloric acid guided to identify and separate quercetin 7,4'-diglucoside, quercetin 3-glucoside, quercetin 4'-glucoside, and quercetin. The contents of total quercetin glycosides varied extensively among three varieties (ranged from 16.10 to 103.93 mg/g DW). Quercetin was the predominant compound that accounted mean 32.21 mg/g DW in red onion (43.6% of the total) and 127.92 mg/g DW in chartreuse onion (78.3% of the total) followed by quercetin 3-glucoside (28.83 and 24.16 mg/g DW) respectively. Quercetin 3-glucoside levels were much higher in yellow onion (43.85 mg/g DW) followed by quercetin 30.08 mg/g DW. Quercetin 4'-glucoside documented the lowest amount that documented mean 2.4% of the total glycosides. The varied contents of glycosides present in the different onion varieties were significant.

  1. Variation of quercetin glycoside derivatives in three onion (Allium cepa L. varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Ho Kwak

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to quantify the contents of individual quercetin glycosides in red, yellow and chartreuse onion by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC analysis. Acid hydrolysis of individual quercetin glycosides using 6 M hydrochloric acid guided to identify and separate quercetin 7,4′-diglucoside, quercetin 3-glucoside, quercetin 4′-glucoside, and quercetin. The contents of total quercetin glycosides varied extensively among three varieties (ranged from 16.10 to 103.93 mg/g DW. Quercetin was the predominant compound that accounted mean 32.21 mg/g DW in red onion (43.6% of the total and 127.92 mg/g DW in chartreuse onion (78.3% of the total followed by quercetin 3-glucoside (28.83 and 24.16 mg/g DW respectively. Quercetin 3-glucoside levels were much higher in yellow onion (43.85 mg/g DW followed by quercetin 30.08 mg/g DW. Quercetin 4′-glucoside documented the lowest amount that documented mean 2.4% of the total glycosides. The varied contents of glycosides present in the different onion varieties were significant.

  2. Survival or growth of inoculated Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella on yellow onions (Allium cepa) under conditions simulating food service and consumer handling and storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Vanessa M; Zhao, Irene Y; Schaffner, Donald W; Danyluk, Michelle D; Harris, Linda J

    2015-01-01

    Whole and diced yellow onions (Allium cepa) were inoculated with five-strain cocktails of rifampin-resistant Escherichia coli O157:H7 or Salmonella and stored under conditions to simulate food service or consumer handling. The inoculum was grown in broth (for both whole and diced onion experiments) or on agar plates (for whole onion experiments). Marked circles (3.3 cm in diameter) on the outer papery skin of whole onions were spot inoculated (10 μl in 10 drops) at 7 log CFU per circle, and onions were stored at 4°C, 30 to 50 % relative humidity, or at ambient conditions (23°C, 30 to 50 % relative humidity). Diced onions were inoculated at 3 log CFU/g and then stored in open or closed containers at 4°C or ambient conditions. Previously inoculated and ambient-stored diced onions were also mixed 1:9 (wt/wt) with refrigerated uninoculated freshly diced onions and stored in closed containers at ambient conditions. Inoculated pathogens were recovered in 0.1 % peptone and plated onto selective and nonselective media supplemented with 50 μg/ml rifampin. Both E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella populations declined more rapidly on onion skins when the inoculum was prepared in broth rather than on agar. Agar-prepared E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella declined by 0.4 and 0.3 log CFU per sample per day, respectively, at ambient conditions; at 4°C the rates of reduction were 0.08 and 0.06 log CFU per sample per day for E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella, respectively. Populations of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella did not change over 6 days of storage at 4°C in diced onions. Lag times of 6 to 9 h were observed with freshly inoculated onion at ambient conditions; no lag was observed when previously inoculated and uninoculated onions were mixed. Growth rates at ambient conditions were 0.2 to 0.3 log CFU/g/h for E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella in freshly inoculated onion and 0.2 log CFU/g/h in mixed product. Diced onions support pathogen growth and should be kept refrigerated.

  3. Drying kinetics and quality aspects during heat pump drying of onion (Allium cepa L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Nihar Ranjan Sahoo; Uma Sankar Pal; Sanjaya Kumar Dash; M.D. K. Khan

    2012-01-01

    A prototype heat pump dryer has been developed for drying of fruits and vegetables at low temperature and relative humidity to maintain the quality of dried product. Onions, of Nasik red variety were peeled, trimmed and sliced to 2 mm thickness. The onion slices were dried in the heat pump dryer at 35ºC (32 % R.H.), 40ºC (26 % R.H.), 45ºC (19 % R.H.) and 50ºC (15 % R.H.). Samples were also dried in a hot air dryer at 50ºC (52 % R.H.) for comparison. The drying rate...

  4. A comparison study on the anti-leech effects of onion (Allium cepa L and ginger (Zingiber officinale with levamisole and triclabendazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahmani Mahmoud

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Leech may indwell in mucosa of the pharynx, tonsil, esophagus, nose, nasopharyngeal and rarely in larynx of hosts, however, the effective drugs against this parasite is scarce. This study was aimed to evaluate and compare the anti-leech effect of methanolic extract of onion (Allium cepa L and ginger (Zingiber officinale with levamisole and triclabendazole. Materials and Methods: In this study, 60 leeches (Limnatis nilotica were collected from south of Ilam. The anti-leech effect of methanolic extract of onion and ginger in comparison with levamisole and triclabendazole drugs (positive controls were evaluated. Distilled water was used as negative control. Paralysis and death of leeches were recorded in 720 minutes. Results: Lethal effect of methanolic extract of ginger against Limnatis nilotica was equal to levamisole and more than triclabendazole and methanolic extract of onion. Conclusion: Ginger equal to levamisole has anti-leech activity and its methanolic extract might be used against Limnatis nilotica.

  5. Effect of planting methods on maturity and yield of onion ( Allium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sets matured earlier (94 days) than transplants (104 days) and direct sown (135 days). The overall result indicated that in addition to the current transplanting practice onion establishment from set may also be a good option for dry bulb production in the Central Rift Valley areas of Ethiopia where earliness and high yield are ...

  6. Effect of irrigation schedules on yield and water use of onion (Allium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-04-04

    Apr 4, 2011 ... conducted to determine the water use efficiency characteristics of onion crops in different climate and soil ... To characterize the climate of the experimental area, data gathered by a meteorological ... applied; ±∆S represents the change in root zone water storage over a given time interval; D is the drainage ...

  7. Effect of irrigation schedules on yield and water use of onion ( Allium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design and adapted to conditions of sprinkling irrigation. Three irrigation treatments according to available soil water depletion (Т1 30, Т2 50 and Т3 70%) and a rainfed treatment (Т0) were included. Results showed that onion yield was significantly affected by ...

  8. Human exposure modelling of quercetin in onions (Allium cepa L.) following thermal processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, S; Brunton, N; Tiwari, U; Cummins, E

    2015-11-15

    Post-harvest treatment can influence levels of secondary metabolites in fruits and vegetables. Onions contain high levels of quercetin but are commonly heat-treated before consumption. Hence, the objective of this study was to examine the effect of cooking treatments on the flavonoid (3,4'-Qdg and 4'-Qmg) concentrations in onion and to determine, by simulation modelling, probable human exposure. Onion samples (n=3) were cooked using three processes (fry, bake and steam) for three time intervals (5, 10 and 15 min). Frying (50%. Thermal processing (>10 min) was shown to decrease quercetin content in all samples. The simulation model predicted human absorption and exposure. Steaming (15 min) resulted in the lowest quercetin exposure, with mean values of 4000 and 400 μg/day for 3,4'-Qdg and 4'-Qmg, respectively. Untreated onions had mean exposures of 14,000 and 3000 μg/day for 3,4'-Qdg and 4'-Qmg, respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Residue decline and risk assessment of fluopyram + tebuconazole (400SC) in/on onion (Allium cepa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Badal V; Chawla, Suchi; Gor, Hetal; Upadhyay, Payal; Parmar, Kaushik D; Patel, Anil R; Shah, Paresh G

    2016-10-01

    A method was validated for estimating fluopyram and tebuconazole in onion on LC-MS/MS using dispersive QuEChERS. Three sprays of a combination fungicide fluopyram + tebuconazole (Luna experience, 400 SC) were applied @ 75 + 75 and 150 + 150 g a.i. ha-1 at an interval of 10 days on onion using Knapsack sprayer. First spray was made at bulb setting stage. Spring onion samples were drawn at 0 (1 h), 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 15, and 20 days and matured onion bulb at harvest (52 days) after the last spray. Soil samples were also drawn at harvest. Foliar application of the combination product resulted in 1.14 and 2.86 mg kg-1 fluopyram residues on spring onion at standard and double dose, respectively, one hour after the last application. The levels of fluopyram residues gradually declined and recorded 0.25 and 0.58 mg kg-1 on 20th day of application with half-lives of 8.8 and 9.1 days at standard and double dose, respectively. For tebuconazole, the corresponding residues observed after 1 h (0 day) of application were 0.92 and 2.29 mg kg-1. The levels declined gradually to 0.12 and 0.33 mg kg-1 on 20th days with half-life of 6.7 to 7.7 days at standard and double dose, respectively. Here, we are proposing a pre-harvest interval of 7 day for fluopyram and tebuconazole in spring onion when applied at 75 + 75 g a.i. ha-1 (400 SC). Risk assessment was done by calculating hazard quotient and by comparing theoretical maximum residue intake (TMRI) with maximum permissible intake (MPI). In all the cases, results of the study showed that HQ (Hazard Quotient) ≤1 and TMDI < MPI. Hence, the use of this combination product can be recommended with pre harvest interval of 7 days. The data can be used in establishing MRLs (maximum residue limits) for spring onion after considering multilocation trials.

  10. The Effectiveness of Onion Extract Allium sativum to Prevent Koi Herpesvirus (KHV Infection on Common Carp Cyprinus carpio

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    Sri Nuryati

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Common carp is one of consumption fish that has delicious meat, high pritein level, and easy in farming. The serious problem in common carp farming is koi herpesvirus infection.  Onion extract potency to improve immune system was estimated to prevent disease infection.  The testing of the garlic extract through food could be used as efforts to increase endurance of common carp fish Cyprinus carpio to koi herpesvirus infection that was considered from blood parameter. Fish that was used was measuring 9-11 cm with the treatment of food containing  30, 50, and 70 gr/100 ml onion extract. Fish was acclimated for seven days  in 60×30×30 cm3 aquarium before used. Garlic extract diet in food gave increasing of fish immune system that was infected by koi herpesvirus. The increased of leucocytes of blood fish with onion extract diet was faster than possitive control. The dose of B treatment (50 gr/100 ml was the best dose gave short incubation periode comparing other treatment. Survival rate (SR of this B treatment was highest, i.e. 91.7%, while survival rate of negative control was 50%. Key word: common carp, Cyprinus carpio, onion, Allium sativum, koi herpesvirus   ABSTRAK Salah satu jenis ikan konsumsi air tawar yang banyak digemari oleh masyarakat adalah ikan mas Cyprinus carpio karena rasa dagingnya gurih, memiliki kadar protein tinggi dan cukup mudah dalam pemeliharaannya. Permasalahan yang muncul  saat ini adalah wabah Koi Herpes Virus (KHV. Potensi ekstrak bawang putih sebagai anti mikroba spektrum luas, diduga dapat mengobati dan mencegah penyakit ikan. Pengujian bawang putih secara in vivo melalui pakan dapat digunakan sebagai upaya untuk meningkatkan ketahanan tubuh ikan mas Cyprinus carpio terhadap infeksi penyakit KHV yang ditinjau dari gambaran darahnya. Ikan uji yang digunakan adalah ikan mas berukuran 9-11 cm dengan perlakuan pakan yang mengandung bawang putih sebanyak 30, 50, dan 70 gr/100 ml. Sebelum dilakukan penelitian ikan

  11. Evaluation of the effect of efficient microorganisms and Trichoderma harzianum application on the production of onion plantlets (Allium cepa L.

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    Ramón Liriano González

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The research was done in the intensive-farming areas of the Cooperative of Credits and Services “Ramón Ruiz del Sol”, in Los Arabos, Matanzas. The objective was to evaluate the application effects of effective microorganism (EM and Trichoderma harzianum on the main growth indexes of onion seedlings (Allium cepa L. during nursery stage. Six treatments were studied ( control, organic matter at 24 kg.m-2, T. harzianum at 30 g.m-2, Effective Microorganisms at 15 mL.m-2 at the moment of sowing and 15 and 30 days after the germination of the seeds, organic matter at 24 kg.m-2 + T. harzianum 30 g.m-2 + Efficient Microorganisms at 15 mL.m-2 at 15 and 30 days after germination of the seeds, and T. harzianum 30 g.m-2 + Efficient Microorganisms at 15 mL.m-2 at 15 and 30 days after the germination of the seeds. The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design. 55 days after seed germination, the height of the seedlings, number of leaves per seedlings, diameter of the false stem, root length, as well as the fresh and dry weight of the radical system and the foliate area were evaluated. The results proved that the Effective Microorganisms (EM and T. harzianum application improved the production of quality onion seedlings. The treatment 5 (organic matter 24 kg.m-2 + T. harzianum 30 g.m-2 + Efficient Microorganisms at 15 mL.m-2 at 15 and 30 days after germination had better results in the evaluated variables.

  12. Identification and Quantification of Flavonoids from Two Southern Italian Cultivars of Allium cepa L., Tropea (Red Onion) and Montoro (Copper Onion), and Their Capacity to Protect Human Erythrocytes from Oxidative Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedesco, Idolo; Carbone, Virginia; Spagnuolo, Carmela; Minasi, Paola; Russo, Gian Luigi

    2015-06-03

    Onions (Allium cepa) are consumed worldwide and represent an important source of dietary phytochemicals with proven antioxidant properties, such as phenolic acids, flavonoids, thiosulfinates, and anthocyanins. Epidemiological and experimental data suggest that regular consumption of onions is associated with a reduced risk of degenerative disorders. Therefore, it is of interest to investigate the biological properties of different varieties of onions. Here, we characterized for the first time a variety of onion, called Ramata di Montoro (coppery onion from Montoro), grown in a niche area in southern Italy, and compared its phenolic profile and antioxidant properties to a commercial ecotype of red onion, Tropea, also present in southern Italy. An analytical method based on high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with UV detection and mass spectrometry was used to separate and characterize the phenolic fraction (anthocyanins and flavonols) extracted from both coppery and red types. The main compounds detected in the two ecotypes were quercetin and quercetin glucosides, isorhamnetin glucosides, kaempferol glucoside, and, among anthocyanins, cyanidin glucosides. Tropea ecotype onion showed a higher content of flavonols (632.82 mg/kg fresh weight) than Montoro type onion (252.91 mg/kg fresh weight). Accordingly, the antioxidant activity of the former was 2.8-fold higher compared to the latter. More pronounced were the differences existing between the four anthocyanins detected in the two ecotypes, with those in the Tropea ecotype onion present at concentrations 20-230-fold higher than in the Montoro type onion. Both extracts reduced LDL oxidation about 6-fold and protected human erythrocytes from oxidative damage induced by HClO by about 40%. In addition, as a consequence of HClO treatment, glutathione concentration in erythrocytes was reduced about 50% and pretreatment with onion extracts induced a recovery of glutathione level by about 15-22%. Qualitative

  13. A hepatonephro-protective phenolic-rich extract from red onion (Allium cepa L.) peels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Atallah F; Al-Yousef, Hanan M; Al-Qahtani, Jawaher H; Al-Said, Mansour S

    2017-09-01

    Onion peel is a common bio-waste, occasionally used in traditional medicine in treatment of liver ailment and inflammation. However, a phytochemical and biological study is further required to provide the scientific evidence for this use. A phenolic-rich extract of red onion peels (coded as ACPE) was primarily prepared and then subjected to chromatographic separation. From the extract, six phenolic antioxidant compounds along with two phytosterols were isolated and identified by means of spectroscopic (NMR and MS) analyses. The in vivo protective activity of the ACPE against the oxidative stress induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) free radicals, in liver and kidney, was assessed in rats. Relative to the CCl4-challenged animals, pre-treatment with ACPE could significantly ameliorate the hepatonephrolinked serum and tissue markers in a dose-dependent response. The flavonol- and phenolic acid-based nature of constituents, the high phenolic content (72.33±5.30 mg gallic acid equivalent per one gram) and the significant antioxidant capacity (>1/3 potency of rutin) of ACPE may be thus attributed strongly to the hepatonephro-protective and anti-inflammatory effect of ACPE. The results suggest that red onion peels can serve as a convenient and cost-effective source of high-value antioxidant nutraceuticals for protection against oxidative stress-related disorders.

  14. Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Properties of Five White Onion (Allium cepa L. Landraces

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    Loredana Liguori

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Five onion landraces belonging to Bianca di Pompei cv., cultivated in Campania region (Italy, were characterized for their main quality parameters. The onion landraces were harvested at the end of the growth cycle corresponding to the ripening time and harvest month, respectively: February, March, April, May, and June. The total content of volatile compounds as well as the sulfur-containing compounds in Aprilatica was significantly (p≤0.05 higher than the other landraces investigated. The nutraceutical feature investigated through the total phenols, phenols profile, and antioxidant activity showed higher values for the samples harvested in spring months. High pungency values ranging from 9 to 14 μmol/g FW were found in all onion landraces investigated as enzymatically (alliinase produced pyruvate (EPY. The organic acids profile (malic, citric, succinic, pyruvic, oxalic, ascorbic, and tartaric acids highlighted malic and citric acids in higher amounts in all landraces. Fructose, glucose, and sucrose were found as soluble sugars and fructose was the most abundant. Generally, the results highlighted the growth temperature influence on the investigated quality parameters.

  15. Drying kinetics and quality aspects during heat pump drying of onion (Allium cepa L.

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    Nihar Ranjan Sahoo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 A prototype heat pump dryer has been developed for drying of fruits and vegetables at low temperature and relative humidity to maintain the quality of dried product. Onions, of Nasik red variety were peeled, trimmed and sliced to 2 mm thickness. The onion slices were dried in the heat pump dryer at 35ºC (32 % R.H., 40ºC (26 % R.H., 45ºC (19 % R.H. and 50ºC (15 % R.H.. Samples were also dried in a hot air dryer at 50ºC (52 % R.H. for comparison. The drying rate increased with increase in drying air temperature, associated with reduced R.H., in the heat pump dryer. Drying took place mainly under the falling rate period. The Page equation, resulting in a higher coefficient of determination and lower root mean square error, better described the thin-layer drying of onion slices than the Henderson and Pabis equation. Heat pump drying took less drying time of 360 min and yielded better quality dried product, with higher retention of ascorbic acid and pyruvic acid and lower colour change, as compared to a hot air dryer at the same drying air temperature of 50ºC.

  16. Localized chiasmata and meiotic nodules in the tetraploid onion Allium porrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stack, S M; Roelofs, D

    1996-08-01

    Allium porrum L. (cultivated leek) (2n = 4x = 32) is a fertile tetraploid that forms bivalents with pericentric chiasmata at metaphase I. To investigate the basis of this unusual behavior for a tetraploid, we describe the karyotype, axial cores, synaptonemal complexes (SCs), and meiotic nodules of A. porrum. The karyotype appears to be autotetraploid. This conclusion is also supported by presynaptic alignment of axial cores in groups of four and partner trades between pairs of SCs. Numerous early nodules are distributed all along axial cores and SCs during zygonema, but they are lost by late zygonema - early pachynema. Late (recombination) nodules (RNs) are present on SCs near kinetochores throughout the remainder of pachynema. This pattern of RNs corresponds to the pattern of pericentric chiasmata. Pachytene quadrivalents usually are resolved into bivalents because partner trades between SC lateral elements rarely occur between RNs on the same segment of SC. Thus, the patterns of crossing-over and partner trades promote balanced disjunction and high fertility in autotetraploid A. porrum. Rare quadrivalents observed at metaphase I must be due to infrequent partner trades between RNs. Polycomplexes, unusual in their number and size, were observed during zygonema. Key words : synaptonemal complex, recombination nodules, localized chiasmata, polycomplex, Allium porrum.

  17. Amelioration of hyperglycemia and associated metabolic abnormalities by a combination of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) seeds and onion (Allium cepa) in experimental diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradeep, Seetur R; Srinivasan, Krishnapura

    2017-09-26

    Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) seeds and onion (Allium cepa) are independently known to have antidiabetic effects through different mechanisms. The beeneficial influence of a combination of dietary fenugreek seeds and onion on hyperglycemia and its associated metabolic abnormalities were evaluated in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was experimentally induced with streptozotocin and diabetic rats were fed with 10% fenugreek or 3% onion or their combination for 6 weeks. These dietary interventions significantly countered hyperglycemia, partially improved peripheral insulin resistance and impaired insulin secretion, reduced β-cell mass and markedly reversed the abnormalities in plasma albumin, urea, creatinine, glycated hemoglobin and advanced glycation end products in diabetic rats. These beneficial effects were highest in the fenugreek+onion group. Diabetic rats with these dietary interventions excreted lesser glucose, albumin, urea and creatinine, which were accompanied by improved body weights compared with the diabetic controls. These dietary interventions produced ameliorative effects on pancreatic pathology as reflected by near-normal islet cells, restored glycogen and collagen fiber deposition in diabetic rats. This study documented the hypoglycemic and insulinotropic effects of dietary fenugreek and onion, which were associated with countering of metabolic abnormalities and pancreatic pathology. It may be strategic to derive maximum nutraceutical antidiabetic benefits from these functional food ingredients by consuming them together.

  18. Amelioration of oxidative stress by dietary fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) seeds is potentiated by onion (Allium cepa L.) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradeep, Seetur R; Srinivasan, Krishnapura

    2017-08-01

    Oxidative stress has a crucial role in the progression of diabetes and its complications. Soluble fibre-rich fenugreek seeds (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) are understood to have a beneficial effect in the management of diabetes. Previously, we have shown that the amelioration of diabetic hyperglycemia and related metabolic abnormalities was potentiated by onion (Allium cepa L.) in experimental rats. The present study evaluated the additive beneficial effect of dietary fenugreek seeds (10%) and onion (3%) on oxidative stress in diabetic rats. These dietary interventions lowered oxidative stress, the combination producing a higher beneficial effect (p < 0.05), although not additive. Dietary fenugreek, onion, or fenugreek+onion countered hypercholesterolemia (p < 0.05), especially from low-density lipoprotein-associated fraction by 43%, 35%, and 54%, respectively. Elevated concentrations of cholesterol and triglycerides in the liver and heart under diabetic conditions were significantly counteracted by these dietary interventions, with the additive combination resulting in greater effect. These findings were also corroborated by restoration of histopathological abnormalities of heart and liver tissues along with lowered heart and liver weights. It is inferred that an alleviation of oxidative stress contributes further to the antidiabetic influence and this nutraceutical potential of fenugreek seeds and onion was higher when consumed together.

  19. Investigation of Volatiles Emitted from Freshly Cut Onions (Allium cepa L. by Real Time Proton-Transfer Reaction-Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS

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    Mette Marie Løkke

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Volatile organic compounds (VOCs in cut onions (Allium cepa L. were continuously measured by PTR-MS during the first 120 min after cutting. The headspace composition changed rapidly due to the very reactive volatile sulfurous compounds emitted from onion tissue after cell disruption. Mass spectral signals corresponding to propanethial S-oxide (the lachrymatory factor and breakdown products of this compound dominated 0–10 min after cutting. Subsequently, propanethiol and dipropyl disulfide predominantly appeared, together with traces of thiosulfinates. The concentrations of these compounds reached a maximum at 60 min after cutting. Propanethiol was present in highest concentrations and had an odor activity value 20 times higher than dipropyl disulfide. Thus, propanethiol is suggested to be the main source of the characteristic onion odor. Monitoring the rapid changes of VOCs in the headspace of cut onion necessitates a high time resolution, and PTR-MS is demonstrated to be a very suitable method for monitoring the headspace of freshly cut onions directly after cutting without extraction or pre-concentration.

  20. Effect of worm humus leachate on morphological indicators in the cultivation of onion (Allium cepa L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Yordany Lázaro Pérez Bravo; Lázaro Jesús Lamadrid Mandado

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of the liquid earthworm humus on the dev elopment of the onion farming, three doses were applied in the vegetable garden of the CPA “De lfín Sen Cedré” located in Quemado de Güines municipality, in Villa Clara province. To do this, it was used an experimental design of blocks at random with four repetitions. In all the morphologic indicators that were e valuated, the fertilization with humus of earthworm influenced positively, being the doses of...

  1. Effect of worm humus leachate on morphological indicators in the cultivation of onion (Allium cepa L.

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    Yordany Lázaro Pérez Bravo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effect of the liquid earthworm humus on the dev elopment of the onion farming, three doses were applied in the vegetable garden of the CPA “De lfín Sen Cedré” located in Quemado de Güines municipality, in Villa Clara province. To do this, it was used an experimental design of blocks at random with four repetitions. In all the morphologic indicators that were e valuated, the fertilization with humus of earthworm influenced positively, being the doses of 39 and 65 L ha-1 the ones that showed better results in these onion’s growth and development indicators

  2. Variation of quercetin glycoside derivatives in three onion (Allium cepa L.) varieties

    OpenAIRE

    Kwak, Jung-Ho; Seo, Jeong Min; Kim, Na-Hyung; Arasu, Mariadhas Valan; Kim, Sunggil; Yoon, Moo Kyoung; Kim, Sun-Ju

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify the contents of individual quercetin glycosides in red, yellow and chartreuse onion by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) analysis. Acid hydrolysis of individual quercetin glycosides using 6 M hydrochloric acid guided to identify and separate quercetin 7,4′-diglucoside, quercetin 3-glucoside, quercetin 4′-glucoside, and quercetin. The contents of total quercetin glycosides varied extensively among three varieties (ranged from 16.10 to 103.93 mg...

  3. In Vitro Evaluation Of Selected Plant Extracts As Biocontrol Agents Against Black Mold Aspergillus Niger Van Tieghem Of Onion Bulbs Allium Cepa L.

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    Saifeldin A. F. El-Nagerabi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Black mold disease caused by Aspergillus niger V. Tiegh. is the most devastating infection occurs in onions Allium cepa L. under field and store conditions. The use of biocontrol agents is ecofriendly approach for controlling seedborne and soilborne diseases compared to the use of toxic synthetic fungicides. This study has been designed to assess the contamination levels of onion seeds with A. niger and its effect on seed germination and to evaluate the in vitro antifungal activity of Prunus mahaleb seeds Commiphora myrrha resin 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 g100 ml Syzygium aromaticum dry buds clove and Panax ginseng roots extracts 0.5 1.0 2.0 2.5 g100 ml against black mold of onion bulbs. The fungus is seedborne pathogen which significantly contaminated onion seeds 89-100 and reduced seed germination 39-83. The extracts of clove caused 43-96 inhibition in spore germination followed by mahaleb 37-96 myrrha 33-88 and ginseng 34-87. The highest concentration of these extracts 3.0 did not affect seed germination but significantly reduced seed contamination by A. niger up to 84 80 71 and 65 for Syzygium aromaticum Syzygium aromaticum Panax ginseng and Prunus mahaleb respectively. The extracts apparently inhibited the fungal growth and mold development on stored onion bulbs which indicates the antifungal property of these extracts against A. niger. Therefore they can be recommended as effective biocontrol agents to reduce seed contamination and enhance the storability of onion bulbs. Thus the use of healthy and certified seeds for onion production is a priority.

  4. Antioxidant, Radical Scavenging and Antimicrobial Activities of Red Onion (Allium cepa L) Skin and Edible Part Extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Škerget, M.; Majhenič, L.; Bezjak, M.; Knez, Ž.

    2009-01-01

    The antioxidant, radical scavenging and antimicrobial activities of extracts from skin and edible part of red onion have been investigated. Crude extracts of red onion were obtained separately with acetone, ethanol and mixtures of solvents with water. The amounts of isolated phenolic compounds and quercetin from onion skin were approximately 3 to 5 times higher as from the onion edible part. Antioxidant and radical scavenging activities of onion skin extracts were generally high, results were...

  5. Usefulness of japanese bunching onion (Allium fistulosum L. for forcing in greenhouse

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    Maria Tendaj

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was the evaluation of yielding and the content of some chemical ingredients of Japanese bunching onion yield obtained from forcing in greenhouse conditions. Plants used for forcing were from field cultivation and had the pseudostem trimmed in the autumn of each year (2002, 2003 and 2004 at the height of 2-4 and 8-10 cm. In the spring of the following year (2003, 2004 and 2005 from the middle of March, the plants were forced in a heated greenhouse (temperature 16-20°C and an unheated one (temperature 6-12 °C. The whole yield was evaluated when the plants reached the market size for bunching. The weight and height were determined in the plants, as well as the number of laterals and leaves in clusters. In green shoots and the pseudostem, the content of dry weight, total and reducing sugars, L-ascorbic acid, flavonoids and phenolic acids were determined. Very high yield of plants useful for bunching was obtained (average 13.7 kg·m-2 of area. The plants with a longer pseudostem before forcing yielded better. The conditions of forcing did not have a significant influence on the size of the obtained yield, but the content of L-ascorbic acid and flavonoids was much higher (especially in green shoots in the plants from forcing in the unheated greenhouse. Lower temperature at the time of forcing was favorable to higher reducing sugar content, especially in the pseudostem. Japanese bunching onion turned out to be useful for forcing for harvest in bunching form.

  6. Performance of Eight Varieties of Onion (Allium cepa L. Cultivated under Open Field in Tunisia

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    Ali ABDELKADER ABOU AZOOM

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted from September 2010 to July 2011 at Research Station Farm of Higher Institute of Agronomy, Chott Mariem, Sousse (Tunisia in order to evaluate the performance of seven onion varieties: ‘GIZA 6’, ‘Red Amposta’, ‘Z6’, ‘Morada de Amposta’, ‘Yellow Dessex’, ‘Early Yellow Texas Grano 502’ and ‘Keep Red’ against the commonly grown variety ‘Blanc Hâtif de Paris’ under field conditions. The experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Results obtained showed that onion varieties were significantly different when it comes to the plant and bulb morphological characteristics. Variety ‘Morada de Amposta’ recorded the highest leaf length (68.06 cm, pseudostem diameter (8.63 cm, number of leaves (8.71, plant height (76.95 cm,  in addition to the greatest yields (32.88 t/ha which were significantly (p≤0.05 increased by respectively 66.2,  88.8,  2.1,  61.2, 63, 27.9  and 28.4%  compared to those obtained from the regular variety ‘Blanc Hâtif de Paris’. Variety ‘Blanc Hâtif de Paris’ was the earliest to maturity and recorded the most preferment bulb weight (155.02 g and diameter (8.21 cm. ‘Keep Red’ variety had the highest height of the bulb (7.19 cm. Variety ‘Z6’ recorded the minimum data in all measured parameters.

  7. Verification of alternatives for sustainable onion production (Allium cepa L. in Cucaita, Boyaca

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    Viteri R. Silvio Edgar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available

    In Cucaita, onion production represents the basis of the economy and is concentrated in the valley but as yield declines due to deterioration of the soil, cultivation is shifting to the slopes, where unsustainability is more prominent. The aim of this study was to verify the potential of three alternatives for sustainable farming, using a split plot design on two farms. The alternatives were: 1 bocashi chicken manure, super broth four, fertilizer (BCmSB4F, 2 bocashi cow manure, rhizosphere broth, super broth four, fertilizer (BCmRBSB4F, 3 green manure, rhizosphere broth, super broth four, fertilizer (Gm- RBSB4F and 4 regional control (RC. This study determined disease incidence, plant height, stem and bulb diameter, healthy and diseased bulb weight and yield. The results indicated that regardless of the alternative, the agro-ecological conditions of the farm are critical to plant health and consequently to crop production. In El Arenal, where disease incidence was lower, the highest values for healthy bulb weight, bulb diameter and yield were revealed. The alternatives only differed in disease incidence at 30 and 45 days after transplant, with the lowest percentages corresponding to the green manure alternative. For revenue, the three alternatives were favorable, especially the BCmRBSB4F alternative which exceeded the RC. The results show that the alternatives GmRBSB4F and BCmRBSB4F have the most potential and are the most viable for sustainable onion production in Cucaita, Boyaca.

  8. Determination of vanadium accumulation in onion root cells (Allium cepa L.) and its correlation with toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcano, Letty; Carruyo, Ingrid; Fernández, Yusmary; Montiel, Xiomara; Torrealba, Zaida

    2006-08-01

    The vanadium is a metal that presents great interest from the toxicological point of view, because of the numerous alterations that can take place in different biological systems. This work evaluated the capacity of vanadium accumulation and its correlation with genotoxic effects in root cells of Allium cepa L. The bulbs were cultivated in renovated filtered water each 24 h, at a temperature of 25 +/- 0.5 degrees C, in darkness and constant aeration. Treatments were carried out under the same experimental conditions, using water solutions of vanadium of 25, 50, 75 and 100 microg/g for 0, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h. A control was carried out where metal solution was substituted by distilled water. After the treatment, the meristems were fixed with alcohol--acetic acid (3:1) and stained according to the technique of Feulgen. The capacity of accumulation was determined by GFAAS. The analysis of the results revealed an accumulation of the metal for all times and concentrations. No correlation was presented among vanadium accumulation, growth and mitotic index; however, positive correlation was given with the induction of chromosomic aberrations. In conclusion, vanadium is able to induce cytotoxic effect in the exposed roots, but only genotoxic effect was correlated with metal accumulation.

  9. Free-radical scavenging capacity and antioxidant properties of some selected onions (Allium cepa L. and garlic (Allium sativum L. extracts

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    Noureddine Benkeblia

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The radical scavenging activity (RAS, chain-breaking activity, H2O2-scavenging, reducing capacity and total phenolics of four types of onions (Green onion, Yellow, Red and Purple and garlic were investigated. Total phenolics varied from 30 mg (green onion to 49 mg.100 g-1 fresh weight (garlic. Garlic extract showed the highest RAS, while green onion showed the lowest one. The chain-breaking activity of green onion extract was higher (0.48 than garlic extract (0.029. Chain-breaking activity of yellow, red and purple onion extracts was 0.19, 0.048 and 0.032 respectively. However, heating treatment (90 ºC, 3h caused an increase in this activity. Low ability of green onion extract to scavenge hydrogen peroxide was noted (35%, whereas high ability was noted in other onion and garlic extracts and ranged from 60 to 90%. The lowest reducing capacity was noted in green onion extract (18%, whereas the highest in garlic extract (196%. Statistically, high significant correlations were observed between total phenolics content and reducing power, scavenging of hydrogen peroxide and chain-breaking activity of extract

  10. Drying kinetics of onion ( Allium cepa L.) slices with convective and microwave drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demiray, Engin; Seker, Anıl; Tulek, Yahya

    2017-05-01

    Onion slices were dried using two different drying techniques, convective and microwave drying. Convective drying treatments were carried out at different temperatures (50, 60 and 70 °C). Three different microwave output powers 328, 447 and 557 W were used in microwave drying. In convective drying, effective moisture diffusivity was estimated to be between 3.49 × 10-8 and 9.44 × 10-8 m2 s-1 within the temperature range studied. The effect of temperature on the diffusivity was described by the Arrhenius equation with an activation energy of 45.60 kJ mol-1. At increasing microwave power values, the effective moisture diffusivity values ranged from 2.59 × 10-7 and 5.08 × 10-8 m2 s-1. The activation energy for microwave drying of samples was calculated using an exponential expression based on Arrhenius equation. Among of the models proposed, Page's model gave a better fit for all drying conditions used.

  11. SCREENING OF LOCAL AND EXOTIC ONION (ALLIUM CEPA L. CULTIVARS FOR SEED PRODUCTION POTENTIALITY

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    A.K.M. Aminul Islam

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted aiming to find out the seed production potentiality of 19 local and exotic onion cultivars. The analysis of variance showed significant differences among the genotypes for all characters except sprouting percentage, number of flowers per umbel and number of umbel per bulb. Maximum number of days to 50% bolting (52.67 was exhibited by the genotype G2 and minimum by G6 (27.00 days. The larger bulb size after harvest was obtained from G14 and G19 (18.11 g. Genotypes G4 and G11 required the maximum (16.66 and the minimum (9.00 days for 100% sprouting, respectively. The highest stalk length was found in the genotype G1 (67.23 cm and the lowest in G8 (38.47 cm. Maximum number (5.75 of stalk was produced by the genotype G7 and minimum number (2.09 of stalk by the genotype G11. The genotype G1 produced the highest number of seeds per umbel (1395.92 and seed yield per plant (4.29 g. The lowest (0.45 g seed yield per plant and maximum bulb weight was obtained by the genotype G8.

  12. 7 CFR 959.5 - Onions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Onions. 959.5 Section 959.5 Agriculture Regulations of... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ONIONS GROWN IN SOUTH TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 959.5 Onions. Onions means all varieties of Allium cepa commonly known as onions...

  13. Characterisation of onion (Allium cepa L.) by-products as food ingredients with antioxidant and antibrowning properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldán, Eduvigis; Sánchez-Moreno, Concepción; de Ancos, Begoña; Cano, M Pilar

    2008-06-01

    Processing and stabilising onion wastes (residues and surpluses of onion) could solve the environmental problem derived from a great onion wastes disposal. Moreover, obtaining stabilised onion by-products as natural antioxidant food ingredients could be advantageous to food industry, not only to improve the use of onion wastes but also to obtain new natural and functional ingredients. The aim of this study was to characterise onion by-products - juice, paste and bagasse - from two Spanish onion cultivars - 'Figueres' and 'Recas' - that have been stabilised by thermal treatments - freezing, pasteurisation and sterilisation - in order to evaluate the effect of the processing and stabilisation treatment on the bioactive composition, antioxidant activity and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) enzyme inhibition capacity. The results obtained triggered to choose one onion by-product offering better characteristics for its potential development as a food ingredient: source of antioxidant and antibrowning bioactive compounds. In this study it was shown that processing of 'Recas' onion wastes to obtain a paste (mixture content) and applying a mild pasteurisation were the best alternatives to obtain an interesting stabilised onion by-product with good antioxidant properties that made useful its use as functional food ingredient. Copyright © 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Transmission of Pantoea ananatis and P. agglomerans, causal agents of center rot of onion (Allium cepa), by onion thrips (Thrips tabaci) through feces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, B; Barman, A K; Srinivasan, R; Avci, U; Ullman, D E; Langston, D B; Gitaitis, R D

    2014-08-01

    Frankliniella fusca, the tobacco thrips, has been shown to acquire and transmit Pantoea ananatis, one of the causal agents of the center rot of onion. Although Thrips tabaci, the onion thrips, is a common pest of onions, its role as a vector of P. ananatis has been unknown. The bacterium, P. agglomerans, is also associated with the center rot of onion, but its transmission by thrips has not been previously investigated. In this study, we investigated the relationship of T. tabaci with P. ananatis and P. agglomerans. Surface-sterilized T. tabaci were provided with various acquisition access periods (AAP) on onion leaves inoculated with either P. ananatis or P. agglomerans. A positive exponential relationship was observed between thrips AAP duration and P. ananatis (R² = 0.967; P = 0.023) or P. agglomerans acquisition (R² = 0.958; P = 0.017). Transmission experiments conducted with T. tabaci adults indicated that 70% of the seedlings developed center rot symptoms 15 days after inoculation. Immunofluorescence microscopy with antibodies specific to P. ananatis revealed that the bacterium was localized only in the gut of T. tabaci adults. Mechanical inoculation of onion seedlings with fecal rinsates alone produced center rot but not with salivary secretions. Together these results suggested that T. tabaci could efficiently transmit P. ananatis and P. agglomerans.

  15. IN VITRO ANTIOXIDANT, TOTAL PHENOLIC AND FLAVONOID CONTENTS OF SIX ALLIUM SPECIES GROWING IN EGYPT

    OpenAIRE

    Mahfouz Abdel-Gawad; Maher Abdel-Aziz; Mortada El-Sayed; Eman El-Wakil; Ezzat Abdel-Lateef

    2014-01-01

    This study was designated to determine the total phenolic and flavonoid contents as well as evaluation the in vitro antioxidant activity of the defatted methanolic extracts of six Allium species growing in Egypt. Three of them are subspecies of Allium cepa L. (ssp. red onion, ssp. white onion and ssp. green onion), the other three species are Allium sativum L. (garlic), Allium porrum L. (leek) and Allium kurrat L. (kurrat baladi). The results exhibited that A. cepa (ssp. red onion) and A. por...

  16. Effect of Different Planting Methods of Onion (Allium cepa L. and Nitrogen Rate on Onion Growth Pattern under Interference with Purple Nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Karimi Arpnahy

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Human always has looked for improving food production through increasing crops yield. In this path, weeds through competition with crop for environmental factors and inputs have reduced the quantity and quality of crop products. Competition for nitrogen absorption not only is the most common form of intra-specific competition amongst crop plants, but also is the most popular form of inter-specific competition in the system of weed-crop interference. Therefore, understanding the method of nitrogen absorption and its allocation in competing plants, will be a key tool to improve weed management strategies. Materials and Methods In order to study the effect of sowing method and nitrogen rate on the growth pattern of onion under interference with purple nutsedge, a factorial experiment based on a randomized complete block design was conducted with three replications at the Research Greenhouse of University of Birjand in 2013. The first factor included three sowing methods of onion (seed sowing, onion set and transplanting and the second factor consisted of three levels of nitrogen (50, 100 and 150 kg N ha-1, equivalent of 25, 50 and 75 mg N kg-1 soil that urea fertilizer with a purity of 46% was used for this purpose. Results and Discussion The results of the analysis of variance showed that nitrogen levels had significant effects on plant height, leaf area index as well as aboveground and bulb dry weights. Furthermore, sowing methods revealed significant effects on plant height, leaf number, leaf area index as well as aboveground and bulb dry weights. Moreover, the interaction between sowing methods and levels of nitrogen had a significant effect on plant height, leaf area index and aboveground dry weight, while it had no significant effect on leaf number and bulb dry weight. The results of the comparisons of the means of onion planting methods and nitrogen levels interactions confirmed that the superiority of the influence of onion set

  17. ALLIUM HOOKERII LIN

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toshiba

    interest in the cultivation of only the high yielding few cash crops and vegetables. From the result of .... Figure 2: Photos of a vegetable market selling Allium hookeri in Manipur and showing their edible parts. ...... Talati S and P Shah Nutritional Studies On Fresh and Dehydrated Onion (. Allium Cepa Linn). Shodh, Samiksha ...

  18. Supplementation with Japanese bunching onion (Allium fistulosum L.) expressing a single alien chromosome from shallot increases the antioxidant activity of Kamaboko fish jelly paste in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Kazuki; Wada, Ritsuko; Yaguchi, Shigenori; Maeda, Toshimichi; Date, Rie; Tokunaga, Takushi; Kazumura, Kimiko; Shimada, Kazuko; Matsumoto, Misato; Wako, Tadayuki; Yamauchi, Naoki; Shigyo, Masayoshi

    2013-05-01

    Kamaboko is a traditional type of processed seafood made from fish jelly paste that is unique to Japan. We supplemented Kamaboko with Japanese bunching onion (Allium fistulosum L.) with an alien monosome from shallot (Allium cepa L. Aggregatum group) and we measured in vitro the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) value, an index of antioxidant activity. We also evaluated the results of sensory testing. The ORAC value of plain Kamaboko was 166±14 μmol trolox equivalent (TE)/100 g fresh weight (FW). The values of the edible Alliaceae powder, i.e., Japanese bunching onion (JBO, genome FF, 2n=2x=16) and the alien addition line of JBO carrying the 6A chromosome from shallot (FF+6A, 2n=2x+1=17), were 6,659±238 and 14,096±635 μmol TE/100 g dry weight (DW). We hypothesized that the 6A chromosome encoded the enhancement of polyphenol production. Subsequently, we created Kamaboko containing 4.8% JBO powder or 4.8% FF+6A powder. The ORAC value of each modified Kamaboko product was increased to 376±24 μmol TE/100 g FW for the JBO powder and to 460±16 μmol TE/100 g FW for the FF+6A powder, respectively. We next created Kamaboko containing 9.0% JBO powder or 9.0% FF+6A powder and the ORAC values of the respective modified Kamaboko products was increased to 671±16 and 740±21 μmol TE/100 g FW, i.e., 4.1- and 4.5-times the value of plain Kamaboko. Consequently, taking into consideration the sensory evaluation regarding taste and appearance as well, the use of Kamaboko supplemented with 4.8% FF+6A powder is recommended.

  19. Methanolic extract of onion (Allium cepa) attenuates ischemia/hypoxia-induced apoptosis in cardiomyocytes via antioxidant effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sok; Kim, Mi-Young; Lee, Dong Ha; Lee, Soo Hwan; Baik, Eun Joo; Moon, Chang-Hyun; Park, Se Won; Ko, Eun Young; Oh, Sei-Ryang; Jung, Yi-Sook

    2009-06-01

    Although there is growing awareness of the beneficial potential of onion intake to lower the risk of cardiovascular disease, there is little information about the effect of onion on ischemic heart injury, one of the most common cardiovascular diseases. This study investigates the effect of the methanol-soluble extract of onion on ischemic injury in heart-derived H9c2 cells in vitro and in rat hearts in vivo. The underlying mechanism is also investigated. To evaluate the effect of onion on ischemia-induced cell death, LDH release and TUNEL-positivity were assessed in H9c2 cells, and the infarct size was measured in a myocardial infarct model. To investigate the mechanism of the cardioprotection by onion, the reactive oxygen species (ROS) level and the mitochondrial membrane potential (DeltaPsi(m)) were measured using an imaging technique; the caspase-3 activity was assayed, and Western blotting was performed to examine cytochrome c release in H9c2 cells. The methanolic extract of onion had a preventive effect on ischemia/hypoxia-induced apoptotic death in H9c2 cells in vitro and in rat heart in vivo. The onion extract (0.05 g/ml) inhibited the elevation of the ROS, mitochondrial membrane depolarization, cytochrome c release and caspase-3 activation during hypoxia in H9c2 cells. In the in vivo rat myocardial infarction model, onion extract (10 g/kg) significantly reduced the infarct size, the apoptotic cell death of the heart and the plasma MDA level. In conclusion, the results of this study suggest that the methanolic extract of onion attenuates ischemia/hypoxia-induced apoptosis in heart-derived H9c2 cells in vitro and in rat hearts in vivo, through, at least in part, an antioxidant effect.

  20. Effects of Onion (Allium cepa L.) Extract Administration on Intestinal α-Glucosidases Activities and Spikes in Postprandial Blood Glucose Levels in SD Rats Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun-Ho; Jo, Sung-Hoon; Kwon, Young-In; Hwang, Jae-Kwan

    2011-01-01

    Diets high in calories and sweetened foods with disaccharides frequently lead to exaggerated postprandial spikes in blood glucose. This state induces immediate oxidant stress and free radicals which trigger oxidative stress-linked diabetic complications. One of the therapeutic approaches for decreasing postprandial hyperglycemia is to retard absorption of glucose by the inhibition of carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes, α-amylase and α-glucosidases, in the digestive organs. Therefore, the inhibitory activity of Korean onion (Allium cepa L.) extract against rat intestinal α-glucosidases, such as sucrase, maltase, and porcine pancreatic α-amylase were investigated in vitro and in vivo. The content of quercetin in ethyl alcohol extract of onion skin (EOS) was 6.04 g/100 g dried weight of onion skin. The in vitro half-maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of EOS and quercetin, a major phenolic in onion, on rat intestinal sucrase were 0.40 and 0.11 mg/mL, respectively. The postprandial blood glucose lowering effects of EOS and quercetin were compared to a known type 2 diabetes drug (Acarbose), a strong α-glucosidase inhibitor in the Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat model. In rats fed on sucrose, EOS significantly reduced the blood glucose spike after sucrose loading. The area under the blood glucose-time curve (AUClast) in EOS-treated SD rats (0.5 g-EOS/kg) was significantly lower than in untreated SD rats (259.6 ± 5.1 vs. 283.1 ± 19.2 h·mg/dL). The AUClast in quercetin-treated SD rats (0.5 g-quercetin/kg) was similar to in EOS-treated group (256.1 ± 3.2 vs. 259.6 ± 5.1 h·mg/dL). Results from this study indicates that although quercetin does have blood glucose lowering potential via α-glucosidase inhibition, there are other bioactive compounds present in onion skin. Furthermore, the effects of two weeks administration of EOS in a high carbohydrate-dietary mixture (Pico 5053) on sucrase and maltase activities in intestine were evaluated in SD rat model. Compared to

  1. Effects of Onion (Allium cepa L. Extract Administration on Intestinal α-Glucosidases Activities and Spikes in Postprandial Blood Glucose Levels in SD Rats Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun-Ho Kim

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Diets high in calories and sweetened foods with disaccharides frequently lead to exaggerated postprandial spikes in blood glucose. This state induces immediate oxidant stress and free radicals which trigger oxidative stress-linked diabetic complications. One of the therapeutic approaches for decreasing postprandial hyperglycemia is to retard absorption of glucose by the inhibition of carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes,α-amylase and α-glucosidases, in the digestive organs. Therefore, the inhibitory activity of Korean onion (Allium cepa L. extract against rat intestinal α-glucosidases, such as sucrase, maltase, and porcine pancreatic α-amylase were investigated in vitro and in vivo. The content of quercetin in ethyl alcohol extract of onion skin (EOS was 6.04 g/100 g dried weight of onion skin. The in vitro half-maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50 of EOS and quercetin, a major phenolic in onion, on rat intestinal sucrase were 0.40 and 0.11 mg/mL, respectively. The postprandial blood glucose lowering effects of EOS and quercetin were compared to a known type 2 diabetes drug (Acarbose, a strong α-glucosidase inhibitor in the Sprague-Dawley (SD rat model. In rats fed on sucrose, EOS significantly reduced the blood glucose spike after sucrose loading. The area under the blood glucose-time curve (AUClast in EOS-treated SD rats (0.5 g-EOS/kg was significantly lower than in untreated SD rats (259.6 ± 5.1 vs. 283.1 ± 19.2 h·mg/dL. The AUClast in quercetin-treated SD rats (0.5 g-quercetin/kg was similar to in EOS-treated group (256.1 ± 3.2 vs. 259.6 ± 5.1 h·mg/dL. Results from this study indicates that although quercetin does have blood glucose lowering potential via α-glucosidase inhibition, there are other bioactive compounds present in onion skin. Furthermore, the effects of two weeks administration of EOS in a high carbohydrate-dietary mixture (Pico 5053 on sucrase and maltase activities in intestine were evaluated in SD rat model

  2. Effects of onion (Allium cepa L.) extract administration on intestinal α-glucosidases activities and spikes in postprandial blood glucose levels in SD rats model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun-Ho; Jo, Sung-Hoon; Kwon, Young-In; Hwang, Jae-Kwan

    2011-01-01

    Diets high in calories and sweetened foods with disaccharides frequently lead to exaggerated postprandial spikes in blood glucose. This state induces immediate oxidant stress and free radicals which trigger oxidative stress-linked diabetic complications. One of the therapeutic approaches for decreasing postprandial hyperglycemia is to retard absorption of glucose by the inhibition of carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes, α-amylase and α-glucosidases, in the digestive organs. Therefore, the inhibitory activity of Korean onion (Allium cepa L.) extract against rat intestinal α-glucosidases, such as sucrase, maltase, and porcine pancreatic α-amylase were investigated in vitro and in vivo. The content of quercetin in ethyl alcohol extract of onion skin (EOS) was 6.04 g/100 g dried weight of onion skin. The in vitro half-maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC(50)) of EOS and quercetin, a major phenolic in onion, on rat intestinal sucrase were 0.40 and 0.11 mg/mL, respectively. The postprandial blood glucose lowering effects of EOS and quercetin were compared to a known type 2 diabetes drug (Acarbose), a strong α-glucosidase inhibitor in the Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat model. In rats fed on sucrose, EOS significantly reduced the blood glucose spike after sucrose loading. The area under the blood glucose-time curve (AUC(last)) in EOS-treated SD rats (0.5 g-EOS/kg) was significantly lower than in untreated SD rats (259.6 ± 5.1 vs. 283.1 ± 19.2 h·mg/dL). The AUC(last) in quercetin-treated SD rats (0.5 g-quercetin/kg) was similar to in EOS-treated group (256.1 ± 3.2 vs. 259.6 ± 5.1 h·mg/dL). Results from this study indicates that although quercetin does have blood glucose lowering potential via α-glucosidase inhibition, there are other bioactive compounds present in onion skin. Furthermore, the effects of two weeks administration of EOS in a high carbohydrate-dietary mixture (Pico 5053) on sucrase and maltase activities in intestine were evaluated in SD rat model. Compared

  3. Intoxicação experimental por cebola, Allium cepa (Liliaceae, em gatos Experimental onion Allium cepa (Liliaceae poisoning in cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael A. Fighera

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available A intoxicação por cebola é relatada em várias espécies animais em muitas partes do mundo. O princípio tóxico (n-propil dissulfito presente na cebola causa a transformação da hemoglobina em metemoglobina. Para estudar os achados laboratoriais, de necropsia e histopatológicos da intoxicação por cebola em gatos, cinco gatos de quatro meses de idade receberam cada um uma dose única de 10g/kg de cebola desidratada por via oral. Um outro gato de mesma idade não recebeu a refeição com cebola e serviu como controle. Todos os cinco gatos desenvolveram sinais clínicos da toxicose; um deles morreu dentro de 24 horas após a ingestão da cebola. Os sinais clínicos incluíram apatia, taquicardia, taquipnéia e cianose. Os achados laboratoriais se caracterizavam por anemia hemolítica associada a corpúsculos de Heinz e metemoglobinemia. Os principais achados de necropsia foram esplenomegalia e sangue de cor marrom. Os achados histopatológicos foram hemossiderose e hematopoese extramedular no baço e fígado.Onion poisoning is reported worlwide in several animal species. The toxic principle (n-propyl dissulfide present in onions causes the transformation of hemoglobin in methemoglobin. In order to study the laboratory, gross and histopathological findings in onion poisoning in cats, five 4-month-old cats were fed a single dose of 10g/kg of dried-onion each. Another cat of the same age did not receive the onion meal and served as control. All five cats developed clinical signs of the toxicosis; one of them died within 24 hours of the ingestion of the onion meal. Clinical signs included apathy, tachycardia, tachypnea, and cyanosis. Laboratory findings included hemolytic anemia associated with Heinz bodies and methemoglobinemia. Main necropsy findings were splenomegaly and brown discoloration of blood. Histopathological findings included splenic and hepatic hemosiderosis and multifocal extramedullary hematopoiesis.

  4. Effect of Nano Iron and Solupotasse Fertilizers on Accumulation of Nutrient Elements and Quality of Two Onion (Allium cepa Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Joghatay

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available To study the effect of nano iron and solupotass on agronomic and physiological traits of two onion cultivars, a factorial experiment was conducted in complete randomized block design with 32 treatments and three replications in Joghatai of Khorasan-e- Razavi province, Iran. Treatments consisted of two onion cultivars (red, yellow and four levels (0, 1, 2, 3 kg per hectare of nano iron chelat and four levels of solupotass (0, 5, 10, 15 kg per hectare. Results showed that the effect of nano iron and solupotasse on fresh weight, dry weight, pyrovic acid and macro element (N, P, S contents were significant at %1 levels. Application nano iron, solupotasse to red onion cultivar increased dry weight significantly at the %5 level. Highest onion weight was obtained by using 2 kg nano iron and 15 kg solupotasse (17.3 g. Use of nano iron and solupotasse highly increased the pyruvic acid percentage (1.07 mM. Highest rate of pyruvic acid obtained by application of 3 and 15 kg nano iron and solupotasse respectively. Application of nano iron on the sulfur and nitrogen contents of onion were significant. Use of 2 kg/ha of nano iron exhibited highest increase in these elements. Thus, soil application of 10 kg/ha solupotasse, 3 kg/ha nano iron would highly increase red onion traits mentioned above.

  5. Onion dehydration: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Mitra, Jayeeta; Shrivastava, S. L.; Rao, P. S.

    2011-01-01

    Onion (Allium cepa), a very commonly used vegetable, ranks third in the world production of major vegetables. Apart from imparting a delicious taste and flavour due to its pungency in many culinary preparations, it serves several medicinal purposes also. Processing and preservation of onion by suitable means is a major thrust area since a long time. The various kinds of treatments followed for dehydration of onion such as convective air drying, solar drying, fluidized bed drying, vacuum micro...

  6. Non-destructive flavour evaluation of red onion (Allium cepa L.) ecotypes: an electronic-nose-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Mariateresa; di Sanzo, Rosa; Cefaly, Vittoria; Carabetta, Sonia; Serra, Demetrio; Fuda, Salvatore

    2013-11-15

    This work reports preliminary results on the potential of a metal oxide sensor (MOS)-based electronic nose, as a non-destructive method to discriminate three "Tropea Red Onion" PGI ecotypes (TrT, TrMC and TrA) from each other and the common red onion (RO), which is usually used to counterfeit. The signals from the sensor array were processed using a canonical discriminant function analysis (DFA) pattern recognition technique. The DFA on onion samples showed a clear separation among the four onion groups with an overall correct classification rate (CR) of 97.5%. Onion flavour is closely linked to pungency and thus to the pyruvic acid content. The e-nose analysis results are in good agreement with pyruvic acid analysis. This work demonstrated that artificial olfactory systems have potential for use as an innovative, rapid and specific non-destructive technique, and may provide a method to protect food products against counterfeiting. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. 7 CFR 955.5 - Vidalia onion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Vidalia onion. 955.5 Section 955.5 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIDALIA ONIONS GROWN IN GEORGIA Definitions § 955.5 Vidalia onion. Vidalia onion means all varieties of Allium cepa of the hybrid yellow...

  8. Preliminary Study of the Clinical Hypoglycemic Effects of Allium cepa (Red Onion) in Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetic Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taj Eldin, Imad M; Ahmed, Elhadi M; Elwahab H M, Abd

    2010-10-14

    Diabetes mellitus is a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by abnormalities of carbohydrate, protein and lipid metabolism. Type 1 diabetes mellitus is an autoimmune disease caused by destruction of pancreatic beta cells and characterized by defect in insulin secretion while type 2 diabetes mellitus results from abnormalities in insulin secretion and/or insulin action or both. The present study was conducted to investigate the clinical hypoglycemic effects of Allium cepa in type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients. In assessment of hypoglycaemic activity of Allium cepa in type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients, ingestion of crude Allium cepa (100 g) caused a considerable reduction in fasting blood glucose levels by about 89 mg/dl in relation to insulin (145 mg/dl) in type 1 diabetic patients and it reduced fasting blood glucose levels by 40 mg/dl, compared to glibenclamide (81 mg/dl) in type 2 diabetic patients, 4 hours later. The same dose of crude Allium cepa produced a significant reduction in the induced hyperglycemia (GTT) by about 120 mg/dl compared to water (77 mg/dl) and insulin (153 mg/dl) in type 1 diabetic patients and considerably reduced GTT by 159 mg/dl in relation to water (55 mg/dl) and glibenclamide (114 mg/dl) in type 2 diabetic patients, after 4 hours. It was evident that, crude Allium cepa produced hypoglycemic effects, thus it could be used as a dietary supplement in management of type 1 and/or type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  9. S-alkenyl cysteine sulfoxide and its antioxidant properties from Allium cepa var. tropeana (red onion) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dini, Irene; Tenore, Gian Carlo; Dini, Antonio

    2008-12-01

    A new cysteine sulfoxide, (S(S)R(C))-S-(3-pentenyl)-L-cysteine sulfoxide (1), was identified from the seeds of Allium cepa var. tropeana, together with the known methiin, etiin, alliin, isoalliin, propiin, and butiin. The structure of compound 1 was established by analysis of its physical and spectroscopic data. The antioxidant activity of an extract containing cysteine sulfoxides and compound 1 was evaluated using the FRAP and DPPH tests.

  10. Acute and subacute toxicity tests of onion coat, natural colorant extracted from onion (Allium cepa L.), in (C57BL/6 x C3H)F1 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, T; Tanaka, T; Mori, H; Kato, Y; Nakamura, M

    1993-01-01

    The toxicity test of onion coat colorant (OC), a food colorant extracted from onion (Allium cepa L.), was undertaken using (C57BL/6 x C3H)F1 mice of both sexes for the safety assessment of this product. The acute toxicity test was performed by administration of OC suspended in corn oil by gavage at doses of 2500, 5000, 7500, and 10,000 mg/kg body weight to groups of 5 or 6 males and 6 or 7 females, maintained for 14 d. Six of 12 females dosed at 10,000 mg/kg body weight and 3 of 11 females dosed at 7500 mg/kg body weight were dead before the end of the study, indicating that the tolerated dose of OC was between 7500 and 5000 mg/kg body weight. The subacute toxicity test of OC was examined using 123 mice of both sexes (62 males and 61 females) by feeding a diet mixed with OC at concentrations of 5, 2.5, 1.25, 0.6, and 0.3% for 90 d. All mice tolerated these doses of OC well. The body weight gains of male and female mice were not affected by the treatment. Histopathological examinations showed that hyperplastic changes in the esophagus, forestomach, pancreas, cervix, and endometrium of mice were found in treated and control mice. However, their incidences were not related to the dose of OC. Moreover, only a spontaneous ovarian teratoma was found in an OC-treated mouse. These results suggest that OC has no acute and subacute toxic effects in mice.

  11. Completion of the mitochondrial genome sequence of onion (Allium cepa L.) containing the CMS-S male-sterile cytoplasm and identification of an independent event of the ccmF N gene split.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bongju; Kim, Kyunghee; Yang, Tae-Jin; Kim, Sunggil

    2016-11-01

    Cytoplasmic male-sterility (CMS) conferred by the CMS-S cytoplasm has been most commonly used for onion (Allium cepa L.) F1 hybrid seed production. We first report the complete mitochondrial genome sequence containing CMS-S cytoplasm in this study. Initially, seven contigs were de novo assembled from 150-bp paired-end raw reads produced from the total genomic DNA using the Illumina NextSeq500 platform. These contigs were connected into a single circular genome consisting of 316,363 bp (GenBank accession: KU318712) by PCR amplification. Although all 24 core protein-coding genes were present, no ribosomal protein-coding genes, except rps12, were identified in the onion mitochondrial genome. Unusual trans-splicing of the cox2 gene was verified, and the cox1 gene was identified as part of the chimeric orf725 gene, which is a candidate gene responsible for inducing CMS. In addition to orf725, two small chimeric genes were identified, but no transcripts were detected for these two open reading frames. Thirteen chloroplast-derived sequences, with sizes of 126-13,986 bp, were identified in the intergenic regions. Almost 10 % of the onion mitochondrial genome was composed of repeat sequences. The vast majority of repeats were short repeats of onion ccmF N gene was different from that of other Brassicaceae species. This split of the ccmF N gene was also present in 30 other Allium species. The complete onion mitochondrial genome sequence reported in this study would be fundamental information for elucidation of onion CMS evolution.

  12. Genotoxicity test of Maytenus rigida and Aristolochia birostris in the radicular meristem of the onion, Allium cepa

    OpenAIRE

    Mendes,Sandra S; Andrade,Josivaldo A.; Maria Aldirene Xavier; José A. Secundo Junior; Pantaleão, Silmara M.; Estevam,Charles S.; Garcia,Carlos A. B.; Ferrari, Stephen F.

    2011-01-01

    Medicinal plants are an important source of treatment for many ailments, although little is known of the potential genotoxic effects of most species. In the present study, two species from diverse and medicinally important genera - Maytenus rigida Mart., Celastraceae, and Aristolochia birostris Ducht, Aristolochiaceae - were analyzed to identify potentially significant secondary metabolites and the possible effects of their aqueous and alcoholic extracts on cell division in the onion root ste...

  13. Períodos de interferência das plantas daninhas na cultura de cebola (Allium cepa transplantada Periods of weed interference with transplanted onion crop (Allium cepa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.J. Soares

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de estudar os efeitos de períodos de convivência (0, 14, 28, 42, 56, 70, 84 e 98 dias após o transplantio de uma comunidade de plantas daninhas sobre a produtividade de quatro cultivares de cebola (Mercedes, Granex 33, Superex e Serrana, em sistema de transplantio de mudas. O experimento foi instalado em Jaboticabal-SP, de abril a outubro de 2000, utilizando delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, quatro repetições, em esquema fatorial 4 x 8. As principais populações de plantas daninhas no final dos períodos de convivência foram de Coronopus didymus, Amaranthus hybridus e Cyperus rotundus. Os cultivares Mercedes (2,90 kgm-2 e Granex 33 (2,64 kgm-2 foram os mais produtivos, independentemente da interferência das plantas daninhas. A convivência com as plantas daninhas durante os primeiros 98 dias reduziu a produtividade da cebola em 95% e o peso médio de bulbos em 91%. O período anterior à interferência (PAI foi de 42 dias, não havendo diferença entre os cultivares de cebola.This research was carried out to evaluate the effects of weed coexistence periods (0, 14, 28, 42, 56, 70, 84 and 98 days after transplanting on the productivity of four onion cultivars (Mercedez, Granex 33, Superex and Serrana. The experiment was installed in Jaboticabal - SP - Brazil, from April to October 2000, arranged in a randomized complete block design, with four replications, in a factorial design 4 x 8. The main weed populations at the end of the coexistence periods were Coronopus didymus, Amaranthus hybridus and Cyperus rotundus. The cultivars Mercedez (2.90 kg m-2 and Granex-33 (2.64 kg m-2 were the most productive, under the conditions of weed interference.Weed interference during the first 98 days reduced production weight around 95% and the average weight of bulbs was reduced by 91%. For all the cultivars, weed coexistence the during the first 42 days after transplanting did not reduce the total

  14. Confined direct analysis in real time ion source and its applications in analysis of volatile organic compounds of Citrus limon (lemon) and Allium cepa (onion).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yue

    2012-05-30

    The DART (direct analysis in real time) ion source is a novel atmospheric pressure ionization technique that enables efficient ionization of gases, liquids and solids with high throughput. A major limit to its wider application in the analysis of gases is its poor detection sensitivity caused by open-air sampling. In this study, a confined interface between the DART ion source outlet and mass spectrometer sampling orifice was developed, where the plasma generated by the atmospheric pressure glow discharge collides and ionizes gas-phase molecules in a Tee-shaped flow tube instead of in open air. It leads to significant increase of collision reaction probability between high energy metastable molecules and analytes. The experimental results show that the ionization efficiency was increased at least by two orders of magnitude. This technique was then applied in the real time analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of Citrus Limon (lemon) and wounded Allium Cepa (onion). The confined DART ion source was proved to be a powerful tool for the studies of plant metabolomics. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Effect of Allium cepa and Allium sativum on some immunological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Extracts of some spices have been reported to play a contributory role in enhancing immune function. We evaluated and compared the effect(s) of single and combined oral administration of fresh aqueous onion (Allium cepa) and garlic (Allium sativum) extracts at different concentrations on some immunological ...

  16. Growth of onion (Allium cepa L. var. "Red Arequipeña" due to fertilization NxK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Estuardo Amaya Robles

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Whit the objective to determining the influence of increasing levels of nitrogen and potassium in the growth of onion, was carried an experiment in Pampas de San Juan, Laredo during October 2010 to January 2011. We used certified seed red onion var. "Red Arequipeña". The treatments were the combinations results of 60, 120, 180 and 240 kg N ha-1 and 40, 80 and 160 kg K2O ha-1 , used as a single dose, 80 kg P2O5 ha-1 . The experiment was designed in randomized complete block with 3x4 factorial arrangements with three replications. The results of this research to conclude that the dose of 120 kg N.ha-1 , was obtained a linear response to nitrogen ascendant of 44.9cm in height with 90 days of DDT and 14.2 mm for diameter of the false stem with 60 N.kg-1 to 104 days DDT. There were no responses to potassium in this variable. There were no responses to NxK for the number of leaves.

  17. Dyeing of γ-irradiated cotton with natural flavonoid dye extracted from irradiated onion shells (Allium cepa) powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Fazal-ur; Adeel, Shahid; Shahid, Muhammad; Bhatti, Ijaz Ahmad; Nasir, Faiza; Akhtar, Nasim; Ahmad, Zulfiqar

    2013-11-01

    Powder of Onion shells as a source of natural flavonoid dye (Quercetin) and cotton fabrics were exposed to absorbed doses of 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 kGy using Cs-137 gamma irradiator. Irradiated and un-irradiated dye powder was used for extraction of quercetin as well as antibacterial, hemolytic and antioxidant activities were also determined to observe the effect of radiation. Furthermore, color strength and colourfastness of irradiated fabrics were improved by using pre and post-mordants such as alum and iron. It is found that 4 kGy is the optimal absorbed dose for extraction of natural quercetin extracted from onion shells while maximum color strength and acceptable fastness properties are obtained on dyeing of irradiated fabric at 60 °C keeping M:L of 1:30 using 10% alum as pre-mordant and 6% alum as post-mordant. Gamma irradiation has not only improved the color strength of the dye using irradiated cotton but also that of colourfastness properties.

  18. Polyphenolics from various extracts/fractions of red onion (Allium cepa) peel with potent antioxidant and antimutagenic activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Brahma N; Singh, B R; Singh, R L; Prakash, D; Singh, D P; Sarma, B K; Upadhyay, G; Singh, H B

    2009-06-01

    In order to determine antioxidant activity, the five extracts/fractions of red onion peel were studied for their total content of phenolics (TPC), flavonoids (TFC), antioxidant activity (AOA), free radical scavenging activity (FRSA), assayed by DPPH radical in the terms of anti-radical power (ARP) and reducing power (RP), expressed as ascorbic acid equivalents (ASE)/ml. High TPC (384.7 +/- 5.0 mg GAE/g), TFC (165.2+/- 3.2 mg QE/g), AOA (97.4 +/- 7.6%), ARP (75.3 +/-4.5) and RP (1.6 +/-0.3 ASE/ml) were found for the ethyl acetate (EA) fraction. EA fraction had markedly higher antioxidant capacity than butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) in preventive or scavenging capacities against FeCl3-induced lipid peroxidation, protein fragmentation, hydroxyl (site-specific and non-site-specific), superoxide anion and nitric oxide radicals. EA fraction also showed dose dependent antimutagenic activity by following the inhibition of tobacco-induced mutagenicity in Salmonella typhimurium strains (TA102) and hydroxyl radical-induced nicking in plasmid pUC18 DNA. HPLC and MS/MS analysis showed the presence of ferulic, gallic, protocatechuic acids, quercetin and kaempferol. The large amount of polyphenols contained in EA fraction may cause its strong antioxidant and antimutagenic properties. This information shows that EA fraction of red onion peel can be used as natural antioxidant in nutraceutical preparations.

  19. THE INFLUENCE OF SELENIUM ON CONTENT OF TOTAL POLYPHENOLS AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF ONION (ALLIUM CEPA L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Kavalcová

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Selenium (Se is an essential element, which is located in soil and stones, accumulated in plants and input them the food chain. Selenium significantly influences the function nearly of all the components of the immune system. Is also protects the body from the toxic effects of some metals. The content of the total polyphenols was determined by using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent (FCR. Antioxidant activity was measured using a compound DPPH˙ (2.2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl. The content of total polyphenols in samples onion moved in the range from 575.25±33.90 to 695.07±59.91. In this work was watched the influence of selenium on antioxidant activity, where values were in interval from 37.09±1.72 to 63.29±5.14.

  20. Response of variables of vegetative growth of onion ( Allium cepa L. in different levels of humidity in the soi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilfredo Estrada Prado

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Response of some variables of vegetative growth of five onion varieties was evaluated in an experiment carried out between the years 2009-2010 at ̈Jorge Dimitrov ̈ Agricultural Research Institute, Bayamo municipality, Granma province, Cuba. Three soil moisture levels were evaluated: 100%, 75% and 50%. 15treatments were used, distributed in a completely randomized design and 10 plants were selected at random from each treatment where indicators were evaluated: Leaf length (cm, leaf numbers and false stem diameter (cm. The results showed that the soil hydric defficits evaluated have a significative on the variables of vegetative growth with a bigger effect in the level of 50% of humidity in the soil.

  1. Sources of resistance to neck rot of onion under the conditions (Allium cepa L. of Chernigiv region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Н. О. Горган

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Collection samples of the onion of varying ecological and geographical origin have been scrutinized under the conditions of Chernigiv region to establish their susceptibility to Botrytis allii Munn pathogen. It is noted that the disease develops, first of all, on samples with dry leafs colored white, and established that enhanced resistance to the pathogen is inherent in forms of anthocyanin or red coloration or dry and damp skins (Rubin, Amfora, Veselka, Mavka, Braushverska Chervona, Venta F1, Tango F1, Golubka. Sources of resistance to neck rot are indicated (Olina, Texas Curli, Violetta, Red Baron F1, which have not been damaged by the pathogen at all through the three years of study. The use of parental pars quality of such samples will enable to produce prospective breeding material at hybridization.

  2. Performance of Eight Varieties of Onion (Allium cepa L. Cultivated under Open Field in Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali ABDELKADER ABOU AZOOM

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted from September 2010 to July 2011 at Research Station Farm of Higher Institute of Agronomy, Chott Mariem, Sousse (Tunisia in order to evaluate the performance of seven onion varieties: ‘GIZA 6’, ‘Red Amposta’, ‘Z6’, ‘Morada de Amposta’, ‘Yellow Dessex’, ‘Early Yellow Texas Grano 502’ and ‘Keep Red’ against the commonly grown variety ‘Blanc Hâtif de Paris’ under field conditions. The experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Results obtained showed that onion varieties were significantly different when it comes to the plant and bulb morphological characteristics. Variety ‘Morada de Amposta’ recorded the highest leaf length (68.06 cm, pseudostem diameter (8.63 cm, number of leaves (8.71, plant height (76.95 cm,  in addition to the greatest yields (32.88 t/ha which were significantly (p≤0.05 increased by respectively 66.2,  88.8,  2.1,  61.2, 63, 27.9  and 28.4%  compared to those obtained from the regular variety ‘Blanc Hâtif de Paris’. Variety ‘Blanc Hâtif de Paris’ was the earliest to maturity and recorded the most preferment bulb weight (155.02 g and diameter (8.21 cm. ‘Keep Red’ variety had the highest height of the bulb (7.19 cm. Variety ‘Z6’ recorded the minimum data in all measured parameters.

  3. Response of Physiological Growth Indices and Bulb Dry Yield of Onion (Allium cepa L. Genotypes to Priming and Seed Size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Izadkhah

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Priming is one of the most common methods of improving seed quality, which significantly affects their storability. Seed priming is a seed treatment that allows imbibition and activation of the initial metabolic events associated with seed germination, but prevents radicle emergence and growth. In other words, phase one and two of seed water imbibition curve are passed, but seeds do not enter the third phase of water uptake. Then seeds are dried back to their original water content. Seed priming is a pre-sowing strategy for influencing seed germination and seedling development by modulating pre-germination metabolic activity prior to emergence of the radicle and generally enhances germination rate and plant performance. Naturally, when speed and percentage emergence of germinating seeds are being high, growing sources like light, water and nutrient will be more used. Another factor that can affect the seed germination and seedling establishment is the seed size. As generally known, among producing factors, seed as the first consumer store, plays an important role in the transfer of genetic characters and improvement of qualitative and quantitative traits of production. One of the most important factors in maximizing crop yield is planting high quality seed. Seed size is an important physical indicator of seed quality that affects vegetative growth and is frequently related to yield, market grade factors and harvest efficiency. In the present paper, effects of different pre-sowing treatments and seed size on physiological growth indices and bulb dry yield of onion cultivars were investigated. Materials and Methods In order to determine the response of physiological growth indices and bulb dry yield of onion to priming and seed size, a field experiment was conducted in 2012-2013 cropping season at Agriculture and Natural Resources Research Center of East, Azarbayjan, Iran. This experiment was a factorial experiment based on a

  4. Effect of cadmium on the nucleoli of meristematic cells of onion Allium cepa L: an ultrastructural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcano, L; Carruyo, I; Del Campo, A; Montiel, X

    2002-01-01

    This study of the effect of cadmium on nucleolar ultrastructure was carried out with meristematic cell populations of Allium cepa L. Meristems, grown at 25 degrees C, were treated with 10 ppm cadmium chloride. Conventional and silver staining techniques were carried out, and the ultrastructure was analyzed using electron microscopy. Observation showed alterations in the nucleoli of the cells that had been treated with cadmium and this effect varied according to the time of exposure to the metal. After 4h of treatment, nucleolar segregation was observed in interphase, probably because of the effect of cadmium on the synthesis of ribosomal RNA precursors. A decrease in the fibrillar to granular component ratio also occurred in the cells exposed to Cd2+ for 8 h. Some changes were observed in the G1 cells; their chromatin still remained very condensed, and prenucleolus bodies remained scattered within the nucleus. At the same time, there was a large amount of interchromatin granules. These changes produced by cadmium resembled those produced during inhibition of RNA synthesis. The fibrillar bodies, another morphologic feature, resulting from a blocked transcription, were also evidenced. All these observations suggest that one of the ways that cadmium exercises its toxicity is by altering the biosynthesis of the preribosomal RNA precursor.

  5. Immunomodulatory Effect of Red Onion (Allium cepa Linn Scale Extract on Experimentally Induced Atypical Prostatic Hyperplasia in Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed A. Elberry

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Red onion scales (ROS contain large amounts of flavonoids that are responsible for the reported antioxidant activity, immune enhancement, and anticancer property. Atypical prostatic hyperplasia (APH was induced in adult castrated Wistar rats by both s.c. injection of testosterone (0.5 mg/rat/day and by smearing citral on shaved skin once every 3 days for 30 days. Saw palmetto (100 mg/kg as a positive control and ROS suspension at doses of 75, 150, and 300 mg/kg/day were given orally every day for 30 days. All medications were started 7 days after castration and along with testosterone and citral. The HPLC profile of ROS methanolic extract displayed two major peaks identified as quercetin and quercetin-4′-β-O-D-glucoside. Histopathological examination of APH-induced prostatic rats revealed evidence of hyperplasia and inflammation with cellular proliferation and reduced apoptosis Immunohistochemistry showed increased tissue expressions of IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, IGF-1, and clusterin, while TGF-β1 was decreased, which correlates with the presence of inflammation. Both saw palmetto and RO scale treatment have ameliorated these changes. These ameliorative effects were more evident in RO scale groups and were dose dependent. In conclusion, methanolic extract of ROS showed a protective effect against APH induced rats that may be attributed to potential anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects.

  6. Immunomodulatory Effect of Red Onion (Allium cepa Linn) Scale Extract on Experimentally Induced Atypical Prostatic Hyperplasia in Wistar Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elberry, Ahmed A.; Al-Maghrabi, Jaudah; Abdel Sattar, Essam; Ghareib, Salah A.; Mosli, Hisham A.; Gabr, Salah A.

    2014-01-01

    Red onion scales (ROS) contain large amounts of flavonoids that are responsible for the reported antioxidant activity, immune enhancement, and anticancer property. Atypical prostatic hyperplasia (APH) was induced in adult castrated Wistar rats by both s.c. injection of testosterone (0.5 mg/rat/day) and by smearing citral on shaved skin once every 3 days for 30 days. Saw palmetto (100 mg/kg) as a positive control and ROS suspension at doses of 75, 150, and 300 mg/kg/day were given orally every day for 30 days. All medications were started 7 days after castration and along with testosterone and citral. The HPLC profile of ROS methanolic extract displayed two major peaks identified as quercetin and quercetin-4′-β-O-D-glucoside. Histopathological examination of APH-induced prostatic rats revealed evidence of hyperplasia and inflammation with cellular proliferation and reduced apoptosis Immunohistochemistry showed increased tissue expressions of IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, IGF-1, and clusterin, while TGF-β1 was decreased, which correlates with the presence of inflammation. Both saw palmetto and RO scale treatment have ameliorated these changes. These ameliorative effects were more evident in RO scale groups and were dose dependent. In conclusion, methanolic extract of ROS showed a protective effect against APH induced rats that may be attributed to potential anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects. PMID:24829522

  7. Immunomodulatory effect of red onion (Allium cepa Linn) scale extract on experimentally induced atypical prostatic hyperplasia in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elberry, Ahmed A; Mufti, Shagufta; Al-Maghrabi, Jaudah; Abdel Sattar, Essam; Ghareib, Salah A; Mosli, Hisham A; Gabr, Salah A

    2014-01-01

    Red onion scales (ROS) contain large amounts of flavonoids that are responsible for the reported antioxidant activity, immune enhancement, and anticancer property. Atypical prostatic hyperplasia (APH) was induced in adult castrated Wistar rats by both s.c. injection of testosterone (0.5 mg/rat/day) and by smearing citral on shaved skin once every 3 days for 30 days. Saw palmetto (100 mg/kg) as a positive control and ROS suspension at doses of 75, 150, and 300 mg/kg/day were given orally every day for 30 days. All medications were started 7 days after castration and along with testosterone and citral. The HPLC profile of ROS methanolic extract displayed two major peaks identified as quercetin and quercetin-4'-β-O-D-glucoside. Histopathological examination of APH-induced prostatic rats revealed evidence of hyperplasia and inflammation with cellular proliferation and reduced apoptosis Immunohistochemistry showed increased tissue expressions of IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, IGF-1, and clusterin, while TGF-β1 was decreased, which correlates with the presence of inflammation. Both saw palmetto and RO scale treatment have ameliorated these changes. These ameliorative effects were more evident in RO scale groups and were dose dependent. In conclusion, methanolic extract of ROS showed a protective effect against APH induced rats that may be attributed to potential anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects.

  8. Genotoxicity test of Maytenus rigida and Aristolochia birostris in the radicular meristem of the onion, Allium cepa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra S. Mendes

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants are an important source of treatment for many ailments, although little is known of the potential genotoxic effects of most species. In the present study, two species from diverse and medicinally important genera - Maytenus rigida Mart., Celastraceae, and Aristolochia birostris Ducht, Aristolochiaceae - were analyzed to identify potentially significant secondary metabolites and the possible effects of their aqueous and alcoholic extracts on cell division in the onion root stem (genotoxicity test. The phytochemical testing revealed the presence of a number of potentially important secondary compounds in both species, including phenols, flavonoids, triterpenoids, steroids, and saponins. In the genotoxicity tests, no chromosomal abnormalities of any kind were observed in either species. In the case of M. rigida, a significant increase in mitotic activity was observed at the highest concentration. No significant tendency was recorded in A. birostris, although a considerable increase in the prophase was observed at all concentrations of the alcoholic extract. The triterpenoid content of both species may be especially important from a medicinal viewpoint, although recent findings on the carcinogenic potential of Aristolochia extracts demands caution in the interpretation of the results, and the need for further research.

  9. Genotoxicity test of Maytenus rigida and Aristolochia birostris in the radicular meristem of the onion, Allium cepa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra S. Mendes

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants are an important source of treatment for many ailments, although little is known of the potential genotoxic effects of most species. In the present study, two species from diverse and medicinally important genera - Maytenus rigida Mart., Celastraceae, and Aristolochia birostris Ducht, Aristolochiaceae - were analyzed to identify potentially significant secondary metabolites and the possible effects of their aqueous and alcoholic extracts on cell division in the onion root stem (genotoxicity test. The phytochemical testing revealed the presence of a number of potentially important secondary compounds in both species, including phenols, flavonoids, triterpenoids, steroids, and saponins. In the genotoxicity tests, no chromosomal abnormalities of any kind were observed in either species. In the case of M. rigida, a significant increase in mitotic activity was observed at the highest concentration. No significant tendency was recorded in A. birostris, although a considerable increase in the prophase was observed at all concentrations of the alcoholic extract. The triterpenoid content of both species may be especially important from a medicinal viewpoint, although recent findings on the carcinogenic potential of Aristolochia extracts demands caution in the interpretation of the results, and the need for further research.

  10. Doubled haploid production from Spanish onion (Allium cepa L.) germplasm: embryogenesis induction, plant regeneration and chromosome doubling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayos, Oreto; Vallés, María P.; Garcés-Claver, Ana; Mallor, Cristina; Castillo, Ana M.

    2015-01-01

    The use of doubled haploids in onion breeding is limited due to the low gynogenesis efficiency of this species. Gynogenesis capacity from Spanish germplasm, including the sweet cultivar Fuentes de Ebro, the highly pungent landrace BGHZ1354 and the two Valenciana type commercial varieties Recas and Rita, was evaluated and optimized in this study. The OH-1 population, characterized by a high gynogenesis induction, was used as control. Growing conditions of the donor plants were tested with a one-step protocol and field plants produced a slightly higher percentage of embryogenesis induction than growth chamber plants. A one-step protocol was compared with a two-step protocol for embryogenesis induction. Spanish germplasm produced a 2–3 times higher percentage of embryogenesis with the two-step protocol, Recas showing the highest percentage (2.09%) and Fuentes de Ebro the lowest (0.53%). These percentages were significantly lower than those from the OH-1 population, with an average of 15% independently of the protocol used. The effect of different containers on plant regeneration was tested using both protocols. The highest percentage of acclimated plants was obtained with the two-step protocol in combination with Eco2box (70%), whereas the lowest percentage was observed with glass tubes in the two protocols (20–23%). Different amiprofos-methyl (APM) treatments were applied to embryos for chromosome doubling. A similar number of doubled haploid plants were recovered with 25 or 50 μM APM in liquid medium. However, the application of 25 μM in solid medium for 24 h produced the highest number of doubled haploid plants. Somatic regeneration from flower buds of haploid and mixoploid plants proved to be a successful approach for chromosome doubling, since diploid plants were obtained from the four regenerated lines. In this study, doubled haploid plants were produced from the four Spanish cultivars, however further improvements are needed to increase their gynogenesis

  11. Genotypic variation in sulphur assimilation and metabolism of onion (Allium cepa L.). II: Characterisation of ATP sulphurylase activity

    KAUST Repository

    Thomas, Ludivine

    2011-06-01

    To investigate the regulation of sulphur (S)-assimilation in onion further at the biochemical level, the pungent cultivar W202A and the milder cultivar Texas Grano 438 PVP (TG) have been grown in S-sufficient (S +; 4 meq S -1) or S-deficient (S -; 0.1 meq S -1) growth conditions, and tissues excised at the seedling stage (pre-bulbing; ca. 10-weeks-old) and at the mature stage (bulbing; ca. 16-weeks-old). S-supply negatively influenced adenosine-5′-phosphosulphate (APS) reductase (APR) enzyme activity in both cultivars at bulbing only, and a higher abundance of APR was observed in both cultivars at bulbing in response to low S-supply. In contrast, S-supply significantly influenced ATP sulphurylase (ATPS) activity in leaf tissues of W202A only, and only at bulbing, while an increase in abundance in response to high S-supply was observed for both cultivars at bulbing. To investigate the regulation of the ATPS enzyme activity and accumulation further, activity was shown to decrease significantly in roots at bulbing in the S-deficient treatment in both cultivars, a difference that was only supported by western analyses in W202A. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that AcATPS1 groups in a broad monocot clade with the closest sequences identified in Sorghum bicolour, Zea mays and Oryza sativa, but with some support for a divergence of AcATPS1. Detection of ATPS in leaf extracts after two dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) revealed that the protein may undergo post-translational modification with a differential pattern of ATPS accumulation detected in both cultivars over the developmental progression from the seedling to the bulbing stage. Treatment of leaf extracts of W202A to dephosphorylate proteins resulted in the loss of immuno-recognised ATPS spots after 2-DE separation, although enzyme activity was not influenced. These results are discussed in terms of the tiers of control that operate at the biochemical level in the reductive S-assimilation pathway in a S

  12. Changes in flavonoids of sliced and fried yellow onions (allium cepa L. var. zittauer) during storage at different atmospheric, temperature and light conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islek, Merve; Nilufer-Erdil, Dilara; Knuthsen, Pia

    2015-01-01

    not result in significant losses of flavonoids. At room temperature, total flavonoid losses were significant, besides conversion of quercetin glycosides into aglycons. Dark conditions better retained flavonoids of sliced onions at all atmospheric conditions. For sliced onions; +5C, air or vacuum atmosphere......, or -18C, vacuum or nitrogen atmosphere, under dark, preserved flavonoids for 21 days, whereas for fried onions, 7 days of storage at +5C, vacuum atmosphere under dark resulted in highest flavonoid content. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc....

  13. Effects of dietary onion (Allium cepa) powder on growth, innate immune response and hemato-biochemical parameters of beluga (Huso huso Linnaeus, 1754) juvenile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akrami, Raza; Gharaei, Ahmad; Mansour, Majid Razeghi; Galeshi, Ali

    2015-08-01

    The present study was aimed at determining the effects of dietary onion powder on growth, innate immune response and hemato-biochemical parameters of beluga juvenile (Huso huso). Basal diets containing onion powder 0 (control), 0.5 and 1% of feed were fed to beluga juvenile. At the end of the experiment, the highest weight gain (WG%) and specific growth rate (SGR) was observed in group fed with 1% onion (P 0.05) about feed conversion ratio (FCR) in treatment groups that fed diets containing various levels of onion powder. After 8 weeks, serum lysozyme activity, superoxide dismutase activity (SOD), respiratory burst activity and serum total immunoglobulin (Ig) showed a significant increase in treatment group with 1% onion powder compared to other groups (P onion showed a significantly increases in the number of erythrocytes (RBC), leucocyte (WBC), haematocrit (Hct) levels compared to the control group (P 0.05) in treatment groups and control. The analysis of AST and LDH levels showed a significant decrease in 1% onion compared to the control and 0.5% onion diet (P 0.05). The blood glucose, total protein, triglyceride, cholesterol, albumin and globulin levels were lower in treated groups compared with the control (P onion powder could be an improvement in growth, hematological parameters and immune function of beluga juvenile. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Characterization of three active transposable elements recently inserted in three independent DFR-A alleles and one high-copy DNA transposon isolated from the Pink allele of the ANS gene in onion (Allium cepa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sunggil; Park, Jee Young; Yang, Tae-Jin

    2015-06-01

    Intact retrotransposon and DNA transposons inserted in a single gene were characterized in onions (Allium cepa) and their transcription and copy numbers were estimated in this study. While analyzing diverse onion germplasm, large insertions in the DFR-A gene encoding dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR) involved in the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway were found in two accessions. A 5,070-bp long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposon inserted in the active DFR-A (R4) allele was identified from one of the large insertions and designated AcCOPIA1. An intact ORF encoded typical domains of copia-like LTR retrotransposons. However, AcCOPIA1 contained atypical 'TG' and 'TA' dinucleotides at the ends of the LTRs. A 4,615-bp DNA transposon was identified in the other large insertion. This DNA transposon, designated AcCACTA1, contained an ORF coding for a transposase showing homology with the CACTA superfamily transposable elements (TEs). Another 5,073-bp DNA transposon was identified from the DFR-A (TRN) allele. This DNA transposon, designated AchAT1, belonged to the hAT superfamily with short 4-bp terminal inverted repeats (TIRs). Finally, a 6,258-bp non-autonomous DNA transposon, designated AcPINK, was identified in the ANS-p allele encoding anthocyanidin synthase, the next downstream enzyme to DFR in the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway. AcPINK also possessed very short 3-bp TIRs. Active transcription of AcCOPIA1, AcCACTA1, and AchAT1 was observed through RNA-Seq analysis and RT-PCR. The copy numbers of AcPINK estimated by mapping the genomic DNA reads produced by NextSeq 500 were predominantly high compared with the other TEs. A series of evidence indicated that these TEs might have transposed in these onion genes very recently, providing a stepping stone for elucidation of enormously large-sized onion genome structure.

  15. Garlic and onions: their cancer prevention properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicastro, Holly L; Ross, Sharon A; Milner, John A

    2015-03-01

    The Allium genus includes garlic, onions, shallots, leeks, and chives. These vegetables are popular in cuisines worldwide and are valued for their potential medicinal properties. Epidemiologic studies, while limited in their abilities to assess Allium consumption, indicate some associations of Allium vegetable consumption with decreased risk of cancer, particularly cancers of the gastrointestinal tract. Limited intervention studies have been conducted to support these associations. The majority of supportive evidence on Allium vegetables cancer-preventive effects comes from mechanistic studies. These studies highlight potential mechanisms of individual sulfur-containing compounds and of various preparations and extracts of these vegetables, including decreased bioactivation of carcinogens, antimicrobial activities, and redox modification. Allium vegetables and their components have effects at each stage of carcinogenesis and affect many biologic processes that modify cancer risk. This review discusses the cancer-preventive effects of Allium vegetables, particularly garlic and onions, and their bioactive sulfur compounds and highlights research gaps. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  16. Garlic and onions: Their cancer prevention properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicastro, Holly L.; Ross, Sharon A.; Milner, John A.

    2015-01-01

    The Allium genus includes garlic, onions, shallots, leeks, and chives. These vegetables are popular in cuisines worldwide and are valued for their potential medicinal properties. Epidemiological studies, while limited in their abilities to assess Allium consumption, indicate some associations of Allium vegetable consumption with decreased risk of cancer, particularly cancers of the gastrointestinal tract. Limited intervention studies have been conducted to support these associations. The majority of supportive evidence on Allium vegetables cancer preventive effects comes from mechanistic studies. These studies highlight potential mechanisms of individual sulfur-containing compounds and of various preparations and extracts of these vegetables, including decreased bioactivation of carcinogens, antimicrobial activities, and redox modification. Allium vegetables and their components have effects at each stage of carcinogenesis and affect many biological processes that modify cancer risk. This review discusses the cancer preventive effects of Allium vegetables, particularly garlic and onions, and their bioactive sulfur compounds and highlights research gaps. PMID:25586902

  17. Onion dehydration: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Jayeeta; Shrivastava, S L; Rao, P S

    2012-06-01

    Onion (Allium cepa), a very commonly used vegetable, ranks third in the world production of major vegetables. Apart from imparting a delicious taste and flavour due to its pungency in many culinary preparations, it serves several medicinal purposes also. Processing and preservation of onion by suitable means is a major thrust area since a long time. The various kinds of treatments followed for dehydration of onion such as convective air drying, solar drying, fluidized bed drying, vacuum microwave drying, infrared drying and osmotic drying are reviewed here. These techniques are mainly used for preservation and value addition of onion. Several researchers have tried for decades to model the drying kinetics and quality parameters, which are also compiled here briefly.

  18. Biological parameters of onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman on onion cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moraiet Maher Ahmed

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Biological parameters of the onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman were studied on the following onion (Allium cepa L. cultivars: Nasik Red Plus N-53, Onion Dr-301 (Krishna, Onion White, and Nasik Red, at 25±1°C and 65±5% RH. Significant (p < 0.05 differences were found in the life stages and fertility life tables on different cultivars except in the pupal stages. More information about the biological parameters of T. tabaci on onion cultivars can help in designing Integrated Pest Management programs for onion thrips.

  19. Identification of candidate amino acids involved in the formation of pink-red pigments in onion (Allium cepa L.) juice and separation by HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun Jin; Yoo, Kil Sun; Patil, Bhimanagouda S

    2010-10-01

    The formation of pink-red pigments ("pinking") by various amino acids was investigated by reacting amino acids with compounds present in onion juice. The unknown pink-red pigments were generated and separated using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and a diode array detector (DAD) in the range of 200 to 700 nm. To generate pink-red pigments, we developed several reaction systems using garlic alliinase, purified 1-propenyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide (1-PeCSO), onion thiosulfinate, natural onion juice, and 21 free amino acids. The compound 1-PeCSO was a key compound associated with pinking in the presence of both the alliinase and amino acids. Numerous naturally occurring pink-red pigments were detected and separated from pink onion juice using the HPLC-DAD system at 515 nm. Most free amino acids, with the exceptions of histidine, serine, and cysteine, formed various pink-red pigments when reacted with onion thiosulfinate. This observation indicated that onion pinking is caused not by a single pigment, but by many. Furthermore, more than one color compound could be produced from a single amino acid; this explains, in part, why there were many pink-red compound peaks in the chromatogram of discolored natural onion juice. We presumed that the complexity of the pink-red pigments was due to the involvement of more than 21 natural amino acids as well as several derivatives of the color products produced from each amino acid. We observed that the pinking process in onion juice is very similar to that of the greening process in crushed garlic, emphasizing that both thiosulfinate from flavor precursors and free amino acids are absolutely required for the discoloration.

  20. Phytochemical screening and promiximate composition and onion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The phytochemical constituents and proximate composition of onion (Allium cepa L. ) were investigated. The light scaly leaves on the onion bulbs were removed and the fleshy parts chopped into tiny pieces, dried in an air-circulating oven in the laboratory and ground into fine powder using a mechanical grinder.

  1. Potency of Allium sativum and Allium cepa Oils against Schistosoma mansoni Infection in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Metwally, Nadia S

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: It has been reported that garlic (Allium sativum) and onion (Allium cepa) are used all over the world in different diseases, such as infections, injuries, gastrointestinal dysfunctions and cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, our aim in this work was to study the ability of garlic and onion oils to offset the infectivity as well as the metabolic disturbances induced by Schistosoma mansoni parasitism. Methods: The two current drugs were given in a dosage of 5ml / kg body weight/ d...

  2. Evaluation of onion germplasm for resistance to Iris yellow spot (Iris yellow spot virus) and onion thrips, Thrips tabaci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onion (Allium cepa L.) is the most economically important monocot outside of the grasses. This important crop suffers severe damage from onion thrips (Thrips tabaci), a cosmopolitan and polyphagous insect pest. In addition to direct feeding damages, onion thrips has emerged as the principal vector o...

  3. Conversion of chromosome-specific RAPDs into SCAR-based anchor markers for onion linkage maps and its application to genetic analyses inother Allium species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masuzaki, S.; Miyazaki, T.; McCallum, J.; Heusden, van A.W.; Kik, C.; Yamashita, K.; Tashiro, Y.

    2008-01-01

    Integration of previously developed Allium cepa linkage maps requires the availability of anchor markers for each of the eight chromosomes of shallot (A. cepa L. common group Aggregatum). To this end, eight RAPD markers originating from our previous research were converted into SCAR markers via

  4. Weeds of onion fields and effects of some herbicides on weeds in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Weeds are one of the most important problems in onion (Allium cepa L.) production areas, since onion plants are poor competitors. This study was conducted in order to identify the weed species in onion fields in Cukurova Region, establish the effects of some herbicides on weeds and the yield of onion in reducing the ...

  5. Biological parameters of onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman on onion cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Moraiet Maher Ahmed; Ansari Mohammad Shafiq; Basri Rabiya

    2017-01-01

    Biological parameters of the onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman were studied on the following onion (Allium cepa L.) cultivars: Nasik Red Plus N-53, Onion Dr-301 (Krishna), Onion White, and Nasik Red, at 25±1°C and 65±5% RH. Significant (p < 0.05) differences were found in the life stages and fertility life tables on different cultivars except in the pupal stages. More information about the biological parameters of T. tabaci on onion cultivars can help in designing Integrated Pest Managemen...

  6. Identification of two novel inactive DFR-A alleles responsible for failure to produce anthocyanin and development of a simple PCR-based molecular marker for bulb color selection in onion (Allium cepa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sunggil; Baek, Doohyun; Cho, Dong Youn; Lee, Eul-Tai; Yoon, Moo-Kyoung

    2009-05-01

    Two novel inactive alleles of Dihydroflavonol 4-reductase-A (DFR-A) were identified in yellow onion (Allium cepa L.) cultivars and breeding lines from Korea and Japan. Unlike the previously reported inactive yellow DFR-A allele, designated as DFR-A ( TRN ) , in which the 3' portion of the coding sequences was deleted, an allele containing a premature stop codon, DFR-A ( PS ) , was isolated from the majority of cultivars. Co-segregation of DFR-A ( PS ) and color phenotypes in the F(2) population from a cross between yellow and red parents showed that inactivation of DFR-A was responsible for lack of anthocyanin in these yellow onions. In addition, RT-PCR analysis of F(2) population showed that the transcription level of the DFR-A ( PS ) allele was significantly reduced owing to non-sense-mediated mRNA decay. A 20-bp deletion of a simple sequence repeat in the promoter region of the DFR-A ( PS ) allele was used to develop a simple PCR-based molecular marker for selection of the DFR-A ( PS ) allele. All genotypes of 138 F(2) individuals were clearly distinguished by this molecular marker. In addition to the DFR-A ( PS ) allele, another DFR-A allele, DFR-A ( DEL ) , was identified in some cultivars. In case of the DFR-A ( DEL ) allele, no PCR products were amplified throughout DFR-A sequences including promoter regions, suggesting deletion of the entire DFR-A gene. Co-segregation of the absence of DFR-A and color phenotypes was confirmed in another F(2) population. Furthermore, RT-PCR results showed that no DFR-A transcript was detected in any yellow F(2) individuals.

  7. The Onion Genomic Resource: A genomics and bioinformatics driven resource for onion breeding

    OpenAIRE

    Shantanu Shukla; Iquebal, M.A.; Sarika Jaiswal; Angadi, U.B.; Samar Fatma; Neeraj Kumar; Rahul Singh Jasrotia; Yasmin Fatima; Anil Rai; Dinesh Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Onion (Allium cepa L.), often regarded as a crop having an antediluvian coexistence with humans, is by far one of the most challenging plant species to be worked on, especially with respect to delineating its genomic information. It is considered as a plant of immense culinary and medicinal importance. However, there are very limited genomic ventures that have so far been established that could shed light on some of the most captivating aspects of the onion genome. Onion Genomic Resource (OGR...

  8. Higher Antioxidant Activity, Total Flavonols, and Specific Quercetin Glucosides in Two Different Onion (Allium cepa L.) Varieties Grown under Organic Production: Results from a 6-Year Field Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Feiyue; Reilly, Kim; Kerry, Joseph P; Gaffney, Michael; Hossain, Mohammad; Rai, Dilip K

    2017-06-28

    We carried out a 6-year study to assess the effect of conventional, organic, and mixed cultivation practices on bioactive compounds (flavonoids, anthocyanins) and antioxidant capacity in onion. Total flavonoids, total anthocyanins, individual flavonols, individual anthocyanins, and antioxidant activity were measured in two varieties ('Hyskin' and 'Red Baron') grown in a long-term split-plot factorial systems comparison trial. This is the first report of repeated measurements of bioactive content over an extensive time period in a single crop type within the same trial. Antioxidant activity (DPPH and FRAP), total flavonol content, and levels of Q 3,4' D and Q 3 G were higher in both varieties under fully organic compared to fully conventional management. Total flavonoids were higher in 'Red Baron' and when onions were grown under organic soil treatment. Differences were primarily due to different soil management practices used in organic agriculture rather than pesticide/ herbicide application.

  9. A toolkit for bulk PCR-based marker design from next-generation sequence data: application for development of a framework linkage map in bulb onion (Allium cepa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Samantha; Revanna, Roopashree; Thomson, Susan; Pither-Joyce, Meeghan; Wright, Kathryn; Crowhurst, Ross; Fiers, Mark; Chen, Leshi; Macknight, Richard; McCallum, John A

    2012-11-19

    Although modern sequencing technologies permit the ready detection of numerous DNA sequence variants in any organisms, converting such information to PCR-based genetic markers is hampered by a lack of simple, scalable tools. Onion is an example of an under-researched crop with a complex, heterozygous genome where genome-based research has previously been hindered by limited sequence resources and genetic markers. We report the development of generic tools for large-scale web-based PCR-based marker design in the Galaxy bioinformatics framework, and their application for development of next-generation genetics resources in a wide cross of bulb onion (Allium cepa L.). Transcriptome sequence resources were developed for the homozygous doubled-haploid bulb onion line 'CUDH2150' and the genetically distant Indian landrace 'Nasik Red', using 454™ sequencing of normalised cDNA libraries of leaf and shoot. Read mapping of 'Nasik Red' reads onto 'CUDH2150' assemblies revealed 16836 indel and SNP polymorphisms that were mined for portable PCR-based marker development. Tools for detection of restriction polymorphisms and primer set design were developed in BioPython and adapted for use in the Galaxy workflow environment, enabling large-scale and targeted assay design. Using PCR-based markers designed with these tools, a framework genetic linkage map of over 800cM spanning all chromosomes was developed in a subset of 93 F(2) progeny from a very large F(2) family developed from the 'Nasik Red' x 'CUDH2150' inter-cross. The utility of tools and genetic resources developed was tested by designing markers to transcription factor-like polymorphic sequences. Bin mapping these markers using a subset of 10 progeny confirmed the ability to place markers within 10 cM bins, enabling increased efficiency in marker assignment and targeted map refinement. The major genetic loci conditioning red bulb colour (R) and fructan content (Frc) were located on this map by QTL analysis. The generic

  10. A Toolkit for bulk PCR-based marker design from next-generation sequence data: application for development of a framework linkage map in bulb onion (Allium cepa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baldwin Samantha

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although modern sequencing technologies permit the ready detection of numerous DNA sequence variants in any organisms, converting such information to PCR-based genetic markers is hampered by a lack of simple, scalable tools. Onion is an example of an under-researched crop with a complex, heterozygous genome where genome-based research has previously been hindered by limited sequence resources and genetic markers. Results We report the development of generic tools for large-scale web-based PCR-based marker design in the Galaxy bioinformatics framework, and their application for development of next-generation genetics resources in a wide cross of bulb onion (Allium cepa L.. Transcriptome sequence resources were developed for the homozygous doubled-haploid bulb onion line ‘CUDH2150’ and the genetically distant Indian landrace ‘Nasik Red’, using 454™ sequencing of normalised cDNA libraries of leaf and shoot. Read mapping of ‘Nasik Red’ reads onto ‘CUDH2150’ assemblies revealed 16836 indel and SNP polymorphisms that were mined for portable PCR-based marker development. Tools for detection of restriction polymorphisms and primer set design were developed in BioPython and adapted for use in the Galaxy workflow environment, enabling large-scale and targeted assay design. Using PCR-based markers designed with these tools, a framework genetic linkage map of over 800cM spanning all chromosomes was developed in a subset of 93 F2 progeny from a very large F2 family developed from the ‘Nasik Red’ x ‘CUDH2150’ inter-cross. The utility of tools and genetic resources developed was tested by designing markers to transcription factor-like polymorphic sequences. Bin mapping these markers using a subset of 10 progeny confirmed the ability to place markers within 10 cM bins, enabling increased efficiency in marker assignment and targeted map refinement. The major genetic loci conditioning red bulb colour (R and fructan

  11. Twitter and the Welsh Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Rhys James; Cunliffe, Daniel; Honeycutt, Zoe R.

    2013-01-01

    The emergence of new domains, such as the Internet, can prove challenging for minority languages. Welsh is a minority, regional language and is considered "vulnerable" by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). The Welsh-speaking community appears to have responded positively to the Internet and the…

  12. Investigation of antibacterial effects of garlic ( Allium sativum ), mint ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was done to determine minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the aqueous extracts of garlic (Allium sativum), mint (Menthe spp.) and onion (Allium cepa) in in vitro conditions against the Escherichia coli isolated from broiler chickens. E. coli was isolated from the infected tissues of the chickens which were ...

  13. Delaying onion planting to control onion maggot (Diptera: Anthomyiidae): efficacy and underlying mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nault, Brian A; Werling, Benjamin P; Straub, Richard W; Nyrop, Jan P

    2011-10-01

    Onion maggot, Delia antiqua (Meigen) (Diptera: Anthomyiidae), is an important pest of onion, Allium cepa L., in northern temperate areas, especially in the Great Lakes region of North America Management of D. antiqua relies on insecticide use at planting, but insecticide resistance can cause control failures that threaten the long-term viability of this strategy. Delaying the time onions are planted was investigated as an alternative management approach for D. antiqua and the ecological and behavioral mechanisms underlying host age and insect relationships were examined in laboratory and field experiments. Delaying onion planting by two to four weeks reduced damage to onions by 35 and 90%, respectively. Onions planted later emerged later and this reduced the period overwintered flies had to oviposit on the plants. Moreover, flies tended to lay few to no eggs on these young, late-planted onions. As anticipated, D. antiqua laid 4-8 times more eggs on older onions than on young onions, and older onions were more resilient to injury caused by D. antiqua neonates compared with younger onions. However, the resiliency to maggot attack lessened as the density of D. antiqua increased from 2 to 10 eggs per plant, which probably explains why greater levels of maggot damage are typically observed in early onion plantings compared with later plantings. Delaying onion planting until mid-May reduced D. antiqua damage without jeopardizing the period required to produce marketable yield, but this cultural tactic must be combined with other management strategies to prevent economic loss.

  14. Onion: nature protection against physiological threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suleria, Hafiz Ansar Rasul; Butt, Masood Sadiq; Anjum, Faqir Muhammad; Saeed, Farhan; Khalid, Nauman

    2015-01-01

    Onion (Allium cepa L.) is found in various regions of Europe, North America, Asia, and Africa. It is one of the classic examples of Allium species used not only for culinary preparations but also for medicinal purposes. Onion with a variety of purposes is often used as a raw material in many dishes and accepts almost all of the traditions and culture. Owing to its storage characteristics and durability of shipping, onions have been traded more widely than most vegetables. The pungent fractions of garlic are mostly sulfur-containing moieties while its two chemical groups have marked effect on human health. These are flavonoids and ALK (EN)-based cysteine sulfoxides (ACSOs). Compounds in onions have been reported with a range of health benefits, including anticancer properties, antiplatelet activity, antithrombotic activity, antiasthmatic activity, and antibiotic effects.

  15. Energy efficiency procedures for agricultural machinery used in onion cultivation (Allium fistulosum) as an alternative to reduce carbon emissions under the clean development mechanism at Aquitania (Colombia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, K.; Carrillo, S.; Gutierrez, L.

    2014-06-01

    Climate change has both causes and consequences over agriculture. This paper focuses on the first element and presents scenarios for ASOLAGO -an onion cropper's association in Colombia with 250 members- to reduce their carbon footprint. It evaluates a case study at "La Primavera" farm using a methodology approved by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Land preparation and crop irrigation were analyzed as stages in order to propose energy efficiency alternatives for both the farm and the association. They include field efficiency, fuel economy and energy efficiency from biofuels for the first stage as well as solar and wind energy supply for the second. A cost-benefit analysis to generate additional income selling additional power produced by the system to the National Grid was done.

  16. Evaluation Effects of Different Planting Systems on Water Use Efficiency, Relative Water Content and some Plant Growth Parameters in Onion (Allium cepa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mousa IZADKHAH

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effect of different sowing methods on water use efficiency, relative water content and some vegetative growth parameters of onion a study was carried out in the Agriculturalr research Center of East Azarbayjan in 2007-2008 cropping season. The experiment was a factorial by using the randomized complete block design with 4 treaments and 4 replications. The first factor was consistting of two sowing methods, dirct sowing (DS and the transplanting method (TM, the second factor was including two onion cultivars Azarshahr (red hull and later maturing and Gooli-Ghesseh Zanjan (bright-red, early maturing. Analysis of variance for the measured traits indicated that except for the relative water content (RWC, other traits were significant influenced by the sowing methods. TM had higher values of water use efficiency (WUE, bulbing ratio (BR, aerial leaves length (ALL, leaf area (LA, leaf area index (LAI, leaves dry weight (LDW, leaves fresh weight (LFW and leaves saturation weight (LSW than the DS methods. Maximum WUE (6.07 kg m3 and minimum WU (9381 m3 ha-1 were obtained in TM. However, the lowest WUE (4.19 kg m3 and the highest WU (115921 m3 ha-1 was obtained with DS. In other words, in TM water economizing was 1.5 tim, amount of yield was increased up 15% (in comparison with DS. Also among the cultivars except for the RWC, WUE and BR other traits were significantly. The sowing method x cultivar interaction were not significant. For the studied traits, TM and red Azarshahr cv. were better than the DS and Gooli-Ghesseh Zanjan, thus thy were identified the best treatments for experiment therefore it is recommended for the places with the same environmental conditions of this experiment.

  17. Evaluation Effects of Different Planting Systems on Water Use Efficiency, Relative Water Content and some Plant Growth Parameters in Onion (Allium cepa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mousa IZADKHAH

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effect of different sowing methods on water use efficiency, relative water content and some vegetative growth parameters of onion a study was carried out in the Agriculturalr research Center of East Azarbayjan in 2007-2008 cropping season. The experiment was a factorial by using the randomized complete block design with 4 treaments and 4 replications. The first factor was consistting of two sowing methods, dirct sowing (DS and the transplanting method (TM, the second factor was including two onion cultivars �Azarshahr� (red hull and later maturing and �Gooli-Ghesseh Zanjan� (bright-red, early maturing. Analysis of variance for the measured traits indicated that except for the relative water content (RWC, other traits were significant influenced by the sowing methods. TM had higher values of water use efficiency (WUE, bulbing ratio (BR, aerial leaves length (ALL, leaf area (LA, leaf area index (LAI, leaves dry weight (LDW, leaves fresh weight (LFW and leaves saturation weight (LSW than the DS methods. Maximum WUE (6.07 kg m3 and minimum WU (9381 m3 ha-1 were obtained in TM. However, the lowest WUE (4.19 kg m3 and the highest WU (115921 m3 ha-1 was obtained with DS. In other words, in TM water economizing was 1.5 tim, amount of yield was increased up 15% (in comparison with DS. Also among the cultivars except for the RWC, WUE and BR other traits were significantly. The sowing method x cultivar interaction were not significant. For the studied traits, TM and red �Azarshahr� cv. were better than the DS and �Gooli-Ghesseh Zanjan�, thus thy were identified the best treatments for experiment therefore it is recommended for the places with the same environmental conditions of this experiment.

  18. Bioactivity of Powder and Extracts from Garlic, Allium sativum L. (Alliaceae and Spring Onion, Allium fistulosum L. (Alliaceae against Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae on Cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp (Leguminosae Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abiodun A. Denloye

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory bioassays were conducted to investigate the bioactivity of powders, extracts, and essential oils from Allium sativum L. (Alliaceae and A. fistulosum L. (Liliaceae against adults, eggs, and larvae of Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae. On the basis of 48 hr median lethal toxicity (LC50, test plant powders and extracts from A. sativum were more toxic to C. maculatus adults than those from A. fistulosum. The 48 hr LC50 values for the powder against the test insect species were 9.66 g/kg and 26.29 g/kg for A. sativum and A. fistulosum, respectively. Also the 48 hr LC50 values obtained show that aqueous extracts of the test plant species, 0.11 g/L (A. sativum and 0.411 g/L (A. fistulosum were more toxic to C. maculatus than the corresponding ethanol extracts. There was no significant difference in the toxicity of vapours from the two test plant species against C. maculatus, although A. sativum gave lower values. The study shows that A. sativum and A. fistulosum have potentials for protecting stored cowpea from damage by C. maculatus.

  19. Planting time and mulching effect on onion development and seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A field experiment was conducted to evaluate effects of planting time and mulches on bulb growth and seed production of onion (Allium cepa L.) cv. Taherpuri. Planting time and mulches had significant influence on almost all parameters studied. Onion planted on 21 November had better agronomic traits contributing ...

  20. Local Community's Knowledge on Onion Production, Pests and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tanzania Journal of Agricultural Sciences (2014) Vol. 13 No. 2, 18-26. Introduction. Onion (Allium cepa L.) is an ... vegetables listed by FAO shows that onion ranks second after tomatoes in area under cultivation. (Pathak ... An International Journal of Basic and Applied Research. 19. Mamiro et al. for local consumption and ...

  1. Measuring onion cultivars with image analysis using inflection points

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijden, van der G.W.A.M.; Vossepoel, A.M.; Polder, G.

    1996-01-01

    The suitability of image analysis was studied to measure bulb characteristics for varietal testing of onions (Allium cepa L.). Eighteen genotypes were used, which covered a whole range of onion shapes, including some quite identical ones. The characteristic height and diameter were measured both by

  2. Effect of arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi on growth and development of onion and wild relatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, O.M.; Galvan-Vivero, G.; Burger-Meijer, K.; Baar, J.; Kik, C.

    2006-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi play an important role in the uptake of nutrients and water from soil. Onions, Allium cepa L., are plants with a shallow root system. As a result, onion plants need a lot of fertiziler for their growth. Furthermore, onion plants are sensitive to drought. The aim of the

  3. IN VITRO ANTIOXIDANT, TOTAL PHENOLIC AND FLAVONOID CONTENTS OF SIX ALLIUM SPECIES GROWING IN EGYPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahfouz Abdel-Gawad

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was designated to determine the total phenolic and flavonoid contents as well as evaluation the in vitro antioxidant activity of the defatted methanolic extracts of six Allium species growing in Egypt. Three of them are subspecies of Allium cepa L. (ssp. red onion, ssp. white onion and ssp. green onion, the other three species are Allium sativum L. (garlic, Allium porrum L. (leek and Allium kurrat L. (kurrat baladi. The results exhibited that A. cepa (ssp. red onion and A. porrum have the highest phenolic contents. On the other hand, in vitro antioxidant activity using three methods, 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical, phosphomolybdate and reducing power assays revealed that A. cepa (ssp. red onion and A. porrum have high antioxidant activities. Moreover, there was positive correlation between the antioxidant activity and total phenolic contents of the tested Allium species. Therefore, the two plant species A. cepa (ssp. red onion and A. porrum were submitted to fractionation process using chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol. The results showed that the ethyl acetate fractions of the two plants have high phenolic and flavonoid contents as well as have high antioxidant activities. Also, the preliminary phytochemical screening of the tested Allium species showed that A. cepa (ssp. red onion and A. porrum have high quantities of flavonoids, steroids, terpenoids and saponins.

  4. GARLIC AND ONION IN DENTISTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Ramachandran Sudarshan; Annigeri, Rajeshwari G; G. Sree VIJAYABALA

    2012-01-01

    Onion and garlic are the commonly used ingredients in the kitchen. We are still completely unaware that its health benefits are numerous. They have been tried in vivo in the treatment of deadly diseases like cancer, HIV etc. and are proved to be successful. They both belong to same family of Allium genus. They provide benefit even in morphine withdrawal, diabetes and are known to confer significant immunity to humans. Here, in this review, we discuss the constituents, properties; medicinal us...

  5. Production of Fully Homozygous Genotypes from Various Edible Alliums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. ALAN

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Allium is a very large genus containing over 700 distinct species including the various edible onions, garlics, chives, and leeks. About a dozen of the species are economically important as crops or garden vegetables where as many others are cultivated as ornamental plants. Allium breeding programs generally take very long time with low success due to problems such as long life cycle, sterility, polyploidy, high levels of heterozygosity. Development of inbreed lines is a very difficult process due to severe inbreeding depression. Doubled haploid (DH techniques can be utilized to obtain fully homozygous Allium materials. In Alliums, gynogenesis is the major technique used to produce haploid and DH plants from unfertilized female gamets with reduced chromosome number. We are in the process of developing gynogenesis induction protocols for several edible Allium species. We showed that gynogenic embryos can be obtained from a wide range of Allium materials. About half of the gynogenic embryos continue to grow and become plantlets. In general, gynogenic plantlets are green, but some of them show chlorophyll abnomalities. Results obtained from flow cytometric analysis of nuclei isolated from gynogenic materials indicate that majority of the gynogenic Allium materials are haploid and DH plants. DH onion lines developed in our program are generally vigorous plants with high levels of fecundity. The seeds obtained from DH onions show high germination. Plants of DH onion lines grow uniformly and produce bulbs very uniform in size, shape, color and quality features. These DH lines are excellent inbreds to be used as male parents in the production of F1 hybrid onion lines. Success obtained in DH onion materials indicates that a similar approach can be applied in the breeding programs of other important Alliums.

  6. Origins of Allium ampeloprasum horticultural groups and a molecular phylogeny of the section Allium (Allium: Alliaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschegger, Pablo; Jakse, Jernej; Trontelj, Peter; Bohanec, Borut

    2010-02-01

    The subgenus Allium section Allium includes economically important species, such as garlic and leek, as well as other polyploid minor crops. Phylogenetic studies within this section, with a focus on horticultural groups within A. ampeloprasum, were performed on 31 accessions of 17 species using the nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region and the chloroplast trnL-F and trnD-T regions. The results confirmed the monophyly of section Allium. Four main clades were identified on all ITS analyses but the relationships among those and the remaining species studied within section Allium remained unresolved. Trees based on cpDNA recovered two major clades and a topology only partly congruent with that of the ITS tree. Intra-individual polymorphism of the ITS region proved useful in tracking putative parent species of polyploid taxa. The allopolyploid origin of great headed garlic (GHG), A. iranicum and A. polyanthum was confirmed. No signs of hybridization in leek or kurrat were detected but possible introgression events were identified in pearl onion and bulbous leek. Although GHG is often used as a garlic substitute, molecular analysis revealed only a distant relationship with garlic. We also clarified the previous incorrect classification of cultivated forms within A. ampeloprasum, by showing that leek, kurrat, pearl onion, and bulbous leek should be considered separately from GHG. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Ability of Callus Induction and Plant Regeneration in White Kashan and Red Rey Onions Cultivars (Allium cepa L. Using Root - tip Culture under Invitro Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Goravanchi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This present study has been carried out in order to evaluate the effect of culture medium and genotype on callus induction and regeneration of two onion varieties through root tip culture. For callus induction, micro samples from 1-3 mm root tip of 2 day old in vitro germinated plants laied on four culture media (1mg/l 2, 4-D, 0/5mg/l 2, 4-D, 0/5mg/l 2, 4-D with 0/5mg/l kinetin, 1mg/l 2,4-D with 1mg/l kinetin in darkness conditions. Subculture of samples was done after four weeks. The  produced calluses were laied in embryogenic culture medium for 4 weeks and after formation of embryoes, they were put in plant regeneration culture medium for eight weeks. Result showed that callus induction percentage is affected significantly by cultivar and culture medium, but reciprocal effect of both factors was not meaningful on callus induction percentage. Plant regeneration percentage and number of embryo per callus is affected meaningfully by cultivar, but type of culture medium and reciprocal effect of both factors was not meaningful on plant regeneration percentage and number of embryoes per callus. Embryogenic callus percentage is affected meaningfully by cultivar, but type of culture medium had not meaningful effect on embryogenic callus percentage. Callus induction percentage, plant regeneration percentage, number of embryo per callus and embryogenic callus percentage, are higher in white Kashan cultivar in relation to red Rey one and in culture medium involving hormonal combination of 2,4-D and kinetin, application of 0/5mg/l 2, 4-D can be usful. Considering the callus induction percentage, embryogenic and plant regeneration percentage, white Kashan cultivar and  culture medium containing 0/5mg/l 2, 4-D is appropriate as compared with other cultures.

  8. EFECTO DE LA MICORRIZA Y GALLINAZA SOBRE LA PRODUCCIÓN Y LA CALIDAD DE CEBOLLA CABEZONA (Allium cepa L. ‘Yellow Granex’ EFFECT OF MYCORRHIZAE AND HEN MANURE FERTILIZATION ON YIELD AND QUALITY OF ONION (Allium cepa L. ‘YELLOW GRANEX’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maritza Yolima Agudelo Becerra

    2004-06-01

    of mineral fertilizers, were evaluated in terms of yield and quality of onion (Allium cepa L. ‘Yellow Granex’ in the municipality of Cucaita - Boyacá ( Colombia . The seeds germinated in soil, and 70 days after germination uniformly sized seedlings were selected, transplanted, and were either inoculated or not with mycorrhizal fungi (0,86 ton/ha of Mycofertil. Three levels of hen manure (0 - 1 and 2 ton/ha and 0,5 ton of 15 - 15 - 15 mineral fertilizer/ha were evaluated. Yield and production of first and second quality onion bulbs were evaluated, as well as production of non marketable bulbs. A completely randomized block design was used with three replicates per treatment. The data were analyzed with Analysis of Variance (ANOVA and a Duncan median comparison test was conducted using a 0.01 significance level. Results showed that mycorrhizae and manure supply improved the total yield and production of first quality onion bulbs in comparison to supplying mineral fertilizer alone or supplying 1 or 2 ton/ha of hen manure. However, the production of second quality bulbs was higher in plots treated with mycorrhizae in comparison to the other treatments without mycorrhizal fungi. On the other hand, mycorrhizae application reduced the amount of non marketable onion bulbs. The treatment of only mineral fertilizer showed a lower total yield and a lower production of first and second quality onion bulbs, but the highest production of damaged bulbs, in comparison with the other treatments. Results are discussed based upon the increase in nutrient uptake and the suppression of root pathogens in plants colonized by mycorrhizal fungi.

  9. Chromosome aberration assays in Allium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant, W.F.

    1982-01-01

    The common onion (Allium cepa) is an excellent plant for the assay of chromosome aberrations after chemical treatment. Other species of Allium (A. cepa var. proliferum, A. carinatum, A. fistulosum and A. sativum) have also been used but to a much lesser extent. Protocols have been given for using root tips from either bulbs or seeds of Allium cepa to study the cytological end-points, such as chromosome breaks and exchanges, which follow the testing of chemicals in somatic cells. It is considered that both mitotic and meiotic end-points should be used to a greater extent in assaying the cytogenetic effects of a chemical. From a literature survey, 148 chemicals are tabulated that have been assayed in 164 Allium tests for their clastogenic effect. Of the 164 assays which have been carried out, 75 are reported as giving a positive reaction, 49 positive and with a dose response, 1 positive and temperature-related, 9 borderline positive, and 30 negative; 76% of the chemicals gave a definite positive response. It is proposed that the Allium test be included among those tests routinely used for assessing chromosomal damage induced by chemicals.

  10. Onion Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) Feeding Promotes Infection By Pantoea ananatis in Onion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grode, Ari; Chen, Shicheng; Walker, Edward D; Szendrei, Zsofia

    2017-12-05

    Onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman, is a primary insect pest of onions (Allium cepa) worldwide. Onion thrips cause feeding damage by destroying epidermal tissue. They are also vectors of Pantoea ananatis (Serrano) Mergaert, the bacteria that causes center rot. Onions with center rot develop white streaks with water-soaked margins along the onion leaves, which turn necrotic and lead to bulb rot during storage. The role of thrips feeding on the establishment and progression of bacterial infection in onions has not been investigated. Onions infested with thrips and inoculated with P. ananatis had more necrotic tissue and symptoms were more severe with increasing thrips density. We conducted a fluorescence microscopy study that examined how P. ananatis (expressing a fluorescence protein gene) colonized a control group of onions without thrips in comparison to a test group of onions with thrips. We found that P. ananatis colonized some onions in the control group because of naturally existing wounds in the epidermal tissue but more colonization was found in the thrips infested group because of the increased presence of entry points caused by thrips feeding. Overall, our results demonstrate that wounds caused by thrips feeding facilitate center rot development by providing entry sites for the bacteria into leaf tissue. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Allium sativum

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Correspondence: Tel.: 08134576173 e-mail Lawrence_aka@yahoo.com. Abstract. This study evaluated the effects of Garlic (Allium sativum) on taste responses and relative organ weights in albino rats. Graded dietary supplementations of garlic viz: 0, 5, ...

  12. Onion extract (Allium cepa L.), quercetin and catechin up-regulate paraoxonase 1 activity with concomitant protection against low-density lipoprotein oxidation in male Wistar rats subjected to oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Nidhi; Rizvi, Syed Ibrahim

    2014-10-01

    Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) protects the oxidative modification of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and is a major anti-atherosclerotic protein component of high-density lipoprotein. We explored the effect of onion extract and flavonoids (quercetin and catechin) in the regulation of PON1 expression and correlating with oxidised LDL levels in male Wistar rats subjected to mercuric chloride (HgCl₂) induced oxidative insult. Rats were divided into eight groups: Control, Experimental (HgCl₂), Experimental + onion/catechin/quercetin, Positive control (Normal + onion/catechin/quercetin). Treatment continued for 4 weeks. PON1 activity and radical scavenging activity decreased in the Experimental group (P Onion extract significantly attenuated the adverse effects of HgCl₂ by up-regulating PON1 activity (P onion and also foods containing quercetin and catechins.

  13. Growth and Nutrients Content and Uptake of Garlic (Allium sativum L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-09-28

    Sep 28, 2013 ... Farmers strive to produce high yield and good quality garlic both for consumption and ... Garlic is one of the main Allium vegetable crops ...... Australia. Pp. 59-90. Islam, M.K., Alam, M.F., Islam, A.K.M.R. (2007). Growth and Yield Response of Onion (Allium Cepa L.) Genotypes to Different Levels of Fertilizers.

  14. Regeneration and transformation by particle bombardment in leek (Allium ampeloprasum L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schavemaker, C.M.

    2000-01-01

    In this thesis the results are presented of experiments aiming at the genetic modification of leek ( Allium ampeloprasum L.). Leek is a vegetable grown for its edible (false) stem and belongs to the Alliaceae, together with onion ( Allium cepa ) and

  15. Evaluation and comparison of the content of total polyphenols and antioxidant activity of selected species of the genus Allium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna LENKOVÁ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The species of the genus Allium are very important crops for human health. They contain many health beneficial substances, such as polyphenols (especially flavonoids, sulphur compounds, vitamins, mineral substances and substances with antioxidant activity. This work has focused on the comparison of total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of selected species of the genus Allium – garlic (Allium sativum L., chives (Allium schoenoprasum L., ramson (Allium ursinum L. and red, yellow and white onion (Allium cepa L.. Samples of plant material were collected at the stage of full maturity in the area of Nitra. Total polyphenols content was determined using the spectrophotometric method of Folin-Ciocalteu agents. Determined the content of total polyphenols were in the range 444.3 - 1591 mg*kg-1. Total polyphenols content in the observed crops declined in the following order: chives > red onion > garlic > yellow onion > ramson > white onion. Antioxidant activity was measured by the spectrophotometric method using a compound DPPH (2.2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl. Determined the value of antioxidant activity ranged 12.29 – 76.57%. Antioxidant activity observed in crops declined in the following order: chives > ramson > red onion > yellow onion > garlic > white onion. In all the analysed crop plants was confirmed by the strong dependence of the antioxidant activity and the total content of polyphenolic substances.

  16. First Genome Sequence of Shallot Latent Carlavirus from Allium macrostemon Bunge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohshima, Kazusato; Okamura, Kouta; Yasaka, Ryosuke; Fukuda, Shinji; Ishimaru, Kanji; Tomitaka, Yasuhiro; Yamashita, Kazuo

    2017-08-17

    A wild Japanese garlic plant (Allium macrostemon Bunge, wild onion) with leaves showing chlorotic stripes was collected in Saitama Prefecture, Japan. Genome sequencing showed that it was infected with shallot latent carlavirus. The genomic sequence of this virus is reported for the first time from wild onion. Copyright © 2017 Ohshima et al.

  17. Resistance to Fusarium basal rot and response to arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in Allium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galvan Vivero, G.A.

    2009-01-01

    Onion (Allium cepa L.) cultivation in low input and organic farming systems is hampered by Fusarium basal rot (FBR) and the limited ability of onion to take up nutrients like phosphorus. The symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) contributes to plant acquisition of phosphorus, among other

  18. Synergic effect of Citric Acid and Red Onion skin extract on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    for the treatment of intestinal warms, stomach ulcers, high blood pressure andmalaria fever (I.J. Alinnor and. Pascal Madu, 2007). Tannin is found in the protective layers of plant tissues like onion skin (Odozi, T.O et al,. 1984). It is a polyhydroxyphenol of the flavonoid type. The antioxidant properties of red onion skin (allium.

  19. Quantitative trait loci controlling amounts and types of epicuticular waxes in onion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natural variation exists in onion (Allium cepa L.) for amounts and types of epicuticular waxes on leaves. Wild-type waxy onion possesses copious amounts of these waxes, while the foliage of semi-glossy and glossy phenotypes accumulate significantly less wax. Reduced amounts of epicuticular waxes hav...

  20. Interactions among cultivation, weeds, and a bio-fungicide in organic Vidalia sweet onion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weed management in organic Vidalia® sweet onion (Allium cepa) is largely dependent on multiple cultivations with a tine weeder. Earlier research suggested cultivation with a tine weeder did not predispose onion bulbs to infection during storage. Trials were conducted from 2012 through 2014 near Ly...

  1. Effects of fistular onion stalk extract on the level of NO and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We found that the extracts of fistular onion stalk significantly increased the level of NO and the activity of eNOS. Our findings demonstrated that fistular onion stalk extracts could be a good candidate for new drugs to treat cardiovascular diseases by enhancing endothelial production of NO. Key word: Allium schoenoprasum L ...

  2. The long and winding road leading to the successful introgression of downy mildew resistance into onion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, O.E.; Heusden, van A.W.; Khrustaleva, L.I.; Burger, K.; Mank, R.; Antonise, R.; Harrewijn, J.; Haecke, van W.; Oost, E.H.; Peters, R.J.; Kik, C.

    2007-01-01

    Downy mildew resistance originating from Allium roylei Stearn provides a complete resistance to onions and is based on one, dominant gene. Since A. roylei can successfully be hybridized with onion (A. cepa L.), a breeding scheme aimed at the introgression of this gene was initiated ca. 20 years ago.

  3. UJI AKTIVITAS ANTIINFLAMASI KUERSETIN KULIT BAWANG MERAH (Allium cepa L.) PADA MENCIT PUTIH JANTAN (Mus musculus)

    OpenAIRE

    Yulistia Budianti Soemarie

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation is a local reaction of infection or tissue injury and involves more mediators. Utilization of traditional medicine should be used to minimize the side effects of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, such as the use of onion skin (Allium cepa L.). This study aims to determine the activity of quercetin onion skin and the optimal dose of quercetin as a potential anti-inflammatory on male white mice. This study is an experimental research. Red onion skins extracted by macerati...

  4. Relationship between plant nutrition and severity of damage caused by white rot desease on onion (Allium cepa Relación entre la nutrición mineral y la severidad del daño ocasionado por pudrición blanca en cebolla de bulbo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piraneque G Nelson Virgilio

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available

    In a comercial onion crop (Allium cepa located in Tibasosa, Boyacá, Colombia, the relationship between plant nutrition and severity of damage caused by white rot disease was studied. The soil was classified as sulfic endoamept. At 20 days before sowing (DAS and at 45, 90 and 120 days after sowing soil samples and esclerotium were taken plant tissue analysis at 45, 90 and 120 DAS was carried out. Also association among soil chemical parameters and plant percentage of damage was estudied. Results showed direct relationship among cooper content in soil (r=0.71, nitrogen in leaves (r=0.46 and magnesium in leaves (r=0.66 with percentage o damage caused by S. cepivorum. Calcium content in leaves (r=0.52, boron in leaves (r=-0.49 and esclerocios in soil Elg (r=0.56 were inversely proportional to percentage of damage. The treatment with the highest percentage of damage had higher contents of N, P and S in leaves and lower K, Ca, Mg, B, Mn, Cu and Zn.

    Key words: Allium cepa; Sclerotium cepivorum; plant nutrition.

    En un cultivo comercial de cebolla de bulbo (Allium cepa situado en el municipio de Tibasosa, Boyacá-Colombia, se recolectaron muestras de suelos (sulfic endoaquepts yesclerocios 20 días antes de la siembra, 45, 90 y 120 días después de la siembra (DDS; los análisis de tejidos se realizaron a los 45, 90 y 120 DDS. Se determinó la asociación entre parámetros químicos del suelo y de la planta con el porcentaje de daño. Se estableció asociación directa entre las variables, contenido de cobre en suelo Cu (r=0.71, nitrógeno foliar Nf(r=0.46 y magnesio foliar Mgf (r=0.66 con el porcentaje de daño causado por S. cepivorum. El contenido de calcio foliar Caf (r=-0.52, boro foliar Bf (r=-0.49 y esclerocios por gramo de suelo ES/g (r=-0.56 fueron inversamente proporcionales con el porcentaje de daño. El tratamiento con mayor porcentaje de daño presentó contenidos altos de N, P y S en tejidos y menores

  5. Towards an improved variety assortment for the Dutch organic sector : case studies on onion and spring wheat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osman, A.M.

    2014-01-01

    Key words: organic farming; principles of organic agriculture; food production chain; plant breeding; genetic correlation; plant traits; farmers’ preferences; variety testing; Value for Cultivation and Use; EU seed legislation; onion; Allium cepa; spring wheat; Triticum aestivum; baking

  6. Intercropping of lettuce and onion controls caterpillar thread, Agrotis ípsilon major insect pest of lettuce

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sulvai, Fraide; Chaúque, Beni Jequicene Mussengue; Macuvele, Domingos Lusitâneo Pier

    2016-01-01

    .... Thus the researches of eco-friendly forms of control have been studied.In this research, the lettuce intercropping with onion Allium cepa was carried out to control the insect pest A. ípsilon...

  7. Garlic and onions: their effect on eicosanoid metabolism and its clinical relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, M; Thomson, M; Afzal, M

    2000-02-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum) and onion (Allium cepa) are among the oldest of all cultivated plants. Additionally, both plants have been used as medicinal agents for thousands of years. Both garlic and onion have been shown to have applications as antimicrobial, antithrombotic, antitumor, hypolipidaemic, antiarthritic and hypoglycemic agents. In recent years, extensive research has focussed on the beneficial and medicinal properties of garlic and onions. In particular, the use of these agents in the treatment and prevention of cardiovascular disease and cancer is an area of considerable investigation and interest.

  8. Plants of the genus Allium as antibacterial agents: From tradition to pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi-Rad, J; Mnayer, D; Tabanelli, G; Stojanović-Radić, Z Z; Sharifi-Rad, M; Yousaf, Z; Vallone, L; Setzer, W N; Iriti, M

    2016-08-29

    Plants belonging to the genus Allium are widely cultivated and used all over the world as food and medicinal plants. Since ancient times, these plants, particularly garlic (Allium sativum L.) and onion (Allium cepa L.), have represented important components of typical recipes and traditional healing systems. Not the least of which, their use as food biopreservatives is well documented, due to the relevant antibacterial activity of their extracts and essential oils. In addition to garlic and onion, this review article deals with the main members of the genus Allium, including A. ampeloprasum (Leek), A. schoenoprasum (Chive) and A. ascalonicum (Shallot), focusing both on their ethnonutritional uses and potential as promising food biopreservative agents. Noteworthy, recent research has demonstrated Allium derivatives to be novel components in active edible coatings as well as nanoformulates.

  9. Onions: a source of unique dietary flavonoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slimestad, Rune; Fossen, Torgils; Vågen, Ingunn Molund

    2007-12-12

    Onion bulbs (Allium cepa L.) are among the richest sources of dietary flavonoids and contribute to a large extent to the overall intake of flavonoids. This review includes a compilation of the existing qualitative and quantitative information about flavonoids reported to occur in onion bulbs, including NMR spectroscopic evidence used for structural characterization. In addition, a summary is given to index onion cultivars according to their content of flavonoids measured as quercetin. Only compounds belonging to the flavonols, the anthocyanins, and the dihydroflavonols have been reported to occur in onion bulbs. Yellow onions contain 270-1187 mg of flavonols per kilogram of fresh weight (FW), whereas red onions contain 415-1917 mg of flavonols per kilogram of FW. Flavonols are the predominant pigments of onions. At least 25 different flavonols have been characterized, and quercetin derivatives are the most important ones in all onion cultivars. Their glycosyl moieties are almost exclusively glucose, which is mainly attached to the 4', 3, and/or 7-positions of the aglycones. Quercetin 4'-glucoside and quercetin 3,4'-diglucoside are in most cases reported as the main flavonols in recent literature. Analogous derivatives of kaempferol and isorhamnetin have been identified as minor pigments. Recent reports indicate that the outer dry layers of onion bulbs contain oligomeric structures of quercetin in addition to condensation products of quercetin and protocatechuic acid. The anthocyanins of red onions are mainly cyanidin glucosides acylated with malonic acid or nonacylated. Some of these pigments facilitate unique structural features like 4'-glycosylation and unusual substitution patterns of sugar moieties. Altogether at least 25 different anthocyanins have been reported from red onions, including two novel 5-carboxypyranocyanidin-derivatives. The quantitative content of anthocyanins in some red onion cultivars has been reported to be approximately 10% of the total

  10. Antioxidant Effects of Methanol Extract of Allium cepa linn on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    production (Way, 1984). Cyanide poisoning may result from exposure to ... produce the oxidative stress and damage seen after cyanide exposure. Allium cepa linn (onion), is used as .... Table 2: Effects of methanol extract of A. Cepa on Kidney MDA, GSH, antioxidant enzymes and protein. Groups Kidney MDA. (µg/g tissue).

  11. Genotoxicity Screening of Industrial Effluents using Onion bulbs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    hazards from a wide range of pollutants such as sewage effluents (Ukaegbu and Odeigah, 2009), leacheates (Bakare and Wale-Adeyemo, 2004,. Chandra et al., 2005) and chemicals (Seetharaman et al., 2004). Cytotoxicity and environmental pollution have been assessed by the in vivo onion (Allium cepa) root tip cell test ...

  12. Influence of nitrogen rates on onion yield, quality and storability ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A field experiment was carried out on onions (Allium cepa) using nitrogen rates ranging from 0 to 180 kg/ha. The highest yield and percentage of marketable production was obtained from applying 60 kg N/ha. Higher level of nitrogen decreased yield, while application of 180 kg N/ha gave yield that was even lower than that ...

  13. Onion Smut

    OpenAIRE

    Karov, Ilija; Sasa MITREV; Spasov, Dusan; Stojanova, Biljana

    2002-01-01

    Examinations were conducted during the 2001-2002 periods in the laboratory of Intilute of Southern crops in Strumica about Onion smut in the Gevgelija region. The causal organism is Urosystis cepulae Frost. (syn.Urosystis magica Pass.). The damage that the smut makes on the onion at the garden-bed is estimated to be around 50%, and at some garden-beds even more. The pathogens in the plastic containers were examined and it was concluded that the disease is transmitted through contaminated soil...

  14. Molecular analysis of the 3’ terminal region of Onion yellow dwarf virus from onion in southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariana MANGLLI

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Onion yellow dwarf virus (OYDV is an economically important pathogen causing severe disease in garlic, onion and other Allium crops. Eleven isolates of OYDV, all from onion originating from Calabria, southern Italy, were genetically analyzed. An OYDV onion isolate from Sudan was also included in this study. The 3’ terminal region of about 2.5 kb of the twelve isolates were sequenced and the sequences comprising a part of the nuclear inclusion a (NIa-Pro, the complete nuclear inclusion b (NIb and coat protein (CP genes and the 3’ untranslated region (3’UTR, were compared to each other and to corresponding sequences of other OYDV isolates from different countries and Allium hosts. The within-population nucleotide identity of the Italian OYDV onion isolates was very high (more than 99.3%, whereas nucleotide identity between them and OYDV onion isolates from Germany was 94%, Argentina 92% and Sudan 87%. Recombination analysis among the complete 3’ terminal sequences showed putative recombination breakpoints in the NIb region of the Argentine isolate, with the minor parent related to the Sudanese isolate. Comparison between OYDV isolates from onion and isolates from garlic produced identities of 77-78% for the complete nucleotide region. When the 3’ terminal nucleotide sequence and the complete NIb protein were analyzed, the phylogenetic analysis generated rooted trees with high bootstrap values (100%, showing a genetic grouping into two well separated clades distinctive for onion and garlic isolates of OYDV. Phylogenetic analysis of CP protein and 3’UTR showed lower bootstrap separation values and no distinct sub-grouping of the OYDV isolates from the two major Allium species.

  15. Radioprotective Effect of Alk(enyl Thiosulfates Derived from Allium Vegetables against DNA Damage Caused by X-Ray Irradiation in Cultured Cells: Antiradiation Potential of Onions and Garlic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye-Sook Chang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate a radioprotective effect of sodium n-propyl thiosulfate (NPTS and sodium 2-propenyl thiosulfate (2PTS derived from onions and garlic, respectively, rat hepatoma H4IIE cells and mouse lymphoma L5178Y cells were preincubated with each of these compounds for 48 hours at 37°C before receiving 10 Gy of X-ray irradiation. Cell damage caused by the irradiation was quantified as comet tail moment, which represents the degree of DNA damage. X-ray-induced DNA damage was significantly decreased in both H4IIE and L5178Y cells by micromolar concentrations of NPTS and 2PTS compared with the control without the compounds. The protective effect was more potent with 2PTS than NPTS. Onions and garlic have antiradiation potential.

  16. Higher Antioxidant Activity, Total Flavonols, and Specific Quercetin Glucosides in Two Different Onion (Allium cepa L.) Varieties Grown under Organic Production: Results from a 6‑Year Field Study

    OpenAIRE

    Ren, Feiyue; Reilly, Kim; Kerry, Joseph P.; Gaffney, Michael; Hossain, Mohammad; Rai, Dilip K.

    2017-01-01

    We carried out a 6-year study to assess the effect of conventional, organic, and mixed cultivation practices on bioactive compounds (flavonoids, anthocyanins) and antioxidant capacity in onion. Total flavonoids, total anthocyanins, individual flavonols, individual anthocyanins, and antioxidant activity were measured in two varieties (‘Hyskin’ and ‘Red Baron’) grown in a long-term split-plot factorial systems comparison trial. This is the first report of repeated measurements of bioactive cont...

  17. Comparison of mono- and di-saccharides release in aqueous solutions by raw or fried dice of onion (Allium Cepa L.) bulbs using quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance (qNMR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardieu, Audrey; Guerez, Alice; Phana, Sidarin; de Man, Walter; This, Hervé

    2009-01-01

    Although onion bulb tissues, either raw or thermally processed, are widely used as culinary ingredients in homes, in restaurants, and in the food industry, especially for sauces, little is known about the chemical constituents released from such systems. To get a straightforward and fast analysis of sugars released from onion dice soaked in model aqueous solutions, quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance (qNMR) spectroscopy was applied, and the effect of a preliminary thermal processing in oil was investigated. Soaking of raw or fried onion bulb dice at room temperature was followed for 11 d as a model of long-term storage. For the Armstrong cultivar, the extracted dry matter (in milligrams per gram of fresh weight) as well as the content in 3 sugars (glucose, fructose, and sucrose) increased up to a maximum after about 48 h of soaking. Frying induces no measurable new water-soluble compounds. However, extraction kinetics are different (about 3 times faster with frying). Using additional microscopic studies, a possible extraction mechanism is proposed: compounds from sap-including sugars-would diffuse through conductive tissue channels.

  18. Doubled Haploid ‘CUDH2107’ as a Reference for Bulb Onion (Allium cepa L.) Research: Development of a Transcriptome Catalogue and Identification of Transcripts Associated with Male Fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosa, Jiffinvir S.; Lee, Robyn; Bräuning, Sophia; Lord, Janice; Pither-Joyce, Meeghan; McCallum, John; Macknight, Richard C.

    2016-01-01

    Researchers working on model plants have derived great benefit from developing genomic and genetic resources using ‘reference’ genotypes. Onion has a large and highly heterozygous genome making the sharing of germplasm and analysis of sequencing data complicated. To simplify the discovery and analysis of genes underlying important onion traits, we are promoting the use of the homozygous double haploid line ‘CUDH2107’ by the onion research community. In the present investigation, we performed transcriptome sequencing on vegetative and reproductive tissues of CUDH2107 to develop a multi-organ reference transcriptome catalogue. A total of 396 million 100 base pair paired reads was assembled using the Trinity pipeline, resulting in 271,665 transcript contigs. This dataset was analysed for gene ontology and transcripts were classified on the basis of putative biological processes, molecular function and cellular localization. Significant differences were observed in transcript expression profiles between different tissues. To demonstrate the utility of our CUDH2107 transcriptome catalogue for understanding the genetic and molecular basis of various traits, we identified orthologues of rice genes involved in male fertility and flower development. These genes provide an excellent starting point for studying the molecular regulation, and the engineering of reproductive traits. PMID:27861615

  19. Onion dehydration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, J.W. [Geo-Heat Center Oregon Institute of Technology, Kalamath Falls, OR (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Onion dehydration consists of a continuous operation, belt conveyor using fairly low-temperature hot air from 38-104{degrees}C (100 to 200{degrees}F). Typical processing plants will handle 4500 kg (10,000 pounds) of raw product per hour (single line), reducing the moisture from around 83 % to 4 % (680 to 820 kg - 1,500 to 1,800 pounds finished product). An example of a geothermal processing plant is Integrate Ingredients at Empire, Nevada, in the San Emidio Desert. A total of 6.3 million kg (14 million pounds) of dry product are produced annually: 60% onion and 40% garlic. A 130{degrees}C (266{degrees}F) well provide the necessary heat for the plant.

  20. Use of Fe-Impregnated Biochar To Efficiently Sorb Chlorpyrifos, Reduce Uptake by Allium fistulosum L., and Enhance Microbial Community Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiao-Yan; Huang, Wen-Da; Guo, Jing-Jing; Yang, Yang; Tao, Ran; Feng, Xu

    2017-07-05

    Fe-impregnated biochar was assessed as a method to remove the pesticide pollutant chlorpyrifos, utilizing biochar/FeOx composite synthesized via chemical coprecipitation of Fe(3+)/Fe(2+) onto Cyperus alternifolius biochar. Fe-impregnated biochar exhibited a higher sorption capacity than pristine biochar, resulting in more efficient removal of chlorpyrifos from water. Soil was dosed with pristine or Fe-impregnated biochar at 0.1 or 1.0% w/w, to evaluate chlorpyrifos uptake in Allium fistulosum L. (Welsh onion). The results showed that the average concentration of chlorpyrifos and its degradation product, 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP), decreased in A. fistulosum L. with increased levels of pristine biochar and Fe-biochar. Fe-biochar was found to be more effective in reducing the uptake of chlorpyrifos by improving the sorption ability and increasing plant root iron plaque. Bioavailability of chlorpyrifos is reduced with both biochar and Fe-biochar soil dosing; however, the greatest persistence of chlorpyrifos residues was observed with 1.0% pristine biochar. Microbial community analysis showed Fe-biochar to have a positive impact on the efficiency of chlorpyrifos degradation in soils, possibly by altering microbial communities.

  1. Effect of Allium sativum and Allium cepa oils on different stages of Boophilus annulatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboelhadid, S M; Kamel, A A; Arafa, W M; Shokier, K A

    2013-05-01

    The study is aimed to investigate the acaricidal effect of Allium sativum (garlic) and Allium cepa (onion) oils on different stages of Boophilus annulatus hard tick. Engorged B. annulatus females were collected from naturally infected cattle. A number of engorged ticks were incubated at 28 °C and 85 % relative humidity to lay eggs, which were incubated to obtain larvae that were used in the study. The used garlic and onion oils were prepared by steam distillation and were analyzed by gas chromatography. These oils were dissolved in ethanol, methanol alcohols, and, partially, in water. The oils were tested in different concentrations; 1, 2, 5, 10, and 20 %. These concentrations were applied on adult ticks by adult immersion test; on larvae by larval immersion technique and on eggs. The 20, 10, and 5 % of garlic oil dilutions in ethanol and methanol killed all adult ticks and larvae within 24 h. Similar results were obtained for 10 and 20 % garlic oil dissolved in water. The effect of 10 % aqueous solution of garlic oil on embryonated eggs was clear as its addition to these eggs led to their in ability to hatch, deformity in shape, and change in color. The 10 and 20 % onion oil in ethanol and methanol alcohols killed 76-86 % of the adult ticks within 72 h post-application. While, all larvae died within 24 h postsubjected to these two concentrations. These concentrations (10 and 20 %) of onion oil in water killed 56-80 % of the treated ticks. Moreover, 10 % aqueous solution of onion oil prevented hatching of embyonated eggs. We concluded that garlic and onion oils have acaricidal effect on all stages of B. annulatus at concentrations higher than 5 %. Only garlic oil could kill 100 % of adult ticks at concentrations from 5 % in alcohols.

  2. Identification of candidate genes associated with fertility restoration of cytoplasmic male-sterility in onion (Allium cepa L.) using a combination of bulked segregant analysis and RNA-seq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sunggil; Kim, Cheol-Woo; Park, Minkyu; Choi, Doil

    2015-11-01

    A combination of BSA and RNA-seq was performed to identify candidates for the restorer-of-fertility gene in onion. The AcPMS1 involved in DNA mismatch repair was identified as the best candidate. To identify candidate genes of the restorer-of-fertility gene (Ms) responsible for fertility restoration of onion cytoplasmic male-sterility, a combined approach of bulked segregant analysis and RNA-seq was employed. From 32,674 de novo assembled contigs, 430 perfectly homozygous SNPs between male-fertile (MF) and male-sterile (MS) bulks were identified in 141 contigs. After verifying the homozygosity of the SNPs by PCR amplification and sequencing, the SNPs on 139 of the contigs were genotypes for the two recombinants which contained crossover events between the Ms locus and two tightly linked molecular markers. As a result, 30 contigs showing perfect linkage with the Ms locus in the large-sized segregating population were identified. Among them, 14 showed perfect linkage disequilibrium (LD) with the Ms locus, as determined by genotyping 251 domestic breeding lines. Furthermore, molecular markers tagging the 14 contigs also showed almost perfect LD with each other in 124 exotic accessions introduced from 21 countries, except for one accession which contained a crossover event by which the 14 markers were divided into two groups. After sequencing of the full-length cDNA of the 14 contigs showing perfect LD, the deduced amino acids sequences of the MF and MS alleles were compared. Four genes were shown to harbor putative critical amino acid changes in the known domains. Among them, the gene encoding PMS1, involved in the DNA mismatch repair pathway, was assumed to be the best candidate gene responsible for fertility restoration of male-sterility in onion.

  3. The analysis of onion and garlic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzotti, Virginia

    2006-04-21

    Onion (Allium cepa L.) and garlic (Allium sativum L.), among the oldest cultivated plants, are used both as a food and for medicinal applications. In fact, these common food plants are a rich source of several phytonutrients recognized as important elements of the Mediterranean diet, but are also used in the treatment and prevention of a number of diseases, including cancer, coronary heart disease, obesity, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes type 2, hypertension, cataract and disturbances of the gastrointestinal tract (e.g. colic pain, flatulent colic and dyspepsia). These activities are related to the thiosulfinates, volatile sulfur compounds, which are also responsible for the pungent of these vegetables. Besides these low-molecular weight compounds, onion and garlic are characterized by more polar compounds of phenolic and steroidal origin, often glycosilated, showing interesting pharmacological properties. These latter compounds, compared to the more studied thiosulfinates, present the advantages to be not pungent and more stable to cooking. Recently, there has been an increasing scientific attention on such compounds. In this paper, the literature about the major volatile and non-volatile phytoconstituents of onion and garlic has been reviewed. Particular attention was given to the different methodology developed to perform chemical analysis, including separation and structural elucidation.

  4. Evaluation of onion cultivars for resistance to onion thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and Iris yellow spot virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Montano, John; Fuchs, Marc; Nault, Brian A; Shelton, Anthony M

    2010-06-01

    Onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), a worldwide pest of onion, Allium cepa L., can reduce onion yield by > 50% and be even more problematic when it transmits Iris yellow spot virus (family Bunyaviridae, genus Tospovirus, IYSV). Because T. tabaci is difficult to control with insecticides and other strategies, field studies on onion, Allium cepa L., resistance to T. tabaci and IYSV were conducted in 2007 and 2008 in two locations in New York state. Forty-nine cultivars were evaluated for resistance by counting the number of larvae weekly and recording leaf damage. In another experiment, the impact of T. tabaci and IYSV on plant growth and yield was examined by spraying half of the plants with an insecticide. Eleven of the 49 cultivars had very little leaf damage and were considered resistant to T. tabaci. Visual assessment indicated that all resistant cultivars had yellow-green- colored foliage, whereas the other 38 had blue-green- colored foliage. The visual assessment of color agreed with data on color taken with a HunterLab Ultra Scan XE colorimeter. The onions 'Colorado 6' and 'NMSU 03-52-1' had the lowest numbers of T. tabaci, suggesting strong antibiosis and/or antixenosis. The other nine cultivars had variable numbers of T. tabaci, indicating a possible combination of categories of resistance. In the nonprotected treatments there were significant reductions in plant height and plant weight in most of the resistant cultivars, but there were reductions in bulb weight only in a few of them. The average of plants infected with IYSV was 10% in 2007 and 60% in 2008. Our findings indicate potential for developing onion resistance to T. tabaci as part of an overall integrated pest management strategy but suggest difficulties in identifying resistance to IYSV.

  5. Influence of Allium ampeloprasum L. and Allium cepa L. essential oils on the growth of some yeasts and moulds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kocić-Tanackov Sunčica D.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils extracted from spices, as natural antimicrobial agents, attract particular attention due to their possible role in food protection from microorganisms, and their nontoxicity, in contrast to the synthetic preservatives. In this work, inhibitory effect of Allium ampeloprasum and two onions (Allium cepa, Junski srebrnjak and Kupusinski jabučar, essential oils in different concentrations (1, 4, 7 and 10% on three yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida tropicalis and Rhodotorula sp. and three moulds (Aspergillus tamarii, Penicillium griseofulvum and Eurotium amstelodami was investigated. All three essential oils showed the strongest inhibitory effect against S. cerevisiae in concentration of only 1%. Among onions, Kupusinski jabučar essential oil had stronger influence to C. tropicalis, while Allium ampeloprasum essential oil did not show any influence on this yeast. Rhodotorula sp. was influenced only by Allium ampeloprasum essential oil. The strongest inhibitory effect on A. tamarii showed Kupusinski jabučar (57% of inhibition, in concentration of 10%, while on P. griseofulvum, the strongest influence showed Allium ampeloprasum essential oil (78.3% of inhibition, in concentration of 10%. Junski srebrnjak and Kupusinski jabučar essential oils, in concentrations of 7 and 10% respectively, completely inhibited the growth of E. amstelodami.

  6. Efecto de tres coberturas plásticas y dos sistemas de siembra en la fenología de la cebolla de bulbo Effect of three polyethylene mulchs and two plant systems on the phenology of the common onion (Allium cepa L. at the Sabana de Bogota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rondón Sandra Yaneth

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available En el Centro de Investigaciones Agropecuarias Tibaitatá CORPOICA, se cultivo cebolla de bulbo (Allium cepa L. híbrido Yellow Granex PRR, en siembra directa y trasplante, sobre tres coberturas plásticas (negra, gris y blanca, un testigo en suelo desnudo y un testigo absoluto, durante el segundo semestre de 1995 y los meses de Enero y Febrero de 1996. Para ambos sistemas de siembra, con las coberturas y sin elias, las plantas de cebolla presentaron las mismas fenofases, las cuales fueron: Emergencia, primera hoja verdadera, plántula, iniciación del llenado del bulbo, máximo desarrollo vegetativo y terminación del llenado del bulbo. La duración de cada fenofase fue diferente entre tratamientos, pues las plantas bajo coberturas emergieron primero que en el testigo (suelo desnudo y en el semillero. Para siembra directa, el inicio del llenado del bulbo ocurrió antes que en el transplante; este atraso se relacionó con el estrés causado por el cambio del semillero al lugar definitivo y la adaptación al mismo. En la terminación del llenado del bulbo, los coberturas plásticas negra y gris en siembra directa registraron mayores pesos secos del bulbo, en comparación con el acolchado blanco y el testigo (suelo desnudo.Three polyethylene mulches (black, white and gray and two planting systems (direct seeded and transplant were tested in common onion (Allium cepa L. hybrid Yellow Granex PRR, whit the objective of evaluating the duration of developmental stages. The phenophases established were: Emergence, first true leaf, young plantlet, bulb filling initiation, maximal vegetative development and bulb filling termination. There were differences among planting systems in the duration of phenophases; the least duration occurred with the black and gray polyethylene mulches. The combination of these colored plastics and direct seeding shortened the vegetative cycle in 70 days and the yield per plant was higher than in the white plastic mulch and

  7. Impact of straw mulch on populations of onion thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in onion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larentzaki, E; Plate, J; Nault, B A; Shelton, A M

    2008-08-01

    Development of insecticide resistance in onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), populations in onion (Allium spp.) fields and the incidence of the T. tabaci transmitted Iris yellow spot virus have stimulated interest in evaluating alternative management tactics. Effects of straw mulch applied in commercial onion fields in muck areas of western New York were assessed in 2006 and 2007 as a possible onion thrips management strategy. In trials in which no insecticides were applied for thrips control, straw mulch-treated plots supported significantly lower T. tabaci populations compared with control plots. In both years, the action thresholds of one or three larvae per leaf were reached in straw mulch treatments between 7 and 14 d later than in the control. Ground predatory fauna, as evaluated by pitfall trapping, was not increased by straw mulch in 2006; however, populations of the common predatory thrips Aeolothrips fasciatus (L.) (Thysanoptera: Aeolothripidae) were significantly lower in straw mulch plots in both years. Interference of straw mulch in the pupation and emergence of T. tabaci was investigated in the lab and their emergence was reduced by 54% compared with bare soil. In the field the overall yield of onions was not affected by the straw mulch treatment; however, the presence of jumbo grade onions (>77 mm) was increased in 2006, but not in 2007. These results indicate that populations of T. tabaci adults and larvae can be significantly reduced by the use of straw mulch without compromising overall onion yield. The use of this cultural practice in an onion integrated pest management program seems promising.

  8. Hypocholesterolemic Efficacy of Quercetin Rich Onion Juice in Healthy Mild Hypercholesterolemic Adults: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Tsong-Ming; Chiu, Hui-Fang; Shen, You-Cheng; Chung, Chia-Chun; Venkatakrishnan, Kamesh; Wang, Chin-Kun

    2015-12-01

    Onion (Allium cepa L.) is widely employed as a food ingredient as well as traditional remedy to treat fever, burns, and scurvy. The present study focused on the modulator efficacy of the quercetin rich onion juice on lipid profile and antioxidant status in mildly hypercholesterolemic subjects. Twenty-four healthy subjects with mild hypercholesterolemia (≧ 200 mg/dL) were recruited and divided into two groups, and they consumed 100 mL of onion juice or placebo every day for 8 weeks. Fasting blood samples were collected at initial, 2nd, 6th, 8th, 10th week for estimating various biochemical assays, as well as anthropometric indices. After 8 weeks of intervention, onion juice greatly decreased (p onion juice could markedly suppress cholesterol level and elevate total antioxidation capacity. Hence, onion juice was probably recommended for combating various cardiovascular diseases.

  9. Effect of Aqueous Allium cepa and Ixora brachiata Root Extract on Leishmania major Promastigotes

    OpenAIRE

    Sadeghi-Nejad, Batool; Saki, Jasem

    2014-01-01

    Background: Leishmaniasis is a major worldwide public health problem with about two to three million humans threatened by this disease annually. Allium cepa (onion) is an important dietary vegetable and was used as a herbal medicine for centuries. The root of Ixora brachiata is medicinally important. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-Leishmania effect of the ethanolic and methanolic extracts of Ixora brachiata root and aqueous onion extracts on Leishmania major pro...

  10. Content of total polyphenols and antioxidant activity in varieties of onion and garlic

    OpenAIRE

    Ismael Sulaiman Dalaram

    2016-01-01

    Garlic as onion family and the most important Allium species consumed all over the world. Garlic possesses potential health promoting effects due to its high phenolic content and a good source of vitamins, minerals and major component like polyphenols, flavonoids, thiosulfinates and other sulfur compounds. Red onion and garlic are among the important parts of diet in many world populations, and there is also a long-held belief in their health enhancing properties. In this work evaluated conte...

  11. A prospective cohort study on the relationship between onion and leek consumption, garlic supplement use and the risk of colorectal carcinoma in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorant, E.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Goldbohm, R.A.

    1996-01-01

    The association between onion and leek consumption, garlic supplement use and colon and rectum carcinoma among men and women was evaluated in the Netherlands Cohort Study, a large-scale prospective cohort study on diet and cancer. Onions, leeks, and garlic belong to the Allium genus and contain

  12. New report of Lolium multiflorum and Rumex crispus as weed hosts of epiphytic populations of Psuedomonas sp., causal agent of yellow bud in onion in Geogia, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yellow bud, an emerging bacterial disease of onion (Allium cepa L.), has been spreading throughout the Vidalia onion-growing region in Georgia since 2007. Symptoms of yellow bud include intense chlorosis in emerging leaves and severe blight in the older leaves leading to stand loss and reduced bulb ...

  13. Phylogenetic relationships among cultivated Allium species from restriction enzyme analysis of the chloroplast genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havey, M J

    1991-06-01

    The genus Allium contains many economically important species, including the bulb onion, chive, garlic, Japanese bunching onion, and leek. Phylogenetic relationships among the cultivated alliums are not well understood, and taxonomic classifications are based on relatively few morphological characters. Chloroplast DNA is highly conserved and useful in determining phylogenetic relationships. The size of the chloroplast genome of Allium cepa was estimated at 140 kb and restriction enzyme sites were mapped for KpnI, PstI, PvuII, SalI, XbaI, and XhoI. Variability at restriction enzyme sites in the chloroplast DNA was studied for at least three accessions of each of six cultivated, old-world Allium species. Of 189 restriction enzyme sites detected with 12 enzymes, 15 mutations were identified and used to estimate phylogenetic relationships. Cladistic analysis based on Wagner and Dollo parsimony resulted in a single, most-parsimonious tree of 16 steps and supported division of the species into sections. Allium species in section Porrum were distinguished from species in sections Cepa and Phyllodolon. Two species in section Rhiziridium, A. schoenoprasum and A. tuberosum, differed by five mutations and were placed in separate lineages. Allium cepa and A. fistulosum shared the loss of a restriction enzyme site and were phylogenetically closer to each other than to A. schoenoprasum. This study demonstrates the usefulness of restriction enzyme site analysis of the chloroplast genome in the elucidation of phylogenetic relationships in Allium.

  14. Welsh Women's Industrial Fiction 1880–1910

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohata, Kirsti; Jones, Alexandra

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT From the beginning of the genre, women writers have made a major contribution to the development of industrial writing. Although prevented from gaining first-hand experience of the coalface, Welsh women writers were amongst the first to try to fictionalize those heavy industries—coal and metal in the south, and slate in the north—which dominated the lives of the majority of the late nineteenth-century Welsh population. Treatment of industrial matter is generally fragmentary in this early women's writing; industrial imagery and metaphor may be used in novels that are not primarily “about” industry at all. Yet from c. 1880–1910, Welsh women writers made a significant—and hitherto critically neglected—attempt to make sense in literature of contemporary industrial Wales in powerful and innovative ways. This essay maps their contribution and considers anglophone Welsh women writers' adaptations and innovations of form (particularly romance) as they try to find a way of representing industrial landscapes, communities and the daily realities of industrial labour. It identifies the genesis in women's writing of tropes that would become central to later industrial fiction, including depictions of industrial accident, injury, death and disability. And it explores the representation of social relations (class, gender, ethnicity, sexuality) and conflict on this tumultuous, dangerous new stage. PMID:29118469

  15. Welsh Women's Industrial Fiction 1880-1910.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohata, Kirsti; Jones, Alexandra

    2017-10-02

    From the beginning of the genre, women writers have made a major contribution to the development of industrial writing. Although prevented from gaining first-hand experience of the coalface, Welsh women writers were amongst the first to try to fictionalize those heavy industries-coal and metal in the south, and slate in the north-which dominated the lives of the majority of the late nineteenth-century Welsh population. Treatment of industrial matter is generally fragmentary in this early women's writing; industrial imagery and metaphor may be used in novels that are not primarily "about" industry at all. Yet from c. 1880-1910, Welsh women writers made a significant-and hitherto critically neglected-attempt to make sense in literature of contemporary industrial Wales in powerful and innovative ways. This essay maps their contribution and considers anglophone Welsh women writers' adaptations and innovations of form (particularly romance) as they try to find a way of representing industrial landscapes, communities and the daily realities of industrial labour. It identifies the genesis in women's writing of tropes that would become central to later industrial fiction, including depictions of industrial accident, injury, death and disability. And it explores the representation of social relations (class, gender, ethnicity, sexuality) and conflict on this tumultuous, dangerous new stage.

  16. Effect of adjuvant and spray volume on mancozeb residue on potato and onion leaves and on Phythophthora infestans in potato and Peronospora destructor in onion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Putter, de H.; Schepers, H.T.A.M.; Topper, C.G.; Evenhuis, A.

    2016-01-01

    As part of the vegIMPACT project a laboratory test in the Netherlands was done with potato (Solanum tuberosum) var. Bintje and onion (Allium cepa) var. Sturon. In both crops mancozeb was sprayed with and without the adjuvants Bond and Indostick. In both crops these three treatments were applied with

  17. Exogenous ethylene inhibits sprout growth in onion bulbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bufler, Gebhard

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Exogenous ethylene has recently gained commercial interest as a sprouting inhibitor of onion bulbs. The role of ethylene in dormancy and sprouting of onions, however, is not known. Methods A cultivar (Allium cepa ‘Copra’) with a true period of dormancy was used. Dormant and sprouting states of onion bulbs were treated with supposedly saturating doses of ethylene or with the ethylene-action inhibitor 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP). Initial sprouting was determined during storage at 18 °C by monitoring leaf blade elongation in a specific size class of leaf sheaths. Changes in ATP content and sucrose synthase activity in the sprout leaves, indicators of the sprouting state, were determined. CO2 and ethylene production of onion bulbs during storage were recorded. Key results Exogenous ethylene suppressed sprout growth of both dormant and already sprouting onion bulbs by inhibiting leaf blade elongation. In contrast to this growth-inhibiting effect, ethylene stimulated CO2 production by the bulbs about 2-fold. The duration of dormancy was not significantly affected by exogenous ethylene. However, treatment of dormant bulbs with 1-MCP caused premature sprouting. Conclusions Exogenous ethylene proved to be a powerful inhibitor of sprout growth in onion bulbs. The dormancy breaking effect of 1-MCP indicates a regulatory role of endogenous ethylene in onion bulb dormancy. PMID:18940850

  18. Quantitative metabolite profiling of edible onion species by NMR and HPLC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soininen, Tuula H; Jukarainen, Niko; Auriola, Seppo O K; Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta; Karjalainen, Reijo; Vepsäläinen, Jouko J

    2014-12-15

    Allium genus is a treasure trove of valuable bioactive compounds with potentially therapeutically important properties. This work utilises HPLC-MS and a constrained total-line-shape (CTLS) approach applied to (1)H NMR spectra to quantify metabolites present in onion species to reveal important inter-species differences. Extensive differences were detected between the sugar concentrations in onion species. Yellow onion contained the highest and red onion the lowest amounts of amino acids. The main flavonol-glucosides were quercetin 3,4'-diglucoside and quercetin 4'-glucoside. In general, the levels of flavonols were, higher in yellow onions than in red onions, and garlic and leek contained a lower amount of flavonols than the other Allium species. Our results highlight how (1)H NMR together with HPLC-MS can be useful in the quantification and the identification of the most abundant metabolites, representing an efficient means to pinpoint important functional food ingredients from Allium species. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluation of genotoxicity of coal fly ash in Allium cepa root cells by combining comet assay with the Allium test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Rajarshi; Mukherjee, Ashit Kumar; Mukherjee, Anita

    2009-06-01

    Fly ash is a by-product of coal-fired electricity generation plants. Its utilization and disposal is of utmost importance. Using onion (Allium cepa) root tip system, the present study was carried out to evaluate the potential toxic and genotoxic effects of fly ash, collected from a thermal power plant in West Bengal, India. Prior to testing, the collected fly ash sample was mixed with sand in different proportions. Allium bulbs were allowed to germinate directly in fly ash and after five days the germinating roots were processed for the Allium test. Additionally, the Allium test was adapted for detecting DNA damage through comet assay. The results from the Allium test indicate that fly ash at 100% concentration inhibits root growth and mitotic indices; induces binucleated cells as a function of the proportion, but is not toxic at very low concentration. In the comet assay, a statistical increase for DNA strand breaks was found only at higher concentrations. The sample was analyzed by flame atomic absorption spectrometer for Zn, Pb, Cu, Ni, Cd and As, whose presence could partly be responsible for the toxicity of fly ash. The study concludes that the classical Allium test can give a more comprehensive data when done in combination with the comet assay, which is faster, simpler and independent of mitosis. Also when fly ash is used for other purposes in combination with soils, it should be judiciously used at very low concentrations in order to protect the ecosystem health from any potential adverse effects.

  20. Content of total polyphenols and antioxidant activity in varieties of onion and garlic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael Sulaiman Dalaram

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Garlic as onion family and the most important Allium species consumed all over the world. Garlic possesses potential health promoting effects due to its high phenolic content and a good source of vitamins, minerals and major component like polyphenols, flavonoids, thiosulfinates and other sulfur compounds. Red onion and garlic are among the important parts of diet in many world populations, and there is also a long-held belief in their health enhancing properties. In this work evaluated content of total polyphenols and antioxidant activity in onion and garlic. Samples of plant material (onion, garlic were collected at the stage of full maturity in the village (Harmota in Koysinjac town in Erbil city. The content of the total polyphenols was determined by using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent (FCR. Antioxidant activity was measured by using a compound DPPH (2.2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl. Phenolic content and antioxidant activities of one variety of garlic and four varieties of onions have been studied. In the present experiment it was detected, that total polyphenols content in samples onion ranges from 626.61 - 322.83 mg.kg-1 (onion and 506.7 mg.kg-1 for (garlic. Statistically significant highest value of total polyphenols was recorded in red onion the lowest content of total polyphenols was recorded in white onion 322.83.mg.kg-1, and statistically significant highest value of antioxidant activity was recorded in red onion (33.42% the lowest value was in white onion (22.68%. The value of antioxidant activity of garlic was (28.47%. Data analysis showed that the red variety onion presents highest value of total polyphenolic compounds. Consequently, antioxidant capacity was highest for red variety compared to other variety of onion and garlic. The order value of TPC was follow: Red Onion (626.61 >Garlic (506.70 >yellow onion (423.94 >pink onion (345.36 >white onion (322.83. Based on the measured values of AOA in onion and garlic samples can be

  1. Evaluation of androgenic activity of allium cepa on spermatogenesis in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaki, A; Fathiazad, F; Nouri, M; Khaki, A A; Khamenehi, H J; Hamadeh, M

    2009-02-01

    Allium cepa (onion) has a beneficial effect on disease treatment worldwide and has been used since ancient times as a medicinal and food source. Recently several reports have shown that onion has high antioxidant activity. As antioxidants have an essential effect on sperm health parameters, we investigated the effect of the fresh juice of onion bulbs on the spermatogenesis cycle in rats. Wistar male rats (n = 30) were allocated into 3 groups, control (n = 10) and two test groups (each of 10). The animals in the test groups were subdivided into groups of 2 that received fresh onion juice equivalent to 0.5 and 1 g/rat/ /day of fresh onion. The fresh onion juice was administered by gavage for 20 consecutive days. The animals were kept in standard conditions. On the twentieth day, the testes of rats in all groups were removed and sperm was collected from the epididymis and was prepared for analysis. Serum total testosterone significantly increased in all the test groups (p onion juice (p onion juice (p onion juice significantly affected the sperm number, percentage of viability, and motility; it seems that using 4 g/kg of freshly prepared onion juice is effective in sperm health parameters.

  2. Factors influencing induction, propagation and regeneration of mature zygotic embryo-derived callus from Allium cepa.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, S.; Henken, B.; Sofiari, E.; Jacobsen, E.; Krens, F.A.; Kik, C.

    1998-01-01

    A systematic study on the effects of subspecies, cultivar, basal medium, sucrose concentration and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid concentration on callus induction, propagation and subsequent plant regeneration in Allium cepa has been carried out. Mature zygotic embryos from two onion (cvs. Sturon

  3. Abnormal mitosis in root meristem cells of Allium cepa L. induced by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This investigation was aimed to find mitotic abnormalities as cytological evidence induced by the dye in root tip cells of onion (Allium cepa L.) grown in different concentrations: 0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5 and 1.0% (weight per volume) prepared in distilled water in separate treatment schedules for 24 and 48 h. Mitotic aberrations ...

  4. Genecology and seed zones for tapertip onion in the US Great Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. C. Johnson; Barbara C. Hellier; Ken W. Vance-Borland

    2013-01-01

    The choice of germplasm is critical for sustainable restoration, yet seed transfer guidelines are lacking for all but a few herbaceous species. Seed transfer zones based on genetic variability and climate were developed using tapertip onion (Allium acuminatum Hook.) collected in the Great Basin and surrounding areas in the United States. Bulbs from 53 locations were...

  5. Nitrogen requirements at bulb initiation for production of intermediate-day onions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of nitrogen application on growth, nitrogen (N) uptake, yield, and quality of intermediate-day onion (Allium cepa L. ‘Guimar’) was evaluated in the field in southern Portugal. Plants were fertilized with 30 kg/ha N at transplanting, 10 kg/ha N at 29 days after transplanting (DAT) during ...

  6. Wild Allium species (Alliaceae used in folk medicine of Tajikistan and Uzbekistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurbonova Parvina A

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hitherto available sources from literature mentioned several wild growing Allium species as "edible" or "medicinally used" but without any further specification. Methods New data were gained during recent research missions: Allium plants were collected and shown to the local population which was asked for names and usage of these plants. Results Information was collected about current medical applications of sixteen wild species, nine of which belong to different sections of Allium subgenus Melanocrommyum. These plants are used against headache, cold, and stomach problems, and are mostly applied fresh or after boiling. Conclusion Close taxonomic relatives of the common onion were used similar to cultivated onion species, but medical use like garlic was mostly reported for species taxonomically not related to garlic.

  7. Herança de coloração de bulbos em cebola (Allium cepa L. com resistência a Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Inheritace of bulb color in onion (Alllum cepa L. resitant to Colletotrichum gloeosporioides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.I.I. Cardoso

    1995-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a herança de coloração de bulbos de cebola a partir do cruzamento de bulbos brancos com resistência a Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Mal de 7 voltas segregantes da população Roxa do Barreiro com bulbos amarelos de linhagens endogâmicas obtidas das variedades Super Precoce e Pira Ouro. Para tal obtiveram-se as gerações F1 e F2 entre (Super Precoce x Barreiro "Branca" e entre (Pira Ouro x Barreiro "Branca". Nas gerações F1 obtiveram-se apenas bulbos roxos, enquanto que nas gerações F2 obtiveram-se uma segregação para bulbos roxos, brancos e amarelos numa proporção aproximada de 9:4:3, o que permitiu concluir que a herança, para estes cruzamentos, foi devida a 2 pares de genes contrastantes nas populações progenitoras, cujos genótipos, com base na literatura, são: ii cc RR (Barreiro Branca e ii CC rr (linhagens de Super Precoce e de Pira Ouro. Conclui-se, também, que é possível, a partir destes cruzamentos, obter uma variedade ou linhagem com resistência a C. gloeosporioides somente com bulbos amarelos ou com bulbos brancos com genótipo homozigoto recessivo para todos os genes, que quando cruzada com outra amarela pode-se obter uma geração F1 com bulbos amarelos e com resistência a C. gloeosporioides.The inheritance of onion bulb color was studied utilizing white bulbs resistant to Colletotrichum gloeosporioides that segregated from the population 'Roxa do Barreiro' and two inbred Unes with yellow bulbs originated from 'Super Precoce" and 'Pira Ouro' cultivars. The white bulbs and the inbred Unes were crossed to obtain the F1 and F2 generations (yellow x white. Both F1 generations were of red bulbs and in the F2 generation there were segregations to red, white and yellow bulbs in a proportion of 9:4:3, respectively. It was concluded that the inheritance of bulb color in these crosses is controlled by two contrasting genes hi the parental (ii cc RR = white bulbs, ii CC rr

  8. Y Coleg Cymraeg Cendelaethol - A Welsh Language Higher Education Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meara, Rhian

    2017-04-01

    The Coleg Cymraeg Cenedlaethol is a Welsh Government funded Higher Education Institution established to develop and promote Welsh-medium higher education in Wales. The Coleg funds > 50 academic lectureships within 7 universities and 2 colleges in Wales across all subject areas including a strong focus on Geography, Geology, Environmental Science and Agricultural subjects. Students whose first language is Welsh are classed as an under-represented group in higher education due to the minority status of the Welsh Language. Many of these students are also from areas involved in Communities First, and the Welsh Index of Multiple Deprivation initiatives. Students have completed Primary and Secondary education through the medium of Welsh and therefore struggle with the change to English-medium education at university entry-level, which in the GEES subject areas is often highly technical. Students who study through the Coleg can complete up to 66% of their degrees through the medium of Welsh including lectures, seminars, practical classes, field work and tutorials. Students therefore receive high quality subject tuition, typically in small group settings with experts in their preferred language. Staff also act as role-models for the students and provide important pastoral support which helps with the student transition process. The Coleg Cymraeg Cenedlaethol also provides sponsorship for Welsh-medium students throughout their undergraduate degrees. Students completing 33% of their degrees in Welsh are eligible for a maintenance grant of £1,500 over three years while students completing 66% of their course in Welsh can apply for a maintenance grant of £4,500 over three years. The Coleg Cymraeg Cenedlaethol was founded in 2011 and has recently received continued funding by the Welsh Government. Over the past 5 years, there has been a strong increase in student numbers studying through the medium of Welsh and excellent feedback has been received from students on their

  9. 2-undecanone and 2-tridecanone in field-grown onion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonious, George F

    2013-01-01

    A field study was conducted to investigate the impact of soil amendments on concentrations of two volatile organic compounds, 2-undecanone and 2-tridecanone, in onion bulbs. The soil in five plots was mixed with sewage sludge, five plots were mixed with yard waste compost, five plots were mixed with laying hen manure each at 15 t acre(-1), and five unamended plots that never received soil amendments were used for comparison purposes. Plots (n = 20) were planted with onion, Allium cepa L. var. Super Star-F1 bulbs. Gas chromatographic/mass spetrometric (GC/MS) analyses of mature onion bulbs crude extracts revealed the presence of two major fragment ions that correspond to 2-undecanone and 2-tridecanone. Soil amended with yard waste compost enhanced 2-undecanone and 2-tridecanone production by 31 and 59%, respectively. Soil amended with chicken manure enhanced 2-undecanone and 2-tridecanone production by 28 and 43%, respectively. Concentrations of 2-undecanone and 2-tridecanone were lowest in onion bulbs of plants grown in sewage sludge and unamended soil, respectively. The increased concentrations of 2-undecanone and 2-tridecanone in onion bulbs may provide a protective character against insect and spider mite attack in field grown onions.

  10. Bio-ethanol Production from Green Onion by Yeast in Repeated Batch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robati, Reza

    2013-09-01

    Considered to be the cleanest liquid fuel, bio-ethanol can be a reliable alternative to fossil fuels. It is produced by fermentation of sugar components of plant materials. The common onions are considered to be a favorable source of fermentation products as they have high sugar contents as well as contain various nutrients. This study focused on the effective production of ethanol from Green onion (Allium fistulosum L.) by the yeast "Saccharomyces cerevisiae" in repeated batch. The results showed that the total sugar concentration of onion juice was 68.4 g/l. The maximum rate of productivity, ethanol yield and final bio-ethanol percentage was 7 g/l/h (g ethanol per liter of onion juice per hour), 35 g/l (g ethanol per liter of onion juice) and 90 %, respectively.

  11. Onion thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae): a global pest of increasing concern in onion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Montano, John; Fuchs, Marc; Nault, Brian A; Fail, József; Shelton, Anthony M

    2011-02-01

    During the past two decades, onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), has become a global pest of increasing concern in commercial onion (Allium cepa L.), because of its development of resistance to insecticides, ability to transmit plant pathogens, and frequency of producing more generations at high temperatures. T. tabaci feeds directly on leaves, causing blotches and premature senescence as well as distorted and undersized bulbs. T. tabaci can cause yield loss > 50% but can be even more problematic when it transmits Iris yellow spot virus (family Bunyaviridae, genus Tospovirus, IYSV). IYSV was identified in 1981 in Brazil and has spread to many important onion-producing regions of the world, including several U.S. states. IYSV symptoms include straw-colored, dry, tan, spindle- or diamond-shaped lesions on the leaves and scapes of onion plants and can cause yield loss up to 100%. Here, we review the biology and ecology of T. tabaci and discuss current management strategies based on chemical, biological, and cultural control as well as host resistance. Future directions for research in integrated pest management are examined and discussed.

  12. The production of reactive oxygen species and the mitochondrial membrane potential are modulated during onion oil-induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in A549 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xin-jiang; Stahl, Thorsten; Hu, Ying; Kassie, Fekadu; Mersch-Sundermann, Volker

    2006-03-01

    Protective effects of Allium vegetables against cancers have been shown extensively in experimental animals and epidemiologic studies. We investigated cell proliferation and the induction of apoptosis by onion oil extracted from Allium cepa, a widely consumed Allium vegetable, in human lung cancer A549 cells. GC/MS analysis suggested that propyl sulfides but not allyl sulfides are major sulfur-containing constituents of onion oil. Onion oil at 12.5 mg/L significantly induced apoptosis (13% increase of apoptotic cells) as indicated by sub-G1 DNA content. It also caused cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase; 25 mg/L onion oil increased the percentage of G2/M cells almost 6-fold compared with the dimethyl sulfoxide control. The action of onion oil may occur via a reactive oxygen species-dependent pathway because cell cycle arrest and apoptosis were blocked by the antioxidants N-acetylcysteine and exogenous glutathione. Marked collapse of the mitochondrial membrane potential suggested that dysfunction of the mitochondria may be involved in the oxidative burst and apoptosis induced by onion oil. Expression of phospho-cdc2 and phospho-cyclin B1 were downregulated by onion oil, perhaps accounting for the G2/M arrest. Overall, these results suggest that onion oil may exert chemopreventive action by inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in tumor cells.

  13. Efficacy of molecular markers jnurf13 and AcPms1 for prediction of genotypes at the nuclear Ms locus in North American open-pollinated populations of onion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seed of hybrid onion (Allium cepa L.) is produced using cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) and the for most widely used source of onion CMS, male sterility is conditioned by the interaction of male-sterile (S) cytoplasm and the homozygous recessive genotype at the nuclear male-fertility locus Ms. Due ...

  14. An onion byproduct affects plasma lipids in healthy rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldán-Marín, Eduvigis; Jensen, Runa I; Krath, Britta N; Kristensen, Mette; Poulsen, Morten; Cano, M Pilar; Sánchez-Moreno, Concepción; Dragsted, Lars O

    2010-05-12

    Onion may contribute to the health effects associated with high fruit and vegetable consumption. A considerable amount of onion production ends up as waste that might find use in foods. Onion byproduct has not yet been explored for potential health benefits. The aim of this study is to elucidate the safety and potential role of onion byproducts in affecting risk markers of cardiovascular disease (CVD). For that purpose, the effects of an onion byproduct, Allium cepa L. cepa 'Recas' (OBP), and its two derived fractions, an ethanolic extract (OE) and a residue (OR), on the distribution of plasma lipids and on factors affecting cholesterol metabolism in healthy rats have been investigated. The OBP or its fractions did not significantly reduce cholesterol or down-regulate hepatic 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (Hmgcr) gene expression. The OR even had the effect of increasing plasma triacylglycerides (TAG) and cholesterol in the very low density lipoprotein (VLDL-C) fraction. Neither total bile acids nor total primary or secondary bile acids were significantly affected by feeding rats the OBP or its fractions. Principal component analysis combining all markers revealed that the controls could be completely separated from OBP, OE, and OR groups in the scores plot and also that OE and OR groups were separated. Plasma lipids and bile acid excretion were the discriminating loading factors for separating OE and OR but also contributed to the separation of onion-fed animals and controls. It was concluded that the onion byproduct did not present significant beneficial effects on individual markers related to plasma lipid transport in this healthy rat model but that onion byproduct contains factors with the ability to modulate plasma lipids and lipoprotein levels.

  15. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of leek (Allium porrum) and garlic (Allium sativum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eady, Colin; Davis, Sheree; Catanach, Andrew; Kenel, Fernand; Hunger, Sarah

    2005-06-01

    Transgenic leek (Allium porrum) and garlic (Allium sativum) plants have been recovered by the selective culturing of immature leek and garlic embryos via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation using a method similar to that described by Eady et al. (Plant Cell Rep 19:376-381, 2000) for onion transformation. This method involved the use of a binary vector containing the m-gfp-ER reporter gene and nptII selectable marker, and followed the protocol developed previously for the transformation of onions with only minor modifications pertaining to the post-transformation selection procedure which was simplified to have just a single selection regime. Transgenic cultures were selected for their ability to express the m-gfp-ER reporter gene and grown in the presence of geneticin (20 mg/l). The presence of transgenes in the genome of the plants was confirmed using TAIL-PCR and Southern analysis. This is the first report of leek and "true seed" garlic transformation. It now makes possible the integration of useful agronomic and quality traits into these crops.

  16. Therapeutic Effects of Allium sativum and Allium cepa in Schistosoma mansoni experimental infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Mohamed Mantawy

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of both garlic (Allium sativum and onion (Allium cepa on some biochemical parameters in Schistosoma mansoni infected mice individually and mixed either with or without the currently used drug, praziquantel (PZQ were investigated. These involved some immunological parameters, namely IgM, IgG, interleukins 2 and 6 (IL-2 and 6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, some antioxidant enzymes [catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPX]. In addition, parasitological and histopathological investigations were performed. No changes were observed in the normal control mice treated with dry extract of onion or garlic, individually or mixed, with or without PZQ, compared to the normal healthy control group. Infection with S. mansoni showed an increase in IgG, IgM, IL-2, IL-6, TNF-α and catalase enzyme, accompanied with a decrease in GPX and SOD antioxidant enzyme activities. Remarkable amelioration was noticed in the levels of all the measured parameters in S. mansoni infected mice after administration of the studied extracts. Moreover a significant reduction in worm burden, hepatic and intestinal eggs and oogram count was noticed which was reflected in normalization of liver architecture.

  17. Learning Welshness: Does the Curriculum Cymreig Positively Affect Pupils' Orientations to Wales and Welshness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the possible affect schooling has on pupils' orientations to cultural and national identity in Wales. The Curriculum Cymreig is a distinctive feature of the national curriculum of Wales that has important ramifications regarding the enactment of citizenship education in Welsh schools. Under this initiative, schools in Wales…

  18. Efeito da cerosidade foliar na reação de variedades de cebola (Allium cepa L. a herbicidas de pós-emergência Effect of the foliar waxiness of onion varieties (Allium cepa L. in reaction to post-emergence herbicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.V. Ferreira

    1982-12-01

    Full Text Available Em ensaios experimentais, realizados no Departamento de Genética da Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz" da Universidade de São Paulo, Piracicaba - SP, verificou-se o efeito da ce rosidade foliar na reação de variedades de cebola a herbicidas de pós-emergência. Utilizaram-se variedades do grupo não ceroso, como Granex e Texas Grano, e variedades do grupo ceroso, como Baia Periforme, Barreiro SMP-IV, Red Creole e Roxa Chata SMP-IV, no 1.º ensaio; e variedades do grupo não ceroso, como Excel Bermudas 986 e Texas Grano, e variedades do grupo ceroso, como Baia Periforme, Pira Couto, Pira Dura, Pira Ouro A/R, Red Creole e Roxa Chata SMP-IV, no 2.º ensaio. Os herbicidas de pós-emergência e as doses utilizadas foram: bentazon, 0,48 kg i.a./ha e prometryne 1,60 kg i.a./ha, no 1.0 ensaio; e ácido sulfúrico (4%, bentazon 0,48 kg i.a./ha, prometryne 1,60 kg i.a./ha e diuron 1,60 kg i.a./ha, no 2: ensaio. Os resultados obtidos mostram que a cerosidade foliar é um dos mecanismos de resistência de cebola à ação de herbicidas de pós-emergência.In experimental trials, carried out in the Department of Genetic of ESALQ, University of São Paulo, Piracicaba - SP, the effect of the foliar waxiness in reaction of onion varieties at postemergence herbicides was studied. Glossy group varieties such as Granex and Texas Grano and non-glossy group varieties such as Baia Periforme, Barreiro SMP-IV, Red Creole and Roxa-Chata SMP-IV, were tested in 1st. experiment; and glossy group varieties such as Excel Bermudas 986 and Texas Grano and nonglossy group varieties such as Baia Periforme, Pira Couto, Pira Dura, Pira Ouro A/R, Red Creole and Roxa Chata SMP-IV, in 2nd experiment. The following post-emergence herbicides and doses were used: bentazon 0,48 kg a.i./ha and prometryne 1,60 kg a.i./ha, in the last experiment: and sulphuric acid (4%, bentazon 0,48 kg a.i./ha, prometryne 1,60 kg a.i./ha and diuron 1,60 kg a.i./ha, in the 2nd experiment

  19. Efecto del Fosfito de Potasio en Combinación con el Fungicida Metalaxyl + Mancozeb en el Control de Mildeo Velloso (Peronospora destructor Berk en Cebolla de Bulbo (Allium cepa L. Effect of the Potasium Phosphite in Combination with the Fungicide Metalaxyl plus Mancozeb on the Control of Downy Mildew (Peronospora destructor Berk in Onion Bulb (Allium cepa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Velandia Monsalve

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumen. El hongo Peronospora destructor causa considerables pérdidas en la producción de cebolla de bulbo en el mundo. Fosfito de potasio en combinación con el fungicida Metalaxyl + Mancozeb, fue evaluado por su eficiencia en el control de este patógeno en el híbrido de cebolla de bulbo Yellow Granex. Los tratamientos consistieron en una aplicación de fosfito (5 mL L-1 alternada con una de fungicida (2 g L-1; dos y tres aplicaciones consecutivas de fosfito alternadas con una de fungicida; una aplicación de fungicida alternada con una de fosfito; dos y tres aplicaciones consecutivas de fungicida alternadas con una de fosfito; aplicaciones de sólo fosfito y sólo fungicida y un testigo. Se utilizó el diseño experimental de bloques completos al azar con tres repeticiones. Se evaluó la incidencia y severidad de la enfermedad, el número, tamaño y peso de bulbos de primera, segunda, tercera y peso total de bulbos. Los resultados mostraron que las aplicaciones de fosfito de potasio durante dos semanas consecutivas alternadas en la tercera semana con una de fungicida y las aplicaciones semanales de sólo fosfito, tuvieron efectos altamente significativos en el control de la incidencia y severidad de P. destructor y diferencias significativas en el peso de los bulbos de primera (28,1 y 27,9 t ha-1 y peso total de bulbos (55,5 y 52,1 t ha-1, representando en relación al testigo, un incremento de 200 y 196% en el peso de los bulbos de primera y de 55 y 45,7% en el peso total de bulbos, respectivamente. Se concluye que con el fosfito de potasio se reduce la aplicación de fungicidas y ello es una alternativa viable para el manejo ecológico de P. destructor en la producción de cebolla de bulbo.Abstract. Peronospora destructor fungi causes considerable loses in the production of onion bulb in the world. Potassium phosphite in combination with the fungicide Metalaxyl + Mancozeb was evaluated for its efficiency in the control of this pathogen

  20. Avaliação de herbicidas aplicados em pré e pós-emergência na cultura da cebola (Allium cepa L. Herbicides applied in pre and pos-emergence on transplanted onion crop (Allium cepa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C. Ferreira

    1985-12-01

    performance of several herbicides in controlling weeds on transplanted onion crop and the crop tolerance. The treatments were arranged in a randomized complete block design with 3 replications, in a sandy red -yellow Latosol, of low clay and organic matter values. In the experiment I, oxadiazon (1.00 kg/h a, pent imethalin (1.25 kg/h a and napropamide (1.50 kg/ ha were applied in pre -emergence, two days aft er transplanting; oxyfluorfen (0.24 and 0.48 kg/h a in early post emergence, ten days after transplanting; oxadiazon (1.00 kg/ha, oxadiazon (1.00 kg/h a + ammonium sulphat e (5.00 kg/h a, bentazon (0,72 kg/h a, acifluorfen-sodium (0.32 kg/h a, dinoseb acetate (1.50 kg/h a, setoxydim (0.23 kg/ ha, alloxydim -sodium (1.12kg/ha , diclofop-methyl (0.72 kg/h a , and bentazon (0.72 kg/ha + sethoxydim (0.23 kg/h a, 14 days after transplanting. In the experiment II, oxadiazon (1.00 kg/h a, oxyfluorfen (0.48 and 0.96 kg/h a, and napropamide (1.50 and 3,00 kg/h a were applied two days after transplanting; oxyf luorfen (0.48 and 0.96 kg/h a, bentazon (0.72 and 1.44 kg/h a, acifluorfen-sodium (0.27 and 0.54 kg/h a, dinoseb acetate (1.50 and 3.00 kg/h a, and bentazon (0.72 kg/h a + sethoxydim (0.23 kg/h a, 14 days after transplanting. In evaluations made 20 and 34 days after transplanting, respectively in the experiment I and II, high levels of weed control by oxadiazon and oxyflurfen herbicides were observed. Among other treat ments, acifluorfen -sodium was outs tanding in controlling broad leave weeds and sethoxydin, alloxydim-sodium, napropamide, pendimethalin and bentazon + sethoxydim mixture in grass control. In experiment II, dinoseb and mainly napropamide affected the develop ment of the onion crop and caused yield reductions.

  1. Prestige Planning and the Welsh Language: Marketing, the Consumer-Citizen and Language Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chriost, Diarmait Mac Giolla

    2006-01-01

    This paper comprises a brief examination of the approach taken by the Welsh Language Board, as the principal language policy and planning body in Wales, with regard to aspects of prestige planning and the Welsh language. It describes how devolution and the recent, and first ever, national review by the Welsh Assembly Government of Welsh language…

  2. Fresh onion juice enhanced copulatory behavior in male rats with and without paroxetine-induced sexual dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allouh, Mohammed Z; Daradka, Haytham M; Al Barbarawi, Mohammed M; Mustafa, Ayman G

    2014-02-01

    Onion (Allium cepa) is one of the most commonly cultivated species of the family Liliaceae, and has long been used in dietary and therapeutic applications. Treatment with fresh onion juice has been reported to promote testosterone production in male rats. Testosterone is the male sex hormone responsible for enhancing sexual libido and potency. This study aimed to investigate the effects of onion juice on copulatory behavior of sexually potent male rats and in male rats with paroxetine-induced sexual dysfunction. Sexually experienced male rats were divided into seven groups: a control group, three onion juice-treated groups, a paroxetine-treated group, and two groups treated with paroxetine plus different doses of onion juice. At the end of the treatments, sexual behavior parameters and testosterone levels were measured and compared among the groups. Administration of onion juice significantly reduced mount frequency and latency and increased the copulatory efficacy of potent male rats. In addition, administration of onion juice attenuated the prolonged ejaculatory latency period induced by paroxetine and increased the percentage of ejaculating rats. Serum testosterone levels increased significantly by onion juice administration. However, a significant reduction in testosterone because of paroxetine therapy was observed. This reduction was restored to normal levels by administration of onion juice. This study conclusively demonstrates that fresh onion juice improves copulatory behavior in sexually potent male rats and in those with paroxetine-induced sexual dysfunction by increasing serum testosterone levels.

  3. Therapeutic Role of Functional Components in Alliums for Preventive Chronic Disease in Human Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuping; Yang, Jiazhen; Pu, Xiaoying; Du, Juan; Yang, Xiaomeng; Yang, Tao; Yang, Shuming

    2017-01-01

    Objectives. Functional components in alliums have long been maintained to play a key role in modifying the major risk factors for chronic disease. To obtain a better understanding of alliums for chronic disease prevention, we conducted a systematic review for risk factors and prevention strategies for chronic disease of functional components in alliums, based on a comprehensive English literature search that was conducted using various electronic search databases, especially the PubMed, ISI Web of Science, and CNKI for the period 2007–2016. Allium genus especially garlic, onion, and Chinese chive is rich in organosulfur compounds, quercetin, flavonoids, saponins, and others, which have anticancer, preventive cardiovascular and heart diseases, anti-inflammation, antiobesity, antidiabetes, antioxidants, antimicrobial activity, neuroprotective and immunological effects, and so on. These results support Allium genus; garlic and onion especially may be the promising dietotherapeutic vegetables and organopolysulfides as well as quercetin mechanism in the treatment of chronic diseases. This review may be used as scientific basis for the development of functional food, nutraceuticals, and alternative drugs to improve the chronic diseases. PMID:28261311

  4. Therapeutic Role of Functional Components in Alliums for Preventive Chronic Disease in Human Being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yawen Zeng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Functional components in alliums have long been maintained to play a key role in modifying the major risk factors for chronic disease. To obtain a better understanding of alliums for chronic disease prevention, we conducted a systematic review for risk factors and prevention strategies for chronic disease of functional components in alliums, based on a comprehensive English literature search that was conducted using various electronic search databases, especially the PubMed, ISI Web of Science, and CNKI for the period 2007–2016. Allium genus especially garlic, onion, and Chinese chive is rich in organosulfur compounds, quercetin, flavonoids, saponins, and others, which have anticancer, preventive cardiovascular and heart diseases, anti-inflammation, antiobesity, antidiabetes, antioxidants, antimicrobial activity, neuroprotective and immunological effects, and so on. These results support Allium genus; garlic and onion especially may be the promising dietotherapeutic vegetables and organopolysulfides as well as quercetin mechanism in the treatment of chronic diseases. This review may be used as scientific basis for the development of functional food, nutraceuticals, and alternative drugs to improve the chronic diseases.

  5. A prospective cohort study on Allium vegetable consumption, garlic supplement use, and the risk of lung carcinoma in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorant, E.; Brandt, P. van den; Goldbohm, R.A.

    1995-01-01

    The association between the consumption of onions and leeks (vegetables belonging to the Allium genus), garlic supplements, and the risk of lung carcinoma was investigated in a large-scale prospective cohort study on diet and cancer in the Netherlands. The Netherlands Cohort Study was started in

  6. Identification of Narcissus yellow stripe virus and a closely-related potyvirus isolate in plants of Allium carinatum

    Science.gov (United States)

    A survey of varieties and species of ornamental Allium revealed the presence of multiple viruses, including potyviruses, carlaviruses, and allexiviruses. Most of these viruses have been previously identified in A. sativum (garlic), A. cepa (onion), A. porrum (synonym A. ampeloprasum var. porrum; lee...

  7. Low levels of H2S may replace sulfate as sulfur source in sulfate-deprived onion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Durenkamp, Mark; De Kok, LJ

    2005-01-01

    Onion (Allium cepa L.) was exposed to low levels of H2S in order to investigate to what extent H2S could be used as a sulfur source for growth under sulfate-deprived conditions. Sulfate deprivation for a two-week period resulted in a decreased biomass production of the shoot, a subsequently

  8. Improved fructan accumulation in perennial ryegrass transformed with the onion fructosyltransferase genes 1-SST and 6G-FFT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gadegaard, Gitte; Didion, Thomas; Foiling, Marianne

    2008-01-01

    value of ryegrass (Lolium perenne) by increasing the fructan content through expression of heterologous fructan biosynthetic genes. We developed perennial ryegrass Lines expressing sucrose:sucrose 1-fructosyltransferase and fructan:fructan 6G-fructosyltransferase genes from onion (Allium cepa) which...

  9. Editorial: Identification and incidence of iris yellow spot virus, a new pathogen in onion and leek in Greece

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chatzivassiliou, E.K.; Giavachtsia, V.; Hassani-Mehraban, A.; Hoedjes, K.; Peters, D.

    2009-01-01

    Iris yellow spot virus (IYSV; genus Tospovirus, family Bunyaviridae) is an emerging and serious pathogen affecting several Allium spp. worldwide (2). The virus causes straw-colored, chlorotic or necrotic lesions that coalesce, occasionally resulting in an extensive necrosis on onion (A. cepa L.)

  10. Interspecific chromosomal rearrangements in monosomic addition lines of Allium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthes, L; Ricroch, A

    2001-10-01

    Monosomic alien addition lines (MAALs) are useful for assigning linkage groups to chromosomes. We examined whether the chromosomal rearrangements following the introduction of a single onion (Allium cepa) chromosome into the Allium fistulosum genome were produced by homeologous crossing over or by a nonreciprocal conversion event. Among the monosomic lines available, 17 were studied by fluorescent genomic in situ hybridisation, using total A. cepa genomic DNA as the probe and total A. fistulosum genomic DNA as the competitor. In this way, rearrangements such as chromosomal translocations between A. cepa and A. fistulosum were identified as terminal regions consisting of tandem DNA repeats. Homeologous crossing over between the two closely related genomes occurred in 4 of the 17 lines, suggesting that such events are not rare. On the basis of a detailed molecular cytogenetic characterisation, we identified true monosomic alien addition lines for A. cepa chromosomes 3, 4, 5, 7, and 8 that can reliably be used in genetic studies.

  11. Flavonoid and carbohydrate contents in Tropea red onions: effects of homelike peeling and storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gennaro, Laura; Leonardi, Cherubino; Esposito, Fabrizio; Salucci, Monica; Maiani, Giuseppe; Quaglia, Giovanni; Fogliano, Vincenzo

    2002-03-27

    The content of anthocyanins, flavonols, and carbohydrates of Tropea red onions (Allium cepa L.) was determined by HPLC and HPLC-MS. Cyanidin derivatives constitute >50% of total anthocyanins, but delphinidin and petunidin derivatives, which have not been reported in red onions thus far, were also detected. The flavonoid distribution in the different layers of the bulbs indicates that, after homelike peeling, the edible portion contains 79% of the total content of quercetin 4'-glucoside but only 27% of the anthocyanins. Storage of onions for 6 weeks in different conditions, all of them mimicking home storage habits, resulted in a decrease to 64-73% of total anthocyanins. The same trend was verified for the total antioxidant activity, which was reduced to 29-36%. A decrease in glucose and fructose content correlated with anthocyanin degradation was also observed. Storage at low temperature seems to better preserve the onion anthocyanins.

  12. Evaluating an Action Threshold-Based Insecticide Program on Onion Cultivars Varying in Resistance to Onion Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nault, Brian A; Huseth, Anders S

    2016-08-01

    Onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), is a highly destructive pest of onion, Allium cepa L., and its management relies on multiple applications of foliar insecticides. Development of insecticide resistance is common in T. tabaci populations, and new strategies are needed to relax existing levels of insecticide use, but still provide protection against T. tabaci without compromising marketable onion yield. An action threshold-based insecticide program combined with or without a thrips-resistant onion cultivar was investigated as an improved approach for managing T. tabaci infestations in commercial onion fields. Regardless of cultivar type, the average number of insecticide applications needed to manage T. tabaci infestations in the action-threshold based program was 4.3, while the average number of sprays in the standard weekly program was 7.2 (a 40% reduction). The mean percent reduction in numbers of applications following the action threshold treatment in the thrips-resistant onion cultivar, 'Advantage', was 46.7% (range 40-50%) compared with the standard program, whereas the percentage reduction in applications in action threshold treatments in the thrips-susceptible onion cultivar, 'Santana', was 34.3% (range 13-50%) compared with the standard program, suggesting a benefit of the thrips-resistant cultivar. Marketable bulb yields for both 'Advantage' and 'Santana' in the action threshold-based program were nearly identical to those in the standard program, indicating that commercially acceptable bulb yields will be generated with fewer insecticide sprays following an action threshold-based program, saving money, time and benefiting the environment. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Chemical Composition and Biological Activity of Allium cepa L. and Allium × cornutum (Clementi ex Visiani 1842 Methanolic Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Željana Fredotović

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Here, we report a comparative study of the phytochemical profile and the biological activity of two onion extracts, namely Allium cepa L. and Allium × cornutum (Clementi ex Visiani 1842, members of the family Amaryllidaceae. The identification of flavonoids and anthocyanins, and their individual quantities, was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. The potency of both extracts to scavenge free radicals was determined by the DPPH (2,2′-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging activity and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC methods. The DNA protective role was further tested by the single-cell gel electrophoresis (COMET assay and by Fenton’s reagent causing double-strand breaks on the closed circular high copy pUC19 plasmid isolated from Escherichia coli. In the presence of both extracts, a significant decrease in DNA damage was observed, which indicates a protective role of Allium cepa and Allium × cornutum on DNA strand breaks. Additionally, cytotoxicity was tested on glioblastoma and breast cancer cell lines. The results showed that both extracts had antiproliferative effects, but the most prominent decrease in cellular growth was observed in glioblastoma cells.

  14. CAL and FE: a Welsh perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antje Cockrill

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The increasing usage in recent years of trendy, but often ill-defined, terms such as 'lifelong learning' (see Edwards, Raggatt, Harrison, McCollum and Calder, 1998, 'the learning society' (for example, National Grid for Learning, http://www.dfee.gov.uk/grid/challenge/ govermhtm, or 'learning country' (for example, Welsh Office, 1998; ETAG, 1999 indicates the importance that both the public and private sectors attach to the establishment of a learning culture. This has included the recognition that, in order to achieve such a culture, access to learning must be made easier and existing barriers removed. Edwards and his coauthors (1998 maintain that most experts see lifelong learning as a rallying cry, rather than a specific policy. This statement holds true for many similar slogans, but what they have in common is 'the power to unite various stakeholders around the need for change, because it has emerged as a response to today's challenges' (Edwards et al, 1998.

  15. Efficiency of the aquatic macrophyte salvinia auriculata in purification of urban effluents, validated by allium test (Allium Cepa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila S. Gonçalves

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of the aquatic macrophytes Salvinia auriculata Aublet in purification of polluted effluents, and evaluate macroscopically the efficiency of macrophytes using the Allium cepa Linnaeus (onion test. Three collections were performed in September 2011, the first analysis was performed with water collected directly from River Santa Catarina, the second was performed seven days after the contact of the effluent with the macrophytes, and the third, fifteen days after the first analyses. The data were analyzed using Student’s t-test (p<0.05. To verify the normality of the data was used the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test (p<0.05, for each sample (treatment. According to the results of the Allium test, the aquatic macrophyte S. auriculata was efficient in the removing of pollutants agents after fifteen days in contact with the effluent.

  16. Final Critical Habitat for the Welsh's milkweed (Asclepias welshii)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — To provide the user with a general idea of areas where the final critical habitat for Welsh's milkweed (Asclepias welshii) occur based on the description provided in...

  17. Effect of Allium cepa and Allium sativum on some immunological cells in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirabeau, Tatfeng Y; Samson, Enitan S

    2012-01-01

    Extracts of some spices have been reported to play a contributory role in enhancing immune function. We evaluated and compared the effect(s) of single and combined oral administration of fresh aqueous onion (Allium cepa) and garlic (Allium sativum) extracts at different concentrations on some immunological determinants in rats. CD₄ cells of the rats were estimated using Partec flow cytometric technique, while total and differential white blood cell (WBC) counts were estimated using the Sysmsex® automated haematology analyzing technique. Our findings revealed that, CD4 and total WBC counts were significantly increased (P≤0.05) in a dose-dependent manner in both onion (250mg/Kg/d: 349±11cell/ul and 2.75±0.15X10³cell/l; 500mg/Kg/d: 389±10cells/µl and 3.05±0.05 X10³cell/l; 750mg/Kg/d: 600±11cell/µl and 3.25±0.05X10³cells/l) and garlic (250mg/Kg/d: 410±10cell/ul and 2.85±0.15X10³cell/l; 500mg/Kg/d: 494±32cells/µl and 3.30±0.10 X10³cell/l; 750mg/Kg/d: 684±11cell/µl and 3.55±0.05X10³cells/l) treated rats when compared to the zero control (200±11cells/µl and 1.55±0.05X10³cells/l, respectively). Extract of garlic at 750mg/Kg/d had significantly increased the CD4 cells and total white cell count when compared to other concentrations (P≤0.05). However, no significant effect was observed on these parameters when extracts were combined (250mg/Kg/d: 252±21cell/µl and 1.80±0.10X10³cells/l; 500mg/Kg/d: 315±21cells/ul and 2.10±0.10X10³cells/l; 750mg/Kg/d: 368±10cells/µl and 2.35±0.05X10³cells/l, respectively), the differential WBC count showed a significant increase in the proportion of cell types (lymphocytes, neutophils and monocytes) (P≤0.05). The results from this study revealed the immune boosting capabilities of Allium cepa and Allium sativum, but underscored their synergistic activities.

  18. Onion dehydration: a review

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mitra, Jayeeta; Shrivastava, S L; Rao, P S

    .... The various kinds of treatments followed for dehydration of onion such as convective air drying, solar drying, fluidized bed drying, vacuum microwave drying, infrared drying and osmotic drying are reviewed here...

  19. Effects of an onion by-product on bioactivity and safety markers in healthy rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldán-Marín, Eduvigis; Krath, Britta N; Poulsen, Morten; Binderup, Mona-Lise; Nielsen, Tom H; Hansen, Max; Barri, Thaer; Langkilde, Søren; Cano, M Pilar; Sánchez-Moreno, Concepción; Dragsted, Lars O

    2009-12-01

    Onions are excellent sources of bioactive compounds including fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) and polyphenols. An onion by-product was characterised in order to be developed as a potentially bioactive food ingredient. Our main aim was to investigate whether the potential health and safety effects of this onion by-product were shared by either of two derived fractions, an extract containing the onion FOS and polyphenols and a residue fraction containing mainly cell wall materials. We report here on the effects of feeding these products on markers of potential toxicity, protective enzymes and gut environment in healthy rats. Rats were fed during 4 weeks with a diet containing the products or a control feed balanced in carbohydrate. The onion by-product and the extract caused anaemia as expected in rodents for Allium products. No other toxicity was observed, including genotoxicity. Glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx1) activities in erythrocytes increased when rats were fed with the onion extract. Hepatic gene expression of Gr, Gpx1, catalase, 5-aminolevulinate synthase and NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase was not altered in any group of the onion fed rats. By contrast, gamma-glutamate cysteine ligase catalytic subunit gene expression was upregulated but only in rats given the onion residue. The onion by-products as well as the soluble and insoluble fractions had prebiotic effects as evidenced by decreased pH, increased butyrate production and altered gut microbiota enzyme activities. In conclusion, the onion by-products have no in vivo genotoxicity, may support in vivo antioxidative defence and alter the functionality of the rat gut microbiota.

  20. Analisis Citra untuk Mengamati Perubahan Kenampakan Visual Bawang Merah (Allium Ascalonicum, L) Karena Pengeringan )

    OpenAIRE

    Masithoh, Rudiati Evi; Kusuma, Sony Anshory

    2012-01-01

    This research aimed at observing changes of visual appearance of dehydrated sliced red onion (Allium ascalonicum L)and its image parameters, i.e. area and textures (entropy, energy, contrast, and homogeneity) using image processing and analysis. Images analysis was conducted using the image processing system consisted of a webcam, illuminations, computer hardware, and image processing software. Entropy and contrast increased as moisture contents decreased, whereas energy, homogeneity and area...

  1. Spice plant Allium cepa: dietary supplement for treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akash, Muhammad Sajid Hamid; Rehman, Kanwal; Chen, Shuqing

    2014-10-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality and its prevalence is increasing worldwide. Although conventional antidiabetic agents are known to ameliorate the symptoms of diabetes, they also may cause adverse effects. The purpose of this review was to organize and discuss various studies that have been previously conducted indicating the efficacy of Allium cepa in DM. A comprehensive English literature search was conducted using various electronic search databases. Different search terms were used and an advanced search was conducted by combining all the search fields in abstracts, keywords, and titles. Allium cepa, a spice plant, is commonly known as onion and belongs to the family liliaceae. Since ancient times, it has been used traditionally for the treatment of different diseases. Among various activities of Allium cepa, regulation of hypoglycemic activity is considered one of its important effects in DM. Sulfur compounds including S-methylcysteine and flavonoids such as quercetin are mainly responsible for the hypoglycemic activity of Allium cepa. S-methylcysteine and flavonoids help to decrease the levels of blood glucose, serum lipids, oxidative stress, and lipid peroxidation, as well as increasing antioxidant enzyme activity and insulin secretion. Extracts of onion also have been shown to have hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects by normalizing the activities of liver hexokinase, glucose 6-phosphatase and HMG coenzyme-A reductase. In preliminarily clinical trials, patients with diabetes safely consumed slices of Allium cepa, exhibiting sufficient hypoglycemic activity. In the future, further studies must be conducted to investigate and confirm the hypoglycemic activities of Allium cepa and its constituents and/or their synthetic analogs. This review will not only elucidate the nutritious facts of Allium cepa but may also help in understanding the molecular basis of its effects in DM. This review will explore in particular

  2. Antioxidant and schistosomicidal effect of Allium sativum and Allium cepa against Schistosoma mansoni different stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantawy, M M; Aly, H F; Zayed, N; Fahmy, Z H

    2012-07-01

    The schistosomicidal properties of garlic (Allium sativum) and onion (Allium cepa) powder were tested in vitro against Schistosoma mansoni miracidia, schistosomula, cercaria and adult worms. Results indicate their strong biocidal effects against all stages of the parasite and also show scavenging inhibitory effect on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and nitric oxide (NO). In the present work, the in vivo effects of A. sativum and A. cepa on lipid peroxide and some antioxidant enzymes; thioredoxin reductase (TrxR), sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione reductase (GR) (as they have a crucial role in host protection against invading parasite) were also studied. The data demonstrate that, there was a significant inhibition in SOD, CAT, GR, TrxR and SDH in infected liver while, significant elevation was detected in lipid peroxide as compared to the normal control. The current resultS clearly revealed that, the used both edible plants enhance the host antioxidant system indicated by lowering in lipid peroxide and stimulation of SOD, CAT, GR, TrxR and SDH enzyme levels. Enhancement of such enzymes using A. sativum and A. cepa could in turn render the parasite vulnerable to damage by the host and may play a role in the antischistosomal potency of the used food ingredients.

  3. Furostanol saponins from the seeds of Allium cepa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chuang-Jun; Yuan, Ling; Ji, Teng-Fei; Yang, Jian-Bo; Wang, Ai-Guo; Su, Ya-Lun

    2014-12-01

    Allium cepa L. is one of the most widely cultivated and used plants. In addition to its bulb (onion), which is used as food in many cultures, the seeds of A. cepa L. are used as a traditional herbal medicine by the Uygur nationality in China to treat diarrhea and promote blood flow. In a bioactivity-screening, the ethanol extract of seeds of A. cepa L. showed inhibitory effects on protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) enzyme, with 81.1% inhibition. Phytochemical investigation of the ethanol extract of red onion (Allium cepa L.) seeds led to the isolation of eight new furostanol saponins, named ceparosides E-L (1-8). Their structures were established using 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry and chemical methods. Compounds 1-8 were screened for inhibitory effects on the PTP1B enzyme and cytotoxic activity against five human cells, including HCT-8, Bel-7402, BGC-823, A549 and A2780, but all were found to be inactive. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Biologie, diversité et outils pour l'analyse de la diversité génétique de l'oignon, Allium cepa L. (synthèse bibliographique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdou, R.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Biology, diversity and tools for diversity analysis of the onion (Allium cepa L.. A review. Description of the subject. This study explores important information on biology, genetic resources, taxonomy, as well as morphological, biochemical and molecular markers in order to provide a better understanding of the genetic diversity of the onion (Allium cepa L.. The study has a particular focus on the plant as grown in Africa. The onion is a monocotyledonous, allogamous, and entomophilous plant, with a one-year production cycle for bulb production, and a two-year production cycle for seeds. The onion is one of the most significant vegetables in the world because of its use as both a food and a medicine. Literature. Twenty-eight morphological markers, linked to seed, leaf, flower and bulb traits, were identified as the most discriminant phenotypical criteria. Biochemical and molecular markers were also developed to characterize genetic variations between and within onion varieties. Previous studies examining West Africa onion varieties showed that only six enzyme systems are polymorphic. However, only twenty-four isozymes have been used to compare the onion to other Allium species. This low number of polymorphic biochemical markers makes it more difficult to determine the genetic diversity of onions. On the other hand, molecular markers at DNA level, such as RAPD, RFLP, AFLP, SSR, are very useful to analyze diversity at varietal and species level, using cultivated and spontaneous forms, and to analyze the level of introgression between the onion and the other species of the genus. Conclusions. Genetic diversity analysis showed an important variability between and within Africa onion landraces. It would be useful to combine in situ and ex situ conservation, using these genetic resources to improve the production and the appropriate use of African onion cultivars.

  5. Vegetative growth, morphogenesis and carbohydrate content of the onion plant as a function of light and temperature under field- and controlled conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butt, A.M.

    1968-01-01

    Growth, morphogenesis and carbohydrate content of the onion plant (Allium cepa L., cv. 'Wijbo' as influenced by light and temperature, during the entire growth cycle, were studied under field conditions and controlled conditions (phytotron).

    A. LIGHT INTENSITY EFFECTS

    Plants were grown at

  6. Within-plant distribution of onion thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in onions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Jianhua; Munro, Scott; Boulton, Alan; Stevens, Mark

    2008-08-01

    Two aspects of the within-plant distribution of Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on onion, Allium cepa L., plants were investigated: 1) diurnal variations in the distribution of adults and larvae between basal and upper sections of onion leaves, and 2) between-leaf and within-leaf distribution of the eggs. The diurnal investigations showed that higher proportions of larvae than of adults congregated at the basal sections of plants, particularly when plants were young and thrips density was low. As plants matured and thrips density increased, the larvae became more dispersed. Regardless of plant size, there were always more adults in the upper than basal plant sections. There were no clear time-windows during the 24-h diurnal cycle when more thrips were in the upper plant parts. T. tabaci eggs were laid everywhere in the plant. Leaves of intermediate ages had more eggs than older or younger leaves. Within leaves, the white leaf sheath received the least eggs and leaf tips received slightly more eggs than leaf sheaths. The highest egg density was found between the green leaf base and the leaf tips. Regardless of plant size, more than half of all eggs were laid above the basal sections. The percentage increased to >95% in mature plants. Except when plants were small the outer leaves were preferred over inner leaves and upper leaf sections preferred over lower leaf sections as egg-laying sites by adults. Implications of the results in the management of T. tabaci are discussed.

  7. Evaluación de doce materiales de cebolla de bulbo (Allium cepa L. para deshidratación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandoval A. Héctor L.

    1986-09-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del ensayo fue la introducción de materiales de cebolla de bulbo (Allium cepa L. de día corto para la deshidratación. Se realizaron observaciones de campo y análisis de laboratorio para determinar sus cualidades industriales.The objective of this assay was the introduction of materials of bulb's onion (Allium cepa L., for short day, to dehydrate. Observations to determinate their field behavior, and laboratories analysis to determinate their industrial characteristics were realized.

  8. Phenolic Acid Changes in Mycelia of Sclerotium rolfsii After Garlic and Onion Supplementation in a Broth Medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, M K; Singh, D P; Singh, U P

    2005-09-01

    High performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) analysis of mycelia of Sclerotium rolfsii grown in broth medium supplemented with garlic (Allium sativum) and onion (Allium cepa) was carried out to estimate qualitative and quantitative changes in phenolic acids. Several phenolic acids, such as gallic, chlorogenic, ferulic, o-coumaric and cinnamic acids were detected in varied amounts in mycelia grown on such media as compared to control. Phenolic acids represents a wide range of secondary metabolite found in the cells of plants and microbes including fungi. The growth characters of S. rolfsii in various supplements also varied from thin and transparent to thick and opaque.

  9. Taxonomy Icon Data: onion [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available a_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Allium+cepa&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_i...con/icon.cgi?i=Allium+cepa&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Allium+cepa&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Allium+cepa&t=NS ...

  10. The Effects of Language of Testing on Bilingual Pre-Adolescents' Attitudes towards Welsh and Varieties of English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Susan; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Describes a study using matched-guise technique designed to (1) determine how West Welsh preadolescents would react to Welsh speakers reading a passage of prose in one of three language varieties (Received Pronunciation English, Welsh-Accented English, Welsh) and (2) to examine what effect language of testing might have on children's social…

  11. ABA and Diverse Cultural and Linguistic Environments: A Welsh Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, E. W.; Hoerger, M.; Hughes, J. C.; Williams, B. M.; Jones, B.; Moseley, Y.; Hughes, D. R.; Prys, D.

    2011-01-01

    Gwynedd Local Education Authority (LEA) in North West Wales, UK, is funding a small-scale autism-specific specialist education service using ABA methodology. The program is available through the medium of Welsh, English or bilingually, depending on the individual needs of the child (Jones and Hoerger in Eur J Behav Anal 10:249-253,…

  12. Collaboration Nation: The Building of the Welsh Repository Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Jacqueline

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to disseminate information about the Welsh Repository Network (WRN), innovative work being undertaken to build an integrated network of institutional digital repositories. A collaborative approach, in particular through the provision of centralised technical and organisational support, has demonstrated…

  13. Congruence and Welsh-English Code-Switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deuchar, Margaret

    2005-01-01

    This paper aims to contribute to elucidating the notion of congruence in code-switching with particular reference to Welsh-English data. It has been suggested that a sufficient degree of congruence or equivalence between the constituents of one language and another is necessary in order for code-switching to take place. We shall distinguish…

  14. Applications of direct analysis in real time-mass spectrometry (DART-MS) in Allium chemistry. (Z)-butanethial S-oxide and 1-butenyl thiosulfinates and their S-(E)-1-butenylcysteine S-oxide precursor from Allium siculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubec, Roman; Cody, Robert B; Dane, A John; Musah, Rabi A; Schraml, Jan; Vattekkatte, Abith; Block, Eric

    2010-01-27

    Lachrymatory (Z)-butanethial S-oxide along with several 1-butenyl thiosulfinates was detected by DART mass spectrometry upon cutting Allium siculum , a popular ornamental Allium species used in some cultures as a spice. (Z)-Butanethial S-oxide isolated from the plant was shown to be identical to a synthetic sample. Its likely precursor, (R(S),R(C),E)-S-(1-butenyl)cysteine S-oxide (homoisoalliin), was isolated from homogenates of A. siculum, and a closely related species Allium tripedale , and fully characterized. Through use of LC-MS, a series of related gamma-glutamyl derivatives were tentatively identified in A. siculum and A. tripedale homogenates, including gamma-glutamyl-(E)-S-(1-butenyl)cysteine and its S-oxide, gamma-glutamyl-S-butylcysteine and its S-oxide, and gamma-glutamyl-S-methylcysteine and its S-oxide. Because compounds containing the 1-butenyl group have not been previously identified in genus Allium species, this work extends the range of known Allium sulfur compounds. The general applicability of DART mass spectrometry in identifying naturally occurring, thermally fragile thial S-oxides and thiosulfinates is illustrated with onion, Allium cepa , as well as a plant from a different genus, Petiveria alliacea .

  15. Applications of direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry (DART-MS) in Allium chemistry. 2-propenesulfenic and 2-propenesulfinic acids, diallyl trisulfane S-oxide, and other reactive sulfur compounds from crushed garlic and other Alliums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Eric; Dane, A John; Thomas, Siji; Cody, Robert B

    2010-04-28

    Through the use of direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry (DART-MS), 2-propenesulfenic acid, an intermediate long postulated as being formed when garlic ( Allium sativum ) is crushed, has been detected for the first time and determined by mass spectrometric methods to have a half-life of garlic, along with allicin and related thiosulfinates, allyl alcohol, sulfur dioxide, propene, and pyruvate as coproducts. A commercial dietary supplement containing garlic powder, which was sampled after crushing, was found to contain alliin, methiin, and S-allylcysteine and produced allicin upon addition of water. DART-MS detection of 1-butenesulfenic acid from the ornamental A. siculum is also reported. (Z)-Propanethial S-oxide (onion lachrymatory factor), absent in garlic, is found to be formed from crushed elephant garlic ( Allium ampeloprasum ), consistent with the classification of this plant as a closer relative of leek than of garlic. Mixtures of thiosulfinates, lachrymatory thial S-oxides, and related compounds are directly observed from crushed leek ( Allium porrum ) and Chinese chive ( Allium tuberosum ). Disulfanes and polysulfanes are detected only when the Allium samples are heated, consistent with earlier conclusions that these are not primary products from cut or crushed alliums.

  16. Welsh Slate: A Candidate for Global Heritage Stone Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horak, Jana; Hughes, Terry; Lott, Graham

    2013-04-01

    Slate is the iconic stone of Wales, and has a temporal and geographic record of usage such that it is considered worthy of consideration for Global Heritage Stone status. The reputation of Welsh slate is built on the quality and durability of the stone, enabling it to be used in a wide range of contexts from industrial roofing, through domestic housing to higher prestige buildings. Although metamorphic slates are present in several across Wales, the highest quality roofing material was extracted from just two areas in north-west Wales; the Cambrian Slate Belt, around Bethesda to Nantlle, working purple and green slates of the Llanberis Slate Formation and a second area to the south around Blaenau Ffestiniog - the Ordovician Slate Belt - which works grey slates of the Nant Francon Supergroup. These two areas are considered to form the core of the Welsh Slate Province. Welsh slate has been extracted for at least 2000 years, as evidenced by their presence as roofing slates in Roman forts in North Wales dating from 77AD. Slates from medieval churches and castles in north Wales indicate extraction continued throughout this period. In the 16th century exportation of Welsh slate commenced, initially limited to Ireland and those parts of England where it could be transported by boat. The second half of 18th century saw the first major expansion of the industry, facilitated by improved road transportation and some mechanisation, and subsequently in the 1830s by repeal of punitive boat taxes: production increased substantially through the late 19th century supported by the introduction of steam railways, and both production and exports peaked around 1900. The industry is still active today, although on a much reduced scale, with an estimate of around 20% of output being exported. Considerable reserves of this high quality slate resource remain in North Wales and it is important to ensure that they are protected to maintain continuity of supply to the heritage sector and are

  17. Cytotoxic and mutagenic in vitro assessment of two organosulfur compounds derived from onion to be used in the food industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llana-Ruiz-Cabello, María; Maisanaba, Sara; Gutiérrez-Praena, Daniel; Prieto, Ana I; Pichardo, Silvia; Jos, Angeles; Moreno, F Javier; Cameán, Ana María

    2015-01-01

    Edible members of the Allium family are widely used since they exhibit antioxidant and antibacterial related to the organosulphur compounds. One the most promising use of Allium species, hence, onion essential oil, could be in the packaging food industry. The present work aims to assess the safety of two organosulphur compounds present in onion essential oil; dipropyl disulphide, dipropyl sulphide and their mixture. For this purpose, cytotoxicity, reactive oxygen species and glutathione contents, and ultrastructural cellular damages were studied in the human intestinal cells, Caco-2, exposed to these organosulphur compounds. Moreover, their potential mutagenicity was also assessed. The results revealed no significant adverse effects. Additionally, reactive oxygen species scavenger activity was observed for both compounds. Therefore, they could be a good natural alternative to other synthetic antioxidant and antibacterial substances used in the food industry. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of Intercropping with Potato Onion on the Growth of Tomato and Rhizosphere Alkaline Phosphatase Genes Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xia; Wu, Fengzhi; Zhou, Xingang; Fu, Xuepeng; Tao, Yue; Xu, Weihui; Pan, Kai; Liu, Shouwei

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: In China, excessive fertilization has resulted in phosphorus (P) accumulation in most greenhouse soils. Intercropping can improve the efficiency of nutrient utilization in crop production. In this study, pot experiments were performed to investigate the effects of intercropping with potato onion (Allium cepa L. var. aggregatum G. Don) on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) seedlings growth and P uptake, the diversity of rhizosphere phosphobacteria and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) genes in phosphorus-rich soil. Methods: The experiment included three treatments, namely tomato monoculture (TM), potato onion monoculture (OM), and tomato/potato onion intercropping (TI-tomato intercropping and OI-potato onion intercropping). The growth and P uptake of tomato and potato onion seedlings were evaluated. The dilution plating method was used to determine the population of phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) and phosphate-mineralizing bacteria (PMB). The genomic DNAs of PSB and PMB in the rhizosphere of tomato and potato onions were extracted and purified, and then, with the primer set of 338f /518r, the PCR amplification of partial bacterial 16S rDNA sequence was performed and sequenced to determine the diversities of PSB and PMB. After extracting the total genomic DNAs from the rhizosphere, the copy numbers and diversities of ALP genes were investigated using real-time PCR and PCR-DGGE, respectively. Results: Intercropping with potato onion promoted the growth and P uptake of tomato seedlings, but inhibited those of potato onion. After 37 days of transplanting, compared to the rhizosphere of TM, the soil pH increased, while the electrolytic conductivity and Olsen P content decreased (p onion promoted the growth and P uptake of tomato in phosphorus-rich soil and affected the community structure and function of phosphobacteria in tomato rhizosphere. Intercropping with potato onion also improved soil quality by lowering levels of soil acidification and

  19. Iris Yellow Spot Virus in the Netherlands: Occurence in Onion and Confirmation of Transmission by Thrips tabaci

    OpenAIRE

    Hoedjes, K.; Verhoeven, J. Th. J.; Goldbach, R.W.; Peters, D.

    2011-01-01

    Since its first detection in the Netherlands in 1992, Iris yellow spot virus (IYSV, genus Tospovirus) has been reported worldwide in Allium crops, in a few ornamentals and in a small number of weeds. After recent findings of IYSV in Alstroemeria and Eustoma in the Netherlands, a number of neighbouring onion fields were surveyed. In 2005 and 2006, only few infected plants were found with obvious symptoms of IYSV. In 2007, after sampling and testing small leaf samples with various types of dama...

  20. Evaluation of Analgesic Effects of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Allium cepa L. in Animal Model of Neuropathic Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanaz Mahdipour

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Neuropathic pain is a chronic pain that affects on the patient’s quality of life. Use of herbal instead of synthetic drugs recently has been increased due to side effects of synthetic drugs and herbal effective components. Flavonoids are herbal compounds that have analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects. Because Allium cepa L. has a great amount of flavonoids, this study has been designed to evaluate analgesic effects of alcoholic extract of Allium cepa L. on neuropathic pain behavior in chronic constriction injury model in rats. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, neuropathic pain induced by chronic constriction injury (CCI model in Rats. Animals were randomly divided into 4 groups (n=10 for each: Sham, CCI model, receiving red onion hydroalcoholic extract at a dose of 100 mg/kg and a group receiving gabapentin (100 mg/kg. Red onion extract and gabapentin were administered by gavage for 21 days. Using thermal hyperalgesia, mechanical and thermal allodynia tests, the analgesic effects of extract have been measured. Results: Findings of this study revealed that CCI surgery on rats induced hyperalgesia, mechanical and thermal allodynia. Daily intakes of alcoholic extract of red onion and gabapentin significantly increase the paw withdrawal latency; increase the threshold to mechanical allodynia and decrease in response to acetone. Conclusion: Oral use of alcoholic extract of Allium cepa L. reduces neuropathic pain behavior in CCI model in rats.

  1. UJI AKTIVITAS ANTIINFLAMASI KUERSETIN KULIT BAWANG MERAH (Allium cepa L. PADA MENCIT PUTIH JANTAN (Mus musculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulistia Budianti Soemarie

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation is a local reaction of infection or tissue injury and involves more mediators. Utilization of traditional medicine should be used to minimize the side effects of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, such as the use of onion skin (Allium cepa L.. This study aims to determine the activity of quercetin onion skin and the optimal dose of quercetin as a potential anti-inflammatory on male white mice. This study is an experimental research. Red onion skins extracted by maceration method. Preparation of the test is divided into five groups: control positive (Diclofenac Potassium 6,5mg/kg, control negative (Na-CMC, quercetin of onion skin dose I (50mg/kg, dose II (100mg/kg and dose III (200mg/kg. Adduction of test compounds is given by oral, after 30 minute the right paw of mice induced by karagenin 1 %. Paw volume is analyzed with area under curve (AUC. The results showed that quercetin of onions skin have an anti-inflammatory activity. From the analyzed of AUC for each dose of quercetin showed anti-inflammatory power value for dose I amounted 57.13 %, dose II 59.08% , and dose III 73.75 % and ANOVA statistical test with p-value 0.005 ( < 0.05 , which means there is a significant difference between control positive, dose I , and dose II with dose III, the optimal dose is dose III (200 mg / kg.

  2. Modulating effect of Allium cepa on kidney apoptosis caused by Toxoplasma gondii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaghub gharadaghi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Toxoplasma gondii is a widespread protozoan parasite that infects a broad range of warm blooded animals as well as humans. The present study was investigated to evaluate the effects of allium cepa on renal failur in male rats which experimentally infected by Toxoplasma gondii, RH strain. Methods: Wistar male rat (n=40 were allocated into four groups, group one that received tachyzoites of T. gondii (ip (n=10, group two that received tachyzoites of T. gondii (ip, plus fresh onion juice by gavages method (n=10, group three received just fresh onion juice by gavages method (n=10 and control group (n=10 that received nothing. Animals were kept in standard condition. In 30 day after inducing Toxoplasma infection, 5cc blood was collected for serum protein and TAC levels. Kidney tissues of Rat in whole groups were removed and prepared for apopetosis analysis. Results: Serum protein and kidneys weights were significantly decreased in groups that were infected with T. gondii, in comparison to control and onions groups. Kidneys Apopetosis in toxoplasma group significantly increased in comparison to control group (P<0.05.level of TAC was significantly increased in groups that received onio juice (P<0.05. Conclusion: This study showed that T. gondii have significantly effect on serum protein and TAC, apopetosis and fresh onion juice returned and treated this harmful effect, so it is suggested that eating of onion is useful in toxoplasma infection.

  3. TOWARDS THE LIGHT/ TUA’R GOLEUNI: WELSH MEDIUM EDUCATION FOR THE NON-WELSH SPEAKING IN SOUTH WALES: A PARENT’S CHOICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhian Siân Hodges

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Welsh-medium education system has long been seen as an effective tool of Welsh language production in Wales. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of Welsh medium education in one south Wales Valley, ‘Cwm Rhymni / Rhymni Valley’. The main reasoning behind the primary research is to focus on the reasons why non-Welsh speaking parents chose Welsh medium education for their children. The research focuses on education but recognises the over lapping nature of the main language transmission spheres within Welsh language planning, i.e. family,community and workplace. This study adopts a mainly qualitative research strategy by administering 60 unstructured interviews to parents who chose Welsh medium nursery, primary and secondary schools for their children. However, as a secondary methodological tool, a semi-structured questionnaire was given out prior to the interviews and the interview sample was then drawn from these. Moreover, Welsh language resurgence within Anglicized areas of South Wales is a fairly unexplored field, this study is hoped to be a catalyst for many more future studies in this field and attempts to address the existing lacunae.

  4. Cover Crops Effects on Soil Chemical Properties and Onion Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Assis de Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Cover crops contribute to nutrient cycling and may improve soil chemical properties and, consequently, increase crop yield. The aim of this study was to evaluate cover crop residue decomposition and nutrient release, and the effects of these plants on soil chemical properties and on onion (Allium cepa L. yield in a no-tillage system. The experiment was carried out in an Inceptisol in southern Brazil, where cover crops were sown in April 2012 and 2013. In July 2013, shoots of weeds (WD, black oats (BO, rye (RY, oilseed radish (RD, oilseed radish + black oats (RD + BO, and oilseed radish + rye (RD + RY were cut at ground level and part of these material from each treatment was placed in litter bags. The litter bags were distributed on the soil surface and were collected at 0, 30, 45, 60, 75, and 90 days after distribution (DAD. The residues in the litter bags were dried, weighed, and ground, and then analyzed to quantify lignin, cellulose, non-structural biomass, total organic carbon (TOC, N, P, K, Ca, and Mg. In November 2012 and 2013, onion crops were harvested to quantify yield, and bulbs were classified according to diameter, and the number of rotted and flowering bulbs was determined. Soil in the 0.00-0.10 m layer was collected for chemical analysis before transplanting and after harvesting onion in December 2012 and 2013. The rye plant residues presented the highest half-life and they released less nutrients until 90 DAD. The great permanence of rye residue was considered a protection to soil surface, the opposite was observed with spontaneous vegetation. The cultivation and addition of dry residue of cover crops increased the onion yield at 2.5 Mg ha-1.

  5. Identification of Novel Source of Resistance and Differential Response of Allium Genotypes to Purple Blotch Pathogen, Alternaria porri (Ellis Ciferri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satyabrata Nanda

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purple blotch, caused by Alternaria porri (Ellis Cifferi, is a serious disease incurring heavy yield losses in the bulb and seed crop of onion and garlic worldwide. There is an immediate need for identification of effective resistance sources for use in host resistance breeding. A total of 43 Allium genotypes were screened for purple blotch resistance under field conditions. Allium cepa accession ‘CBT-Ac77’ and cultivar ‘Arka Kalyan’ were observed to be highly resistant. In vitro inoculation of a selected set of genotypes with A. porri, revealed that 7 days after inoculation was suitable to observe the disease severity. In vitro screening of 43 genotypes for resistance to A. porri revealed two resistant lines. An additional 14 genotypes showed consistent moderate resistance in the field as well as in vitro evaluations. Among the related Allium species, A. schoenoprasum and A. roylei showed the least disease index and can be used for interspecific hybridization with cultivated onion. Differential reaction analysis of three A. porri isolates (Apo-Chiplima, Apn-Nasik, Apg-Guntur in 43 genotypes revealed significant variation among the evaluated Allium species (P = 0.001. All together, the present study suggest that, the newly identified resistance sources can be used as potential donors for ongoing purple blotch resistance breeding program in India.

  6. Polyphasic characterization of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. allii associated with outbreaks of bacterial blight on three Allium species in the Mascarene archipelago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picard, Y; Roumagnac, P; Legrand, D; Humeau, L; Robène-Soustrade, I; Chiroleu, F; Gagnevin, L; Pruvost, O

    2008-08-01

    Based on the number of new reports during the last two decades, bacterial blight of onion (Allium cepa) is considered an emerging disease. The causal agent, Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. allii, is pathogenic to several Allium species after inoculation, but outbreaks worldwide have been primarily reported on onion. We describe a unique epidemiological situation in Réunion Island, France, with concomitant outbreaks on three Allium species, onion, leek (A. porrum), and garlic (A. sativum). There was no host specialization within Allium spp. among strains associated with the three host species. Based on amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and restriction fragment length polymorphism, strains associated with these outbreaks in Réunion Island were highly related genetically to strains isolated from diseased plant samples and contaminated seed lots in the neighboring island of Mauritius, where the disease has occurred since 1984. All AFLP haplotypes were identified as X. axonopodis pv. allii based on polymerase chain reaction analysis using specific primers, biochemical tests, and/or pathogenicity tests. Two genetically related groups of strains (A and B) that can be distinguished by AFLP, differential utilization of three carbon sources, and xanthomonadin pigment production were detected initially after establishment of the pathogen. In less than 10 years after the establishment of the pathogen there was nearly an extinction of group A strains in Réunion Island, suggesting differences in fitness between strains in the two groups.

  7. Integrated Nutrient Management on Soil Properties and Nutrient Uptake by Red Onion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Kwada Kwaghe

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Field experiments were carried out during the dry seasons in (2012-2013 and 2013-2014 to study the impact of Integrated Nutrient Management on some soil properties and nutrients uptake by red onion (Allium cepa L. in Moda, Michika, Adamawa state, Nigeria. Soil samples were randomly collected and analysed for pH, EC, organic carbon, organic matter, total nitrogen, available phosphorus before and at the completion of the experiment. Total nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium contents of the onion bulbs were determined. There was an improvement in the fertility status of the soil as a consequence of integrated nutrient management. Combined organic and inorganic fertilizer application influenced the uptake of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium by red onion. The highest nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium uptake by onions of 0.76, 43.82 and 2.42kgha-1 occurred when all treatments were combined. Uptake of N and K increased as treatment level increased. The P uptake was highest at lower treatment levels and could be linked to sufficiency of indigenous soil P for plant growth resulting in high P uptake with minimal addition of nutrient inputs. Integrated Nutrient Management could be adopted to improve soil fertility status and N, P and K uptake by red onions.

  8. Aphrodisiac properties of Allium tuberosum seeds extract

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Guohua, Hu; Yanhua, Lu; Rengang, Mao; Dongzhi, Wei; Zhengzhi, Ma; Hua, Zhang

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, we examined the effect of Allium tuberosum seeds extract upon the expression of male rat sexual behavior, in order to know whether Allium tuberosum seeds extract possess aphrodisiac property...

  9. Colonization of Onions by Endophytic Fungi and Their Impacts on the Biology of Thrips tabaci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muvea, Alexander M.; Meyhöfer, Rainer; Subramanian, Sevgan; Poehling, Hans-Michael; Ekesi, Sunday; Maniania, Nguya K.

    2014-01-01

    Endophytic fungi, which live within host plant tissues without causing any visible symptom of infection, are important mutualists that mediate plant–herbivore interactions. Thrips tabaci (Lindeman) is one of the key pests of onion, Allium cepa L., an economically important agricultural crop cultivated worldwide. However, information on endophyte colonization of onions, and their impacts on the biology of thrips feeding on them, is lacking. We tested the colonization of onion plants by selected fungal endophyte isolates using two inoculation methods. The effects of inoculated endophytes on T. tabaci infesting onion were also examined. Seven fungal endophytes used in our study were able to colonize onion plants either by the seed or seedling inoculation methods. Seed inoculation resulted in 1.47 times higher mean percentage post-inoculation recovery of all the endophytes tested as compared to seedling inoculation. Fewer thrips were observed on plants inoculated with Clonostachys rosea ICIPE 707, Trichoderma asperellum M2RT4, Trichoderma atroviride ICIPE 710, Trichoderma harzianum 709, Hypocrea lixii F3ST1 and Fusarium sp. ICIPE 712 isolates as compared to those inoculated with Fusarium sp. ICIPE 717 and the control treatments. Onion plants colonized by C. rosea ICIPE 707, T. asperellum M2RT4, T. atroviride ICIPE 710 and H. lixii F3ST1 had significantly lower feeding punctures as compared to the other treatments. Among the isolates tested, the lowest numbers of eggs were laid by T. tabaci on H. lixii F3ST1 and C. rosea ICIPE 707 inoculated plants. These results extend the knowledge on colonization of onions by fungal endophytes and their effects on Thrips tabaci. PMID:25254657

  10. Ethylene and 1-methylcyclopropene differentially regulate gene expression during onion sprout suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cools, Katherine; Chope, Gemma A; Hammond, John P; Thompson, Andrew J; Terry, Leon A

    2011-07-01

    Onion (Allium cepa) is regarded as a nonclimacteric vegetable. In onions, however, ethylene can suppress sprouting while the ethylene-binding inhibitor 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) can also suppress sprout growth; yet, it is unknown how ethylene and 1-MCP elicit the same response. In this study, onions were treated with 10 μL L(-1) ethylene or 1 μL L(-1) 1-MCP individually or in combination for 24 h at 20°C before or after curing (6 weeks) at 20°C or 28°C and then stored at 1°C. Following curing, a subset of these same onions was stored separately under continuous air or ethylene (10 μL L(-1)) at 1°C. Onions treated with ethylene and 1-MCP in combination after curing for 24 h had reduced sprout growth as compared with the control 25 weeks after harvest. Sprout growth following storage beyond 25 weeks was only reduced through continuous ethylene treatment. This observation was supported by a higher proportion of down-regulated genes characterized as being involved in photosynthesis, measured using a newly developed onion microarray. Physiological and biochemical data suggested that ethylene was being perceived in the presence of 1-MCP, since sprout growth was reduced in onions treated with 1-MCP and ethylene applied in combination but not when applied individually. A cluster of probes representing transcripts up-regulated by 1-MCP alone but down-regulated by ethylene alone or in the presence of 1-MCP support this suggestion. Ethylene and 1-MCP both down-regulated a probe tentatively annotated as an ethylene receptor as well as ethylene-insensitive 3, suggesting that both treatments down-regulate the perception and signaling events of ethylene.

  11. Ethylene and 1-Methylcyclopropene Differentially Regulate Gene Expression during Onion Sprout Suppression1[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cools, Katherine; Chope, Gemma A.; Hammond, John P.; Thompson, Andrew J.; Terry, Leon A.

    2011-01-01

    Onion (Allium cepa) is regarded as a nonclimacteric vegetable. In onions, however, ethylene can suppress sprouting while the ethylene-binding inhibitor 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) can also suppress sprout growth; yet, it is unknown how ethylene and 1-MCP elicit the same response. In this study, onions were treated with 10 μL L−1 ethylene or 1 μL L−1 1-MCP individually or in combination for 24 h at 20°C before or after curing (6 weeks) at 20°C or 28°C and then stored at 1°C. Following curing, a subset of these same onions was stored separately under continuous air or ethylene (10 μL L−1) at 1°C. Onions treated with ethylene and 1-MCP in combination after curing for 24 h had reduced sprout growth as compared with the control 25 weeks after harvest. Sprout growth following storage beyond 25 weeks was only reduced through continuous ethylene treatment. This observation was supported by a higher proportion of down-regulated genes characterized as being involved in photosynthesis, measured using a newly developed onion microarray. Physiological and biochemical data suggested that ethylene was being perceived in the presence of 1-MCP, since sprout growth was reduced in onions treated with 1-MCP and ethylene applied in combination but not when applied individually. A cluster of probes representing transcripts up-regulated by 1-MCP alone but down-regulated by ethylene alone or in the presence of 1-MCP support this suggestion. Ethylene and 1-MCP both down-regulated a probe tentatively annotated as an ethylene receptor as well as ethylene-insensitive 3, suggesting that both treatments down-regulate the perception and signaling events of ethylene. PMID:21593215

  12. 21 CFR 102.39 - Onion rings made from diced onion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Onion rings made from diced onion. 102.39 Section... Nonstandardized Foods § 102.39 Onion rings made from diced onion. (a) The common or usual name of the food product that resembles and is of the same composition as onion rings, except that it is composed of comminuted...

  13. Increasing Soil Suppressivity to Fusarium Wilt Of Banana Through Banana Intercropping with Allium spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Wibowo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium wilt, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense (Foc, is one of the most destructive diseases of banana and has spread in many plantation areas in Indonesia. Until today, the effective ways to control banana fusarium wilt disease have not yet been found. Some studies indicated thatAllium spp. could be used to suppress plant diseases caused by Fusarium. Allium spp. are important horticultural crops which are generally cultivated in some areas in Indonesia. This research was conducted to determine the effect of several species ofAllium spp. intercropped with banana to improve soil suppressiveness against banana fusarium wilt disease. The results showed that up to 12 months after planting, from 3 species ofAllium spp. (A. tuberosum/ Chinese leek, A. fistulosum/ bunching onion, and A. cepa var. aggregatum/ shallot intercropped with banana Ambon Kuning (AAA cultivar, Chinese leek and shallot were able to suppress the incidence of fusarium wilt disease of banana by 46 and 33% respectively. Soil analysis on the rhizosphere of banana intercropped with Chinese leek and shallot had lower population of total Fusarium compared to the other treatments. Analysis of fluorescein diacetate (3’.6’-diacetylfluoerescein or FDA also showed that total microbial activity in the rhizosphere of banana intercropped withAllium spp. was also lower compared to control treatment (without intercropping. The observation of the effect ofAllium spp. extracts on Foc showed that Allium spp. extracts were able to suppress the development of the colony and spore germination of Foc in vitro.   INTISARI Layu Fusarium, yang disebabkan oleh Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense (Foc, merupakan salah satu penyakit tanaman pisang yang paling merusak dan telah tersebar di berbagai daerah di Indonesia. Sampai saat ini cara yang efektif untuk mengendalikan penyakit layu fusarium pisang belum ditemukan. Beberapa penelitian menunjukkan bahwa Allium spp. dapat dipergunakan

  14. 7 CFR 958.5 - Onions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Onions. 958.5 Section 958.5 Agriculture Regulations of... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ONIONS GROWN IN CERTAIN DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN IDAHO, AND MALHEUR COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 958.5 Onions. Onions...

  15. Onion extract structural changes during in vitro digestion and its potential antioxidant effect on brain lipids obtained from low- and high-fat-fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, S J; Lee, S J; Kim, D H; Chun, S C; Lee, S K

    2013-12-01

    This study investigated the effects of onion (Allium cepa, L.) extract on the antioxidant activity of lipids in low-and high-fat-fed mouse brain lipids and its structural change during in vitro human digestion. The onion extracts were passed through an in vitro human digestion model that simulated the composition of the mouth, stomach, and small intestine juice. The brain lipids were collected from low- and high-fat-fed mouse brain and then incubated with the in vitro-digested onion extracts to determine the lipid oxidation. The results confirmed that the main phenolics of onion extract were kaempferol, myricetin, quercetin, and quercitrin. The quercetin content increased with digestion of the onion extract. Antioxidant activity was strongly influenced by in vitro human digestion of both onion extract and quercetin standard. After digestion by the small intestine, the antioxidant activity values were dramatically increased, whereas the antioxidant activity was less influenced by digestion in the stomach for both onion extract and quercetin standard. The inhibitory effect of lipid oxidation of onion extract in mouse brain lipids increased after digestion in the stomach. The inhibitory effect of lipid oxidation of onion extract was higher in the high-fat-fed mouse brain lipids than that in the low-fat-fed mouse brain lipids. The major study finding is that the antioxidative effect of onion extract may be higher in high-fat-fed mouse brain lipids than that in low-fat-fed mouse brain lipids. Thus, dietary onion may have important applications as a natural antioxidant agent in a high-fat diet.

  16. An improved method of preparing onion bulbs for the Alium test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Wierzbicka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The tests on storage and preparation of onion (Allium cepa L. bulbs presented in this paper were performed in order to obtain the highest possible number of roots of similar length, which would be suitable for performing the Allium test. The results were subject to a detailed statistical analysis and allowed the following procedure to be recommended: 1 Store the bulbs at room temperature rather than in a refrigerator for two weeks before starting the experiments. 2 Do not use the biggest bulbs (over 80-100 g; use medium and small bulbs with the largest possible diameter of the reduced stem. 3 Just before starting the culture, wash the bottom part of the bulb, cut out the central part of the reduced stem and cut off the upper part of the bulb. At least 70% of bulbs prepared this way are expected to be suitable for cytological tests.

  17. A comparative profile of methanol extracts of Allium cepa and Allium sativum in diabetic neuropathy in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhanot, Abhishek; Shri, Richa

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Diabetic Neuropathy (DN) is a major microvascular complication of uncontrolled diabetes. This may result from increased oxidative stress that accompanies diabetes. Hence plants with antioxidant action play an important role in management of diabetes and its complications. Materials and Methods: This study was designed to evaluate preventive as well as curative effect of methanol extracts of outer scales and edible portions of two plants with established antioxidant action - Allium cepa and Allium sativum, in induced DN in albino mice. Mice were divided into control, diabetic and test extracts treated groups. Test extracts were administered daily at a dose of 200 mg/kg p.o. for 21 days, in the preventive group prior to onset of DN, and in the curative group after the onset of DN. Hyperalgesia and oxidative stress markers were assessed. STZ-diabetic mice showed a significant thermal hyperalgesia (as assessed by the tail-flick test), indicating development of DN. Results: Treatment with test extracts prevented loss in body weight, decreased plasma glucose level, and significantly ameliorated the hyperalgesia, TBARS, serum nitrite and GSH levels in diabetic mice. Conclusion: Methanol extract of outer scales of onion has shown most significant improvement; may be due to higher content of phenolic compounds in outer scales of A. cepa. PMID:21713142

  18. Tense and plural formation in Welsh-English bilingual children with and without language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chondrogianni, Vasiliki; John, Nerys

    2018-01-12

    Grammatical morphology has been shown to be problematic for children with specific language impairment (SLI) or developmental language disorder (DLD). Most research on this topic comes from widely spoken languages, such as English. Despite Welsh being the most extensively spoken indigenous in the UK after English, and Wales being the only official bilingual country in the UK, our knowledge about the morphosyntactic areas of Welsh that may pose problems for Welsh-speaking children with SLI is limited. Currently, Welsh-speaking speech and language therapists (SLTs) are heavily reliant on the use of informally translated English assessments. This can inadvertently result in a failure to take aspects of Welsh morphosyntax into account that are critical for the assessment and treatment of Welsh-speaking children. This is the first study to examine how Welsh-English bilingual children of early school age with typical development (bi-TD) and with SLI (bi-SLI) perform on production tasks targeting verbal and nominal morphology in Welsh. We targeted areas of Welsh morphosyntax that could potentially be vulnerable for Welsh-speaking children with or at risk of language impairment, such as tense marking and plural formation, and assessed their diagnostic potential. Twenty-eight Welsh-dominant bilingual children participated in the study: 10 bi-SLI and 18 bi-TD. They were administered three elicitation tasks targeting the production of verbal (compound and synthetic past tense) and nominal (plural) morphology in Welsh. The bi-SLI children performed worse than their bi-TD peers across all three tasks. They produced more uninflected verbs in the elicited-production task and were less likely to be prompted to produce the synthetic past, which is a concatenating, low-frequency form of the past tense. They also over-regularized less in the context of plural nouns, and when they did, they opted for high-frequency suffixes. By focusing on aspects of morphosyntactic development which

  19. Efeitos de doses e épocas de aplicação do bentazon na produção de duas cultivares de cebola (Allium cepa L. Effects of doses and time of application of bentazon on the yield of two onion cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H.T. Mascarenhas

    1980-12-01

    Full Text Available Em um solo aluvião eutrófico de classificação textural argilo siltoso, com 2,75% de M.O. foram estudados os efeitos de doses do herbicida bentazon (3 - isopropi l - 2,1,3 - benzotio-diazinona - (4 - 2,2 - dióxido aplicado em pós-emergência. no controle de plantas daninhas dicotiledôneas na cultura da cebola. O delineamento experimental adotado foi um fatorial 2 x 5 x 2 + 4. constituído por duas cultivares: 'Baia Pe ri forme' e 'Texas Grano': cinco épocas de aplicação do produto: aos 10, 20, 30, 40 e 50 dias após a emergência das plantas daninhas: duas doses de bentazon: 0,46kg. i.a./ha e 0,96 kg. i.a./ha e quatro tratamentos adicionais: 'Baia Periforme' capinada e sem capina e 'Texas Grano'. capinada e sem capina. . As plantas daninhas predominantes no experimento foram: botão -de-ouro (Galinsoga parviflora Cav., picão-preto (Bidens pilosa L., amendoim-bravo (Euphorbia prunifoiia Jacq.(, mostarda (Brassica campestris L., joá (Physalis angulata L. fedegoso (Cassia tora L.(, serralha falsa (Emilia sonchifolia (L . DC e mentruz (Lepidium virginicum L. Nas condições em que foi realizado o ensaio, o herbicida bentazon nas duas doses aplicadas mostrou-se eficiente no controle das plantas daninhas até 60 dias após o transplante. Nas doses empregadas o bentazon não apresentou efeito fitotóxico sobre a produção das cultivares 'Baia Periforme' e 'Texas Grano'.The effects of doses of the herbicide bentazon applied at post-emergence in the control of dycotiledonous weeds in onion crops were studied on a alluvial eutrophic soil with a clay silt texture. and 2.75%% of organic matter. The experiment was set according to a complete randomized design in a factorial arrangement of 2 x 5 x 2- 4 (two onion varieties: 'Bala Periforme' and 'Texas Grano': five herbicide application dates: 10. 20. 30, 40 and 50 days after emergence of the weeds: bentazon doses were 0,46g a.i./ha and 0.96 g a.i./ha: and four more tre atments: 'Baia Periforme

  20. Anti-microbial and anti-oxidant activities of Illicium verum, Crataegus oxyacantha ssp. monogyna and Allium cepa red and white varieties

    OpenAIRE

    Benmalek, Yamina; Yahia, Ouahiba Ait; Belkebir, Aicha; Fardeau, Marie-Laure

    2013-01-01

    Illicium verum (badiane or star anise), Crataegus oxyacantha ssp monogyna (hawthorn) and Allium cepa (onion), have traditionnally been used as medicinal plants in Algeria. This study showed that the outer layer of onion is rich in flavonols with contents of 103 +/- 7.90 mu g/g DW (red variety) and 17.3 +/- 0.69 mu g/g DW (white variety). We also determined flavonols contents of 14.3 +/- 0.21 mu g/g 1.65 +/- 0.61 mu g/g for Crataegus oxyacantha ssp monogyna leaves and berries and 2.37 +/- 0.10...

  1. Effective onion leaf fleck management and variability of storage pathogens

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    Rasiukevičiūtė Neringa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Botrytis spp. cause several diseases in Allium crops and depending on meteorological conditions economic losses can exceed 50%. Forecasting models improve plant protection and sometimes reduce consumption of fungicides, because applications are made precisely during the favourable periods for disease development. Our aim was to evaluate the iMETOS®sm B. cinerea forecasting model as an effective onion leaf fleck management system and estimate the variability of onion bulb pathogens during storage. Assessment of forecasting model data showed that favourable conditions for leaf fleck development arise in July, but greatly depend on that year’s meteorological conditions. During an experimental year the first sprayings with fungicides were applied as forecasted from the model, which resulted in application 19, 6 and 23 days earlier than conventional treatment application times. In 2012-2014 iMETOS®sm treatment yield increased by 3.51 t ha-1, 3.87 t ha-1 and3.40 t ha-1 relative to the control. During storage most frequent injuries were fungal (44% and bacterial (41%, followed by insects (7% and physiological (9%. The highest prevalence of injuries was detected after 2 months of storage.

  2. Field assessment of the susceptibility of onion cultivars to thrips attack – preliminary results

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    Pobożniak Maria

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Field experiments on the susceptibility of onion to thrips infestation were carried out in 2012 and 2013. The investigation used 18 cultivars and 5 breeding lines of Allium cepa, and the species A. fistulosum and A. roylei. In 2012 A. fistulosum was one of the most infested plants, whereas in 2013 infestation was no more than average. The most infested cultivars of A. cepa were ‘Efekt’, ‘Alonso F1’, ‘Alibaba’ and ‘Wama’ and the ‘NOE5’ breeding line. In 2012 the extent of damage ranged from 12 to 55%, in 2013 from 20 to 30%. The ‘NOE2’, ‘NOE3’ and ‘Wama’ cultivars were the most seriously damaged by thrips. Leaf damage to A. fistulosum was minimal. No damage was caused to the wild species A. roylei by feeding onion thrips.

  3. The Welsh Blood Service - 70 years of continuous change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, G D

    2017-06-01

    The National Blood Transfusion Service (NBTS) in England and Wales was established as a single entity in 1946 and operated as such for almost half a century. During those 50 years, the blood service in Wales, as in the rest of the UK, saw many technological and operational changes. The automation of donation testing, the introduction of successive layers of microbiological screening, the creation of the Tissue Typing Laboratory (later renamed the Welsh Transplantation and Immunogenetics Laboratory) and the development of information technology brought - over a relatively long period - highly significant improvements to an organisation that had begun life as an Emergency Medical Service. Differing funding and reporting arrangements for the Welsh and English blood services made little difference in practice, but the devolution of government following the 1997 referendum in Wales would have a profound influence. Four years before the Government of Wales Act (1998) was passed through the UK parliament, the National Blood Authority (NBA) assumed executive control of the English blood services but not the blood service in Wales. The Scottish National Blood Transfusion Service and the Northern Ireland Blood Transfusion Service had been created as independent organisations in 1946; thus, the scene was set for diversification between the four independent blood services, each operating in different political environments with different funding streams. The creation of the UK Blood Services Forum and its Joint Professional Advisory Committee in 1999 has, however, ensured consistency in professional matters. The blood transfusion service in Wales, in its new headquarters in Talbot Green, became known as the Welsh Blood Service (WBS), or Gwasanaeth Gwaed Cymru in Welsh, reporting for most of its life to the Velindre NHS Trust, part of NHS Wales. Considerable changes would impact the WBS in the 21st century. Social changes would mean that the role of recruitment and marketing

  4. Relation of allium vegetables intake with head and neck cancers: evidence from the INHANCE consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeone, Carlotta; Turati, Federica; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Guercio, Valentina; Tavani, Alessandra; Serraino, Diego; Brennan, Paul; Fabianova, Eleonora; Lissowska, Jola; Mates, Dana; Rudnai, Peter; Shangina, Oxana; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Vaughan, Thomas L; Kelsey, Karl; McClean, Michael; Levi, Fabio; Hayes, Richard B; Purdue, Mark P; Bosetti, Cristina; Brenner, Hermann; Pelucchi, Claudio; Lee, Yuan-Chin Amy; Hashibe, Mia; Boffetta, Paolo; La Vecchia, Carlo

    2015-09-01

    Only a few studies analyzed the role of allium vegetables with reference to head and neck cancers (HNC), with mixed results. We investigated the potential favorable role of garlic and onion within the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology (INHANCE) Consortium. We analyzed pooled individual-level data from eight case-control studies, including 4590 cases and 7082 controls. We estimated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations between garlic and onion intakes and HNC risk. Compared with no or low garlic use, the ORs of HNC were 0.95 (95% CI 0.71-1.27) for intermediate and 0.74 (95% CI 0.55-0.99) for high garlic use (p for trend = 0.02). The ORs of HNC for increasing categories of onion intake were 0.91 (95% CI 0.68-1.21) for >1 to ≤3 portions per week, and 0.83 (95% CI 0.60-1.13) for >3 portions per week (p for trend = 0.02), as compared to laryngeal cancer risk (OR = 0.69; 95% CI 0.54-0.88), but no significant association for other subsites. The results of this pooled-analysis support a possible moderate inverse association between garlic and onion intake and HNC risk. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Modulatory effects of two levels of dietary Alliums on immune response and certain immunological variables, following immunization, in White Leghorn chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanieh, Hamza; Narabara, Kiyoaki; Piao, Mingzi; Gerile, Chaogetu; Abe, Asaki; Kondo, Yasuhiro

    2010-12-01

    This study aimed at investigating the effects of dietary Allium sativum (garlic, G) and Allium cepa (onion, O) on immune functions in White Leghorn chicken. One-week-old chicks, were fed diets without (control) or with Alliums (GL and OL, 10 g or GH and OH, 30 g/kg diet). Chickens were immunized with Newcastle disease virus (NDV), sheep red blood cells (SRBC) and Brucella abortus (BA). Antibodies, lymphocyte proliferation, and ratios of CD4(+) , CD8(+) and CD4⁻ CD8⁻ lymphocytes were investigated. Histology and weights of the spleen, thymus and bursa (BF), and white blood cell (WBC) counts were studied as well. Alliums at 10 g/kg diet enhanced anti-NDV, anti-SRBC and anti-BA antibody productions, whereas 30 g/kg diet had less stimulatory effects. Histology of the lymphoid organs and proliferation of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) were not influenced. However, splenocyte and thymocyte proliferations were augmented with garlic. Flow cytometry analysis showed reduction in CD4(+) and increase in CD4⁻ CD8⁻ lymphocyte ratios in GH and OH groups. Garlic-supplemented chickens had heavier spleen and thymus, and higher WBC counts, whereas BF weight increased with both Alliums at 30 g/kg diet. These results suggest that dietary Alliums have a potential to enhance the immune functions in White Leghorn chickens. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  6. Thrips Settling, Oviposition and IYSV Distribution on Onion Foliage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitturi, Anitha; Riley, David; Nischwitz, Claudia; Gitaitis, Ron; Srinivasan, Rajagopalbabu

    2015-06-01

    Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) adult and larval settling and oviposition on onion (Allium cepa L.) foliage were investigated in relation to leaf position and leaf length at prebulb plant growth stages under controlled conditions. In the laboratory, four and six adult females of T. tabaci were released on onion plants at three-leaf stage and six- to eight-leaf stage, respectively, and thrips egg, nymph, and adult count data were collected on each of the three inner most leaves at every 2-cm leaf segment. Thrips settling and oviposition parameters were quantified during the light period on the above ground portion of onion plants from the distal end of the bulb or leaf sheath "neck" through the tips of the foliage. Results from studies confirmed that distribution of thrips adults, nymphs, and eggs were skewed toward the base of the plant. The settling distributions of thrips adults and nymphs differed slightly from the egg distribution in that oviposition occurred all the way to the tip of the leaf while adults and nymphs were typically not observed near the tip. In a field study, the foliage was divided into three equal partitions, i.e., top, middle, basal thirds, and thrips adults by species, primarily Frankliniella fusca (Hinds) and T. tabaci, were collected from each partition to determine if there was a similar bias of all adult thrips toward the base of the plant. The results suggested that adults of different species appear to segregate along leaf length. Finally, thrips oviposition on 2-cm segments and Iris yellow spot virus positive leaf segments were quantified in the field, irrespective of thrips species. Both variables demonstrated a very similar pattern of bias toward the base of the plant and were significantly correlated. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Review of the market for Welsh organic meat, 2007

    OpenAIRE

    Cullen, Richard; Lampkin, Nic; Moakes, Simon

    2007-01-01

    The supply situation for Welsh organic meat Organic production in Wales has been developing steadily in the last five years, with particular emphasis on organic cattle and sheep production. This was despite over-supply conditions in some sectors, notably dairy, following the very rapid growth in 1999/2000. Between the end of 2002 and end of 2005, the number of holdings increased by 12% to 688, and the certified land area increased by 29% to 71,000 hectares, of which more than 90% is gra...

  8. Effects of Fresh Yellow Onion Consumption on CEA, CA125 and Hepatic Enzymes in Breast Cancer Patients: A Double- Blind Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafarpour-Sadegh, Farnaz; Montazeri, Vahid; Adili, Ali; Esfehani, Ali; Rashidi, Mohammad-Reza; Mesgari, Mehran; Pirouzpanah, Saeed

    2015-01-01

    Onion (Allium cepa) consumption has been remarked in folk medicine which has not been noted to be administered so far as an adjunct to conventional doxorubicin-based chemotherapy in breast cancer patients. To our knowledge, this is the first study aimed to investigate the effects of consuming fresh yellow onions on hepatic enzymes and cancer specific antigens compared with a low-onion containing diet among breast cancer (BC) participants treated with doxorubicin. This parallel design randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted on 56 BC patients whose malignancy was confirmed with histopathological examination. Subjects were assigned in a stratified-random allocation into either group received body mass index dependent 100-160 g/d of onion as high onion group (HO; n=28) or 30-40 g/d small onion in low onion group (LO; n=28) for eight weeks intervention. Participants, care givers and laboratory assessor were blinded to the assignments (IRCT registry no: IRCT2012103111335N1). The compliance of participants in the analysis was appropriate (87.9%). Comparing changes throughout pre- and post-dose treatments indicated significant controls on carcinoembryonic antigen, cancer antigen-125 and alkaline phosphatase levels in the HO group (Ponion administration could be effective for hepatic enzyme conveying adjuvant chemotherapy relevant toxicity and reducing the tumor markers in BC during doxorubicin-based chemotherapy.

  9. Measurement of the distribution of non-structural carbohydrate composition in onion populations by a high-throughput microplate enzymatic assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revanna, Roopashree; Turnbull, Matthew H; Shaw, Martin L; Wright, Kathryn M; Butler, Ruth C; Jameson, Paula E; McCallum, John A

    2013-08-15

    Non-structural carbohydrate (NSC; glucose, fructose, sucrose and fructan) composition of onions (Allium cepa L.) varies widely and is a key determinant of market usage. To analyse the physiology and genetics of onion carbohydrate metabolism and to enable selective breeding, an inexpensive, reliable and practicable sugar assay is required to phenotype large numbers of samples. A rapid, reliable and cost-effective microplate-based assay was developed for NSC analysis in onions and used to characterise variation in tissue hexose, sucrose and fructan content in open-pollinated breeding populations and in mapping populations developed from a wide onion cross. Sucrose measured in microplates employing maltase as a hydrolytic enzyme was in agreement with HPLC-PAD results. The method revealed significant variation in bulb fructan content within open-pollinated 'Pukekohe Longkeeper' breeding populations over a threefold range. Very wide segregation from 80 to 600 g kg(-1) in fructan content was observed in bulbs of F2 genetic mapping populations from the wide onion cross 'Nasik Red × CUDH2150'. The microplate enzymatic assay is a reliable and practicable method for onion sugar analysis for genetics, breeding and food technology. Open-pollinated onion populations may harbour extensive within-population variability in carbohydrate content, which may be quantified and exploited using this method. The phenotypic data obtained from genetic mapping populations show that the method is well suited to detailed genetic and physiological analysis. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Cellular and Molecular Changes Associated with Onion Skin Formation Suggest Involvement of Programmed Cell Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galsurker, Ortal; Doron-Faigenboim, Adi; Teper-Bamnolker, Paula; Daus, Avinoam; Fridman, Yael; Lers, Amnon; Eshel, Dani

    2017-01-01

    Skin formation of onion (Allium cepa L.) bulb involves scale desiccation accompanied by scale senescence, resulting in cell death and tissue browning. Understanding the mechanism of skin formation is essential to improving onion skin and bulb qualities. Although onion skin plays a crucial role in postharvest onion storage and shelf life, its formation is poorly understood. We investigated the mode of cell death in the outermost scales that are destined to form the onion skin. Surprisingly, fluorescein diacetate staining and scanning electron microscopy indicated that the outer scale desiccates from the inside out. This striking observation suggests that cell death in the outer scales, during skin formation, is an internal and organized process that does not derive only from air desiccation. DNA fragmentation, a known hallmark of programmed cell death (PCD), was revealed in the outer scales and gradually decreased toward the inner scales of the bulb. Transmission electron microscopy further revealed PCD-related structural alterations in the outer scales which were absent from the inner scales. De novo transcriptome assembly for three different scales: 1st (outer), 5th (intermediate) and 8th (inner) fleshy scales identified 2,542 differentially expressed genes among them. GO enrichment for cluster analysis revealed increasing metabolic processes in the outer senescent scale related to defense response, PCD processes, carbohydrate metabolism and flavonoid biosynthesis, whereas increased metabolism and developmental growth processes were identified in the inner scales. High expression levels of PCD-related genes were identified in the outer scale compared to the inner ones, highlighting the involvement of PCD in outer-skin development. These findings suggest that a program to form the dry protective skin exists and functions only in the outer scales of onion. PMID:28119713

  11. Pb-inhibited mitotic activity in onion roots involves DNA damage and disruption of oxidative metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Gurpreet; Singh, Harminder Pal; Batish, Daizy Rani; Kohli, Ravinder Kumar

    2014-09-01

    Plant responses to abiotic stress significantly affect the development of cells, tissues and organs. However, no studies correlating Pb-induced mitotic inhibition and DNA damage and the alterations in redox homeostasis during root division per se were found in the literature. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to evaluate the impact of Pb on mitotic activity and the associated changes in the oxidative metabolism in onion roots. The cytotoxic effect of Pb on cell division was assessed in the root meristems of Allium cepa (onion). The mitotic index (MI) was calculated and chromosomal abnormalities were sought. Pb-treatment induced a dose-dependent decrease in MI in the onion root tips and caused mitotic abnormalities such as distorted metaphase, fragments, sticky chromosomes, laggards, vagrant chromosomes and bridges. Single Cell Gel Electrophoresis was also performed to evaluate Pb induced genotoxicity. It was accompanied by altered oxidative metabolism in the onion root tips suggesting the interference of Pb with the redox homeostasis during cell division. There was a higher accumulation of malondialdehyde, conjugated dienes and hydrogen peroxide, and a significant increase in the activities of superoxide dismutases, ascorbate peroxidases, guaiacol peroxidases and glutathione reductases in Pb-treated onion roots, whereas catalases activity exhibited a decreasing pattern upon Pb exposure. The study concludes that Pb-induced cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in the onion roots is mediated through ROS and is also tightly linked to the cell cycle. The exposure to higher concentrations arrested cell cycle leading to cell death, whereas different repair responses are generated at lower concentrations, thereby allowing the cell to complete the cell cycle.

  12. Hyaluronidase inhibiting activity and radical scavenging potential of flavonols in processed onion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Peña, Diana; Colina-Coca, Clara; Char, Cielo D; Cano, M Pilar; de Ancos, Begoña; Sánchez-Moreno, Concepción

    2013-05-22

    The flavonol content and anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of onion treated by high-pressure processing (HPP) and HPP combined with freeze-drying and pulverization (HPP-FD-P) were evaluated. Allium cepa L. var. cepa, 'Recas' was treated at T1 (200 MPa/25 °C/5 min), T2 (400 MPa/25 °C/5 min), and T3 (600 MPa/25 °C/5 min). After treatment, HP-treated and untreated samples were frozen (diced onion, HP-treated). Subsequently, part of the diced samples was freeze-dried and pulverized (pulverized onion, HP-treated and freeze-dried). Flavonol content and anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities (hyaluronidase inhibiting activity, NO(•), ABTS(•+), and DPPH(•) scavenging capacity, ferric reducing antioxidant power, and antioxidative capacity by photochemiluminescence) were measured in nonhydrolyzed and hydrolyzed extracts. Hydrolysis was carried out in order to evaluate the effect of HPP and HPP-FD-P on both anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of extracts mainly containing aglycone forms. HPP-FD-P increased quercetin 3,4'-diglucoside, quercetin 4'-glucoside, quercetin 3-glucoside, and isorhamnetin 3,4'-diglucoside extractability. The present study suggests that HPP (especially treatment at 400 MPa) and HPP-FD-P may be of benefit for obtaining functional ingredients from onion, as suggested by increased NO(•) scavenging capacity and maintenance of the antioxidant activity mainly in hydrolyzed extracts.

  13. Multielement fingerprinting as a tool in origin authentication of PGI food products: Tropea red onion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furia, Emilia; Naccarato, Attilio; Sindona, Giovanni; Stabile, Gaetano; Tagarelli, Antonio

    2011-08-10

    Tropea red onion ( Allium cepa L. var. Tropea) is among the most highly appreciated Italian products. It is cultivated in specific areas of Calabria and, due to its characteristics, was recently awarded with the protected geographical indications (PGI) certification from the European Union. A reliable classification of onion samples in groups corresponding to "Tropea" and "non-Tropea" categories is now available to the producers. This important goal has been achieved through the evaluation of three supervised chemometric approaches. Onion samples with PGI brand (120) and onion samples not cultivated following the production regulations (80) were digested by a closed-vessel microwave oven system. ICP-MS equipped with a dynamic reaction cell was used to determine the concentrations of 25 elements (Al, Ba, Ca, Cd, Ce, Cr, Dy, Eu, Fe, Ga, Gd, Ho, La, Mg, Mn, Na, Nd, Ni, Pr, Rb, Sm, Sr, Tl, Y, and Zn). The multielement fingerprint was processed using linear discriminant analysis (LDA) (standard and stepwise), soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA), and back-propagation artificial neural network (BP-ANN). The cross-validation procedure has shown good results in terms of the prediction ability for all of the chemometric models: standard LDA, 94.0%; stepwise LDA, 94.5%; SIMCA, 95.5%; and BP-ANN, 91.5%.

  14. THE USE OF AZADIRACHTA INDICA EXTRACT TO DECREASE OF ALTERNARIA PORRI DISEASE ON ONION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loso Winarto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purple spot caused by Alternaria porri a major disease in the onion crop in the world. The disease is also widespread in the onion crop in Indonesia. This research aim was to know the effect of mimba leaf (Azadirachta indica extract concentration to decrease of Alternaria porri on onion (Allium ascalonicum L.This research conducted at Research Garden of the Center of Agricultural Technology Assessment of North Sumatra Province, from October 2010 until January 2011.The research used non factorial Block Randomized Design (BRD and four replications.The treatment consisted of six levels of Azadirachta indica which is dissolved in one litre of water each treatment. The number of replication are four each treatment. Treatment applied were 0 g plot-1 (control; 100 g plot-1; ; 150 g plot-1 ; 200 g plot-1 ; 250 g plot-1 ; 300 g plot-1 . The results showed that mimba leaf extract significantly affect the intensity of the purple spot disease and onion production.

  15. A mobile genetic element in Serratia marcescens, a causative agent of onion disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reva O. N.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To screen mobile genetic elements (MGE in the bacterium which caused decay of field-grown onion bulb and to study an integron and gene cassettes associated. Methods. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR and PCR products sequencing were used for both the bacterium and MGE identification. Terminally-labeled Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (TRFLP analysis was performed for detection of any bacterium in the onion bulb tissue. Results. The bacterium, which caused field-grown onion decay, was identified by nucleotide sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA genes to be S. marcescens known as phytopathogen. However, this isolate did not respond to specific primers designed for pathogenic strains. Inoculation of onion (Allium cepa L., Arabidopsis thaliana (L. Heyhn, and lettuce (Lactuca sativa seeds resulted in biomass promotion of symptomless plants. PCR revealed the presence of a class 1 integron in S. marcescens IMBG291 which represents the first isolation of this integron in phytopathogenic Serratia species. The gene cassettes harbored by the integron have been represented with the promoterless genes encoded formimino-glutamate deiminase and ascorbate-specific phosphotransferase system enzyme IIC, and with additional three senseless sequences flanked by a 59-bp element. Conclusion. S. marcescens IMBG291 exhibited plant growth promotion or pathogenicity, depending on the environmental situation, due to horizontally acquired new gene cassettes located in the integron.

  16. A Chemo Attractant in Onion Root Exudates Recognized by Ditylenchus dipsaci in Laboratory Bioassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegel, Y; Burrows, P M; Bar-Eyal, M

    2003-01-01

    ABSTRACT A quantitative bioassay that translates preferences of axenically cultured and field population of Ditylenchus dipsaci, observed in vitro, into relative attractiveness of sterile root exudates preparations and their components is described. Onion (Allium cepa cv. White Lisbon) root exudates (ORE) are consistently and significantly much more attractive than the buffer control in all these assays. Exudates from oat cv. Lodi, mustard cv. Albatross and tomato cv. Rehovot 13 are significantly more attractive than the buffer but less attractive than ORE; Arabidopsis sp. cv. Landsberg erecta, oil seed rape cv. Cetes and wheat cv. Bet Hashita are as attractive as the buffer, but canary grass and clover exudates are less attractive than the buffer and, therefore, are classified as repellent. No significant differences in relative attractiveness were detected among exudates from other two cultivars of onion (Texas Grano 502 and Granex Hybrid) and one cultivar of leek (Large American Flag), but exudates from one onion (cv. Evergreen Long White Bunching) and one leek (cv. Broad London) were less attractive than ORE. Relative attractiveness is linear in relation to dilution exponent and therefore log-linear in relation to ORE concentration. Host (onion) penetration study reveals that penetration preferences by D. dipsaci follow the same pattern as those predicted by relative attractiveness coefficients estimated in the bio-assays. Preliminary characterization of the chemo attractant from ORE, using the behavioral bioassay, demonstrated that it was stable to heat and to proteolytic enzymes, nonvolatile and water soluble with a molecular mass <700 kDa.

  17. Relationships Between Bioactive Compound Content and the Antiplatelet and Antioxidant Activities of Six Allium Vegetable Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hebe Vanesa Beretta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Allium sp. vegetables are widely consumed for their characteristic flavour. Additionally, their consumption may provide protection against cardiovascular disease due to their antiplatelet and antioxidant activities. Although antiplatelet and antioxidant activities in Allium sp. are generally recognised, comparative studies of antiplatelet and antioxidant potency among the main Allium vegetable species are lacking. Also, the relationship between organosulfur and phenolic compounds and these biological activities has not been well established. In this study, the in vitro antiplatelet and antioxidant activities of the most widely consumed Allium species are characterised and compared. The species total organosulfur and phenolic content, and the HPLC profiles of 11 phenolic compounds were characterised and used to investigate the relationship between these compounds and antiplatelet and antioxidant activities. Furthermore, antiplatelet activities in chives and shallot have been characterised for the first time. Our results revealed that the strongest antiplatelet agents were garlic and shallot, whereas chives had the highest antioxidant activity. Leek and bunching onion had the weakest both biological activities. Significantly positive correlations were found between the in vitro antiplatelet activity and total organosulfur (R=0.74 and phenolic (TP content (R=0.73, as well as between the antioxidant activity and TP (R=0.91 and total organosulfur content (R=0.67. Six individual phenolic compounds were associated with the antioxidant activity, with catechin, epigallocatechin and epicatechin gallate having the strongest correlation values (R>0.80. Overall, our results suggest that both organosulfur and phenolic compounds contribute similarly to Allium antiplatelet activity, whereas phenolics, as a whole, are largely responsible for antioxidant activity, with broad variation observed among the contributions of individual phenolic compounds.

  18. Characterization of resistance, evaluation of the attractiveness of plant odors, and effect of leaf color on different onion cultivars to onion thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Montano, John; Fail, József; Deutschlander, Mark; Nault, Brian A; Shelton, Anthony M

    2012-04-01

    Onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), is a worldwide pest of onion, Allium cepa L. In field studies on onion resistance conducted in 2007 and 2008 using 49 cultivars, 11 showed low leaf damage by T. tabaci. In laboratory studies, the 11 cultivars, along with two susceptible checks and four additional cultivars, were evaluated to characterize resistance to T. tabaci and to determine if color and/or light reflectance were associated with resistance to T tabaci. No-choice tests were performed with adults and the numbers of eggs and larvae were counted on each cultivar after three and 10 d, respectively. In choice tests in which all cultivars were planted together in a circle in a single pot, 100 adults were released and the number of adults on each plant was evaluated 24 h later. The behavioral response of walking T. tabaci adults to plant odors was studied in a glass Y-tube olfactometer. The reflectance spectrum of leaves was measured using a UV-VIS spectrophotometer. Results indicate that resistant cultivars showed an intermediate-high antibiotic effect to T. tabaci and all of them showed a very strong antixenotic effect. There were no significant preferences in the response of walking T. tabaci adults to plant odors. The two susceptible cultivars had the highest values of leaf reflectance for the first (275-375 nm) and second (310-410 nm) theoretical photopigment-system of T. tabaci, and these values were significantly different from most resistant cultivars. These results suggest a strong response of T. tabaci to onion cultivars with higher reflectance in the ultraviolet range (270-400 nm). Overall, these results appear promising in helping to identify categories of resistance to T. tabaci in onions that can be used in breeding programs.

  19. Degenerative myelopathy in 18 Pembroke Welsh Corgi dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    March, P A; Coates, J R; Abyad, R J; Williams, D A; O'Brien, D P; Olby, N J; Keating, J H; Oglesbee, M

    2009-03-01

    Postmortem examination was performed on 18 Pembroke Welsh Corgi dogs (mean age 12.7 years) with clinical signs and antemortem diagnostic tests compatible with a diagnosis of degenerative myelopathy. Tissue sections from specific spinal cord and brain regions were systematically evaluated in all dogs. Axonal degeneration and loss were graded according to severity and subsequently compared across different spinal cord segments and funiculi. White matter lesions were identified in defined regions of the dorsal, lateral, and ventral funiculi. The dorsolateral portion of the lateral funiculus was the most severely affected region in all cord segments. Spinal cord segment T12 exhibited the most severe axonal loss. Spinal nerve roots, peripheral nerves, and brain sections were within normal limits, with the exception of areas of mild astrogliosis in gray matter of the caudal medulla. Dogs with more severe lesions showed significant progression of axonal degeneration and loss at T12 and at cord segments cranial and caudal to T12. Severity of axonal loss in individual dogs positively correlated with the duration of clinical signs. The distribution of axonal degeneration resembled that reported in German Shepherd Dog degenerative myelopathy but differed with respect to the transverse and longitudinal extent of the lesions within more clearly defined funicular areas. Although these lesion differences might reflect disease longevity, they could also indicate a form of degenerative myelopathy unique to the Pembroke Welsh Corgi dog.

  20. Radiographic Hip Joint Phenotype of the Pembroke Welsh Corgi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbe, Georga T.; Biery, Darryl N.; Gregor, Thomas P.; Giger, Urs; Smith, Gail K.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the radiographic hip joint phenotype of the Pembroke Welsh Corgi. Study Design Prospective and retrospective cross-sectional study. Animals Pembroke Welsh Corgis (n = 399). Methods Ventrodorsal, hip-extended radiographs were evaluated for subluxation, osteoarthritis (OA), caudolateral curvilinear osteophytes (CCO), and circumferential femoral head osteophytes (CFHO) of PennHIP evaluated Corgis. Joint laxity was measured by distraction index (DI). Results All Corgis had DI > 0.30 (mean, 0.66), 6.8% had OA, 18% had subluxation, 22.3% had CCO, and 74.4% had CFHO. Higher DI increased the odds for subluxation and canine hip dysplasia (CHD) but not for OA, CCO, or CFHO. The presence of CCO increased the odds for OA by 4.6 times (P = .002) and 2.2 times (P = .01) for hip dysplasia. All dogs with OA had CFHO. The presence of CFHO increased the odds for subluxation by 8.7 times (p hip dysplasia. Subluxation increased the odds for OA by 15.4 times (P hip laxity that has been shown to correlate with hip OA and hip dysplasia in large-breed dogs. The relationship between CCO and OA was similar to published findings in nonchondrodystrophic large-breed dogs and the CFHO was significantly associated with subluxation. Both CCO and CFHO are associated with hip dysplasia in this small chondrodystrophic breed. PMID:23253037

  1. UV-B radiation impacts shoot tissue pigment composition in Allium fistulosum L. cultigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abney, Kristin R; Kopsell, Dean A; Sams, Carl E; Zivanovic, Svetlana; Kopsell, David E

    2013-01-01

    Plants from the Allium genus are valued worldwide for culinary flavor and medicinal attributes. In this study, 16 cultigens of bunching onion (Allium fistulosum L.) were grown in a glasshouse under filtered UV radiation (control) or supplemental UV-B radiation [7.0  μ mol·m(-2) · s(-2) (2.68 W · m(-2))] to determine impacts on growth, physiological parameters, and nutritional quality. Supplemental UV-B radiation influenced shoot tissue carotenoid concentrations in some, but not all, of the bunching onions. Xanthophyll carotenoid pigments lutein and β -carotene and chlorophylls a and b in shoot tissues differed between UV-B radiation treatments and among cultigens. Cultigen "Pesoenyj" responded to supplemental UV-B radiation with increases in the ratio of zeaxanthin + antheraxanthin to zeaxanthin + antheraxanthin + violaxanthin, which may indicate a flux in the xanthophyll carotenoids towards deepoxydation, commonly found under high irradiance stress. Increases in carotenoid concentrations would be expected to increase crop nutritional values.

  2. Fusarium proliferatum isolated from garlic in Spain: identification, toxigenic potential and pathogenicity on related Allium species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel PALMERO

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium proliferatum has been reported on garlic in the Northwest USA, Spain and Serbia, causing water-soaked tan-colored lesions on cloves. In this work, Fusarium proliferatum was isolated from 300 symptomatic garlic bulbs. Morphological identification of Fusarium was confirmed using species-specific PCR assays and EF-1α sequencing. Confirmation of pathogenicity was conducted with eighteen isolates. Six randomly selected F. proliferatum isolates from garlic were tested for specific pathogenicity and screened for fusaric acid production. Additionally, pathogenicity of each F. proliferatum isolate was tested on healthy seedlings of onion (Allium cepa, leek (A. porrum, scallions (A. fistulosum, chives (A. schoenoprasum and garlic (A. sativum. A disease severity index (DSI was calculated as the mean severity on three plants of each species with four test replicates. Symptoms on onion and garlic plants were observed three weeks after inoculation. All isolates tested produced symptoms on all varieties inoculated. Inoculation of F. proliferatum isolates from diseased garlic onto other Allium species provided new information on host range and pathogenicity. The results demonstrated differences in susceptibility with respect to host species and cultivar. The F. proliferatum isolates tested all produced fusaric acid (FA; correlations between FA production and isolate pathogenicity are discussed. Additionally, all isolates showed the presence of the FUM1 gene suggesting the ability of Spanish isolates to produce fumonisins.

  3. UV-B Radiation Impacts Shoot Tissue Pigment Composition in Allium fistulosum L. Cultigens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin R. Abney

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants from the Allium genus are valued worldwide for culinary flavor and medicinal attributes. In this study, 16 cultigens of bunching onion (Allium fistulosum L. were grown in a glasshouse under filtered UV radiation (control or supplemental UV-B radiation [7.0 μmol·m−2·s−2 (2.68 W·m−2] to determine impacts on growth, physiological parameters, and nutritional quality. Supplemental UV-B radiation influenced shoot tissue carotenoid concentrations in some, but not all, of the bunching onions. Xanthophyll carotenoid pigments lutein and β-carotene and chlorophylls a and b in shoot tissues differed between UV-B radiation treatments and among cultigens. Cultigen “Pesoenyj” responded to supplemental UV-B radiation with increases in the ratio of zeaxanthin + antheraxanthin to zeaxanthin + antheraxanthin + violaxanthin, which may indicate a flux in the xanthophyll carotenoids towards deepoxydation, commonly found under high irradiance stress. Increases in carotenoid concentrations would be expected to increase crop nutritional values.

  4. The properties and tastes of soaking onion

    OpenAIRE

    玉木, 雅子; 鵜飼, 光子; Masako, TAMAKI; Mitsuko, UKAI

    2000-01-01

    Soak process of food was used commonly for vegetables to take away odor, harshness and color. In this study, the effect of soak on the properties and tastes of onion were investigated. In soaking onion with water, the bitter and hot taste in the slice decreased, and stimulus taste softened. In addition, the odor specific to the raw onion slice decreased after soaking with water. For texture characteristics, the onion soaked water was softer and less fibrous. The properties and tastes of water...

  5. Profitability and Efficiency of Red Onion Farming

    OpenAIRE

    Rosyadi, Imron; Purnomo, Didit

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to determine and analyze the profitability and performance of onion farming marketing margins; analyze and know the parts of prices received by farmers and analyze the efficiency of onion farming in the district of Brebes. Samples taken in this study is 30 onion farmers in the district of Brebes, who settled in six villages, each village was taken 5 farmers as the research sample. These results indicate that the location of onion farming research does not provi...

  6. Leaf waxes and thrips resistance in onion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onion thrips is an important insect pest of onion that damages leaves and bulbs, reduces yields, and transmits important diseases such as iris yellow spot virus and bacterial rots. Growers would benefit from onions resistant to thrips in order to reduce insecticide applications and provide more sust...

  7. Effect of enoxaparin and onion extract on human skin fibroblast cell line - therapeutic implications for the treatment of keloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikuła, Michał; Żebrowska, Maria E; Pobłocka-Olech, Loretta; Krauze-Baranowska, Mirosława; Sznitowska, Małgorzata; Trzonkowski, Piotr

    2014-02-01

    Keloids and hypertrophic scars are hyperproliferative skin disorders resulting in abnormal wound healing. In the prevention and treatment of keloids and hypertrophic scars, ointments containing heparin and onion extract are very popular. Their therapeutic effects, however, are still controversial and the mechanism of action is not fully understood. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of enoxaparin and dry onion extract on proliferation, apoptosis and β1 integrin expression in human fibroblasts. Fibroblast human cell lines (46 BR.1 N) were treated for 48 h with various concentrations of enoxaparin sodium (20, 100, 500 µg/mL) and/or onion [Allium cepa L. (Alliaceae)] extract (50, 250, 1000 µg/mL). The cell proliferation was evaluated by [(3)H]-thymidine incorporation assay. Furthermore, the expression of β1 integrin and apoptosis was determined by flow cytometry. The results demonstrate that enoxaparin and onion extract inhibited the proliferation of human fibroblasts. Almost complete inhibition of cell proliferation was achieved by enoxaparin in 500 µg/mL concentration (91.5% reduction). The onion extract at a concentration of 250 µg/mL also strongly inhibited the proliferation of cells (50.8% reduction). Depending on concentration, enoxaparin and onion extract induced apoptosis (500 and 1000 µg/mL, respectively) and, depending on concentration, downregulated the expression of β1 integrin on human fibroblasts. This work points at possible mechanism of action of enoxaparin and onion extract, when administered in the treatment of patients with keloids and hypertrophic scars.

  8. Cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of aqueous extracts of five medicinal plants on Allium cepa Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinboro, A; Bakare, A A

    2007-07-25

    The cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of aqueous extracts of five medicinal plants: Azadirachta indica (A. Juss), Morinda lucida (Benth.), Cymbopogon citratus (DC Stapf.), Mangifera indica (Linn.) and Carica papaya (Linn.) was evaluated using the Allium cepa assay. The extracts were prepared with tap water as practised locally. Onion bulbs were exposed to 1, 5, 10, 25 and 50%; and 1, 2.5, 5, 10 and 20% concentrations (v/v) of each of the extracts for macroscopic and microscopic analyses, respectively. There was concentration-dependent and statistically significant (P<0.05) inhibition of root growth by the extracts when compared with the control. The EC(50) obtained for decoctions of Azadirachta indica. Cymbopogon citratus, Mangifera indica and Carica papaya were 0.6, 3.0, 1.4 and 0.8%, respectively. It was 2.6 and 0.8% for the squeezed extracts of Azadirachta indica and Morinda lucida, respectively. All the tested extracts were observed to have mitodepressive effects on cell division and induced mitotic spindle disturbance in Allium cepa. These results suggest an inhibitory, mitodepressive and turbagenic activities of the aqueous extracts on Allium cepa.

  9. Hierarchical porous carbon derived from Allium cepa for supercapacitors through direct carbonization method with the assist of calcium acetate

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Jinhui

    2017-11-02

    In this paper, a direction carbonization method was used to prepare porous carbon from Allium cepa for supercapacitor applications. In this method, calcium acetate was used to assist carbonization process. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and N2 adsorption/desorption method were used to characterize the morphology, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) specific surface area and pore size distribution of porous carbon derived from Allium cepa (onion derived porous carbon, OPC). OPC is of hierarchical porous structure with high specific surface area and relatively high specific capacitance. OPC possesses relatively high specific surface area of 533.5 m2/g. What’s more, OPC possesses a specific capacitance of 133.5 F/g at scan rate of 5 mV/s.

  10. Effects of Onion Juice on the Normal Flora of Eyelids and Conjunctiva in an Animal Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejabat, Mahmoud; Salehi, Alireza; Noorani Azad, Parisa; Ashraf, Mohammad Javad

    2014-01-01

    Background: Traditional medicine/complementary alternative medicine may suggest new ideas to modern medicine in order to face new challenges however these concepts should be acknowledged based on experimental studies. Objectives: We aimed to study the effects of onion (Allium cepa) juice on the normal flora of conjunctiva and eye lids, and to follow the histopathology changes of conjunctiva in an animal study. Materials and Methods: Twenty-four rabbits were randomly classified into three equal groups. Groups 1, 2 and 3 received fresh red onion juice, as an eye drop, into the right eye twice daily for; one week, one month, and two months, respectively. Microbiological sampling by sterile swabs was performed before and after the intervention. Cultural characteristics, including the growth rate and the kind of organisms, are reported. At the end of the study, pathological samples were collected from the inferior fornix. Results: After the intervention, the number of positive cultures in the samples, collected from both the conjunctiva and eyelid, had decreased. Group 3 demonstrated the lowest amount of growth after the administration of the onion juice and the bacterial isolation rates from each organism had decreased. All pathological samples revealed some degree of inflammation. There was no evidence of metaplasia or dysplasia. There was no significant difference between the growth rates of organisms in the experimental groups using statistical analysis. Conclusions: According to our experiment, onion has an inhibitory effect on the growth of normal eye flora; although the duration of onion juice instillation did not show any significant effect on the group results. Hence, this finding is an initiating point for further investigations into the antimicrobial properties of this herb to treat common eye infections, including conjunctivitis and blepharitis. PMID:25147716

  11. Effects of onion juice on the normal flora of eyelids and conjunctiva in an animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejabat, Mahmoud; Salehi, Alireza; Noorani Azad, Parisa; Ashraf, Mohammad Javad

    2014-05-01

    Traditional medicine/complementary alternative medicine may suggest new ideas to modern medicine in order to face new challenges however these concepts should be acknowledged based on experimental studies. We aimed to study the effects of onion (Allium cepa) juice on the normal flora of conjunctiva and eye lids, and to follow the histopathology changes of conjunctiva in an animal study. Twenty-four rabbits were randomly classified into three equal groups. Groups 1, 2 and 3 received fresh red onion juice, as an eye drop, into the right eye twice daily for; one week, one month, and two months, respectively. Microbiological sampling by sterile swabs was performed before and after the intervention. Cultural characteristics, including the growth rate and the kind of organisms, are reported. At the end of the study, pathological samples were collected from the inferior fornix. After the intervention, the number of positive cultures in the samples, collected from both the conjunctiva and eyelid, had decreased. Group 3 demonstrated the lowest amount of growth after the administration of the onion juice and the bacterial isolation rates from each organism had decreased. All pathological samples revealed some degree of inflammation. There was no evidence of metaplasia or dysplasia. There was no significant difference between the growth rates of organisms in the experimental groups using statistical analysis. According to our experiment, onion has an inhibitory effect on the growth of normal eye flora; although the duration of onion juice instillation did not show any significant effect on the group results. Hence, this finding is an initiating point for further investigations into the antimicrobial properties of this herb to treat common eye infections, including conjunctivitis and blepharitis.

  12. Multiplex nested PCR for detection of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. allii from onion seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robène-Soustrade, Isabelle; Legrand, Delphine; Gagnevin, Lionel; Chiroleu, Frédéric; Laurent, Annie; Pruvost, Olivier

    2010-05-01

    Bacterial blight of onion (BBO) is an emerging disease that is present in many onion-producing areas. The causal agent, Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. allii, is seed transmitted. A reliable and sensitive diagnostic tool for testing seed health is needed. Detection of X. axonopodis pv. allii was achieved using a multiplex nested PCR assay developed using two randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) sequences corresponding to pilus assembly genes (pilW and pilX) and the avrRxv gene, respectively. The multiplex nested PCR was used with a large collection of X. axonopodis pv. allii strains pathogenic to onion and/or other Allium species isolated in different regions of the world. The internal primers used in the multiplex PCR assay directed amplification for all 86 X. axonopodis pv. allii strains tested, resulting in a 401-bp amplicon, a 444- to 447-bp amplicon, or both amplicons, depending on the strain. No amplification was obtained for 41 unrelated phytopathogenic bacteria and for 14 saprophytic bacteria commonly isolated from onion leaves and seeds. Most Xanthomonas strains also did not produce amplicons, except for nine strains classified in X. axonopodis genetic subgroup 9.1 or 9.2 and not pathogenic to onion. Nevertheless, sequence signatures distinguished most of these strains from X. axonopodis pv. allii. The assay detected X. axonopodis pv. allii in seed lots with contamination levels of 5 x 10(2) CFU g(-1) or higher. The sensitivity threshold of the multiplex nested PCR assay was found to be 1 infected seed in 27,340 seeds. This PCR-based assay should be useful for certifying that commercial seed lots are free of this important seed-borne pathogen.

  13. Podridão-mole em plantas de cebolinha causada por Pectobacterium carotovorumsubsp. carotovorum em Roraima Soft rot of bunching onion plants caused by Pectobacterium carotovorumsubsp. carotovorum in Roraima, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo A. Halfeld-Vieira

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A ocorrência de Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum (=Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora em cebolinha (Allium fistulosum é relatada pela primeira vez na região norte do Brasil. Até então sua ocorrência estava registrada apenas no Distrito Federal.This is the first report of Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum (=Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora causing soft rot of bunching onion (Allium fistulosum plants in Roraima, Brazil. Its occurrence is reported only in Distrito Federal.

  14. Molecular and Functional Characterization of FLOWERING LOCUS T Homologs in Allium cepa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjith Kumar Manoharan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Onion bulbing is an important agricultural trait affecting economic value and is regulated by flowering-related genes. FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT-like gene function is crucial for the initiation of flowering in various plant species and also in asexual reproduction in tuber plants. By employing various computational analysis using RNA-Seq data, we identified eight FT-like genes (AcFT encoding PEBP (phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein domains in Allium cepa. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses of FT-like proteins revealed six proteins that were identical to previously reported AcFT1-6 proteins, as well as one (AcFT7 with a highly conserved region shared with AcFT6 and another (comp106231 with low similarity to MFT protein, but containing a PEBP domain. Homology modelling of AcFT7 proteins showed similar structures and conservation of amino acids crucial for function in AtFT (Arabidopsis and Hd3a (rice, with variation in the C-terminal region. Further, we analyzed AcFT expression patterns in different transitional stages, as well as under SD (short-day, LD (long-day, and drought treatment in two contrasting genotypic lines EM (early maturation, 36101 and LM (late maturation, 36122. The FT transcript levels were greatly affected by various environmental factors such as photoperiod, temperature and drought. Our results suggest that AcFT7 is a member of the FT-like genes in Allium cepa and may be involved in regulation of onion bulbing, similar to other FT genes. In addition, AcFT4 and AcFT7 could be involved in establishing the difference in timing of bulb maturity between the two contrasting onion lines.

  15. PENGARUH AIR LIMBAH INDUSTRI SUSU TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN DAN HASIL TANAM TANAMAN BAWANG MERAH (Allium cepa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Yachya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available During this time the handling of waste water in dairy industry (ALIS in Indonesia is done by dumping into the river. This activity causes damage to rice fields which are located around the river flow. The yield losses due to ALIS is up to 50%. The friendly method is needed for handling ALIS. Since ALIS is known to contain beneficial macro nutrients for plants growing so potents as an organic fertilizer. This study aimed to optimize the ALIS concentrations (0, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100% v / v for the growth and yield of onion (Allium cepa L. var. Buto Ijo. The results showed, treatment ALIS 60% (v / v increasedheight ofonion leaves until 24.45 cm. Whereas ALIS treatment on various concentrations had no effect on the number of onion shoots. The yields showed, the highest of fresh weight of biomass, number of bulbs, fresh weight and dry weight of bulbs per clump approximatly 13.03 g g; 12,33 bulbs, 7.79 g and 5.38 g was achieved by treatment of ALIS 80% (v/v. Based on the result ofgrowth and crop yields, ALIS 80% (v/v was selected as the optimum concentration for onion crop. The ALIS was given100 mL and three times during the growing season.

  16. 7 CFR 457.135 - Onion crop insurance provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of the insured crop directly to consumers without the intervention of an intermediary such as a... will be all the storage and non-storage onions (excluding green (bunch) or seed onions, chives, garlic...) Was planted the previous year to storage or non-storage onions, green (bunch) onions, seed onions...

  17. RNA-sequencing-based transcriptome and biochemical analyses of steroidal saponin pathway in a complete set of Allium fistulosum-A. cepa monosomic addition lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelrahman, Mostafa; El-Sayed, Magdi; Sato, Shusei; Hirakawa, Hideki; Ito, Shin-Ichi; Tanaka, Keisuke; Mine, Yoko; Sugiyama, Nobuo; Suzuki, Minoru; Yamauchi, Naoki; Shigyo, Masayoshi

    2017-01-01

    The genus Allium is a rich source of steroidal saponins, and its medicinal properties have been attributed to these bioactive compounds. The saponin compounds with diverse structures play a pivotal role in Allium's defense mechanism. Despite numerous studies on the occurrence and chemical structure of steroidal saponins, their biosynthetic pathway in Allium species is poorly understood. The monosomic addition lines (MALs) of the Japanese bunching onion (A. fistulosum, FF) with an extra chromosome from the shallot (A. cepa Aggregatum group, AA) are powerful genetic resources that enable us to understand many physiological traits of Allium. In the present study, we were able to isolate and identify Alliospiroside A saponin compound in A. fistulosum with extra chromosome 2A from shallot (FF2A) and its role in the defense mechanism against Fusarium pathogens. Furthermore, to gain molecular insight into the Allium saponin biosynthesis pathway, high-throughput RNA-Seq of the root, bulb, and leaf of AA, MALs, and FF was carried out using Illumina's HiSeq 2500 platform. An open access Allium Transcript Database (Allium TDB, http://alliumtdb.kazusa.or.jp) was generated based on RNA-Seq data. The resulting assembled transcripts were functionally annotated, revealing 50 unigenes involved in saponin biosynthesis. Differential gene expression (DGE) analyses of AA and MALs as compared with FF (as a control) revealed a strong up-regulation of the saponin downstream pathway, including cytochrome P450, glycosyltransferase, and beta-glucosidase in chromosome 2A. An understanding of the saponin compounds and biosynthesis-related genes would facilitate the development of plants with unique saponin content and, subsequently, improved disease resistance.

  18. RNA-sequencing-based transcriptome and biochemical analyses of steroidal saponin pathway in a complete set of Allium fistulosum-A. cepa monosomic addition lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Abdelrahman

    Full Text Available The genus Allium is a rich source of steroidal saponins, and its medicinal properties have been attributed to these bioactive compounds. The saponin compounds with diverse structures play a pivotal role in Allium's defense mechanism. Despite numerous studies on the occurrence and chemical structure of steroidal saponins, their biosynthetic pathway in Allium species is poorly understood. The monosomic addition lines (MALs of the Japanese bunching onion (A. fistulosum, FF with an extra chromosome from the shallot (A. cepa Aggregatum group, AA are powerful genetic resources that enable us to understand many physiological traits of Allium. In the present study, we were able to isolate and identify Alliospiroside A saponin compound in A. fistulosum with extra chromosome 2A from shallot (FF2A and its role in the defense mechanism against Fusarium pathogens. Furthermore, to gain molecular insight into the Allium saponin biosynthesis pathway, high-throughput RNA-Seq of the root, bulb, and leaf of AA, MALs, and FF was carried out using Illumina's HiSeq 2500 platform. An open access Allium Transcript Database (Allium TDB, http://alliumtdb.kazusa.or.jp was generated based on RNA-Seq data. The resulting assembled transcripts were functionally annotated, revealing 50 unigenes involved in saponin biosynthesis. Differential gene expression (DGE analyses of AA and MALs as compared with FF (as a control revealed a strong up-regulation of the saponin downstream pathway, including cytochrome P450, glycosyltransferase, and beta-glucosidase in chromosome 2A. An understanding of the saponin compounds and biosynthesis-related genes would facilitate the development of plants with unique saponin content and, subsequently, improved disease resistance.

  19. Silencing Onion Lachrymatory Factor Synthase Causes a Significant Change in the Sulfur Secondary Metabolite Profile1[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eady, Colin C.; Kamoi, Takahiro; Kato, Masahiro; Porter, Noel G.; Davis, Sheree; Shaw, Martin; Kamoi, Akiko; Imai, Shinsuke

    2008-01-01

    Through a single genetic transformation in onion (Allium cepa), a crop recalcitrant to genetic transformation, we suppressed the lachrymatory factor synthase gene using RNA interference silencing in six plants. This reduced lachrymatory synthase activity by up to 1,544-fold, so that when wounded the onions produced significantly reduced levels of tear-inducing lachrymatory factor. We then confirmed, through a novel colorimetric assay, that this silencing had shifted the trans-S-1-propenyl-l-cysteine sulfoxide breakdown pathway so that more 1-propenyl sulfenic acid was converted into di-1-propenyl thiosulfinate. A consequence of this raised thiosulfinate level was a marked increase in the downstream production of a nonenzymatically produced zwiebelane isomer and other volatile sulfur compounds, di-1-propenyl disulfide and 2-mercapto-3,4-dimethyl-2,3-dihydrothiophene, which had previously been reported in trace amounts or had not been detected in onion. The consequences of this dramatic simultaneous down- and up-regulation of secondary sulfur products on the health and flavor attributes of the onion are discussed. PMID:18583530

  20. Idaho–Eastern Oregon Onion Industry Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Bolotova, Yuliya; Jemmett, Brian

    2010-01-01

    The Idaho–Eastern Oregon onion industry operates in a market environment characterized by a high level of onion price and supply volatility. Years of relatively high onion prices are often followed by years of very low prices which do not allow onion growers to recover their onion production costs. This feature of the industry adversely affects the profi tability of onion growers and the economic performance of their industry. This study conducts an analysis of alternative market scenarios ...

  1. Aberraciones cromosomales en bulbos de cebolla Allium cepa inducidas por moléculas híbridas 4-aminoquinolínicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Restrepo Manrique

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available To study the toxicological properties of three hybrid compounds, quinoline-thiazolidinone (FR-72 and FR-121 and acridin-epoxyisoindolindione (FR- 154, applying named compounds to the test of the roots of Allium cepa onion bulbs. Materials and methods. Molecules FR-72, FR-121 and FR-154 were synthesized de novo according to described synthetic protocols. Clean and healthy bulbs of Allium cepa (2n = 16, previously immersed in distilled water, were dried with paper towels and placed directly into test tubes filled with the test substance. The experiments were carried out at room temperature 20 ± 2°C and were kept in darkness. The period of exposure of bulbs was 120 hours; the roots used for the genotoxicity evaluation were on average of 2 to 2.5 cm in length. The evaluation of the effect of the three quinolinic molecules on the growth of onion roots of Allium cepa bulbs was achieved using different concentrations of the three growth parameters (EC50, IM, ACs The evaluated substances performed aneugenic actions, operating at cellular and molecular structure level and preventing the fixing of mitotic spindle fibers, causing the movement of chromosomes in the anaphase or loss of chromosomes, even inducing apoptosis by exceeding the homeostatic capacity of the cell. Conclusions. The preliminary analysis indicated that molecule FR-121 at 10-6 M concentration and molecule FR-154 at 10-3 M concentration, proved to be potent phytotoxic agents causing various claustogenic and aneugenic aberrations.

  2. Allium species poisoning in dogs and cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BS Salgado

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dogs and cats are the animals that owners most frequently seek assistance for potential poisonings, and these species are frequently involved with toxicoses due to ingestion of poisonous food. Feeding human foodstuff to pets may prove itself dangerous for their health, similarly to what is observed in Allium species toxicosis. Allium species toxicosis is reported worldwide in several animal species, and the toxic principles present in them causes the transformation of hemoglobin into methemoglobin, consequently resulting in hemolytic anemia with Heinz body formation. The aim of this review is to analyze the clinicopathologic aspects and therapeutic approach of this serious toxicosis of dogs and cats in order to give knowledge to veterinarians about Allium species toxicosis, and subsequently allow them to correctly diagnose this disease when facing it; and to educate pet owners to not feed their animals with Allium-containg food in order to better control this particular life-threatening toxicosis.

  3. Secado de ajo elefante : allium ampeloprasum

    OpenAIRE

    Vignoni, Lucía; Araniti, Verónica; Winter, Patricia; Bartucciotto, Carmelo; Ventrera, Nancy; Guinle, Viviana; Giménez, Adriana; Bauzá, Marta Mónica

    2002-01-01

    Los estudios realizados en la Argentina sobre poscosecha del género Allium se refieren a A. sativum, no habiéndolos sobre Allium ampeloprasum (ajo elefante), de buenas características organolépticas (sabor más suave) y creciente demanda en los mercados internos y externos. Por tal motivo se decidió investigar la incidencia del método de secado en su pérdida de peso comparando el procedimiento tradicional...

  4. Anti-microbial and anti-oxidant activities of Illicium verum, Crataegus oxyacantha ssp monogyna and Allium cepa red and white varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benmalek, Yamina; Yahia, Ouahiba Ait; Belkebir, Aicha; Fardeau, Marie-Laure

    2013-01-01

    Illicium verum (badiane or star anise), Crataegus oxyacantha ssp monogyna (hawthorn) and Allium cepa (onion), have traditionnally been used as medicinal plants in Algeria. This study showed that the outer layer of onion is rich in flavonols with contents of 103 ± 7.90 µg/g DW (red variety) and 17.3 ± 0.69 µg/gDW (white variety). We also determined flavonols contents of 14.3 ± 0.21 µg/g 1.65 ± 0.61 µg/g for Crataegus oxyacantha ssp monogyna leaves and berries and 2.37 ± 0.10 µg/g for Illicium verum. Quantitative analysis of anthocyanins showed highest content in Crataegus oxyacantha ssp monogyna berries (5.11 ± 0.266 mg/g), while, inner and outer layers of white onion had the lowest contents with 0.045 ± 0.003mg/g and 0.077 ± 0.001 mg/g respectively.   Flavonols extracts presented high antioxidant activity as compared with anthocyanins and standards antioxidants (ascorbic acid and quercetin). Allium cepa and Crataegus oxyacantha ssp monogyna exhibited the most effective antimicrobial activity.

  5. Antiplatelet activity of Allium ursinum and Allium sativum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiyasat, Bahi; Sabha, Dina; Grotzinger, Kristina; Kempfert, Joerg; Rauwald, Johann-Wilhelm; Mohr, Friedrich-Wilhelm; Dhein, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum) has a well-established reputation as a protective agent against cardiovascular disease, while nearly nothing is known about its cousin Allium ursinum. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antiaggregatory mechanism of garlic and to compare the effects of A. ursinum and A. sativum. In a prospective study, extracts were prepared from A. sativum powder made from fresh A. sativum bulbs and fresh A. ursinum leaves by maceration. The extracts were characterized by thin layer chromatography. Their in vitro effects on human platelet aggregation were examined by light transmission aggregometry after induction by adenosine diphosphate (ADP), collagen, A23187, epinephrine and arachidonic acid (ARA) in platelets from healthy volunteers. A. ursinum and A. sativum exert similar antiaggregatory effects: they inhibit platelet aggregation induced via the ADP pathway and to a lesser extent aggregation induced by epinephrine, whereas ARA-, collagen- and A23187-induced aggregation was not affected. It became clear that the alcoholic extract of A. ursinum is the potent form, while the aqueous extract exerted an unspecific activity. The effects were strictly dose related. A. ursinum and A. sativum extracts exhibited similar potencies. Both A. ursinum and A. sativum exert antiaggregatory effects. Garlic extracts are acting by inhibition of the ADP pathway; their mechanisms of action are comparable to that of the clinically used drug clopidogrel. The pharmacologically active component of the extracts appears to be lipophilic rather than hydrophilic, but the precise chemical substance is still unknown. This is the first report on the antiplatelet activity of A. ursinum. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Induction of anthocyanin in the inner epidermis of red onion leaves by environmental stimuli and transient expression of transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltshire, Elizabeth J; Eady, Colin C; Collings, David A

    2017-06-01

    Novel imaging approaches have allowed measurements of the anthocyanin induction in onion epidermal cells that can be induced through water stress or transient expression of exogenous transcription factors. Environmental and genetic mechanisms that allow the normally colourless inner epidermal cells of red onion (Allium cepa) bulbs to accumulate anthocyanin were quantified by both absorbance ratios and fluorescence. We observed that water-stressing excised leaf segments induced anthocyanin formation, and fluorescence indicated that this anthocyanin was spectrally similar to the anthocyanin in the outer epidermal cells. This environmental induction may require a signal emanating from the leaf mesophyll, as induction did not occur in detached epidermal peels. Exogenous transcription factors that successfully drive anthocyanin biosynthesis in other species were also tested through transient gene expression using particle bombardment. Although the petunia R2R3-MYB factor AN2 induced anthocyanin in both excised leaves and epidermal peels, several transcription factors including maize C1 and Lc inhibited normal anthocyanin development in excised leaves. This inhibition may be due to moderate levels of conservation between the exogenous transcription factors and endogenous Allium transcription factors. The over-expressed exogenous transcription factors cannot drive anthocyanin biosynthesis themselves, but bind to the endogenous transcription factors and prevent them from driving anthocyanin biosynthesis.

  7. The association of peroxisomes with the developing cell plate in dividing onion root cells depends on actin microfilaments and myosin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collings, David A; Harper, John D I; Vaughn, Kevin C

    2003-12-01

    We have investigated changes in the distribution of peroxisomes through the cell cycle in onion ( Allium cepa L.) root meristem cells with immunofluorescence and electron microscopy, and in leek ( Allium porrum L.) epidermal cells with immunofluorescence and peroxisomal-targeted green fluorescent protein. During interphase and mitosis, peroxisomes distribute randomly throughout the cytoplasm, but beginning late in anaphase, they accumulate at the division plane. Initially, peroxisomes occur within the microtubule phragmoplast in two zones on either side of the developing cell plate. However, as the phragmoplast expands outwards to form an annulus, peroxisomes redistribute into a ring immediately inside the location of the microtubules. Peroxisome aggregation depends on actin microfilaments and myosin. Peroxisomes first accumulate in the division plane prior to the formation of the microtubule phragmoplast, and throughout cytokinesis, always co-localise with microfilaments. Microfilament-disrupting drugs (cytochalasin and latrunculin), and a putative inhibitor of myosin (2,3-butanedione monoxime), inhibit aggregation. We propose that aggregated peroxisomes function in the formation of the cell plate, either by regulating hydrogen peroxide production within the developing cell plate, or by their involvement in recycling of excess membranes from secretory vesicles via the beta-oxidation pathway. Differences in aggregation, a phenomenon which occurs in onion, some other monocots and to a lesser extent in tobacco BY-2 suspension cells, but which is not obvious in the roots of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh., may reflect differences within the primary cell walls of these plants.

  8. The Chemistry of Garlic and Onions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Eric

    1985-01-01

    Discusses structures and characteristics of sulfur compounds which cause the odor of garlic and the crying which may result from an onion. These compounds are dependent on conditions of extraction and account for medical properties long ascribed to garlic and onions. (DH)

  9. Profitability and Efficiency of Red Onion Farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imron Rosyadi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to determine and analyze the profitability and performance of onion farming marketing margins; analyze and know the parts of prices received by farmers and analyze the efficiency of onion farming in the district of Brebes. Samples taken in this study is 30 onion farmers in the district of Brebes, who settled in six villages, each village was taken 5 farmers as the research sample. These results indicate that the location of onion farming research does not provide benefits significantly to the household economy of farmers. Higher selling prices at the retail level and supermarkets do not have a significant impact on the level of profits of farming in the study area. Farming is done by farmers in the study area is inefficient. Onion marketing chain in the study area is relatively long, which consists of 4 lines of marketing.

  10. Comparative study on Allium schoenoprasum cultivated plant and Allium schoenoprasum tissue culture organs antioxidant status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stajner, D; Popović, B M; Calić-Dragosavac, D; Malenčić, D; Zdravković-Korać, S

    2011-11-01

    This study was designed to examine Allium schoenoprasum tissue culture organs antioxidant and scavenging activity and to make a comparison between Allium schoenoprasum cultivated plant and Allium schoenoprasum tissue culture organs antioxidant activity. This study reports the results on the root, stalk and leaf antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, catalase, guaiacol peroxidase and glutathione peroxidase), reduced glutathione quantity, flavonoids and soluble protein contents and quantities of malonyldialdehyde and ·OH radical. In Allium schoenoprasum tissue culture organs the total antioxidant capacity was determined by the FRAP method and scavenger activity by the DPPH method. The present results indicated that the crude extract of Allium schoenoprasum tissue culture exhibited antioxidant and scavenging abilities in all investigated plant parts, especially in the roots. According to our results, the tissue culture plants exhibited the highest activities in the roots in contrast to the cultivated plants where highest activities were observed in the leaves. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Plant Uptake and Metabolism of Nitrofuran Antibiotics in Spring Onion Grown in Nitrofuran-Contaminated Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yinan; Chan, K K Jason; Chan, Wan

    2017-05-31

    Environmental pollution caused by the discharge of mutagenic and carcinogenic nitrofurans to the aquatic and soil environment is an emerging public health concern because of the potential in producing drug-resistant microbes and being uptaken by food crops. Using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis and with spring onion (Allium wakegi Araki) as the plant model, we investigated in this study the plant uptake and accumulation of nitrofuran from a contaminated environment. Our study revealed for the first time high uptake and accumulation rates of nitrofuran in the edible parts of the food crop. Furthermore, results indicated highly efficient plant metabolism of the absorbed nitrofuran within the plant, leading to the formation of genotoxic hydrazine-containing metabolites. The results from this study may disclose a previously unidentified human exposure pathway through contaminated food crops.

  12. Onion seedling production in styrofoam trays under controlled environment, as summer-planted onions Plantas de cebola produzidas em bandejas sob cultivo protegido, no verão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Veiga De Vincenzo

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Summer-planted onion (Allium cepa L. can increase grower profits, but the production of seedlings for transplant is difficult. This experiment was carried out in Piracicaba, SP, Brazil, with the objective of studying the behavior of the short-day onion hybrid Mercedes, in its initial stage, under controlled greenhouse environment, as summer-planted onions. Four formulated substrates, two different numbers of plants per cell were tested, and 288-cell styrofoam trays used. Trials were set up in split-plot design (n=3. Substrate and number of plants per cell represented main plots, and N application (2 and 3 times a week the subplots. The number of three plants per cell decrease the earlier onset of bulbing and increase plant height; substrates did not show differences; and the N application 3 times a week increased plant height and leaf dry weight, but did not result in earlier onset of bulbing.Uma das dificuldades do cultivo do verão da cebola (Allium cepa L., que permite maior lucro pois esta é a época de entressafra, é a produção de plantas para o transplante. Com o objetivo de verificar o comportamento na fase de muda do híbrido Mercedes, sob cultivo protegido como cultura de verão, o experimento foi instalado em estufa, em Piracicaba, SP com bandejas de isopor de 288 células. Foram testados quatro substratos. e dois números de plantas por células (3 e 4 plantas/célula, sendo sub-plot a suplementação mineral com nitrogênio 2 e 3 vezes por semana com nitrato de cálcio + nitrato de potássio. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com fatorial 4 x 2 em parcelas subdivididas, e três repetições. A densidade de três plantas por célula apresentou menor taxa de bulbificação precoce e maior altura da planta; não houve diferença quanto aos substratos e que a aplicação de nitrogênio três vezes por semana apresentou os maiores valores de altura da planta e peso da matéria seca da parte aérea, n

  13. Production of volatile Sulphides in Allium Porrum cell cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Asghari Gh.R; Lockwood GB; Houshfar Gh.A "

    2002-01-01

    Production of volatile sulphides in cell cultures of Allium porrum is described. Allium porrum calluses were initiated from whole seedlings. The high growth rate of Allium porrum callus was achived in Murashige and Skoog media containing only 1 ppm 2, 4-Dichlorophenoxy acetic acid. The routine method of solvent extraction of volatile sulphides was used for Allium porrum and the concentrated extract was subjected to capillary GC and GC-MS. Dipropyl disulphide and 4-methyl thiazolethanol were i...

  14. Effect of Arsenic on Photosynthesis, Growth and its Accumulation in the Tissues of Allium cepa (Onion)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Singh Sushant, K.; Ghosh, A.K.

    2010-01-01

    Arsenic is a well known carcinogenic element, that can harm not only human health but, plant and bacteria as well. Replicated experiments confirmed that, Arsenic accumulates in the different tissues in different parts of the plant and, adversely affects the growth and productivity of the plants. It

  15. Search for prostaglandin A1 in onion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attrep, K A; Mariani, J M; Attrep, M

    1973-08-01

    Thus far there have been no reports that prostaglandins have been isolated from plant materials. Numerous plant materials were screened using this layer chromatographic technique to determine if such materials could contain prostaglandins. Following this initial screening, onions were selected for further study. A fatty acid fraction separated from yellow onion was subjected to thin layer chromatographic techniques, UV and IR spectrophotometric analyses. This silicic acid-chromatographed fraction corresponded to the prostaglandin A1 fraction. Preliminary identification strongly suggested that this component of onions appeared to be a prostaglandin (PGA1) or a prostaglandin-like compound.

  16. Demography and monitoring of Welsh's milkweed (Asclepias welshii) at Coral Pink Sand Dunes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brent C. Palmer; L. Armstrong

    2001-01-01

    Results are presented of a 12-year monitoring program on the Coral Pink Sand Dunes and Sand Hills populations of the threatened Welsh's milkweed, Asclepias welshii N & P Holmgren. The species is an early sera1 member of the dune flora, colonizing blowouts and advancing with shifting dunes. When an area stabilizes and other vegetation encroaches, A. welshii is...

  17. The Impact of Attaining the Welsh Baccalaureate Advanced Diploma on Academic Performance in Bioscience Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yhnell, Emma; Wood, Heather; Baker, Mathew; Amici-Dargan, Sheila; Taylor, Chris; Randerson, Peter; Shore, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Since the introduction of the Welsh Baccalaureate Advanced Diploma Qualification (WBQ) in 2003, an increasing number of students are applying to higher education institutions (HEIs) with this qualification. The advanced-level WBQ is regarded as equivalent to one General Certificate of Education A-Level (GCE A-Level). This study assesses the impact…

  18. Terminology Standardization in Education and the Construction of Resources: The Welsh Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Tegau; Prys, Gruffudd

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes developments in Welsh-language terminology within the education system in Wales. Following an outline of historical terminology work, it concentrates on the consolidation of terminology standardization at the Language Technologies Unit, Bangor University, with particular reference to two projects, one concerned with…

  19. Cross-Linguistic Influence in Welsh-English Bilingual Children's Adjectival Constructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoladis, Elena; Gavrila, Andra

    2015-01-01

    Cross-linguistic influence (CLI) refers to the linguistic influence of one of a bilingual's languages while processing the other. Researchers have debated whether CLI is better explained by the structure of bilinguals' two languages or by a combination of processing demands and structure. In this study, we test if Welsh-English bilingual children…

  20. A Race to the Bottom--Prison Education and the English and Welsh Policy Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerniawski, Gerry

    2016-01-01

    This article examines prison education in England and Wales arguing that a disjuncture exists between the policy rhetoric of entitlement to education in prison at the European level and the playing out of that entitlement in English and Welsh prisons. Caught between conflicting discourses around a need to combat recidivism and a need for…

  1. Sesquiterpene lactone dehydroleucodine selectively induces transient arrest in G2 in Allium cepa root meristematic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, M E; Giordano, O S; López, L A

    2002-02-01

    Dehydroleucodine is a sesquiterpene lactone recently isolated from aerial parts of a medicinal herb, Artemisia douglasiana Besser. We have previously shown that 25 and 100 microM dehydroleucodine slowed down onion root growth by 30 and 70%, respectively, affecting neither cell viability nor cell elongation. In the present study we analyze the effect of dehydroleucodine on cell cycle phases in onion (Allium cepa L.) root meristematic cells synchronized with caffeine or caffeine and hydroxyurea. Synchronized root cells treated with 100 and 200 microM dehydroleucodine present an interphase lengthening of 5.2 h and 8.2 h, respectively. The S-phase length, estimated by [3H]thymidine incorporation assay, was 6 h for both control roots and roots that had been immersed in dehydroleucodine. The peak of [3H]leucine incorporation was observed 6 h after release from synchronization in controls and in dehydroleucodine-treated roots, indicating that protein synthesis in G2 was not affected. Thus, these results show that dose-dependently dehydroleucodine selectively induces a transient arrest of meristematic cell in G2 and that dehydroleucodine can be used experimentally as a cell cycle suppressor.

  2. Evaluation of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of Hancornia speciosa latex in Allium cepa root model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, T P; Sousa, T R; Arruda, A S; Peixoto, N; Gonçalves, P J; Almeida, L M

    2016-02-01

    The latex obtained from Hancornia speciosa Gomes (Mangabeira tree) is widely used in traditional medicine to treat a variety of diseases, including diarrhea, ulcer, gastritis, tuberculosis, acne and warts. In this study, the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity effects of H. speciosa latex on the root meristem cells of Allium cepa were examined. Onion bulbs were exposed to different concentrations of latex and then submitted to microscopic analysis using Giemsa stain. Water was used as a negative control and sodium azide as a positive control. The results showed that, under the testing conditions, the mitotic index (MI) of the onion roots submitted to latex treatment did not differ significantly from the negative control, which suggests that the latex is not cytotoxic. Low incidence of chromosome aberrations in the cells treated with H. speciosa latex was also observed, indicating that the latex does not have genotoxic effect either. The MI and the chromosome aberration frequency responded to the latex concentration, requiring more studies to evaluate the dosage effect on genotoxicity. The results indicate that in tested concentrations H. speciosa latex is probably not harmful to human health and may be potentially used in medicine.

  3. Identification and onion pathogenicity of Burkholderia cepacia complex isolates from the onion rhizosphere and onion field soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Janette L; Fasi, Anthony C; Ramette, Alban; Smith, James J; Hammerschmidt, Raymond; Sundin, George W

    2008-05-01

    Burkholderia cepacia complex strains are genetically related but phenotypically diverse organisms that are important opportunistic pathogens in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF,) as well as pathogens of onion and banana, colonizers of the rhizospheres of many plant species, and common inhabitants of bulk soil. Genotypic identification and pathogenicity characterization were performed on B. cepacia complex isolates from the rhizosphere of onion and organic soils in Michigan. A total of 3,798 putative B. cepacia complex isolates were recovered on Pseudomonas cepacia azelaic acid tryptamine and trypan blue tetracycline semiselective media during the 2004 growing season from six commercial onion fields located in two counties in Michigan. Putative B. cepacia complex isolates were identified by hybridization to a 16S rRNA gene probe, followed by duplex PCR using primers targeted to the 16S rRNA gene and recA sequences and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the recA sequence. A total of 1,290 isolates, 980 rhizosphere and 310 soil isolates, were assigned to the species B. cepacia (160), B. cenocepacia (480), B. ambifaria (623), and B. pyrrocinia (27). The majority of isolates identified as B. cepacia (85%), B. cenocepacia (90%), and B. ambifaria (76%) were pathogenic in a detached onion bulb scale assay and caused symptoms of water soaking, maceration, and/or necrosis. A phylogenetic analysis of recA sequences from representative B. cepacia complex type and panel strains, along with isolates collected in this study, revealed that the B. cenocepacia isolates associated with onion grouped within the III-B lineage and that some strains were closely related to strain AU1054, which was isolated from a CF patient. This study revealed that multiple B. cepacia complex species colonize the onion rhizosphere and have the potential to cause sour skin rot disease of onion. In addition, the onion rhizosphere is a natural habitat and a potential environmental source

  4. Flight movement and spatial distribution of immunomarked thrips in onion, potato, and tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Lemes Fernandes

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the spatial distribution of thrips in different crops, and the correlation between meterological parameters and the flight movements of this pest, using immunomarking. The experiment was conducted in cultivated areas, with tomato (Solanum lycopersicum, potato (Solanum tuberosum, and onion (Allium cepa; and non-cultivated areas, with weedy plants. The areas with tomato (100 days, potato (20 days, and weeds were sprayed with casein, albumin, and soy milk, respectively, to mark adult thrips; however, the areas with onion (50 days and tomato (10 days were not sprayed. Thrips were captured with georeferenced blue sticky traps, transferred into tubes, and identified by treatment area with the Elisa test. The dependence between the samples and the capture distance was determined using geostatistics. Meteorlogical parameters were correlated with thrips density in each area. The three protein types used for immunomarking were detected in different proportions in the thrips. There was a correlation between casein-marked thrips and wind speed. The thrips flew a maximum distance of 3.5 km and dispersed from the older (tomato to the younger crops (potato. The immunomarking method is efficient to mark large quantities of thrips.

  5. A safe potential juice clarifying pectinase from Trichoderma viride EF-8 utilizing Egyptian onion skins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel-Mohsen S. Ismail

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The production of a notable, safe and highly active pectinase by the local fungal strain Trichoderma viride EF-8 utilizing the abundant pigmented Egyptian onion (Allium cepa L. skins (6.5%, w/v was achieved in 4 days submerged fermentation (SMF cultures, at temperature and pH of 30 °C and 4.0, respectively. The indigenously produced pectinase was partially purified by 50% batch ethanol precipitation and its general properties were studied following the standard procedures. The lyophilized enzyme preparation was free of any ochra or aflatoxins. The optimum conditions for the partially purified enzyme form were 2 mg/mL and 1% (w/v enzyme protein and substrate (citrus pectin concentrations, reaction pH and temperature of 7.0 and 40 °C, respectively. The results presented the low cost onion skins waste as the major substrate for the fungal pectinase production and its subsequent use in perfect fruit (apple, lemon and orange juices clarification with remarkable stability during and after this process, which certainly enhance fruit juices processing in the tropics.

  6. Effects of indole amides on lettuce and onion germination and growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgati, Thiago F; Boaventura, Maria Amelia D

    2011-01-01

    Auxins, such as indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), are important in plant germination and growth, while physiological polyamines, such as putrescine, are involved in cell proliferation and differentiation, and their concentrations increase during germination. In this work, novel indole amides were synthesized in good yields by monoacylation of morpholine and unprotected symmetrical diamines with indole-3-carboxylic acid, a putative metabolite of IAA, possessing no auxin-like activity. These amides were tested for their effects on seed germination and growth of the radicles and shoots of Lactuca sativa (lettuce) and Allium cepa (onion) seedlings, at 100.0, 1.0, and 0.01 microM concentrations. Germination was generally stimulated, with the exception of amide 3, derived from morpholine, at 100 microM. On radicle and shoot growth, the effect of these compounds was predominantly inhibitory. Compound 3 was the best inhibitor of growth of lettuce and onion, at the highest concentration. Amides, such as propanil, among others, are described as having herbicidal activity.

  7. Accelerated aging and controlled deterioration for the determination of the physiological potential of onion seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodo Angelica Brod

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available International research on vegetable seed vigor is not at the same level attained for grain crops species. This study was conducted to identify reliable procedures for the accelerated aging and controlled deterioration tests to rank onion (Allium cepa L. seed lots according to their physiological potential. Six seed lots of the cultivars Aurora and Petroline were evaluated in the laboratory for germination, first count, seedling vigor classification, traditional and saturated salt accelerated aging (41masculineC / 48 and 72 h, controlled deterioration (24% of water / 45masculineC / 24 h and seedling emergence tests. Seed moisture content after the saturated salt accelerated aging test was lower and uniform, which is considered an important advantage in comparison to the traditional procedure. The saturated salt accelerated aging (41masculineC / 48 and 72 h and controlled deterioration (moisture content adjusted to 24% / 45masculineC / 24 h tests were the best procedures to assess the physiological potential of onion seeds, and are indicated for use in quality control programs.

  8. Physiological response and sulfur metabolism of the V. dahliae-infected tomato plants in tomato/potato onion companion cropping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xuepeng; Li, Chunxia; Zhou, Xingang; Liu, Shouwei; Wu, Fengzhi

    2016-01-01

    Companion cropping with potato onions (Allium cepa var. agrogatum Don.) can enhance the disease resistance of tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum) to Verticillium dahliae infection by increasing the expressions of genes related to disease resistance. However, it is not clear how tomato plants physiologically respond to V. dahliae infection and what roles sulfur plays in the disease-resistance. Pot experiments were performed to examine changes in the physiology and sulfur metabolism of tomato roots infected by V. dahliae under the companion cropping (tomato/potato onion). The results showed that the companion cropping increased the content of total phenol, lignin and glutathione and increased the activities of peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase and phenylalanine ammonia lyase in the roots of tomato plants. RNA-seq analysis showed that the expressions of genes involved in sulfur uptake and assimilation, and the formation of sulfur-containing defense compounds (SDCs) were up-regulated in the V. dahlia-infected tomatoes in the companion cropping. In addition, the interactions among tomato, potato onion and V. dahliae induced the expression of the high- affinity sulfate transporter gene in the tomato roots. These results suggest that sulfur may play important roles in tomato disease resistance against V. dahliae. PMID:27808257

  9. Physiological response and sulfur metabolism of the V. dahliae-infected tomato plants in tomato/potato onion companion cropping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xuepeng; Li, Chunxia; Zhou, Xingang; Liu, Shouwei; Wu, Fengzhi

    2016-11-03

    Companion cropping with potato onions (Allium cepa var. agrogatum Don.) can enhance the disease resistance of tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum) to Verticillium dahliae infection by increasing the expressions of genes related to disease resistance. However, it is not clear how tomato plants physiologically respond to V. dahliae infection and what roles sulfur plays in the disease-resistance. Pot experiments were performed to examine changes in the physiology and sulfur metabolism of tomato roots infected by V. dahliae under the companion cropping (tomato/potato onion). The results showed that the companion cropping increased the content of total phenol, lignin and glutathione and increased the activities of peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase and phenylalanine ammonia lyase in the roots of tomato plants. RNA-seq analysis showed that the expressions of genes involved in sulfur uptake and assimilation, and the formation of sulfur-containing defense compounds (SDCs) were up-regulated in the V. dahlia-infected tomatoes in the companion cropping. In addition, the interactions among tomato, potato onion and V. dahliae induced the expression of the high- affinity sulfate transporter gene in the tomato roots. These results suggest that sulfur may play important roles in tomato disease resistance against V. dahliae.

  10. Onion skin as a radiation monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desrosiers, Marc F.; McLaughlin, William L.

    The ESR spectra of the dry, outer skin of onion, red onion, garlic, and shallot were measured before and after irradiation. In all spectra only a single resonance (g = 2.00) was observed. The ESR signal intensity increased with absorbed dose, however, the radiation-induced signal decayed slowly with time. It was concluded that the outer skin of these foods are not suitable as a long-term postirradiation monitor.

  11. Aktivitas Immunodulator Ekstrak Etanol Umbi Bawang Merah (Allium cepa L. terhadap Respon Imun Non Spesifik pada Mencit Jantan Galur BALB/C dengan Metode Carbon Clearance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diska Anggraeni Alfitasari

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The content of flavonoids on onion useful to maintain endurance. This research aims to know the activity of exstract immunodulator of onion bulb ethanol (Allium cepa L on phagocytic activity in male mice balb/c with varian dose and campored immunodulator activity with positive control. This study is an experimental reseach with Completely Randomized Design (CRD. Preparation of extract ethanol onion roots done by maceration using 96% ethanol for 9 hours. The test performed on samples which consist of 25 mice with carbon clearance method, devided into 5 groups, which are : K – (without treatment, k+ (with imboos 13,3 ml/Kg Bw, P1 (dose 12%, P2 (dose 24%, and P3 (dose 48%. The test performed for 5 days, and on the 7th day injected carbon (pelicans as much 0,1 ml/ 10 gr Weight intravenousty, their blood taken before carbon injection (minute 0 and minute 4, 8, 12, and 16. After their transmittance measure using spectrophotometer at 600,5 nm wavelength. This research shows that extract ethanol of onion balb has immunodulator activity effect on non-specific immune response on male mice balb/c with carbon clearance method. The dose of 12% (v/v, 24% (v/v and 48% (v/v dose have lower immunostimulatory capacity than positive control.

  12. Novel approach for the determination of volatile compounds in processed onion by headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS GC-MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colina-Coca, Clara; González-Peña, Diana; Vega, Estela; de Ancos, Begoña; Sánchez-Moreno, Concepción

    2013-01-15

    A novel headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS GC-MS) method was developed for analysis of volatile compounds in onion (Allium cepa L. var. cepa, 'Recas'). MS was operated using full scan mode and selective ion monitoring (SIM) mode in order to quantify some specific compounds with increased sensitivity relative to full scan mode. The limits of detection and quantitation ranged from 0.01 to 0.10 μg/g and from 0.02 to 3.83 μg/g fresh weight, respectively, for studied compounds. The procedure allowed the identification of eighteen compounds and quantitation of nine compounds in the volatile fraction of onion, belonging mainly to di-, and trisulfides and aldehydes. These methods were applied to evaluate how high-pressure (HP) as a processing technology affects onion volatile compounds, responsible in part of the onion biological activity. Onion samples were treated at T1: 200 MPa/25°C/5 min, T2: 400 MPa/25°C/5 min and T3: 600 MPa/25°C/5 min (treatments). In addition, the difference among diced, freeze-dried and pulverized onions (groups) was studied, in order to select the process more adequate for better preserving volatile compounds. The results obtained in full scan mode showed that both main factors (group and treatment) had a significant effect (Ponion samples compared with diced samples regardless the HP treatment. However, freeze-drying and pulverization processes affected the stability of propionaldehyde, 1-propanethiol, hexanal, dipropyl disulfide, and dipropyl trisulfide, diminishing their content regardless the HP treatment. HP at 200 and 400 MPa/25°C/5 min were the least detrimental treatments to the total fraction of volatile compounds, not affecting or even increasing the levels of some volatile compounds. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Epicuticular waxes on onion leaves and associated resistance to onion thrips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natural variation exists for amounts and types of epicuticular waxes on onion foliage. Wild-type onion possesses copious amounts of these waxes and is often referred to as “waxy”. The recessively inherited “glossy” phenotype has significantly less wax relative to waxy types and shows resistance to o...

  14. Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on onion growth and onion stunting caused by Rhizoctonia solani, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A preliminary study was conducted in a greenhouse (15 ± 1oC, with supplemental lights for 12 h/day) to determine the role of AMF on onion growth and for reducing the severity of onion stunting, using a commercial AMF inoculant, BioTerra Plus, that contains 104 propagules/g (ppg) of Glomus intraradic...

  15. Variation for epicuticular waxes on onion foliage and impacts on numbers of onion thrips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natural variation exists in onion for amounts of epicuticular waxes on foliage, and plants with lower amounts of these waxes suffer less damage from the insect pest Thrips tabaci (thrips). Wild-type onion possesses copious amounts of epicuticular waxes and is often referred to as “waxy”. The recessi...

  16. Perspectives on the emblems of the nation in contemporary Estonian and Anglo-Welsh poetry / Ene-Reet Soovik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soovik, Ene-Reet, 1968-

    2000-01-01

    Kaasaegse eesti luule ja Walesi ingliskeelse luule võrdlemiseks on kasutatud uusi antoloogiaid: Eesti luule antoloogia II (koost. Raivo Kuusk, 1998), Twentieth-century anglo-welsh poetry (ed. Dannie Abse, 1997)

  17. Antibacterial activities of Allium vineale, Chaerophyllum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Allium vineale L., Chaerophyllum macropodum Boiss. and Prangos ferulacea (L.) Lindl. have been used for cheese production in Turkiye for many centuries. In addition, it is traditionally believed by local people that these plants have antibacterial activity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of ...

  18. Chronic Allium sativum administration alters spontaneous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arun Kumar Agnihotri

    cerebral cortex of the frontal lobe involved in the planning of complex cognitive behavior, personality expression, decision making, and moderating social behaviour11. The widespread culinary use of Allium sativum and the anticipated effect it would portend to cognitive behaviour, as well as a recent report on its adverse ...

  19. Ethnopharmacological and Phytochemical Review of Allium Species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tulbaghia (wild Garlic) is a plant genus most closely related to the genus Allium both in the family Alliaceae and is entirely indigenous to Southern Africa. Indigenous people use several species of the genus as food and medicine, and few species are commonly grown as ornamentals. Biological and pharmacological ...

  20. Providing Some Pharmacopoeial Standards for Nigerian Allium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The essence of standardization of medicinal plants is to produce herbal medicines with acceptable safety, efficacy, quality and reproducibility. Allium cepa var. cepa L. (Amaryllidaceae) bulbs purchased from Sasha Market, Ibadan, Nigeria during the rainy season was subjected to organoleptic, morphological and ...

  1. Efficacy of Allium sativum (garlic) against experimental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Background: Due to increasing problems of inadequate and unreliable medical treatments for Cryptosporidium enteritis, alternative therapies are being sought. Objective: The current study was designed to evaluate the prophylactic and therapeutic efficacy of Allium sativum (garlic) against Cryptosporidium infection ...

  2. Flavonoid content in fresh, home-processed, and light-exposed onions and in dehydrated commercial onion products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Un; Lee, Jong Ha; Choi, Suk Hyun; Lee, Jin Shik; Ohnisi-Kameyama, Mayumi; Kozukue, Nobuyuki; Levin, Carol E; Friedman, Mendel

    2008-09-24

    Onion plants synthesize flavonoids as protection against damage by UV radiation and by intracellular hydrogen peroxide. Because flavonoids also exhibit health-promoting effects in humans, a need exists to measure their content in onions and in processed onion products. To contribute to the knowledge about the levels of onion flavonoids, HPLC and LC-MS were used to measure levels of seven quercetin and isorhamnetin glucosides in four Korean commercial onion bulb varieties and their distribution within the onion, in scales of field-grown onions exposed to home processing or to fluorescent light and in 16 commercial dehydrated onion products sold in the United States. Small onions had higher flavonoid content per kilogram than large ones. There was a graduated decrease in the distribution of the flavonoids across an onion bulb from the first (outside) to the seventh (innermost) scale. Commercial, dehydrated onion products contained low amounts or no flavonoids. Losses of onion flavonoids subjected to "cooking" (in percent) ranged as follows: frying, 33; sauteing, 21; boiling, 14-20; steaming, 14; microwaving, 4; baking, 0. Exposure to fluorescent light for 24 and 48 h induced time-dependent increases in the flavonoid content. The results extend the knowledge about the distribution of flavonoids in fresh and processed onions.

  3. EFFICIENCY OF MINERAL FERTILIZER IN ONION SEED PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Knjazkov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The fertilizer dressing acts to raise the yield of mother onion bulbs and seeds. The different doses of mineral fertilizers influence on storage, biochemical content of mother onion bulbs and seed productivity in different ways.

  4. Written cognate treatment in a Welsh-English bilingual aphasic patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polly Barr

    2015-05-01

    Weighted Statistics (Howard, Best, & Nickels, 2015 will be used to investigate improvement from baselines to post-tests. This will establish whether there are effects of English treatment on the treated sets (a, b and c and the untreated English and Welsh sets (d,e,f,g. If treatment improves written production of the treated sets, then we can attribute this to strengthening lexical representation and investigate generalisation to untreated sets. We will specifically be looking at whether cognates when treated in English improve in Welsh compared to non-cognates, but also if any inhibition occurs if cognates share exactly the same phonology (sets a and e compared to if cognates have slightly differing phonology (sets c and f. The results of the study will be used to inform bilingual language models on interconnectivity and the special status of cognates as well as inform us of cost and time effective aphasia therapy.

  5. A less energy intensive process for dehydrating onion

    OpenAIRE

    Grewal, Manpreet Kaur; Jha, S. N.; Patil, R. T.; Dhatt, A. S.; Kaur, Amandeep; Jaiswal, P.

    2013-01-01

    Onion powder has an extensive demand and wide application worldwide as flavour additive in convenience foods and medicinal products. Conventionally onion powder is prepared by hot air drying of onion slices followed by grinding. Convective air drying when used alone demands longer drying time and thus has a high expense of energy. As bulk of onion is water (82–87 %), removal of moisture prior to drying can reduce moisture loading on dryer and hence the energy consumption. Keeping this in view...

  6. Biological activity and nutritional properties of processed onion products

    OpenAIRE

    Rolán Marín, María Eduvigis

    2009-01-01

    The first part of the PhD Thesis aimed to evaluate in vitro effects of food processing and preservation technologies on onion nutritional and technological properties. The first in vitro study analyzed ‘Figueres’ and ‘Recas’ onion by-products (juices, pastes and bagasses) stabilized by sterilization, pasteurization, and freezing technologies. Results demonstrated that processing ‘Recas’ onion wastes to obtain onion pastes and the subsequent stabilization with pasteurization trigge...

  7. Cognitive Reserve in Parkinson's Disease: The Effects of Welsh-English Bilingualism on Executive Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindle, John V.; Martin-Forbes, Pamela A.; Bastable, Alexandra J. M.; Pye, Kirstie L.; Martyr, Anthony; Whitaker, Christopher J.; Craik, Fergus I. M.; Bialystok, Ellen; Thomas, Enlli M.; Mueller Gathercole, Virginia C.; Clare, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Bilingualism has been shown to benefit executive function (EF) and delay the onset of Alzheimer's disease. This study aims at examining whether a bilingual advantage applies to EF in Parkinson's disease (PD). Method. In a cross-sectional outpatient cohort of monolingual English (n = 57) and bilingual Welsh/English (n = 46) speakers with PD we evaluated the effects of bilingualism compared with monolingualism on performance on EF tasks. In bilinguals we also assessed the effects of the degree of daily usage of each language and the degree of bilingualism. Results. Monolinguals showed an advantage in performance of language tests. There were no differences in performance of EF tests in monolinguals and bilinguals. Those who used Welsh less in daily life had better performance on one test of English vocabulary. The degree of bilingualism correlated with one test of nonverbal reasoning and one of working memory but with no other tests of EF. Discussion. The reasons why the expected benefit in EF in Welsh-English bilinguals with PD was not found require further study. Future studies in PD should include other language pairs, analysis of the effects of the degree of bilingualism, and longitudinal analysis of cognitive decline or dementia together with structural or functional neuroimaging. PMID:25922786

  8. Prevalence and progression of pectinate ligament dysplasia in the Welsh springer spaniel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, J A C; Ekiri, A; Mellersh, C S

    2016-08-01

    To determine the prevalence of pectinate ligament dysplasia in a large group of Welsh springer spaniels; to investigate associations between pectinate ligament dysplasia and age, sex and intraocular pressure and between intraocular pressure and age and sex; and to investigate progression of pectinate ligament dysplasia in individual dogs. In a prospective study, gonioscopy was performed in both eyes of 227 Welsh springer spaniels and intraocular pressure measured by rebound tonometry. Eyes were classified as "unaffected" if 0% of the iridocorneal angle was affected with pectinate ligament dysplasia (grade 0), "mildly affected" if 90% was affected (grade 3). In a retrospective study, progression of pectinate ligament dysplasia over time was investigated for 65 dogs. One hundred and thirty-nine of 227 dogs (61·2%) were affected by pectinate ligament dysplasia (grades 1 to 3) and 82/227 (36·2%) were moderately or severely affected. There was a significant association between pectinate ligament dysplasia and age. There were no associations between pectinate ligament dysplasia and intraocular pressure or pectinate ligament dysplasia and sex. Thirty-five of 65 dogs (53·8%) demonstrated progression of pectinate ligament dysplasia. Prevalence of pectinate ligament dysplasia was high despite widespread screening and selection against the condition. Our data indicate that gonioscopic features of pectinate ligament dysplasia can progress in the Welsh springer spaniel. Dogs deemed unaffected at an early age may subsequently be diagnosed with pectinate ligament dysplasia. © 2016 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  9. Variation for epicuticular waxes and thrips resistance in onion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onion thrips (Thrips tabaci) and thrips-vectored Iris Yellow Spot Virus (IYSV) routinely cause significant losses to the bulb and seed crops of onion. Both pests have become more problematic as global temperatures rise. Natural variation exists in onion for amounts and types of epicuticular waxes on...

  10. Planting time and mulching effect on onion development and seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-02-04

    Feb 4, 2009 ... of onion in Bangladesh could be attributed to limited availability of quality seed and lack of appropriate hybrids. (Tomar et al., 2004; Ali et al., 2007). The target of onion productions can not be achieved due to an acute crisis of onion seeds. Improved seed contributes substantially to enhance crop yield as ...

  11. 7 CFR 955.101 - Vidalia Onion Handler Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Vidalia Onion Handler Report. 955.101 Section 955.101... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIDALIA ONIONS GROWN IN GEORGIA Rules and Regulations § 955.101 Vidalia Onion Handler Report. (a) Each handler shall furnish shipping...

  12. Determination of some trace metal levels in onion leaves from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The concentration (mg kg-1 dry weight) of Cu, Mn, Ni and Zn were determined in onion leaves samples using atomic absorption spectrometry. A total of 16 samples each of onion leaves freshly harvested were collected from the exposed and control sites for analysis. The trace metal (Cu, Mn, Ni and Zn) levels in the onion ...

  13. 7 CFR 956.5 - Walla Walla Sweet Onions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Walla Walla Sweet Onions. 956.5 Section 956.5... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET ONIONS GROWN IN THE WALLA WALLA VALLEY OF SOUTHEAST WASHINGTON AND NORTHEAST OREGON Definitions § 956.5 Walla Walla Sweet Onions...

  14. Production of volatile Sulphides in Allium Porrum cell cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    "Asghari Gh.R

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Production of volatile sulphides in cell cultures of Allium porrum is described. Allium porrum calluses were initiated from whole seedlings. The high growth rate of Allium porrum callus was achived in Murashige and Skoog media containing only 1 ppm 2, 4-Dichlorophenoxy acetic acid. The routine method of solvent extraction of volatile sulphides was used for Allium porrum and the concentrated extract was subjected to capillary GC and GC-MS. Dipropyl disulphide and 4-methyl thiazolethanol were identified in A. porrum aggregated suspension cells.

  15. Is Allium ebusitanum (Alliaceae an endemic species from Ibiza?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aedo, Carlos

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of the qualitative and quantitative characters of Allium sphaerocephalon group in Western Mediterranean is presented. Allium durandoi is considered to be conspecific with A. ebusitanum, of which it becomes a synonym. A map of this species and a key to the group is provided.Se sinonimiza Allium durandoi a A. ebusitanum. Se compara esta especie con las restantes del grupo Allium sphaerocephalon en el Mediterráneo occidental, analizando los principales caracteres cuantitativos y cualitativos. Se prepara un mapa de A. ebusitanum y una clave de identificación del grupo.

  16. The Chemical Compositions of the Volatile Oils of Garlic (Allium sativum and Wild Garlic (Allium vineale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabodh Satyal

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Garlic, Allium sativum, is broadly used around the world for its numerous culinary and medicinal uses. Wild garlic, Allium vineale, has been used as a substitute for garlic, both in food as well as in herbal medicine. The present study investigated the chemical compositions of A. sativum and A. vineale essential oils. The essential oils from the bulbs of A. sativum, cultivated in Spain, were obtained by three different methods: laboratory hydrodistillation, industrial hydrodistillation, and industrial steam distillation. The essential oils of wild-growing A. vineale from north Alabama were obtained by hydrodistillation. The resulting essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Both A. sativum and A. vineale oils were dominated by allyl polysulfides. There were minor quantitative differences between the A. sativum oils owing to the distillation methods employed, as well as differences from previously reported garlic oils from other geographical locations. Allium vineale oil showed a qualitative similarity to Allium ursinum essential oil. The compositions of garlic and wild garlic are consistent with their use as flavoring agents in foods as well as their uses as herbal medicines. However, quantitative differences are likely to affect the flavor and bioactivity profiles of these Allium species.

  17. Once an Onion, Always an Onion (Artist Concept)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    This artist's concept illustrates a massive star before and after it blew up in a cataclysmic 'supernova' explosion. NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope found evidence that this star -- the remains of which are named Cassiopeia A -- exploded with some degree of order, preserving chunks of its onion-like layers as it blasted apart. Cassiopeia A is located 10,000 light-years away in the constellation Cassiopeia. It was once a massive star 15 to 20 times larger than our sun. Its fiery death would have been viewable from Earth about 340 years ago. The top figure shows the star before it died, when its layers of elements were stacked neatly, with the heaviest at the core and the lightest at the top. Spitzer found evidence that these layers were preserved when the star exploded, flinging outward in all directions, but not at the same speeds. As a result, some chunks of the layered material traveled farther out than others, as illustrated in the bottom drawing. The infrared observatory was able to see the tossed-out layers, because they light up upon ramming into a 'reverse' shock wave created in the aftermath of the explosion. When a massive star explodes, it creates two types of shock waves. The forward shock wave darts out quickest, and, in the case of Cassiopeia A, is now traveling at supersonic speeds up to 7,500 kilometers per second (4,600 miles/second). The reverse shock wave is produced when the forward shock wave slams into a shell of surrounding material expelled before the star died. It tags along behind the forward shock wave at slightly slower speeds. Chunks of the star that were thrown out fastest hit the shock wave sooner and have had more time to heat up to scorching temperatures previously detected by X-ray and visible-light telescopes. Chunks of the star that lagged behind hit the shock wave later, so they are cooler and radiate infrared light that was not seen until Spitzer came along. These lagging chunks are made up of gas and dust containing neon, oxygen

  18. Insecticides are not always the answer for combatting pests in onion fields

    OpenAIRE

    Hutchinson, Harlie

    2016-01-01

    Onion thrips are the insect vector of a severe virus in onion, Iris yellow spot virus. The thrips and virus are primary threats to the economic stability of onion production worldwide. Overuse of insecticides to suppress onion thrips has resulted in the development of resistance, reduced performance of insecticides, and reduced onion yields. There is a compelling desire to find alternatives to better manage these pests. In this study, we assessed onion thrips populations on onions with low...

  19. Cytotoxic effects of infusions (tea of Solidago microglossa DC. (Asteraceae on the cell cycle of Allium cepa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarete Dulce Bagatini

    Full Text Available The medicinal specie Solidago microglossa DC., which is native from South America, is used as infusion (tea for stomach disorders in popular medicine. This study aimed to evaluate the potential cytotoxic effect of these infusions on the cell cycle of Allium cepa. In natura leaves of three populations of this species were used in preparing infusions at two concentrations: 1.75 mg/mL and 14 mg/mL. Onion (Allium cepa root-tip cells were used as test system in in vivo assays. Slides were done through smashing technique. Cells were analyzed in all cell cycles of A. cepa, totalizing 6000 cells for each group of bulbs. The mitotic index (MI was calculated, and the statistical analysis was carried out through the Chi-square test (χ2 = 0.05. The results show that the infusions of S. microglossa at a highest concentration (14 mg/mL caused a significant reduction in the MI compared with control in the studied populations. In concentrations commonly used by people there was a significant increase of MI in relation to controlled populations 1 and 3 and a decrease in population 2. In conclusion, infusions of S. microglossa presented antiproliferative effect at a highest concentration.

  20. Alterations in the mitotic index of Allium cepa induced by infusions of Pluchea sagittalis submitted to three different cultivation systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana V. Rossato

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the antiproliferative effect of infusions from Pluchea sagittalis using the Allium cepa test. Infusions in three concentrations (2.5, 5, and 25 g dm-3 of leaves cultivated in three environments (in vitro, acclimatized growth chamber, and field were used. Six onion bulbs were used for each of the eight treatments, and the mitotic index was obtained from 6000 cells per treatment. In conclusion, leaf infusions of P. sagittalis cultivated in the field have a high antiproliferative activity, as well as the cultivation system influences the antiproliferative potential.Avaliou-se o efeito antiproliferativo de infusões de Pluchea sagittalis usando o teste de Allium cepa. Foram usadas infusões em três concentrações (2,5, 5 e 25g dm-3 de folhas cultivadas em três ambientes (in vitro, sala de crescimento climatizada e em campo. Foram usados seis grupos de bulbos para cada um dos 8 tratamentos e o os índices mitóticos foram obtidos a partir de 6000 células por tratamento. Concluiu-se que a infusão de folhas de P. sagittalis cultivadas em campo possui grande atividade antiproliferativa, bem como o sistema de cultivo de plantas influencia o potencial antiproliferativo.

  1. Evaluation of DNA by the micronucleus test of the samples Allium cepa germinated in the presence of uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Ayrton Nascimento de; Oliveira, Andressa L.; Gennari, Roseli F.; Maffei, Eliane M.D.; Campos, Simara S., E-mail: simaracampos@gmail.com [Universidade Estadual do Sudoeste da Bahia (UESB), Vitoria da Conquista, BA, (Brazil). Departamento de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologicas; Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica. Departamento de Fisica Nuclear

    2017-11-01

    Although Brazil composes the seventh position in the world ranking of uranium reserves, the ore is still little explored in Brazil, considering its vast existing arsenal. On the one hand, despite nuclear energy has brought great benefits, technological and socio-economic development, it generates controversy about environmental contamination and risks to public health. Studies on this subject indicate that areas where uranium ore concentration is high, natural environmental radiation exposure levels are already higher than in other regions. The aim of this study is to observe the simple germination of the bio-indicator (Allium cepa), typically used to assess potential chromosomal aberrations, suffer any adverse effect caused by natural radiation uranium. The choice of this bio-indicator is based on its potential for evaluating the mutation caused by innumerous chemical compounds. Four treatments with three replicates were designed. In each treatment, 10 seeds of onion A. cepa without any pesticides were packed in the Petri dish lined with germination paper and room temperature (25°C) was kept until the root reaches approximately 1cm long and 0, 5 g of the U. As a result 3000 cells were counted during the interphase, and structural changes were observed in the chromosomes, elongated nuclei and loose chromosomes of the spindle fiber, concluding that U possibly affected the cell cycle da Allium cepa. (author)

  2. Genotoxicity assessment of propyl thiosulfinate oxide, an organosulfur compound from Allium extract, intended to food active packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellado-García, P; Maisanaba, S; Puerto, M; Llana-Ruiz-Cabello, M; Prieto, A I; Marcos, R; Pichardo, S; Cameán, A M

    2015-12-01

    Essential oils from onion (Allium cepa L.), garlic (Allium sativum L.), and their main components, such as propyl thiosulfinate oxide (PTSO) are being intended for active packaging with the purpose of maintaining and extending food product quality and shelf life. The present work aims to assess for the first time the potential mutagenicity/genotoxicity of PTSO (0-50 µM) using the following battery of genotoxicity tests: (1) the bacterial reverse-mutation assay in Salmonella typhimurium (Ames test, OECD 471); (2) the micronucleus test (OECD 487) (MN) and (3) the mouse lymphoma thymidine-kinase assay (OECD 476) (MLA) on L5178YTk(+/-), cells; and (4) the comet assay (with and without Endo III and FPG enzymes) on Caco-2 cells. The results revealed that PTSO was not mutagenic in the Ames test, however it was mutagenic in the MLA assay after 24 h of treatment (2.5-20 µM). The parent compound did not induce MN on mammalian cells; however, its metabolites (in the presence S9) produced positive results (from 15 µM). Data from the comet assay indicated that PTSO did not induce DNA breaks or oxidative DNA damage. Further in vivo genotoxicity tests are needed to confirm its safety before it is used as active additive in food packaging. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Microscopic examination on cytological changes in Allium cepa and shift in phytoplankton population at different doses of Atrazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Nabarun; Finger, Kristen; Usnick, Samantha; Rogers, William J.; Das, A. B.; Smith, Don W.

    2010-06-01

    Atrazine is a wide-range herbicide. For over 50 years, atrazine has been used as a selective broadleaf herbicide in many capacities, from pre-plant to pre-emergence to post-emergence, depending on the crop and application. Currently, 96% of all atrazine used is for commercial applications in fields for the control of broadleaf and grassy weeds in crops such as sorghum, corn, sugarcane, pineapple and for the control of undesirable weeds in rangeland. Many panhandle wells have also detected atrazine in samples taken. The concern for the public is the long-term effect of atrazine with its increasing popularity, and the impact on public health. We investigated the effect of different concentrations of atrazine on Allium cepa (onion), a standard plant test system. We established a control with the Allium bulbs grown on hydroponics culture. Varying concentrations of atrazine was used on the standard plant test system, Allium cepa grown hydroponically. The mitotic indices varied and with higher doses, we observed various chromosomal abnormalities including sticky bridges, early and late separations, and lag chromosomes with higher doses of treatments. In the second part of the experiment, 0.1ppb, 1ppb, 10ppb, and 100ppb concentrations of atrazine were applied to established phytoplankton cultures from the Lake Tanglewood, Texas. Study with a Sedgwick-Rafter counter, a BX-40 Olympus microscope with DP-70 camera revealed a gradual shift in the phytoplankton community from obligatory to facultative autotroph and finally to a parasitic planktonic community. This explains the periodic fish kill in the lakes after applications of atrazine in crop fields.

  4. Epicuticular waxes and thrips resistance in onion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Next-generation sequencing of normalized cDNAs from two inbred lines of onion revealed over 3000 well supported single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), of which over 800 have been mapped. This SNP-based map was used to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling the amounts and types of epicu...

  5. Trypanocidal efficacy of Allium sativum bulb extract, diminazene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The combination of these two agents appear to act synergistically, while aqueous extract of Allium sativum appears to possibly potentiate the chemotherapeutic activity of diminazene aceturate in the treatment of T. brucei brucei infection in rats. Key words: Allium sativum, diminazene aceturate, trypanosoma brucei brucei, ...

  6. Effect of Allium sativum on growth, feed utilization and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Result also shows that fish blood electrolytes such as (Na, K, CL and HCO3) were within their normal range. Allium sativum inclusion in fish diet at (1.5g/kg) concentration is therefore beneficial for use in aquaculture to enhance fish resistance to disease of C. gariepinus. Keywords: Clarias gariepinus, Allium sativum, ...

  7. Comparative Studies of White and Red Allium cepa Cultivated in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MBI

    2015-09-09

    Sep 9, 2015 ... both species would provide flavouring, nutritional and medicinal importance. Thus, the white Allium cepa possessed a more nutritional and medicinal properties than the red but provides less energy and lower resistance to storage. Keywords: Allium cepa, Flavonoids, Proximate, Sokoto, Spices.

  8. Histological effects of aqueous extract of Allium sativum (Alliaceae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Allium sativum , (garlic) is a popular medicinal plant and a member of the Alliaceae family used for treatments of various ailments. The study was aimed at investigating the histological effects of aqueous extract of Allium sativum bulb on the lungs, an organ of the mononuclear phagocyte system using adult Wistar Rats.

  9. Histological effects aqueous extract of Allium sativum (Alliaceae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Allium sativum , commonly known as garlic is a member of the Alliaceae family and it is one of the earliest known medicinal plant. The aim of this study is to evaluate the histological effects of aqueous extract of Allium sativum bulb on selected organs (bone marrow and spleen) of the mononuclear phagocyte system using ...

  10. Administration of Allium cepa L. bulb attenuates stress-produced anxiety and depression and improves memory in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samad, Noreen; Saleem, Ayesha

    2018-02-01

    In view of anxiolytic, antidepressant and memory strengthen properties of Allium cepa (AC; onion) bulb in various investigations; we aimed to evaluate the useful effects of onion on single immobilization stress -induced biochemical and behavioral changes. Mice in test group were treated with AC powder (200 mg/kg/day), dissolved in water, while the control group were received drinking water for 14 days. After 14 days control and AC treated mice were further divided into unstressed and stressed groups. Animals in the stressed group were subjected to immobilization stress for 2 h. 24-h after the immobilization stress, behavioral activities were monitored. Immobilization stress-induced an anxiogenic behavior in mice subjected to elevated plus maze test (EPM) and light dark activity test (LDA). 2-h immobilization stress-induced depressive behavior in animals measured by forced swim test (FST). Administration of AC attenuated the immobilization stress-induced behavioral deficits. Highest memory performance was observed in stressed mice that were pre-treated with AC in Morris water maze (MWM). Brain lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT, GPx) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activities were also estimated. Present study suggests a role of antioxidant enzymes in the attenuation of 2-h stress induced anxiety and depression, and enhanced cognitive function as well by AC. The findings therefore suggest that supplementation of AC may be beneficial in the treatment of anxiety, depression and enhancement of memory function.

  11. Beneficial effects of Allium sativum, Allium cepa and Commiphora mukul on experimental hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis--a comparative evaluation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lata S

    1991-07-01

    Full Text Available Oral administration of petroleum ether extract of Allium sativum, Allium cepa and ethylacetate extract of Commiphora mukul in albino rats significantly prevented rise in serum cholesterol and serum triglyceride level, caused by atherogenic diet. All the three agents were also found to confer significant protection against atherogenic diet induced atherosclerosis.

  12. Release of Phosphorus Forms from Cover Crop Residues in Agroecological No-Till Onion Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Assis de Oliveira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Cover crops grown alone or in association can take up different amounts of phosphorus (P from the soil and accumulate it in different P-forms in plant tissue. Cover crop residues with a higher content of readily decomposed forms may release P more quickly for the next onion crop. The aim of this study was to evaluate the release of P forms from residues of single and mixed cover crops in agroecological no-till onion (Allium cepa L. production. The experiment was conducted in Ituporanga, Santa Catarina (SC, Brazil, in an Inceptisol, with the following treatments: weeds, black oat (Avena sativa L., rye (Secale cereale L., oilseed radish (Raphanus sativus L., oilseed radish + black oat, and oilseed radish + rye. Cover crops were sown in April 2013. In July 2013, plant shoots were cut close to the soil surface and part of the material was placed in litterbags. The bags were placed on the soil surface and residues were collected at 0, 15, and 45 days after deposition (DAD. Residues were dried and ground and P in the plant tissue was determined through chemical fractionation. The release of P contained in the tissue of cover crops depends not only on total P content in the tissue, but also on the accumulation of P forms and the quality of the residue in decomposition. The highest accumulation of P in cover crops occurred in the soluble inorganic P fraction, which is the fraction of fastest release in plants. Black oat had the highest initial release rate of soluble inorganic P, which became equal to the release rate of other cover crop residues at 45 DAD. Weeds released only half the amount of soluble inorganic P in the same period, despite accumulating a considerable amount of P in their biomass. The mixtures of oilseed radish + rye and oilseed radish + black oat showed higher release of P associated with RNA at 45 DAD in comparison to the single treatments.

  13. Integrated management of Thrips tabaci (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on onion in north-western Italy: basic approaches for supervised control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mautino, Giulia C; Bosco, Lara; Tavella, Luciana

    2012-02-01

    Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) is a major pest on onion, Allium cepa L., worldwide. In 2010, research was conducted in a commercial onion field in north-western Italy in order (i) to evaluate the efficacy of different insecticides and of the SAR activator acibenzolar-S-methyl, (ii) to correlate thrips infestation levels with bulb size and weight at harvest and (iii) to implement a reliable thrips sampling method. Efficacy of the three active ingredients spinosad, lambda-cyhalothrin and acibenzolar-S-methyl on local thrips populations were also evaluated in laboratory bioassays. During field surveys, the highest and the lowest thrips infestations were observed in plots treated with lambda-cyhalothrin and with spinosad and acibenzolar-S-methyl respectively. The effectiveness of spinosad was also confirmed in laboratory bioassays. At harvest, bulb size and weight did not significantly differ between treatments. A high correlation with visual inspection made plant beating a suitable sampling method for routine practice, enabling a good estimate of thrips infestation. Damage caused by thrips is often not severe enough to warrant the frequent pesticide applications the crops receive in north-western Italy. The use of spinosad and acibenzolar-S-methyl is suggested as an alternative to conventional insecticides for the preservation of natural enemies. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. New dynamics in an old friend: dynamic tubular vacuoles radiate through the cortical cytoplasm of red onion epidermal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltshire, Elizabeth J; Collings, David A

    2009-10-01

    The textbook image of the plant vacuole sitting passively in the centre of the cell is not always correct. We observed vacuole dynamics in the epidermal cells of red onion (Allium cepa) bulbs, using confocal microscopy to detect autofluorescence from the pigment anthocyanin. The central vacuole was penetrated by highly mobile transvacuolar strands of cytoplasm, which were also visible in concurrent transmitted light images. Tubular vacuoles also extended from the large central vacuole and radiated through the cortical cytoplasm. These tubules were thin, having a diameter of about 1.5 microm, and were connected to the central vacuole as shown by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) experiments. The tubules were bounded by the tonoplast, as revealed by transient expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP) targeted to the vacuolar membrane and through labeling with the dye MDY-64. Expression of endoplasmic reticulum-targeted GFP demonstrated that the vacuolar tubules were distinct from the cortical endoplasmic reticulum. Movement of the tubular vacuoles depended on actin microfilaments, as microfilament disruption blocked tubule movement and caused their collapse into minivacuoles. The close association of the tubules with GFP-tagged actin microfilaments suggests that the tubules are associated with myosin, and that tubules likely move along microfilaments. Tubular vacuoles do not require anthocyanin for their formation, as tubules were also present in white onion cells that lack anthocyanin. The function of these tubular vacuoles remains unknown, but as they greatly increase the surface area of the tonoplast, they might increase transport rates between the cytoplasm and vacuole.

  15. Pharmacognostic Studies on Two Himalayan Species of Traditional Medicinal Value: Allium wallichii and Allium stracheyi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umeshkumar TIWARI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The present research was aimed as a pharmacognostic study of whole plants of Allium wallichii and Allium stracheyi, both of which are very important traditional medicinal plants of North-West Himalayas. This study was carried out in terms of macroscopic and microscopic analyses and standard histochemical methods were followed for detecting starch, calcium oxalate, tannins, total lipids and alkaloids. Allium wallichi can be distinguished from A. stracheyi by possessing polyarch roots, mycorrhizal fungi in the outer cortical cells and triangular leaf midrib. The present study is the first to describe the pharmacognosy in terms of anatomical and histochemical features of these two Himalayan Allium species. Although they are listed in Ayurvedic database, the API so far has not given an account on these two species and hence this work is of high importance. Also, the herbal industries, researchers and traditional medicine can now use the distinguishing characters of these species listed in the current paper, while specifically acquiring them from local markets without any confusion.

  16. The Chemical Compositions of the Volatile Oils of Garlic (Allium sativum) and Wild Garlic (Allium vineale).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyal, Prabodh; Craft, Jonathan D; Dosoky, Noura S; Setzer, William N

    2017-08-05

    Garlic, Alliumsativum, is broadly used around the world for its numerous culinary and medicinal uses. Wild garlic, Allium vineale, has been used as a substitute for garlic, both in food as well as in herbal medicine. The present study investigated the chemical compositions of A. sativum and A. vineale essential oils. The essential oils from the bulbs of A. sativum, cultivated in Spain, were obtained by three different methods: laboratory hydrodistillation, industrial hydrodistillation, and industrial steam distillation. The essential oils of wild-growing A. vineale from north Alabama were obtained by hydrodistillation. The resulting essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Both A. sativum and A. vineale oils were dominated by allyl polysulfides. There were minor quantitative differences between the A. sativum oils owing to the distillation methods employed, as well as differences from previously reported garlic oils from other geographical locations. Allium vineale oil showed a qualitative similarity to Allium ursinum essential oil. The compositions of garlic and wild garlic are consistent with their use as flavoring agents in foods as well as their uses as herbal medicines. However, quantitative differences are likely to affect the flavor and bioactivity profiles of these Allium species.

  17. The flavonoids of leek, Allium porrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattorusso, E; Lanzotti, V; Taglialatela-Scafati, O; Cicala, C

    2001-06-01

    A phytochemical investigation of the extracts obtained from bulbs of leek. Allium porrum L. has led to the isolation of five flavonoid glycosides based on the kaempferol aglycone. Two of them are new compounds and have been identified as kaempferol 3-O-[2-O-(trans-3-methoxy-4-hydroxycinnamoyl)-beta-D-galactopyranosyl]-(1-->4)-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, and kaempferol 3-O-[2-O-(trans-3-methoxy-4-hydroxycinnamoyl)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl]-(1-->6)-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, on the basis of spectroscopic methods, including 2D NMR. The isolated compounds have been evaluated for their human platelet anti-aggregation activity.

  18. HPLC-DAD determination of imidacloprid in onion

    OpenAIRE

    Mandić Aljoša; Lazić Sanja; Inđić Dušanka

    2003-01-01

    Imidacloprid is an insecticide most commonly used on vegetables, potato sugar beet, fruit, cereal, maize and rice. Imidacloprid residue has been determined in spiked onion and in onion samples. Sample preparation consisted of dichlormethane extraction of imidacloprid from onion, followed by purification of the obtained extract on a LC-Florisil disposable cartridge. The HPLC-DAD method bas been developed on reversed-phase for separation of imidacloprid with a mixture of 0.01 M phosphate buffer...

  19. Peeling the Onion: Why Centralized Control / Decentralized Execution Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    March–April 2014 Air & Space Power Journal | 24 Feature Peeling the Onion Why Centralized Control / Decentralized Execution Works Lt Col Alan Docauer...DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Peeling the Onion : Why Centralized Control / Decentralized Execution Works 5a...Air & Space Power Journal | 25 Docauer Peeling the Onion Feature What Is Centralized Control / Decentralized Execution? Emerging in the aftermath of

  20. Genuine onion: Simple, Fast, Flexible, and Cheap Website Authentication

    OpenAIRE

    Syverson, Paul; Boyce, Griffin

    2015-01-01

    Tor is a communications infrastructure widely used for unfettered and anonymous access to Internet websites. Tor is also used to access sites on the .onion virtual domain. The focus of .onion use and discussion has traditionally been on the offering of hidden services, services that separate their reachability from the identification of their IP addresses. We argue that Tor's .onion system can be used to provide an entirely separate benefit: basic website authentication. We also argue that no...

  1. Correlation of toxicity with lead content in root tip cells (Allium cepa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carruyo, Ingrid; Fernández, Yusmary; Marcano, Letty; Montiel, Xiomara; Torrealba, Zaida

    2008-12-01

    The present study determines lead content in onion root tip cells (Allium cepa L.), correlating it with its toxicity. The treatment was carried at 25 +/- 0.5 degrees C using aqueous solutions of lead chloride at 0.1, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, and 1 ppm for 12, 24, 48, and 72 h. For each treatment, a control where the lead solution was substituted by distilled water was included. After treatment, the meristems were fixed with a mixture of alcohol-acetic acid (3:1) and colored according to the technique of Feulgen. Lead content was quantified by graphite furnace absorption atomic spectrometry. The lead content in the roots ranged from 3.25 to 244.72 microg/g dry weight, with a direct relation with the concentration and time of exposure. A significant negative correlation was presented (r = -0.3629; p < 0.01) among lead content and root growth increment, and a positive correlation (r = 0.7750; p < 0.01) with the induction of chromosomic aberrations. In conclusion, lead is able to induce a toxic effect in the exposed roots, correlated with its content.

  2. Hazardous phytotoxic nature of cobalt and zinc oxide nanoparticles assessed using Allium cepa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghodake, Gajanan; Seo, Yeong Deuk; Lee, Dae Sung

    2011-02-15

    The increasing use of nanotechnology requires the clarification of the behavior and the effects of nanoparticles (NPs) as they are released into the environment. This study was to investigate the phytotoxicity of cobalt and zinc oxide NPs using the roots of Allium cepa (onion bulbs) as an indicator organism. The effects of cobalt and zinc oxide NPs on the root elongation, root morphology, and cell morphology of a plant, as well as their adsorption potential, were determined through the hydroponic culturing of A. cepa. A. cepa roots were treated with dispersions of the cobalt and zinc oxide NPs having three different concentrations (5, 10, and 20 μg ml(-1)). With increasing concentrations of the NPs, the elongation of the roots was severely inhibited by both the cobalt and the zinc oxide NPs as compared to that in the control plant (untreated A. cepa roots). Massive adsorption of cobalt oxide NPs into the root system was responsible for the phytotoxicity. Zinc oxide NPs caused damage because of their severe accumulation in both the cellular and the chromosomal modules, thus signifying their highly hazardous phytotoxic nature. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Antimicrobial, antioxidant and antitumor activities of silver nanoparticles synthesized by Allium cepa extract: A green approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman Zakaria Gomaa

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available An economic and efficient method for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs was performed using onion (Allium cepa extract as reducing and capping agent. UV–vis spectroscopy confirmed the formation of silver nanoparticles by observing the typical surface plasmon resonance peak at 420 nm. Transmission electron microscopy studies revealed that AgNPs were spherical in shape with a size range of 10–23 nm. AgNPs were further demonstrated by the characteristic peaks observed in the XRD image. The possible functional groups of AgNPs were identified by FTIR analysis. AgNPs exhibited potential antimicrobial activity against all the microbial strains tested. Antioxidant activity of AgNPs revealed that they can be used as potential radical scavenger against deleterious damages caused by the free radicals. Additionally, AgNPs had antitumor activities against human breast (MCF-7, hepatocellular (HepG-2 and colon (HCT-116 carcinoma cell lines in a dose-dependent manner with IC50 of 1.6, 2.3 and 2.2 μg/ml, respectively. The overall results indicate promising baseline information for the potential uses of AgNPs in the treatment of infectious diseases and tumors.

  4. Dichlorophen and Dichlorovos mediated genotoxic and cytotoxic assessment on root meristem cells of Allium cepa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibhghatulla Shaikh

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Plants are direct recipients of agro – toxics and therefore important materials for assessing environmental chemicals for genotoxicity. The meristematic mitotic cell of Allium cepa is an efficient cytogenetic material for chromosome aberration assay on environmental pollutants. Onion root tips were grown on moistened filter paper in petri dish at room temperature. Germinated root tips were then exposed to three concentrations of each pesticide for 24 h. About 1 – 2 mm length of root tip was cut, fixed in cornoy’s fixative, hydrolyzed in warm 1 N HCL, stained with acetocarmine and squashed on glass slide. About 3000 cells were scored and classified into interphase and normal or aberrant division stage. Cytotoxicity was determined by comparing the mitotic index (MI of treated cells with that of the negative control. The MI of cells treated with Dichlorophen and Dichlorovos at one or more concentration was half or less than that of control are said to be cytotoxic. Genotoxicity was measured by comparing the number of cells/1000 in aberrant division stages at each dose with the negative control using Mann – Whitney U test. Both Dichlorophen and Dichlorovos are genotoxic at higher concentrations i.e. 0.001%, 0.002% and 0.028%, 0.056% inducing chromosome fragment, chromosome lagging and bridges, stick chromosome and multipolar anaphase.

  5. Concussion knowledge and experience among Welsh amateur rugby union coaches and referees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Steffan Arthur; Ranson, Craig; Moore, Isabel; Mathema, Prabhat

    2017-01-01

    Background Rugby union is a collision sport where participants are at high risk of sustaining a concussion. In settings where there is little qualified medical supervision, certain stakeholders (eg, coaches and officials) should possess sufficient knowledge in regard to the recognition and management of concussion. Aim The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge and experience of various aspects of concussion among coaches and referees involved in Welsh amateur rugby union. Methods A questionnaire was distributed to 1843 coaches and 420 referees. Results A total of 333 coaches and 283 referees completed the questionnaire (18% and 68% response rates, respectively). Participants exhibited greater knowledge of concussion symptom recognition relative to knowledge of both the consequences of concussion and associated return-to-play protocols, both of which could be considered poor. There were no differences in knowledge levels between coaches and referees or between participants with or without a history of concussion. Two-thirds of participants incorrectly believed that headgear could prevent concussion, and nearly 30% of coaches reported having witnessed other coaches allowing a potentially concussed player to continue playing. Conclusions Identification of several misconceptions indicates that concussion management within Welsh amateur rugby union needs to be improved, warranting a multi-faceted educational intervention. PMID:29259806

  6. Ethnic mirrors. Self-representations in the Welsh and Mennonite museums in Argentina and Paraguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Gonz\\u00E1lez De Oleaga

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available According to some scholars and philosophers, ethnic identities are the best political, social, economic, ethic (and even aesthetic alternative to State centralism, which is incapable of dealing with cultural diversity. Ethnic communitarism is then defined as a more authentic, humane, democratic and inclusive form of organization. The Welsh colonies of Chubut (Argentine and the established Mennonite colonies of the Chaco Region (Paraguay are two ethnic groups with forms of community life that have been thoroughly studied from different perspectives. However, neither has been analyzed their point of view of alterity or their relation with those who do not belong to the community. In their museums the history of the community is represented, self-images and other people's images are constructed and spread. The interesting part of these stories is not what they say but what they do, the form in which contents are expressed. These communitarian historical museums tell about the past but they mainly have an impact on the present. Like national or even imperial museums, Welsh and Mennonite museums tend to naturalize a particular self-centered, prejudicial and evolutionist point of view that often excludes other perspectives, especially those elaborated by the neighboring indigenous communities. In contrast, we believe it is necessary to take a stance for democratic, horizontal relations between communities and more polyphonic and responsible historical representations.

  7. Electrophysiological cross-language neighborhood density effects in late and early English-Welsh bilinguals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giordana eGrossi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral studies with proficient late bilinguals have revealed the existence of orthographic neighborhood density effects across languages when participants read either in their first (L1 or second (L2 language. Words with many cross-language neighbors have been found to elicit more negative event-related potentials (ERPs than words with few cross-language neighbors (Midgley et al., 2008; the effect started earlier, and was larger, for L2 words. Here, 14 late and 14 early English-Welsh bilinguals performed a semantic categorization task on English and Welsh words presented in separate blocks. The pattern of cross-language activation was different for the two groups of bilinguals. In late bilinguals, words with high cross-language neighborhood density elicited more negative ERP amplitudes than words with low cross-language neighborhood density starting around 175 ms after word onset and lasting until 500 ms. This effect interacted with language in the 300-500 ms time window. A more complex pattern of early effects was revealed in early bilinguals and there were no effects in the N400 window. These results suggest that cross-language activation of orthographic neighbors is highly sensitive to the bilinguals’ learning experience of the two languages.

  8. Steam-cooking rapidly destroys and reverses onion-induced antiplatelet activity

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen Emilie A; Folts John D; Goldman Irwin L

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Foods in the diet that can aid in the prevention of diseases are of major interest. Onions are key ingredients in many cuisines around the world and moreover, onion demand has trended higher over the past three decades. An important pharmacological aspect of onion is the ability to inhibit platelet aggregation. Raw onions inhibit platelet aggregation; however, when onions are boiled or heated, antiplatelet activity may be abolished. Methods Onion quarters were steamed for ...

  9. Using Sphinx to Improve Onion Routing Circuit Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kate, Aniket; Goldberg, Ian

    This paper presents compact message formats for onion routing circuit construction using the Sphinx methodology developed for mixes. We significantly compress the circuit construction messages for three onion routing protocols that have emerged as enhancements to the Tor anonymizing network; namely, Tor with predistributed Diffie-Hellman values, pairing-based onion routing, and certificateless onion routing. Our new circuit constructions are also secure in the universal composability framework, a property that was missing from the original constructions. Further, we compare the performance of our schemes with their older counterparts as well as with each other.

  10. Assessment of red onion on antioxidant activity in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bora; Jung, Ji-Hye; Kim, Hyun-Sook

    2012-11-01

    Oxidative stress related to the aging process can increase the risk of degenerative disease. Red onions contain antioxidative compounds. This study was designed to investigate the effect of dietary red onion peel and/or flesh on antioxidative activity in rats. Twenty Sprague-Dawley male rats (18 weeks old) were divided into four groups. Each group was raised for 4 weeks on a red onion free control diet (ND), red onion diet containing 5% red onion peel (RP), 5% red onion flesh (RF), or 5% red onion peel+flesh (RPF). The results demonstrated that serum SOD activity was significantly increased in the RP and RPF groups, whereas glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity was significantly higher in the RF group than in the ND group. Catalase activity and ORAC activity in liver showed upward tendency in the RP, RF, and RPF groups although the differences were not statistically significant. Liver malondialdehyde levels in the RPF group were significantly lower than those in the ND group were. In conclusion, red onion may enhance antioxidant defense mechanism through the induction of plasma SOD and GPx activities and inhibited liver lipid peroxidation. Therefore, red onion may exert important protective effects against oxidative stress related diseases. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Adenylate Cyclase Activity Not Found in Soybean Hypocotyl and Onion Meristem 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunghans, Wayne N.; Morré, D. James

    1977-01-01

    Tissue, homogenates, and purified cell fractions prepared from hypocotyls of a dicot, soybean (Glycine max), and meristematic tissue of a monocot, onion (Allium cepa), were examined critically for evidence of adenylate cyclase activity. Three assay methods were used: chemical analysis, isotope dilution analysis, and enzyme cytochemistry. In both crude extracts or whole tissue, as well as purified membranes, with or without auxin, no adenylate cyclase was detected by any of the three methods. For plasma membranes, the specific activity was less than 1/40 or 1/25,000 that of rat liver plasma membranes, depending on the assay procedure, i.e. below the limits of detection. Using comparable methods, we could detect neither cyclic adenosine 3′:5′-monophosphate nor the phosphodiesterase responsible for its degradation in either purified membranes or homogenates. The results suggest that hormone responses in plants are not generally mediated by a mechanism involving the obligate production of cyclic adenosine 3′:5′-monophosphate by a plasma membrane associated adenylate cyclase. Images PMID:16660026

  12. Genotoxicity assessment of water sampled from R-11 reservoir by means of allium test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bukatich, E.; Pryakhin, E. [Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine (Russian Federation); Geraskin, S. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    The Mayak PA was the first enterprise for the production of weapon-grade plutonium in Russia and it incorporates uranium-graphite reactors for plutonium production and radiochemical facilities for its separation. Radiochemical processing resulted in huge volumes of liquid radioactive wastes of different specific activities. To reduce the radionuclides release into the environment, a system of bypasses and ponds (the Techa Cascade Reservoirs system) to store low-activity liquid wastes has been constructed in the upper reaches of the Techa River. Currently, industrial reservoirs of Mayak PA contain over 350 million m{sup 3} of low-level radioactive liquid wastes with total activity over 7.4 x 10{sup 15} Bq. Reservoir R-11 is the final reservoir in the Techa Cascade Reservoirs system. The average specific activity of main radionuclides in the water of R-11 are: {sup 90}Sr - 1.4x10{sup 3} Bq/l; {sup 137}Cs - 3 Bq/l; {sup 3}H - 7x10{sup 2} Bq/l; α-emitting radionuclides - 2.6 x 10{sup -1} Bq/l. In our study the Allium-test was employed to estimate reservoir R-11 water genotoxic effects. In 2012, 3 water samples were collected in different parts of reservoir R-11. Water samples from the Shershnevskoye reservoir (artificial reservoir on the Miass River designed for Chelyabinsk city water supply) were used as natural control. Samples of distilled and bottled water were used as an additional laboratory control. The common onion, Allium cepa L. (Stuttgarter Riesen) was used. Healthy equal-sized bulbs were soaked for 24 hours at +4±2 deg. C to synchronize cell division. The bulbs were maintained in distilled water at +23 deg. C until roots have grown up to 2±1 mm length and then plunged into water samples. Control samples remained in distilled and bottled water as well as in water samples from the Shershnevskoye reservoir (natural control). Roots of the 18±3 mm length were randomly sampled and fixed in an alcohol/acetic acid mixture. For microscopic analysis, squashed

  13. The Cultural Symbolisation of Disordered and Deviant Behaviour: Young People's Experiences in a Welsh Rural Market Town.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jane

    2002-01-01

    In rural Llanrwst, north Wales, concepts of "traditional community" and local Welsh culture are felt to be threatened by inmigration of "English" outsiders. Interviews with secondary school students illustrate how cultural boundaries are reinforced by school structures and student behaviors and how cultural belonging is…

  14. Antibacterial combined effects of nisin and onion essential oil under different concentration of NaCl and pH against Listeria monocytogenes in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M Razavi Rohani

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the anti-listeria activity of onion (Allium cepa L. essential oil (EO, nisin as well as their combination at various pH values (4.8, 5.8 and 6.8 and different NaCl concentrations (0, 0.5, 2.5 and 4.5% was investigated against Listeria monocytogenes by microtiter plates at 30°C. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs were assessed for the nisin, onion EO as well as their combination. Subsequently, fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC was evaluated under different pH and NaCl concentrations. Both nisin and EQ showed significant antimicrobial effects against L.monocytogenes. Moreover, the nisin and onion EO exhibited MICs of 12.5 IU mL-1 and 125 μg mL-1, respectively. FICs of the nisin and onion EO alone and in combined form, along with various combinations of pH and NaCl concentration, showed clearly anti-listeria effect as synergistic, additional or indifference. Regardless of NaCl concentrations, the anti-listeria activity of both agents was strongly influenced by pH. Moreover, regardless of pH value, the growth of the bacterium was also affected by increasing of NaCl concentrations. It was concluded that, pH value of 4.8 and NaCl concentration of 4.5% had significant anti-listeria effect. In addition, it was found that, the effect of NaCl concentrations for each of the combination forms of treatments at various pH was different.Therefore, there are necessity to design and apply a comprehensive predictive model.

  15. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis in Welsh pony embryos after biopsy and cryopreservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guignot, F; Reigner, F; Perreau, C; Tartarin, P; Babilliot, J M; Bed'hom, B; Vidament, M; Mermillod, P; Duchamp, G

    2015-11-01

    Preimplantation genetic diagnosis and embryo cryopreservation are important tools to improve genetic management in equine species with marked consequences on the economic value, health, biodiversity, and preservation of the animals. This study aimed to develop a biopsy method at the blastocyst stage that provides viable genotyped cryopreserved Welsh pony embryos. Embryos were collected at d 6.75 to 7 after ovulation. Biopsies were performed with either a microblade or a micropipette. After biopsy, embryos were cryopreserved. The survival rate of biopsied embryos was evaluated on fresh and cryopreserved embryos either 24 h after in vitro culture or after transfer to recipients. Fresh and nonbiopsied embryos were used as controls. Sex, coat color genes, myotony (neuromuscular disorder) diagnosis, and markers of parentage were investigated using PCR on biopsied cells after whole-genome amplification and on remaining embryos. The embryo survival rate after transfer was not affected by the micropipette biopsy (50%, = 8; 43%, = 7; and 50%, = 12, at d 30 for fresh biopsied embryos, vitrified biopsied embryos, and control embryos, respectively) but was significantly reduced by the use of microblade biopsy: 9 ( = 11) vs. 67% ( = 12) for control embryos. Successful sex determination was achieved for 82% ( = 28) of the micropipette biopsies and 100% ( = 50) of the microblade biopsies. Sex determined on biopsied cells was found to correspond completely (100%) with that determined on the remaining embryo ( = 37). More than 90% of the parentage checking markers, coat color, and myotony diagnosis were successfully determined on biopsies obtained with either a micropipette or a microblade. Mendelian incompatibility (7.5 and 5.5%) and embryo genotyping errors (6.6 and 8.6%) were low and not significantly different between the 2 methods. In conclusion, for the first time, pregnancy at Day 30 was obtained after transfer of Welsh pony biopsied and vitrified embryos >300 μm in

  16. Effect of Allium sativum (garlic) methanol extract on viability and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of Allium sativum (garlic) methanol extract on viability and apoptosis of human leukemic cell lines. ... bromide (MTT) assay at concentrations of 3.125, 6.25, 12.5, 25, 50, 100, 200, 400 and 800 ug/mL of Allium sativum extract following 48-h treatment on U-937, Jurkat Clone E6-1 and K-562 cell lines. The mode of cell ...

  17. Unions of Onions: Preprocessing Imprecise Points for Fast Onion Layer Decomposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Löffler, Maarten; Mulzer, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Let D be a set of n pairwise disjoint unit disks in the plane. We describe how to build a data structure for D so that for any point set P containing exactly one point from each disk, we can quickly nd the onion decomposition (convex layers) of P. Our data structure can be built in O(n log n) time

  18. Effect of deep vs. shallow tillage on onion stunting and onion bulb yield, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    A field experiment was conducted at a site inoculated with R. solani AG 8 at the Oregon State University Hermiston Agricultural Research and Extension Center in Hermiston, OR to determine the effect of plowing (deep tillage) vs. rototilling (shallow tillage) on onion stunting caused by R. solani AG ...

  19. Production and characterization of tearless and non-pungent onion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Masahiro; Masamura, Noriya; Shono, Jinji; Okamoto, Daisaku; Abe, Tomoko; Imai, Shinsuke

    2016-04-06

    The onion lachrymatory factor (LF) is produced from trans-S-1-propenyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide (PRENCSO) through successive reactions catalyzed by alliinase (EC 4.4.1.4) and lachrymatory factor synthase (LFS), and is responsible for the tear inducing-property and the pungency of fresh onions. We developed tearless, non-pungent onions non-transgenically by irradiating seeds with neon-ion at 20 Gy. The bulbs obtained from the irradiated seeds and their offspring bulbs produced by selfing were screened by organoleptic assessment of tear-inducing property or HPLC analysis of LF production. After repeated screening and seed production by selfing, two tearless, non-pungent bulbs were identified in the third generation (M3) bulbs. Twenty M4 bulbs obtained from each of them showed no tear-inducing property or pungency when evaluated by 20 sensory panelists. The LF production levels in these bulbs were approximately 7.5-fold lower than those of the normal onion. The low LF production levels were due to reduction in alliinase activity, which was a result of low alliinase mRNA expression (less than 1% of that in the normal onion) and consequent low amounts of the alliinase protein. These tearless, non-pungent onions should be welcomed by all who tear while chopping onions and those who work in facilities where fresh onions are processed.

  20. Efficiency of onions marketing Ikeduru rural markets of Owerri area ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Variables such as trading stock, transportation cost, educational attainment, marketing experience, index of relative importance of onion in the food system and storage and security were found to have positive and significant effect on sales receipts of the onion marketers. International Journal of Natural and Applied ...

  1. Onion: Anti Cancer Sulfur Compounds with High Cancer Chemo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Onions are chock full of anti cancer sulfur compounds which are highly beneficial for cancer chemoprevention. Advanced studies have shown that onion may be inhibit liver, colon, prostate, lung cancer etc. with high antioxidant properties which also reduce not only oxidative stress, free radicals but also xenobiotics.

  2. Garlic and onion sensitization among Saudi patients screened for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Detection of specific IgE antibodies against food materials indicates allergic sensitization. Some very widely consumed foods materials such as garlic and onion have rarely been investigated for their allergenic potential. Objectives: To assess the presence of garlic and onion specific IgE antibodies in patients ...

  3. Sulfur compounds identification and quantification from Allium spp. fresh leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Gîtin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pyruvic acid concentration is a critical factor in determining Allium spp. pungency. This study was initiated to accurately measure the background pyruvic acid levels in Romanian Allium spp. From the pungency point of view, all analyzed plant varieties in this study are considered low pungent cultivars based on the enzymatically produced pyruvate level (between 42 μmol/g and 222 μmol/g fresh wt. Chromatographic analysis was carried out for the different varieties of the most popular fresh leaves (Allium cepa var. “Diamant”, Allium cepa var. “Rubiniu”, and Allium ursinum L. in order to identify the sulfur compounds. The thin layer chromatography analysis led to the identification of allicin, with Rf = 0.377–0.47, as an important sulfur compound. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of the leaves' extracts detected disulfides as the major sulfur compounds. Principal component analysis was performed to establish the differences in plant composition. These studies suggest the potential good uses of the fresh leaves of Romanian Allium spp. as condiment, ingredient, or preservative in the food industry.

  4. Antigenotoxicity and antimutagenicity of ethanolic extracts of Brazilian green propolis and its main botanical source determined by the Allium cepa test system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Mantuanelli Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Brazilian green propolis is a resinous substance prepared by bees from parts of the plant Baccharis dracunculifolia. As it possess several biological properties, this work assessed the cytotoxic/anticytotoxic, genotoxic/antigenotoxic and mutagenic/antimutagenic potential of ethanolic extracts of Brazilian green propolis (EEGP and of B. dracunculifolia (EEBD, by means of the Allium cepa test system. The effects were evaluated by assessing the chromosomal aberrations (CA and micronuclei (MN frequencies on meristematic and F1 generation cells from onion roots. Chemical analyses performed with the extracts showed differences in flavonoid quality and quantity. No genotoxic or mutagenic potential was detected, and both extracts were capable of inhibiting cellular damage caused by methyl methanesulfonate (MMS treatment, reducing the frequencies of CA and MN. By these data, we can infer that, independent of their flavonoid content, the extracts presented a protective effect in A. cepa cells against the clastogenicity of MMS.

  5. The role of onion-associated fungi in bulb mite infestation and damage to onion seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofek, Tal; Gal, Shira; Inbar, Moshe; Lebiush-Mordechai, Sara; Tsror, Leah; Palevsky, Eric

    2014-04-01

    In Israel Rhizoglyphus robini is considered to be a pest in its own right, even though the mite is usually found in association with fungal pathogens. Plant protection recommendations are therefore to treat germinating onions seedlings, clearly a crucial phase in crop production, when mites are discovered. The aim of this study was to determine the role of fungi in bulb mite infestation and damage to germinating onion seedlings. Accordingly we (1) evaluated the effect of the mite on onion seedling germination and survival without fungi, (2) compared the attraction of the mite to species and isolates of various fungi, (3) assessed the effect of a relatively non-pathogenic isolate of Fusarium oxysporum on mite fecundity, and (4) determined the effects of the mite and of F. oxysporum separately and together, on onion seedling germination and sprout development. A significant reduction of seedling survival was recorded only in the 1,000 mites/pot treatment, after 4 weeks. Mites were attracted to 6 out of 7 collected fungi isolates. Mite fecundity on onion sprouts infested with F. oxysporum was higher than on non-infested sprouts. Survival of seedlings was affected by mites, fungi, and their combination. Sprouts on Petri dishes after 5 days were significantly longer in the control and mite treatments than both fungi treatments. During the 5-day experiment more mites were always found on the fungi-infected sprouts than on the non-infected sprouts. Future research using suppressive soils to suppress soil pathogens and subsequent mite damage is proposed.

  6. Giant cell glioblastoma in the cerebrum of a Pembroke Welsh corgi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, D K; Aloisio, F; Alosio, F; Ajithdoss, D K; Ambrus, A; Lidbury, J A; Hein, H E; Porter, B F

    2011-05-01

    A 6-year-old, neutered female Pembroke Welsh corgi was presented with a 1-month history of ataxia and panting. The clinical signs progressed until the dog became anorexic, obtunded and exhibited circling to the left. At necropsy examination, a mass was detected in the left forebrain, impinging on the cribriform plate. Microscopically, the mass was composed of sheets of round to pleomorphic neoplastic cells with vacuolated cytoplasm. Nuclear atypia, anisocytosis and anisokaryosis were common. Numerous bizarre, multinucleated giant cells containing 60 or more nuclei and giant mononuclear cells were present. The matrix contained abundant reticulin. Immunohistochemistry revealed the neoplastic cells uniformly to express vimentin, and a small number of neoplastic cells expressed glial fibrillary acid protein. A diagnosis of giant cell glioblastoma was made. Although well recognized in man, this tumour has been documented rarely in the veterinary literature. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Changes in respiratory function in Pembroke Welsh Corgi dogs with degenerative myelopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyake, Kanae; Kobatake, Yui; Shibata, Sanae; Sakai, Hiroki; Saito, Miyoko; Yamato, Osamu; Kushida, Kazuya; Maeda, Sadatoshi; Kamishina, Hiroaki

    2016-09-01

    Canine degenerative myelopathy (DM) is characterized by progressive degeneration of the spinal cord. Although atrophic changes in the intercostal muscles were previously reported in the late stage of DM in Pembroke Welsh Corgis (PWCs), changes in respiratory function have not yet been examined. In the present study, we performed an arterial blood gas analysis and measured respiratory movements over progressive disease stages to document changes in respiratory function in DM-affected PWCs. We found that respiratory dysfunction progressed during the later stages of DM and correlated with a change in respiratory movement to the abdominal breathing pattern. These results suggested that hypoventilation occurred due to dysfunctional changes in the intercostal muscles and resulted in hypoxemia in the later stages of DM.

  8. Immunohistochemical observation of canine degenerative myelopathy in two Pembroke Welsh Corgi dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Mizue; Uchida, Kazuyuki; Park, Eun-Sil; Kamishina, Hiroaki; Sasaki, Jun; Chang, Hye-Sook; Yamato, Osamu; Nakayama, Hiroyuki

    2011-10-01

    Immunohistochemistry was performed to assess whether oxidative stress and/or denatured proteins play roles in the pathogenesis of canine degenerative myelopathy (DM). Two Pembroke Welsh Corgi (PWC) dogs with a homozygous mutation (c.118G>A) in the canine superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) gene were examined. The pathological features of the dogs were consistent with those of previous cases of DM in PWC. In the spinal lesions, diffuse SOD1 expression was observed in the neurons while no inclusion-like aggregates had formed, which disagreed with the findings of a previous study. A unique inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) staining pattern in reactive astrocytes and a significant increase in ubiquitin immunoreactivity in the spinal lesions were also observed. These findings indicate the involvement of oxidative stress and the accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins in the pathogenesis of canine DM, whereas the role of SOD1 remains unclear.

  9. Terminology Standardization in Education and the Construction of Resources: The Welsh Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tegau Andrews

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes developments in Welsh-language terminology within the education system in Wales. Following an outline of historical terminology work, it concentrates on the consolidation of terminology standardization at the Language Technologies Unit, Bangor University, with particular reference to two projects, one concerned with terminology for school-age and further education, the second concerned with higher education. The developments described include the adoption of international standards in terminology standardization and their incorporation in an online terminology standardization environment and dissemination platform that enable access to the centralized terminological dictionaries via a number of sophisticated websites, portals and mobile apps featuring rich dictionary entries. Some of the issues in managing large term collections are explored, and usage statistics are presented for the resources described.

  10. Protective effect of Allium neapolitanum Cyr. versus Allium sativum L. on acute ethanol-induced oxidative stress in rat liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nencini, Cristina; Franchi, Gian Gabriele; Cavallo, Federica; Micheli, Lucia

    2010-04-01

    This study investigated the protective effect of Allium neapolitanum Cyr., a spontaneous species of the Italian flora, compared with garlic (Allium sativum L.) on liver injury induced by ethanol in rats. Male albino Wistar rats were orally treated with fresh Allium homogenates (leaves or bulbs, 250 mg/kg) daily for 5 days, whereas controls received vehicle only. At the end of the experimental 5-day period, the animals received an acute ethanol dose (6 mL/kg, i.p.) 2 hours before the last Allium administration and were sacrificed 6 hours after ethanol administration. The activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione reductase (GR) and the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), ascorbic acid (AA), and reduced (GSH) and oxidized glutathione in liver tissue were determined. Administration of both Allium species for 5 days (leaves or bulbs) led to no statistical variation of nonenzymatic parameters versus the control group; otherwise Allium treatment caused an increase of GSH and AA levels compared with the ethanol group and a diminution of MDA levels, showing in addition that A. neapolitanum bulb had the best protective effect. Regarding to enzymatic parameters, GR and CAT activities were enhanced significantly compared with the ethanol group, whereas SOD activity showed a trend different from other parameters estimated. However, the treatment with both Allium species followed by acute ethanol administration reestablished the nonenzymatic parameters similar to control values and enhanced the activities of the enzymes measured. These results suggest that fresh Allium homogenates (leaves or bulbs) possess antioxidant properties and provide protection against ethanol-induced liver injury.

  11. Powdery mildew of Allium species caused by Oidiopsis taurica in Brazil Oídio em espécies do gênero Allium, causado por Oidiopsis taurica, no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ailton Reis

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Oidiopsis taurica Salmon (Syn. Oidiopsis sicula Scalia was identified as the causal agent of a powdery mildew disease occurring on distinct Allium species in Brazil. This disease was initially observed in plastic house and field-grown garlic (Allium sativum and leek (A. porrum accessions in Brasília (Federal District and in field-grown and greenhouse onion (A. cepa cultivars in Belém do São Francisco (Pernambuco State and Brasília, respectively. Typical symptoms consisted of chlorotic areas on the leaf surface corresponding to a fungal colony. These lesions turned to a brownish color with the progress of the disease. Fungi morphology was similar to that described for O. taurica. Endophytic mycelium emerging through estomata, light pale conidia were dimorphic (lanceolate primary conidia and somewhat cylindrical secondary conidia, fibrosin bodies were absent, conidia formed predominantly single (not in chains, and appressoria were non-lobed. Its sexual stage, Leveillula taurica (Lev. Arnaud, was not observed. Inoculations were performed with the O. taurica isolates from distinct Allium hosts. These isolates were also pathogenic to sweet pepper and tomato, indicating an apparent absence of host specialization. One bunching onion (A. fistulosum accessions was not infected by O. taurica suggesting that this species might carry useful resistance alleles to this pathogen. This is the first formal report of a powdery mildew disease on species of the genus Allium in Brazil. This disease might become important on these vegetable crops especially in hot and dry areas such as those in the Central and Northeast regions of Brazil.O fungo Oidiopsis taurica Salmon (= Oidiopsis sicula Scalia foi identificado como sendo o agente causal de uma nova doença do tipo oídio em alho (Allium sativum, alho porró (A. porrum e cebola (A. cepa no Brasil. Esta doença foi observada tanto em condições de casa de vegetação quanto a campo em Brasília e Pernambuco. O

  12. Residue dynamics of tebuconazole and quinalphos in immature onion bulb with leaves, mature onion bulb and soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, Soudamini; Deepa, M; Jagdish, G K

    2011-12-01

    Residue persistence of tebuconazole and quinalphos in immature onion bulb with leaves (spring onion), mature onion bulb and soil was studied following their spray applications 3 times. The applications were untreated control; tebuconazole @ 187.5 and 375 g a.i. ha(-1); quinalphos @ 300 and 600 g a.i. ha(-1). Initial residue deposits of tebuconazole in immature onion bulb with leaves from the two treatments were 0.628 and 1.228 mg kg(-1). The residues of tebuconazole dissipated with the half-life of 5 and 7.7 days. The safe pre-harvest intervals (PHI) for consumption of immature onion bulb with leaves were 16 and 35 days, respectively. Initial residue deposits of quinalphos in immature onion bulb with leaves from the two treatments were 0.864 and 2.283 mg kg(-1). Loss of quinalphos residues from immature onion bulb with leaves was very fast. The residues dissipated with the half-life of 1.7 and 2.6 days and the required PHI was 5 and 11 days, respectively. At harvest mature onion bulbs were free from residues of both tebuconazole and quinalphos.

  13. In vitro regeneration in Allium species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauber, M; Grunewaldt, J

    1988-10-01

    An attempt to induce shoot regeneration from leaf disc explants from Allium sativum L., A. porrum L., and A. schoenoprasum L. and the induction of shoot regeneration from single flower-bud receptacles in A. porrum is presented. While the regeneration rate from leaf disc explants was low, an efficient method for propagating A. porrum in vitro was obtained by cultivating single flower-bud receptacles. The shoot regeneration ability was strongly controlled by the genotype. Up to 294 shoots per leek plant could be harvested. Simultaneously the same plant could be used for seed production and bulbil formation in vivo. The efficiency of the in vitro multiplication method described allows the integration of this procedure into breeding programmes of A. porrum.

  14. Spirostanol saponins of Allium porrum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carotenuto, A; Fattorusso, E; Lanzotti, V; Magno, S

    1999-08-01

    An investigation of the extracts from bulbs of Allium porrum L. has led to the isolation of four spirostanol saponins. Two of them are new compounds and have been identified as: (25R)-5 alpha-spirostan-3 beta, 6 beta-diol 3-O-{O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->2)-O-[beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1-->3)]-O- beta -D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->4)-beta-D-galactopyranoside} (3) and (25R)-5 alpha-spirostan-3 beta,6 beta-diol 3-O-{O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->3)-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->2)-O- [beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1-->3)]-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->4)-beta-D- galactopyranoside} (4). The isolated compounds were evaluated for their antifungal activity.

  15. Control of Aspergillus niger with garlic, onion and leek extracts | Irkin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Allium cepa L.) and leek (Allium porrum L.) were investigated against Aspergillus niger. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimal fungicidal concentrations (MFC) of aqueous, ethyl alcohol and acetone extracts were determined by ...

  16. Photoionization of onion-type endohedrals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amusia, Miron; Chernysheva, Larissa; Liverts, Evgeniy

    2009-05-01

    We developed a program that permits to treat endohedral atoms with two fullerenes shells and performed corresponding calculations for Ar atom stuffed inside two spherically symmetric shells that consists of sixty and two hundred forty carbon atoms. To describe the action of the C60 shell upon the photoionization of an atom located inside the fullerene, the zero-thickness (``orange skin'') potential model was extensively used. This simple model permits to present the results of C60 action as an oscillating factor that permits to present all characteristics of the endohedral photoionization as corresponding atomic characteristic multiplied by the above-mentioned factor. This model potential is valid only for slow photoelectrons, the wavelength of which is much bigger than the thickness of the C60 shell. It is necessary also that the radius of C60 exceeds considerably the thickness of C60. We derived analytic expressions for the factor that takes into account both shells of an onion-type fullerene. Concrete calculations are performed for Xe atom stuffed into the onion-type structure --Ar@C60C240. The induced oscillations of the photoionization cross-section became much more complex and stronger than in Ar@C60.

  17. A less energy intensive process for dehydrating onion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grewal, Manpreet Kaur; Jha, S N; Patil, R T; Dhatt, A S; Kaur, Amandeep; Jaiswal, P

    2015-02-01

    Onion powder has an extensive demand and wide application worldwide as flavour additive in convenience foods and medicinal products. Conventionally onion powder is prepared by hot air drying of onion slices followed by grinding. Convective air drying when used alone demands longer drying time and thus has a high expense of energy. As bulk of onion is water (82-87 %), removal of moisture prior to drying can reduce moisture loading on dryer and hence the energy consumption. Keeping this in view, onions were partially dewatered using centrifugal force before convective drying. The effect of partial mechanical dewatering and drying air temperature was studied on drying time, specific energy consumption and onion powder quality (colour and flavour). The combination process was also optimized to achieve increased drying rate and product quality comparable to products obtained using convective drying alone. Onions subjected to 60 % partial mechanical dewatering and hot air drying at 70 °C exhibited significantly (p ≤ 0.5) shortened drying time, decreased energy consumption and maintained colour and flavour of the dried product.

  18. Phenotypic Diversity and Genetic Variation within a Collection of Onion (Allium cepa L.) Germplasm from Peninsular India

    OpenAIRE

    Neelam Sunil, Vinod Kumar, Medagam Thirupathi Reddy, Venkateshwaran Kamala

    2014-01-01

    Twenty three diverse germplasm lines collected from varying agro-ecological regions of Peninsular India during 2007-08 were characterized and evaluated along with three controls viz. Nasik Red, Light Red and White Marglobe, in an augmented block design during kharif 2009-10, at NBPGR Regional Station, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad. The accessions exhibited good variation for qualitative traits like early seedling vigour, leaf cross section, leaf arrangement, stem shape, bulb shape, bulb skin color...

  19. Antimicrobial effect of garlic (Allium sativum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncagul, Gulsen; Ayaz, Erol

    2010-01-01

    Medicinal plants like pumpkin seed, thyme, onion, Nigella sativa, lemon balm, and stinging nettle are used extensively today. One of these plants used most intensively and widespread is garlic. In this context, fresh shape, powder state and oil of garlic have been used all around the world, especially in Far East for centuries. It is scientifically proven that garlic is effectively used in cardiovascular diseases as a regulator of blood pressure, with dropper effects on glycaemia and high blood cholesterol, against bacterial, viral, mycotic and parasitic infections. It's also known that garlic is a wonderful plant having the properties of empowering immune system, anti-tumour and antioxidant effects. In this article, the summary of properties of garlic and its use against bacterial diseases is given. This article is a short review of recent patents on antimicrobial effect of garlic.

  20. Selenium and Sulfur to Produce Allium Functional Crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Morales, Susana; Pérez-Labrada, Fabián; García-Enciso, Ema Laura; Leija-Martínez, Paola; Medrano-Macías, Julia; Dávila-Rangel, Irma Esther; Juárez-Maldonado, Antonio; Rivas-Martínez, Erika Nohemí; Benavides-Mendoza, Adalberto

    2017-03-30

    Selenium is an element that must be considered in the nutrition of certain crops since its use allows the obtaining of biofortified crops with a positive impact on human health. The objective of this review is to present the information on the use of Se and S in the cultivation of plants of the genus Allium. The main proposal is to use Allium as specialist plants for biofortification with Se and S, considering the natural ability to accumulate both elements in different phytochemicals, which promotes the functional value of Allium. In spite of this, in the agricultural production of these species, the addition of sulfur is not realized to obtain functional foods and plants more resistant; it is only sought to cover the necessary requirements for growth. On the other hand, selenium does not appear in the agronomic management plans of most of the producers. Including S and Se fertilization as part of agronomic management can substantially improve Allium crop production. Allium species may be suitable to carry out biofortification with Se; this practice can be combined with the intensive use of S to obtain crops with higher production and sensory, nutritional, and functional quality.