WorldWideScience

Sample records for wellheads

  1. Wellhead compression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrington, Joe [Sertco Industries, Inc., Okemah, OK (United States); Vazquez, Daniel [Hoerbiger Service Latin America Inc., Deerfield Beach, FL (United States); Jacobs, Denis Richard [Hoerbiger do Brasil Industria de Equipamentos, Cajamar, SP (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Over time, all wells experience a natural decline in oil and gas production. In gas wells, the major problems are liquid loading and low downhole differential pressures which negatively impact total gas production. As a form of artificial lift, wellhead compressors help reduce the tubing pressure resulting in gas velocities above the critical velocity needed to surface water, oil and condensate regaining lost production and increasing recoverable reserves. Best results come from reservoirs with high porosity, high permeability, high initial flow rates, low decline rates and high total cumulative production. In oil wells, excessive annulus gas pressure tends to inhibit both oil and gas production. Wellhead compression packages can provide a cost effective solution to these problems by reducing the system pressure in the tubing or annulus, allowing for an immediate increase in production rates. Wells furthest from the gathering compressor typically benefit the most from wellhead compression due to system pressure drops. Downstream compressors also benefit from higher suction pressures reducing overall compression horsepower requirements. Special care must be taken in selecting the best equipment for these applications. The successful implementation of wellhead compression from an economical standpoint hinges on the testing, installation and operation of the equipment. Key challenges and suggested equipment features designed to combat those challenges and successful case histories throughout Latin America are discussed below.(author)

  2. Wellhead with non-ferromagnetic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinson, Richard A [Houston, TX; Vinegar, Harold J [Bellaire, TX

    2009-05-19

    Wellheads for coupling to a heater located in a wellbore in a subsurface formation are described herein. At least one wellhead may include a heater located in a wellbore in a subsurface formation; and a wellhead coupled to the heater. The wellhead may be configured to electrically couple the heater to one or more surface electrical components. The wellhead may include at least one non-ferromagnetic material such that ferromagnetic effects are inhibited in the wellhead. Systems and methods for using such wellheads for treating a subsurface formation are described herein.

  3. 30 CFR 250.617 - Tubing and wellhead equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... wellhead, all annuli (A, B, C, D, etc., annuli). (ii) subsea wells, the tubing head, the production casing... mudline for casing pressure. *Characterized as a well drilled with a subsea wellhead and completed with a... designed, installed, used, maintained, and tested so as to achieve and maintain pressure control. The...

  4. Wellhead anti-frost technology using deep mine geothermal energy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Pingye; He Manchao; Yang Qin; Chen Chen

    2011-01-01

    The auxiliary shaft is an important location for coal mine heating in the winter,where the main purpose of heating is to prevent icing of the shaft.Wellhead heating requires characteristics of openness,no-noise and big heat loads.The original coal-fired boiler heating mode causes significant waste of energy and environmental pollution due to the low efficiency of the heat exchange.Therefore,to solve these problems,we will use deep mine geothermal energy to heat the wellhead by making full use of its negative pressure field and design a low-temperature water and fan-free heating system.Through numerical calculations we will simulate temperature fields,pressure fields and velocity fields under different air supply temperatures,as well as different air supply outlet locations and varying number of radiators in the wellhead room of a new auxiliary shaft to find the proper layout and number of radiators that meet wellhead anti-frost requirements from our simulation results,in order to provide guidelines for a practical engineering design.Tests on the Zhangshuanglou auxiliary shaft wellhead shows good,look promising and appear to resolve successfully the problem of high energy consumption and high pollution of wellhead heating by a coal-fired boiler.

  5. HGP-A wellhead generator proof-of-feasibility project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-11-03

    The HGP-A Wellhead Generator Proof-of-Feasibility Project consists of a nominal 3 Megawatt geothermal steam turbine electric power generating facility, the first geothermal power plant in Hawaii. The plant is being constructed as a research and development project to evaluate geothermal steam as a viable resource to be considered for larger commercial electric power generating stations in Hawaii. The project facilities include a turbine building, with a contiguous service area for plant operations and maintenance, visitor center, and the power plant equipment.

  6. GASCAP: Wellhead Gas Productive Capacity Model documentation, June 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-07-01

    The Wellhead Gas Productive Capacity Model (GASCAP) has been developed by EIA to provide a historical analysis of the monthly productive capacity of natural gas at the wellhead and a projection of monthly capacity for 2 years into the future. The impact of drilling, oil and gas price assumptions, and demand on gas productive capacity are examined. Both gas-well gas and oil-well gas are included. Oil-well gas productive capacity is estimated separately and then combined with the gas-well gas productive capacity. This documentation report provides a general overview of the GASCAP Model, describes the underlying data base, provides technical descriptions of the component models, diagrams the system and subsystem flow, describes the equations, and provides definitions and sources of all variables used in the system. This documentation report is provided to enable users of EIA projections generated by GASCAP to understand the underlying procedures used and to replicate the models and solutions. This report should be of particular interest to those in the Congress, Federal and State agencies, industry, and the academic community, who are concerned with the future availability of natural gas.

  7. INITIAL CHEMICAL AND RESERVOIR CONDITIONS AT LOS AZUFRES WELLHEAD POWER PLANT STARTUP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruger, P.; Semprini, L.; Verma, S.; Barragan, R.; Molinar, R.; Aragon, A.; Ortiz, J.; Miranda, C.

    1985-01-22

    One of the major concerns of electric utilities in installing geothermal power plants is not only the longevity of the steam supply, but also the potential for changes in thermodynamic properties of the resource that might reduce the conversion efficiency of the design plant equipment. Production was initiated at Los Azufres geothermal field with wellhead generators not only to obtain electric energy at a relatively early date, but also to acquire needed information about the resource so that plans for large central power plants could be finalized. Commercial electric energy production started at Los Azufres during the summer of 1982 with five 5-MWe wellhead turbine-generator units. The wells associated with these units had undergone extensive testing and have since been essentially in constant production. The Los Azufres geothermal reservoir is a complex structural and thermodynamic system, intersected by at least 4 major parallel faults and producing geothermal fluids from almost all water to all steam. The five wellhead generators are associated with wells of about 30%, 60%, and 100% steam fraction. A study to compile existing data on the chemical and reservoir conditions during the first two years of operation has been completed. Data have been compiled on mean values of wellhead and separator pressures, steam and liquid flowrates, steam fraction, enthalpy, and pertinent chemical components. The compilation serves both as a database of conditions during the start-up period and as an initial point to observe changes with continued and increased production. Current plans are to add additional wellhead generators in about two years followed by central power plants when the data have been sufficiently evaluated for optimum plant design. During the next two years, the data acquired at the five 5-MWe wellhead generator units can be compared to this database to observe any significant changes in reservoir behavior at constant production.

  8. Marine magnetic studies over a lost wellhead in Palk Bay, Cauvery Basin, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramana, M.V.; Subrahmanyam, V.; Sarma, K.V.L.N.S.; Seshavataram, B.T.V.

    Close grid marine magnetic surveys in the vicinity of a drill well site PH 9-1 in Palk Bay revealed that the area is characterized by smooth magnetic field except for a local anomaly caused by a lost wellhead. The smooth magnetic field is attributed...

  9. A Lift-Off-Tolerant Magnetic Flux Leakage Testing Method for Drill Pipes at Wellhead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jianbo; Fang, Hui; Li, Long; Wang, Jie; Huang, Xiaoming; Kang, Yihua; Sun, Yanhua; Tang, Chaoqing

    2017-01-01

    To meet the great needs for MFL (magnetic flux leakage) inspection of drill pipes at wellheads, a lift-off-tolerant MFL testing method is proposed and investigated in this paper. Firstly, a Helmholtz coil magnetization method and the whole MFL testing scheme are proposed. Then, based on the magnetic field focusing effect of ferrite cores, a lift-off-tolerant MFL sensor is developed and tested. It shows high sensitivity at a lift-off distance of 5.0 mm. Further, the follow-up high repeatability MFL probing system is designed and manufactured, which was embedded with the developed sensors. It can track the swing movement of drill pipes and allow the pipe ends to pass smoothly. Finally, the developed system is employed in a drilling field for drill pipe inspection. Test results show that the proposed method can fulfill the requirements for drill pipe inspection at wellheads, which is of great importance in drill pipe safety. PMID:28117721

  10. A Lift-Off-Tolerant Magnetic Flux Leakage Testing Method for Drill Pipes at Wellhead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianbo Wu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To meet the great needs for MFL (magnetic flux leakage inspection of drill pipes at wellheads, a lift-off-tolerant MFL testing method is proposed and investigated in this paper. Firstly, a Helmholtz coil magnetization method and the whole MFL testing scheme are proposed. Then, based on the magnetic field focusing effect of ferrite cores, a lift-off-tolerant MFL sensor is developed and tested. It shows high sensitivity at a lift-off distance of 5.0 mm. Further, the follow-up high repeatability MFL probing system is designed and manufactured, which was embedded with the developed sensors. It can track the swing movement of drill pipes and allow the pipe ends to pass smoothly. Finally, the developed system is employed in a drilling field for drill pipe inspection. Test results show that the proposed method can fulfill the requirements for drill pipe inspection at wellheads, which is of great importance in drill pipe safety.

  11. Metal Sealing Performance of Subsea X-tree Wellhead Connector Sealer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Honglin; CHEN Rui; LUO Xiaolan; DUAN Menglan; LU Yinghui; FU Guowei; TIAN Hongping; YE Daohui

    2015-01-01

    The metal sealing performance of subsea X-tree wellhead connectors is crucial for the safety and reliability of subsea X-trees. In order to establish the theoretical relation between metal sealing ring’s contact stress and its structural parameters and working pressure, a mechanical analysis method for double-cone sealing of high pressure vessels is applied in analyzing the metal sealing ring under the condition of preload and operation. As a result, the formula of the unit sealing load for the metal sealing ring under operation with residual preload is shown in this paper, which ensures that the metal sealing ring has an excellent sealing effect and can prevent the metal sealing ring from yielding. Besides, while analyzing the sealing process of the metal sealing ring, the change rule of contact stress and working pressure is concluded here, putting forward that the structural parameters of the metal sealing ring are the major factors affecting the change rule. Finally, the analytical solution through theoretical analysis is compared with the simulation result through finite element analysis in a force feedback experiment, and both are consistent with each other, which fully verifies for the design and calculation theory on metal sealing ring’s contact stress and its structural parameters and working pressure deduced in this paper. The proposed research will be treated as an applicable theory guiding the design of metal seal for subsea X-tree wellhead connectors.

  12. Effect of Measured Wellhead Parameters and Well Scaling on the Computed Downhole Conditions in Cerro Prieto Wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goyal, K.P.; Miller, C.W.; Lippmann, M.J.

    1980-12-16

    This paper is devoted to the discussion of the wellbore model and its describing equations, comparison between the computed and measured pressures and the effect of measured wellhead parameters on the downhole pressures in the well. Finally a wellbore model with multiple inside diameters is discussed and the effect of well scaling on the bottom hole pressures is studied.

  13. Coalbed Methane Procduced Water Treatment Using Gas Hydrate Formation at the Wellhead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BC Technologies

    2009-12-30

    Water associated with coalbed methane (CBM) production is a significant and costly process waste stream, and economic treatment and/or disposal of this water is often the key to successful and profitable CBM development. In the past decade, advances have been made in the treatment of CBM produced water. However, produced water generally must be transported in some fashion to a centralized treatment and/or disposal facility. The cost of transporting this water, whether through the development of a water distribution system or by truck, is often greater than the cost of treatment or disposal. To address this economic issue, BC Technologies (BCT), in collaboration with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and International Petroleum Environmental Consortium (IPEC), proposed developing a mechanical unit that could be used to treat CBM produced water by forming gas hydrates at the wellhead. This process involves creating a gas hydrate, washing it and then disassociating hydrate into water and gas molecules. The application of this technology results in three process streams: purified water, brine, and gas. The purified water can be discharged or reused for a variety of beneficial purposes and the smaller brine can be disposed of using conventional strategies. The overall objectives of this research are to develop a new treatment method for produced water where it could be purified directly at the wellhead, to determine the effectiveness of hydrate formation for the treatment of produced water with proof of concept laboratory experiments, to design a prototype-scale injector and test it in the laboratory under realistic wellhead conditions, and to demonstrate the technology under field conditions. By treating the water on-site, producers could substantially reduce their surface handling costs and economically remove impurities to a quality that would support beneficial use. Batch bench-scale experiments of the hydrate formation process and research conducted at ORNL

  14. Subsea thermoelectric generators. 1- 10-watt peltier effect prototypes - a step towards autonomous electrical control units at subsea wellheads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weid, J.P. von der; Silva, J.A.P. da; Gama, A.L.; Sant' Anna, A.C.

    1994-05-01

    Offshore oil production activities require the operation of underwater hydraulic or electric equipment. The high cost of acquisition and installation of umbilical cables to supply power is leading to the development of independently powered cableless equipment, connected to the surface by the transmission and reception of control signals through the water. As a first step toward these autonomous wellhead control systems, the authors designed and successfully tested in laboratory conditions a thermoelectric generator able to supply at least 10 watts of electric power, extracting it from the temperature difference between the oil and the surrounding water. Hydraulic pumps and pressure accumulators, control electronics, and valve actuators for wellhead control units are all technically solved problems, even for seafloors as deep as 1,000 meters. However, an autonomous underwater wellhead control unit can only be conceived if an energy source is available at the seafloor. The development of a reliable and compact power source is indeed a fundamental step towards autonomous wet Christmas tree valve actuators.

  15. Evaluation of methods for wellhead protection areas for the State of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maciel de Carvalho

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The wellhead protection areas play an important role in protecting the groundwater quality exploited by public waterwells. There are some methods that allow to define dimensions and shape of contribution zones, that is, the area wherethe entire surface of the aquifer recharge is captured by well, besides zones based on time traffic, defi ned in time wherea particular contaminant can reach the well. Both zones allow gradual control of land use. This paper has presented acomparative study between three different methods in different aquifers of the State of São Paulo. The methods include:calculated fixed radius, based on cylindrical volumetric flow equation; analytical model, using the equation of uniformflow; and numerical model, using mathematical models to simulate the flow. The results showed that each method generateddifferent areas, both in the shapes and in the dimensions. The two first methods established contribution zones withsimilar sizes, but with different shapes and on average 200% bigger than the results from the numeric method, for thesame hydrogeological conditions. From the results, it appears that the use of the analytical model is feasible as a first approximation,since the data for that are now available for almost all public wells in the state, and its accuracy is superiorto the calculated fixed radius method. In a later stage, where the definition of the contribution zones is more sensitive,the numerical model would be the natural alternative.

  16. International test and demonstration of a 1-MW wellhead generator: Helical screw expander power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, R. A.

    1984-06-01

    A 1-MW wellhead generator was tested in 1980, 1981, and 1982 by Mexico, Italy, and New Zealand at Cerro Prieto, Cesano, and Broadlands, respectively. The total flow helical screw expander portable power plant, Model 76-1, had been built for the U.S. Government and field-tested in Utah, USA, in 1978 and 1979. The expander had oversized internal clearances designed for self-cleaning operation on fluids that deposit adherent scale normally detrimental to the utiliation of liquid dominated fields. Conditions with which the expander was tested included inlet pressures of 64 to 220 psia, inlet qualities of 0% to 100%, exhaust pressures of 3.1 to 40 psia, electrial loads of idle and 110 to 933 kW, electrical frequencies of 50 and 60 Hz, male rotor speeds of 2500 to 4000 rpm, and fluid characteristics to 310,000 ppm total dissolved solids and noncondensables to 38 wt % of the vapor. Some testing was done on-grid. Typical expander isentropic efficiency was 40% to 50% with the clearances not closed, and 5 percentage points or more higher with the clearances partly closed. The expander efficiency increased approximately logarithmically with shaft power for most operations, while inlet quality, speed, and pressure ratio across the machine had only small effects. These findings are all in agreement with the Utah test results.

  17. Arsenic-related water quality with depth and water quality of well-head samples from production wells, Oklahoma, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Carol J.; Smith, S. Jerrod; Greer, James R.; Smith, Kevin A.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey well profiler was used to describe arsenic-related water quality with well depth and identify zones yielding water with high arsenic concentrations in two production wells in central and western Oklahoma that yield water from the Permian-aged Garber-Wellington and Rush Springs aquifers, respectively. In addition, well-head samples were collected from 12 production wells yielding water with historically large concentrations of arsenic (greater than 10 micrograms per liter) from the Garber-Wellington aquifer, Rush Springs aquifer, and two minor aquifers: the Arbuckle-Timbered Hills aquifer in southern Oklahoma and a Permian-aged undefined aquifer in north-central Oklahoma. Three depth-dependent samples from a production well in the Rush Springs aquifer had similar water-quality characteristics to the well-head sample and did not show any substantial changes with depth. However, slightly larger arsenic concentrations in the two deepest depth-dependent samples indicate the zones yielding noncompliant arsenic concentrations are below the shallowest sampled depth. Five depth-dependent samples from a production well in the Garber-Wellington aquifer showed increases in arsenic concentrations with depth. Well-bore travel-time information and water-quality data from depth-dependent and well-head samples showed that most arsenic contaminated water (about 63 percent) was entering the borehole from perforations adjacent to or below the shroud that overlaid the pump. Arsenic concentrations ranged from 10.4 to 124 micrograms per liter in 11 of the 12 production wells sampled at the well head, exceeding the maximum contaminant level of 10 micrograms per liter for drinking water. pH values of the 12 well-head samples ranged from 6.9 to 9. Seven production wells in the Garber-Wellington aquifer had the largest arsenic concentrations ranging from 18.5 to 124 micrograms per liter. Large arsenic concentrations (10.4-18.5) and near neutral to slightly alkaline

  18. The effects that well depth and wellhead protection have on bacterial contamination of private water wells in the Estes Park Valley, Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Thomas R

    2008-12-01

    Over the past five years, it is estimated that 10% of residential water wells have tested positive for total coliform and 2% for E.coli bacteria in the Estes Park Valley, Colorado. Many of these water wells are shallow or hand-dug in construction. In this study, samplings of 30 private untreated water wells were tested for total coliform bacteria in the Estes Park Valley. Water wells were classified into three categories for well depth (200 feet [61 m]) and for wellhead protection (poor, fair, and good). Results indicated that 71% of the wells less than 199 feet (60.7 m) tested positive for total coliform (chi2 = 15.559, p wells classified as having poor and fair wellhead protection tested positive for total coliform (chi2 = 13.084, p = .001). This study determined that wellhead protection and well depth does play a role in bacterial contamination of water wells.

  19. 井口硫化氢气体扩散及检测方法研究%Wellhead Hydrogen Sulfide Gas Diffusion and Detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张兴全; 李相方; 李玉军; 徐大融; 马龙; 任美鹏

    2011-01-01

    针对钻井过程中井口溢出的硫化氢气体在大气中扩散且难于检测的问题,建立井口位置流体力学模型.对无风和有风情况下硫化氢的浓度分布进行模拟,并对井口和方井处硫化氢检测方法进行研究.结果表明:无风情况下硫化氢气体容易在方井处积聚,风速对溢出口上部挡板空间硫化氢浓度分布影响很小,对方井处硫化氢浓度影响非常大.针对以上情况,建议在井口处安装倒置放置的扩散武传感器,方井处安装吸入武传感器.从而能更准确检测硫化氢浓度.%Build wellhead position hydrodynamics model , analog the hydrogen sulfide concentration in a condition of no wind or a wind and do researches about testing method of hydrogen sulfide at wellhead and cellar, aimed at hydrogen sulfide spreading and never being easily detected when it spills over from wellhead during drilling wells. It shows that without wind the hydrogen sulfide gas accumulates at the cellar and the speed of wind influents almost nothing on the distribution of the concentration of hydrogen sulfide at the board located in the wellhead and influents much to the hydrogen sulfide concentration at the cellar. Depending on that, a dispersive sensor upside down at the wellhead and a suction sensor at the cellar to test the hydrogen sulfide concentration accurately are suggested place.

  20. Probabilistic Risk Analysis and Fault Trees as Tools in Improving the Delineation of Wellhead Protection Areas: An Initial Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodak, C. M.; Silliman, S. E.

    2010-12-01

    Delineation of a wellhead protection area (WHPA) is a critical component of managing / protecting the aquifer(s) supplying potable water to a public water-supply well. While a number of previous authors have addressed questions related to uncertainties in advective capture zones, methods for assessing WHPAs in the presence of uncertainty in the chemistry of groundwater contaminants, the relationship between land-use and contaminant sources, and the impact on health risk within the receiving population are more limited. Probabilistic risk analysis (PRA) combined with fault trees (FT) addresses this latter challenge by providing a structure whereby four key WHPA issues may be addressed: (i) uncertainty in land-use practices and chemical release, (ii) uncertainty in groundwater flow, (iii) variability in natural attenuation properties (and/or remediation) of the contaminants, and (iv) estimated health risk from contaminant arrival at a well. The potential utility of PRA-FT in this application is considered through a simplified case study involving management decisions related both to regional land use planning and local land-use zoning regulation. An application-specific fault tree is constructed to visualize and identify the events required for health risk failure at the well and a Monte Carlo approach is used to create multiple realizations of groundwater flow and chemical transport to a well in a model of a simple, unconfined aquifer. Model parameters allowed to vary during this simplified case study include hydraulic conductivity, probability of a chemical spill (related to land use variation in space), and natural attenuation through variation in rate of decay of the contaminant. Numerical results are interpreted in association with multiple land-use management scenarios as well as multiple cancer risk assumptions regarding the contaminant arriving at the well. This case study shows significant variability of health risk at the well, however general trends were

  1. Weighted Average Cost of Retail Gas (WACORG) highlights pricing effects in the US gas value chain: Do we need wellhead price-floor regulation to bail out the unconventional gas industry?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weijermars, Ruud, E-mail: R.Weijermars@TUDelft.nl [Alboran Energy Strategy Consultants and Department of Geotechnology, Delft University of Technology (Netherlands)

    2011-10-15

    The total annual revenue stream in the US natural gas value chain over the past decade is analyzed. Growth of total revenues has been driven by higher wellhead prices, which peaked in 2008. The emergence of the unconventional gas business was made possible in part by the pre-recessional rise in global energy prices. The general rise in natural gas prices between 1998 and 2008 did not lower overall US gas consumption, but shifts have occurred during the past decade in the consumption levels of individual consumer groups. Industry's gas consumption has decreased, while power stations increased their gas consumption. Commercial and residential consumers maintained flat gas consumption patterns. This study introduces the Weighted Average Cost of Retail Gas (WACORG) as a tool to calculate and monitor an average retail price based on the different natural gas prices charged to the traditional consumer groups. The WACORG also provides insight in wellhead revenues and may be used as an instrument for calibrating retail prices in support of wellhead price-floor regulation. Such price-floor regulation is advocated here as a possible mitigation measure against excessive volatility in US wellhead gas prices to improve the security of gas supply. - Highlights: > This study introduces an average retail price, WACORG. > WACORG can monitor price differentials for the traditional US gas consumer groups. > WACORG also provides insight in US wellhead revenues. > WACORG can calibrate retail prices in support of wellhead price-floor regulation. > Gas price-floor can improve security of gas supply by reducing price volatility.

  2. Comparison of Deep Drill Braced Monument (DDBM) and Borehole Strainmeter (BSM) Wellhead GPS antenna mounts: a Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) case study from Dinsmore, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, T. B.; Austin, K. E.; Borsa, A. A.; Feaux, K.; Jackson, M. E.; Johnson, W.; Mencin, D.

    2010-12-01

    With the 2009 installation of GPS station P793 in Dinsmore, CA, the Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) created a unique opportunity to directly compare a traditional deep drill braced GPS monument (DDBM) with a borehole strainmeter (BSM) wellhead GPS monument. PBO installed a GPS antenna to the wellhead of BSM B935 to perform a direct comparison to DDBM P327 in an attempt to determine stability and long-term behavior of both. The two adjacent stations share power and communications and are roughly 20 meters apart. The steel BSM casing is cemented ~520ft in meta-sandstone & shale, while the DDBM is anchored ~30ft deep in alluvial river gravels. Both stations are located inside a rural auto wrecking yard, which has potential sources of fixed noise in the form of multipath reflections off large metal objects. Preliminary analysis indicates consistent measurements in the North-South component, and a ~3.3 mm difference in the East-West component that has been detected between the two stations over a 450-day period (~2.7 mm/yr). The analysis utilizes standard PBO data products and differences time series data from each station in the SNARF 1.0 and IGS 2005 reference frames. We estimate the time dependent seasonal variations observed at each station and compare with available temperature and precipitation data to attempt to identify the cause of differential movement between the monuments.

  3. Region 9 Wellheads (SDWIS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — EPAâ??s Safe Drinking Water Information System (SDWIS) databases store information about drinking water. The federal version (SDWIS/FED) stores the information EPA...

  4. Design of Cluster-type Explosion-proof Wellhead Heater%防爆集束式井口加热器设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈龙; 王彦博; 孙林; 赵守刚; 杨双春; 潘一

    2014-01-01

    In order to solve the problem that wellhead heating oil experiment devices had poor performances including uneven heating and low heating efficiency, based on Newton cooling law and Fourier Law, the heater efficiency was researched by considering the effect of temperature and pressure. An experimental device for heating oil at wellhead was designed. Cyclone plates were arranged on the heating pipe to increase the flow distance of crude oil, spoilers and fan blades were installed on the oil inlet to change the state of flow and avoid oil-water separation, and increase the heat transfer coefficient. This experimental device can be used to study the effect of fluid state on heating efficiency, which can provide experimental basis for the design of efficient wellhead heater for crude oil.%为了解决井口加热原油实验仪器的贫乏,加热不均匀及加热效率低等问题,根据牛顿冷却公式和傅里叶定律,并考虑了原油温度和压力的影响,对加热器加热效率进行了研究。在此基础上设计了一种油井井口加热原油的实验装置。该装置在加热管上安装旋流片增大原油流动距离,在进口处安装涡流装置用以改变原油流态,增大传热系数,并起到充分混合油水的作用。该实验装置能够研究流体流态对加热效率的影响,为井口加热原油工艺设计提供实验依据,为高效的井口加热器设计提供实验基础。

  5. Stability Analysis of Subsea Wellhead Oil Control Device%水下井口控油装置稳定性分析∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志刚; 李春生; 尚宪朝; 王立权; 曹曼; 鲁冠博

    2016-01-01

    为了保证水下井口救援控油装置在海底转接作业过程中不发生失稳现象,需确定合理的控油装置入泥深度。鉴于此,根据水下井口控油装置结构的受力特点,构建了水下井口控油装置受力的力学模型。根据控油装置所受的海流力、土压力、侧壁摩擦力、土切力和基底反力计算得出控油装置的安全入泥深度要大于2�24 m;根据构建的控油装置力学模型对其地基稳定性、抗滑移和抗倾覆进行了计算分析。计算结果表明,控油装置结构底部抗滑移安全系数为2�78,可抗海流速度极限为3�17 m/s。研究结果可为实际工程作业提供理论支持。%To ensure the subsea wellhead rescue oil control device do not experience instability during switc⁃hing operation, a reasonable in⁃mud depth of the oil control device need to be determined�In view of this, the me⁃chanical model of the subsea wellhead oil control device has been established according to the mechanical charac⁃teristics of the subsea wellhead oil control device structure�Based on the current force, soil pressure, sidewall fric⁃tion, soil shear and basal counterforce on the oil control device, the calculation result suggested that the safety in⁃mud depth should be greater than 2�24 m�Finally, the foundation stability, anti⁃sliding and anti⁃overturning of the oil control device have been calculated according to the established mechanical model�The calculation results show that the bottom of the oil control device structure has an anti⁃sliding safety factor of 2�78 and an anti⁃current speed limit of 3�17 m/s�The study results could provide theoretical support for the actual project operation.

  6. 水下导管出泥高度对井口稳定性的影响研究%Research on the Effect of the Underwater Conductor Sludge Height on Wellhead Stability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟国; 谢华; 杨进; 吴怡; 张俊斌; 韦红术; 陈彬

    2012-01-01

    In light of specific problems in engineering, the calculation method and model of the interrelationship between permissible conductor height and tilt angle were formulated. An analysis and evaluation of the conductor sludge height in Gasfield 35 - 2 in Panyu was conducted. The dynamic equalization calculation method was adopted to deal with the wellhead analysis. The above-wellhead equipment force on the wellhead was transmitted and equalized. The uniform calculation model was adopted to verify and simulate the wellhead in different operating conditions. The analysis shows that as for underwater wellhead, the most dangerous operating condition is that of well completion. The lateral force of completion operation is greater than that of drilling operation by an order of magnitude, with a relatively great bending moment. The relation between the permissible wellhead conductor sludge height and the wellhead tilt angle is approximate to that of a quadric curve.%针对工程中的具体问题,提出了导管允许高度与井口倾斜角相互关系的计算方法和模型,并对番禺35-2气田进行了导管出泥高度分析评价研究。对于井口的分析采用力学等化计算方法,把位于井口以上的设备对井口的力进行传递等化,在不同作业工况下采用统一的计算模型进行井口的校核模拟。分析结果表明,对于水下井口而言,最危险工况为完井作业工况,完井工况的侧向力比钻井工况大一个数量级,并且完井工况的弯矩也较大;井口允许导管出泥高度和井口倾角之间近似为二次曲线关系。

  7. Integrated TLWP-FPSO (Tension Leg Wellhead Platform-Floating Production, Storage and Offloading Vessel) solution for deep water field development offshore Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Neil; Heidari, Homayoun; Large, Sean [SBM Atlantia, Houston, TX (United States)

    2008-07-01

    A development strategy for some deep water fields offshore Brazil consists of a TLWP (Tension-Leg Wellhead Platform) connected by a fluid transfer line to a nearby FPSO. The TLWP provides dry tree riser support, drilling capability, manifolding, test separation, and multiphase pumping, while all other functions including full processing, accommodations, gas compression, power generation, water and chemical injection, storage and offloading, and gas export are provided by the FPSO. In one such scenario, the TLWP and FPSO could be connected using SBM's GAP mid-water fluid transfer line technology, with SBM Atlantia's FourStar{sup TM} hull concept for the TLWP. The FourStar{sup TM} is designed to be quayside- or float over-integrable, thus eliminating the need for a heavy lift installation vessel; while being structurally and hydrodynamically superior to other TLP alternatives. This paper presents a description of the technical development of the FourStar{sup TM} TLP and an overview of the GAP technology, and discusses the characteristics of an integrated TLWP-GAP-FPSO field development solution for a typical application offshore Brazil (author)

  8. Delineation of a wellhead protection zone and determination of flowpaths from potential groundwater contaminant source areas at Camp Ripley, Little Falls, Minnesota.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, J. J.; Environmental Science Division

    2006-12-22

    Groundwater at Camp Ripley, Minnesota, is recharged both on post and off site and discharged to rivers, wetlands, and pumping wells. The subsurface geologic materials have a wide range of permeabilities and are arranged in a complex fashion as a result of the region's multiple glacial advances. Correlation of individual glacial geologic units is difficult, even between nearby boreholes, because of the heterogeneities in the subsurface. This report documents the creation of a numerical model of groundwater flow for Camp Ripley and hydrologically related areas to the west and southwest. The model relies on a hydrogeological conceptual model built on the findings of a University of Minnesota-Duluth drilling and sampling program conducted in 2001. Because of the site's stratigraphic complexity, a geostatistical approach was taken to handle the uncertainty of the subsurface correlation. The U.S. Geological Survey's MODFLOW code was used to create the steady-state model, which includes input data from a variety of sources and is calibrated to water levels in monitoring wells across much of the site. This model was used for several applications. Wellhead protection zones were delineated for on-site production wells H, L, and N. The zones were determined on the basis of a probabilistic assessment of the groundwater captured by these wells; the assessment, in turn, had been based on multiple realizations of the study area's stratigraphy and groundwater flowfield. An additional application of the model was for estimating flowpaths and times of travel for groundwater at Camp Ripley's range areas and waste management facilities.

  9. Studies on Impacts of Diluting Parameters on Wellhead Pressure of Heavy Oil Production Wells Assisted with Light Oil%稠油掺稀井掺稀参数对井口压力的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳文莉; 韩国庆; 吴晓东; 朱明; 罗佳洁; 丁洪坤

    2011-01-01

    According to four diluting parameters affecting heavy oil production assisted with light oil-diluting amount. diluting relative density, diluting temperature and diluting depth, analysis on the impacts of diluting parameters of wellhead pressure using multi-element non-linear regression regression method is presented. The results show that the wellhead pressure increases as the increasement of diluting amount. diluting temperature and diluting depth and decreases as the increasement of the relative diluting density. Diluting amount makes the greatest impact on wellhead pressure, diluting temperature , diluting depth and relative diluting density' s impact is smaller.%针对影响稠油掺稀降黏的四种掺稀参数——掺稀量、掺稀相对密度、掺稀温度及掺稀深度,采用多元二次非线性回归方法研究了它们对稠油掺稀井井口压力的影响规律并进行了分析.结果表明:井口压力随着掺稀量、掺稀相对密度、掺稀温度及掺稀深度呈线性变化趋势,随着掺稀量、掺稀温度及掺稀深度的增加而增加,随着掺稀相对密度的增加而降低.掺稀量对井口压力的影响最大,而对掺稀相对密度、掺稀温度及掺稀深度的影响相对小些.

  10. A GIS policy approach for assessing the effect of fertilizers on the quality of drinking and irrigation water and wellhead protection zones (Crete, Greece).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourgialas, Nektarios N; Karatzas, George P; Koubouris, Georgios C

    2017-03-15

    (wells) are located, this study highlights an analytic method for delineation wellhead protection zones. All these approaches were incorporated in a useful GIS decision support system that aids decision makers in the difficult task of protection groundwater resources. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. 井口称重式计量系统在油田的应用%The Application of Wellhead Weighing Metering System in Oilfield

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李艾萤; 李秋莲; 张岳峰; 李秋香

    2016-01-01

    Put forward the "car tank storage transport" converted into pipeline technology, single- well measurement will become a key technology for pipeline transporting. Wellhead weighing metering system is mainly composed of single well entry line, multichannel valve, weighing sensor, left or right position sensor, tanks, oil and gas separator, single well gas export pipeline, hopper, distributor, skip, float controller, single well pipeline, single well flow export pipeline, etc. Metering system is added a full automatic multi-channel valve on the device, can access to ≤30 single-well respectively, through the computer to realize automatic switching of single well, continuous measurement of each single well pro-duced fluid volume, skip position sensor, automatic detection, recording, printing, dis-play operation parameters of each single well production,which can realize continuous auto-matic metering oil. The metering system can well solve the high viscosity of heavy oil and low oil and gas ratio single well oil well measurement problem,also can meet the thin oil and high oil and gas than single well oil well measurement at the same time,and has wide applica-bility.%自提出将“罐储车运”的原油输送方式改造成管道输送的工艺,单井计量就成为实现管输的关键性技术。井口称重式计量系统主要由单井入口管路、多路阀、称重传感器、左位置传感器、右位置传感器、罐体、油气分离器、单井气出口管路、集料斗、分布器、翻斗、浮子调节器、单井出口管路、单井汇流出口管路等组成。计量系统设置了一个全自动多路阀,最多可以接入30口单井,通过计算机实现单井的自动切换,连续测量每个单井的产液量。位置传感器检测翻斗的状态,自动检测、记录、打印、显示各单井的生产运行参数,可实现连续自动量油。该计量系统能较好地解决高黏度稠油和低油气比油井的单井计量

  12. Wellhead Online Testing Research of Drill Pipe Joints Based on the Principle of Ultrasonic Array%基于超声阵列的钻杆接头井口在线检测研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祁杰; 林立; 程腾飞; 王晗; 郭树霞

    2015-01-01

    Flaw detection idea of this paper is to detect tool joints 360-degree by an array of ultra-sonic sensors,and to integrate with the magnetic flux leakage inspection apparatus developed by China University of Petroleum (Beijing),eventually to find a new method of wellhead which can detect the overall drill online at the wellhead.First of all,the ANSYS software was used for nu-merical simulation to demonstrated the feasibility of ultrasonic drill testing,and on this basis pro-posed an ultrasonic probe array layout scheme,an ultrasonic drill pipe joints detection device was designed.Finally,with the virtual assembly of the ultrasonic detection module and magnetic flux leakage testing module,a“complex flaw”detection device for drill was proposed and designed to a-chieve a simultaneous detection purposes of the drill rod body and joints.%利用超声传感器组成的阵列对钻杆接头同时进行360°环向检测,并与中国石油大学(北京)研发的漏磁探伤装置进行集成,组成一种可对钻杆整体进行井口在线检测的新方法。通过ANSYS软件进行数值模拟,证明了超声检测钻杆的可行性,在此基础上提出了一种超声波探头阵列布置方案,设计了一种超声波钻杆接头检测装置。将超声检测模块与漏磁检测模块进行虚拟装配,提出并设计了一种钻杆“复合探伤”检测装置,实现了同时检测钻杆杆体和钻杆接头的目标。

  13. Pile Foundation Mechanical Characteristic Analysis for Three Types of Wellhead Platforms in East China Sea%东海三种井口平台桩基受力特性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙友义; 侯金林; 刘明

    2014-01-01

    Wellhead platforms with 4 legs and 8 skirt piles can be classified as three forms inclu-ding single-batter type,double-batter type and batter-to-vertical type according to the jacket leg batter.The pile foundation mechanical characteristic is an important performance of the platform. Pile foundation mechanical characteristics for the three types of platforms were studied,using SACS software,based on nonlinear soil-pile-structure interaction analysis.Influence factor analy-sis on pile foundation mechanical characteristics was performed,and measures for improving the pile foundation bearing capacities were discussed.The results can provide a reference for jacket and pile foundation design for these types of platforms.%4腿8裙桩井口平台按导管架腿斜度可分为单斜式、双斜式与斜变直式3种形式。桩基受力特性是平台的重要性能。以 SACS 程序为分析工具,基于非线性土壤/桩基/结构交互分析,研究了这3种形式平台的桩基受力特性。通过桩基受力影响因素分析,提出了改善桩基受力的措施,可为该类平台的导管架与桩基设计提供参考。

  14. Evaluation of the Customer Satisfaction Index for Wellhead Blowout Preventers of China's Petroleum Industry--A new method based on PLS%中国石油井口防喷器用户满意指数测评 --基于偏最小二乘法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张鹏; 胡启国; 韩侠; 张斌

    2005-01-01

    This paper establishes an evaluation model of the customer satisfaction index for the wellhead blowout preventers of China's petroleum industry based on evaluation models of the customer satisfaction index at home and aboard, and by considering the consuming situation in China and the features of the China's petroleum industry. For the existence of: (1) multiple correlations among the factors in the model; (2) the variables need to be explained, but that are hard to observe; (3) the customer satisfaction degree of observation variables appears the shape of skewness or two or three peaks, the correlations between the satisfaction index and its factors cannot be described by common multiple regression. This paper uses a partial least squares (PLS) method based on principal components and typical correlative analysis to solve the problem. When PLS is used in the model of the customer satisfaction index of the wellhead blowout preventers, the latent variables and the explanation degree coefficient of the manifest variable to the corresponding latent variables are estimated by PLS path analysis, and the influencing coefficient among the latent variables in the model is estimated by PLS regression analysis. PLS is also be used to calculate and analyze the model and disclose the correlations among the structural variables as well as the correlation between structural variables and its corresponding observation variables, evaluating results of which provide useful information for petroleum industry to improve the product quality and to the enhancement of the customer satisfaction to the product.

  15. Hurricane damaged fixed platforms and wellhead structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shuttleworth, E.P.; Frieze, P.A.

    1998-03-01

    The objective of this study was to review data on damages to offshore platforms with a view to determining their suitability for further exploitation and analysis through a preliminary assessment of trends in the data when viewed from a risk standpoint. To realise this objective, a database on hurricane and other storm related damages was generated and past design practice, particularly concerning environmental load levels, was established. Information was gathered on extreme wave heights, damages, platform details, pushover analyses and structural frame load tests. The information was obtained through: a literature survey of journals, conference proceedings, design codes and guidelines; approaches to organisations in the offshore industry with significant experience of hurricanes, storm-damaged structures and pushover analyses; and interrogation of three major databases on offshore storm and other damages - PMB, MMS and WOAD. (author)

  16. Wellheads, US EPA Region 9, 2013, SDWIS

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — EPAâ??s Safe Drinking Water Information System (SDWIS) databases store information about drinking water. The federal version (SDWIS/FED) stores the information EPA...

  17. Estimation of production characteristic curves of geothermal wells and of the permeability of rocky formations through one single mass flow-pressure-enthalpy (W-P-h) measurement at the wellhead; Estimacion de curvas caracteristicas de produccion de pozos geotermicos y de permeabilidades de formaciones rocosas a partir de una sola medicion flujo masico-presion- entalpia (W-P-h) a boca de pozo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L Moya, Sara; Aragon, Alfonso [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    The proposed methodology described ahead (Moya et al.,1996; Moya et al.,1997a, 1997b and 1997c) simplifies the construction of production characteristic curves of geothermal wells and of its associated thermal productivity, in requiring one single measurement of mass flow-pressure-enthalpy (W-P-h) at the wellhead. Therefore it is an ecological option, technically and economically more feasible. On the other hand, the methodology also allows to diagnose the rocky formation absolute permeability in the well feeding zone. This permeability is usually determined through well bottom pressure tests, than in some cases are difficult to interpret. The permeability inferred by means of the proposed technology represents a complementary tool for these field tests and for the laboratory measurements on drilling cores. [Espanol] La metodologia propuesta que se describe a continuacion [Moya et al., 1995d; Moya et al., 1996; Moya et al., 1997a, 1997b y 1997c] simplifica la construccion de curvas caracteristicas de produccion de pozos geotermicos y de su productividad termica asociada al requerir solo una medicion de flujo masico-presion-entalpia (W-P-h) a boca de pozo. Es por tanto una alternativa ecologica, tecnica y economicamente mas factible. Por otra parte, la metodologia tambien permite diagnosticar el valor de la permeabilidad absoluta de la formacion rocosa en la zona de alimentacion al pozo. Esta permeabilidad se determina usualmente a partir de pruebas de presion a fondo de pozo que en algunos casos son dificiles de interpretar. La permeabilidad inferida mediante la metodologia propuesta representa una herramienta complementaria a estas pruebas de campo y a las mediciones de laboratorio sobre nucleos de perforacion.

  18. HGP-A Wellhead Generator, Proof-Of-Feasibility Project 3 MW Wellhead Generator, Start-Up Training and Operating Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-01-01

    The start-up manual is an information aid to initially familiarize plant operators with the plant operation and later be used as a reference manual while operating the plant. This start-up manual is supplemented by the Plant Data Manual which contains a detailed description of the philosophy of operation and equipment characteristics. The sequencing herein presents the necessary operating procedures which must be followed in order that a smooth start-up is obtained. The sequence includes, first conditioning the well and stabilizing the steam/water separations, and then bringing the operating machinery on line. The Piping and Instrumentation Diagrams and Electrical Drawings are included under Section 12.0 and are frequently referred to in the text. Information for ''trouble-shooting'' is provided in the maintenance and operations manuals on all the equipment.

  19. An automatic, stagnation point based algorithm for the delineation of Wellhead Protection Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosco, Tiziana; Sethi, Rajandrea; di Molfetta, Antonio

    2008-07-01

    Time-related capture areas are usually delineated using the backward particle tracking method, releasing circles of equally spaced particles around each well. In this way, an accurate delineation often requires both a very high number of particles and a manual capture zone encirclement. The aim of this work was to propose an Automatic Protection Area (APA) delineation algorithm, which can be coupled with any model of flow and particle tracking. The computational time is here reduced, thanks to the use of a limited number of nonequally spaced particles. The particle starting positions are determined coupling forward particle tracking from the stagnation point, and backward particle tracking from the pumping well. The pathlines are postprocessed for a completely automatic delineation of closed perimeters of time-related capture zones. The APA algorithm was tested for a two-dimensional geometry, in homogeneous and nonhomogeneous aquifers, steady state flow conditions, single and multiple wells. Results show that the APA algorithm is robust and able to automatically and accurately reconstruct protection areas with a very small number of particles, also in complex scenarios.

  20. Marine magnetic studies over a lost wellhead in Palk Bay, Cauvery Basin, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramana, M.V.; Subrahmanyam, V.; Sarma, K.V.L.N.S.; Seshavataram, B.T.V.

    to the deep burial of Precambrian granitic basement devoid of any charnockite intrusions. The seismic reflection records of the study area show greater than 3200 m thick sediments over the basement...

  1. From Wellhead to Market. Oil Pipeline Tariffs and Tariff Methodologies in Selected Energy Charter Member Countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-01-15

    Freedom of energy transit is an important element of the Energy Charter process. The Energy Charter Treaty obliges its member countries to facilitate energy transit on a nondiscriminatory basis, and to refrain from imposing unreasonable delays, restrictions or charges on energy in transit. A main focus for the Energy Charter process has been the conditions for transit of natural gas. Tariffs, along with access to energy transit infrastructure, are the basis of free transit. To examine gas transit flows and tariff methodologies, the Energy Charter Secretariat published a study on gas transit tariffs in selected Energy Charter member countries in January 2006. This report follows on from the gas tariff study and examines oil transit flows and oil transit tariffs. The Energy Charter constituency in the land-locked part of the Eurasian continent has the world's largest oil pipeline system, which was originally built during the Soviet era. After collapse of the Soviet Union the pipeline system was divided into separate parts by emergence of new borders, and oil transported by the pipeline now has to cross multiple borders before it reaches its destination. The main objectives of this study are; to review transit tariff methodologies for existing and new oil transit pipeline systems across selected member countries of the Energy Charter; to compare transit tariff regimes with those for domestic transport; and to assess the overall consistency of these transit tariffs vis-a-vis the provisions of the Energy Charter Treaty and draft Transit Protocol. Geographically, this study covers the following key oil transit countries; in Eastern Europe, the Caucasus and Central Asia: the Russian Federation, Belarus, Ukraine, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Georgia; and in Western Europe: France, Switzerland, Germany, Austria, Italy, Norway and the UK. Chapter 3 gives a brief review on main domestic and cross-border oil flows in the countries examined. Chapter 4 describes essential technical and economic features which determine pipeline transport tariffs. Chapter 5 deals with rules of access to cross-border and transit oil pipelines. Chapter 6 touches upon principles of pipeline tariff methodologies applied in the FSU countries. Chapter 7 describes tariff methodologies in place for domestic, cross-border and transit oil pipelines in the FSU countries. Chapter 8 gives an overall comparison of tariffs for transit, cross-border and domestic oil pipelines. Chapter 9 offers conclusions and recommendations.

  2. Near-Surface Attenuation and Velocity Structures in Taiwan from Wellhead and Borehole Recordings Comparisons

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Yu-Ju; Ma, Kuo-Fong; Wu, Shao-Kai; Hsu, Hsuan-Jui; Hsiao, Wen-Chi

    2016-01-01

    By analyzing the data from 28 seismic borehole stations deployed by the Central Weather Bureau Seismic Network throughout Taiwan from 2007 to 2014, we estimated the near-surface velocity (Vp and Vs) and attenuation (Qp and Qs...

  3. Avoiding whales and wellheads: technology lightens impact of marine seismic on fragile Arctic ecosystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eaton, S.

    2001-09-01

    To minimize environmental impact, Anderson Exploration Ltd and WesternGeco are using new technologies that include state-of-the-art satellite systems for tracking whales, icebergs, ships and aircraft, and a pollutant-free means of keeping the streamers, or marine recording cables, from sinking. Using WesternGeco's satellite-based vehicle tracking system (VTS), ground personnel at a base camp can instantaneously determine the whereabouts of the icebreaker {sup G}eco Snapper' and the company's two vessels surveying the ocean floor. In the air, the VTS tracks the flight paths and altitudes of WesternGeco's Bell 212 helicopter and Twin Otter planes used to monitor whales and icebergs. From the bridge of the Geco Snapper, using GPS units located on the six air gun arrays and the three marine streamers which extend four kms behind the vessel, data are recorded in real time on the positions of the data acquisition equipment relative to the vessel and relative to water depth or proximity to the sea floor. The Geco Snapper has been retrofitted with the VTS equipment in preparation for its participation in a project for acquiring what may be the first-ever seismic survey in the frigid waters of the Beaufort Sea. Instead of being filled with gasoline, the streamers trailing the vessel are foam-filled, consequently, they are extremely safe and environmentally friendly.

  4. 77 FR 71788 - Notice of Change to the Publication of Natural Gas Wellhead Prices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-04

    ..., marketers, and consumers along the natural gas value chain, as well as to the heterogeneity of natural gas... nonhydrocarbon gases. Natural gas production and revenue data supplied by the states is not sufficiently detailed... about the natural gas value chain leading to the market hub would likely be burdensome, and...

  5. Wellhead application of new heavy residue hydroconversion (HRH) process in heavy crude upgrading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarkesh, Jamshid; Samimi, A. Kh. [Research Institute of Petroleum Industry (Russian Federation); Khadzhiev, S.; Kadiev, H. [Russian Academy of science (Russian Federation)

    2011-07-01

    In the oil industry, the decline of light crude oil reserves and the price differential between intermediate and heavy oils have made upgrading processes attractive. A new nano catalytic process, the heavy residue hydroconversion (HRH), which converts heavy residue to light product has been developed. HRH is flexible as to feed type and catalyst is mainly recovered and recycled in the process. This study aimed at examining the feasibility of HRH to produce syncrude from heavy crude oil. Three cases of stand-alone HRH plants were investigated: a 20,000 bbl/d plant producing hydrogen from natural gas, another producing hydrogen from residue and a third with a high capacity of 30,000 bbl/d. Results showed that in all three cases the stand-alone HRH plant was economically feasible. This study demonstrated that stand-alone HRH plants are a good alternative for producing syncrude from heavy crude oils.

  6. 采油场井口RTU测控系统%Oil field wellhead RTU monitor and control System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖红翼; 翁惠辉; 毛玉蓉

    2007-01-01

    文章较详细地介绍了井口RTU测控系统的组成及各部分的功能,并对系统中示功图的检测、CAN总线局域网的实现、井口数据监控系统的实现进行了较深入的探讨,并提出了一些较为新颖、实用的检测方法.

  7. 41 CFR 101-26.602-5 - Procurement of natural gas from the wellhead and other supply sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Procurement of natural... Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS... Government, agency requirements may be satisfied through the Defense Logistics Agency (DLA). Arrangements...

  8. Capturing the biofuel wellhead and powerhouse: the chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes of the leguminous feedstock tree Pongamia pinnata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen H Kazakoff

    Full Text Available Pongamia pinnata (syn. Millettia pinnata is a novel, fast-growing arboreal legume that bears prolific quantities of oil-rich seeds suitable for the production of biodiesel and aviation biofuel. Here, we have used Illumina® 'Second Generation DNA Sequencing (2GS' and a new short-read de novo assembler, SaSSY, to assemble and annotate the Pongamia chloroplast (152,968 bp; cpDNA and mitochondrial (425,718 bp; mtDNA genomes. We also show that SaSSY can be used to accurately assemble 2GS data, by re-assembling the Lotus japonicus cpDNA and in the process assemble its mtDNA (380,861 bp. The Pongamia cpDNA contains 77 unique protein-coding genes and is almost 60% gene-dense. It contains a 50 kb inversion common to other legumes, as well as a novel 6.5 kb inversion that is responsible for the non-disruptive, re-orientation of five protein-coding genes. Additionally, two copies of an inverted repeat firmly place the species outside the subclade of the Fabaceae lacking the inverted repeat. The Pongamia and L. japonicus mtDNA contain just 33 and 31 unique protein-coding genes, respectively, and like other angiosperm mtDNA, have expanded intergenic and multiple repeat regions. Through comparative analysis with Vigna radiata we measured the average synonymous and non-synonymous divergence of all three legume mitochondrial (1.59% and 2.40%, respectively and chloroplast (8.37% and 8.99%, respectively protein-coding genes. Finally, we explored the relatedness of Pongamia within the Fabaceae and showed the utility of the organellar genome sequences by mapping transcriptomic data to identify up- and down-regulated stress-responsive gene candidates and confirm in silico predicted RNA editing sites.

  9. Comparison of stochastic and regression based methods for quantification of predictive uncertainty of model-simulated wellhead protection zones in heterogeneous aquifers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Steen; Moore, C.; Doherty, J.

    2006-01-01

    For a synthetic case we computed three types of individual prediction intervals for the location of the aquifer entry point of a particle that moves through a heterogeneous aquifer and ends up in a pumping well. (a) The nonlinear regression-based interval (Cooley, 2004) was found to be nearly...

  10. A WBT Examination Method of Combining MFE with Wellhead Loading%MFE与井口加压结合的验窜方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林玉玺; 苏秀珠; 范学君; 马春英

    2002-01-01

    MFE工具与井口加压结合的验窜方法根据MFE地层测试的工作原理,下井管柱采用单封隔器的结构,下部带电子压力计和机械压力计监测.首先人工在井口环空观察液面变化,然后用高压泵车在环空加压.起出管柱后对环空的变化情况及压力计的压力卡片进行综合分析以确认窜通点.运用该方法在塔30-18井的八个验窜点中,找到了二个窜通点,为本井的下步封堵作业提供了科学依据.

  11. 目前采气井口存在的特殊问题及对策%Gas Producing Wellhead Existing Problems and Corresponding Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李太元

    2002-01-01

    由于采气井口内气、液的不断冲刷,温度、压力、振动、硫化氢腐蚀、日晒雨淋、闸阀的频繁开关和其本身的加工精度与质量等因素的影响,使采气井口不可避免地发生密封失效问题,严重威胁着天然气井的正常生产.文章分析了采气井口密封失效的原因,介绍了在不影响正常生产的动态条件下,消除密封失效的操作技术,论述了采气井口法兰泄漏、1、2和3号闸阀泄漏及其以内本体砂眼泄漏、特殊四通顶丝泄漏、套管头密封问题及CQ型改制替换CYb型闸阀的具体方法.

  12. Natural gas productive capacity for the lower 48 states 1985 through 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    This publication presents information on wellhead productive capacity and a projection of gas production requirements. A history of natural gas production and productive capacity at the wellhead, along with a projection of the same, is illustrated.

  13. 井口传扭式钻进捞砂工艺的研究与应用%Development and Application of the Wellhead Torque-transmitting Bailing-while-drilling Techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑瑞波

    2015-01-01

    常规机械捞砂工艺是解决负压和水敏油井井筒积砂的理想方法之一,但是对于地层砂沉积时间较长、结盐或结垢的油井却由于无法捅破“硬质砂盖”而导致捞砂无进尺.鉴于此,在优化机械负压捞砂技术的基础上,研发了一种井口传扭式钻进捞砂工艺.该工艺可以传递扭矩到特殊的钻磨式捞砂锥上,通过钻压和扭矩的综合作用压迫、捣碎“硬质砂盖”,再通过抽汲方式将碎砂和散砂抽进储砂管内,从而克服捞砂无进尺的无效作业弊端.现场应用结果表明,井口传扭式钻进捞砂工艺可有效捣碎表层硬质砂面,达到顺利捞砂进尺的目的.

  14. Effect of Wellhead Injection Parameters on the Bottom of the Hot Steam Dryness%井口注汽参数对井底热蒸汽干度的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦健飞; 赵琳

    2015-01-01

    向地层中注入热蒸汽是开发稠油油藏最有效的方式之一。注蒸汽过程中,伴随着水蒸汽压力、温度的不断变化,水蒸汽变为气液两相流体,蒸汽干度、密度、粘度等参数也随之发生改变。本文应用Beggs-Brill方法计算注蒸汽过程中井筒压力场的分布,结合井筒传热模型计算了注入蒸汽到达井底时的蒸汽干度,并研究了井口注入参数,如注入蒸汽质量流量、注入压力、注入蒸汽干度对井底蒸汽干度的影响。结果表明,在注汽过程中应选用较大的注入速度、较低的井口注入压力和较高的井口干度,这样不仅可以降低注蒸汽过程中的热损失,提高井底蒸汽干度,还能缩短注蒸汽过程,提高注热效率。%Hot steam injected into the formation to develop heavy oil reservoirs is one of the most effec-tive ways.With the water vapor pressure and temperature changing,the steam dryness,density,viscosity and many other parameters changed as well.In this paper,Beggs-Brill method and Ramey model are ap-plied to calculate the parameters in the bottom of the well.It shows that,choosing the higher inj ection rate,the lower inj ection pressure and the higher steam dryness is benefit for the steam inj ection process. In this way,the bottom steam dryness will be improved and can short the steam inj ection process,improve the thermal efficiency of inj ection.

  15. 气体钻井井13腐蚀(冲蚀)检测装置设计与应用%Design and Application of the Wellhead Corrosion (Erosion) Detection Device for Gas Drilling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万里平; 孟英峰; 李皋; 陈一健; 魏纳; 周华

    2012-01-01

    To predict the potential risk of corrosion (erosion) in gas drilling beforehand, the online corrosion (erosion) detection device was developed. The device overcomes the weakness of the current technology. Installment of the device on the sand draining pipe-line (or testing pipeline) of gas drilling can conduct a fast and real monitoring of gas drilling corrosion (erosion) rate so as to offer a guide to field implementation of gas drilling and reduce the risk of well control. The field monitoring result shows that the average corro- sion (erosion) rate of the S135 corrosion rod measured by the device is 9. 5 mm/a. The surface is smooth, with local small pits. It is of typical erosion of high speed airflow carrying drilling cuttings. The average corrosion rate of the P110 corrosion rod is 1.58 mrn/a with an even corrosion surface and small pits. The corrosion products are mainly FeCO3 , the corrosion product caused by CO2, and SiO2, the main component of formation cuttings. In addition a small amount of inorganic salt of formation water is included, which is in agree- ment with the erosion and corrosion characteristic of CO2. It is suggested that the CO2 corrosion-resistance pipe should be adopted or corrosion inhibitor should be added to annulus in order to prevent corrosion.%为了提前预知气体钻井工况下可能引起的腐蚀(冲蚀)危险,研制了适用于气体钻井的井口腐蚀(冲蚀)检测装置。该装置克服了现有技术的不足,安装在气体钻井排砂管线(或测试管线)上,可快速真实监测气体钻井腐蚀(冲蚀)速率,为现场实施气体钻井提供指导,降低井控风险。现场监测结果表明,用该装置测得S135腐蚀棒的平均腐蚀(冲蚀)速率为9.5mm/a,其表面光滑,局部有细小凹坑,属于典型的高速气流携带钻屑的冲蚀行为;P110腐蚀棒平均腐蚀速率为1.58mm/a,其表面腐蚀均匀,有细小凹坑,主要为CO:的腐蚀产物FeCO3以及地层岩屑的主要成分SiO2,此外还夹杂少许地层水中的无机盐,符合CO2冲刷腐蚀特征。建议采用抗CO2腐蚀的管材或向环空添加缓蚀剂的方法预防腐蚀。

  16. Research on wellhead pressure recovery curve in Kala 205 well%克拉205井井口压力恢复异常的处理方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李雪莉; 胥豪

    2010-01-01

    克拉205井在井口进行不稳定测试时,井口压力动态出现异常.这种压力异常主要表现在关井后很短的时间内井口压力急剧上升到一个高点,随着测试时间的延续,井口压力开始下降.文章考虑关井后井筒流体温度的变化,建立关井后井筒温度降落剖面预测模型,提出了将井口压力较准确地折算到井底的方法.结合克拉205井的实际情况采用法国KAPPA公司研制的saphir试井解释软件,选用了适当的模型对克拉205井进行了试井分析,能很好地获得储层参数.

  17. 30 CFR 250.807 - Additional requirements for subsurface safety valves and related equipment installed in high...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... completion of the well requires completion equipment or well control equipment assigned a pressure rating... with a subsea wellhead or at the surface for a well with a surface wellhead; or (3) The flowing temperature is equal to or greater than 350 degrees Fahrenheit on the seafloor for a well with a...

  18. 75 FR 11905 - Yukon Flats National Wildlife Refuge, Fairbanks, AK

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ... perpetual production payment equal to 1.25% of the value at the wellhead to be used to: (1) Purchase from... oil or gas on lands received in the exchange, the U.S. would receive a perpetual production payment of... receive a perpetual production payment equal to 1.25% of the value at the wellhead. Alternative 3:...

  19. Mathematical Simulation of Unsteady-State Gas-Liquid Mixture Flow in a Bed-Well System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasov, É. M.; Imamaliev, S. A.

    2016-09-01

    Based on theoretical investigations, the influence of various forms of pressure variation at the wellhead with a nonstationary flow of a two-phase fluid in a bed-well system on the character of change in the bottom-hole pressure has been investigated, which makes it possible to determine this pressure from the wellhead operation parameters. The trapezoidal form of the change in pressure is considered as an example. The coupled equations of filtration and the equations describing nonstationary motion of a gas-liquid mixture in a pipeline have been solved jointly. Analytical formulas have been obtained allowing one to determine the bottom-hole pressure from the technological parameters at the wellhead with account for the dynamic connection of the bed-well system at different forms of change in the wellhead pressure. The influence of the wellhead pressure pulsation frequencies on the bottom-hole pressure dynamics has been established.

  20. [Uncertainty analysis of groundwater protection and control zoning in Beijing plain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yan; He, Jiang-Tao; Wang, Jun-Jie; Liu, Li-Ya; Zhang, Xiao-Liang

    2012-09-01

    Groundwater pollution prevention mapping has important meaning to groundwater protection, pollution prevention and effective management. A mapping method was built through combining groundwater pollution risk assessment, groundwater value and wellhead protection area zoning. To make the method more accurate, two series of uncertainty analysis were performed and discussed. One was performed by changing the weights of the toxicity, mobility and degradation of pollutants, and the other was by changing the weights of groundwater pollution risk, groundwater value and wellhead protection area zoning. The results showed that the weights of groundwater pollution risk, groundwater value and wellhead protection area zoning were more sensitive than the weights of toxicity, mobility and degradation of pollutants.

  1. Water Well Locations - MO 2012 Certified Wells (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This data set provides information about wells that are certified by the State of Missouri. The parent data set is the Wellhead Information Management System (WIMS)...

  2. The helical screw expander evaluation project. [for geothermal wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckay, R. A.

    1977-01-01

    A positive-displacement helical-screw expander of the Lysholm type has been adapted for geothermal service and successfully demonstrated in a 50 kW prototype power system. Evaluation of the expander by tests of a new model in a 1 MW power system under wellhead conditions in selected liquid-dominated geothermal fields is proposed. The objectives are to determine the performance characteristics of the expander and power system over a broad range of operating conditions and also to examine the concept of wellhead power plants. Throttling and fractionation of the fluids from the test wells is planned to simulate a wide range of wellhead pressures and steam fractions. Variation in the expander exhaust pressure is also planned. The investigation will include expander efficiency, corrosion, erosion, scale formation and control, and endurance testing. Interaction studies with the wells and an electric grid are also proposed.

  3. BX in situ oil shale project. Annual technical progress report, March 1, 1979-February 29, 1980 and quarterly technical progress report, December 1, 1979-February 29, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dougan, P.M.

    1980-03-20

    During the year, design, construction and installation of all project equipment was completed, and continuous steam injection began on September 18, 1979 and continued until February 29, 1980. In the five-month period of steam injection, 235,060 barrels of water as steam at an average wellhead pressure of 1199 psig and an average wellhead temperature of 456/sup 0/F were injected into the eight project injection wells. Operation of the project at design temperature and pressure (1000/sup 0/F and 1500 psig) was not possible due to continuing problems with surface equipment. Environmental monitoring at the project site continued during startup and operation.

  4. Toxiological Considerations in the Gulf of Mexico Oil Spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Deep Water Horizon oil rig exploded on April 20, 2010, resulting in an ongoing release of light sweet petroleum crude oil and methane into Gulf of Mexico waters. The release from the deepwater wellhead 41 miles from Louisiana is at approximately 1 mile depth, and flow rates e...

  5. METHANE EMISSIONS FROM THE NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY VOLUME 15: GAS-ASSISTED GLYCOL PUMPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The 15-volume report summarizes the results of a comprehensive program to quantify methane (CH4) emissions from the U.S. natural gas industry for the base year. The objective was to determine CH4 emissions from the wellhead and ending downstream at the customer's meter. The accur...

  6. METHANE EMISSIONS FROM THE NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY VOLUME 13: CHEMICAL INJECTION PUMPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The 15-volume report summarizes the results of a comprehensive program to quantify methane (CH4) emissions from the U.S. natural gas industry for the base year. The objective was to determine CH4 emissions from the wellhead and ending downstream at the customer's meter. The accur...

  7. Formula of definite point overburden pressure of reservoir layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Karimi

    2014-06-01

    Since reservoir layers mostly have heterogeneity characterizations, and timely and repeatedly need to control the type of cutting lithology, drilling mud and reservoir pressure by geologists and drillers, the equations derived are effective in wellhead and bottom hole operations for the calculations in which the overburden pressure plays a key role.

  8. METHANE EMISSIONS FROM THE NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY VOLUME 12: PNEUMATIC DEVICES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The 15-volume report summarizes the results of a comprehensive program to quantify methane (CH4) emissions from the U.S. natural gas industry for the base year. The objective was to determine CH4 emissions from the wellhead and ending downstream at the customer's meter. The accur...

  9. A database for the geysers geothermal field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodvarsson, G.S.; Cox, B.L.; Fuller, P.; Ripperda, M.; Tulinius, H.; Witherspoon, P.A.; Goldstein, N.; Flexser, S.; Pruess, K. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA)); Truesdell, A. (Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (USA))

    1989-09-01

    This document contains graphs of data collected from Geysers Geothermal Field. These graphs display data concerning wellhead pressure and degrees of super heat from 1968 to 1988 in Appendix B; injection rate and cumulative injection rate in Appendix C. 255 figs. (FSD)

  10. METHANE EMISSIONS FROM THE NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY VOLUME 11: COMPRESSOR DRIVER EXHAUST

    Science.gov (United States)

    The 15-volume report summarizes the results of a comprehensive program to quantify methane (CH4) emissions from the U.S. natural gas industry for the base year. The objective was to determine CH4 emissions from the wellhead and ending downstream at the customer's meter. The accur...

  11. METHANE EMISSIONS FROM THE NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY VOLUME 7: BLOW AND PURGE ACTIVITIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The 15-volume report summarizes the results of a comprehensive program to quantify methane (CH4) emissions from the U.S. natural gas industry for the base year. The objective was to determine CH4 emissions from the wellhead and ending downstream at the customer's meter. The accur...

  12. Comparing the benefits: use of various well head gas coning control strategies to optimize production of a thin oil rim

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nennie, E.D.; Savenko, S.V.; Alberts, G.J.N.; Cargnelutti, M.F.; Donkelaar, E. van

    2009-01-01

    With an increasing number of smart well applications being installed in the field, more knowledge is required to optimize their operation. This paper compares the benefits of various wellhead gas coning control strategies to optimize production of a thin oil rim. This study is performed within the "

  13. Chemical dispersants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahsepar, Shokouhalsadat; Smit, Martijn P.J.; Murk, Albertinka J.; Rijnaarts, Huub H.M.; Langenhoff, Alette A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Chemical dispersants were used in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, both at the sea surface and the wellhead. Their effect on oil biodegradation is unclear, as studies showed both inhibition and enhancement. This study addresses the effect of Corexit on oil biodeg

  14. Comparison of 85KR and 3H Apparent Ground-Water Ages for Source Water Vulterability in the COLLYER RIVER CATCHMENT, MAINE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apparent ground-water ages as determined by the noble gas isotope 85Kr and the water isotope 3H are compared. Refined gas extraction methodology at the wellhead permits efficient collection of Kr for 85Kr isotope enrichment. 85Kr isoch...

  15. Offshore flexibility: marine engineering with polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevenson, A.

    1996-12-01

    An overview of the use of polymers for a wide range of applications in the marine environment is presented. The use of polymers in offshore structures, flexible and rigid pipes, in composites (eg fibre reinforced plastic) for pipes and high pressure seawater injection lines, and in wellhead and downhole sealings is described. (UK)

  16. 77 FR 50855 - Oil and Gas and Sulphur Operations on the Outer Continental Shelf-Increased Safety Measures for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-22

    ... is that the Professional Engineer be drilled and small variations in involved in the design process... if it is the not apply to mechanical barriers final string), an operator must that seal the annulus... wellhead. Acceptable barriers for flow in the event of a failure in annuli shall include at least one...

  17. Subsurface ecosystems - Oil triggered life: Opportunities for the petroleum industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Kraan, G.M.

    2010-01-01

    Areas of research - Petroleum microbiology: Determination of the microbial diversity of oil reservoirs and oil associated ecosystems (wellhead samples and oil field core samples). This research is performed to investigate if microbes can serve as indicators for changing conditions in subsurface

  18. Chemical dispersants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahsepar, Shokouhalsadat; Smit, Martijn P.J.; Murk, Albertinka J.; Rijnaarts, Huub H.M.; Langenhoff, Alette A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Chemical dispersants were used in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, both at the sea surface and the wellhead. Their effect on oil biodegradation is unclear, as studies showed both inhibition and enhancement. This study addresses the effect of Corexit on oil

  19. 外围油田井口组合阀的应用及分析%Application and Analysis of the Well Combination Valves of the Peripheral Oil-field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪寿琴

    2016-01-01

    为解决散装式井口工艺复杂、保温性能不好、操作不便的问题,大庆外围油田应用了组装化井口组合阀。该组装化井口组合阀即可满足油田生产需要,又简化了井口工艺,便于操作管理,并且具有防盗及回收套管气的作用。该组合阀在应用过程中根据现场情况不断进行更新改进,目前已拥有适合于单管电加热集油流程和环状掺水集油流程工艺的井口组合阀,并可根据油井计量方式及工艺需要增设计量出口、掺水进口等,使井口组合阀更能发挥其流程简单、易操作、好管理的特性,满足油田生产管理需要。%To solve the problems of complexity process, pool heat preservation and incon-venient operation of bulk wellhead, assembled wellhead combination valves have been ap-plied in peripheral oil field consecutively, which not only fulfills the crude oil production tasks, simplifies the wellhead process, but also prevent oil from being stolen and gather cas-ing pipe gas. The assembled wellhead combination valves have been updated based on the feedback from the oil field. According to the practical need of oil well metering mode and wellhead process, the metering outlet and the watering inlet can be redesigned to meet the characters of simple process and operation.

  20. Temperature and redox effect on mineral colonization in Juan de Fuca Ridge flank subsurface crustal fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Paul eBaquiran

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available To examine microbe-mineral interactions in subsurface oceanic crust, we evaluated microbial colonization on crustal minerals that were incubated in borehole fluids for one year at the seafloor wellhead of a crustal borehole observatory (IODP Hole U1301A, Juan de Fuca Ridge flank as compared to an experiment that was not exposed to subsurface crustal fluids (at nearby IODP Hole U1301B. In comparison to previous studies at these same sites, this approach allowed assessment of the effects of temperature, fluid chemistry, and/or mineralogy on colonization patterns of different mineral substrates, and an opportunity to verify the approach of deploying colonization experiments at an observatory wellhead at the seafloor instead of within the borehole. The Hole U1301B deployment did not have biofilm growth, based on microscopy and DNA extraction, thereby confirming the integrity of the colonization design against bottom seawater intrusion. In contrast, the Hole U1301A deployment supported biofilms dominated by Epsilonproteobacteria (43.5% of 370 16S rRNA gene clone sequences and Gammaproteobacteria (29.3%. Sequence analysis revealed overlap in microbial communities between different minerals incubated at the Hole U1301A wellhead, indicating that mineralogy did not separate biofilm structure within the one-year colonization experiment. Differences in the Hole U1301A wellhead biofilm community composition relative to previous studies from within the borehole using similar mineral substrates suggest that temperature and the diffusion of dissolved oxygen through plastic components influenced the mineral colonization experiments positioned at the wellhead. This highlights the capacity of low abundance crustal fluid taxa to rapidly establish communities on diverse mineral substrates under changing environmental conditions such as from temperature and oxygen.

  1. Impact of exploratory offshore drilling on benthic communities in the Minerva gas field, Port Campbell, Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Currie, D.R.; Isaacs, L.R. [Central Queensland Univ., Gladstone (Australia). Centre for Environmental Management

    2005-04-01

    Changes to benthic infauna caused by exploratory gas drilling operations in the Minerva field were examined experimentally using a BACI (before, after, control, impact) design. Analysis of 72 x 0.1 m{sup 2} Smith-McIntyre grab samples obtained from one pre-drilling and three post-drilling periods yielded a diverse fauna consisting of 196 invertebrate species and 5035 individuals. Changes to benthic community structure were assessed using ANOVA and nonmetric multidimensional scaling (MDS). The abundances of two common species (Apseudes sp. 1 and Prionospio coorilla) decreased significantly at the well-head site immediately after drilling. The size of these reductions in abundance ranged between 71% and 88%, and persisted for less than 4 months after drilling. A third common species (Katlysia sp. 1) increased in abundance 200 m east of the well-head following drilling. Most species occurred at densities too low to be analysed individually and so were pooled at higher taxonomic levels. Changes in the abundance of species aggregated by phylum varied, but significant declines in the most abundant phyla (Crustaceans and Polychaetes) of 45-73% were observed at all sites within a 100 m radius of the well-head following drilling. In most cases these changes became undetectable four months after drilling following species recruitments. MDS ordinations confirm that drilling related changes to benthic community structure are most pronounced at stations located closest to the well-head. Additionally, the ordinations indicate that modified communities persist at the well-head for more than 11 months following exploratory drilling. (author)

  2. Geoelectric Monitoring Studies for the Carbon Dioxide Geological Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosha, T.; Ishido, T.; Nishi, Y.

    2008-12-01

    Self-potential (SP) anomalies of negative polarity are frequently observed near deep wells. These anomalies appear to be caused by an underground electrochemical mechanism similar to a galvanic cell: the metallic well casing acts as a vertical electronic conductor connecting regions of differing redox potential. Electrons flow upward though the casing from a deeper reducing environment to a shallower oxidizing environment, and simultaneously a compensating vertical flow of ions is induced in the surrounding formation to maintain charge neutrality. If the redox potential in the deeper region is then increased by injecting an oxidizing substance, the difference in redox potential between the shallower and deeper regions will be reduced, resulting in an SP increase near the wellhead. We have been monitoring earth-surface SP during gas injection tests at various sites in Japan. When air was injected into a 100-meter well within a geothermal field, a remarkable simultaneous increase in SP centered on the wellhead was observed. A small but unmistakable SP increase also took place near the wellhead when CO2 was slowly injected, which we believe was caused by local pH reduction at depth resulting from dissolution of the injected CO2 in the aquifer fluid. SP changes were also observed in Yubari, geological sequestration test site in Japan, where one well injected CO2 into a coal bed and the fluid containing CH4 was produced from a nearby well. The CO2 content of the fluid was also monitored. SP increased substantially around the injection wellhead, but no significant SP changes attributable to the injection were observed near the production wellhead. This is consistent with the observation that CO2 did not break through into the production well during the experiment. We believe that SP measurements at the earth surface represent a new and promising technique for sensing the approach of CO2 to well casings deep within the subsurface.

  3. THERMODYNAMIC CYCLE OPTIMIZATION IN THE GEOTHERMAL ENERGY PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Golub

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Optimization of geothermal energy production process means the minimization of all energy losses from the reservoir conditions to the user. As the available energy is being utilized mostly in the wellbore and in the surface equipment, process optimization requires scientific access including the extraction technology parameters.Specific energy on the geothermal wellhead is calculated for two possible cases. The first embraces only geothermal water production, while the other takes into account the saturated steam production as well. Each of these working conditions defines unambiguously designed pressure on the wellhead.The steam and water energy ratio, in function of predicted sink temperature for reinjection of geothermal water, points out the possibilities for commercialization of reservoir Velika Ciglena.

  4. Geothermal power plants of New Zealand, Philippines, and Indonesia: a technical survey of existing and planned installations. Report No. CATMET/17

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiPippo, R.

    1978-06-01

    This report is the fourth in a series dealing with the geothermal power plants of the world. Here the existing and planned stations in the south Pacific area are surveyed including New Zealand, the Philippines and Indonesia. Details are given for the plants at Wairakei and Kawerau, and for the one proposed at Broadlands in New Zealand; for the plants proposed for Tiwi and Los Banos, and the wellhead units operating at Los Banos and Tongonan in the Philippines; and for the wellhead unit soon to be installed at Kawah Kamojang on Java in Indonesia. The geologic characteristics of the fields are described along with wellflow particulars, energy conversion systems, environmental impacts, economic factors and operating experiences, where available. The geothermal resource utilization efficiency is computed or estimated for the power plants covered. Furthermore, some discussion is devoted to the other sites which may prove exploitable for the production of electricity.

  5. Natural gas 1995: Issues and trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    Natural Gas 1995: Issues and Trends addresses current issues affecting the natural gas industry and markets. Highlights of recent trends include: Natural gas wellhead prices generally declined throughout 1994 and for 1995 averages 22% below the year-earlier level; Seasonal patterns of natural gas production and wellhead prices have been significantly reduced during the past three year; Natural gas production rose 15% from 1985 through 1994, reaching 18.8 trillion cubic feet; Increasing amounts of natural gas have been imported; Since 1985, lower costs of producing and transporting natural gas have benefitted consumers; Consumers may see additional benefits as States examine regulatory changes aimed at increasing efficiency; and, The electric industry is being restructured in a fashion similar to the recent restructuring of the natural gas industry.

  6. Summary of the Evergreen Operating Corporation Rosa No. 283 Well Cooperative Research Project San Juan Basin. Topical report, May 1, 1993-January 15, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logan, T.L.; Robinson, J.R.

    1995-01-10

    The major objectives of the cooperative effort were to: recommend a remedial stimulation treatment to enhance gas production from a previously hydraulically fracture stimulated well; and Evaluate the effect of the remedial stimulation treatment using well testing techniques. The recommended remedial stimulation program consisted of a large volume nitrogen injection treatment followed by a controlled blow-down period, maintaining a high bottomhole flowing pressure. There were indications early in the producing life of the well that the near-wellbore permeability may be stress sensitive. Therefore, high producing back-pressures were maintained during the blow-down period in an attempt to limit cleat closure. However, analysis of post-remedial treatment production data indicates that higher gas rates are achieved at lower wellhead pressure rather than at higher wellhead back-pressure.

  7. Evaluation of an Innovative Technology for Treatment of Water Contaminated with Perchlorate and Organic Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-26

    identified at 400 sites in 35 states, the District of Colombia , and two United States commonwealths (Figure 1-1) (U.S. GAO, 2005a). There is currently...for VOC removal 2) Lower Canyon Treatment Facility (LCTF): removes gasoline -related compounds 3) Community Wellhead Treatment System (CWTS) uses GAC...to operate both with and without emission control. The emission control used as a comparison measure was vapor-phase GAC. The authors explain that

  8. JPRS Report China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Introduced [JIEFANGJUN BAO 17 Jun] 39 Adapting Military Strategy to Changing World Situation [JIEFANGJUN BAO 8 Jul] 39 Navy Develops Microwave Technology...strategy in a period of peace calls on military strategy to open up a new domain and erect a new system. From its germination in ancient times...China at the beginning of the next century. Navy Develops Microwave Technology for Locating Wellheads 40050425b Beijing JIEFANGJUN BAO in Chinese

  9. Proceedings of a Topical Meeting On Small Scale Geothermal Power Plants and Geothermal Power Plant Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1986-02-12

    These proceedings describe the workshop of the Topical Meeting on Small Scale Geothermal Power Plants and Geothermal Power Plant Projects. The projects covered include binary power plants, rotary separator, screw expander power plants, modular wellhead power plants, inflow turbines, and the EPRI hybrid power system. Active projects versus geothermal power projects were described. In addition, a simple approach to estimating effects of fluid deliverability on geothermal power cost is described starting on page 119. (DJE-2005)

  10. Testing of the Pleasant Bayou Well through October 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randolph, P.L.; Hayden, C.G.; Mosca, V.L.; Anhaiser, J.L.

    1992-08-01

    Pleasant Bayou location was inactive from 1983 until the cleanout of the production and disposal wells in 1986. The surface facilities were rehabilitated and after shakedown of the system, additional repair of wellhead valves, and injection of an inhibitor pill, continuous long-term production was started in 1988. Over two years of production subsequent to that are reviewed here, including: production data, brine sampling and analysis, hydrocarbon sampling and analysis, solids sampling and analysis, scale control and corrosion monitoring and control.

  11. Conference on natural gas use state regulation and market dynamics in the Post 636/Energy Policy Act Era: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    Reports in this Record of Proceedings explore a wide variety of issues related to the regulation of natural gas and its future role as one of the critical fuels that powers the economy of the United States. The focus is mainly on problems, obstacles, barriers, and the incredibly complex system created to bring a fuel from wellhead to burner tip. Individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  12. METHOD OF CALCULATING THE OPTIMAL HEAT EMISSION GEOTHERMAL WELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Akaev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a simplified method of calculating the optimal regimes of the fountain and the pumping exploitation of geothermal wells, reducing scaling and corrosion during operation. Comparative characteristics to quantify the heat of formation for these methods of operation under the same pressure at the wellhead. The problem is solved graphic-analytical method based on a balance of pressure in the well with the heat pump. 

  13. The weathering of oil after the Deepwater Horizon oil spill: insights from the chemical composition of the oil from the sea surface, salt marshes and sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhanfei; Liu, Jiqing; Zhu, Qingzhi; Wu, Wei

    2012-09-01

    The oil released during the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill may have both short- and long-time impacts on the northern Gulf of Mexico ecosystems. An understanding of how the composition and concentration of the oil are altered by weathering, including chemical, physical and biological processes, is needed to evaluate the oil toxicity and impact on the ecosystem in the northern Gulf of Mexico. This study examined petroleum hydrocarbons in oil mousse collected from the sea surface and salt marshes, and in oil deposited in sediments adjacent to the wellhead after the DWH oil spill. Oil mousses were collected at two stations (OSS and CT, located 130 and 85 km away from the wellhead, respectively) in May 2010, and two sediment samples from stations SG and SC, within 6 km of the wellhead, in May 2011. We also collected oil mousse from salt marshes at Marsh Point (MP), Mississippi, 186 km away from the wellhead in July 2010. In these samples, n-alkanes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), alkylated PAHs, BTEX (collective name of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and p-, m-, and o-xylenes), C3-benzenes and trace metals were measured to examine how the oil was altered chemically. The chemical analysis indicates that the oil mousses underwent different degrees of weathering with the pattern of OSS Petroleum hydrocarbon data reveal that the oil deposited in sediments underwent only light to moderate degradation one year after the DWH oil spill, as supported by the presence of short-chained n-alkanes (C10-C 15), BTEX and C 3-benzenes. The weathering of oil in sediment may result from biological degradation and dissolution, evidenced by the preferential loss of mid-chained n-alkanes C16-C 27, lower ratios of n-C 17/Pr and n-C 18/Ph , and preferential loss of PAHs relative to alkylated PAHs.

  14. Operation history of hydraulic jet pump on teh Chengbei oil field, China. Chengbei yuden ni okeru haidororikku jet pump no shiyo jisseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terao, Yoshihiro; Takagi, Sunao

    1989-11-01

    Changbei oil field in China uses hydraulic jet pump(HJP) to cope with the increase of oil production and increase of water content in the oil field. This paper described the practical result. This pump makes high speed jet by driving fluid, and converts the dynamic energy to pressure energy by decelerating with a diffuser to push up oil. Wellheads damaged by sand friction or near the gas cap were removed. The production from March, 1988 to October increased at the rate of 114kl/day at total 8 wellheads. Heavy oil of API specific gravity of 16 degree could be proved. Since the separation of oil and water was inferior, so that the countermeasures were studied but the cause was not known. Troubles or failures of main body, nozzle and throat of HJP were not occurred. Any effect could not be found at a wellhead of water content exceeding 50 to 60% because only water production increased. Consequently, this process could result the increase of oil production with lower cost and without mechanical failures. 2 refs., 7 figs., 7 tabs.

  15. Water Sources and Their Protection from the Impact of Microbial Contamination in Rural Areas of Beijing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hairong Li

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial contamination of drinking water is a major public health problem in rural China. To explore bacterial contamination in rural areas of Beijing and identify possible causes of bacteria in drinking water samples, water samples were collected from wells in ten rural districts of Beijing, China. Total bacterial count, total coliforms and Escherichia coli in drinking water were then determined and water source and wellhead protection were investigated. The bacterial contamination in drinking water was serious in areas north of Beijing, with the total bacterial count, total coliforms and Escherichia coli in some water samples reaching 88,000 CFU/mL, 1,600 MPN/100 mL and 1,600 MPN/100 mL, respectively. Water source types, well depth, whether the well was adequately sealed and housed, and whether wellhead is above or below ground were the main factors influencing bacterial contamination levels in drinking water. The bacterial contamination was serious in the water of shallow wells and wells that were not closed, had no well housing or had a wellhead below ground level. The contamination sources around wells, including village dry toilets and livestock farms, were well correlated with bacterial contamination. Total bacterial counts were affected by proximity to sewage ditches and polluting industries, however, proximity to landfills did not influence the microbial indicators.

  16. Some reservoir engineering calculations for the vapor-dominated system at Larderello, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathenson, Manuel

    1975-01-01

    Various reservoir properties are calculated for the Larderello vapor-dominated system using available published data. Bottom-hole flowing properties are calculated from measured wellhead data. Whereas wellhead temperatures measured at a particular time tend to change systematically with changes in flow and pressure, calculated bottom-hole temperatures tend to be constant for two sample wells; while for a third, bottom-hole temperatures decrease with increasing flow. Bottom-hole temperatures calculated from wellhead data taken over several years can be constant, increase, or decrease for particular wells. A steady-state model for steam flow to a well is used with calculated bottom-hole data to show that the effect of non-Darcy flow is important. The initial mass of fluid in place for the northeast zone of Larderello (56 km2) is estimated, using data on shut-in pressures and total mass production. Reservoir thickness needed to store this mass of fluid is calculated as a function of porosity and initial fraction of water in pores. Representative values are 19 km of thickness, assuming 5% porosity with steam alone, and 832 m, assuming 20% porosity and 10% of pore volume as liquid water.

  17. A comprehensive mathematical model for estimating oil drainage rate in SAGD process considering wellbore/formation coupling effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Linsong; Gu, Hao; Huang, Shijun

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this work is to present a comprehensive mathematical model for estimating oil drainage rate in Steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) process, more importantly, wellbore/formation coupling effect is considered. Firstly, mass and heat transfer in vertical and horizontal wellbores are described briefly. Then, a function of steam chamber height is introduced and the expressions for oil drainage rate in rising and expanding steam chamber stages are derived in detail. Next, a calculation flowchart is provided and an example is given to introduce how to use the proposed method. Finally, after the mathematical model is validated, the effects of wellhead steam injection rate on simulated results are further analyzed. The results indicate that heat injection power per meter reduces gradually along the horizontal wellbore, which affects both steam chamber height and oil drainage rate in the SAGD process. In addition, when production time is the same, the calculated oil drainage rate from the new method is lower than that from Butler's method. Moreover, the paper shows that when wellhead steam injection rate is low enough, the steam chamber is not formed at the horizontal well's toe position and enhancing the wellhead steam injection rate can increase the oil drainage rate.

  18. Deep Panuke offshore gas development comprehensive study report : Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-10-01

    A project was proposed by EnCana Corporation (EnCana) for the development of the Deep Panuke Offshore Gas Development Project. Located offshore the Scotian Shelf, approximately 175 kilometres southeast of Goldboro, Nova Scotia and 250 kilometres southeast of Halifax, the development of this natural gas reservoir would allow EnCana to derive economic benefit from licences issued under the Canada-Nova Scotia Offshore Petroleum Resources Accord Implementation Act and the Canada-Nova Scotia Offshore Petroleum Resources Accord Implementation (Nova Scotia) Act. The Canadian Environmental Assessment Act required that a comprehensive study report be prepared, and the results were presented in this document. Consisting of three bottom-founded platforms in a water depth of approximately 40 metres, the wellhead platform would be used for dry wellheads, wellhead control system, and production manifolds. All power generation and processing equipment would be located on the production platform, and the accommodations platform would consist of the utilities, helicopter landing pad, refueling station and crew accommodations. It was determined that the Deep Panuke project was unlikely to result in adverse environmental effects. The offshore oil and gas industry in Atlantic Canada would benefit from this development as a result of the establishment of a viable facility and operation.

  19. Savings times: approaching of two technologies; Racionalizacao do tempo: uma integracao de tecnologias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Migueis, Carlos Otavio; Eppinghaus, Guilherme; Ferreira, Ipojucan; Alfano, Pedro Paulo; Campello, Sergio [Vetcogray, Macae, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    As the result of merging both wellhead and production subsea systems technologies, a new concept of flowbases and tubing hangers has been developed. This new generation of equipment will allow a significant reduction in rig time during drilling and completion operations just processing at the same time steps that before were supposed to be done separately. In order to implement this merge of technologies, concepts and techniques already well known in drilling and completion will be used. One of the main modifications is to adopt in the internal upper half profile of the flowbase the same profile used in the wellheads. This will allow the use of existent cam type running tools, wear bushing running tools and BOP test tools. Also the casing hanger pack-off (CVU) sealing and locking technology will be used to lock and seal the tubing hanger. The new method of running the flowbase, using a cam type running tool, became possible due to the adoption of the technology for landing the wellhead with the support of an ROV. In the other hand, the tubing hanger was fully redesigned using as reference the existent casing hangers. The new concept is an evolution for the actual concept and will allow the time reduction in rig operations, enhancing the performance of the unlocking system of the tubing hanger during its retrieval. During the development of this new flowbase and tubing hanger system, it was necessary the development of a set of new tools, such as: one trip pack-off landing, energizing/deenergizing, test and tubing hanger retrieving tool; one trip pack-off unlocking and tubing hanger retrieving tool. In order to confirm the viability of the concepts, a series of design reviews were conducted involving different Vetco Gray SDS and SPS experts from various departments such as product engineering and service. Doing this it became possible to fully evaluate the operation from drilling to completion also checking if the applicability of the current equipment that today

  20. Deep-sea benthic footprint of the deepwater horizon blowout.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul A Montagna

    Full Text Available The Deepwater Horizon (DWH accident in the northern Gulf of Mexico occurred on April 20, 2010 at a water depth of 1525 meters, and a deep-sea plume was detected within one month. Oil contacted and persisted in parts of the bottom of the deep-sea in the Gulf of Mexico. As part of the response to the accident, monitoring cruises were deployed in fall 2010 to measure potential impacts on the two main soft-bottom benthic invertebrate groups: macrofauna and meiofauna. Sediment was collected using a multicorer so that samples for chemical, physical and biological analyses could be taken simultaneously and analyzed using multivariate methods. The footprint of the oil spill was identified by creating a new variable with principal components analysis where the first factor was indicative of the oil spill impacts and this new variable mapped in a geographic information system to identify the area of the oil spill footprint. The most severe relative reduction of faunal abundance and diversity extended to 3 km from the wellhead in all directions covering an area about 24 km(2. Moderate impacts were observed up to 17 km towards the southwest and 8.5 km towards the northeast of the wellhead, covering an area 148 km(2. Benthic effects were correlated to total petroleum hydrocarbon, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and barium concentrations, and distance to the wellhead; but not distance to hydrocarbon seeps. Thus, benthic effects are more likely due to the oil spill, and not natural hydrocarbon seepage. Recovery rates in the deep sea are likely to be slow, on the order of decades or longer.

  1. The Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill: Ecogenomics of the Deep-Sea Plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazen, T. C.

    2012-12-01

    The explosion on April 20, 2010 at the BP-leased Deepwater Horizon drilling rig in the Gulf of Mexico off the coast of Louisiana, resulted in oil and gas rising to the surface and the oil coming ashore in many parts of the Gulf, it also resulted in the dispersment of an immense oil plume 4,000 feet below the surface of the water. Despite spanning more than 600 feet in the water column and extending more than 10 miles from the wellhead, the dispersed oil plume was gone within weeks after the wellhead was capped - degraded and diluted to undetectable levels. Furthermore, this degradation took place without significant oxygen depletion. Ecogenomics enabled discovery of new and unclassified species of oil-eating bacteria that apparently lives in the deep Gulf where oil seeps are common. Using 16s microarrays, functional gene arrays, clone libraries, lipid analysis and a variety of hydrocarbon and micronutrient analyses we were able to characterize the oil degraders. Metagenomic sequence data was obtained for the deep-water samples using the Illumina platform. In addition, single cells were sorted and sequenced for the some of the most dominant bacteria that were represented in the oil plume; namely uncultivated representatives of Colwellia and Oceanospirillum. In addition, we performed laboratory microcosm experiments using uncontaminated water collected from The Gulf at the depth of the oil plume to which we added oil and COREXIT. These samples were characterized by 454 pyrotag. The results provide information about the key players and processes involved in degradation of oil, with and without COREXIT, in different impacted environments in The Gulf of Mexico. We are also extending these studies to explore dozens of deep sediment samples that were also collected after the oil spill around the wellhead. This data suggests that a great potential for intrinsic bioremediation of oil plumes exists in the deep-sea and other environs in the Gulf of Mexico.

  2. Impacts of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill on deep-sea coral-associated sediment communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demopoulos, Amanda; Bourque, Jill R.; Cordes, Erik E.; Stamler, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    Cold-water corals support distinct populations of infauna within surrounding sediments that provide vital ecosystem functions and services in the deep sea. Yet due to their sedentary existence, infauna are vulnerable to perturbation and contaminant exposure because they are unable to escape disturbance events. While multiple deep-sea coral habitats were injured by the 2010 Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill, the extent of adverse effects on coral-associated sediment communities is unknown. In 2011, sediments were collected adjacent to several coral habitats located 6 to 183 km from the wellhead in order to quantify the extent of impact of the DWH spill on infaunal communities. Higher variance in macrofaunal abundance and diversity, and different community structure (higher multivariate dispersion) were associated with elevated hydrocarbon concentrations and contaminants at sites closest to the wellhead (MC294, MC297, and MC344), consistent with impacts from the spill. In contrast, variance in meiofaunal diversity was not significantly related to distance from the wellhead and no other community metric (e.g. density or multivariate dispersion) was correlated with contaminants or hydrocarbon concentrations. Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) provided the best statistical explanation for observed macrofaunal community structure, while depth and presence of fine-grained mud best explained meiofaunal community patterns. Impacts associated with contaminants from the DWH spill resulted in a patchwork pattern of infaunal community composition, diversity, and abundance, highlighting the role of variability as an indicator of disturbance. These data represent a useful baseline for tracking post-spill recovery of these deep-sea communities.

  3. Deep-Sea Benthic Footprint of the Deepwater Horizon Blowout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagna, Paul A.; Baguley, Jeffrey G.; Cooksey, Cynthia; Hartwell, Ian; Hyde, Larry J.; Hyland, Jeffrey L.; Kalke, Richard D.; Kracker, Laura M.; Reuscher, Michael; Rhodes, Adelaide C. E.

    2013-01-01

    The Deepwater Horizon (DWH) accident in the northern Gulf of Mexico occurred on April 20, 2010 at a water depth of 1525 meters, and a deep-sea plume was detected within one month. Oil contacted and persisted in parts of the bottom of the deep-sea in the Gulf of Mexico. As part of the response to the accident, monitoring cruises were deployed in fall 2010 to measure potential impacts on the two main soft-bottom benthic invertebrate groups: macrofauna and meiofauna. Sediment was collected using a multicorer so that samples for chemical, physical and biological analyses could be taken simultaneously and analyzed using multivariate methods. The footprint of the oil spill was identified by creating a new variable with principal components analysis where the first factor was indicative of the oil spill impacts and this new variable mapped in a geographic information system to identify the area of the oil spill footprint. The most severe relative reduction of faunal abundance and diversity extended to 3 km from the wellhead in all directions covering an area about 24 km2. Moderate impacts were observed up to 17 km towards the southwest and 8.5 km towards the northeast of the wellhead, covering an area 148 km2. Benthic effects were correlated to total petroleum hydrocarbon, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and barium concentrations, and distance to the wellhead; but not distance to hydrocarbon seeps. Thus, benthic effects are more likely due to the oil spill, and not natural hydrocarbon seepage. Recovery rates in the deep sea are likely to be slow, on the order of decades or longer. PMID:23950956

  4. Catwell and Sherdaps for deep-water production fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopper, H.P.; Rey, R. [Cameron, 34 - Beziers (France)

    2000-07-01

    The names Catwell and SherDaps are derived from: - Catenary Well - Subsea Horizontal Extended Reach Drilling And Production System. Both systems use the technique of being able to drill a well in deep-water either through a platform catenary carrier pipe or a catenary drilling riser. They also offer, in addition, significant advantages when drilling into shallow reservoirs and the ability to enhance production using platform artificial lift systems or easily serviceable pumps either in the well or at the mud-line. Catwell is a platform system with surface wellheads/trees whereas SherDaps uses a group of subsea wellheads/trees/BOP's that are accessible from one permanent catenary drilling riser. Both systems allow drilling/completing and future well intervention from a central location that otherwise would have required several drilling centres (i.e. platforms or subsea) if the conventional approach was followed. It is envisaged that well targets close to a platform will use well conductors possibly with mud-line wellheads, then Catwell to reach the medium range well targets and SherDaps for long range wells. It is considered that this arrangement would allow a single surface drilling/ production centre to have access to well targets giving a foot print range of up to a 20 km diameter. The total Capex savings on a Deep-water Field Development could be in the region of $200 m on a $1 billion development. Opex will be lower with the ability from the drilling center to quickly access any problem well and rectify any faults, minimising lost production. (authors)

  5. Capping stack: An industry in the making

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jack Chen; Li Xunke; Xie Wenhui; Kang Yongtian

    2013-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of recent development of the marine well containment system (MWCS)after BP Macondo subsea well blowout occurred on April 20,2010 in the Gulf of Mexico.Capping stack,a hardware utilized to contain blowout well at or near the wellhead is the center piece of MWCS.Accessibility to the dedicated capping stacks is gradually becoming a pre-requirement to obtain the permit for offshore drilling/workover,and the industry for manufacturing,maintenance,transportation and operation of the capping stack is in the making.

  6. Sounds good? Determination of a gas/brine interface by an acoustic method at Manosque

    CERN Document Server

    Brouard, Benoit; De, Greef Vincent; Gérard, Gary; Crabeil, Jean-Paul

    2013-01-01

    Water hammers commonly are observed at wellheads and often are considered a potential hazard that should be avoided. Nevertheless, there are a few situations in which water hammers provide very valuable information about a well. A comprehensive data-acquisition and analysis system has been developed by Brouard Consulting and Ecole Polytechnique. One potential application of that system is determining the depth of an interface between two fluids. This application has been tested successfully at the Manosque field. It is demonstrated here how this low-cost and non-intrusive system can be accurate and allows practical, real-time measurements.

  7. 精细控压钻井控压响应时间浅析%Analysis on pressure controlling response time of delicate controlled pressure drilling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余金海; 孙宁; 刘健

    2011-01-01

    精细控压钻井通过PWD随钻测压、计算机控制、回压泵和节流阀等闭环调节井口回压,精细控制井底压力,以满足安全、快速钻井的需要.判断精细控压钻井系统性能高低的一个重要指标就是压力控制的响应时间.短的控压响应时间可以很快平衡井底压力变化,维持钻进在井底压力基本恒定下进行.以回压从井口传到井底的时间为研究对象,建立了回压在环空传播速度的计算模型,分析了影响回压传播速度的主要因素钻井液密度、气体含量和岩屑含量,并以控压钻井实例数据计算为例、分析了精细控压钻井的控压响应时间,为精细控压钻井提供理论支持.%Through PWD, surface computer control system, back pressure pump and choke etc., delicate controlled pressure drilling system could adjust the wellhead back pressure and delicately controls the bottom hole pressure to meet the needs of safe and fast drilling.The important index reflecting the performance level of delicate controlled pressure drilling system is the response time.Short time can quickly balance off bottom hole pressure variation and keep drilling basically under constant bottom-hole pressure.The pressure controlling response time is consisted of three parts: PWD signal transmission time, the time from analyzing signal to adjusting wellhead back pressure by surface control system and the time of back pressure propagating from wellhead to bottom.This paper regarded the third part-the time of back pressure propagating from wellhead to bottom, as the research object.The computational mode of back pressure propagation velocity in annular was established, and the main factors affecting the velocity were analyzed, which were drilling fluid density, gas content and cutting content.Field data were used to calculate and analyze the pressure controlling response time.Finally theoretical supports were provided for delicate controlled pressure drilling.

  8. Effects of geothermal energy utilization on stream biota and water quality at The Geysers, California. Final report. [Big Sulphur, Little Sulphur, Squaw, and Pieta Creeks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeGore, R.S.

    1975-01-01

    The discussion is presented under the following section headings: biological studies, including fish, insects, and microbiology; stream hydrology; stream water quality, including methods and results; the contribution of tributaries to Big Sulphur Creek, including methods, results, and tributary characterization; standing water at wellheads; steam condensate quality; accidental discharges; trout spawning bed quality; major conclusions; list of references; and appendices. It is concluded that present operational practices at Geysers geothermal field do not harm the biological resources in adjacent streams. The only effects of geothermal development observed during the study were related to operational accidents. (JGB)

  9. Evaluation and Ranking of Geothermal Resources for Electrical Generation or Electrical Offset in Idaho, Montana, Oregon and Washington. Volume II.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloomquist, R. Gordon

    1985-06-01

    This volume contains appendices on: (1) resource assessment - electrical generation computer results; (2) resource assessment summary - direct use computer results; (3) electrical generation (high temperature) resource assessment computer program listing; (4) direct utilization (low temperature) resource assessment computer program listing; (5) electrical generation computer program CENTPLANT and related documentation; (6) electrical generation computer program WELLHEAD and related documentation; (7) direct utilization computer program HEATPLAN and related documentation; (8) electrical generation ranking computer program GEORANK and related documentation; (9) direct utilization ranking computer program GEORANK and related documentation; and (10) life cycle cost analysis computer program and related documentation. (ACR)

  10. Hydrocarbons in Deep-Sea Sediments following the 2010 Deepwater Horizon Blowout in the Northeast Gulf of Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Romero, Isabel C.; Patrick T Schwing; Gregg R Brooks; Larson, Rebekka A.; Hastings, David W.; Greg Ellis; Goddard, Ethan A.; David J Hollander

    2015-01-01

    The Deepwater Horizon (DWH) spill released 4.9 million barrels of oil into the Gulf of Mexico (GoM) over 87 days. Sediment and water sampling efforts were concentrated SW of the DWH and in coastal areas. Here we present geochemistry data from sediment cores collected in the aftermath of the DWH event from 1000 – 1500 m water depth in the DeSoto Canyon, NE of the DWH wellhead. Cores were analyzed at high-resolution (at 2 mm and 5 mm intervals) in order to evaluate the concentration, compositio...

  11. Slender wells and new subsea solutions for increased oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faanes, Audun; Myhre, Erling; Vinge, Torstein; Stroem, Steinar

    2010-07-01

    Statoil has identified cost effective subsea wells as one of our major challenges. To achieve such solutions it is required to look at all sides of a subsea development. This presentation will cover how a slim wellhead, BOP and riser system will contribute to a less costly subsea development. The focus will be on all aspects of a subsea development. The effect on the drilling rig will be discussed based on the fact that the drilling rig is the major cost driver in subsea well developments. (Author)

  12. West of Shetlands FPSO or TLP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1995-09-01

    One of the most promising and active areas, in terms of exploration, for hydrocarbon production offshore Europe is located West of the Shetland Islands and lies in water depths ranging from 350 m to 900 m subject to an extremely harsh environment. Three different field-proven concepts from the Doris Engineering`s point of view must be considered for this deep water area: a floating Production Storage and Off-loading (FPSO) unit, a production Tension Leg Platform (TLP) and a mini TLP designed to support wellheads and work aver facility. (author). 1 fig.

  13. 基于半物理仿真的新型浮式平台垂荡性能%Heave motion analysis of a new-style floater based on semi-physical simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷松; 岳前进; 张文首; 谢彬; 喻西崇

    2012-01-01

    为了评估一种新型浮式钻井生产储油装卸系统(FDPSO)概念设计中干式井口平台的垂荡性能,建立了系统的理论分析模型,并运用半物理仿真技术构筑了大比尺模型实验平台,用可控的电液伺服器运动台模拟船体的垂荡,干式井口系统采用大比尺的物理模型.在简谐激励下理论模型的实验结果和数值结果的对比,证明了理论模型的合理性,符合工程实际.根据该理论模型对中国南海海况进行的数值分析结果表明,通过船外悬挂配重为干式井口平台的张紧立管系统提供张力的概念设计对船体的垂荡具有自动补偿作用,减小了干式井口平台的垂荡振幅.%In order to evaluate the heave motion performance of a dry wellhead deck in the conceptual design of a new-style floating drilling production storage and offloading system (FDPSO), we established a theoretical model for the analysis of a complex tension system and constructed a large-scale experimental platform with a semi-physical simulation technique, which simulated the hull's heave motion on a motion platform controlled by an electro-hydraulic servosystem and applied a large-scale physical model to the dry wellhead system. The comparison between experimental and numerical results of the theoretical model under simple harmonic excitation proved the rationality of the model because they were in accordance with engineering reality. Results of the numerical analysis performed on the oceanic condition of the South China Sea with the theoretical model indicate that the conceptual design that tension is supplied to the riser system of a dry wellhead deck through the balance weight suspended on the outside of a hull is of automatic compensation to the hull's heave motion, which can reduce the heave motion amplitude of a dry wellhead deck.

  14. Development and Application of Testing Platform in Wen 96 Reservoir%测试平台在文96储气库注采井的研制与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢庆刚; 蔡继文; 付祥; 毛瑞丽; 邢庆芳

    2016-01-01

    随着文96储气库注采井的投产运行,优质、高效、安全地做好文96储气库注采井的动态监测工作是十分重要的。由于储气库井属高压注采井采气树选用压力等级为35MPa以上的井口装置,距地面高度达到3m以上,井口操作人员站在注采井单侧阀上活动空间狭小,而且还得举升安装拆卸几十斤重的井口防喷装置及仪器、配重组合,稍有不慎便有人员高空坠落的危险,存在较大的安全隐患,且工作效率过低,结合文96储气库监测现状,围绕储气库发展需求,研制了适用于文96储气库注采井测试的井口操作平台,应用到现场,取得了显著的效果。%It is very important to carry out the dynamic monitoring of injection-production wells in Wen 96 gas storage reservoir with the operation of gas injection and production wells of Wen 96 gas reservoir,which is of high quality,high efficiency and safety.As the gas storage wells are high-pressure injection wells,gas-harvesting trees use pressure level 35MPa or more wellhead device,from the ground height of 3 meters above the wellhead operator standing on the side of the injection-production wells on the narrow space, but also Lifting installation and disassembly of several tens of pounds of the wellhead blowout prevention equipment and equipment, weight combination,there is a slight risk of accidentally falling height,there is a high security risk,and the work efficiency is too low, combined with text 96 gas A wellhead operation platform suitable for the test of gas injection and production wells in Wen 96 gas storage was developed and applied to the site,and remarkable results were achieved.

  15. EIA new releases: January--February 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-02-01

    Major stories in this issue are: Major energy companies` strategies shift from growth to consolidation; Report assesses the oil and gas resources of Fergana Basin, Former Soviet Union; Natural gas wellhead prices expected to remain low in first half 1995; Reliability and the changing electric power industry; EIA updates reference on US coal; Decommissioning of US uranium production facilities examined by EIA; and Improved technology leads to lower energy price projections. The remaining part of the bulletin lists recent publications, including machine readable files, and contacts for energy data information.

  16. Shallow gas incident in 3-ELPS-15D-SPS well; Incidente com shallow gas no poco 3-ELPS-15D-SPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Rubens Fausto [Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis (ANP), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    One of the concerns during the planning phase of an exploratory offshore well drilling is the possibility of occurrence of a shallow gas accumulation. In spite of being a rare event, taking into account that an event like this can have disastrous consequences, the cares to work with that type of incident cannot be despised. As example, in 2003, during the operations in the extension well 3-ELPS-15D-SPS, it happened the uncontrolled influx of water and gas to the bottom of the sea: the annular space between the 30'' and 13 3/8'' casings was not filled out with cement, allowing the flow from a shallow permeable interval to the bottom of the sea through the wellhead's cement return orifices, generating the need of an corrective action to make the abandonment of the well in accordance with the Regulation of Abandonment of Wells existent in Brazil. This work presents the mechanical conditions of the interval close to the wet wellhead of the 3-ELPS-15D-SPS, enumerating the sequence of operations accomplished to solve the problem. (author)

  17. SPR Hydrostatic Column Model Verification and Validation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bettin, Giorgia [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lord, David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rudeen, David Keith [Gram, Inc. Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-10-01

    A Hydrostatic Column Model (HCM) was developed to help differentiate between normal "tight" well behavior and small-leak behavior under nitrogen for testing the pressure integrity of crude oil storage wells at the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve. This effort was motivated by steady, yet distinct, pressure behavior of a series of Big Hill caverns that have been placed under nitrogen for extended period of time. This report describes the HCM model, its functional requirements, the model structure and the verification and validation process. Different modes of operation are also described, which illustrate how the software can be used to model extended nitrogen monitoring and Mechanical Integrity Tests by predicting wellhead pressures along with nitrogen interface movements. Model verification has shown that the program runs correctly and it is implemented as intended. The cavern BH101 long term nitrogen test was used to validate the model which showed very good agreement with measured data. This supports the claim that the model is, in fact, capturing the relevant physical phenomena and can be used to make accurate predictions of both wellhead pressure and interface movements.

  18. Energetic and exergetic Improvement of geothermal single flash cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navid Nazari

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a detailed analysis of a new method for improving energetic and exergetic efficiencies of single flash cycle. The thermodynamic process of the new method consists of extracting a fraction of hot wellhead geothermal brine for the purpose of superheating saturated steam entering the turbine. Computer programming scripts were developed and optimized based on mathematical proposed models for the different components of the systems. The operating parameters such as separator temperature, geofluid wellhead enthalpy and geothermal source temperature are varied to investigate their effects on both net power output and turbine exhaust quality of the systems. Also, full exergy assessment was performed for the new design. The results of separator temperature optimization revealed that specific net power output of the new design can be boosted up to 8% and turbine exhaust quality can be diminished up to 50% as compared to common single flash cycle. In addition, for wells with higher discharge enthalpy, superheating process improve specific net power output even up to 10%. Finally, it was observed that the overall system exergy efficiency was approximately raised 3%. Article History: Received January 5th 2016; Received in revised form June 25th 2016; Accepted July 3rd 2016; Available online How to Cite This Article: Nazari, N. and Porkhial, S. (2016. Energetic and Exergetic Improvement of Geothermal Single Flash Cycle. Int. Journal of Renewable Energy Development, 5(2,129-138. http://dx.doi.org/10.14710/ijred.5.2.129-138 

  19. Analysis on the nitrogen drilling accident of Well Qionglai 1 (I: Major inducement events of the accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingfeng Meng

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen drilling in poor tight gas sandstone should be safe because of very low gas production. But a serious accident of fire blowout occurred during nitrogen drilling of Well Qionglai 1. This is the first nitrogen drilling accident in China, which was beyond people's knowledge about the safety of nitrogen drilling and brought negative effects on the development of gas drilling technology still in start-up phase and resulted in dramatic reduction in application of gas drilling. In order to form a correct understanding, the accident was systematically analyzed, the major events resulting in this accident were inferred. It is discovered for the first time that violent ejection of rock clasts and natural gas occurred due to the sudden burst of downhole rock when the fractured tight gas zone was penetrated during nitrogen drilling, which has been named as “rock burst and blowout by gas bomb”, short for “rock burst”. Then all the induced events related to the rock burst are as following: upthrust force on drilling string from rock burst, bridging-off formed and destructed repeatedly at bit and centralizer, and so on. However, the most direct important event of the accident turns out to be the blockage in the blooie pipe from rock burst clasts and the resulted high pressure at the wellhead. The high pressure at the wellhead causes the blooie pipe to crack and trigged blowout and deflagration of natural gas, which is the direct presentation of the accident.

  20. Development of the matching equipment of the truck-mounted pumping unit%车载抽油装置配套设备的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    槐庆林; 王江; 李斌; 李建友; 付玉东

    2001-01-01

    The paper briefly generalizes the developing back ground of the truck-mounted pumping unit movable recovery equipment,presents its recovery mechanism diagram and the diagrammatic sketch of structure for fishing-oil-pump & fishing-oil-wellhead,and briefly introduces the recovery process principle of the truck-mounted pumping unit.The basic structure and work principle of the fishing-oil-pump & fishing-oil-wellhead that are necessary accessories of the truck-mountedpumping unit are discribed emphatically.It summarizes the serialization application well-condition for half-body-type fishing-oil-pump.%简要概括了称动式采油设备——车载抽油装置出现的背景情况,绘制了车载抽油装置的采油原理图及捞油泵、捞油井口的结构示意图,并结合图形结构扼要说明了车载抽油装置的基本结构和采油工艺原理。重点阐述了与车载抽油装置相配套的分体式捞油泵及捞油井口的基本结构和工作原理。总结了分体式捞油泵尺寸规格的系列化情况和应用井况。

  1. Mathematical models for foam-diverted acidizing and their applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Songyan; Li Zhaomin; Lin Riyi

    2008-01-01

    Foam diversion can effectively solve the problem of uneven distribution of acid in layers of different permeabilities during matrix acidizing.Based on gas trapping theory and the mass conservation equation,mathematical models were developed for foam-diverted acidizing,which can be achieved by a foam slug followed by acid injection or by continuous injection of foamed acid.The design method for foam-diverted acidizing was also given.The mathematical models were solved by a computer program.Computed results show that the total formation skin factor,wellhead pressure and bottomhole pressure increase with foam injection,but decrease with acid injection.Volume flow rate in a highpermeability layer decreases,while that in a low-permeability layer increases,thus diverting acid to the low-permeability layer from the high-permeability layer.Under the same formation conditions,for foamed acid treatment the operation was longer,and wellhead and bottomhole pressures are higher.Field application shows that foam slug can effectively block high permeability layers,and improve intake profile noticeably.

  2. HDR reservoir flow impedance and potentials for impedance reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DuTeau, R.; Brown, D.

    1993-06-01

    The data from flow tests which employed two different production zones in a well at Fenton Hill indicates the flow impedance of a wellbore zone damaged by rapid depressurization was altered, possibly by pressure spallation, which appears to have mechanically propped the joint apertures of outlet flow paths intersecting the altered wellbore. The rapid depressurization and subsequent flow test data derived from the damaged well has led to the hypothesis that pressure spallation and the resultant mechanical propping of outlet flow paths reduced the outlet flow impedance of the damaged wellbore. Furthermore, transient pressure data shows the largest pressure drop between the injection and production wellheads occurs near the production wellbore, so lowering the outlet impedance by increasing the apertures of outlet flow paths will have the greatest effect on reducing the overall reservoir impedance. Fenton Hill data also reveals that increasing the overall reservoir pressure dilates the apertures of flow paths, which likewise serves to reduce the reservoir impedance. Data suggests that either pressure dilating the wellbore connected joints with high production wellhead pressure, or mechanically propping open the outlet flow paths will increase the near-wellbore permeability. Finally, a new method for calculating and comparing near-wellbore outlet impedances has been developed. Further modeling, experimentation, and engineered reservoir modifications, such as pressure dilation and mechanical propping, hold considerable potential for significantly improving the productivity of HDR reservoirs.

  3. Gulf team delivers on DP drillship promise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flatern, R. von

    2001-06-01

    The technological achievements of the project by Amoco and BP to complete a deepwater subsea well in the Gulf of Mexico from a dynamically positioned (DP) vessel are described. In 2000, the dual activity drillship, Discoverer Enterprise (owned by Transocean Sedco Forex), completed the Nile well in the Viosca Knoll area and then the King Well in Mississippi Canyon Block 85. Stringent safety and environmental protection criteria imposed by Amoco and BP drove the design of the Dril-Quip subsea wellhead to ensure that the wellhead profile and connector coped with the worst case scenario. BP also specified a disconnect system that would secure the well in less than a minute. The SenTREE 7 and Commander telemetry systems developed by Schlumberger, the components of the work string and test work with the Nile well to ensure BP conditions were met and that the perforation and surge procedure proceeded successfully are explained. The time reduction achieved by using large DP drillships and future BP plans are outlined.

  4. The multi-task barge: a floating deep-sea production, storage and unloading unit, with surface production heads and drilling installations; La barge multifonctions: une unite flottante de production, de stockage et dechargement en eau profonde, avec tetes de production en surface et installations de forage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valenchon, C.; Rossig, J.H. [Bouygues Offshore (France); Pouget, G. [Sedco-Forex (France); Biolley, F. [Institut Francais du Petrole, 92 - Rueil-Malmaison (France)

    1998-05-01

    The multi-task barge is devoted to the exploitation of deep-sea fields in rather good conditions. It has been designed to bring together within a single installation, a production, storage and unloading unit and the necessary means for the drilling, the connecting and the work-over of wells. Thus submarine well-heads and well-head platforms are no longer needed. When the field configuration or the use of oriented drillings allows to group several wells together, the multi-task platform allows to use more economical surface production heads installed on steel rigid risers. This concept requires less investments thanks to less expensive drilling operations and restricted submarine installations, and to easier well operations and lower exploitation costs. Crude oil storage is ensured to up to about 2 millions of barrels. This paper presents the design aspects and the dynamical analysis of risers with the methods used. The tensioning and mooring system is examined and the advantages of the cylindrical float system is underlined and compared to the classical hydro-pneumatic systems. (J.S.) 11 refs.

  5. Scientific basis for safely shutting in the Macondo Well after the April 20, 2010 Deepwater Horizon blowout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickman, Stephen H; Hsieh, Paul A; Mooney, Walter D; Enomoto, Catherine B; Nelson, Philip H; Mayer, Larry A; Weber, Thomas C; Moran, Kathryn; Flemings, Peter B; McNutt, Marcia K

    2012-12-11

    As part of the government response to the Deepwater Horizon blowout, a Well Integrity Team evaluated the geologic hazards of shutting in the Macondo Well at the seafloor and determined the conditions under which it could safely be undertaken. Of particular concern was the possibility that, under the anticipated high shut-in pressures, oil could leak out of the well casing below the seafloor. Such a leak could lead to new geologic pathways for hydrocarbon release to the Gulf of Mexico. Evaluating this hazard required analyses of 2D and 3D seismic surveys, seafloor bathymetry, sediment properties, geophysical well logs, and drilling data to assess the geological, hydrological, and geomechanical conditions around the Macondo Well. After the well was successfully capped and shut in on July 15, 2010, a variety of monitoring activities were used to assess subsurface well integrity. These activities included acquisition of wellhead pressure data, marine multichannel seismic profiles, seafloor and water-column sonar surveys, and wellhead visual/acoustic monitoring. These data showed that the Macondo Well was not leaking after shut in, and therefore, it could remain safely shut until reservoir pressures were suppressed (killed) with heavy drilling mud and the well was sealed with cement.

  6. Anomalous surface heave induced by enhanced oil recovery in northern Alberta: InSAR observations and numerical modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearse, Jill; Singhroy, Vern; Samsonov, Sergey; Li, Junhua

    2014-08-01

    Recent interferometric synthetic aperture radar observations over northern Alberta, Canada, show persistent surface heave occurring at rates of 1-4 cm/yr, localized at sites where the steam-assisted gravity drainage technique is currently used to extract bitumen from the Athabasca oil sands. We find that uplift rates above the horizontal injector wells are strongly correlated with rates of steam injection, even though there is a net fluid loss from the reservoir pore space as oil and water are withdrawn through the production wells. In combination with available steam injection and bitumen production data at four sites, we use reservoir flow models to explain how the thermal and geomechanical effects of steam injection on an oil sand reservoir can generate uplift at the surface. Results of our numerical experiments show that persistent surface heave consistent with observed rates can be driven by stress changes in the reservoir due to porous flow and thermal expansion. We also observe an unexpected localized uplift, of magnitude equal to or greater than the heave above the sites of steaming but located at clusters of wellheads which are outside the region of influence of the steam chambers. We show that this "wellhead" deformation can be explained by thermal expansion of rock near the injector wells.

  7. Cormorant fields flowing 45,000 B/D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fulmar, N.

    1982-03-01

    Initial rates at Shell/Esso's 2 newest producing fields in the UK North Sea are 30,000 bpd at Fulmar field and 15,000 bpd at the North Cormorant field. Peak production at both fields will be 180,000 bpd. Fulmar will build to 50,000 bpd within 3 months. Shell expects output to peak in 1985. North Cormorant output is scheduled to double to 30,000 bpd in the second month's operation. The production buildup will be slower than Fulmar and will not reach the peak rate until 1986. Fulmar Field, ca. 170 miles east of Dundee, became the 19th field to go on stream in UK waters. It was followed shortly by North Cormorant field in the East Shetlands basin ca. 100 miles northeast of the Shetland Islands. Reserves are 450 million bbl of crude, 56 million bbl of gas liquids, and 130 billion cu ft of gas. Production buildup is quicker than at North Cormorant because of the 1500-ton wellhead jacket installed alongside the main drilling and accommodation platform to facilitate early production. It is the first time that a well head platform has been used in the oil bearing part of the North Sea. Production has started from 3 wells on the wellhead platform.

  8. Geothermal energy at Long Beach Naval Shipyard and Naval Station and at Seal Beach Naval Weapons Station, California. Final Report 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higgins, C.T.; Chapman, R.H.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to determine and evaluate sources of geothermal energy at two military bases in southern California, the Long Beach Naval Shipyard and Naval Station and the Seal Beach Naval Weapons Station. One part of the project focused on the natural geothermal characteristics beneath the naval bases. Another part focused on the geothermal energy produced by oilfield operations on and adjacent to each base. Results of the study are presented here for the US Department of the Navy to use in its program to reduce its reliance on petroleum by the development of different sources of energy. The project required research of various reports and data, both published and unpublished, particularly those of the California Department of Conservation, Division of Oil and Gas and of oil companies with leases on or adjacent to the naval bases. Important field investigations included the measurement of well-head temperatures of fluids produced from selected oil wells at each naval base and a detailed gravity survey of the Seal Beach naval base and vicinity. The well-head temperatures were needed to evaluate individual wells as sources of geothermal energy, while the gravity survey attempted to discover subsurface geologic structures that might contain geothermal fluids of temperatures higher than those predicted by the regional geothermal conditions.

  9. Overcoming the challenges of gathering system requirements for coalbed methane production : a San Juan Basin case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Midkiff, K. [Burlington Resources Canada Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    For the past 14 years, Burlington Resources has operated the Val Verde Gas Gathering and Treating System in the San Juan Basin of New Mexico and Colorado. It is a world-class CO{sub 2} removal and dehydration facility consisting of 8 individual treating trains. This paper described the company's experiences with material and equipment selection, pressure regimes, design objectives and other issues regarding CO{sub 2} production, including environmental challenges. The coalbed methane (CBM) production contained a substantial quantity of CO{sub 2} (10 per cent) and was not suitable for gathering and processing within the conventional infrastructure of the San Juan Basin. Val Verde gathers gas from 229 wellheads and 10 central delivery points. There are about 465 miles of pipeline in the area. Because of the depletion characteristics of CBM systems, most of the wells gathered by Val Verde currently use wellhead booster compression prior to entry into the system. The paper described the gathering and processing requirements for CBM, pressure regimes, the efficiency of modular design, CO{sub 2} management, and hydraulic modeling systems. A comparison of CBM systems to conventional gathering systems was also presented. 6 figs.

  10. Spatial and temporal distribution of water column total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) from the Deepwater Horizon (Macondo) incident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Terry L; Sericano, José L; Sweet, Stephen T; Knap, Anthony H; Guinasso, Norman L

    2016-02-15

    Pre-spill background concentrations of TPH and PAH in water samples from the Gulf of Mexico are compared with samples (over 20,000) collected during and after the Deepwater Horizon incident (13,000 stations). Samples were collected by multiple response agencies, trustees and BP and reported in the Gulf Science Data. The samples were collected from a few m to over 800 km in all directions from the wellhead. During the incident, samples with the highest concentrations of hydrocarbons were collected proximal to the wellhead or in samples collected from surface slicks and dispersant use. Of the 13,172 water sample TPH concentrations reported, 84% were below 1 μg/L (background). Of the 16,557 water sample PAH concentrations reported, 79% were below 0.056 μg/L (the median field blank, background). The percentage of samples below background increased rapidly after the well was capped. The spatial and temporal distributions of these hydrocarbon data are presented. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Cohasset/Panuke project: Benefits plan decision report (and) development plan decision report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-08-01

    The Cohasset/Panuke project will involve the recovery of over 5.5 million m{sup 3} of light oil from fields in the Nova Scotia offshore. Production is to occur seasonally over a 6-year period starting 1992. Facilities will include steel wellhead jackets in each field, a subsea flowline, a jackup rig for production equipment, and a storage tanker. Shuttle tankers will periodically unload oil from the storage tanker for transport to market. A review of the project's development plan was undertaken by the Canada-Nova Scotia Offshore Petroleum Board and the decisions of that board are presented. The project is not seen to be a large one by offshore standards, and the concept of a minimal cost development was considered appropriate. A large portion of the equipment used will be leased, much of which is not available in Canada; however, opportunities exist for Canadian companies to fabricate wellhead jackets, production facilities and other equipment, and to modify leased equipment. Employment opportunities to be created are significant, and can likely be filled with existing Canadian and Nova Scotian expertise. No significant impact on social infrastructure is anticipated. It was also found that the project does not pose a major hazard to the environment or fisheries in the project area, provided that proper procedures are put in place and followed. 2 figs.

  12. Natural gas monthly, February 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    This issue of the Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) presents the most recent estimates of natural gas data from the Energy Information Administration. Estimates extend through February 1998 for many data series, and through November 1997 for most natural gas prices. Highlights of the natural gas data contained in this issue are: Preliminary estimates for January and February 1998 show that dry natural gas production, net imports, and consumption are all within 1 percent of their levels in 1997. Warmer-than-normal weather in recent months has resulted in lower consumption of natural gas by the residential sector and lower net withdrawals of gas from under round storage facilities compared with a year ago. This has resulted in an estimate of the amount of working gas in storage at the end of February 1998 that is 18 percent higher than in February 1997. The national average natural gas wellhead price is estimated to be $3.05 per thousand cubic feet in November 1997, 7 percent higher than in October. The cumulative average wellhead price for January through November 1997 is estimated to be $2.42 per thousand cubic feet, 17 percent above that of the same period in 1996. This price increase is far less than 36-percent rise that occurred between 1995 and 1996. 6 figs., 26 tabs.

  13. Vertical seismic profiling and integration with reflection seismic studies at Laxemar, 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juhlin, C.; Bergman, B. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden); Cosma, C.; Keskinen, J.; Enescu, N. [Vibrometric Oy, Helsinki (Finland)

    2002-02-01

    Vertical seismic profile (VSP) data were acquired in October 2000 in the 1700 m deep KLX02 borehole, near Laxemar in southeastern Sweden. The objectives of the VSP were to image reflectors in the borehole for correlation with surface seismic and borehole data, study the signal penetration of explosive versus mechanical sources and determine the seismic velocity as a function of depth. Five principal source points were used, one located close to the KLX02 wellhead and 4 others that were offset by about 200 m to 400 m. An explosive source was only used at the wellhead and consisted of 15 grams of dynamite in 90 cm deep shot holes in bedrock. A swept impact seismic source (SIST) was also used at the wellhead, as well as at the other four offset source points. The primary SIST source consisted of a computer controlled mechanical hammer mounted on a tractor. By activating the hammer over a 15 second sweep length, the total energy transferred to the ground is on the same order as that produced by the dynamite. The recorded data are then processed to generate seismic records that are equivalent to a single impact source. A smaller hand held SIST source was also tested at the wellhead. Tests of both the tractor mounted source and dynamite were made at a location offset somewhat from the wellhead at a site containing loose sediments at the surface. Full waveform sonic, resistivity and gamma logs were also acquired in conjunction the VSP survey. A comparison between the explosive and large SIST source shows that comparable energy levels are produced by the two methods. The SIST source appears to be more stable in terms of the energy level, although the frequency content of data are somewhat lower. However, its most significant advantage is the low cost of preparation of the source points and the speed of the acquisition. Numerous reflections are observed on the VSP, as is the case on the surface seismic, implying a complex structure in the vicinity of the KLX02 borehole

  14. Distinct bacterial communities in surficial seafloor sediments following the 2010 Deepwater Horizon blowout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting Yang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A major fraction of the petroleum hydrocarbons discharged during the 2010 Macondo oil spill became associated with and sank to the seafloor as marine snow flocs. This sedimentation pulse induced the development of distinct bacterial communities. Between May 2010 and July 2011, full-length 16S rRNA gene clone libraries demonstrated bacterial community succession in oil-polluted sediment samples near the wellhead area. Libraries from early May 2010, before the sedimentation event, served as the baseline control. Freshly deposited oil-derived marine snow was collected on the surface of sediment cores in September 2010, and was characterized by abundantly detected members of the marine Roseobacter cluster within the Alphaproteobacteria. Samples collected in mid-October 2010 closest to the wellhead contained members of the sulfate-reducing, anaerobic bacterial families Desulfobacteraceae and Desulfobulbaceae within the Deltaproteobacteria, suggesting that the oil-derived sedimentation pulse triggered bacterial oxygen consumption and created patchy anaerobic microniches that favored sulfate-reducing bacteria. Phylotypes of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading genus Cycloclasticus, previously found both in surface oil slicks and the deep hydrocarbon plume, were also found in oil-derived marine snow flocs sedimenting on the seafloor in September 2010, and in surficial sediments collected in October and November 2010, but not in any of the control samples. Due to the relative recalcitrance and stability of polycyclic aromatic compounds, Cycloclasticus represents the most persistent microbial marker of seafloor hydrocarbon deposition that we could identify in this dataset. The bacterial imprint of the DWH oil spill had diminished in late November 2010, when the bacterial communities in oil-impacted sediment samples collected near the Macondo wellhead began to resemble their pre-spill counterparts and spatial controls. Samples collected in summer

  15. Cost analysis of ground-water supplies in the North Atlantic region, 1970

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cederstrom, Dagfin John

    1973-01-01

    The cost of municipal and industrial ground water (or, more specifically, large supplies of ground water) at the wellhead in the North Atlantic Region in 1970 generally ranged from 1.5 to 5 cents per thousand gallons. Water from crystalline rocks and shale is relatively expensive. Water from sandstone is less so. Costs of water from sands and gravels in glaciated areas and from Coastal Plain sediments range from moderate to very low. In carbonate rocks costs range from low to fairly high. The cost of ground water at the wellhead is low in areas of productive aquifers, but owing to the cost of connecting pipe, costs increase significantly in multiple-well fields. In the North Atlantic Region, development of small to moderate supplies of ground water may offer favorable cost alternatives to planners, but large supplies of ground water for delivery to one point cannot generally be developed inexpensively. Well fields in the less productive aquifers may be limited by costs to 1 or 2 million gallons a day, but in the more favorable aquifers development of several tens of millions of gallons a day may be practicable and inexpensive. Cost evaluations presented cannot be applied to any one specific well or specific site because yields of wells in any one place will depend on the local geologic and hydrologic conditions; however, with such cost adjustments as may be necessary, the methodology presented should have wide applicability. Data given show the cost of water at the wellhead based on the average yield of several wells. The cost of water delivered by a well field includes costs of connecting pipe and of wells that have the yields and spacings specified. Cost of transport of water from the well field to point of consumption and possible cost of treatment are not evaluated. In the methodology employed, costs of drilling and testing, pumping equipment, engineering for the well field, amortization at 5% percent interest, maintenance, and cost of power are considered. The

  16. Combining microseismic and geomechanical observations to interpret storage integrity at the In Salah CCS site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goertz-Allmann, Bettina P.; Kühn, Daniela; Oye, Volker; Bohloli, Bahman; Aker, Eyvind

    2014-07-01

    We present results from microseismic monitoring and geomechanical analysis obtained at the industrial-scale CO2 sequestration site at the In Salah gas development project in Algeria. More than 5000 microseismic events have been detected at a pilot monitoring well using a master event cross-correlation method. The microseismic activity occurs in four distinct clusters and thereof three clearly correlate with injection rates and wellhead pressures. These event clusters are consistent with a location within the reservoir interval. However, due to insufficient network geometry there are large uncertainties on event location. We estimate a fracture pressure of 155 bar (at the wellhead) from the comparison of injection pressure and injection rate and conclude that reservoir fracture pressure of the injection horizon has most likely been exceeded occasionally, accompanied by increased microseismic activity. Our analysis of 3-D ray tracing for direct and converted phases suggests that one of the event clusters is located at a shallower depth than the reservoir injection interval. However, this event cluster is most likely unrelated to changes in the injection activity at a single well, as the event times do not correlate with the wellhead pressures. Furthermore, this event cluster shows b-values close to one, indicating re-activated natural or tectonic seismicity on pre-existing weakness zones rather than injection induced seismicity. Analysis of event azimuths and significant shear wave splitting of up to 5 per cent provide further valuable insight into fluid migration and fracture orientation at the reservoir level. Although only one geophone was available during the critical injection period, the microseismic monitoring of CO2 injection at In Salah is capable of addressing some of the most relevant questions about fluid migration and reservoir integrity. An improved monitoring array with larger aperture and higher sensitivity is highly recommended, as it could greatly

  17. Technological regime of extraction, an important aid to exploiting natural gas deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katzung, K.P.; Lenk, G.

    1967-02-01

    When planning the economic exploitation of gas reservoirs, it is important to determine as early as possible the constant rate of production and the length of time for which it can be sustained before a booster station must be provided to deliver the gas at the pressure required by the consumer. The following steps are recommended: (1) Determine the productive capacity by the back-pressure test or the isochronal test method. (2) Determine the productivity index and the production rate per well. (3) Calculate the decline of the reservoir pressure. (4) Calculate the cumulative production and the flowing bottomhole pressure as functions of times. (5) Caluculate the wellhead pressure as a function of time. The necessary formulas are given, and the calculations shown for a numerical example; the results are also plotted graphically.

  18. Three dimensional simulation for bayou choctaw strategic petroleum reserve (SPR).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehgartner, Brian L. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Park, Byoung Yoon; Lee, Moo Yul

    2006-12-01

    Three dimensional finite element analyses were performed to evaluate the structural integrity of the caverns located at the Bayou Choctaw (BC) site which is considered a candidate for expansion. Fifteen active and nine abandoned caverns exist at BC, with a total cavern volume of some 164 MMB. A 3D model allowing control of each cavern individually was constructed because the location and depth of caverns and the date of excavation are irregular. The total cavern volume has practical interest, as this void space affects total creep closure in the BC salt mass. Operations including both cavern workover, where wellhead pressures are temporarily reduced to atmospheric, and cavern enlargement due to leaching during oil drawdowns that use water to displace the oil from the caverns, were modeled to account for as many as the five future oil drawdowns in the six SPR caverns. The impacts on cavern stability, underground creep closure, surface subsidence, infrastructure, and well integrity were quantified.

  19. Thermal-Economic Modularization of Small, Organic Rankine Cycle Power Plants for Mid-Enthalpy Geothermal Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yodha Y. Nusiaputra

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The costs of the surface infrastructure in mid-enthalpy geothermal power systems, especially in remote areas, could be reduced by using small, modular Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC power plants. Thermal-economic criteria have been devised to standardize ORC plant dimensions for such applications. We designed a modular ORC to utilize various wellhead temperatures (120–170 °C, mass flow rates and ambient temperatures (−10–40 °C. A control strategy was developed using steady-state optimization, in order to maximize net power production at off-design conditions. Optimum component sizes were determined using specific investment cost (SIC minimization and mean cashflow (MCF maximization for three different climate scenarios. Minimizing SIC did not yield significant benefits, but MCF proved to be a much better optimization function.

  20. Radon-222 content of natural gas samples from Upper and Middle Devonian sandstone and shale reservoirs in Pennsylvania—preliminary data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, E.L.; Kraemer, T.F.

    2012-01-01

    Samples of natural gas were collected as part of a study of formation water chemistry in oil and gas reservoirs in the Appalachian Basin. Nineteen samples (plus two duplicates) were collected from 11 wells producing gas from Upper Devonian sandstones and the Middle Devonian Marcellus Shale in Pennsylvania. The samples were collected from valves located between the wellhead and the gas-water separator. Analyses of the radon content of the gas indicated 222Rn (radon-222) activities ranging from 1 to 79 picocuries per liter (pCi/L) with an overall median of 37 pCi/L. The radon activities of the Upper Devonian sandstone samples overlap to a large degree with the activities of the Marcellus Shale samples.

  1. Flaring down project for Algeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bienek, S. [Joh. Heinr. Bornemann GmbH, Obernkirchen (Germany)

    2008-06-15

    Multiphase boosting as a production scenario for lowering wellhead backpressure, avoiding field separation stations, and achieving longer flow distances is widely accepted by major oil companies. Flaring down of gas is no longer necessary and therefore the use of multiphase pumps has a positive impact on a healthy environment. The twin-screw pump plays a major role when selecting the equipment. Due to its volumetric character heavy slugging, varying water content and other typical multiphase operating challenges, this pump type is well suited for this purpose. With its low speed the fluid is treated very sensitively, so as to widely avoid emulsifying oil and water - a definite advantage for the later separation of the phases. (orig.)

  2. Geothermal emissions data base, Wairakei geothermal field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, S.R. (comp.)

    1978-04-01

    A database subset on the gaseous emissions from the Wairakei geothermal field is presented. Properties and states of the reservoir fluid such as flow rates, wellhead pressure, and enthalpy are included in the file along with the well name and constituent measurement. This subset is the result of an initial screening of the data covering 1965 to 1971, and new additions will be appended periodically to the file. The data is accessed by a database management system as are all other subsets in the file. Thereby, one may search the database for specific data requirements and print selective output. For example, one may wish to locate reservoir conditions for cases only when the level of the constituent exceeded a designated value. Data output is available in the form of numerical compilations such as the attached, or graphical displays disposed to paper, film or magnetic tape.

  3. The coso EGS project - Recent developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, P.; Sheridan, J.; McCulloch, J.; Moore, J.N.; Kovac, K.; Weidler, R.; Hickman, S.

    2005-01-01

    An Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) field experiment will be conducted to hydraulically stimulate injection well 34-9RD2, located on the east flank of the Coso geothermal reservoir, with the objective of increasing the injection rate of this well to 750 gpm at a wellhead pressure of 100 psi or less. The stimulation of this well is expected to create hydraulic communication with the recently drilled production well 38C-9, which is directly south of 34-9RD2. We summarize the results of fracture and stress analyses based upon borehole image logs of 38C-9; petrographic and petrologic analyses of cuttings from both the injection well 34-9RD2 and the production well 38C-9; and plans for the redrilling and stimulation of 34-9RD2.

  4. Gas futurists look westward off Libya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snieckus, D.

    2003-06-01

    This article reports on the Western Libyan two-field Gas Project now underway to pass gas from the desert Wafa field and the offshore Bahr Essalam field in the Gulf of Gabes to the Mellitah onshore complex for final processing before transport via the long distance trunk line - the GreenStream - across the Mediterranean to Sicily. Details are given of the design, fabrication and installation of the Sabratha wellhead and production platform which will treat the sour gas, and the daisy chain linking the Sabrathe platform with the offshore Bahr Essalam subsea development. The selection of materials for the piping and components, the project timescales, and the planned route for the GreenStream are discussed.

  5. Experimental geothermal well at Bad Schinznach. First results; Geothermiebohrung Bad Schinznach. Erste Resultate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haering, M.O. [Haering Geo-Project, Steinmaur (Switzerland)

    1997-12-01

    The spa of Bad Schinznach (Canton Argovia, Switzerland) endeavours to cover its heating requirements with geothermal energy. A recently drilled well to a depth of 890 meters encountered the regional acquifer of thermal water (Oberer Muschelkalk, Triassic) in three levels. Preliminary results indicate a productive aquifer in the uppermost level with a wellhead temperature of 42 C. An additional exploitation of the bottomhole formation temperature of 63 C is envisaged. (orig.) [Deutsch] Das Bad Schinznach (Kanton Aargau, Schweiz) moechte im Rahmen der wirtschaftlichen Moeglichkeiten seinen Waermebedarf mit der Nutzung des Thermalwassers aus dem Oberen Muschelkalk (Trias) decken. Eine neulich abgeteufte Bohrung bis auf 890 Meter Tiefe hat die Formation auf drei Niveaus angetroffen. Erste Resultate deuten auf ein nutzbares Vorkommen im obersten Horizont mit einer Austrittstemperatur von 42 C. Eine zusaetzliche Nutzung der hohen Formationstemperatur von 63 C auf Endtiefe wird erwogen. (orig.)

  6. Oil Characterization and Distribution in Florida Estuary Sediments Following the Deepwater Horizon Spill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mace G. Barron

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Barrier islands of Northwest Florida were heavily oiled during the Deepwater Horizon spill, but less is known about the impacts to the shorelines of the associated estuaries. Shoreline sediment oiling was investigated at 18 sites within the Pensacola Bay, Florida system prior to impact, during peak oiling, and post-wellhead capping. Only two locations closest to the Gulf of Mexico had elevated levels of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH and total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs. These samples showed a clear weathered crude oil signature, pattern of depletion of C9 to C19 alkanes and C0 to C4 naphthalenes, and geochemical biomarker ratios in concordance with weathered Macondo crude oil. All other locations and sample times showed only trace petroleum contamination. The results of this study are consistent with available satellite imagery and visual shoreline survey data showing heavy shoreline oiling limited to sandy beaches near the entrance to Pensacola Bay and shorelines of Santa Rosa Island.

  7. US energy industry financial developments, 1993 first quarter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-25

    Net income for 259 energy companies-- including, 20 major US petroleum companies-- rose 38 percent between the first quarter of 1992 and the first quarter of 1993. An increased level of economic activity, along with colder weather, helped lift the demand for natural gas. crude oil, coal, and electricity. The sharp rise in the domestic price of natural gas at the wellhead relative to the year-ago quarter was the most significant development in US energy during the first quarter. As a consequence of higher natural gas prices, the upstream segment of the petroleum industry reported large gains in income, while downstream income rose due to higher refined product demand. Increased economic activity and higher weather-related natural gas demand also led to improvements in income for the rate-regulated energy segment. However, declining domestic oil production continued to restrain upstream petroleum industry earnings growth, despite a moderate rise in crude oil prices.

  8. Unnatural monopoly: natural gas industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copulos, M.

    1984-07-01

    There appears to be no change in position despite the annual congressional debate over natural gas issues. A fresh look is needed, particularly at the idea that interstate gas pipelines are a natural monopoly that require a government franchise. The Natural Gas Act of 1938 giving the Federal Power Commission jurisdiction over gas pipelines was intended to correct abuses, but resulted in encouraging the pipelines to assume a monopolistic behavior. This was not a serous problem until natural gas prices began rising and shortages appeared due to uneven distribution. The Natural Gas Policy Act reinforced the monopolistic behavior by extending federal controls to the intrastate market. Contract carriage is a remedy that would allow firms and utilities to contract for gas on their own. They would pay pipelines for transport costs only. Competition would increase because there would be new buyers and sellers, and pipelines would have an incentive to seek lower wellhead prices for their contract gas.

  9. Tritium as an indicator of venues for nuclear tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyakhova, O N; Lukashenko, S N; Mulgin, S I; Zhdanov, S V

    2013-10-01

    Currently, due to the Treaty on the Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons there is a highly topical issue of an accurate verification of nuclear explosion venues. This paper proposes to consider new method for verification by using tritium as an indicator. Detailed studies of the tritium content in the air were carried in the locations of underground nuclear tests - "Balapan" and "Degelen" testing sites located in Semipalatinsk Test Site. The paper presents data on the levels and distribution of tritium in the air where tunnels and boreholes are located - explosion epicentres, wellheads and tunnel portals, as well as in estuarine areas of the venues for the underground nuclear explosions (UNE). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Retrofitting of VNG AG gas storage caverns near Bernburg and Bad Lauchstaedt, 1991 through 2006; Umruestung gasgefuellter Kavernen auf den Untergrundspeichern Bad Lauchstaedt und Bernburg der VNG AG von 1991 bis 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, C. [VNG Verbundnetz Gas AG (Germany); Rehmer, K.P.; Pischner, M. [Untergrundspeicher- und Gastechnologie-Systeme GmbH (Germany)

    2007-09-13

    In 1991 the VNG AG has started to modernize outdated installations of the underground gas storage caverns near Bernburg and Bad Lauchstaedt (Germany). On 33 caverns, which were mostly leached during the 70s and 80s of the last century, the old wellheads have been replaced (or will be replaced soon) by new ones. In this paper the reasons and technical suppositions for these measures will be explained. Most of the modifications have been made above gasfilled caverns and have been safe despite of the high pressures. The packer-system developed by UGS GmbH and VNG AG will be presented. Furthermore the technical procedures are grouped and described. Finally experiences and advantages will be underlined. (orig.)

  11. Prediction of Dynamic Wellbore Pressure in Gasified Fluid Drilling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Zhiming; Ping Liqiu; Zou Ke

    2007-01-01

    The basis of designing gasified drilling is to understand the behavior of gas/liquid two-phase flow in the wellbore. The equations of mass and momentum conservation and equation of fluid flow in porous media were used to establish a dynamic model to predict weIlbore pressure according to the study results of Ansari and Beggs-Brill on gas-liquid two-phase flow. The dynamic model was solved by the finite difference approach combined with the mechanistic steady state model. The mechanistic dynamic model was numerically implemented into a FORTRAN 90 computer program and could simulate the coupled flow of fluid in wellbore and reservoir. The dynamic model revealed the effects of wellhead back pressure and injection rate of gas/liquid on bottomhole pressure. The model was validated against full-scale experimental data, and its 5.0% of average relative error could satisfy the accuracy requirements in engineering design.

  12. Active Feedback Control of Unstable Wells at the Brage Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten Dalsmo

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we will present new results on stabilization of horizontal wells with gas lift. The stabilization is achieved by a novel dynamic feedback control solution using the production choke at the wellhead. The primary input to the dynamic feedback controller is a measurement of the downhole pressure. The field results to be presented are from the Brage field operated by Norsk Hydro in the North sea. Production at Brage began in 1993 and the field went off plateau in 1998. As the production has decreased, the problems related to unstable production from some of the wells have escalated steadily. The results from the extensive field tests on the Brage wells arc very promising. The tests have confirmed the stabilization feature of the control solution. The pressure and flow variations have been dramatically reduced, and it is possible to produce the wells at a lower downhole pressure leading to increased production.

  13. Appraisal of transport and deformation in shale reservoirs using natural noble gas tracers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heath, Jason E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kuhlman, Kristopher L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Robinson, David G. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bauer, Stephen J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gardner, William Payton [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Univ. of Montana, Missoula, MT (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This report presents efforts to develop the use of in situ naturally-occurring noble gas tracers to evaluate transport mechanisms and deformation in shale hydrocarbon reservoirs. Noble gases are promising as shale reservoir diagnostic tools due to their sensitivity of transport to: shale pore structure; phase partitioning between groundwater, liquid, and gaseous hydrocarbons; and deformation from hydraulic fracturing. Approximately 1.5-year time-series of wellhead fluid samples were collected from two hydraulically-fractured wells. The noble gas compositions and isotopes suggest a strong signature of atmospheric contribution to the noble gases that mix with deep, old reservoir fluids. Complex mixing and transport of fracturing fluid and reservoir fluids occurs during production. Real-time laboratory measurements were performed on triaxially-deforming shale samples to link deformation behavior, transport, and gas tracer signatures. Finally, we present improved methods for production forecasts that borrow statistical strength from production data of nearby wells to reduce uncertainty in the forecasts.

  14. IFP prepares the 3000 m depth offshore; L'IFP prepare l'offshore par - 3000 m

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2001-03-01

    The exploitation of deep offshore oil reserves (up to -3000 m) represents a major challenge for oil companies. However, such oil fields have a particular geologic structure and their exploitation requires a specific R and D effort (surface ships, wellhead-floating support links, deep sea separation-reinjection equipment, polyphasic pumping, flow control). Todays R and D trends in this domain concern: the management of flows (hydrates and paraffins), the development of biodegradable dispersants and additives to control the plugging of pipes, the poly-phase pumping and the modeling of poly-phase flows, the development of new materials (risers, pipes, mooring lines, thermal insulating materials etc..) and their mechanical testing (stress analysis, hydrodynamics). Short paper. (J.S.)

  15. Thermal extraction analysis of five Los Azufres production wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruger, Paul; Quijano, Luis

    1995-01-26

    Thermal energy extraction from five wells supplying 5-MWe wellhead generators in three zones of the Los Azufres geothermal field has been examined from production and chemical data compiled over 14-years of operation. The data, as annual means, are useful in observing small-scale changes in reservoir performance with continuous production. The chemical components are chloride for quality control and the geothermometer elements for reservoir temperatures. The flowrate and fluid enthalpy data are used to calculate the thermal extraction rates. Integration of these data provides an estimate of the total energy extracted from the zone surrounding the well. The combined production and chemical geothermometer data are used to model the produced fluid as coming from just-penetrating wells for which the annual produced mass originates from a series of concentric hemispheric shells moving out into the reservoir. Estimates are made of the drawdown distance into the reservoir and the far-field conditions.

  16. Thermally induced fractures: A field proven analytical model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Detienne, J.L.; Creusot, M.; Kesslar, N. [and others

    1995-12-31

    Thermally Induced Fracturing (TIF) during water injection is a well-established phenomenon. TIF modelling implies solving simultaneously equations which are dealt with separately in conventional petroleum engineering applications. Combining these equations leads to very complex computer programs. This has led to the requirement for the simple model which is presented in this paper. Coupling analytical expressions representing each of these phenomena, rather than the basic physical equations, has led to a computer program which can be run on a modem desk-top computer. This program has successfully matched the daily wellhead pressure and injection rate over a period of 3 to 5 years, for injection wells in complex sandstone/dolomite reservoirs. The model can be used for injection well monitoring as well as in a predictive mode when planning new water injection projects. The algorithm is sufficiently simple to be implemented in a conventional reservoir simulator.

  17. Pore pressure migration during hydraulic stimulation due to permeability enhancement by low-pressure subcritical fracture slip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukuhira, Yusuke; Moriya, Hirokazu; Ito, Takatoshi; Asanuma, Hiroshi; Häring, Markus

    2017-04-01

    Understanding the details of pressure migration during hydraulic stimulation is important for the design of an energy extraction system and reservoir management, as well as for the mitigation of hazardous-induced seismicity. Based on microseismic and regional stress information, we estimated the pore pressure increase required to generate shear slip on an existing fracture during stimulation. Spatiotemporal analysis of pore pressure migration revealed that lower pore pressure migrates farther and faster and that higher pore pressure migrates more slowly. These phenomena can be explained by the relationship between fracture permeability and stress state criticality. Subcritical fractures experience shear slip following smaller increases of pore pressure and promote migration of pore pressure because of their enhanced permeability. The difference in migration rates between lower and higher pore pressures suggests that the optimum wellhead pressure is the one that can stimulate relatively permeable fractures, selectively. Its selection optimizes economic benefits and minimizes seismic risk.

  18. 油田伴生天然气回收优化的研究%Optimization for Recycle of Light Hydrocarbon of Oilfield Associated Gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张亦翔; 刘畅

    2015-01-01

    针对目前油田对于伴生气回收处理设备进行了优化,改用增压泵为井口集气装置,利用涡流管在撬装设备中进行轻烃的回收,达到节能降耗和提高伴生气利用率的最终目的。%This article describes the optimization for the equipment used in recycling of associated gas in oilfields,which include using booster pump for wellhead gas collecting device and vortex tube in skid-mounted equipment for light hydrocarbon recovery, which can save energy and improve the utilization ratio of associated gas.

  19. Monitoring and Modeling the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill: A Record-Breaking Enterprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Colin

    2013-05-01

    On 20 April 2010, an explosion on the Deepwater Horizon oil drilling platform killed 11 people, and the subsequent blowout of the deepwater wellhead sparked one of the most costly oil spills in history. In the days and months that followed, researchers and disaster response crews flocked to the Gulf of Mexico to study, assess, and guide cleanup operations. In the AGU monograph Monitoring and Modeling the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill: A Record-Breaking Enterprise, editors Yonggang Liu, Amy MacFadyen, Zhen-Gang Ji, and Robert H. Weisberg pull together the results of the state-of-the-art rapid response research conducted during the Gulf oil spill. Here Eos talks to Yonggang Liu.

  20. On the dynamic effects during under-balanced drilling operations and their prevention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Z.; Rommetveit, R.; Maglione, R.; Bijleveld, A.; Gazaniol, D.

    1997-12-31

    In most under-balanced drilling (UBD) operations, the under-balanced condition must be generated artificially by injecting gas into the well. Due to the high compressibility nature of the gaseous phase and interruptions to the system, the flowing system is a non-steady state one, especially when jointed pipes are used. This is experienced by the varying liquid and gas flow-out rates, and spikes in the bottom hole pressure. These dynamic pressures have been observed and documented in field UBD operations. This publication presents an extensive examination of the dynamic effects during an under-balanced operation, and it discusses measures that are necessary to avoid the excessive peak loading of the surface facilities, the excessive wellhead pressure, and accidental overbalanced situations downhole. 9 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Development of an environmentally friendly combined scale/corrosion inhibitor for subsea application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, Alyn [M-I SWACO, Houston, TX (United States)

    2009-07-01

    In many offshore oil and gas fields, production chemicals are required to be applied subsea to mitigate the common flow assurance problems that are present either in the well or subsea gathering and flow lines. Common flow assurance issues include scale, hydrate formation, corrosion and also wax deposition. For subsea systems, production chemicals are applied either at the subsea wellhead, flow lines or downhole. However, for many fields there are an inadequate number of chemical umbilicals, chemical injection pumps or chemical storage tanks. Consequently, there is a strong requirement for combination or multifunctional products that help to minimize the amount of chemical injection equipment needed. This paper describes the work involved in developing an environmentally acceptable combined scale/corrosion inhibitor for deployment in subsea pipelines in a UK North Sea oil field. The paper details the laboratory testing performed and includes corrosion field data that has been used to confirm product performance. (author)

  2. Microbial response to the MC252 Oil and Corexit 9500 in the Gulf of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romy eChakraborty

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The Deepwater Horizon spill released over 4.1 million barrels of crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico. In an effort to mitigate large oil slicks, the dispersant Corexit 9500 was sprayed onto surface slicks and injected directly at the wellhead at water depth of 1,500 meters. Several research groups were involved in investigating the fate of the MC-252 oil using newly advanced molecular tools to elucidate microbial interactions with oil, gases and dispersant. Presented here is a comprehensive overview of the ecogenomics of microbial degradation of MC-252 oil and gases in the water column and shorelines and some insight into the fate of the dispersant Corexit 9500 that was added to aid in oil dispersion process. We also present data that show the dispersant was not toxic to the indigenous microbes at concentrations added, and several bacterial species were able to degrade the various components of Corexit 9500.

  3. Hydraulic analysis of the operation of oil and gas wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabor, T.; Szaharov, V.A.; Szilas, A.P.

    1984-01-01

    The results are cited of a study of the operation of operational oil and gas wells. A hydraulic system of operational wells is identified for the first time, which consists of elements of a stratum, well and surface equipment system. After a brief presentation of the rating methods which describe the operation of the elements, the methods for hydraulic analysis of the complete system are detailed. After theoretical presentation of the methods, the course of computer (EVM) programs, developed for practical purposes, is shown. These programs may be used to solve two basic problems in gusher extraction of oil: identification of the maximal flow rate of a gusher well and the operational point of a well which has a wellhead coupling.

  4. BX in-situ oil-shale project. Quarterly technical progress report, June 1, 1981-August 31, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dougan, P.M.

    1981-09-20

    June 1, 1981-August 31, 1981 was the third consecutive quarter of superheated steam injection at the BX In Situ Oil Shale Project. Injection was continuous except for the period of July 14th to August 1st when the injection was suspended during the drilling of core hole BX-37. During the quarter, 99,760 barrels of water as superheated steam were injected into Project injection wells at an average well head temperature of 752/sup 0/F and an average wellhead pressure of 1312 PSIG. During the same period, 135,469 barrels of fluid were produced from the Project production wells for a produced to injected fluid ratio of 1.36 to 1.0. Net oil production during the quarter was 38 barrels.

  5. Isotopic changes in the fluids of the Cerro Prieto {Beta} Reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, Mahendra; Quijano, Luis; Gutierrez, Hector; Iglesias, Eduardo; Truesdell, Alfred

    1996-01-24

    Monitoring changes with time of the isotopes of water (18O and D) in wellhead fluids is an effective way of indicating reservoir changes and processes. Because 18O concentrations in water are altered by high-temperature exchange with rock oxygen and because both 18O and D are fractionated in vapor-liquid separation processes at the surface (separators and cooling towers), these isotopes are excellent indicators of inflow and distribution of fluids from outside the reservoir, either natural or injected. Studies of the isotopic compositions of fluids from the Cerro Prieto field in Baja California, Mexico show that pressure drawdown in the major β (beta) reservoir has caused intense boiling followed by inflow of water from outside the reservoir. A method of field exploitation based on this behavior is discussed.

  6. Hydrodynamic/kinetic reactions in liquid dominated geothermal systems: Hydroscale Test Program, Mercer 2 well site South Brawley, California (Tests No. 15--20). Final report, 27 October 1980--6 February 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nesewich, J.P.; Gracey, C.M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1982-04-01

    The Aerojet Energy Conversion Company, under contract to the Los Alamos National Laboratory, US Department of Energy, has constructed and tested a mobile geothermal well-site test unit at the Mercer 2 well in South Brawley, California (Imperial Valley). The equipment controlled, monitored, and recorded all process conditions of single- and dual-flash power cycles. Single- and two-phase flashed brine effluents were flowed through piping component test sections to provide hydrodynamic/kinetic data for scale formation. The unit operated at flowrates in excess of 200 gpm and is designed to accommodate flowrates up to 300 gpm. Primary scale formations encountered were those of Pbs, Fe{sub 2} (OH){sub 3}Cl (iron hydroxychloride), iron chlorides, and non-crystalline forms Of SiO{sub 2}. The formation of iron hydroxychloride was due to the unusually high concentration of iron in the wellhead brine (5000 mg/1).

  7. Fuel from microalgae lipid products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, A.M.; Feinberg, D.A.

    1984-04-01

    The large-scale production of microalgae is a promising method of producing a renewable feedstock for a wide variety of fuel products currently refined from crude petroleum. These microalgae-derived products include lipid extraction products (triglycerides, fatty acids, and hydrocarbons) and catalytic conversion products (paraffins and olefins). Microalgal biomass productivity and lipid composition of current experimental systems are estimated at 66.0 metric tons per hectare year and 30% lipid content. Similar yields in a large-scale facility indicate that production costs are approximately six times higher than the average domestic price for crude, well-head petroleum. Based on achievable targets for productivity and production costs, the potential for microalgae as a fuel feedstock is presented in context with selected process refining routes and is compared with conventional and alternative feedstocks (e.g., oilseeds) with which microalgae must compete. 24 references, 9 figures, 4 tables.

  8. Classification of Geothermal Resources - An engineering approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K.C.

    1996-01-24

    Geothermal resources have been classified into low, intermediate and high enthalpy resources by their reservoir temperatures. The temperature ranges used are arbitrary and there is not a general agreement. Geothermal resources should be classified by two independent thermodynamic properties of their fluids at the wellhead. They should reflect the fluids availability to do work. By setting the triple point of water as the sink condition, and normalising the fluids specific exergies by the maximum specific exergy of dry saturated steam, geothermal resources can be classified into high, medium, and low category resources by their specific exergy indices (SEI) of greater than 0.5, between 0.05 and 0.5, and less than 0.05. These correspond to geothermal fluids having exergies greater than that of dry saturated steam at 1 bar absolute, between saturated water and dry saturated steam at 1 bar absolute, and less than saturated water at 1 bar absolute respectively.

  9. Reservoir engineering studies of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, K. P.; Lippmann, M. J.; Tsang, C. F.

    1982-09-01

    Reservoir engineering studies of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field began in 1978 under a five-year cooperative agreement between the US Department of Energy and the Comision Federal de Electricidad de Mexico, with the ultimate objective of simulating the reservoir to forecast its production capacity, energy longevity, and recharge capability under various production and injection scenarios. During the fiscal year 1981, attempts were made to collect information on the evolution history of the field since exploitation began; the information is to be used later to validate the reservoir model. To this end, wellhead production data were analyzed for heat and mass flow and also for changes in reservoir pressures, temperatures, and saturations for the period from March 1973 to November 1980.

  10. The Terra Nova oil field development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce, G.C. [Petro-Canada, Inc., St. John' s, NF (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    Before expanding on the development of the Terra Nova oilfield, the author discussed the overall business strategy of Petro-Canada and identified where the Terra Nova and offshore Newfoundland oil have their place within this strategy. The principal basins and oilfields offshore Newfoundland were reviewed, then the emphasis shifted to rest on the Terra Nova development project. A whole range of topics were brought up, including the Floating Production, Storage and Offloading (FPSO) facility, the modules layout, the FPSO located at Bull Arm, and the floating production systems. The physical environment of the Grand Banks was highlighted, and the next few sections were devoted to the Terra Nova FPSO, FPSO and drill centres, the Turret General Arrangement, and Spider buoy including the disconnect/reconnect. The last four sections dealt with the animation of riser movement, the wellhead protection animation, Henry Goodrich, and operations readiness.

  11. Geothermal emissions data base: Cerro Prieto geothermal field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, S.R. (comp.)

    1978-04-01

    A new database subset on the gaseous emissions from the Cerro Prieto geothermal field is presented. Properties and states of the reservoir fluid such as flow rates, wellhead pressure, and enthalpy are included in the file along with the well name and constituent measurement. This subset is the result of an initial screening of the data covering 1967 to 1969, and new additions will be appended periodically to the file. The data are accessed by a database management system as are all other subsets in the file. Thereby, one may search the database for specific data requirements and print selective output. For example, one may wish to locate reservoir conditions for cases only when the level of the constituent exceeded a designated value. Data output is available in the form of numerical compilations such as the attached, or graphical displays disposed to paper, film, or magnetic tape.

  12. Methodology for optimizing the development and operation of gas storage fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mercer, J.C.; Ammer, J.R.; Mroz, T.H.

    1995-04-01

    The Morgantown Energy Technology Center is pursuing the development of a methodology that uses geologic modeling and reservoir simulation for optimizing the development and operation of gas storage fields. Several Cooperative Research and Development Agreements (CRADAs) will serve as the vehicle to implement this product. CRADAs have been signed with National Fuel Gas and Equitrans, Inc. A geologic model is currently being developed for the Equitrans CRADA. Results from the CRADA with National Fuel Gas are discussed here. The first phase of the CRADA, based on original well data, was completed last year and reported at the 1993 Natural Gas RD&D Contractors Review Meeting. Phase 2 analysis was completed based on additional core and geophysical well log data obtained during a deepening/relogging program conducted by the storage operator. Good matches, within 10 percent, of wellhead pressure were obtained using a numerical simulator to history match 2 1/2 injection withdrawal cycles.

  13. Natural gas market under the Natural Gas Policy Act

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, M.; Ody, N.; O' Neill, R.; Rodekohr, M.; Shambaugh, P.; Thrasher, R.; Trapmann, W.

    1981-06-01

    This first of a series of analyses presents data on the exploration, development, production, and pricing of US natural gas since the passage of the Natural Gas Policy Act in 1978. Designed to give pricing incentives for new-well activity, the NGPA has apparently eliminated many of the pricing differences that existed between interstate and intrastate markets. Estimates of the annual production volumes in trillion CF/yr of gas for the categories defined by the NGPA include new gas 4.5, new onshore wells 4.1, high-cost unconventional gas 0.7, and stripper wells 0.4. Preliminary statistics on the end-use pricing of natural gas suggest that significant changes in the average wellhead prices have not caused correspondingly large increases in the price of delivered gas.

  14. Lagrangian-based Backtracking of Oil Spill Dynamics from SAR Images: Application to Montara Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautama, Budhi Gunadharma; Mercier, Gregoire; Fablet, Ronan; Longepe, Nicolas

    2016-08-01

    Within the framework of INDESO project (Infrastructure Development Space Oceanography), we address the issue of oilspill and aim at developing an operational SAR- based system for monitoring this issue in Indonesian waters from space. In this work, we focus on the backtrack- ing of an oilspill detected from SAR observations. As a case-study, we consider one large oil spill event that happened in Indonesian waters in 2009, referred to as the Montara oilspill. On 21 August 2009, the Montara Wellhead Platform had an uncontrolled release of hydrocarbons from one of the platform wells. It was estimated that 400 barrels (or approximately 64 tonnes) of crude oil were being lost per day. The uncontrolled release continued until 3 November 2009 and response operations continued until 3 December 2009. In this work, we develop a Langragian analysis and associated numerical inversion tools with a view to further analyzing the oil spread due to the Montara Wellhead Platform. Our model relies on a 2D Lagrangian transport model developed by CLS (Collecte Localisation Satellite). Our model involves four main parameters : the weights of wind- related and current-related advection, the origin and the duration of the oil leakage. Given SAR oilspill detections, we propose a numerical inversion of the parameters of the Lagrangian model, so that the simulated drift match the SAR observations of the oil spill. We demonstrate the relevance of the proposed model and numerical scheme for the Montara oilspill and further discuss their operational interest for the space-based oilspill backtracking and forecasting.

  15. Ultra-Deepwater Gulf of Mexico Oil and Gas: Energy Return on Financial Investment and a Preliminary Assessment of Energy Return on Energy Investment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Moerschbaecher

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to calculate the energy return on financial investment (EROFI of oil and gas production in the ultra-deepwater Gulf of Mexico (GoM in 2009 and for the estimated oil reserves of the Macondo Prospect (Mississippi Canyon Block 252. We also calculated a preliminary Energy Return on Investment (EROI based on published energy intensity ratios including a sensitivity analysis using a range of energy intensity ratios (7 MJ/$, 12 MJ/$, and 18 MJ/$. The EROFI for ultra-deepwater oil and gas at the well-head, ranged from 0.019 to 0.022 barrels (BOE, or roughly 0.85 gallons, per dollar. Our estimates of EROI for 2009 ultra-deepwater oil and natural gas at the well-head ranged from 7–22:1. The independently-derived EROFI of the Macondo Prospect oil reserves ranged from 0.012 to 0.0071 barrels per dollar (i.e., $84 to $140 to produce a barrel and EROI ranged from 4–16:1, related to the energy intensity ratio used to quantify costs. We believe that the lower end of these EROI ranges (i.e., 4 to 7:1 is more accurate since these values were derived using energy intensities averaged across the entire domestic oil and gas industry. Time series of the financial and preliminary EROI estimates found in this study suggest that the extraction costs of ultra-deepwater energy reserves in the GoM come at increasing energetic and economic cost to society.

  16. INEEL Source Water Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sehlke, Gerald

    2003-03-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) covers approximately 890 mi2 and includes 12 public water systems that must be evaluated for Source water protection purposes under the Safe Drinking Water Act. Because of its size and location, six watersheds and five aquifers could potentially affect the INEEL’s drinking water sources. Based on a preliminary evaluation of the available information, it was determined that the Big Lost River, Birch Creek, and Little Lost River Watersheds and the eastern Snake River Plain Aquifer needed to be assessed. These watersheds were delineated using the United States Geologic Survey’s Hydrological Unit scheme. Well capture zones were originally estimated using the RESSQC module of the Environmental Protection Agency’s Well Head Protection Area model, and the initial modeling assumptions and results were checked by running several scenarios using Modflow modeling. After a technical review, the resulting capture zones were expanded to account for the uncertainties associated with changing groundwater flow directions, a thick vadose zone, and other data uncertainties. Finally, all well capture zones at a given facility were merged to a single wellhead protection area at each facility. A contaminant source inventory was conducted, and the results were integrated with the well capture zones, watershed and aquifer information, and facility information using geographic information system technology to complete the INEEL’s Source Water Assessment. Of the INEEL’s 12 public water systems, three systems rated as low susceptibility (EBR-I, Main Gate, and Gun Range), and the remainder rated as moderate susceptibility. No INEEL public water system rated as high susceptibility. We are using this information to develop a source water management plan from which we will subsequently implement an INEEL-wide source water management program. The results are a very robust set of wellhead protection areas that will

  17. Geothermal power generation. Bruchsal and Soultz-sous-Forets; Geothermische Stromerzeugung. Bruchsal und Soultz-sous-Forets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mergner, Hanna; Eggeling, Lena; Koelbel, Thomas; Muench, Wolfram [EnBW Energie Baden-Wuerttemberg AG, Karlsruhe (Germany). Forschung und Innovation; Genter, Albert [G.E.I.E EMC, Soultz-sous-Forets (France)

    2012-11-01

    For more than 100 years geothermal heat and power production has been an important part of the share of energy in areas with outstanding geological conditions. Also under the typical conditions in Middle Europe the geothermal energy gains in importance. In the following, we focus on two geothermal power plants located in the Upper Rhine Valley: Soultz-sous-Forets and Bruchsal, commissioning in 2008 and 2009. By comparing both sites the big difference lies in the technology used for extracting hot thermal water: while the German plant in Bruchsal has access to a natural hot water source in a relatively low depth of 2,000 to 2,500 m, the French sister project performs by chemical and hydraulic stimulation a man-developed reservoir as energy source in a depth of 5,000 m. The plant in Soultz consists of four wells with a wellhead temperature of 165 C. In Bruchsal a typical geothermal doublet is used where the thermal brine has a wellhead temperature of about 124 C. Also the power plants show significant differences. On both locations binary-cycles are responsible for power generation, but in Soultz a regular Organic-Rankine-Cycle (ORC) is installed, in Bruchsal a Kalina-Cycle is in operation. What both projects have in common is their research character. Corrosion, the prevention of scalings and the optimization of all plant's components are in the focus of many research projects. Even so the electricity generation costs can already compete with other renewable energies by today, the reliable availability of geothermal power plants and the reduction of the power generation costs to 10 ct/kWh in the next decade is the current goal of the entire research effort. (orig.)

  18. Hydrocarbons in Deep-Sea Sediments following the 2010 Deepwater Horizon Blowout in the Northeast Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Isabel C; Schwing, Patrick T; Brooks, Gregg R; Larson, Rebekka A; Hastings, David W; Ellis, Greg; Goddard, Ethan A; Hollander, David J

    2015-01-01

    The Deepwater Horizon (DWH) spill released 4.9 million barrels of oil into the Gulf of Mexico (GoM) over 87 days. Sediment and water sampling efforts were concentrated SW of the DWH and in coastal areas. Here we present geochemistry data from sediment cores collected in the aftermath of the DWH event from 1000-1500 m water depth in the DeSoto Canyon, NE of the DWH wellhead. Cores were analyzed at high-resolution (at 2 mm and 5 mm intervals) in order to evaluate the concentration, composition and input of hydrocarbons to the seafloor. Specifically, we analyzed total organic carbon (TOC), aliphatic, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs), and biomarker (hopanes, steranes, diasteranes) compounds to elucidate possible sources and transport pathways for deposition of hydrocarbons. Results showed higher hydrocarbon concentrations during 2010-2011 compared to years prior to 2010. Hydrocarbon inputs in 2010-2011 were composed of a mixture of sources including terrestrial, planktonic, and weathered oil. Our results suggest that after the DWH event, both soluble and highly insoluble hydrocarbons were deposited at enhanced rates in the deep-sea. We proposed two distinct transport pathways of hydrocarbon deposition: 1) sinking of oil-particle aggregates (hydrocarbon-contaminated marine snow and/or suspended particulate material), and 2) advective transport and direct contact of the deep plume with the continental slope surface sediments between 1000-1200 m. Our findings underline the complexity of the depositional event observed in the aftermath of the DWH event in terms of multiple sources, variable concentrations, and spatial (depth-related) variability in the DeSoto Canyon, NE of the DWH wellhead.

  19. Origins of and countermeasures for the abnormal pressures in well production of the Ojarly gas field in the Right Bank of the Amu-Darya River, Turkmenistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peijun Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Ojarly gas field, the major supplier of the Project Phase Ⅱ of the Right Bank of the Amu Darya River, is just small but valuable like a golden bean, although it has good reservoir properties and a high gas production capacity, the occurrence of continuous sharp decline of pressure in the well production shows a great difference from the previous well test program. In view of this, an integrated analysis method was established for the whole gas well production process to discover the three main reasons causing the abnormal well pressure. First, the formation energy and pressure dropped so fast that the wellhead pressure also fell over the period. Second, there was abnormal fluids pressure drop in the wellbore tube and throttling effect might occur in the production tube, so the pressure drop became abnormally increased. Third, due to the abnormally-increasing gas-yield pressure drop and unusually-decreasing gas productivity, the wellhead oil pressure dropped significantly. Also, through dynamic monitoring and in-depth analysis, it is also considered that due to the high density of drilling fluids and well-developed pores and caverns in the reservoirs, more and more barites separated from the fluids would be settled down covering the pay zones, so both the gas-generating capacity and production pressure significantly decreased. On this basis, some technical countermeasures were taken such as re-stimulation of reservoirs, removal of gas-producing channels, increase of seepage capacity, etc. In addition, by use of sand-flushing and acidizing, both the comprehensive skin factor and the production pressure drop were reduced to improve the well gas production capacity and maintain high productivity effectively. This study provides a technical support for long-term sustainable development and production of this gas field.

  20. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Source Water Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sehlke, G.

    2003-03-17

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) covers approximately 890 square miles and includes 12 public water systems that must be evaluated for Source water protection purposes under the Safe Drinking Water Act. Because of its size and location, six watersheds and five aquifers could potentially affect the INEEL's drinking water sources. Based on a preliminary evaluation of the available information, it was determined that the Big Lost River, Birch Creek, and Little Lost River Watersheds and the eastern Snake River Plain Aquifer needed to be assessed. These watersheds were delineated using the United States Geologic Survey's Hydrological Unit scheme. Well capture zones were originally estimated using the RESSQC module of the Environmental Protection Agency's Well Head Protection Area model, and the initial modeling assumptions and results were checked by running several scenarios using Modflow modeling. After a technical review, the resulting capture zones were expanded to account for the uncertainties associated with changing groundwater flow directions, a this vadose zone, and other data uncertainties. Finally, all well capture zones at a given facility were merged to a single wellhead protection area at each facility. A contaminant source inventory was conducted, and the results were integrated with the well capture zones, watershed and aquifer information, and facility information using geographic information system technology to complete the INEEL's Source Water Assessment. Of the INEEL's 12 public water systems, three systems rated as low susceptibility (EBR-1, Main Gate, and Gun Range), and the remainder rated as moderate susceptibility. No INEEL public water system rated as high susceptibility. We are using this information to develop a source water management plan from which we will subsequently implement an INEEL-wide source water management program. The results are a very robust set of wellhead

  1. Biodegradation of Hydrocarbons within the Water Column and Marsh Sediments following the Deepwater Horizon Accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atlas, R.; Cook, L.; Murray, K.; Cerrito, K.; Faith, S.; Boehm, P.

    2012-12-01

    Physical and chemical dispersion of oil released from the Deepwater Horizon spill between April 20 and July 15, 2010 resulted in fine droplets and dissolved hydrocarbons moving away from the wellhead within the water column. Both alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were rapidly biodegraded as evidenced by detailed chemistry measurements using GC and GC-MS analyses of over 10,000 water samples. During the release (April-July), concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) attenuated rapidly with distance from the release point (the wellhead) and were seen to reach biodegradation. Loss of total and high molecular weight alkanes and PAH relative to the conserved biomarker hopane also showed that there was extensive hydrocarbon biodegradation. Shortly after the well was capped most of the hydrocarbons in the deepwater had been biodegraded to levels below analytical detection limits. Clearly microbial biodegradation of the oil within the water column removed many of the toxic components and reduced the overall impact of the oil released from the well. Oil that reached the water surface and formed slicks was less extensively biodegraded by microbes as it moved toward the shorelines. A study of impacted Louisiana coastal marshes 1 year later, however, showed that residual oil was very highly weathered with losses of alkanes and PAHs in the MC252 oiled sediment samples. Where sufficient oil was present for detailed chemical analyses changes in C17/pristine, C18/phytane, C2phenanthrene/C2dibenzothiophene, C3phenanthrene/C3dibenzothiophene, total polycyclic aromatics to hopane, and total heavy polycyclic aromatics (4-6 rings) to hopane showed evidence for extensive biodegradation. Molecular analyses performed with PhyloChip, GeoChip and whole metagenome sequencing confirmed that microbial populations in marsh sediments were capable of hydrocarbon biodegradation.

  2. Natural gas productive capacity for the lower 48 states 1984 through 1996, February 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-09

    This is the fourth wellhead productive capacity report. The three previous ones were published in 1991, 1993, and 1994. This report should be of particular interest to those in Congress, Federal and State agencies, industry, and the academic community, who are concerned with the future availability of natural gas. The EIA Dallas Field Office has prepared five earlier reports regarding natural gas productive capacity. These reports, Gas Deliverability and Flow Capacity of Surveillance Fields, reported deliverability and capacity data for selected gas fields in major gas producing areas. The data in the reports were based on gas-well back-pressure tests and estimates of gas-in-place for each field or reservoir. These reports use proven well testing theory, most of which has been employed by industry since 1936 when the Bureau of Mines first published Monograph 7. Demand for natural gas in the United States is met by a combination of natural gas production, underground gas storage, imported gas, and supplemental gaseous fuels. Natural gas production requirements in the lower 48 States have been increasing during the last few years while drilling has remained at low levels. This has raised some concern about the adequacy of future gas supplies, especially in periods of peak heating or cooling demand. The purpose of this report is to address these concerns by presenting a 3-year projection of the total productive capacity of natural gas at the wellhead for the lower 48 States. Alaska is excluded because Alaskan gas does not enter the lower-48 States pipeline system. The Energy Information Administration (EIA) generates this 3-year projection based on historical gas-well drilling and production data from State, Federal, and private sources. In addition to conventional gas-well gas, coalbed gas and oil-well gas are also included.

  3. Natural gas productive capacity for the lower 48 States, 1980 through 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-14

    The purpose of this report is to analyze monthly natural gas wellhead productive capacity in the lower 48 States from 1980 through 1992 and project this capacity from 1993 through 1995. For decades, natural gas supplies and productive capacity have been adequate to meet demand. In the 1970`s the capacity surplus was small because of market structure (split between interstate and intrastate), increasing demand, and insufficient drilling. In the early 1980`s, lower demand, together with increased drilling, led to a large surplus capacity as new productive capacity came on line. After 1986, this large surplus began to decline as demand for gas increased, gas prices fell, and gas well completions dropped sharply. In late December 1989, the decline in this surplus, accompanied by exceptionally high demand and temporary weather-related production losses, led to concerns about the adequacy of monthly productive capacity for natural gas. These concerns should have been moderated by the gas system`s performance during the unusually severe winter weather in March 1993 and January 1994. The declining trend in wellhead productive capacity is expected to be reversed in 1994 if natural gas prices and drilling meet or exceed the base case assumption. This study indicates that in the low, base, and high drilling cases, monthly productive capacity should be able to meet normal production demands through 1995 in the lower 48 States (Figure ES1). Exceptionally high peak-day or peak-week production demand might not be met because of physical limitations such as pipeline capacity. Beyond 1995, as the capacity of currently producing wells declines, a sufficient number of wells and/or imports must be added each year in order to ensure an adequate gas supply.

  4. Characterization of the microbial diversity in production waters of mesothermic and geothermic Tunisian oilfields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mnif, Sami; Bru-Adan, Valérie; Godon, Jean-Jacques; Sayadi, Sami; Chamkha, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    The microbial diversity of production waters of five Tunisian oilfields was investigated using Single Strand Conformation Polymorphism (SSCP) technique followed by cloning-sequencing. Dynamics of bacterial populations in production waters collected from four wellheads were also evaluated. For all production water samples collected, DNA from Archaea and Eucarya was not sufficiently abundant to permit detection rRNA genes from these groups by PCR-SSCP. In contrast, the bacterial rRNA genes were detected in all samples, except for samples from DOULEB12 and RAMOURA wells. SSCP profiles attested that two of the studied geothermic wells (ASHTART47 and ASHTART48) had shown a clear change over time, whereas a stable diversity was found with the mesophilic DOULEB well (DL3). PCR amplification of rRNA genes was unsuccessful with samples from DOULEB (DL12) at all three sampling time. The bacterial diversity present in production waters collected from pipelines of SERCINA and LITAYEM oilfields was high, while production waters collected from wellheads (ASHTART and DOULEB) exhibited lower diversity. The partial study of the biodiversity showed a dominance of uncultured bacteria and Pseudomonas genus (class of the Gammaproteobacteria) in three of the studied oilfields (ASHTART47, ASHTART48 and DOULEB3). However, for LITAYEM oilfield, a significant dominance of 5 phyla (Proteobacteria, Thermotogae, Firmicutes, Synergistetes, Bacteroidetes) was shown. Our study gives a real picture of the microbiology of some Tunisian oilfield production waters and shows that some of the sequenced bacterial clones have a great similarity to previous sequenced clones described from other oilfields all over the world, indicating that these ecosystems harbour specific microbial communities. These findings can be considered as an indirect indication of the indigenous origin of these clones.

  5. Municipal geothermal heat utilization plan for Glenwood Springs, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-12-31

    A study has been made of the engineering and economic feasibility of utilizing the geothermal resource underlying Glenwood Springs Colorado, to heat a group of public buildings. The results have shown that the use of geothermal heat is indeed feasible when compared to the cost of natural gas. The proposed system is composed of a wellhead plate heat exchanger which feeds a closed distribution loop of treated water circulated to the buildings which form the load. The base case system was designed to supply twice the demand created by the seven public buildings in order to take advantage of some economies of scale. To increase the utilization factor of the available geothermal energy, a peaking boiler which burns natural gas is recommended. Disposal of the cooled brine would be via underground injection. Considerable study was done to examine the impact of reduced operating temperature on the existing heating systems. Several options to minimize this problem were identified. Economic analyses were completed to determine the present values of heat from the geothermal system and from the present natural gas over a 30 year projected system life. For the base case savings of over $1 million were shown. Sensitivities of the economics to capital cost, operating cost, system size and other parameters were calculated. For all reasonable assumptions, the geothermal system was cheaper. Financing alternatives were also examined. An extensive survey of all existing data on the geology of the study has led to the prediction of resource parameters. The wellhead temperature of produced fluid is suspected to lie between 140 and 180/sup 0/F (60 and 82/sup 0/C). Flowrates may be as high as 1000 gpm (3800 liters per minute) from a reservoir formation that is 300 ft (90 m) thick beginning about 500 ft (150 m) below the suggested drill site in the proposed Two Rivers Park.

  6. 一种新型浮式钻井生产储油装卸系统的模型实验%MODEL TEST OF FLOATING DRILLING PRODUCTION STORAGE AND OFFLOADING SYSTEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷松; 岳前进; 赵岩; 谢彬; 喻西崇

    2012-01-01

    从一种新型浮式钻井生产储油装卸系统(FDPSO)的概念设计出发,针对干式井口甲板垂直方向的相对运动问题,建立了系统的简化理论模型,运用半物理仿真的方法搭建了实验平台,根据船体的垂荡响应谱确定简谐激励的实验工况,实验和数值结果相吻合,系列实验结果表明这种FDPSO的设计对船体的垂荡运动具有自动补偿作用,减小了干式井口甲板的运动振幅.%The relative motion problem in the vertical direction is proposed, originating from the conceptual design of a new type floating drilling production and an offloading system. The theoretical model is established by decoupling the motions of the hull and dry wellhead deck, and the indoor test platform is built using the semi-physical simulation method. The feasible test scheme is determinated according to hull heave response spectrum.Under the harmonic excitation, the experimental results agreed with numerical results perfectly. A series of tests show that this type of FDPSO is designed with automatic compensation of hulls heave motion, enormously reducing the amplitude of dry wellhead deck, and that it is benefit to deepwater production and drilling work.

  7. Hydrocarbons in Deep-Sea Sediments following the 2010 Deepwater Horizon Blowout in the Northeast Gulf of Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel C Romero

    Full Text Available The Deepwater Horizon (DWH spill released 4.9 million barrels of oil into the Gulf of Mexico (GoM over 87 days. Sediment and water sampling efforts were concentrated SW of the DWH and in coastal areas. Here we present geochemistry data from sediment cores collected in the aftermath of the DWH event from 1000-1500 m water depth in the DeSoto Canyon, NE of the DWH wellhead. Cores were analyzed at high-resolution (at 2 mm and 5 mm intervals in order to evaluate the concentration, composition and input of hydrocarbons to the seafloor. Specifically, we analyzed total organic carbon (TOC, aliphatic, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs, and biomarker (hopanes, steranes, diasteranes compounds to elucidate possible sources and transport pathways for deposition of hydrocarbons. Results showed higher hydrocarbon concentrations during 2010-2011 compared to years prior to 2010. Hydrocarbon inputs in 2010-2011 were composed of a mixture of sources including terrestrial, planktonic, and weathered oil. Our results suggest that after the DWH event, both soluble and highly insoluble hydrocarbons were deposited at enhanced rates in the deep-sea. We proposed two distinct transport pathways of hydrocarbon deposition: 1 sinking of oil-particle aggregates (hydrocarbon-contaminated marine snow and/or suspended particulate material, and 2 advective transport and direct contact of the deep plume with the continental slope surface sediments between 1000-1200 m. Our findings underline the complexity of the depositional event observed in the aftermath of the DWH event in terms of multiple sources, variable concentrations, and spatial (depth-related variability in the DeSoto Canyon, NE of the DWH wellhead.

  8. Hydrocarbons in Deep-Sea Sediments following the 2010 Deepwater Horizon Blowout in the Northeast Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Isabel C.; Schwing, Patrick T.; Brooks, Gregg R.; Larson, Rebekka A.; Hastings, David W.; Ellis, Greg; Goddard, Ethan A.; Hollander, David J.

    2015-01-01

    The Deepwater Horizon (DWH) spill released 4.9 million barrels of oil into the Gulf of Mexico (GoM) over 87 days. Sediment and water sampling efforts were concentrated SW of the DWH and in coastal areas. Here we present geochemistry data from sediment cores collected in the aftermath of the DWH event from 1000 – 1500 m water depth in the DeSoto Canyon, NE of the DWH wellhead. Cores were analyzed at high-resolution (at 2 mm and 5 mm intervals) in order to evaluate the concentration, composition and input of hydrocarbons to the seafloor. Specifically, we analyzed total organic carbon (TOC), aliphatic, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs), and biomarker (hopanes, steranes, diasteranes) compounds to elucidate possible sources and transport pathways for deposition of hydrocarbons. Results showed higher hydrocarbon concentrations during 2010-2011 compared to years prior to 2010. Hydrocarbon inputs in 2010-2011 were composed of a mixture of sources including terrestrial, planktonic, and weathered oil. Our results suggest that after the DWH event, both soluble and highly insoluble hydrocarbons were deposited at enhanced rates in the deep-sea. We proposed two distinct transport pathways of hydrocarbon deposition: 1) sinking of oil-particle aggregates (hydrocarbon-contaminated marine snow and/or suspended particulate material), and 2) advective transport and direct contact of the deep plume with the continental slope surface sediments between 1000-1200 m. Our findings underline the complexity of the depositional event observed in the aftermath of the DWH event in terms of multiple sources, variable concentrations, and spatial (depth-related) variability in the DeSoto Canyon, NE of the DWH wellhead. PMID:26020923

  9. World Natural Gas Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-01

    RAMSGAS, the Research and Development Analysis Modeling System World Natural Gas Model, was developed to support planning of unconventional gaseoues fuels research and development. The model is a scenario analysis tool that can simulate the penetration of unconventional gas into world markets for oil and gas. Given a set of parameter values, the model estimates the natural gas supply and demand for the world for the period from 1980 to 2030. RAMSGAS is based on a supply/demand framwork and also accounts for the non-renewable nature of gas resources. The model has three fundamental components: a demand module, a wellhead production cost module, and a supply/demand interface module. The demand for gas is a product of total demand for oil and gas in each of 9 demand regions and the gas share. Demand for oil and gas is forecast from the base year of 1980 through 2030 for each demand region, based on energy growth rates and price-induced conservation. For each of 11 conventional and 19 unconventional gas supply regions, wellhead production costs are calculated. To these are added transportation and distribution costs estimates associated with moving gas from the supply region to each of the demand regions and any economic rents. Based on a weighted average of these costs and the world price of oil, fuel shares for gas and oil are computed for each demand region. The gas demand is the gas fuel share multiplied by the total demand for oil plus gas. This demand is then met from the available supply regions in inverse proportion to the cost of gas from each region. The user has almost complete control over the cost estimates for each unconventional gas source in each year and thus can compare contributions from unconventional resources under different cost/price/demand scenarios.

  10. Operation and Performance of a Biphase Turbine Power Plant at the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field (Final Report)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hays, Lance G. [Douglas Energy Company, Placentia, CA (United States)

    2000-09-01

    A full scale, wellhead Biphase turbine was manufactured and installed with the balance of plant at Well 103 of the Cerro Prieto geothermal resource in Baja, California. The Biphase turbine was first synchronized with the electrical grid of Comision Federal de Electricidad on August 20, 1997. The Biphase power plant was operated from that time until May 23, 2000, a period of 2 years and 9 months. A total of 77,549 kWh were delivered to the grid. The power plant was subsequently placed in a standby condition pending replacement of the rotor with a newly designed, higher power rotor and replacement of the bearings and seals. The maximum measured power output of the Biphase turbine, 808 kWe at 640 psig wellhead pressure, agreed closely with the predicted output, 840 kWe. When combined with the backpressure steam turbine the total output power from that flow would be increased by 40% above the power derived only from the flow by the present flash steam plant. The design relations used to predict performance and design the turbine were verified by these tests. The performance and durability of the Biphase turbine support the conclusion of the Economics and Application Report previously published, (Appendix A). The newly designed rotor (the Dual Pressure Rotor) was analyzed for the above power condition. The Dual Pressure Rotor would increase the power output to 2064 kWe by incorporating two pressure letdown stages in the Biphase rotor, eliminating the requirement for a backpressure steam turbine. The power plant availability was low due to deposition of solids from the well on the Biphase rotor and balance of plant problems. A great deal of plant down time resulted from the requirement to develop methods to handle the solids and from testing the apparatus in the Biphase turbine. Finally an online, washing method using the high pressure two-phase flow was developed which completely eliminated the solids problem. The availability of the Biphase turbine itself was 100

  11. Pollution Characteristics of Acid Drainage Within an Abandoned Coal Mine Area in Central Guizhou Province and Its Effects on Plant Seedlings Growth%黔中废弃煤矿区酸性排水污染特征及对作物种苗生长的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王慧; 刘方

    2011-01-01

    通过对贵阳市花溪区麦坪乡废弃煤矿区酸性排水进行样品收集与分析,探讨煤矿酸性排水的污染特征及对作物种苗生长的影响.研究结果表明,在煤矿附近50~350 m距离内溪沟水pH变化达2.35~6.3,污染物主要以SO42-、Fe、Mn为主;矸石堆洼地蓄积水完全抑制两种植物的萌发;距井口50 m溪沟水和距井口30 m农田水处理油菜都表现为种子发芽后发霉死亡;距井口100m处溪沟水和距井口30 m农田水处理油菜和水稻的种子发芽率、幼苗鲜重和干重、发芽指数和简化活力指数与对照(蒸馏水处理)之间均存在极显著差异(P<0.01).煤矿酸性排水胁迫下,水稻各项指标变幅低于油菜,说明物种耐性强度为水稻>油菜.%Coal mine acid drainage was collected and analyzed in abandoned coal mine area from Maiping Township of Huaxi District,Guiyang City to study the pollution characteristics and its effects on the growth of plant seedlings.The results showed that pH value scope of the river was 2.35 ~ 6.30 and main pollutants in the river were SO24-, Fe and Mn in 50~350 meters of distance away from coal mine wellhead.The germination test showed that seed germination of rice and rape was remarkably inhibited when the seeds were treated by accumulated water in the low-lying area of gangue yard.All rape seeds treated by river water in 50 meters of distance or paddy water in 30 meters of distance away from the coal mine wellhead were moldy and then died after germination.The values of germination energy, seedlings'fresh weight and dry weight, germination index and vigor index of two varieties treated by river water in 100 meters of distance or paddy water in 30 meters of distance away from coal mine wellhead reached significant difference level(P<0.01 ) compared with the control treatment (distilled water).The amplitude differences of index of rice seeds were lower than those of rape.The experiment data suggested that rice had

  12. Research on the Principles of Wellbore Multiphase Flow During Sour Gas Influx%酸性天然气侵入井筒多相流动规律研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万立夫; 李根生; 迟焕鹏; 宋先知; 王海柱

    2012-01-01

    The mathematics model of wellbore multiphase flow after sour gas influx is established. The paper is comprehensively based on the application of pressure drop model and heat transfer model for two phases flow in wellbore, coupling the wellbore unsteady flow and formation seepage, and the mutual reaction ( chemical reaction and solubility) between sour gas and water-based drilling fluid into consideration. The pressure distribution in wellbore is calculated by numerical method with different components ( methane + carbon dioxide, methane + hydrogen sulfide) when drilling the same formation. The results indicates that the chemical reaction can be ignored. The solubility of carbon dioxide or hydrogen sulfide in the water-based drilling fluid is very remarkable. When the sour gas is near the wellhead, the solubility is decreased sharply. The density of sour gas has a sharp change near the wellhead. The higher he mole fraction of carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide of sour gas is, the shorter of distance near the wellhead is. The higher he mole fraction of carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide of sour gas is, the smaller change of pressure in the bottom hole pressure is. So that we shouldn' t judge the overflow lever according to the drop of bottom hole pressure.%在综合应用井筒两相流压降和传热模型的基础上,考虑地层渗流与井筒耦合,考虑了钻井液和侵入酸性流体的基本物性参数与井筒温度压力的耦合作用,酸性天然气与水基钻井液间的相互作用(化学反应和溶解),建立酸性天然气侵入井筒多相流计算模型.通过数值计算分析,钻遇相同地层条件下,不同组分(甲烷+二氧化碳,甲烷+硫化氢)两类酸性天然气藏的环空压力等变化规律.结果表明,酸性天然气与水基钻井液化学反应消耗酸性天然气质量流量很小,可忽略.而井筒内溶解度较大,酸性天然气在近井口处由于溶解度迅速降低,气体密度发生突变,且二氧化碳和

  13. 天津地区深层地下热水井水动力特征%Dynamic Features in Deep Geothermal Wells in Tianjin Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵敬波; 周训; 方斌; 刘东林

    2011-01-01

    The wellhead temperature of part of deep geothermal wells in Tianjin in the pumping process is higher than the water temperature before pumping and the density of thermal water decreases, which result in the dynamic water level higher than the static water level prior to pumping. In this paper, the conversion formula of well bottom pressure is adopted to analyze the measured data and a laboratory test is established to simulate the regular pattern of water level of a thermal well. The dynamic water level and static water level can approximately be calculated according to the average well bottom pressure during pumping and the stopping pumping conditions last year. The results show that in pumping condition the well bottom pressure is smaller than that prior to pumping and the water level is mainly affected by the number of geothermal wells, the calculating formula of the well bottom pressure, geological structure, geothermal injection and other factors. In the first stage the experiment shows that in the well bottom water temperature and wellhead temperature change linearly. Well bottom pressure and the average density are negatively correlated. In the third stage well bottom pressure and the average density are also negatively correlated. In the second stage bottom hole temperature changes very little, the bottom hole pressure remains almost unchanged. Therefore, according to the pressure the dynamic water level of different wellhead temperature can be predicted.%天津地区部分深层地下热水钻井在开采过程中井口水温明显高于开采前的井口水温,井内水的密度随之降低,可导致动水位高于开采前的静水位.采取井底压力的折算公式和室内实验的方式分别对实测数据和该现象进行分析、模拟.结果表明,开采条件下的井底压力明显小于停采条件下的井底压力,水位拟合主要受地热井的密度、井底压力的计算公式和计算方法、地质结构以及地热井回灌等

  14. Self-Potential Monitoring for Geologic CO2 Sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishi, Y.; Tosha, T.; Ishido, T.

    2009-12-01

    . These anomalies appear to be caused by an underground electrochemical mechanism similar to a galvanic cell: the metallic well casing acts as a vertical electronic conductor connecting regions of differing redox potential. Electrons flow upward though the casing from a deeper reducing environment to a shallower oxidizing environment, and simultaneously a compensating vertical flow of ions is induced in the surrounding formation to maintain charge neutrality. If the redox potential in the deeper region is then increased by injecting an oxidizing substance, the difference in redox potential between the shallower and deeper regions will be reduced, resulting in an SP increase near the wellhead. We have been monitoring earth-surface SP during gas injection tests at various sites in Japan. When air was injected into a 100-meter well within the Sumikawa geothermal field, a remarkable simultaneous increase in SP centered on the wellhead was observed. A small but unmistakable SP increase also took place near the wellhead when CO2 was slowly injected, which we believe was caused by local pH reduction at depth resulting from dissolution of the injected CO2 in the aquifer fluid.

  15. A wellbore flow model of CO2 separate injection with concentric dual tubes and its affecting factors%同心双管分注CO2井筒流动模型及影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴晗; 吴晓东; 王庆; 朱明; 方越

    2011-01-01

    In view of issues of the low efficiency and poor effect in the process of commingled CO2 injection, a CO2 separate injection with concentric dual tubes was proposed. On the basis of the heat transfer principle and fluid flow theory, a mathematical model considering CO2 phase change as flowing along the wellbore of concentric dual tubes and heat transfer was established, with which temperature and pressure distributions of CO2 along the annulus between inner and outer tubes and in the inner tubing string were calculated. Moreover, effects brought about by various factors, such as injection rate, injection temperature, injection pressure, assemblage of inner and outer tubes, interval of injection layers etc. , on the pressure and temperature of CO2 flowing both in the annulus between inner and outer tubes and in the inner tubing string were investigated as well. The results indicate that on condition that wellhead injection parameters of inner and outer tubes are the same, the bigger the diameter of the outer tube, the higher the temperature of the annulus between inner and outer tubes. If the diameter of the outer tube keeps constant, the pressure of the annulus will increase with decreasing the diameter of the inner tube that has a small influence on the temperature of the annulus. When inner and outer tubes have definite diameters, the wellhead injection rate, injection temperature and intervals of injection layers may all have significant effects on temperature and pressure distributions of the annulus and the inner tube, while the wellhead injection pressure affects them a little.%针对CO2笼统注入过程中效率低、效果差等问题,提出了同心双管分注CO2技术.根据热量传递原理和流体流动理论,建立了考虑CO2相态变化的同心双管井筒流动与传热的数学模型,利用该模型研究了CO2沿内外管环空和内油管的温度和压力分布规律,分析了井口注入量、注入温度、注入压力、内外管

  16. Research of Kick and Distribution Features of Gas-Liquid Two Phase Flow During Drilling%钻井气液两相流体溢流与分布特征研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任美鹏; 李相方; 徐大融; 尹邦堂

    2012-01-01

    常规钻井返出管线敞口,钻井液在返出管线中流动为非满管流动,小气侵量时,泥浆池液面变化不明显,检测装置无法测量液面变化,钻井液返出流量无法测量或者测量误差较大,无法感知小流量差的变化。本文基于气液两相流理论建立了井筒气液两相流参数与井口溢流速度的关系模型,计算表明气侵速度越大,气泡运移距井口越近,井口溢流速度越大。并以空气和钻井液(非牛顿流体)为介质,基于VOF多相流模型,模拟了钻井液返出流量变化时气液界面变化情况,分析了纯钻井液和不同含气率钻井液在返出管线流动时液面变化特征,得出纯钻井液流动时喇叭口处液面变化最明显,优化液面检测装置安装在喇叭上,更能准确及时地检测液面变化早期发现溢流,进气速度影响返出管线钻井液液面稳定性。%Because of the opening of mud return pipe, the pipe is not full of drilling mud. When gas kick is little, the change of pit gain was indistinct, so the detection device would not be available to reflect fluid level. According the undetectable or incorrect disadvantages and default of kick detection, this paper has established the relationship between wellhead kick velocity and gas-liquid two phase flow in wellhole based on the theory of two phase flow, and the result shows that the greater of the velocity of kick, the greater of wellhead kick velocity, and the wellhead kick velocity becomes also greater with the upper movement of bubble. Based on air and mud (non-Newtonian fluids) medium and VOF method, this paper has analyzed characters of mud level of return pipe with pure mud and different void fraction. According to the results, the mud level is most obvious in the bell nipple when the fluid is pure mud. When the device is installed on the bell mouth, pit level change monitoring would be more accurate and without delay to detect early kick

  17. Well Killing Methods for Deepwater Well and Adaptability Analysis%深水井涌压井方法及其适应性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高永海; 孙宝江; 王志远

    2011-01-01

    深水井涌的处理与陆上相比存在3个难点:一是钻遇浅层流时还没有安装井口;二是节流管线细长且摩阻较大;三是安全密度窗口很窄.为此,在介绍司钻法、工程师法、动力压井法和附加流速法等压井方法的基础上,分析了其特点与主要流程及其对于深水井涌的适用性;并在此基础上,模拟了浅层气井涌和安全密度窗口较小情况下深水钻井井涌的压井工况.模拟结果表明:钻遇浅层流在没有安装井口情况下,可采用动力压井法实施压井作业;在处理窄安全密度窗口的深水井涌时,采用工程师法压井更合适,在模拟井工况下,采用工程师法套管鞋处的最大压力比采用司钻法低0.28MPa;如果安全密度窗口太窄,则要采用附加流速法压井,在模拟工况下,采用附加流速法套管鞋处的最大压力可比常规压井方法降低0.94 MPa,但采用附加流速法对井口设备要求较高,并需要对施工参数进行优化.%There are three difficulties in dealing with deepwater well kick compared with that in onshore. Wellhead has not been installed when drilling shallow formation;chock line is long,thin and frictional;the safety density window is narrow. Based on the introduction of well killing methods, such as the driller method, engineer method, dynamic well killing method, and additional velocity method, this paper analyzed the characteristic,main procedure and applicability of these methods for controlling deepwater well kicks. Well killing for well kick was simulated when drilling deepwater well in shallow formation with narrow safety density window. The simulation results show that when drilling shallow formation without wellhead equipment, dynamic well killing method is effective. When dealing with deepwater well kicks with narrow safety window,engineer method has more advantages than driller method. Simulation shows that the maximum pressure at the casing shoe in engineer method is 0. 28

  18. Time-dependent Induced Seismicity Rates Described with an Epidemic Type Aftershock Sequence Model at The Geysers Geothermal Field, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, C. W.; Totten, E. J.; Burgmann, R.

    2015-12-01

    To improve understanding of the link between injection/production activity and seismicity, we apply an Epidemic Type Aftershock Sequence (ETAS) model to an earthquake catalog from The Geysers geothermal field (GGF) between 2005-2015 using >140,000 events and Mc 0.8 . We partition the catalog along a northeast-southwest trending divide, which corresponds to regions of high and low levels of enhanced geothermal stimulation (EGS) across the field. The ETAS model is fit to the seismicity data using a 6-month sliding window with a 1-month time step to determine the background seismicity rate. We generate monthly time series of the time-dependent background seismicity rate in 1-km depth intervals from 0-5km. The average wellhead depth is 2-3 km and the background seismicity rates above this depth do not correlate well with field-wide injected masses over the time period of interest. The auto correlation results show a 12-month period for monthly time series proximal to the average wellhead depths (2-3km and 3-4km) for northwest GGF strongly correlates with field-wide fluid injection masses, with a four-month phase shift between the two depth intervals as fluid migrates deeper. This periodicity is not observed for the deeper depth interval of 4-5 km, where monthly background seismicity rates reduce to near zero. Cross-correlation analysis using the monthly time series for background seismicity rate and the field-wide injection, production and net injection (injection minus production) suggest that injection most directly modulates seismicity. Periodicity in the background seismicity is not observed as strongly in the time series for the southeast field. We suggest that the variation in background seismicity rate is a proxy for pore-pressure diffusion of injected fluids at depth. We deduce that the contrast between the background seismicity rates in the northwest and southeast GGF is a result of reduced EGS activity in the southeast region.

  19. Assessing the reactivation potential of pre-existing fractures in the southern Karoo, South Africa: Evaluating the potential for sustainable exploration across its Critical Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhansay, Taufeeq; Navabpour, Payman; de Wit, Maarten; Ustaszewski, Kamil

    2017-10-01

    Understanding the kinematics of pre-existing fractures under the present-day stress field is an indispensable prerequisite for hydraulically increasing fracture-induced rock permeability, i.e. through hydraulic stimulation, which forms the basis of economically viable exploitation of resources such as natural gas and geothermal energy. Predicting the likelihood of reactivating pre-existing fractures in a target reservoir at particular fluid injection pressures requires detailed knowledge of the orientations and magnitudes of the prevailing stresses as well as pore fluid pressures. In the absence of actual in-situ stress measurements, e.g. derived from boreholes, as is mostly the case in previously underexplored ;frontier areas;, such predictions are often difficult. In this study, the potential of reactivating pre-existing fractures in a likely exploration region of the southern Karoo of South Africa is investigated. The orientations of the present-day in-situ stresses were assessed from surrounding earthquake focal mechanisms, implying c. NW-SE oriented maximum horizontal stress and a stress regime changing between strike-slip and normal faulting. A comparison with paleo-stress axes derived from inverted fault-slip data suggests that the stress field very likely did not experience any significant reorientation since Cretaceous times. Maximum possible in-situ stress magnitudes are estimated by assuming that these are limited by frictional strength on pre-existing planes and subsequently, slip and dilation tendency calculations were performed, assuming hydrostatic pore fluid pressures of c. 32 MPa at targeted reservoir depth. The results suggest that prevalent E-W and NW-SE oriented sub-vertical fractures are likely to be reactivated at wellhead pressures exceeding hydrostatic pore fluid pressures by as little as 2-5 MPa, while less prevalent sub-horizontal and moderately inclined fractures require higher wellhead pressures that are still technically feasible

  20. A BOP Control System with Pneumatic Pressure Test Function%一种带气动试压功能的防喷器控制装置

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟少辉; 陈慧慧; 蒋楠; 何伟红; 段马利; 黄建生

    2015-01-01

    For oilfield connected components need to be installed before and after the demand pressure and tightness testing, developed a wellhead blowout preventer both control groups (and the hydraulic valve) can facilitate the blowout preventer on the wellhead equipment and connecting tube sinks and valves be pressure and tightness testing of the new BOP control device that achieved in the fields of drilling, work over process of the blowout preventer, the throttle control manifold, riser, casing, flange, sealed containers and other components for on-site testing capabilities to solve the removed parts sent to the repair shop test on a dedicated test equipment for the duration of the prob-lem caused. At present, the device has completed the trial, and has been successfully applied in the oil field.%针对油田对连接部件在安装前后需进行耐压及密封性测试的需求,研制了一种既能控制井口防喷器组(和液动阀)又能方便地对井口防喷设备及其连接管汇和阀件进行耐压和密封性测试的新型防喷器控制装置,该装置实现了在油田的钻井、修井作业过程中对防喷器、节流控制管汇、立管、套管、法兰、密封容器等部件进行现场测试的功能,解决了拆下试验部件送往修理厂在专用设备上进行测试造成的工期问题。目前该装置已完成试制,并已在油田现场成功应用。

  1. Monitoring Concept for CO2 Storage at the Pilot Site Ketzin, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wipki, Mario; Liebscher, Axel; Lüth, Stefan; Ivanova, Alexandra; Möller, Fabian; Schmidt-Hattenberger, Cornelia; Rippe, Dennis; Zimmer, Martin; Szizybalski, Alexandra

    2016-04-01

    Between 2008 and 2013, the German Research Centre for Geosciences - GFZ has injected more than 67 kt of CO2 at the Pilot Site in Ketzin, 25 km west of Berlin. The CO2 was stored in porous sandstones of the Upper Triassic Stuttgart Formation at a depth of 630 to 650 m. In more than a decade, GFZ has developed and tested an extraordinary multi-monitoring concept for onshore CO2 storages which mainly comprises the following methods: Time-lapse 3D seismic surveying is the most commonly used method for imaging and monitoring a CO2-plume in the deep underground before, during and after the injection phase. Such campaigns require high logistical and financial efforts and can be realised only to a limited extent. At Ketzin, for instance, 3D-seismic repeat surveys were acquired using several thousand surface acquisition points and lasting over two or three months. Alternative approaches include permanently buried seismic receivers. Geoelectric measurements in Ketzin are mainly applied by using a permanent downhole electrode installation (Vertical Electrical Resistivity Array = VERA) which has been implemented in three wells behind the well casings. Measurements between 590 m to 735 m are constantly carried out covering the vertical thickness of the entire CO2 storage horizon. Valuable results were achieved by a combination of inhole, crosshole and surface downhole measurements which has been carried out with appropriate acquisition geometries. For focused areas around monitoring wells, geoelectric methods may support and supplement information from seismic surveys. Borehole monitoring of pressure and temperature are generally indispensable for every underground gas storage type. In Ketzin, a remote monitoring system for all wells has been installed that constantly provides the operators with values for date, time, downhole and wellhead pressure, depth, and temperature. Moreover, all wellheads are checked weekly during onsite inspections. Samples for chemical analysis are

  2. Metal-rich Scales in the Reykjanes Geothermal System, SW Iceland: Sulfide Minerals in a Seawater-dominated Hydrothermal Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardardottir, Vigdis

    Downhole sampling of unboiled liquid at 1350 and 1500 m depth in the seawater-dominated Reykjanes high-temperature geothermal system in Iceland shows that metal concentrations measured at surface are minimum values due to mineral precipitation in the wells; by analogy of similar tectonic setting, host rocks and fluid composition, the metal concentrations measured in many black smoker vents at the seafloor are also minima. Fluids in the Reykjanes geothermal system react with mid-ocean ridge basalt at temperatures as high as 346°C and contain Fe 9-140 ppm, Cu 14-17 ppm, Zn 5-27 ppm, Pb 120-290 ppb, 1-6 ppb Au, and 28-107 ppb Ag. Fluids discharged at surface from the same wells have orders of magnitude lower metal concentrations due to precipitation caused by boiling and vapor loss during depressurization. Upstream of the orifice plate at high pressure (40 bar, 252°C) the precipitates consist mainly of sphalerite and chalcopyrite with a trace of galena and bornite. At the orifice plate of old wells, the pressure decreased sharply to 11 bar (188°C), resulting in abundant deposition of amorphous silica together with minor sphalerite and traces of chalcopyrite. In new wells the pressure at the orifice plate decreases to 22 bar (220°C); this pressure decrease and concomitant boiling causes deposition of fine-grained bornite-digenite solid solution together with sphalerite and galena on the fluid flow control valve. In high-pressure wells (average wellhead pressure 45-35 bar) most metals (mainly as sphalerite) are deposited downstream of the orifice plate, with up to 950 ppm Au and 2.5 wt.% Ag. Bulk concentrations in the scales vary between 15-60 wt.% upstream and downstream of the orifice plate and diminish from there. Iron increases up well from 8 to ˜20 wt.% and decreases downstream of the orifice plate from 6 to 2 wt.% at the separation station; Cu downhole is ˜3 wt.% but increases to 25 wt.% on the fluid flow control valve and then decreases; Pb downhole 100s

  3. Mechanism and Performance Analysis of Annular Metal Seal Assembly%环形金属密封总成密封机制及性能分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯超; 秦浩智; 肖文生; 刘健

    2014-01-01

    Annular metal seal assembly is an important part of the subsea wellhead system,its quality directly affects the security of subsea wellhead system,and even the reliability of subsea oil and gas system.By discussing the mechanism and working principle of annular metal seal assembly,the sealing performances were analyzed from the deformation of sealing ring in the sealing process and combining with the finite element analysis results.The results show that the seal can be a-chieved at the elastic deformation stage of sealing ring,but there is high demand of surface roughness and quality that the annular seal assembly cannot be guarantee under the working conditions.The sealing ring can achieve good seal because the surface defects of the sealing ring can be filled at the stage of plastic deformation.The deflection of the sealing ring contact surface becomes the only factor affecting sealing performance at plastic deformation stage.%环形金属密封总成是水下井口头系统重要组成部分,其性能直接影响到水下井口头系统的安全性,甚至整个水下油气系统的可靠性。分析环形金属密封总成的密封机制和工作原理,结合有限元分析结果,从密封环在密封过程中的变形情况来分析其密封性能。结果表明:密封环在弹性变形阶段可以实现密封,但对密封环的表面粗糙度和表面质量有很高的要求,在环形密封总成工况条件下无法保证,应避免在此阶段实现密封;密封环在塑性变形阶段能够填补环表面存在的缺陷,实现良好的密封;在塑性变形阶段,密封环接触面的变形情况成为影响密封性能的唯一因素。

  4. Analysis of the Thermal and Hydraulic Stimulation Program at Raft River, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, Jacob; McLennan, John; Moore, Joseph; Podgorney, Robert; Plummer, Mitchell; Nash, Greg

    2017-05-01

    The Raft River geothermal field, located in southern Idaho, roughly 100 miles northwest of Salt Lake City, is the site of a Department of Energy Enhanced Geothermal System project designed to develop new techniques for enhancing the permeability of geothermal wells. RRG-9 ST1, the target stimulation well, was drilled to a measured depth of 5962 ft. and cased to 5551 ft. The open-hole section of the well penetrates Precambrian quartzite and quartz monzonite. The well encountered a temperature of 282 °F at its base. Thermal and hydraulic stimulation was initiated in June 2013. Several injection strategies have been employed. These strategies have included the continuous injection of water at temperatures ranging from 53 to 115 °F at wellhead pressures of approximately 275 psi and three short-term hydraulic stimulations at pressures up to approximately 1150 psi. Flow rates, wellhead and line pressures and fluid temperatures are measured continuously. These data are being utilized to assess the effectiveness of the stimulation program. As of August 2014, nearly 90 million gallons have been injected. A modified Hall plot has been used to characterize the relationships between the bottom-hole flowing pressure and the cumulative injection fluid volume. The data indicate that the skin factor is decreased, and/or the permeability around the wellbore has increased since the stimulation program was initiated. The injectivity index also indicates a positive improvement with values ranging from 0.15 gal/min psi in July 2013 to 1.73 gal/min psi in February 2015. Absolute flow rates have increased from approximately 20 to 475 gpm by February 2 2015. Geologic, downhole temperature and seismic data suggest the injected fluid enters a fracture zone at 5650 ft and then travels upward to a permeable horizon at the contact between the Precambrian rocks and the overlying Tertiary sedimentary and volcanic deposits. The reservoir simulation program FALCON developed at the Idaho National

  5. Technological Design and Parametric Analysis of Annular Aerated Drilling%环空充气钻井工艺设计及参数分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    窦亮彬; 李根生; 沈忠厚; 吴春方; 刘文旭

    2013-01-01

    The gas phase distribution of traditional parasitic tube aerated drilling tool is uneven in annulus. Therefore, a new type of parasitic tube aerated drilling tool with even distribution of annular gas was designed. According to heat transfer theory, thermodynamic theory and the theory of vertical gas liquid two-phase pipe flow, the optimization analysis of the parameters of the annular aeration technology was conducted considering the variation of injection gas physical property with shaft temperature and pressure. The findings show that annular pressure first decreases with the increase of gas injection rate and then gradually increases. The gas flowrate slightly larger than that at the critical point is taken as the gas injection rate. The variation amplitude of annular pressure in the static control zone is noticeably greater than wellhead back pressure variation. The annular pressure becomes sensitive. In the friction control zone with the variation of wellhead back pressure, the variation amplitude of annular pressure is relatively small, getting milder and thus is easier to regulate.%针对传统寄生管充气钻井工具在环空中形成的气相分布不均匀的弊端,设计了一种新型环形气体均布寄生管充气钻井工具.根据传热学、热力学和垂直气液两相管流理论,考虑注入气体物性随井筒温度压力变化,对环空充气工艺参数进行优化分析.分析结果表明,环空压力随注气量增大先急剧降低后逐渐升高,注气量通常选择在稍大于临界点处对应的气体流量;在静压控制区环空压力变化幅度明显大于井口回压变化,环空压力变化敏感;在摩擦控制区随井口回压变化,环空压力变化幅度较小,更加缓和,易于调节.

  6. Geohazards and risk of deepwater engineering induced by gas hydrate——A case study from oil leakage of deepwater drilling well in GOM%天然气水合物诱因的深水油气开发工程灾害风险——以墨西哥湾深水钻井油气泄漏事故为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦志亮; 吴时国; 王志君; 李清平

    2011-01-01

    With the development of deepwater hydrocarbon resources, more and more safety complications of deepwater engineering evoked by gas hydrate are confronted. Pore pressure of bed stratum raised and structural strength of sediments declined due to gas hydrate dissociation, which declines to evoking stratum slumping and other engineering accidents. On April 20, 2010, the Deepwater Horizon rig leased by the oil company BP exploded and sank in Gulf of Mexico, the accident initiated the serious oil leakage disaster of this sea area. The Preliminary analysis of the accident shows that much methane bubbles generated by gas hydrate dissociation is the direct cause of explosion. During the plug to the leaking wellhead, gas hydrate formed surprisingly and the plan to shut off the leaking wellhead by using steel and concrete containment dome failed. This paper analyzed the risk of deepwater engineering caused by gas hydrate and the processes of the explosion, and proposed the solution to the similar problem.%随着深水油气资源的大力开发,与水合物有关的海洋工程安全问题日益增多.天然气水合物分解使得海底地层产生超孔隙压力,同时导致沉积物结构强度下降,容易引发气体泄漏、海底滑塌等工程事故,增加了海洋深水工程的灾害风险.2010年4月20日在美国墨西哥湾海域作业的BP公司“深水地平线”钻井平台爆炸并沉没,这一事故引发了墨西哥湾海域有史以来最大规模的原油泄漏灾害.初步分析结果表明,天然气水合物分解产生的甲烷气泡成为油井爆炸的直接肇因,而在漏油井口的封堵过程中,水合物的意外出现使得利用“控油钢筋水泥罩”封堵漏油井口的方案失效.文中分析了深水工程的水合物风险以及墨西哥湾钻井爆炸事故的触发过程,并提出了相应的解决方案.

  7. IODP Expedition 336: initiation of long-term coupled microbiological, geochemical, and hydrological experimentation within the seafloor at North Pond, western flank of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, K.; Bach, W.; Klaus, A.

    2014-04-01

    Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 336 addressed questions concerning subseafloor microbial life and its relation to seawater circulation and basalt-seawater reactions in the basaltic ocean crust. Sediment and basement samples were recovered at three drill sites located in the North Pond area, an 8 × 15 km large sediment pond on the 8 Ma western flank of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge around 22°45' N and 46°05' W in roughly 4450 m water depth. The average core recovery rate in basement was approx. 31%. The subseafloor depth of the basement holes ranges from 90 to 332 m; sediment thickness is between 36 and 90 m. Two of the holes (U1382A, and U1383C) were equipped with advanced Circulation Obviation Retrofit Kit (CORK) observatories, employing - for the first time - fiberglass casing. Another CORK string was deployed in Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) Hole 395A, but the wellhead broke off upon final installment. Nonetheless, the North Pond observatory is fully operational and post-cruise observatory research is already underway. Combined geochemical and microbiological studies of the drill core samples and experimental CORK materials will help understand (1) the extent and activity of microbial life in basalt and its relation to basalt alteration by circulating seawater, and (2) the mechanism of microbial inoculation of an isolated sediment pond.

  8. Analysis of Cerro Prieto production data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goyal, K.P.; Miller, C.W.; Lippmann, M.J.; Vonder Haar, S.P.

    1981-01-01

    Heat and mass production data from the Cerro Prieto field are analyzed in order to provide a basis for a detailed quantitative model of the system. It is found, in general, that the production from the individual wells decreased with time. This can be due to a reduction in permeability by silica deposition in the aquifer pores, relative permeability effects in a two-phase flow, and/or a reduced pressure gradient over years of production. Specific increases in the total mass production rate of the field are associated with the increased number of producing wells. Average enthalpy of the produced fluid varied over the years. It first increased, then decreased, and again increased. An increase in enthalpy was usually the result of adding higher enthalpy wells to those already in the field. The decrease in the enthalpy is thought to be mostly due to the mixing of relatively cold water with the geothermal aquifer fluid. Downhole pressures, temperatures and saturations in the flowing wells were calculated from the known wellhead data. Between 1973 and 1980, the pressures and temperatures have decreased by about 15 bars and 20/sup 0/C respectively, and the steam saturations have slightly increased in the near-well regions.

  9. Single-trip subsea completions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, K.J.; Lorenzatto, R.A.; Rittershaussen, J.H.; Barreto, J.L.; Filho, E.L.

    1994-12-31

    Reliability of completion equipment and rig time are becoming more and more critical for subsea completions because of continually increasing water depths in which operators are being required to complete wells. In addition, completion designs must reflect the more stringent economic requirements of today`s oil and gas industry. This paper describes the use of a single-trip completion system that has been successfully and economically installed in the offshore Marimba and Bonito fields of South America. This new completion system has the capability to land the tubing hanger and install it in the wellhead before setting the packer and compensating for subsequent tubing movement. The new system also can employ pre-job calculations--based on initial well conditions and anticipated conditions during production--that help determine appropriate completion configurations and bottomhole equipment compatibility. Many failures in offshore wells, whether platform or subsea, can be attributed to inappropriate application of downhole completion tools or methods. Use of pre-job calculations during the equipment design stage can facilitate proper selection of design criteria and can help ensure operational safety and cost efficiency. The development of this new completion system is discussed in detail. Three case histories that document successful test completions is reviewed along with the economic gains and advantages that the reduction in rig time generated.

  10. Protection strategies for drinking groundwater sources in small Quebec municipalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvestre, Bruno; Rodriguez, Manuel J

    2008-07-01

    Awareness of groundwater protection has increased substantially in recent decades. In the Province of Quebec, Canada, the Groundwater Catchment Regulation (GWCR) was promulgated in 2002 to protect water quality in public wells. The goal of the present study was to document groundwater protection in the context of emerging regulations and identify factors explaining the propensity of municipalities applying protection strategies. Two types of information were used in this study: data from a questionnaire-based survey conducted among 665 municipalities in the Province of Quebec and complementary information gathered from various sources. Data from the survey revealed that fewer than half of the municipalities have been able to comply with the GWCR, mainly because of financial limitations. Also, close to half of the municipalities have either identified or are expecting land use conflicts to arise between protection areas required by the GWCR and other land usage, with agriculture being the main conflicting activity. Multivariate logistic regression models served to identify factors explaining the likelihood of municipalities to take groundwater protection measures. Those factors were municipality revenue, history of water contamination in distribution systems, land use near wellheads, location of municipalities within a provincial priority watershed and the importance of groundwater use in a region. Results of the study may prove helpful for government authorities in better understanding the groundwater protection issue and in implementing strategies that improve the ability of municipalities to protect groundwater.

  11. Evaluating bacterial community structures in oil collected from the sea surface and sediment in the northern Gulf of Mexico after the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhanfei; Liu, Jiqing

    2013-06-01

    Bacterial community structures were evaluated in oil samples using culture-independent pyrosequencing, including oil mousses collected on sea surface and salt marshes during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, and oil deposited in sediments adjacent to the wellhead 1 year after the spill. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that Erythrobacter, Rhodovulum, Stappia, and Thalassospira of Alphaproteobacteria were the prevailing groups in the oil mousses, which may relate to high temperatures and strong irradiance in surface Gulf waters. In the mousse collected from the leaves of Spartina alterniflora, Vibrio of Gammaproteobacteria represented 57% of the total operational taxonomic units, suggesting that this indigenous genus is particularly responsive to the oil contamination in salt marshes. The bacterial communities in oil-contaminated sediments were highly diversified. The relatively high abundance of the Methylococcus, Methylobacter, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, and Chlorofexi bacteria resembles those found in certain cold-seep sediments with gas hydrates. Bacterial communities in the overlying water of the oil-contaminated sediment were dominated by Ralstonia of Betaproteobacteria, which can degrade small aromatics, and Saccharophagus degradans of Gammaproteobacteria, a cellulose degrader, suggesting that overlying water was affected by the oil-contaminated sediments, possibly due to the dissolution of small aromatics and biosurfactants produced during biodegradation. Overall, these results provided key information needed to evaluate oil degradation in the region and develop future bioremediation strategies.

  12. Concentrations of some heavy metals in underground water samples from a Nigerian crude oil producing community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejike, Chukwunonso E C C; Eferibe, Chinedu O; Okonkwo, Francis O

    2017-03-01

    Pollution due to oil exploration activities in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria and government under-investments in potable water infrastructure has led to the dependence of the population on personal boreholes. Yet, there are little quality or surveillance reports on such waters. The concentrations of heavy metals in underground water samples from an oil producing area, Umuebulu, in the Niger Delta were therefore investigated. Water samples were collected from three test points, each approximately 300 m from (1) wellhead area (WHA), (2) flare area (FA) and (3) effluent discharge area (EDA), and one control point located 10 km away from any oil-related activity. The concentrations of lead, arsenic and cadmium were determined in the samples using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. All three heavy metals were present in the test, and control water samples at concentrations significantly (P  FA > WHA > Control. Appropriate water treatment and surveillance is warranted and therefore recommended for underground water resources of the studied community.

  13. Expansion analyses of strategic petroleum reserve in Bayou Choctaw : revised locations.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehgartner, Brian L.; Park, Byoung Yoon

    2010-11-01

    This report summarizes a series of three-dimensional simulations for the Bayou Choctaw Strategic Petroleum Reserve. The U.S. Department of Energy plans to leach two new caverns and convert one of the existing caverns within the Bayou Choctaw salt dome to expand its petroleum reserve storage capacity. An existing finite element mesh from previous analyses is modified by changing the locations of two caverns. The structural integrity of the three expansion caverns and the interaction between all the caverns in the dome are investigated. The impacts of the expansion on underground creep closure, surface subsidence, infrastructure, and well integrity are quantified. Two scenarios were used for the duration and timing of workover conditions where wellhead pressures are temporarily reduced to atmospheric pressure. The three expansion caverns are predicted to be structurally stable against tensile failure for both scenarios. Dilatant failure is not expected within the vicinity of the expansion caverns. Damage to surface structures is not predicted and there is not a marked increase in surface strains due to the presence of the three expansion caverns. The wells into the caverns should not undergo yield. The results show that from a structural viewpoint, the locations of the two newly proposed expansion caverns are acceptable, and all three expansion caverns can be safely constructed and operated.

  14. Seawater capacitance – a promising proxy for mapping and characterizing drifting hydrocarbon plumes in the deep ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Fleming

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Hydrocarbons released into the deep ocean are an inevitable consequence of natural seep, seafloor drilling, and leaking wellhead-to-collection-point pipelines. The Macondo 252 (Deepwater Horizon well blowout of 2010 was even larger than the Ixtoc event in the Gulf of Campeche in 1979. History suggests it will not be the last accidental release, as deepwater drilling expands to meet an ever-growing demand. For those who must respond to this kind of disaster, the first line of action should be to know what is going on. This includes knowing where an oil plume is at any given time, where and how fast it is moving, and how it is evolving or degrading. We have experimented in the laboratory with induced polarization as a method to track hydrocarbons in the seawater column and find that finely dispersed oil in seawater gives rise to a large distributed capacitance. From previous sea trials, we infer this could potentially be used to both map and characterize oil plumes, down to a ratio of less than 0.001 oil-to-seawater, drifting and evolving in the deep ocean. A side benefit demonstrated in some earlier sea trials is that this same approach in modified form can also map certain heavy placer minerals, as well as communication cables, pipelines, and wrecks buried beneath the seafloor.

  15. Changing Dynamics of Dissolved Organic Matter Fluorescence in the Northern Gulf of Mexico Following the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Sa, Eurico J; Overton, Edward B; Lohrenz, Steven E; Maiti, Kanchan; Turner, R Eugene; Freeman, Angelina

    2016-05-17

    The characteristics of fluorescent components of dissolved organic matter (DOM) were examined using excitation emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy combined with parallel-factor analysis (PARAFAC) for seawater samples obtained from the northern Gulf of Mexico (NGoM) before, during, and after the 2010 Deepwater Horizon (DwH) oil spill. An EEMs PARAFAC modeling of samples collected within 16 km of the wellhead during the oil spill in May 2010, which included one typical subsurface sample with a PAH concentration of 1.09 μg/L, identified two humic-like and two previously reported oil-like components. Compared to prespill levels, however, there were order-of-magnitude higher fluorescence intensities associated with these components that are consistent with an oil-spill source. The spectral decomposition of the EEMs data using individual and combined data sets from coastal and offshore waters impacted by the DwH spill further revealed the changing nature of fluorescent DOM composition. Although the PAHs concentrations were at prespill conditions after the spill in 2012 and 2013 near the DwH site, the variable and anomalous levels of fluorescence intensities and DOC concentrations three years after the spill suggest the potential long-term persistence of the oil in the DOC pool in the NGoM.

  16. Experimental study of oil-water with paraffin precipitation in submarine pipelines; Estudo experimental do escoamento oleo-agua com precipitacao de parafinas em dutos submarinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bordalo, Sergio N.; Oliveira, Rafael de Castro [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEM/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Engenharia de Petroleo], e-mail: bordalo@dep.fem.unicamp.br, e-mail: rafael@dep.fem.unicamp.br

    2006-07-01

    The deposition of paraffins in submarine pipelines poses a serious problem for the offshore petroleum production. Paraffins precipitate off oily solutions due to a temperature decrease according to the phase equilibrium conditions of the liquid-solid system. After some time, the continuous precipitation leads to deposits in the internal walls of the pipe, clogging the lines and promoting an increase in the head loss of the flow. Consequently, there is an increase in the pressure gradient required to maintain the flow, and the flow rate is reduced. A complete obstruction of the pipeline may occur. In the present work, this phenomenon was studied in a simulation of the subsea operational conditions, where the oil pipelines laying on the seabed are subjected to low temperatures, just a little above the freezing point of water. The pipeline behaves as a heat exchanger and the hot oil from the underground reservoir emerging from the wellhead is effectively cooled down to the point where paraffin precipitation occurs somewhere along the line. An experimental apparatus was built for a 25.4 mm (1 in) diameter pipe-flow model with 13 m of length, submerged in a chilling bath of near frozen water. Stream wise pressure and temperature gradients were measured, in order to evaluate the differences in the behavior of paraffin deposition between one-phase oil flow and two-phase oil-water flow. (author)

  17. [Various report forms and letters regarding Rorabaugh A-31

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Various

    2007-08-16

    The documents described here and the following may be found at the Website of the State of California Department of Conservation, Division of Oil, Gas & Geothermal Resources, http://www.consrv.ca.gov/DOG/geothermal/unit_15/Unit15.htm. GEO Operator Corporation (formerly Thermogenics, Inc. and Geothermal Resources International Operator Corporation) drilled steam production and injection wells in the northwestern portion of The Geysers geothermal field from 1967 to 1985. These wells produced steam that was sold to PG&E's power plant 15. In 1989, the plant stopped operating so the wells stopped producing and GEO Operator Corporation went bankrupt. In 1997-1998, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the Division of Oil, Gas, and Geothermal Resources, with funding from the California Energy Commission, plugged and abandoned most of these idle wells because of severe wellhead corrosion. Technical data and well cuttings were salvaged from an abandoned warehouse on the GEO Operator Corporation lease. These data have recently been scanned and added to the Division's existing scanned well records. The data are unique because GEO Operator Corporation performed an unusually high number of studies, well tests, and analyses. A total of over 10,300 pages and over 340 logs are included in the scans. The reservoir engineering section alone contains over 3,300 pages of reservoir characterization, well testing, and related studies. These data will be useful to the operators at The Geysers Geothermal field, as well as the public and researchers worldwide.

  18. Evaluation of groundwater pollution in a mining area using analytical solution: a case study of the Yimin open-pit mine in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tianxin; Li, Li; Song, Hongqing; Meng, Linglong; Zhang, Shuli; Huang, Gang

    2016-01-01

    This study focused on using analytical and numerical models to develop and manage groundwater resources, and predict the effects of management measurements in the groundwater system. Movement of contaminants can be studied based on groundwater flow characteristics. This study can be used for prediction of ion concentration and evaluation of groundwater pollution as the theoretical basis. The Yimin open-pit mine is located in the northern part of the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of China. High concentrations of iron and manganese are observed in Yimin open-pit mine because of exploitation and pumping that have increased the concentration of the ions in groundwater. In this study, iron was considered as an index of contamination, and the solute model was calibrated using concentration observations from 14 wells in 2014. The groundwater flow model and analytical solutions were used in this study to forecast pollution concentration and variation trend after calibration. With continuous pumping, contaminants will migrate, and become enriched, towards the wellhead in the flow direction. The concentration of the contaminants and the range of pollution increase with the flow rate increased. The suitable flow rate of single well should be <380 m/day at Yimin open-pit for the standard value of pollution concentration.

  19. [Various report forms and letters regarding MSR Abril 5B-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Various

    2007-08-16

    The documents described here and the following may be found at the Website of the State of California Department of Conservation, Division of Oil, Gas & Geothermal Resources, http://www.consrv.ca.gov/DOG/geothermal/unit_15/Unit15.htm. GEO Operator Corporation (formerly Thermogenics, Inc. and Geothermal Resources International Operator Corporation) drilled steam production and injection wells in the northwestern portion of The Geysers geothermal field from 1967 to 1985. These wells produced steam that was sold to PG&E's power plant 15. In 1989, the plant stopped operating so the wells stopped producing and GEO Operator Corporation went bankrupt. In 1997-1998, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the Division of Oil, Gas, and Geothermal Resources, with funding from the California Energy Commission, plugged and abandoned most of these idle wells because of severe wellhead corrosion. Technical data and well cuttings were salvaged from an abandoned warehouse on the GEO Operator Corporation lease. These data have recently been scanned and added to the Division's existing scanned well records. The data are unique because GEO Operator Corporation performed an unusually high number of studies, well tests, and analyses. A total of over 10,300 pages and over 340 logs are included in the scans. The reservoir engineering section alone contains over 3,300 pages of reservoir characterization, well testing, and related studies. These data will be useful to the operators at The Geysers Geothermal field, as well as the public and researchers worldwide.

  20. The effects of weathering and chemical dispersion on Deepwater Horizon crude oil toxicity to mahi-mahi (Coryphaena hippurus) early life stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esbaugh, Andrew J; Mager, Edward M; Stieglitz, John D; Hoenig, Ronald; Brown, Tanya L; French, Barbara L; Linbo, Tiffany L; Lay, Claire; Forth, Heather; Scholz, Nathaniel L; Incardona, John P; Morris, Jeffrey M; Benetti, Daniel D; Grosell, Martin

    2016-02-01

    To better understand the impact of the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) incident on commercially and ecologically important pelagic fish species, a mahi-mahi spawning program was developed to assess the effect of embryonic exposure to DWH crude oil with particular emphasis on the effects of weathering and dispersant on the magnitude of toxicity. Acute lethality (96 h LC50) ranged from 45.8 (28.4-63.1) μg l(-1) ΣPAH for wellhead (source) oil to 8.8 (7.4-10.3) μg l(-1) ΣPAH for samples collected from the surface slick, reinforcing previous work that weathered oil is more toxic on a ΣPAH basis. Differences in toxicity appear related to the amount of dissolved 3 ringed PAHs. The dispersant Corexit 9500 did not influence acute lethality of oil preparations. Embryonic oil exposure resulted in cardiotoxicity after 48 h, as evident from pericardial edema and reduced atrial contractility. Whereas pericardial edema appeared to correlate well with acute lethality at 96 h, atrial contractility did not. However, sub-lethal cardiotoxicity may impact long-term performance and survival. Dispersant did not affect the occurrence of pericardial edema; however, there was an apparent reduction in atrial contractility at 48 h of exposure. Pericardial edema at 48 h and lethality at 96 h were equally sensitive endpoints in mahi-mahi.

  1. Natural gas monthly, January 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    This publication, the Natural Gas Monthly, presents the most recent data on natural gas supply, consumption, and prices from the Energy Information Administration (EIA). Of special interest in this issue are two articles summarizing reports recently published by EIA. The articles are {open_quotes}Natural Gas Productive Capacity{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}Outlook for Natural Gas Through 2015,{close_quotes} both of which precede the {open_quotes}Highlights{close_quotes} section. With this issue, January 1997, changes have been made to the format of the Highlights section and to several of the tabular and graphical presentations throughout the publication. The changes to the Highlights affect the discussion of developments in the industry and the presentation of weekly storage data. An overview of the developments in the industry is now presented in a brief summary followed by specific discussions of supply, end-use consumption, and prices. Spot and futures prices are discussed as appropriate in the Price section, together with wellhead and consumer prices.

  2. Corrosion of Titanium Alloys in High Temperature Seawater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pang, J. J.; Blackwood, D. J. [National University of Singapore, Singapore (Singapore)

    2015-08-15

    Materials of choice for offshore structures and the marine industry have been increasingly favoring materials that offer high strength-to-weight ratios. One of the most promising families of light-weight materials is titanium alloys, but these do have two potential Achilles' heels: (i) the passive film may not form or may be unstable in low oxygen environments, leading to rapid corrosion; and (ii) titanium is a strong hydride former, making it vulnerable to hydrogen embrittlement (cracking) at high temperatures in low oxygen environments. Unfortunately, such environments exist at deep sea well-heads; temperatures can exceed 120 °C, and oxygen levels can drop below 1 ppm. The present study demonstrates the results of investigations into the corrosion behavior of a range of titanium alloys, including newly developed alloys containing rare earth additions for refined microstructure and added strength, in artificial seawater over the temperature range of 25 °C to 200 °C. Tests include potentiodynamic polarization, crevice corrosion, and U-bend stress corrosion cracking.

  3. Direct production of hydrogen and aromatics from methane or natural gas: Review of recent U.S. patents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucia M. Petkovic; Daniel M. Ginosar

    2012-03-01

    Since the year 2000, the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) has granted a dozen patents for inventions related to methane dehydroaromatization processes. One of them was granted to UOP LLC (Des Plaines). It relates to a catalyst composition and preparation method. Two patents were granted to Conoco Phillips Company (Houston, TX). One was aimed at securing a process and operating conditions for methane aromatization. The other was aimed at securing a process that may be integrated with separation of wellhead fluids and blending of the aromatics produced from the gas with the crude. Nine patents were granted to ExxonMobil Chemical Patents Inc. (Houston, TX). Most of these were aimed at securing a dehydroaromatization process where methane-containing feedstock moves counter currently to a particulate catalyst. The coked catalyst is heated or regenerated either in the reactor, by cyclic operation, or in annex equipment, and returned to the reactor. The reactor effluent stream may be separated in its main components and used or recycled as needed. A brief summary of those inventions is presented in this review.

  4. Dynamic Response of High-Pressure Riser of Deepwater SBOP System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanhua Su

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The application of surface blowout preventer (SBOP drilling system in deepwater environments has been demonstrated that it can save operation cost and time. The high pressure small diameter casing plays the role of the conventional riser and bears the complex loading caused by the wave and current force and drilling platform motion. The coupled quasi-static and uncoupled dynamic analysis models of deepwater SBOP drilling system were established. The analysis results indicate that the uncoupled method without consider the lateral offset on the end of the high pressure riser nearly no affection to the riser analysis. However, the uncoupled method has a certain impact on the mechanical analysis of the subsea wellhead and the casing string under mudline. The lateral offset of the high pressure riser changes greatly in the different times, the bending moment of the upper and lower stress joint of riser is bigger. The platform long-term drift has a greater impact on the dynamic response analysis of the high pressure riser of SBOP system for deepwater drilling.

  5. Compound hybrid geothermal-fossil power plants: thermodynamic analyses and site-specific applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiPippo, R.; Avelar, E.M.

    1979-06-01

    The analysis of hybrid fossil-geothermal power plants is extended to compound hybrid systems which combine the features of previously analyzed systems: the geothermal-preheat and the fossil-superheat systems. Compound systems of the one- and two-stage type are considered. A compilation of working formulae from earlier studies is included for completeness. Results are given for parametric analyses of compound hybrid plants. System performance was determined for wellhead conditions of 150, 200, and 250/sup 0/C, and for steam fractions of 10, 20, 30, and 40%. For two-stage systems an additional cycle variable, the hot water flash fraction, was varied from 0 to 100% in increments of 25%. From the viewpoint of thermodynamics, compound hybrid plants are superior to individual all-geothermal and all-fossil plants, and are shown to have certain advantages over basic geothermal-preheat and fossil-superheat hybrid plants. The flexibility of compound hybrid systems is illustrated by showing how such plants might be used at six geothermal sites in the western United States. The question of the optimum match between the energy resources and the power plant is addressed, and an analysis given for a hypothetical geothermal resource.

  6. [Various report forms and letters regarding Rorabaugh A-9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Various

    2007-08-16

    The documents described here and the following may be found at the Website of the State of California Department of Conservation, Division of Oil, Gas & Geothermal Resources, http://www.consrv.ca.gov/DOG/geothermal/unit_15/Unit15.htm. GEO Operator Corporation (formerly Thermogenics, Inc. and Geothermal Resources International Operator Corporation) drilled steam production and injection wells in the northwestern portion of The Geysers geothermal field from 1967 to 1985. These wells produced steam that was sold to PG&E's power plant 15. In 1989, the plant stopped operating so the wells stopped producing and GEO Operator Corporation went bankrupt. In 1997-1998, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the Division of Oil, Gas, and Geothermal Resources, with funding from the California Energy Commission, plugged and abandoned most of these idle wells because of severe wellhead corrosion. Technical data and well cuttings were salvaged from an abandoned warehouse on the GEO Operator Corporation lease. These data have recently been scanned and added to the Division's existing scanned well records. The data are unique because GEO Operator Corporation performed an unusually high number of studies, well tests, and analyses. A total of over 10,300 pages and over 340 logs are included in the scans. The reservoir engineering section alone contains over 3,300 pages of reservoir characterization, well testing, and related studies. These data will be useful to the operators at The Geysers Geothermal field, as well as the public and researchers worldwide.

  7. Physical simulations of cavity closure in a creeping material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutherland, H.J.; Preece, D.S.

    1985-09-01

    The finite element method has been used extensively to predict the creep closure of underground petroleum storage cavities in rock salt. Even though the numerical modeling requires many simplifying assumptions, the predictions have generally correlated with field data from instrumented wellheads, however, the field data are rather limited. To gain an insight into the behavior of three-dimensional arrays of cavities and to obtain a larger data base for the verification of analytical simulations of creep closure, a series of six centrifuge simulation experiments were performed using a cylindrical block of modeling clay, a creeping material. Three of the simulations were conducted with single, centerline cavities, and three were conducted with a symmetric array of three cavities surrounding a central cavity. The models were subjected to body force loading using a centrifuge. For the single cavity experiments, the models were tested at accelerations of 100, 125 and 150 g's for 2 hours. For the multi-cavity experiments, the simulations were conducted at 100 g's for 3.25 hours. The results are analyzed using dimensional analyses. The analyses illustrate that the centrifuge simulations yield self-consistent simulations of the creep closure of fluid-filled cavities and that the interaction of three-dimensional cavity layouts can be investigated using this technique.

  8. [Various report forms and letters regarding Rorabaugh 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Various

    2007-08-16

    The documents described here and the following may be found at the Website of the State of California Department of Conservation, Division of Oil, Gas & Geothermal Resources, http://www.consrv.ca.gov/DOG/geothermal/unit_15/Unit15.htm. GEO Operator Corporation (formerly Thermogenics, Inc. and Geothermal Resources International Operator Corporation) drilled steam production and injection wells in the northwestern portion of The Geysers geothermal field from 1967 to 1985. These wells produced steam that was sold to PG&E's power plant 15. In 1989, the plant stopped operating so the wells stopped producing and GEO Operator Corporation went bankrupt. In 1997-1998, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the Division of Oil, Gas, and Geothermal Resources, with funding from the California Energy Commission, plugged and abandoned most of these idle wells because of severe wellhead corrosion. Technical data and well cuttings were salvaged from an abandoned warehouse on the GEO Operator Corporation lease. These data have recently been scanned and added to the Division's existing scanned well records. The data are unique because GEO Operator Corporation performed an unusually high number of studies, well tests, and analyses. A total of over 10,300 pages and over 340 logs are included in the scans. The reservoir engineering section alone contains over 3,300 pages of reservoir characterization, well testing, and related studies. These data will be useful to the operators at The Geysers Geothermal field, as well as the public and researchers worldwide.

  9. Deep Unconventional Geothermal Resources: a major opportunity to harness new sources of sustainable energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fridleifsson, G.O.; Albertsson, A.; Stefansson, B.; Gunnlaugsson, E.; Adalsteinsson, H.

    2007-07-01

    The Iceland Deep Drilling Project (IDDP) is a long-term program to improve the efficiency and economics of geothermal energy by harnessing Deep Unconventional Geothermal Resources (DUGR). Its aim is to produce electricity from natural supercritical hydrous fluids from drillable depths. Producing supercritical fluids will require drilling wells and sampling fluids and rocks to depths of 3.5 to 5 km, and at temperatures of 450-600{sup o}C. The long-term plan is to drill and test a series of such deep boreholes in Iceland at the Krafla, the Hengill, and the Reykjanes high temperature geothermal systems. Beneath these three developed drill fields temperatures should exceed 550-650{sup o}C, and the occurrence of frequent seismic activity below 5 km, indicates that the rocks are brittle and therefore likely to be permeable. Modeling indicates that if the wellhead enthalpy is to exceed that of conventionally produced geothermal steam, the reservoir temperature must be higher than 450{sup o}C. A deep well producing 0.67 m3/sec steam ({approx}2400 m3/h) from a reservoir with a temperature significantly above 450{sup o}C could yield enough high-enthalpy steam to generate 40-50 MW of electric power. This exceeds by an order of magnitude the power typically obtained from conventional geothermal wells. (auth)

  10. Succession of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria in the aftermath of the deepwater horizon oil spill in the gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubinsky, Eric A; Conrad, Mark E; Chakraborty, Romy; Bill, Markus; Borglin, Sharon E; Hollibaugh, James T; Mason, Olivia U; M Piceno, Yvette; Reid, Francine C; Stringfellow, William T; Tom, Lauren M; Hazen, Terry C; Andersen, Gary L

    2013-10-01

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill produced large subsurface plumes of dispersed oil and gas in the Gulf of Mexico that stimulated growth of psychrophilic, hydrocarbon degrading bacteria. We tracked succession of plume bacteria before, during and after the 83-day spill to determine the microbial response and biodegradation potential throughout the incident. Dominant bacteria shifted substantially over time and were dependent on relative quantities of different hydrocarbon fractions. Unmitigated flow from the wellhead early in the spill resulted in the highest proportions of n-alkanes and cycloalkanes at depth and corresponded with dominance by Oceanospirillaceae and Pseudomonas. Once partial capture of oil and gas began 43 days into the spill, petroleum hydrocarbons decreased, the fraction of aromatic hydrocarbons increased, and Colwellia, Cycloclasticus, and Pseudoalteromonas increased in dominance. Enrichment of Methylomonas coincided with positive shifts in the δ(13)C values of methane in the plume and indicated significant methane oxidation occurred earlier than previously reported. Anomalous oxygen depressions persisted at plume depths for over six weeks after well shut-in and were likely caused by common marine heterotrophs associated with degradation of high-molecular-weight organic matter, including Methylophaga. Multiple hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria operated simultaneously throughout the spill, but their relative importance was controlled by changes in hydrocarbon supply.

  11. DTS technology: evaluation in steam injection pilots in PETROBRAS; Tecnologias DTS: avaliacao em pilotos de injecao de vapor na PETROBRAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Triques, Adriana Lucia Cerri; Rodrigues, Renato Cunha; Souza, Carlos Francisco Sales de; Izetti, Ronaldo Goncalves [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    In oil and gas industry, downhole pressure and temperature distributed sensors can provide strategic information for production optimization throughout the field. Upon the successful implementation of a pilot for optical fiber distributed temperature monitoring of observer wells in a steam injection field, two new pilots have been implemented to also monitor injectors and producers in both cyclic and continuous injection fields strongly influenced by H2S. The pilots demonstrated that this technology is suitable to monitor producers in onshore fields under the conditions above without risks to the production. The sensors did not prove to be suitable for long term monitoring of injectors under continuous steam injection if fiber is installed inside the injection tubing. For cyclic injection applications, the development of steam injection packers is needed to guarantee casing integrity during the injection cycle. The application of the technology in offshore wells is nowadays restricted to dry completion situation. The potential applicability in submarine wells is tightly linked to the development of downhole and wellhead wet mate optical fiber connectors. (author)

  12. Bridging operation and design. The encounter between practical and discipline-based knowledge in offshore platform design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Husemoen, Mette Suzanne

    1997-12-31

    This thesis investigates the relationship between operations and design and the design process, taking as case studies the two new platforms of Phillips Petroleum Company Norway on Ekofisk II, the Ekofisk 2/4 X drilling and wellhead platform and the Ekofisk 2/4 J processing and transportation platform. The emphasis has been on how to take into account operational experience in design. The two research questions are: (1) Are operations and design two communities-of-practice based on different kinds of knowledge?, and (2) What are the conditions for bridging knowledge in operations and design? From the theory reviewed and the field data presented the study concludes that physical closeness and integration of operations and design personnel, experience from the other community-of-practice, and mutual sympathy, trust, and respect, are important factors in bridging knowledge of the operations and design communities-of-practice and creating innovative solutions in design which transcend the existing knowledge in operations and design. 66 refs., 28 figs., 8 tabs.

  13. [Various report forms and letters regarding Rorabaugh A-7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Various

    2007-08-16

    The documents described here and the following may be found at the Website of the State of California Department of Conservation, Division of Oil, Gas & Geothermal Resources, http://www.consrv.ca.gov/DOG/geothermal/unit_15/Unit15.htm. GEO Operator Corporation (formerly Thermogenics, Inc. and Geothermal Resources International Operator Corporation) drilled steam production and injection wells in the northwestern portion of The Geysers geothermal field from 1967 to 1985. These wells produced steam that was sold to PG&E's power plant 15. In 1989, the plant stopped operating so the wells stopped producing and GEO Operator Corporation went bankrupt. In 1997-1998, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the Division of Oil, Gas, and Geothermal Resources, with funding from the California Energy Commission, plugged and abandoned most of these idle wells because of severe wellhead corrosion. Technical data and well cuttings were salvaged from an abandoned warehouse on the GEO Operator Corporation lease. These data have recently been scanned and added to the Division's existing scanned well records. The data are unique because GEO Operator Corporation performed an unusually high number of studies, well tests, and analyses. A total of over 10,300 pages and over 340 logs are included in the scans. The reservoir engineering section alone contains over 3,300 pages of reservoir characterization, well testing, and related studies. These data will be useful to the operators at The Geysers Geothermal field, as well as the public and researchers worldwide.

  14. [Various report forms and letters regarding Rorabaugh A-17

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Various

    2007-08-16

    The documents described here and the following may be found at the Website of the State of California Department of Conservation, Division of Oil, Gas & Geothermal Resources, http://www.consrv.ca.gov/DOG/geothermal/unit_15/Unit15.htm. GEO Operator Corporation (formerly Thermogenics, Inc. and Geothermal Resources International Operator Corporation) drilled steam production and injection wells in the northwestern portion of The Geysers geothermal field from 1967 to 1985. These wells produced steam that was sold to PG&E's power plant 15. In 1989, the plant stopped operating so the wells stopped producing and GEO Operator Corporation went bankrupt. In 1997-1998, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the Division of Oil, Gas, and Geothermal Resources, with funding from the California Energy Commission, plugged and abandoned most of these idle wells because of severe wellhead corrosion. Technical data and well cuttings were salvaged from an abandoned warehouse on the GEO Operator Corporation lease. These data have recently been scanned and added to the Division's existing scanned well records. The data are unique because GEO Operator Corporation performed an unusually high number of studies, well tests, and analyses. A total of over 10,300 pages and over 340 logs are included in the scans. The reservoir engineering section alone contains over 3,300 pages of reservoir characterization, well testing, and related studies. These data will be useful to the operators at The Geysers Geothermal field, as well as the public and researchers worldwide.

  15. Can Deployment of Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency PutDownward Pressure on Natural Gas Prices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

    2005-06-01

    High and volatile natural gas prices have increasingly led to calls for investments in renewable energy and energy efficiency. One line of argument is that deployment of these resources may lead to reductions in the demand for and price of natural gas. Many recent U.S.-based modeling studies have demonstrated that this effect could provide significant consumer savings. In this article we evaluate these studies, and benchmark their findings against economic theory, other modeling results, and a limited empirical literature. We find that many uncertainties remain regarding the absolute magnitude of this effect, and that the reduction in natural gas prices may not represent an increase in aggregate economic wealth. Nonetheless, we conclude that many of the studies of the impact of renewable energy and energy efficiency on natural gas prices appear to have represented this effect within reason, given current knowledge. These studies specifically suggest that a 1% reduction in U.S. natural gas demand could lead to long-term average wellhead price reductions of 0.8% to 2%, and that each megawatt-hour of renewable energy and energy efficiency may benefit natural gas consumers to the tune of at least $7.5 to $20.

  16. Chemical variability of groundwater samples collected from a coal seam gas exploration well, Maramarua, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taulis, Mauricio; Milke, Mark

    2013-03-01

    A pilot study has produced 31 groundwater samples from a coal seam gas (CSG) exploration well located in Maramarua, New Zealand. This paper describes sources of CSG water chemistry variations, and makes sampling and analytical recommendations to minimize these variations. The hydrochemical character of these samples is studied using factor analysis, geochemical modelling, and a sparging experiment. Factor analysis unveils carbon dioxide (CO(2)) degassing as the principal cause of sample variation (about 33%). Geochemical modelling corroborates these results and identifies minor precipitation of carbonate minerals with degassing. The sparging experiment confirms the effect of CO(2) degassing by showing a steady rise in pH while maintaining constant alkalinity. Factor analysis correlates variations in the major ion composition (about 17%) to changes in the pumping regime and to aquifer chemistry variations due to cation exchange reactions with argillaceous minerals. An effective CSG water sampling program can be put into practice by measuring pH at the wellhead and alkalinity at the laboratory; these data can later be used to calculate the carbonate speciation at the time the sample was collected. In addition, TDS variations can be reduced considerably if a correct drying temperature of 180 °C is consistently implemented.

  17. Canadian petroleum industry review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feick, R. M. [Midland Walwyn Capital Inc., Toronto, ON (Canada)

    1997-06-01

    A wide ranging discussion about the factors that have influenced oil and natural gas prices, the differences of the Canadian market from international markets, the differences between eastern and western Canadian markets, and shareholders` perspectives on recent commodity price developments was presented. Developments in the OPEC countries were reviewed, noting that current OPEC production of 25 mmbbls is about 60 per cent higher than it was in 1985. It is expected that OPEC countries will continue to expand capacity to meet expected demand growth and the continuing need created by the UN embargo on Iraqi oil sales. Demand for natural gas is also likely to continue to rise especially in view of the deregulation of the electricity industry where natural gas may well become the favored fuel for incremental thermal generation capacity. Prices of both crude oil and natural gas are expected to hold owing to unusually low storage levels of both fuels. The inadequacy of infrastructure, particularly pipeline capacity as a key factor in the Canadian market was noted, along with the dynamic that will emerge in the next several years that may have potential consequences for Canadian production - namely the reversal of the Sarnia to Montreal pipeline. With regard to shareholders` expectations the main issues are (1) whether international markets reach back to the wellhead, hence the producer`s positioning with respect to transportation capacity and contract portfolios, and (2) whether the proceeds from increased prices are invested in projects that are yielding more than the cost of capital. 28 figs.

  18. Gas Deliverability Model with Different Vertical Wells Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Mucharam

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available We present here a gas deliverability computational model for single reservoir with multi wells. The questions of how long the gas delivery can be sustained and how to estimate the plateau time are discussed here. In order to answer such a question, in this case, a coupling method which consists of material balance method and gas flow equation method is developed by assuming no water influx in the reservoir. Given the rate and the minimum pressure of gas at the processing plant, the gas pressure at the wellhead and at the bottom hole can be obtained. From here, the estimation of the gas deliverability can be done. In this paper we obtain a computational method which gives direct computation for pressure drop from the processing plant to the wells, taking into account different well behavior. Here AOF technique is used for obtaining gas rate in each well. Further Tian & Adewumi correlation is applied for pressure drop model along vertical and horizontal pipes and Runge-Kutta method is chosen to compute the well head and bottom hole pressures in each well which then being used to estimate the plateau times. We obtain here direct computational scheme of gas deliverability from reservoir to processing plant for single reservoir with multi-wells properties. Computational results give different profiles (i.e. gas rate, plateau and production time, etc for each well. Further by selecting proper flow rate reduction, the flow distribution after plateau time to sustain the delivery is computed for each well.

  19. Reserve estimates in western basins: Unita Basin. Final report, Part III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    This study characterizes an extremely large gas resource located in low permeability, sandstone reservoirs of the Mesaverde group and Wasatch formation in the Uinta Basin, Utah. Total in-place resource is estimated at 395.5 Tcf. Via application of geologic, engineering and economic criteria, the portion of this resource potentially recoverable as reserves is estimated. Those volumes estimated include probable, possible and potential categories and total 3.8 Tcf as a mean estimate of recoverable gas for all plays considered in the basin. Two plays were included in this study and each was separately analyzed in terms of its tight gas resource, established productive characteristics and future reserves potential based on a constant $2/Mcf wellhead gas price scenario. A scheme has been developed to break the overall resource estimate down into components that can be considered as differing technical and economic challenges that must be overcome in order to exploit such resources; in other words, to convert those resources to economically recoverable reserves. About 82.1% of the total evaluated resource is contained within sandstones that have extremely poor reservoir properties with permeabilities considered too low for commerciality using current frac technology.

  20. [Various report forms and letters regarding Rorabaugh A-3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Various

    2007-08-16

    The documents described here and the following may be found at the Website of the State of California Department of Conservation, Division of Oil, Gas & Geothermal Resources, http://www.consrv.ca.gov/DOG/geothermal/unit_15/Unit15.htm. GEO Operator Corporation (formerly Thermogenics, Inc. and Geothermal Resources International Operator Corporation) drilled steam production and injection wells in the northwestern portion of The Geysers geothermal field from 1967 to 1985. These wells produced steam that was sold to PG&E's power plant 15. In 1989, the plant stopped operating so the wells stopped producing and GEO Operator Corporation went bankrupt. In 1997-1998, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the Division of Oil, Gas, and Geothermal Resources, with funding from the California Energy Commission, plugged and abandoned most of these idle wells because of severe wellhead corrosion. Technical data and well cuttings were salvaged from an abandoned warehouse on the GEO Operator Corporation lease. These data have recently been scanned and added to the Division's existing scanned well records. The data are unique because GEO Operator Corporation performed an unusually high number of studies, well tests, and analyses. A total of over 10,300 pages and over 340 logs are included in the scans. The reservoir engineering section alone contains over 3,300 pages of reservoir characterization, well testing, and related studies. These data will be useful to the operators at The Geysers Geothermal field, as well as the public and researchers worldwide.

  1. Capturing carbon dioxide as a polymer from natural gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Chih-Chau; Tour, Josiah J; Kittrell, Carter; Espinal, Laura; Alemany, Lawrence B; Tour, James M

    2014-06-03

    Natural gas is considered the cleanest and recently the most abundant fossil fuel source, yet when it is extracted from wells, it often contains 10-20 mol% carbon dioxide (20-40 wt%), which is generally vented to the atmosphere. Efforts are underway to contain this carbon dioxide at the well-head using inexpensive and non-corrosive methods. Here we report nucleophilic porous carbons are synthesized from simple and inexpensive carbon-sulphur and carbon-nitrogen precursors. Infrared, Raman and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance signatures substantiate carbon dioxide fixation by polymerization in the carbon channels to form poly(CO2) under much lower pressures than previously required. This growing chemisorbed sulphur- or nitrogen-atom-initiated poly(CO2) chain further displaces physisorbed hydrocarbon, providing a continuous carbon dioxide selectivity. Once returned to ambient conditions, the poly(CO2) spontaneously depolymerizes, leading to a sorbent that can be easily regenerated without the thermal energy input that is required for traditional sorbents.

  2. Electrical Generating Capacities of Geothermal Slim Holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pritchett, J.W.

    1998-10-01

    Theoretical calculations are presented to estimate the electrical generating capacity of the hot fluids discharged from individual geothermal wells using small wellhead generating equipment over a wide range of reservoir and operating conditions. The purpose is to appraise the possibility of employing slim holes (instead of conventional production-size wells) to power such generators for remote off-grid applications such as rural electrification in developing countries. Frequently, the generating capacity desired is less than one megawatt, and can be as low as 100 kilowatts; if slim holes can be usefully employed, overall project costs will be significantly reduced. This report presents the final results of the study. Both self-discharging wells and wells equipped with downhole pumps (either of the ''lineshaft'' or the ''submersible'' type) are examined. Several power plant designs are considered, including conventional single-flash backpressure and condensing steam turbines, binary plants, double-flash steam plants, and steam turbine/binary hybrid designs. Well inside diameters from 75 mm to 300 mm are considered; well depths vary from 300 to 1200 meters. Reservoir temperatures from 100 C to 240 C are examined, as are a variety of reservoir pressures and CO2 contents and well productivity index values.

  3. 高含硫化氢天然气气侵时的溢流特性%Overflow behaviors of natural gas kick well.with high content of H2S gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙宝江; 宋荣荣; 王志远

    2012-01-01

    以四川某高含H2S气体的气井井身结构及钻井工况为基础,针对高含H2S气井溢流时的特点,考虑H2S在水中的溶解度,建立溢流期间环空各相流体的质量和动量守恒方程,并用有限差分法对方程进行求解.结果表明:H2S在井底的溶解度远大于CH4的,在距井口约360 m开始大量析出;H2S的含量越高,气体在上升过程中密度变化越大,气体开始剧烈膨胀的位置越接近井口;井底侵入气体量相同的情况下,H2S的含量越高,气体的膨胀倍数越大,泥浆池增量也越大,同时,刚开始气侵时H2S含量越高气相的体积分数越小,而到达井口后H2S的含量越高气相的体积分数越大,导致溢流检测的难度和井控的危险程度增加;高含H2S气井溢流时井底压力的下降值、泥浆池增量、关井套压小于纯烃类的,不能反映真实的气侵程度,而且随着时间的增加情况会更严重;高含H2S气侵时压井过程中套压值与纯烃类的相差不大,因此可以在井口施加一定的压力,抑制H2S气体的膨胀,减缓井喷事故的发生.%Based on hole structure and drilling behavior of a gas well which has a high content of H2S gas in Sichuan, the conservation of mass equations and momentum equations were established considering overflow characteristics of high content of H2 S gas kick and H2 S solubility in water. And the equations were computed by using finite difference approach. The results show that the solubility of H2S is greater than that of CH4 at bottom hole, and H2S begins to separate at about 360 m a-way from wellhead. With the content of H2S increasing, the density change range increases during the gas going up, and the position of the gas dramatic expansion is close to the wellhead. When the gas kick volume is same at the bottom, the higher content of H2S, the greater gas expansion factor and pit gain, at the same time, the smaller gas volume fraction at the beginning , but greater when they

  4. Elemental mercury adsorption on sulfur-impregnated porous carbon - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, K Suresh Kumar; Shoaibi, Ahmed Al; Srinivasakannan, C

    2014-01-01

    The presence of elemental mercury in wellhead natural gas is an important industrial problem, since even low levels of mercury can damage cryogenic aluminium heat exchangers and other plant equipment. Mercury present in the natural gas stream will also dramatically shorten the useful life of precious metal catalysts. The present work reviews the overall process of elemental mercury removal in practice using non-regenerative adsorbents (e.g. sulfur-impregnated porous carbon), addressing the various influencing parameters such as the method of sulfur impregnation, the impregnation temperature, the sulfur to carbon ratio, the impregnation time, the impact of flue gas constituents, the effect of processing temperature, and the nature of any carbon-containing functional groups present. The distribution of elemental sulfur is found to be the key to developing an effective adsorbent, rather than quantity of sulfur impregnated. Modifying or developing an adsorbent for elemental mercury removal from natural gas needs a detail physical and chemical characteristics assessment of the adsorbent.

  5. Natural gas monthly, March 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This issue of the Natural Gas Monthly contains estimates for March 1999 for many natural gas data series at the national level. Estimates of national natural gas prices are available through December 1998 for most series. Highlights of the data contained in this issue are listed below. Preliminary data indicate that the national average wellhead price for 1998 declined to 16% from the previous year ($1.96 compared to $2.32 per thousand cubic feet). At the end of March, the end of the 1998--1999 heating season, the level of working gas in underground natural gas storage facilities is estimated to be 1,354 billion cubic feet, 169 billion cubic feet higher than at the end of March 1998. Gas consumption during the first 3 months of 1999 is estimated to have been 179 billion cubic feet higher than in the same period in 1998. Most of this increase (133 billion cubic feet) occurred in the residential sector due to the cooler temperatures in January and February compared to the same months last year. According to the National Weather Service, heating degree days in January 1999 were 15% greater than the previous year while February recorded a 5% increase.

  6. Air Quality Impact of the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middlebrook, A. M.; Ahmadov, R.; Atlas, E. L.; Bahreini, R.; Blake, D. R.; Brioude, J.; Brock, C. A.; de Gouw, J. A.; Fahey, D. W.; Fehsenfeld, F. C.; Gao, R.; Holloway, J. S.; Lueb, R.; McKeen, S. A.; Meagher, J. F.; Meinardi, S.; Murphy, D. M.; Parrish, D. D.; Peischl, J.; Perring, A.; Pollack, I. B.; Ravishankara, A. R.; Roberts, J. M.; Robinson, A. L.; Ryerson, T. B.; Schwarz, J. P.; Spackman, J. R.; Warneke, C.; Watts, L.

    2010-12-01

    On April 20, 2010, an explosion led to a rupture of the wellhead underneath the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) drilling platform. In addition to impacts on marine life and coasts, the resulting oil spill and cleanup operations also affected air quality. We measured a wide range of gas and aerosol species in the air close to and downwind of the DWH site. Among all of the measured species, the most important air quality concern for populations along the Gulf coast and inland was aerosols in respirable sizes. Since the measured gas-phase hydrocarbons were distributed in a fairly narrow plume evaporating from fresh surface oil and organic aerosol was measured in a much broader plume, the secondary organic aerosol (SOA) evidently formed from unmeasured, less volatile hydrocarbons that were emitted from a wider area around the site. Older surface oil near the coasts of Mississippi, Alabama, and Florida had little effect on SOA formation. The SOA mass increased with distance downwind of the DWH site. Preliminary results indicate that at least a few percent by mass of the spilled oil is converted into SOA. From the flaring, surface recovery, and cleanup operations, initial calculations of emission ratios also indicate that a few percent by mass of oil burned on the surface was emitted as black carbon aerosols. These organic and black carbon aerosols from the DWH oil spill influence local visibility and radiation and have potential health effects. Furthermore, they likely occasionally reached populated areas at concentrations that were a significant fraction of air quality standards.

  7. Gas business waits for better times

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parent, L.V.

    1992-02-01

    Gas prices are in a state of collapse. Low wellhead prices are at levels that push producers to the edge of bankruptcy, but they have not resulted in noticeably higher consumption, nor are they likely to in the near term. This paper reports that exploration technology gains have saved drilling from total wipeout. Without these gains, and without certain tax credits, reserve additions would have fallen to alarmingly low levels, and gas well drilling would have come to a shuddering standstill. Pipeliners have high hopes that they will be able to make it in the open-access environment of the pending Mega-NOPR (notices of proposed regulations). The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) rulemakers are working around the clock on a final, all- encompassing rule to cover all aspects of FERC-regulated transportation. This giant rulemaking, when it emerges, will prescribe the rules and regulations that are to form the benchmark from this point on. In the meantime, state officials also are busy trying to shore up the gas industry with new regulations that are expected to offer price support to producers.

  8. [Various report forms and letters regarding Rorabaugh A-6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Various

    2007-08-16

    The documents described here and the following may be found at the Website of the State of California Department of Conservation, Division of Oil, Gas & Geothermal Resources, http://www.consrv.ca.gov/DOG/geothermal/unit_15/Unit15.htm. GEO Operator Corporation (formerly Thermogenics, Inc. and Geothermal Resources International Operator Corporation) drilled steam production and injection wells in the northwestern portion of The Geysers geothermal field from 1967 to 1985. These wells produced steam that was sold to PG&E's power plant 15. In 1989, the plant stopped operating so the wells stopped producing and GEO Operator Corporation went bankrupt. In 1997-1998, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the Division of Oil, Gas, and Geothermal Resources, with funding from the California Energy Commission, plugged and abandoned most of these idle wells because of severe wellhead corrosion. Technical data and well cuttings were salvaged from an abandoned warehouse on the GEO Operator Corporation lease. These data have recently been scanned and added to the Division's existing scanned well records. The data are unique because GEO Operator Corporation performed an unusually high number of studies, well tests, and analyses. A total of over 10,300 pages and over 340 logs are included in the scans. The reservoir engineering section alone contains over 3,300 pages of reservoir characterization, well testing, and related studies. These data will be useful to the operators at The Geysers Geothermal field, as well as the public and researchers worldwide.

  9. Evaluation and prevention of formation damage in offshore sandstone reservoirs in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Shenglai; Sheng Zhichao; Liu Wenhui; Song Zhixue; Wu Ming; Zhang Jianwei

    2008-01-01

    Reduction in water injectivity would be harmful to the waterflood development of offshore sandstone oil reservoirs. In this paper the magnitude of formation damage during water injection was evaluated by analyzing the performance of water injection in the Bohai offshore oilfield, China. Two parameters, permeability reduction and rate of wellhead pressure rise, were proposed to evaluate the formation damage around injection wells. The pressure performance curve could be divided into three stages with different characteristics. Analysis of field data shows that formation damage caused by water injection was severe in some wells in the Bohai offshore oilfield, China. In the laboratory, the content of clay minerals in reservoir rock was analyzed and sensitivity tests (including sensitivity to water,flow rate, alkali, salt and acid) were also conducted. Experimental results show that the reservoir had a strong to medium sensitivity to water (i.e. clay swelling) and a strong to medium sensitivity to flow rate,which may cause formation damage. For formation damage prevention, three injection schemes of clay stabilizer (CS) were studied, i.e. continuous injection of low concentration CS (Ci), slug injection of high concentration CS (SI), and slug injection of high concentration CS followed by continuous injection of low concentration CS (SI-CI). Core flooding experiments show that SI-CI is an effective scheme to prevent formation damage and is recommended for the sandstone oil reservoirs in the Bohai offshore oilfield during water injection.

  10. Research on water pressure decreasing in coal mine based on extended period analysis by EPANET software%基于EPANET延时分析的煤矿防尘供水减压研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯晓东; 王志强; 张凌志

    2015-01-01

    为解决随煤矿开采垂深增加,出现的静压供水压力超高问题。以开滦集团赵各庄煤矿为例,对煤矿主要采掘工作面和矿井一周防尘用水量进行了观测,应用EPANET软件对该矿防尘管网进行了延时水力分析,在综合评价不同工况条件所有用水地点水压变化的基础上,提出矿井供水减压方案,并对方案有效性进行了验证。%A method is supplied to decrease pressure of water supply that is too high to use, with mining depth increasing. The water supply system of Zhaogezhuang Mine, Kailuan Group, is used to verify the effectiveness of this research as an example. The water consumption was measured at mining work faces and wellhead in Zhaogezhuang Mine for a week. The EPANET software is applied to give an extended period analysis of the water supply network. Based on comprehensive analysis for water pressure of all the nodes, a project to reduce pressure of water supply scheme is proposed. Finally, validity of this method was verified.

  11. Geothermal energy potential for district and process heating applications in the U. S. : an economic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloomster, C.H.; Fassbender, L.L.; McDonald, C.L.

    1977-08-01

    Geothermal energy is competitive for space and process heating applications over significant distances when employed on a large scale to serve concentrated markets. Under these conditions geothermal energy from 90 to 150/sup 0/C hydrothermal resources should be economically competitive for high-density urban district heating out to distances of 50 miles from the wellhead. Supply curves (price-quantity relationships) were developed for both process heating and district heating applications for distances out to 50 miles. The 90 to 150/sup 0/C hydrothermal resources, which were identified in the assessment of geothermal resources by the U.S. Geological Survey, contain usable energy for space and process heat equivalent to 50 billion barrels of oil. The potential demand for space and process heat near these hydrothermal resources is large; over 10% of the U.S. population resides within 40 miles of the resources. The sensitivity of production costs to the important factors of production was determined. The most important factors are well costs, well flow rate, resource temperature, distance separating demand and supply, population density, size of demand, and the system load factor. Technological advances are needed to reduce costs and increase the distances over which geothermal energy can be competitive. Institutional deterrents to widespread nonelectric applications of geothermal energy will probably be significant. Among these will be the acquisition of rights-of-way, the need to organize concentrated markets, and price competition from the conventional fuels based on average cost rather than marginal cost.

  12. Development and status of foaming to increase natural gas production from the mature field Altmark; Entwicklung und Stand der Beschaeumungstechnik zur Steigerung der Erdgasproduktion aus dem maturen Feld der Altmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goudarzi, H.; Schramm, C. [GDF Suez E and P Deutschland GmbH, Steinitz (Germany)

    2013-10-15

    The last production phase of some natural gas wells is characterized by the inability to unload the accumulated liquids from the wellbore. Besides the available techniques and solutions for deliquification of gas wells, foaming represents an alternative to make gas wells with liquid loading produce again with a stable production rate. This is one of the challenges GDF Suez E and P Deutschland is facing in the mature gas field Altmark (Salzwedel, Saxony-Anhalt). The first production in the central part of the structure Salzwedel-Peckensen was recorded in August 1969. In 1985 the main goal was to keep the plateau production rate of 12.2 billion m{sup 3} of natural gas per year as long as possible. This objective was realized by 30 infill wells per year, wellhead pressure reduction and installation of compressor stations. Parallel to that, the packer installations of the wells were replaced by packerless completions in order to facilitate continuous foaming of the downhole through the annulus space. The selection of a suitable foamer and defoamer is presented chronologically and the structure of the foam injector and defoamer system is described. In addition, positive and negative aspects of foaming are addressed based on our experience. Finally a concept for foaming and defoaming based on the authors' view is developed that can be implemented if there are economic constraints which require the reuse of existing facilities. (orig.)

  13. Recompletion of gas filled caverns at underground storage facilities of Verbundnetz Gas AG; Umruestungen gasgefuellter Kavernen auf Untergrundspeichern der Verbundnetz Gas AG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pischner, M.; Rehmer, K.P. [Untergrundspeicher- und Geotechnologie-Systeme GmbH, Mittenwalde (Germany); Arnold, C. [VNG Verbundnetz Gas AG, Leipzig (Germany)

    2007-11-15

    In 1991 the Verbundnetz Gas AG (VNG AG) has started to modernize outdated installations of the underground gas storage cavern near Bernburg and Bad Lauchstaedt (Germany). On 33 caverns, which were mostly leached during the 70s and 80s of the last century, the old wellheads have been replaced by new ones. In some cases even the production string has been replaced or a new head housing was installed. The reasons and technical suppositions for these measures will be explained. Most of the modifications have been made above gas filled caverns and have been safe despite of the high pressures. The packer-system developed by Untergrundspeicher- und Geotechnologie-Systeme GmbH (UGS GmbH) and VNG AG will be presented. Furthermore the technical procedures are grouped and described. Experiences and development over the years will be outlined. Working above gas filled caverns instead of flooding them before, allowed to reduce the total costs to less than one third. (orig.)

  14. Newberry EGS Demonstration: Phase 2.2 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cladouhos, Trenton T. [AltaRock Energy, Seattle, WA (United States); Petty, Susan [AltaRock Energy, Seattle, WA (United States); Swyer, Mike W. [AltaRock Energy, Seattle, WA (United States); Nordin, Yini [AltaRock Energy, Seattle, WA (United States); Garrison, Geoff [AltaRock Energy, Seattle, WA (United States); Uddenberg, Matt [AltaRock Energy, Seattle, WA (United States); Grasso, Kyla [AltaRock Energy, Seattle, WA (United States); Stern, Paul [PLS Environmental, Boulder, CO (United States); Sonnenthal, Eric [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Foulger, Gillian [Foulger Consulting, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Julian, Bruce [Foulger Consulting, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2015-07-03

    The Newberry Volcano EGS Demonstration is a five year field project designed to demonstrate recent technological advances for engineered geothermal systems (EGS) development. Advances in reservoir stimulation, diverter, and monitoring are being tested in a hot (>300 ºC), dry well (NWG 55-29) drilled in 2008. In the fall of 2014, 9,500m3 (2.5 million gallons) of groundwater were injected at a maximum wellhead pressure of 195 bar (2850 psi) over 4 weeks of hydraulic stimulation. Injectivity changes, thermal profiles and seismicity indicate that fracture permeability in well NWG 55-29 was enhanced. The fifteen-station microseismic array (MSA) located 398 seismic events, ranging in magnitude from M 0 to M 2.26. The next step is to drill a production well into the EGS reservoir. Advanced analysis of the microseismic data including hand picking of first arrivals, moment tensors, relative relocations, and velocity model improvements have resulted new higher-quality microseismic catalogs. These catalogs have been combined by relative weighting and gridding of seismic densities, resulting in probability-based maps and cross-sections, which have been used to plan a production well trajectory. The microseismic locations and times were also used to develop a reservoir diffusivity model, which can be used to evaluate stimulation plans such as dual-well stimulation.

  15. 1994 Environmental monitoring drinking water and nonradiological effluent programs annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, B.D.; Brock, T.A.; Meachum, T.R.

    1995-10-01

    EG&G Idaho, Inc., initiated monitoring programs for drinking water in 1988 and for nonradiological parameters and pollutants in liquid effluents in 1985. These programs were initiated for the facilities operated by EG&G Idaho for the US Department of Energy at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. On October 1, 1994, Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company (LITCO) replaced EG&G Idaho as the prime contractor at the INEL and assumed responsibility for these programs. Section I discusses the general site characteristics, the analytical laboratories, and sampling methodology general to both programs. Section 2, the Drinking Water Program, tracks the bacteriological, chemical, and radiological parameters required by State and Federal regulations. This section describes the drinking water monitoring activities conducted at 17 LITCO-operated production wells and 11 distribution systems. It also contains all of the drinking water parameters detected and the regulatory limits exceeded during calendar year 1994. In addition, groundwater quality is discussed as it relates to contaminants identified at the wellhead for LITCO production wells. Section 3 discusses the nonradiological liquid effluent monitoring results for 27 liquid effluent streams. These streams are presented with emphasis on calendar year 1994 activities. All parameter measurements and concentrations were below the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act toxic characteristics limits.

  16. [Various report forms and letters regarding Rorabaugh A-18

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Various

    2007-08-16

    The documents described here and the following may be found at the Website of the State of California Department of Conservation, Division of Oil, Gas & Geothermal Resources, http://www.consrv.ca.gov/DOG/geothermal/unit_15/Unit15.htm. GEO Operator Corporation (formerly Thermogenics, Inc. and Geothermal Resources International Operator Corporation) drilled steam production and injection wells in the northwestern portion of The Geysers geothermal field from 1967 to 1985. These wells produced steam that was sold to PG&E's power plant 15. In 1989, the plant stopped operating so the wells stopped producing and GEO Operator Corporation went bankrupt. In 1997-1998, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the Division of Oil, Gas, and Geothermal Resources, with funding from the California Energy Commission, plugged and abandoned most of these idle wells because of severe wellhead corrosion. Technical data and well cuttings were salvaged from an abandoned warehouse on the GEO Operator Corporation lease. These data have recently been scanned and added to the Division's existing scanned well records. The data are unique because GEO Operator Corporation performed an unusually high number of studies, well tests, and analyses. A total of over 10,300 pages and over 340 logs are included in the scans. The reservoir engineering section alone contains over 3,300 pages of reservoir characterization, well testing, and related studies. These data will be useful to the operators at The Geysers Geothermal field, as well as the public and researchers worldwide.

  17. Broadband hydroseismograms observed by closed borehole wells in the Kamioka mine, central Japan: Response of pore pressure to seismic waves from 0.05 to 2 Hz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kano, Yasuyuki; Yanagidani, Takashi

    2006-03-01

    We obtained broadband hydroseismograms by monitoring the pore pressure changes of a rock mass in the Kamioka mine, using borehole wells. The wellhead was sealed to maintain an undrained condition, under which there is no flow of water through the interface between the well and the rock mass. This reduces the wellbore storage effect, which can cause a high-frequency cutoff response for systems of conventional open wells and rock mass. Using these closed borehole wells, 16 hydroseismograms were recorded for earthquakes in a range of magnitudes of 4.5-7.9 and epicentral distances of 1.0°-71.6°. Direct P waves, SV waves converted to P, and Rayleigh phases are clearly observed on the hydroseismograms. The similarity between hydroseismograms and seismograms reveals a clear relationship between radial ground velocity and pore pressure. The relationship is expressed as a zero-order system, which is characterized by no distortion or time lag between the input and output, and the pore pressure has no coupling with shear deformation. These results are consistent with an undrained constitutive relation of linear poroelastic theory and confirm that the relation is valid for the seismic frequency range. We determined in situ values of pore pressure sensitivity to volumetric change of the rock mass, which were then used to estimate in situ Skempton coefficients with values of 0.70-0.85.

  18. High-performance intrinsically microporous dihydroxyl-functionalized triptycene-based polyimide for natural gas separation

    KAUST Repository

    Alaslai, Nasser Y.

    2016-03-22

    A novel polyimide of intrinsic microporosity (PIM-PI) was synthesized from a 9,10-diisopropyl-triptycene-based dianhydride (TPDA) and dihydroxyl-functionalized 4,6-diaminoresorcinol (DAR). The unfunctionalized TPDA-m-phenylenediamine (mPDA) polyimide derivative was made as a reference material to evaluate the effect of the OH group in TPDA-DAR on its gas transport properties. Pure-gas permeability coefficients of He, H2, N2, O2, CH4, and CO2 were measured at 35 °C and 2 atm. The BET surface area based on nitrogen adsorption of dihydroxyl-functionalized TPDA-DAR (308 m2g-1) was 45% lower than that of TPDA-mPDA (565 m2g-1). TPDA-mPDA had a pure-gas CO2 permeability of 349 Barrer and CO2/CH4 selectivity of 32. The dihydroxyl-functionalized TPDA-DAR polyimide exhibited enhanced pure-gas CO2/CH4 selectivity of 46 with a moderate decrease in CO2 permeability to 215 Barrer. The CO2 permeability of TPDA-DAR was ∼30-fold higher than that of a commercial cellulose triacetate membrane coupled with 39% higher pure-gas CO2/CH4 selectivity. The TPDA-based dihydroxyl-containing polyimide showed good plasticization resistance and maintained high mixed-gas selectivity of 38 when tested at a typical CO2 natural gas wellhead CO2 partial pressure of 10 atm.

  19. A Flexible-Segment-Model-Based Dynamics Calculation Method for Free Hanging Marine Risers in Re-Entry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Xue-song; WANG Sheng-wei

    2012-01-01

    In re-entry,the drilling riser hanging to the holding vessel takes on a free hanging state,waiting to be moved from the initial random position to the wellhead.For the re-entry,dynamics calculation is often done to predict the riser motion or evaluate the structural safety.A dynamics calculation method based on Flexible Segment Model (FSM) is proposed for free hanging marine risers.In FSM,a riser is discretized into a series of flexible segments.For each flexible segment,its deflection feature and external forces are analyzed independently.For the whole riser,the nonlinear governing equations are listed according to the moment equilibrium at nodes.For the solution of the nonlinear equations,a linearization iteration scheme is provided in the paper.Owing to its flexibility,each segment can match a long part of the riser body,which enables that good results can be obtained even with a small number of segments.Moreover,the linearization iteration scheme can avoid widely used Newton-Rapson iteration scheme in which the calculation stability is influenced by the initial points.The FSM-based dynamics calculation is timesaving and stable,so suitable for the shape prediction or real-time control of free hanging marine risers.

  20. KT3D_H2O: a program for kriging water level data using hydrologic drift terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanovic, Marinko; Tonkin, Matthew; Wilson, David

    2009-01-01

    It is often necessary to estimate the zone of contribution to, or the capture zone developed by, pumped wells: for example, when evaluating pump-and-treat remedies and when developing wellhead protection areas for supply wells. Tonkin and Larson (2002) and Brochu and Marcotte (2003) describe a mapping-based method for estimating the capture zone of pumped wells, developed by combining universal kriging (kriging with a trend) with analytical expressions that describe the response of the potentiometric surface to certain applied stresses. This Methods Note describes (a) expansions to the technique described by Tonkin and Larson (2002); (b) the concept of the capture frequency map (CFM), a technique that combines information from multiple capture zone maps into a single depiction of capture; (c) the development of a graphical user interface to facilitate the use of the methods described; and (d) the integration of these programs within the MapWindow geographic information system environment. An example application is presented that illustrates ground water level contours, capture zones, and a CFM prepared using the methods and software described.

  1. [Various report forms and letters regarding Rorabaugh A-22

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Various

    2007-08-16

    The documents described here and the following may be found at the Website of the State of California Department of Conservation, Division of Oil, Gas & Geothermal Resources, http://www.consrv.ca.gov/DOG/geothermal/unit_15/Unit15.htm. GEO Operator Corporation (formerly Thermogenics, Inc. and Geothermal Resources International Operator Corporation) drilled steam production and injection wells in the northwestern portion of The Geysers geothermal field from 1967 to 1985. These wells produced steam that was sold to PG&E's power plant 15. In 1989, the plant stopped operating so the wells stopped producing and GEO Operator Corporation went bankrupt. In 1997-1998, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the Division of Oil, Gas, and Geothermal Resources, with funding from the California Energy Commission, plugged and abandoned most of these idle wells because of severe wellhead corrosion. Technical data and well cuttings were salvaged from an abandoned warehouse on the GEO Operator Corporation lease. These data have recently been scanned and added to the Division's existing scanned well records. The data are unique because GEO Operator Corporation performed an unusually high number of studies, well tests, and analyses. A total of over 10,300 pages and over 340 logs are included in the scans. The reservoir engineering section alone contains over 3,300 pages of reservoir characterization, well testing, and related studies. These data will be useful to the operators at The Geysers Geothermal field, as well as the public and researchers worldwide.

  2. High Temperature Metamorphism In The Conductive Boundary Layer Of An Intrusion Of Rhyolite Magma In The Krafla Geothermal System, Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffman, P.; Zierenberg, R. A.; Fridleifsson, G. O.; Elders, W. A.; Mortensen, A. K.

    2011-12-01

    A rhyolite magma body within the Krafla geothermal system- encountered at a depth of 2.1 km during drilling of the Iceland Deep Drilling Project's IDDP-1 borehole - is producing high temperature metamorphism within adjacent country rocks. Cuttings recovered during drilling within a few meters of the intrusive contact are undergoing recrystallization into granoblastic, pyroxene hornfelses. In mafic rocks, clinopyroxene-orthopyroxene-plagioclase-magnetite-ilmenite assemblages record temperatures in the range of 800-950°C. Silicic lithologies - mainly older felsitic intrusions -contain pockets of rhyolite melt, quenched to glass during drilling, amongst alkali feldspar, plagioclase, quartz, clinopyroxene, and magnetite. Curiously, no lower grade metamorphic assemblages have been identified in the drill cuttings, and country rocks at distances beyond 30 m of the contact are essentially unaltered. These findings suggest that the intruding rhyolite magma body has created a thin conductive boundary layer above it, but that a contact metamorphic aureole has not as yet developed beyond this. The heat flow across the boundary layer is calculated to be a minimum of 23 W m-2. This flux is capable of supplying steam to a geothermal power plant that can produce approximately 40 MW of electrical generation from a single well that has a measured well-head temperature of up to 415°C.

  3. Microbial Response to the MC-252 Oil and Corexit 9500 in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Romy; Borglin, Sharon E.; Dubinsky, Eric A.; Andersen, Gary L.; Hazen, Terry C.

    2012-01-01

    The Deepwater Horizon spill released over 4.1 million barrels of crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico. In an effort to mitigate large oil slicks, the dispersant Corexit 9500 was sprayed onto surface slicks and injected directly at the wellhead at water depth of 1,500 m. Several research groups were involved in investigating the fate of the MC-252 oil using newly advanced molecular tools to elucidate microbial interactions with oil, gases, and dispersant. Microbial community analysis by different research groups revealed that hydrocarbon degrading bacteria belonging to Oceanospirillales, Colwellia, Cycloclasticus, Rhodobacterales, Pseudoalteromonas, and methylotrophs were found enriched in the contaminated water column. Presented here is a comprehensive overview of the ecogenomics of microbial degradation of MC-252 oil and gases in the water column and shorelines. We also present some insight into the fate of the dispersant Corexit 9500 that was added to aid in oil dispersion process. Our results show the dispersant was not toxic to the indigenous microbes at concentrations added, and different bacterial species isolated in the aftermath of the spill were able to degrade the various components of Corexit 9500 that included hydrocarbons, glycols, and dioctyl sulfosuccinate. PMID:23087678

  4. Gaz de France annual report 2000; Gaz de France rapport annuel 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    A leader in the natural gas market in Europe, Gaz de France is an integrated group active in all sectors of the natural gas industry. In exploration and production, trading of natural gas, transmission, storage, distribution, energy management, air conditioning and heating, the Group has developed recognized skills and know-how both upstream and down to assure its customers of diversified, efficient and competitive services. A leader in liquefied natural gas, storage and distribution technologies, the Gaz de France Group has strong positions in Europe and operates throughout the world by promoting a strategy of alliances and partnerships at all levels of the gas industry. The goal of the Gaz de France Group is to continue to expand and develop its activities from the wellhead to the burner tip, and to seize, in France and throughout the world, the best opportunities offered to capitalize on its strengths. This activity report presents: the corporate profile, the financial highlights, the principal subsidiaries and affiliates, the major European trunk lines the responsive, customer-focused services (exploration-production, trading, transmission, distribution, services), the actions to ensure performance (productive research, comprehensive quality assurance, mobilized workforce ready for the opening of the markets)

  5. Purge water management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso-Neto, Joao E.; Williams, Daniel W.

    1996-01-01

    A purge water management system for effectively eliminating the production of purge water when obtaining a groundwater sample from a monitoring well. In its preferred embodiment, the purge water management system comprises an expandable container, a transportation system, and a return system. The purge water management system is connected to a wellhead sampling configuration, typically permanently installed at the well site. A pump, positioned with the monitoring well, pumps groundwater through the transportation system into the expandable container, which expands in direct proportion with volume of groundwater introduced, usually three or four well volumes, yet prevents the groundwater from coming into contact with the oxygen in the air. After this quantity of groundwater has been removed from the well, a sample is taken from a sampling port, after which the groundwater in the expandable container can be returned to the monitoring well through the return system. The purge water management system prevents the purge water from coming in contact with the outside environment, especially oxygen, which might cause the constituents of the groundwater to oxidize. Therefore, by introducing the purge water back into the monitoring well, the necessity of dealing with the purge water as a hazardous waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act is eliminated.

  6. 1,2 Dibromo-3-chloropropane (DBCP) and ethylene dibromide (EDB) in well water in the Fresno/Clovis metropolitan area, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloos, H

    1996-01-01

    Ground-water contamination with the pesticides 1,2 dibromo-3-chloropropane (DBCP) and ethylene dibromide (EDB) affects Fresno/Clovis city in California. The spatial and temporal distribution of DBCP and EDB in public wells in Fresno/Clovis was examined, using mapping and time-series analyses of chemical test results, during the time periods 1979-1980 and 1992-1993. Health risks were estimated from mean concentrations, lifetime cancer risks were estimated, and monitoring and control programs were reviewed. Mean DBCP concentrations in selected wells declined from 0.56 ppb in 1979-1980 to 0.18 ppb in 1992-1993. Closure of wells and wellhead filtration caused levels to be reduced further (i.e., to 0.06 ppb). Mean EDB concentrations declined from 0.25 ppb to 0.15 ppb during the same time periods. The estimated lifetime cancer risk for DBCP was 1 excess death per 125 000 population in 1992-1993, but this risk varied within the city. The risk for EDB was 1 excess death per 2.2 million. Recommendations were made for the modeling of pesticide movement in ground water and for epidemiological studies.

  7. [Construction of groundwater contamination prevention mapping system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun-Jie; He, Jiang-Tao; Lu, Yan; Liu, Li-Ya; Zhang, Xiao-Liang

    2012-09-01

    Groundwater contamination prevention mapping is an important component of groundwater contamination geological survey and assessment work, which could provide the basis for making and implementing groundwater contamination prevention planning. A groundwater contamination prevention mapping system was constructed in view of the synthetic consideration on nature perspective derived from groundwater contamination sources and aquifer itself, social-economic perspective, policy perspective derived from outside. During the system construction process, analytic hierarchy process and relevant overlaying principles were used to couple groundwater contamination risk assessment, groundwater value as well as wellhead protection area zoning. Data processing and visualization of mapping results were achieved in the GIS environment. The research on groundwater contamination prevention mapping in Beijing Plain indicated that the final groundwater prevention map was in accordance with the actual conditions and well reflected the priorities of groundwater prevention, which could play a guidance role in designing and implementing further practical prevention and supervision measures. Besides, because of the dynamical properties of the system components, it was suggested to analyze the update frequency of the mapping.

  8. Acoustic and sonochemical methods for altering the viscosity of oil during recovery and pipeline transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramov, Vladimir O; Abramova, Anna V; Bayazitov, Vadim M; Mullakaev, Marat S; Marnosov, Alexandr V; Ildiyakov, Alexandr V

    2017-03-01

    Reduction of oil viscosity is of great importance for the petroleum industry since it contributes a lot to the facilitation of pipeline transportation of oil. This study analyzes the capability of acoustic waves to decrease the viscosity of oil during its commercial production. Three types of equipment were tested: an ultrasonic emitter that is located directly in the well and affects oil during its production and two types of acoustic machines to be located at the wellhead and perform acoustic treatment after oil extraction: a setup for ultrasonic hydrodynamic treatment and a flow-through ultrasonic reactor. In our case, the two acoustic machines were rebuilt and tested in the laboratory. The viscosity of oil was measured before and after both types of acoustic treatment; and 2, 24 and 48h after ultrasonic treatment and 1 and 4h after hydrodynamic treatment in order to estimate the constancy of viscosity reduction. The viscosity reduction achieved by acoustic waves was compared to the viscosity reduction achieved by acoustic waves jointly with solvents. It was shown, that regardless of the form of powerful acoustic impact, a long lasting decrease in viscosity can be obtained only if sonochemical treatment is used. Using sonochemical treatment based on ultrasonic hydrodynamic treatment a viscosity reduction by 72,46% was achieved. However, the reduction in viscosity by 16%, which was demonstrated using the ultrasonic downhole tool in the well without addition of chemicals, is high enough to facilitate the production of viscous hydrocarbons.

  9. [Various report forms and letters regarding Rorabaugh A-19

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Various

    2007-08-16

    The documents described here and the following may be found at the Website of the State of California Department of Conservation, Division of Oil, Gas & Geothermal Resources, http://www.consrv.ca.gov/DOG/geothermal/unit_15/Unit15.htm. GEO Operator Corporation (formerly Thermogenics, Inc. and Geothermal Resources International Operator Corporation) drilled steam production and injection wells in the northwestern portion of The Geysers geothermal field from 1967 to 1985. These wells produced steam that was sold to PG&E's power plant 15. In 1989, the plant stopped operating so the wells stopped producing and GEO Operator Corporation went bankrupt. In 1997-1998, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the Division of Oil, Gas, and Geothermal Resources, with funding from the California Energy Commission, plugged and abandoned most of these idle wells because of severe wellhead corrosion. Technical data and well cuttings were salvaged from an abandoned warehouse on the GEO Operator Corporation lease. These data have recently been scanned and added to the Division's existing scanned well records. The data are unique because GEO Operator Corporation performed an unusually high number of studies, well tests, and analyses. A total of over 10,300 pages and over 340 logs are included in the scans. The reservoir engineering section alone contains over 3,300 pages of reservoir characterization, well testing, and related studies. These data will be useful to the operators at The Geysers Geothermal field, as well as the public and researchers worldwide.

  10. Effect of inlet and outlet flow conditions on natural gas parameters in supersonic separation process.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Yang

    Full Text Available A supersonic separator has been introduced to remove water vapour from natural gas. The mechanisms of the upstream and downstream influences are not well understood for various flow conditions from the wellhead and the back pipelines. We used a computational model to investigate the effect of the inlet and outlet flow conditions on the supersonic separation process. We found that the shock wave was sensitive to the inlet or back pressure compared to the inlet temperature. The shock position shifted forward with a higher inlet or back pressure. It indicated that an increasing inlet pressure declined the pressure recovery capacity. Furthermore, the shock wave moved out of the diffuser when the ratio of the back pressure to the inlet one was greater than 0.75, in which the state of the low pressure and temperature was destroyed, resulting in the re-evaporation of the condensed liquids. Natural gas would be the subsonic flows in the whole supersonic separator, if the mass flow rate was less than the design value, and it could not reach the low pressure and temperature for the condensation and separation of the water vapor. These results suggested a guidance mechanism for natural gas supersonic separation in various flow conditions.

  11. 刚/柔性连接对导管架平台振动特性影响研究%Vibration Characteristics of Jacket Platforms Influenced by Rigid and Flexible Connections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范晓; 段梦兰; 庹鑫; 侯金林; 刘洋; 谭双妮; 杨磊

    2014-01-01

    海上油田二次开发时通常采取加密井网综合调整的措施,在工程上经常会在老平台旁建新的导管架平台。为满足设备和资源的共享,新老平台有刚、柔2种连接方式,即平台短距离直接连接或栈桥连接。分析了2种连接方式对新老平台整体振动特性的影响,得到不同情况下适宜的连接方式,并借助 SACS 软件进行工程实例验证。%Increasing the number of wellheads and comprehensive adjustment always use in rede-velopment of offshore oilfield.The new platform always was built beside the old jacket platform in redevelopment of offshore oilfield.There are two ways to connect the old and new platform to meet the sharing of equipment and resources.Researching was carried out for the vibration char-acteristics of jacket platforms influenced by rigid and flexible connection to prove the conclusions with SACS.

  12. Measurements in support of the Deepwater Horizon (MC-252) oil spill response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crout, Richard L.

    2011-06-01

    The explosion of the Deepwater Horizon (MC-252) drilling platform on 20 April 2010 began a long response by the United Area Command. Previous responses to oil spills were limited in time due to the amount of oil spilled and were generally confined to the surface. Some of the oil from the Deepwater Horizon wellhead in 1500 meters of water broke into smaller droplets, whose density caused much of the oil to stay within a zone from 1000 to 1300 meters depth. The remainder of the oil rose to the surface. The two primary locations of oil required a broad collection of remote sensing techniques to locate and monitor the oil spill. Surface oil was monitored primarily from the air using aircraft and satellite assets. Satellite visible, infra-red, and radar satellite imagery helped to locate oil in the northern Gulf of Mexico and help predict its movement away from the spill site. Daily over-flights by aircraft provided higher spatial and temporal resolution data that were assimilated into daily products. These remote sensing assets were able to track the surface oil, but the subsurface oil required different techniques. In addition to salinity and temperature profiles to determine the subsurface structure, fluorometry and dissolved oxygen measurements provided information related to oil and its consumption by microorganisms. Water samples collected from CTD casts were analyzed on-board and returned to on-shore laboratories.

  13. Risk of viral acute gastrointestinal illness from nondisinfected drinking water distribution systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambertini, Elisabetta; Borchardt, Mark A; Kieke, Burney A; Spencer, Susan K; Loge, Frank J

    2012-09-04

    Acute gastrointestinal illness (AGI) resulting from pathogens directly entering the piping of drinking water distribution systems is insufficiently understood. Here, we estimate AGI incidence from virus intrusions into the distribution systems of 14 nondisinfecting, groundwater-source, community water systems. Water samples for virus quantification were collected monthly at wells and households during four 12-week periods in 2006-2007. Ultraviolet (UV) disinfection was installed on the communities' wellheads during one study year; UV was absent the other year. UV was intended to eliminate virus contributions from the wells and without residual disinfectant present in these systems, any increase in virus concentration downstream at household taps represented virus contributions from the distribution system (Approach 1). During no-UV periods, distribution system viruses were estimated by the difference between well water and household tap virus concentrations (Approach 2). For both approaches, a Monte Carlo risk assessment framework was used to estimate AGI risk from distribution systems using study-specific exposure-response relationships. Depending on the exposure-response relationship selected, AGI risk from the distribution systems was 0.0180-0.0661 and 0.001-0.1047 episodes/person-year estimated by Approaches 1 and 2, respectively. These values represented 0.1-4.9% of AGI risk from all exposure routes, and 1.6-67.8% of risk related to drinking water exposure. Virus intrusions into nondisinfected drinking water distribution systems can contribute to sporadic AGI.

  14. Assessment of sewer source contamination of drinking water wells using tracers and human enteric viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Randall J; Borchardt, Mark A; Richards, Kevin D; Spencer, Susan K

    2010-10-15

    This study investigated the source, transport, and occurrence of human enteric viruses in municipal well water, focusing on sanitary sewer sources. A total of 33 wells from 14 communities were sampled once for wastewater tracers and viruses. Wastewater tracers were detected in four of these wells, and five wells were virus- positive by qRT-PCR. These results, along with exclusion of wells with surface water sources, were used to select three wells for additional investigation. Viruses and wastewater tracers were found in the groundwater at all sites. Some wastewater tracers, such as ionic detergents, flame retardants, and cholesterol, were considered unambiguous evidence of wastewater. Sampling at any given time may not show concurrent virus and tracer presence; however, given sufficient sampling over time, a relation between wastewater tracers and virus occurrence was identified. Presence of infectious viruses at the wellhead demonstrates that high-capacity pumping induced sufficiently short travel times for the transport of infectious viruses. Therefore, drinking-water wells are vulnerable to contaminants that travel along fast groundwater flowpaths even if they contribute a small amount of virus-laden water to the well. These results suggest that vulnerability assessments require characterization of "low yield-fast transport" in addition to traditional "high yield-slow transport", pathways.

  15. Modeling the Factors Impacting Pesticide Concentrations in Groundwater Wells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aisopou, Angeliki; Binning, Philip J; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen; Bjerg, Poul L

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the effect of pumping, hydrogeology, and pesticide characteristics on pesticide concentrations in production wells using a reactive transport model in two conceptual hydrogeologic systems; a layered aquifer with and without a stream present. The pumping rate can significantly affect the pesticide breakthrough time and maximum concentration at the well. The effect of the pumping rate on the pesticide concentration depends on the hydrogeology of the aquifer; in a layered aquifer, a high pumping rate resulted in a considerably different breakthrough than a low pumping rate, while in an aquifer with a stream the effect of the pumping rate was insignificant. Pesticide application history and properties have also a great impact on the effect of the pumping rate on the concentration at the well. The findings of the study show that variable pumping rates can generate temporal variability in the concentration at the well, which helps understanding the results of groundwater monitoring programs. The results are used to provide guidance on the design of pumping and regulatory changes for the long-term supply of safe groundwater. The fate of selected pesticides is examined, for example, if the application of bentazone in a region with a layered aquifer stops today, the concentration at the well can continue to increase for 20 years if a low pumping rate is applied. This study concludes that because of the rapid response of the pesticide concentration at the drinking water well due to changes in pumping, wellhead management is important for managing pesticide concentrations.

  16. Natural gas monthly, November 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    This issue of the Natural Gas Monthly presents the most recent estimates of natural gas data from the Energy Information Administration. Estimates extend through November for many data series, and through August for most natural gas prices. Highlights of the most recent data estimates are: (1) Preliminary estimates of dry natural gas production and total consumption available through November 1997 indicate that both series are on track to end the year at levels close to those of 1996. Cumulative dry production is one-half percent higher than in 1996 and consumption is one-half percent lower. (2) Natural gas production is estimated to be 52.6 billion cubic feet per day in November 1997, the highest rate since March 1997. (3) After falling 8 percent in July 1997, the national average wellhead price rose 10 percent in August 1997, reaching an estimated $2.21 per thousand cubic feet. (4) Milder weather in November 1997 compared to November 1996 has resulted in significantly lower levels of residential consumption of natural gas and net storage withdrawls than a year ago. The November 1997 estimates of residential consumption and net withdrawls are 9 and 20 percent lower, respectively, than in November 1996.

  17. New insights into microbial responses to oil spills from the Deepwater Horizon incident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, O.U.; Hazen, T.C.

    2011-06-15

    On April 20, 2010, a catastrophic eruption of methane caused the Deepwater Horizon exploratory drill rig drilling the Macondo Well in Mississippi Canyon Block 252 (MC252) to explode. The Deepwater Horizon oil spill was unprecendeted for several reasons: the volume of oil released; the spill duration; the well depth; the distance from the shore-line (77 km or about 50 miles); the type of oil (light crude); and the injection of dispersant directly at the wellhead. This study clearly demonstrated that there was a profound and significant response by certain members of the in situ microbial community in the deep-sea in the Gulf of Mexico. In particular putative hydrocarbon degrading Bacteria appeared to bloom in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, even though the temperature at these depths is never >5 C. As the plume aged the shifts in the microbial community on a temporal scale suggested that different, yet metabolically important members of the community were able to respond to a myriad of plume constituents, e.g. shifting from propane/ethane to alkanes and finally to methane. Thus, the biodegradation of hydrocarbons in the plume by Bacteria was a highly significant process in the natural attenuation of many compounds released during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

  18. Calculation Analysis of Pressure Wave Velocity in Gas and Drilling Mud Two-Phase Fluid in Annulus during Drilling Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanhua Lin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of propagation characteristics of a pressure wave is of great significance to the solution of the transient pressure problem caused by unsteady operations during management pressure drilling operations. With consideration of the important factors such as virtual mass force, drag force, angular frequency, gas influx rate, pressure, temperature, and well depth, a united wave velocity model has been proposed based on pressure gradient equations in drilling operations, gas-liquid two-fluid model, the gas-drilling mud equations of state, and small perturbation theory. Solved by adopting the Runge-Kutta method, calculation results indicate that the wave velocity and void fraction have different values with respect to well depth. In the annulus, the drop of pressure causes an increase in void fraction along the flow direction. The void fraction increases first slightly and then sharply; correspondingly the wave velocity first gradually decreases and then slightly increases. In general, the wave velocity tends to increase with the increase in back pressure and the decrease of gas influx rate and angular frequency, significantly in low range. Taking the virtual mass force into account, the dispersion characteristic of the pressure wave weakens obviously, especially at the position close to the wellhead.

  19. Application of Fiscal Incentives for Development of East Natuna Gas Field for Long-Term National Natural Gas Demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwan Batubara

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available East Natuna gas field, which has proven reserves of 46 trillion cubic feet, is projected to meet long-term natural gas needs. However, CO2-content of the gas reserves reaches 71%, leading to expensive development costs. This research investigates the feasibility of the field based on several fiscal incentives. Firstly, gas supply-demand until year 2040 was analyzed. Then, based on the analysis, the field was developed using high CO2 gas separation technology to produce gas of 1300 MMSCFD in 2023, 2600 MMSCFD in 2031, and 3900 MMSCFD in 2039. Finally, the economic feasibility was assessed using cash flow analysis in accordance with Indonesia’s production sharing contract scheme. The results show that the supply-demand gap continues to increase and thus the development is urgently needed. The development cost is estimated around US$ 27.59 billion. The gas selling prices are assumed at US$ 8/MMBTU for wellhead, US$ 11/MMBTU for pipelines, and US$ 11/MMBTU for LNG. To achieve minimum IRR value of 12%, the government needs to offer incentives of 30-year contract period, profit sharing of 55%: 45%, first tranche petroleum to 10%, and tax holiday of 10 years. Toll fee for Natuna-Cirebon pipeline is US$ 2.3/MMBTU at IRR of 12.6%.

  20. [Various report forms and letters regarding Rorabaugh A-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Various

    2007-08-16

    The documents described here and the following may be found at the Website of the State of California Department of Conservation, Division of Oil, Gas & Geothermal Resources, http://www.consrv.ca.gov/DOG/geothermal/unit_15/Unit15.htm. GEO Operator Corporation (formerly Thermogenics, Inc. and Geothermal Resources International Operator Corporation) drilled steam production and injection wells in the northwestern portion of The Geysers geothermal field from 1967 to 1985. These wells produced steam that was sold to PG&E's power plant 15. In 1989, the plant stopped operating so the wells stopped producing and GEO Operator Corporation went bankrupt. In 1997-1998, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the Division of Oil, Gas, and Geothermal Resources, with funding from the California Energy Commission, plugged and abandoned most of these idle wells because of severe wellhead corrosion. Technical data and well cuttings were salvaged from an abandoned warehouse on the GEO Operator Corporation lease. These data have recently been scanned and added to the Division's existing scanned well records. The data are unique because GEO Operator Corporation performed an unusually high number of studies, well tests, and analyses. A total of over 10,300 pages and over 340 logs are included in the scans. The reservoir engineering section alone contains over 3,300 pages of reservoir characterization, well testing, and related studies. These data will be useful to the operators at The Geysers Geothermal field, as well as the public and researchers worldwide.

  1. New subsea X tree generation brings innovative features providing efficiency for ultra deep waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Gustavo Bellot de Almeida; Labes, Alan Zaragoza [FMC Technologies, Houston, TX (United States)

    2008-07-01

    The EVDT has been developed for global applications. Based upon the widely field proven 10 K Vertical Tree and 15 K HPHT Tree, the system has incorporated the latest technological advancements. The Tubing Hanger System and installation tooling are available up to a 7 inch bore for 10,000 psi applications and a 5 inch bore for 15,000 psi applications. The Tubing Hanger can be installed using a Tubing Head when flexibility for sequencing of events is required during offshore installations. Or it can simply land into the wellhead, eliminating the Tubing Head. This allows for a more efficient installation when completion and drilling operations are conducted without retrieving the Sub sea Blow Out Preventer (BOP) and Riser. The EVDT incorporates a retrievable Flow Module downstream of the wing valve that can be configured to project specific variances such as production, gas injection and water injection service. The Flow Module can also be configured to include Multi-Phase Flow Meters, sensors, and gauges. This allows an upgrade sub sea without having to pull and re-run the entire Tree system. These features allowed the system to hit the mark regarding what the industry needs today and also allowed to accommodate technologies that will arise in the years to come. (author)

  2. Seawater capacitance – a promising proxy for mapping and characterizing drifting hydrocarbon plumes in the deep ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Wynn

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Hydrocarbons released into the deep ocean are an inevitable consequence of natural seep, seafloor drilling, and leaking wellhead-to-collection-point pipelines. The Macondo 252 (Deepwater Horizon well blowout of 2010 was even larger than the Ixtoc event in the Gulf of Campeche in 1979. History suggests it will not be the last accidental release, as deepwater drilling expands to meet an ever-growing demand. For those who must respond to these sorts of disasters, the first line of action should be to know what is going on. This includes knowing where an oil plume is at any given time, where and how fast it is moving, and how it is evolving. We have experimented in the laboratory with induced polarization as a method to track hydrocarbons in the seawater column and find that finely dispersed oil in seawater gives rise to a large distributed capacitance. This potentially could be used to both map and characterize oil plumes, down to less than 0.1%, drifting and evolving in the deep ocean. A side benefit demonstrated in some earlier sea-trials is that this same approach in modified form can also map certain heavy placer minerals, as well as communication cables, pipelines, and wrecks buried beneath the seafloor.

  3. Unexpected Sink for Deepwater Horizon Oil May Influence Future Spill Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinner, Nancy E.; Belden, Laura; Kinner, Peter

    2014-05-01

    A town hall meeting was organized by the Marine Oil Snow Sedimentation and Flocculent Accumulation (MOSSFA) inter-consortia Gulf of Mexico Research Initiative (GoMRI) working group and the Center for Spills in the Environment in conjunction with the Gulf of Mexico Oil Spill and Ecosystem Science Conference. The meeting had the goal of evaluating sedimentation to the seafloor as a significant pathway and fate of oil after the Deepwater Horizon (DwH) well blowout in 2010. About 78,000 cubic meters of crude oil were released into the Gulf of Mexico from a depth of 1500 meters for 86 days, spreading over a large area. Natural and chemically enhanced dispersion, evaporation, dissolution, burning, surface skimming, and direct capture at the wellhead accounted for a significant proportion of the released oil, but the fate of at least 30% of the oil remains unknown. Scientists from different research consortia studying sediments and marine snow in the Gulf began to observe signs of increased sedimentation and hydrocarbon deposition. Sediment mass accumulation rates for the northern Gulf of Mexico increased sixfold to eightfold in 2010, directly following the DwH blowout.

  4. Design of Hoisting Pendulum Folding Safety Door of Double Cage%双层罐笼提升摆折式安全门的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘伟; 刘思琪; 李向远; 赵梦坡

    2015-01-01

    根据双层罐笼提升系统中井口高度空间较低的状况,研究设计了一种摆折式新型安全门,介绍了摆折式新型安全门的结构特点、工作原理及主要技术参数,对安全门的强度进行计算,该安全门经现场使用表明,动作灵活,安全可靠,符合《煤矿安全规程》的具体要求,效果良好。%According to the status of the low wellhead height space in the double cage hoisting system, this paper researches and designs a new pendulum folding safety door, introduces structural characteristics,working principle and main technical parameters of the new pendulum folding safety door,and calculates the strength of the door, the field use shows that the door has such characteristics as flexible movement, safe and reliable,complies with the specific requirements of the “Coal Mine safety Regulations”,and the effect is good.

  5. A Method to Recover Useful Geothermal-Reservoir Parameters from Production Characteristic Curves (1) Steam Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iglesias, E.; Arellano, V.; Garfias, A.; Miranda, C.; Hernandez, J.; Gonzalez, J.

    1983-12-15

    In this paper we develop and demonstrate a method to estimate the reservoir pressure and a productivity index for vertical steam wells, from its production characteristic (also called output) curves. In addition, the method allows to estimate the radius of influence of the well, provided that a value of the reservoir transmisivity is available. The basic structure of the present method is: first, the measured well head mass flowrates and pressures are transformed to downhole conditions by means of a numerical simulator; then, the computed downhole variables are fitted to a simple radial model that predicts the sandface flowrate in terms of the flowing pressure. For demonstration, the method was applied to several steam wells from the Los Azufres Geothermal field. We found excellent agreement of the model with this ample set of field data. As a bonus, the processed data allowed several inferences about the steam producing zone of the reservoir: that the wells considered produce from relatively isolated pockets of steam, which are probably fed by near-by inmobile water; and that these feed zones are in poor hydraulic communication with the field surface waters. our method are that it provides a way to retrieve important reservoir information from usually available production characteristic curves, and that the method works from easily and accurately taken wellhead measurements.

  6. Geothermal energy development in the eastern United States: technical assistance report no. 5. Geothermal space heating-naval air rework facility, Norfolk, Virginia. [Aircraft hangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, F.K.; Henderson, R.W.

    1980-06-01

    The electronic integration hangar, designated LP-167, was selected for study, as it was a single-story building with a large floor area. Because of the high ceiling and the sliding doors necessary to admit aircraft, the heat loss rate, based on floor area, was about twice that of commercial buildings. It was furnished with an oil-fired hot water heating system capable of high thermal output to meet heating requirements in the coldest weather. On the basis of the known characteristics of geothermal sources for the Atlantic Coastal Plain, and wells drilled and assayed in the Norfolk area, a reasonable estimate of the parameters of a well drilled at NARF was made. This included a low temperature output from the well of only 107/sup 0/F, so that direct transfer of warm water between the wellhead heat exchanger (HX) and the hot water radiating system in the building was not practical. Four design options are explored and calculations are presented on each one.

  7. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 9): Andersen Air Force Base, Operable Unit 3 (MARBO Annex), Yigo, Guam, June 16, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This decision document, a Record of Decision (ROD), presents the selected remedial actions for soil and groundwater at the Marianas/Bonnis Command (MARBO) Annex Operable Unit (OU) at Andersen Air Force Base (AFB), Guam. No risk was found at Waste Pile 5 and the War Dog Borrow Pit, so no further action is planned for these two sites. Current risks associated with soil exceed acceptable risk levels at Waste Pile 6, Waste Pile 7, Landfill 29, and the MARBO Laundry. Based on alternatives evaluated in the OU 3 Focused FS the US Air Force, the USEPA, and Guam have selected Soil Removal (Alternative OU3-D) as the remedy for three of the sites, and Soil Cover (Alternative OU3-C) for one of the sites. Based on alternatives evaluated in the OU-2 Focused FS, the USAF, the USEPA, and the Guam EPA have selected Natural Attenuation with Wellhead Treatment (Alternative G-2) as the remedy for the TCE and PCE contaminated groundwater beneath the MARBO Annex.

  8. 海上稠油多元热流体吞吐工艺研究及现场试验%Research and field test of complex thermal fluid huff and puff technology for offshore viscous oil recovery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐晓旭; 马跃; 孙永涛

    2011-01-01

    In order to break through the bottleneck of thermal recovery technology for offshore viscous oil, the complex thermal fluid huff and puff tech-nology has been researched, the facilities of complex thermal fluids and the thermal production wellhead equipment have been modified, the thermal insulation technology of borehole has been improved, and the injection-production parameters have heen optimized. The technology was tested in NB35-2 oilfield with the obvious stimulation effectiveness. It laid a foundation for large-scale application in the offshore viscous oil thermal recovery in our counlry.%为突破海上稠油热采技术瓶颈,开展了多元热流体吞吐工艺研究,改造了多元热流体设备和热采井井口设备、改进了井筒隔热工艺、优化了多元热流体注采参数.该工艺已在渤海南堡35-2油田成功进行了现场试验,增产效果显著,从而为稠油热采技术在我国海上的规模化应用奠定了基础.

  9. Capturing carbon dioxide as a polymer from natural gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Chih-Chau; Tour, Josiah J.; Kittrell, Carter; Espinal, Laura; Alemany, Lawrence B.; Tour, James M.

    2014-06-01

    Natural gas is considered the cleanest and recently the most abundant fossil fuel source, yet when it is extracted from wells, it often contains 10-20 mol% carbon dioxide (20-40 wt%), which is generally vented to the atmosphere. Efforts are underway to contain this carbon dioxide at the well-head using inexpensive and non-corrosive methods. Here we report nucleophilic porous carbons are synthesized from simple and inexpensive carbon-sulphur and carbon-nitrogen precursors. Infrared, Raman and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance signatures substantiate carbon dioxide fixation by polymerization in the carbon channels to form poly(CO2) under much lower pressures than previously required. This growing chemisorbed sulphur- or nitrogen-atom-initiated poly(CO2) chain further displaces physisorbed hydrocarbon, providing a continuous carbon dioxide selectivity. Once returned to ambient conditions, the poly(CO2) spontaneously depolymerizes, leading to a sorbent that can be easily regenerated without the thermal energy input that is required for traditional sorbents.

  10. Hot dry rock geothermal energy development program. Annual report, fiscal year 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, M.C.; Nunz, G.J.; Ponder, G.M. (eds.)

    1983-09-01

    Emphasis in the Hot Dry Rock Program was on development of methods to produce the hydraulic fractures required to connect the deep, inclined wells of the Phase II system at Fenton Hill. Environmental surveillance, instrument development, laboratory and modeling studies, and other supporting activities were continued. After two unsuccessful attempts to fracture hydraulically through inflatable packers, formation breakdown was produced in an uncased section near the bottom of well EE-2 by pumping water through a cemented-in steel liner. Breakdon occurred at a wellhead pressure of 33.1 MPa and a total of 8539 m/sup 3/ of water was injected. Mapping of source locations of microseismic events indicated opening of an extensive set of planar features dipping about 40/sup 0/W, striking about N20/sup 0/W, and apparently passing beneath the bottom of well EE-3. An attempt was then made to fracture at a higher level where the relative positions of the two wells increased the probability that an inclined fracture would connect them. Repeated failures of drill pipe, tubing, couplings, and packers terminated most pumping experiments prematurely. Important advances were made in thermal protection of downhole instruments, real-time mapping source locations of microseismic signals, modeling of heat and mass transport, and the mechanics of hydraulic fracturing.

  11. Evaluating bacterial community structures in oil collected from the sea surface and sediment in the northern Gulf of Mexico after the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhanfei; Liu, Jiqing

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial community structures were evaluated in oil samples using culture-independent pyrosequencing, including oil mousses collected on sea surface and salt marshes during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, and oil deposited in sediments adjacent to the wellhead 1 year after the spill. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that Erythrobacter, Rhodovulum, Stappia, and Thalassospira of Alphaproteobacteria were the prevailing groups in the oil mousses, which may relate to high temperatures and strong irradiance in surface Gulf waters. In the mousse collected from the leaves of Spartina alterniflora, Vibrio of Gammaproteobacteria represented 57% of the total operational taxonomic units, suggesting that this indigenous genus is particularly responsive to the oil contamination in salt marshes. The bacterial communities in oil-contaminated sediments were highly diversified. The relatively high abundance of the Methylococcus, Methylobacter, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, and Chlorofexi bacteria resembles those found in certain cold-seep sediments with gas hydrates. Bacterial communities in the overlying water of the oil-contaminated sediment were dominated by Ralstonia of Betaproteobacteria, which can degrade small aromatics, and Saccharophagus degradans of Gammaproteobacteria, a cellulose degrader, suggesting that overlying water was affected by the oil-contaminated sediments, possibly due to the dissolution of small aromatics and biosurfactants produced during biodegradation. Overall, these results provided key information needed to evaluate oil degradation in the region and develop future bioremediation strategies. PMID:23568850

  12. Fingerprinting Deepwater Horizon Oil in the northern Gulf of Mexico using biomarkers and Gas Chromatography-Triple Quadrupole Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS/MS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, P. L.; Overton, E. B.; Maiti, K.; Wong, R. L.

    2016-02-01

    Petroleum biomarkers such as hopanes, steranes, and triaromatic steroids are more persistent than alkanes and aromatic compounds. Thus, they are often used to track spilled oil in the environments and as a proxy for weathering processes. The present study utilizes water samples, suspended and sinking particles, and seafloor sediments collected during 2011-2013 from various locations of the northern Gulf of Mexico with wide range of contaminated oil for Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil fingerprinting. The MC252 source oil along with the samples collected in this study were analyzed using a gas chromatography coupled with a triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC/MS/MS) in Multiple Reaction Monitoring (MRM) mode and the results were compared with results from commonly used GC/MS selective ion monitoring (SIM) method. The results indicate that the MRM method separates interfering ions from interfering compounds and can be a powerful analytical strategy for a reliable identification and determination of trace levels of biomarkers in complex matrices. Source indicators such as the MRM fragment ion chromatograms of the biomarkers and their diagnostic ratios in samples were compared with the MC252 source oil. The preliminary results show that the biomarkers were below detection limits in dissolved samples. However, in few particulate and seafloor sediment samples, primarily from the immediate vicinity of the Macondo wellhead, contained their patterns. The results also illustrate that these biomarker compounds have been weathered within 1-3 years following the oil spill, and their DWH oil signature in some of these samples reflects this weathering.

  13. Federal seafood safety response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ylitalo, Gina M.; Krahn, Margaret M.; Dickhoff, Walton W.; Stein, John E.; Walker, Calvin C.; Lassitter, Cheryl L.; Garrett, E. Spencer; Desfosse, Lisa L.; Mitchell, Karen M.; Noble, Brandi T.; Wilson, Steven; Beck, Nancy B.; Benner, Ronald A.; Koufopoulos, Peter N.; Dickey, Robert W.

    2012-01-01

    Following the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill, petroleum-related compounds and chemical dispersants were detected in the waters of the Gulf of Mexico. As a result, there was concern about the risk to human health through consumption of contaminated seafood in the region. Federal and Gulf Coast State agencies worked together on a sampling plan and analytical protocols to determine whether seafood was safe to eat and acceptable for sale in the marketplace. Sensory and chemical methods were used to measure polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and dispersant in >8,000 seafood specimens collected in federal waters of the Gulf. Overall, individual PAHs and the dispersant component dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate were found in low concentrations or below the limits of quantitation. When detected, the concentrations were at least two orders of magnitude lower than the level of concern for human health risk. Once an area closed to fishing was free of visibly floating oil and all sensory and chemical results for the seafood species within an area met the criteria for reopening, that area was eligible to be reopened. On April 19, 2011 the area around the wellhead was the last area in federal waters to be reopened nearly 1 y after the spill began. However, as of November 9, 2011, some state waters off the Louisiana coast (Barataria Bay and the Delta region) remain closed to fishing. PMID:22315401

  14. Distributions and accumulation rates of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the northern Gulf of Mexico sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Puspa L; Maiti, Kanchan; Overton, Edward B; Rosenheim, Brad E; Marx, Brian D

    2016-05-01

    Sediment samples collected from shelf, slope and interior basin of the northern Gulf of Mexico during 2011-2013, 1-3 years after the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill, were utilized to characterize PAH pollution history, in this region. Results indicate that the concentrations of surface ΣPAH43 and their accumulation rates vary between 44 and 160 ng g(-1) and 6-55 ng cm(-2) y(-1), respectively. ΣPAH43 concentration profiles, accumulation rates and Δ(14)C values are significantly altered only for the sediments in the immediate vicinity of the DWH wellhead. This shows that the impact of DWH oil input on deep-sea sediments was generally limited to the area close to the spill site. Further, the PAHs source diagnostic analyses suggest a noticeable change in PAHs composition from higher to lower molecular weight dominance which reflects a change in source of PAHs in the past three years, back to the background composition. Results indicate low to moderate levels of PAH pollution in this region at present, which are unlikely to cause adverse effects on benthic communities.

  15. New Annulus Testing Pipe String Development%新型环空测试工艺管柱研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于洋洋; 高翔; 刘宇飞

    2016-01-01

    Annulus logging technology has the following advantage,less working procedure,high data accuracy,so it was favored by the oil field.With the development of oil field,but with the in-crease of the deepening of oilfield development and deep deviated well,the inadaptability of the annulus test technology is gradually emerging,cable winding has appeared,a crescent shaped space is insufficient,decentralized wellhead rebound and other issues.To solve these problems, small tubing ring empty testing pipe string was designed,and three kinds of supporting tools are researched,especially the downhole tubing rotator,effective solve the pipe string rotation prob-lems in deviated well.%针对环空测试工艺技术出现电缆缠绕、“月牙形”空间不足、偏心井口反弹等问题,设计了小油管环空测试工艺管柱,并研发了3种配套工具,特别是井下油管旋转器,有效解决了斜井管柱转不动的问题。

  16. Steamboat Hills exploratory slimhole: Drilling and testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finger, J.T.; Jacobson, F.D.; Hickox, C.E.; Eaton, R.R.

    1994-10-01

    During July-September, 1993, Sandia National Laboratories, in cooperation with Far West Capital, drilled a 4000 feet exploratory slimhole (3.9 inch diameter) in the Steamboat Hills geothermal field near Reno, Nevada. This well was part of Sandia`s program to evaluate slimholes as a geothermal exploration tool. During and after drilling the authors performed four series of production and injection tests while taking downhole (pressure-temperature-spinner) and surface (wellhead pressure and temperature, flow rate) data. In addition to these measurements, the well`s data set includes: continuous core (with detailed log); borehole televiewer images of the wellbore`s upper 500 feet; daily drilling reports from Sandia and from drilling contractor personnel; daily drilling fluid record; numerous temperature logs; and comparative data from production and injection wells in the same field. This report contains: (1) a narrative account of the drilling and testing, (2) a description of equipment used, (3) a brief geologic description of the formation drilled, (4) a summary and preliminary interpretation of the data, and (5) recommendations for future work.

  17. Stable and radiocarbon isotopic composition of dissolved organic matter in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, B. D.; Druffel, E. R. M.; Kolasinski, J.; Roberts, B. J.; Xu, X.; Rosenheim, B. E.

    2017-08-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is of primary importance to marine ecosystems and the global carbon cycle. Stable carbon (δ13C) and radiocarbon (Δ14C) isotopic measurements are powerful tools for evaluating DOC sources and cycling. However, the isotopic signature of DOC in the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) remains almost completely unknown. Here we present the first DOC Δ14C and δ13C depth profiles from the GOM. Our results suggest the Mississippi River exports large amounts of DOC with an anthropogenic "bomb" Δ14C signature. Riverine DOC is removed and recycled offshore, and some marine production of DOC is observed in the river plume. Offshore profiles show that DOC has higher Δ14C than its Caribbean feed waters, indicative of a modern deep DOC source in the GOM basin. Finally, high DOC with negative δ13C and Δ14C values were observed near the Macondo Wellhead, suggesting a transformation of Deepwater Horizon hydrocarbons into a persistent population of DOC.

  18. A multiloop geothermal energy supply system for the town of Denizli; Ein aus verschiedenen Kreislaeufen zusammengesetztes, geothermisches Energiesystem fuer die Stadt Denizli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilkis, B.I. [GEOENERGY for State of Art Geothermal Technologies, Springfield, MO (United States)

    1997-12-01

    Denizli is a town of 400,000 inhabitants. At Kizildere, 31 km from the city center, a geothermal system with a rated capacity of 17 MW{sub e} and a real capacity of 10 MW{sub e} was commissioned in 1994. The wellhead temperature is 212 C and the production rate 830 t/h. The brine, with a temperature of 145 C, is discharged into a nearby river without making use of the available thermal energy of 110 MW{sub t} (375 MBtu/h). In 1994, Pamukkale University held a symposium at Denizli in order to investigate the feasibility of heat recovery for district heating and cooling and the available technologies. (orig.) [Deutsch] Denizli hat fast 400 000 Einwohner. In Kizildere, 31 km vom Stadtzentrum, ist seit 1984 eine geothermische Produktionsanlage mit einer Sollleistung von 17 MW{sub e} in Betrieb. Die tatsaechliche Leistung liegt bei 10 MW{sub e}. Die Temperatur an der Quelle betraegt 212 C und die Produktionsrate 830 t/h. Der in Betrieb befindliche Separator liefert 80 t/h Dampf. Die verbleibende Sole wird derzeit mit einer Temperatur von etwa 145 C in einen nahegelegenen Fluss abgeleitet, ohne die verfuegbare geothermische Energie von 110 MW{sub t} (375 MBtu/h) zu nutzen. 1994 wurde von der Pamukkale Universitaet in Denizli ein Symposium veranstaltet, um die Zweckmaessigkeit und die verschiedenen Moeglichkeiten der Abwaermerueckgewinnung durch ein Fernwaerme- und Kuehlungssystem in Denizli zu eroertern. (orig.)

  19. Persistent impacts to the deep soft-bottom benthos one year after the Deepwater Horizon event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagna, Paul A; Baguley, Jeffrey G; Cooksey, Cynthia; Hyland, Jeffrey L

    2017-03-01

    In fall 2010, several months after the Deepwater Horizon blowout was capped, zones of moderate and severe impacts to deep-sea, soft-bottom benthos were identified that together extended over an area of 172 km(2) . A subset of stations sampled in 2010 was resampled in May and June 2011, 10 to 11 months after the event, to determine whether the identified adverse effects were persisting. The design compared 20 stations from the combined moderate and severe impact zone to 12 stations in the reference zone that were sampled in both years. There were no statistically significant differences in contaminant concentrations between the impact and nonimpact zones from 2010 to 2011, which indicates contaminants persisted after 1 y. Whereas there were some signs of recovery in 2011 (particularly for the meiofauna abundance and diversity), there was evidence of persistent, statistically significant impacts to both macrofauna and meiofauna community structure. Macrofaunal taxa richness and diversity in 2011 were still 22.8% and 35.9% less, respectively, in the entire impact zone than in the surrounding nonimpact area, and meiofaunal richness was 28.5% less in the entire impact zone than in the surrounding area. The persistence of significant biodiversity losses and community structure change nearly 1 y after the wellhead was capped indicates that full recovery had yet to have occurred in 2011. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2017;13:342-351. © 2016 SETAC.

  20. Evolution of the Cerro Prieto reservoirs under exploitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truesdell, A.H.; Lippmann, M.J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Puente, H.G. [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Mexicali (Mexico)

    1997-07-01

    The Cerro Prieto Geothermal field of Baja California (Mexico) has been under commercial production to generate electricity since 1973. Over the years, the large amount of Geothermal fluids extracted (at present about 12,000 tons per hour) to supply steam to the power plants has resulted in a reduction of pressures, changes in reservoir processes, and increased flow of cooler groundwater into the geothermal system. The groundwater recharging the reservoir moves horizontally through permeable layers, as well as vertically through permeable fault zones. In addition, the supply of deep hot waters has continued unabated, and perhaps has increased as reservoir pressure decreased. Since 1989, this natural fluid recharge has been supplemented by injection which presently amounts to about 20% of the fluid produced. Changes in the chemical and physical characteristics of the reservoir fluids due to the drop in pressures and the inflow of cooler groundwaters and injectate have been detected on the basis of wellhead data. These changes point to reservoir processes like local boiling, phase segregation, steam condensation, mixing and dilution. Finally, the study identified areas where fluids are entering the reservoir, as well as indicated their source (i.e. natural Groundwater recharge versus injectate) and established the controlling geologic structures.

  1. Getting a feel for the reservoir : production data analysis tool combines engineering and geology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cope, G.

    2006-04-15

    Calgary-based Rapid Solutions Corporation monitors the trends in oilpatch and supplies a wide range of well life-cycle software tools to the petroleum industry. The company has developed a software tool to update traditional reservoir engineering methods. The Prodesy can do a complete well analysis in 5 to 10 minutes. The tool creates well production profiles, as well as reserves, permeability and drainage information. Most gas wells begin at a high rate of production then decline rapidly until production stabilizes into a long, slow decline rate. The Prodesy analyzes production rate and wellhead pressure data using traditional engineering equations. The software program can create multiple cases to respond to a range of scenarios, such as the addition of compression, stimulation and infill drilling. Reservoir physics models are used to quantify what happens in the case of fractured reservoirs or compression. Supporting graphs, reports and export data are also created by Prodesy for economic analysis. The tool is also programmed to deal with unconventional sources such as tight gas, shales and coalbed methane (CBM). Users can also import data from Accumap, SCADA systems and most databases. The reasonably priced tool brings engineering and geology together by helping reservoir engineers understand what geologists think is in a reservoir and tie in pressure and volumetrics, and drainage and rock properties. Ten Calgary-based companies are currently using the software tool. 2 refs.

  2. Challenges and solutions for installing an intelligent completion in offshore deepwater Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes, Alfonso R. [WellDynamics, Spring, TX (United States); Arias, Jose Luiz [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    This paper describes an atypical and challenging Intelligent Well Completion (IWC) installed in ultra deep water (1500-2000 m), offshore Brazil. The well is a water injector designed to selectively control the injection flow rate in to two stacked gravel pack zones. The field is Roncador, approximately 150 kilometers offshore the North-Eastern coast of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. This application is an atypical IWC due to the long distance ({approx}15 Km) from the production platform to the well. Intelligent wells have been installed at such distances previously but never with a direct control umbilical. Previous completions used a Subsea Control Module (SCM) or pod located in the wellhead. Reduced intervention costs are the typical driver for IWC in deep water applications, but water management is becoming an increasingly common application. The Roncador field development team has taken a novel approach by using IWC to manage water injection in an ultra deep water development. The challenge for the project team was to design an IWC system, which would accommodate the field infrastructure constraint, require minimal modification to the existing subsea hardware and ensure the necessary flexibility to locate surface equipment without the need for modification to the production facilities. The solution adopted for Roncador 35 is mainly based on an emerging ISO standard for the integration of IWC into Subsea Production Systems. The modular and expandable approach will enable extension of this solution to other wells in the Roncador field. (author)

  3. Results of investigation at the Miravalles geothermal field, Costa Rica. Resultados de las investigaciones en el campo geotermico de Miravalles, Costa Rica; Parte 2, Muestreo de fluidos pozo abajo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigsby, C.O.; Goff, F.; Trujillo, P.E. Jr.; Counce, D.A.; Dennis, B.; Kolar, J.; Corrales, R. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA); Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad, San Jose (Costa Rica))

    1989-10-01

    Samples of the geothermal fluids in the Miravalles, Costa Rica, geothermal system were collected from production wellbores using downhole fluid samplers, from flowing wellheads using miniseparators, and from hot springs that discharge in the area. The reservoir fluid at Miravalles is a neutral-chloride-type water, but fumaroles and acid-sulfate springs are present within the main thermal area, and there are bicarbonate-rich hot springs that are clearly related to the neutral-chloride reservoir fluids. Dissolved gases are primarily a mixture of CO{sub 2} with air, but samples collected in the fumarolic areas also contain H{sub 2}S. Water-stable isotope analyses suggest local meteoric recharge, and the reservoir fluid shows oxygen isotopic shifts of about 2.5% due to high-temperature oxygen exchange between water and rock. Chemical geothermometer temperatures are consistent with the measured downhole temperature of 220{degrees} to 255{degrees}C. This pattern of neutral-chloride reservoir fluids with acid-sulfate springs near the source region and bicarbonate-rich chloride hot springs at the periphery of the system suggests a lateral outflow type of hydrothermal system. In addition to the geochemical evidence, temperature profiles from several of the wells show temperature reversals that are characteristic of lateral outflow plumes. We find no evidence for the underlying, higher temperature (300{degrees}C) system, which has been suggested by other investigators. 24 refs., 14 figs., 6 tabs.

  4. Virus contamination from operation and maintenance events in small drinking water distribution systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambertini, Elisabetta; Spencer, Susan K; Kieke, Burney A; Loge, Frank J; Borchardt, Mark A

    2011-12-01

    We tested the association of common events in drinking water distribution systems with contamination of household tap water with human enteric viruses. Viruses were enumerated by qPCR in the tap water of 14 municipal systems that use non-disinfected groundwater. Ultraviolet disinfection was installed at all active wellheads to reduce virus contributions from groundwater to the distribution systems. As no residual disinfectant was added to the water, any increase in virus levels measured downstream at household taps would be indicative of distribution system intrusions. Utility operators reported events through written questionnaires. Virus outcome measures were related to distribution system events using binomial and gamma regression. Virus concentrations were elevated in the wells, reduced or eliminated by ultraviolet disinfection, and elevated again in distribution systems, showing that viruses were, indeed, directly entering the systems. Pipe installation was significantly associated with higher virus levels, whereas hydrant flushing was significantly associated with lower virus levels. Weak positive associations were observed for water tower maintenance, valve exercising, and cutting open a water main. Coliform bacteria detections from routine monitoring were not associated with viruses. Understanding when distribution systems are most vulnerable to virus contamination, and taking precautionary measures, will ensure delivery of safe drinking water.

  5. Electrical Generating Capacities of Geothermal Slim Holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pritchett, J.W.

    1998-10-01

    Theoretical calculations are presented to estimate the electrical generating capacity of the hot fluids discharged from individual geothermal wells using small wellhead generating equipment over a wide range of reservoir and operating conditions. The purpose is to appraise the possibility of employing slim holes (instead of conventional production-size wells) to power such generators for remote off-grid applications such as rural electrification in developing countries. Frequently, the generating capacity desired is less than one megawatt, and can be as low as 100 kilowatts; if slim holes can be usefully employed, overall project costs will be significantly reduced. This report presents the final results of the study. Both self-discharging wells and wells equipped with downhole pumps (either of the ''lineshaft'' or the ''submersible'' type) are examined. Several power plant designs are considered, including conventional single-flash backpressure and condensing steam turbines, binary plants, double-flash steam plants, and steam turbine/binary hybrid designs. Well inside diameters from 75 mm to 300 mm are considered; well depths vary from 300 to 1200 meters. Reservoir temperatures from 100 C to 240 C are examined, as are a variety of reservoir pressures and CO2 contents and well productivity index values.

  6. [Various report forms and letters regarding Rorabaugh A-14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Various

    2007-08-16

    The documents described here and the following may be found at the Website of the State of California Department of Conservation, Division of Oil, Gas & Geothermal Resources, http://www.consrv.ca.gov/DOG/geothermal/unit_15/Unit15.htm. GEO Operator Corporation (formerly Thermogenics, Inc. and Geothermal Resources International Operator Corporation) drilled steam production and injection wells in the northwestern portion of The Geysers geothermal field from 1967 to 1985. These wells produced steam that was sold to PG&E's power plant 15. In 1989, the plant stopped operating so the wells stopped producing and GEO Operator Corporation went bankrupt. In 1997-1998, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the Division of Oil, Gas, and Geothermal Resources, with funding from the California Energy Commission, plugged and abandoned most of these idle wells because of severe wellhead corrosion. Technical data and well cuttings were salvaged from an abandoned warehouse on the GEO Operator Corporation lease. These data have recently been scanned and added to the Division's existing scanned well records. The data are unique because GEO Operator Corporation performed an unusually high number of studies, well tests, and analyses. A total of over 10,300 pages and over 340 logs are included in the scans. The reservoir engineering section alone contains over 3,300 pages of reservoir characterization, well testing, and related studies. These data will be useful to the operators at The Geysers Geothermal field, as well as the public and researchers worldwide.

  7. The Future of Foreign Direct Liability? Exploring the International Relevance of the Dutch Shell Nigeria Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liesbeth Enneking

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In January 2013, The Hague District Court in the Netherlands rendered a groundbreaking verdict in a civil liability suit against Royal Dutch Shell and its Nigerian subsidiary (SPDC. The lawsuit had been brought before it by four Nigerian farmers and the Dutch NGO Milieudefensie, in response to a number of oil-spill incidents from SPDC-operated pipelines in the Nigerian Niger Delta. Although the majority of the claims were dismissed, the district court in its ruling did grant one claim that related to spills from an abandoned wellhead, ordering SPDC to pay compensation for the resulting loss. This judgment has international relevance, as this Dutch Shell Nigeria case forms part of a worldwide trend towards foreign direct liability cases. Growing numbers of similar lawsuits have been brought before the courts in other Western societies, but judgments on the merits have so far remained scarce. The relevance of the case has further increased with the US Supreme Court’s April 2013 ruling in the case of Kiobel v. Royal Dutch Petroleum Co., which has significantly limited the scope of the Alien Tort Statute. This article explores The Hague District Court’s decision in the Dutch Shell Nigeria case, and places the case within the socio-legal context of the contemporary trend towards foreign direct liability cases, the international debates on corporate accountability and business & human rights, and the Supreme Court's judgment in the Kiobel case.

  8. Contributing recharge areas to water-supply wells at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheets, R.A.

    1994-01-01

    Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, in southwestern Ohio, has operated three well fields--Area B, Skeel Road, and the East Well Fields--to supply potable water for consumption and use for base activities. To protect these well fields from contamination and to comply with the Ohio Wellhead Protection Plan, the Base is developing a wellhead-protection program for the well fields. A three-dimensional, steady-state ground-water-flow model was developed in 1993 to simulate heads in (1) the buried-valley aquifer system that is tapped by the two active well fields, and in (2) an upland bedrock aquifer that may supply water to the wells. An advective particle-tracking algorithm that requires estimated porosities and simulated heads was used to estimate ground-water-flow pathlines and traveltimes to the active well fields. Contributing recharge areas (CRA's)--areas on the water table that contribute water to a well or well field--were generated for 1-, 5-, and 10-year traveltimes. Results from the simulation and subsequent particle tracking indicate that the CRA's for the Skeel Road Well Fields are oval and extend north- ward, toward the Mad River, as pumping at the well field increases. The sizes of the 1-, 5-, and 10-year CRA's of Skeel Road Well Field, under maximum pumping conditions, are approximately 0.5, 1.5 and 3.2 square miles, respectively. The CRA's for the Area B Well Field extend to the north, up the Mad River Valley; as pumping increases at the well field, the CRA's extend up the Mad River Valley under Huffman Dam. The sizes of the 1-, 5-, and 10-year CRA's of Area B Well Field, under maximum pumping conditions, are approximately 0.1, 0.5, and 0.9 square miles, respectively. The CRA's for the East Well Field are affected by nearby streams under average pumping conditions. The sizes of the 1-, 5-, and 10-year CRA's of the East Well Field, under maximum pumping conditions, are approximately 0.2, 1.2, and 2.4 square miles, respectively. However, as pumping increases

  9. Methods for Finding Legacy Wells in Residential and Commercial Areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammack, Richard W. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Veloski, Garret A. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States)

    2016-06-16

    In 1919, the enthusiasm surrounding a short-lived gas play in Versailles Borough, Pennsylvania resulted in the drilling of many needless wells. The legacy of this activity exists today in the form of abandoned, unplugged gas wells that are a continuing source of fugitive methane in the midst of a residential and commercial area. Flammable concentrations of methane have been detected near building foundations, which have forced people from their homes and businesses until methane concentrations decreased. Despite mitigation efforts, methane problems persist and have caused some buildings to be permanently abandoned and demolished. This paper describes the use of magnetic and methane sensing methods by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to locate abandoned gas wells in Versailles Borough where site access is limited and existing infrastructure can interfere. Here, wells are located between closely spaced houses and beneath buildings and parking lots. Wells are seldom visible, often because wellheads and internal casing strings have been removed, and external casing has been cut off below ground level. The magnetic survey of Versailles Borough identified 53 strong, monopole magnetic anomalies that are presumed to indicate the locations of steel-cased wells. This hypothesis was tested by excavating the location of one strong, monopole magnetic anomaly that was within an area of anomalous methane concentrations. The excavation uncovered an unplugged gas well that was within 0.2 m of the location of the maximum magnetic signal. Truck-mounted methane surveys of Versailles Borough detected numerous methane anomalies that were useful for narrowing search areas. Methane sources identified during truck-mounted surveys included strong methane sources such as sewers and methane mitigation vents. However, inconsistent wind direction and speed, especially between buildings, made locating weaker methane sources (such as leaking wells) difficult. Walking surveys with

  10. Multi-Stage Horizontal Well Fracturing Technology in Deep Shale Gas Well DY2 HF%DY2 HF深层页岩气水平井分段压裂技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾长贵; 路保平; 蒋廷学; 李真祥

    2014-01-01

    Well DY2HF is a key exploration well in Dingshan Longmaxi marine shale gas reservoir fea-turing in high temperature and ultra high stress .In order to overcome the challenge of high injection pres-sure and difficult proppant injection ,multi-stage fracturing technology of horizontal well in the deep shale gas reservoir has been developed .According to the characteristics of Dingshan shale ,wellhead injection pressure and pumping rate were optimized ,mutiple fracture coverage ratio model for horizontal section was established ,and fracturing stages and clusters were optimized on the basis of induced stress analysis result . According to the demands of shale gas network fracturing technology and specific characteristics of this well ,high friction reduction and low damage hybrid fluid of slick water and low surfactant tension gel was used as fracturing fluid ,together with low-density and high-strength coated ceramic proppant in combined meshes .Fracturing parameters were also optimized through numerical simulation .DY2HF deep shale gas horizontal well fracturing was successfully performed under the limited wellhead pressure ,95 MPa ,with a cumulative fracturing fluid volume of 29 ,516 m3 ,cumulative proppant volume of 319 m3 ,maximum pum-ping rate of 13.6 m3/min ,friction reduction rate of slick water of up to 78% ,and complete hydration of post-frac gel .Industrial gas production was reached ,which marked a breakthrough in multi-stage horizontal well fracturing of deep shale gas reservoirs .The treatment result indicates that deep shale gas reservoirs like Dingshan are capable of being effectively developed under the present fracturing technology and equipment .%DY2 H F井是位于川东南丁山构造、目的层为龙马溪组海相页岩气的重点探井,具有高温、超高应力的特点。为解决该井压裂作业存在的施工压力高和加砂困难等难题,开展了深层页岩气水平井分段压裂技术研究。根据丁山页岩特征和

  11. Stable large-scale CO2 storage in defiance of an energy system based on renewable energy - Modelling the impact of varying CO2 injection rates on reservoir behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannach, Andreas; Hauer, Rene; Martin, Streibel; Stienstra, Gerard; Kühn, Michael

    2015-04-01

    behaviour. The cyclic injection operation has an impact on the requirements of the facility design. To define the design basis for the aboveground installations only wellhead pressures are to be considered. For this reason the calculated bottom hole pressures need to be transferred into wellhead pressures. This is done by the application of thermodynamic models which include all relevant processes associated with the fluid flow through production or injection strings. Finally, a commercial analysis is carried out which is based on a total cost estimate (CAPEX & OPEX). The outcome of this analysis demonstrates required certificate prices to reach the common return targets of an industrial project. References DNV GL, " CO2 Transport Infrastructure in Germany - Necessity and Boundary Conditions up to 2050", IZ Klima, Berlin, 2014, http://www.iz-klima.de/.

  12. The Gulf of Mexico Research Initiative: Building a Big Data System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, M. K.; Gayanilo, F. C.; Gibeaut, J. C.

    2012-12-01

    On April 20, 2010 the Deepwater Horizon drilling unit located in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico experienced a catastrophic wellhead blowout. Billions of barrels of oil and roughly 1 million U.S. gallons of dispersant were released near the wellhead over the subsequent three months. On May 24, 2010 BP announced the Gulf of Mexico Research Initiative (GoMRI) and pledged 500M over 10 years toward independent scientific research on the spill's impact on the ecosystem. Data collection began immediately. By summer 2012 nearly 200M will have been committed to this research. Five hundred and seventy researchers from 114 institutions in 30 states and 4 countries are involved. Research activities include substantial numerical modeling, field and laboratory investigations of the environment and biota, and chemical studies of oil and dispersants. An additional $300M will be competed in subsequent years. The administrative and data management elements of the enterprise began to build in earnest in mid 2011. The last position in the GoMRI Information and Data Cooperative (GRIIDC) team was filled in July 2012. Due to the rapid evolution of the program in the first year, few data management requirements were imposed on the Year-One researchers. Proposal guidance for the Year 2-4 Research Consortia (RC) programs asked proposers to address data management questions but expressed few mandates. GRIIDC is charged with providing a portal to GoMRI data and metadata. Researchers are required to provide their data to GRIIDC and to national digital repositories with a minimum delay. Almost everything else was left to evolve through human networks. The GRIIDC team is composed of a System Architect, a Database Administrator, Software Engineers, a GIS specialist, a Technical Coordinator and several subject matter experts. The team faces the usual choices related to building a new cyberinfrastructure (e.g., metadata, ontologies, file formats, web services, etc.). However, the human element is

  13. The ML 3.5 earthquake sequence induced by the hydrothermal energy project in St. Gallen, Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, T.; Wiemer, S.; Deichmann, N.; Diehl, T.; Edwards, B.; Guilhem, A.; Haslinger, F.; Király, E.; Kissling, E. H.; Mignan, A.; Plenkers, K.; Roten, D.; Seif, S.; Woessner, J.

    2013-12-01

    Starting in March 2013, the geothermal project of the city of Sankt Gallen, Switzerland, has drilled through 4 km of sedimentary rocks in the Swiss Molasse Basinin order to find and exploit hydrothermal aquifers in the Mesozoic sediments. In a large-scale 3D seismic survey, the project operators identified a nearly 30 km long N-S striking segmented fault zone in the Mesozoic sediments. Based on the apparent lack of recent seismic activity, they concluded that the fault zone was not active and drilled into this target of potentially enhanced permeability. In July 2013 a testing and stimulation program began in the Malm sediments. A small-scale fresh water injectionon July 14 was followed by two acid stimulations. A low level of seismicity that strongly correlated with the testing program was observed by the Swiss Seismological Service (SED) on a dedicated network of 10 surface stations and one shallow borehole station. The seismicity during this period did not exceed magnitude ML1.2 and was judged to be well within the expected range. When operators were preparing for an airlift test, methane gas was released into the borehole from an unknown source around noon on July 19. The pressure at the wellhead rose rapidly, and operators decided to pump water and heavy mud down the well. Even though wellhead pressure decreased steadily, seismicity started to increase suddenly at 7 pm (UTC) on July 19. Although the traffic light system designed by the operators was triggered in the early phase of the seismicity increase, operators found themselves forced to continue well control instead of stopping the pumps. During this period, the seismicity intensified and culminated in a ML 3.5 event at 3:30 (UTC) on July 20 that was widely felt in the area. Yet, the SED received only a small number of reports on minor non-structural damage. In the following hours, the operators were able to stabilize the well and flare the methane in a controlled manner. Seismicity decreased rapidly

  14. 新型剖分式现场油管缺陷检测装置%The Split Type On-site Inspection Device for Tubing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗刚; 程永瑞; 汤清源; 芦会才; 方朝刚; 徐笑鸥; 陈兰明

    2012-01-01

    目前油田在用的油管缺陷检测装置主要存在井口磁化总成安装困难、不具有井口自密封功能和检测信号不稳定等问题,为此开发了一种新型剖分式现场油管缺陷检测装置。该检测装置在油管起下井作业时进行在线检测,不受水、油污和结蜡等的影响,对环境无污染,同时检测装置安装时只需要将井口装置打开,抱合在油管上即可。在声音自动判废信号处理总成中增加了小波滤波装置,更好地消除了震荡等干扰信号。应用该装置现场检测巧73mm油管500根,其中轴向沟槽类缺陷油管124根,占检测油管总数的24.8%;孔洞类缺陷油管32根,占检测油管总数的6.4%。最后指出该检测装置可有效防范井下险情,为油田安全生产提供技术保障.%In the light of the problems with the existing tubing defects inspecting device, a split-type on-site inspection device was developed. The new device conducts online detection in tubing tripping, free of effects from water, oil pollution and wax deposit. It does not pollute the environment. Meanwhile, the device structure is improved as a split one so that it is just necessary to open the wellhead to clutch the tubing in installation. The wavelet filtration device is added in the signal processing assembly of sound automatic disuse determination, better eliminating the interference signals such as oscillation. The field application of the device to detect 500 73-mm tubings shows that 124 tubings have axial grooves, accounting for 24. 8% of the total detected tubings, and 32 tubings have holes, accounting for 6.4% of the total. Finally, it is pointed out that the device has its own wellhead selfseal device and thus it can effectively prevent downhole dangers, providing the technological support for safe production in oilfields.

  15. The Gulf of Mexico Research Initiative: Managing a Multidisciplinary Data Explosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, M. K.; Gibeaut, J. C.; Reed, D.

    2011-12-01

    On April 20, 2010 the Deepwater Horizon drilling unit located in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico, experienced a catastrophic wellhead blowout. Roughly 5 billion barrels of oil and 1 million U.S. gallons of dispersant were released near the wellhead over the next three months. Within weeks of the blowout, BP announced the Gulf of Mexico Research Initiative (GRI) and pledged 50M/yr over 10 years for independent scientific research on the spill's impact on the ecosystem. Two months after the blowout three institutions were awarded a total of 25M in fast-track grants (Louisiana State University, Northern Gulf Institute, and Florida Institute of Oceanography). Soon after the Alabama Marine Environmental Sciences Consortium and the National Institutes of Health were awarded 5M and 10M, respectively. These five institutions began to generate data almost immediately. First year grants funded 100's of researchers from nearly 100 research units. Their activities included numerical modeling, field data collection, and laboratory experiments. Measured parameters included those associated with chemical analyses of oil, gas, and dispersants, studies of bacteria, plants and animals -from phytoplankton to marsh grasses, from zooplankton to cetaceans. Studies were conducted from estuaries to the deep Gulf, from atmosphere to sediments. Parameters from physical oceanography, marine meteorology, and biogeochemistry were measured in abundance. Additionally, impact studies on human mental, physical health and businesses were made. Proposals for years 2-4 of the program were to be awarded in August 2011 supporting 4-8 research consortia. Consortia may have up to 20 named researchers. In aggregate, these studies yielded a multidisciplinary data explosion. Following the fast-track awards the GRI Administrative Unit (AU) was established and a data management activity initiated. That activity became the GRI Information and Data Cooperative (GRIIDC). "Cooperative" emphasizes the

  16. Groundwater methane in relation to oil and gas development and shallow coal seams in the Denver-Julesburg Basin of Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Owen A.; Rogers, Jessica D.; Lackey, Greg; Burke, Troy L.; Osborn, Stephen G.; Ryan, Joseph N.

    2016-01-01

    Unconventional oil and gas development has generated intense public concerns about potential impacts to groundwater quality. Specific pathways of contamination have been identified; however, overall rates of contamination remain ambiguous. We used an archive of geochemical data collected from 1988 to 2014 to determine the sources and occurrence of groundwater methane in the Denver-Julesburg Basin of northeastern Colorado. This 60,000-km2 region has a 60-y-long history of hydraulic fracturing, with horizontal drilling and high-volume hydraulic fracturing beginning in 2010. Of 924 sampled water wells in the basin, dissolved methane was detected in 593 wells at depths of 20–190 m. Based on carbon and hydrogen stable isotopes and gas molecular ratios, most of this methane was microbially generated, likely within shallow coal seams. A total of 42 water wells contained thermogenic stray gas originating from underlying oil and gas producing formations. Inadequate surface casing and leaks in production casing and wellhead seals in older, vertical oil and gas wells were identified as stray gas migration pathways. The rate of oil and gas wellbore failure was estimated as 0.06% of the 54,000 oil and gas wells in the basin (lower estimate) to 0.15% of the 20,700 wells in the area where stray gas contamination occurred (upper estimate) and has remained steady at about two cases per year since 2001. These results show that wellbore barrier failure, not high-volume hydraulic fracturing in horizontal wells, is the main cause of thermogenic stray gas migration in this oil- and gas-producing basin. PMID:27402747

  17. Resource planning for gas utilities: Using a model to analyze pivotal issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busch, J.F.; Comnes, G.A.

    1995-11-01

    With the advent of wellhead price decontrols that began in the late 1970s and the development of open access pipelines in the 1980s and 90s, gas local distribution companies (LDCs) now have increased responsibility for their gas supplies and face an increasingly complex array of supply and capacity choices. Heretofore this responsibility had been share with the interstate pipelines that provide bundled firm gas supplies. Moreover, gas supply an deliverability (capacity) options have multiplied as the pipeline network becomes increasing interconnected and as new storage projects are developed. There is now a fully-functioning financial market for commodity price hedging instruments and, on interstate Pipelines, secondary market (called capacity release) now exists. As a result of these changes in the natural gas industry, interest in resource planning and computer modeling tools for LDCs is increasing. Although in some ways the planning time horizon has become shorter for the gas LDC, the responsibility conferred to the LDC and complexity of the planning problem has increased. We examine current gas resource planning issues in the wake of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission`s (FERC) Order 636. Our goal is twofold: (1) to illustrate the types of resource planning methods and models used in the industry and (2) to illustrate some of the key tradeoffs among types of resources, reliability, and system costs. To assist us, we utilize a commercially-available dispatch and resource planning model and examine four types of resource planning problems: the evaluation of new storage resources, the evaluation of buyback contracts, the computation of avoided costs, and the optimal tradeoff between reliability and system costs. To make the illustration of methods meaningful yet tractable, we developed a prototype LDC and used it for the majority of our analysis.

  18. Restructuring local distribution services: Possibilities and limitations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duann, D.J.

    1994-08-01

    The restructuring of local distribution services is now the focus of the natural gas industry. It is the last major step in the ``reconstitution`` of the natural gas industry and a critical clement in realizing the full benefits of regulatory and market reforms that already have taken place in the wellhead and interstate markets. It could also be the most important regulatory initiative for most end-use customers because they are affected directly by the costs and reliability of distribution services. Several factors contribute to the current emphasis on distribution service restructuring. They include the unbundling and restructuring of upstream markets, a realization of the limitations of supply-side options (such as gas procurement oversight), and the increased diversity and volatility of gas demand facing local distribution companies. Local distribution service is not one but a series of activities that start with commodity gas procurement and extend to transportation, load balancing, storage, and metering and billing of services provided. There are also considerable differences in the economies of scale and scope associated with these various activities. Thus, a mixture of supply arrangements (such as a competitive market or a monopoly) is required for the most efficient delivery of local distribution services. A distinction must be made between the supply of commodity gas and the provision of a bundled distribution service. This distinction and identification of the best supply arrangements for various distribution service components are the most critical factors in developing appropriate restructuring policies. For most state public utility commissions the criteria for service restructuring should include pursuing the economies of scale and scope in gas distribution, differentiating and matching gas service reliability and quality with customer requirements, and controlling costs associated with the search, negotiation, and contracting of gas services.

  19. 两级分布式采油自动化智能控制系统设计与实现%The Design and Implement of Two Level Distributed AICS(Automated Intelli-gent Control System)for Exploitation in Oilfield

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宏朝; 胡文娟; 王百军; 陈举民; 王晓静

    2016-01-01

    In order to ensure stable exploitation of oil, combined with CaiNan Oilfield ac-tual production, taking into account the external environment of the scene, we designed two level distributed automation systems. The system controller uses the well 16 monolithic INTEL 80C196 microcontroller circuit as the core monitoring and control, access to the wellhead temperature and pressure data acquisition via standard signal transmitter. Based on the principle of circuit design and control software design method,developed primarily mod-ular applications. By applying concluded: power factor follower method can achieve signifi-cant energy- saving effect,the modular controller program easy to modify and transplant,to achieve a cost-effective extraction of automated control systems.%为了确保油田稳定开采,结合彩南油田的实际生产情况,考虑外界现场环境,设计了两级分布式采油自动化系统。该系统中油井控制器采用Intel十六位单片机80C196作为测控核心,通过采集变送器标准信号获得井口温度及压力等数据。基于电路设计原理及控制软件设计方法,开发了主要的模块化应用程序。通过应用得出结论:采用功率因数随动技术节电效果显著,模块化控制器程序易于修改和移植,实现了采油自动化控制系统的低成本高效率。

  20. 叶片圆盘泵变转速性能试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周昌静; 陈国明

    2014-01-01

    To study the performance of disk pump with radial straight blade for subsea mudlift drilling when changing speed,performance tests of pump were done at different speeds and per-formance of pump at different speeds were converted to performance of pump by proportionality law.The results show that the corresponding parameters (Q,H,N)to meet the proportionality law relationship in a certain speed range.Flat H-Q curve and n-Q curve at constant outlet pressure shows disk pump with radial straight blade is suitable for lifting mud and controlling subsea well-head pressure for subsea mudlift drilling.%为研究海底泥浆举升叶片圆盘泵样机变速性能,进行了不同转速叶片圆盘泵性能试验,得到样机不同转速下的性能曲线,并与比例定律换算得到的性能进行了比较、分析,得出一定转速范围内叶片圆盘泵相似工况点的对应参数(Q,H,N)满足比例定律关系。平坦的H-Q曲线和恒定出口压力n-Q曲线说明,叶片圆盘泵适合海底泥浆举升钻井泥浆的举升和海底井口压力的控制。

  1. Development of Cameron Style 2FZ35-35 Double-ram BOP%Cameron式2FZ35-35型双闸板防喷器研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑泳; 肖力彤; 崔凯; 唐秋林; 刘义; 杨卫星

    2011-01-01

    CNOOC,to meet user requirements,successfully developed the first oil platform in Cameron style 2FZ35-35 double-ram blowout preventer in CNPC. The blowout preventer with API Spec 6A wellhead flange and other devices,both closed and open ram with hydraulic operation assembly, ram closed manually locking ram axis method. According to API Spec 16A recommended standard,the overall strength of the liquid oil control road and tank strength,shear 5" drill pipe test,shear ram seal test,variable bore ram test (closed 31/2 "and 5" drill pipe) and path tests are satisfactory. The use of that site, it has a safe, reliable, rapid and flexible switching, structural lightweight,easy to operate.%为满足中海油用户的要求,开发了Cameron式2FZ35-35型双闸板防喷器.该防喷器采用API Spec 6A法兰与其他井口设备连接,用液压控制关闭和打开闸板总成,闸板关闭后采用手动锁紧闸板轴;整体强度、液控油路和液缸强度及剪切φ127 mm(5英寸)钻杆和剪切闸板密封试验、变径闸板试验(封隔φ88.9mm(31/2英寸)和φ127mm(5英寸)管柱)和通径试验满足API Spec 16A推荐标准.现场使用表明,具有安全可靠、开关迅速灵活、结构轻便、操作方便等特点.

  2. Experimental determination of methane dissolution from simulated subsurface oil leakages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauthoff, W.; Peltzer, E. T.; Walz, P. M.; Brewer, P. G.

    2013-12-01

    Subsurface oil leakages and increased offshore drilling efforts have raised concern over the fate of hydrocarbon mixtures of oil and gas in ocean environments. Recent wellhead and pipeline failures in the Gulf of Mexico are extreme examples of this problem. Understanding the mechanism and rate of vertical transport of hydrocarbon chemical species is necessary to predict the environmental impact of subsurface leakages. In a series of controlled experiments, we carried out a deep-sea field experiment in Monterey Canyon to investigate the behavior of a gas-saturated liquid hydrocarbon mass rising from the seafloor. Aboard the R/V Rachel Carson, we used the ROV Ventana to transport a laboratory prepared volume of decane (C10H22) saturated with methane gas (CH4) to mimic a subsurface seafloor discharge. We released the oil and gas mixture into a vertically oriented open bottom glass tube followed by methane loss rate measurements both at discrete depths, and during rapid, continuous vehicle ascent from 800 to 100 m water depth to monitor changes in dissolution and bubble nucleation. Using laser Raman techniques and HD video we quantified the chemical state of the hydrocarbon fluid, including rate of methane gas dissolution. The primary methane Raman peak was readily observable within the decane C-H stretching complex. Variation in the amount of gas dissolved in the oil greatly influences oil plume density and in turn oil plume vertical rise rate. Our results show that the rise rate of the hydrocarbon mass significantly exceeds the rate at which the excess methane was lost by dissolution. This result implies that vertical transport of methane in the saturated hydrocarbon liquid phase can greatly exceed a gas bubble plume ascending the water column from a seafloor source. These results and observations may be applicable to improved understanding of the composition, distribution, and environmental fate of leaked hydrocarbon mixtures and inform remediation efforts.

  3. Reservoir pressure evolution model during exploration drilling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korotaev B. A.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Based on the analysis of laboratory studies and literature data the method for estimating reservoir pressure in exploratory drilling has been proposed, it allows identify zones of abnormal reservoir pressure in the presence of seismic data on reservoir location depths. This method of assessment is based on developed at the end of the XX century methods using d- and σ-exponentials taking into account the mechanical drilling speed, rotor speed, bit load and its diameter, lithological constant and degree of rocks' compaction, mud density and "regional density". It is known that in exploratory drilling pulsation of pressure at the wellhead is observed. Such pulsation is a consequence of transferring reservoir pressure through clay. In the paper the mechanism for transferring pressure to the bottomhole as well as the behaviour of the clay layer during transmission of excess pressure has been described. A laboratory installation has been built, it has been used for modelling pressure propagation to the bottomhole of the well through a layer of clay. The bulge of the clay layer is established for 215.9 mm bottomhole diameter. Functional correlation of pressure propagation through the layer of clay has been determined and a reaction of the top clay layer has been shown to have bulge with a height of 25 mm. A pressure distribution scheme (balance has been developed, which takes into account the distance from layers with abnormal pressure to the bottomhole. A balance equation for reservoir pressure evaluation has been derived including well depth, distance from bottomhole to the top of the formation with abnormal pressure and density of clay.

  4. Review of flow rate estimates of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNutt, Marcia K.; Camilli, Rich; Crone, Timothy J.; Guthrie, George D.; Hsieh, Paul A.; Ryerson, Thomas B.; Savas, Omer; Shaffer, Frank

    2012-01-01

    The unprecedented nature of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill required the application of research methods to estimate the rate at which oil was escaping from the well in the deep sea, its disposition after it entered the ocean, and total reservoir depletion. Here, we review what advances were made in scientific understanding of quantification of flow rates during deep sea oil well blowouts. We assess the degree to which a consensus was reached on the flow rate of the well by comparing in situ observations of the leaking well with a time-dependent flow rate model derived from pressure readings taken after the Macondo well was shut in for the well integrity test. Model simulations also proved valuable for predicting the effect of partial deployment of the blowout preventer rams on flow rate. Taken together, the scientific analyses support flow rates in the range of ~50,000–70,000 barrels/d, perhaps modestly decreasing over the duration of the oil spill, for a total release of ~5.0 million barrels of oil, not accounting for BP's collection effort. By quantifying the amount of oil at different locations (wellhead, ocean surface, and atmosphere), we conclude that just over 2 million barrels of oil (after accounting for containment) and all of the released methane remained in the deep sea. By better understanding the fate of the hydrocarbons, the total discharge can be partitioned into separate components that pose threats to deep sea vs. coastal ecosystems, allowing responders in future events to scale their actions accordingly.

  5. Field analytical technology verification: The ETV Site Characterization Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Einfeld, W. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jenkins, R.A.; Dindal, A.B. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1998-06-01

    Innovative field characterization and monitoring technologies are often slow to be adopted by the environmental engineering/consulting community because of concerns that their performance has not been proven by an independent testing body, and/or they have not received the EPA`s blessing on a regional or national level. The purpose of the EPA Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Site Characterization Pilot, a joint effort between EPA and DOE, is to accelerate the acceptance of technologies that reduce the cost and increase the speed of environmental clean-up and monitoring. Technology verifications that have been completed or are underway include: in situ technologies for the characterization of sub-surface hydrocarbon plumes, field-portable GC/MS systems, field-portable X-ray fluorescence analyzers, soil sampling technologies, field-portable PCB analyzers, analyzers for VOC analysis at the wellhead, and decision support software systems to aid site sample collection and contaminant plume definition. The verification process follows a somewhat generic pathway. A user-community need is identified, the vendor community is canvassed, and relevant, interested companies are selected. A demonstration plan is prepared by the verification organization and circulated to participants prior to the field activities. Field trials are normally held at two geologically or environmentally different sites and typically require one week at each site. Samples (soil, soil gas, water, surface wipe etc.) provided to the vendor at the demonstration include site-specific samples and standards or performance evaluation samples. Sample splits are sent to a pre-selected laboratory for analysis using a reference method. Laboratory data are used for comparison with field technology results during the data analysis phase of the demonstration.

  6. Asphalt-derived high surface area activated porous carbons for carbon dioxide capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalilov, Almaz S; Ruan, Gedeng; Hwang, Chih-Chau; Schipper, Desmond E; Tour, Josiah J; Li, Yilun; Fei, Huilong; Samuel, Errol L G; Tour, James M

    2015-01-21

    Research activity toward the development of new sorbents for carbon dioxide (CO2) capture have been increasing quickly. Despite the variety of existing materials with high surface areas and high CO2 uptake performances, the cost of the materials remains a dominant factor in slowing their industrial applications. Here we report preparation and CO2 uptake performance of microporous carbon materials synthesized from asphalt, a very inexpensive carbon source. Carbonization of asphalt with potassium hydroxide (KOH) at high temperatures (>600 °C) yields porous carbon materials (A-PC) with high surface areas of up to 2780 m(2) g(-1) and high CO2 uptake performance of 21 mmol g(-1) or 93 wt % at 30 bar and 25 °C. Furthermore, nitrogen doping and reduction with hydrogen yields active N-doped materials (A-NPC and A-rNPC) containing up to 9.3% nitrogen, making them nucleophilic porous carbons with further increase in the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface areas up to 2860 m(2) g(-1) for A-NPC and CO2 uptake to 26 mmol g(-1) or 114 wt % at 30 bar and 25 °C for A-rNPC. This is the highest reported CO2 uptake among the family of the activated porous carbonaceous materials. Thus, the porous carbon materials from asphalt have excellent properties for reversibly capturing CO2 at the well-head during the extraction of natural gas, a naturally occurring high pressure source of CO2. Through a pressure swing sorption process, when the asphalt-derived material is returned to 1 bar, the CO2 is released, thereby rendering a reversible capture medium that is highly efficient yet very inexpensive.

  7. Etude comparative de tubes en matériaux composites en vue de l'application à l'exploitation des hydrocarbures en mer profonde Comparative Study of Composite-Material Tubes with a View to Their Use for Deep Offshore Hydrocarbon Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonavent G.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Les prévisions de développement de la production pétrolière en mer profonde font apparaître de nouveaux besoins en tubes légers et à haute résistance pour les liaisons verticales entre les têtes de puits sous-marines et les plates-formes flottantes, et les conduites immergées par grand fond. Certains matériaux composites peuvent répondre à ces besoins et présentent en outre l'avantage d'une excellente résistance à la corrosion dans l'environnement marin. Toutefois, les choix sont imposés essentiellement par des contraintes d'ordre mécanique. On cherche ici à comparer, par rapport à l'acier, les avantages de deux types de matériaux composites - les composites acier-résine - les composites fibres-résine dont on résume les principales caractéristiques et les domaines d'applications possibles en fonction des spécifications pétrolières Development forecosts for deep offshore petroleum production bring out new needs for light tubes for vertlcaf linksbetween subsea wellheads and floating piatforms as well as for subsea pipelines ut great depths. Some composite materials moy meet such requirements while also hoving the advantoge of high résistance ta corrosion in a marine environment. However, the choices are mainly governed by stresses of a mechanical nature. Compared with steel, this article seeks ta describe the advantages of the following two types of composite materials : (il steel-resin composites, and (ii fiber-resin composites. The leading properties and the possible arecs of application are summed up as a function of petroleum specifications.

  8. Prospects for Strengthening the Security of Ukraine’s Energy Supply through Development of Unconventional Natural Gas Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyzym Mykola O.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an analysis of the American experience in development of natural shale gas in the US, identifies the causes that led to the shale revolution. Its current state is characterized by achieving the peak production simultaneously with shift in the emphasis from natural shale gas to shale oil. The potential technically extracted gas reserves as well as trends in terms of the growth of conventional natural gas reserves and the development of trade in liquefied natural gas are regarded as global preconditions for enlargement of the shale natural gas output. Natural shale gas can be considered as an alternative project only for liquefied natural gas while, compared to pipeline gas, its production is uncompetitive. The national preconditions for development of the industry of nonconventional natural gas production are determined on the basis of the current trends in Ukraine’s gas market. The main obstacles to the realization of this direction are reduction of the gas needs and liberalization of natural gas trade on the basis of European principles. Economic evaluation of the feasibility of natural shale gas production made it possible to forecast its production cost at the wellhead at different depths and estimate its investment attractiveness in different aggregate states. On the basis of the approbation of the presented methodological approach carried out for the Dnieper-Donets and Carpathian shale basins, it was concluded that the investment attractiveness of the first one is higher, given its reservoir properties and the presence of deposits of nonconventional hydrocarbons in different states of aggregation.

  9. The Prototype Plume Busters Software: A New Tool for Exploring Issues Related to Environmental Policy in Undergraduate-level Earth and Environmental Science Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macfarlane, P. A.

    2006-12-01

    Students seldom have an opportunity to explore the issues related to the environmental impact of contamination on water resources. With NSF support we have developed the prototype Plume Busters, in which students take on the role of an environmental consultant. The software consists of an interactive, Java application and accompanying HTML linked pages. Following a pipeline spill, the environmental consultant is hired by the pipeline owner to locate the resulting plume created by the spill and remediate the contaminated aquifer at minimum monetary and time cost. The contamination must be removed from the aquifer before it reaches the river and eventually a downstream public water supply. The application simulates movement of a plume from a pipeline break through a shallow alluvial aquifer towards the river upstream from a municipal water supply intake. To locate the plume, the student places observation wells on a gridded map of the study area and the simulation returns the contaminant concentrations at those locations on the appropriate sample dates. Once the plume is located, the student is able to site pumping and injection wells on the map for aquifer remediation using a simple pump-and-treat technique. The simulation then computes the movement of particles to the pumping wells and returns the cumulative mass removed by the production remediation well. Plume Busters also provides teachers with a means to initiate student exploration of a wide range of environmental issues, including (1) source-water assessment and ground-water and wellhead protection zones, (2) the impact of human activities and technology on the hydrosphere and the biosphere, (3) the role of technology in the resolution of environmental issues (4) legal, social, political, and economic implications of environmental issues, and (5) risk assessment resulting from human activities.

  10. Technical and Economic Assessment of Solar Photovoltaic for Groundwater Extraction on the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackley, Rob D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Anderson, David M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Thomle, Jonathan N. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Strickland, Christopher E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The overall goal of environmental remediation is to protect human health and the environment. Implementing renewable energy sources such as solar photovoltaic (PV) in groundwater extraction and pump-and-treat (P&T) systems may help minimize the environmental footprint of remediation efforts. The first step in considering solar PV for powering Hanford groundwater extraction is assessing the technical and economic feasibility and identifying potential target locations where implementation would be most successful. Accordingly, a techno-economic assessment of solar PV for Hanford groundwater extraction was completed in FY15. Multiple solar PV alternatives ranging in size from 1.2 to 22.4 kWp DC were evaluated and compared against traditional grid-powered systems. Results indicate that the degree to which solar PV alternatives are feasible is primarily a function of the distance of avoided power cable costs and the inclusion of an energy storage component. Standalone solar PV systems provide an energy source at the well and avoid the costs and logistics associated with running long lengths of expensive power cable to the well-head. When solar PV systems include a battery storage component, groundwater can be pumped continuously day and night in a year-round schedule. However, due to the high cost premium of the energy storage component, a fully solar-powered solution could not provide an economic direct replacement for line-powered pumping systems. As a result, the most ideal target locations for successful implementation of solar PV on the Hanford Site are remote or distant extraction wells where the primary remedial objective is contaminant mass removal (as opposed to hydraulic containment) and three-season (March through October) intermittent pumping is acceptable (e.g. remediation of hexavalent chromium in 200-UP-1).

  11. Challenges in Implementing a Multi-Partnership Geothermal Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gosnold, Will; Mann, Michael [Universit of North Dakota; Salehfar, Hossein

    2017-03-02

    The UND-CLR binary geothermal power plant project is a piggyback operation on a secondary-recovery water-flood project in the Cedar Hills oil field in the Williston Basin. Two open-hole horizontal wells at 2,300 m and 2,400 m depths with lateral lengths of 1,290 m and 860 m produce water at a combined flow of 51 l s -1 from the Lodgepole formation (Miss.) for injection into the Red River formation (Ordovician). The hydrostatic head for the Lodgepole is at ground surface and the pumps, which are set at 650 m depth, have run continuously since 2009. Water temperature at the wellhead is 103 °C and CLR passes the water through two large air-cooled heat exchangers prior to injection. In all aspects, the CLR water flood project is ideal for demonstration of electrical power production from a low-temperature geothermal resource. However, implementation of the project from concept to power production was analogous to breaking trail in deep snow in an old growth forest. There were many hidden bumps, detours, and in some instances immoveable barriers. Problems with investors, cost share, contracts with CLR, resistance from local industry, cost of installation, delays by the ORC supplier, and the North Dakota climate all caused delays and setbacks. Determination and problem solving by the UND team eventually overcame most setbacks, and in April 2016, the site began generating power. Figure 1: Schematic of the water supply well at the UND CLR binary geothermal power plant REFERENCES Williams, Snyder, and Gosnold, 2016, Low Temperature Projects Evaluation and Lesson Learned, GRC Transactions, Vol. 40, 203-210 Gosnold, LeFever, Klenner, Mann, Salehfar, and Johnson, 2010, Geothermal Power from Coproduced Fluids in the Williston Basin, GRC Transactions, Vol. 34, 557-560

  12. High-resolution AUV mapping and sampling of a deep hydrocarbon plume in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, J. P.; Zhang, Y.; Thomas, H.; Rienecker, E.; Nelson, R.; Cummings, S.

    2010-12-01

    During NOAA cruise GU-10-02 on the Ship Gordon Gunter, the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI) autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) Dorado was deployed to map and sample a deep (900-1200 m) volume centered approximately seven nautical miles southwest of the Deepwater Horizon wellhead. Dorado was equipped to detect optical and chemical signals of hydrocarbons and to acquire targeted samples. The primary sensor reading used for hydrocarbon detection was colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) fluorescence (CF). On June 2 and 3, ship cast and subsequent AUV surveys detected elevated CF in a layer between 1100 and 1200 m depth. While the deep volume was mapped in a series of parallel vertical sections, the AUV ran a peak-capture algorithm to target sample acquisition at layer signal peaks. Samples returned by ship CTD/CF rosette sampling and by AUV were preliminarily examined at sea, and they exhibited odor and fluorometric signal consistent with oil. More definitive and detailed results on these samples are forthcoming from shore-based laboratory analyses. During post-cruise analysis, all of the CF data were analyzed to objectively define and map the deep plume feature. Specifically, the maximum expected background CF over the depth range 1000-1200 m was extrapolated from a linear relationship between depth and maximum CF over the depth range 200 to 1000 m. Values exceeding the maximum expected background in the depth range 1000-1200 m were interpreted as signal from a hydrocarbon-enriched plume. Using this definition we examine relationships between CF and other AUV measurements within the plume, illustrate the three-dimensional structure of the plume boundary region that was mapped, describe small-scale layering on isopycnals, and examine short-term variations in plume depth, intensity and hydrographic relationships. Three-dimensional representation of part of a deep hydrocarbon plume mapped and sampled by AUV on June 2-3, 2010.

  13. Preoperational Subsurface Conditions at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Service Wastewater Discharge Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ansley, Shannon L.

    2002-02-20

    The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) Service Wastewater Discharge Facility replaces the existing percolation ponds as a disposal facility for the INTEC Service Waste Stream. A preferred alternative for helping decrease water content in the subsurface near INTEC, closure of the existing ponds is required by the INTEC Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Record of Decision (ROD) for Waste Area Group 3 Operable Unit 3-13 (DOE-ID 1999a). By August 2002, the replacement facility was constructed approximately 2 miles southwest of INTEC, near the Big Lost River channel. Because groundwater beneath the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is protected under Federal and State of Idaho regulations from degradation due to INEEL activities, preoperational data required by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1 were collected. These data include preexisting physical, chemical, and biological conditions that could be affected by the discharge; background levels of radioactive and chemical components; pertinent environmental and ecological parameters; and potential pathways for human exposure or environmental impact. This document presents specific data collected in support of DOE Order 5400.1, including: four quarters of groundwater sampling and analysis of chemical and radiological parameters; general facility description; site specific geology, stratigraphy, soils, and hydrology; perched water discussions; and general regulatory requirements. However, in order to avoid duplication of previous information, the reader is directed to other referenced publications for more detailed information. Documents that are not readily available are compiled in this publication as appendices. These documents include well and borehole completion reports, a perched water evaluation letter report, the draft INEEL Wellhead Protection Program Plan, and the Environmental Checklist.

  14. Reserves in western basins: Part 1, Greater Green River basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    This study characterizes an extremely large gas resource located in low permeability, overpressured sandstone reservoirs located below 8,000 feet drill depth in the Greater Green River basin, Wyoming. Total in place resource is estimated at 1,968 Tcf. Via application of geologic, engineering and economic criteria, the portion of this resource potentially recoverable as reserves is estimated. Those volumes estimated include probable, possible and potential categories and total 33 Tcf as a mean estimate of recoverable gas for all plays considered in the basin. Five plays (formations) were included in this study and each was separately analyzed in terms of its overpressured, tight gas resource, established productive characteristics and future reserves potential based on a constant $2/Mcf wellhead gas price scenario. A scheme has been developed to break the overall resource estimate down into components that can be considered as differing technical and economic challenges that must be overcome in order to exploit such resources: in other words, to convert those resources to economically recoverable reserves. Total recoverable reserves estimates of 33 Tcf do not include the existing production from overpressured tight reservoirs in the basin. These have estimated ultimate recovery of approximately 1.6 Tcf, or a per well average recovery of 2.3 Bcf. Due to the fact that considerable pay thicknesses can be present, wells can be economic despite limited drainage areas. It is typical for significant bypassed gas to be present at inter-well locations because drainage areas are commonly less than regulatory well spacing requirements.

  15. Preoperational Subsurface Conditions at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Service Waste Disposal Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ansley, Shannon Leigh

    2002-02-01

    The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) Service Wastewater Discharge Facility replaces the existing percolation ponds as a disposal facility for the INTEC Service Waste Stream. A preferred alternative for helping decrease water content in the subsurface near INTEC, closure of the existing ponds is required by the INTEC Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Record of Decision (ROD) for Waste Area Group 3 Operable Unit 3-13 (DOE-ID 1999a). By August 2002, the replacement facility was constructed approximately 2 miles southwest of INTEC, near the Big Lost River channel. Because groundwater beneath the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is protected under Federal and State of Idaho regulations from degradation due to INEEL activities, preoperational data required by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1 were collected. These data include preexisting physical, chemical, and biological conditions that could be affected by the discharge; background levels of radioactive and chemical components; pertinent environmental and ecological parameters; and potential pathways for human exposure or environmental impact. This document presents specific data collected in support of DOE Order 5400.1, including: four quarters of groundwater sampling and analysis of chemical and radiological parameters; general facility description; site specific geology, stratigraphy, soils, and hydrology; perched water discussions; and general regulatory requirements. However, in order to avoid duplication of previous information, the reader is directed to other referenced publications for more detailed information. Documents that are not readily available are compiled in this publication as appendices. These documents include well and borehole completion reports, a perched water evaluation letter report, the draft INEEL Wellhead Protection Program Plan, and the Environmental Checklist.

  16. An investigation of constant-pressure gas well testing influenced by high-velocity flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berumen, Sergio; Samaniego, Fernando; Cinco, Heber [PEMEX E and P and UNAM, Ciudad Universitaria, Coyoacan, Mexico (Mexico)

    1997-11-05

    This paper presents the results of a study of transient pressure analysis of gas flow under either constant bottom-hole pressure conditions or the constant wellhead pressure conditions. The effects of formation damage, wellbore storage and high-velocity flow are included in the model. The analysis of simulated well tests showed that the interpretation methods used for liquid flow are generally accurate when the m(p) is used. For these conditions, a graph of 1/q{sub D} vs. logt{sub D} presents gradually lower values of 1.1513 as the value of p{sub wf} decreases: for pressure buildup conditions, a graph of m{sub D}(1, {Delta}t{sub a{sub D}})/q{sub D}({Delta}t{sub a{sub D}}=0) vs. (t{sub a{sub D}}+{Delta}t{sub a{sub D}})/{Delta}t{sub a{sub D}} shows values of this slope within 1% of the 1.1513 value. However, when high-velocity flow influences constant pressure production tests, the slope can yield errors up to 13%. This upper limit occurs when the formation has a relatively `high` permeability (around 1 mD) and the rate performance test is affected by high-velocity flow. It was found that pressure buildup tests are superior to rate performance tests because high-velocity flow does not affect the slope of the straight line portion of the buildup curve. Derivative analysis of simulated buildup tests showed that the skin factor is considerably miscalculated when the high-velocity flow effect is significant. This problem could lead to errors in the calculation of the skin factor, s, up to 300%

  17. Growth model for large branched three-dimensional hydraulic crack system in gas or oil shale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, Viet T; Bažant, Zdeněk P; Su, Yewang

    2016-10-13

    Recent analysis of gas outflow histories at wellheads shows that the hydraulic crack spacing must be of the order of 0.1 m (rather than 1 m or 10 m). Consequently, the existing models, limited to one or several cracks, are unrealistic. The reality is 10(5)-10(6) almost vertical hydraulic cracks per fracking stage. Here, we study the growth of two intersecting near-orthogonal systems of parallel hydraulic cracks spaced at 0.1 m, preferably following pre-existing rock joints. One key idea is that, to model lateral cracks branching from a primary crack wall, crack pressurization, by viscous Poiseuille-type flow, of compressible (proppant-laden) frac water must be complemented with the pressurization of a sufficient volume of micropores and microcracks by Darcy-type water diffusion into the shale, to generate tension along existing crack walls, overcoming the strength limit of the cohesive-crack or crack-band model. A second key idea is that enforcing the equilibrium of stresses in cracks, pores and water, with the generation of tension in the solid phase, requires a new three-phase medium concept, which is transitional between Biot's two-phase medium and Terzaghi's effective stress and introduces the loading of the solid by pressure gradients of diffusing pore water. A computer program, combining finite elements for deformation and fracture with volume elements for water flow, is developed to validate the new model.This article is part of the themed issue 'Energy and the subsurface'.

  18. A plunger lift and monitoring system for gas wells based on deployment-retrievement integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Tong

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available As a necessary step, removing liquid in the wellbore plays an important role during the production of gas wells. Plunger lift is a widely-used intermittent deliquification process for gas wells. However, the manual control way and wire logging are still utilized as a downhole monitoring way for plunger lift, which is not efficient in terms of interrupting the production. This paper presents an improved solution that logging instruments canister are deployed and retrieved by means of a new assembly. With the reciprocating plunger, logging instruments canister can be carried and deployed to the bottom of a gas well to carry out logging and sampling tasks on the production demand of a field. After the deployment and logging tasks are performed, logging instruments canister is carried back to the surface by the plunger and then data is transferred to the wellhead device near field wireless communication technology. This newly developed plunger lift system comprises plunger body, deployment sub-assembly, retrieve sub-assembly and logging instruments canister. The surface device comprises RF antenna, reader and writer. Based upon the method of deployment-retrieve integration, the new deliquification process is introduced and on-line monitoring of production dynamics can be performed including P/T measurement, downhole fluid sampling, pressure build-up, etc. without interrupting production. The general solution and engineering design parameters have been confirmed by research teams, while system prototype manufacture and workbench tests are being performed. The cost-effective way combining deliquification with dynamic monitoring is developed and contributes to increasing production and the stable productivity of gas wells. It is very significant for low-pressure and low-production gas fields to achieve automation production and management.

  19. A database for The Geysers geothermal field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodvarsson, G.S.; Cox, B.L.; Fuller, P.; Ripperda, M.; Tulinius, H.; Witherspoon, P.A.; Goldstein, N.; Flexser, S.; Pruess, K. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA)); Truesdell, A. (Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (USA))

    1989-09-01

    In Fiscal Year 1985-1986 the Earth Sciences Division of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) began a multi-year project for SLC to organize and analyze the field data from The Geysers. In the first year, most of the work concentrated on the development of a comprehensive database for The Geysers, and conventional reservoir engineering analysis of the data. Essentially, all non-proprietary data for wells at The Geysers have been incorporated into the database, as well as proprietary data from wells located on State leases. In following years, a more detailed analysis of The Geysers data has been carried out. This report is a summary of the non- proprietary work performed in FY 1985--1986. It describes various aspects of the database and also includes: review sections on Field Development, Geology, Geophysics, Geochemistry and Reservoir Engineering. It should be emphasized that these background chapters were written in 1986, and therefore only summarize the information available at that time. The appendices contain individual plots of wellhead pressures, degree of superheat, steam flow rates, cumulative mass flows, injection rates and cumulative injection through 1988 for approximately 250 wells. All of the data contained in this report are non-proprietary, from State and non-State leases. The production/injection and heat flow data from the wells were obtained from the California State Division of Oil and gas (DOG) (courtesy of Dick Thomas). Most of the other data were obtained from SLC files in Sacramento (courtesy of Charles Priddy), or DOG files in Santa Rosa (courtesy of Ken Stelling). 159 refs., 23 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. A decline in benthic foraminifera following the deepwater horizon event in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwing, Patrick T; Romero, Isabel C; Brooks, Gregg R; Hastings, David W; Larson, Rebekka A; Hollander, David J

    2015-01-01

    Sediment cores were collected from three sites (1000-1200 m water depth) in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico from December 2010 to June 2011 to assess changes in benthic foraminiferal density related to the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) event (April-July 2010, 1500 m water depth). Short-lived radioisotope geochronologies (²¹⁰Pb, ²³⁴Th), organic geochemical assessments, and redox metal concentrations were determined to relate changes in sediment accumulation rate, contamination, and redox conditions with benthic foraminiferal density. Cores collected in December 2010 indicated a decline in density (80-93%). This decline was characterized by a decrease in benthic foraminiferal density and benthic foraminiferal accumulation rate (BFAR) in the surface 10 mm relative to the down-core mean in all benthic foraminifera, including the dominant genera (Bulimina spp., Uvigerina spp., and Cibicidoides spp.). Cores collected in February 2011 documented a site-specific response. There was evidence of a recovery in the benthic foraminiferal density and BFAR at the site closest to the wellhead (45 NM, NE). However, the site farther afield (60 NM, NE) recorded a continued decline in benthic foraminiferal density and BFAR down to near-zero values. This decline in benthic foraminiferal density occurred simultaneously with abrupt increases in sedimentary accumulation rates, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations, and changes in redox conditions. Persistent reducing conditions (as many as 10 months after the event) in the surface of these core records were a possible cause of the decline. Another possible cause was the increase (2-3 times background) in PAH's, which are known to cause benthic foraminifera mortality and inhibit reproduction. Records of benthic foraminiferal density coupled with short-lived radionuclide geochronology and organic geochemistry were effective in quantifying the benthic response and will continue to be a valuable tool in determining the long

  1. A decline in benthic foraminifera following the deepwater horizon event in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick T Schwing

    Full Text Available Sediment cores were collected from three sites (1000-1200 m water depth in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico from December 2010 to June 2011 to assess changes in benthic foraminiferal density related to the Deepwater Horizon (DWH event (April-July 2010, 1500 m water depth. Short-lived radioisotope geochronologies (²¹⁰Pb, ²³⁴Th, organic geochemical assessments, and redox metal concentrations were determined to relate changes in sediment accumulation rate, contamination, and redox conditions with benthic foraminiferal density. Cores collected in December 2010 indicated a decline in density (80-93%. This decline was characterized by a decrease in benthic foraminiferal density and benthic foraminiferal accumulation rate (BFAR in the surface 10 mm relative to the down-core mean in all benthic foraminifera, including the dominant genera (Bulimina spp., Uvigerina spp., and Cibicidoides spp.. Cores collected in February 2011 documented a site-specific response. There was evidence of a recovery in the benthic foraminiferal density and BFAR at the site closest to the wellhead (45 NM, NE. However, the site farther afield (60 NM, NE recorded a continued decline in benthic foraminiferal density and BFAR down to near-zero values. This decline in benthic foraminiferal density occurred simultaneously with abrupt increases in sedimentary accumulation rates, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH concentrations, and changes in redox conditions. Persistent reducing conditions (as many as 10 months after the event in the surface of these core records were a possible cause of the decline. Another possible cause was the increase (2-3 times background in PAH's, which are known to cause benthic foraminifera mortality and inhibit reproduction. Records of benthic foraminiferal density coupled with short-lived radionuclide geochronology and organic geochemistry were effective in quantifying the benthic response and will continue to be a valuable tool in determining

  2. Groundwater ages from the freshwater zone of the Edwards aquifer, Uvalde County, Texas—Insights into groundwater flow and recharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Andrew G.; Landis, Gary P.; Faith, Jason R.

    2016-02-23

    Tritium–helium-3 groundwater ages of the Edwards aquifer in south-central Texas were determined as part of a long-term study of groundwater flow and recharge in the Edwards and Trinity aquifers. These ages help to define groundwater residence times and to provide constraints for calibration of groundwater flow models. A suite of 17 samples from public and private supply wells within Uvalde County were collected for active and noble gases, and for tritium–helium-3 analyses from the confined and unconfined parts of the Edwards aquifer. Samples were collected from monitoring wells at discrete depths in open boreholes as well as from integrated pumped well-head samples. The data indicate a fairly uniform groundwater flow system within an otherwise structurally complex geologic environment comprised of regionally and locally faulted rock units, igneous intrusions, and karst features within carbonate rocks. Apparent ages show moderate, downward average, linear velocities in the Uvalde area with increasing age to the east along a regional groundwater flow path. Though the apparent age data show a fairly consistent distribution across the study area, many apparent ages indicate mixing of both modern (less than 60 years) and premodern (greater than 60 years) waters. This mixing is most evident along the “bad water” line, an arbitrary delineation of 1,000 milligrams per liter dissolved solids that separates the freshwater zone of the Edwards aquifer from the downdip saline water zone. Mixing of modern and premodern waters also is indicated within the unconfined zone of the aquifer by high excess helium concentrations in young waters. Excess helium anomalies in the unconfined aquifer are consistent with possible subsurface discharge of premodern groundwater from the underlying Trinity aquifer into the younger groundwater of the Edwards aquifer.

  3. The Present and Future of Szigetvár Spa – An Economic Analysis of Geothermal Energy Investment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judit Pálné Schreiner

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In Hungary, geothermal energy has proved to be an economical source of energy for direct use. It highlights the pros and cons of including renewable energy in the power generation mix of Hungary, and the pros and cons of local application. This paper looks at the operation of Szigetvár Spa from both economic and social aspects. In this study, qualitative analysis is used for the basic economic and social introduction of the Spa, and then real options, based on quantitative methods, are described to identify the long-term financial consequences of the project. In 1966, thermal water was found in Szigetvár. In 1997, this thermal water was certified as medicinal water. The wellhead temperature of Szigetvár thermal water is 62°C in the 790 metres deep thermal well. It is used as so-called domestic hot water in the Szent István housing estate and in Szigetvár Spa. One of the problems with the project is that it is based on single stage thermal water utilization, another problem is that the waste water is too hot. This can be solved by exploiting the heat energy of thermal water more intensively. This way, maximum benefits can be gained from geothermal energy with minimum use of energy. Static and dynamic investment analyses were carried out to examine the spa from a financial aspect. The methods used include static payback period, average rate of return, levelized cost of electricity, net present value, profitability index, dynamic payback period, internal rate of return and real options. By pricing geothermal technology, it is possible to identify the strategic value of flexibility, to quantify what was previously left unquantified, and thus to show that geothermal investments are profitable not only from a social but also from a financial aspect as well.

  4. Occurrence and potential human-health relevance of volatile organic compounds in drinking water from domestic wells in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, B.L.; Toccalino, P.L.; Moran, M.J.; Zogorski, J.S.; Price, C.V.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: As the population and demand for safe drinking water from domestic wells increase, it is important to examine water quality and contaminant occurrence. A national assessment in 2006 by the U.S. Geological Survey reported findings for 55 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) based on 2,401 domestic wells sampled during 1985-2002. OBJECTIVES: We examined the occurrence of individual and multiple VOCs and assessed the potential human-health relevance of VOC concentrations. We also identified hydrogeologic and anthropogenic variables that influence the probability of VOC occurrence. METHODS: The domestic well samples were collected at the wellhead before treatment of water and analyzed for 55 VOCs. Results were used to examine VOC occurrence and identify associations of multiple explanatory variables using logistic regression analyses. We used a screening-level assessment to compare VOC concentrations to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) and health-based screening levels. RESULTS: We detected VOCs in 65% of the samples; about one-half of these samples contained VOC mixtures. Frequently detected VOCs included chloroform, toluene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, and perchloroethene. VOC concentrations generally were < 1 ??g/L. One or more VOC concentrations were greater than MCLs in 1.2% of samples, including dibromochloropropane, 1,2-dichloropropane, and ethylene dibromide (fumigants); perchloroethene and trichloroethene (solvents); and 1,1-dichloroethene (organic synthesis compound). CONCLUSIONS: Drinking water supplied by domestic wells is vulnerable to low-level VOC contamination. About 1% of samples had concentrations of potential human-health concern. Identifying factors associated with VOC occurrence may aid in understanding the sources, transport, and fate of VOCs in groundwater.

  5. 导管架式钻井平台新增桩腿加挂井槽改造技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洋; 段梦兰; 范晓; 匡涛; 韩峰

    2014-01-01

    To increase the production in marginal field,more wells are going to be drilled,but there was not enough deck area on old jacket platforms.The application of legs extension-additional technology for old jacket platform solved this problem effectively.New legs are added for support-ing the new structure which meets the demand of enlarging the wellhead area.A horn shape con-nections are designed to avoid underwater welding and reduce the accuracy requirements during the process of installation.The results of punching shear check for major member and joint,pile capacity check in seismic analysis and ice resistance analysis show that the platform meet the spec-ification requirements.%提出一种导管架式钻井平台井口扩建方案。该方案可以有效解决老平台由于预留井槽不足,导致无法在原平台井口处加设生产井的问题。新增结构与平台原有结构之间通过水上导向桩进行连接,这样做可以避免水下焊接施工,同时也降低了对安装精度的要求。对改造后平台进行抗震、抗冰性能分析,结果表明改造后平台各方面性能均满足要求。

  6. 深水尾管回接工艺技术应用及发展%Application and Development of Liner Tieback Technology in Deepwater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵苏文; 黄小龙; 孙子刚; 卢先刚; 李鑫

    2016-01-01

    Due to the characteristics of wellhead system in deepwater, liner hanging and tieback technologies are important in deepwater wells.The paper introduces the conventional liner tieback technology in deepwater both in China and abroad, elaborates in detail about the whole process, working principles and characteristics of the corresponding tools and the field application;puts forward the existing problems.Aiming at the existing problems and according to the common-used liner tieback technologies and the application situation as well as the development conditions in foreign countries, the develop-ment direction of two liner tieback technologies, being developed with different ideas, for deepwater drilling are presented.%由于深水水下井口系统及井身结构设计套管层次多的特点,尾管悬挂工艺和尾管回接工艺是深水井的一项重要工艺技术. 对目前国内外深水使用的常规尾管回接工艺技术进行了分析的基础上,详细阐述了其整个的工艺过程、相应工具的工作原理和特点以及现场应用情况,提出了存在的常见问题,并针对存在的问题结合目前常用的尾管回接工艺技术、使用情况以及国外行业的发展情况,介绍了2种不同思路的深水尾管回接工艺技术的发展方向,对后续深水尾管回接作业具有重要的借鉴意义.

  7. 液基全过程欠平衡钻井停止循环连续气侵井筒瞬态流动%Transient flow in continuous gas invasion wellbore under condition of circulation cease in liquid-based whole process underbalance drilling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏纳; 孟英峰; 李皋; 李永杰; 万里平; 李红涛; 刘佳洁; 刘金龙

    2012-01-01

    The bore flow model of liquid-based process underbalance drilling includes the steady-state gas-liquid-solid multiphase flow of normal drilling and transient gas-liquid two-phase flow under conditions of circulation cease. For circulation cease open wells, the numerical simulation methods of characteristics parameters change of downhole transient gas-liquid two-phase flow with continuous gas invasion and mathematics to solve the model were developed. The gas-liquid two-phase flow characteristic parameters were calculated in the different size of the gas influx of underground. The results show that the larger gas volume leads to the faster movement velocity, the more knocking out drilling fluid and the larger bottom hole flowing pressure fluctuation. The exerting of wellhead back pressure can effectively control the underground gas expansion and the bottom hole pressure fluctuation.%液基全过程欠平衡钻井井筒流动过程主要包括正常钻进时稳态气液固多相流动以及停止循环条件下的瞬态气液两相流动.建立停止循环开井条件下遇到连续气侵时井下瞬态气液两相流动特征参数变化数值模拟计算方法及数学求解模型,计算对比遇到不同气侵量的井下气液两相流特征参数变化.结果表明:较大气量条件下气体运动速度更快、顶出钻井液更多、井底流压波动更大;井口回压的施加能有效控制井下气体膨胀与井底压力波动.

  8. The role of hand calculations in ground water flow modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haitjema, Henk

    2006-01-01

    Most ground water modeling courses focus on the use of computer models and pay little or no attention to traditional analytic solutions to ground water flow problems. This shift in education seems logical. Why waste time to learn about the method of images, or why study analytic solutions to one-dimensional or radial flow problems? Computer models solve much more realistic problems and offer sophisticated graphical output, such as contour plots of potentiometric levels and ground water path lines. However, analytic solutions to elementary ground water flow problems do have something to offer over computer models: insight. For instance, an analytic one-dimensional or radial flow solution, in terms of a mathematical expression, may reveal which parameters affect the success of calibrating a computer model and what to expect when changing parameter values. Similarly, solutions for periodic forcing of one-dimensional or radial flow systems have resulted in a simple decision criterion to assess whether or not transient flow modeling is needed. Basic water balance calculations may offer a useful check on computer-generated capture zones for wellhead protection or aquifer remediation. An easily calculated "characteristic leakage length" provides critical insight into surface water and ground water interactions and flow in multi-aquifer systems. The list goes on. Familiarity with elementary analytic solutions and the capability of performing some simple hand calculations can promote appropriate (computer) modeling techniques, avoids unnecessary complexity, improves reliability, and is likely to save time and money. Training in basic hand calculations should be an important part of the curriculum of ground water modeling courses.

  9. FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF A MEMBRANE PROCESS TO RECOVER HEAVY HYDROCARBONS AND TO REMOVE WATER FROM NATURAL GAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2002-04-10

    The objective of this project is to design, construct and field demonstrate a 3-MMscfd membrane system to recover natural gas liquids (NGL) and remove water from raw natural gas. The gas processed by the membrane system will meet pipeline specifications for dew point and Btu value, and the process is likely to be significantly less expensive than glycol dehydration followed by propane refrigeration, the principal competitive technology. The BP-Amoco gas processing plant in Pascagoula, MS was finalized as the location for the field demonstration. Detailed drawings of the MTR membrane skid (already constructed) were submitted to the plant in February, 2000. However, problems in reaching an agreement on the specifications of the system compressor delayed the project significantly, so MTR requested (and was subsequently granted) a no-cost extension to the project. Following resolution of the compressor issues, the goal is to order the compressor during the first quarter of 2002, and to start field tests in mid-2002. Information from potential users of the membrane separation process in the natural gas processing industry suggests that applications such as fuel gas conditioning and wellhead gas processing are the most promising initial targets. Therefore, most of our commercialization effort is focused on promoting these applications. Requests for stream evaluations and for design and price quotations have been received through MTR's web site, from direct contact with potential users, and through announcements in industry publications. To date, about 90 commercial quotes have been supplied, and orders totaling about $1.13 million for equipment or rental of membrane units have been received.

  10. 水下井口系统密封技术研究和发展现状%Review on Subsea Well System Sealing Technology Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯超; 肖文生; 刘健; 刘忠砚

    2015-01-01

    According to the characteristics of marine oil and gas,the main sealing devices used in the subsea wellhead system were summarized,current situation procession of the development of sealing technology and device of subsea well system were introduced.The difference between subsea well system seal and conventional seal was analyzed,the key tech-nology of sealing used in subsea well system was summarized.It is concluded that the main trend of subsea well system sealing depended on the marine oil and gas development in the future is metal sealing,and is pointed out that the formula-tion of relevant industry standards will promote the development of underwater sealing technology.%针对海洋油气开发特点,总结了水下井口系统用主要密封装置,介绍水下井口系统密封技术及装置发展现状,分析水下井口系统密封区别于常规密封的特点,总结水下井口系统密封的关键技术,得出海洋油气发展方向决定了金属密封技术是水下井口系统密封未来发展的主要趋势的结论,并指出相关行业标准的制订将推动水下密封技术的发展。

  11. 水下刚性跨接管安装极限误差合成方法研究%Study on underwater rigid jumpers’ installation limit tolerance synthesis method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘军; 陈卓; 李忠庆; 杨成鹏; 王立权; 何鑫

    2015-01-01

    刚性跨接管在海洋油气开采过程中必不可少,其安装受到各种因素影响,包括水下井口位置测量误差、由管道线性膨胀引起的位置误差、跨接管制造过程中自身存在的误差等,这些误差均为随机误差,在安装作业过程中这些误差将最终影响回接系统整体安装位置。本文采用数学中随机误差的统计合成方法对回接系统进行建模,最终给出合理的安装位置预测,为实际安装作业前的作业部署提供了可靠依据。%As an important part of the underwater production system,the installation of jumpers influenced by various of factors, including the error of subsea wellhead position measurement,the position error caused by the pipeline linear expansion,the existence errors in manufacturing process,these errors are random error,which will eventually affect the installation position of whole system during the installation process .This paper adopts the statistical error synthesis method in mathematics to modeling the tieback system,finally gives a reasonable prediction of the installation position,and provided reliable basis before the actual installation operation.

  12. Heavy rainfall and waterborne disease outbreaks: the Walkerton example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auld, Heather; MacIver, D; Klaassen, J

    Recent research indicates that excessive rainfall has been a significant contributor to historical waterborne disease outbreaks. The Meteorological Service of Canada, Environment Canada, provided an analysis and testimony to the Walkerton Inquiry on the excessive rainfall events, including an assessment of the historical significance and expected return periods of the rainfall amounts. While the onset of the majority of the Walkerton, Ontario, Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Campylobacter outbreak occurred several days after a heavy rainfall on May 12, the accumulated 5-d rainfall amounts from 8-12 May were particularly significant. These 5-d accumulations could, on average, only be expected once every 60 yr or more in Walkerton and once every 100 yr or so in the heaviest rainfall area to the south of Walkerton. The significant link between excess rainfall and waterborne disease outbreaks, in conjunction with other multiple risk factors, indicates that meteorological and climatological conditions need to be considered by water managers, public health officials, and private citizens as a significant risk factor for water contamination. A system to identify and project the impacts of such challenging or extreme weather conditions on water supply systems could be developed using a combination of weather/climate monitoring information and weather prediction or quantitative precipitation forecast information. The use of weather monitoring and forecast information or a "wellhead alert system" could alert water system and water supply managers on the potential response of their systems to challenging weather conditions and additional requirements to protect health. Similar approaches have recently been used by beach managers in parts of the United States to predict day-to-day water quality for beach advisories.

  13. Electromagnetic Measurements in an Active Oilfield Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, K. A.; Aldridge, D. F.; Bartel, L. C.; Knox, H. A.; Weiss, C. J.

    2015-12-01

    An important issue in oilfield development pertains to mapping and monitoring of the fracture distributions (either natural or man-made) controlling subsurface fluid flow. Although microseismic monitoring and analysis have been used for this purpose for several decades, there remain several ambiguities and uncertainties with this approach. We are investigating a novel electromagnetic (EM) technique for detecting and mapping hydraulic fractures in a petroleum reservoir by injecting an electrically conductive contrast agent into an open fracture. The fracture is subsequently illuminated by a strong EM field radiated by a large engineered antenna. Specifically, a grounded electric current source is applied directly to the steel casing of the borehole, either at/near the wellhead or at a deep downhole point. Transient multicomponent EM signals (both electric and magnetic) scattered by the conductivity contrast are then recorded by a surface receiver array. We are presently utilizing advanced 3D numerical modeling algorithms to accurately simulate fracture responses, both before and after insertion of the conductive contrast agent. Model results compare favorably with EM field data recently acquired in a Permian Basin oilfield. However, extraction of the very-low-amplitude fracture signatures from noisy data requires effective noise suppression strategies such as long stacking times, rejection of outliers, and careful treatment of natural magnetotelluric fields. Dealing with the ever-present "episodic EM noise" typical in an active oilfield environment (associated with drilling, pumping, machinery, traffic, etc.) constitutes an ongoing problem. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the US Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  14. NASA Global GNSS Network (GGN) Status and Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doelger, S.; Sklar, J.; Blume, F.; Meertens, C. M.; Mattioli, G. S.

    2015-12-01

    UNAVCO, in conjunction with JPL, is responsible for monitoring the 62 GNSS permanent stations, which include 88 GPS receivers, which comprise the NASA Global GNSS Network (GGN). These sites represent approximately 16% of the ~400 International GNSS Service (IGS) stations, and they provide a globally distributed GNSS network to support NASA operations and its commitments to GGOS. UNAVCO provides data flow monitoring, trouble-shooting, station installation, maintenance, as well as engineering services to improve the capabilities and performance of station infrastructure. Activities this past year include the installation of a geodetic quality wellhead monument for the new SEY2 station to replace SEY1, which is mounted on a UCSD seismic station in the Seychelles Islands. SEY1 will be removed soon to accommodate planned maintenance and upgrades by UCSD. Data from both SEY1 and SEY2 are being collected concurrently until maintenance begins. MRTG (Multi Router Traffic Grapher), a tool to aid in characterizing bandwidth usage and to identify communications problems, is now being used to monitor data throughput at 7 stations where VSAT or radio telemetry are used, including: ABPO; AREQ; FALK; GUAM; HARV; ISPA; QUIN; and STHL. Aging computers are being replaced with new hardware running Linux CentOS. These are semi-ruggedized low power solid-state systems built to endure challenging environments. With the aid of on-site collaborators, systems are now deployed at: FALK; CUSV; KELY; STHL; SANT; and ZAMB. Last, 4 new GPS stations were deployed for NASA's Space Geodesy Project (SGP); three of which (KOKF, KOKG, and KOKR) are located at Koke'e Park Geophysical Observatory on Kauai, Hawai'i, and HAL1 at the Haleakala observatory complex on Maui, Hawai'i. A campaign system was set up at Koke'e in order to sample data quality to determine if an additional station would be viable. Planning is ongoing for deployment of several new stations next year at McDonald Observatory (TX).

  15. Modelling geothermal conditions in part of the Szczecin Trough – the Chociwel area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miecznik Maciej

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Chociwel region is part of the Szczecin Trough and constitutes the northeastern segment of the extended Szczecin-Gorzów Synclinorium. Lower Jurassic reservoirs of high permeability of up to 1145 mD can discharge geothermal waters with a rate exceeding 250 m3/h and temperatures reach over 90°C in the lowermost part of the reservoirs. These conditions provide an opportunity to generate electricity from heat accumulated in geothermal waters using binary ORC (Organic Rankine Cycle systems. A numerical model of the natural state and exploitation conditions was created for the Chociwel area with the use of TOUGH2 geothermal simulator (i.e., integral finite-difference method. An analysis of geological and hydrogeothermal data indicates that the best conditions are found to the southeast of the town of Chociwel, where the bottom part of the reservoir reaches 3 km below ground. This would require drilling two new wells, namely one production and one injection. Simulated production with a flow rate of 275 m3/h, a temperature of 89°C at the wellhead, 30°C injection temperature and wells being 1.2 km separated from each other leads to a small temperature drop and moderate requirements for pumping power over a 50 years’ time span. The ORC binary system can produce at maximum 592.5 kW gross power with the R227ea found as the most suitable working fluid. Geothermal brine leaving the ORC system with a temperature c. 53°C can be used for other purposes, namely mushroom growing, balneology, swimming pools, soil warming, de-icing, fish farming and for heat pumps.

  16. Microbial response to oil enrichment in Gulf of Mexico sediment measured using a novel long-term benthic lander system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beth N. Orcutt

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Weathered crude oil sank to the seafloor following the 'Deepwater Horizon' disaster in 2010, removing this oil from further physical and photo-chemical degradation processes and leaving benthic processes as the mechanisms for altering and remediating this hydrocarbon source. To quantify potential microbial oil degradation rates at the seafloor, and associated changes in sediment microbial community structure and pore fluid composition, we used a benthic lander system to deploy novel sediment flow-through chambers at a natural hydrocarbon seep in the Gulf of Mexico (at a depth of 1226 m in lease block GC600 roughly 265 km southwest of the 'Deepwater Horizon' wellhead (at 1500 m depth. Sediment amended with 20% unweathered crude oil had elevated rates of sulfate reduction over the course of the 5-month-long experiment as compared to an unamended control, yielding potential rates of sulfate reduction (600–800 mmol m–2 d–1 among the highest measured in hydrocarbon-influenced seafloor sediment. Oil amendment also stimulated methane production towards the end of the experiment, and led to slightly higher cell densities without significant changes in microbial community structure, based on 16S rRNA gene sequence libraries and fatty acid profiles. Assuming a link between sulfate reduction and hydrocarbon degradation, these results suggest that electron acceptor availability may become limiting in heavily oiled deep-sea environments, resulting in minimal degradation of deposited oil. This study provides unique data on seafloor sediment responses to oil deposition, and reveals the value of using observatories to fill the gap in understanding deep-sea microbial processes, especially for ephemeral and stochastic events such as oil spills.

  17. Effect of filter designs on hydraulic properties and well efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byung-Woo

    2014-09-01

    To analyze the effect of filter pack arrangement on the hydraulic properties and the well efficiency of a well design, a step drawdown was conducted in a sand-filled tank model. Prior to the test, a single filter pack (SFP), granule only, and two dual filter packs (DFPs), type A (granule-pebble) and type B (pebble-granule), were designed to surround the well screen. The hydraulic properties and well efficiencies related to the filter packs were evaluated using the Hazen's, Eden-Hazel's, Jacob's, and Labadie-Helweg's methods. The results showed that the hydraulic properties and well efficiency of the DFPs were higher than those of a SFP, and the clogging effect and wellhead loss related to the aquifer material were the lowest owing to the grain size and the arrangement of the filter pack. The hydraulic conductivity of the DFPs types A and B was about 1.41 and 6.43 times that of a SFP, respectively. In addition, the well efficiency of the DFPs types A and B was about 1.38 and 1.60 times that of the SFP, respectively. In this study, hydraulic property and well efficiency changes were observed according to the variety of the filter pack used. The results differed from the predictions of previous studies on the grain-size ratio. Proper pack-aquifer ratios and filter pack arrangements are primary factors in the construction of efficient water wells, as is the grain ratio, intrinsic permeability (k), and hydraulic conductivity (K) between the grains of the filter packs and the grains of the aquifer. © 2014, National Ground Water Association.

  18. Tensor controlled-source audiomagnetotelluric survey over the Sulphur Springs Thermal area, Valles Caldera, New Mexico, U.S.A.; Implication for structure of the western Caldera and for CSAMT methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wannamaker, P.E.

    1994-06-01

    We have carried Out an extensive tensor CSAMT survey of the Sulphur Springs geothermal area, Valles Caldera, New Mexico. This survey, consisting of 45 high-quality sites, has been acquired by in support of Continental Scientific Drilling Program (CSDP) drillholes VC-2A and VC-2B. Two independent transmitter dipoles were energized for tensor measurements using a 30 kW generator placed approximately 13 km south of the VC-2B wellhead. The soundings in the Sulphur Springs area were arranged in four profiles to cross major structural features. The electric bipoles parallel to each profile were deployed contiguously to ensure against spatial aliasing of the impedance response corresponding to current flow across structural trends. The frequency range of acquisition was 4096 Hz down to 1 Hz for the central line, but only down to 4 Hz for most sites of the other lines. Data quality is high overall and is established by repeatability of measurements. Agreement between the CSAMT and available natural field MT data is very good over almost all the period range of overlap indicating that we are free of calibration problems and that far-field results are generally being obtained. Non plane-wave effects in the CSAMT around Sulphur Springs are apparent at 1 to 2 Hz, and perhaps slightly even at 4 Hz, however, which is near the bottom of our frequency range. CSAMT and MT data taken outside the Valles Caldera to the west were modeled in an attempt to compare resistivity structure exterior to the caldera to that within. With the availability of tensor CSAMT and MT data both inside and outside Valles Caldera, assumptions and methods of CSAMT are tested. In the Sulphur Springs area, near-coincident CSAMT and MT data near well VC -2B indicate that non-lane-wave effects in the apparent resistivity and impedance phase occure at a frequency near to that predicted from the resistivity structure local to the wester caldera.

  19. Dry tree semisubmersible platform: from 'technology accepted' to 'project ready'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Roger; Wang, Tao; Nygaard, Magne; Bendiksen, Rolf [Aker Solutions, Oslo (Norway)

    2012-07-01

    Development of new technologies for application of dry tree solutions on semi-submersible hull production platforms opens up new flexible and cost efficient solutions for oil and gas fields in deep and ultra deep water. Aker Solutions has brought the technology through the last steps to a project ready stage. Top tension risers allow for shifting the Christmas tree from seabed to topside, and enables drilling and production from the same unit. By shifting the wellhead and Christmas tree from seabed to platform deck, well maintenance is simplified, and makes the Dry Tree Semi relevant to consider for the Brazilian pre-salt reservoirs. Easy access to the wells for maintenance gives a potential for a higher recovery rate for the field. Future development of ultra deep water oil and gas fields demands solutions overcoming the limitations set by the TLP and the Spar buoy. Combining knowledge from already proven solutions, and a limited addition of new technology, these limitations are overcome with Aker Solutions' Dry Tree Semi. It is designed and proven for Gulf of Mexico environmental conditions. It is verified for conditions with a significant wave height of 14 meters, and able to withstand 100-year extreme weather and 1000-years survival conditions. A conventional semi-submersible platform, but with a deeper draft to further reduce the already low motions, makes the basis for the concept. Top tensioned risers (TTR) with vertical motion compensation stroke of up to 10 meters, makes it possible to shift the Christmas tree from seabed to platform deck. The deep draft design of the hull reduces the wave force excitation on the pontoons, reducing both the roll and pitch dynamics. The Dry Tree Semi represents several major benefits, including low sensitivity to water depth, reduced hull and topside weight, and flexibility in transportation, mooring, and decommissioning. (author)

  20. Exxon Valdez to Deepwater Horizon: comparable toxicity of both crude oils to fish early life stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incardona, John P; Swarts, Tanya L; Edmunds, Richard C; Linbo, Tiffany L; Aquilina-Beck, Allisan; Sloan, Catherine A; Gardner, Luke D; Block, Barbara A; Scholz, Nathaniel L

    2013-10-15

    The 2010 Deepwater Horizon disaster in the Gulf of Mexico was the largest oil spill in United States history. Crude oils are highly toxic to developing fish embryos, and many pelagic fish species were spawning in the northern Gulf in the months before containment of the damaged Mississippi Canyon 252 (MC252) wellhead (April-July). The largest prior U.S. spill was the 1989 grounding of the Exxon Valdez that released 11 million gallons of Alaska North Slope crude oil (ANSCO) into Prince William Sound. Numerous studies in the aftermath of the Exxon Valdez spill defined a conventional crude oil injury phenotype in fish early life stages, mediated primarily by toxicity to the developing heart. To determine whether this type of injury extends to fishes exposed to crude oil from the Deepwater Horizon - MC252 incident, we used zebrafish to compare the embryotoxicity of ANSCO alongside unweathered and weathered MC252 oil. We also developed a standardized protocol for generating dispersed oil water-accommodated fractions containing microdroplets of crude oil in the size range of those detected in subsurface plumes in the Gulf. We show here that MC252 oil and ANSCO cause similar cardiotoxicity and photo-induced toxicity in zebrafish embryos. Morphological defects and patterns of cytochrome P450 induction were largely indistinguishable and generally correlated with polycyclic aromatic compound (PAC) composition of each oil type. Analyses of embryos exposed during different developmental windows provided additional insight into mechanisms of crude oil cardiotoxicity. These findings indicate that the impacts of MC252 crude oil on fish embryos and larvae are consistent with the canonical ANSCO cardiac injury phenotype. For those marine fish species that spawned in the northern Gulf of Mexico during and after the Deepwater Horizon incident, the established literature can therefore inform the assessment of natural resource injury in the form of potential year-class losses.

  1. Seismogenic response to fluid injection operations in Oklahoma and California: Implications for crustal stresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel, T.; Aminzadeh, F.

    2015-12-01

    The seismogenic response to induced pressure changes provides insight into the proximity to failure of faults close to injection sites. Here, we examine possible seismicity rate changes in response to wastewater disposal and enhanced oil recovery operations in hydrocarbon basins in California and Oklahoma. We test whether a statistically significant rate increase exists within these areas and determine the corresponding timing and location based on nonparametric modeling of background seismicity rates. Annual injection volumes increased monotonically since ~2001 in California and ~1998 in Oklahoma. While OK experienced a recent surge in seismic activity which exceeded the 95% confidence limit of a stationary Poisson process in ~2010, seismicity in CA showed no increase in background rates between 1980 and 2014. A systematic analysis of frequency-magnitude-distributions (FMDs) of likely induced earthquakes in OK indicates that FMDs are depleted in large-magnitude events. Seismicity in CA hydrocarbon basins, on the other hand, shows Gutenberg-Richter type FMDs and b~1. Moreover, the earthquakes and injection operations occur preferably in distinct areas in CA whereas in OK earthquakes occur closer to injection wells than expected from a random uniform process. To test whether injection operations may be responsible for the strongly different seismicity characteristics in CA and OK, we compare overall well density, wellhead pressures, peak and cumulative rates as well as injection depths. We find that average injection rates, pressures and volumes are comparable between CA and OK and that injection occurs on average 0.5 km deeper in CA than in OK. Thus, the here tested operational parameters can not easily explain the vastly different seismogenic response to injection operations in CA and OK, and may only be of secondary importance for the resulting earthquake activity. The potential to induce earthquakes by fluid injection operations is likely controlled by the

  2. LITIGATING CROSS-BORDER ENVIRONMENTAL DISPUTE IN INDONESIAN CIVIL COURT: THE MONTARA CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman Prihandono

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In August 2009, a wellhead blowout of took place at an offshore drilling facility named the Montara platform, on the north coast of Australia. This incident releases crude oil into the sea and continued until November 2009. The Montara platform owned by PTTEP Australasia Pty. Ltd., a company incorporated under the laws of Australia, and is a subsidiary of PTT Exploration and Production Public Company Limited, a Thailand based, state-owned oil company. Based on samples taken by the East Nusa Tenggara Municipality in the waters along the coast Kolbano, Desa Tuafanu, District Kualin, South Central Timor, it was found that the sea water has been polluted with crude oil. There was an indication that the crude oil is identical to those of at the Montara well head platform. This incident has been detrimental to at least 9.000 fishermen and seaweed farmers along the coast of West Timor Sea, with total losses estimated at USD2.4 billion. This article examines the possibility of a lawsuit brought by the affected communities to the Indonesian civil court. This article finds that that filing a lawsuit against PTTEP AA, the operator of the Montara Platform, may be possible. Article 100 RV of the Indonesian civil procedure provide an opportunity to sue foreign entity when contractual relationship exist. This article seeks to map the possible parties involved in the dispute should the victims decide to bring this case to Indonesian civil court. It aims at assisting the victims in preparing their case and obtaining the best possible outcome for remedy.

  3. 微地震水力压裂监测技术在浅层石炭系火山岩油藏中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑爱萍; 刘强; 田永鹏; 付志; 白秀娟

    2012-01-01

    针对克拉玛依油田J230井区石炭系火山岩油藏水力压裂过程中人工造缝监测资料比较缺乏,不能很好评价压裂效果的问题,基于微地震监测技术的基本原理和方法,利用监测结果对压裂效果、裂缝产状、转向压裂等进行分析评价,并对分层压裂数据进行解释,同时结合井口压力监测,可获得闭合压力、液体滤失系数、液体效率以及裂缝宽度等成果.实现了对浅层石炭系火山岩油藏压裂开发效果的实时评价,为该类油藏措施方案的优选、注采单元的整体治理及提高采收率提供了参考依据.%The monitoring data of artificial fractures during hydraulic fracturing in Well block J230 Carboniferous volcanic rock reservoir in Karamay Oilfield were limited, which could not effectively evaluate the fracturing results. Based on the basic principle of microseismic monitoring technique, the fracturing results, fracture occurrence and deflection fracturing were analyzed and the separate layer fracturing data were interpreted with the monitored results. Combined with wellhead pressure monitoring, the closure pressure , fluid loss coefficient, fluid efficiency and fracture width, etc. Could be obtained. This technique allows for the real time evaluation of fracturing results for shallow Carboniferous volcanic rock reservoirs, providing bases for the optimal selection of stimulation measures, overall treatment of flooding units and improving recovery of similar reservoirs.

  4. Crude-oil biodegradation via methanogenesis in subsurface petroleum reservoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, D M; Head, I M; Gray, N D; Adams, J J; Rowan, A K; Aitken, C M; Bennett, B; Huang, H; Brown, A; Bowler, B F J; Oldenburg, T; Erdmann, M; Larter, S R

    2008-01-10

    Biodegradation of crude oil in subsurface petroleum reservoirs has adversely affected the majority of the world's oil, making recovery and refining of that oil more costly. The prevalent occurrence of biodegradation in shallow subsurface petroleum reservoirs has been attributed to aerobic bacterial hydrocarbon degradation stimulated by surface recharge of oxygen-bearing meteoric waters. This hypothesis is empirically supported by the likelihood of encountering biodegraded oils at higher levels of degradation in reservoirs near the surface. More recent findings, however, suggest that anaerobic degradation processes dominate subsurface sedimentary environments, despite slow reaction kinetics and uncertainty as to the actual degradation pathways occurring in oil reservoirs. Here we use laboratory experiments in microcosms monitoring the hydrocarbon composition of degraded oils and generated gases, together with the carbon isotopic compositions of gas and oil samples taken at wellheads and a Rayleigh isotope fractionation box model, to elucidate the probable mechanisms of hydrocarbon degradation in reservoirs. We find that crude-oil hydrocarbon degradation under methanogenic conditions in the laboratory mimics the characteristic sequential removal of compound classes seen in reservoir-degraded petroleum. The initial preferential removal of n-alkanes generates close to stoichiometric amounts of methane, principally by hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis. Our data imply a common methanogenic biodegradation mechanism in subsurface degraded oil reservoirs, resulting in consistent patterns of hydrocarbon alteration, and the common association of dry gas with severely degraded oils observed worldwide. Energy recovery from oilfields in the form of methane, based on accelerating natural methanogenic biodegradation, may offer a route to economic production of difficult-to-recover energy from oilfields.

  5. A Decline in Benthic Foraminifera following the Deepwater Horizon Event in the Northeastern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwing, Patrick T.; Romero, Isabel C.; Brooks, Gregg R.; Hastings, David W.; Larson, Rebekka A.; Hollander, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Sediment cores were collected from three sites (1000–1200 m water depth) in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico from December 2010 to June 2011 to assess changes in benthic foraminiferal density related to the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) event (April-July 2010, 1500 m water depth). Short-lived radioisotope geochronologies (210Pb, 234Th), organic geochemical assessments, and redox metal concentrations were determined to relate changes in sediment accumulation rate, contamination, and redox conditions with benthic foraminiferal density. Cores collected in December 2010 indicated a decline in density (80–93%). This decline was characterized by a decrease in benthic foraminiferal density and benthic foraminiferal accumulation rate (BFAR) in the surface 10 mm relative to the down-core mean in all benthic foraminifera, including the dominant genera (Bulimina spp., Uvigerina spp., and Cibicidoides spp.). Cores collected in February 2011 documented a site-specific response. There was evidence of a recovery in the benthic foraminiferal density and BFAR at the site closest to the wellhead (45 NM, NE). However, the site farther afield (60 NM, NE) recorded a continued decline in benthic foraminiferal density and BFAR down to near-zero values. This decline in benthic foraminiferal density occurred simultaneously with abrupt increases in sedimentary accumulation rates, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations, and changes in redox conditions. Persistent reducing conditions (as many as 10 months after the event) in the surface of these core records were a possible cause of the decline. Another possible cause was the increase (2–3 times background) in PAH’s, which are known to cause benthic foraminifera mortality and inhibit reproduction. Records of benthic foraminiferal density coupled with short-lived radionuclide geochronology and organic geochemistry were effective in quantifying the benthic response and will continue to be a valuable tool in determining the long

  6. Sedimentation Pulse in the NE Gulf of Mexico following the 2010 DWH Blowout.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregg R Brooks

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the impacts of the Deepwater Horizon (DWH oil discharge at the seafloor as recorded in bottom sediments of the DeSoto Canyon region in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. Through a close coupling of sedimentological, geochemical, and biological approaches, multiple independent lines of evidence from 11 sites sampled in November/December 2010 revealed that the upper ~1 cm depth interval is distinct from underlying sediments and results indicate that particles originated at the sea surface. Consistent dissimilarities in grain size over the surficial ~1 cm of sediments correspond to excess (234Th depths, which indicates a lack of vertical mixing (bioturbation, suggesting the entire layer was deposited within a 4-5 month period. Further, a time series from four deep-sea sites sampled up to three additional times over the following two years revealed that excess (234Th depths, accumulation rates, and (234Th inventories decreased rapidly, within a few to several months after initial coring. The interpretation of a rapid sedimentation pulse is corroborated by stratification in solid phase Mn, which is linked to diagenesis and redox change, and the dramatic decrease in benthic formanifera density that was recorded in surficial sediments. Results are consistent with a brief depositional pulse that was also reported in previous studies of sediments, and marine snow formation in surface waters closer to the wellhead during the summer and fall of 2010. Although sediment input from the Mississippi River and advective transport may influence sedimentation on the seafloor in the DeSoto Canyon region, we conclude based on multidisciplinary evidence that the sedimentation pulse in late 2010 is the product of marine snow formation and is likely linked to the DWH discharge.

  7. Vulnerability of drinking-water wells in La Crosse, Wisconsin, to enteric-virus contamination from surface water contributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchardt, M. A.; Haas, N.L.; Hunt, R.J.

    2004-01-01

    Human enteric viruses can contaminate municipal drinking-water wells, but few studies have examined the routes by which viruses enter these wells. In the present study, the objective was to monitor the municipal wells of La Crosse, Wisconsin, for enteric viruses and determine whether the amount of Mississippi River water infiltrating the wells was related to the frequency of virus detection. From March 2001 to February 2002, one river water site and four wells predicted by hydrogeological modeling to have variable degrees of surface water contributions were sampled monthly for enteric viruses, microbial indicators of sanitary quality, and oxygen and hydrogen isotopes. 18O/ 16O and 2H/1H ratios were used to determine the level of surface water contributions. All samples were collected prior to chlorination at the wellhead. By reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR), 24 of 48 municipal well water samples (50%) were positive for enteric viruses, including enteroviruses, rotavirus, hepatitis A virus (HAV), and noroviruses. Of 12 river water samples, 10 (83%) were virus positive by RT-PCR. Viable enteroviruses were not detected by cell culture in the well samples, although three well samples were positive for culturable HAV. Enteroviruses detected in the wells by RT-PCR were identified as several serotypes of echoviruses and group A and group B coxsackieviruses. None of the well water samples was positive for indicators of sanitary quality, namely male-specific and somatic coliphages, total coliform bacteria, Escherichia coli, and fecal enterococci. Contrary to expectations, viruses were found in all wells regardless of the level of surface water contributions. This result suggests that there were other unidentified sources, in addition to surface water, responsible for the contamination.

  8. Evaluation of adsorbents for treating stable oil/water/mineral emulsions produced during in-situ bitumen/heavy oil recovery operations. Phase 2. Final report. [Fly ash, red mud and Minuto coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-03-29

    The objective was to make a preliminary assessment of the technical and economic feasibility of treating emulsions from in-situ bitumen/heavy oil recovery operations for recovery of the oil and preparation of suitable water for boiler feed utilizing adsorbents developed within the Separation and Characterization laboratory of Energy Mines and Resources Canada. This project was completed in two phases. In the first phase, a report was prepared which focussed on the characterization of the adsorption behaviour of the novel adsorbents, determination of an appropriate mode of operation and of the approximate cost for producing water for boiler feed. Three adsorbents (fly ash, red mud, Minto coal) were evaluated with respect to their potential for the treatment produced water. Fly ash and Minto coal were determined to have the best potential based on isotherms for total suspended oil (TSO) removal at two pH levels. The most appropriate mode of operation for these two adsorbents was slurry contact followed by precipitation clarification. During the second phase, work was focussed on the development and characterization of the slurry contact and clarification process for the treatment of produced water utilizing the novel adsorbents Minto coal and fly ash and the development of methods that could be used for the recovery of the adsorbed oil and regeneration of the spent adsorbents. The mechanism of oil removal by Minto coal was determined to be emulsion destabilization and precipitation caused by a coagulation type reaction with iron released from the coal, rather than an adsorbtion of oil on organics on the coal surface as originally believed. This study has shown that virgin Minto coal can effectively destabilize wellhead emulsions and that the oil can be separated from the destabilized emulsion by either precipitation or filtration. 3 figs., 15 tabs.

  9. Review of Risk Status of Groundwater Supply Wells by Tracing the Source of Coliform Contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nara Somaratne

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Coliform source tracking was undertaken on 48 water sources of which 42 are potable in 26 water supply systems spread across South Australia. The water sources in the study vary from unprotected springs in creek beds to deep confined aquifers. The frequency analysis of historical coliform detections indicate that aquifer types, depth to water and casing depth are important considerations; whilst maintaining well integrity and the presence of low permeable clay layers above the production zone are the dominant parameters for minimizing coliform contamination of water supply wells. However, in karst and fractured rock aquifers, pathways for coliform transport exist, as evidenced in the >200 MPN/100 mL level of coliform detection. Data indicate that there is no compelling evidence to support the contention that the wells identified as low risk are contaminated through geological strata and clay barriers. However, data strongly supports the suggestion that coliform detection from sample taps and wellheads stem from the surrounding groundwater and soil-plant sources as a result of failed well integrity, or potentially from coliform bacteria that can persist within biofilms formed on well casings, screens, pump columns and pumps. Coliform sub-typing results show that most coliform bacteria detected in town water supply wells are associated with the soil-water-plant system and are ubiquitous in the environment: Citrobacter spp. (65%, Enterobacter spp. (63%, Pantoea spp. (17%, Serratia spp. (19%, Klebsiella spp. (34%, and Pseudomonas spp. (10%. Overall, 70% of wells harbor detectable thermotolerant coliforms (TTC with potentially 36% of species of animal origin, including Escherichia coli species found in 12% of wells.

  10. Atmospheric and soil-gas monitoring for surface leakage at the San Juan Basin CO{sub 2} pilot test site at Pump Canyon New Mexico, using perfluorocarbon tracers, CO{sub 2} soil-gas flux and soil-gas hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wells, Arthur W; Diehl, J Rodney; Strazisar, Brian R; Wilson, Thomas; H Stanko, Dennis C

    2012-05-01

    Near-surface monitoring and subsurface characterization activities were undertaken in collaboration with the Southwest Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership on their San Juan Basin coal-bed methane pilot test site near Navajo City, New Mexico. Nearly 18,407 short tons (1.670 × 107 kg) of CO{sub 2} were injected into 3 seams of the Fruitland coal between July 2008 and April 2009. Between September 18 and October 30, 2008, two additions of approximately 20 L each of perfluorocarbon (PFC) tracers were mixed with the CO{sub 2} at the injection wellhead. PFC tracers in soil-gas and in the atmosphere were monitored over a period of 2 years using a rectangular array of permanent installations. Additional monitors were placed near existing well bores and at other locations of potential leakage identified during the pre-injection site survey. Monitoring was conducted using sorbent containing tubes to collect any released PFC tracer from soil-gas or the atmosphere. Near-surface monitoring activities also included CO{sub 2} surface flux and carbon isotopes, soil-gas hydrocarbon levels, and electrical conductivity in the soil. The value of the PFC tracers was demonstrated when a significant leakage event was detected near an offset production well. Subsurface characterization activities, including 3D seismic interpretation and attribute analysis, were conducted to evaluate reservoir integrity and the potential that leakage of injected CO{sub 2} might occur. Leakage from the injection reservoir was not detected. PFC tracers made breakthroughs at 2 of 3 offset wells which were not otherwise directly observable in produced gases containing 20–30% CO{sub 2}. These results have aided reservoir geophysical and simulation investigations to track the underground movement of CO{sub 2}. 3D seismic analysis provided a possible interpretation for the order of appearance of tracers at production wells.

  11. Sediment quality benchmarks for assessing oil-related impacts to the deep-sea benthos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balthis, William L; Hyland, Jeffrey L; Cooksey, Cynthia; Montagna, Paul A; Baguley, Jeffrey G; Ricker, Robert W; Lewis, Christopher

    2017-01-25

    Paired sediment contaminant and benthic infaunal data from prior studies following the 2010 Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico were analyzed using logistic-regression models (LRMs) to derive sediment-quality benchmarks for assessing risks of oil-related impacts to the deep-sea benthos. Sediment total Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) and Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH) concentrations were used as measures of oil exposure. Taxonomic richness (average number of taxa/sample) was selected as the primary benthic response variable. Data are from 37 stations (1300-1700 m water depth) in fine-grained sediments (92% - 99% silt-clay) sampled within 200 km of the DWH wellhead (most within 40 km) in 2010 and 32 stations sampled in 2011 (29 of which were common to both years). Results suggest the likelihood of impacts to benthic macrofauna and meiofauna communities is low ( 80%) at concentrations > 2144 mg kg(-1) and 2359 mg kg(-1) respectively, and intermediate at concentrations in between. For total PAHs, the probability of impacts is low ( 80%) at concentrations > 24 mg kg(-1) and 25 mg kg(-1) for macrofauna and meiofauna respectively, and intermediate at concentrations in between. While numerical sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) are available for total PAHs and other chemical contaminants based on bioeffect data for shallower estuarine/marine and freshwater biota, to our knowledge none have been developed for measures of total oil (e.g., TPH) or specifically for deep-sea benthic applications. The benchmarks presented herein provide valuable screening tools for evaluating the biological significance of observed oil concentrations in similar deep-sea sediments following future spills and as potential restoration targets to aid in managing recovery. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  12. Groundwater methane in relation to oil and gas development and shallow coal seams in the Denver-Julesburg Basin of Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Owen A; Rogers, Jessica D; Lackey, Greg; Burke, Troy L; Osborn, Stephen G; Ryan, Joseph N

    2016-07-26

    Unconventional oil and gas development has generated intense public concerns about potential impacts to groundwater quality. Specific pathways of contamination have been identified; however, overall rates of contamination remain ambiguous. We used an archive of geochemical data collected from 1988 to 2014 to determine the sources and occurrence of groundwater methane in the Denver-Julesburg Basin of northeastern Colorado. This 60,000-km(2) region has a 60-y-long history of hydraulic fracturing, with horizontal drilling and high-volume hydraulic fracturing beginning in 2010. Of 924 sampled water wells in the basin, dissolved methane was detected in 593 wells at depths of 20-190 m. Based on carbon and hydrogen stable isotopes and gas molecular ratios, most of this methane was microbially generated, likely within shallow coal seams. A total of 42 water wells contained thermogenic stray gas originating from underlying oil and gas producing formations. Inadequate surface casing and leaks in production casing and wellhead seals in older, vertical oil and gas wells were identified as stray gas migration pathways. The rate of oil and gas wellbore failure was estimated as 0.06% of the 54,000 oil and gas wells in the basin (lower estimate) to 0.15% of the 20,700 wells in the area where stray gas contamination occurred (upper estimate) and has remained steady at about two cases per year since 2001. These results show that wellbore barrier failure, not high-volume hydraulic fracturing in horizontal wells, is the main cause of thermogenic stray gas migration in this oil- and gas-producing basin.

  13. Geomechanical Simulation of Bayou Choctaw Strategic Petroleum Reserve - Model Calibration.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Byoung [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-02-01

    A finite element numerical analysis model has been constructed that consists of a realistic mesh capturing the geometries of Bayou Choctaw (BC) Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) site and multi - mechanism deformation ( M - D ) salt constitutive model using the daily data of actual wellhead pressure and oil - brine interface. The salt creep rate is not uniform in the salt dome, and the creep test data for BC salt is limited. Therefore, the model calibration is necessary to simulate the geomechanical behavior of the salt dome. The cavern volumetric closures of SPR caverns calculated from CAVEMAN are used for the field baseline measurement. The structure factor, A 2 , and transient strain limit factor, K 0 , in the M - D constitutive model are used for the calibration. The A 2 value obtained experimentally from the BC salt and K 0 value of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) salt are used for the baseline values. T o adjust the magnitude of A 2 and K 0 , multiplication factors A2F and K0F are defined, respectively. The A2F and K0F values of the salt dome and salt drawdown skins surrounding each SPR cavern have been determined through a number of back fitting analyses. The cavern volumetric closures calculated from this model correspond to the predictions from CAVEMAN for six SPR caverns. Therefore, this model is able to predict past and future geomechanical behaviors of the salt dome, caverns, caprock , and interbed layers. The geological concerns issued in the BC site will be explained from this model in a follow - up report .

  14. DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF INTEGRATED COMPACT MULTIPHASE SEPARATION SYSTEM (CMSS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ram S. Mohan; Ovadia Shoham

    2004-12-31

    The petroleum industry has relied in the past mainly on conventional vessel-type separators, which are bulky, heavy and expensive, to process wellhead production of oil-water-gas flow. Economic and operational pressures continue to force the petroleum industry to seek less expensive and more efficient separation alternatives in the form of compact separators. The compact dimensions, smaller footprint and lower weight of compact separators have a potential for cost savings to the industry, especially in offshore and subsea applications. Also, compact separators reduce the inventory of hydrocarbons significantly, which is critical for environmental and safety considerations. This report presents a brief overview of the activities and tasks accomplished during the part July 09, 2003--October 08, 2004, related to the Budget Period I (July 09, 2003--October 08, 2004) of the DOE project titled ''Design and Development of Integrated Compact Multiphase Separation System (CMSS{copyright})''. An executive summary is presented initially followed by the tasks of the current budget period. Then, detailed description of the experimental and modeling investigations are presented. Subsequently, the technical and scientific results of the activities of this project period are presented with discussions. The findings of this investigation are summarized in the ''Conclusions'' section followed by relevant references. The initial phase of the project (Budget Period I--07/09/2003 to 10/08/2004) focuses on the development of additional individual compact separation components, such as the horizontal pipe separator (HPS{copyright}), for obtaining clean oil stream from oil-water mixture, flow conditioning components, such as the helical pipe (HP) and slug damper (SD{copyright}), for dissipating slugs upstream of the compact separators. The project will also design and test an upstream slug generator (SG).

  15. Distributed Acoustic Sensing Technology in a Magmatic Geothermal Field - First Results From a Survey in Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinsch, Thomas; Jousset, Philippe; Henninges, Jan; Blanck, Hanna

    2016-04-01

    Seismic methods are particularly suited for investigating the Earth's subsurface. Compared to surface-measurements , wellbore measurements can be used to acquire more detailed information about rock properties and possible fluid pathways within a geothermal reservoir. For high temperature geothermal wells, however, ambient temperatures are often far above the operating temperature range of conventional geophones. One way to overcome this limitation is the application of fiber optic sensor systems, where only the passive optical fiber is subjected to downhole conditions. Their applicability is thus determined by the operating temperature range of the optical fiber. Choosing appropriate fibers, such sensor systems can be operated at temperatures far above 200°C. Along an optical fiber, the distributed acoustic sensing technology (DAS) can be used to acquire acoustic signals with a high spatial and temporal resolution. Previous experiments have shown that the DAS technology is well suited for active seismic measurements. Within the framework of the EC funded project IMAGE, a fiber optic cable was deployed in a newly drilled geothermal well (RN-34) within the Reykjanes geothermal field, Iceland. Additionally, a >15 km fiber optic cable, already available at the surface, was connected to a DAS read-out unit. Acoustic data was acquired continuously for 9 days. Hammer shots were performed at the wellhead as well as along the surface cable in order to locate individual acoustic traces and calibrate the spatial distribution of the acoustic information. During the monitoring period both signals from on- and offshore explosive sources and natural seismic events could be recorded. We compare the fiber optic data to conventional seismic records from a dense seismic network deployed on the Reykjanes in the course of the IMAGE project. Here, first results from the seismic survey will be presented.

  16. Use of geothermal heat for crop drying and related agricultural applications. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, T.J.; Wright, T.C.; Fein, E.; Munson, T.R.; Richmond, R.C.

    1978-03-01

    Observations led to the selection of the alfalfa dehydration industry for in-depth analysis of the application of moderate-temperature geothermal heat. Six geothermal heat exchanger/dryer configurations were examined. A low-temperature conveyor dryer using geothermal water to supply all required heat was chosen for site-specific analysis, the retrofitting of a large alfalfa dehydration plant within the Heber KGRA in the Imperial Valley, California. Even in the most favorable scenario--sharing a geothermal pipeline with the neighboring fertilizer plant--geothermal retrofitting would increase the price of the alfalfa ''dehy'' about 40 percent. The geothermal brine is estimated to cost $2.58/million Btu's compared with a 1977 natural gas cost of $1.15. Capital cost for heat exchangers and the new dryers is estimated at $3.3 million. The Heber plant appeared to offer the only good opportunity for geothermal retrofitting of an existing alfalfa dehydration plant. Construction of new plants at geothermal resource sites cannot be justified due to the uncertain state of the ''dehy'' industry. Use of geothermal heat for drying other crops may be much more promising. The potato dehydration industry, which is concentrated in the geothermal-rich Snake River Valley of Idaho, appears to offer good potential for geothermal retrofitting; about 4.7 x 10{sup 12}Btu's are used annually by plants within 50 miles of resources. Drying together at the geothermal wellhead several crops that have interlocking processing seasons and drying-temperature requirements may be quite attractive. The best ''multicrop drying center'' site identified was at Power Ranch Wells, Arizona; 34 other sites were defined. Agricultural processing applications other than drying were investigated briefly.

  17. 2016 Groundwater Monitoring and Inspection Report Gnome-Coach, New Mexico, Site January 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreie, Ken [USDOE Office of Legacy Management, Washington, DC (United States); Findlay, Rick [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The Gnome-Coach, New Mexico, Site was the location of an underground nuclear test in 1961 and a groundwater tracer test in 1963. Residual contamination remaining in the subsurface from these events requires long-term oversight. The Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance Plan for the site describes the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management’s (LM’s) plan for monitoring groundwater (radiochemical sampling and hydraulic head measurements), inspecting the site, maintaining the site’s institutional controls, evaluating and reporting data, and documenting the site’s records and data management processes. Groundwater monitoring and site inspection activities are conducted annually. This report summarizes the results of these activities conducted during the October 2015 through September 2016 reporting period. The site inspection and annual sampling were conducted on January 27, 2016. At the time of the site inspection, the signs installed near the emplacement shaft, near well USGS-1, and around the perimeter of the site were observed as being in good condition, as were the roads, wellheads, and Project Gnome monument. No new groundwater extraction wells or oil and gas wells were installed during this reporting period on the site or in the sections that surround the site. One new application was received by the New Mexico Oil Conservation Division to install a salt water disposal well approximately 0.8 miles northeast of the Project Gnome monument. The proposed well has a planned completion depth of 15,500 feet below ground surface, but as of November 2016 a drill date has not been established.

  18. Progress research on integrity management of deepwater drilling riser%深水钻井隔水管完整性管理研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周俊昌; 刘秀全

    2015-01-01

    深水钻井隔水管是连接海底井口和钻井平台的关键部件,极易受到复杂的海洋环境载荷和作业载荷的影响,是整个钻井装备中重要而又薄弱的环节,隔水管完整性管理技术是保障隔水管安全服役性能的有效措施。阐述了隔水管完整性管理方案,综述深水钻井隔水管完整性管理研究进展,主要包括深水钻井隔水管损伤识别与评估、隔水管风险评估、隔水管检测与维修以及隔水管完整性管理规范及软件等,并提出了未来研究的发展方向。%The deepwater drilling riser is a critical part for the connection with the subsea wellhead and drilling platform, eas-ily affected by the complicated marine environmental load and operation load, and is an important but weak link in the whole drilling equipment. The riser integrity management technology is an effective measure to guarantee the safe service performance of riser. This Paper expounds the riser integrity management scheme and summarizes the research progress of integrity management of deepwater drilling riser, including the damage identiifcation and assessment of deepwater drilling riser, riser risk assessment, riser detection and maintenance, and riser integrity management speciifcation and software primarily. It also recommends the development direction of future research.

  19. Geology and habitat of oil in Ras Budran field, Gulf of Suez, Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chowdhary, L.R.; Taha, S.

    1987-05-01

    Deminex discovered the Ras Budran oil field in 1978. Discovery well EE 85-1 was drilled in about 140 ft of water, 4 km off the Sinai coast of the Gulf of Suez. Appraisal drilling (EE 85-2, 3, and 4 wells) confirmed the presence of a major field with an estimated 700 million bbl oil in place. The field, developed from three wellhead platforms, went on production in April 1983. To date, 20 development wells have been drilled. The Ras Budran structure at the deepest mappable seismic reflector, top Kareem (middle Miocene), is a broad northeast-southwest-trending anticlinal feature striking nearly at right angles to the main Gulf of Suez trend. At pre-Miocene producing horizons, the structure is complex and consists of a northeast-dipping flank (14-15) broken into several blocks by faults and limited to the south and west by major bounding faults. Oil is produced from three units of Nubian sandstone at a depth of 11,000 to 12,000 ft. The lower unit of Paleozoic age averages 10% porosity and up to 200 md in -situ permeability. The wells completed in this unit produce up to 2000 BOPD. In contrast, the sands of the upper two units of Lower Cretaceous age have a 15-20% porosity and up to 700 md permeability. The wells completed in these units produce 6000-8000 BOPD. The Ras Budran structure was primarily formed during the intra-Rudeis tectonic phase (lower Miocene). Migration of oil for accumulation in Ras Budran started late in the upper Miocene or Pliocene when the Santonian Brown Limestone and the Eocene Thebes Formation, the main source beds in the Gulf, reached the threshold of oil generation at a burial depth of about 10,000 ft (3000 m). At these depths, the organic matter in the source beds have a transformation ratio (0.10 to 0.15), increased yields of C15 + soluble organic matter and C15 + saturated hydrocarbons, a vitrinite reflectance of 0.62%, and a TTI value of 15.

  20. Evolution of Hydrocarbon-Degrading Microbial Communities in the Aftermath of the Deepwater Horizon Oil Well Blowout in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, G.; Dubinsky, E. A.; Chakraborty, R.; Hollibaugh, J. T.; Hazen, T. C.

    2012-12-01

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill created large plumes of dispersed oil and gas that remained deep in the water column and stimulated growth of several deep-sea bacteria that can degrade hydrocarbons at cold temperatures. We tracked microbial community composition before, during and after the 83-day spill to determine relationships between microbial dynamics, and hydrocarbon and dissolved-oxygen concentrations. Dominant bacteria in plumes shifted drastically over time and were dependent on the concentration of hydrocarbons, and the relative quantities of insoluble and soluble oil fractions. Unmitigated flow from the wellhead early in the spill resulted in the highest concentrations of oil and relatively more n-alkanes suspended in the plume as small oil droplets. These conditions resulted in near complete dominance by alkane-degrading Oceanospirillales, Pseudomonas and Shewanella. Six-weeks into the spill overall hydrocarbon concentrations in the plume decreased and were almost entirely composed of BTEX after management actions reduced emissions into the water column. These conditions corresponded with the emergence of Colwellia, Pseudoalteromonas, Cycloclasticus and Halomonas that are capable of degrading aromatic compounds. After the well was contained dominant plume bacteria disappeared within two weeks after the spill and transitioned to an entirely different set of bacteria dominated by Flavobacteria, Methylophaga, Alteromonas and Rhodobacteraceae that were found in anomalous oxygen depressions throughout August and are prominent degraders of both high molecular weight organic matter as well as hydrocarbons. Bio-Sep beads amended with volatile hydrocarbons from MC-252 oil were used from August through September to create hydrocarbon-amended traps for attracting oil-degrading microbes in situ. Traps were placed at multiple depths on a drilling rig about 600-m from the original MC-252 oil spill site. Microbes were isolated on media using MC-252 oil as the sole

  1. The 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill: the trauma signature of an ecological disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, James M; Walsh, Lauren; Garfin, Dana Rose; Wilson, Fiona E; Neria, Yuval

    2015-01-01

    The 2010 Deepwater Horizon “British Petroleum (BP)” oil spill was a mega-disaster characterized as the petroleum industry’s largest-volume marine oil spill in history. Following a “wellhead blowout” that destroyed the drilling platform, 4.9 million barrels of petroleum flowed into the Gulf of Mexico over 87 days and the spill expanded to cover 68,000 square miles of sea surface. However, despite the expansive scope of the event, systematic surveys of affected coastal populations found only modest effects on mental health and substance abuse. An established trauma signature (TSIG) methodology was used to examine the psychological consequences in relation to exposure to the unique constellation of hazards associated with the spill. A hazard profile, a matrix of psychological stressors, and a “trauma signature” summary for the affected Gulf Coast population--in terms of exposure to hazard, loss, and change--were created specifically for this human-generated ecological disaster. Psychological risk characteristics of this event included: human causation featuring corporate culpability, large spill volume, protracted duration, coastal contamination from petroleum products, severe ecological damage, disruption of Gulf Coast industries and tourism, and extensive media coverage. The multiple impact effect was notable due to prior exposure of the region to Hurricane Katrina. These stressors were counterbalanced by the relative absence of other prominent risks for distress and psychopathology. Coastal residents did not experience significant onshore spill-related mortality or severe injury, shortages of survival needs, disruption of vital services (health care, schools, utilities, communications, and transportation), loss of homes, population displacement, destruction of the built environment, or loss of social supports. Initial acute economic losses were partially offset by large-sum BP payments for cleanup and recovery of the coastal economy. Not only did Gulf

  2. 水下生产控制系统液压动力模拟分析%Hydraulic Power Simulation Analysis for Subsea Production Control System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周声结; 戚蒿

    2013-01-01

    对水下生产系统的液压系统、电力系统和通信系统进行不同工况下的性能分析是保障水下生产装置安全可靠工作的关键.以中海石油(中国)有限公司湛江分公司某气田开发工程项目水下生产系统的液压系统构架及参数分析为例,介绍了运用“The Control Simulator”软件进行液压动力分析的要点.分析在最小和最大井口关断压力下阀门的开关响应时间、阀门打开之后压力恢复时间、序列阀门开启时间、ESD指令下关阀响应时间等,并将分析结果和实际生产情况进行对比,可知该液压系统的各项性能指标均满足相应标准和规范的要求.%The performance analyses in various cases for hydraulic system,power system and communication system of subsea production system are the key to ensure the subsea production equipment working reliably.Based on the hydraulic system architecture and performance analysis of a gas field development project of CNOOC Ltd._ Zhanjiang,the key points of applying software "The Control Simulator" to make hydraulic system performance analysis were presented.By analyzing valve actuator operating time,hydraulic pressure recovering times,valve opening time in series,valve closing time in ESD command under maximum and minimum wellhead shut-in pressure and comparing the conclusions with actual operating case,it is shown that the hydraulic system meets the requirement of corresponding standard.

  3. Medical rescue in"March 28"mine flooding accident%3·28透水事故医疗救治应急预案效果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡晓芸; 刘强; 刘春; 杜永成; 梁继芳; 高国顺

    2011-01-01

    2010年3月28日14时30分山西省河津市王家岭煤矿发生透水事故.在事先制定的包括井下、井口、转运及医院救治预案的基础上医学救援人员被立即动员起来.3所地方医院被指派为定点首诊医院,太原3家三甲医院被指派为定点转诊医院.救援过程中,通过钻孔通道每日向井下输送标准配方的营养液.8 d后,115名被困井下的矿工陆续升井,以最快的速度转运至首诊定点医院,得到及时的治疗.无再喂养综合征病例发生.所有被救矿工均恢复健康并出院.实践证明卫生行政部门在预案的制定中起关键作用,对再喂养综合征应予足够重视,心理干预十分必要.%At 2:30 PM, 28 March 2010 a flooding accident occurred in a coal mine in Wangjialing,Hejin City, Shanxi Province.Soon professional medical rescuers were mobilized to medical relief based on the contingency plan developed in advance, including underground, wellhead, transport, and hospital treatment programs.Three local hospitals were assigned as first diagnosis hospitals, and 3 class 3 grade A hospitals in Taiyuan were assigned as referral hospitals.During the rescue, standard nutrient solution was transferred into the mine through hole channel.Eight days later 115 miners stranded in the pit were rescued in succession.They were sent to assigned hospitals without delay where they underwent timely treatment.No case of refeeding syndrome was found.All rescued miners were recovered and discharged.Experience showed that health administrative department plays a key role in development of contingency plan, great attention should be paid to refeeding syndrome, and psychological intervention is necessary.

  4. 钻机自动化管具处理系统研究∗%Research on Automatic Pipe Handling System of Drill Rig

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任行; 郝丽军; 牛永超; 余利军; 李鸿涛; 齐然; 黄亮

    2016-01-01

    In order to solve problems of conventional drill pipe handling mode such as long operation time, high safety risk and high labor intensity, an automatic drill pipe handling system is developed based on the re⁃search in the modularization, automation and other aspects, which consists of drill pipe handling manipulator, au⁃tomatic pipe slacking block and electro⁃hydraulic control system�This system has sequential control by the PLC based on preset programs to automatically perform operations such as pipe laying, pipe gripping and pipe feeding�It can be used with top drive drilling system, power tongs and power slips so that only one operator can finish drill pipe handling under the control of computer�Field application results show that, the automatic drill pipe handling system can significantly lower labor intensity to reduce operators from 4 or 5 persons to 1 or 2 persons, and realize unmanned derrick operation and wellhead operation of pipe handling; with flexile operation and high performance, this system has a wide application prospect.%传统的钻机管具处理方式耗费时间长、安全风险高、劳动强度大。鉴于此,针对管具处理系统的模块化和自动化等方面展开研究,开发了一种由管具处理机械手、自动化钻杆盒和电液控制系统等组成的钻机自动化管具处理系统。该系统由P LC按设定的程序进行顺序控制,自动完成排管、抓管和送管等一系列操作,与顶驱、动力大钳和自动卡瓦配合基本实现由1名操作人员通过计算机控制管具处理的全过程。现场应用结果表明,自动化管具处理系统可以显著减轻工人的劳动强度,施工由4~5人减少至1~2人,实现了管具处理的井架无人化和井口无人化作业,操作灵活,性能优越可靠,具有广阔的应用前景。

  5. Field application. Selective stimulation of reservoirs or perforated intervals with use of coiled tubing equipped with real-time data communication system in combination with straddle packer assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberascher, R.; Breimer, G. [GDF SUEZ E and P Deutschland GmbH, Lingen (Germany); Jonge, R.M. de [Baker Hughes (Netherlands)

    2013-08-01

    In two German gas wells a decline in production and wellhead pressures had been observed. Production logging data obtained by PLT surveys were evaluated, which showed that certain intervals within the reservoir section did not contribute, or showed a restricted contribution to the overall gas production. The restricted contribution was suspected to be caused by near-wellbore damage. To restore or enhance the production of the perforated intervals an acid treatment was considered in these wells in order to remove skin damage. To restore or enhance the production of the wells, an acid treatment of the perforated intervals was designed. For obtaining the required selective placement of the acid across the zones of interest, the use of coiled tubing (CT) in combination with a resettable straddle packer assembly was selected. The accuracy of the setting depth of the straddle packer was a critical issue for the execution of the well intervention operations. In order to obtain the required depth accuracy, the CT string was equipped with an intelligent CT communication system, which transfers real-time downhole data to surface. For the first time, a reservoir stimulation project was executed by combining CT equipped with a real-time data communication system (TeleCoil) and the Inflatable Straddle Acidizing Packer (ISAP) assembly. Inside the CT an encapsulated monoconductor cable was installed to transmit real-time data from the CT Bottom Hole Assembly (BHA) to surface. The BHA consists of a Casing Collar Locator (CCL) and downhole pressure and temperature gauges. Due to the protective jacket of the monoconductor cable, there are no restrictions in the use of different fluids in combination with the system. Information provided by the CCL monitoring tool ensures accurate depth correlations, whereas differential pressure measurements from the down-hole pressure gauges provide positive information about the setting and sealing conditions of the straddle packer assembly. The

  6. 水平井可钻滤砂管的研制与应用%Research and application of drilled filter sand tube in horizontal wells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑伟林

    2012-01-01

    水平井防砂容易形成卡管柱的现象,不易后期处理.通过对可钻型滤砂管外套、管材、胶结剂的选择与性能研究,研制出一种新型可钻的防砂工具.该工具将滤砂管防砂管柱的中心管、滤砂器、本体等均设计成可钻铣或可化学降解的材料,可以在其防砂失效后,通过钻头将其钻碎,将碎块冲出即可进行下一步作业,从而解决了防砂失效后难处理的问题.现场应用4口水平井,在1年内平均日增液33.8t,日增油3.9t,取得了显著的效果.该滤砂管挡砂精度可达0.07~0.13mm,井口产液含砂量小于0.05%,且砂粒粒径小于0.07mm,措施前后同期对比,产量稍有增加,满足了防砂要求.%At present, column sticking happens frequently during sand control process in horizontal wells and is very difficult to handle post processing. A new type drillable sand control implement has been developed by selecting materials and researching properties of drillable filter tube coats, pipes and cementing agents. All the materials used in implements including central tube, sand filter and sand control tube are designed to be drilling and milling and chemical degradation. Field application in 4 horizontal wells has launched, and the result indicates that obvious effects have been achieved with liquid increase of 33.81 per day and oil production of 3.91 every day. When the drillable filter sand tubes lose its effect, it can easily damage by bit and crash the fragments simply which followed by further treatments. Experimental results show that the sand blocking precision of this filter sand tube can up to 0.07~0.13 mm, and sand content of production liquid in wellhead is less than 0.05% with sand diameter smaller than 0.07 mm. The output rises slightly comparing before and after treatment, which can meet the requirements of sand control.

  7. Modeling of CBM production, CO2 injection, and tracer movement at a field CO2 sequestration site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siriwardane, Hema J.; Bowes, Benjamin D.; Bromhal, Grant S.; Gondle, Raj K.; Wells, Arthur W.; Strazisar, Brian R.

    2012-07-01

    Sequestration of carbon dioxide in unmineable coal seams is a potential technology mainly because of the potential for simultaneous enhanced coalbed methane production (ECBM). Several pilot tests have been performed around the globe leading to mixed results. Numerous modeling efforts have been carried out successfully to model methane production and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) injection. Sensitivity analyses and history matching along with several optimization tools were used to estimate reservoir properties and to investigate reservoir performance. Geological and geophysical techniques have also been used to characterize field sequestration sites and to inspect reservoir heterogeneity. The fate and movement of injected CO{sub 2} can be determined by using several monitoring techniques. Monitoring of perfluorocarbon (PFC) tracers is one of these monitoring technologies. As a part of this monitoring technique, a small fraction of a traceable fluid is added to the injection wellhead along with the CO{sub 2} stream at different times to monitor the timing and location of the breakthrough in nearby monitoring wells or offset production wells. A reservoir modeling study was performed to simulate a pilot sequestration site located in the San Juan coal basin of northern New Mexico. Several unknown reservoir properties at the field site were estimated by modeling the coal seam as a dual porosity formation and by history matching the methane production and CO{sub 2} injection. In addition to reservoir modeling of methane production and CO{sub 2} injection, tracer injection was modeled. Tracers serve as a surrogate for determining potential leakage of CO{sub 2}. The tracer was modeled as a non-reactive gas and was injected into the reservoir as a mixture along with CO{sub 2}. Geologic and geometric details of the field site, numerical modeling details of methane production, CO{sub 2} injection, and tracer injection are presented in this paper. Moreover, the numerical

  8. Some Factors Controlling the Seismic Hazard due to Earthquakes Induced by Fluid Injection at Depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarr, A.

    2012-12-01

    toward the southeast and the earthquakes appear to have been induced by three high-volume injection wells adjacent to this newly-discovered structure. During the past 10 years, as the total volume of injected wastewater has increased, so have the maximum moment magnitudes, starting with an event of M4.5 in September 2001, another of M5 in August 2005, and, most recently, the M5.3 earthquake in August 2011. Interestingly, neither injection rate nor well-head injection pressure appears to influence maximum magnitude. Although it is not feasible at this time to determine the seismic outcome in advance of an injection project, it is, nonetheless, encouraging that upper bounds on seismic moment show a reasonably well-defined linear dependence on total volume of injected fluid.

  9. Historical reconstruction of wastewater and land use impacts to groundwater used for public drinking water: exposure assessment using chemical data and GIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Christopher H; Rudel, Ruthann A; Kachajian, Jennifer R; Brody, Julia G

    2003-09-01

    Land use in geographic areas that replenish groundwater and surface water resources is increasingly recognized as an important factor affecting drinking water quality. Efforts to understand the implications for health, particularly outcomes with long latency or critical exposure windows, have been hampered by lack of historical exposure data for unregulated pollutants. This limitation has hindered studies of the possible links between breast cancer risk and drinking water impacted by endocrine disrupting compounds and mammary carcinogens, for example. This paper describes a methodology to assess potential historical exposure to a broad range of chemicals associated with wastewater and land use impacts to 132 groundwater wells and one surface water body supplying drinking water to 18 public distribution systems on Cape Cod, MA. We calculated annual measures of impact to each distribution system and used the measures as exposure estimates for the residential addresses of control women in the Cape Cod Breast Cancer and Environment Study (Cape Cod Study). Impact was assessed using (1) historical chemical measurements of nitrate at the water supply sources (performed as required by the Safe Water Drinking Act) and (2) a geographic information system analysis of land use within the zones of contribution (ZOCs) delineated for each well in a state-mandated wellhead protection program. The period for which these impact estimates were developed (1972-1995) was constrained by the availability of chemical measurements and land use data and consideration of time required for groundwater transport of contaminants to the water supply wells. Trends in these estimates for Cape Cod suggest increasing impact to drinking water quality for land use over the study period. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to assess the effect on the distribution of controls' cumulative exposure estimates from (1) reducing the area of the ZOCs to reflect typical well operating conditions rather than

  10. Research and application of tubeless oil production technology for small cased wells%小套管井无油管采油技术的研究与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董元军; 郑振兴; 孟凡晶; 古光明; 孙渊平

    2015-01-01

    近年来,内径小于Ø101.6 mm 的小套管井在临盘采油厂渐成规模,已成为原油生产的重要组成部分。但由于套管内径限制,该类油井泵径小、杆管间隙小,导致提液困难和杆管偏磨。本研究提出了小套管井无油管举升的技术理念,配套完成了小套管井无油管杆式泵锚定技术、空心杆注塑防偏磨技术、无油管采油井口出油系统及举升工具的设计与室内试验,形成了一套完整的小套管井无油管举升实用技术。现场试验表明,该技术满足了小套管井现场提液、防偏磨的需要,有效降低了生产成本,是一种技术可靠、使用简单、成本低廉的技术手段,对油田小套管井的高效开发具有重要意义。%In recent years, the small cased wells with inner diameter less than Ø101.6 mm have become more popular in Linpan Oil Production Plant and have become an important part of crude oil production. But due to restriction by inner diameter of casing, the pump diameter is small and the clearance between pipe and the rod is small, which cause difficulties in liquid extraction and eccentric wear of rod-pipe. A technical concept of tubeless lift in small cased wells is presented, with completion of tubeless rod pump anchoring technology, anti-eccentric technique for hollow rod by injection molding, tubeless wellhead oil production system with lifting tools. Thus, a set of complete practical tubing-free lift technique for small cased wells is formed. The site tests show that this technique satisfies the requirements of liquid extraction and anti-eccentric wear in small cased wells, effectively reduces the production costs and is a technically reliable. It is easy to use and its cost is low, which has great significance to the efficient development of small cased wells.

  11. Decomplexing of gas fields; Decomplexing von Gasfeldern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menzel, W.; Kandler, T.; Siegmund, G. [ExxonMobil Production Deutschland GmbH, Hannover (Germany)

    2012-07-15

    EMPG is operating facilities of pressure reduced gas fields in ''Soehlingen/-Ost'', ''Idsingen-Walsrode'', ''Nordhannover- Boetersen'' and ''Hengstlage''. These fields are to be optimised to an economic tail end production and will be decomplexed to a technical minimal size. Therefore all unneeded equipment of each gas dehydration unit at the wellhead (decentralized gas dehydration unit) is removed and the wet gas is send to central gas dehydration facilities. The existing gas pipelines in the field are converted from dry to wet gas transportation. Depending on the existing produced water pipeline system in the field two concepts - with and without separation of produced water - are available. With decomplexing the decentralized gas dehydration units and optimisation of the central gas dehydration facilities significantly environmental aspects are considered and improved. At the end of 2009 the two first decentralized gas dehydration units were decomplexed and decommissioned successfully in the Asset Elbe-Weser. According to this concept the gas field Soehlingen/-Ost with 16 wells was completely converted to raw gas transport from 2010 to 2011. The capacity of the central dehydration unit in Soehlingen has also been adapted. Using the existing gas pipelines (carbon steel piping) for the new wet gas transport a continuous inhibition was installed to avoid inner wall corrosion. Pipe monitoring with stationery installed ultrasonic wall thickness measuring shows no noticeable corrosion after two years of operation and the experience in operating the decomplexed facilities is also very positive. After completing the project in the field Soehlingen/-Ost EMPG is planning in 2012 and 2013 to decomplex the gas production fields Hengstlage, Nordhannover-Boetersen and Idsingen-Walsrode. Therefore a total of 20wells will be changed to raw gas transport with central gas dehydration facilities in the

  12. 垦西垦71平1块特稠油降黏输送工艺技术研究%Research on Kenxi Ken 71-1 Block of Special Heavy Oil Transportation Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周胤男; 张璐; 许浩伟; 张锡波; 赵方志

    2016-01-01

    For Kenxi Ken 71-1 block heavy oil of high viscosity, high density and poor li-quidity, difficulty of the well lifting and conveying. Indoor heating, water blending, vis-cosity agent, blending thin oil and a variety of viscosity reducing research processes is used. And meanwhile do the running cost budgeting and optimizing, optimizing wellbore electric heating, wellhead mixing hot water viscosity, mixture liquid blending thin oil on heating. Thus Kenxi Ken 71-1 block can realize normal lifting,transportation.The process is easy to realize the advantages of site management,stable operation,high reliability,no effect to lat-er crude oil treatment. Currently 8 wells are running, output of oil is 75.3 tons/day, total producing 26 600 tons of oil, deduct running cost, now total oil production efficiency can reach 19.684 million yuan.%针对垦西垦71平1块特稠油黏度高、密度大、流动性差,油井举升和输送困难的问题,开展了加热、掺水、加降黏剂、掺稀等多种降黏工艺研究,并对各工艺进行运行成本预算和优化,优选井筒电加热、井口掺热水降黏、混合液途中加热掺稀工艺,实现垦71平1块稠油正常举升和输送。该工艺具有现场管理方便、运行平稳、可靠性高,对后期原油处理无影响等优势。目前开井8口,日产油75.3 t,累计产油2.66×104 t,扣除运行成本,目前累计产油效益1968.4万元。

  13. Contingency interim measure for the public water supply at Barnes, Kansas.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFreniere, L. M.; Environmental Science Division

    2009-07-09

    This document presents a conceptual design for a contingency interim measure (IM) for treatment of the public water supply system at Barnes, Kansas, should this become necessary. The aquifer that serves the public water supply system at Barnes has been affected by trace to low concentrations of carbon tetrachloride and its degradation product, chloroform. Investigations conducted on behalf of the CCC/USDA by Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne 2008a) have demonstrated that groundwater at the Barnes site is contaminated with carbon tetrachloride at concentrations exceeding the Kansas Tier 2 risk-based screening level (RBSL) and the EPA maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 5.0 {micro}g/L for this compound. The Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA) formerly operated a grain storage facility in Barnes, approximately 800 ft east-southeast of the public water supply wells. Carbon tetrachloride was used in the treatment of grain. Another potential source identified in an investigation conducted for the KDHE (PRC 1996) is the site of a former agriculture building owned by the local school district (USD 223). This building is located immediately east of well PWS3. The potential contingency IM options evaluated in this report include the treatment of groundwater at the public water supply wellheads and the provision of an alternate water supply via Washington County Rural Water District No.2 (RWD 2). This document was developed in accordance with KDHE Bureau of Environmental Remediation (BER) Policy No.BER-RS-029 (Revised) (KDHE 2006a), supplemented by guidance from the KDHE project manager. Upon the approval of this contingency IM conceptual design by the KDHE, the CCC/USDA will prepare a treatment system design document that will contain the following elements: (1) Description of the approved contingency IM treatment method; (2) Drawings and/or schematics provided by the contractor and/or manufacturer of the approved technology; (3) A

  14. Investigations of Very High Enthalpy Geothermal Resources in Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elders, W. A.; Fridleifsson, G. O.

    2012-12-01

    The Iceland Deep Drilling Project (IDDP) is investigating the economic feasibility of producing electricity from supercritical geothermal reservoirs. Earlier modeling indicates that the power output of a geothermal well producing from a supercritical reservoir could potentially be an order of magnitude greater than that from a conventional hot geothermal reservoir, at the same volumetric flow rate. However, even in areas with an unusually high geothermal gradient, for normal hydrostatic pressure gradients reaching supercritical temperatures and pressures will require drilling to depths >4 km. In 2009 the IDDP attempted to drill the first deep supercritical well, IDDP-01, in the caldera of the Krafla volcano, in NE Iceland. However drilling had to be terminated at only 2.1 km depth when ~900°C rhyolite magma flowed into the well. Our studies indicate that this magma formed by partial melting of hydrothermally altered basalts within the Krafla caldera. Although this well was too shallow to reach supercritical pressures, it is highly productive, and is estimated to be capable of generating up to 36 MWe from the high-pressure, superheated steam produced from the upper contact zone of the intrusion. With a well-head temperature of ~440°C, it is at present apparently the hottest producing geothermal well in the world. A pilot plant is investigating the optimal utilization of this magmatically heated resource. A special issue of the journal Geothermics with 16 papers reporting on the IDDP-01 is in preparation. However, in order to continue the search for supercritical geothermal resources, planning is underway to drill a 4.5 km deep well at Reykjanes in SW Iceland in 2013-14. Although drilling deeper towards the heat source of this already developed high-temperature geothermal field will be more expensive, if a supercritical resource is found, this cost increase should be offset by the considerable increase in the power output and lifetime of the Reykjanes geothermal

  15. Analysis of cavern and well stability at the West Hackberry SPR site using a full-dome model.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobolik, Steven R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-08-01

    This report presents computational analyses that simulate the structural response of caverns at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) West Hackberry site. The cavern field comprises 22 caverns. Five caverns (6, 7, 8, 9, 11) were acquired from industry and have unusual shapes and a history dating back to 1946. The other 17 caverns (101-117) were leached according to SPR standards in the mid-1980s and have tall cylindrical shapes. The history of the caverns and their shapes are simulated in a three-dimensional geomechanics model of the site that predicts deformations, strains, and stresses. Future leaching scenarios corresponding to oil drawdowns using fresh water are also simulated by increasing the volume of the caverns. Cavern pressures are varied in the model to capture operational practices in the field. The results of the finite element model are interpreted to provide information on the current and future status of subsidence, well integrity, and cavern stability. The most significant results in this report are relevant to Cavern 6. The cavern is shaped like a bowl with a large ceiling span and is in close proximity to Cavern 9. The analyses predict tensile stresses at the edge of the ceiling during repressurization of Cavern 6 following workover conditions. During a workover the cavern is at low pressure to service a well. The wellhead pressures are atmospheric. When the workover is complete, the cavern is repressurized. The resulting elastic stresses are sufficient to cause tension around the edge of the large ceiling span. With time, these stresses relax to a compressive state because of salt creep. However, the potential for salt fracture and propagation exists, particularly towards Cavern 9. With only 200 feet of salt between the caverns, the operational consequences must be examined if the two caverns become connected. A critical time may be during a workover of Cavern 9 in part because of the operational vulnerabilities, but also because dilatant damage

  16. A high-performance hydroxyl-functionalized polymer of intrinsic microporosity for an environmentally attractive membrane-based approach to decontamination of sour natural gas

    KAUST Repository

    Yi, Shouliang

    2015-09-24

    Acid gases carbon dioxide (CO2) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) are important and highly undesirable contaminants in natural gas, and membrane-based removal of these contaminants is environmentally attractive. Although removal of CO2 from natural gas using membranes is well established in industry, there is limited research on H2S removal, mainly due to its toxic nature. In actual field operations, wellhead pressures can exceed 50 bar with H2S concentrations up to 20%. Membrane plasticization and competitive mixed-gas sorption, which can both lead to a loss of separation efficiency, are likely to occur under these aggressive feed conditions, and this is almost always accompanied by a significant decrease in membrane selectivity. In this paper, permeation and separation properties of a hydroxyl-functionalized polymer with intrinsic microporosity (PIM-6FDA-OH) are reported for mixed-gas feeds containing CO2, H2S or the combined pair with CH4. The pure-gas permeation results show no H2S-induced plasticization of the PIM-6FDA-OH film in a pure H2S feed at 35 °C up to 4.5 bar, and revealed only a slight plasticization up to 8 bar of pure H2S. The hydroxyl-functionalized PIM membrane exhibited a significant pure-gas CO2 plasticization resistance up to 28 bar feed pressure. Mixed-gas (15% H2S/15% CO2/70% CH4) permeation results showed that the hydroxyl-functionalized PIM membrane maintained excellent separation performance even under exceedingly challenging feed conditions. The CO2 and H2S permeability isotherms indicated minimal CO2-induced plasticization; however, H2S-induced plasticization effects were evident at the highest mixed gas feed pressure of 48 bar. Under this extremely aggressive mixed gas feed, the binary CO2/CH4 and H2S/CH4 permselectivities, and the combined CO2 and H2S acid gas selectivity were 25, 30 and 55, respectively. Our results indicate that OH-functionalized PIM materials are very promising candidate membrane materials for simultaneous removal of CO2

  17. Transient flow conditions change how we should think about WHPA delineation: a joint frequency and probability analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez Pretelin (1), Abelardo; Nowak (1), Wolfgang

    2017-04-01

    . Enzenhoefer, W. Nowak, and R. Helmig. Probabilistic exposure risk assessment with advective-dispersive well vulnerability criteria. Advances in Water Resources, 36:121-132, 2012. [2] R. Enzenhoefer, T. Bunk, and W. Nowak. Nine steps to risk-informed wellhead protection and management: a case study. Ground water, 52:161-174, 2014.

  18. Analysis of cavern stability at the West Hackberry SPR site.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehgartner, Brian L.; Sobolik, Steven Ronald

    2009-05-01

    This report presents computational analyses that simulate the structural response of caverns at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) West Hackberry site. The cavern field comprises 22 caverns. Five caverns (6, 7, 8, 9, 11) were acquired from industry and have unusual shapes and a history dating back to 1946. The other 17 caverns (101-117) were leached according to SPR standards in the mid-1980s and have tall cylindrical shapes. The history of the caverns and their shapes are simulated in a three-dimensional geomechanics model of the site that predicts deformations, strains, and stresses. Future leaching scenarios corresponding to oil drawdowns using fresh water are also simulated by increasing the volume of the caverns. Cavern pressures are varied in the model to capture operational practices in the field. The results of the finite element model are interpreted to provide information on the current and future status of subsidence, well integrity, and cavern stability. The most significant results in this report are relevant to Cavern 6. The cavern is shaped like a bowl with a large ceiling span and is in close proximity to Cavern 9. The analyses predict tensile stresses at the edge of the ceiling during repressuization of Cavern 6 following workover conditions. During a workover the cavern is at low pressure to service a well. The wellhead pressures are atmospheric. When the workover is complete, the cavern is repressurized. The resulting elastic stresses are sufficient to cause tension around the edge of the large ceiling span. With time, these stresses relax to a compressive state because of salt creep. However, the potential for salt fracture and propagation exists, particularly towards Cavern 9. With only 200 ft of salt between the caverns, the operational consequences must be examined if the two caverns become connected. A critical time may be during a workover of Cavern 9 in part because of the operational vulnerabilities, but also because dilatant damage is

  19. Analysis of cavern stability at the Bryan Mound SPR site.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehgartner, Brian L.; Sobolik, Steven Ronald

    2009-04-01

    This report presents computational analyses that simulate the structural response of caverns at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Bryan Mound site. The cavern field comprises 20 caverns. Five caverns (1, 2, 4, and 5; 3 was later plugged and abandoned) were acquired from industry and have unusual shapes and a history dating back to 1946. The other 16 caverns (101-116) were leached according to SPR standards in the mid-1980s and have tall cylindrical shapes. The history of the caverns and their shapes are simulated in a 3-D geomechanics model of the site that predicts deformations, strains, and stresses. Future leaching scenarios due to oil drawdowns using fresh water are also simulated by increasing the volume of the caverns. Cavern pressures are varied in the model to capture operational practices in the field. The results of the finite element model are interpreted to provide information on the current and future status of subsidence, well integrity, and cavern stability. The most significant result in this report is relevant to caverns 1, 2, and 5. The caverns have non-cylindrical shapes and have potential regions where the surrounding salt may be damaged during workover procedures. During a workover the normal cavern operating pressure is lowered to service a well. At this point the wellhead pressures are atmospheric. When the workover is complete, the cavern is repressurized. The resulting elastic stresses are sufficient to cause tension and large deviatoric stresses at several locations. With time, these stresses relax to a compressive state due to salt creep. However, the potential for salt damage and fracturing exists. The analyses predict tensile stresses at locations with sharp-edges in the wall geometry, or in the case of cavern 5, in the neck region between the upper and lower lobes of the cavern. The effects do not appear to be large-scale, however, so the only major impact is the potential for stress-induced salt falls in cavern 5, potentially leading to

  20. Sensitivity of CO2 storage performance to varying rates and dynamic injectivity in the Bunter Sandstone, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolster, C.; Mac Dowell, N.; Krevor, S. C.; Agada, S.

    2016-12-01

    Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is needed for meeting legally binding greenhouse gas emissions targets in the UK (ECCC 2016). Energy systems models have been key to identifying the importance of CCS but they tend to impose few constraints on the availability and use of geologic CO2 storage reservoirs. Our aim is to develop simple models that use dynamic representations of limits on CO2 storage resources. This will allow for a first order representation of the storage reservoir for use in systems models with CCS. We use the ECLIPSE reservoir simulator and a model of the Southern North Sea Bunter Sandstone saline aquifer. We analyse reservoir performance sensitivities to scenarios of varying CO2 injection demand for a future UK low carbon energy market. With 12 injection sites, we compare the impact of injecting at a constant 2MtCO2/year per site and varying this rate by a factor of 1.8 and 0.2 cyclically every 5 and 2.5 years over 50 years of injection. The results show a maximum difference in average reservoir pressure of 3% amongst each case and a similar variation in plume migration extent. This suggests that simplified models can maintain accuracy by using average rates of injection over similar time periods. Meanwhile, by initiating injection at rates limited by pressurization at the wellhead we find that injectivity steadily increases. As a result, dynamic capacity increases. We find that instead of injecting into sites on a need basis, we can strategically inject the CO2 into 6 of the deepest sites increasing injectivity for the first 15 years by 13%. Our results show injectivity as highly dependent on reservoir heterogeneity near the injection site. Injecting 1MTCO2/year into a shallow, low permeability and porosity site instead of into a deep injection site with high permeability and porosity reduces injectivity in the first 5 years by 52%. ECCC. 2016. Future of Carbon Capture and Storage in the UK. UK Parliament House of Commons, Energy and Climate Change

  1. Fault detection in the electrical equipment of the artificial system, used for the oil production in marine platforms; Deteccion de fallas en los equipos electricos del sistema artificial, utilizado para la produccion de petroleo en plataformas marinas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargas H, Vicente; Rosales S, Inocente [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Pimentel M, Jorge [Petroleos Mexicanos (Mexico)

    2007-07-01

    At present, PEMEX is using new artificial pumping systems for the production of oil, specifically the Electro Centrifugal Pumping system (ECP). Nevertheless, during the operation of the (ECP) system problems by the failure of their electrical components have appeared, mainly of the equipment installed within the well. The faults have resulted in an increased cost for the diminution in the production and the maintenance cost of the remedial work. The maintenance personnel have procedures to perform verification tests of the conditions of the bottom electrical equipment. But, in the case of an electrical failure of the equipment, its location cannot be determined, since they are installed at 3,600 m from the production wellhead. In accordance with the former, the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas proposed the application of the reflectometry technique in the time domain, to complement the maintenance procedures. This technique is a very useful diagnosis tool of the electrical equipment, which helps in the decision making of the maneuvers of preventive and corrective maintenance to be followed, with the consequent saving of resources. [Spanish] Actualmente, PEMEX esta utilizando nuevos sistemas artificiales de bombeo para la produccion de petroleo, en especifico el Sistema de Bombeo Electrocentrifugo (BEC). Sin embargo, durante la operacion del Sistema BEC se han presentado problemas por la falla de sus componentes electricos, sobre todo del equipo instalado dentro del pozo. Las fallas han resultado con un costo elevado por la disminucion en la produccion y por los trabajos de mantenimiento correctivo. El personal de mantenimiento cuenta con procedimientos para realizar pruebas de verificacion del estado de los equipos electricos de fondo. Pero, en el caso de una falla electrica de los equipos, no se puede determinar su ubicacion, dado que se instalan a 3,600 m del cabezal del pozo de produccion. De acuerdo con lo anterior, el Instituto de Investigaciones

  2. Environmental review of natural gas production in Lake Erie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Shea, K. [Dillon Consulting Ltd., Cambridge, ON (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    The water of Lake Erie is used as a source of drinking water for Ontario, New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio and Michigan. An environmental review has been conducted to determine the impact of drilling operations on the overall ecology of the lake. Since 1913, 2000 natural gas wells have been drilled in Lake Erie, of which 550 currently produce gas and account for 75 per cent of Ontario's total gas production. 180 wells are shut-in or suspended and the remaining wells have been abandoned. The gas wells are connected to onshore production facilities by approximately 1,600 km of small diameter pipelines that lie buried near shore or on top of the lake bed. Nearly 90 per cent of the in-lake infrastructure is in water depths of more than 20 metres. Talisman Energy is actively involved with the Canadian Coast Guard, the Department of Fisheries and Oceans, and the Ministry of Natural Resources to ensure cooperation between regulators and off-shore personnel. The environmental assessment of natural gas production in Lake Erie included a review of regulatory and best management practices, a biophysical overview of the lake, and a review of drilling practices, well completions, handling of waste streams, materials management, operations inspections, wastewater discharge, air emissions, and oil spills. It was revealed that for most drilling programs, cuttings are washed and discharged to the Lake. Ongoing testing will determine the impact that this practice has on benthic populations. The drill muds used for drilling operations are water based, environmentally friendly, and re-used between well locations. For completion programs, all well activities are closed circuit operations. Wells are abandoned through plugging with cement, removing wellheads and casing below the lake bottom. There has been a reported volume of about 23,000 litres of spilled product from 1990 to 2001, of which 68 per cent has come from 3 industrial companies that operate near Lake Erie. The offshore gas

  3. Synthesis and gas permeation properties of a novel thermally-rearranged polybenzoxazole made from an intrinsically microporous hydroxyl-functionalized triptycene-based polyimide precursor

    KAUST Repository

    Alghunaimi, Fahd

    2017-06-06

    A hydroxyl-functionalized triptycene-based polyimide of intrinsic microporosity (TDA1-APAF) was converted to a polybenzoxazole (PBO) by heat treatment at 460 °C under nitrogen atmosphere. TDA1-APAF treated for 15 min (TR 460) resulted in a PBO conversion of 95% based on a theoretical weight loss of 11.7 wt% of the polyimide precursor. The BET surface area of the TR 460 (680 m2 g−1) was significantly higher than that of the TDA1-APAF polyimide (260 m2 g−1) as determined by nitrogen adsorption at −196 °C. Heating TDA1-APAF for 30 min (TRC 460) resulted in a weight loss of 13.5 wt%, indicating full conversion to PBO and partial main-chain degradation. The TR 460 membrane displayed excellent O2 permeability of 311 Barrer coupled with an O2/N2 selectivity of 5.4 and CO2 permeability of 1328 Barrer with a CO2/CH4 selectivity of 27. Interestingly, physical aging over 150 days resulted in enhanced O2/N2 selectivity of 6.3 with an O2 permeability of 185 Barrer. The novel triptycene-based TR 460 PBO outperformed all previously reported APAF-polyimide-based PBOs with gas permeation performance close to recently reported polymers located on the 2015 O2/N2 upper bound. Based on this study, thermally-rearranged membranes from hydroxyl-functionalized triptycene-based polyimides are promising candidate membrane materials for air separation, specifically in applications where space and weight of membrane systems are of utmost importance such as nitrogen production for inert atmospheres in fuel lines and tanks on aircrafts and off-shore oil- or natural gas platforms. Mixed-gas permeation experiments also demonstrated good performance of the TR 460 membrane for natural gas sweetening with a CO2 permeability of ∼1000 Barrer and CO2/CH4 selectivity of 22 at a typical CO2 wellhead partial pressure of 10 bar.

  4. Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Monitoring Well Inspection and Maintenance Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2006-12-01

    This document is the third revision of the 'Monitoring Well Inspection and Maintenance Plan' for groundwater wells associated with the US Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. This plan describes the systematic approach for: (1) inspecting the physical condition of monitoring wells at Y-12; (2) identifying maintenance needs that extend the life of the well and assure well-head protection is in place, and (3) identifying wells that no longer meet acceptable monitoring-well design or well construction standards and require plugging and abandonment. The inspection and maintenance of groundwater monitoring wells is one of the primary management strategies of the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) Management Plan, 'proactive stewardship of the extensive monitoring well network at Y-12' (BWXT 2004a). Effective stewardship, and a program of routine inspections of the physical condition of each monitoring well, ensures that representative water-quality monitoring and hydrologic data are able to be obtained from the well network. In accordance with the Y-12 GWPP Monitoring Optimization Plan (MOP) for Groundwater Monitoring Wells at the Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (BWXT 2006b), the status designation (active or inactive) for each well determines the scope and extent of well inspections and maintenance activities. This plan, in conjunction with the above document, formalizes the GWPP approach to focus available resources on monitoring wells which provide the most useful data. This plan applies to groundwater monitoring wells associated with Y-12 and related waste management facilities located within the three hydrogeologic regimes: (1) the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime); (2) the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime); and (3) the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime). The Bear Creek Regime encompasses a section of the

  5. Effect of Energy Efficiency Standards on Natural Gas Prices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carnall, Michael; Dale, Larry; Lekov, Alex

    2011-07-26

    in its price as seen at the wellhead (Wiser 2007). The magnitude of the effect on price relative to the demand reduction, and the mechanism through which it occurs, is less well established. This report attempts to quantify the potential effects of reduced demand for natural gas in the residential sector, in response to the implementation of an energy efficiency standard for water heaters.

  6. Design and Development of Integrated Compact Multiphase Separation System (CMSS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ram S. Mohan; Ovadia Shoham

    2006-04-30

    The petroleum industry has relied in the past mainly on conventional vessel-type separators, which are bulky, heavy and expensive, to process wellhead production of oil-water-gas flow. Economic and operational pressures continue to force the petroleum industry to seek less expensive and more efficient separation alternatives in the form of compact separators. The compact dimensions, smaller footprint and lower weight of compact separators have a potential for cost savings to the industry, especially in offshore and subsea applications. Also, compact separators reduce the inventory of hydrocarbons significantly, which is critical for environmental This report presents a brief overview of the activities and tasks accomplished during the Budget Period II (October 09, 2004-April 30, 2006) of the DOE project titled ''Design and Development of Integrated Compact Multiphase Separation System (CMSS{copyright})''. An executive summary is presented initially followed by the tasks of the current budget period. Then, detailed description of the experimental and modeling investigations are presented. Subsequently, the technical and scientific results of the activities of this project period are presented with discussions. The findings of this investigation are summarized in the ''Conclusions'' section In this investigation, the concept of CMSS{copyright} has been developed and is proven through simulation studies and validated by experimental data. As part of the second phase of the project (Budget Period II--10/09/2004-04/30/2006) experimental investigation of the integrated CMSS{copyright} for different configurations has been conducted in order to evaluate the performance of the individual separation components, and determine how they will affect the performance of each other when integrated in the CMSS{copyright}. An intelligent control system is also developed to improve the total system efficiency of Compact Multiphase Separation

  7. Using a Cast Iron Hand-Pump to Teach Students About Water Resources and Resource Allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mailloux, B. J.; Radloff, K. A.

    2010-12-01

    Simply turning on the tap brings safe, clean, fresh-tasting water to most Americans. Students never need to consider basic concepts about water supply, including their daily water consumption and the quality of the water required for drinking. In stark contrast, the issues of water quality and quantity play a central role in people’s daily lives in the developing world. It is difficult to convey this reality to our students through lectures alone and hands-on activities are required. In order to develop an active learning based approach, we transported a traditional cast iron hand-pump and aluminum urns from Bangladesh to the United States. The hand-pump is mounted on a cooler, which acts as a water reservoir, and is now functional and easily transportable. Using this powerful demonstration tool, we have developed an active learning module we call “How far will you walk for water?”. The goal of the module is to teach students about water quantity, water quality, and resource allocation with a focus on Arsenic and Bangladesh, but the system could be applied to other areas of concern. First the students are given a quick lecture on Arsenic, its health impacts, and the extent of contamination in Bangladesh. They are then assigned a specific well, complete with a map of their village and picture of their well and a water sample (pre-spiked with arsenic to be above or below the 10 ug/L WHO limit). Next they pump the wellhead, fill an urn, walk down the hall and back, and measure the distance walked. This is compared to the distance from their village home to their private well, to safe wells belonging to neighbors and to a community well. The students then use the Hach Arsenic test kit to test the arsenic levels in their water samples and learn if their well is safe to drink. Finally, given all this information students must determine if they should continue drinking from their well or switch to a new well, even if that means making multiple, long trips each day

  8. Study on gas drilling cuttings breaking during the return process%气体钻井岩屑运移破碎研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱忠喜; 柳贡慧; 岳达明; 蒋记伟

    2012-01-01

    气体钻井机械钻速较高,产生的岩屑较多,通常在井底岩屑颗粒较大,而从井口返出的岩屑颗粒较小,这说明岩屑在井筒内运移的过程中应该出现了二次破碎.针对这一现象运用颗粒碰撞破碎的相关理论进行了分析,给出了发生二次破碎的撞击速度计算方法,同时应用破碎过程矩阵和破碎粒度分布函数研究了岩屑在全井筒的运移时发生重复破碎的过程,计算结果表明,岩屑在井筒内破碎是由不均的体积破碎向均匀的表面破碎进行转变的过程,并且最终趋于稳定的粒度分布状态.%More cuttings produced during gas drilling due to higher mechanical penetration rate and the cuttings usually tend to be larger in the bottom and smaller uniform in size when back to the wellhead. It is indicating that cuttings should appear successive breaking within the process of migration. According to particle collision broken theories, the successive breaking phenomenon was analyzed, and the calculating method of crash velocity for the occurrence of secondary breaking was given in this paper. Meanwhile, the breaking process matrix and the particle size distribution function were applied to study the re-cracking process of cuttings migration in the whole wellbore. The calculating results show that the cuttings in the wellbore were broken first in the form of the uneven size volumetric fracturing and then progressively turned into the surface fracture of the uniform process, and ultimately was tending towards stable particle size distribution state.

  9. Logging Methods Under Air Drilling Conditions in Junggar Basin%准噶尔盆地空气钻井条件下的录井方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李斌; 沈文星; 周远福; 周显松

    2011-01-01

    空气钻井是以气体为介质代替钻井液携带岩屑上返到地面的钻井工艺。空气钻井的使用,给井下信息的采集、处理与资料应用带来了挑战。由于钻进工艺使用的钻头是空气锤破碎地层、岩屑磨成粉末,气体携带岩屑上返,影响了岩屑的真实性,造成岩性辨别困难,给岩性定名及地层划分、工程预报、油气水层的识别与发现都带来了难度。针对准噶尔盆地所开展过的空气钻井条件下的录井方法提出了改进措施,为今后加大在空气钻井条件下的录井工艺改进提供一定的借鉴。%Air drilling is the drilling process by taking air as medium to replace drilling mud for carrying cuttings back to the surface.Its use brings challenges to the collection,processing and application of downhole information or data.Because the bit of this process is air hammer which makes the rocks underground breaken into cuttings or powders,then the air can carry the cuttings back to the wellhead.Such a process may affect the authenticity of cuttings and cause the difficulties for lithologic discrimination or identification,including the lithologic naming,the stratigraphic classification,the engineering forecast and oil-gas-water layer discovery,etc.This paper proposes the improved measures for logging methods under the air drilling conditions performed in Junggar basin,which could be used for reference for further logging technological improvement under air drilling conditions in the future.

  10. Ground-water flow and contributing areas to public-supply wells in Kingsford and Iron Mountain, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luukkonen, Carol L.; Westjohn, David B.

    2000-01-01

    The cities of Kingsford and Iron Mountain are in the southwestern part of Dickinson County in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. Residents and businesses in these cites rely primarily on ground water from aquifers in glacial deposits. Glacial deposits generally consist of an upper terrace sand-and-gravel unit and a lower outwash sand-and-gravel unit, separated by lacustrine silt and clay and eolian silt layers. These units are not regionally continuous, and are absent in some areas. Glacial deposits overlie Precambrian bedrock units that are generally impermeable. Precambrian bedrock consists of metasedimentary (Michigamme Slate, Vulcan Iron Formation, and Randville Dolomite) and metavolcanic (Badwater Greenstone and Quinnesec Formation) rocks. Where glacial deposits are too thin to compose an aquifer usable for public or residential water supply, Precambrian bedrock is relied upon for water supply. Typically a few hundred feet of bedrock must be open to a wellbore to provide adequate water for domestic users. Ground-water flow in the glacial deposits is primarily toward the Menominee River and follows the direction of the regional topographic slope and the bedrock surface. To protect the quality of ground water, Kingsford and Iron Mountain are developing Wellhead Protection Plans to delineate areas that contribute water to public-supply wells. Because of the complexity of hydrogeology in this area and historical land-use practices, a steady-state ground-water-flow model was prepared to represent the ground-water-flow system and to delineate contributing areas to public-supply wells. Results of steady-state simulations indicate close agreement between simulated and observed water levels and between water flowing into and out of the model area. The 10-year contributing areas for Kingsford's public-supply wells encompass about 0.11 square miles and consist of elongated areas to the east of the well fields. The 10-year contributing areas for Iron Mountain's public

  11. Natural Gas Sweetening by Ultra-Microporous Polyimides Membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Alghunaimi, Fahd

    2017-05-01

    -APAF polyimide is an excellent candidate membrane material for removal of CO2 and N2 from natural gas. Moreover, based on the collected data for CO2/CH4 mixed-gas experiments from this work and previously published reports, a new mixed-gas 2017 CO2/CH4 permeability/selectivity upper bound curve was initiated to reflect the actual performance including plasticization phenomena at high feed pressure and 10 bar CO2 partial pressure to simulate the real conditions of the wellhead pressure.

  12. Vibration Characteristic Analysis of Subsea Connector%水下连接器振动特性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓妹; 王道明; 王立权; 陈卓; 何鑫; 高明霞

    2015-01-01

    水下连接器是海底井口之间连接的枢纽,同时也是采油树上关键的设备之一。水下连接器的振动来源于海流及波浪对海洋跨接管产生的涡激振动,因此为了研究水下连接器的振动,需要对跨接管的振动进行研究分析。首先对水下连接器所处海洋环境进行调研包括海流流速、海水运动粘度、密度、海水温度、弹性模数等物理性质,通过机械振动、海洋工程、工程力学等理论对水下连接器所受到的振动的振幅及频率进行计算。最后通过有限元分析软件ANSYS Workbench软件对水下连接器进行模态分析,得出其关键部件的各阶固有频率及振型,进而得出水下连接器关键部件涡激振动不会引起水下连接器的共振。%Subsea connector is the hub of the connection between the subsea wellhead, and also one of the key devices on Christmas tree. Vibrations of subsea connector from vortex induced vibration which currents and waves acting on jumper. The vibration analysis of jumper is in order to study the vibration of subsea connectors. First research the marine environment which subsea connectors located, including the current velocity, water kinematic viscosity, density, water temperature, elastic modulus and other physical properties. The amplitude and frequency calculation of vibration which subsea connectors suffered was through the theory of mechanical vibration, marine engineering, engineering mechanics. Finally, Modal analysis were conducted by the finite element analysis software ANSYS Workbench and draw its natural frequencies and mode shapes of key components. Conclusion the key components of an subsea connector’s vortex induced vibration would not cause subsea connector’s resonance.

  13. Groundwater temperature transients on the Armutlu peninsula, eastern Marmara region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woith, Heiko; Caka, Deniz; Seyis, Cemil; Italiano, Francesco; Celik, Cengiz; Wang, Rongjiang; Baris, Serif

    2016-04-01

    technical origin is not likely. During the station visit in 2015 a physical explanation for these positive temperature spikes emerged. We noticed the release of pressured gas while opening the wellhead. Thus, tentatively we propose that the rise of a giant gas bubble was responsible for the temperature spikes. We present a preliminary model to explain the observations.

  14. A Groundwater project for K-12 schools: Bringing research into the classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodak, C. M.; Walsh, M.; Gensic, J.

    2011-12-01

    Simple water quality test kits were used in a series of K-12 classrooms to demonstrate scientific processes and to motivate learning in K-12 students. While focused on student learning, this project also allowed collection of regional data on groundwater quality (primarily nitrate) in the study area. The project consisted of development and administration of a weeklong groundwater quality unit introduced to K-12 schools in northern Indiana and taught by a graduate student in an engineering discipline. The structure of the week started with an introduction to basic groundwater concepts modified for the specific grade level; for this project the students ranged from grades 4-12. In addition to groundwater basics, the purpose of the collection of the water quality data, as well as relevance to the research of the graduate student, were outlined. The students were then: (i) introduced to two simple water quality testing methods for nitrates, (ii) required to hypothesize as to which method will likely be "better" in application, and (iii) asked to practice using these two methods under laboratory conditions. Following practice, the students were asked to discuss their hypotheses relative to what was observed during the practice focusing on which testing method was more accurate and/or precise. The students were then encouraged to bring water samples from their home water system (many of which are on private wells) to analyze within groups. At the end of the week, the students shared their experience in this educational effort, as well as the resulting nitrate data from numerous groundwater wells (as collected by the students). Following these discussions the data were added to an online database housed on a wiki sponsored by the Notre Dame Extended Research Community (http://wellhead.michianastem.org/home). These data were plotted using the free service MapAList to visually demonstrate to the students the spatial distribution of the data and how their results have

  15. Continental Shelf Freshwater Water Resources and Enhanced Oil Recovery By Low Salinity Water Flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Person, M. A.; Morrow, N.; Wilson, J. L.

    2014-12-01

    This study investigates the prospects of utilizing offshore freshwater in continental shelf oil production. Petroleum engineers have recently shown that tertiary water floods using freshwater can enhance oil recovery by as much as 18% (Morrow and Buckley, 2011). Hydrogeologists recently estimated that up to 5x105 km3of fresh to brackish water are sequestered in shallow ( world (Post et al., 2013). Most of the offshore freshwater was emplaced during the Pleistocene during periods of sea level low stands and when ice sheets over ran passive margins at high latitudes. We have analyzed a series of continental shelf cross sections from around the world estimating the average freshwater volume emplaced with distance offshore. We compare the distribution of fresh-brackish water with distance from the coastline to oil platform locations in order to assess the economic viability of this energy-water nexus. We also discuss a project that is currently underway within the North Sea (Clair Ridge) to field validate this concept. We present a series of variable-density groundwater flow and solute transport simulations that are intended to assess how long freshwater resources could be produced in an offshore environment using horizontal drilling technologies before seawater invades the well. We considered a 100m thick freshwater reservoir sandwiched between two 200-300m thick confining units. We pumped the horizontal well at a rate of 5.4 m3/day (1 gpm per meter of well). The resulting drawdown was less than 5 m at the well head (r=0.15 m). For a 1000 m long horizontal well, this resulted in the production of 5455 m3/day of fresh water (over 34,000 barrels per day). Concentrations increased at the wellhead by about 5000 mg/l after 20 years of continuous pumping using a reservoir permeability of 10-13 m2. This simulation demonstrates that where freshwater is available it is likely that it can be produced in commercially viable quantities to support tertiary water floods.

  16. ECOLOGICALLY ACCEPTABLE WAY OF DEVELOPMENT OF THE NORTH CAUCASIAN FEDERAL DISTRICT AND PLANS FOR RESTORING TEREK RIVER BASIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Abdurakhmanov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. This paper analyzes the data on contamination of the Terek river basin in the period of 1978-2012. We give assessment to process of self-purification from oil pollution of coastal waters of the Dagestan coast of the Caspian Sea; tracked seasonal and long-term dynamics of the concentration of petroleum hydrocarbons in sea water, calculated an average concentration and load of petroleum hydrocarbons in the seaside area of Terek River. We also present information obtained in the course of fieldwork in Agrakhan Bay. As a result of field research we conducted full hydrochemical analysis of water samples taken at stations, evaluating the degree of water pollution of Agrakhan Bay.Materials and Methodology. We identified features of pollution of the seaside wellhead of Terek River by analyzing the information from the review journals of the state of environment and its pollution, and magazine-yearbooks of marine waters quality by hydrochemical indicators as well as our own data collections and analysis. Agrakhan Bay Research was conducted using modern physical and chemical methods of quantitative chemical analysis. The date was collected on an integrated basis at 16 stations.Results. It was found that anthropogenic load has reached its limits in the Terek basin. The main factor for the destruction of the ecology of Terek River constitutes extremely large number of oil extracting and refining industries in the region. Studies of Agrakhan Bay revealed a high concentration of zinc. We also found a slight excess of maximum permissible concentration of lead and copper in the southern part of the bay.Main conclusion. For the revival of the Terek River it is necessary to optimize the ecological and environmental impacts of activities of enterprises and industries, improve the efficiency of the entire economy of the North Caucasian region. It is crucial to combine environmental, economic, scientific, technical and organizational measures into a single set

  17. 新疆油田注水水质稳定控制技术应用%Application of stability control technology of injection water quality in Xinjiang Oilfield

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严忠; 屈静; 胡君; 再拉甫吾不艾山; 罗秉瑞

    2014-01-01

    新疆油田部分区块由于采出水水质存在不稳定因素,加之配套处理工艺无法有效解决现有的问题,往往导致井口注水水质无法长期稳定达标。通过室内研究分析,长输管网的二次污染和外输水水质本身存在不稳定性,水中还有易氧化的还原性离子和存在较严重的碳酸盐自结垢趋势,是影响井口注水水质稳定性的关键因素。经优化筛选,确定了结垢控制技术、电解杀菌技术、空气氧化技术的应对措施,分别研制开发出对路的处理工艺和配套的新型药剂配方体系,为新疆油田长期稳定注水从而提高油田注水开发效果提供了技术保障。%Due to the harmful and instable produced water from some blocks of Xinjiang Oil‐field ,combined with matching process can not effectively solve the existing problems ,the quality of injection water at wellhead can not be stable up to standard for a long time .By laboratory re‐search and analysis ,the key factors influencing injection water quality stability are water seconda‐ry pollution in long‐distance pipeline network ,inherent instability of the outer water ,easily oxi‐dized reducing ions in water ,as well as serious carbonate scaling trend .After optimal screening , the response fouling control technology ,electrolytic disinfection technology ,air oxidation tech‐nology are determined ,the right treatment process and supporting new pharmaceutical formula‐tion system are developed ,which provide technical support for long‐term water injection stability of Xinjiang Oilfield and improve the effect of oil field water‐flooding .

  18. Dalia integrated production bundle (IPB): an innovative riser solution for deep water fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reals, Th Boscals de; Gloaguen, M.; Roche, F. [Total E and P (Angola); Marion, A.; Poincheval, A. [Technip, Paris (France)

    2008-07-01

    The Dalia field is located 210 km north west of Luanda (Angola), about 140 km from shore in 1400 meter water-depth. It was the second major discovery out of 15 made in the block 17 operated by Total. The Dalia Umbilical, Flow lines and Risers EPCI Contract was awarded in 2003. The sea-line network to connect and control the 71 wells and 9 manifolds consist of the following: 40 km of insulated pipe in pipe (12 inches into 17 inches) production flow lines; 45 km of 12 inches water and gas injection lines; 6 off 1.7 km flexible water and gas injection risers; 8 off 1.65 km flexible Integrated Production Bundle (IPB) risers; 75 km of control umbilicals. The flow assurance and associated insulation requirement of the production transport system was one of the main challenges of the project. With a crude temperature of 45 deg C at the wellhead and the required minimum temperature of 35 deg C on arrival at the FPSO, this problem was complex. Understanding that, due to the Joule Thompson effect of the riser gas lift, a 'built in' loss of about 5 deg C is induced and together with further losses through the sub sea pipelines, some up to 6 km long, the agreed solution was 'pipe in pipe' for the production flow lines. The innovative flexible IPB riser, incorporating gas lift and heating to keep the fluid temperature above hydrate formation zone, was the selected riser solution. The IPB is new technology for deep water, developed by Technip for Dalia, and consists of a 12 inches nominal central flexible, surrounded by layers of heat tracing cables, small bore gas lift lines, optical fibres and many insulation layers with an Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient of approximately 3,4 W/m{sup 2}K. After an earlier research and development programme, a further extensive qualification programme was conducted during the course of the project, culminating with the deep water testing phase offshore Brazil. The IPB was then approved for fabrication and installation

  19. A semi-analytical model for predicting water quality from an aquifer storage and recovery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedighi, Ali; Klammler, Harald; Brown, Chris; Hatfield, Kirk

    2006-10-01

    SummaryAquifer storage and recovery (ASR) involves the injection of freshwater in an aquifer through wells for the purpose of creating a subsurface water supply that is recovered at a later time, often using the same wells, to meet seasonal, long-term, emergency, or other demands. In this paper a numerically efficient semi-analytical model is developed for predicting the quality of water recovered by an ASR system given data on the qualities of ambient and injected waters, hydraulic properties of the aquifer, ambient hydraulic gradient, and system operations. It is assumed the ASR well is installed in a stratified aquifer such that the semi-analytical ASR model (SASRM) simulates the fate of water injected under steady-state conditions into each stratum. It is also assumed that a sharp and mobile interface separates injected water from ambient groundwater such that in situ mixing of water within and between strata does not occur. SASRM assigns particles to define the location the interface in all strata and then follows the migration of these particles under ambient and induced flow conditions. During water recovery, the transient location of the interface is simulated in each stratum and this information is used to quantify the fractions of ambient and injected water extracted at the well-head and the quality of water recovered. To mimic the effects of dispersion, a Latin Hypercube sampling strategy is used to assign hydraulic conductivities according to a predefined probability distribution to the layers of a conceptually stratified aquifer. The volumetric fraction of water received or delivered from any given lithologic unit is assumed proportional to the transmissivity of the stratum normalized to the total aquifer transmissivity interrogated by the ASR well. SARSM is numerically verified against MT3DMS and then calibrated and validated using field data from an ASR system located in Boynton Beach, FL. The field demonstration shows SASRM is capable of predicting

  20. Application of Wireless Intelligent Separate Layer Injection Technology in Toothbrush-shape Reservoir%无线智能分注技术在牙刷状油藏上的应用∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷创; 马永忠; 安淑凯; 王桂林; 郭栋; 李小永

    2016-01-01

    为提高牙刷状油藏的分注效果,应用了无线智能分注技术。该技术通过采集存储井下分层流量和压力等数据,测试资料准确性高。根据需要设定时间自动验封测调,下井前配水器设定打开时间,坐封安装井口后即可注水,无需单独下电缆开水嘴,同时应用无线通信功能,提高了测试成功率和分注合格率。在4口注水井上进行了现场试验,措施后4口井均正常投注,测试成功率100%,分注合格率100%,对应9口油井中7口油井见效,当年累计增油2658 t。无线智能分注技术对于同类型牙刷状油藏的分层注水开发具有很好的增产效果。%To improve the water injection performance of the toothbrush⁃shaped reservoir, wireless intelligent separate layer water injection technology has been taken to acquire and store each layer’ s flow and pressure data, thus results in high⁃accuracy test data. Seal test, testing and adjustment could be automatically done according to the pre⁃set time. Water regulator opening time is set before run⁃in⁃hole. Water injection could begin once the packer is set and the wellhead is installed, eliminating the need of run⁃in cable to open the water nozzle. The application of wireless communication improves the success rate of testing and separate layer water injection. In field application, four water injection wells were all normally put into injection with the testing success rate of 100% and the separate layer water injection pass rate of 100%. 7 wells of the 9 corresponding wells have been observed enhanced oil recov⁃ery with cumulative oil of 2 658 t. Wireless intelligent separate layer water injection technology has a good effect for the separate layer waterflooding development of similar type of toothbrush⁃shape reservoir.

  1. Evaluation of methods to test chemicals suitability for umbilical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allenson, S. J.; Lindeman, O. E.; Cenegy, L. M.

    2006-03-15

    Offshore deep-water projects are increasingly deploying chemicals to sub-sea wellheads through umbilical lines. There is no margin for error in umbilical chemical treatment programs since any flow blockage in a sub-sea line would result in a multi-million dollar problem. Chemicals for umbilical delivery must also meet strict requirements in their performance and especially their handling properties. Umbilical delivery must be effective at low concentrations in preventing corrosion, scale, hydrates, asphaltenes, paraffin and a host of other problems. Chemical transiting an umbilical can experience pressures as high as 15,000 psi and temperatures ranging from near 0 deg C to greater than 120 deg C. Since some umbilicals are as long as 80 km, a week or more can elapse from the time the chemical is injected at the platform until it reaches the sub-sea well. Therefore, the chemical must not only be stable under all temperature and pressure conditions that it may experience in the umbilical line, it must also be stable under these conditions for a long period of time. Since many umbilical lines actually terminate into sub-sea valves and connectors that are only a few hundred microns in diameter, it is critical that the injected chemical have a low viscosity at sub-sea temperatures and pressures and that it be completely free of particles. These issues present substantial challenges in formulating and manufacturing chemicals for umbilical applications that must be addressed prior to approval of a product for use. Each of these challenges was taken into consideration and a series of tests were developed to assure reliable chemical pump ability through an umbilical line. The tests developed included enhanced formulation stability tests under umbilical temperature and pressure conditions, NAS Class rating, extensive material compatibility testing to include all metals and elastomers that may be used in umbilical injection systems and comprehensive physical property testing

  2. Oceanographic conditions in the Gulf of Mexico in July 2010, during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R. H.; Johns, E. M.; Goni, G. J.; Trinanes, J.; Lumpkin, R.; Wood, A. M.; Kelble, C. R.; Cummings, S. R.; Lamkin, J. T.; Privoznik, S.

    2014-04-01

    Circulation in the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) is dominated by mesoscale features that include the Loop Current (LC), Loop Current Rings (LCRs), and smaller frontal eddies. During May-June 2010, while oil was still flowing from the Macondo well following the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) platform explosion on April 20, 2010, drifter trajectories, satellite observations, and numerical simulations indicated a potential for direct connectivity between the northern Gulf and the Florida Straits via the LC system. This pathway could have potentially entrained particles, including northern GOM contaminants related to the oil spill, carrying them directly towards the coastal ecosystems of south Florida and northern Cuba. To assess this connectivity, and to evaluate the potential oil impacts on economically important GOM fisheries, an interdisciplinary shipboard survey was conducted in the eastern Gulf during July 2010. Analysis of the resulting hydrographic data confirmed that: (1) by July 2010 a large LCR had become separated from the main LC by a cyclonic eddy resulting in the loss of a direct transport mechanism from the northern GOM to the Florida Straits, leaving only indirect pathways available to potential contaminants; and (2) with the exception of four hydrographic stations occupied within 84 km of the wellhead, no evidence of oil was found during the survey on the surface or within the water column. These results corroborated analysis of satellite altimetry observations of the GOM surface circulation and verified official surface oil coverage forecasts where they intersected with the survey track. This cruise sampled the LC, LCR, and frontal eddies to a depth of 2000 m, with the results suggesting that any oil entrained by circulation features in prior months had either been weathered, consumed by bacteria, dispersed to undetectable levels, or was only present in unsurveyed areas. The assembled subsurface measurements represent one of only a few data sets collected across the

  3. 河坝飞三有水气藏治水对策研究%Water control measures for Heba Feisan water-bearing gas reservoir

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李凤颖; 伊向艺; 刘兴国; 卢渊; 查玉强

    2012-01-01

    在异常高压有水气藏开采过程中,气藏水窜是产能持续大幅度下降、水淹井不断增加、单井动态控制储量急剧减少的主要原因,严重影响该类气藏的最终开发效果,因此气藏实施整体治水已成为开发生产的指导方向.在系统分析河坝飞三有水气藏开采现状、水侵特征的基础上,建立数值模拟模型,针对气藏可能的水侵特征,结合井区实际见水情况,在研究小油管携液、井口增压携液基础上,总结出河坝异常高压有水气藏的治水措施.研究结果为提高河坝飞三有水气藏最终采收率提供了理论依据.%In the process of producing water - bearing gas reservoirs with abnormal pressure, water channeling is the major reason for drastic production decline, increase of watered - out wells, and fast reduction of reserves controlled by single well, therefore integral water control has become a guiding policy for developing such reservoirs. Production status and water invasion features of Heba Feisan water - bearing gas reservoir have been systematically analyzed, on which basis a numerical simulation model has been established. Based on potential water invasion behavior and actual water breakthrough situations, water control measures are proposed for the water - bearing gas reservoir with abnormal pressure in the Heba area in conjunction with fluid - carrying with small - size tubing and boosting pressure at wellhead. The research results provide theoretical basis for improving the ultimate recovery of Heba Feisan gas reservoir.

  4. Sediment biogeochemistry and microbial activity at natural hydrocarbon seeps and at sites impacted by anthropogenic hydrocarbon discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joye, S. B.; Sibert, R.; Battles, J.; Fields, L.; Kleindienst, S.; Crespo-Medina, M.; Hunter, K.; Meile, C. D.; Montoya, J. P.

    2013-12-01

    Natural hydrocarbon seeps occur along the seafloor where geologic faults facilitate transfer of deeply sourced fluids enriched in gas, oil, and dissolved organic matter through shallow sediments and into the water column. At natural seeps, microbial populations specialize in hydrocarbon degradation and rates of microbial activity, including sulfate reduction and anaerobic oxidation of methane, can be extremely high. As a result, the biogeochemical signature of sediments near areas of active natural seepage is distinct: high concentrations of metabolic end products, such as dissolved inorganic carbon and hydrogen sulfide, abound, and often, high dissolved inorganic carbon concentrations result in the precipitation of authigenic carbonate minerals. We examined microbial processes and biogeochemical signatures at two natural seeps, Green Canyon 600 and Mississippi Canyon 118. Higher and more frequent seepage loci at the Green Canyon 600 site led to more widespread hotspots of elevated microbial activity and distinct geochemistry. However, rates of microbial activity were comparable at the two sites in areas of active hydrocarbon seepage. The microbial communities at the two sites were surprisingly different. The second group of sites was impacted by anthropogenic hydrocarbon discharges instead of natural seepage. One site, Oceanus 26, lies near the Deepwater Horizon/Macondo wellhead and was impacted by weathered oil sedimentation during the Macondo discharge. The second set of impacted sites, noted as Taylor Energy, lie near a sunken platform and compromised riser, which have together resulted in persistent hydrocarbon discharge to the adjacent oceanic system for more than 6 years. Rates of microbial activity in the upper sediments at Oceanus 26 were depressed relative to activity in the deeper layers, suggesting inhibition by the presence of weathered oil or an microbial community unable to weather the carbon available in the layer. At the Taylor energy site

  5. Monitoring underground migration of sequestered CO2 using self-potential methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishido, T.; Pritchett, J.; Tosha, T.; Nishi, Y.; Nakanishi, S.

    2013-12-01

    known as a 'geobattery' (e.g. Sato & Mooney, Geophysics 1960; Bigalke & Grabner, Electrochimica Acta 1997): the metallic well casing acts as a vertical electronic conductor connecting regions of differing redox potential. Electrons flow upward though the casing from a deeper reducing environment to a shallower oxidizing environment, and simultaneously a compensating vertical flow of ions is induced in the surrounding formation to maintain charge neutrality. If the redox potential in the deeper region is then increased by injecting an oxidizing substance, the difference in redox potential between the shallower and deeper regions will be reduced, resulting in an SP increase near the wellhead. We will report the results of SP measurements during gas (CO2 or air) injection tests at various sites and numerical simulations carried out using the extended SP postprocessor, which incorporates the above 'geobattery' mechanism in addition to electrokinetic coupling, and discuss the possibility mentioned above more quantitatively.

  6. Using airborne measurements and modelling to determine the leak rate of the Elgin platform in 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobbs, Stephen D.; Bauguitte, Stephane J.-B.; Wellpott, Axel; O'Shea, Sebastian

    2013-04-01

    On the 25th March 2012 the French multinational oil and gas company Total reported a gas leak at the Elgin gas field in the North Sea following an operation on well G4 on the wellhead platform. During operations to plug and decommission the well methane leaked out which lead to the evacuation of the platform. Total made immense efforts to quickly stop the leak and on the 16th May 2012 the company announced the successful "Top kill". The UK's National Centre for Atmospheric Science (NCAS) supported the Total response to the leak with flights of the Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements (FAAM) BAe-146 aircraft. Between the 3rd of April and the 4th of May five missions were flown. The FAAM aircraft was equipped with a Fast Greenhouse Gas Analyser (FGGA, Model RMT-200, Los Gatos Research Inc., US) to measure CH4 mixing ratios with an accuracy of 0.07±2.48 ppbv. The measurement strategy used followed closely NOAA's during the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) spill in the Gulf of Mexico in 2010. The basis of the method is to sample the cross-wind structure of the plume at different heights downwind of the source. The measurements were then fitted to a Gaussian dispersion model which allowed the calculation of the leak rate. The first mission was flown on the 30th March 2012 only 5 days after Total reported the leak. On this day maximum CH4 concentrations exceeded 2800 ppbv. The plume was very distinct and narrow especially near the platform (10km) and it showed almost perfect Gaussian characteristics. Further downwind the plume was split up into several filaments. On this day the CH4 leak rate was estimated to be 1.1 kg/s. Between the 1st and 2nd mission (03/04/2012) the leak rate decreased significantly to about 0.5 kg/s. From the 2nd flight onwards only a minor decrease in leak rate was calculated. The last mission - while the platform was still leaking - was flown on the 4th of May, when the leak rate was estimated to be 0.3 kg/s. The FAAM aircraft measurements

  7. Biodegradation of dispersed Macondo crude oil by indigenous Gulf of Mexico microbial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Sandoval, Kathia; Ding, Yan; Stoeckel, Donald; Minard-Smith, Angela; Andersen, Gary; Dubinsky, Eric A; Atlas, Ronald; Gardinali, Piero

    2016-07-01

    Because of the extreme conditions of the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) release (turbulent flow at 1500m depth and 5°C water temperature) and the sub-surface application of dispersant, small but neutrally buoyant oil droplets <70μm were formed, remained in the water column and were subjected to in-situ biodegradation processes. In order to investigate the biodegradation of Macondo oil components during the release, we designed and performed an experiment to evaluate the interactions of the indigenous microbial communities present in the deep waters of the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) with oil droplets of two representative sizes (10μm and 30μm median volume diameter) created with Macondo source oil in the presence of Corexit 9500 using natural seawater collected at the depth of 1100-1300m in the vicinity of the DWH wellhead. The evolution of the oil was followed in the dark and at 5°C for 64days by collecting sacrificial water samples at fixed intervals and analyzing them for a wide range of chemical and biological parameters including volatile components, saturated and aromatic hydrocarbons, dispersant markers, dissolved oxygen, nutrients, microbial cell counts and microbial population dynamics. A one phase exponential decay from a plateau model was used to calculate degradation rates and lag times for more than 150 individual oil components. Calculations were normalized to a conserved petroleum biomarker (30αβ-hopane). Half-lives ranged from about 3days for easily degradable compounds to about 60days for higher molecular weight aromatics. Rapid degradation was observed for BTEX, 2-3 ring PAHs, and n-alkanes below n-C23. The results in this experimental study showed good agreement with the n-alkane (n-C13 to n-C26) half-lives (0.6-9.5days) previously reported for the Deepwater Horizon plume samples and other laboratory studies with chemically dispersed Macondo oil conducted at low temperatures (<8°C). The responses of the microbial populations also were consistent with

  8. Submesoscale currents in the northern Gulf of Mexico: Deep phenomena and dispersion over the continental slope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracco, Annalisa; Choi, Jun; Joshi, Keshav; Luo, Hao; McWilliams, James C.

    2016-05-01

    seep in the northern Gulf, known as GC600, located a few hundred kilometers to the west of the rig wellhead.

  9. Digital representation of oil and natural gas well pad scars in southwest Wyoming: 2012 update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garman, Steven L.; McBeth, Jamie L.

    2015-01-01

    The recent proliferation of oil and natural gas energy development in the Greater Green River Basin of southwest Wyoming has accentuated the need to understand wildlife responses to this development. The location and extent of surface disturbance that is created by oil and natural gas well pad scars are key pieces of information used to assess the effects of energy infrastructure on wildlife populations and habitat. A digital database of oil and natural gas pad scars had previously been generated from 1-meter (m) National Agriculture Imagery Program imagery (NAIP) acquired in 2009 for a 7.7-million hectare (ha) (19,026,700 acres) region of southwest Wyoming. Scars included the pad area where wellheads, pumps, and storage facilities reside and the surrounding area that was scraped and denuded of vegetation during the establishment of the pad. Scars containing tanks, compressors, the storage of oil and gas related equipment, and produced-water ponds were also collected on occasion. This report updates the digital database for the five counties of southwest Wyoming (Carbon, Lincoln, Sublette, Sweetwater, Uinta) within the Wyoming Landscape Conservation Initiative (WLCI) study area and for a limited portion of Fremont, Natrona, and Albany Counties using 2012 1-m NAIP imagery and 2012 oil and natural gas well permit information. This report adds pad scars created since 2009, and updates attributes of all pad scars using the 2012 well permit information. These attributes include the origination year of the pad scar, the number of active and inactive wells on or near each pad scar in 2012, and the overall status of the pad scar (active or inactive). The new 2012 database contains 17,404 pad scars of which 15,532 are attributed as oil and natural gas well pads. Digital data are stored as shapefiles projected to the Universal Transverse Mercator (zones 12 and 13) coordinate system. These data are available from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) at http://dx.doi.org/10

  10. First geothermal pilot power plant in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tóth Anikó

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The Hungarian petroleum industry has always participated in the utilization of favourable geothermal conditions in the country. Most of the Hungarian geothermal wells were drilled by the MOL Ltd. as CH prospect holes. Accordingly, the field of geothermics belonged to the petroleum engineering, although marginally. It was therefore a surprise to hear of the decision of MOL Ltd. to build a geothermal power plant of about 2-5 MW. The tender was published in 2004.The site selected for the geothermal project is near the western border of an Hungarian oilfield, close to the Slovenian border. The location of the planned geothermal power plant was chosen after an analysis of suitable wells owned by the MOL Rt. The decision was made on the bases of different reservoir data. The existence of a reservoir of the necessary size, temperature, permeability, productivity and the water chemistry data was proved. The wells provide an enough information to understand the character of the reservoir and will be the production wells used by the planned power plant.The depth of the wells is about 2930 - 3200 m. The Triassic formation is reached at around 2851 m. The production and the reinjection wells are planned. The primary objective of the evaluation is to further learn the nature of the geothermal system. First a one-day discharge test is carried out. If this short-term test is successful, a six-months long-term discharge test will follow. The first period of the test is a transient phenomenon. Within the well test, the wellhead pressure, the flow rate, the outflowing water temperature, the dynamic fluid level, and the chemical components will be measured. The heat transfer around the bore-hole is influenced by the flow rate and the time. For the right appreciation of the measured data, it is very important to analyse the heat transfer processes around the bore-hole. The obtained data from the experiments must be also fitted into the framework of a mathematical

  11. 油田运维综合管理系统在福山油田的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卫乾; 邓若虹; 刘星; 伍儒彬

    2015-01-01

    近年来,随着油气生产物联网的迅猛发展,感知层设备、传输层设备的数量激增,对油田系统运维综合管理提出了精细化管理的要求。本文以福山油田油气生产物联网系统为例,介绍了包括井口仪表、井控控制器RTU及井场数据采集终端RTU、应用管理服务器、物联网运维综合管理系统等设备及链路的运维管理系统,该系统实现了物联网相关设备扫描、设备管理、设备诊断、设备升级、运维专家系统、网络拓扑展示等功能,为技术工程师、生产管理人员和现场运维人员提供了一套强有力的工具,实现高效地管理、分析系统运行动态,实现对系统的自动分析与提醒,帮助用户进行系统运维决策,提高了油田开发、生产、运维的工作效率和工作质量。%In recent years, with the rapid development of the IOT of Oil and Gas Production, the increasing of the numbers of perception layer and the transport layer devices propose a requirement to oilfield operation and maintenance integrated management for delicacy management. This paper proposes an Integrated Management System of IOT of Oil and Gas Production of Fushan oilfield which is composed of wellhead sensors, single-well and well site RTU controllers, application management server, networking and communications network integrated management platform. The system has functions of scanning, device management, device diagnostics, equipment upgrades, operation and maintenance expert systems, network information storage, and provides a powerful tool to engineers, production managers or field operation and maintenance staff. The system efficiently manage and analyze dynamic operation status of IOT, automatically analyze and alert, helps users to make system operation and maintenance decisions, improves efficiency and quality of oilfield development, production, operation and maintenance.

  12. Study of three-phase fluid dynamics in a surging production system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Rodolfo; Assuncao, Pablo Morelato; Ressel, Fabio de Assis [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo, Sao Mateus, ES (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Among others factors, petroleum extraction is subordinate to the reservoir pressure and the required pressure to rise it to the surface production facilities. Reservoir deliverability equations tied production rate with reservoir driving force (Economides, 1994). The Inflow Performance Relationship (IPR) is obtained by measuring the production rates under various drawdown pressures, and is used to assess well performance by plotting the well production rate against the flowing bottonhole pressure. Others limiting rate of production factors are imposed by wellhead required pressure and the production tubing performance. The tubing performance is sensitive to several parameters among which we can highlight the production tubing geometry and the properties of the produced fluids (Guo, 2007). Therewith we can define the Tubing Performance Relationship (TPR) similarly to the IPR. Thus the present work aims the hydraulic performance analysis of a production system with a flowing well without artificial elevation methods. Furthermore the triphasic (water-oil-gas) flow studies, both in the production string and the production line, allowed the inspection of the main variables of the system, fluid properties, operation conditions and geometric parameters, on the head loss. In order obtain all these, several methods were developed, each one with specifics limitations to include all flow patterns. The most common biphasic horizontal flow patterns according to Brill and Beggs (1975) are: mist flow, bubble flow, plug flow, slug flow, stratified flow, wavy flow and annular flow. Yet according to Brill and Beggs (1975) the most common biphasic vertical flow patterns are: bubbly flow, slug flow, churn flow, and annular flow. Accordingly to these, another outbreak discussed is the pattern flow sensibility on the head loss. The methodology used in the present work is based on the discretization of the system in several discrete counterparts cells, in which was where it was applied

  13. Unconventional Oil and Gas Resources in Texas and Other Mining Activities: the Water Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicot, J.

    2011-12-01

    A recent study, sponsored by the Texas Water Development Board, considered current and projected water use in the mining industry. It looked at the upstream segment of the oil and gas industry (that is, water used to extract the commodity until it leaves the wellhead), the aggregate, and coal industry, and other substances (industrial sand, lime, etc.). We obtained data through state databases, data collection from private vendors, and direct surveys of the various sectors of the industry. Overall, in 2008, we estimated that the state consumed ~160 thousand acre-feet (AF) in the mining industry, including 35.8 thousand AF for fracing wells (mostly in the Barnett Shale/Fort Worth area) and ~21.0 thousand AF for other purposes in the oil and gas industry, although more spread out across the state, with a higher demand in the Permian Basin area in West Texas. The coal industry used 20.0 thousand AF along the lignite belt from Central to East Texas. The 71.6 thousand AF used by the aggregate industry is distributed over most of the state, but with a clear concentration around major metropolitan areas. The remainder amounts to 11.0 thousand AF and is dominated by industrial sand production (~80% of total). Water is used mostly for drilling wells, stimulating/fracing wells, and secondary and tertiary recovery processes (oil and gas industry); for dewatering and depressurizing pits, with a small amount used for dust control (coal industry); and for dust control and washing (aggregate industry and industrial sand). Reuse/recycling has already been accounted for in water-use values, as well as opportunity usages, such as stormwater collection (aggregates). The split between surface water and groundwater is difficult to assess but it is estimated at ~56% groundwater in 2008. Projections for future use were done by extrapolating current trends, mainly for coal (same energy mix) and aggregates (following population growth). Projections for the oil and gas industry (Barnett

  14. Storm surges formation in the White and Barents Seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkhipkin, Victor; Dobrolyubov, Sergey; Korablina, Anastasia; Myslenkov, Stanislav

    2016-04-01

    Investigation of storm surges in the Arctic seas are of high priority in Russia due to the active development of offshore oil and gas, construction of facilities in the coastal zone, as well as for the safety of navigation. It is important to study the variability of surges, to predict this phenomena and subsequent economic losses, thus including such information into the Russian Arctic Development Program 2020. Surges in the White and Barents Seas are caused mainly by deep cyclones of two types: "diving" from the north (88% of all cyclones) and western. The average height of the storm surges in the White Sea is 0.6-0.9 m. An average duration of storm surges is about 80 hours. Mathematical modeling is used to analyze the characteristics of storm surges formation in the Dvina Bay of the White Sea, and in the Varandey village on the Barents Sea coast. Calculating storm surge heights in the White and Barents seas is performed using the ADCIRC model on an unstructured grid with a step from 20 km in the Barents Sea to 100 m in the White Sea. Unstructured grids allowed keeping small features of the coastline of the White and Barents seas, small islands and shallow banks, and assessing their impact on the development and transformation of wind-generated waves. The ADCIRC model used data of wind field reanalysis CFSv2. The storm surges were simulated for the time period from 1979 to 2010 and included scenarios with / without direct atmospheric pressure forcing, waves and tides. Numerical experiments have revealed distribution of storm surges in channels of the Northern Dvina River delta. The storm surges spreads in the model from the north-north-west of the Dvina Bay. As storm surge moves from the wellhead to the seaside estuary of the Northern Dvina (district Solombala), its height increases from 0.5 to 2 m. We also found a non-linear interaction of the surge and tide during the phase of surge destruction. This phenomenon is the highest in the period of low water, and the

  15. Anomalous diffusion of seismicity induced by the stimulation of an enhanced geothermal system below Basel, Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michas, Georgios; Vallianatos, Filippos

    2017-04-01

    Anthropogenic activities, associated with fluid or gas injections or extractions from the Earth's crust, geothermal exploitation, the impoundment of water reservoirs and mining activities can induce earthquakes. Such earthquakes can ever occur in zones of low deformation, posing a higher seismic risk than the one expected in the conventional hazard models. Although the failure condition of a fault in the presence of pressurized fluids seems relatively simple, a complication emerges from the diffusion of the pore-pressure triggering front that can trigger earthquakes at great distances away from the initial site of the pore-pressure perturbation and at time scales that may vary from days, up to months or even years. A characteristic example is the development of an enhanced geothermal system (EGS) below Basel, Switzerland, in 2006. The water injection under high pressures into the impermeable crystalline basement induced more than 10,000 earthquakes during the 6-days injection phase, which reached magnitudes that required the reduction of the injection flow rates, the eventual well shut-in and the abandonment of the project. The spatiotemporal properties of the induced seismicity indicate the migration of the seismic front away from the borehole cashing shoe, which is more likely associated with pore-pressure diffusion into a complex network of fractures. During the first three days of the injection phase, seismicity diffuses away from the cashing show at slow diffusion rates, which can be described by a slow sub-diffusive process. The diffusion process changes dramatically following the increase of the injection flow rates and the wellhead pressure, where a fast migration of seismicity and super-diffusion is observed. After the reduction of the injection rates and the eventual well bled-off, the induced seismicity rates decreased drastically and the earthquake diffusion process turned back to slow sub-diffusion, which persisted for a 100-days period. Overall, the

  16. Terra Nova sailaway marks the beginning of the second stage in Newfoundland offshore development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2001-08-01

    The second stage of offshore oil development in Newfoundland and Labrador began in August 2001 with the launch of the Terra Nova floating production, storage and off loading (FPSO) vessel destined for the mooring site in the Terra Nova oilfield. The field was discovered in 1984 in the Jeanne d'Arc Basin about 350 km southeast of St. John's Newfoundland. It is located about 35 km from the Hibernia oil field and consists of three fault blocks. Total recoverable reserves are estimated at 370 million barrels from the Graben and East Flank fault block while the Far East fault block has the potential to add 100 million additional barrels. Production of first oil from the Terra Nova project is expected to start by the end of 2001, following final commissioning and hookup of the underwater system at its final destination. This will involve the connection of the spider buoy that attaches the vessel's turret to the underwater templates. Risers will run from the turret to the 24 wells that are located in huge glory holes that protect the wellheads from icebergs that scrape the ocean floor of the frigid North Atlantic waters. When fully loaded, the 292 metre long vessel will weigh in at 153,000 tons. Shuttle tankers will then collect the crude oil from the FPSO vessel and ship it to the Whiffen Head, Newfoundland transshipment facility. The field is expected to produce for about 15 years, but the additional reserves to be found in the Far East block may prolong the life of the field by 2 years. The largest shareholder in the project is Petro-Canada with a 33.99 per cent share. Other companies in the development include Mobil Oil, Husky Oil, Norsk Hydro, Murphy Oil, Mosbacher Operating and Chevron Canada Resources. The project was developed through the original concept of the Terra Nova Alliance in which various companies assumed responsibilities for different aspects of the project from reservoir engineering, downhole work, flowlines, process modules, the FPSO

  17. Scaling minerals from deep-seated granitic geothermal reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagisawa, Norio

    2016-04-01

    To promote geothermal energy use and sustainable production, the information of scaling situation from deep-seated geothermal reservoir is important. In Japan, at the Kakkonda geothermal field, Iwate prefecture, north-eastern of Japan, there is 80MW geothermal power plant using about 300 degree C fluid from the reservoir at the boundary between Quaternary Kakkonda granite and Pre-Tertiary formations about 3km depth and more deep-seated reservoir survey was carried out by NEDO. Then, to understand the mechanism of deep-seated reservoir, we survey the metal sulphide minerals deposited at production wellhead and pipeline and compare with the brine And the brine of WD-1a at 3.7km depth, into Quaternary Kakkonda granite rock. In Kakkonda geothermal system, the scales are classified into two types based on sulphide mineralogy, which are Pb-Zn rich type and Cu rich type. Pb-Zn rich scales, for example galena (PbS) and Sphalerite (ZnS), are found in Well-19 located at the marginal part of the Kakkonda granite And Cu-rich scales, for example chalcocite (Cu2S), loellingite (FeAs2) and native antimony (Sb), are found in Well-13, located at the central part of the Kakkonda granite. And the brine of WD-1a at 3.7km depth about 500 degree C, into Quaternary Kakkonda granite rock near Well-19 is rich in Pb and Zn and similar composition as the Well-19 scale. Therefore, deep reservoir of Kakkonda field evolves with mixing the fluid of shallow reservoir and the brine of occurred in the Quaternary Kakkonda granite. Then, the existence of both Pb-Zn rich scale and Cu rich scale is a characteristic feature of Kakkonda geothermal and this fact suggest to have similar zoning as found in Porphyry Copper Zoning. On progress of production the fluids from deep reservoir continue to be suffered by the fluid of shallow reservoir and meteoritic water. With temperature of production well decreasing and chemical composition changed, silica precipitation decreased and the metal sulfide mineral

  18. Thermodynamics characters of heat pipe in oil recovery%热管在采油中的热力学特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓琦; 李鑫; 王淑彦; 范丹婷

    2012-01-01

    热管在采油中的应用,主要应用在井筒中.井筒重力热管是利用热管将油藏自身能量即井底热量传递到井筒上部,在无需外加动力条件下实现对井筒近井口流体加热,改善井口流体温度分布,防止近井口结蜡和絮凝,从而降低采油成本.为了研究井筒重力热管的传热性能和工作过程,进而改进和优化重力热管的传热性能,运用Visual Basic进行模拟计算.基于理论研究,证明热管起到了均衡流体温度场的作用.在此基础上,原油与地层传热系数反应了原油向地层散热的能力,该系数与井口油温基本呈线性关系;原油与热管传热系数对原有温度的降低有一定局限性;对于长径比较大的热管,热流密度不大的情况下,会出现携带极限,可通过计算得到验证.%Heat pipe is mainly used in the wellbore. Gravity assisted heat pipe can heat up fluid near well end applying energy from reservoir, with no additional dynamic, carrying heat from the bottom to top, that balances fluid temperature distribution at well bottom and avoids waxing precipitation and flocculation, so as to reduce the oil recovery cost. To investigate characteristic and process of gravity assisted heat pipe in the wellbore and improve temperature conductivity of heat pipe, Visual Basic programming was implemented for the simulation. Heat pipe can serve for the balancing of the fluid temperature field. Based on the above analysis, it can be concluded that the coefficient of heat transfer between crude petroleum and stratum reflects capability of thermal loss from oil to stratum, and it is a linear relation as a function of oil temperature near the wellhead. There is limitation of the coefficient between crude oil and heat pipe decreasing initial oil temperature, under the condition of large length-diameter ratia and low heat-flow density, there will be a entrainment limit that can be verified by calculation.

  19. Behavior of induced microseismic events with large magnitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asanuma, H.; Nozaki, H.; Niitsuma, H.; Wyborn, D.; Baria, R.

    2006-12-01

    Hydraulic stimulation of geothermal and oil/gas reservoir is one of the conventional techniques used for enhancing the productivity from reservoirs. In most cases, the stimulation process induces microseismic events. Based on the activity, location, magnitude and source mechanism of such events, the 3D localization and characterization of the reservoir can be carried out with practical resolution. Typically, microseismic events from a reservoir have moment magnitudes of less than zero, and most of them are detectable only by downhole sensors with high sensitivity. However, it is known that some of these events have higher magnitudes and can be felt at the surface. These large events can be hazardous from an environmental point of view, while resulting in enhanced permeability in the reservoir at the same time. The authors have analyzed the spatio-temporal distribution, and source mechanism of such microseismic events having large magnitudes (big events) observed during the hydraulic stimulations at Australian hot fractured rock (HFR) site in the Cooper Basin (Asanuma et al., SEG Exp. Abst., 2004) and also at the European hot dry rock (HDR) site in Soultz, France (Asanuma et al., Trans. GRC, 2004). A comparison between the origin time of these big events and the hydraulic records showed that many of the big events occurred after the shut-ins at both the sites. Besides, during pumping, most of these events did not show a clear correlation to the wellhead pressure and the rate of pumping. In most cases, the source mechanism of the big events were consistent with the shear slip of a preexisting fracture. We have also found that some of the big events at the Australian site brought very clear extension of the seismic cloud into zones that were seismically silent before, suggesting that some kind of hydraulic barrier was overcome by these big events. The observational data also showed that the microseismic events at those sites originated mainly from a slip of asperities

  20. The United Nations framework classification for fossil energy and mineral reserves and resources 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, D.; Lynch-Bell, M.; Ross, J.; Heiberg, S.; Griffiths, C.; Klett, T.

    2011-01-01

    Effective resource management in a globalizing economy requires accurate assessments of fossil energy and minerals resources. The recoverable quantities must be described and categorized in a manner that is consistent with scientific and social/economic information describing the economy as well as with the information describing the projects to recover them. A number of different standards have evolved over time in response to various professional needs Under a mandate given by the United Nations Economic and Social Council, the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) has cooperated with Governments, regulatory agencies, industry, international organizations, and professional organizations (including Committee for Mineral Reserves International Reporting Standards (CRIRSCO), the Society of Petroleum Engineers (SPE), the American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG), and the Society of Petroleum Evaluation Engineers (SPEE)), as well as with outstanding experts, to define a global classification for extractive activities (including oil, gas, heavy oil and bitumen extraction) that reflects the principal concerns of existing petroleum and mineral classifications. The United Nations Framework Classification for Fossil Energy and Mineral Reserves and Resources-2009 (UNFC-2009) aims to serve the following four principal needs: 1. The needs in international energy and mineral studies to formulate robust and long-sighted policies. 2. The needs of governments in managing their resources accordingly, allowing market prices to be transferred to the wellhead with as little loss as possible. 3. The industries' needs for information while deploying technology, management and finance to secure energy supplies and capture value efficiently within the established frameworks to serve its host countries, shareholders and stakeholders. 4. The financial community's need for information to allocate capital appropriately, providing reduced costs and improved long

  1. The Value of Renewable Energy as a Hedge Against Fuel Price Risk: Analytic Contributions from Economic and Finance Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolinger, Mark A; Wiser, Ryan

    2008-09-15

    natural gas in the United States over a relatively brief period. Perhaps of most concern is that this dramatic price increase was largely unforeseen. Figure 2 compares the EIA's natural gas wellhead price forecast from each year's Annual Energy Outlook (AEO) going back to 1985 against the average US wellhead price that actually transpired. As shown, our forecasting abilities have proven rather dismal over time, as over-forecasts made in the late 1980's eventually yielded to under-forecasts that have persisted to this day. This historical experience demonstrates that little weight should be placed on any one forecast of future natural gas prices, and that a broad range of future price conditions ought to be considered in planning and investment decisions. Against this backdrop of high, volatile, and unpredictable natural gas prices, increasing the market penetration of renewable generation such as wind, solar, and geothermal power may provide economic benefits to ratepayers by displacing gas-fired generation. These benefits may manifest themselves in several ways. First, the displacement of natural gas-fired generation by increased renewable generation reduces ratepayer exposure to natural gas price risk--i.e., the risk that future gas prices (and by extension future electricity prices) may end up markedly different than expected. Second, this displacement reduces demand for natural gas among gas-fired generators, which, all else equal, will put downward pressure on natural gas prices. Lower natural gas prices in turn benefit both electric ratepayers and other end-users of natural gas. Using analytic approaches that build upon, yet differ from, the past work of others, including Awerbuch (1993, 1994, 2003), Kahn and Stoft (1993), and Humphreys and McClain (1998), this chapter explores each of these two potential 'hedging' benefits of renewable electricity. Though we do not seek to judge whether these two specific benefits outweigh any incremental

  2. Insulation system in an integrated motor compressor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sihvo, V.

    2010-07-01

    A high-speed and high-voltage solid-rotor induction machine provides beneficial features for natural gas compressor technology. The mechanical robustness of the machine enables its use in an integrated motor-compressor. The technology uses a centrifugal compressor, which is mounted on the same shaft with the high-speed electrical machine driving it. No gearbox is needed as the speed is determined by the frequency converter. The cooling is provided by the process gas, which flows through the motor and is capable of transferring the heat away from the motor. The technology has been used in the compressors in the natural gas supply chain in the central Europe. New areas of application include natural gas compressors working at the wellheads of the subsea gas reservoir. A key challenge for the design of such a motor is the resistance of the stator insulation to the raw natural gas from the well. The gas contains water and heavy hydrocarbon compounds and it is far harsher than the sales gas in the natural gas supply network. The objective of this doctoral thesis is to discuss the resistance of the insulation to the raw natural gas and the phenomena degrading the insulation. The presence of partial discharges is analyzed in this doctoral dissertation. The breakdown voltage of the gas is measured as a function of pressure and gap distance. The partial discharge activity is measured on small samples representing the windings of the machine. The electrical field behavior is also modeled by finite element methods. Based on the measurements it has been concluded that the discharges are expected to disappear at gas pressures above 4 - 5 bar. The disappearance of discharges is caused by the breakdown strength of the gas, which increases as the pressure increases. Based on the finite element analysis, the physical length of a discharge seen in the PD measurements at atmospheric pressure was approximated to be 40 - 120 mum. The chemical aging of the insulation when exposed to raw

  3. GeoSteamNet: A computer code to simulate geothermal steam flow in a pipeline network; GeoSteamNet: Programa de computo para simular el flujo de vapor geotermico de una red de vaporductos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma P., Mahendra; Aragon A., Alfonso [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)]. E-mail: mahendra@iie.org.mx; Ruiz L., Alejando; Mendoza C., Alfredo [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Campo Geotermico Los Azufres, Campamento Agua Fria, Michoacan (Mexico)

    2011-07-15

    A computer package, GeoSteamNet, was developed to simulate steam transport in a pipeline network of a geothermal field. The fluid motion is governed by the following basic principles: conservation of mass, linear momentum principle (Newton's second law or the Navier Stokes equations), and the first and second laws of thermodynamics. The second law of thermodynamics defines the direction of a spontaneous process, which is indirectly validated in the algorithm as vapor flows from high-to-low pressure, and heat flows from high-to-low temperatures. The nonlinear equations are solved with the Newton-Raphson method. Using the ActiveX component OrificeMeter, the steam-flow balance was calculated for power plants U-15 and U-16 in Los Azufres Geothermal Field, Mich., in February 2009. U-15 was fed by the production wells AZ-04, AZ-28, AZ-30, AZ-65D, and AZ-66, whereas wells AZ-28A, AZ-45, AZ-56, AZ-67, AZ-69D were connected to U-16. The analytical error is within {+-}4%, which is acceptable for practical purposes for steam-supply management, considering the uncertainties in parameters, such as pressure, temperature, pressure fluctuation at the wellhead, etc. The steam simulation results by GeoSteamNet for a hypothetical-pipeline network in a geothermal system with two production wells and a power plant illustrate its functionality. Several points need to be emphasized. For a specific geometry-pipeline network, there is only a certain amount of mass (vapor) that can be transported at a given pressure at the wellheads and the power plant. The construction and modification of a pipeline network is very expensive and the production of geothermal wells depends on many natural factors; therefore, there is need to conduct a tolerance study for each component of the network. A simulation study of the virtual-pipeline network for the design of a geothermal power plant can save money, effort, and time. [Spanish] Se desarrollo un paquete de computo, GeoSteamNet, para simular el

  4. A comprehensive prediction model of wellbore temperature, pressure and accumulated liquid for gas wells%气井井筒温度、压力与积液综合预测模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李波; 王军磊; 宁波; 苏海洋

    2014-01-01

    气井积液是产水气藏开发设计和气井生产管理面临的重要问题,但目前对气井流动机理与携液预测还存在争议。从气液两相流的基本流动机理出发,建立了考虑液滴变形和井斜影响下气井井筒的流型、温度、压力与携液综合预测模型,并用实际井数据对模型进行了验证。结果表明,所建模型可用于直井、斜井和水平井的产水气井井筒温度压力预测,预测误差小于5%;在环雾状流动情况下,井筒内液体以液滴和液膜的形式被完全带出井口,不会出现井筒积液;对常规垂直气井,利用井口数据便能判断气井积液情况,Turner 模型计算气井携液临界值较实际值偏大,李闽模型计算结果明显偏小,建议采用彭朝阳模型计算气井携液临界值;对斜井和水平井,则需要同时考虑液滴变形和井斜的影响,水平井近水平段携液临界流速和流量明显较垂直井段小,而造斜井段携液临界流速和临界流量随井斜角的增大先增大后减小,在井斜角为30°~60°之间达到最大值,因此造斜井段是气井积液判断的重点部位。%Accumulated fluid in gas well is a key issue confronted in development design of water-producing gas pools and pro-duction management of gas wells, but at present, there are controversies on flow mechanism and water carrying prediction in gas wells. From the basic flow mechanism of two-phase flow of gas and liquid, a comprehensive prediction model was built to predict the flow pattern, temperature, pressure and water-carrying in gas wells, and this model was verified using actual well data. The result shows that the model so built can be used to predict the wellbore temperature and pressure of water-producing vertical wells, deviated wells and horizontal wells, and the prediction error is less than 5%. Under condition of annular mist flow, the fluid in the wellbore is carried out of the wellhead

  5. The Value of Renewable Energy as a Hedge Against Fuel Price Risk: Analytic Contributions from Economic and Finance Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolinger, Mark A; Wiser, Ryan

    2008-09-15

    natural gas in the United States over a relatively brief period. Perhaps of most concern is that this dramatic price increase was largely unforeseen. Figure 2 compares the EIA's natural gas wellhead price forecast from each year's Annual Energy Outlook (AEO) going back to 1985 against the average US wellhead price that actually transpired. As shown, our forecasting abilities have proven rather dismal over time, as over-forecasts made in the late 1980's eventually yielded to under-forecasts that have persisted to this day. This historical experience demonstrates that little weight should be placed on any one forecast of future natural gas prices, and that a broad range of future price conditions ought to be considered in planning and investment decisions. Against this backdrop of high, volatile, and unpredictable natural gas prices, increasing the market penetration of renewable generation such as wind, solar, and geothermal power may provide economic benefits to ratepayers by displacing gas-fired generation. These benefits may manifest themselves in several ways. First, the displacement of natural gas-fired generation by increased renewable generation reduces ratepayer exposure to natural gas price risk--i.e., the risk that future gas prices (and by extension future electricity prices) may end up markedly different than expected. Second, this displacement reduces demand for natural gas among gas-fired generators, which, all else equal, will put downward pressure on natural gas prices. Lower natural gas prices in turn benefit both electric ratepayers and other end-users of natural gas. Using analytic approaches that build upon, yet differ from, the past work of others, including Awerbuch (1993, 1994, 2003), Kahn and Stoft (1993), and Humphreys and McClain (1998), this chapter explores each of these two potential 'hedging' benefits of renewable electricity. Though we do not seek to judge whether these two specific benefits outweigh any incremental

  6. Model Refinement and Simulation of Groundwater Flow in Clinton, Eaton, and Ingham Counties, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luukkonen, Carol L.

    2010-01-01

    potential declines in water levels in both the upper glacial aquifer and the upper sandstone bedrock aquifer under steady-state and transient conditions when recharge was reduced by 20 and 50 percent in urban areas. Transient simulations were done to investigate reduced recharge due to low rainfall and increased pumping to meet anticipated future demand with 24 months (2 years) of modified recharge or modified recharge and pumping rates. During these two simulation years, monthly recharge rates were reduced by about 30 percent, and monthly withdrawal rates for Lansing area production wells were increased by 15 percent. The reduction in the amount of water available to recharge the groundwater system affects the upper model layers representing the glacial aquifers more than the deeper bedrock layers. However, with a reduction in recharge and an increase in withdrawals from the bedrock aquifer, water levels in the bedrock layers are affected more than those in the glacial layers. Differences in water levels between simulations with reduced recharge and reduced recharge with increased pumping are greatest in the Lansing area and least away from pumping centers, as expected. Additionally, the increases in pumping rates had minimal effect on most simulated streamflows. Additional simulations included updating the estimated 10-year wellhead-contributing areas for selected Lansing-area wells under 2006-7 pumping conditions. Optimization of groundwater withdrawals with a water-resource management model was done to determine withdrawal rates while minimizing operational costs and to determine withdrawal locations to achieve additional capacity while meeting specified head constraints. In these optimization scenarios, the desired groundwater withdrawals are achieved by simulating managed wells (where pumping rates can be optimized) and unmanaged wells (where pumping rates are not optimized) and by using various combinations of existing and proposed well locations.

  7. The Appliacation of The Ultra-Deep Sidetrack Horizontal Well Logging Technology in Tahe Oilfield%超深侧钻水平井测井工艺在塔河油田的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗荣; 李双林; 罗军

    2012-01-01

    系统分析塔河油田超深侧钻水平井测井作业过程的施工难点,主要包括湿接头对接成功率低、仪器温度性能难以得到有效保证、仪器组合方式受到限制、施工过程中会存在一些井下风险等因素.从井筒准备、仪器串性能检测与组合、施工过程控制、井口电缆防护等4个方面入手,形成较完善的超深侧钻水平井测井工艺和配套施工方案.超深侧钻水平井测井如果井底温度超出了常规仪器175℃/140 MPa的工作范围,应使用高温仪器进行施工;施工前应认真检测仪器的温度性能;采取高温烘箱检测法时其加温温度应提高至175℃;井口电缆防碰装置对钻具输送时测井电缆在井口的安全起到了非常有效的保护;现场多个施工单位之间的紧密配合也是安全顺利取全取准测并资料的关键因素之一.该工艺能够应用到水平井和复杂深井直井施工中.超深侧钻水平井测井工艺在塔河油田先后完成近40井次的施工任务,一次施工成功率达到90%.%There are some difficulties in logging operations in the ultra-deep sidetracked horizontal wells in Tahe oilfield, such as poor wet-connector docking, strict tool temperature-resistant performance,limited logging tool combination and unknown downhole risks while conveying the drilling strings. To solve the above problems, proposed is a new and more complete ultra-deep sidetracked horizontal well logging technique and its supporting logging program, which includes wellbore preparation, tool performance test and combination, logging process control and protection of the wellhead cable. If the downhole temperature is above 175 ℃/140 MPa, we should use higher temperature-resistant logging tool; the tool's temperature performance must be carfully tested before logging operations; if the high temperature drying over testing method is used, the tool's temperature should be warmed up to 175 ℃. The anti

  8. Determination of hydrologic properties needed to calculate average linear velocity and travel time of ground water in the principal aquifer underlying the southeastern part of Salt Lake Valley, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freethey, G.W.; Spangler, L.E.; Monheiser, W.J.

    1994-01-01

    A 48-square-mile area in the southeastern part of the Salt Lake Valley, Utah, was studied to determine if generalized information obtained from geologic maps, water-level maps, and drillers' logs could be used to estimate hydraulic conduc- tivity, porosity, and slope of the potentiometric surface: the three properties needed to calculate average linear velocity of ground water. Estimated values of these properties could be used by water- management and regulatory agencies to compute values of average linear velocity, which could be further used to estimate travel time of ground water along selected flow lines, and thus to determine wellhead protection areas around public- supply wells. The methods used to estimate the three properties are based on assumptions about the drillers' descriptions, the depositional history of the sediments, and the boundary con- ditions of the hydrologic system. These assump- tions were based on geologic and hydrologic infor- mation determined from previous investigations. The reliability of the estimated values for hydro- logic properties and average linear velocity depends on the accuracy of these assumptions. Hydraulic conductivity of the principal aquifer was estimated by calculating the thickness- weighted average of values assigned to different drillers' descriptions of material penetrated during the construction of 98 wells. Using these 98 control points, the study area was divided into zones representing approximate hydraulic- conductivity values of 20, 60, 100, 140, 180, 220, and 250 feet per day. This range of values is about the same range of values used in developing a ground-water flow model of the principal aquifer in the early 1980s. Porosity of the principal aquifer was estimated by compiling the range of porosity values determined or estimated during previous investigations of basin-fill sediments, and then using five different values ranging from 15 to 35 percent to delineate zones in the study area that were assumed to

  9. Modifications of biological effects of drinking mineral waters in Pyatigorsk resort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reps, Valentina; Efimenko, Natalia; Abramtsova, Anna; Kozlova, Victoria; Sagradyan, Gayne; Tovbushenko, Tatiana; Kotova, Margarita

    2017-04-01

    A variety of types of drinking mineral waters (MW) of Pyatigorsk Deposit (PD) is explained by its structural style and hydrogeological conditions. In resort conditions the most widely used mineral waters are acidulated and carbonate chloride sodium hydrocarbonate MW. It has been shown earlier that natural MW have a high biological exposure potential on exchange processes both in norm and during pathological metabolic changes [1, 2]. We have studied some modification options of the composition of natural drinking mineral waters (MW) in Pyatigorsk resort to increase their rehabilitation potential. In the experiment on 110 male-rats of Wistar line there have been examined some biological effects of a course drinking intake (21 days) of natural MW from the spring that has sulphate-hydrocarbonate-chloride calcium-sodic composition with ferrum elevated level (3-5 mg/dm3), mineralization of 5,0-5,2 g/dm3, CO2 1,3-2,2 g/dm3, daily flow of 10-86 m3/day, temperature from 14 to 370C at the wellhead and MW modified by nanoparticles (NP) of Se (0,04 mg/kg, d - 35 nm) and Ag nanoparticles (0,001 mg/kg, d - 30 nm). One of the mechanisms of selenium influence on carbohydrate metabolism is the regulation of blood glucose level and its utilization by tissues. After the course by the studied MW type there has been noticed Ca-ATPase level reduction in liver against the background of insulin downregulation and glycemia elevation in blood serum of the rats [1]. There has been also observed glucagon retrogression in the blood of the labolatory animals after the treatment course by natural MW in 3 times (pnatural MW - 4,8 (4,6-5 ‰) mmol/l in comparison with the control - 4 (4 - 4,4 ‰) mmol/l. Insulin concentration did not change with the animals after the watering course by MW with Se nanoparticles whereas the course by MW with Ag nanoparticles was followed by insulin decreased secretion by 22% against the background of hypoglycemia. In the impact analysis of the course influence of

  10. GIS-based technology for marine geohazards in LW3-1 Gas Field of the South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Tianyun; Liu, Lejun; Li, Xishuang; Hu, Guanghai; Liu, Haixing; Zhou, Lin

    2013-04-01

    The exploration and exploitation of deep-water oil-gas are apt to be suffered from high-risk geo-hazards such as submarine landslide, soft clay creep, shallow gas, excess pore-water pressure, mud volcano or mud diaper, salt dome and so on. Therefore, it is necessary to survey the seafloor topography, identify the unfavourable geological risks and investigate their environment and mechanism before exploiting the deep-water oil-gas. Because of complex environment, the submarine phenomenon and features, like marine geohazards, can not be recognized directly. Multi-disciplinary data are acquired and analysed comprehensively in order to get more clear understanding about the submarine processes. The data include multi-beam bathymetry data, sidescan sonar images, seismic data, shallow-bottom profiling images, boring data, etc.. Such data sets nowadays increase rapidly to large amounts, but may be heterogeneous and have different resolutions. It is difficult to make good management and utilization of such submarine data with traditional means. GIS technology can provide efficient and powerful tools or services in such aspects as spatial data management, processing, analysis and visualization. They further promote the submarine scientific research and engineering development. The Liwan 3-1 Gas Field, the first deep-water gas field in China, is located in the Zhu II Depression in the Zhujiang Basin along the continental slope of the northern South China Sea. The exploitation of this field is designed to establish subsea wellhead and to use submarine pipeline for the transportation of oil. The deep-water section of the pipeline route in the gas field is to be selected to pass through the northern continental slope of the South China Sea. To avoid huge economic loss and ecological environmental damage, it is necessary to evaluate the geo-hazards for the establishment and safe operation of the pipeline. Based on previous scientific research results, several survey cruises have

  11. Modeling study of the Pauzhetsky geothermal field, Kamchatka, Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiryukhin, A.V. [Institute of Volcanology, Kamchatsky (Russian Federation); Yampolsky, V.A. [Kamchatskburgeotermia State Enterprise, Elizovo (Russian Federation)

    2004-08-01

    the central part of the field. The basic scenario assumes that the wellhead pressures of the eight exploitation wells and the injection rates of the three reinjection wells are maintained at the same conditions as of December 2000. In the base case, the model predicts a 12% decline in steam production rate (at 2.7 bar) during the next 30 years, even as the steam supply for the 5 MW{sub e} power plant is maintained. The modeling study confirmed that 30-60 kg/s is an optimal reinjection rate. An increase in the exploitation load has no significant effect on steam production from the central section of the Pauzhetsky field during the 30-year exploitation period; load doubling (eight additional exploitation wells) leads to a mere 16-27% increase in steam production. (author)

  12. Watershed Analysis of Nitrate Transport as a Result of Agricultural Inputs for Varying Land Use/Land Cover and Soil Type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, M. E.; Sykes, J. F.

    2006-12-01

    parameters that were obtained from literature or could be calculated from readily available soil information for the Grand River Watershed. Spatially and seasonally averaged results for the 14 year period indicate that nitrate leaching through the root zone does not exceed the maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 10 mg/l nitrate. However, in 1992, over 12 percent of the watershed area in crops exceeded the MCL during the winter season. The characteristically well drained soils of the central region of the watershed are more susceptible to groundwater contamination following autumn manure-N applications, as no crop-growth is present to remove excess nitrogen from the system. Therefore, farm best management practices do not ensure that groundwater contamination will not occur. This research is an important first step in developing agricultural contaminant loadings for a watershed scale surface water and groundwater model. Municipalities can utilize this model as a management tool to determine the extent of contamination and delineate site sensitive locations, such as well-head protection zones. Other applications of this model include risk assessments of contaminant migration due to climate change predictions, varying fertilizer application practices, modifications in crop management and changes in land use. The impact of climate change on recharge has been investigated.

  13. Well construction: future vision; A visao de futuro da construcao de pocos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, Hardy Leonardo da Cunha Pereira; Magalhaes, Guilherme Ribeiro; Placido, Joao Carlos Ribeiro [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    basically consists of a concentric drill string, a sub sea rotating control device located in the wellhead, whose function is to seal the annulus during drilling operations, preventing leakage of fluid into the sea, and a double blind shear ram in case becomes necessary to shut the well in an eventual emergency disconnection. Thus, with the availability of this new technology, lower day rate rigs can be used for drilling the salt section of the pre-salt wells. The uncertainties of the salt layer geomechanical properties and its interaction with the cement and the casing is of great concern in relation to the Pre-salt wells integrity. The wells in the Pre-salt are designed for a 30 year lifespan, with a minimum of interventions during their lives. Because of that it is not expected to have interventions in a period smaller than 10 years, even for recompletion, making cement or casing logging tools less useful. A project is being conducted to research and develop continuous monitoring tools to verify and ensure the integrity of the cement sheath and of the casing. The initial objective is to identify and quantify the parameters related to this integrity as well as their metrology. Specific sensors will be developed, or adapted, to monitor these parameters and lab and field tests will be performed to qualify them for the pre-salt wells. All the needed interfaces for outside-casing deployment of sensors will also be carefully addressed by this project. The monitoring of the integrity parameters shall allow the early identification of problems during the life of the production as well as help the engineers to optimize new well projects on the field. (author)

  14. Subsurface extensions of natural gas storage caverns Empelde. Technical challenges; Technische Herausforderungen bei der untertaegigen Erweiterung des Erdgas-Kavernenspeichers Empelde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pawlitza, P.; Drewes, F. [GHG - Gasspeicher Hannover GmbH, Ronnenberg (Germany); Walden, S. [ESK GmbH (Germany)

    2013-11-15

    The gas cavern storage facility in Empelde came into operation with three caverns between the early and the middle nineteen-eighties and is subject to a surface and subsurface extension since 2004. The subsurface extension comprises the construction of two new caverns (K4 is operated since 2009, K5 in leaching process since 2010) and the leaching extension as well as repair works of both existing caverns K2 (since 2012 in gas operation again) and K1 (is being re-leached since the end of 2012). The volumetric extension process of cavern K2 took place in three steps: flooding, releaching, gas re-filling. The flooding with water through a 4 1/2'' tubing were implemented discontinuously alternating with phases of gas withdrawal through the annulus 4 1/2'' x 9 5/8'' in order to minimize the risk of hydrate formation. The length of the individual phases mainly depended on the gas demand/consumption of the storage users. Water injection has been made in a gas well-head pressure range above the hydrostatic pressure of the water column in order to keep it stable at any time and to keep the cavern pressure high. The cavern volume increased by 12% because of the flooding. For the re-leaching process the existing 9 5/8'' tubing was pulled out and the permanent packer was milled. By using leaching strings 6 5/8'' x 10 3/4'' a maximum leaching rate of 300 m{sup 3}/h was realized and within 10 months an additional volume of 212,500 m{sup 3} was created according to the evaluation of the leaching process. Due to the geological affected development of the cavern shape the 6 5/8'' leaching string had to be pulled from sump level to the middle of the cavern height. In the course of the repair process and the new completion of cavern K2 with considerable time consumption the lower 33 m of the 13 3/8'' casing were milled for integrity purposes and the packer with the 9 5/8'' welded tubing was

  15. Development of the LG380/60 Coiled Tubing Unit(CTU)%LG380/60连续管作业机的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭峰

    2015-01-01

    The LG380/60 coiled tubing unit (CTU) is developed specially for the severe natural environment and operating condi-tions based on the designed LG230 CTU. The CTU adopts the twin truck-mounted self-propelled scheme. It consists of the hydraulically lifted control room, sinking quickly replaceable CT reel, three hose reels, blowout prevention system, injector head and hydraulic gooseneck. The chassis of the overall unit has a strong cross-country capacity. The beam of the chassis with variable cross section is customized. So a sinking chassis design is adopted to increase the capacity of the CT reel. The hydraulic system which is of structural simplicity and high reliability can realize the linkage control of the injector head and CT reel. The control system has functions of human-computer interaction and CAN communication. In addition the unit is equipped with the wellhead anti-collision device to reduce the risk. It has such strengths as strong lifting capacity, large reel capacity, desirable transportability, and extensive applicability. The field application shows that the low gear of the unit reaches the maximum CT tripping speed of 25 m/min in operation. The lowering depth is 3 134 m. The operation and control of the equipment are normal,reaching the design standard.%针对国内油田复杂的作业环境及实际作业需求,在成功研制的LG230连续管作业机的基础上,开发了LG380/60大直径连续管作业机。该作业机主要包括可升降操作室、可升降油管滚筒、软管滚筒工作组、井口防喷装置、大提升力注入头以及动力鹅颈管等部件。该作业机底盘采用变截面大梁结构,油管滚筒能够下沉安装,满足滚筒大容量的要求;液压系统组成简单、可靠性高,提高了注入头与油管滚筒联动性;自动控制系统具有CAN通信和人机交互功能。同时,还配备井口防碰装置,降低作业风险。整机提升能力强,适应管径大,滚筒容

  16. Assessment of local seismic response of the Stracciacappa maar (Central Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscatelli, Massimiliano; Simionato, Maurizio; Gaudiosi, Iolanda; Sottili, Gianluca; Pagliaroli, Alessandro; Sirianni, Pietro; Pileggi, Domenico; Avalle, Alessandra; Giallini, Silvia; Razzano, Roberto; Mancini, Marco; Vignaroli, Gianluca; Piscitelli, Sabatino; Bellanova, Jessica; Calamita, Giuseppe; Perrone, Angela; Lanzo, Giuseppe

    2016-04-01

    In this work, we face the definition of a subsoil model aimed at the local seismic response assessment of the Stracciacappa maar (Sabatini Volcanic District, central Italy) (e.g., De Rita and Zanetti, 1986; Marra et al., 2014). The pyroclastic succession of Stracciacappa records two main hydromagmatic eruptive phases ended about 0.09 Ma ago (e.g., Sottili et al., 2010). The preserved crater, with a diameter of about 1500 meters and a crater floor of about 30-40 m, hosted a lake until it was drained in AD 1834. In the framework of the cooperation between CNR IGAG and Italian Department of Civil Protection (DPC) of the Presidency of Council of Ministers (DPC funds 2014), a multidisciplinary approach including detailed stratigraphic and geophysical study has been carried out in the Stracciacappa maar and surrounding areas. New geological map and cross sections illustrate the complex geometric relationships between the thick pyroclastic surge succession, showing diffuse sandwave structures, and even meter-sized lava ballistic. A composite interdigitation between lacustrine and epiclastic debris sediments fills the crater floor. A continuous coring borehole was drilled inside the crater, 45 meters deep from the wellhead, with sampling of undisturbed samples. In addition, four MASW and one SCPTU test were carried out, in order to define the velocity profile of the s-waves within the lacustrine deposits. This Vs profile was then extended at higher depths by using the results of four 2D seismic passive arrays. Moreover, in order to define the resonance frequency of sedimentary covers via the HVSR technique, twenty-eight measurements were carried out with digital sensor Tromino® and seven measurements were performed with a Lennartz® Le-3D/5s sensor with Lennartz Marslite® digitizer. Finally, three electrical resistivity tomography tests, with a total length of about 3500 meters, were carried out with the purpose of constraining the subsoil model. Regarding the non linear

  17. 胜利油田超稠油蒸汽驱汽窜控制技术%Steam channeling control in the steam flooding of super heavy oil reservoirs, Shengli Oilfield

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹嫣镔; 刘冬青; 张仲平; 王善堂; 王全; 夏道宏

    2012-01-01

    In view of the severe steam channeling in the steam flooding of super heavy reservoir, lab experiment on steam channeling control were carried out. The combination of nitrogen foam and thermoset blocking agent was tested to seal steam channeling, in which thermoset blocking agent plugs big pore throats, while nitrogen foam adjusts steam absorption profile. The optimized foam formulation has a resistance factor of over 30 at 300 ℃, can plug low oil saturation areas selectively, and applies to the plugging of high permeability zones in super-heavy oil reservoirs. Thermoset blocking agent, which would consolidate at 120℃ in 4 h and consolidate at 150℃ in 2 h, can provide effective plugging during dynamic steam flooding. The best steam channeling control mode was determined using parallel tube model. By the combination of nitrogen foam and thermoset blocking agent, the recovery rate is 5.7% higher than the application of nitrogen foam only, with the overall sweeping efficiency reaching up to 60.8%. In 2011, the mode was used in the steam flooding in Shan-56 reservoir. The water cut drops 10.2%, the wellhead temperature of producer drops more than 15℃, the oil production of the well group increases over 28 tons per day, the valid period of a single cycle is up to 198 days, and the oil production increases 2 562 t, showing significant improvement in steam flooding.%针对超稠油油藏蒸汽驱过程中汽窜严重的问题,开展室内蒸汽驱汽窜控制技术研究,将氮气泡沫与热固性堵剂相结合封堵汽窜,热固性堵剂封堵大孔道,氮气泡沫调整蒸汽的吸汽剖面.优化后的泡沫剂体系300℃阻力因子达到30以上,且对低含油饱和度区域具有选择性封堵作用,适用于超稠油油藏条件下高渗透带的封堵;热固性堵剂在静态120℃可4h形成固结,150℃可2h有效固结,在蒸汽动态驱替过程中可形成有效封堵.利用双岩心管开展堵调工艺评价研究,结果表明,采用热固

  18. Abiotic Versus Biotic Weathering Of Olivine As Possible Biosignatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longazo, Teresa G.; Wentworth, Susan J.; Clemett, Simon J.; Southam, Gordon; McKay, David S.

    2001-01-01

    We are investigating the weathering of silicate minerals by both purely inorganic, and biologically mediated processes using field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS). By resolving surface textures and chemical compositions of weathered surfaces at the sub-micron scale we hope to be able to distinguish abiotic from biotic weathering processes and so establish a new biosignature applicable to the study of astromaterials including but not limited to the Martian meteorites. Sterilized olivine grains (San Carlos, Arizona) no more than 1-2 mm in their longest dimension were optically assayed to be uniform in color and free of inclusions were selected as weathering subjects. Prior to all experiments surface morphologies and Fe/Mg ratios were determined for each grain using FE-SEM and EDS. Experiments were divided into two categories abiotic and biotic and were compared with "naturally" weathered samples. For the preliminary experiments, two trials (open and closed to the ambient laboratory environment) were performed under abiotic conditions, and three trials under biotic conditions (control, day 1 and day 2). The open system abiotic trials used sterile grains heated at 98 C and 200 C for both 24 and 48 hours in 1L double distilled de-ionized water. The closed system abiotic trials were conducted under the same conditions but in a sealed two layer steel/Teflon "bomb" apparatus. The biotic trials used sterile grains mounted in a flow-through device attached to a wellhead on the Columbia River aquifer. Several discolored, altered, grains were selected to document "natural" weathering surface textures for comparison with the experimental samples. Preliminary results indicate there are qualitative differences in weathered surface textures among all the designed experiments. The olivine grains in abiotic trials displayed etching, pitting, denticulate margins, dissolution and clay formation. The scale of the features

  19. The kinetic characteristic and opening condition of fixed valve for sucker rod pump in CBM wells%煤层气井有杆泵设备泵阀运动规律和开启条件

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘新福; 綦耀光; 吴建军; 郭本广; 孟尚志

    2012-01-01

    在分析固定阀开启压差的基础上,建立了泵阀运动规律的数学模型和开启条件的计算模型,并利用仿真分析,获得泵阀在不同工况下的运动规律、水力损失和临界沉没度。结果表明:临界沉没度的存在可很好地解释低沉没度下泵阀不能顺利开启和井口间歇式出水现象;冲程和冲次的增大,使阀球升程增加,利于井液入泵;同时使速度变化加快,提高井液流速和携煤粉能力,但容易造成阀球"抖动"现象,降低泵效;固定阀阀球在开启瞬间的加速度和水力损失较大,二者幅值波动的频率较快并在短时间内迅速变小,最后趋向稳定;临界沉没度和水力损失随泵型和冲次的增加而增大,依据水力损失最大值可得到38 mm和44 mm泵的临界沉没度通常在3~5 m。%The mathematic models of kinematic law and opening condition were developed based on the opening pressure drop of fixed valve.The kinematic relation,hydraulic loss and critical submergence depth of fixed valve under different working condition were obtained with the realistic model.The results show that the critical submergence depth in the wellbore can reveal the phenomenon of the valve shutting down and intermittent water flow at the wellhead.An increased stroke and pumping speed results to an increased displacement of the valve ball and variation of initial velocity.And it is beneficial for the well liquid to go into the valve,enhances the ability to carrying coal dust,and makes the valve tremble and decline the pump efficiency.The instantaneous acceleration and hydraulic loss of the fixed valve are large,the frequencies of oscillation are high,and become low during the stroke.The critical submergence depth and hydraulic loss increase due to the size of pump and pumping speed.And based on the maximum hydraulic loss,the critical submergence depth can be obtained within 3~5 m for the pump of 38 mm and 44 mm.

  20. Occurrence and status of volatile organic compounds in ground water from rural, untreated, self-supplied domestic wells in the United States, 1986-99

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Michael J.; Lapham, Wayne W.; Rowe, Barbara L.; Zogorski, John S.

    2002-01-01

    Samples of untreated ground water from 1,926 rural, self-supplied domestic wells were analyzed for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) during 1986-99. This information was used to characterize the occurrence and status of VOCs in domestic well water. The samples were either collected as part of the U.S. Geological Survey?s National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program occurrence-assessment studies or were compiled by NAWQA from existing ambient ground-water or source-water-quality monitoring programs conducted by local, State, and other Federal agencies. Water samples were collected at the wellhead prior to treatment or storage. In most samples, 55 target VOCs were analyzed, and occurrence and status information generally was computed at an assessment level of 0.2 mg/L (microgram per liter). At least one VOC was detected in 12 percent of samples (232 samples) at an assessment level of 0.2 mg/L. This detection frequency is relatively low compared to the 26 percent detection frequency of at least one VOC in public sup-ply wells sampled by NAWQA, and the difference may be due, in part, to the higher pumping rates, pumping stress factors, and larger contributing areas of public supply wells. Samples with detections of at least one VOC were collected from wells located in 31 of 39 States. Solvents were the most frequently detected VOC group with detections in 4.6 percent of samples (89 samples) at an assessment level of 0.2 mg/L. The geographic distribution of detections of some VOC groups, such as fumigants and oxygenates, relates to the use pattern of com-pounds in that group. With the exception of com-pounds used in organic synthesis, detection frequencies of VOCs by group are proportional to the average half-life of compounds in the group. When the organic synthesis group is excluded from the analysis, a good correlation exists between the detection frequency of VOCs by group and average half-life of compounds in the group. Individually, VOCs were not commonly

  1. Leakage Risk Assessment of CO{sub 2} Transportation by Pipeline at the Illinois Basin Decatur Project, Decatur, Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazzoldi, A.; Oldenburg, C. M.

    2013-12-17

    the pipeline route within the ADM plant. Leakage scenarios at sites along the route of the pipeline, where plant operations (e.g., vehicular and train transportation) seem to present a higher likelihood of accidental failure, for example due to vehicles or equipment crashing into the pipeline and completely severing it, were modeled by allowing them to have a double source consistent with the pipeline releasing high-pressure CO{sub 2} from both ends of the broken pipe after a full-bore offset rupture. Simulation results show that the built environment of the plant plays a significant role in the dispersion of the gas as leaking CO{sub 2} can impinge upon buildings and other infrastructure. In all scenarios simulated, the region of very high-concentration of CO{sub 2} is limited to a small area around the pipeline failure, suggesting the likelihood of widespread harmful CO{sub 2} exposure to plant personnel from pipeline leakage is low. An additional risk is posed by the blast wave that emanates from a high-pressure pipeline when it is breached quickly. We estimate the blast wave risk as low because it occurs only for a short time in the immediate vicinity of the rupture, and requires an instantaneous large-scale rupture to occur. We recommend consideration of signage and guard rails and posts to mitigate the likelihood of vehicles crashing into the pipeline. A standardized emergency response plan applicable to capture plants within industrial sites could be developed based on the IBDP that would be useful for other capture plants. Finally, we recommend carrying out coupled wellbore-reservoir blowout scenario modeling to understand the potential for hazardous conditions arising from an unexpected blowout at the wellhead.

  2. Out of gas: Tenneco in the era of natural gas regulation, 1938--1978

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raley, David

    2011-12-01

    Federal regulation over the natural gas industry spanned 1938--1978, during which time both the industry and the nature of the regulation changed. The original intent of the law was to reform an industry stagnating because of the Depression, but regulation soon evolved into a public-private partnership to win World War II, then to a framework for the creation and management of a nationwide natural gas grid in the prosperous post-war years, and finally to a confused and chaotic system of wellhead price regulation which produced shortages and discouraged new production during the 1950s and 1960s. By the 1970s, regulation had become ineffective, leading to deregulation in 1978. The natural gas industry operated under the oversight of the Federal Power Commission (FPC) which set gas rates, regulated profits and competition, and established rules for entry and exit into markets. Over the course of four decades, the FPC oversaw the development of a truly national industry built around a system of large diameter pipelines. Tennessee Gas Transmission Company (later Tenneco) was an integral part of this industry. At first, Tenneco prospered under regulation. Regulation provided Tenneco with the means to build its first pipeline and a secure revenue stream for decades. A series of conflicts with the FPC and the difficulties imposed by the Phillips vs. Wisconsin case in 1954 soon interfered with the ambitious long-term goals of Tenneco CEO and president Gardiner Symonds. Tenneco first diversified into unregulated businesses in the 1940s, which accelerated as regulatory changes constrained the company's growth. By the 1960s the company was at the forefront of the conglomeration movement, when Tenneco included a variety of disparate businesses, including oil and gas production, chemicals, consumer packaging, manufacturing, shipbuilding, and food production, among others. Gas transmission became a minority interest in Tenneco's portfolio as newer and larger divisions

  3. Fugitive methane emissions from natural, urban, agricultural, and energy-production landscapes of eastern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Bryce F. J.; Iverach, Charlotte P.; Lowry, Dave; Fisher, Rebecca E.; France, James L.; Nisbet, Euan G.

    2015-04-01

    Modern cavity ringdown spectroscopy systems (CRDS) enable the continuous measurement of methane concentration. This allows for improved quantification of greenhouse gas emissions associated with various natural and human landscapes. We present a subset of over 4000 km of continuous methane surveying along the east coast of Australia, made using a Picarro G2301 CRDS, deployed in a utility vehicle with an air inlet above the roof at 2.2 mAGL. Measurements were made every 5 seconds to a precision of coal mines, unconventional gas developments (coal seam gas; CSG), and leaks detected in cities and country towns. In areas of dryland crops the median methane concentration was 1.78 ppm, while in the irrigation districts located on vertisol soils the concentration was as low as 1.76 ppm, which may indicate that these soils are a sink for methane. In the Hunter Valley, New South Wales, open-cut coal mining district we mapped a continuous 50 km interval where the concentration of methane exceeded 1.80 ppm. The median concentration in this interval was 2.02 ppm. Peak readings were beyond the range of the reliable measurement (in excess of 3.00 ppm). This extended plume is an amalgamation of plumes from 17 major pits 1 to 10 km in length. Adjacent to CSG developments in the Surat Basin, southeast Queensland, only small anomalies were detected near the well-heads. Throughout the vast majority of the gas fields the concentration of methane was below 1.80 ppm. The largest source of fugitive methane associated with CSG was off-gassing methane from the co-produced water holding ponds. At one location the down wind plume had a cross section of approximately 1 km where the concentration of methane was above 1.80 ppm. The median concentration within this section was 1.82 ppm, with a peak reading of 2.11 ppm. The ambient air methane concentration was always higher in urban environments compared to the surrounding countryside. Along one major road in Sydney we mapped an interval that

  4. Biodegradation of dispersed Macondo crude oil by indigenous Gulf of Mexico microbial communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jian; Sandoval, Kathia; Ding, Yan [Southeaest Environmental Research Center, Florida International University, North Miami Beach, FL 33181 (United States); Stoeckel, Donald; Minard-Smith, Angela [Battelle 505 King Ave, Columbus, OH 43201 (United States); Andersen, Gary; Dubinsky, Eric A. [Earth Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Atlas, Ronald [Department of Biology, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY 40292 (United States); Gardinali, Piero, E-mail: gardinal@fiu.edu [Southeaest Environmental Research Center, Florida International University, North Miami Beach, FL 33181 (United States); Department of Chemistry & Biochemistry, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33199 (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Because of the extreme conditions of the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) release (turbulent flow at 1500 m depth and 5 °C water temperature) and the sub-surface application of dispersant, small but neutrally buoyant oil droplets < 70 μm were formed, remained in the water column and were subjected to in-situ biodegradation processes. In order to investigate the biodegradation of Macondo oil components during the release, we designed and performed an experiment to evaluate the interactions of the indigenous microbial communities present in the deep waters of the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) with oil droplets of two representative sizes (10 μm and 30 μm median volume diameter) created with Macondo source oil in the presence of Corexit 9500 using natural seawater collected at the depth of 1100–1300 m in the vicinity of the DWH wellhead. The evolution of the oil was followed in the dark and at 5 °C for 64 days by collecting sacrificial water samples at fixed intervals and analyzing them for a wide range of chemical and biological parameters including volatile components, saturated and aromatic hydrocarbons, dispersant markers, dissolved oxygen, nutrients, microbial cell counts and microbial population dynamics. A one phase exponential decay from a plateau model was used to calculate degradation rates and lag times for more than 150 individual oil components. Calculations were normalized to a conserved petroleum biomarker (30αβ-hopane). Half-lives ranged from about 3 days for easily degradable compounds to about 60 days for higher molecular weight aromatics. Rapid degradation was observed for BTEX, 2–3 ring PAHs, and n-alkanes below n-C23. The results in this experimental study showed good agreement with the n-alkane (n-C13 to n-C26) half-lives (0.6–9.5 days) previously reported for the Deepwater Horizon plume samples and other laboratory studies with chemically dispersed Macondo oil conducted at low temperatures (< 8 °C). The responses of the microbial populations also

  5. Advanced Nanostructured Molecular Sieves for Energy Efficient Industrial Separations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunhao Li, Michael Beaver

    2012-01-18

    performance of an adsorptive separation unit for propane/propylene separation compared with traditional zeolite adsorbents. The enhanced transport will allow for more efficient utilization of a given adsorbent inventory by reducing process cycle time, allowing a faster production rate with a fixed amount of adsorbent or smaller adsorbent inventory at a fixed production rate. Smaller adsorbent inventory would also lead to significant savings in the capital cost due to smaller footprint of the equipment. Energy consumption calculation, based on the pulse test results for rived NaX zeolite adsorbent, of a hypothetical moderate-scale SMB propane/propylene separation plant that processes 6000 BPSD refinery grade propylene (70% propylene) will consume about 60-80% less energy (both re-boiler and condenser duties) compared to a C3 splitter that process the same amount of feed. This energy saving also translates to a reduction of 30,000-35,000 tons of CO2 emission per year at this moderate processing rate. The enhancement of mass transport achievable by introduction of controlled mesoporosity to the zeolite also opens the door for the technology to be applied to several other adsorption separation processes such as the separation of xylene isomers by SMB, small- and large scale production of O2/N2 from air by pressure swing adsorption, the separation of CO2 from natural gas at natural gas wellheads, and the purification of ultra-high purity H2 from the off gas produced by steam-methane-reforming.

  6. Evaluation of Injection Efficiency of Carbon Dioxide Using an Integrated Injection Well and Geologic Formation Numerical Simulation Scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kihm, J.; Park, S.; Kim, J.; SNU CO2 GEO-SEQ TEAM

    2011-12-01

    A series of integrated injection well and geologic formation numerical simulations was performed to evaluate the injection efficiency of carbon dioxide using a multiphase thermo-hydrological numerical model. The numerical simulation results show that groundwater flow, carbon dioxide flow, and heat transport in both injection well and sandstone formation can be simultaneously analyzed, and thus the injection efficiency (i.e., injection rate and injectivity) of carbon dioxide can be quantitatively evaluated using the integrated injection well and geologic formation numerical simulation scheme. The injection rate and injectivity of carbon dioxide increase rapidly during the early period of time (about 10 days) and then increase slightly up to about 2.07 kg/s (equivalent to 0.065 Mton/year) and about 2.84 × 10-7 kg/s/Pa, respectively, until 10 years for the base case. The sensitivity test results show that the injection pressure and temperature of carbon dioxide at the wellhead have significant impacts on its injection rate and injectivity. The vertical profile of the fluid pressure in the injection well becomes almost a hydrostatical equilibrium state within 1 month for all the cases. The vertical profile of the fluid temperature in the injection well becomes a monotonously increasing profile with the depth due to isenthalpic or adiabatic compression within 6 months for all the cases. The injection rate of carbon dioxide increases linearly with the fluid pressure difference between the well bottom and the sandstone formation far from the injection well. In contrast, the injectivity of carbon dioxide varies unsystematically with the fluid pressure difference. On the other hand, the reciprocal of the kinematic viscosity of carbon dioxide at the well bottom has an excellent linear relationship with the injectivity of carbon dioxide. It indicates that the above-mentioned variation of the injectivity of carbon dioxide can be corrected using this linear relationship. The

  7. 海上平台注水井远程控制与管理系统∗%Remote Control and Management of Offshore Water Injection Well

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟祥海; 邹剑; 张志熊; 张乐; 蓝飞

    2016-01-01

    以先进的通信网络为依托的更为精细化、智能化的数字油田将成为未来的发展趋势。为了提高分层注水的精度与效率,基于数字油田的发展,引入传感器技术、自动化技术和信息化等技术,研制了海上平台注水井远程控制与管理系统。系统由井下部分、海上平台部分以及陆地基地部分组成,采用直流电力线载波通信方式,实现对多口井、多个层注水的集中、高效、精细化管理;同时,系统异常情况报警保护功能实现了地层超压报警和井口压力超压报警,并能实现水嘴的自动关断功能,保证了注水安全。现场应用结果表明:地面控制设备与井下智能测调工作筒通信正常,在地面可以实现井下注入量的监控与调配,分层调配配注量和注入压力达到配注要求。该系统的研制为数字化油田的发展奠定了基础。%More elaborate and intelligent digital oilfield based on advanced communications network will be the future trend. For the digital oil field development, the sensor technology, automation technology and informa⁃tion technology have been introduced to develop the remote control and management system for offshore water injec⁃tion well. The developed syste