WorldWideScience

Sample records for well-differentiated endocrine carcinoma

  1. Recent trends in the treatment of well-differentiated endocrine carcinoma of the small bowel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gilles; Poncet; Jean-Luc; Faucheron; Thomas; Walter

    2010-01-01

    Well-differentiated endocrine carcinomas of the small bowel are fairly rare neoplasms that present many clinical challenges. They secrete peptides and neuroamines that may cause carcinoid syndrome. However, many are clinically silent until late presentation with major effects. Initial treatment aims to control carcinoid syndrome with somatostatin analogs. Even if there is metastatic spread, surgical resection of the primitive tumor should be discussed in cases of retractile mesenteritis, small bowel ischemi...

  2. Diagnostic performances of the S.R.S. (scintigraphy of somatostatin receptors) and of the PET-F.D.G. in the extension situation of the well differentiated endocrine carcinomas at high Ki67; Performances diagnostiques de la SRS et de la TEP-FDG dans le bilan d'extension des carcinomes endocrines bien differencies a Ki67 eleve ({>=} 10%)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abgrala, R.; Leboulleux, S.; Deandreis, D.; Lumbroso, J.; Schlumberger, M.; Baudin, E. [Medecine nucleaire, institut Gustave-Roussy, Villejuif, (France); Auperin, A. [Biostatistiques, Institut Gustave-Roussy, Villejuif, (France); Dromain, C. [radiologie, institut Gustave-Roussy, Villejuif, (France); Guigay, J. [pneumologie, institut Gustave-Roussy, Villejuif, (France); Ducreux, M. [hepato-gastroenterologie, Institut Gustave-Roussy, Villejuif, (France)

    2009-05-15

    The results suggest that among 90% of patients with well differentiated endocrine carcinomas at high Ki, the PET-F.D.G. is more noticeable or equivalent to the scintigraphy of somatostatin receptors (S.R.S.). (N.C.)

  3. Recurrent well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magarey, Matthew J R; Freeman, Jeremy L

    2013-07-01

    The incidence of Well-differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma (WDTC) has been increasing over the past several decades. Consequently, so has the incidence of recurrence, which ranges from 15% to 30%. Factors leading to increased risk of recurrence are well described. However, the impact of local and regional recurrence is not well understood, but distant recurrence dramatically reduces 10-year survival to 50%. Recurrent WDTC has several established options for treatment; Observation, Radioactive Iodine (RAI), Surgery and External Beam Radiotherapy (EBRT). Novel treatments such as radiofrequency ablation (RFA) and percutaneous ultrasound-guided ethanol injection (PUEI) are beginning to gain popularity and have promising early results. A review of the current literature, outcome measurements and a strategy for revision surgery within the central neck compartment are discussed within this manuscript.

  4. "Intercellular bridges" in a case of well differentiated squamous carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Michaela; Mikita, Geoffrey; Hoda, Rana S

    2016-02-01

    Intercellular bridges may aide in definitive identification of malignant cell origin, especially in squamous cell carcinoma. They are difficult to identify in routine cytologic specimens and are especially rare in smear preparations. Herein, we present images of intercellular bridges from a case of well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus in a cytologic specimen obtained from FNA of a paraesophageal lymph node.

  5. A New Strategy for the Surgical Management of RLN Infiltrated by Well-Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Boucek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma (WDTC represents the most common endocrine malignancy. Despite excellent prognoses exceeding 90% in 10-year follow-up, there are clinically controversial issues. One of these is extrathyroidal tumour extension invading recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN. The spread outside of the thyroid parenchyma and invasion to the surrounding structures, classified as always T4a, are the most important negative prognostic factor for the WDTC. Conversely, resection of the RLN leads to vocal cord paralysis with hoarseness, possible swallowing problems, and finally decreased quality of life. We propose a new algorithm for intraoperative management based on the MACIS classification, which would allow swift status evaluation pre/intraoperatively and consider a possibility to preserve the infiltrated RLN without compromising an oncological radicality. In the case of a preoperative vocal cord paralysis (VCP and confirmation of the invasive carcinoma, a resection of the RLN and the nerve graft reconstruction are indicated. Preoperatively, unaffected vocal cord movement and intraoperatively detected RLN infiltration by the invasive WDTC require an individual assessment of the oncological risk by the proposed algorithm. Preservation of the infiltrated RLN is oncologically acceptable only in specific groups of patients of a younger age with a minor size of primary tumour.

  6. Radiofrequency Ablation to Treat Loco-Regional Recurrence of Well-Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Sun Jin; Jung, So Lyung; Kim, Bum Soo; Ahn, Kook Jin; Choi, Hyun Seok; Lim, Dong Jun; Kim, Min Hee; Bae, Ja Seong; Kim, Min Sik; Jung, Chan Kwon; Chong, Se Min

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) in the treatment of loco-regional, recurrent, and well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Materials and Methods Thirty-five recurrent well-differentiated thyroid carcinomas (RTC) in 32 patients were treated with RFA, between March 2008 and October 2011. RTCs were detected by regular follow-up ultrasound and confirmed by biopsy. All patients had fewer than 3 RTCs in the neck and were at high surgical risk or refused to undergo ...

  7. Well-differentiated gall bladder hepatoid carcinoma producing alpha-fetoprotein: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kao Ching-Yun

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Gall bladder carcinoma is rare, and metastatic gall bladder carcinoma from hepatocellular carcinoma has been reported in only a few patients. Case presentation We present a 73-year-old man with a history of hepatitis B virus-related liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. He received transcatheter arterial chemoembolization, and was diagnosed to have an alpha-fetoprotein producing gall bladder tumor with intraluminal growth. Open cholecystectomy was performed. Pathologic examination of the lesion revealed a well-differentiated hepatoid carcinoma. The lesion was thought most likely to be a metastatic lesion from previous hepatocellular carcinoma. His alpha-fetoprotein level dropped to normal levels five months after the surgery. Conclusion This unusual intraluminal growing tumor proved to be a well-differentiated hepatoid carcinoma, most likely a metastatic lesion from previous hepatocellular carcinoma. This case reminds clinicians that in looking for likely hepatocellular carcinoma recurrence, when no detectable hepatic lesion can account for an elevated alpha-fetoprotein level, the gall bladder should be included in the search for the site of metastasis.

  8. Radiofrequency ablation to treat loco-regional recurrence of well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, So Lyung; Kim, Bum Soo; Ahn, Kook Jin [Dept. of Radiology, eoul St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); and others

    2014-12-15

    To evaluate the efficacy of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) in the treatment of loco-regional, recurrent, and well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Thirty-five recurrent well-differentiated thyroid carcinomas (RTC) in 32 patients were treated with RFA, between March 2008 and October 2011. RTCs were detected by regular follow-up ultrasound and confirmed by biopsy. All patients had fewer than 3 RTCs in the neck and were at high surgical risk or refused to undergo repeated surgery. Average number of RFA sessions were 1.3 (range 1-3). Post-RFA biopsy and ultrasound were performed. The mean follow-up period was 30 months. Pre- and post-RFA serum thyroglobulin values were evaluated. Thirty-one patients with 33 RTCs were treated with RFA only, whereas 1 patient with 2 RTCs was treated with RFA followed by surgery. At the last follow-up ultrasound, 31 (94%) of the 33 RTCs treated with RFA alone completely disappeared and the remaining 2 (6%) RTCs showed decreased volume. The largest diameter and volume of the 33 RTCs were markedly decreased by 93.2% (from 8.1 +/- 3.4 mm to 0.6 +/- 1.8 mm, p < 0.001) and 96.4% (from 173.9 +/- 198.7 mm{sup 3} to 6.2 +/- 27.9 mm{sup 3}, p < 0.001), respectively. Twenty of the 21 RTCs evaluated with post-RFA biopsies (95%) were negative for malignancy. One (5%) showed remaining tumor that was removed surgically. The serum thyroglobulin was decreased in 19 of 26 patients (73%). Voice change developed immediately after RFA in 6 patients (19%) and was spontaneously recovered in 5 patients (83%). Radiofrequency ablation can be effective in treating loco-regional, recurrent, and well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma in patients at high surgical risk.

  9. Well-differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma in a ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, N M; Blas-Machado, U; Cazzini, P; Oguni, J; Camus, M S; Dockery, K K; Butler, A M

    2013-02-01

    A 16-year-old male ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) was presented with severe cachexia and an abdominal mass. The encapsulated, multilobular mass replaced the right medial lobe of the liver and compressed the adjacent gall bladder. Multiple haemorrhages and necrotic foci were found within the mass. Microscopically, neoplastic cells formed cords of moderately pleomorphic, polygonal cells with mild to moderate anaplasia. Immunohistochemical markers used for diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinomas in man were used to characterize the neoplastic cells, which expressed hepatocyte-specific antigen, but not glypican-3 or polyclonal carcinoembryonic antigen. Gross, microscopical and immunohistochemical features of the tumour were most consistent with a well-differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma. Although this tumour is common among prosimians, to the authors' knowledge this is the first documented case in a ring-tailed lemur. Hepatocellular carcinomas have been associated with hepatitis virus infections and excessive hepatic iron in man; however, no association was established between this tumour and viral infection or hepatic iron storage disease in the present case. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Liver cell adenoma showing sequential alteration of radiological findings suggestive of well-differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Takayuki Kogure; Yoshiyuki Ueno; Satoshi Sekiguchi; Kazuyuki Ishida; Takehiko Igarashi; Yuta Wakui; Takao Iwasaki; Tooru Shimosegawa

    2009-01-01

    A liver tumor 35 mm in diameter was found incidentally in a 40-year-old woman who had no history of liver diseases or the use of oral contraceptives. Radiological diagnostics showed the typical findings of liver cell adenoma (LCA). Dynamic computed tomography revealed that the tumor showed a homogenous enhancement in the arterial phase and almost the same enhancement as the surrounding liver parenchyma in the delayed phase. The tumor was found to contain fat on magnetic resonance imaging. A benign fat containing liver tumor was suggested. However, radiological findings altered, which caused us to suspect that a welldifferentiated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) containing fat was becoming dedifferentiated. Partial hepatectomy was performed and the pathological findings showed the typical findings of LCA. This case was an extremely rare LCA, which had no background of risk for LCA and developed the sequential alteration of the radiological findings to suspect well-differentiated HCC.

  11. DMBT1 is frequently downregulated in well-differentiated gastric carcinoma but more frequently upregulated across various gastric cancer types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conde, Ana R; Martins, Ana P; Brito, Miguel

    2007-01-01

    Well-differentiated gastric carcinomas are considered to represent a distinct entity emerging via specific molecular changes different from those found in other gastric carcinoma types. The gene deleted in malignant brain tumours 1 (DMBT1) at 10q25.3-q26.1 codes for a protein presumably involved ...

  12. DMBT1 is frequently downregulated in well-differentiated gastric carcinoma but more frequently upregulated across various gastric cancer types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conde, Ana R; Martins, Ana P; Brito, Miguel

    2007-01-01

    Well-differentiated gastric carcinomas are considered to represent a distinct entity emerging via specific molecular changes different from those found in other gastric carcinoma types. The gene deleted in malignant brain tumours 1 (DMBT1) at 10q25.3-q26.1 codes for a protein presumably involved ...

  13. Metastatic well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma in the prepuce of a dog: a report of clinicopathological, immunophenotypic and therapeutic approach

    OpenAIRE

    Auler,P.A.; C.O. Gamba; R.S. Horta; G.E. Lavalle; G.D. Cassali

    2014-01-01

    This report describes a case of a well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the foreskin of a dog, with metastasis in the regional lymph node. A six-year-old male intact Pit Bull dog presented a preputial ulcerated lesion with an evolution time of one year and enlarged left inguinal lymph node. Surgical resection of the preputial lesion and inguinal lymph nodes was made. The diagnosis of a well differentiated SCC was made following histopathological analysis and immunohistochemistr...

  14. Focal Bronchiectasis Causing Abnormal Pulmonary Radioiodine Uptake in a Patient with Well-Differentiated Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ash Gargya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. False-positive pulmonary radioactive iodine uptake in the followup of differentiated thyroid carcinoma has been reported in patients with certain respiratory conditions. Patient Findings. We describe a case of well-differentiated papillary thyroid carcinoma treated by total thyroidectomy and radioiodine ablation therapy. Postablation radioiodine whole body scan and subsequent diagnostic radioiodine whole body scans have shown persistent uptake in the left hemithorax despite an undetectable stimulated serum thyroglobulin in the absence of interfering thyroglobulin antibodies. Contrast-enhanced chest computed tomography has confirmed that the abnormal pulmonary radioiodine uptake correlates with focal bronchiectasis. Summary. Bronchiectasis can cause abnormal chest radioactive iodine uptake in the followup of differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Conclusions. Recognition of potential false-positive chest radioactive iodine uptake, simulating pulmonary metastases, is needed to avoid unnecessary exposure to further radiation from repeated therapeutic doses of radioactive iodine.

  15. Metastatic well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma in the prepuce of a dog: a report of clinicopathological, immunophenotypic and therapeutic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.A. Auler

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This report describes a case of a well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma (SCC of the foreskin of a dog, with metastasis in the regional lymph node. A six-year-old male intact Pit Bull dog presented a preputial ulcerated lesion with an evolution time of one year and enlarged left inguinal lymph node. Surgical resection of the preputial lesion and inguinal lymph nodes was made. The diagnosis of a well differentiated SCC was made following histopathological analysis and immunohistochemistry technique was used to confirm lymph node metastasis and to determine the histological features of the tumor. Here we demonstrated that immunohistochemistry can be an important complementary diagnostic tool to assess the prognostic features of SCC and to determine the treatment of choice. Also, the combination of COX-2 selective inhibitors in adjuvant therapy is presented as an effective alternative treatment for metastatic SCC in dogs.

  16. Chemo-hormone therapy of non-well-differentiated endocrine tumours from different anatomic sites with cisplatinum, etoposide and slow release lanreotide formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correale, P; Sciandivasci, A; Intrivici, C; Pascucci, A; Del Vecchio, M T; Marsili, S; Savelli, V; Voltolini, L; Di Bisceglie, M; Guarnieri, A; Gotti, G; Francini, G

    2007-01-01

    We report the results of a phase II trial in patients with metastatic endocrine tumours from different sites, which aimed to evaluate the anti-tumour activity and toxicity of a cisplatinum and etoposide regimen administered in combination with the somatostatin agonist lanreotide given in slow release formulation. Between January 1999 and November 2003, 27 patients with histological diagnoses of endocrine tumours with different degrees of differentiation, excluding well differentiated carcinoid neoplasms, received intravenous (i.v.) administration of cisplatinum (30 mg m−2) and etoposide (100 mg m−2) on days 1–3 and intramuscular administration of 60 mg lanreotide on day 1, in a 21-day cycle. All of the patients were evaluable for toxicity and response. The treatment was very well tolerated as no grade 4 toxicity was observed. Four patients achieved a complete response, six a partial response, 12 experienced disease stabilisation and five disease progression. The average time to progression and to survival were 9 and 24 months respectively. These results suggest that this chemo-hormone therapy regimen is well tolerated and active in patients with non-well differentiated endocrine tumours. PMID:17437022

  17. Multistep hepatocarcinogenesis from a dysplastic nodule to well-differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma in a patient with alcohol-related liver cirrhosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Soo Ryang Kim; Yoshitake Hayashi; Hirotsugu Ikawa; Kenji Ando; Keiji Mita; Shuichi Fuki; Michiie Sakamoto; Yoshihiro Kanbara; Toshiyuki Matsuoka; Masatoshi Kudo

    2007-01-01

    We describe a rare case of the transformation of a dysplastic nodule into well-differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in a 56-year-old man with alcoholrelated liver cirrhosis. Ultrasound (US) disclosed a 10 mm hypoechoic nodule and contrast enhanced US revealed a hypovascular nodule, both in segment seven.US-guided biopsy revealed a high-grade dysplastic nodule characterized by enhanced cellularity with a high N/C ratio, increased cytoplasmic eosinophilia,and slight cell atypia. One year later, the US pattern of the nodule changed from hypoechoic to hyperechoic without any change in size or hypovascularity. US-guided biopsy revealed well-differentiated HCC of the same features as shown in the first biopsy, but with additional pseudoglandular formation and moderate cell atypia.Moreover, immunohistochemical staining of cyclaseassociated protein 2, a new molecular marker of well-differentiated HCC, turned positive. This is the first case of multistep hepatocarcinogenesis from a dysplastic nodule to well-differentiated HCC within one year in alcohol-related liver cirrhosis.

  18. Continuous 5-fluorouracil infusion plus long acting octreotide in advanced well-differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas. A phase II trial of the Piemonte Oncology Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciuffreda Libero

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Well-differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas are highly vascularized and may be sensitive to drugs administered on a metronomic schedule that has shown antiangiogenic properties. A phase II study was designed to test the activity of protracted 5-fluorouracil (5FU infusion plus long-acting release (LAR octreotide in patients with neuroendocrine carcinoma. Methods Twenty-nine patients with metastatic or locally advanced well-differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma were treated with protracted 5FU intravenous infusion (200 mg/m2 daily plus LAR octreotide (20 mg monthly. Patients were followed for toxicity, objective response, symptomatic and biochemical response, time to progression and survival. Results Assessment by Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST criteria showed partial response in 7 (24.1%, stable disease in 20 (69.0%, and disease progression in 2 patients. Response did not significantly differ when patients were stratified by primary tumor site and proliferative activity. A biochemical (chromogranin A response was observed in 12/25 assessable patients (48.0%; symptom relief was obtained in 9/15 symptomatic patients (60.0%. There was non significant decrease in circulating vascular epithelial growth factor (VEGF over time. Median time to progression was 22.6 months (range, 2.7-68.5; median overall survival was not reached yet. Toxicity was mild and manageable. Conclusion Continuous/metronomic 5FU infusion plus LAR octreotide is well tolerated and shows activity in patients with well-differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma. The potential synergism between metronomic chemotherapy and antiangiogenic drugs provides a rationale for exploring this association in the future. Trial registration NCT00953394

  19. Recombinant Human Thyrotropin-Aided Radioiodine Therapy in Tracheal Obstruction by an Invading Well-Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nickolaos Pontikides

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs usually extend to lymph nodes in the neck and mediastinum. Rarely, they invade the neighboring upper airway anatomical structures. We report a 56-year-old woman who presented with symptoms of upper airway obstruction. Imaging studies revealed a lesion derived from the thyroid which invaded and obstructed the trachea, which appeared to be a highly differentiated PTC. Total thyroidectomy was performed, with removal of the endotracheal part of the mass along with the corresponding anterior tracheal rings. Two months later, a whole body I131 scan after recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone (rh-TSH administration was performed and revealed a residual mass in upper left thyroid lobe. Subsequently, 150 mCi I131 were given following rh-TSH administration. Nine months later, there was no sign of residual tumor. This case is the first one reported in the literature regarding rh-TSH administration prior to RAI ablation in a PTC obstructing the trachea.

  20. Assessment of recombinant human thyrotropin application in following-up patients with well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajkovača Zvezdana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. The most sensitive indicators for detecting recurrence of well-differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC are 131I whole body scintigraphy (WBS and measurement of serum thyroglobulin (Tg. In order to perform it, it is necessary to raise the level of endogenous tiroidstimulating hormon (TSH, which can be achieved by Lthyroxine withdrawal for 3-5 weeks or administration of recombinant human thyrotropin (rhTSH without requiring the discontinuation of thyroid hormone therapy. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of rhTSH using in comparison to the traditional thyroid hormone withdrawal in the follow-up of patients with DTC. Methods. This retrospective study included 44 patients, mean age 48.8 years, with DTC divided into 2 groups. The group I consisted of patients (n = 31 in which the analysis in the follow-up (WBS with 131I, TSH, Tg and antiTgAt made in the hypothyroid state, and group II patients (n = 13 in which they made after the administration of rhTSH. The presence of 13 symptoms and signs of hypothyroidism was investigated on the day of giving 131I. Quality of life was evaluated using a modified form: the quality of life scale (SF-36 completed on the day of giving 131I. Results. In both groups, serum TSH reached a very good stimulation level, but significantly higher in the group II (group I 30.3-101.5 µlU/mL, group II 68.6-192.0 µlU/mL, p < 0.05. In both groups, TSHstimulated Tg was higher (group I 0.1-546.0 ng/mL, group II 0.1-7517 ng/mL comapred to value during the Lthyroxine therapy (group I 0.1-495.0 ng/mL, group II 0.1- 2785 ng/mL. There was no difference in technical quality of WBS obtained from both groups. The patients in the group I had attended 8-13 symptoms of hypothyroidism, while patients in group II did not have symptoms of hypothyroidism. The patients after application of rhTSH, showed statistically significantly better quality of life as compared with those who showed to have L-thyroxine withdrawal, (74

  1. THE ASSOCIATION OF WELL-DIFFERENTIATED THYROID-CARCINOMA WITH INSULAR OR ANAPLASTIC THYROID-CARCINOMA - EVIDENCE FOR DEDIFFERENTIATION IN TUMOR PROGRESSION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Laan, Bernard F.A.M.; FREEMAN, JL; TSANG, RW; ASA, SL

    1993-01-01

    The sequence of tumorigenesis in the thyroid is unclear. It has been proposed that anaplastic carcinomas of the thyroid develop by dedifferentiation in pre-existing differentiated carcinomas. We reviewed all anaplastic and insular (poorly differentiated) thyroid carcinomas in a consultation practice

  2. THE ASSOCIATION OF WELL-DIFFERENTIATED THYROID-CARCINOMA WITH INSULAR OR ANAPLASTIC THYROID-CARCINOMA - EVIDENCE FOR DEDIFFERENTIATION IN TUMOR PROGRESSION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Laan, Bernard F.A.M.; FREEMAN, JL; TSANG, RW; ASA, SL

    1993-01-01

    The sequence of tumorigenesis in the thyroid is unclear. It has been proposed that anaplastic carcinomas of the thyroid develop by dedifferentiation in pre-existing differentiated carcinomas. We reviewed all anaplastic and insular (poorly differentiated) thyroid carcinomas in a consultation practice

  3. Endocrine carcinoma of the pancreatic tail exhibiting gastric variceal bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si-Yuan Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonfunctional endocrine carcinoma of the pancreas is uncommon. Without excess hormone secretion, it is clinically silent until the enlarging or metastatic tumor causes compressive symptoms. Epigastric pain, dyspepsia, jaundice, and abdominal mass are the usual symptoms, whereas upper gastrointestinal (GI bleeding is rare. Here, we describe the case of a 24-year-old man with the chief complaint of hematemesis. Upper GI panendoscopy revealed isolated gastric varices at the fundus and upper body. Ultrasonography and computed tomography showed a tumor mass at the pancreatic tail causing a splenic vein obstruction, engorged vessels near the fundus of the stomach, and splenomegaly. After distal pancreatectomy and splenectomy, the bleeding did not recur. The final pathologic diagnosis was endocrine carcinoma of the pancreas. Gastric variceal bleeding is a possible manifestation of nonfunctional endocrine carcinoma of the pancreas if the splenic vein is affected by a tumor. In non-cirrhotic patients with isolated gastric variceal bleeding, the differential diagnosis should include pancreatic disorders.

  4. Endocrine Mucin-Producing Sweat Gland Carcinoma of the Eyelid Associated With Mucinous Adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Norman C; Proia, Alan D; Lo, Christopher

    2017-09-01

    Endocrine mucin-producing sweat gland carcinoma, a rare, low-grade neoplasm with predilection for the eyelids, has been posited as a precursor to invasive mucinous adenocarcinoma. Endocrine mucin-producing sweat gland carcinoma and its concurrence with mucinous adenocarcinoma have received little attention in the ophthalmic literature. The combination of the 2 histologic patterns parallels endocrine ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast and its transition to Type B invasive mucinous carcinoma. The authors describe a 59-year-old man who developed a tumor of the right upper eyelid showing endocrine mucin-producing sweat gland carcinoma in the outer dermis and extensive mucinous carcinoma in the deeper tissue. Immunohistochemical analysis showed positivity for endocrine markers chromogranin, synaptophysin, CD56, estrogen, and progesterone in each histologic component of the tumor. This research was conducted in conformity with the Helsinki Declaration and HIPPA regulations.

  5. Basaloid squamous carcinoma of the supraglottic larynx with neuro-endocrine features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajjyoti Das

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Basaloid squamous carcinoma (BSC is a rare aggressive variant of squamous cell carcinoma and occurs mainly at the larynx, oropharynx and tongue of the head and neck region. Neuro-endocrine differentiation of BSC is further rare occurrence in laryngeal cancers. We report here a case of BSC of supraglottic larynx with neuro-endocrine differentiation, which was treated by radiotherapy and its response to treatment.

  6. Radioiodine therapy in skeletal metastases from well-differentiated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    with skeletal metastases from well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma ... pathology reports from resected tumours, 9 were papillary and 15 were follicular cancers. ... The diagnosis of thyroid cancer was based on lobectomy in a single subject.

  7. Nonfunctional Metastatic Parathyroid Carcinoma in the Setting of Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2A Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Posada-González

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Parathyroid carcinoma is a very rare malignancy. It has been associated with hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumour syndrome, familial isolated primary hyperparathyroidism, and multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN-1 and 2A (MEN-2A syndromes. We report a 54-year-old man with a MEN-2A which presents with a nonfunctional metastatic parathyroid carcinoma and a pheochromocytoma in the absence of medullary thyroid carcinoma. Only a few cases of parathyroid carcinoma have been reported in the literature associated with this syndrome.

  8. The interplay of endocrine therapy, steroid pathways and therapeutic resistance: Importance of androgen in breast carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Kiyoshi; Miki, Yasuhiro; Ishida, Takanori; Sasano, Hironobu; Suzuki, Takashi

    2017-09-13

    A great majority of breast carcinomas expresses estrogen receptor (ER) and estrogens have crucial roles in the progress of breast carcinomas. Endocrine therapy targeting ER and/or intratumoral estrogen production significantly improved clinical outcomes of the patients with ER-positive breast carcinomas. However, resistance to endocrine therapy is often observed and significant number of patients will recur after the treatment. In addition, treatment for the patients with triple-negative breast carcinomas (negative for all ER, progesterone receptor (PR) and HER2) are limited to cytotoxic chemotherapy and novel therapeutic targets need to be identified. In breast carcinoma tissues, not only ER but androgen receptor (AR) is frequently expressed, suggesting pivotal roles of androgens in the progress of breast carcinomas. Growing interest on androgen action as possible therapeutic target has been taken, but androgen action seems quite complicated in breast carcinomas and inconsistent findings has been also proposed. In this review, we will summarize recent studies regarding intratumoral androgen production and its regulation as well as distinct subset of breast carcinomas characterized by activated AR signaling and recent clinical trial targeting AR in the patients with either ER-positive and ER-negative breast carcinomas. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Imaging Findings in a Case of Mixed Acinar-Endocrine Carcinoma of the Pancreas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Won Jung; Byun, Jae Ho; Lee, Seung Soo; Lee, Moon Gyu [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-06-15

    Mixed acinar-endocrine carcinoma (MAEC) of the pancreas is extremely uncommon. We report here a rare case of MAEC of the pancreas presenting as watery diarrhea. This is the first report in the English-language literature that describes the imaging findings of MAEC of the pancreas, including computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, and MR cholangiopancreatography features

  10. Miliary pulmonary metastases of well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma (medullary excluded) about 10 cases; Les metastases pulmonaires micronodulaires de type miliaire dans le cancer thyroidien bien diff encie (medullaires exclus) a propos de dix cas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ennibi, G. [Hopital Hassan-2, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Agadir (Morocco); Ben Rais, N. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire IBN Sina, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Rabat (Morocco)

    2007-03-15

    Thyroid cancer is relatively a rare cancer; about 1% from all cancers: between 10 and 1591 of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer develop micro or macro-nodular pulmonary metastases. In this study we examined the characteristics and evolution after treatment of 10 patients with micro-nodular or miliary metastases of well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Total body scintigraphy with 131 iodine, chest X-ray or CT scan, and thyroglobulin assay were performed for all patients. The treatment was iodine 131 (3. 7 GBq). therapeutic 131 iodine scan was done for all patients seven days after the 131 administration. The effect of 131 iodine treatment was evaluated by means of changes in the number and size of lung metastases on the total body scintigraphy with 131 iodine and by serum thyroglobulin levels six months after 131 iodine ablation, they all received L-thyroxine (2,4 {mu}g/kg/j). The minimum duration of follow-up was 12 months. There were six females and four males within a range of 13-70 years old. Eight had papillary and two follicular thyroid cancer. These 10 patients benefited 131 iodine therapy. The effect of 131 iodine treatment and the prognostic values of the following variables mere examined: age at the time of 131 iodine. treatment and histological findings. The miliary was rarely diagnosed on the initial investigation. only in to o cases by 131 iodine scar. alter surgery. two cases by chest X-ray, and two cases by CT scan, the initial thyroglobulin levels was very high in seven cases, between 10 and 40 ng/ml in one case and less than 10 ng/ml in two cases. These results indicate that age, 131 iodine uptake. histological findings and the presence of other metastases are important factors in predicting the effects of 131 treatment for pulmonary metastases of well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Among all the variables studied. the best prognosis for survival was demonstrated by increased 131 uptake in pulmonary metastases and by early diagnosis

  11. Evaluation of small ({<=}2 cm) dysplastic nodules and well-differentiated hepatocellular carcinomas with ferucarbotran-enhanced MRI in a 1.0-T MRI unit: Utility of T2*-weighted gradient echo sequences with an intermediate-echo time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonan, Tatsuyuki [Department of Radiology, Kurume University School of Medicine, 67 Asahi-machi, Kurume 830-0011 (Japan); Fujimoto, Kiminori [Department of Radiology, Kurume University School of Medicine, 67 Asahi-machi, Kurume 830-0011 (Japan)], E-mail: kimichan@med.kurume-u.ac.jp; Azuma, Sanae [Department of Radiology, Kurume University School of Medicine, 67 Asahi-machi, Kurume 830-0011 (Japan); Ono, Noriyuki [Department of Internal Medicine, Chikugo City Hospital, Chikugo (Japan); Matsushita, Sunao [Department of Radiology, Chikugo City Hospital, 917-1 Izumi, Chikugo 833-0041 (Japan); Kojiro, Masamichi [Department of Pathology, Kurume University School of Medicine, Kurume (Japan); Hayabuchi, Naofumi [Department of Radiology, Kurume University School of Medicine, 67 Asahi-machi, Kurume 830-0011 (Japan)

    2007-10-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the detectability and signal intensities of small ({<=}2 cm) dysplastic nodules (DNs) and well-differentiated hepatocellular carcinomas (w-HCCs) by T2*-weighted gradient echo (GRE) sequences using an intermediate echo-time (TE) with ferucarbotran in a 1.0-T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) unit. Materials and methods: Pathologically confirmed DNs (n = 13) and w-HCCs (n = 31) with a median largest dimension of 1.1 cm were scanned using ferucarbotran-enhanced MRI. Conventional T2*-weighted GRE sequences (conventional-T2*-GRE: repetition time, 280 ms; echo time, 14 ms; flip angle, 60 deg.) and specific T2*-weighted GRE sequences using an intermediate-TE (specific-T2*-GRE: repetition time, 140 ms; echo time, 8 ms; flip angle, 30 deg.) were obtained before and after ferucarbotran administration. Two independent observers scored all nodules for visibility and assigned confidence level scores to their observations. To assess the effect of ferucarbotran, the tumor-liver signal contrast-to-noise ratio (tumor-liver-CNR) was also calculated for detected nodules by the same two observers with consensus. Results: There was good interobserver agreement regarding the presence of nodules for both sequence types. Qualitative and quantitative analyses indicated that specific-T2*GRE sequences were superior to conventional-T2*-GRE sequences for detecting DNs and w-HCCs with hypointense signals. The tumor-liver-CNR of DNs was significantly different between specific-T2*-GRE sequences and conventional-T2*-GRE sequences (Mann-Whitney test, P < 0.001). Both qualitative and quantitative analyses indicated that conventional-T2*-GRE sequences were superior to specific-T2*-GRE sequences for detecting w-HCCs with heterogeneous and hyperintense signals. Conclusion: Specific-T2*-GRE sequences with ferucarbotran are useful for detecting DNs and w-HCCs that produce hypointense signals on a 1.0-T MRI unit.

  12. Mixed acinar-endocrine carcinoma of the pancreas: new clinical and pathological features in a contemporary series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Run; Jih, Lily; Zhai, Jing; Nissen, Nicholas N; Colquhoun, Steven; Wolin, Edward; Dhall, Deepti

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the novel clinical and pathological features of mixed acinar-endocrine carcinoma of the pancreas. This was a retrospective review of medical records and surgical pathology specimens of patients with a diagnosis of mixed acinar-endocrine carcinoma of the pancreas at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center between 2005 and 2011. Additional immunohistochemistry was performed on the specimens of some patients. Five patients were identified. The median age at presentation was 74 years (range, 59-89 years), and all patients were male. The presenting symptoms were all related to tumor mass effects. The median size of the tumor was 10 cm (range, 3.9-16 cm). Preoperative clinical diagnosis aided by fine-needle aspiration biopsy was incorrect in all 5 cases. Most tumors (3/5) exhibited predominantly endocrine differentiation without hormonal production. Only 10% to 30% of cells were truly amphicrine, whereas most were differentiated into either endocrine or acinar phenotype. The clinical behavior ranged from moderate to aggressive with postoperative survival from 2.5 months to more than 3 years. Four patients received neoadjuvant or adjuvant chemotherapy with variable responses. Mixed acinar-endocrine carcinoma of the pancreas appears to be not uncommon in men, may harbor predominantly endocrine component, is often misdiagnosed by cytology, and exhibits variable clinical behavior. Mixed acinar-endocrine carcinoma of the pancreas should be considered in older patients with sizable pancreatic mass and may warrant aggressive surgical resection and chemotherapy.

  13. Neuroendocrine differentiation in endocrine and nonendocrine lung carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnoila, R I; Mulshine, J L; Steinberg, S M; Funa, K; Matthews, M J; Cotelingam, J D; Gazdar, A F

    1988-12-01

    Bronchial carcinoids and small cell lung cancer (SCLC) are currently recognized as neuroendocrine (NE) neoplasms. However, non-SCLC (NSCLC) may also express NE properties. Paraffin-embedded sections of a comprehensive panel of 113 lung carcinomas were analyzed for the expression of three general markers common to all NE cells, namely, chromogranin A, Leu-7 and neuron-specific enolase (NSE), five specific NE secretory products, and four other tumor markers by immunohistochemistry using the sensitive avidin-biotinylated peroxidase technique. The authors were able to demonstrate the following: (1) most, but not all carcinoids and SCLCs expressed multiple NE markers in a high percentage of tumor cells; (2) up to a half of NSCLC cases contained small subpopulations of cells expressing NE in a high percentage of tumor cells; (2) up to half of NSCLC cases contained small subpopulations of cells expressing NE markers; and (3) occasional NSCLCs showed staining patterns indistinguishable from SCLC. Specifically, 7 of 77 NSCLCs expressed four or more NE markers. NE markers in NSCLCs were more commonly expressed in adenocarcinomas and large cell carcinomas and rarely in squamous cell carcinomas. For comparison, the mean number of NE markers expressed by all cases of NSCLC was 1.5, carcinoids 6.0, and SCLCs 3.8. Individual "marker counts" were not useful in categorizing lung tumors as carcinoids and SCLC versus NSCLC. Instead, 95% of the tumors were correctly classified, applying a statistical model created from staining indices of the three general NE markers (chromogranin A, Leu-7, NSE) and three other tumor markers (carcinoembryonic antigen, keratin, vimentin). Because NSCLCs with NE features might have different clinical characteristics than other NSCLCs, immunohistochemistry provides an effective manner to identify this biologically interesting subset of NSCLCs in routine paraffin sections.

  14. Hidden diagnosis of multiple endocrine neoplasia-1 unraveled during workup of virilization caused by adrenocortical carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Kharb

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple endocrine neoplasia-1 (MEN1 is an autosomal dominant syndrome with classic triad of parathyroid hyperplasia, pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors, and pituitary adenomas. Other recognized manifestations include carcinoid, cutaneous or adrenocortical tumors. It is commonly presented with clinical features related to parathyroid, pancreas or pituitary lesions. Here, we have presented a case that had virilization and biochemical Cushing′s syndrome due to adrenocortical carcinoma as presenting feature of MEN1. Cushing′s syndrome in MEN1 is an extremely rare and usually late manifestation and most cases are due to corticotropin-producing pituitary adenomas. Although Cushing′s syndrome generally develops years after the more typical manifestations of MEN1 appear, it may be the primary manifestation of MEN1 syndrome particularly when related to adrenal adenoma or carcinoma.

  15. A Practical Approach to the Classification of WHO Grade 3 (G3) Well-differentiated Neuroendocrine Tumor (WD-NET) and Poorly Differentiated Neuroendocrine Carcinoma (PD-NEC) of the Pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Laura H; Basturk, Olca; Sue, Jillian J; Klimstra, David S

    2016-09-01

    High-grade neuroendocrine neoplasms (World Health Organization [WHO] G3) of the pancreas include both well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumor (WD-NET) and poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma (PD-NEC). According to the WHO classification scheme, the diagnosis of this group of tumors is based on both the histopathology of the tumor and the assessment of proliferation fraction. However, the former can be challenging due to the lack of well-defined histologic criteria, and the latter alone (ie, >20 mitoses/10 high-power fields or Ki67>20%) may not sufficiently distinguish WD-NETs from PD-NECs. Given the considerable differences in treatment strategies and clinical outcome, additional practical modalities are required to facilitate the accurate diagnosis of high-grade pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms. We examined 33 cases of WHO G3 neuroendocrine neoplasms of the pancreas and attempted to classify them into WD-NET, small cell PD-NEC (PD-NEC-SCC), and large cell PD-NEC (PD-NEC-LCC) or to designate them as "ambiguous" when an uncertain diagnosis was rendered by any of the observers or there was any disagreement in classification among the 3 observers. To simplify the interpretation, both PD-NEC-SCC and PD-NEC-LCC were considered together as PD-NECs in the final analysis. The initial approach was to assess microscopically a single morphologically challenging hematoxylin and eosin section from each case without the knowledge of Ki67 values, performed independently by 3 pathologists to assess the degree of diagnostic concordance, and then evaluate immunohistochemical staining for surrogate biomarkers of known genotypes of WD-NET and PD-NEC, respectively, and, lastly, complete a clinicopathologic review to establish a final definitive classification. Loss of DAXX or ATRX protein expression defined WD-NET, and abnormal p53, Rb, SMAD4 expression signified PD-NEC. When the chosen section displayed an element of WD histopathology, or other tumor sections contained

  16. Neuroendocrine thymic carcinoma metastatic to the parathyroid gland that was reimplanted into the forearm in patient with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 syndrome: a challenging management dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shifrin, Alexander L; LiVolsi, Virginia A; Zheng, Min; Lann, Danielle E; Fomin, Svetlana; Naylor, Evan C; Mencel, Peter J; Fay, Angela M; Erler, Brian S; Matulewicz, Theodore J

    2013-01-01

    To describe a unique case of a metastatic thymic carcinoma to the hyperplastic parathyroid gland and to present a challenging management dilemma. Our patient is 60-year-old, intellectually disabled man with history of the multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) syndrome, a surgery in 1985 for hypercalcemia with removal of one parathyroid gland, surgery in 2007 with findings of extensively necrotic well differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma (carcinoid tumor) of the thymus. In 2012, he presented with persistent hypercalcemia (calcium level 11.7 mg/dL [range, 8.6-10.2]), and a parathyroid hormone (PTH) level of 225 pg/mL (range, 15-65 pg/mL). He underwent a repeat neck exploration with removal of 2 small inferior and a large left superior 4.5 × 2.5 × 1.5 cm parathyroid glands, all of which showed hyperplasia on intraoperative frozen section. A small portion of the superior gland was reimplanted into the patient's forearm. Final pathology showed the presence of a focus of neuroendocrine tumor within the left superior parathyroid gland with immunostain identical to the thymic carcinoma. His postoperative PTH level was 14 pg/mL and calcium 8.5 mg/dL. A positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) and octreotide scans revealed an extensive metastatic disease within the lung, mediastinum, and bones. We decided to leave a portion of the reimplanted parathyroid gland with possible metastatic thymic carcinoid in his forearm because of the presence a widespread metastatic disease and his intellectual disability that would result in noncompliance with calcium replacement in case of permanent hypocalcemia. Metastatic thymic carcinoma to the parathyroid gland has never been reported in the literature. We have described the first case and presented a challenging management dilemma.

  17. Multiple endocrine neoplasias type 2A and thyroid medullary carcinoma: an interdisciplinary challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haecker, Frank-Martin; Oertli, Daniel; Gissler, Stefanie; Zumsteg, Urs; Avoledo, Pierino; von Schweinitz, Dietrich

    2003-04-01

    The diagnosis and treatment of multiple endocrine neoplasias type 2A (MEN 2A) requires interdisciplinary management. The association of RET proto-oncogene mutations and medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) in children is well-known, but the optimal timing for elective surgery is controversial. Besides the risk of MTC, associated anomalies like hyperparathyroidism have to be considered. We report the results of molecular genetic investigations, the pentagastrin stimulation test, pre- and postoperative staging, and histologic examinations of four children who had a positive family history for MEN 2A. Histologic specimens of the removed thyroid glands showed MTC in all four cases. The patients had an uneventful postoperative clinical course. In view of the recent literature and our patients' results, we suggest a concept for diagnostic strategy and timing of the elective thyroidectomy.

  18. Determinación de la cicloxigenasa-2 en carcinoma escamocelular de lengua bien diferenciado, moderadamente diferenciado y poco diferenciado / Determination of Cyclooxigenase-2 in Well-Differentiated, Moderately Differentiated and Poorly Differentiated S.

    OpenAIRE

    Battika Díaz, Mounir Elías; Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogotá; Sosa Figueroa, Eduardo Alberto; Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogotá; Pérez Álvarez, Francisco J.; Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogotá; Barrientos Sánchez, Silvia; Universidad Nacional de Colombia sede Bogotá / Pontificia Universidad Javeriana

    2013-01-01

    Propósito: Determinar y comparar la expresión de la cicloxigenasa-2 (COX-2) en el carcinomaescamocelular de lengua (CECL) según el grado de diferenciación, con la finalidadde explorar si este puede ser un marcador molecular útil en el diagnóstico y pronóstico delcáncer de la cavidad oral. Métodos: Se utilizaron 45 especímenes con CECL, 15 de ellos biendiferenciados, 12 moderadamente diferenciados, 18 mal diferenciados, un control positivode carcinoma de colon y un control negativo de mucosa o...

  19. Well-differentiated liposarcoma of esophagus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Bin; SHI Pei-zhi; LI Xiao; XU Ru-jun

    2006-01-01

    @@ Gastrointestinal liposarcoma is rare, and the esophagus is the. least common location at which this kind of liposarcoma may occur. We reported a patient with a well-differentiated liposarcoma of esophagus, and discussed the diagnostic utility of these imaging techniques in patient management.

  20. Emerging therapies for thyroid carcinoma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, S

    2012-02-01

    Thyroid carcinoma is the most commonly diagnosed endocrine malignancy. Its incidence is currently rising worldwide. The discovery of genetic mutations associated with the development of thyroid cancer, such as BRAF and RET, has lead to the development of new drugs which target the pathways which they influence. Despite recent advances, the prognosis of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma is still unfavourable. In this review we look at emerging novel therapies for the treatment of well-differentiated and medullary thyroid carcinoma, and advances and future directions in the management of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma.

  1. Phenotypic Classification of Well-Differentiated Gastric Adenocarcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying Wu; Zhong-wu Li; Ji-you Li

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the genotypes of well-differentiated non-cardiac gastric adenocarcinoma and their clinicopathological significance.Methods: Sixty-four cases of well-differentiated non-cardiac gastric adenocarcinoma were included in this study. The expressions of intestinal phenotypic markers including CDX2, MUC2, Li-cadherin, CD10, Hepatocyte(Hep) and Villin, and gastric phenotypic markers including MUC5AC and pS2 were detected immunohistochemically. Based on the expressions of phenotypic markers, 64 cases can be divided into four phenotypes. Cases only expressing intestinal phenotypic markers were classified as intestinal phenotype; cases only expressing gastric phenotypic markers as gastric phenotype; cases expressing both intestinal and gastric phenotypic markers as gastrointestinal phenotype; and cases expressing neither intestinal nor gastric phenotypic marker as null phenotype. The association of phenotype and clinic-pathological parameters was analyzed. We also detected the expressions of markers related to the development and progression of cancer, including Rb, P53, c-Met, MIF, TGF-β-RII, β-catenin, CD44v6 and E-cadherin.Results: Of 64 cases, 33(51.6%) were intestinal type, 3(4.7%) were gastric type, 25(39.1%) were gastrointestinal type and 3(4.7%) were null type. Fifty-eight cases were either intestinal or gastrointestinal type, which accounted for 90.6% of all the cases. In addition, there was an association between phenotype and biological behaviors (invasion or metastasis). The biological behaviors of intestinal and gastrointestinal type were better than gastric type. Compared with intestinal, gastric and gastrointestinal types, the biological behaviors of null type were the most aggressive. The biological behaviors of gastric carcinoma tended to be better as the number of expression of intestinal markers increased. Expression of markers related to the development and progression of cancer was not significantly correlated with phenotypes

  2. A clinic study of cervical lymph node metastasis in well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma%分化型甲状腺癌颈淋巴结转移规律的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王圣应; 朱正志; 彭德峰; 王东风

    2008-01-01

    目的 探讨分化型甲状腺癌患者颈淋巴结的转移规律及分化型甲状腺癌颈部淋巴结外科处理模式.方法 回顾性分析2003年1月至2007年6月104例(117侧)行颈淋巴结清扫术的分化型甲状腺癌患者的临床病理资料,其中男性29例,女性75例,年龄12~79岁,中位年龄39岁.根据术前临床体检和影像学检查结果分为临床淋巴结阳性(cN+)和阴性(cNO)两组,分别与术后病理结果作比较.结果 cN+组69侧颈清扫标本中pN+者63侧(91.3%),pNO者6侧(8.7%);oNO组48侧中pN+者25侧(52.1%),pNO者23侧(47.9%).颈部转移淋巴结的分布以Ⅵ区最为常见,为64.1%,其次为Ⅱ、Ⅲ、Ⅳ区,分别为31.6%、44.4%、40.2%,V区较少见为12.0%,I区最少见为3.2%;cN+组pN+者86.7%(54/63)为多个分区转移,cNO组pN+者64.0%(16/25)为单个分区转移.结论 分化型甲状腺癌颈淋巴结转移以Ⅱ、Ⅲ、Ⅳ、Ⅵ区为主,尤以Ⅵ区最常见.cN+组以多个分区转移为主,cNO组以单个分区转移为主,二组患者颈淋巴结的外科处理方式也应有所不同.%Objective To study the distribution of cervical lymph nodes metastasis and explore the surgical treating modality of cervical lymph nodes in the patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma.Methods The clinic and pathological data of 104 patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma who had undergone neck lymph nodes dissection from January 2003 to June 2007 were analyzed retrospectively.There were 29 male and 75 female patients.The age of the patients was 12 to 79 years old with a median of 39 years old.Patients were divided into clinic cervical lymph nodes metastasis(cN+)group and clinic no cervical lymph nodes metastasis(cNO)group according the condition of physical examination and image analysis preoperatively and compared respectively with pathological data postoperatively.Results In the cN+group 91.3%(63/69)patients were pN+while in the cNO group 52.1%(25/48)patients were pN+.The distribufion of

  3. Multiple endocrine neoplasia similar to human subtype 2A in a dog: Medullary thyroid carcinoma, bilateral pheochromocytoma and parathyroid adenoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, E.A. Soler; Castillo, V.A.; Trigo, R.H.; Caneda Aristarain, M.E.

    2016-01-01

    Human multiple endocrine neoplasia subtype 2A (MEN 2A) is characterized by medullary thyroid carcinoma, pheochromocytoma and parathyroid hyperplasia or adenoma in the same individual. In this report, a case of a female Rottweiler with medullary thyroid carcinoma, bilateral pheochromocytoma and parathyroid adenoma was described. Clinical manifestations of muscle weakness, polydipsia, polyuria, diarrhea and weight loss were observed. Two adrenal neoplasms were identified incidentally by ultrasonography, and tumor in the left thyroid lobe was identified by palpation. Primary hyperparathyroidism was diagnosed by biochemical testing. Histopathology report was consistent with diagnosis of bilateral pheochromocytoma and parathyroid adenoma. Immunohistochemical staining was positive for calcitonin and synaptophysin, and negative for thyroglobulin, which confirmed medullary thyroid carcinoma. This case in a dog is presenting neoplastic characteristics similar to human MEN 2A and emphasizing the importance of using immunohistochemistry for confirmation. PMID:27822452

  4. The use of fulvestrant, a parenteral endocrine agent, in intestinal obstruction due to metastatic lobular breast carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rampaul Rajendra Singh

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of fulvestrant in the management of intestinal obstruction associated with lobular carcinoma has not been specifically described. Case presentation Herein we present two cases where fulvestrant, as the only available parenteral endocrine agent for postmenopausal advanced breast cancer has the opportunity to provide a means to initiate treatment in those patients who present with varying degrees of intestinal obstruction. Conclusion Fulvestrant may obviate the use of chemotherapy while achieving sustained clinical benefit with less toxicity, in appropriately selected patients.

  5. Acute coronary syndrome:a rare case of multiple endocrine neoplasia syndromes with pheochromocytoma and medullary thyroid carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alessadro Maloberti; Paola Loli; Cristina Giannattasio; Paolo Meani; Roberto Pirola; Marisa Varrenti; Marco Boniardi; Anna Maria De Biase; Paola Vallerio; Edgardo Bonacina; Giuseppe Mancia

    2015-01-01

    Pheochromocytoma is a tumor arising from neuroectodermal chromaffin tissues in the adrenal gland or extra-adrenal paraganglia (paragangliomas). hTe prevalence of the tumor is 0.1%-0.6% in the hypertensive population, of which 10%-20%are malignant. Pheochromocytoma produces, stores, and secretes catecholamines, as well as leads to hypertensive crisis, arrhythmia, angina, and acute myocardial infarction without coronary artery diseases. We report a case of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) with a ifnal diagnosis of multiple endocrine neoplasia with pheochromocytoma and medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC).

  6. Sonographic Findings of Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma Leading to Diagnosis of Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2a during Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Sherer

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN type 2a (Sipple's syndrome is characterized by medullary thyroid carcinoma and pheochromocytoma, and in a smaller percentage of cases, multiglandular parathyroid hyperplasia. This autosomal-dominant syndrome is due to a mutation in the rearranged during transfection (RET proto-oncogene located on chromosome 10cen–10q11.2 and rarely complicates pregnancy. We present an unusual case in a patient with an enlarged thyroid with sonographic findings characteristic of thyroid cancer, which led to diagnosis and subsequent management of RET proto-oncogene-positive MEN type 2a complicating pregnancy.

  7. Rapid development of thymic neuroendocrine carcinoma despite transcervical thymectomy in a patient with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhalapathy Sadacharan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Thymic neuroendocrine (NE tumors are a rare manifestation of multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome type 1 (MEN-1. They are malignant and aggressive tumors and form a major cause of mortality in MEN-1. Transcervical thymectomy (TCT at the time of parathyroid surgery for primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT in MEN-1 usually prevents thymic NE tumors. We report a 56-year-old nonsmoker male with sporadic MEN-1 who presented with thymic NE carcinoma developing rapidly within a span of 8 months after subtotal parathyroidectomy and TCT for PHPT. We present a brief review of literature on this rare NE malignancy, focusing on its occurrence despite TCT. This case highlights the fact that thymic NE carcinoma may develop even after TCT in MEN-1. Regular surveillance for these aggressive thymic NE tumors is mandatory even after TCT in MEN-1 setting.

  8. Incidental finding of multiple well-differentiated papillary mesotheliomas in peritoneum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Mark; Engvad, Birte; Jensen, Thor

    2016-01-01

    We present a case of multiple well-differentiated papillary mesotheliomas (WDPM) in the peritoneum found incidentally in a 63-year-old man with urothelial carcinoma of the bladder. When multiple tumors are seen, malignant mesothelioma should be excluded by histopathological examination as this ma...

  9. Lung adenocarcinoma and adrenocortical carcinoma in a patient with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobumasa Ohara

    2017-01-01

    Studies have suggested a causative link between MEN1 gene mutations and ACC, and menin expression may decrease in MEN1-related ACCs. In contrast, there are few reports suggesting a specific role of MEN1 gene mutations in LAC. Menin is often inactivated in the LACs of patients without MEN1. Thus, our patient's ACC probably occurred as part of MEN1, whereas the latter had no evident etiological association with her LAC. This case demonstrates the need for physicians to consider the potential development of malignant diseases originating from both endocrine and non-endocrine organs in MEN1 patients.

  10. Gastric Composite Tumor of Alpha Fetoprotein-Producing Carcinoma/Hepatoid Adenocarcinoma and Endocrine Carcinoma with Reference to Cellular Phenotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Suzuki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Alpha-fetoprotein-producing carcinoma (AFPC/hepatoid adenocarcinoma (HAC and neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC are uncommon in the stomach. Composite tumors consisting of these carcinomas and their histologic phenotypes are not well known. Between 2002 and 2007, to estimate the prevalence of composite tumors consisting of tubular adenocarcinoma, AFPC/HAC and NEC, we reviewed specimens obtained from 294 consecutive patients treated surgically for gastric cancer. We examined histological phenotype of tumors of AFPC or NEC containing the composite tumor by evaluating immunohistochemical expressions of MUC2, MUC5AC, MUC6, CDX2, and SOX2. Immunohistochemically, AFPC/HAC dominantly showed the intestinal or mixed phenotype, and NEC frequently showed the gastric phenotype. In the composite tumor, the tubular and hepatoid components showed the gastric phenotype, and the neuroendocrine component showed the mixed type. The unique composite tumor predominantly showed the gastric phenotype, and the hepatoid and neuroendocrine components were considered to be differentiated from the tubular component.

  11. Bilateral adrenocortical carcinoma in a patient with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1 and a novel mutation in the MEN1 gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamakari Smaragda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The incidence of adrenal involvement in MEN1 syndrome has been reported between 9 and 45%, while the incidence of adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC in MEN1 patients has been reported between 2.6 and 6%. In the literature data only unilateral development of ACCs in MEN1 patients has been reported. We report a 31 years-old female MEN1-patient, in whom hyperplasia of the parathyroid glands, prolactinoma, non functioning pancreatic endocrine carcinoma and functioning bilateral adrenal carcinomas were diagnosed. Interestingly, a not previously described in the literature data, novel germline mutation (p.E45V in exon 2 of MEN1 gene, was detected. The association of exon 2 mutation of the MEN1 gene with bilateral adrenal carcinomas in MEN1 syndrome, should be further investigated.

  12. Well differentiated neuroendocrine tumor of the kidney: Report of a rare case with review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavita Mardi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs are uncommon tumors that exhibit a wide range of neuroendocrine differentiation and biological behavior. Primary NETs of the kidney, including carcinoid tumor, small cell carcinoma (SCC, and large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC are exceedingly rare. Renal carcinoids are typically slow-growing tumors and pursue a variable clinical course. In contrast, SCC and LCNEC often present with locally advanced or metastatic disease and carry a poor prognosis. We herein report a rare cases of well-differentiated NET (carcinoid in a 39-year-old male along with the immunohistochemical features. The rarity of these tumors poses a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge.

  13. Endocrine disruptor regulation of microRNA expression in breast carcinoma cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syreeta L Tilghman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Several environmental agents termed "endocrine disrupting compounds" or EDCs have been reported to bind and activate the estrogen receptor-α (ER. The EDCs DDT and BPA are ubiquitously present in the environment, and DDT and BPA levels in human blood and adipose tissue are detectable in most if not all women and men. ER-mediated biological responses can be regulated at numerous levels, including expression of coding RNAs (mRNAs and more recently non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs. Of the ncRNAs, microRNAs have emerged as a target of estrogen signaling. Given the important implications of EDC-regulated ER function, we sought to define the effects of BPA and DDT on microRNA regulation and expression levels in estrogen-responsive human breast cancer cells. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To investigate the cellular effects of DDT and BPA, we used the human MCF-7 breast cancer cell line, which is ER (+ and hormone sensitive. Our results show that DDT and BPA potentiate ER transcriptional activity, resulting in an increased expression of receptor target genes, including progesterone receptor, bcl-2, and trefoil factor 1. Interestingly, a differential increase in expression of Jun and Fas by BPA but not DDT or estrogen was observed. In addition to ER responsive mRNAs, we investigated the ability of DDT and BPA to alter the miRNA profiles in MCF-7 cells. While the EDCs and estrogen similarly altered the expression of multiple microRNAs in MCF-7 cells, including miR-21, differential patterns of microRNA expression were induced by DDT and BPA compared to estrogen. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We have shown, for the first time, that BPA and DDT, two well known EDCs, alter the expression profiles of microRNA in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of these compounds could provide important insight into the role of EDCs in human disease, including breast cancer.

  14. [Outcome of "well-differentiated jargon" and related lesions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Chiyoko; Takeda, Takahiro; Yoshizawa, Hiroshi; Iwata, Makoto

    2005-06-01

    We introduce "well-differentiated jargon" as a new type of jargon with two relevant cases. To give a simple and clear framework to a classification of jargon, we define three types of jargon as follows: Under the condition that utterance does not decrease remarkably, (1) If approximately 90% of whole utterance consists of real words and clear syntactic structure though incomprehensible, it is "well-differentiated jargon". (2) If approximately 90% of whole utterance consists of unclear phonemes or phonemes that are not able to divide into words, it is "undifferentiated jargon". (3) If in-comprehensible utterance does not belong to any type of jargon above, it is "moderately-differentiated jargon". In this line of definition, "well-differentiated jargon" is the most highly differentiated jargon. The following cases are the examples of "well-differentiated jargon": Case 1 was a 67-year-old woman with head injury of the left orbital cortex, prefrontal cortex, and temporal pole; Case 2 was a 64-year-old man with brain atrophy in bilateral frontal cortex and bilateral (right dominant) anteroinferior temporal cortex after meningoencephalitis. Within six months after onset, they showed characteristic verbal aspects as follows; transcortical sensory aphasia; utterance with a lot of perseverative error, irrelevant words, unnecessary qualifiers during the naming task; well-preserved syntactic structure in a sentence with a few neologism. One year after the first verbal assessment, the performance of Case 1 improved almost entirely, whereas characteristic utterance was still observed in Case 2. These results suggest that "well-differentiated jargon" can be caused by lesions in anteroinferior temporal cortex and prefrontal cortex with preserved language area, where involve more anterior region than that of classical jargon. These two cases cannot belong to any classical jargon, and then we insist the adoption of new type of jargon, "well-differentiated jargon".

  15. Expression of claudin-5 in canine pancreatic acinar cell carcinoma - An immunohistochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakab, Csaba; Rusvai, Miklós; Gálfi, Péter; Halász, Judit; Kulka, Janina

    2011-03-01

    Claudin-5 is an endothelium-specific tight junction protein. The aim of the present study was to detect the expression pattern of this molecule in intact pancreatic tissues and in well-differentiated and poorly differentiated pancreatic acinar cell carcinomas from dogs by the use of cross-reactive humanised anticlaudin-5 antibody. The necropsy samples taken from dogs included 10 nonneoplastic pancreatic tissues, 10 well-differentiated pancreatic acinar cell carcinomas, 10 poorly differentiated pancreatic acinar cell carcinomas, 5 intrahepatic metastases of well-differentiated and 5 intrahepatic metastases of poorly differentiated acinar cell carcinomas. A strong lateral membrane claudin-5 positivity was detected in exocrine cells in all intact pancreas samples. The endocrine cells of the islets of Langerhans and the epithelial cells of the ducts were negative for claudin-5. The endothelial cells of vessels and lymphatic channels in the stroma of the intact pancreas showed strong membrane positivity for this claudin. All well-differentiated exocrine pancreas carcinomas and all poorly-differentiated pancreatic acinar cell carcinoma samples showed a diffuse loss of claudin-5 expression. The claudin-5-positive peritumoural vessels and lymphatic channels facilitated the detection of vascular invasion of the claudin-5-negative cancer cells. In liver metastasis samples, the pancreatic carcinomas were negative for claudin-5. It seems that the loss of expression of claudin-5 may lead to carcinogenesis in canine exocrine pancreatic cells.

  16. Effects of radiation on apoptosis rate and expression of apoptosis-related genes in well-differentiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells%放射对鼻咽癌细胞凋亡率和相关基因表达水平的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴冉; 黄莉; 徐丽; 王若峥

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of radiation on the apoptosis rate and expression of 7 apoptosis-related genes in well-differentiated human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell line CNE-1.Methods CNE-1 cells were cultured in vitro.The apoptosis rates of CNE-1 cells under 0-,2-,4-,6-,and 8-Gy radiation were measured by flow cytometry.The mRNA expression levels of Bcl-2,Bcl-xl,Bcl-w,Bax,Bak,Bad,and Bid were measured by RT-PCR.The Pearson test was used for analyzing the correlation of mRNA expression with apoptosis rate and radiation dose and the correlation between apoptosis rate and survival fraction.Results The early apoptosis rate of CNE-1 cells increased gradually as the radiation dose ranged from 0 to 6 Gy,but decreased when the radiation dose was 8 Gy; the late apoptosis rate of CNE-1 cells increased as the radiation dose ranged from 0 to 8 Gy.The mRNA expression of Bax was upregulated as CNE-1 cells were irradiated,and it was positively correlated with the early/late apoptosis rate and radiation dose (P =0.000 for all comparisons).The mRNA expression of Bcl-xl was downregulated,and it was negatively correlated with the early/late apoptosis rate (P =0.005 and 0.039) ; but it showed no correlation with radiation dose (P =0.369).The mRNA expression of Bcl-2 was upregulated and reached the peak level when the radiation dose was 4 Gy,and then it fell as the radiation dose increased.The mRNA expression of Bcl-w,Bcl-2,Bad,and Bid were not correlated with the early/late apoptosis rate (P =0.058 -0.894).There was no correlation between the apoptosis rate and survival fraction in CNE-1 cells (P =0.064).Conclusions Bax and Bcl-xl have some correlation with apoptosis rate in CNE-1 cells,but no correlation between the apoptosis rate and survival fraction was observed.%目的 探讨放射对人鼻咽高分化鳞癌细胞系(CNE-1)凋亡率和7个凋亡相关基因表达水平影响.方法 体外培养CNE-1,应用流式细胞术及RT-PCR方法检测0、2、4、6、8Gy下CNE-1

  17. Prophylactic thyroidectomy in pediatric carriers of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A or familial medullary thyroid carcinoma: mutation in C620 is associated with Hirschsprung's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bütter, Andreana; Gagné, Julie; Al-Jazaeri, Ayman; Emran, Mohammad Ali; Deal, Cheri; St-Vil, Dickens

    2007-01-01

    Prophylactic total thyroidectomy is now recommended after having confirmed RET mutations in children of parents with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 or familial medullary thyroid carcinoma. We reviewed our experience to determine the incidence of medullary thyroid carcinoma with respect to age at surgery, the location of the mutation, and its association with Hirschsprung's disease (HD). A retrospective review from 1996 to 2005 revealed 20 children with genetic screening for multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A or familial medullary thyroid carcinoma who underwent a prophylactic total thyroidectomy with parathyroid gland preservation. The median age of the 20 patients (9 boys and 11 girls) included in this study was 8.2 years (range, 3.7-16.9 years) at the time of their surgery. Final pathology revealed normal thyroid tissue (n = 3; median age, 5.9 years), C-cell hyperplasia (n = 13; median age, 10 years), or medullary thyroid carcinoma (n = 4; median age, 8 years). Four children, all with mutations in C620, had a previous diagnosis of HD. At a median follow-up of 3.7 years (range, 1 month to 8.4 years), all patients were well and cancer free. There is no correlation between histologic findings and median age at surgery. Hirschsprung's disease was found in 50% of the patients with the RET mutation in C620. In children of C620 parents, symptoms of HD should be actively sought, and if such are found, rectal biopsies should be performed even if mutation results are not yet available. Based on the age of the earliest cancer and the safety of total thyroidectomy, children should promptly undergo surgery after genetic screening and before their fifth year of life.

  18. DNA methylation profiling of well-differentiated thyroid cancer uncovers markers of recurrence free survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancikova, Veronika; Buj, Raquel; Castelblanco, Esmeralda; Inglada-Pérez, Lucía; Diez, Anna; de Cubas, Aguirre A; Curras-Freixes, Maria; Maravall, Francisco Xavier; Mauricio, Didac; Matias-Guiu, Xavier; Puig-Domingo, Manel; Capel, Ismael; Bella, María Rosa; Lerma, Enrique; Castella, Eva; Reverter, Jordi Lluis; Peinado, Miguel Ángel; Jorda, Mireia; Robledo, Mercedes

    2014-08-01

    Thyroid cancer is a heterogeneous disease with several subtypes characterized by cytological, histological and genetic alterations, but the involvement of epigenetics is not well understood. Here, we investigated the role of aberrant DNA methylation in the development of well-differentiated thyroid tumors. We performed genome-wide DNA methylation profiling in the largest well-differentiated thyroid tumor series reported to date, comprising 83 primary tumors as well as 8 samples of adjacent normal tissue. The epigenetic profiles were closely related to not only tumor histology but also the underlying driver mutation; we found that follicular tumors had higher levels of methylation, which seemed to accumulate in a progressive manner along the tumorigenic process from adenomas to carcinomas. Furthermore, tumors harboring a BRAF or RAS mutation had a larger number of hypo- or hypermethylation events, respectively. The aberrant methylation of several candidate genes potentially related to thyroid carcinogenesis was validated in an independent series of 52 samples. Furthermore, through the integration of methylation and transcriptional expression data, we identified genes whose expression is associated with the methylation status of their promoters. Finally, by integrating clinical follow-up information with methylation levels we propose etoposide-induced 2.4 and Wilms tumor 1 as novel prognostic markers related to recurrence-free survival. This comprehensive study provides insights into the role of DNA methylation in well-differentiated thyroid cancer development and identifies novel markers associated with recurrence-free survival. © 2013 UICC.

  19. Changes of the intestinal endocrine cells in the C57BL/6 mouse after implantation of murine lung carcinoma (3LL): An immunohistochemical quantitative study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sae-Kwang Ku; Seung-Kyoo Seong; Dae-Young Kim; Hyeung-Sik Lee; Jong-Dae Kim; Hae-Yun Choi; Bu-Il Seo; Jae-Hyun Lee

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To study the distributions and frequencies of intestinal endocrine cells in the C57BL/6 mouse with immunohistochemical method using seven types of specific antisera against chromogranin A (CGA), serotonin,somatostatin, glucagons, gastrin, cholecystokinin (CCK)-8 and human pancreatic polypeptide (hPP) after abdominal subcutaneous implantation of murine lung carcinoma (3LL).METHODS: The experimental animals were divided into two groups, one is non-implanted Sham and the other is 3LL-implanted group. Samples were collected from six regions of intestinal tract at 28th d after implantation of 3LL cells (1×105 cell/mouse).RESULTS: In this study, five types of immunoreactive (IR) cells were identified except for gastrin and hPP. The regional distributions of the intestinal endocrine cells in the 3LL-implanted group were similar to those of the non-implanted Sham. However, significant decreases of IR cells were detected in 3LL-implanted group compared to those of non-implanted Sham. CGA- and serotonin-IR cells significantly decreased in 3LL-implanted groups compared to that of non-implanted Sham. Somatostatin-IR cells in the jejunum and ileum and CCK-8-IR cells in the jejunum of 3LL-implanted groups significantly decreased compared to that of non-implanted Sham. In addition,glucagon-IR cells were restricted to the ileum and colon of non-implanted Sham.CONCLUSION: Implantation of tumor cell mass (3LL)induced severe quantifiable changes of intestinal endocrine cell density and the abnormality in density of intestinal endocrine cells may contribute to the development of gastrointestinal symptoms such as anorexia and indigestion, frequently encountered in patients with cancer.

  20. Endocrine Disruptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... adjust the font size, or print this page. Endocrine Disruptors Table of Contents Health Studies & Clinical Trials What ... Disruptors General Information For Educators Related Topics Introduction Endocrine Disruptors Introduction Endocrine disruptors are chemicals that may interfere ...

  1. Dedifferentiated parosteal osteosarcoma with well-differentiated metastases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeuchi, Katsuhito; Morii, Takeshi; Yabe, Hiroo; Morioka, Hideo; Toyama, Yoshiaki [Keio University, School of Medicine, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Mukai, Makio [Keio University, School of Medicine, Division of Diagnostic Pathology, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo (Japan)

    2006-10-15

    Metastases of dedifferentiated sarcoma usually contain a dedifferentiated component. We report a rare case of dedifferentiated parosteal osteosarcoma (dd-POS) with well-differentiated multiple metastases in a 65-year-old woman with a painful firm mass on her thigh. Radiological examination revealed that the mass arose from the surface of her femur without medullary involvement. Multiple intramuscular metastases were detected in her lower leg on MR imaging. Small subcutaneous palpable masses were identified on her left lower leg, buttock, chest wall and head. An open biopsy and above-the-knee amputation were performed, and the mass on her femur was diagnosed as a dd-POS. However, histological examination on the subcutaneous lesions in her lower leg, buttock and head showed low-grade conventional POS without dedifferentiated components. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a dd-POS with multiple metastases that do not contain any dedifferentiated components. (orig.)

  2. Medullary thyroid carcinoma in a 2-month-old male with multiple endocrine neoplasia 2B and symptoms of pseudo-Hirschsprung disease: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unruh, Annika; Fitze, Guido; Jänig, Ute; Bielack, Stefan; Lochbühler, Helmut; Coerdt, Wiltrud

    2007-09-01

    A 5-week-old male patient was seen for symptoms suggestive of Hirschsprung disease (abdominal distension, failure to thrive, and explosive defecation). Rectum biopsies revealed an intestinal ganglioneuromatosis, which is usually associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) syndrome type 2B. The ensuing molecular genetic analysis revealed a M918T mutation of the RET protooncogene, which is associated with early-onset medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). Therefore, total thyroidectomy and central lymphadenectomy were performed at the age of 9 weeks. Histology showed a medullary microcarcinoma. This report of MTC occurrence within the first weeks of life underlines the importance of early diagnosis and thyroidectomy in patients with MEN 2B syndrome. Because many patients with MEN 2A and B show gastrointestinal symptoms before the development of MTC, the possibility of MEN 2 should be recognized, and genetic testing for the presence of RET mutations should be included in the explorative diagnosis for megacolon.

  3. Well-Differentiated Thyroid Cancer: The Philippine General Hospital Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Edward N. Lo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundWell-differentiated thyroid cancer (WDTC is the most common form of thyroid malignancy. While it is typically associated with good prognosis, it may exhibit higher recurrence and mortality rates in selected groups, particularly Filipinos. This paper aims to describe the experience of a Philippine Hospital in managing patients with differentiated thyroid cancer.MethodsWe performed a retrospective cohort study of 723 patients with WDTC (649 papillary and 79 follicular, evaluating the clinicopathologic profiles, ultrasound features, management received, tumor recurrence, and eventual outcome over a mean follow-up period of 5 years.ResultsThe mean age at diagnosis was 44±13 years (range, 18 to 82, with a majority of cases occurring in the younger age group (<45 years. Most tumors were between 2 and 4 cm in size. The majority of papillary thyroid cancers (PTCs, 63.2% and follicular thyroid cancers (FTCs, 54.4% initially presented as stage 1, with a greater proportion of FTC cases (12.7% vs. 3.7% presenting with distant metastases. Nodal metastases at presentation were more frequent among patients with PTC (29.9% vs. 7.6%. A majority of cases were treated by complete thyroidectomy, followed by radioactive iodine therapy and thyroid stimulating hormone suppression, resulting in a disease-free state. Excluding patients with distant metastases at presentation, the recurrence rates for papillary and FTC were 30.1% and 18.8%, respectively.ConclusionOverall, PTC among Filipinos was associated with a more aggressive and recurrent behavior. FTC among Filipinos appeared to behave similarly with other racial groups.

  4. Contrast enhanced multi-detector CT and MR findings of a well-differentiated pancreatic vipoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camera, Luigi; Severino, Rosa; Faggiano, Antongiulio; Masone, Stefania; Mansueto, Gelsomina; Maurea, Simone; Fonti, Rosa; Salvatore, Marco

    2014-10-28

    Pancreatic vipoma is an extremely rare tumor accounting for less than 2% of endocrine pancreatic neoplasms with a reported incidence of 0.1-0.6 per million. While cross-sectional imaging findings are usually not specific, exact localization of the tumor by means of either computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance (MR) is pivotal for surgical planning. However, cross-sectional imaging findings are usually not specific and further characterization of the tumor may only be achieved by somatostatin-receptor scintigraphy (SRS). We report the case of a 70 years old female with a two years history of watery diarrhoea who was found to have a solid, inhomogeneously enhancing lesion at the level of the pancreatic tail at Gadolinium-enhanced MR (Somatom Trio 3T, Siemens, Germany). The tumor had been prospectively overlooked at a contrast-enhanced multi-detector CT (Aquilion 64, Toshiba, Japan) performed after i.v. bolus injection of only 100 cc of iodinated non ionic contrast media because of a chronic renal failure (3.4 mg/mL) but it was subsequently confirmed by SRS. The patient first underwent a successful symptomatic treatment with somatostatin analogues and was then submitted to a distal pancreasectomy with splenectomy to remove a capsulated whitish tumor which turned out to be a well-differentiated vipoma at histological and immuno-histochemical analysis.

  5. Contrast enhanced multi-detector CT and MR findings of a well-differentiated pancreatic vipoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luigi; Camera; Rosa; Severino; Antongiulio; Faggiano; Stefania; Masone; Gelsomina; Mansueto; Simone; Maurea; Rosa; Fonti; Marco; Salvatore

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic vipoma is an extremely rare tumor accounting for less than 2% of endocrine pancreatic neoplasms with a reported incidence of 0.1-0.6 per million. While cross-sectional imaging findings are usually not specific, exact localization of the tumor by means of either computed tomography(CT) or magnetic resonance(MR) is pivotal for surgical planning. However, cross-sectional imaging findings are usually not specific and further characterization of the tumor may only be achieved bysomatostatin-receptor scintigraphy(SRS). We report the case of a 70 years old female with a two years history of watery diarrhoea who was found to have a solid, inhomogeneously enhancing lesion at the level of the pancreatic tail at Gadolinium-enhanced MR(Somatom Trio 3T, Siemens, Germany). The tumor had been prospectively overlooked at a contrast-enhanced multi-detector CT(Aquilion 64, Toshiba, Japan) performed after i.v. bolus injection of only 100 cc of iodinated non ionic contrast media because of a chronic renal failure(3.4 mg/mL) but it was subsequently confirmed by SRS. The patient first underwent a successful symptomatic treatment with somatostatin analogues and was then submitted to a distal pancreasectomy with splenectomy to remove a capsulated whitish tumor which turned out to be a well-differentiated vipoma at histological and immuno-histochemical analysis.

  6. Endocrine sensitivity of the receptor-positive T61 human breast carcinoma serially grown in nude mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brünner, N; Spang-Thomsen, M; Skovgaard Poulsen, H;

    1985-01-01

    A study was made on the effect of ovariectomy, 17 beta-oestradiol, and tamoxifen on the oestrogen and progesterone receptor-positive T61 human breast carcinoma grown in nude mice. The effect of the treatment was evaluated by the specific growth delay calculated on the basis of Gompertz growth...

  7. Endocrine Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your endocrine system includes eight major glands throughout your body. These glands make hormones. Hormones are chemical messengers. They ... levels. In the United States, the most common endocrine disease is diabetes. There are many others. They ...

  8. Clinical utility of chromogranin A and octerotide in large cell neuro endocrine carcinoma of the uterine corpus

    OpenAIRE

    Goldberg, Gary L.; Huang, Gloria S; Samuelson, Robert N.; Sarah Graceffa; June Hou; Shohreh Shahabi; Ilenia Pellicciotta

    2011-01-01

    Primary neuroendocrine tumors of the female genital tract have been described in the cervix, ovaries and uterus. Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNC) of the uterine corpus is the least common and appears to behave the most aggressively. We report a rare case of a large cell neuroendocrine tumor of the endometrium. These tumors are not well characterized, unlike neuroendocrine tumors of the uterine cervix, consequently, the optimal management remains still unclear. The treatment of ou...

  9. Endocrine disruptive effects of cadmium on steroidogenesis: human adrenocortical carcinoma cell line NCI-H295R as a cellular model for reproductive toxicity testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knazicka, Zuzana; Forgacs, Zsolt; Lukacova, Jana; Roychoudhury, Shubhadeep; Massanyi, Peter; Lukac, Norbert

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a known endocrine disruptor with the ability to affect the production of hormones involved in the regulation of reproductive processes. In this study human adrenocortical carcinoma cell line NCI-H295R was used as an in vitro biological model to study the effect of cadmium (CdCl2) on steroidogenesis. The cell cultures were exposed to different concentrations of CdCl2 (1.90, 3.90, 7.80, 15.60, 31.20 and 62.50 μM) and compared to control (medium without CdCl2). Cell viability was measured by the metabolic activity (MTT) assay for estimation of mitochondria structural integrity. Quantification of sexual steroid production directly from aliquots of the medium was performed by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Following 48 h culture of the cells in the presence of CdCl2 a concentration-dependent depletion in progesterone production was observed at the lower concentrations of CdCl2. The lowest amount of progesterone was significantly detected in groups with the higher doses (≥ 31.20 μM) of CdCl2, which elicited significant (P 75%) up to 7.80 μM of CdCl2 and significantly (P disruptive effects on sexual steroid synthesis even at very low concentrations.

  10. [Study of RET protooncogene in multiple endocrine neoplasm 2A and in familial medullary thyroid carcinoma. Clinical pathological findings in asymptomatic carriers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belli, Susana; Storani, María E; Dourisboure, Ricardo J; Podestá, Ernesto J; Solano, Angela R

    2003-01-01

    Twenty five percent of the medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is hereditary and 5% is familiar (FMTC), or considered as multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) type 2A (17%) or 2B (3%). These diseases are the result of the autosomic dominant inheritance of a mutation in the RET protooncogene, in one out of 12 different known codons. We analyzed 7 families (2 MEN 2A and 5 FMTC). Six mutations were detected in the most frequent codon, 634 (2 MEN 2A y 4 FMTC) and one family with FMTC presented a novel mutation: a transition T > C at codon 630, resulting a C630A change. Among 57 individuals studied, 25 (43.85%) presented the mutation. Seven (28%) were asymptomatic carriers, including 5 children aged 11 +/- 3.2 years. The children underwent total thyroidectomy. The histopathologic examination showed C cells hyperplasia and microcarcinoma focus in both lobes, even in the presence of normal, basal or pentagastrine stimulated, calcitonine levels. In conclusion, we describe a germine novel mutation in the RET protooncogene: C630A; and the corresponding findings of C-cell disease in gene mutated carriers that emphasize the importance of prophylactic thyroidectomy as soon as the molecular diagnosis is confirmed.

  11. Mucin phenotypic expression and p53 gene abnormality of gastric super-minute well-differentiated adenocarcinoma: Re-evaluation with relationship between histogenesis of well-differentiated adenocarcinoma and intestinal metaplasia in distal stomach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamaguchi Toshikazu

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the gastric well-differentiated adenocarcinoma in the distal stomach has been thought to develop via a intestinal metaplasia-carcinoma sequence, there are some disproofs from new mucin examinations for minute-size lesions in same type carcinoma. The current study was performed and pointed out the new findings for the solution to the problem according to the point described above. Methods 12 super-minute lesions (less than 1 mm in maximum diameter of well-differentiated adenocarcinoma in distal stomach (SMCa, which were detected from the pathological examinations of 210 surgically resected stomach specimens, and the mucosa adjacent to these carcinoma lesions, were examined by immunohistochemical mucin stainings (MUC2 and CD-10: intestinal phenotype, 45M1 and MUC6: gastric phenotype and p53-overexpression. And the analyses of the replication error of the microsatellites in chromosome 17 related p53 gene (TP53 and D17S786 (RER-p53MS were performed in SMCa lesions, adjacent mucosa to each lesion and other gastric mucosa with intestinal metaplasia, because all SMCa lesions showed p53-overexpression immunohistochemically, decribed below. Results 1. The carcinoma cells in all SMCa lesions were positive for 45M1 and p53. On the other hand, no positive carcinoma cells for MUC6 were seen although the pyloric glands and the remnant pyloric gland in the SMCa lesions in the same slides were positive for MUC6. Ten lesions (83% had intestinal phenotypic mucin (10 lesions: MUC2 (+, 4 lesions: CD10 (+. Two lesions (17% were positive for only 45M1 (gastric phenotypic mucin. 2. All of the mucosa adjacent to SMCa showed intestinal metaplasia (complete type: 7 regions, incomplete type: 5 regions. 3. RER-p53MS was confirmed in 42% (5/12 regions of SMCa, in 42% (5/12 regions of the mucosa adjacent to SMCa and 14% (6/42 regions of the other intestinal metaplasia mucosa. Conclusion Most of the super-minute well-differentiated adenocarcinoma

  12. Role of adjuvant postoperative external beam radiotherapy for well differentiated thyroid cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Jeanny; Wu, Hong Gyun; Youn, Yeo Kyu; Lee, Kyu Eun; Kim, Kwang Hyun; Park, Do Joon [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-09-15

    To analyze the outcome of adjuvant postoperative external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) in well-differentiated thyroid cancer (WDTC). We identified 84 patients treated with EBRT for WDTC from February 1981 to December 2010. Among them, we analyzed 39 patients who received EBRT after initial radical surgery. Twenty-four females and 15 males were included. The median age was 49 years (range, 16 to 72 years). There were 34 papillary thyroid carcinomas and 5 follicular thyroid carcinomas. Most patients showed pathologic T3/T4 stage (54%/26%). Ten patients (25.6%) had gross residual tumors. Five patients (12.8%) had tumor cells at the margin. The median EBRT dose and fraction size were 62.6 Gy and 1.8 to 2.0 Gy, respectively. The median follow-up was 73 months (range, 21 to 372 months). The five-year overall survival (OS) and locoregional recurrence free survival (LRFS) were 97.4% and 86.9%, respectively. Locoregional failures occurred in 5 and all failure sites were the neck node area. In univariate analysis, OS was significantly influenced by invasion of the trachea (p = 0.016) or esophagus (p = 0.006). LRFS was significantly decreased by male (p = 0.020), gross residuum after resection (p = 0.002), close or positive tumor at surgical margin involvement (p = 0.044), and tracheal invasion (p = 0.040). No significant prognostic factor was identified in the multivariate analysis. No patient experienced the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group grade 3 or more toxicity. Our locoregional control rate of 87.2% is comparable to historical controls with surgery alone, even though our study had a large proportion of advanced stage. Adjuvant EBRT may an effective and safe treatment option in patients with WDTC.

  13. RET gene mutations (genotype and phenotype) of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 and familial medullary thyroid carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krampitz, Geoffrey W; Norton, Jeffrey A

    2014-07-01

    The rapid technical advances in molecular biology and accelerating improvements in genomic and proteomic diagnostics have led to increasingly personalized strategies for cancer therapy. Such an approach integrates the genomic, proteomic, and molecular information unique to the individual to provide an accurate genetic diagnosis, molecular risk assessment, informed family counseling, therapeutic profiling, and early preventative management that best fits the particular needs of each patient. The discovery of mutations in the RET proto-oncogene resulting in variable onset and severity of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN2) was the first step in developing direct genetic testing for at-risk individuals. Patients with germline RET mutations may undergo risk assessment and appropriate intervention based on specific mutations. Moreover, family members of affected individuals receive counseling based on understanding of the genetic transmission of the disease. Increasingly, clinicians are able to make therapeutic choices guided by an informative biomarker code. Improvements in detection and management of patients with MEN2 resulting from understanding of the RET proto-oncogene are evidence of the benefits of personalized cancer medicine. This review describes the discovery of the RET proto-oncogene, the association between genotype and phenotype, and the role of mutation analysis on diagnosis and treatment of MEN2.

  14. Clinical utility of chromogranin A and octerotide in large cell neuro endocrine carcinoma of the uterine corpus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary L. Goldberg

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Primary neuroendocrine tumors of the female genital tract have been described in the cervix, ovaries and uterus. Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNC of the uterine corpus is the least common and appears to behave the most aggressively. We report a rare case of a large cell neuroendocrine tumor of the endometrium. These tumors are not well characterized, unlike neuroendocrine tumors of the uterine cervix, consequently, the optimal management remains still unclear. The treatment of our case consisted of surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and octreotide. Despite the aggressive treatment, the patient died of disease progression 12 months after the initial diagnosis. We discuss the diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment options for LCNC of the genital tract, and potential future therapeutics.

  15. Endocrine Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... high or too low, you may have an endocrine disease or disorder. Endocrine diseases and disorders also occur if your body does not respond to hormones the way it is supposed to. Featured Topics Adrenal Insufficiency ... Topics Research Discoveries & News Children with Cushing ...

  16. Radioiodine therapy in skeletal metastases from well-differentiated thyroid cancer: a Johannesburg experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalini Sindy Perumal

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim.The purpose of this study was to examine the outcome of patients with skeletal metastases from well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma and analyse the effect of variables that influence the prognosis of this disease. Method. We retrospectively reviewed 352 patients treated and followed-up at the Charlotte Maxeke Johannesburg Academic Hospital’s thyroid cancer clinic from 1982 - 1999. Findings. Skeletal metastases were diagnosed in 24 (6.8%, 17 at presentation to the thyroid clinic, and 7 at follow-up. Patients’ ages ranged from 30 - 77 years (mean 53.9 years and the female:male ratio was 3.8:1. Based on the original pathology reports from resected tumours, 9 were papillary and 15 were follicular cancers. Twenty-three of the 24 patients underwent thyroid surgery as the initial management – total thyroidectomy in 18, subtotal thyroidectomy in 3, and lobectomy plus neck dissection in one. The diagnosis of thyroid cancer was based on lobectomy in a single subject. Radioactive iodine (RAI was used as part of the original treatment; external radiation therapy (XRT was mainly used to alleviate severe symptoms. Twenty-one patients (87.5% were treated with RAI; 11 (45.8% received radiotherapy. Seven patients died – 4 from neurological disease directly associated with bone metastases. Of the 17 surviving patients, 2 appeared to be disease-free, 8 were asymptomatic despite overt bony disease, and 7 had persistent symptoms which much improved in 5. Bone metastases were uncommon, and follicular cancer predominated in this survey. Conclusion. RAI therapy improves quality of life in most patients. There is a place for XRT.

  17. Extremely well-differentiated adenocarcinoma of the stomach: Clinicopathological and immunohistochemical features

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Takashi Yao; Takashi Utsunomiya; Masafumi Oya; Kenichi Nishiyama; Masazumi Tsuneyoshi

    2006-01-01

    AIM: Minimal deviation carcinoma of the uterine cervix,otherwise known as extremely well-differentiated adenocarcinoma (EWDA), is characterized by its benign microscopic appearance in contrast to its aggressive behavior.In order to elucidate the clinicopathological features and biological behavior of the gastric counterpart of EWDA,we, using immunohistochemistry, analyzed nine lesions for the phenotypic expression, proliferative activity, and the expression of oncogene-associated products.METHODS: Clinicopathological features, including preoperative biopsy diagnosis, were reviewed. Using immunohitstochemistry, Ki-67 labeling index and expression of p53 and c-erbB-2 protein in the gastric lesions were detected.RESULT: Locations in the middle or upper third of the stomach and polypoid macroscopic features are characteristic of EWDA of the stomach. Although 4 of the 9 lesions showed only focal lymphatic or venous invasion,lymph node metastasis was not present and none of the patients died of the lesions (mean follow-up period, 56mo). All 9 cases of EWDA could be classified into gastric phenotype (5 lesions) and intestinal phenotype (4 lesions). The former resembled gastric foveolar epithelium,mucous neck cells or pyloric glands, but their papillary structures were frequently elongated and the tumor cells and their nuclei were slightly larger and more hyperchromatic compared to normal epithelium. The latter resembled intestinal metaplasia with minimal nulcear atypia and irregular glands; two of these lesions demonstrated complete intestinal phenotype, while two demonstrated incomplete intestinal phenotype. Ki-67 labeling index was low and none of the cases revealed over-expression of p53 and c-erbB-2 protein.CONCLUSION: Unlike minimal deviation carcinoma of the cervix, these findings suggest that EWDA of the stomach is a lesion of low-grade malignancy. This favorable biological behavior is supported by the data of a low Ki-67 labeling index and a lack of p53 or c

  18. Method of Detection of Well-Differentiated Thyroid Cancers in Obese and Non-Obese Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Zagzag

    Full Text Available The incidence of well-differentiated thyroid cancer (WDTC is increasing rapidly. Many authors feel that this increase is due to over-diagnosis and that one of the contributing factors is the increasing use of various imaging studies. The rate of obesity has also been increasing in the United States. It has been suggested that patients with an increased body mass index (BMI kg/m2 have a higher incidence of WDTC than patients with normal BMI. One might hypothesize that thyroid nodules are more difficult to palpate in obese patients and that as more cancers are detected by imaging the apparent rate of increase in WDTC in obese patients would appear to be greater than in non-obese patients. This study was undertaken to evaluate this hypothesis by determining if there is any difference in the way thyroid cancers are initially detected in obese and non-obese patients.The medical records of all 519 patients with a postoperative diagnosis of WDTC who underwent thyroidectomy at NYU Langone Medical Center from January 1, 2007 through August 31, 2010 by the three members of NYU Endocrine Surgery Associates were reviewed. Patients were divided into Non-obese (BMI<30 kg/m2 and Obese (BMI≥30 kg/m2 groups. Patients were also divided by the initial method of detection of their tumor into Palpation, Imaging, and Incidental groups.The final study group contained 270 patients, 181(67% of whom were in the Non-obese Group and 89(33% were in the Obese Group. In the Non-obese group, 81(45% of tumors were found by palpation, 72(40% were found by imaging, and 28(16% were found incidentally. In the Obese group, 40(45% were found by palpation, 38(43% were found by imaging, and 11(12% were found incidentally. These differences were not statistically significant (p-value 0.769.We show that BMI does not play a role in the method of initial detection in patients with WDTC. This suggests that the prevalence of WDTC detected by imaging is not an artifact caused by an

  19. Qualitative analysis of small (≤2 cm) regenerative nodules, dysplastic nodules and well-differentiated HCCs with gadoxetic acid MRI

    OpenAIRE

    Di Martino, M.; M. Anzidei; Zaccagna, Fulvio; Saba, L; Bosco, S.; M. Rossi; Ginanni Corradini, S.; Catalano, C

    2016-01-01

    $\\textbf{BACKGROUND}$: The characterization of small lesions in cirrhotic patients is extremely difficult due to the overlap of imaging features among different entities in the step-way of the hepatocarcinogenesis. The aim of our study was to evaluate the role of gadoxetic-acid MRI in the differentiation of small (≤2 cm) well-differentiated hepatocellular carcinomas from regenerative and dysplastic nodules. $\\textbf{METHODS}$: Seventy-three cirrhotic patients, with 118 focal liver lesion...

  20. Endocrine Disruptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ediz Yeşilkaya

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Endocrine disruptors are of special interest because they mimic, block, or in some way alter the activity of endogenous chemicals that are synthesized by the endocrine system. Besides many other organs, they especially affect the urinary system and the thyroid glands. Endocrine-disrupting chemicals are typically identified as compounds that can interact with oestrogen or androgen receptors and thus act as agonists or antagonists of endogenous hormones. During the last decade, numerous studies have been published, reporting an increase in reproductive organ anomalies, as well as in testicular cancer, and a decline in the relative number of male births, and in semen quality. In this review, the effects of endocrine distruptors on the reproductive health are discussed in the light of the recent literature. (Journal of Current Pediatrics 2008; 6: 76-82

  1. Yes associated protein is a poor prognostic factor in well-differentiated lung adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi Hyun; Kim, Young Keum; Shin, Dong Hoon; Lee, Hyun Jeong; Shin, Nari; Kim, Arong; Lee, Jung Hee; Choi, Kyung Un; Kim, Jee Yeon; Lee, Chang Hun; Sol, Mee Young

    2015-01-01

    The Hippo pathway is a highly conserved potent regulator of cell growth and apoptosis including large tumor suppressor (LATS) and Yes-associated protein (YAP). LATS has been regarded as a tumor suppressor gene and YAP as either of a tumor suppressor gene or an oncogene. We investigated their expression in lung adenocarcinoma. YAP and LATS protein expression was assessed in 167 surgically resected lung adenocarcinomas and compared with clinicopathologic factors. Disease free survival and overall survival were also evaluated. YAP expression was noted in cytoplasm (48 cases; 28.7%), nuclear (34; 20.4%) and both locations (4; 2.4%). The nuclear expression was typically observed in well differentiated adenocarcinoma. LATS was expressed in cytoplasm when its signal is weak. Perinuclear expression of LATS was observed when it is strongly expressed. While cytoplasmic and nuclear YAP expressions were inversely related. In well differentiated adenocarcinoma patients, YAP nuclear expression was related with more frequent relapse. Both of nuclear YAP and LATS expression were more frequently observed in well differentiated adenocarcinoma. Furthermore, YAP expression exhibited more frequent relapse in well differentiated adenocarcinoma group. We suggest that YAP may act as an oncogene and predict poorer prognosis in well differentiated lung adenocarcinoma.

  2. Primary dedifferentiated liposarcoma of the axilla arising in a mixed, well-differentiated and myxoid liposarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Garth S; Lawrence, Thomas J; Porter, Scott E; Rezeanu, Luminita

    2012-01-01

    We describe a case of mixed liposarcoma of the axilla presenting as a high grade undifferentiated sarcoma with areas of well-differentiated and myxoid liposarcoma. MRI demonstrated a lobulated, septated intermuscular mass with marked heterogeneous gadolinium enhancement. A small focus of the tumor demonstrated fat suppressed signal more characteristic of well-differentiated liposarcoma. Pathologic analysis following wide local excision revealed a large, high grade sarcomatous component with highly pleomorphic cells with a thin rim of well-differentiated and myxoid liposarcoma on histologic examination. Dedifferentiated liposarcomas arising outside of the retroperitoneum are very rare, as are dedifferentiated liposarcomas arising from a histologically mixed liposarcoma. In this regard, this case illustrates an unusual combination of tumor location and histology which, to our knowledge, has not previously been reported.

  3. Verrucous carcinoma of the maxillary antrum

    OpenAIRE

    Vaid, Neelam; Nagare, Sachin

    2003-01-01

    Verrucous carcinoma is a well-differentiated variant of squumous cell carcinoma. In this article, we present a patient of verrucous carcinoma of the maxillary annum. There are only 6 reported cases of verrucous carcinoma of the maxillary antrum. Ours is the 7th case. We, here, would like to highlight that our case had a different clinical presentation from the previously reported cases.

  4. Pediatric implications of multiple endocrine neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girvan, D P; Holliday, R L

    1987-09-01

    The association of endocrine tumors from several sites has been known for over 50 years but the familial aspects of these relationships have only been appreciated since 1954. The original term multiple familial endocrine adenomatosis (MEA) was changed to multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN). This report describes two children aged 8 and 11 years, who are cousins with MEN IIa. A strong family history prompted investigation of these children. Pentagastrin stimulation resulted in elevated serum calcitonin levels and subsequent surgery. Unsuspected medullary thyroid carcinoma was found in each child. Proper screening of high-risk individuals should prevent this potentially lethal condition from becoming a major problem.

  5. URACHAL CARCINOMA IN BLADDER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛丽燕; 吕宁; 何祖根; 林冬梅; 刘秀云

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinicopathologic features and diagnostic criteria of urachal carcinoma in the bladder.Methods: Seven cases of urachal carcinoma in the bladder were analyzed retrospectively. Results: All the tumors were found locating in the dome of bladder. Of them, 4 were mucinous adenocarcinoma, one was well differentiated papillary enteric adenocarcinoma, one was well differentiated squamous carcinoma, and one was neuroendocrine carcinoma. Cystomorphous urachal remnants were found in 4 cases. The main complaint was hematuria and all patients underwent partial excision of bladder and urachus. Conclusion: Mucinous adenocarcinoma is the main histo-pathological type, and cystomorphous urachal remnants are often accompanied with urachal carcinoma in the bladder. The key diagnostic criteria of urachal carcinoma in bladder are site and histopathology. And to examine the specimens carefully to find the urachal remnants is important.

  6. Adenomatous polyposis coli alteration in digestive endocrine tumours: correlation with nuclear translocation of beta-catenin and chromosomal instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzi, Silvia; Azzoni, Cinzia; Tamburini, Elisa; Bottarelli, Lorena; Campanini, Nicoletta; D'Adda, Tiziana; Fellegara, Giovanni; Luong, Tu Vinh; Pasquali, Claudio; Rossi, Giulio; Delle Fave, Gianfranco; Camisa, Roberta; Bordi, Cesare; Rindi, Guido

    2008-12-01

    The role of Wnt pathway in digestive endocrine tumours is debated. The aim of this work is to investigate key players in Wnt pathway by a multimodal approach. Sixty cases (49 well-differentiated and 11 poorly differentiated) were investigated for methylation of adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) and E-cadherin promoters, the loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at APC locus and beta-catenin and E-cadherin expression by immunohistochemistry. Tumours showing altered beta-catenin localization were tested for beta-catenin and APC mutations. APC promoter methylation was restricted to gastroduodenal tumours (21 out of 59, 36%), prevalent in poorly differentiated carcinomas (P=0.042) and correlating with aggressive features (high histology grade, P<0.02; tumour death, P=0.026; high fractional allelic loss, P=0.002, in turn correlating with short survival, P=0.017). LOH at APC locus was found in 14 out of 53 cases (26%, 10 gastroduodenal and 4 colorectal), prevalent in poorly differentiated carcinomas (P=0.002) and correlating with histology grade (P=0.012). beta-catenin abnormal expression was found in 41 out of 54 cases (76%), with nuclear staining correlating with APC alteration (P=0.047) and short survival (P=0.006). APC, but not beta-catenin, gene mutations were found (7 out of 35 tumours), 4 of which in the midgut. E-cadherin promoter methylation was rarely detected (2 out of 52 cases), with cytoplasmic expression in 18 out of 43 cases (42%), not correlating with any clinico-pathological feature. In conclusion, Wnt pathway alterations, as represented by abnormal beta-catenin localization, are common events in digestive endocrine tumours, but only nuclear expression correlates with tumour aggressiveness. Though with different alteration mechanisms according to anatomical site, APC plays a major role in Wnt pathway activation and in determining the high chromosomal instability observed in aggressive endocrine carcinomas.

  7. [Multiple endocrine neoplasia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaaf, Ludwig; Raue, Friedhelm

    2017-09-01

    Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 and 2 are hereditary cancer syndromes. They are characterized by the occurrence of many benign and malignant tumor types, in MEN1 parathyroid tumors, pituitary tumors, and pancreas tumors, in MEN2 medullary thyroid carcinoma, pheochromocytoma, and parathyroid tumors. The autosomal dominant inherited tumor syndromes are caused by mutations in the MEN1 gene, a tumor suppressor gene, and mutations in the RET gene, an activated oncogene, in MEN2. The clinical expression of the different tumors can vary within and between families, with a good genotype-phenotype correlation in MEN2. Early diagnosis and therapy is possible by using biochemical and imaging screening in the families. Early thyroidectomy in young patients with MEN2 results in a high cure rate of MTC. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Profile of capecitabine/temozolomide combination in the treatment of well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotteas, Elias A; Syrigos, Konstantinos N; Saif, Muhammad Wasif

    2016-01-01

    Neuroendocrine tumors are a rare and heterogeneous group of tumors with a variety of primary origins and variable aggressiveness. Platinum-based chemotherapy has been the cornerstone of treatment for the poorly differentiated tumors. However, well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumors are quite chemoresistant and therapy options are limited. Octreotide analogs and tyrosine kinase inhibitors are widely acceptable treatments due to substantial efficacy and tolerable toxicity. On the contrary, monotherapy or combinations of the only approved cytotoxic agent streptozocin with other drugs have been almost abandoned because of excessive toxic events. In recent years, the combination of capecitabine and temozolomide has emerged as the most promising and efficacious treatment. The oral route of administration and the substantial improvement in the outcomes with manageable toxicity are the major advantages. We reviewed the current literature and presented the profile of the capecitabine/temozolomide combination in the management of well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumors. PMID:26929640

  9. [Recurrence of Well Differentiated Intrascrotal Liposarcoma in Retroperitoneum Five Years after Resection : A Case Report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshinaga, Mitsuhiro; Sekii, Yosuke; Nakazawa, Shigeaki; Nakagawa, Masahiro; Kishikawa, Hidefumi; Nishimura, Kenji

    2017-01-01

    A 68-year-old man underwent an inguinal orchiectomy for a right testicular tumor and the pathological diagnosis was atypical lipomatous tumor. Nine years later, a resection procedure was performed for local recurrence. Five years after that second surgery, abdominal computed tomography (CT) findings revealed a low density mass 40 mm in size on the back side of the right kidney and enlarged fat in the retroperitoneal space. We performed a laparoscopic tumor resection under a diagnosis of lipoma or liposarcoma recurrence, and the pathological diagnosis was well differentiated liposarcoma. Treatment with pazopanib was started, as a CT examination showed that the tumor remained, after which we performed an open nephroureterectomy and resected the remaining tumor portion. Pazopanib treatment was continued and no obvious signs of recurrence were seen at 8 months after the most recent surgery. Although well differentiated liposarcoma usually recurs in the original tumor region, multicentric recurrence in other parts is possible.

  10. Well-Differentiated Extraskeletal Osteosarcoma Arising from the Retroperitoneum That Recurred as Anaplastic Spindle Cell Sarcoma

    OpenAIRE

    Hiromasa Arai; Yasushi Rino; Teppei Nishii; Norio Yukawa; Nobuyuki Wada; Hisashi Oshiro; Tsuyoshi Ishida; Noboru Nakaigawa; Munetaka Masuda

    2010-01-01

    Extraskeletal osteosarcoma is an uncommon high-grade malignant soft tissue sarcoma. Well-differentiated extraskeletal osteosarcoma is thought to have a better prognosis than classical extraskeletal osteosarcoma, but dedifferentiation after recurrence has also been reported. We present a case of a primary retroperitoneal extraskeletal osteosarcoma in a 62-year-old Japanese woman. Abdominal CT revealed a large mass with diffuse calcification in the right retroperitoneal space and tumor resectio...

  11. Well-differentiated prostate cancer in core biopsy specimens may be associated with extraprostatic disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Cury

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Accurate determination of the Gleason score in prostate core biopsy specimens is crucial in selecting the type of prostate cancer treatment, especially for patients with well-differentiated tumors (Gleason score 2 to 4. For such patients, an inaccurate biopsy score may result in a therapeutic intervention that is too conservative. We evaluate the role of Gleason score 2-4 in prostate core-needle biopsies for predicting the final pathological staging following radical prostatectomy. DESIGN AND SETTING: Retrospective study at Hospital das Clínicas, Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo. METHODS: We analyzed the medical records of 120 consecutive patients who underwent radical retropubic prostatectomy to treat clinical localized prostate cancer at our institution between December 2001 and July 2006. Thirty-two of these patients presented well-differentiated tumors (Gleason score 2 to 4 in biopsy specimens and were included in the study. The Gleason scores of the core-needle biopsies were compared with the pathological staging of the surgical specimens. RESULTS: Sixteen of the 32 patients (50% presented moderately differentiated tumors (Gleason score 5 to 7 in surgical specimens. Eighteen patients (56% had tumors with involvement of the prostate capsule and ten (31% had involvement of adjacent organs. Evaluating the 16 patients that maintained Gleason scores of 2 to 4 in the pathological staging of the surgical specimens, 11 (68.7% had focal invasion of the prostate capsule and five (31.25% had organ-confined disease. CONCLUSION: Well-differentiated tumors (Gleason score 2 to 4 seen in biopsies are not predictive of organ-confined disease.

  12. Endocrine Tumor: Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are here Home > Types of Cancer > Endocrine Tumor Endocrine Tumor This is Cancer.Net’s Guide to Endocrine Tumor. Use the menu below to choose the ... social workers, and patient advocates. Cancer.Net Guide Endocrine Tumor Introduction Statistics Risk Factors Symptoms and Signs ...

  13. Primary Well Differentiated Breast Liposarcoma with Divergent Cartilagenous Differentiation: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammar Cherkess Al-Rikabi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Primary liposarcomas of the female and male breasts are very rare. Heterologous differentiation in adipocytic tumors is also an exceedingly rare phenomenon, which is occasionally reported in the literature. We describe the case of a 22 year-old female who presented with a relatively large left breast mass which was clinically diagnosed as a case of giant fibroadenoma, but histologically showed a well differentiated liposarcoma with evidence of extensive chondroid differentiation. The mammographic and radiological features are presented and correlated with the histopathological appearances together with literature review and comparison with similar reported cases.

  14. Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodish, Maya

    2013-01-01

    Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN2) is an autosomal-dominant cancer syndrome characterized by variable penetrance of medullary thyroid carcinoma(MTC), pheochromocytoma (PHEO), and primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). MEN2 consists of two clinical subtypes, MEN2A and MEN2B. Familial medullary thyroid cancer is now viewed as a phenotypic variant of MEN2A with decreased penetrance for PHEO and PHPT rather than a distinct entity. All subtypes are caused by gain-of-function mutations of the RET proto-oncogene. Genotype-phenotype correlations exist that help predict the presence of other associated endocrine neoplasms as well as the timing of thyroid cancer development. Recognition of the clinical entity in individuals and families at risk of harboring a germline RET mutation is crucial for the management and prevention of associated malignancies. Recent guidelines released by the American Thyroid Association regarding the management of MTC will be summarized in this chapter.

  15. Rare Cause of Dysphagy: Giant Polypoid Esophageal Well-Differentiated Liposarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav Mica

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Liposarcoma represents one of the most frequent (10–20% malignant mesenchymal tumors in the adult, affecting mostly the soft tissue of extremities, the trunk or the retroperitoneum. This tumor type occurs exceptionally rarely in the gastrointestinal tract with only few cases described in the literature. In this case we present a 73-year-old male patient who was admitted due to loss of weight, anorexia and postprandial emesis with dysphagy. Gastrographin esophagography failed to make precise diagnostics. CT scan of the upper gastrointestinal tract revealed a large esophageal tumor filling out the whole length of the esophagus. The tumor was removed by parasternocleidomastoidal approach with a stapler. Histopathological examination revealed a well-differentiated liposarcoma (grade I. Well-differentiated liposarcomas are characterised by amplified material of the 12q13–15 chromosomal region, present in the form of giant or ring chromosomes and leading to the overexpression of MDM2 and CDK4 genes. MDM2 and CDK4 proteins can be detected immunhistochemically, which was the case in the reported tumor. Overexpression of these proteins leads to suppression of tumor suppressor genes, leading to increased cell survival.

  16. Endocrine Disruptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo F. Ricci

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Law and science combine in the estimation of risks from endocrine disruptors (EDs and actions for their regulation. For both, dose–response models are the causal link between exposure and probability (or percentage change of adverse response. The evidence that leads to either regulations or judicial decrees is affected by uncertainty and limited knowledge, raising difficult policy issues that we enumerate and discuss. In the United States, some courts have dealt with EDs, but causation based on animal studies has been a stumbling block for plaintiffs seeking compensation, principally because those courts opt for epidemiological evidence. The European Union (EU has several regulatory tools and ongoing research on the risks associated with bisphenol A, under the Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH Regulation and other regulations or directives. The integration of a vast (in kind and in scope number of research papers into a statement of causation for either policy or to satisfy legal requirements, in both the United States and the EU, relies on experts. We outline the discursive dilemma and issues that may affect consensus-based results and a Bayesian causal approach that accounts for the evolution of information, yielding both value of information and flexibility associated with public choices.

  17. CONTEMPORARY APPROACHES TO LEVOTHYROXINE THERAPY AFTER SURGERY IN PATIENTS WITH WELL-DIFFERENTIATED THYROID CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. O. Rumyantsev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Levothyroxine therapy with purpose to suppress thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH after surgery in patients with well-differentiated thyroid cancer is implemented since 1937. Accumulated results of levothyroxine suppressive therapy (LST application are attesting its heterogeneous efficacy in various risk groups of tumor recurrence: low, medium and high. Similar risk groups are emphasized towards adverse effect risk due to LST. The more intensivity and duration of TSH suppression the higher risk of adverse effects. First, they include osteopenia or osteoporosis and atrial fibrillation. Contemporary approaches to intensivity and duration of LTS are based on accounting of its potential efficiency into various clinical risk groups of tumor recurrence as well as adverse effects risk groups.

  18. Multiple endocrine neoplasia: the Chilean experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René E. Diaz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN types 1 and 2 are genetic diseases that are inherited as autosomal traits. The major clinical manifestations of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 include the so-called "3 P's": parathyroid, pituitary, and pancreatic tumors, including gastroenteroneuroendocrine tumors. Genetic testing can be performed on patients and the potential carriers of the menin gene mutation, but the genotype-phenotype correlation in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 is less straightforward than multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2. Most likely, the main advantage of genetic testing in MEN1 is to exclude from further studies those who are negative for the genetic mutation if they belong to a family with a known history of MEN1. In Chile, we started with rearranged during transfection proto-oncogene genetic testing (MEN2 15 years ago. We carried out a prophylactic total thyroidectomy to prevent medullary thyroid carcinoma in a three-year-old girl who presented with microscopic medullary thyroid carcinoma. More than 90% of the individuals who tested positive using a genetic test achieved a biochemical cure compared with only 27% of patients who receive a clinical diagnosis. Mutations are mainly located in exon 11; the most common is C634W, rather than C634R. Hypertensive crisis was the cause of death in three patients, and extensive distant metastases occurred in nine (including two patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2B of 14 patients. Earlier recognition of medullary thyroid carcinoma and the other features of the disease, especially pheochromocytoma, will improve the survival rate of patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia.

  19. Reproducibility determination of WHO classification of endometrial hyperplasia/well differentiated adenocarcinoma and comparison with computerized morphometric data in curettage specimens in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meysamie Ali

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Management of endometrial precancerous lesions has been of much debate due to inconsistencies in their classification, natural history and histologic diagnosis. Endometrial hyperplasia constitutes a wide range of histomorphologic features associated with high intra and interobserver diagnostic variability. Although traditional microscopic diagnosis is by far the most applicable method and the gold standard for histomorphologic diagnosis, digitized image analysis has been used as a powerful adjunct to maximize the histologic data retrieval and to add some detailed objective criteria for correct diagnosis in difficult cases. Methods A series of 100 endometrial curettage specimens with diagnosis of endometrial hyperplasia or well differentiated adenocarcinoma were blindly reviewed by 5 pathologists; their intra and interobserver reproducibility determined and further compared to the objective morphometric data i.e. D-score and volume percent of stroma (VPS. Results The results were assessed using the weighted kappa statistics. Mean intraobserver kappa value was 0.8690 (99.44% agreement. Mean interobserver kappa values by diagnostic category were: simple hyperplasia without atypia: 0.7441; complex hyperplasia without atypia: 0.3379; atypical hyperplasia: 0.3473, and well-differentiated endometrioid carcinoma: 0.6428; with a kappa value of 0.5372 for all cases combined. Interobserver agreement was in substantial rate for simple hyperplasia (SH and well differentiated adenocarcinoma (WDA but was in fair limit for complex hyperplasia (CH and atypical hyperplasia (AH. Intraobserver agreement was almost perfect. The specimens were divided in two groups according to the computerized morphometric analysis: Endometrial Hyperplasia (EH ( D Score ≥ 1 or VPS ≥ 55% and Endometrial Intraepithelial Neoplasia (EIN (D-Score Conclusion It may be necessary to make some revisions in WHO classification for endometrial hyperplasia and

  20. 氯菊酯异构体对人类绒毛膜癌 JEG-3细胞内分泌的选择性干扰%Endocrine disruption effect of permethrin isomers to the chorion carcinoma JEG-3 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钮利喜; 王萍; 朱欣凯; 陆颖冲; 赵美蓉

    2016-01-01

    The endocrine disruption effect of four permethrin isomers to the chorion carcinoma JEG-3 cells was investigated. JEG-3 cell lines was employed as thein vitro model and the potential risks of these compounds to maternal-fetal health were also evaluated. Four permethrin isomers were separated by HPLC. The results of real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) revealed that those four isomers, in RNA levels, exhibited selective influence on the relative expression amounts of the genes correspounding to gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and its receptor, the enzymes of the steroidogenesis pathway and human leucocyte antigen G (HLA-G). The endocrine disruption effects induced by 1R-cis-PM and 1S-trans-PM were more significant than that induced by 1S-cis-PM and 1R-trans-PM.%以人类绒毛膜癌 JEG-3细胞为模型,通过考察拟除虫菊酯类农药氯菊酯(permethrin, PM)及其异构体对 JEG-3细胞内分泌相关基因的干扰情况,探讨了氯菊酯及其异构体暴露对产妇胎儿健康的潜在风险。通过高效液相色谱拆分得到氯菊酯的4个异构体,采用实时荧光定量反转录聚合酶链式反应(reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, RT-PCR)法检测目的基因的相对表达水平,发现氯菊酯异构体对 JEG-3细胞促性腺激素释放激素(GnRHI, GnRHII)及其受体(GnRHR)、胆甾醇类雌激素合成关键基因以及胚胎免疫耐受相关基因(HLA-G)在 mRNA水平的相对表达量均呈现选择性干扰,其中1R-cis-PM和1S-trans-PM对滋养层细胞内分泌相关基因表达量的影响大于其他2个异构体。

  1. Endocrine System (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of or replacing specific hormones can treat many endocrine disorders in children and adolescents, some of which include: ... System Your Child's Growth Female Reproductive System Activity: Endocrine System Word! Hormones Diabetes Center Thyroid Disorders Type 2 Diabetes: What Is It? Your Endocrine ...

  2. Lipoma-like hibernoma: an atypical lipoma/well-differentiated liposarcoma mimicker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reis-Filho Jorge S.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Hibernomas are benign lipomatous tumors which show differentiation toward brown fat. Recently, unusual variants have been described, including myxoid, spindle cell, and lipoma-like variants. Lipoma-like hibernoma (LLH is characterized by mature univacuolated adipocytic cells with rare admixed multivacuolated brown fat-like cells, which may resemble lipoblasts, leading to a misdiagnosis of atypical lipoma/well-differentiated liposarcoma (AL/WDLS. We herein report a case of LLH arising on the anterior aspect of the left thigh of a 17-year-old female. A marginal excision was performed. The patient was discharged and remains well four months after surgery. Histological examination showed a lobulated neoplasm composed of univacuolated mature adipose cells admixed with small vessels and occasional mast cells. Scattered islands of brown fat-like cells accounting for less than 10% of the neoplasm were found. Sometimes these cells presented indented and scalloped nuclei, resembling lipoblasts. A final diagnosis of LLH was made based on the presence of focal areas with typical hibernoma morphology, and the lack of atypical hyperchromatic stromal cells. Pathologists must be aware of the typical histological findings of LLH, not to confuse it with AL/WDLS.

  3. Comparison of methods for proliferative index analysis for grading pancreatic well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodell, Pamela P; Krasinskas, Alyssa M; Davison, Jon M; Hartman, Douglas J

    2012-04-01

    Assessment of proliferative activity is required for grading well-differentiated pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. However, a standardized method for obtaining the Ki-67 proliferative index is lacking. This study compared proliferative activity obtained by 3 methods: single-field hot spot (Ki-67 HS) and 10 consecutive field average (Ki-67 CFA) using the Ventana image analysis system (Ventana Medical Systems, Tucson, AZ) and mitotic index (MI). These methods resulted in discrepant grades in 30 (67%) of our 45 cases. With the current Ki-67 cutoff of more than 2% for intermediate-grade tumors, MI, CFA, and HS resulted in specificities of 91%, 94%, and 31%, respectively, for detecting metastasis, with positive predictive values (PPVs) of 25%, 67%, and 31%, respectively. At a higher Ki-67 cutoff of 7.5%, HS analysis resulted in a specificity of 94% and PPV of 71% for predicting metastasis. While single-field HS analysis may be practical and reliable at a higher cutoff, this study emphasizes the variability that can exist when different methods of assessment are used.

  4. Transformation of prostatic adenocarcinoma to well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumor after hormonal treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilani, Syed; Guo, Charles C; Li-Ning, Elsa M; Pettaway, Curtis; Troncoso, Patricia

    2017-06-01

    Carcinoid tumor of the prostate is extremely rare. Here we report a unique case of prostate cancer that underwent complete transformation from conventional adenocarcinoma to carcinoid-like tumor shortly after androgen-deprivation treatment (ADT). The patient was a 59-year-old man who presented with lower urinary tract symptoms. His biopsy specimen demonstrated a high-grade prostatic adenocarcinoma with mixed acinar and ductal features. After ADT for 6months, the patient underwent radical prostatectomy. The post-ADT tumor showed monotonous neoplastic cells with fine granular chromatin forming rosette-like structures, resembling a carcinoid tumor. No residual conventional adenocarcinoma was present. On immunostain, the tumor cells were diffusely positive for synaptophysin and chromogranin and negative for prostate-specific antigen and prostein. Thus, the carcinoid-like tumor represented complete transformation from prostatic adenocarcinoma to well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumor after ADT. This unique case highlights the important role of ADT in neuroendocrine differentiation of prostate cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. CDK4 amplification predicts recurrence of well-differentiated liposarcoma of the abdomen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanghoon Lee

    Full Text Available The absence of CDK4 amplification in liposarcomas is associated with favorable prognosis. We aimed to identify the factors associated with tumor recurrence in patients with well-differentiated (WD and dedifferentiated (DD liposarcomas.From 2000 to 2010, surgical resections for 101 WD and DD liposarcomas were performed. Cases in which complete surgical resections with curative intent were carried out were selected. MDM2 and CDK4 gene amplification were analyzed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR.There were 31 WD and 17 DD liposarcomas. Locoregional recurrence was observed in 11 WD and 3 DD liposarcomas. WD liposarcomas showed better patient survival compared to DD liposarcomas (P<0.05. Q-PCR analysis of the liposarcomas revealed the presence of CDK4 amplification in 44 cases (91.7% and MDM2 amplification in 46 cases (95.8%. WD liposarcomas with recurrence after surgical resection had significantly higher levels of CDK4 amplification compared to those without recurrence (P = 0.041. High level of CDK4 amplification (cases with CDK4 amplification higher than the median 7.54 was associated with poor recurrence-free survival compared to low CDK4 amplification in both univariate (P = 0.012 and multivariate analyses (P = 0.020.Level of CDK4 amplification determined by Q-PCR was associated with the recurrence of WD liposarcomas after surgical resection.

  6. Well-differentiated papillary mesothelioma: a clinicopathological and immunohistochemical study of 18 cases with additional observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaochen; Sheng, Weiqi; Wang, Jian

    2013-04-01

    To present our experience with 18 cases of well-differentiated papillary mesothelioma (WDPM), with an emphasis on its relationship to adenomatoid tumour and multicystic mesothelioma. Eighteen cases of WDPM were retrieved. Twenty cases of multicystic mesothelioma were selected for comparative study. The WDPM patients comprised 14 females and four males, with age ranging from 18 to 60 years (median 37 years). The tumour involved the abdominal or pelvic peritoneum (14 cases), the pleura (two cases), and the testicular tunica vaginalis (two cases). The majority of WDPMs were incidental findings during surgery for a wide variety of conditions. Histologically, 13 cases were consistent with classical WDPM. Two cases had a combined component of adenomatoid tumour, and three cases contained coexisting areas of multicystic mesothelioma. Among the multicystic mesothelioma cases, four had adenomatoid tumour-like foci present in the stroma. Immunohistochemically, all cases of WDPM and multicystic mesothelioma, as well as the coexisting combined components, were positive for mesothelial markers, with a low Ki67 index. This study also showed that WDPM was negative for epithelial membrane antigen and desmin. The simultaneous occurrence of WDPM, adenomatoid tumour and multicystic mesothelioma in some cases suggested histogenetic relationships among these three less aggressive mesotheliomas. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Comparison of FDG Uptake with Pathological Parameters in the Well-differentiated Thyroid Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Woo Hee; Chung, Yong An; Kim, Ki Jun; Park, Chang Suk; Jung, Hyun Suk; Sohn, Hyung Sun; Chung, Soo Kyo; Yoo, Chang Young [College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-02-15

    Differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) has variable degree of F-18 FDG avidity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between F-18 FDG uptake and pathological or immunohistochemical features of DTC. DTC patients who underwent both pre-operative F-18 FDG PET/CT scan and surgery were included in the study. Maximum standardized uptake values (SUVmax) of primary tumor were calculated. If the primary tumor showed no perceptibly increased F-18 FDG uptake, region of interest was drawn based on finding of CT portion of the PET/CT images. Pathological and immunohistochemical markers such as presence of lymph node (LN) metastasis and underlying thyroiditis, tumor size, Ki-67 labeling index, expressions of EGFR, COX-2, and Galectin-3 were evaluated. Total of 106 patients was included (102 papillary carcinomas, 4 follicular carcinomas). The mean SUVmax of the large tumors (above 1 cm) was significantly higher than the mean SUVmax of small (equal to or less than 1 cm) ones (7.8{+-}8.5 vs. 3.6{+-}3.1, p=0.004). No significant difference in F-18 FDG uptake was found according to the presence or absence of LN metastasis and underlying thyroiditis, or the degree of Ki-67 labeling index, expression of EGFR, COX-2 and Galectin-3. In conclusion, the degree of F-18 FDG uptake in DTC was associated with the size of primary tumor. But there seem to be no relationship between F-18 FDG uptake of DTC and expression of Ki-67, EGFR, COX-2 and Galectin-3.

  8. Liver abnormalities and endocrine diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burra, Patrizia

    2013-08-01

    The liver and its pleotropic functions play a fundamental role in regulating metabolism, and is also an inevitable target of multiple metabolic disorders. The numerous and constant relationships and feedback mechanisms between the liver and all endocrine organs is reflected by the fact that an alteration of one oftentimes results in the malfunction of the other. Hypo- and hyperthyroidism are frequently associated with hepatic alterations, and thyroid diseases must be excluded in transaminase elevation of unknown cause. Drugs such as propylthiouracil, used in the treatment of hyperthyroidism, may induce liver damage, and other drugs such as amiodarone, carbamazepine, and several chemotherapeutic agents can lead to both thyroid and liver abnormalities. Liver diseases such as hepatitis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and cirrhosis may cause altered levels of thyroid hormones, and alcoholic liver disease, both due to the noxious substance ethanol as well as to the hepatic damage it causes, may be responsible for altered thyroid function. Both excess and insufficiency of adrenal function may result in altered liver function, and adrenocortical dysfunction may be present in patients with cirrhosis, especially during episodes of decompensation. Again an important player which affects both the endocrine system and the liver, alcohol may be associated with pseudo-Cushing syndrome. Sex hormones, both intrinsic as well as extrinsically administered, have an important impact on liver function. While oestrogens are related to cholestatic liver damage, androgens are the culprit of adenomas and hepatocellular carcinoma, among others. Chronic liver disease, on the other hand, has profound repercussions on sex hormone metabolism, inducing feminization in men and infertility and amenorrhoea in women. Lastly, metabolic syndrome, the pandemia of the present and future centuries, links the spectrum of liver damage ranging from steatosis to cirrhosis, to the array of endocrine alterations

  9. Carcinoma cuniculatum: not a verrucous carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubik, M J; Rhatigan, R M

    2012-12-01

    Carcinoma cuniculatum and verrucous carcinoma are both very well differentiated forms of squamous carcinoma and thus difficult to separate histologically from pseudocarcinomatous hyperplasia. The diagnosis of each often requires clinical-pathologic correlation. We reviewed the literature on cases reported as carcinoma cuniculatum and compared these to the cases originally reported by Aird et al. In addition, we report an additional case of this entity that we encountered in our practice. In reviewing the literature it is evident that most authors consider carcinoma cuniculatum and verrucous carcinoma to be synonymous even though Aird's original two cases had no verrucous features. The lack of a clear conceptual distinction between these two entities may cause diagnostic confusion. The purpose of this report is to record a case of carcinoma cuniculatum which the authors believe to be similar to those reported by Aird et al., to emphasize the differences between carcinoma cuniculatum and verrucous carcinoma, and to explain how the lack of a clear conceptual distinction between these two tumors can lead to further delay in an already difficult diagnosis. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  10. Commonly used endocrine drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Mário Miguel; Dias, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Endocrine drugs are agents directed to a malfunctioning endocrine path. Several agents are secreted in or target the nervous system, and are thus more prone to cause neurologic adverse events (AEs). This chapter focuses on commonly used endocrine agents directed to the hypothalamus-pituitary axis, thyroid, and antidiabetic agents. The therapeutic agents are discussed in terms of indication, mechanism of action, description, and frequency of AEs, and risk factors for occurrence where available. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Aberrant Expression of Posterior HOX Genes in Well Differentiated Histotypes of Thyroid Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Botti

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Molecular etiology of thyroid cancers has been widely studied, and several molecular alterations have been identified mainly associated with follicular and papillary histotypes. However, the molecular bases of the complex pathogenesis of thyroid carcinomas remain poorly understood. HOX genes regulate normal embryonic development, cell differentiation and other critical processes in eukaryotic cell life. Several studies have shown that HOX genes play a role in neoplastic transformation of several human tissues. In particular, the genes belonging to HOX paralogous group 13 seem to hold a relevant role in both tumor development and progression. We have identified a significant prognostic role of HOX D13 in pancreatic cancer and we have recently showed the strong and progressive over-expression of HOX C13 in melanoma metastases and deregulation of HOX B13 expression in bladder cancers. In this study we have investigated, by immunohistochemisty and quantitative Real Time PCR, the HOX paralogous group 13 genes/proteins expression in thyroid cancer evolution and progression, also evaluating its ability to discriminate between main histotypes. Our results showed an aberrant expression, both at gene and protein level, of all members belonging to paralogous group 13 (HOX A13, HOX B13, HOX C13 and HOX D13 in adenoma, papillary and follicular thyroid cancers samples. The data suggest a potential role of HOX paralogous group 13 genes in pathogenesis and differential diagnosis of thyroid cancers.

  12. Endocrine system: part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, Carolyn; Hendry, Charles; Farley, Alistair; McLafferty, Ella

    2014-05-27

    This article, which forms part of the life sciences series and is the first of two articles on the endocrine system, examines the structure and function of the organs of the endocrine system. It is important that nurses understand how the endocrine system works and its role in maintaining health. The role of the endocrine system and the types, actions and control of hormones are explored. The gross structure of the pituitary and thyroid glands are described along with relevant physiology. Several disorders of the thyroid gland are outlined. The second article examines growth hormone, the pancreas and adrenal glands.

  13. [Postpartum endocrine syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducarme, G; Châtel, P; Luton, D

    2008-05-01

    Postpartum endocrine syndromes occur in the year after delivery. They are due to immunologic and vascular modifications during pregnancy. The Sheehan syndrome is the first described postpartum endocrine syndrome and consists on a hypophyse necrosis in relation with a hypovolemic shock during delivery. The immunologic consequences of the pregnancy are the most frequent, sometimes discrete and transitory. The physiological evolution of the endocrine glands during pregnancy and the most frequent post-partum endocrine syndromes are discussed: postpartum lymphocytic hypophysitis, thyroiditis and Sheehan' syndrome.

  14. Occupational exposure to endocrine-disrupting compounds and biliary tract cancer among men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahrens, Wolfgang; Mambetova, Chinara; Bourdon-Raverdy, Nicole

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the association between cancer of the extrahepatic biliary tract and exposure to endocrine-disrupting compounds. METHODS: Altogether 183 men with histologically confirmed carcinoma of the extrahepatic biliary tract and 1938 matched controls were interviewed bet...

  15. The value of fat-suppressed T2 or STIR sequences in distinguishing lipoma from well-differentiated liposarcoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galant, J. [Servicio de Radiodiagnostico, Hospital Universitario San Juan de Alicante, Ctra. Nacional 332 Alicante-Valencia s/n, 03550 San Juan de Alicante (Spain); Resonancia Magnetica del Sureste, Murcia (Spain); Marti-Bonmati, L. [Department of Radiology, Hospital Universitario Dr. Peset, Valencia (Spain); Saez, F. [Department of Radiology, Hospital Cruces de Baracaldo, Vizcaya (Spain); Soler, R. [Department of Radiology, Hospital Juan Canalejo, A Coruna (Spain); Alcala-Santaella, R. [Department of Traumatology, Hospital Universitario San Juan de Alicante, Ctra. Nacional 332 Alicante-Valencia s/n, 03550 San Juan de Alicante (Spain); Navarro, M. [Servicio de Radiodiagnostico, Hospital Universitario San Juan de Alicante, Ctra. Nacional 332 Alicante-Valencia s/n, 03550 San Juan de Alicante (Spain)

    2003-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of fat-suppressed T2-weighted (FS-T2) images or short tau inversion recovery (STIR) imaging in distinguishing lipoma from lipoma-like subtype of well-differentiated liposarcoma. Spin-echo T1-weighted and STIR or fat-suppression T2-weighted sequences were performed in 60 lipomas and 32 lipoma-like well-differentiated liposarcomas, histologically proven, looking for thick septa or nodules in T1-weighted images and linear, nodular, or amorphous hyperintensities on FS-T2/STIR sequences. Fourteen lipomas (23.3%) showed thick septa and/or nodules on T1, whereas on FS-T2 or STIR sequences only seven (11.7%) displayed hyperintense nodules and/or septa. All well-differentiated liposarcomas contained these signs on FS-T2 or STIR sequences. The presence of hyperintense septa or nodules in a predominantly lipomatous tumor on FS-T2/STIR sequences helps to differentiate malignant tumors from lipomas. Employing the presence of hyperintense nodules and/or septa as criteria of malignancy specificity was 76.6% and sensitivity 100%. Overdiagnoses of well-differentiated liposarcoma can occur due to the presence of non-lipomatous areas within lipomas. (orig.)

  16. Whole genome analyses of a well-differentiated liposarcoma reveals novel SYT1 and DDR2 rearrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Jan B; Barrett, Michael T; Champion, Mia D; Middha, Sumit; Lenkiewicz, Elizabeth; Evers, Lisa; Francis, Princy; Schmidt, Jessica; Shi, Chang-Xin; Van Wier, Scott; Badar, Sandra; Ahmann, Gregory; Kortuem, K Martin; Boczek, Nicole J; Fonseca, Rafael; Craig, David W; Carpten, John D; Borad, Mitesh J; Stewart, A Keith

    2014-01-01

    Liposarcoma is the most common soft tissue sarcoma, but little is known about the genomic basis of this disease. Given the low cell content of this tumor type, we utilized flow cytometry to isolate the diploid normal and aneuploid tumor populations from a well-differentiated liposarcoma prior to array comparative genomic hybridization and whole genome sequencing. This work revealed massive highly focal amplifications throughout the aneuploid tumor genome including MDM2, a gene that has previously been found to be amplified in well-differentiated liposarcoma. Structural analysis revealed massive rearrangement of chromosome 12 and 11 gene fusions, some of which may be part of double minute chromosomes commonly present in well-differentiated liposarcoma. We identified a hotspot of genomic instability localized to a region of chromosome 12 that includes a highly conserved, putative L1 retrotransposon element, LOC100507498 which resides within a gene cluster (NAV3, SYT1, PAWR) where 6 of the 11 fusion events occurred. Interestingly, a potential gene fusion was also identified in amplified DDR2, which is a potential therapeutic target of kinase inhibitors such as dastinib, that are not routinely used in the treatment of patients with liposarcoma. Furthermore, 7 somatic, damaging single nucleotide variants have also been identified, including D125N in the PTPRQ protein. In conclusion, this work is the first to report the entire genome of a well-differentiated liposarcoma with novel chromosomal rearrangements associated with amplification of therapeutically targetable genes such as MDM2 and DDR2.

  17. Whole genome analyses of a well-differentiated liposarcoma reveals novel SYT1 and DDR2 rearrangements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan B Egan

    Full Text Available Liposarcoma is the most common soft tissue sarcoma, but little is known about the genomic basis of this disease. Given the low cell content of this tumor type, we utilized flow cytometry to isolate the diploid normal and aneuploid tumor populations from a well-differentiated liposarcoma prior to array comparative genomic hybridization and whole genome sequencing. This work revealed massive highly focal amplifications throughout the aneuploid tumor genome including MDM2, a gene that has previously been found to be amplified in well-differentiated liposarcoma. Structural analysis revealed massive rearrangement of chromosome 12 and 11 gene fusions, some of which may be part of double minute chromosomes commonly present in well-differentiated liposarcoma. We identified a hotspot of genomic instability localized to a region of chromosome 12 that includes a highly conserved, putative L1 retrotransposon element, LOC100507498 which resides within a gene cluster (NAV3, SYT1, PAWR where 6 of the 11 fusion events occurred. Interestingly, a potential gene fusion was also identified in amplified DDR2, which is a potential therapeutic target of kinase inhibitors such as dastinib, that are not routinely used in the treatment of patients with liposarcoma. Furthermore, 7 somatic, damaging single nucleotide variants have also been identified, including D125N in the PTPRQ protein. In conclusion, this work is the first to report the entire genome of a well-differentiated liposarcoma with novel chromosomal rearrangements associated with amplification of therapeutically targetable genes such as MDM2 and DDR2.

  18. Endocrine system and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashburn, Doyle D; Reed, Mary Jane

    2010-10-01

    Obesity is associated with significant alterations in endocrine function. An association with type 2 diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia has been well documented. This article highlights the complexities of treating endocrine system disorders in obese patients. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. The endocrine quiz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Kalra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the recent explosion in endocrine conferences, audience fatigue has set in and conference planners are now looking at newer pedagogic methods to revive the interest of audiences in these conferences. The endocrine quiz has finally come of vogue and is increasingly becoming one of the most popular attractions of any ranking endocrine conference. The endocrine quiz has a large and varied palette and draws questions from religious scriptures, history, literature, current affairs, sports, movies and basic and paramedical sciences. The more we delve into the quizzable aspects of endocrinology, the more we realize that endocrinology is ubiquitous and there is no sphere in human life untouched by endocrine disorders. Be it epic characters like Kumbhakarna and Bheema, fiction characters like Tintin or Orphan Annie, sportspersons like Gail Devers or heads of state like George Bush Sr and Boris Yeltsin, all have contributed to the melting pot of endocrine quizzing. Adding further grist to the endocrine mill are the Nobel prizes, with their attendant anecdotes and controversies. Step into this world of endocrine quizzing to have an up close and personal look at the diverse facets of this subject.

  20. Verrucous carcinoma of the bladder unassociated with bilharzial cystitis : a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, Cheol Ho; Kim, Hong; Woo, Seong Ku; Suh, Soo Jhi; Cho, Seung Che [Keimyung Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-05-01

    Verrucous carcinoma that occurs only in the bladder is a very rare, well- differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. The tumor is a histologically and clinically distinctive variant of squamous cell carcinoma, and is almost exclusively associated with bilharzial infection. We report the radiologic findings of a case of verrucous carcinoma of the bladder unassociated with bilharzial infection.

  1. Can the microRNA signature distinguish between thyroid tumors of uncertain malignant potential and other well-differentiated tumors of the thyroid gland?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassalle, Sandra; Hofman, Véronique; Ilie, Marius; Bonnetaud, Christelle; Puisségur, Marie-Pierre; Brest, Patrick; Loubatier, Céline; Guevara, Nicolas; Bordone, Olivier; Cardinaud, Bruno; Lebrigand, Kévin; Rios, Géraldine; Santini, Joseph; Franc, Brigitte; Mari, Bernard; Al Ghuzlan, Abir; Vielh, Philippe; Barbry, Pascal; Hofman, Paul

    2011-10-01

    The term 'thyroid tumors of uncertain malignant potential' (TT-UMP) was coined by surgical pathologists to define well-differentiated tumors (WDT) showing inconclusive morphological evidence of malignancy or benignity. We have analyzed the expression of microRNA (miRNA) in a training set of 42 WDT of different histological subtypes: seven follicular tumors of UMP (FT-UMP), six WDT-UMP, seven follicular thyroid adenomas (FTA), 11 conventional papillary thyroid carcinomas (C-PTC), five follicular variants of PTC (FV-PTC), and six follicular thyroid carcinomas (FTC), which led to the identification of about 40 deregulated miRNAs. A subset of these altered miRNAs was independently validated by qRT-PCR, which included 18 supplementary TT-UMP (eight WDT-UMP and ten FT-UMP). Supervised clustering techniques were used to predict the first 42 samples. Based on the four possible outcomes (FTA, C-PTC, FV-PTC, and FTC), about 80% of FTA and C-PTC and 50% of FV-PTC and FTC samples were correctly assigned. Analysis of the independent set of 18 WDT-UMP by quantitative RT-PCR for the selection of the six most discriminating miRNAs was unable to separate FT-UMP from WDT-UMP, suggesting that the miRNA signature is insufficient in characterizing these two clinical entities. We conclude that considering FT-UMP and WDT-UMP as distinct and specific clinical entities may improve the diagnosis of WDT of the thyroid gland. In this context, a small set of miRNAs (i.e. miR-7, miR-146a, miR-146b, miR-200b, miR-221, and miR-222) appears to be useful, though not sufficient per se, in distinguishing TT-UMP from other WDT of the thyroid gland.

  2. Endocrine disorders in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Mathiesen, Elisabeth R

    2011-01-01

    The endocrinology of pregnancy involves endocrine and metabolic changes as a consequence of physiological alterations at the foetoplacental boundary between mother and foetus. The vast changes in maternal hormones and their binding proteins complicate assessment of the normal level of most hormones...... hormones and their precursors across the foeto-maternal interface. The endocrine system is the earliest system developing in foetal life, and it is functional from early intrauterine existence through old age. Regulation of the foetal endocrine system relies, to some extent, on precursors secreted...

  3. Surgical strategies in endocrine tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreinemakers, J.M.J.

    2010-01-01

    Endocrine surgery has become more custom-made throughout the years. Endocrine tumors can be sporadic or develop as part of familial syndromes. Several familial syndromes are known to cause endocrine tumors. The most common are multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) syndromes type 1, 2A and 2B. This

  4. Research on Endocrine Disruptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA researchers are developing innovative approaches, tools, models and data to improve the understanding of potential risks to human health and wildlife from chemicals that could disrupt the endocrine system.

  5. Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for disorders of endocrine glands other than the thyroid, compared to 3.1 percent of visits made by women. The rate of visits due to metabolic and immunity disorders was also higher among men than women (2. ...

  6. Endocrine system: part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendry, Charles; Farley, Alistair; McLafferty, Ella; Johnstone, Carolyn

    2014-06-01

    This article, the last in the life sciences series, is the second of two articles on the endocrine system. It discusses human growth hormone, the pancreas and adrenal glands. The relationships between hormones and their unique functions are also explored. It is important that nurses understand how the endocrine system works and its role in maintaining health to provide effective care to patients. Several disorders caused by human growth hormone or that affect the pancreas and adrenal glands are examined.

  7. Update in endocrine autoimmunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Mark S

    2008-10-01

    The endocrine system is a common target in pathogenic autoimmune responses, and there has been recent progress in our understanding, diagnosis, and treatment of autoimmune endocrine diseases. Rapid progress has recently been made in our understanding of the genetic factors involved in endocrine autoimmune diseases. Studies on monogenic autoimmune diseases that include endocrine phenotypes like autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 1 and immune dysregulation, polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy, X-linked have helped reveal the role of key regulators in the maintenance of immune tolerance. Highly powered genetic studies have found and confirmed many new genes outside of the established role of the human leukocyte antigen locus with these diseases, and indicate an essential role of immune response pathways in these diseases. Progress has also been made in identifying new autoantigens and the development of new animal models for the study of endocrine autoimmunity. Finally, although hormone replacement therapy is still likely to be a mainstay of treatment in these disorders, there are new agents being tested for potentially treating and reversing the underlying autoimmune process. Although autoimmune endocrine disorders are complex in etiology, these recent advances should help contribute to improved outcomes for patients with, or at risk for, these disorders.

  8. Insular carcinoma: a distinct de novo entity among follicular carcinomas of the thyroid gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilotti, S; Collini, P; Mariani, L; Placucci, M; Bongarzone, I; Vigneri, P; Cipriani, S; Falcetta, F; Miceli, R; Pierotti, M A; Rilke, F

    1997-12-01

    We reclassified 720 nonmedullary invasive thyroid carcinomas diagnosed and treated between 1975 and 1993. Twenty-seven cases met the criteria of insular carcinoma and 29 cases those of widely invasive follicular carcinoma. Comparison of these histotypes with respect to pathologic stage and overall, relative, and visceral metastasis-free survival showed a significant association between histotype and pT and pN categories. In particular, pT4 (p AAA transversion at codon 61 of the N-RAS gene in insular carcinoma. These findings suggest that insular carcinoma represents a de novo entity distinct from widely invasive follicular carcinoma, that widely invasive follicular carcinoma has biologic characteristics more consistent with poorly differentiated than well-differentiated carcinomas, and that both insular carcinoma and widely invasive follicular carcinoma share similar molecular alterations.

  9. Interleukin-10 but not interleukin-18 may be associated with the immune response against well-differentiated thyroid cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Leite Cunha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the role of the interleukin-18 +105A/C and interleukin-10 -1082A/G germline polymorphisms in the development and outcome of differentiated thyroid carcinoma associated or not with concurrent thyroiditis. METHODS: We studied 346 patients with differentiated thyroid carcinomas, comprising 292 papillary carcinomas and 54 follicular carcinomas, who were followed up for 12-298 months (mean 76.10 ± 68.23 months according to a standard protocol. We genotyped 200 patients and 144 control individuals for the interleukin-18 +105A/C polymorphism, and we genotyped 183 patients and 137 controls for the interleukin-10 -1082A/G polymorphism. RESULTS: Interleukin-18 polymorphisms were not associated with chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis or any clinical or pathological feature of tumor aggressiveness. However, there was an association between the presence of interleukin-10 variants and chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis. Chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis was present in 21.74% of differentiated thyroid carcinoma patients, most frequently affecting women previously diagnosed with Hashimoto's thyroiditis who had received a lower 131I cumulative dose and did not present lymph node metastases. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that the inheritance of a G allele at the interleukin-10 -1082A/G polymorphism may favor a concurrent thyroid autoimmunity in differentiated thyroid carcinoma patients, and this autoimmunity may favor a better prognosis for these patients.

  10. Simultaneous Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bighan Khademi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The association of squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx with thyroid papillary carcinoma is an unusual finding. From 2004 to 2011, approximately 250 patients underwent laryngectomies due to squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx at the Otolaryngology Department of Khalili Hospital, affiliated with Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran. In three patients, synchronous occurrence of squamous cell carcinoma and thyroid papillary carcinoma was found. Histopathologic study of the lymph nodes revealed metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma in one case. We report three cases of thyroid papillary carcinoma incidentally found on histological examinations of resected thyroid lobes, as a procedure required for treatment of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. In comparison, laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma needs more aggressive treatment than well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma. The prevalence of thyroid papillary carcinoma, as an incidental finding in our study was 0.01%. Therefore, preoperative evaluation of the thyroid gland by ultrasonography and fine needle aspiration biopsy of suspicious lesions is recommended in patients who are candidates for open laryngectomy.

  11. The high-grade (WHO G3) pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor category is morphologically and biologically heterogenous and includes both well differentiated and poorly differentiated neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basturk, Olca; Yang, Zhaohai; Tang, Laura H; Hruban, Ralph H; Adsay, Volkan; McCall, Chad M; Krasinskas, Alyssa M; Jang, Kee-Taek; Frankel, Wendy L; Balci, Serdar; Sigel, Carlie; Klimstra, David S

    2015-05-01

    The 2010 World Health Organization (WHO) classification recommends that pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PanNETs) be graded on the basis of the mitotic rate and Ki67 index, with grade 2 (G2) PanNETs defined as having a mitotic rate of 2 to 20 mitotic figures/10 high-power fields or a Ki67 index of 3% to 20%. Grade 3 (G3) pancreatic neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC) is defined as having >20 mitotic figures/10 high-power fields or a Ki67 index of >20%. However, some PanNETs show discordance between the mitotic rate and Ki67 index, usually having a Ki67 index in the G3 range but a mitotic rate suggesting G2, prompting us to examine the clinical significance of the Ki67 index in a large series of clinically well-characterized mitotic G2 PanNETs. Mitotic G2 well differentiated PanNETs, surgically resected at our institutions were reviewed. Of those, 19 cases had a Ki67>20% and were selected as the study group of grade-discordant (mitotic count G2/Ki67 index G3) PanNETs. For comparison, 53 grade-concordant (both mitotic count and Ki67 index G2) PanNETs matched for presenting stage with the discordant group as well as 43 morphologically poorly differentiated (either small cell or large cell type) pancreatic NECs were also included. The percentage of Ki67-positive neoplastic cells was quantified by manual counting of at least 500 cells on printed photographic images of "hot spots." The mean Ki67 index for grade-concordant and grade-discordant PanNETs and poorly differentiated NECs were 8.1% (range, 3% to 20%), 40% (range, 24% to 80%), and 70% (range, 40% to 98%), respectively. Overall, patients with grade-discordant PanNETs had significantly longer survival time compared with the patients with poorly differentiated NEC (median survival of 54.1 vs. 11 mo and 5 y survival of 29.1% vs. 16.1%; P=0.002). In addition, the survival time of the patients with grade-discordant PanNETs was shorter than that of the patients with grade-concordant PanNETs (median survival of 67.8 mo and 5

  12. Endocrine disrupting chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Karen

    BACKGROUND: Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) may contribute to reproductive changes in boys in the Western world, however, less is known about influence of EDCs in women. The incidence of precocious breast development is increasing in USA and Europe and mammary gland development has been...... suggested as particularly sensitive to endocrine disruption. Mammary gland examination in toxicological studies may be useful for improving knowledge on possible influences of EDCs on human mammary glands and also be useful for detection of endocrine disrupting effects of chemicals as part of safety testing...... and genistein, a mixture of phytoestrogens, and a mixture of environmentally relevant estrogenic EDCs of various origins. Moreover, mixtures of antiandrogenic chemicals were investigated. These include a mixture of pesticides and a mixture of environmentally relevant anti-androgenic EDCs of various origins...

  13. Qualitative analysis of small (≤2 cm) regenerative nodules, dysplastic nodules and well-differentiated HCCs with gadoxetic acid MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Martino, Michele; Anzidei, Michele; Zaccagna, Fulvio; Saba, Luca; Bosco, Sandro; Rossi, Massimo; Ginanni Corradini, Stefano; Catalano, Carlo

    2016-11-11

    The characterization of small lesions in cirrhotic patients is extremely difficult due to the overlap of imaging features among different entities in the step-way of the hepatocarcinogenesis. The aim of our study was to evaluate the role of gadoxetic-acid MRI in the differentiation of small (≤2 cm) well-differentiated hepatocellular carcinomas from regenerative and dysplastic nodules. Seventy-three cirrhotic patients, with 118 focal liver lesions (≤2 cm) were prospectively recruited. MRI examination was performed with a 3T magnet and the study protocol included T1 - and T2-weighted pre-contrast sequences and T1 -weighted gadoxetic-acid enhanced post-contrast sequences obtained during the arterial, venous, late dynamic and hepatobiliary phases. All lesions were pathologically confirmed. Two radiologists blinded to clinical and pathological information evaluated two imaging datasets; another radiologist analysed the signal intensity characteristics of each lesion. Sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy were considered for statistical analysis. Good agreement was reported between the two readers (κ 0.70). Both readers reported a significantly improved sensitivity (57.7 and 66.2 vs 74.6 and 83.1) and diagnostic accuracy (0.717 and 0.778 vs 0.843 and 0.901) with the adjunction of the hepatobiliary phase 57.7 vs 74.6 and 66.2 vs 83.1 (p ≤ 0.04). Gadoxetic-acid MRI is a reliable tool for the characterization of HCC and lesions at high risk to further develop.

  14. Estrogenic compounds -endocrine disruptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munteanu Constantin

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Endocrine disruptors (polychlorinated biphenyls, dichlorodiphenyl-trichloroethane [DDT], dioxin, and some pesticides are estrogen-like and anti-androgenic chemicals in the environment. They mimic natural hormones, inhibit the action of hormones, or alter the normal regulatory function of the endocrine system and have potential hazardous effects on male reproductive axis causing infertility. Although testicular and prostate cancers, abnormal sexual development, undescended testis, chronic inflammation, Sertoli-cell-only pattern, hypospadias, altered pituitary and thyroid gland functions are also observed, the available data are insufficient to deduce worldwide conclusions.

  15. Gastrointestinal manifestations of endocrine disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christina Maser; Arnbjorn Toset; Sanziana Roman

    2006-01-01

    The hormonal interactions among the systems throughout the body are not fully understood; many vague clinical symptoms may in fact be manifestations of underlying endocrine diseases. The aim of the following review is to discuss gastrointestinal manifestations of surgically correctable endocrine diseases, focusing on abnormalities of thyroid function, cancer and finally autoimmune diseases. We also review manifestations of pancreatic endocrine tumors, and multiple endocrine neoplasia.

  16. Estudio del protooncogen Ret en neoplasia endocrina multiple 2A y en carcinoma medular en tiroides familiar: Hallazgos clínico-patológicos en portadores asintomáticos Analysis of the RET protooncogene in multiple endocrine neoplasia 2A and in familial medullary thyroid carcinoma: Clinical-pathological findings in asymptomatic carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Belli

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available El 25% de los carcinomas medulares de tiroides son hereditarios. Se presentan en forma de familiar (CMTF 5% o como neoplasia endocrina múltiple (MEN tipo 2A (17% o 2B (3%, y comparten la herencia, autosómica dominante, de una mutación germinal en el protooncogen RET en uno de 12 codones conocidos. Estudiamos 7 familias (5 CMTF y 2 MEN 2A con el objeto de detectar la mutación familiar e identificar a los portadores asintomáticos. Seis de las siete mutaciones (4 CMTF y 2 MEN 2A fueron en el codón más frecuente, el 634, y una familia con CMTF presentó una mutación germinal novel: una transición T>C en el codón 630, resultando el cambio C630A. De los 57 individuos estudiados, 25 (43.85 % fueron portadores de la mutación, 7 de éstos (28% eran portadores asintomáticos de los cuales 5 eran niños, con una edad X-=11±3.2 años y fueron tiroidectomizados. Presentaron hiperplasia de células C y focos de microcarcinoma en ambos lóbulos tiroideos aun cuando la calcitonina basal o estimulada con pentagastrina fueron normales. En conclusión, describimos una mutación germinal novel en el protooncogen RET: C630A y el hallazgo de enfermedad de la célula C en los portadores asintomáticos, que enfatiza la importancia de la tiroidectomía profiláctica tan pronto como se confirma el diagnóstico molecular.Twenty five percent of the medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC is hereditary and 5% is familiar (FMTC, or considered as multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN type 2A (17% or 2B (3%. These diseases are the result of the autosomic dominant inheritance of a mutation in the RET protooncogene, in one out of 12 different known codons. We analyzed 7 families (2 MEN 2A and 5 FMTC. Six mutations were detected in the most frequent codon, 634 (2 MEN 2A y 4 FMTC and one family with FMTC presented a novel mutation: a transition T>C at codon 630, resulting a C630A change. Among 57 individuals studied, 25 (43.85% presented the mutation. Seven (28% were asymptomatic

  17. Pediatric Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Starenki, Dmytro; Park, Jong-In

    2015-01-01

    Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC), which originates from thyroid parafollicular C cells, accounts for 3 to 5% of thyroid malignancies. MTC occurs either sporadically or in an inherited autosomal dominant manner. Hereditary MTC occurs as a familial MTC or as a part of multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) type 2A and B syndromes. A strong genotype-phenotype correlation has been observed between hereditary MTC and germ-line ?gain of function? mutations of the RET proto-oncogene. Most cases of pedi...

  18. Sleep and the endocrine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Dionne; Tsai, Sheila C

    2015-07-01

    In this article, the effect of sleep and sleep disorders on endocrine function and the influence of endocrine abnormalities on sleep are discussed. Sleep disruption and its associated endocrine consequences in the critically ill patient are also reviewed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Your Endocrine System (For Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Know About Puberty Train Your Temper Your Endocrine System KidsHealth > For Kids > Your Endocrine System Print A A A en español Tu sistema endocrino You might say endocrine (say: EN-doh-krin) glands are a little ...

  20. Endocrine Drugs in Aircrew

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-06-01

    Treatment of Hypothyroidism hyperthyroidism . Thyroid hormones are necessary Hypothyroidism is treated with synthetic thyroid for normal LH and FSH secretion...that Since hyperthyroidism is an unstable clinical both hormones become available even though only condition which requires definitive treatment , its one...P. Gobetti - 00185, Rome, Italy INTRODUCTION Hormonal therapy is, usually, a substitutive treatment for endocrine disease resulting from Hormones

  1. Verrucous Carcinoma of the Foot - Report of Two Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalošević Jovan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Verrucous carcinoma (VC is a rare variant of a well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma (SCC with a low grade of malignancy. Epithelioma cuniculatum (EC is a subtype of VC, usually found on the sole of the foot.

  2. Surgical intervention in children with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danko, Melissa E; Skinner, Michael A

    2006-06-01

    We provide a summary of the literature published in the past year addressing the surgical approach to multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 in the pediatric population. The review focuses first on medullary thyroid carcinoma and performing prophylactic thyroidectomy for the prevention or cure of this disease. The timing and extent of surgery as well as additional surgical intervention for persistent or recurrent disease is discussed. Then the surgical management of hereditary pheochromocytoma is reviewed. Surgery is often the only treatment that can prevent or cure the endocrinopathies associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2. Determining the proper timing and extent of surgical intervention in children affected with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 will lead to better outcomes and survival.

  3. Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma Program | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma Program Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) types 2A and 2B are rare genetic diseases, which lead to the development of medullary thyroid cancer, usually in childhood. Surgery is the only standard treatment.

  4. A Case of Squamous Cell Carcinoma in the External Auditory Canal Previously Treated for Verrucous Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Soo Jung; Yang, Chan Joo; Chung, Jong Woo

    2016-12-01

    Carcinoma in the external auditory canal (EAC) is a rare malignancy with an annual incidence of one per one million people, accounting for less than 0.2% of all head and neck cancers. The most common histopathological type of EAC cancer is squamous cell carcinoma. Verrucous carcinoma is a well-differentiated, low-grade variant of squamous cell carcinoma. It is a locally destructive, invasive, and slow growing tumor that rarely metastasizes. Verrucous carcinoma occurs predominantly in the oral cavity and larynx, and its occurrence in the EAC is extremely rare. In this report, we present a histologically confirmed case of verrucous carcinoma in the EAC and temporal bone, which for several years had been classified as epithelial hyperplasia. Two-and-a-half years after diagnosis of verrucous carcinoma, a recurrent mass was found and the lesion was then confirmed to be squamous cell carcinoma.

  5. Zearalenone endocrine system catch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bursić Vojislava P.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the contamination of our environment with thousands of both natural and man-made chemicals which affect the endocrine system of humans and animals. These so-called endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs are thought to mimic or block the action of hormones and therefore disrupt sexual development in utero. EDCs are organochlorine pesticides, dioxin compounds, polychlorinated biphenyls, alkylpolyethoxylates, plastic additives and phytoestrogens (occurring naturally in foods: isoflavones coumenestans and zearalenone. The structure of zearalenone is similar to the structure of estrogens and it enables binding to the estrogenic receptors. DNA laddering on gel electrophoresis was present 12 h after dosing thus indicating a conclusion that there was apoptosis. Apoptosis is the principal mechanism contributing to germ cell depletion and testicular atrophy following zearalenone exposure.

  6. Endocrine disrupters as obesogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grün, Felix; Blumberg, Bruce

    2009-05-25

    The recent dramatic rise in obesity rates is an alarming global health trend that consumes an ever increasing portion of health care budgets in Western countries. The root cause of obesity is thought to be a prolonged positive energy balance. Hence, the major focus of preventative programs for obesity has been to target overeating and inadequate physical exercise. Recent research implicates environmental risk factors, including nutrient quality, stress, fetal environment and pharmaceutical or chemical exposure as relevant contributing influences. Evidence points to endocrine disrupting chemicals that interfere with the body's adipose tissue biology, endocrine hormone systems or central hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis as suspects in derailing the homeostatic mechanisms important to weight control. This review highlights recent advances in our understanding of the molecular targets and mechanisms of action for these compounds and areas of future research needed to evaluate the significance of their contribution to obesity.

  7. Endocrine disorders in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Mathiesen, Elisabeth R

    2011-01-01

    The endocrinology of pregnancy involves endocrine and metabolic changes as a consequence of physiological alterations at the foetoplacental boundary between mother and foetus. The vast changes in maternal hormones and their binding proteins complicate assessment of the normal level of most hormones...... during gestation. The neuroendocrine events and their timing in the placental, foetal and maternal compartments are critical for initiation and maintenance of pregnancy, for foetal growth and development, and for parturition. As pregnancy advances, the relative number of trophoblasts increase...

  8. CT differentiation of poorly-differentiated gastric neuroendocrine tumours from well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumours and gastric adenocarcinomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seong Ho; Kim, Se Hyung; Shin, Cheong-il; Han, Joon Koo; Choi, Byung Ihn [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Jongno-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University Hospital, Institute of Radiation Medicine, Jongno-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Min-A [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Pathology, Jongno-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-15

    To evaluate the differential CT features of gastric poorly-differentiated neuroendocrine tumours (PD-NETs) from well-differentiated NETs (WD-NETs) and gastric adenocarcinomas (ADCs) and to suggest differential features of hepatic metastases from gastric NETs and ADCs. Our study population was comprised of 36 patients with gastric NETs (18 WD-NETs, 18 PD-NETs) and 38 patients with gastric ADCs who served as our control group. Multiple CT features were assessed to identify significant differential CT findings of PD-NETs from WD-NETs and ADCs. In addition, CT features of hepatic metastases including the metastasis-to-liver ratio were analyzed to differentiate metastatic NETs from ADCs. The presence of metastatic lymph nodes was the sole differentiator of PD-NETs from WD-NETs (P =.001, odds ratio = 56.67), while the presence of intact overlying mucosa with mucosal tenting was the sole significant CT feature differentiating PD-NETs from ADCs (P =.047, odds ratio = 15.3) For hepatic metastases, metastases from NETs were more hyper-attenuated than those from ADCs. The presence of metastatic LNs and intact overlying mucosa with mucosal tenting are useful CT discriminators of PD-NETs from WD-NETs and ADCs, respectively. In addition, a higher metastasis-to-liver ratio may help differentiate hepatic metastases of gastric NETs from those of gastric ADCs with high accuracy. (orig.)

  9. Multicystic and well-differentiated papillary peritoneal mesothelioma treated by surgical cytoreduction and hyperthermic intra-peritoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baratti, D; Kusamura, S; Nonaka, D; Oliva, G D; Laterza, B; Deraco, M

    2007-10-01

    Multicystic peritoneal mesothelioma (MPM) and well-differentiated papillary peritoneal mesothelioma (WDPPM) are exceedingly uncommon lesions with uncertain malignant potential and no uniform treatment strategy. The aim of the current study was to review our experience with cytoreduction and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) in these clinical settings. Four women with MPM and eight with WDPPM underwent 13 procedures of cytoreduction and close-abdomen HIPEC with cis-platin and doxorubicin. Seven patients had recurrent disease after previous debulking (one operation in five patients, two in one, four in one). Potential clinicopathological prognostic factors were assessed. Optimal cytoreduction (residual tumor nodules mesothelioma was documented in one patient who died of disease progression following incomplete cytoreduction and HIPEC. Following multimodality treatment, 5-year overall and progression-free survival were 90.0% (standard error = 9.0) and 79.7% (11.9), respectively. Progression-free survival following previous debulking surgery (median 24 months; range 2-87) was statistically worse (P = .0156). Incomplete cytoreduction and poor performance status correlated to both reduced overall and progression-free survival after cytoreduction and HIPEC. MPM and WDPPM are borderline tumors capable of transformation into potentially lethal processes. Definitive tumor eradication by means of cytoreduction and HIPEC seems more effective than debulking surgery in preventing disease recurrence or transition to aggressive malignancies.

  10. Non-functioning well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumor of the extrahepatic bile duct:an unusual suspect?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Harsheet Sethi; Mansoor Madanur; Parthi Srinivasan; Bernard Portmann; Nigel Heaton; Mohamed Rela

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) arising in the biliary tree are extremely rare, and 37 cases were identiifed in the English literature. METHODS: A well-differentiated NET was found arising from the junction of the cystic and common hepatic ducts, in a 51-year-old male presenting with pedal edema and weight loss with abnormal liver enzymes and a normal serum bilirubin level. No mass was seen on radiological imaging and biopsy of the liver was suggestive of an early cholangiopathy. A bile leak complicating the liver biopsy led to an ERCP that demonstrated a iflling defect suggestive of a mass in the common bile duct (CBD). RESULTS: He underwent a successful excision of the tumor with a Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy. The diagnosis of NET was made on histological and immunohistochemical analysis of the resected specimen. He remains well and disease free 22 months after surgery. CONCLUSIONS: Recognition of biliary NET continues to be a challenge and an increased awareness of these tumors in rare sites will result in optimal management of these tumors.

  11. Well-differentiated pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor with solitary hepatic metastasis presenting as a benign cystic mass: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Su Joa; Choi, Seung Joon; Kim, Hyung Sik; Kim, Jeong Ho; Choi, Hye Young [Dept. of Radiology, Gachon University Gil Hospital, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors and their hepatic metastases have an inconsistent appearance with only a small percentage of lesions appearing as cystic masses in computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Therefore, they can be mistaken as benign or infectious lesions, which can lead to a false diagnosis with delayed or inadequate treatment. We reported a patient with upper abdominal pain that lasted for several months, caused by a huge cystic neuroendocrine carcinoma of the liver. This was mistakenly interpreted as a complicated or hydatid cyst, and the findings in the CT and MRI was presented.

  12. Mixed Adenoneuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Stomach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Ming Kwok

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinoma is a rare condition comprising at least 30% of each component of exocrine and endocrine tumors. The denominations were defined in the 2000 WHO classification of endocrine tumors. We report an 83-year-old male with a polypoid gastric tumor in the gastric high body who received total gastrectomy and died 8 months after the diagnosis from local recurrence and distal metastases. A review of the literature for this infrequent condition is presented.

  13. Neurological Complications of Endocrine Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Karen S; Grunwald, Tal; De Luca, Francesco

    2017-02-01

    The endocrine system is a complex group of organs and glands that relates to multiple other organs and systems in the body with the ultimate goal of maintaining homeostasis. This complex network functions through hormones excreted by several glands and released in the blood, targeting different body tissues and modulating their function. Any primary disorders affecting the endocrine glands and altering the amount of hormones synthesized and released will lead to disruption in the functions of multiple organs. The central nervous system of a developing child is particularly sensitive to endocrine disorders. A variety of neurological manifestations have been described as features of several endocrine diseases in childhood. Their knowledge may contribute to an early diagnosis of a particular endocrine condition, especially when more typical features are not present yet. In this article, we discuss specific neurological manifestations found in various endocrine disorders in children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Neuroendocrine targets of endocrine disruptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, Andrea C

    2010-01-01

    The central neuroendocrine systems are responsible for the control of homeostatic processes in the body, including reproduction, growth, metabolism and energy balance, as well as stress responsiveness. These processes are initiated by signals in the central nervous system, specifically the hypothalamus, and are conveyed first by neural and then by endocrine effectors. The neuroendocrine systems, as the links between the brain and peripheral endocrine organs, play critical roles in the ability of an organism to respond to its environment under normal circumstances. When neuroendocrine homeostasis is disrupted by environmental endocrine-disrupting chemicals, a variety of perturbations can ensue, particularly when endocrine disruption occurs during critical developmental time periods. This article will discuss the evidence for environmental endocrine disruption of neuroendocrine systems and the effects on endocrine and reproductive functions.

  15. Clinical Usefulness between High Dose Radioiodine Therapy and Helicobacter Pylori Infection after Total Thyroidectomy due to Well Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Kuk No; Lim, Seok Tae; Moon, Eun Ha; Kim, Jin Suk; Jeong, Young Jin; Kim, Dong Wook; Jeong, Hwan Jeong; Sohn, Myung Hee [Chonbuk National University Medical School and Hospital, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    Helicobacter (H) pylori infection has been considered the most important cause of gastritis, dyspepsia, and gastroduodenal ulcer. Radioiodine can be accumulated in the remaining thyroid tissue, salivary gland, and stomach. We investigated if the high radiation induced by radioiodine in the stomach after high dose radioiodine therapy (HD-RIT) is effective in the eradication of H. pylori infection. One hundred ninety nine patients (M:F=33:166, age 46.7{+-}12.3 years) who had HD-RIT (dose 159.1{+-}25.9 mCi, range 120-250 mCi) after thyroidectomy due to well differentiated thyroid cancer were enrolled. To detect H. pylori infection, the urea breath tests (UBT) were performed at 1 hour before HD-RIT and at 4 weeks after HD-RIT. The results of UBT were classified as positive ({>=}50 dpm) or negative (<50 dpm), and analyzed its values. Of 199 patients, 103 (51.8%) patients had positive UBT before HD-RIT. Of these, 80 patients had follow-up UBT after HD-RIT. Among them, 76 (95.0%) patients had persistent positive UBT and only 4 (5.0%) patients were changed negative UBT. Among 76 patients with persistent positive UBT, 26 (34.2%) patients had increased the values of follow-up UBT, 49 (64.5%) had decreased them, and 1 (1.3%) had shown the same value. The different values of UBT between before and after HD-RIT were 62{+-}66.1 dpm in increased one of follow-up UBT, and 153.3{+-}157.1 dpm in decreased one of follow-up UBT. We conclude that the radiation induced by HD-RIT is ineffective in the eradication of H. pylori infection. However, it could be influential the degree or distribution of H. pylori infection.

  16. MDM2 antagonists synergize with PI3K/mTOR inhibition in well-differentiated/dedifferentiated liposarcomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laroche, Audrey; Chaire, Vanessa; Algeo, Marie-Paule; Karanian, Marie; Fourneaux, Benjamin; Italiano, Antoine

    2017-08-15

    Well-differentiated/dedifferentiated liposarcoma (WDLPS/DDLPS) are characterized by a consistent amplification of the MDM2 gene. The PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway has been suggested to play also an important role in their tumorigenesis. Our goal was to determine whether combined MDM2 and PI3K/AKT/mTOR targeting is associated with higher anti-tumor activity than single agent alone in preclinical models of WDLPS/DDLPS. WDLPS/DDLPS cells were exposed to RG7388 (MDM2 antagonist) and BEZ235 (PI3K/mTOR dual inhibitor) after which apoptosis and signaling/survival pathway perturbations were monitored by flow cytometry and Western blot analysis. Xenograft mouse models were used to assess tumor growth and animal survival. Western blotting, histopathology, and tumor volume evolution were used for the assessment of treatment efficacy. The PI3K/AKT/mTOR was upregulated in up to 81% of the human WDLPS/DDLPS samples analysed. Treatment with RG7388 and BEZ235 resulted in a greater tumor activity than either drug alone with a significant difference in terms of cell viability after 72h of treatment with RG-73888 alone, BEZ235 alone and a combination of both agents. Consistent with these observations, we found a significant increase in apoptosis with the combination versus the single agent treatment alone. We then analysed the in vivo antitumor activity of RG7388 and BEZ235 in a xenograft model of DDLPS. The combination regimen significantly reduced tumor growth rate in comparison with single agent alone. Our results represent the first in vivo evidence of synergy between MDM2 and PI3K/AKT/mTOR antagonists and represent a strong rationale to evaluate the therapeutic potential of such a combination in WDLPS/DDLPS.

  17. Gastric extremely well differentiated adenocarcinoma of gastric phenotype: as a gastric counterpart of adenoma malignum of the uterine cervix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ae Lee Won

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most of gastric adenocarcinoma can be simply diagnosed by microscopic examination of biopsy specimen. Rarely the structural and cellular atypia of tumor cells is too insignificant to discriminate from benign foveolar epithelium. Case presentation A 67-year-old male presented with a gastric mass incidentally found on the abdominal computed tomography (CT for routine medical examination. Gastric endoscopic examination revealed a huge fungating mass at the cardia and mucosal biopsy was performed. Microscopically the biopsy specimen showed proliferation of bland looking foveolar epithelia in the inflammatory background and diagnosed as foveolar epithelial hyperplasia. Because the clinical and endoscopic features of this patient were strongly suggestive of malignancy, the patient underwent radical total gastrectomy. The resected stomach revealed a huge fungating tumor at the cardia. The cut surface of the tumor was whitish gelatinous. Microscopically the tumor was sharply demarcated from surrounding mucosa and composed of very well formed glandular structures without significant cellular atypia, which invaded into the whole layer of the gastric wall. Tumor glands were occasionally complicated or dilated, and glandular lumina were filled with abundant mucin. Immunohistochemically the tumor cells revealed no overexpression of p53 protein but high Ki-67 labeling index. The tumor cells and intraluminal mucin were diffusely expressed MUC1 and MUC5AC and only focally expressed MUC2. On abdominal CT taken after 12 months demonstrated peritoneal carcinomatosis and multiple metastatic foci in the lung. Conclusion The clinicopathologic profiles of gastric extremely well differentiated adenocarcinoma of gastric phenotype include cardiac location, fungating gross type, very similar histology to foveolar epithelial hyperplasia, foveolar mucin phenotype, lack of p53 overexpressoin and high proliferative index.

  18. FDA approval summary: sunitinib for the treatment of progressive well-differentiated locally advanced or metastatic pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenthal, Gideon M; Cortazar, Patricia; Zhang, Jenny J; Tang, Shenghui; Sridhara, Rajeshwari; Murgo, Anthony; Justice, Robert; Pazdur, Richard

    2012-01-01

    On May 20, 2011, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved sunitinib malate capsules (Sutent®; Pfizer, Inc., New York) for the treatment of progressive, well-differentiated pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNETs) in patients with unresectable locally advanced or metastatic disease. In a phase III randomized trial, 171 patients received either sunitinib (37.5 mg) or placebo once daily. The progression-free survival (PFS) interval was the primary efficacy endpoint. Secondary endpoints included the overall survival (OS) time, objective response rate (ORR), patient-reported outcomes, and safety. Based on early results favoring sunitinib, the independent data monitoring committee recommended trial termination prior to the prespecified interim analysis. This premature analysis may have led to an overestimate of the treatment effect. In the FDA analysis of investigator-assessed PFS times, the median values for the sunitinib and placebo arms were 10.2 months and 5.4 months, respectively. The ORRs were 9.3% and 0% in the sunitinib and placebo arms, respectively. The OS data were not mature at the time of approval and were confounded by 69% crossover. Common adverse reactions in patients receiving sunitinib included diarrhea, nausea, asthenia, fatigue, neutropenia, hypertension, and palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia syndrome. Two patients on sunitinib died as a result of cardiac failure. The Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee voted eight to two that, despite residual uncertainty about the magnitude of the PFS effect because of early trial termination, sunitinib demonstrated a favorable benefit-risk profile in pNET patients. The FDA concurred with the committee's assessment and granted sunitinib regular approval for this rare malignancy with few available therapies.

  19. [Hypotension from endocrine origin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vantyghem, Marie-Christine; Douillard, Claire; Balavoine, Anne-Sophie

    2012-11-01

    Hypotension is defined by a low blood pressure either permanently or only in upright posture (orthostatic hypotension). In contrast to hypertension, there is no threshold defining hypotension. The occurrence of symptoms for systolic and diastolic measurements respectively below 90 and 60 mm Hg establishes the diagnosis. Every acute hypotensive event should suggest shock, adrenal failure or an iatrogenic cause. Chronic hypotension from endocrine origin may be linked to adrenal failure from adrenal or central origin, isolated hypoaldosteronism, pseudohypoaldosteronism, pheochromocytoma, neuro-endocrine tumors (carcinoïd syndrome) or diabetic dysautonomia. Hypotension related to hypoaldosteronism associates low blood sodium and above all high blood potassium levels. They are generally classified according to their primary (hyperreninism) or secondary (hyporeninism) adrenal origin. Isolated primary hypoaldosteronisms are rare in adults (intensive care unit, selective injury of the glomerulosa area) and in children (aldosterone synthase deficiency). Isolated secondary hypoaldosteronism is related to mellitus diabetes complicated with dysautonomia, kidney failure, age, iatrogenic factors, and HIV infections. In both cases, they can be associated to glucocorticoid insufficiency from primary adrenal origin (adrenal failure of various origins with hyperreninism, among which congenital 21 hydroxylase deficiency with salt loss) or from central origin (hypopituitarism with hypo-reninism). Pseudohypoaldosteronisms are linked to congenital (type 1 pseudohypoaldosteronism) or acquired states of resistance to aldosterone. Acquired salt losses from enteric (total colectomy with ileostomy) or renal (interstitial nephropathy, Bartter and Gitelman syndromes…) origin might be responsible for hypotension and are associated with hyperreninism-hyperaldosteronism. Hypotension is a rare manifestation of pheochromocytomas, especially during surgical removal when the patient has not been

  20. Endocrine disrupting compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgh, I B; Christensen, P; Dantzer, V

    2001-01-01

    With the growing concern that environmental chemicals might impair human and animal fertility, it is important to investigate the possible influence of these substances on sexual differentiation and genital development of mammals. Many of these substances are suspected to interfere with endocrine...... generations. Sows were treated daily from D 23 to 85 of pregnancy with either 0, 10 or 1000 micrograms OP/kg body weight. Treatment with OP extended pregnancy length and induced basal cell proliferation in the cervical epithelium of the parental generation. In F1 offspring of sows treated with the low dosage...

  1. Antioxidant enzymes in oral verrucous carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Ting-Ying; Tsai, Meng-Han; Wang, Jyh-Seng; Ger, Luo-Ping

    2017-01-01

    Verrucous carcinoma is a non-metastasizing variant of welldifferentiated squamous cell carcinoma, which has been associated with reactive oxygen species generated by betel quid chewing. Salivary antioxidant systems have been suggested to play a protective role in reducing the oxidative damage. Herein, we investigated the difference of the enzymatic antioxidant system expressions in oral verrucous carcinoma and oral squamous cell carcinoma. The enzymatic antioxidant system expressions, including manganese superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase were evaluated by immunohistochemistry in a series of 202 surgically resected oral squamous cell carcinoma and 20 oral verrucous carcinoma specimens, using tissue microarray slides. The immuno-staining intensities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase were strongest in the oral squamous cell carcinoma group than in verrucous carcinoma. The catalase expression showed no difference between different pathological groups. The different degrees of superoxide dismutase and glutathione expressions in verrucous carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma may be helpful for pathologists to differentiate these two entities, especially between oral verrucous carcinoma and well differentiated oral squamous cell carcinoma. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. The impact of endocrine disruptors on endocrine targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamanti-Kandarakis, E; Palioura, E; Kandarakis, S A; Koutsilieris, M

    2010-07-01

    Endocrine disruption represents one of the most controversial environmental issues of our époque. So far, many substances, both natural and artificial, have been recognized to interfere with endocrine signaling pathways. In intact laboratory animals, this interaction has been documented to generate adverse health outcomes by impairing normal functions. With regard to humans, evidence is limited and inconsistent to clearly establish a causal inference, however, accumulating data incriminate endocrine disrupting chemicals to reproductive disorders and disturbed thyroid homeostasis. Recently, as a result of animal models and preliminary human studies, a new area of interest has arisen concerning the implication of endocrine disruptors in the etiology of obesity and diabetes, the two major, life-threatening, epidemics of modern world. This article reviews the evidence linking endocrine disrupting chemicals to a broad spectrum of clinical perturbations from reproduction and thyroid to metabolic regulation.

  3. Phase II study of lanreotide autogel in Japanese patients with unresectable or metastatic well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Tetsuhide; Honma, Yoshitaka; Hijioka, Susumu; Kudo, Atsushi; Fukutomi, Akira; Nozaki, Akira; Kimura, Yasutoshi; Motoi, Fuyuhiko; Isayama, Hiroyuki; Komoto, Izumi; Hisamatsu, Seiichi; Nakajima, Akihiro; Shimatsu, Akira

    2017-08-01

    Background Lanreotide is a long-acting somatostatin analog with demonstrated efficacy against enteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (NET) in the phase III (CLARINET) study. Materials and Methods In this single-arm study, Japanese patients with grade (G) 1/G2 NET received lanreotide (120 mg/4 weeks) for 48 weeks. Those who completed the study were enrolled in a long-term extension study. The primary endpoint was the clinical benefit rate (CBR) defined as a complete response, partial response (PR), or stable disease (SD) over 24-weeks. Secondary endpoints included progression-free survival (PFS), objective response rate (ORR), safety, and pharmacokinetics. Results Thirty-two patients were recruited at 10 sites. The full analysis set (FAS) comprised 28 patients. Primary tumors were located in pancreas (12 patients), foregut (non-pancreas, lung; 1), midgut (2), hindgut (8), and unknown (5). Four patients had gastrinoma of the functional NET, and 3 had multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1. In the FAS, 39.3% had progressive disease at baseline. The CBR at 24 weeks was 64.3% (95% confidence interval; CI: 44.1-81.4), and median PFS was 36.3 weeks (95% CI: 24.1-53.1). PR was confirmed in 1 patient at 60 weeks during the extension study (ORR: 3.6%). Frequent adverse events related to lanreotide included injection site induration (28.1%), faeces pale (18.8%), flatulence (12.5%), and diabetes mellitus (12.5%). Conclusions The efficacy and safety of lanreotide in this study indicated its usefulness as a treatment option for Japanese NET patients. JapicCTI-132,375, JapicCTI-142,698.

  4. Early host responses of seasonal and pandemic influenza A viruses in primary well-differentiated human lung epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachael L Gerlach

    Full Text Available Replication, cell tropism and the magnitude of the host's antiviral immune response each contribute to the resulting pathogenicity of influenza A viruses (IAV in humans. In contrast to seasonal IAV in human cases, the 2009 H1N1 pandemic IAV (H1N1pdm shows a greater tropism for infection of the lung similar to H5N1. We hypothesized that host responses during infection of well-differentiated, primary human bronchial epithelial cells (wd-NHBE may differ between seasonal (H1N1 A/BN/59/07 and H1N1pdm isolates from a fatal (A/KY/180/10 and nonfatal (A/KY/136/09 case. For each virus, the level of infectious virus and host response to infection (gene expression and apical/basal cytokine/chemokine profiles were measured in wd-NHBE at 8, 24, 36, 48 and 72 hours post-infection (hpi. At 24 and 36 hpi, KY/180 showed a significant, ten-fold higher titer as compared to the other two isolates. Apical cytokine/chemokine levels of IL-6, IL-8 and GRO were similar in wd-NHBE cells infected by each of these viruses. At 24 and 36 hpi, NHBE cells had greater levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines including IFN-α, CCL2, TNF-α, and CCL5, when infected by pandemic viruses as compared with seasonal. Polarization of IL-6 in wd-NHBE cells was greatest at 36 hpi for all isolates. Differential polarized secretion was suggested for CCL5 across isolates. Despite differences in viral titer across isolates, no significant differences were observed in KY/180 and KY/136 gene expression intensity profiles. Microarray profiles of wd-NHBE cells diverged at 36 hpi with 1647 genes commonly shared by wd-NHBE cells infected by pandemic, but not seasonal isolates. Significant differences were observed in cytokine signaling, apoptosis, and cytoskeletal arrangement pathways. Our studies revealed differences in temporal dynamics and basal levels of cytokine/chemokine responses of wd-NHBE cells infected with each isolate; however, wd-NHBE cell gene intensity profiles were not significantly

  5. Management of low-risk well-differentiated thyroid cancer based only on thyroglobulin measurement after recombinant human thyrotropin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wartofsky, Leonard

    2002-07-01

    A multicenter study was undertaken to ascertain prevalence and significance of recombinant human thyrotropin (rhTSH)-stimulated increases in thyroglobulin (Tg) levels in thyroid cancer patients classified to be at low risk for recurrence. Patients were eligible for enrollment if they had undergone near-total or total thyroidectomy and remnant ablation between 1-10 years prior to enrollment and had received thyroxine suppression therapy (THST) with a TSH level of < 0.5 mU/L and Tg level less than or equal to 5 ng/mL within the prior year. Patients with anti-Tg antibodies, distant metastases, or other evidence of residual disease were excluded. Four hundred eighty-six patients were entered into the study, and 300 were considered eligible and comprise the study population. TSH, Tg, and anti-Tg antibody levels were obtained at baseline, followed by intramuscular injection of 0.9 mg of rhTSH on days 1 and 2 and measurement of Tg on day 5. After rhTSH, 53 patients (18%) had elevations in Tg of at least 2 ng/mL, including 33 patients (11%) with increases from baseline of equal to or greater than 5 ng/mL. Patients with an initial advanced stage of disease were more likely to display elevations in Tg after rhTSH. One third of those with stage III disease displayed elevations in Tg of 2 ng/mL or more. Patients within 5 years of thyroidectomy were as likely to display elevations in rhTSH-stimulated Tg as those 5-10 years from surgery. In conclusion, these data suggest rhTSH-stimulated Tg testing without scan may be a useful tool in the follow-up of patients with low-risk thyroid cancer, and may serve to identify patients previously thought free of disease on the basis of undetectable Tg levels while undergoing THST. A strategy is presented for incorporation of this approach into the management of patients with low-risk well-differentiated thyroid cancer.

  6. Immunologic endocrine disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michels, Aaron W; Eisenbarth, George S

    2010-02-01

    Autoimmunity affects multiple glands in the endocrine system. Animal models and human studies highlight the importance of alleles in HLA-like molecules determining tissue-specific targeting that, with the loss of tolerance, leads to organ-specific autoimmunity. Disorders such as type 1A diabetes, Graves disease, Hashimoto thyroiditis, Addison disease, and many others result from autoimmune-mediated tissue destruction. Each of these disorders can be divided into stages beginning with genetic susceptibility, environmental triggers, active autoimmunity, and finally metabolic derangements with overt symptoms of disease. With an increased understanding of the immunogenetics and immunopathogenesis of endocrine autoimmune disorders, immunotherapies are becoming prevalent, especially in patients with type 1A diabetes. Immunotherapies are being used more in multiple subspecialty fields to halt disease progression. Although therapies for autoimmune disorders stop the progress of an immune response, immunomodulatory therapies for cancer and chronic infections can also provoke an unwanted immune response. As a result, there are now iatrogenic autoimmune disorders arising from the treatment of chronic viral infections and malignancies. Copyright 2010 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Immunologic Endocrine Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michels, Aaron W.; Eisenbarth, George S.

    2010-01-01

    Autoimmunity affects multiple glands in the endocrine system. Animal models and human studies highlight the importance of alleles in HLA (human leukocyte antigen)-like molecules determining tissue specific targeting that with the loss of tolerance leads to organ specific autoimmunity. Disorders such as type 1A diabetes, Grave's disease, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, Addison's disease, and many others result from autoimmune mediated tissue destruction. Each of these disorders can be divided into stages beginning with genetic susceptibility, environmental triggers, active autoimmunity, and finally metabolic derangements with overt symptoms of disease. With an increased understanding of the immunogenetics and immunopathogenesis of endocrine autoimmune disorders, immunotherapies are becoming prevalent, especially in type 1A diabetes. Immunotherapies are being used more in multiple subspecialty fields to halt disease progression. While therapies for autoimmune disorders stop the progress of an immune response, immunomodulatory therapies for cancer and chronic infections can also provoke an unwanted immune response. As a result, there are now iatrogenic autoimmune disorders arising from the treatment of chronic viral infections and malignancies. PMID:20176260

  8. Mitochondrial disease and endocrine dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Jasmine; Rahman, Joyeeta; Achermann, John C; Dattani, Mehul T; Rahman, Shamima

    2017-02-01

    Mitochondria are critical organelles for endocrine health; steroid hormone biosynthesis occurs in these organelles and they provide energy in the form of ATP for hormone production and trafficking. Mitochondrial diseases are multisystem disorders that feature defective oxidative phosphorylation, and are characterized by enormous clinical, biochemical and genetic heterogeneity. To date, mitochondrial diseases have been found to result from >250 monogenic defects encoded across two genomes: the nuclear genome and the ancient circular mitochondrial genome located within mitochondria themselves. Endocrine dysfunction is often observed in genetic mitochondrial diseases and reflects decreased intracellular production or extracellular secretion of hormones. Diabetes mellitus is the most frequently described endocrine disturbance in patients with inherited mitochondrial diseases, but other endocrine manifestations in these patients can include growth hormone deficiency, hypogonadism, adrenal dysfunction, hypoparathyroidism and thyroid disease. Although mitochondrial endocrine dysfunction frequently occurs in the context of multisystem disease, some mitochondrial disorders are characterized by isolated endocrine involvement. Furthermore, additional monogenic mitochondrial endocrine diseases are anticipated to be revealed by the application of genome-wide next-generation sequencing approaches in the future. Understanding the mitochondrial basis of endocrine disturbance is key to developing innovative therapies for patients with mitochondrial diseases.

  9. Trauma and the endocrine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, Joana; Varela, Ana; Medina, José Luís

    2010-12-01

    The endocrine system may be the target of different types of trauma with varied consequences. The present article discusses trauma of the hypothalamic-pituitary axes, adrenal glands, gonads, and pancreas. In addition to changes in circulating hormone levels due to direct injury to these structures, there may be an endocrine response in the context of the stress caused by the trauma.

  10. Endocrine disorders in mitochondrial disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Andrew M; Walker, Mark; Turnbull, Douglass M; Taylor, Robert W

    2013-10-15

    Endocrine dysfunction in mitochondrial disease is commonplace, but predominantly restricted to disease of the endocrine pancreas resulting in diabetes mellitus. Other endocrine manifestations occur, but are relatively rare by comparison. In mitochondrial disease, neuromuscular symptoms often dominate the clinical phenotype, but it is of paramount importance to appreciate the multi-system nature of the disease, of which endocrine dysfunction may be a part. The numerous phenotypes attributable to pathogenic mutations in both the mitochondrial (mtDNA) and nuclear DNA creates a complex and heterogeneous catalogue of disease which can be difficult to navigate for novices and experts alike. In this article we provide an overview of the endocrine disorders associated with mitochondrial disease, the way in which the underlying mitochondrial disorder influences the clinical presentation, and how these factors influence subsequent management. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. [Dementia due to Endocrine Diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, Akiko; Yoneda, Makoto

    2016-04-01

    Endocrine diseases affecting various organs, such as the pituitary gland, the thyroid, the parathyroid, the adrenal glands and the pancreas, occasionally cause dementia. While Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the main cause of dementia in the elderly and is untreatable, dementia caused by endocrine diseases is treatable in most cases. However, patients with dementia associated with endocrine diseases show memory impairments similar to those found in AD, often leading to misdiagnoses. Patients with endocrine diseases often present with other characteristic systemic and neuropsychiatric symptoms caused by altered hormone levels. Such neuropsychiatric symptoms include involuntary movements, depression, seizures, and muscle weakness. In these cases, abnormalities in imaging and blood or urine tests are helpful in making a differential diagnosis. As delays in the diagnosis and treatment of these patients may cause irreversible brain damage, it is imperative for clinicians to carefully exclude the possibility of latent endocrine diseases when treating patients with dementia.

  12. Early onset sebaceous carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaltreider Sara A

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ocular sebaceous carcinoma can masquerade as benign lesions resulting in delay of diagnosis. Early recognition is even more difficult in young patients where the disease rarely occurs. Here, we provide a clinicopathological correlation of ocular sebaceous carcinoma in a young individual lacking history of hereditary cancer or immunosuppression. Findings A detailed histopathological study including p53 DNA sequencing was performed on an aggressive sebaceous carcinoma presenting in a healthy 32 year-old Caucasian woman. She had no history of retinoblastoma, evidence for a hereditary cancer syndrome, or radiation therapy. However, she potentially was at risk for excessive UV light exposure. A detailed review of the literature is also provided. A moderately well differentiated sebaceous carcinoma was established histopathologically arising from the meibomian gland of the upper eyelid. In most areas, the cytoplasm contained small but distinct Oil-red-O positive vacuoles. Direct sequencing of p53 identified a G:C→A:T mutation at a dipyrimidine site. The mutation results in substitution of arginine for the highly conserved glycine at residue 199 located at the p53 dimer-dimer interface. Energy minimization structural modeling predicts that G199R will neutralize negative charges contributed by nearby inter- and intramonomeric glutamate residues. Discussion This study points to the importance of recognizing that sebaceous carcinoma can occur in young patients with no evidence for hereditary cancer risk or radiation therapy. The G199R substitution is anticipated to alter the stability of the p53 tetrameric complex. The role of UV light in the etiology of sebaceous carcinoma deserves further study. Our findings, taken together with those of others, suggest that different environmental factors could lead to the development of sebaceous carcinoma in different patients.

  13. [Acne vulgaris: endocrine aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekkers, O M; Thio, B H; Romijn, J A; Smit, J W A

    2006-06-10

    Androgens play an important part in the development of acne vulgaris. Androgen levels in patients with acne are higher than those in controls and people with the androgen insensitivity syndrome do not develop acne. Local factors other than androgen plasma levels, also play a part in the development of acne. The skin contains enzymes that convert precursor hormones to the more potent androgens such as testosterone and dihydrotestosterone. Androgen synthesis can therefore be regulated locally. The effects of androgens on the skin are the result of circulating androgens and enzyme activity in local tissues and androgen receptors. Acne is a clinical manifestation of some endocrine diseases. The polycystic ovary syndrome has the highest prevalence. In women with acne that persists after puberty, in 10-200% of cases polycystic ovary syndrome is later diagnosed. The mechanism of hormonal anti-acne therapy may work by blocking the androgen-production (oestrogens) or by blocking the androgen receptor (cyproterone, spironolactone).

  14. Efficiency of the metabolic radiotherapy with {sup 177}Lu Octreotate in the case of gastric endocrine tumor with hepatic metastases; Efficacite de la radiotherapie metabolique au{sup 177}Lu Octreotate dans le cas d'une tumeur endocrine gastrique avec metastases hepatiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leghzali Moise, H.; Besse, H.; Stievenart, J.L [Medecine nucleaire, hopital Beaujon, AP-HP, (France); Scigliano, S. [service hospitalier Frederic-Joliot, Orsay, (France); Mortazavi Jehannod, N.; Lebtahid, R.; Le Guludec, D. [medecine nucleaire, hopital Bichat, AP-HP, (France); Ruszniewski, P. [pancreato-gastroenterologie, hopital Beaujon, AP-HP, (France)

    2009-05-15

    The therapy means of evolved, metastases or inoperable forms of digestive endocrine tumors are limited. we illustrate a case of treatment efficiency by {sup 177}Lu-Octreotate of a well differentiated gastric endocrine tumor with hepatic metastases. conclusions: the metabolic radiotherapy of endocrine tumors constitute a new alternative of conventional treatments, showing the achievement of objective tumor responses at advanced stages, and in failure of conventional treatments. it is necessary to identify the predictive factors of the therapy response in order to optimize the results and to limit the toxicity. (N.C.)

  15. Incidence and prevalence of multiple endocrine neoplasia 2B in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Jes Sloth; Kroustrup, Jens Peter; Vestergaard, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Extract: Multiple endocrine neoplasia 2B (MEN2B) is an autosomal dominant inherited cancer syndrome associating medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC), pheochromocytoma (PHEO), ganglioneuromatosis of the aerodigestive tract and facial, ophthalmologic and skeletal abnormalities. MEN2B is caused by the M...

  16. Endocrine Surgery: A Hopkins Legacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udelsman, Robert

    2017-09-06

    : The field of Endocrine Surgery is linked to extraordinary contributions made by Hopkins leaders in surgery including William Stewart Halsted, Harvey Cushing, and John L Cameron. Halsted's contributions to the anatomic basis of thyroid and parathyroid surgery were based on his experimental and clinical work performed at Johns Hopkins Hospital. Halsted's disciple, Harvey Cushing, created the field of modern neurosurgery and recognized the disease and syndrome that are immortalized with his name. The Halstedian principles promulgated and transmitted by John L Cameron to subsequent generations of endocrine surgeons at Hopkins have transformed the field of Endocrine Surgery with the stamp of Johns Hopkins Hospital.

  17. Introduction to the Endocrine System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tissues, or cells. Some of the factors that affect endocrine organs include aging, certain diseases and conditions, stress, the environment, and ... Partners The Hormone Health Network partners with other organizations to further patient ...

  18. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type I

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... treatment as needed. References [1] White ML, Doherty GM. Multiple endocrine neoplasia. Surgical Oncology Clinics of North ... for questions about any medications, contact the U.S. Food and Drug Administration toll-free at 1-888- ...

  19. Endocrine disorders and the neurologic manifestations

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Jeesuk

    2014-01-01

    The nervous system and the endocrine system are closely interrelated and both involved intimately in maintaining homeostasis. Endocrine dysfunctions may lead to various neurologic manifestations such as headache, myopathy, and acute encephalopathy including coma. It is important to recognize the neurologic signs and symptoms caused by the endocrine disorders while managing endocrine disorders. This article provides an overview of the neurologic manifestations found in various endocrine disord...

  20. Carcinoma of the parathyroid gland with hyperparathyroidism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trevino Canamar, G.; Vogel, H.

    1983-02-01

    A patient with an endocrine-active carcinoma of the parathyroid gland was observed. The typical signs of hyperthyroidism could be seen in the skelettal system. Symptoms of bone and kidney diseases dominated the clinical picture. The symptomatology corresponded to a subchronic primary hyperparathyroidism.

  1. Wilson's disease: An endocrine revelation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Nitin; Shetty, Sahana; Thomas, Nihal; Paul, Thomas Vizhalil

    2014-01-01

    Wilson's disease is an inherited disorder of copper metabolism. The affected patients, who otherwise have a near normal life span, may often suffer from some potentially treatable and under recognized endocrine disorders that may hinder their quality of life. We explored previously published literature on the various endocrine aspects of this disease with their probable underlying mechanisms, highlighting the universal need of research in this area. PMID:25364683

  2. Respiratory manifestations in endocrine diseases

    OpenAIRE

    LENCU, CODRU?A; ALEXESCU, TEODORA; PETRULEA, MIRELA; LENCU, MONICA

    2016-01-01

    The control mechanisms of respiration as a vital function are complex: voluntary ? cortical, and involuntary ? metabolic, neural, emotional and endocrine. Hormones and hypothalamic neuropeptides (that act as neurotrasmitters and neuromodulators in the central nervous system) play a role in the regulation of respiration and in bronchopulmonary morphology. This article presents respiratory manifestations in adult endocrine diseases that evolve with hormone deficit or hypersecretion. In hyperthy...

  3. Pathologic pancreatic endocrine cell hyperplasia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Debra Ouyang; Deepti Dhall; Run Yu

    2011-01-01

    Pathologic hyperplasia of various pancreatic endocrine cells is rare but has been long known. β cell hyperplasia contributes to persistent hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia of infancy, which is commonly caused by mutations in the islet ATP-sensitive potassium channel, and to noninsulinoma pancreatogenous hypoglycemia in adults,which may or may not be associated with bariatric surgery.α cell hyperplasia may cause glucagonoma syndrome or induce pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. An inactivating mutation of the glucagon receptor causes α cell hyperplasia and asymptomatic hyperglucagonemia.Pancreatic polypeptide cell hyperplasia has been described without a clearly-characterized clinical syndrome and hyperplasia of other endocrine cells inside the pancreas has not been reported to our knowledge.Based on morphological evidence, the main pathogenetic mechanism for pancreatic endocrine cell hyperplasia is increased endocrine cell neogenesis from exocrine ductal epithelium. Pancreatic endocrine cell hyperplasia should be considered in the diagnosis and management of hypoglycemia, elevated islet hormone levels,and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. Further studies of pathologic pancreatic endocrine cell hyperplasia will likely yield insights into the pathogenesis and treatment of diabetes and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors.

  4. Pathologic pancreatic endocrine cell hyperplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Debra; Dhall, Deepti; Yu, Run

    2011-01-01

    Pathologic hyperplasia of various pancreatic endocrine cells is rare but has been long known. β cell hyperplasia contributes to persistent hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia of infancy, which is commonly caused by mutations in the islet ATP-sensitive potassium channel, and to non-insulinoma pancreatogenous hypoglycemia in adults, which may or may not be associated with bariatric surgery. α cell hyperplasia may cause glucagonoma syndrome or induce pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. An inactivating mutation of the glucagon receptor causes α cell hyperplasia and asymptomatic hyperglucagonemia. Pancreatic polypeptide cell hyperplasia has been described without a clearly-characterized clinical syndrome and hyperplasia of other endocrine cells inside the pancreas has not been reported to our knowledge. Based on morphological evidence, the main pathogenetic mechanism for pancreatic endocrine cell hyperplasia is increased endocrine cell neogenesis from exocrine ductal epithelium. Pancreatic endocrine cell hyperplasia should be considered in the diagnosis and management of hypoglycemia, elevated islet hormone levels, and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. Further studies of pathologic pancreatic endocrine cell hyperplasia will likely yield insights into the pathogenesis and treatment of diabetes and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. PMID:21245985

  5. Pan-urothelial verrucous carcinoma unrelated to schistosomiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Marcos Rodrigo Saravia; Ruiz, Mario Roberto Morales; Florian, Roberto Elfidio Orozco; De Leon, Werner; Jose, Luis San

    2009-01-01

    Verrucous carcinoma is a well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma with a well known histological appearance and clinical behaviour. We present a case of verrucous carcinoma extensively affecting the urothelium of the right renal pelvis, right ureter and urinary bladder over a 3-year period. This pan-urothelial involvement of a verrucous carcinoma has not been previously reported. The potential for regional spread with subsequent urinary tract obstruction by this tumour calls for aggressive local surgical treatment as the main modality of therapy. PMID:21686630

  6. Endocrine disorders & female infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unuane, David; Tournaye, Herman; Velkeniers, Brigitte; Poppe, Kris

    2011-12-01

    Female infertility occurs in about 37% of all infertile couples and ovulatory disorders account for more than half of these. The ovaries are in continuous interaction with the other endocrine organs. The interplay may account for infertility occurring at different levels and may render the diagnosis of infertility a difficult exercise for the involved physician. A hypothalamic cause of female infertility should be considered in an appropriate clinical context, with tests pointing to a hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. It can be functional, physiological or related to organic causes. Hyperprolactinemia has well characterized effects on the normal gonadal function and treatment is well established. Acromegaly and Cushing's disease may impair fertility at different levels, mechanisms involved however remain ill defined. Thyroid disorders, both hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism, can interact with the ovaries, through a direct effect on ovarian function, but autoimmunity may be involved, as well as alterations of the sex hormone binding protein levels. Primary ovarian disorders, such as the polycystic ovary syndrome and primary ovarian insufficiency are frequent diseases, for which novel treatments are currently being developed and discussed. We will propose an algorithm for the diagnosis and approach of the female patient presenting with infertility on the basis of the available evidence in literature. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Metastatic spinal cord compression as initial presentation of follicular thyroid carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, H; Stein, M E; Ben-Itzhak, O; Duek, D; Ravkin, A; Gaitini, D

    1998-03-01

    Follicular thyroid carcinoma, initially presenting as spinal cord compression due to metastatic lesions, is a less reported event. We present two cases of well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma that led to spinal cord compression. A thorough search of the literature revealed only five similar cases. We summarize the clinical characteristics of these cases, the therapeutic measures used, their outcome, and the prognosis.

  8. PET and PET/CT in endocrine tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudczak, Robert [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Medical University of Vienna (Austria)], E-mail: robert.dudczak@meduniwien.ac.at; Traub-Weidinger, Tatjana [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Medical University of Vienna (Austria)

    2010-03-15

    Functional information provided by PET tracers together with the superior image quality and the better data quantification by PET technology had a changing effect on the significance of nuclear medicine in medical issues. Recently introduced hybrid PET/CT systems together with the introduction of novel PET radiopharmaceuticals have contributed to the fact that nuclear medicine has become a growing diagnostic impact on endocrinology. In this review imaging strategies, different radiopharmaceuticals including the basic mechanism of their cell uptake, and the diagnostic value of PET and PET/CT in endocrine tumours except differentiated thyroid carcinomas will be discussed.

  9. Endocrine disorders and the neurologic manifestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jeesuk

    2014-12-01

    The nervous system and the endocrine system are closely interrelated and both involved intimately in maintaining homeostasis. Endocrine dysfunctions may lead to various neurologic manifestations such as headache, myopathy, and acute encephalopathy including coma. It is important to recognize the neurologic signs and symptoms caused by the endocrine disorders while managing endocrine disorders. This article provides an overview of the neurologic manifestations found in various endocrine disorders that affect pediatric patients. It is valuable to think about 'endocrine disorder' as a cause of the neurologic manifestations. Early diagnosis and treatment of hormonal imbalance can rapidly relieve the neurologic symptoms. Better understanding of the interaction between the endocrine system and the nervous system, combined with the knowledge about the pathophysiology of the neurologic manifestations presented in the endocrine disorders might allow earlier diagnosis and better treatment of the endocrine disorders.

  10. Selenium and endocrine systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckett, Geoffrey J; Arthur, John R

    2005-03-01

    The trace element selenium (Se) is capable of exerting multiple actions on endocrine systems by modifying the expression of at least 30 selenoproteins, many of which have clearly defined functions. Well-characterized selenoenzymes are the families of glutathione peroxidases (GPXs), thioredoxin reductases (TRs) and iodothyronine deiodinases (Ds). These selenoenzymes are capable of modifying cell function by acting as antioxidants and modifying redox status and thyroid hormone metabolism. Se is also involved in cell growth, apoptosis and modifying the action of cell signalling systems and transcription factors. During thyroid hormone synthesis GPX1, GPX3 and TR1 are up-regulated, providing the thyrocytes with considerable protection from peroxidative damage. Thyroidal D1 in rats and both D1 and D2 in humans are also up-regulated to increase the production of bioactive 3,5,3'-tri-iodothyronine (T3). In the basal state, GPX3 is secreted into the follicular lumen where it may down-regulate thyroid hormone synthesis by decreasing hydrogen peroxide concentrations. The deiodinases are present in most tissues and provide a mechanism whereby individual tissues may control their exposure to T3. Se is also able to modify the immune response in patients with autoimmune thyroiditis. Low sperm production and poor sperm quality are consistent features of Se-deficient animals. The pivotal link between Se, sperm quality and male fertility is GPX4 since the enzyme is essential to allow the production of the correct architecture of the midpiece of spermatozoa. Se also has insulin-mimetic properties, an effect that is probably brought about by stimulating the tyrosine kinases involved in the insulin signalling cascade. Furthermore, in the diabetic rat, Se not only restores glycaemic control but it also prevents or alleviates the adverse effects that diabetes has on cardiac, renal and platelet function.

  11. Fetal and neonatal endocrine disruptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unüvar, Tolga; Büyükgebiz, Atilla

    2012-06-01

    Endocrine disruptors are substances commonly encountered in every setting and condition in the modern world. It is virtually impossible to avoid the contact with these chemical compounds in our daily life. Molecules defined as endocrine disruptors constitute an extremely heterogeneous group and include synthetic chemicals used as industrial solvents/lubricants and their by-products. Natural chemicals found in human and animal food (phytoestrogens) also act as endocrine disruptors. Different from adults, children are not exposed only to chemical toxins in the environment but may also be exposed during their intrauterine life. Hundreds of toxic substances, which include neuro-immune and endocrine toxic chemical components that may influence the critical steps of hormonal, neurological and immunological development, may affect the fetus via the placental cord and these substances may be excreted in the meconium. Children and especially newborns are more sensitive to environmental toxins compared to adults. Metabolic pathways are immature, especially in the first months of life. The ability of the newborn to metabolize, detoxify and eliminate many toxins is different from that of the adults. Although exposures occur during fetal or neonatal period, their effects may sometimes be observed in later years. Further studies are needed to clarify the effects of these substances on the endocrine system and to provide evidence for preventive measures.

  12. Chronobiology in the endocrine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haus, Erhard

    2007-08-31

    Biological signaling occurs in a complex web with participation and interaction of the central nervous system, the autonomous nervous system, the endocrine glands, peripheral endocrine tissues including the intestinal tract and adipose tissue, and the immune system. All of these show an intricate time structure with rhythms and pulsatile variations in multiple frequencies. Circadian (about 24-hour) and circannual (about 1-year) rhythms are kept in step with the cyclic environmental surrounding by the timing and length of the daily light span. Rhythmicity of many endocrine variables is essential for their efficacy and, even in some instances, for the qualitative nature of their effects. Indeed, the continuous administration of certain hormones and their synthetic analogues may show substantially different effects than expected. In the design of drug-delivery systems and treatment schedules involving directly or indirectly the endocrine system, consideration of the human time organization is essential. A large amount of information on the endocrine time structure has accumulated, some of which is discussed in this review.

  13. Endocrine causes of secondary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sica, Domenic A

    2008-07-01

    Secondary hypertension is common in clinical practice if a broad definition is applied. Various patterns of hypertension exist in the patient with an endocrine source of their disease, including new-onset hypertension in a previously normotensive individual, a loss of blood pressure control in a patient with previously well-controlled blood pressure, and/or labile blood pressure in the setting of either of these 2 patterns. A thorough history and physical exam, which can rule out concomitant medications, alcohol intake, and over-the-counter medication use, is an important prerequisite to the workup for endocrine causes of hypertension. Endocrine forms of secondary hypertension, such as pheochromocytoma and Cushing's disease, are extremely uncommon. Conversely, primary aldosteronism now occurs with sufficient frequency so as to be considered "top of the list" for secondary endocrine causes in otherwise difficult-to-treat or resistant hypertension. Primary aldosteronism can be insidious in its presentation since a supposed hallmark finding, hypokalemia, may be variable in its presentation. It is important to identify secondary causes of hypertension that are endocrine in nature because surgical intervention may result in correction or substantial improvement of the hypertension.

  14. Immunotherapy against endocrine malignancies: immune checkpoint inhibitors lead the way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Lucas Leite; Marcello, Marjory Alana; Rocha-Santos, Vinicius; Ward, Laura Sterian

    2017-09-11

    Immune checkpoint inhibitors are agents that act by inhibiting the mechanisms of immune escape displayed by various cancers. The success of immune checkpoint inhibitors against several tumors has promoted a new treatment strategy in clinical oncology, and this has encouraged physicians to increase the number of patients who receive the immune checkpoint therapy. In the present article, we review the main concepts regarding immune checkpoint mechanisms and how cancer disrupts them to undergo immune escape. In addition, we describe the most essential concepts related to immune checkpoint inhibitors. We critically review the literature on preclinical and clinical studies of the immune checkpoint inhibitors as a treatment option for thyroid cancer, ovarian carcinoma, pancreatic adenocarcinoma, adrenocortical carcinoma and neuroendocrine tumors. We present the challenges and the opportunities of using immune checkpoint inhibitors against these endocrine malignancies, highlighting the breakthroughs and pitfalls that have recently emerged.

  15. PET and endocrine tumors; TEP et tumeurs endocrines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rigo, P.; Belhocine, T.; Hustinx, R.; Foidart-Willems, J. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Liege, Service de Medecine Nucleaire et d' Hematologie (Belgium)

    2000-08-01

    The authors review the main indications of PET examination, and specifically of {sup 18}FDG, in the assessment of endocrine tumors: of the thyroid, of the parathyroid, of the adrenal and of the pituitary glands. Neuroendocrine tumors, gastro-entero-pancreatic or carcinoid tumors are also under the scope. Usually, the most differentiated tumors show only poor uptake of the FDG as they have a weak metabolic and proliferative activity. In the assessment of endocrine tumors, FDG-PET should be used only after most specific nuclear examinations been performed. (author)

  16. Risk assessment of 'endocrine substances': guidance on identifying endocrine disruptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Richard W

    2013-12-16

    The European regulation on plant protection products (1107/2009) and other related legislation only support the marketing and use of chemical products on the basis that they do not induce endocrine disruption in humans or wildlife species. This legislation would appear to make the assumption that endocrine active chemicals should be managed differently from other chemicals presumably due to an assumed lack of a threshold for adverse effects. In the absence of agreed scientific criteria and guidance on how to identify and evaluate endocrine activity and disruption within these pieces of legislation, a European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals (ECETOC) task force was formed to provide scientific criteria that may be used within the context of these three legislative documents. The first ECETOC technical report and associated workshop, held in 2009, presented a science-based concept on how to identify endocrine activity and disrupting properties of chemicals for both human health and the environment. Specific scientific criteria for the determination of endocrine activity and disrupting properties that integrate information from both regulatory toxicity studies and mechanistic/screening studies were proposed. These criteria combined the nature of the adverse effects detected in studies which give concern for endocrine toxicity with an understanding of the mode of action of toxicity so that adverse effects can be explained scientifically. A key element in the data evaluation is the consideration of all available information in a weight-of-evidence approach. Both sets of data (evidence of the adverse effect in apical studies and conclusive mode of action knowledge) are essential in order to correctly identify endocrine disruption according to accepted definitions. As the legislation seeks to regulate chemicals on a mode of action rather than the more traditional approach of adverse endpoints, then conclusive evidence of the mode of action of concern

  17. Clinical polymorphism of endocrine ophthalmopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Likhvantseva

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to analyze clinical polymorphism of endocrine ophthalmopathy in patients with Graves’ disease.Methods: Clinical and radiological data of 18 cases with clinical manifestations of lacrimal gland increase were analyzed and compared with data retrieved from 50 patients without increasing of lacrimal gland.Results: the characteristics of clinical manifestations of endocrine ophthalmopathy with lacrimal gland increase were presented. this form differs, as the organ of the target, along with orbital fat and/or eye muscles becomes the glandula lacrimalis. A correlation between fact involving, on the one hand, and the intensity and severity of the autoimmune process in orbit, on the other hand were identified.Conclusion: Involvement of this secretion organ in the autoimmune process makes the clinical course of endocrine ophthalmopa-thy more complicated, and leads to eye dry syndrome creation.

  18. Clinical polymorphism of endocrine ophthalmopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Likhvantseva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to analyze clinical polymorphism of endocrine ophthalmopathy in patients with Graves’ disease.Methods: Clinical and radiological data of 18 cases with clinical manifestations of lacrimal gland increase were analyzed and compared with data retrieved from 50 patients without increasing of lacrimal gland.Results: the characteristics of clinical manifestations of endocrine ophthalmopathy with lacrimal gland increase were presented. this form differs, as the organ of the target, along with orbital fat and/or eye muscles becomes the glandula lacrimalis. A correlation between fact involving, on the one hand, and the intensity and severity of the autoimmune process in orbit, on the other hand were identified.Conclusion: Involvement of this secretion organ in the autoimmune process makes the clinical course of endocrine ophthalmopa-thy more complicated, and leads to eye dry syndrome creation.

  19. Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luzi Ettore

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type 1 (MEN1 is a rare autosomal dominant hereditary cancer syndrome presented mostly by tumours of the parathyroids, endocrine pancreas and anterior pituitary, and characterised by a very high penetrance and an equal sex distribution. It occurs in approximately one in 30,000 individuals. Two different forms, sporadic and familial, have been described. The sporadic form presents with two of the three principal MEN1-related endocrine tumours (parathyroid adenomas, entero-pancreatic tumours and pituitary tumours within a single patient, while the familial form consists of a MEN1 case with at least one first degree relative showing one of the endocrine characterising tumours. Other endocrine and non-endocrine lesions, such as adrenal cortical tumours, carcinoids of the bronchi, gastrointestinal tract and thymus, lipomas, angiofibromas, collagenomas have been described. The responsible gene, MEN1, maps on chromosome 11q13 and encodes a 610 aminoacid nuclear protein, menin, with no sequence homology to other known human proteins. MEN1 syndrome is caused by inactivating mutations of the MEN1 tumour suppressor gene. This gene is probably involved in the regulation of several cell functions such as DNA replication and repair and transcriptional machinery. The combination of clinical and genetic investigations, together with the improving of molecular genetics knowledge of the syndrome, helps in the clinical management of patients. Treatment consists of surgery and/or drug therapy, often in association with radiotherapy or chemotherapy. Currently, DNA testing allows the early identification of germline mutations in asymptomatic gene carriers, to whom routine surveillance (regular biochemical and/or radiological screenings to detect the development of MEN1-associated tumours and lesions is recommended.

  20. Age and the endocrine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noth, R H; Mazzaferri, E L

    1985-02-01

    The pattern of age-induced changes in each endocrine system is unique. Both hormone levels and target organ responsivity are altered in the aging endocrine-cardiovascular system. Serum levels of vasopressor hormones both increase (norepinephrine) and decrease (renin, aldosterone). Target organ responses to beta-adrenergic stimulation in the heart and probably also in vascular smooth muscle decrease due to postreceptor changes. These effects contribute to the clinical problems of hypertension and orthostatic hypotension which characterize the elderly. Aging produces mild carbohydrate intolerance and a minimal increase in fasting serum glucose in healthy, nonobese individuals, primarily due to decreasing postreceptor responsiveness to insulin. Aging decreases the metabolism of thyroxine, including its conversion to triiodothyronine, but clinically significant alterations of thyroid hormone levels do not occur. Changes in the end-organ response to thyroid hormones, however, significantly alter the clinical presentation of thyroid diseases. Aging shifts the serum vasopressin-serum osmolality relationship toward higher serum vasopressin levels probably due to altered baroreceptor input, probably contributing to the tendency toward hyponatremia in the elderly. Aging slows the metabolism of cortisol, but glucocorticoid levels in the human are essentially unaltered by age. However, recent data indicate that delta-5 adrenal steroids decrease markedly in both men and women. Nodules in the anterior pituitary, the thyroid, and the adrenal increase in frequency with aging. Finally, the reproductive system is primarily altered by endocrine cell death, by unknown mechanisms, resulting in decreased estrogen and testosterone levels in women and men. This most obvious age-related endocrine change turns out to be incompletely understood and is not representative of most age-related endocrine changes. Despite characterization of these many age-related alterations in endocrine systems

  1. Endocrine Disorders in Cystic Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackman, Scott M; Tangpricha, Vin

    2016-08-01

    Cystic fibrosis is frequently complicated by endocrine disorders. Diabetes can be expected to affect most with CF and pancreatic insufficiency and varies widely in age of onset, but early identification and treatment improve morbidity and mortality. Short stature can be exacerbated by relative delay of puberty and by use of inhaled corticosteroids. Bone disease in CF causes fragility fractures and should be assessed by monitoring bone mineral density and optimizing vitamin D status. Detecting and managing endocrine complications in CF can reduce morbidity and mortality in CF. These complications can be expected to become more common as the CF population ages. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Endocrine hypertension in small animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reusch, Claudia E; Schellenberg, Stefan; Wenger, Monique

    2010-03-01

    Hypertension is classified as idiopathic or secondary. In animals with idiopathic hypertension, persistently elevated blood pressure is not caused by an identifiable underlying or predisposing disease. Until recently, more than 95% of cases of hypertension in humans were diagnosed as idiopathic. New studies have shown, however, a much higher prevalence of secondary causes, such as primary hyperaldosteronism. In dogs and cats, secondary hypertension is the most prevalent form and is subclassified into renal and endocrine hypertension. This review focuses on the most common causes of endocrine hypertension in dogs and cats.

  3. Surgical experience in children with differentiated thyroid carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haveman, JW; van Tol, KM; Rouwe, CW; Piers, DA; Plukker, JTA

    2003-01-01

    Background: The optimal surgical treatment in children with well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma remains an important point of discussion. In this study, we evaluated our surgical experience and reviewed the literature accordingly to identify the most adequate treatment. Methods: We retrospectively

  4. Bariatric Surgery and the Endocrine System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Surgery and the Endocrine System Fact Sheet Bariatric Surgery and the Endocrine System February, 2012 Download PDFs ... Morton, MD Marzieh Salehi, MD What is bariatric surgery? Bariatric surgery helps people who are very obese ...

  5. Oral verrucous carcinoma. Treatment with radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nair, M.K.; Sankaranarayanan, R.; Padmanabhan, T.K.; Madhu, C.S.

    1988-02-01

    Fifty-two cases of oral verrucous carcinoma treated with radiotherapy at the Regional Cancer Centre, Trivandrum, Kerala, India in 1982 were evaluated to determine the distribution within the oral cavity, clinical extent, and effectiveness of radiotherapy in controlling the disease. The most common site was the buccal mucosa. Fifty percent of the patients had clinically negative regional lymph nodes and 33% were in earlier stages (T1, T2, N0, and M0). The overall 3-year no evidence of disease (NED) survival rate was 44%. The 3-year NED survival rate with radium implant was 86%. We cannot comment on anaplastic transformation after radiotherapy because our treatment failures have not been subjected for biopsy concerning this matter. Because the results are comparable with those of well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma, we think that the treatment policies advocated for oral squamous cell carcinoma are also applicable to oral verrucous carcinoma.

  6. Verrucoid Variant of Invasive Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Oral Submucous Fibrosis: A Clinicopathological Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramani, Priya; Krithika, C.; Ananthalakshmi, R.; Jagdish, Praveena; Janardhanan, Sunitha; Jeevakarunyam, Sathiyajeeva

    2016-01-01

    Verrucous carcinoma (VC) is an exophytic, low-grade, well-differentiated variant of squamous cell carcinoma. It is described as a lesion appearing in the sixth or seventh decade of life that has minimal aggressive potential and, in long-standing cases, has been shown to transform into squamous cell carcinoma. Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) is a potentially malignant disorder, and about one-third of the affected population develop oral squamous cell carcinoma. The histopathological diagnosis of verrucous carcinoma is challenging, and the interpretation of early squamous cell carcinoma requires immense experience. Here we present a rare case of a 24-year-old male with OSMF transforming to verrucous carcinoma with invasive squamous cell carcinoma. Even though the case had a straightforward clinical diagnosis, the serial sectioning done for pathological diagnosis disclosed the squamous cell carcinoma.

  7. Estrogen receptors in breast carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huaman, A

    1979-11-01

    On the basis of estrogen receptor assays, breast carcinomas are presently classified as estrogen-dependent tumors, which respond to endocrine therapy, and autonomous tumors, for which endocrine therapy is useless. This paper presents a short review of the biochemical principles of estrogen dependence, the procedures used to determine estrogen receptors, and the clinical applications of the findings of these assay procedures. Biobhemically, the estroogen dependence of normal breast cells is explained as a biochemical reaction occurring between the circulating estradiol and the breast cell, which occurs in 3 steps: 1) circulating estradiol penetrates the cellular membrane by passive diffusion, followed by 2) combining of estradiol with the estrogen-binding protein (estrophilin) and formation of an estrogen receptor complex which undergoes activation and translocation into the nucleus, to result in 3) the activated steroid receptor which combines with the nuclear charomatin and stimulates ribonucleic acid synthesis for the formation of estradiol binding proteins or estradiol receptors. The cytosol method of Wittliff et al. is described in brief and entails radioactive competitive analysis; the other available laboratory procedure is immunofluorescence of tumor sections. Quantification of estrogen receptor content can be used clinically to decide on ablative endocrine therapy, to determine the effectiveness of anti-estrogen administration, to determine the primary site of metastatic carcinoma, and as a screenng device.

  8. GATA factors in endocrine neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pihlajoki, Marjut; Färkkilä, Anniina; Soini, Tea; Heikinheimo, Markku; Wilson, David B

    2016-02-01

    GATA transcription factors are structurally-related zinc finger proteins that recognize the consensus DNA sequence WGATAA (the GATA motif), an essential cis-acting element in the promoters and enhancers of many genes. These transcription factors regulate cell fate specification and differentiation in a wide array of tissues. As demonstrated by genetic analyses of mice and humans, GATA factors play pivotal roles in the development, homeostasis, and function of several endocrine organs including the adrenal cortex, ovary, pancreas, parathyroid, pituitary, and testis. Additionally, GATA factors have been shown to be mutated, overexpressed, or underexpressed in a variety of endocrine tumors (e.g., adrenocortical neoplasms, parathyroid tumors, pituitary adenomas, and sex cord stromal tumors). Emerging evidence suggests that GATA factors play a direct role in the initiation, proliferation, or propagation of certain endocrine tumors via modulation of key developmental signaling pathways implicated in oncogenesis, such as the WNT/β-catenin and TGFβ pathways. Altered expression or function of GATA factors can also affect the metabolism, ploidy, and invasiveness of tumor cells. This article provides an overview of the role of GATA factors in endocrine neoplasms. Relevant animal models are highlighted.

  9. [Environmental contaminants and endocrine disruptors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontenele, Eveline Gadelha Pereira; Martins, Manoel Ricardo Alves; Quidute, Ana Rosa Pinto; Montenegro, Renan Magalhães

    2010-02-01

    The toxicity of various pollutants has been routinely investigated according to their teratogenic and carcinogenic effects. In the last few decades, however, many of such pollutants have been shown to adversely affect the endocrine system of human beings and other species. Currently, more than eleven million chemical substances are known in the world, and approximately 3,000 are produced on a large scale. Numerous chemical composites of domestic, industrial and agricultural use have been shown to influence hormonal activity. Examples of such chemical products with estrogenic activity are substances used in cosmetics, anabolizing substances for animal feeding, phytoestrogens and persistent organic pollutants (POPs). These agents are seen in residential, industrial and urban sewerage system effluents and represent an important source of environmental contamination. The International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS) defines as endocrine disruptors substances or mixtures seen in the environment capable of interfering with endocrine system functions resulting in adverse effects in an intact organism or its offspring. In this article the authors present a current literature review about the role of these pollutants in endocrine and metabolic diseases, probable mechanisms of action, and suggest paths of investigation and possible strategies for prevention and reduction of its possible damages.

  10. The Vitamin D Endocrine System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Anthony W.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the physiology and biochemistry of the vitamin D endocrine system, including role of biological calcium and phosphorus, vitamin D metabolism, and related diseases. A 10-item, multiple-choice test which can be used to obtain continuing medical education credit is included. (JN)

  11. Endocrine cells producing regulatory peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solcia, E; Usellini, L; Buffa, R; Rindi, G; Villani, L; Zampatti, C; Silini, E

    1987-07-15

    Recent data on the immunolocalization of regulatory peptides and related propeptide sequences in endocrine cells and tumors of the gastrointestinal tract, pancreas, lung, thyroid, pituitary (ACTH and opioids), adrenals and paraganglia have been revised and discussed. Gastrin, xenopsin, cholecystokinin (CCK), somatostatin, motilin, secretin, GIP (gastric inhibitory polypeptide), neurotensin, glicentin/glucagon-37 and PYY (peptide tyrosine tyrosine) are the main products of gastrointestinal endocrine cells; glucagon, CRF (corticotropin releasing factor), somatostatin, PP (pancreatic polypeptide) and GRF (growth hormone releasing factor), in addition to insulin, are produced in pancreatic islet cells; bombesin-related peptides are the main markers of pulmonary endocrine cells; calcitonin and CGRP (calcitonin gene-related peptide) occur in thyroid and extrathyroid C cells; ACTH and endorphins in anterior and intermediate lobe pituitary cells, alpha-MSH and CLIP (corticotropin-like intermediate lobe peptide) in intermediate lobe cells; met- and leu-enkephalins and related peptides in adrenal medullary and paraganglionic cells as well as in some gut (enterochromaffin) cells; NPY (neuropeptide Y) in adrenaline-type adrenal medullary cells, etc.. Both tissue-appropriate and tissue-inappropriate regulatory peptides are produced by endocrine tumours, with inappropriate peptides mostly produced by malignant tumours.

  12. Familial Follicular-Cell Derived Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Ju eSon

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Follicular cell-derived well-differentiated thyroid cancer, papillary (PTC and follicular thyroid carcinomas (FTC compose 95% of all thyroid malignancies. Familial follicular cell-derived well-differentiated thyroid cancers contribute to 5% of those cases. These familial follicular cell derived carcinomas or non-medullary thyroid carcinomas (NMTC divide into two clinical-pathological groups. One group, syndromic-associated, composed by predominately non-thyroidal tumors, is comprised of Pendred syndrome, Warner syndrome, Carney complex type 1, PTEN-hamartoma tumor syndrome (Cowden disease; PHTS, familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP/Gardner syndrome. Additionally other less established links correlated to the development of follicular cell-derived tumors have also included Ataxia-teleangiectasia syndrome, McCune Albright syndrome, and Peutz-Jeghers syndrome. The subsequent group encompasses syndromes typified by non-medullary thyroid carcinomas or NMTC, as well as, pure familial (f PTC with or without oxyphilia, fPTC with multinodular goiter and fPTC with papillary renal cell carcinoma. This heterogeneous group of diseases has not a established genotype-phenotype correlation as the well-known genetic events identified in the familial C-cell-derived tumors or medullary thyroid carcinomas (MTC. Clinicians should be have the knowledge to identify the likelihood of a patient presenting with thyroid cancer having an additional underlying familial syndrome stemming from characteristics through morphological findings that would alert the pathologist to have the patient undergo subsequent molecular genetics evaluations. This review will discuss the clinical and pathological findings of the patients with familial papillary thyroid carcinoma, such as familial adenomatous polyposis, Carney complex, Werner syndrome, and Pendred syndrome and the heterogeneous group of familial papillary thyroid carcinoma.

  13. Surgical treatment of pancreatic endocrine tumors in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Cerqueira Cesar Machado

    Full Text Available Surgical approaches to pancreatic endocrine tumors associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 may differ greatly from those applied to sporadic pancreatic endocrine tumors. Presurgical diagnosis of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 is therefore crucial to plan a proper intervention. Of note, hyperparathyroidism/multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 should be surgically treated before pancreatic endocrine tumors/multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 resection, apart from insulinoma. Non-functioning pancreatic endocrine tumors/multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 >1 cm have a high risk of malignancy and should be treated by a pancreatic resection associated with lymphadenectomy. The vast majority of patients with gastrinoma/multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 present with tumor lesions at the duodenum, so the surgery of choice is subtotal or total pancreatoduodenectomy followed by regional lymphadenectomy. The usual surgical treatment for insulinoma/multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 is distal pancreatectomy up to the mesenteric vein with or without spleen preservation, associated with enucleation of tumor lesions in the pancreatic head. Surgical procedures for glucagonomas, somatostatinomas, and vipomas/ multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 are similar to those applied to sporadic pancreatic endocrine tumors. Some of these surgical strategies for pancreatic endocrine tumors/multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 still remain controversial as to their proper extension and timing. Furthermore, surgical resection of single hepatic metastasis secondary to pancreatic endocrine tumors/multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 may be curative and even in multiple liver metastases surgical resection is possible. Hepatic trans-arterial chemo-embolization is usually associated with surgical resection. Liver transplantation may be needed for select cases. Finally, pre-surgical clinical and genetic diagnosis of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 syndrome and

  14. Heterologous Liposarcomatous Differentiation in Malignant Phyllodes Tumor is Histologically Similar but Immunohistochemically and Molecularly Distinct from Well-differentiated Liposarcoma of Soft Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inyang, Alero; Thomas, Dafydd G; Jorns, Julie

    2016-05-01

    Malignant phyllodes tumor (PT) infrequently displays heterologous differentiation, and when present is most often liposarcomatous. We identified five cases of malignant PT with regions identical to well-differentiated liposarcoma (WDLS) of soft tissue and evaluated them for MDM2 and CDK4 gene expression and amplification using immunohistochemistry (IHC) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), respectively. Despite indistinguishable morphology all cases of malignant PT with WDLS-like liposarcomatous differentiation were negative for MDM2 and CDK4 IHC and FISH, supporting different underlying pathogenesis.

  15. Mandibular Destruction Secondary to Invasion by Carcinoma Cuniculatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Michael C; Wong, Brian; O'Brien, Michael J; Salama, Andrew

    2015-12-01

    Carcinoma cuniculatum is a rare form of well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma that is often misdiagnosed. It has a propensity for local invasion and rarely metastasizes. Oral carcinoma cuniculatum is exceedingly rare, with very few reported cases in the English-language literature. Classically, its presentation mimics osteomyelitis or a dental abscess, resulting in misdiagnosis, multiple biopsy examinations, and procedures before a final diagnosis of carcinoma cuniculatum. This case report describes the case of a 71-year-old woman who was referred to the authors' clinic for evaluation of persistent pain and swelling of the mandible. Multiple biopsy examinations were negative for malignancy, and the patient was misdiagnosed with osteomyelitis and dental abscess before obtaining an accurate diagnosis of carcinoma cuniculatum. The aim of this report is to provide a thorough clinical and histopathologic report of carcinoma cuniculatum of the mandible, provide a brief review of the literature, and highlight the difficulties in arriving at this uncommon diagnosis.

  16. Paravertebral Well-Differentiated Liposarcoma with Low-Grade Osteosarcomatous Component: Case Report with 11-Year Follow-Up, Radiological, Pathological, and Genetic Data, and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Macagno

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite being one of the most frequent soft-tissue sarcomas, well-differentiated liposarcoma has never been reported near the spine. The authors present the case of a 67-year-old man with progressive history of back pain. Physical examination revealed a mass located within the right paravertebral muscles. MR and CT imaging showed a heavily ossified central mass surrounded by a peripheral fatty component. No connection with the underlying bone was detected on imagery and during surgery. After surgical resection, histopathological examination revealed a tumor harboring combined features of well-differentiated liposarcoma and low-grade osteosarcoma. Tumor cells displayed overexpression of MDM2, CDK4, and P16 by immunohistochemistry and CGH revealed amplification of 12q13-15 as the only genetic imbalance. MDM2 FISH analysis was performed but was inconclusive. The pathological, immunohistochemical, and genetic features, the differential diagnoses, and the therapeutic management of this unusual tumor are discussed. No complementary treatment was performed initially. Following first treatment, two recurrences occurred 6 and 9 years later, both displaying histological features similar to the first occurrence. Radiotherapy was started after the second recurrence. Follow-up shows no evidence of disease 11 years after initial diagnosis. This case was unusual due to the paravertebral location of the tumor and its divergent differentiation.

  17. Environmental epigenetics: a role in endocrine disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleisch, Abby F; Wright, Robert O; Baccarelli, Andrea A

    2012-10-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals that are structurally similar to steroid or amine hormones have the potential to mimic endocrine endpoints at the receptor level. However, more recently, epigenetic-induced alteration in gene expression has emerged as an alternative way in which environmental compounds may exert endocrine effects. We review concepts related to environmental epigenetics and relevance for endocrinology through three broad examples: 1) effect of early-life nutritional exposures on future obesity and insulin resistance, 2) effect of lifetime environmental exposures such as ionizing radiation on endocrine cancer risk, and 3) potential for compounds previously classified as endocrine disrupting to additionally or alternatively exert effects through epigenetic mechanisms. The field of environmental epigenetics is still nascent, and additional studies are needed to confirm and reinforce data derived from animal models and preliminary human studies. Current evidence suggests that environmental exposures may significantly impact expression of endocrine-related genes and thereby affect clinical endocrine outcomes.

  18. Pancreatic endocrine neoplasms: Epidemiology and prognosis of pancreatic endocrine tumors

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Pancreatic endocrine neoplasms (PETs) are uncommon tumors with an annual incidence less than 1 per 100,000 persons per year in the general population. PETs that produce hormones resulting in symptoms are designated as functional. The majority of PETs are nonfunctional. Of the functional tumors, insulinomas are the most common, followed by gastrinomas. The clinical course of patients with PETs is variable and depends on the extent of the disease and the treatment rendered. Patients with comple...

  19. Action and mechanism of Fas and Fas ligand in immune escape of gallbladder carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-Ning Xu; Sheng-Quan Zou; Jian-Ming Wang

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To study the role of Fas and Fas ligand (FasL) in biological behaviors of gallbladder carcinoma, and their correlated action and mechanism in tumor escape.METHODS: Streptavidin-biotin-peroxidase immunohistochemistry technique was used to study the expression of Fas and FasL protein in 26 gallbladder carcinoma tissues,18 gallbladder adenoma tissues, 3 gallbladder dysplasia tissues and 20 chronic cholecystitis tissues. Apoptosis of the infiltrating lymphocytes in these tissues was studied by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) method. Expression of both proteins and apoptosis of the tumor infiltrating lymphocytes in cancer tissues of primary foci was compared with clinicopathological features of gallbladder carcinoma.RESULTS: The positive rates of Fas were not significantly different among carcinoma, adenoma, dysplasia and chronic cholecystitis. The positive rate of FasL in carcinoma was significantly higher than that in chronic cholecystitis (x2 = 4.89, P<0.05). The apoptotic index (AI) in carcinoma was significantly higher than that in adenoma (t'= 4.19, P<0.01) and chronic cholecystitis (t'= 8.06, P<0.01). The AI was significantly lower in well-differentiated carcinoma and Nevin Ⅰ-Ⅲ carcinoma than that in poorly-differentiated carcinoma (t'= 2.63, P<0.05) and Nevin Ⅳ-Ⅴ carcinoma(t'= 3.33, P<0.01). The confidence interval (CI) ofinfiltrating lymphocytes in adenoma, chronic cholecystitis, well-differentiated carcinoma and Nevin Ⅰ-Ⅲ carcinoma wasvery significantly lower than that in carcinoma (t' = 6.99,P<0.01), adenoma (t' = 3.66, P<0.01), poorly-differentiated carcinoma (t' = 5.31, P<0.01) and Nevin Ⅳ-Ⅴ carcinoma(t' = 3.76, P<0.01), respectively. The CI of apoptosis of infiltrating lymphocytes in well-differentiated carcinoma was significantly lower than that in poorly-differentiated carcinoma (t = 2.52, P<0.05), and was not significantly lower in Nevin Ⅰ-Ⅲ carcinoma than

  20. NUT midline carcinomas in the thymic region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gökmen-Polar, Yesim; Cano, Oscar D; Kesler, Kenneth A; Loehrer, Patrick J; Badve, Sunil

    2014-12-01

    NUT midline carcinomas (NMCs) are rare tumors described predominantly in the pediatric age group. We recently reported two cases of these tumors occurring in the thymic region. In order to establish the true incidence of these tumors, we examined a large series of thymic carcinomas for morphological features of NUT tumor and further assessed the expression of NUTM1 (also known as NUT) protein by immunohistochemistry. The histological review of slides from 110 cases of thymic carcinoma was undertaken to identify carcinomas with mixed undifferentiated and squamous features that are typically associated with NUT carcinomas. The presenting symptoms, morphological spectrum of tumors and outcome data of patients with these histologies are presented. Immunohistochemistry for NUTM1 was performed on 35 cases of thymic carcinoma with available blocks (3 with these histological features and 32 without these features) to exclude the possibility of midline carcinoma. Tumors from 10 patients had features of mixed small cell undifferentiated squamous cell carcinoma (M:F, 1.5:1; age range, 22-79). These patients predominantly presented with advanced disease and had respiratory-related symptoms or chest pain; four had paraneoplastic syndromes. The squamous component in all cases was well differentiated with little or no atypia. The undifferentiated component varied in cell size and lacked characteristic features of small cell carcinoma. All but one patients developed metastases or died within 3 years of diagnosis. NUTM1 expression was seen in two of three tumors with these histological features and in none of the 32 cases without. Mixed small cell undifferentiated carcinomas share histological and immunohistochemical similarity with NMCs and have aggressive clinical course. These tumors are not uncommon and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of carcinomas in the thymic region as novel therapies might be available.

  1. Postoperative Complications After Prophylactic Thyroidectomy for Very Young Patients With Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2

    OpenAIRE

    Kluijfhout, Wouter P; van Beek, Dirk-Jan; Verrijn Stuart, Annemarie A.; Lodewijk, Lutske; Gerlof D. Valk; Van der Zee, David C.; Vriens, Menno R.; Inne H. M. Borel Rinkes

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate whether younger age at surgery is associated with the increased incidence of postoperative complications after prophylactic thyroidectomy in pediatric patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) 2. The shift toward earlier thyroidectomy has resulted in significantly less medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC)-related morbidity and mortality. However, very young pediatric patients might have a higher morbidity rate compared with older patients....

  2. Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (Sipple's syndrome): clinical and cytogenetic analysis of a kindred.

    OpenAIRE

    Zatterale, A.; Stabile, M; Nunziata, V; Di Giovanni, G.; Vecchione, R; Ventruto, V

    1984-01-01

    This report describes the clinical and cytogenetic analysis of a kindred with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN-2 or Sipple's syndrome) in two generations. Medullary thyroid carcinoma was present in five members either as a large or as an occult tumour. Phaeochromocytoma was demonstrated in one severely hypertensive relative and urine vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) was increased in one normotensive member. Serum parathormone (PTH) was normal in all but one normocalcaemic patient of this f...

  3. Endocrine ophthalmopathy and radioiodine therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlsson, F. Anders [Uppsala Univ. Hospital, Inst. of Medical Sciences (Sweden). Section of Endocrinology and Diabetes

    2006-12-15

    Endocrine ophthalmopathy is to some degree present in most patients with Graves' disease. In few cases, a severe form of the condition develops and in the majority of these cases, the course of the eye problems has been influenced by the treatment for thyrotoxicosis. In this regard, radioiodine therapy has been increasingly recognized as carrying a special risk. Here, the current understanding of endocrine ophthalmopathy and the risks associated with the development of severe eye disease are discussed. The results of a retrospective investigation of patients with severe eye disease in our hospital, and the experience with corticosteroid administration following radioiodine in order to reduce the risk of ophthalmopathy, are also presented.

  4. Radiofrequency ablation for postsurgical thyroid removal of differentiated thyroid carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Dong; Wang, Lipin; Long, Bin; Ye, Xuemei; Ge, MingHua; Wang, Kejing; Guo, Liang; Li, Linfa

    2016-01-01

    Differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) is the most common endocrine malignancy. Surgical removal with radioactive iodine therapy is recommended for recurrent thyroid carcinoma, and the postsurgical thyroid removal is critical. This study evaluated the clinical values of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) in the postsurgical thyroid removal for DTC. 35 DTC patients who had been treated by subtotal thyroidectomy received RFA for postsurgical thyroid removal. Before and two weeks after RFA, the thyro...

  5. Endocrine manifestations of celiac disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Philip

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Celiac disease can have extra gastrointestinal tract (GIT presentations, most of which are endocrine. The aim of this study was to present patients diagnosed to have celiac disease from an endocrine department and to study the prevalence of endocrinopathies in celiac disease. Materials and Methods: A total of 36 patients from the endocrinology department (LLRM Medical College, Meerut between January 2011 and July 2012 and who were diagnosed to have celiac disease were included in the study. Results: Short stature was the commonest presentation (25%, other presentations included short stature and delayed puberty (20%, delayed puberty (11%, screening for celiac disease in type-1 DM patients (17%, rickets (6%, anemia not responding to oral therapy (6%, type-1 DM with recurrent hypoglycaemia (6%, and osteomalacia (3%. The endocrine manifestations include (after complete evaluation short stature (58%, delayed puberty (31%, elevated alkaline phospahatase (67%, low calcium (22%, X-rays suggestive of osteomalacia or rickets (8%, capopedal spasm (6%, and night blindness (6%. Anti-TPO antibody positivity was found in 53%, hypothyroidism in 28%, subclinical hypothyroidism in 17%, and type-1 DM in 25% of the patients. A total of 14% patients had no GI symptoms. Conclusion: Celiac disease is an endocrine disrupter as well as the great masquerader having varied presentations including short stature, delayed puberty, and rickets. Some patients who have celiac disease may not have any GI symptoms, making the diagnosis all the more difficult. Also, there is significant incidence of celiac disease with hypothyroidism and type-1 DM, making screening for it important in these diseases.

  6. Spectrum of Endocrine Disorders in Central Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osei Sarfo-Kantanka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Although an increasing burden of endocrine disorders is recorded worldwide, the greatest increase is occurring in developing countries. However, the spectrum of these disorders is not well described in most developing countries. Objective. The objective of this study was to profile the frequency of endocrine disorders and their basic demographic characteristics in an endocrine outpatient clinic in Kumasi, central Ghana. Methods. A retrospective review was conducted on endocrine disorders seen over a five-year period between January 2011 and December 2015 at the outpatient endocrine clinic of Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital. All medical records of patients seen at the endocrine clinic were reviewed by endocrinologists and all endocrinological diagnoses were classified according to ICD-10. Results. 3070 adults enrolled for care in the endocrine outpatient service between 2011 and 2015. This comprised 2056 females and 1014 males (female : male ratio of 2.0 : 1.0 with an overall median age of 54 (IQR, 41–64 years. The commonest primary endocrine disorders seen were diabetes, thyroid, and adrenal disorders at frequencies of 79.1%, 13.1%, and 2.2%, respectively. Conclusions. Type 2 diabetes and thyroid disorders represent by far the two commonest disorders seen at the endocrine clinic. The increased frequency and wide spectrum of endocrine disorders suggest the need for well-trained endocrinologists to improve the health of the population.

  7. Spectrum of Endocrine Disorders in Central Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarfo, Fred Stephen; Ansah, Eunice Oparebea; Kyei, Ishmael

    2017-01-01

    Background. Although an increasing burden of endocrine disorders is recorded worldwide, the greatest increase is occurring in developing countries. However, the spectrum of these disorders is not well described in most developing countries. Objective. The objective of this study was to profile the frequency of endocrine disorders and their basic demographic characteristics in an endocrine outpatient clinic in Kumasi, central Ghana. Methods. A retrospective review was conducted on endocrine disorders seen over a five-year period between January 2011 and December 2015 at the outpatient endocrine clinic of Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital. All medical records of patients seen at the endocrine clinic were reviewed by endocrinologists and all endocrinological diagnoses were classified according to ICD-10. Results. 3070 adults enrolled for care in the endocrine outpatient service between 2011 and 2015. This comprised 2056 females and 1014 males (female : male ratio of 2.0 : 1.0) with an overall median age of 54 (IQR, 41–64) years. The commonest primary endocrine disorders seen were diabetes, thyroid, and adrenal disorders at frequencies of 79.1%, 13.1%, and 2.2%, respectively. Conclusions. Type 2 diabetes and thyroid disorders represent by far the two commonest disorders seen at the endocrine clinic. The increased frequency and wide spectrum of endocrine disorders suggest the need for well-trained endocrinologists to improve the health of the population. PMID:28326101

  8. Endocrine manifestations in celiac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Hugh James

    2016-10-14

    Celiac disease (CD) is an autoimmune small intestinal mucosal disorder that often presents with diarrhea, malabsorption and weight loss. Often, one or more associated endocrine disorders may be associated with CD. For this review, methods involved an extensive review of published English-language materials. In children and adolescents, prospective studies have demonstrated a significant relationship to insulin-dependent or type 1 diabetes, whereas in adults, autoimmune forms of thyroid disease, particularly hypothyroidism, may commonly co-exist. In some with CD, multiple glandular endocrinopathies may also occur and complicate the initial presentation of the intestinal disease. In others presenting with an apparent isolated endocrine disorder, serological screening for underlying subclinical CD may prove to be positive, particularly if type 1 diabetes, autoimmune thyroid or other autoimmune endocrine diseases, such as Addison's disease are first detected. A number of reports have also recorded hypoparathyroidism or hypopituitarism or ovarian failure in CD and these may be improved with a strict gluten-free diet.

  9. [Contamination, endocrine disruptors and cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvelo, Francisco; Sojo, Felipe; Cotte, Carlos

    2016-03-01

    Since the mid-twentieth century, many species, very different from each other and located in all areas and comers of the planet, began presenting various alterations, many of which suggested to be related to endocrine disorders. Research has shown that such alterations were caused by exposure to various chemical contaminants that could affect the health and cause serious illnesses. Among them stands a diverse and large group of compounds, with very different chemical structures, capable of altering the hormonal balance, act at very low doses and with different mechanisms of action, that are called "endocrine disrupting chemicals". When released into the environment or as part of objects, food or medicines, constitute a major risk to animals and humans, which produces not only endocrine dysfunctions but also different cancers, which include the most common types. Despite the importance and significance of the impact of these compounds, they are not sufficiently known or understood, so the aim of this review is to show their origin and impact in the field of human health, highlighting their role as inducers of cancer, which has led to multiple clinical and biological investigations.

  10. Endocrine responses and examination anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, J; Moore, G F; de la Riva, C; Watts, F N

    1986-06-01

    Endocrine and psychological function (measuring both affect and attitudes to study) were studied in 38 male medical students 4 weeks and 1-2 h before a major examination. Anxiety (or tension) and emotionality increased just before the examination, as did the 'denial' subscale of a 'coping' questionnaire. Serum cortisol and prolactin increased; serum testosterone and LH were unchanged. Both urinary noradrenaline and adrenaline were elevated. Increased cortisol correlated with increased prolactin across subjects; so, too, did levels of urinary noradrenaline and adrenaline, but the two sets of endocrine responses were not correlated with each other. Several of the trait scales predicted the endocrine response to the examination. The 'lie' scale of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire correlated negatively with changes in both cortisol and prolactin, as did 'debilitating' anxiety, as defined by the Alpert-Haber scale. However, although there were no significant correlations between changes in hormone levels and those in any of the state scales, there was some relation between absolute hormone levels on the day of the examination. Measures of academic strategies or psychological responses to examinations do not predict the nature of the considerable hormonal response which occurs in this homogeneous set of high-achieving students.

  11. Respiratory manifestations in endocrine diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lencu, Codruţa; Alexescu, Teodora; Petrulea, Mirela; Lencu, Monica

    2016-01-01

    The control mechanisms of respiration as a vital function are complex: voluntary - cortical, and involuntary - metabolic, neural, emotional and endocrine. Hormones and hypothalamic neuropeptides (that act as neurotrasmitters and neuromodulators in the central nervous system) play a role in the regulation of respiration and in bronchopulmonary morphology. This article presents respiratory manifestations in adult endocrine diseases that evolve with hormone deficit or hypersecretion. In hyperthyroidism, patients develop ventilation disorders, obstructive and central sleep apnea, and pleural collection. The respiratory abnormalities in hyperthyroidism as a result of the hypermetabolic action of thyroid hormones are hyperventilation, myopathy and cardiovascular involvement; recent studies have reported pulmonary arterial hypertension in Graves' disease, as a result of the association of several mechanisms. Thyroid hypertrophy can induce through compression of the upper airways dyspnea, stridor, wheezing and cough. The respiratory disorders in acromegaly are ventilatory dysfunction and sleep apnea, which contribute to an unfavorable evolution of the disease. Respiratory changes in parathyroid, adrenal and reproductive system diseases have been described. Respiratory disorders should be recognized, investigated and monitored by medical practitioners of various specialties (family physicians, internists, endocrinologists, pneumologists, cardiologists). They are frequently severe, causing an unfavorable evolution of the associated endocrine and respiratory disease.

  12. SLEEP APNEA IN ENDOCRINE DISORDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Misnikova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years, an association between sleep apnea and a  number of endocrine diseases has been established. The secretion of many hormones after falling asleep is considerably changed, compared to the period of wakefulness. In patients with endocrine disorders, abnormal hormonal secretion and its pathological consequences may contribute to sleep apnea. Sleep fragmentation and intermittent hypoxia arising in sleep apnea result in a decrease in insulin sensitivity, which contributes to the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The prevalence of sleep apnea increases in acromegaly, which may affect the risk of cardio-pulmonary complications. There is an association between sleep apnea and testosterone treatment in men, as well as in postmenopausal women. Sleep apnea in hypothyroidism is most frequently related to the development of hypothyroidism per se and can therefore be reversed with thyroid hormone replacement therapy. Timely detection and treatment of sleep apnea in patients with endocrine disorders can improve their survival prognosis and quality of life.

  13. PET imaging in endocrine tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, S; Lloyd, C; Szyszko, T; Win, Z; Rubello, D; Al-Nahhas, A

    2008-06-01

    The role of PET in the assessment of endocrine tumours has been, until recently, restricted to the use of (18)F-fluoro-deoxy-D-glucose ((18)F-FDG). Being a marker of metabolically active lesions that show high grading and low differentiation, FDG is not ideal for this purpose since the majority of endocrine tumours are slow growing and highly differentiated. It is however useful when dedifferentiation takes place and provides excellent prognostic information. A number of hormone precursors and amino acids are labelled with (11)C and used successfully in the management of parathyroid, adrenal and pituitary tumours. However, the short half-life of (11)C radiopharmaceuticals restricts their use to centres with access to an on-site cyclotron, while the high cost of production may limit their use to research purposes. A promising new positron-emission tomography (PET) tracer is Gallium-68 obtained by elution from a long shelf-life generator that makes it economic and cyclotron-independent. Its short half-life and flexible labelling ability to a wide range of peptides and antibodies makes it ideal for PET imaging. In addition to imaging GEP-NETs and phaeochromocytoma, it has the potential to be used in a wider range of endocrine tumours.

  14. Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization for MDM2 Amplification as a Routine Ancillary Diagnostic Tool for Suspected Well-Differentiated and Dedifferentiated Liposarcomas: Experience at a Tertiary Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khin Thway

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The assessment of MDM2 gene amplification by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH has become a routine ancillary tool for diagnosing atypical lipomatous tumor (ALT/well-differentiated liposarcoma and dedifferentiated liposarcoma (WDL/DDL in specialist sarcoma units. We describe our experience of its utility at our tertiary institute. Methods. All routine histology samples in which MDM2 amplification was assessed with FISH over a 2-year period were included, and FISH results were correlated with clinical and histologic findings. Results. 365 samples from 347 patients had FISH for MDM2 gene amplification. 170 were positive (i.e., showed MDM2 gene amplification, 192 were negative, and 3 were technically unsatisfactory. There were 122 histologically benign cases showing a histology:FISH concordance rate of 92.6%, 142 WDL/DDL (concordance 96.5%, and 34 cases histologically equivocal for WDL (concordance 50%. Of 64 spindle cell/pleomorphic neoplasms (in which DDL was a differential diagnosis, 21.9% showed MDM2 amplification. Of the cases with discrepant histology and FISH, all but 3 had diagnoses amended following FISH results. For discrepancies of benign histology but positive FISH, lesions were on average larger, more frequently in “classical” (intra-abdominal or inguinal sites for WDL/DDL and more frequently core biopsies. Discrepancies of malignant histology but negative FISH were smaller, less frequently in “classical” sites but again more frequently core biopsies. Conclusions. FISH has a high correlation rate with histology for cases with firm histologic diagnoses of lipoma or WDL/DDL. It is a useful ancillary diagnostic tool in histologically equivocal cases, particularly in WDL lacking significant histologic atypia or DDL without corresponding WDL component, especially in larger tumors, those from intra-abdominal or inguinal sites or core biopsies. There is a significant group of well-differentiated adipocytic neoplasms

  15. Comparison between {sup 68}Ga-DOTA-NOC and {sup 18}F-DOPA PET for the detection of gastro-entero-pancreatic and lung neuro-endocrine tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrosini, Valentina; Tomassetti, Paola; Castellucci, Paolo; Campana, Davide; Montini, Giancarlo; Rubello, Domenico; Nanni, Cristina; Rizzello, Anna; Franchi, Roberto; Fanti, Stefano [Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria di Bologna, Policlinico S.Orsola-Malpighi, Unita Operativa di Medicina Nucleare, Bologna (Italy); Policlinico S.Orsola-Malpighi, Unita Operativa di Medicina Internal, Bologna (Italy)

    2008-08-15

    {sup 18}F-FDG positron emission tomography (PET) value for the assessment of neuro-endocrine tumours (NET) is limited. Preliminary studies indicate that {sup 18}F-DOPA and {sup 68}Ga-DOTA-NOC are more accurate for disease assessment and {sup 68}Ga-DOTA peptides provide additional data on receptor status that are crucial for targeted radionuclide therapy. At present, there are no comparative studies investigating their role in NET. The aim of this study was to compare {sup 68}Ga-DOTA-NOC and {sup 18}F-DOPA for the evaluation of gastro-entero-pancreatic and lung neuro-endocrine tumours. Thirteen patients with biopsy-proven NET (gastro-entero-pancreatic or pulmonary) were prospectively enrolled and scheduled for {sup 18}F-DOPA and {sup 68}Ga-DOTA-NOC PET. PET results obtained with both tracers were compared with each other, with other conventional diagnostic procedures (CT, ultrasound) and with follow-up (clinical, imaging). The most common primary tumour site was the pancreas (8/13) followed by the ileum (2/13), the lung (2/13) and the duodenum (1/13). The carcinoma was well differentiated in 10/13 and poorly differentiated in 3/13 cases. {sup 68}Ga-DOTA-NOC PET was positive, showing at least one lesion, in 13/13 cases while {sup 18}F-DOPA PET was positive in 9/13. On a lesions basis, {sup 68}Ga-DOTA-NOC identified more lesions than {sup 18}F-DOPA (71 vs 45), especially at liver, lung and lymph node level. {sup 68}Ga-DOTA-NOC correctly identified the primary site in six of eight non-operated cases (in five cases, the primary was surgically removed before PET), while {sup 18}F-DOPA identified the primary only in two of eight cases. Although the patients studied are few and heterogeneous, our data show that {sup 68}Ga-DOTA-NOC is accurate for the detection of gastro-entero-pancreatic and lung neuro-endocrine tumours in either the primary or metastatic site and that it offers several advantages over {sup 18}F-DOPA. (orig.)

  16. Parotid carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kristine Bjørndal; Godballe, Christian; de Stricker, Karin;

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Our aim is to investigate the expression of kit protein (KIT) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in parotid carcinomas in order to correlate the expression to histology and prognosis. Further we want to perform mutation analysis of KIT-positive adenoid cystic carcinomas....... PATIENTS AND METHODS: Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded sections from 73 patients with parotid gland carcinomas were used for the study. The sections were stained with both KIT and EGFR polyclonal antibodies. Twelve KIT-positive adenoid cystic carcinomas were examined for c-kit mutation in codon 816....... RESULTS: Of all carcinomas 25% were KIT-positive and 79% were EGFR-positive. Ninety-two percentage of the adenoid cystic carcinomas were KIT-positive. None of the adenoid cystic carcinomas had mutations in codon 816 of the c-kit gene. CONCLUSION: Neither KIT- nor EGFR-expression seem to harbour...

  17. Review of endocrine disorders associated with environmental toxicants and possible involved mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maqbool, Faheem; Mostafalou, Sara; Bahadar, Haji; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2016-01-15

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC) are released into environment from different sources. They are mainly used in packaging industries, pesticides and food constituents. Clinical evidence, experimental models, and epidemiological studies suggest that EDC have major risks for human by targeting different organs and systems in the body. Multiple mechanisms are involved in targeting the normal system, through estrogen receptors, nuclear receptors and steroidal receptors activation. In this review, different methods by which xenobiotics stimulate signaling pathways and genetic mutation or DNA methylation have been discussed. These methods help to understand the results of xenobiotic action on the endocrine system. Endocrine disturbances in the human body result in breast cancer, ovarian problems, thyroid eruptions, testicular carcinoma, Alzheimer disease, schizophrenia, nerve damage and obesity. EDC characterize a wide class of compounds such as organochlorinated pesticides, industrial wastes, plastics and plasticizers, fuels and numerous other elements that exist in the environment or are in high use during daily life. The interactions and mechanism of toxicity in relation to human general health problems, especially endocrine disturbances with particular reference to reproductive problems, diabetes, and breast, testicular and ovarian cancers should be deeply investigated. There should also be a focus on public awareness of these EDC risks and their use in routine life. Therefore, the aim of this review is to summarize all evidence regarding different physiological disruptions in the body and possible involved mechanisms, to prove the association between endocrine disruptions and human diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. [Arterial hypertension secondary to endocrine disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minder, Anna; Zulewski, Henryk

    2015-06-01

    Endocrine hypertension offers a potentially curative therapy if the underlying cause is identified and treated accordingly. In contrast to the high prevalence of arterial hypertension especially in the elderly, the classical endocrine causes remain a rare entity. Among patients with arterial hypertension the prevalence of Cushing's syndrome or pheochromocytoma is less than 1%. Primary hyperaldosteronism is more frequent with a reported prevalence of up to 9%. In order to avoid unnecessary, costly and potentially harmful evaluations and therapies due to the limited sensitivity and specificity of the critical endocrine tests it is mandatory to limit the exploration for endocrine causes to preselected patients with high pretest probability for an endocrine disorder. Younger age at manifestation of arterial hypertension or drug resistant hypertension together with other clinical signs of an endocrine disorder should raise the suspicion and prompt the appropriate evaluation.

  19. [Endocrine abnormalities in HIV-infected patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krysiak, Robert; Kedzia, Agnieszka; Krupej-Kedzierska, Joanna; Okopień, Bogusław

    2013-01-01

    HIV infection is associated with a number of adverse consequences, including endocrine disorders. The endocrine changes associated with HIV infection have been studied in depth and, as the results of so far carried out studies suggest, their aetiology is usually multifactoral. Their pathogenesis includes direct infection of endocrine glands by HIV or opportunistic organisms, infiltration by neoplasms and adverse effects of drugs. Endocrine problems that most frequently affect this group of patients include: hypogonadism, adrenal insufficiency, thyroid disorders, impaired growth hormone release, lipodystrophy and bone loss. They may develop in both the early as well as late stages of the infection, ranging from subclinical disturbances to overt endocrine symptoms. The purpose of this paper is to review the aetiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis and treatment of HIV-associated endocrine disturbances with a special emphasis on the most recent literature.

  20. Functional ectopic adrenal carcinoma in a dog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jim A.; Lee, Maris S.; Nicholson, Matthew E.; Justin, Robert B.

    2014-01-01

    An 11-year-old spayed female pit bull terrier was presented with a 2-month history of polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia, and panting. Serum chemistry, blood and urine analysis, and tests for hyperadrenocorticism suggested an adrenal tumor. Abdominal ultrasound identified a mass caudal to the right kidney. The mass was completely excised and histopathology was consistent with endocrine carcinoma. Three years later there was no evidence of recurrence or metastasis. PMID:25183891

  1. A resected case of neuroendocrine carcinoma of the stomach with unusual lymph node metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, Jun; Shinozaki, Koji; Baba, Shinji; Kurogi, Junichi; Nakane, Tomoyuki; Kinoshita, Yoshihiro; Ishii, Kunihide; Ueno, Takato; Torimura, Takuji; Yano, Hirohisa

    2016-03-01

    Gastric endocrine cell carcinoma is a relatively rare tumor. We experienced a case of early gastric cancer in which an endocrine cell carcinoma was identified within a differentiated adenocarcinoma, and a component of this endocrine cell carcinoma had metastasized to lymph nodes of the stomach. In its 2010 revision regarding digestive system tumors, WHO classified cancer cells with characteristics of both glandular system cells and neuroendocrine cells as mixed adeno neuroendocrine carcinoma (MANEC) under the neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC) category. In this case, we observed an endocrine cell carcinoma continuous with an intramucosal differentiated adenocarcinoma, and cancer cells with an irregular gland duct structure were observed in the proliferative portion of the submucosal tissue. In addition, there was a 35 mm size lymph node metastasis in the lesser curvature of the stomach consisting entirely of poorly differentiated cancer cells with polymorphic, highly atypical nuclei and scant cytoplasm. Immunohistological analysis showed that the endocrine carcinoma in the gastric mucosa was chromogranin A positive and the infiltrated area of the submucosal tissue was also chromogranin A positive. The lymph node metastasis was positive not only for chromogranin A, but also for Synaptophysin and CD56. Furthermore, the Ki67 labeling index was high at approximately 80 % for the gastric endocrine cell carcinoma and approximately 90 % for the lymph node metastases. Until now, there are no reports related to the patients with early gastric cancer accompanied with lymph node metastasis of MANEC. This case is very interested in considering the mechanism of lymph node metastasis of MANEC. The patient has shown no sign of recurrence for 1 year and 4 months after postoperative chemotherapy.

  2. Manufacturing doubt about endocrine disrupter science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergman, Åke; Becher, Georg; Blumberg, Bruce;

    2015-01-01

    We present a detailed response to the critique of "State of the Science of Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals 2012" (UNEP/WHO, 2013) by financial stakeholders, authored by Lamb et al. (2014). Lamb et al.'s claim that UNEP/WHO (2013) does not provide a balanced perspective on endocrine disruption...... not intimately familiar with the topic of endocrine disruption and therefore susceptible to false generalizations of bias and subjectivity....

  3. Update on endocrine disturbances in anorexia nervosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støving, R K; Hangaard, J; Hagen, C

    2001-01-01

    The marked endocrine changes that occur in anorexia nervosa have aroused a great deal of interest, and over the last decade much research has been conducted in this field. The endocrine disturbances are not specific to this disorder, as they also occur in starvation states secondary to other causes...... of the large body of literature concerning endocrine aspects of anorexia nervosa with the main focus on the latest results, which provide leads for potential etiological theories....

  4. Update on endocrine disturbances in anorexia nervosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støving, R K; Hangaard, J; Hagen, C

    2001-01-01

    The marked endocrine changes that occur in anorexia nervosa have aroused a great deal of interest, and over the last decade much research has been conducted in this field. The endocrine disturbances are not specific to this disorder, as they also occur in starvation states secondary to other causes...... of the large body of literature concerning endocrine aspects of anorexia nervosa with the main focus on the latest results, which provide leads for potential etiological theories....

  5. Environmental Epigenetics: A Role in Endocrine Disease?

    OpenAIRE

    Fleisch, Abby F.; Wright, Robert O.; Baccarelli, Andrea A.

    2012-01-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals that are structurally similar to steroid or amine hormones have the potential to mimic endocrine endpoints at the receptor level. However, more recently, epigenetic-induced alteration in gene expression has emerged as an alternative way in which environmental compounds may exert endocrine effects. We review concepts related to environmental epigenetics and relevance for endocrinology through three broad examples, 1) effect of early-life nutritional exposures on ...

  6. Effect of Endocrine Disruptor Pesticides: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Benoit Roig; Olivier Thomas; Aghleb Bartegi; Wissem Mnif; Aicha Bouaziz; Aziza Ibn Hadj Hassine

    2011-01-01

    International audience; Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC) are compounds that alter the normal functioning of the endocrine system of both wildlife and humans. A huge number of chemicals have been identified as endocrine disruptors, among them several pesticides. Pesticides are used to kill unwanted organisms in crops, public areas, homes and gardens, and parasites in medicine. Human are exposed to pesticides due to their occupations or through dietary and environmental exposure (water, soi...

  7. [Disperse endocrine system and APUD concept].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mil'to, I V; Sukhodolo, I V; Gereng, E A; Shamardina, L A

    2011-01-01

    This review describes the problems of disperse endocrine system and APUD-system morphology, summarizes some debatable issues of single endocrine cell biology. The data presented refer to the history of both systems discovery, morphological methods of their study, developmental sources, their structural organization and physiological roles of their cells. The significance of single endocrine cells in the regulation of the organism functions is discussed.

  8. Genetics Home Reference: multiple endocrine neoplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tumor Encyclopedia: Pheochromocytoma Encyclopedia: Pituitary Tumor Health Topic: Endocrine Diseases Health Topic: Parathyroid Disorders Health Topic: Pheochromocytoma Health Topic: Thyroid Cancer Genetic ...

  9. Effect of Endocrine Disruptor Pesticides: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoit Roig

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC are compounds that alter the normal functioning of the endocrine system of both wildlife and humans. A huge number of chemicals have been identified as endocrine disruptors, among them several pesticides. Pesticides are used to kill unwanted organisms in crops, public areas, homes and gardens, and parasites in medicine. Human are exposed to pesticides due to their occupations or through dietary and environmental exposure (water, soil, air. For several years, there have been enquiries about the impact of environmental factors on the occurrence of human pathologies. This paper reviews the current knowledge of the potential impacts of endocrine disruptor pesticides on human health.

  10. Effect of endocrine disruptor pesticides: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mnif, Wissem; Hassine, Aziza Ibn Hadj; Bouaziz, Aicha; Bartegi, Aghleb; Thomas, Olivier; Roig, Benoit

    2011-06-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC) are compounds that alter the normal functioning of the endocrine system of both wildlife and humans. A huge number of chemicals have been identified as endocrine disruptors, among them several pesticides. Pesticides are used to kill unwanted organisms in crops, public areas, homes and gardens, and parasites in medicine. Human are exposed to pesticides due to their occupations or through dietary and environmental exposure (water, soil, air). For several years, there have been enquiries about the impact of environmental factors on the occurrence of human pathologies. This paper reviews the current knowledge of the potential impacts of endocrine disruptor pesticides on human health.

  11. Effect of Endocrine Disruptor Pesticides: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mnif, Wissem; Hassine, Aziza Ibn Hadj; Bouaziz, Aicha; Bartegi, Aghleb; Thomas, Olivier; Roig, Benoit

    2011-01-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC) are compounds that alter the normal functioning of the endocrine system of both wildlife and humans. A huge number of chemicals have been identified as endocrine disruptors, among them several pesticides. Pesticides are used to kill unwanted organisms in crops, public areas, homes and gardens, and parasites in medicine. Human are exposed to pesticides due to their occupations or through dietary and environmental exposure (water, soil, air). For several years, there have been enquiries about the impact of environmental factors on the occurrence of human pathologies. This paper reviews the current knowledge of the potential impacts of endocrine disruptor pesticides on human health. PMID:21776230

  12. Altered mental status and endocrine diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Elizabeth; Abraham, Michael K

    2014-05-01

    Although the altered mental status is a common presentation in the emergency department, altered mental status caused by endocrine emergencies is rare. The altered patient could have an endocrine cause that can quickly improve with appropriate diagnosis and interventions. When dealing with limited information and an obtunded patient, it is important to have a broad differential diagnosis, pick up on the physical examination findings, and evaluate laboratory abnormalities that could suggest an underlying endocrine emergency. This article outlines the findings and provides a description of altered patients with endocrine emergencies to facilitate the diagnosis and treatment in the emergency department.

  13. Expression and clinical significance of ghrelin in endometrial hyperplasia and carcinoma of Egyptian patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younes, Sheren Fouad; Aiad, Hayam; Kandil, Mona; El Kalashy, Fatma Samir

    2015-05-01

    Endometrial carcinoma ranks the seventh most common malignant tumor worldwide. The distinction between atypical endometrial hyperplasia (AEH) and endometrial carcinoma, especially the well-differentiated grade, is particularly difficult with overlapping distinguishing criteria and small biopsy. Ghrelin is 28 amino acid peptide that is synthesized by gastric mucosa and is expressed in a variety of normal and tumor tissues. In endometrial tissue, it is expressed during the menstrual cycle, involved in the uterine development and cyclic growth. Data regarding role of Ghrelin in endometrial carcinoma are contradictory. In the present study, immunohistochemical expression of Ghrelin was evaluated in 55 endometrioid carcinoma cases, as well as 26 endometrial hyperplasia cases. The relationship between Ghrelin expression and clinicopathologic features of endometrioid carcinoma was studied as well. Ghrelin loss or reduced expression was significantly related to endometrioid carcinoma, especially the well-differentiated type, compared with AEH and EIN (p = 0.000 and 0.006, respectively). Ghrelin loss was also related to poorly differentiated histologic grades of endometrioid carcinoma (p = 0.04). Ghrelin loss is helpful in differentiation between AEH and EIN from endometrioid adenocarcinoma, especially the well-differentiated grade. It could be also related to poor differentiation.

  14. Endocrine mechanisms of intrauterine programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowden, A L; Forhead, A J

    2004-05-01

    Epidemiological findings and experimental studies in animals have shown that individual tissues and whole organ systems can be programmed in utero during critical periods of development with adverse consequences for their function in later life. Detailed morphometric analyses of the data have shown that certain patterns of intrauterine growth, particularly growth retardation, can be related to specific postnatal outcomes. Since hormones regulate fetal growth and the development of individual fetal tissues, they have a central role in intrauterine programming. Hormones such as insulin, insulin-like growth factors, thyroxine and the glucocorticoids act as nutritional and maturational signals and adapt fetal development to prevailing intrauterine conditions, thereby maximizing the chances of survival both in utero and at birth. However, these adaptations may have long-term sequelae. Of the hormones known to control fetal development, it is the glucocorticoids that are most likely to cause tissue programming in utero. They are growth inhibitory and affect the development of all the tissues and organ systems most at risk of postnatal pathophysiology when fetal growth is impaired. Their concentrations in utero are also elevated by all the nutritional and other challenges known to have programming effects. Glucocorticoids act at cellular and molecular levels to alter cell function by changing the expression of receptors, enzymes, ion channels and transporters. They also alter various growth factors, cytoarchitectural proteins, binding proteins and components of the intracellular signalling pathways. Glucocorticoids act, directly, on genes and, indirectly, through changes in the bioavailability of other hormones. These glucocorticoid-induced endocrine changes may be transient or persist into postnatal life with consequences for tissue growth and development both before and after birth. In the long term, prenatal glucocorticoid exposure can permanently reset endocrine

  15. Genetic alterations in poorly differentiated and undifferentiated thyroid carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Paula; Lima, Jorge; Preto, Ana; Castro, Patricia; Vinagre, João; Celestino, Ricardo; Couto, Joana P; Prazeres, Hugo; Eloy, Catarina; Máximo, Valdemar; Sobrinho-Simões, M

    2011-12-01

    Thyroid gland presents a wide spectrum of tumours derived from follicular cells that range from well differentiated, papillary and follicular carcinoma (PTC and FTC, respectively), usually carrying a good prognosis, to the clinically aggressive, poorly differentiated (PDTC) and undifferentiated thyroid carcinoma (UTC).It is usually accepted that PDTC and UTC occur either de novo or progress from a pre-existing well differentiated carcinoma through a multistep process of genetic and epigenetic changes that lead to clonal expansion and neoplastic development. Mutations and epigenetic alterations in PDTC and UTC are far from being totally clarified. Assuming that PDTC and UTC may derive from well differentiated thyroid carcinomas (WDTC), it is expected that some PDTC and UTC would harbour genetic alterations that are typical of PTC and FTC. This is the case for some molecular markers (BRAF and NRAS) that are present in WDTC, PDTC and UTC. Other genes, namely P53, are almost exclusively detected in less differentiated and undifferentiated thyroid tumours, supporting a diagnosis of PDTC or, much more often, UTC. Thyroid-specific rearrangements RET/PTC and PAX8/PPARγ, on the other hand, are rarely found in PDTC and UTC, suggesting that these genetic alterations do not predispose cells to dedifferentiation. In the present review we have summarized the molecular changes associated with the two most aggressive types of thyroid cancer.

  16. Genetic Alterations in Poorly Differentiated and Undifferentiated Thyroid Carcinomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Paula; Lima, Jorge; Preto, Ana; Castro, Patricia; Vinagre, João; Celestino, Ricardo; Couto, Joana P; Prazeres, Hugo; Eloy, Catarina; Máximo, Valdemar; Sobrinho-Simões, M

    2011-01-01

    Thyroid gland presents a wide spectrum of tumours derived from follicular cells that range from well differentiated, papillary and follicular carcinoma (PTC and FTC, respectively), usually carrying a good prognosis, to the clinically aggressive, poorly differentiated (PDTC) and undifferentiated thyroid carcinoma (UTC). It is usually accepted that PDTC and UTC occur either de novo or progress from a pre-existing well differentiated carcinoma through a multistep process of genetic and epigenetic changes that lead to clonal expansion and neoplastic development. Mutations and epigenetic alterations in PDTC and UTC are far from being totally clarified. Assuming that PDTC and UTC may derive from well differentiated thyroid carcinomas (WDTC), it is expected that some PDTC and UTC would harbour genetic alterations that are typical of PTC and FTC. This is the case for some molecular markers (BRAF and NRAS) that are present in WDTC, PDTC and UTC. Other genes, namely P53, are almost exclusively detected in less differentiated and undifferentiated thyroid tumours, supporting a diagnosis of PDTC or, much more often, UTC. Thyroid-specific rearrangements RET/PTC and PAX8/PPARγ, on the other hand, are rarely found in PDTC and UTC, suggesting that these genetic alterations do not predispose cells to dedifferentiation. In the present review we have summarized the molecular changes associated with the two most aggressive types of thyroid cancer. PMID:22654560

  17. Therapeutics for Equine Endocrine Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, Andy E

    2017-04-01

    Equine endocrine disease is commonly encountered by equine practitioners. Pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (PPID) and equine metabolic syndrome (EMS) predominate. The most logical therapeutic approach in PPID uses dopamine agonists; pergolide mesylate is the most common. Bromocryptine and cabergoline are alternative drugs with similar actions. Drugs from other classes have a poor evidence basis, although cyproheptadine and trilostane might be considered. EMS requires management changes as the primary approach; reasonable justification for use of drugs such as levothyroxine and metformin may apply. Therapeutic options exist in rare cases of diabetes mellitus, diabetes insipidus, hyperthyroidism, and critical illness-related corticosteroid insufficiency. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Immunohistochemical and oncogenetic analyses of the esophageal basaloid squamous cell carcinoma in comparison with conventional squamous cell carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamhasan, Abdukadir; Mitomi, Hiroyuki; Saito, Tsuyoshi; Hayashi, Takuo; Takahashi, Michiko; Kajiyama, Yoshiaki; Yao, Takashi

    2012-11-01

    Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus is a rare variant of squamous cell carcinoma. We reviewed 878 cases of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and detected 22 cases (3%) of basaloid squamous cell carcinoma. These tumors and stage-matched paired conventional squamous cell carcinomas were investigated for clinicopathologic features and immunoreactivity of cytokeratin subtypes, p53, B-cell lymphoma 2 (bcl-2), β-catenin, and epidermal growth factor receptor. Molecular aberrations in p53, CTNNB1 (the gene encoding β-catenin), and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) were also determined. Patients with basaloid squamous cell carcinomas demonstrated a 5-year survival rate of 42%, significantly worse than those with well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma (Pcarcinomas, the basaloid squamous cell carcinomas were less immunoreactive for cytokeratin 14, cytokeratin 903, and membranous β-catenin (Pcarcinomas, low-level expression of cytokeratin 14/cytokeratin 903 and mutations of p53 and EGFR had a significant influence on worse survival (Pcarcinoma, a neoplasm with particularly aggressive biologic behavior, should be differentiated from conventional squamous cell carcinomas. In this context, immunohistochemical assessment of several markers might provide a useful adjunct diagnostic tool. Aberrations of p53 and epidermal growth factor receptor genes are possibly involved in progression of esophageal basaloid squamous cell carcinoma.

  19. The diffuse endocrine system: from embryogenesis to carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montuenga, Luis M; Guembe, Laura; Burrell, M Angela; Bodegas, M Elena; Calvo, Alfonso; Sola, Jesús J; Sesma, Pilar; Villaro, Ana C

    2003-01-01

    In the present review we will summarise the current knowledge about the cells comprising the Diffuse Endocrine System (DES) in mammalian organs. We will describe the morphological, histochemical and functional traits of these cells in three major systems gastrointestinal, respiratory and prostatic. We will also focus on some aspects of their ontogeny and differentiation, as well as to their relevance in carcinogenesis, especially in neuroendocrine tumors. The first chapter describes the characteristics of DES cells and some of their specific biological and biochemical traits. The second chapter deals with DES in the gastrointestinal organs, with special reference to the new data on the differentiation mechanisms that leads to the appearance of endocrine cells from an undifferentiated stem cell. The third chapter is devoted to DES of the respiratory system and some aspects of its biological role, both, during development and adulthood. Neuroendocrine hyperplasia and neuroendocrine lung tumors are also addressed. Finally, the last chapter deals with the prostatic DES, discussing its probable functional role and its relevance in hormone-resistant prostatic carcinomas.

  20. Endocrine effects of Fukushima: Radiation-induced endocrinopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niazi, Asfandyar Khan; Niazi, Shaharyar Khan

    2011-01-01

    The unfortunate accidents of Chernobyl and Fukushima have led to an enormous amount of radioactive material being released into the atmosphere. Radiation exposure to the human body may be as a result of accidents, such as those in Chernobyl and Fukushima, or due to occupational hazards, such as in the employees of nuclear plants, or due to therapeutic or diagnostic procedures. These different sources of radiations may affect the human body as a whole or may cause localized damage to a certain area of the body, depending upon the extent and dosage of the irradiation. More or less every organ is affected by radiation exposure. Some require a higher dose to be affected while others may be affected at a lower dose. All the endocrine glands are susceptible to damage by radiation exposure; however, pituitary, thyroid and gonads are most likely to be affected. In addition to the endocrine effects, the rates of birth defects and carcinomas may also be increased in the population exposed to excessive radiation. PMID:21731864

  1. Endocrine effects of Fukushima: Radiation-induced endocrinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niazi, Asfandyar Khan; Niazi, Shaharyar Khan

    2011-04-01

    The unfortunate accidents of Chernobyl and Fukushima have led to an enormous amount of radioactive material being released into the atmosphere. Radiation exposure to the human body may be as a result of accidents, such as those in Chernobyl and Fukushima, or due to occupational hazards, such as in the employees of nuclear plants, or due to therapeutic or diagnostic procedures. These different sources of radiations may affect the human body as a whole or may cause localized damage to a certain area of the body, depending upon the extent and dosage of the irradiation. More or less every organ is affected by radiation exposure. Some require a higher dose to be affected while others may be affected at a lower dose. All the endocrine glands are susceptible to damage by radiation exposure; however, pituitary, thyroid and gonads are most likely to be affected. In addition to the endocrine effects, the rates of birth defects and carcinomas may also be increased in the population exposed to excessive radiation.

  2. Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R V Thakker

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1 is characterized by the occurrence of parathyroid, pancreatic islet and anterior pituitary tumors. Some patients may also develop carcinoid tumors, adrenocortical tumors, facial angiofibromas, collagenomas, and lipomas. MEN1 is an autosomal-dominant disorder, due to mutations in the tumor suppressor gene MEN1, which encodes a 610 amino acid protein, menin. Thus, the finding of MEN1 in a patient has important implications for family members because first-degree relatives have a 50% risk of developing the disease and can often be identified by MEN1 mutational analysis. Patients with MEN1 have a decreased life-expectancy and the outcomes of current treatments, which are generally similar to that for the respective tumors occurring in non-MEN1 patients, are not as successful because of multiple tumors, which may be larger, more aggressive, and resistant to treatment, and the concurrence of metastases. The prognosis for MEN1 patients might be improved by pre-symptomatic tumor detection and undertaking treatment specific for MEN1-tumors. Thus, it is recommended that MEN1 patients and their families should be cared for by multi-disciplinary teams comprising relevant specialists with experience in the diagnosis and treatment of patients with endocrine tumors.

  3. Endocrine tumors of the pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meko, J B; Norton, J A

    1994-01-01

    Pancreatic endocrine tumors are rare, yet can cause significant morbidity due to excessive secretion of hormones. Octreotide is effective in reducing the plasma concentrations of many of these hormones. The availability of potent H2-receptor antagonists and omeprazole has altered the emphasis in patients with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome away from total gastrectomy and towards resection of the gastrinoma for potential cure. Fifty percent of insulinomas and gastrinomas are not evident on preoperative imaging studies, despite their sophistication. Calcium angiography, endoscopic ultrasonography, isotope-labeled octreotide scanning, and injection of methylene blue during secretin angiography are recent imaging modalities that have shown promise in the localization of these tumors. Intraoperative ultrasound has emerged as the best method for operative detection of insulinomas. Duodenotomy and intraoperative endoscopic transillumination are especially important in the surgical management of Zollinger-Ellison syndrome because 30% to 40% of gastrinomas are located in the duodenum. The management of patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 and Zollinger-Ellison syndrome continues to be controversial. Some advocate an aggressive surgical approach, whereas others have had little success in rendering patients eugastrinemic.

  4. Neuroimmune endocrine effects of antidepressants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonioli M

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Marco Antonioli, Joanna Rybka, LA CarvalhoPsychoimmunology Translational Laboratory, Health Science Research Centre, Roehampton University, London, UKAbstract: Antidepressant pharmacotherapy is to date the most often used treatment for depression, but the exact mechanism of action underlying its therapeutic effect is still unclear. Many theories have been put forward to account for depression, as well as antidepressant activity, but none of them is exhaustive. Neuroimmune endocrine impairment is found in depressed patients; high levels of circulating corticosteroids along with hyperactivation of the immune system, high levels of proinflammatory cytokines, low levels of melatonin in plasma and urine, and disentrainment of circadian rhythms have been demonstrated. Moreover, antidepressant treatment seems to correct or at least to interfere with these alterations. In this review, we summarize the complex neuroimmune endocrine and chronobiological alterations found in patients with depression and how these systems interact with each other. We also explain how antidepressant therapy can modify these systems, along with some possible mechanisms of action shown in animal and human models.Keywords: antidepressant agents, biological markers, human, cytokines, neuroinflammation, psychoneuroimmunology, endophenotype

  5. Skin manifestations of endocrine and neuroendocrine tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventhal, Jonathan S; Braverman, Irwin M

    2016-06-01

    The skin signs of benign and malignant endocrine and neuroendocrine tumors are manifold and early identification of these dermatologic features is crucial in initiating timely diagnosis and management. This article reviews the salient cutaneous features of these tumors that arise in the classic endocrine glands, lung and gastrointestinal tract either as individual neoplasms or as part of a syndrome.

  6. The effects of nanomaterials as endocrine disruptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iavicoli, Ivo; Fontana, Luca; Leso, Veruscka; Bergamaschi, Antonio

    2013-08-14

    In recent years, nanoparticles have been increasingly used in several industrial, consumer and medical applications because of their unique physico-chemical properties. However, in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated that these properties are also closely associated with detrimental health effects. There is a serious lack of information on the potential nanoparticle hazard to human health, particularly on their possible toxic effects on the endocrine system. This topic is of primary importance since the disruption of endocrine functions is associated with severe adverse effects on human health. Consequently, in order to gather information on the hazardous effects of nanoparticles on endocrine organs, we reviewed the data available in the literature regarding the endocrine effects of in vitro and in vivo exposure to different types of nanoparticles. Our aim was to understand the potential endocrine disrupting risks posed by nanoparticles, to assess their underlying mechanisms of action and identify areas in which further investigation is needed in order to obtain a deeper understanding of the role of nanoparticles as endocrine disruptors. Current data support the notion that different types of nanoparticles are capable of altering the normal and physiological activity of the endocrine system. However, a critical evaluation of these findings suggests the need to interpret these results with caution since information on potential endocrine interactions and the toxicity of nanoparticles is quite limited.

  7. Manufacturing doubt about endocrine disrupter science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergman, Åke; Becher, Georg; Blumberg, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    We present a detailed response to the critique of "State of the Science of Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals 2012" (UNEP/WHO, 2013) by financial stakeholders, authored by Lamb et al. (2014). Lamb et al.'s claim that UNEP/WHO (2013) does not provide a balanced perspective on endocrine disruption is b...

  8. Tailoring endocrine treatment for early breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fontein, Duveken Berthe Yvonne

    2014-01-01

    This thesis describes several important aspects of adjuvant endocrine therapy for postmenopausal women with endocrine-sensitive, early-stage breast cancer. In our ongoing efforts to tailor treatment so as to provide the best possible care to each of our patients, we studied the influence of various

  9. Tailoring endocrine treatment for early breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fontein, Duveken Berthe Yvonne

    2014-01-01

    This thesis describes several important aspects of adjuvant endocrine therapy for postmenopausal women with endocrine-sensitive, early-stage breast cancer. In our ongoing efforts to tailor treatment so as to provide the best possible care to each of our patients, we studied the influence of various

  10. Endocrine FGFs: evolution, physiology, pathophysiology, and pharmacotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyuki eItoh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The human fibroblast growth factor (FGF family comprises 22 structurally related polypeptides that play crucial roles in neuronal functions, development, and metabolism. FGFs are classified as intracrine, paracrine, and endocrine FGFs based on their action mechanisms. Paracrine and endocrine FGFs are secreted signaling molecules by acting via cell-surface FGF receptors (FGFRs. Paracrine FGFs require heparan sulfate as a co-factor for FGFRs. In contrast, endocrine FGFs, comprising FGF19, FGF21, and FGF23, require α−Klotho or β−Klotho as a co-factor for FGFRs. Endocrine FGFs, which are specific to vertebrates, lost heparan sulfate-binding affinity and acquired a systemic signaling system with αKlotho or βKlotho during early vertebrate evolution. The phenotypes of endocrine FGF knockout mice indicate that they play roles in metabolism including bile acid, energy, and phosphate/active vitamin D metabolism. Accumulated evidence for the involvement of endocrine FGFs in human genetic and metabolic diseases also indicates their pathophysiological roles in metabolic diseases, potential risk factors for metabolic diseases, and useful biomarkers for metabolic diseases. The therapeutic utility of endocrine FGFs is currently being developed. These findings provide new insights into the physiological and pathophysiological roles of endocrine FGFs and potential diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for metabolic diseases.

  11. [Diagnosis and management of laryngeal verrucous carcinoma (case report in one patient and literature review)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Dan; Yang, Hui; Zhu, Yuanzhi; Liu, Shixi

    2013-05-01

    To investigate the clinical, pathological character and differential diagnosis of laryngeal verrucous carcinoma. Clinical data of one case with laryngeal verrucous carcinoma in our hospital were retrospectively analyzed. The diagnosis of verrucous carcinoma was difficult and depend on repeated biopsy. Verrucous carcinoma of larynx is a highly differentiated variant of squamous carcinoma that has peculiar clinical and morphological features. The basement membrane is not invaded. It is prone to distant metastasis, than to local recurrence. The case underwent the partial laryngectomy, and was followed up for more than 4 years with no recurrence. Verrucous carcinoma of the larynx is a special pattern of the well-differentiated squamous cancer. A correct diagnosis requires close cooperation between the laryngologist and the pathologist. The main treatment of verrucous carcinoma is complete surgical excision to reserve larynx function as far as possible and improve the quality of life.

  12. Genetic testing by cancer site: endocrine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilarski, Robert; Nagy, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    Numerous hereditary syndromes, caused by mutations in multiple tumor suppressor genes and oncogenes, can cause tumors in organs of the endocrine system. The primary syndromes (and genes) addressed here include multiple endocrine neoplasia types 1 and 2 (MEN1 and RET genes), Cowden syndrome (PTEN), hereditary pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma syndromes (multiple genes), and von Hippel-Lindau disease (VHL). Clinical genetic testing is available for each of these syndromes and is generally directed to individuals with endocrine or other tumors and additional features suggestive of a hereditary syndrome. However, for some endocrine tumors, the proportion because of heredity is so high that genetic testing may be appropriate for all affected individuals. Management for hereditary cases typically involves aggressive screening and/or surgical protocols, starting at young ages to minimize morbidity and mortality. Endocrine tumors can be less commonly seen in a number of other hereditary syndromes (eg, neurofibromatosis), which are not reviewed in this section.

  13. Sebaceous Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hill Medical; 2008. p. 240-9. Nelson BR, Hamlet KR, Gillard M et al. “Sebaceous carcinoma.” J ... Acad Dermatol . 2003 48:401-8. Nelson BR, Hamlet KR, Gillard M et al . “Sebaceous carcinoma.” J ...

  14. 78 FR 57859 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Endocrine Disruption Potential of Drugs: Nonclinical Evaluation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-20

    ... entitled ``Endocrine Disruption Potential of Drugs: Nonclinical Evaluation.'' Endocrine disruptors are... its progeny. Any component of the endocrine system can be a target of endocrine disruptors, although... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry on Endocrine...

  15. Epithelial carcinoma of the ovary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales, P.H. (M.D. Anderson Hospital and Tumor Inst., Houston, TX); Fayos, J.V.

    1981-12-01

    A total of 176 patients with untreated epithelial cancer of the ovary received postoperative irradiation at the Alice Crocker Lloyd Radiation Therapy Center of the University of Michigan from 1955 to 1973. Irradiation was delivered to the pelvis alone or to the pelvis and part of the abdomen, depending on the extent of the disease and the location of the residual tumor. No patient received whole abdominal irradiation. Post-irradiation chemotherapy was administered to patients with advanced disease. Twenty-six patients with Stage III disease were treated according to a protocol consisting of pre- and post-irradiation administration of chlorambucil. The overall 5-year actuarial survival rate was 42%. The 5-year survival rates for patients with Stage I through IV disease were 77%, 31%, 23%, and 0% respectively. Patients whose tumor was grossly removed at the initial surgery did better (63% 5-year survival rate) than patients whose tumor was only partially removed (26% 5-year survival rate). The pathologic grade of the tumor was a major factor determining the prognosis. The 5-year survival rates were 76% for patients with well-differentiated carcinomas, 33% for those with moderately differentiated carcinomas, and 14% for those with poorly differentiated carcinomas. Thirty-four (20%) of the patients were found to have at least a second primary tumor either at the time of the initial surgery or some other time. Autopsy results for 25 patients in this series are presented.

  16. Epithelial carcinoma of the ovary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales, P. H. (Univ. of Texas Cancer Center, Houston, TX); Fayos, J.V.

    1981-12-01

    A total of 176 patients with untreated epithelial cancer of the ovary received postoperative irradiation at the Alice Crocker Lloyd Radiation Therapy Center of the University of Michigan from 1955 to 1973. Irradiation was delivered to the pelvis alone or to the pelvis and part of the abdomen, depending on the extent of the disease and the location of the residual tumor. No patient received whole abdominal irradiation. Post-irradiation chemotherapy was administered to patients with advanced disease. Twenty-six patients with Stage III disease were treated according to a protocol consisting of pre- and post-irradiation administration of chlorambucil. The overall 5-year actuarial survival rate was 42%. The 5-year survival rates for patients with Stage I through IV disease were 77%, 31%, 23%, and 0% respectively. Patients whose tumor was grossly removed at the initial surgery did better (63% 5-year survival rate) than patients whose tumor was only partially removed (26% 5-year survival rate). The pathologic grade of the tumor was a major factor determining the prognosis. The 5-year survival rates were 76% for patients with well-differentiated carcinomas, 33% for those with moderately differentiated carcinomas, and 14% for those with poor differentiated carcinomas. Thirty-four (20%) of the patients were found to have at least a second primary tumor either at the time of the initial surgery or some other time. Autopsy results for 25 patients in this series are presented.

  17. A clinical and radiological objective tumor response with somatostatin analogs (SSA in well-differentiated neuroendocrine metastatic tumor of the ileum: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Divitiis C

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Chiara De Divitiis,1 Claudia von Arx,2 Roberto Carbone,3 Fabiana Tatangelo,4 Elena di Girolamo,5 Giovanni Maria Romano,1 Alessandro Ottaiano,1 Elisabetta de Lutio di Castelguidone,3 Rosario Vincenzo Iaffaioli,1 Salvatore Tafuto1 On behalf of the European Neuroendocrine Tumor Society (ENETS Center of Excellence Multidisciplinary Group for Neuroendocrine Tumors in Naples (Italy 1Department of Abdominal Oncology, National Cancer Institute “Fondazione G. Pascale”, Naples, Italy; 2Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, “Federico II” University, Naples, Italy; 3Department of Radiology, 4Department of Pathology, 5Department of Endoscopy, National Cancer Institute “Fondazione G Pascale”, Naples, Italy Abstract: Somatostatin analogs (SSAs are typically used to treat the symptoms caused by neuroendocrine tumors (NETs, but they are not used as the primary treatment to induce tumor shrinkage. We report a case of a 63-year-old woman with a symptomatic metastatic NET of the ileum. Complete symptomatic response was achieved after 1 month of treatment with SSAs. In addition, there was an objective response in the liver, with the disappearance of secondary lesions noted on computed tomography scan after 3 months of octreotide treatment. Our experience suggests that SSAs could be useful for downstaging and/or downsizing well-differentiated NETs, and they could allow surgery to be performed. Such presurgery therapy could be a promising tool in the management of patients with initially inoperable NETs. Keywords: neuroendocrine tumor, somatostatin analogs, octreotide, metastatic tumor of the ileum, radiological tumor response

  18. Differential diagnosis of atypical lipomatous tumor/well-differentiated liposarcoma and dedifferentiated liposarcoma: utility of p16 in combination with MDM2 and CDK4 immunohistochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammerer-Jacquet, Solène-Florence; Thierry, Sixte; Cabillic, Florian; Lannes, Morgane; Burtin, Florence; Henno, Sébastien; Dugay, Frédéric; Bouzillé, Guillaume; Rioux-Leclercq, Nathalie; Belaud-Rotureau, Marc-Antoine; Stock, Nathalie

    2017-01-01

    The differential diagnosis between atypical lipomatous tumor/well-differentiated liposarcoma (ALT/WDLPS) and dedifferentiated liposarcoma (DDLPS) from their morphologic counterparts is challenging. Currently, the diagnosis is guided by MDM2 and CDK4 immunohistochemistry (IHC) and is confirmed by the amplification of the corresponding genes. Recently, p16 IHC has been proposed as a useful diagnostic biomarker. The objective was to assess the utility of p16 IHC in the differential diagnosis of ALT/WDLPS and DDLPS. Our series included 101 tumors that were previously analyzed using fluorescence in situ hybridization for MDM2 and CDK4 amplification. We compared sensitivity and specificity of p16 IHC to MDM2 and CDK4 IHC in the differential diagnosis of ALT-WDLPS (n=19) versus benign adipocytic tumors (n=44) and DDLPS (n=18) versus mimicking sarcomas (n=20). In the differential diagnosis of ALT-WDLPS, p16 had a sensitivity of 89.5% but a specificity of 68.2%, which was impaired by false-positive lipomas with secondary changes, especially in biopsies. Likewise, in the differential diagnosis of DDLPS, p16 had a sensitivity of 94.4% and a specificity of 70%, which hampered its use as a single marker. However, adding p16 to MDM2 and/or CDK4 increased diagnostic specificity. Indeed, MDM2+/p16+ tumors were all ALT-WDLPS, and MDM2-/p16- tumors were all benign adipocytic tumors. Moreover, all MDM2+/CDK4+/p16+ tumors were DDLPS, and the MDM2-/CDK4-/p16- tumor was an undifferentiated sarcoma. Although the use of p16 as a single immunohistochemical marker is limited by its specificity, its combination with MDM2 and CDK4 IHC may help discriminate ALT-WDLPS/DDLPS.

  19. Treatment with octreotide in patients with well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumors of the ileum: prognostic stratification with Ga-68-DOTA-TATE positron emission tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Walter; Auernhammer, Christoph J; Geisler, Julia; Spitzweg, Christine; Cyran, Clemens C; Ilhan, Harun; Bartenstein, Peter; Haug, Alexander R

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the use of Ga-68-DOTA-Tyr3-octreotate (Ga-68-DOTA-TATE) positron emission tomography (PET) and standardized uptake values (SUVs) to predict the effectiveness of treatment with the somatostatin analogue octreotide acetate (Sandostatin LAR) in patients with neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). Thirty patients with well-differentiated NETs of the ileum (grades G1 and G2) were studied with Ga-68-DOTA-TATE. The average SUV of a 50% isocontour volume of interest covering the lesion with maximum uptake (SUV mean) and the maximum SUV (SUV max) were determined. Patients were followed up, and the time to progression was recorded. Twenty-one patients showed progressive disease at the end of the study; nine patients had stable disease. The median progression-free survival (PFS) was 51.0 weeks (95% confidence interval [CI] 26.4-75.6). A cutoff for the SUV max of 29.4 and for the SUV mean of 20.3 could separate between patients with a long PFS (69.0 weeks; 95% CI 9.8-128.2) and a short PFS (26.0 weeks; 95% CI 8.7-43.3) response to octreotide acetate therapy. Patients with high radiotracer uptake had significantly higher PFS with a 2.9-fold higher chance for stable disease after 45 weeks; however, the prognostic performance of SUV max on an individual basis was poor, with a sensitivity of 75% and a specificity of 64%. SUV max and SUV mean of NET tumor lesions in Ga-68-DOTA-TATE PET are important prognostic indices for predicting the response to therapy with octreotide acetate.

  20. The relative frequency in which empiric dosages of radioiodine would potentially overtreat or undertreat patients who have metastatic well-differentiated thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, K; Van Nostrand, D; Atkins, F; Aiken, M; Burman, K; Wartofsky, L

    2006-10-01

    The dosage of (131)I for the treatment of metastatic well-differentiated thyroid cancer is typically selected empirically. Benua and Leeper implemented a method to estimate the maximum dosages of (131)I that could be administered to a patient so as not to exceed a maximum tolerated radiation absorbed dose (MTD), which was defined as 200 rads (cGy) to the blood. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of (131)I treatments in which the patient (1) would have exceeded the MTD (i.e., overtreatment) or (2) would have been able to receive higher dosages of (131)I thereby delivering a potentially higher radiation absorbed dose to their metastases (i.e., undertreatment) had the patient been administered various assumed empiric dosages of (131)I. The dosimetrically-determined maximum tolerated radioactivities (MTA) to deliver 200 rads to the blood (MTD) were tabulated at our facility. Data were then grouped to determine the percentage of patients who would have received less than or more than the MTD for various assumed empiric dosages of (131)I. A total of 127 dosimetries were performed. For assumed empiric dosages of (131)I (100 mCi, 150 mCi, 200 mCi, 250 mCi, and 300 mCi), the percentage of treatments for which patients would have exceeded the MTD were less than 1%, 5%, 11%, 17%, and 22%, respectively, and could have received a higher dosage of (131)I were more than 99%, 95%, 89%, 83%, and 78%, respectively. A significant number of patients receiving various empiric dosages of (131)I may exceed 200 rads (cGy) to the blood (potential overtreating). Likewise, the majority of patients may be able to receive much higher dosages of (131)I relative to empiric dosages thereby delivering potentially higher radiation absorbed doses to the metastases without exceeding 200 rads (cGy) to the blood (potential undertreating).

  1. Antiproliferative effects of lanreotide autogel in patients with progressive, well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumours: a Spanish, multicentre, open-label, single arm phase II study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Richard, Marta; Massutí, Bartomeu; Pineda, Eva; Alonso, Vicente; Marmol, Maribel; Castellano, Daniel; Fonseca, Emilio; Galán, Antonio; Llanos, Marta; Sala, Maria Angeles; Pericay, Carlos; Rivera, Fernando; Sastre, Javier; Segura, Angel; Quindós, Maria; Maisonobe, Pascal

    2013-09-20

    Somatostatin analogues (SSAs) are indicated to relieve carcinoid syndrome but seem to have antiproliferative effects on neuroendocrine tumours (NETs). This is the first prospective study investigating tumour stabilisation with the long-acting SSA lanreotide Autogel in patients with progressive NETs. This was a multicentre, open-label, phase II trial conducted in 17 Spanish specialist centres. Patients with well-differentiated NETs and radiologically confirmed progression within the previous 6 months received lanreotide Autogel, 120 mg every 28 days over ≤92 weeks. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS). Secondary endpoints were response rate, tumour biomarkers, symptom control, quality of life (QoL), and safety. Radiographic imaging was assessed by a blinded central radiologist. Of 30 patients included in the efficacy and safety analyses, 40% had midgut tumours and 27% pancreatic tumours; 63% of tumours were functioning. Median PFS time was 12.9 (95% CI: 7.9, 16.5) months, and most patients achieved disease stabilisation (89%) or partial response (4%). No deterioration in QoL was observed. Nineteen patients (63%) experienced treatment-related adverse events, most frequently diarrhoea and asthenia; only one treatment-related adverse event (aerophagia) was severe. Lanreotide Autogel provided effective tumour stabilisation and PFS >12 months in patients with progressive NETs ineligible for surgery or chemotherapy, with a safety profile consistent with the pharmacology of the class. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT00326469; EU Clinical Trial Register EudraCT no 2004-002871-18.

  2. Endocrine disruptors targeting ERbeta function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swedenborg, E; Pongratz, I; Gustafsson, J-A

    2010-04-01

    Endocrine disruptive chemicals (EDCs) circulating in the environment constitute a risk to ecosystems, wildlife and human health. Oestrogen receptor (ER) alpha and beta are targeted by various kinds of EDCs but the molecular mechanisms and long-term consequences of exposure are largely unknown. Some biological effects of EDCs are mediated by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), which is a key player in the cellular defence against xenobiotic substances. Adding complexity to the picture, there is also accumulating evidence that AhR-ER pathways have an intricate interplay at multiple levels. In this review, we discuss some EDCs that affect the oestrogen pathway by targeting ERbeta. Furthermore, we describe some effects of AhR activities on the oestrogen system. Mechanisms as well as potential adverse effects on human health are discussed.

  3. [Endocrine disruptors and obesity: obesogens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Mayor, Ricardo V; Larrañaga Vidal, Alejandra; Docet Caamaño, Maria F; Lafuente Giménez, Anunciación

    2012-04-01

    Incidence and prevalence of owerweight and obesity have greatly increased over the past three decades in almost all countries around the world. This phenomenon is not easily explained by lifestyle changes in populations with very different initial habits. This has led to consider the influence of other factors, the so-called endocrine disruptors, and more specifically obesogens. This study reviewed the available evidence about polluting chemical substances which may potentially be obesogens in humans: DES, genistein, bisphenol A, organotins (TBT, TPT), and phthalates. The first three groups of substances mainly act upon estrogen receptors, while organotins and phthalates activate PPARγ. It was concluded that evidence exists of the obesogenic effect of these chemical substances in tissues and experimental animals, but few data are available in humans.

  4. Endocrine Consequences of Anorexia Nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Madhusmita; Klibanski, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Summary Anorexia nervosa (AN) is prevalent in adolescents and young adults, and endocrine changes include hypothalamic amenorrhea, a nutritionally acquired growth hormone resistance with low insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), relative hypercortisolemia, decreases in leptin, insulin, amylin and incretins, and increases in ghrelin, PYY and adiponectin. These changes in turn have deleterious effects on bone, and may affect neurocognition, anxiety, depression and eating disorder psychopathology. Low bone density is particularly concerning; clinical fractures occur and changes in both bone microarchitecture and strength estimates have been reported. Recovery causes improvement of many, but not all, hormonal changes, and deficits in bone accrual may persist despite recovery. Physiologic, primarily transdermal, estrogen replacement increases bone density in adolescents, although catch-up is incomplete. In adults, oral estrogen co-administered with rhIGF-1 in one study, and bisphosphonates in another increased bone density, though not to normal. More studies are necessary to determine the optimal therapeutic approach in AN. PMID:24731664

  5. Mixed and Ambiguous Endometrial Carcinomas: A Heterogenous Group of Tumors With Different Clinicopathologic and Molecular Genetic Features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, Iñigo; D'Angelo, Emanuela; Palacios, José; Prat, Jaime

    2016-07-01

    Besides endometrioid, serous, and clear cell carcinomas, there are endometrial carcinomas exhibiting mixed and ambiguous morphologic features. We have analyzed the immunophenotype (p53, p16, β-catenin, ER, HNF-1B, MLH1, and Ki-67) and mutational status (PTEN, KRAS, PIK3CA, and POLE) of 7 mixed carcinomas and 13 ambiguous carcinomas, all of them classified initially as mixed carcinomas. Only 2 of the 7 (28%) mixed carcinomas showed different immunophenotypes in different components. All but 2 tumors (5/7, 71%) overexpressed p53 and p16 and were negative for ER. Both carcinomas (2/7, 28%) showed a prominent micropapillary component that resembled an ovarian low-grade serous carcinoma and merged with villoglandular endometrioid carcinoma. The ambiguous carcinomas exhibited glandular architecture, high nuclear grade, and overlapping features of endometrioid and serous carcinomas. All tumors overexpressed p53 and p16, and the majority of cases (12/13, 92%) were negative for ER. KRAS mutations were identified in 3 of 7 (42%) mixed carcinomas, including the 2 cases with a "low-grade" serous-like component. PIK3CA mutations occurred in 2 (2/13, 15%) ambiguous carcinomas and PTEN mutations in 1 (1/7, 14%) mixed and 1 (1/13, 8%) ambiguous carcinoma. POLE exonuclease domain mutations were encountered in a case of mixed undifferentiated and well-differentiated (dedifferentiated) carcinoma. Two of the 7 (29%) mixed endometrial carcinomas and 5 of the 13 (38%) ambiguous carcinomas had extended beyond the pelvis (stages III and IV). Two of the 7 (29%) patients with mixed endometrial carcinoma and 6 of 12 (50%) patients with ambiguous endometrial carcinoma were alive with disease or had died of tumor. Our results show that, biologically, many so-called mixed carcinomas represent serous carcinomas with ambiguous morphology. Our series include 2 true mixed endometrial carcinomas with a "low-grade serous"-like component, microcystic, elongated, or fragmented features, KRAS mutations

  6. Nonfunctional Parathyroid Carcinoma: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Sang Gyu [Dankook University College of Medicine, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-11-15

    Parathyroid carcinoma is a rare endocrine malignancy accounting for 0.5% to 4.0% of all cases of hyperparathyroidism and commonly present as hypercalcemia and parathyroid hormone (PTH) elevation. Nonfunctional parathyroid carcinoma does not show symptoms of hyperparathyroidism and only showed a vague indication of being pathologic, even when detected late. The optimal treatment is en bloc resection of the cancer, but frequent local recurrence after surgery has been reported. Adjuvant local treatment such as radiotherapy may improve the likelihood local control in cases with incompletely resected or microscopic residual tumor. The results of this study point to a case of nonfunctional parathyroid carcinoma treated by external beam radiotherapy after en-bloc resection of cancer.

  7. Ectopic Cushing syndrome secondary to metastatic medullary thyroid cancer in a child with multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome type 2B: clues to early diagnosis of the paraneoplastic syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Kanakadurga; Heiniger, Nicholas; Thomas, Inas; Worden, Francis P; Menon, Ram K; Chen, Ming

    2014-09-01

    We describe a 13-year-old male with multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome type 2B with medullary thyroid carcinoma who was diagnosed with ectopic adrenocorticotropin-dependent Cushing syndrome. This report highlights the importance of monitoring for paraneoplastic syndrome in MEN and clues to the diagnosis of this complication provided by growth patterns.

  8. Analyzing endocrine system conservation and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonett, Ronald M

    2016-08-01

    Analyzing variation in rates of evolution can provide important insights into the factors that constrain trait evolution, as well as those that promote diversification. Metazoan endocrine systems exhibit apparent variation in evolutionary rates of their constituent components at multiple levels, yet relatively few studies have quantified these patterns and analyzed them in a phylogenetic context. This may be in part due to historical and current data limitations for many endocrine components and taxonomic groups. However, recent technological advancements such as high-throughput sequencing provide the opportunity to collect large-scale comparative data sets for even non-model species. Such ventures will produce a fertile data landscape for evolutionary analyses of nucleic acid and amino acid based endocrine components. Here I summarize evolutionary rate analyses that can be applied to categorical and continuous endocrine traits, and also those for nucleic acid and protein-based components. I emphasize analyses that could be used to test whether other variables (e.g., ecology, ontogenetic timing of expression, etc.) are related to patterns of rate variation and endocrine component diversification. The application of phylogenetic-based rate analyses to comparative endocrine data will greatly enhance our understanding of the factors that have shaped endocrine system evolution.

  9. Dendritic cell based immunotherapy--a promising therapeutic approach for endocrine malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sbiera, S; Wortmann, S; Fassnacht, M

    2008-02-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are the most potent antigen presenting cells in the human organism. Ever since the discovery of their function in the self/nonself discrimination, DCs have been seen as potential candidates for therapy in malignant tumors. With the exception of differentiated thyroid cancer, endocrine malignancies are rare tumors and apart from surgical intervention there is no truly established method for their treatment. Therefore, the prognosis of many endocrine carcinomas is still poor and new therapeutic options are needed. In the last decade, different immunotherapeutic approaches have shown promising results in other solid tumors. In recent studies, immunotherapy using DCs has been proven to be safe and effective to induce antitumor immune responses leading to tumor regression and even rejection of cancer in some cases. This review will summarize the latest progress in DCs based immunotherapy with special focus on the limited experience in endocrine malignancies. With regard to these tumors, it is of special interest which antigens could serve as potential target antigens for future trials. We also discuss what steps have to be taken to develop a better immunotherapy in endocrine tumors.

  10. Review: the role of neural crest cells in the endocrine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Meghan Sara; Bronner-Fraser, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    The neural crest is a pluripotent population of cells that arises at the junction of the neural tube and the dorsal ectoderm. These highly migratory cells form diverse derivatives including neurons and glia of the sensory, sympathetic, and enteric nervous systems, melanocytes, and the bones, cartilage, and connective tissues of the face. The neural crest has long been associated with the endocrine system, although not always correctly. According to current understanding, neural crest cells give rise to the chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla, chief cells of the extra-adrenal paraganglia, and thyroid C cells. The endocrine tumors that correspond to these cell types are pheochromocytomas, extra-adrenal paragangliomas, and medullary thyroid carcinomas. Although controversies concerning embryological origin appear to have mostly been resolved, questions persist concerning the pathobiology of each tumor type and its basis in neural crest embryology. Here we present a brief history of the work on neural crest development, both in general and in application to the endocrine system. In particular, we present findings related to the plasticity and pluripotency of neural crest cells as well as a discussion of several different neural crest tumors in the endocrine system.

  11. Primary papillary thyroid carcinoma previously treated incompletely with radiofrequency ablation

    OpenAIRE

    Kim Hoon; Ryu Woo; Woo Sang; Son Gil; Lee Eun; Lee Jae; Bae Jeoung

    2010-01-01

    Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) recently has been applied to benign thyroid nodules, mainly for the cosmetic reasons, and limited cases of local recurrences or focal distant metastases of well-differentiated thyroid cancer, in the high-risk reoperative condition or for the palliative purpose. But no report has been made on the RFA for primary thyroid cancer to date. We report on a patient with primary papillary carcinoma of thyroid gland who had undergone RFA before the cytological diagnosis of...

  12. Many Putative Endocrine Disruptors Inhibit Prostaglandin Synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, David M.; Skalkam, Maria L.; Audouze, Karine Marie Laure

    2011-01-01

    Background: Prostaglandins (PGs) play key roles in development and maintenance of homeostasis of the adult body. Despite these important roles, it remains unclear whether the PG pathway is a target for endocrine disruption. However, several known endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) share a high...... of endocrine disruption. Results: We found that many known EDCs inhibit the PG pathway in a mouse Sertoli cell line and in human primary mast cells. The EDCs also reduced PG synthesis in ex vivo rat testis and it was correlated with a reduced testosterone production. The inhibition of PG synthesis occurs...

  13. Amphibians as model to study endocrine disrupters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloas, Werner; Lutz, Ilka

    2006-10-13

    Environmental compounds can interfere with endocrine systems of wildlife and humans. These so-called endocrine disrupters (ED) are known to affect reproductive biology and thyroid system. The classical model species for these endocrine systems are amphibians and therefore they can serve as sentinels for detection of the modes of action (MOAs) of ED. Recently, amphibians are being reviewed as suitable models to assess (anti)estrogenic and (anti)androgenic MOAs influencing reproductive biology as well as (anti)thyroidal MOAs interfering with the thyroid system. The development of targeted bioassays in combination with adequate chemical analyses is the prerequisite for a concise risk assessment of ED.

  14. Neurocutaneous spectrum of multiple endocrine neoplasia-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shireen Furtado

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple endocrine neoplasia type I or Wermer syndrome is characterized by primary hyperparathyroidism, enteropancreatic endocrine tumor, and a pituitary pathology. A 35-year-old male presented with visual field defects, hyperprolactinemia, and hypogonadism. He also had multiple infraumbilical skin-colored nodules. A syndromal association of Wermer syndrome was derived using the dermal, pituitary, parathyroid, and gastrointestinal hormonal manifestations of the tumor. The radiological and histological findings of lesion which underwent biopsy are discussed. The presence of collagenomas, lipomas, and hypopigmented macules in a patient with neuroendocrine symptoms should raise the suspicion of an underlying multiple endocrine neoplasia.

  15. Squamous cell carcinoma arising in a multiple verrucous epidermal nevus*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarak, Samira; Machado, Taila Yuri Siqueira; Ogawa, Marilia Marufuji; Almeida, Mirian Luzia da Silva; Enokihara, Milvia Maria Simões e Silva; Porro, Adriana Maria

    2016-01-01

    Verrucous epidermal nevi are hamartomatous lesions of the epidermis that, unlike other epidermal nevi (such as sebaceous nevus or nevus comedonicus), are rarely associated with malignant neoplasms. The majority of squamous cell carcinoma develop in linear or multiple epidermal nevus and rarely in solitary epidermal nevus. In general, the prognosis is favorable. We report a case of well-differentiated invasive squamous cell carcinoma arising from a multiple verrucous epidermal nevus. Although there is no consensus on prophylactic removal of epidermal nevus, its removal and biopsy should be considered if changes occur. PMID:28300931

  16. [Endocrine disruptors are a novel direction of endocrinologic scientific investigation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iaglova, N V; Iaglov, V V

    2012-01-01

    Endocrine disruptors are exogenous anthropogenic chemicals (pesticides, herbicides, polychlorinated biphenyls, bisphenol A, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, phthalates and others), that are able to bind hormonal receptors of endocrine and other cells in vivo and act like hormones. These substances disrupt endocrine regulation of metabolism, reproduction and adaptive reactions of organisms and promote human and animal endocrine disorders.

  17. Oral verrucous carcinoma and ameloblastoma: a rare coincidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalirsani, Zohreh; Falaki, Farnaz; Mohtasham, Nooshin; Vazifeh Mostaan, Leila

    2015-03-01

    Oral verrucous carcinoma (OVC) is a rare malignancy of the oral cavity that was first described by Ackerman. This tumor is a well-differentiated low-grade, slow growing cancer that is locally invasive without metastasis. Ameloblastoma is one of the most common odontogenic tumors, which originates from the odontogenic epithelium. Verrucous carcinoma along with central ambloblastoma is a rare phenomenon. A case of verrucous carcinoma along with central ambloblastoma in a 49-year-old man, which was referred with a painless exophytic lesion with a verrucous and granular surface, is reported. Panoramic radiography revealed a well-defined radiolucency with sclerotic borders. To the best available knowledge, this phenomenon has not yet been reported. Verrucous carcinoma could occur in the wall of odontogenic cysts and tumors and should be considered during the differential diagnosis of a radiolucency, which is observed in the jaws with rapid growth or which presents some changes from its previous appearance.

  18. Diagnosis and treatment of penile verrucous carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fangyin; Xu, Yipeng; Wang, Hua; Chen, B O; Wang, Zongping; Zhao, Yang; Zhu, Shaoxing; Chen, Guiping

    2015-04-01

    Penile verrucous carcinoma is an extremely rare disease that, at present, has not been well characterized. The etiology, diagnosis and treatment of this carcinoma remain poorly understood, particularly in the Chinese population. The aim of the present study was to discuss the methods of diagnosis and treatment of penile verrucous carcinoma in the Chinese population. The clinical and pathological data of 10 patients with penile verrucous carcinoma were analyzed alongside a literature review. All the tumors were exophytic papillary lesions, ranging between 0.4 and 4 cm in diameter and all 10 patients underwent partial penectomy with tumor-negative surgical margins. None of the 10 patients underwent ilioinguinal lymphadenectomy. All patients were regularly followed up for 0.7-9 years, which revealed that no patients developed recurrence, and only one case resulted in mortality due to unassociated causes. It was found that penile verrucous carcinoma is a well-differentiated disease with low malignant potential and locally aggressive features, which seldom metastasizes to regional lymph nodes or distant regions. However, misdiagnosis may occur due to an incorrect biopsy. Favorable outcomes can be achieved by surgery, even without any adjuvant therapy, but patients should be carefully followed up.

  19. Endocrine effects on heart function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Gamberini

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Among the factors associated with thalassemic heart disease, endocrine disturbance is also a contributing factor. We present a retrospective, cross sectional study, which aims to establish the prevalence of cardiac complications in thalassaemia major (TM patients with endocrine complications and to evaluate the influence of endocrine disease on cardiac complications. Endocrinological and cardiological parameters were considered on 957 TM patients who are enrolled in the Myocardial Iron Overload in Thalassemia (MIOT network in 68 sites in Italy. Patients with pubertal hypogonadism (163 males and 175 females, hypothyroidism (192, diabetes mellitus (87 and hypoparathyroidism (61, were compared according to cardiac complications: global heart T2*, cardiac dysfunction, heart failure, arrythmias, pulmonary hypertension and myocardial fibrosis. Control groups were made up according to the age range of patients with the corresponding endocrinopathy. The prevalence of cardiac dysfunction, arrhythmias and heart failure was significantly increased in patients with endocrinopathies. Cardiac complications tended to increase according to the number of endocrinologies affecting the patient. 与地中海贫血心脏疾病相关的因素中,内分泌失调也是一个促进因素。 我们进行了回顾和断面研究,旨在患有内分泌并发症的重型地中海贫血患者中建立心脏并发症的患病率,以及评估内分泌疾病对心脏并发症的影响。 曾考虑到意大利地中海贫血心肌铁过载(MIOT)网络的68个站点上注册的957名重型地中海贫血患者的内分泌和心脏病学参数。 根据以下心脏并发症对青春期性腺机能减退的患者(男性163名、女性175名)、甲状腺机能减退患者(192名)、糖尿病患者(87名)和甲状旁腺机能减退患者(61名)进行了比较: 心脏 T2*、心功能障碍、心脏衰竭、心率不齐、肺动脉高

  20. Multiple endocrine neoplasia type II B with symptoms suggesting Hirschsprung's disease: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahaffey, S M; Martin, L W; McAdams, A J; Ryckman, F C; Torres, M

    1990-01-01

    A 3-year-old child was referred with a tentative diagnosis of Hirschsprung's disease because of life-long constipation and "megacolon" demonstrated radiographically. Our rectal biopsy revealed hyperganglionosis suggestive of multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) type II B. This, in addition to an elevated serum calcitonin level, prompted surgical removal of her thyroid, which appeared grossly normal but on sectioning, contained a medullary carcinoma in each lobe. She remains disease-free 5 years later. Gastrointestinal symptoms are a significant component of the MEN type II B syndrome, and often antedate the full phenotypic expression of the syndrome and the development of potentially lethal endocrine neoplasms. On the basis of this experience, it is recommended that MEN II B be included in the differential diagnosis of chronic constipation.

  1. DIAGNOSIS OF ENDOCRINE DISEASE: Endocrine late-effects of childhood cancer and its treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemaitilly, Wassim; Cohen, Laurie E

    2017-04-01

    Endocrine complications are frequently observed in childhood cancer survivors (CCS). One of two CCS will experience at least one endocrine complication during the course of his/her lifespan, most commonly as a late-effect of cancer treatments, especially radiotherapy and alkylating agent chemotherapy. Endocrine late-effects include impairments of the hypothalamus/pituitary, thyroid and gonads, as well as decreased bone mineral density and metabolic derangements leading to obesity and/or diabetes mellitus. A systematic approach where CCS are screened for endocrine late-effects based on their cancer history and treatment exposures may improve health outcomes by allowing the early diagnosis and treatment of these complications.

  2. Endocrine-Active Pharmaceuticals: An Environmental Concern?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recently, there has been growing interest in pharmaceuticals that are specifically designed to have endocrine activity, such as the estrogens used in birth control pills, exerting unintended effects on fish and other aquatic organisms. These pharmaceuticals may not be persistent...

  3. Endocrine-Active Pharmaceuticals: An Environmental Concern?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recently, there has been growing interest in pharmaceuticals that are specifically designed to have endocrine activity, such as the estrogens used in birth control pills, exerting unintended effects on fish and other aquatic organisms. These pharmaceuticals may not be persistent...

  4. [Diabetes and prediabetes in endocrine disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krysiak, Robert; Rudzki, Henryk; Okopień, Bogusław

    2012-01-01

    Complex hormonal regulation of carbohydrate metabolism causes that presence of many endocrine disorders may disturb glucose homeostasis. Impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance and frank diabetes are observed in patients with both common and rare endocrine disorders, particularly in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome, hyperthyroidism, Cushing's syndrome, pheochromocytoma, primary aldosteronism, acromegaly, growth hormone deficiency and endocrine tumors of the digestive system. Because most of these disorders may be effectively treated and the treatment often results in a restoration of normal insulin secretion and receptor action as well as glucose absorption, production and metabolism, it is important to differentiate these disorders from other more common types of diabetes. This article reviews the etiology, clinical manifestation, diagnosis and management of endocrine disorders leading to diabetes and prediabetic states with special emphasis on the pathogenesis and clinical consequences of these disorders.

  5. Acupuncture in endocrine disorders: a critical appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Y Z; Li, L B; Xu, L G; Zhou, D; Wei, L J; Liu, Y

    2016-01-01

    Acupuncture is an integral part of ancient Chinese medical practice. The technique has been used extensively in pain relief and is being tried for many other chronic conditions. Industrial development and affluence lead to the increase in the prevalence of many endocrine disorders such as diabetes, obesity, and polycystic ovarian disease. The rising prevalence of the endocrine morbidity is observed in both the developing and developed nations. The management of these disorders involves major lifestyle modification coupled with a long-term drug intake. In such situations, patients often look at alternative therapeutic options existing in complementary and alternative medicine. The globalization of the world medical practice has led to the spread of acupuncture beyond China to other parts of the world. Acupuncture has been tried extensively in the management of various endocrine disorders with inconsistent results. In this review, we highlight the principles of acupuncture and its role in the management of various endocrine disorders.

  6. Report on Criteria for Endocrine Disrupters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holbech, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    This report has been prepared by the Danish Centre on Endocrine Disrupters as a project contracted by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency. The Danish Centre on Endocrine Disrupters is an interdisciplinary scientific network without walls. The main purpose of the Centre is to build and gather...... new knowledge on endocrine disrupters with the focus on providing information requested for the preventive work of the regulatory authorities. The Centre is financed by the Ministry of the Environment and the scientific work programme is followed by an international scientific advisory board....... The overall aim of this project is to provide a science based proposal for criteria for endocrine disrupters. The terms of reference for the project specify elements to be included and/or addressed when developing the criteria (Annex 1). Also, several international reports and papers dealing with assessment...

  7. System chemical biology studies of endocrine disruptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taboureau, Olivier; Oprea, Tudor I.

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) alter hormonal balance and other physiological systems through inappropriate developmental or adult exposure, perturbing the reproductive function of further generations. While disruption of key receptors (e.g., estrogen, androgen, and thyroid) at the ligand...

  8. Endocrine disruption in aquatic insects: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soin, Thomas; Smagghe, Guy

    2007-02-01

    There is mounting evidence that a wide variety of compounds can have endocrine disrupting effects on humans and wildlife. However, investigations so far have focused primarily on exposure to human and other vertebrates, with invertebrate findings largely restricted to marine mollusks or to the ecdysteroid and juvenile hormone agonists as purposely synthesized endocrine disrupters for the pest management of insects. This article provides a brief description of the insect hormone system, a short sum-up of the relevant insect groups with aquatic life stages, and an overview of the additional evidence for endocrine disruption in aquatic insects from laboratory and field studies since 1999. In addition, the suitability of insects as sentinels for endocrine disrupting chemicals in aquatic ecosystems is discussed. Conclusions are drawn and research needs are defined.

  9. Multiple Primary Endocrine Failure: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    1988-01-01

    A case of type III autoimmune polyendocrine deficiency syndrome is discussed. This case initially presented as macrocytic anemia and was later followed by other endocrine abnormalities. Suggestions for initial investigation and follow-up are discussed.

  10. PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA: AN ENDOCRINE STRESS MIMICKING DISORDER

    OpenAIRE

    Kantorovich, Vitaly; Eisenhofer, Graeme; Pacak, Karel

    2008-01-01

    Pheochromocytoma is an endocrine tumor that can uniquely mimic numerous stress-associated disorders, with variations in clinical manifestations resulting from different patterns of catecholamine secretion and actions of released catecholamines on physiological systems.

  11. Pheochromocytoma: an endocrine stress mimicking disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantorovich, Vitaly; Eisenhofer, Graeme; Pacak, Karel

    2008-12-01

    A pheochromocytoma is an endocrine tumor that can uniquely mimic numerous stress-associated disorders, with variations in clinical manifestations resulting from different patterns of catecholamine secretion and actions of released catecholamines on physiological systems.

  12. The clandestine organs of the endocrine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Reyero, Natàlia

    2017-08-16

    This review analyzes what could be regarded as the "clandestine organs" of the endocrine system: the gut microbiome, the immune system, and the stress system. The immune system is very closely related to the endocrine system, with many intertwined processes and signals. Many researchers now consider the microbiome as an 'organ' that affects the organism at many different levels. While stress is certainly not an organ, it affects so many processes, including endocrine-related processes, that the stress response system deserved a special section in this review. Understanding the connections, effects, and feedback mechanisms between the different "clandestine organs" and the endocrine system will provide us with a better understanding of how an organism functions, as well as reinforce the idea that there are no independent organs or systems, but a complex, interacting network of molecules, cells, tissues, signaling pathways, and mechanisms that constitute an individual. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA: AN ENDOCRINE STRESS MIMICKING DISORDER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantorovich, Vitaly; Eisenhofer, Graeme; Pacak, Karel

    2008-01-01

    Pheochromocytoma is an endocrine tumor that can uniquely mimic numerous stress-associated disorders, with variations in clinical manifestations resulting from different patterns of catecholamine secretion and actions of released catecholamines on physiological systems. PMID:19120142

  14. Phosphodiesterases in endocrine physiology and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vezzosi, Delphine; Bertherat, Jérôme

    2011-08-01

    The cAMP-protein kinase A pathway plays a central role in the development and physiology of endocrine tissues. cAMP mediates the intracellular effects of numerous peptide hormones. Various cellular and molecular alterations of the cAMP-signaling pathway have been observed in endocrine diseases. Phosphodiesterases (PDEs) are key regulatory enzymes of intracellular cAMP levels. Indeed, PDEs are the only known mechanism for inactivation of cAMP by catalysis to 5'-AMP. It has been suggested that disruption of PDEs could also have a role in the pathogenesis of many endocrine diseases. This review summarizes the most recent advances concerning the role of the PDEs in the physiopathology of endocrine diseases. The potential significance of this knowledge can be easily envisaged by the development of drugs targeting specific PDEs.

  15. Postoperative Complications After Prophylactic Thyroidectomy for Very Young Patients With Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2 : Retrospective Cohort Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Kluijfhout, Wouter P; van Beek, Dirk-Jan; Verrijn Stuart, Annemarie A.; Lodewijk, Lutske; Gerlof D. Valk; Van der Zee, David C.; Vriens, Menno R.; Inne H. M. Borel Rinkes

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether younger age at surgery is associated with the increased incidence of postoperative complications after prophylactic thyroidectomy in pediatric patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) 2. The shift toward earlier thyroidectomy has resulted in significantly less medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC)-related morbidity and mortality. However, very young pediatric patients might have a higher morbidity rate compared with older patients. Hardly a...

  16. [Endocrine effects of antiepileptic drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leśkiewicz, Monika; Budziszewska, Bogusława; Lasoń, Władysław

    2008-01-01

    Both seizures and antiepileptic drugs may induce disturbances in hormonal system. Regarding endocrine effects of anticonvulsants, an interaction of these drugs with gonadal, thyroid, and adrenal axis deserves attention. Since majority of antiepileptic drugs block voltage dependent sodium and calcium channels, enhance GABAergic transmission and/or antagonize glutamate receptors, one may expect that similar neurochemical mechanisms are engaged in the interaction of these drugs with synthesis of hypothalamic neurohormones such as gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH). Moreover some antiepileptic drugs may affect hormone metabolism via inhibiting or stimulating cytochrome P-450 iso-enzymes. An influence of antiepileptic drugs on hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis appears to be sex-dependent. In males, valproate decreased follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) but elevated dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) concentrations. Carbamazepine decreased testosterone/sex-hormone binding globulin (SHBG) ratio, whereas its active metabolite--oxcarbazepine--had no effect on androgens. In females, valproate decreased FSH-stimulated estradiol release and enhanced testosterone level. On the other hand, carbamazepine decreased testosterone level but enhanced SHBG concentration. It has been reported that carbamazepine, oxcarbazepine or joined administration of carbamazepine and valproate decrease thyroxine (T4) level in patients with no effect on thyrotropin (TSH). While valproate itself has no effect on T4, phenytoin, phenobarbital and primidone, as metabolic enzyme inducers, can decrease the level of free and bound thyroxine. On the other hand, new antiepileptics such as levetiracetam, tiagabine, vigabatrine or lamotrigine had no effect on thyroid hormones. With respect to hormonal regulation of metabolic processes, valproate was

  17. Electron microscopy, tissue culture,and immunology of ovarian carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioachim, H L; Dorsett, B H; Sabbath, M; Barber, H R

    1975-10-01

    The ultrastructure of the major histologic types of ovarian carcinoma was investigated as part of a multilateral study of this tumor. The nuclear and nucleolar changes in size, shape, and structure correlated well with the degree of malignancy and tumor grading. Cytoplasmic organelles and intercellular junctions were abundant and fairly well differentiated even in ovarian carcinomas of higher grade and stage. Active processes of synthesis and secretion taking place in most of these tumors were suggested by the presence of a richly granulated endoplasmic reticulum, dilated cisternae, and numerous secretory granules. Seventy-eight different ovarian carcinomas of all histologic types were cultured in vitro for periods of up to 300 days, and their morphology in light and electron microscopy was compared to that of the original tumors. The cultures displayed a consistent pattern of growth which led to the conclusion that ovarian cancer cells in vitro preserve their salient features and are representative of the tumors of origin. Heterologous antisera raised with pooled extracts of various types of ovarian carcinomas reacted specifically in immunodiffusion and immunofluorescence tests only with ovarian carcinomas and not with normal ovaries, benigh ovarian tumors, and nonovarian malignant neoplasms, indicating the presence of a cross-reacting specific antigen for ovarian carcinomas. In other studies, autologous antibodies were isolated from antigen-antibody complexes recovered from peritoneal effusions of patients with ovarian carcinomas. These antibodies displayed a high degree of specificity against ovarian carcinoma cells when tested in immunofluorescence assays.

  18. Subtle sabotage: endocrine disruption in wild populations

    OpenAIRE

    Cheek, Ann Oliver

    2016-01-01

    How important is endocrine disruption as a threat to wildlife populations? This review applies causal criteria to existing studies of wild populations of fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals to answer three questions: (1) Have endocrine-mediated effects of contaminant exposure been documented? (2) Have individual adverse effects that could lead to population effects been documented? (3) Have population level effects been documented? In fish, the possibility of population level effec...

  19. Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals and Disease Susceptibility

    OpenAIRE

    Schug, Thaddeus T; Janesick, Amanda; Blumberg, Bruce; Heindel, Jerrold J.

    2011-01-01

    Environmental chemicals have significant impacts on biological systems. Chemical exposures during early stages of development can disrupt normal patterns of development and thus dramatically alter disease susceptibility later in life. Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) interfere with the body's endocrine system and produce adverse developmental, reproductive, neurological, cardiovascular, metabolic and immune effects in humans. A wide range of substances, both natural and man-made, are tho...

  20. Development and Regeneration in the Endocrine Pancreas

    OpenAIRE

    Mansouri, Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    The pancreas is composed of two compartments that deliver digestive enzymes and endocrine hormones to control the blood sugar level. The endocrine pancreas consists of functional units organized into cell clusters called islets of Langerhans where insulin-producing cells are found in the core and surrounded by glucagon-, somatostatin-, pancreatic polypeptide-, and ghrelin-producing cells. Diabetes is a devastating disease provoked by the depletion or malfunction of insulin-producing beta-cell...

  1. ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING EFFECTS OF BUTYLPARABEN: A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Pallabi Goswami; J.C Kalita

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, there has been an increasing concern in the field of endocrine disruption over the presence of various endocrine disrupting chemicals in Pharmaceuticals and Personal care products (PPCPs). This concern has also been as PPCPs are most widely used and had led to introduction of thousands of new and complex chemicals that enter the environment in large quantities. The effect of the chemicals has not only been restricted to human who are exposed directly to the chemicals or the a...

  2. Immunocytochemical and ultrastructural characterization of endocrine cells in the larval stomach of the frog Rana temporaria tadpoles: a comparison with adult specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villaro, A C; Rovira, J; Bodegas, M E; Burrell, M A; García-Ros, D; Sesma, P

    2001-10-01

    According to immunostaining and ultrastructural patterns, Rana temporaria tadpole stomach displays a well-differentiated endocrine population comprising, at least, six cellular types: ECL, EC [serotonin], D [somatostatin] - all three of them abundant -, P [bombesin] - less numerous -, CCK-8 [cholecystokinin/gastrin] and A [glucagon/glicentin] - both very scarce. Larval endocrine cells are mainly located in the surface epithelium and show open or closed morphologies. Cellular diversity is similar in tadpoles and frogs, with the exception of immunoreactivity for gastrin-17, found in adults in numerous cells. Larval cells display mature ultrastructural traits, although with smaller secretory granules. The different distribution of endocrine cells, which in adults are preferentially located in the glands, probably refers to different functional requirements. However, the rich vascular plexus present in larval mucosa may be an efficient transport medium of surface hormones to-gastric targets. The enhancement in adults of endocrine population and correlative increase in hormonal secretion indicates a more active functional role, probably related to the shift from herbivorous to carnivorous habits. In summary, the tadpole gastric endocrine population, although not as numerous as that of adult frogs, displays histological traits that indicate a relevant (immunoreactive and ultrastructural properties, cellular diversity) and specific (surface location, relative abundance of open-type cells) role of local regulatory factors in amphibian larval gastric function.

  3. Endocrine Dysregulation in Anorexia Nervosa Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Context: Anorexia nervosa is a primary psychiatric disorder with serious endocrine consequences, including dysregulation of the gonadal, adrenal, and GH axes, and severe bone loss. This Update reviews recent advances in the understanding of the endocrine dysregulation observed in this state of chronic starvation, as well as the mechanisms underlying the disease itself. Evidence Acquisition: Findings of this update are based on a PubMed search and the author's knowledge of this field. Evidence Synthesis: Recent studies have provided insights into the mechanisms underlying endocrine dysregulation in states of chronic starvation as well as the etiology of anorexia nervosa itself. This includes a more complex understanding of the pathophysiologic bases of hypogonadism, hypercortisolemia, GH resistance, appetite regulation, and bone loss. Nevertheless, the etiology of the disease remains largely unknown, and effective therapies for the endocrine complications and for the disease itself are lacking. Conclusions: Despite significant progress in the field, further research is needed to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the development of anorexia nervosa and its endocrine complications. Such investigations promise to yield important advances in the therapeutic approach to this disease as well as to the understanding of the regulation of endocrine function, skeletal biology, and appetite regulation. PMID:21976742

  4. The endocrine system in diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alrefai, Hisham; Allababidi, Hisham; Levy, Shiri; Levy, Joseph

    2002-07-01

    The pathophysiology of diabetes mellitus is complex and not fully understood. However, it emerges as an abnormal metabolic condition associated with a systemic damage to the vascular bed. Cumulative evidence also reveals that the endocrine system is not intact in patients with diabetes mellitus. It is not clear whether the changes observed in the endocrine system represent a primary defect or reflect the effects of the impaired insulin action and abnormal carbohydrate and lipid metabolism on the hormonal milieu. Review of the literature reveals that the function of the entire endocrine system including the functions of hormones from the hypothalamus, pituitary, adrenal, thyroid, parathyroid, the vitamin D system, the gonads, and the endocrine function of the adipose tissue, is impaired. Good metabolic control and insulin treatment may reverse some of these abnormalities. It remains unanswered as to what extent these changes in the endocrine system contribute to the vascular pathologies observed in individuals affected by diabetes mellitus and whether part of the abnormalities observed in the endocrine system reflect a basic cellular defect in the diabetic syndrome.

  5. Endocrine manifestations of eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Michelle P

    2011-02-01

    The endocrinopathies associated with eating disorders involve multiple systems and mechanisms designed to preserve energy and protect essential organs. Those systems that are most affected are in need of significant energy, such as the reproductive and skeletal systems. The changes in neuropeptides and in the hypothalamic axis that mediate these changes also receive input from neuroendocrine signals sensitive to satiety and food intake and in turn may be poised to provide significant energy conservation. These adaptive changes are described, including the thyroid, GH, and cortisol axes, as well as the gastrointestinal tract. Articles were found via PubMed search for both original articles and reviews summarizing current understanding of the endocrine changes of eating disorders based on peer review publications on the topic between 1974 and 2009. The signals that control weight and food intake are complex and probably involve multiple pathways that appear to have as a central control the hypothalamus, in particular the medial central area. The hypothalamic dysfunction of eating disorders provides a reversible experiment of nature that gives insight into understanding the role of various neuropeptides signaling nutritional status, feeding behavior, skeletal repair, and reproductive function.

  6. Health surveillance and endocrine disruptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waissmann William

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The author discusses the extreme relevance of research on the presence of endocrine disruptors (EDs in products of interest to health surveillance (HS. Focusing on EDs, the author highlights the urgency of changes already under way in the direction of HS. The shift should be from product and product-registration approaches to the productive process and its realization in consumption, generation of contaminants, and alterations in the health of workers and the overall population. He briefly describes: regulatory gaps for dealing with EDs; difficulty in evaluating risk and suspension of the production and use of products with its characteristics and the need, as exemplified by such products, to enhance the inter-relationship among all stakeholders and to turn HS into a state-of-the-art technological setting, associated with the academic community and accountable to the public. The author reports on measures already taken in relation to EDs, including the establishment of a reference laboratory for analyzing persistent organic pollutants (POPs, interruption of the use of various POPs in Brazil and an initial review of requirements for registering pesticides under the Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA.

  7. Health surveillance and endocrine disruptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Waissmann

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available The author discusses the extreme relevance of research on the presence of endocrine disruptors (EDs in products of interest to health surveillance (HS. Focusing on EDs, the author highlights the urgency of changes already under way in the direction of HS. The shift should be from product and product-registration approaches to the productive process and its realization in consumption, generation of contaminants, and alterations in the health of workers and the overall population. He briefly describes: regulatory gaps for dealing with EDs; difficulty in evaluating risk and suspension of the production and use of products with its characteristics and the need, as exemplified by such products, to enhance the inter-relationship among all stakeholders and to turn HS into a state-of-the-art technological setting, associated with the academic community and accountable to the public. The author reports on measures already taken in relation to EDs, including the establishment of a reference laboratory for analyzing persistent organic pollutants (POPs, interruption of the use of various POPs in Brazil and an initial review of requirements for registering pesticides under the Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA.

  8. Telomerase and the endocrine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacini, Furio; Cantara, Silvia; Capezzone, Marco; Marchisotta, Stefania

    2011-03-29

    Telomeres are nucleoprotein complexes located at the ends of chromosomes that have a critical role in the maintenance of chromosomal integrity. This involvement is based on complex secondary and tertiary structures that rely on DNA-DNA, DNA-protein and protein-protein interactions. De novo synthesis and maintenance of telomere repeats is controlled by telomerase, a specialized complex that consists of a telomerase RNA component and a protein component--telomerase reverse transcriptase. When telomerase is silent (its default state in differentiated somatic cells), chromosomes shorten with every cell division, thus limiting the lifespan of the cells (the process of senescence) and preventing unlimited cell proliferation, which might eventually lead to the development of cancer. During this process, occasionally, a cell can activate telomerase, which stabilizes short telomeres and enables immortalization-a process essential for malignant transformation. Thus, although telomere erosion is a barrier to malignant progression, paradoxically, in certain circumstances it might also trigger tumorigenesis. A number of studies have demonstrated unequivocally that reactivation of telomerase in the presence of short telomeres is one of the most common features of human cancers, including those of the endocrine system.

  9. Poorly differentiated (insular thyroid carcinoma arising in a long-standing colloid goitre: A cytological dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hema Kini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Poorly differentiated (insular thyroid carcinoma (PDITC is an uncommon thyroglobulin producing neoplasm intermediate in aggressiveness between well-differentiated carcinomas of follicular cell origin and undifferentiated anaplastic carcinoma. Its cytomorphological recognition is essential for planning surgery and subsequent management as it is known for its aggressive behavior, advanced stage at presentation, local recurrences and rapid dissemination. We report a case of PDITC arising in a long-standing goiter, in which presence of microfollicular structures and minimal necrosis resulted in difficulty in distinguishing it from a follicular neoplasm of thyroid.

  10. Primary Intraparenchymal Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Kidney: A Rare and Unique Entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prithwijit Ghosh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary squamous cell carcinoma (SCC of the renal parenchyma is a very unusual entity which needs to be differentiated from primary SCC of renal pelvis, SCC from another primary site, and urothelial carcinoma with extensive squamous differentiation. We are most probably describing the second case of primary SCC of the renal parenchyma in a 51-year-old male who presented with heaviness of right upper abdomen with intermittent pain in right flank. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT revealed a mass in the right lower pole of the kidney and histopathology following nephrectomy displayed the features of well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma without urothelial involvement.

  11. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia with Pulmonary Localization: A New Protocol of Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duilio Divisi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We present three patients with bronchial carcinoids, in which a more probed study emphasized the presence of three multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN. Assessment included a total-body computerized tomography, a total-body single-photon emission computerized tomography by 111In-DTPA-D-Phe1 octreotide, and genetic map. Two patients presented an atypical MEN 1 and one patient showed an atypical MEN 1 with a familial medullary thyroid carcinoma. All patients were operated upon: two are still alive and one died 50 months after the first intervention. Precocious diagnosis of MEN permits a good long-term outcome.

  12. Endocrine radionuclide scintigraphy with fusion single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ka-Kit Wong; Arpit Gandhi; Benjamin L Viglianti; Lorraine M Fig; Domenico Rubello; Milton D Gross

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To review the benefits of single photon emission computed tomography(SPECT)/computed tomography(CT) hybrid imaging for diagnosis of various endocrine disorders.METHODS: We performed MEDLINE and Pub Med searches using the terms: "SPECT/CT"; "functional anatomic mapping"; "transmission emission tomography"; "parathyroid adenoma"; "thyroid cancer"; "neuroendocrine tumor"; "adrenal"; "pheochromocytoma"; "paraganglioma"; in order to identify relevant articles published in English during the years 2003 to 2015. Reference lists from the articles were reviewed to identify additional pertinent articles. Retrieved manuscripts(case reports, reviews, meta-analyses and abstracts) concerning the application of SPECT/CT to endocrine imaging were analyzed to provide a descriptive synthesis of the utility of this technology.RESULTS: The emergence of hybrid SPECT/CT camera technology now allows simultaneous acquisition of combined multi-modality imaging, with seamless fusion of three-dimensional volume datasets. The usefulness of combining functional information to depict the biodistribution of radiotracers that map cellular processes of the endocrine system and tumors of endocrine origin, with anatomy derived from CT, has improved the diagnostic capability of scintigraphy for a range of disorders of endocrine gland function. The literature describes benefits of SPECT/CT for 99mTc-sestamibi parathyroid scintigraphy and 99mTc-pertechnetate thyroid scintigraphy, 123I- or 131I-radioiodine for staging of differentiated thyroid carcinoma, 111In- and 99mTclabeled somatostatin receptor analogues for detection of neuroendocrine tumors, 131I-norcholesterol(NP-59) scans for assessment of adrenal cortical hyperfunction, and 123I- or 131I-metaiodobenzylguanidine imaging for evaluation of pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma.CONCLUSION: SPECT/CT exploits the synergism between the functional information from radiopharmaceutical imaging and anatomy from CT, translating to

  13. Cushing’s Syndrome in Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonds, William F.; Varghese, Sarah; Marx, Stephen J.; Nieman, Lynnette K.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Objective In patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1), Cushing’s syndrome (CS) from endogenous hypercortisolism can result from pituitary, adrenal, or other endocrine tumors. The purpose of this study was to characterize the range of presentations of CS in a large series of MEN1 patients. Design Retrospective review of NIH Clinical Center inpatient records over an approximately 40 year period. Patients 19 patients (8 males, 11 females) with CS and MEN1. Measurements Biochemical, imaging, surgical, and pathological findings. Results An etiology was determined for 14 of the 19 patients with CS and MEN1: 11 (79%) had Cushing’s disease (CD) and three (21%) had ACTH-independent CS due to adrenal tumors, frequencies indistinguishable from sporadic CS. Three of 11 MEN1 patients with CD (27%) had additional non-ACTH secreting pituitary microadenomas identified at surgery, an incidence 10-fold higher than in sporadic CD. Ninety-one percent of MEN1 patients with CD were cured after surgery. Two of three MEN1 patients with ACTH-independent CS (67%) had adrenocortical carcinoma. One patient with adrenal cancer and another with adrenal adenoma were cured by unilateral adrenalectomy. No case of ectopic ACTH secretion was identified in our patient cohort. The etiology of CS could not be defined in five patients; in three of these, hypercortisolism appeared to resolve spontaneously. Conclusions The tumor multiplicity of MEN1 can be reflected in the anterior pituitary, MEN1-associated ACTH-independent CS may be associated with aggressive adrenocortical disease, and an etiology for CS in MEN1 may be elusive in a substantial minority of patients. PMID:21916912

  14. Endocrine dysfunction in hereditary hemochromatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelusi, C; Gasparini, D I; Bianchi, N; Pasquali, R

    2016-08-01

    Hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) is a genetic disorder of iron overload and subsequent organ damage. Five types of HH are known, classified by age of onset, genetic cause, clinical manifestations and mode of inheritance. Except for the rare form of juvenile haemochromatosis, symptoms do not usually appear until after decades of progressive iron loading and may be triggered by environmental and lifestyle factors. Despite the last decades discovery of genetic and phenotype diversity of HH, early studies showed a frequent involvement of the endocrine glands where diabetes and hypogonadism are the most common encountered endocrinopathies. The pathogenesis of diabetes is still relatively unclear, but the main mechanisms include the loss of insulin secretory capacity and insulin resistance secondary to liver damage. The presence of obesity and/or genetic predisposition may represent addictive risk factor for the development of this metabolic disease. Although old cases of primary gonad involvement are described, hypogonadism is mainly secondary to selective deposition of iron on the gonadotropin-producing cells of the pituitary gland, leading to hormonal impaired secretion. Cases of hypopituitarism or selected tropin defects, and abnormalities of adrenal, thyroid and parathyroid glands, even if rare, are reported. The prevalence of individual gland dysfunction varies enormously within studies for several bias due to small numbers of and selected cases analyzed, mixed genotypes and missing data on medical history. Moreover, in the last few years early screening and awareness of the disease among physicians have allowed hemochromatosis to be diagnosed in most cases at early stages when patients have no symptoms. Therefore, the clinical presentation of this disease has changed significantly and the recognized common complications are encountered less frequently. This review summarizes the current knowledge on HH-associated endocrinopathies.

  15. Composite renal cell carcinoma with clear cell renal cell carcinomatous and carcinoid tumoral elements: a first case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressenot, A; Delaunay, C; Gauchotte, G; Oliver, A; Boudrant, G; Montagne, K

    2010-02-01

    Renal endocrine tumours are extremely rare, and carcinoid tumoral elements in renal cell carcinoma have never been reported. This is the first report of a composite renal cell carcinoma containing a clear cell renal cell carcinoma associated with carcinoid tumoral elements, in a patient with synchronous metastatic disease. In the absence of specific radiological and clinical manifestations, typical morphological features as well as an immunostaining profile of neuroendocrine differentiation were identified by microscopy. Secondary nodal and liver localisations were characterised by carcinoid elements only. Despite antiangiogenic therapy, liver metastasis progressed, suggesting that adjuvant therapy cannot be based on the presence of the clear cell renal cell carcinoma component. In this context, extensive tissue sampling is recommended to reveal the endocrine component that is the most aggressive element of such a composite carcinoma.

  16. Pediatric Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starenki, Dmytro; Park, Jong-In

    Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC), which originates from thyroid parafollicular C cells, accounts for 3 to 5% of thyroid malignancies. MTC occurs either sporadically or in an inherited autosomal dominant manner. Hereditary MTC occurs as a familial MTC or as a part of multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) type 2A and B syndromes. A strong genotype-phenotype correlation has been observed between hereditary MTC and germ-line "gain of function" mutations of the RET proto-oncogene. Most cases of pediatric MTC are hereditary whereas sporadic MTC is rare in children and is usually diagnosed in adults. Therefore, MTC in children is most often diagnosed in the course of a familial genetic investigation. The standard treatment of MTC mainly requires surgery involving total thyroidectomy and central neck node dissection before extrathyroidal extension occurs. To prevent MTC development in hereditary syndromes, prophylactic thyroidectomy is performed in presymptomatic patients. An appropriate age at which the surgery should take place is determined based upon the data from genotyping, serum calcitonin measurements, and ultrasonography. For the treatment of advanced MTC cases, the broad spectrum receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors vandetanib and cabozantinib, which also inhibit RET, are used although they are not always effective.

  17. Verrucous carcinoma and squamous cell papilloma of the oral cavity: Report of two cases and review of literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan, Hilal; Agacayak, Serkan; Kavak, Gulten; Ozcan, Ayse

    2015-01-01

    Verrucous carcinoma (VC) of oral cavity is a rare variant of well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma and squamous papilloma is a benign proliferation of the stratified squamous epithelium, which results in a papillary or verrucous exophytic mass. There is a certain clinical similarity between squamous cell papilloma and VC. We presented a report of two cases which are VC and squamous cell papilloma that are showed the same clinical appearance but different pathological appearance, with a review of the literature. PMID:26430380

  18. Expression Patterns of Glucose Transporter-1 Gene and Thyroid Specific Genes in Human Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sungeun; Chung, Junekey; Min Haesook and others

    2014-06-15

    The expression of glucose transporter-1 (Glut-1) gene and those of major thyroid-specific genes were examined in papillary carcinoma tissues, and the expressions of these genes were compared with cancer differentiation grades. Twenty-four human papillary carcinoma tissues were included in this study. The expressions of Glut-1- and thyroid-specific genes [sodium/iodide symporter (NIS), thyroid peroxidase, thyroglobulin, TSH receptor and pendrin] were analyzed by RT-PCR. Expression levels were expressed as ratios versus the expression of beta-actin. Pathologic differentiation of papillary carcinoma was classified into a relatively well-differentiated group (n=13) and relatively less differentiated group (n=11). Glut-1 gene expression was significantly higher in the less differentiated group (0.66±0.04) than in the well-differentiated group (0.59±0.07). The expression levels of the NIS, PD and TG genes were significantly higher in the well-differentiated group (NIS: 0.67±0.20, PD: 0.65±0.21, TG: 0.74±0.16) than in the less differentiated group (NIS: 0.36±0.05, PD: 0.49±0.08, TG: 0.60±0.11), respectively. A significant negative correlation was found between Glut-1 and NIS expression, and positive correlations were found between NIS and TG, and between NIS and PD. The NIS, PD and TG genes were highly expressed in well-differentiated thyroid carcinomas, whereas the Glut-1 gene was highly expressed in less differentiated thyroid carcinomas. These findings provide a molecular rationale for the management of papillary carcinoma, especially in the selection of FDG PET or radioiodine whole-body scan and I-131-based therapy.

  19. Clinical case: multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A K Lipatenkova

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome type 1 (MEN1, Wermer syndrome – group o а heterogeneous inherited deseases, caused by hyperlasia or neoplasia of several endocrine glands. The phenotype of MEN1 is broad, and over 20 different combinations of endocrine and non-endocrine metabolic manifestations have been described. This case demonstrates multiple formations of endocrine organs, starting non-classical with macroprolactonoma resistant to dopamine agonists therapy, other endocrine disorders developed gradually eventually: hyperparathyreoidism and hypoglycemia caused by pancreas lesions, produced proinsulin in high levels.

  20. Environmental endocrine disruptors: A proposed classification scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fur, P.L. de; Roberts, J. [Environmental Defense Fund, Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-12-31

    A number of chemicals known to act on animal systems through the endocrine system have been termed environmental endocrine disruptors. This group includes some of the PCBs and TCDDs, as well as lead, mercury and a large number of pesticides. The common feature is that the chemicals interact with endogenous endocrine systems at the cellular and/or molecular level to alter normal processes that are controlled or regulated by hormones. Although the existence of artificial or environmental estrogens (e.g. chlordecone and DES) has been known for some time, recent data indicate that this phenomenon is widespread. Indeed, anti-androgens have been held responsible for reproductive dysfunction in alligator populations in Florida. But the significance of endocrine disruption was recognized by pesticide manufacturers when insect growth regulators were developed to interfere with hormonal control of growth. Controlling, regulating or managing these chemicals depends in no small part on the ability to identify, screen or otherwise know that a chemical is an endocrine disrupter. Two possible classifications schemes are: using the effects caused in an animal, or animals as an exposure indicator; and using a known screen for the point of contact with the animal. The former would require extensive knowledge of cause and effect relationships in dozens of animal groups; the latter would require a screening tool comparable to an estrogen binding assay. The authors present a possible classification based on chemicals known to disrupt estrogenic, androgenic and ecdysone regulated hormonal systems.

  1. Ophthalmic clues to the endocrine disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z; Chen, Y; Lin, Z; Shi, X

    2017-01-01

    Eye is a vital sense organ and reflects the physical and mental wellbeing of a person. Detailed examination of the eye is an essential part in the clinical evaluation of patients with any systemic disorder. The interaction between ophthalmologists and endocrinologists is often limited to Graves' ophthalmopathy and diabetic retinopathy. However, there are many ophthalmic manifestations, which are characteristically seen in endocrine disorders. In this review, we shall discuss the ocular manifestations of the endocrine syndromes excluding the Graves' ophthalmopathy and diabetic retinopathy. We performed a PubMed search of articles published in English showing the ophthalmic features in the endocrine disorders. Relevant cited articles were also retrieved. Most of the publications included in the review were case reports and review articles. Many endocrine disorders have characteristic manifestations pertaining to the various structures of the eye. The involvement is seen from the external structures of the eye to the inner most layers of the retina. Many ocular-endocrine syndromes also exist with characteristic clues to the clinical diagnosis. The endocrinologists need to be aware of these ocular signs that help in the early diagnosis of the underlying disorder. A syndromic approach is essential in the diagnosis of endocrinopathy in patients presenting with ophthalmic features.

  2. The effects of metals as endocrine disruptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iavicoli, Ivo; Fontana, Luca; Bergamaschi, Antonio

    2009-03-01

    This review reports current knowledge regarding the roles that cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), arsenic (As), lead (PB), manganese (Mn), and zinc (Zn) play as endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs). The influence of these metals on the endocrine system, possible mechanisms of action, and consequent health effects were correlated between experimental animals and humans. Analysis of the studies prompted us to identify some critical issues related to this area and showed the need for more rigorous and innovative studies. Consequently, it was recommended that future studies need to: (1) identify the mechanisms of action, because at the present time only a few have been elucidated-in this context, the possible presence of hormesis need to be determined, as currently this was reported only for exposure Cd and As; (2) study the possible additive, synergistic, or antagonistic effects on the endocrine system following exposure to a mixture of metals since there is a lack of these studies available, and in general or occupational environments, humans are simultaneously exposed to different classes of xenobiotics, including metals, but also to organic compounds that might also be EDCs; (3) assess the potential adverse effects on the endocrine system of low-level exposures to metals, as most of the information currently available on EDCs originates from studies in which exposure levels were particularly high; and (4) assess the effects on the endocrine and reproductive systems of other metals that are present in the general and occupational environment that have not yet been evaluated.

  3. [Affective disorders: endocrine and metabolic comorbidities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cermolacce, M; Belzeaux, R; Adida, M; Azorin, J-M

    2014-12-01

    Links between affective and endocrine-metabolic disorders are numerous and complex. In this review, we explore most frequent endocrine-metabolic comorbidities. On the one hand, these comorbidities imply numerous iatrogenic effects from antipsychotics (metabolic side-effects) or from lithium (endocrine side-effects). On the other hand, these comorbidities are also associated with affective disorders independently from medication. We will successively examine metabolic syndrome, glycemic disturbances, obesity and thyroid disorders among patients with affective disorders. Endocrinemetabolic comorbidities can be individually encountered, but can also be associated. Therefore, they substantially impact morbidity and mortality by increasing cardiovascular risk factors. Two distinct approaches give an account of processes involved in these comorbidities: common environmental factors (iatrogenic effects, lifestyle), and/or shared physiological vulnerabilities. In conclusion, we provide a synthesis of important results and recommendations related to endocrine-metabolic comorbidities in affective disorders : heavy influence on morbidity and mortality, undertreatment of somatic diseases, importance of endocrine and metabolic side effects from main mood stabilizers, impact from sex and age on the prevalence of comorbidities, influence from previous depressive episodes in bipolar disorders, and relevance of systematic screening for subclinical (biological) disturbances.

  4. Oxidative stress and the ageing endocrine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale, Giovanni; Salvioli, Stefano; Franceschi, Claudio

    2013-04-01

    Ageing is a process characterized by a progressive decline in cellular function, organismal fitness and increased risk of age-related diseases and death. Several hundred theories have attempted to explain this phenomenon. One of the most popular is the 'oxidative stress theory', originally termed the 'free radical theory'. The endocrine system seems to have a role in the modulation of oxidative stress; however, much less is known about the role that oxidative stress might have in the ageing of the endocrine system and the induction of age-related endocrine diseases. This Review outlines the interactions between hormones and oxidative metabolism and the potential effects of oxidative stress on ageing of endocrine organs. Many different mechanisms that link oxidative stress and ageing are discussed, all of which converge on the induction or regulation of inflammation. All these mechanisms, including cell senescence, mitochondrial dysfunction and microRNA dysregulation, as well as inflammation itself, could be targets of future studies aimed at clarifying the effects of oxidative stress on ageing of endocrine glands.

  5. Exercise and the Regulation of Endocrine Hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackney, Anthony C; Lane, Amy R

    2015-01-01

    The endocrine system has profound regulatory effects within the human body and thus the ability to control and maintain appropriate function within many physiological systems (i.e., homeostasis). The hormones associated with the endocrine system utilize autocrine, paracrine, or endocrine actions on the cells of their target tissues within these physiologic systems to adjust homeostasis. The introduction of exercise as a stressor to disrupt homeostasis can greatly amplify and impact the actions of these hormones. To that end, the endocrine response to an acute exercise session occurs in a progression of phases with the magnitude of the response being relative to the exercise work intensity or volume. Various physiologic mechanisms are considered responsible for these responses, although not all are completely understood or elucidated. Chronic exercise training does not eliminate the acute exercise response but may attenuate the overall effect of the responsiveness as the body adapts in a positive fashion to the training stimulus. Regrettably, an excessive intensity and/or volume of training may lead to maladaptation and is associated with inappropriate endocrine hormonal responses. The mechanisms leading to a deleterious maladaptive state are not well understood and require additional research for elucidation.

  6. Purinergic signaling pathways in endocrine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjelobaba, Ivana; Janjic, Marija M; Stojilkovic, Stanko S

    2015-09-01

    Adenosine-5'-triphosphate is released by neuroendocrine, endocrine, and other cell types and acts as an extracellular agonist for ligand-gated P2X cationic channels and G protein-coupled P2Y receptors in numerous organs and tissues, including the endocrine system. The breakdown of ATP by ectonucleotidases not only terminates its extracellular messenger functions, but also provides a pathway for the generation of two additional agonists: adenosine 5'-diphosphate, acting via some P2Y receptors, and adenosine, a native agonist for G protein-coupled adenosine receptors, also expressed in the endocrine system. This article provides a review of purinergic signaling pathways in the hypothalamic magnocellular neurosecretory cells and neurohypophysis, hypothalamic parvocellular neuroendocrine system, adenohypophysis, and effector glands organized in five axes: hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal, hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal, hypothalamic-pituitary-growth hormone, and hypothalamic-pituitary-prolactin. We attempted to summarize current knowledge of purinergic receptor subtypes expressed in the endocrine system, including their roles in intracellular signaling, hormone secretion, and other cell functions. We also briefly review the release mechanism for adenosine-5'-triphosphate by neuroendocrine, endocrine and surrounding cells, the enzymes involved in adenosine-5'-triphosphate hydrolysis to adenosine-5'-diphosphate and adenosine, and the relevance of this pathway for sequential activation of receptors and termination of signaling.

  7. Ameloblastic carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen B Kumar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Ameloblastoma of jaws are common and locally destructive tumors originating from odontogenic apparatus. They constitute approximately 1% of all jaw tumors with 80% occurring in the mandible. Ameloblastoma exhibiting a frank malignancy is a rare entity and occurs in less than 1% of all ameloblastomas. Among the two jaws, ameloblastic carcinoma involving maxilla is extremely rare with only few cases reported so far in the literature. Here we report two cases of ameloblastic carcinoma one involving the maxilla and the other involving mandible, with an aggressive clinical course leading to extensive local destruction of the affected jaws.

  8. Neuroendocrine gastric carcinoma expressing somatostatin: A highly malignant, rare tumor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jaques Waisberg; Leandro Luongo de Matos; Ana Maria do Amaral Antonio Mader; Sérgio Pezzolo; Esmeralda Miristene Eher; Vera Luiza Capelozzi; Manlio Basilio Speranzini

    2006-01-01

    Poorly differentiated gastric neuroendocrine carcinomas,although rare, deserve particular attention, as they are aggressive and have an extremely poor prognosis. In this report we describe a gastric neuroendocrine carcinoma with rapidly fatal outcome. Immunohistological staining of the resected specimens revealed that the tumor was an endocrine carcinoma. The tumor disclosed intense immunoreactivity to pan-neuroendocrine markers and diffuse somatostatin immunoreactivity. There were no psammoma bodies and no demonstrable association with von Recklinghausen's neurofibromatosis. In the gastrointestinal tract, neuroendocrine tumors producing predominantly somatostatin have been described only in the duodenum. To the best of our knowledge, the present report is the second case report of a neuroendocrine gastric carcinoma expressing diffusely somatostatin as the only neuroendocrine regulatory peptide.

  9. 一例罕见的巨大阴茎鳞癌的外科治疗%Surgical treatment of a rare case of penile squamous cell carcinoma in a 65-year-old man

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuan-Wen Zhu; Fang-Yin Li; Qing-Wei He; Yi-Min Wang

    2007-01-01

    Penile squamous cell carcinoma has been commonly reported in the past decades. We describe a rare case of a huge squamous cell carcinoma of the penis in a 65-year-old patient with a 4-year history of tumor growth, for which total penectomy, perineal urethrostomy and bilateral inguinal lymphadenectomy were carried out. We suggest that aggressive surgical intervention should be recommended for those with well-differentiated penile carcinoma regardless of the size of the tumor.

  10. Zearalenone as an endocrine disruptor in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalska, Karolina; Habrowska-Górczyńska, Dominika Ewa; Piastowska-Ciesielska, Agnieszka Wanda

    2016-12-01

    Zearalenone (ZEA), a fungal mycotoxin, is present in a wide range of human foods. Many animal studies have found ZEA to possess a disruptive effect on the hormonal balance, mainly due to its similarity to naturally-occurring estrogens. With increasing consciousness of the adverse effects of endocrine disruptors on human health, it is becoming more important to monitor ZEA concentrations in food and identify its potential effects on human health. Based on a review of recent studies on animal models and molecular pathways in which ZEA is reported to have an influence on humans, we postulate that ZEA might act as an endocrine disruptor in humans in a similar way to animals. Moreover, its endocrine-disrupting effect might be also a causative factor in carcinogenesis. This review article summarizes the latest knowledge about the influence of ZEA on the human hormonal balance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. ENDOCRINE DISORDERS AND THEIR EFFECTS IN ORTHODONTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar KHARE

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available the periodontal tissue to orthodontic forces, which leads to modeling and remodeling of the surrounding alveolar bone. The endocrine system is responsible for hormonal secretion, being closely related to the central nervous sys‑ tem, as it diversifies its functions through the hypothala‑ mus and pituitary glands. It controls physiological processes and maintains homeostasis. The neuroendocrine system is responsible for adaptation to environmental changes. Also, the nervous system may provide a correct organic response, of primary type, with the release of neu‑ rotransmitters or, if the stimulus prevails, the endocrine system secretes hormones. This is especially important in dentistry because many of the patients attending dental clinics face stressful situations. Awareness is therefore nec‑ essary on the risks and difficulties that may arise during the dental and orthodontic management of patients with endocrine disorders and most common oral manifesta‑ tions.

  12. Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome : A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Rajanikanth

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS or Gorlin - Goltz syndrome is an autosomal disorder principally characterized by cutaneous basal cell carcinomas, multiple keratocysts, and skeletal anomalies. The major organ systems involved are skin, bones, central nervous system, eyes, gonads and endocrine. This particular syndrome is extensively described in the literature under different names. However, there are only few cases reported in the Indian literature. An unusual case of a 33-year old male with large odontogenic keratocyst involving impacted canine in the mandible, along with multiple cysts and impacted teeth in the maxilla; bifid rib and vertebral anomalies has been described.

  13. UROTHELIAL CARCINOMA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    normal levels (_<_ 4 IUIL) corresponded with non recurrence of tumor and the persistence of ... Table 1: Tumor Grade and Stage in 120 Patients with Human Urothelial Carcinoma. pTa pT1 T2 ..... gonadotropin~like substance secreted by lung.

  14. Carcinoma vulvar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamit Peñas Zayas

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available El carcinoma de la vulva tiene una incidencia de aproximadamente un 3-5% dentro de todas las enfermedades ginecológicas malignas. El 90% de los tumores malignos de la vulva está constituido por carcinoma epidermoide, el resto son adenocarcinomas, carcinomas de células basales y melanomas. Se realiza la presentación de un caso de una paciente femenina de 25 años de edad con antecedentes  de Diabetes Mellitus tipo II y trombopatia, que ingresa en el servicio de ginecología con un cuadro cutáneo polimorfo, localizado en labios mayores y menores, dado por lesiones eritematoerosivas y vegetante, sospechándose clínicamente el diagnóstico  de un carcinoma epidermoide, corroborándose el mismo histológicamente al realizarse biopsia de piel. Se indicó tratamiento con quimioterapia. Por la edad de la paciente y ser menos frecuente en mucosa que en la piel,  motivo la presentación del caso.

  15. Parathyroid carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvist, N; Krøll, L; Ladefoged, C;

    1986-01-01

    Parathyroid carcinoma is a slow growing tumor, and the patients most often die from complications to the hypercalcemia. Therefore, any attempt should be made to remove local recurrence and metastasis surgically, as medical treatment is disappointing. A case treated with extensive vascular surgery...

  16. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brennan Bernadette

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC is a tumor arising from the epithelial cells that cover the surface and line the nasopharynx. The annual incidence of NPC in the UK is 0.3 per million at age 0–14 years, and 1 to 2 per million at age 15–19 years. Incidence is higher in the Chinese and Tunisian populations. Although rare, NPC accounts for about one third of childhood nasopharyngeal neoplasms. Three subtypes of NPC are recognized in the World Health Organization (WHO classification: 1 squamous cell carcinoma, typically found in the older adult population; 2 non-keratinizing carcinoma; 3 undifferentiated carcinoma. The tumor can extend within or out of the nasopharynx to the other lateral wall and/or posterosuperiorly to the base of the skull or the palate, nasal cavity or oropharynx. It then typically metastases to cervical lymph nodes. Cervical lymphadenopathy is the initial presentation in many patients, and the diagnosis of NPC is often made by lymph node biopsy. Symptoms related to the primary tumor include trismus, pain, otitis media, nasal regurgitation due to paresis of the soft palate, hearing loss and cranial nerve palsies. Larger growths may produce nasal obstruction or bleeding and a "nasal twang". Etiological factors include Epstein-Barr virus (EBV, genetic susceptibility and consumption of food with possible carcinogens – volatile nitrosamines. The recommended treatment schedule consists of three courses of neoadjuvant chemotherapy, irradiation, and adjuvant interferon (IFN-beta therapy.

  17. Adipose tissue as an endocrine organ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGown, Christine; Birerdinc, Aybike; Younossi, Zobair M

    2014-02-01

    Obesity is one of the most important health challenges faced by developed countries and is increasingly affecting adolescents and children. Obesity is also a considerable risk factor for the development of numerous other chronic diseases, such as insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, heart disease and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. The epidemic proportions of obesity and its numerous comorbidities are bringing into focus the highly complex and metabolically active adipose tissue. Adipose tissue is increasingly being considered as a functional endocrine organ. This article discusses the endocrine effects of adipose tissue during obesity and the systemic impact of this signaling.

  18. Effects of alcohol on the endocrine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachdaoui, Nadia; Sarkar, Dipak K

    2013-09-01

    Chronic consumption of a large amount of alcohol disrupts the communication between nervous, endocrine, and immune system and causes hormonal disturbances that lead to profound and serious consequences at physiologic and behavioral levels. These alcohol-induced hormonal dysregulations affect the entire body and can result in various disorders such as stress abnormalities, reproductive deficits, body growth defect, thyroid problems, immune dysfunction, cancers, bone disease, and psychological and behavioral disorders. This review summarizes the findings from human and animal studies that provide consistent evidence on the various effects of alcohol abuse on the endocrine system.

  19. [Telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) promoter mutations in the tumors of human endocrine organs: Biological and prognostic value].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selivanova, L S; Volganova, K S; Abrosimov, A Y U

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of the data available in the literature has shown that telomerase reverse transcriptase TERT promoter may serve as promising markers of malignancy, aggressive disease course, and poor prognosis for malignant tumors of endocrine organs. Considering the established association of mutations with tumors having a poor prognosis (high-grade and anaplastic carcinoma of the thyroid), it is reasonable to perform prognostic-value investigations in a group of low-grade thyroid carcinomas that may occasionally recur and may be resistant to radioactive iodine therapy, i.e. can demonstrate a poor course and prognosis. TERT promoter mutations may be a specific marker of the clinically aggressive forms of adrenocortical carcinoma, but the determination of its diagnostic value calls for additional investigations that will have the larger number cases and establish the association with clinical features and survival rates.

  20. GLUT-1 immunoexpression in oral epithelial dysplasia, oral squamous cell carcinoma, and verrucous carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angadi, Vidya C; Angadi, Punnya V

    2015-06-01

    Glucose transporters, such as GLUT-1, mediate the important mechanisms involved in cellular glucose influx, allowing cells to proliferate and survive. The significance of GLUT-1 expression in oral epithelial dysplasia (OED) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) has been less explored, and no study has investigated it in relation to verrucous carcinoma (VC). We evaluated 30 cases each of OED, OSCC, and VC, graded further on the basis of their differentiation, immunohistochemically for GLUT-1 expression, along with 10 specimens of normal oral mucosa (NOM) as controls. In OSCC, GLUT-1 expression increased with the degree of dysplasia and increasing grade (P < 0.001). The expression in VC was predominantly membranous and intense, resembling well differentiated OSCC. This increase of GLUT-1 expression in OSCC along with the degree of dysplasia and the histologic grade reflects the expanding glycolytic response to hypoxia. This is the first study to have revealed prominent GLUT-1 expression in VC, highlighting its inherent metabolic capacity.

  1. Gastric intramucosal adenocarcinoma with an invasive micropapillary carcinoma component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Hiroki; Baba, Youichirou; Sase, Tomohiro; Isono, Yoshiaki; Matsusaki, Shimpei; Saito, Tomonori; Okano, Hiroshi; Mukai, Katsumi; Murata, Tetsuya; Watanabe, Gen

    2015-02-01

    A 70-year-old woman was referred to our hospital because of early gastric cancer (lesser curvature of the antrum, 0-IIc, tub1, 15 mm) and underwent endoscopic submucosal dissection. Microscopically, the lesion was found to be confined to the mucosa, and predominantly composed of well-differentiated tubular adenocarcinoma with a micropapillary component. On immunohistochemical examination, the characteristic "inside-out pattern" of the micropapillary component was observed; thus, we diagnosed the lesion as gastric cancer with a micropapillary component. Invasive micropapillary carcinoma is a rare subtype of gastric carcinoma, and, to our knowledge, this is the first case of invasive micropapillary carcinoma of the stomach confined to the mucosa.

  2. FREQUENT DELETION OF MTS1/p16 GENE AND CORRELATION WITH CLINICOPATHOLOGICAL PARAMETERS IN ENDOMETRIAL CARCINOMA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Chunxiao; Sun Jianheng; Lu Shixin; Jin Shunqian; Liu Hailing; Sheng Xiugui

    1998-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the possible relationship between deletion of MTS/p16 gene and progression of endometrial carcinoma. Methods: Forty-six primary endometrial carcinoma, 7 tumor-adjacent endometrial tissue, 10 normal endometrial tissue specimen and 5 xenografts from patients with endometrial carcinoma were examined for homozygous deletion of MTS/p16 gene by polymerase chain reaction-based analysis. Results: Of 46 endometrial cancer specimens, 9 showed homozygous deletion, no deletion was detected in the tumor-adjacent and normal endometial tissues. Nor was it detected in well-differentiated endometrial carcinoma and all xenografts. Conclusions: Deletion of MTS1/p16 gene might contribute to the progression of endometrial carcinoma and could be served as indicator for predicting prognosis.

  3. [Endocrine disruptors: hormone-active chemicals from the environment: a risk to humans?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingmüller, Dietrich; Alléra, A

    2011-05-01

    Many substances from the technical and natural environment can cause damage to the endocrine system. Animal tests show that so-called endocrine disruptors (ED), such as pesticides, fungicides, plasticizers (phthalates), bisphenol A (BPA), and organotin compounds can interfere with the endocrine system. In humans, it is difficult to attribute such changes to specific ED. Nevertheless, in vitro studies with human cells and tissues clearly show that ED are able to interfere with endogenous hormones, i. e. affecting the steroid hormone metabolism and intracellular signaling. Several clinical studies show that humans are also affected, including reproductive disorders like reduction of spermatogenesis, decreased testosterone production or malformation of the genitals or induction of tumors like mammary carcinoma. Facing the body of reports documenting the effects of ED, the European Union supported--inter alia--COMPRENDO, a project addressing risk assessment of particular ED in human and wildlife species, while the FDA supports the industry's actions to stop producing BPA-containing baby bottles and infant feeding cups. Some ED show an u-shaped dose response curve and specific ED have effects at levels dramatically lower than thought relevant to traditional toxicology, a phenomenon termed "Low Dose Impact". Further research is needed to clarify whether the observed findings represent associations or causal results.

  4. Integrative assessment of enantioselectivity in endocrine disruption and immunotoxicity of synthetic pyrethroids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao Meirong [Research Center of Environmental Science, College of Biological and Environmental Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310032 (China); Chen Fang [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Zhejiang Gongshang University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Wang Cui; Zhang Quan [Research Center of Environmental Science, College of Biological and Environmental Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310032 (China); Gan Jianying [Department of Environmental Sciences, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Liu Weiping, E-mail: wliu@zjut.edu.c [Research Center of Environmental Science, College of Biological and Environmental Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310032 (China)

    2010-05-15

    The increasing release of chiral chemicals into the environment dictates attention to a better understanding of enantioselectivity in their human and ecotoxicological effects. Although enantioselectivity has been considered in many recent studies, there is little effort for discerning the connection between different processes, and as such, our current knowledge about chiral contaminants is rather scattered and incoherent. In this study, we simultaneously evaluated enantioselectivity of two chiral pesticides, lambda-cyhalothrin (LCT) and (Z)-cis-bifenthrin (cis-BF), in immunotoxicity to macrophage cells (RAW264.7), and endocrine disruption activity in human breast carcinoma cell line MCF-7. Analysis of cell proliferation, cell viability, apoptosis, and receptor gene expression showed significant differences between the enantiomers of LCT or cis-BF in estrogenic potential and immunocytotoxicity. The selectivity in these effects consistently followed the same direction, with (-)-LCT or 1S-cis-BF displaying a greater activity than its counterpart. The consistency was attributed to interplaying mechanisms in the closely interacting immune and endocrine systems. The underlying interplays suggest that other chiral xenobiotics may also show a directional enantioselectivity in immunotoxicity and endocrine toxicity. Given that many biological processes are inter-related, enantioselectivity may follow specific patterns that can be revealed via integrative assessments as demonstrated in this study. - Chiral contaminants should consider multiple effects and relate directions of enantioselectivity to their interplaying processes.

  5. Endocrine Disruptors in Domestic Animal Reproduction: A Clinical Issue?

    OpenAIRE

    Magnusson, Ulf; Persson, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Contents The objective of this review was to discuss whether endocrine disruption is a clinical concern in domestic animal reproduction. To that end, we firstly summarize the phenomenon of endocrine disruption, giving examples of the agents of concern and their effects on the mammalian reproductive system. Then there is a brief overview of the literature on endocrine disruptors and domestic animal reproduction. Finally, the clinical implications of endocrine disruptors on the reproductive sys...

  6. Role of Pituitary Tumour Transforming Gene 1 in Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Chiara Zatelli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pituitary tumour transforming gene 1 (PTTG1 is over-expressed in a variety of endocrine-related tumours. We aimed at evaluating PTTG1 expression and function in human neoplastic parafollicular C-cells, represented by medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC and C-cell hyperplasia (CCH samples and by the TT cell line.

  7. [Peptic ulcer and insular carcinoma of the pancreas with hepatic metastasis (Zollinger-Ellison syndrome)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoopen, M; Ize, L; Baz, G; Aguirre, J

    1975-01-01

    A Zollinger-Ellison syndrome case is reported. During arteriography and surgical treatment islet cell carcinoma of the pancreas with metastasis to the liver was found. After surgery, patient has presented several periods of hypoglicemia. Hence it was speculated that this type of neoplasm might have double endocrine function.

  8. Endocrine Disruptors (Chapter 14) in Mammalian Toxicology Book

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are exogenous substances that alter endocrine system function(s) and consequently cause adverse health effects in intact organisms or its progeny. The endocrine system is important for a wide range of biological processes, from normal cell si...

  9. Endocrine and metabolic characteristics in polycystic ovary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glintborg, Dorte

    2016-01-01

    endocrine disorders. The majority of these examinations can be performed by the patient's general practitioner. PCOS is a diagnosis of exclusion and is a multiorgan disease affecting most endocrine organs including ovaries, adrenals, pituitary, fat cells, and endocrine pancreas. The manifestations of PCOS...

  10. Human biological monitoring of suspected endocrine-disrupting compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Moosa Faniband; Lindh, Christian H; Bo AG Jönsson

    2014-01-01

    Endocrine-disrupting compounds are exogenous agents that interfere with the natural hormones of the body. Human biological monitoring is a powerful method for monitoring exposure to endocrine disrupting compounds. In this review, we describe human biological monitoring systems for different groups of endocrine disrupting compounds, polychlorinated biphenyls, brominated flame retardants, phthalates, alkylphenols, pesticides, metals, perfluronated compounds, parabens, ultraviolet filters, and o...

  11. Recent advancements in the drug treatment of endocrine diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sam, Amir H; Meeran, Karim

    2013-04-01

    Recent years have seen several advances in the management of endocrine diseases. These include novel drugs developed as a consequence of better understanding of the pathophysiology of endocrine conditions, as well as improved delivery methods for existing drugs. In this article, we summarise recent studies evaluating several drugs used in the treatment of endocrine disorders.

  12. Endocrine links between food reward and caloric homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattemann, Dianne Figlewicz

    2008-11-01

    Both intrinsic and extrinsic (endocrine) inputs to the central nervous system (CNS) modulate motivation for feeding. Endocrine inputs such as insulin and leptin can have very rapid effects, but also the potential for chronic actions to decrease rewarding attributes of food. Future studies should elucidate the neural and cellular mechanisms which underlie these endocrine actions in the CNS.

  13. Endocrine-disrupting chemicals use distinct mechanisms of action to modulate endocrine system function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henley, Derek V; Korach, Kenneth S

    2006-06-01

    The term endocrine-disrupting chemicals is used to define a structurally diverse class of synthetic and natural compounds that possess the ability to alter various components of the endocrine system and potentially induce adverse health effects in exposed individuals and populations. Research on these compounds has revealed that they use a variety of both nuclear receptor-mediated and non-receptor-mediated mechanisms to modulate different components of the endocrine system. This review will describe in vitro and in vivo studies that highlight the spectrum of unique mechanisms of action and biological effects of four endocrine-disrupting chemicals--diethylstilbestrol, genistein, di(n-butyl)phthalate, and methoxyacetic acid--to illustrate the diverse and complex nature of this class of compounds.

  14. CONTAMINANT-ASSOCIATED ENDOCRINE DISRUPTION IN REPTILES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The data presented suggest that contaminants can alter the endocrine and reproductive system of reptiles by mimicking hormones and by various mechanisms other than direct hormonal mimicry. However, these data indicate, as do many other studies using various vertebrates, that a fo...

  15. Study of Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals in Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltán Juvancz

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC cause more and more seriousenvironmental pollutions. The EDCs show only ng-μg/l concentration level in theenvironment, therefore their determinations require multistep sample preparationprocesses and highly sophisticated instrumentation. This paper discuss the EDC effects,and show examples for determination of such compounds.

  16. Heavy Metals Acting as Endocrine Disrupters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Georgescu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Last years researches focused on several natural and synthetic compounds that may interfere with the major functionsof the endocrine system and were termed endocrine disrupters. Endocrine disrupters are defined as chemicalsubstances with either agonist or antagonist endocrine effects in human and animals. These effects may be achievedby interferences with the biosynthesis or activity of several endogenous hormones. Recently, it was demonstratedthat heavy metals such as cadmium (Cd, arsen (As, mercury (Hg, nickel (Ni, lead (Pb and zinc (Zn may exhibitendocrine-disrupting activity in animal experiments. Emerging evidence of the intimate mechanisms of action ofthese heavy metals is accumulating. It was revealed, for example, that the Zn atom from the Zn fingers of theestrogen receptor can be replaced by several heavy metal molecules such as copper, cobalt, Ni and Cd. By replacingthe Zn atom with Ni or copper, binding of the estrogen receptor to the DNA hormone responsive elements in the cellnucleus is prevented. In both males and females, low-level exposure to Cd interferes with the biological effects ofsteroid hormones in reproductive organs. Arsen has the property to bind to the glucocorticoid receptor thusdisturbing glucocorticoids biological effects. With regard to Hg, this may induce alterations in male and femalefertility, may affect the function of the hypothalamo-pituitary-thyroid axis or the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis,and disrupt biosynthesis of steroid hormones.

  17. Endocrine and Nutritional Management After Bariatric Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endocrine and Nutritional Management After Bariatric Surgery A Patient’s Guide Bariatric (weight loss) surgery is a treatment option for people who ... After surgery, you need to follow your doctor’s nutritional recommendations and exercise regularly (150 minutes per week ...

  18. Endocrine disrupting chemicals and disease susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schug, Thaddeus T; Janesick, Amanda; Blumberg, Bruce; Heindel, Jerrold J

    2011-11-01

    Environmental chemicals have significant impacts on biological systems. Chemical exposures during early stages of development can disrupt normal patterns of development and thus dramatically alter disease susceptibility later in life. Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) interfere with the body's endocrine system and produce adverse developmental, reproductive, neurological, cardiovascular, metabolic and immune effects in humans. A wide range of substances, both natural and man-made, are thought to cause endocrine disruption, including pharmaceuticals, dioxin and dioxin-like compounds, polychlorinated biphenyls, DDT and other pesticides, and components of plastics such as bisphenol A (BPA) and phthalates. EDCs are found in many everyday products--including plastic bottles, metal food cans, detergents, flame retardants, food additives, toys, cosmetics, and pesticides. EDCs interfere with the synthesis, secretion, transport, activity, or elimination of natural hormones. This interference can block or mimic hormone action, causing a wide range of effects. This review focuses on the mechanisms and modes of action by which EDCs alter hormone signaling. It also includes brief overviews of select disease endpoints associated with endocrine disruption.

  19. Neuro-endocrine disruption in molluscs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holbech, Henrik; Bech Sanderhoff, Lene; Waller, Stine P.

    The Mollusca phylum is the second largest animal phylum with around 85,000 registered mollusc species and increasing attention to effects of chemicals on the molluscan endocrine system have been given during the last years. This includes initiation of the development of OECD test guidelines (TG) ...

  20. Endocrine Ophthalmopathy in Autoimmune Thyroid Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Pashkovska, N.V.

    2014-01-01

    The article presents modern data about risk factors, mechanisms of development, clinical features of endocrine ophthalmopathy, as well as information regarding current approaches to diagnosis, treatment and prevention of this disease according to the latest global recommendations developed from the position of evidence-based medicine.

  1. Discontinued drugs in 2008: endocrine and metabolic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colca, Jerry R

    2009-09-01

    This perspective summarizes key compounds from the endocrine and metabolic area that were discontinued during the calendar year 2008. This is a continuation in a series of perspectives of each of the editorial areas summarized by Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs. The candidates covered in this summary were being developed for the treatment of diabetes, diabetic complications, anti-atherosclerosis and obesity.

  2. Endocrine and Metabolic Aspects of OSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravinder Goswami

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is characterized by repeated spells of apnea.Collapsibility of hypopharynx due to multiple factors involving pharyngeal dilatormuscles and deposition of fat or fluid in the surrounding soft tissues are importantcontributing factors in its pathogenesis. OSA commonly affects obese individuals.Males are more commonly affected than the females probably due to the disturbingeffect of testosterone on sleep.The impact of OSA on human health include disturbances in endocrine and metabolicsystem affecting hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, adrenocorticotrophic-cortisolaxis, growth hormone, antidiuretic hormones and insulin resistance. There is atendency for predisposition of the metabolic syndrome or its components includingglycemic dysregulation, hypertension, hyperlipidemia and physical parameters relatedto adiposity. On the other hand, several endocrine disorders such as hypothyroidism,growth hormone excess, polycystic ovarian disease and testosterone replacement areassociated with increased prevalence of OSA.There is limited information on the effect of treatment of OSA by continuous positiveairway pressure (CPAP on the endocrine and metabolic disturbances. There is a needto conduct randomized controlled trials using CPAP therapy in patients with OSA andto study its cause and effect relationship with endocrine and metabolic disturbances.

  3. Nuclear corepressor 1 expression predicts response to first-line endocrine therapy for breast cancer patients on relapse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhen-huan; Hiroko Yamashita; Tatsuya Toyama; Yutaka Yamamoto; Teru Kawasoe; Mutsuko Ibusuki; Saori Tomita; Hiroshi Sugiura; Shunzo Kobayashi; Yoshitaka Fujii; Hirotaka Iwase

    2009-01-01

    Background Estrogen receptor alpha(ER a)is the most important endocrine therapy responsiveness predictor for women with breast cancer.The accuracy of the prediction of the response to endocrine therapy was thought to be affected by involving the estrogen receptor coregulatory proteins and cross-talk between ER and other growth factor-signaling networks.Nuclear corepressor 1(NCOR1)is one of the ERa transcription repressor.The objective of the study is to investigate the expression of NCOR1 at the protein level and pursue its predictive value for breast cancer endocrine therapy.Methods In the present study,the level of expression of NCOR1 protein has been assessed by immunohistochemistry in 104 cases of invasive carcinoma of the breast.Associations between NCOR1 protein expression and different clinicopathological factors and survival were sought.Results It was found that NCOR1 was expressed at significantly higher levels in responsive patients treated with endocrine therapy as first-line treatment on relapse.Responsive patients also had a significantly longer post-relapse survival and overall survival.No NCOR1 expression difference was found between patient by age,tumor size,lymph node status,different histological grade groups and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2(HER2)status.Multivariate analysis showed that NCOR1 is an independent prognostic factor for over-all survival.Conclusions In breast cancer,NCOR1 protein expression level predicts response to endocrine therapy as first-line treatment for breast cancer patients on relapse and NCOR1 protein level assay may increase the accuracy in the endocrine treatment determination and,therefore,improving the patients survival.

  4. Multiple endocrine adenomatosis with Cushing's disease and the amenorrhea-galactorrhea syndrome responsive to proton beam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veseley, D.L.; Fass, F.H.

    1981-09-01

    Multiple endocrine adenomatosis (MEA) or neoplasia is a hereditary disorder consisting of tumors of hyperplasia of several endocrine glands. In MEA-1 the pituitary, parathyroids, and pancreatic islets are most frequently involved, while in MEA-2 the thyroid (medullary carcinoma of the thyroid), parathyroids,and adrenals (pheochromocytomas) are the endocrine glands most likely to be involved. Cushings's syndrome may occur in MEA-1 and has also been found in patients with MEA-2, where the cause of Cushing's syndrome is usually ectopic ACTH production from medullary carcinoma of the thyroid. Recently, there have been reports of amenorrhea-galactorrhea syndrome in patients with MEA-1, and confirmation that hyperprolactinemia is associated with this syndrom has been found in patients with MEA-1. The present report details a patient who has been followed up for 20 years since she first presented with amenorrhea and galactorrhea. Ten years after first being seen she was noted to have Cushing's syndrom and hyperparathyroidism due to parathyroid hyperplasia. Both the amenorrhea-galactorrhea syndrome and Cushing's sydrome disappeared with proton beam irradiation to the pituitary.

  5. Carcinoma verrugoso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban Quesada Jiménez

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el caso de un paciente masculino de 76 años, vecino de Turrialba, agricultor, que consultó por una lesión de 3 años de evolución, localizada en la palma de la mano derecha a nivel palmar y compromiso de los dedos de la misma mano, caracterizada como una neoformación exofítica verrugosa de 5 por 11 cm. aproximadamente, con material caseoso entre sus crestas. La lesión ha estado creciendo de forma acelerada en los últimos 3 meses, causándole dolor y que le imposibilita ellaborar. Se le realizaron exámenes y se descartaron varias causas infecciosas, y concluyendo luego de varias biopsias con el diagnóstico de un carcinoma verrugoso. El paciente fue tratado mediante una amputación parcial de la mano. Este tumor es una variante del carcinoma epidermoide y presentamos su clasificación, patogénesis, histopatología, manifestaciones clínicas más frecuentes y diagnóstico diferencial.A 76 year old farmer from Turrialba (Cartago, presented with a 3 year old lesion of his right pal and proximal fingers. It was exophitic, wart like, and it measured 5x11 cm, draining caseous material from its crests. The lesion had grows quickly for the last 3 months and it became tender to the point of making impossible for him to work. A series of tests were done to rule out other possible infections causes, after several biopsies the diagnosis of verrocous carcinoma was made. The patient underwent a partial amputation of his hand. This tumor is considered a from of squamous cell carcinoma, we present here its classification, pathogenesis, histopathology, clinical manifestations and diferential diagnosis.

  6. [The immuno-endocrine system. A new endocrine theory: the problem of the packed transport].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csaba, György

    2011-05-15

    Since the eighties of the last century hormone content was justified in immune cells (lymphocytes, granulocytes, monocytes, macrophages and mast cells), which produce, store and secrete these hormones. Although the amount of these materials in immune cells is relatively small, the mass of the producers (immune cells) is so large, that the phenomenon must be considered from endocrinological point of view, underlying the important differences between the "classical" and immuno-endocrine systems. Cells of the classic (built-in) endocrine system are mono-producers, while immune cells can synthesize many types of hormones (polyproducers). In addition, these cells can transport the whole hormone-producing machinery to the site of need, producing a local effect. This can be observed, for example, in the case of endorphin producing immune cells during inflammation and during early pregnancy around the chorionic villi. Hormone producing immune cells also have receptors for many hormones, so that they are poly-receivers. Via hormone producing and receiving capacity there is a bidirectional connection between the neuro-endocrine and immuno-endocrine systems. In addition, there is a network inside the immuno-endocrine system. The packed transport theory attempts to explain the mechanism and importance of the immuno-endocrine system.

  7. Anthropogenic tracers, endocrine disrupting chemicals, and endocrine disruption in Minnesota lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Writer, J.H.; Barber, L.B.; Brown, G.K.; Taylor, H.E.; Kiesling, R.L.; Ferrey, M.L.; Jahns, N.D.; Bartell, S.E.; Schoenfuss, H.L.

    2010-01-01

    Concentrations of endocrine disrupting chemicals and endocrine disruption in fish were determined in 11 lakes across Minnesota that represent a range of trophic conditions and land uses (urban, agricultural, residential, and forested) and in which wastewater treatment plant discharges were absent. Water, sediment, and passive polar organic integrative samplers (POCIS) were analyzed for steroidal hormones, alkylphenols, bisphenol A, and other organic and inorganic molecular tracers to evaluate potential non-point source inputs into the lakes. Resident fish from the lakes were collected, and caged male fathead minnows were deployed to evaluate endocrine disruption, as indicated by the biological endpoints of plasma vitellogenin and gonadal histology. Endocrine disrupting chemicals, including bisphenol A, 17??-estradiol, estrone, and 4-nonylphenol were detected in 90% of the lakes at part per trillion concentrations. Endocrine disruption was observed in caged fathead minnows and resident fish in 90% of the lakes. The widespread but variable occurrence of anthropogenic chemicals in the lakes and endocrine disruption in fish indicates that potential sources are diverse, not limited to wastewater treatment plant discharges, and not entirely predictable based on trophic status and land use. ?? 2010.

  8. Referral patterns for endocrine surgical disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervera, Ixel; Boucai, Laura; Andreopoulou, Panagiota; Libutti, Steven K; Hughes, David T

    2014-06-01

    Referrals between physician specialties are common practice, and clear patterns develop. The increasing availability of high-volume endocrine surgery subspecialists with better outcomes may change these patterns. This study aimed to determine what factors influence endocrinologists' referral patterns for the surgical treatment of endocrine disease. A national, cross-sectional, voluntary survey of members of the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists examined physician demographics, physician's opinions on referral to endocrine surgery, preferred surgeon specialty, knowledge about surgeon characteristics, and how these factors influenced which surgeons they referred patients, as well as what changes in these factors would alter their referral patterns. The survey response rate was 15% (73/500), and 97% were endocrinologists. On average, 0 to 5 patients/week were referred for surgery. Most respondents (91.8%) felt that endocrinologists should decide which surgeon to refer. General surgery was the preferred surgeon specialty (43.7%), and endocrine surgery was the preferred subspecialty (70.8%). The factors most often cited as very important in referral to a surgeon included surgeon outcome/complications (71%), familiarity with surgeon (65%), surgeon's communication with referring physician (61%), and surgeon volume (59%). The factors most often cited as likely to change physician referral patterns included patient satisfaction (62%), complication rates (57%), surgeon outcomes (54%), and surgeon volume (50%). The factors most often cited as unlikely to change referral patterns included new surgeon availability (70%) and hospital/surgeon advertising (58%). Referring physicians want experienced endocrine surgeons with high operative volumes and good outcomes whom they are familiar with. The promotion of referral to high-volume surgeons requires communication, good outcomes, and satisfied patients.

  9. Human skin: an independent peripheral endocrine organ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zouboulis, C C

    2000-01-01

    The historical picture of the endocrine system as a set of discrete hormone-producing organs has been substituted by organs regarded as organized communities in which the cells emit, receive and coordinate molecular signals from established endocrine organs, other distant sources, their neighbors, and themselves. In this wide sense, the human skin and its tissues are targets as well as producers of hormones. Although the role of hormones in the development of human skin and its capacity to produce and release hormones are well established, little attention has been drawn to the ability of human skin to fulfil the requirements of a classic endocrine organ. Indeed, human skin cells produce insulin-like growth factors and -binding proteins, propiomelanocortin derivatives, catecholamines, steroid hormones and vitamin D from cholesterol, retinoids from diet carotenoids, and eicosanoids from fatty acids. Hormones exert their biological effects on the skin through interaction with high-affinity receptors, such as receptors for peptide hormones, neurotransmitters, steroid hormones and thyroid hormones. In addition, the human skin is able to metabolize hormones and to activate and inactivate them. These steps are overtaken in most cases by different skin cell populations in a coordinated way indicating the endocrine autonomy of the skin. Characteristic examples are the metabolic pathways of the corticotropin-releasing hormone/propiomelanocortin axis, steroidogenesis, vitamin D, and retinoids. Hormones exhibit a wide range of biological activities on the skin, with major effects caused by growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1, neuropeptides, sex steroids, glucocorticoids, retinoids, vitamin D, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ligands, and eicosanoids. At last, human skin produces hormones which are released in the circulation and are important for functions of the entire organism, such as sex hormones, especially in aged individuals, and insulin-like growth

  10. Temozolomide in aggressive pituitary adenomas and carcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon D. Ortiz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Temozolomide is an alkylating agent used in the treatment of gliomas and, more recently, aggressive pituitary adenomas and carcinomas. Temozolomide methylates DNA and, thereby, has antitumor effects. O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase, a DNA repair enzyme, removes the alkylating adducts that are induced by temozolomide, thereby counteracting its effects. A Medline search for all of the available publications regarding the use of temozolomide for the treatment of pituitary tumors was performed. To date, 46 cases of adenohypophysial tumors that were treated with temozolomide, including 30 adenomas and 16 carcinomas, have been reported. Eighteen of the 30 (60% adenomas and 11 of the 16 (69% carcinomas responded favorably to treatment. One patient with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 and an aggressive prolactin-producing adenoma was also treated and demonstrated a good response. No significant complications have been attributed to temozolomide therapy. Thus, temozolomide is an effective treatment for the majority of aggressive adenomas and carcinomas. Evidence indicates that there is an inverse correlation between levels of O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase immunoexpression and therapeutic response. Alternatively, high-level O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase immunoexpression correlates with an unfavorable response. Here, we review the use of temozolomide for treating pituitary neoplasms.

  11. Synchronous Parathyroid and Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Dou Lin

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Concomitant thyroid disease is not unusual among patients with primary hyperparathyroidism. However, the simultaneous occurrence of parathyroid and thyroid carcinoma is extremely rare. We report a 38-year-old man with primary hyperparathyroidism who presented with osteitis fibrosa cystica complicated with pathologic femoral neck fracture. Preoperative investigation for exclusion of multiple endocrine neoplasia did not find evidence of medullary thyroid carcinoma or pheochromocytoma, but imaging studies revealed the presence of nodules in the right lobe and a parathyroid lesion over the left inferior pole of the thyroid gland. Total thyroidectomy, left parathyroidectomy, and bipolar hemiarthroplasty of the left hip were then performed simultaneously. The resected specimens were pathologically identified as papillary thyroid carcinoma and parathyroid carcinoma, respectively. After the operation, 131I ablation therapy was administered at a dose of 120 mCi. Additional doses of 30 mCi were given yearly as serum thyroglobulin level became elevated. Serum calcium level remained normal during yearly follow-up. Although parathyroid carcinoma is an uncommon cause of parathyroid hormone-dependent hypercalcemia, it should nonetheless be given due consideration because its surgical approach differs from that of parathyroid adenoma. As the coexistence of parathyroid and non-medullary thyroid carcinoma has previously been reported, the possibility of both malignancies must also be considered in the setting of primary hyperparathyroidism with thyroid nodules. If confirmed with preoperative parathyroid scintigraphic and other laboratory studies, an optimal outcome may be achieved with complete resection of both tumors at the time of initial operation, followed by adjunctive therapy.

  12. Molecular pathology of breast apocrine carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Celis, J.E.; Gromova, I.; Gromov, P.;

    2006-01-01

    Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease that encompasses a wide range of histopathological types including: invasive ductal carcinoma, lobular carcinoma, medullary carcinoma, mucinous carcinoma, tubular carcinoma, and apocrine carcinoma among others. Pure apocrine carcinomas represent about 0.5%...

  13. Expression of Neuroendocrine Markers in Different Molecular Subtypes of Breast Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L. Wachter

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Carcinomas of the breast with neuroendocrine features are incorporated in the World Health Organization classification since 2003 and include well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumors, poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas/small cell carcinomas, and invasive breast carcinomas with neuroendocrine differentiation. Neuroendocrine differentiation is known to be more common in certain low-grade histologic special types and has been shown to mainly cluster to the molecular (intrinsic luminal A subtype. Methods. We analyzed the frequency of neuroendocrine differentiation in different molecular subtypes of breast carcinomas of no histologic special type using immunohistochemical stains with specific neuroendocrine markers (chromogranin A and synaptophysin. Results. We found neuroendocrine differentiation in 20% of luminal B-like carcinomas using current WHO criteria (at least 50% of tumor cells positive for synaptophysin or chromogranin A. In contrast, no neuroendocrine differentiation was seen in luminal A-like, HER2 amplified and triple-negative carcinomas. Breast carcinomas with neuroendocrine differentiation presented with advanced stage disease and showed aggressive behavior. Conclusions. We conclude that neuroendocrine differentiation is more common than assumed in poorly differentiated luminal B-like carcinomas. Use of specific neuroendocrine markers is thus encouraged in this subtype to enhance detection of neuroendocrine differentiation and hence characterize the biological and therapeutic relevance of this finding in future studies.

  14. Expression of Neuroendocrine Markers in Different Molecular Subtypes of Breast Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachter, David L.; Hartmann, Arndt; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Fasching, Peter A.; Hein, Alexander; Bayer, Christian M.; Agaimy, Abbas

    2014-01-01

    Background. Carcinomas of the breast with neuroendocrine features are incorporated in the World Health Organization classification since 2003 and include well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumors, poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas/small cell carcinomas, and invasive breast carcinomas with neuroendocrine differentiation. Neuroendocrine differentiation is known to be more common in certain low-grade histologic special types and has been shown to mainly cluster to the molecular (intrinsic) luminal A subtype. Methods. We analyzed the frequency of neuroendocrine differentiation in different molecular subtypes of breast carcinomas of no histologic special type using immunohistochemical stains with specific neuroendocrine markers (chromogranin A and synaptophysin). Results. We found neuroendocrine differentiation in 20% of luminal B-like carcinomas using current WHO criteria (at least 50% of tumor cells positive for synaptophysin or chromogranin A). In contrast, no neuroendocrine differentiation was seen in luminal A-like, HER2 amplified and triple-negative carcinomas. Breast carcinomas with neuroendocrine differentiation presented with advanced stage disease and showed aggressive behavior. Conclusions. We conclude that neuroendocrine differentiation is more common than assumed in poorly differentiated luminal B-like carcinomas. Use of specific neuroendocrine markers is thus encouraged in this subtype to enhance detection of neuroendocrine differentiation and hence characterize the biological and therapeutic relevance of this finding in future studies. PMID:24701575

  15. Poorly differentiated carcinoma of the thyroid retrospective clinical and morphologic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, T S; Suh, J S; Kim, Y I; Park, S H; Koh, C S; Cho, B Y; Oh, S K

    1990-03-01

    Five thyroid carcinomas showing clinically aggressive biologic behavior were retrospectively reviewed to evaluate the possible presence of morphologic differences from conventional thyroid carcinomas. They were originally diagnosed as follicular carcinomas, medullary carcinoma, papillary carcinoma, and mixed papillary and medullary carcinoma. There were three males and two females. The age at the time of initial diagnosis ranged from 36 years to 67 years (mean 56 years). The size of the tumor varied from 4.5cm to 10cm (mean diameter 7cm). One patient died of brain metastasis four years after the initial therapy and the other four patients are still alive with local recurrences and/or metastases to bone, spinal cord, lung, and buttock. Histologically these lesions are categorized into two different groups: insular variant and columnar cell variant. Insular variant was characterized by well-defined nests (insulae) that are composed of small, uniform cells, frequent tumor necrosis, and hyalinization of the stroma. Columnar cell variant was characterized by tall columnar cells with marked nuclear statification. All five cases stained positively for thyroglobulin and negatively for calcitonin. With the above clinical and histopathological findings, we interpreted these lesions as a poorly differentiated carcinoma, biologically in an intermediate position between well differentiated and anaplastic carcinomas. The rapid and often fatal outcome associated with these variants of poorly differentiated carcinoma warrants aggressive treatment at the time of diagnosis.

  16. Diagnosis and surgical treatment of multiple endocrine neoplasia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Guang-wen; WEI Yao; CHEN Xi; JIANG Xiao-hua; LI Xiao-ying; NING Guang; LI Hong-wei

    2009-01-01

    Background Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) is relatively rare. But more patients could be found by detailed examination. We discuss the diagnosis and surgical treatment of MEN. Methods The clinical data of 95 MEN cases were retrospectively analyzed. There were 30 cases of MEN1 including 19 cases from 6 families. The MEN1 gene mutation was detected in 81.48% of cases admitted after 1997. There were 22 cases of primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT), 10 cases of enteropanceatic tumor including 9 cases of insulinoma, 15 cases of pituitary adenoma, 9 cases of adrenal adenoma, 2 cases of thymic carcinoid. Two patients had 4 glands involved, 3 patients had 3 glands involved, 16 patients had 2 glands involved, and 6 patients had only one gland involved. Three patients had neither clinical symptoms nor biochemical changes, and was diagnosed by MEN1 gene mutation. Six patients presented with nephrolithasis and 6 patients had impaired pancreatic endocrine function. There were 60 cases of MEN2a and 5 cases of MEN2b. 58 cases of MEN2a belongs to 19 kindreds. All MEN2a patients but one presented RET gene mutation in codon 634, and all MEN2b cases had mutation in codon 918. 48 cases of MEN2a had thyroid masses with elevated calcitonin levels. 27 patients had pheochromocytoma including 12 cases of multiple loci and 5 malignancy. 13 patients presented with hyperparathyroidism. 5 MEN2b patients had medullary thyroid carcinoma and mucosal ganglioneuromatosis with Marfanoid. Among them, 3 patients had bilateral pheochromocytoma. Results In MEN1, subtotal parathyroidectomy was performed in 12 patients with PHPT and one patient received parathyroid adenoma enucleation. Insulinomas were enucleated in 4 patients. Two patients underwent thymus tumor extirpation. Total thyroidectomy with bilateral dissection of regional lymph nodes was performed in 16 patients with MEN2a and nodule enucleation was performed in 9 patients. Twenty two MEN2a patients underwent pheochromocytoma enucleation

  17. Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Stress and Endocrine Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariyasu, Daisuke; Yoshida, Hiderou; Hasegawa, Yukihiro

    2017-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the organelle where secretory and membrane proteins are synthesized and folded. Unfolded proteins that are retained within the ER can cause ER stress. Eukaryotic cells have a defense system called the “unfolded protein response” (UPR), which protects cells from ER stress. Cells undergo apoptosis when ER stress exceeds the capacity of the UPR, which has been revealed to cause human diseases. Although neurodegenerative diseases are well-known ER stress-related diseases, it has been discovered that endocrine diseases are also related to ER stress. In this review, we focus on ER stress-related human endocrine disorders. In addition to diabetes mellitus, which is well characterized, several relatively rare genetic disorders such as familial neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus (FNDI), Wolfram syndrome, and isolated growth hormone deficiency type II (IGHD2) are discussed in this article. PMID:28208663

  18. Endocrine disrupters. The case of estrogen xenobiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Olea Serrano

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Interest of the scientific community in chemical substances able to alter the hormone balance –endocrine disrupters- has grown with increasing evidence of the consequences for animal populations of exposure to these substances. As has occurred on previous occasions, observational data on animal populations have been sufficiently suggestive to cause concerns among clinicians that similar effects may be produced in human populations. Although data on the effects on populations of animals are more easily generated than those on individuals, clinical observations on human individuals alongside the few existing epidemiological studies have shown a certain parallelism. Indeed, in vitro and in vivo models have been able to designate many chemical compounds as hormonal mimics, including both natural and human-produced compounds to which there are exposure risks. The present work reviews the conceptual premises of endocrine disruption and the development of the use of this term.

  19. Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Stress and Endocrine Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariyasu, Daisuke; Yoshida, Hiderou; Hasegawa, Yukihiro

    2017-02-11

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the organelle where secretory and membrane proteins are synthesized and folded. Unfolded proteins that are retained within the ER can cause ER stress. Eukaryotic cells have a defense system called the "unfolded protein response" (UPR), which protects cells from ER stress. Cells undergo apoptosis when ER stress exceeds the capacity of the UPR, which has been revealed to cause human diseases. Although neurodegenerative diseases are well-known ER stress-related diseases, it has been discovered that endocrine diseases are also related to ER stress. In this review, we focus on ER stress-related human endocrine disorders. In addition to diabetes mellitus, which is well characterized, several relatively rare genetic disorders such as familial neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus (FNDI), Wolfram syndrome, and isolated growth hormone deficiency type II (IGHD2) are discussed in this article.

  20. Thyroid autoimmunity and polyglandular endocrine syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wémeau, Jean-Louis; Proust-Lemoine, Emmanuelle; Ryndak, Amélie; Vanhove, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Even though autoimmune thyroiditis is considered as the most emblematic type of organ-specific autoimmune disorder of autoimmunity, autoimmune thyroid diseases can be associated with other autoimmune endocrine failures or non-endocrine diseases (namely vitiligo, pernicious anemia, myasthenia gravis, autoimmune gastritis, celiac disease, hepatitis). Thyroid disorders, which are the most frequent expression of adult polyendocrine syndrome type 2, occur concomitantly with or secondarily to insulinodependent diabetes, premature ovarian failure, Addison's disease (Schmidt syndrome, or Carpenter syndrome if associated with diabetes). Testicular failure and hypoparathyroidism are unusual. The disease is polygenic and multifactorial. Disorders of thyroid autoimmunity are, surprisingly, very rare in polyendocrine syndrome type 1 (or APECED) beginning during childhood. They are related to mutations of the AIRE gene that encodes for a transcriptional factor implicated in central and peripheral immune tolerance. Hypothyroidism can also be observed in the very rare IPEX and POEMS syndromes.

  1. Estrogenic endocrine disruptors: Molecular mechanisms of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyama, Ryoiti; Wada-Kiyama, Yuko

    2015-10-01

    A comprehensive summary of more than 450 estrogenic chemicals including estrogenic endocrine disruptors is provided here to understand the complex and profound impact of estrogen action. First, estrogenic chemicals are categorized by structure as well as their applications, usage and effects. Second, estrogenic signaling is examined by the molecular mechanism based on the receptors, signaling pathways, crosstalk/bypassing and autocrine/paracrine/homeostatic networks involved in the signaling. Third, evaluation of estrogen action is discussed by focusing on the technologies and protocols of the assays for assessing estrogenicity. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of estrogen action is important to assess the action of endocrine disruptors and will be used for risk management based on pathway-based toxicity testing.

  2. Paraoxonase 1 Activity in Endocrine Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem Tarçın

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Paraoxonase is an esterase bound to high-density lipoproteins which by metabolizing lipid peroxides, prevents their accumulation on low-density lipoproteins. It also hydrolyzes various organophosphorus compounds. Considering the role of PON1 in hydrolyzing phospholipid and cholesteryl-ester hydroperoxides and thus protecting lipoproteins against oxidative modification, it can be concluded that PON1 may be an indicator of the risk of atherosclerosis/coronary artery disease development. Recent studies have also shown that PON activity was related to several disorders, including endocrine disorders as well. In this paper, we review the relation of PON1 activity with endocrine diseases like diabetes, thyroid dysfunction, osteoporosis, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS, obesity and dyslipidemia. Turk Jem 2011; 15: 33-8

  3. Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER Stress and Endocrine Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Ariyasu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The endoplasmic reticulum (ER is the organelle where secretory and membrane proteins are synthesized and folded. Unfolded proteins that are retained within the ER can cause ER stress. Eukaryotic cells have a defense system called the “unfolded protein response” (UPR, which protects cells from ER stress. Cells undergo apoptosis when ER stress exceeds the capacity of the UPR, which has been revealed to cause human diseases. Although neurodegenerative diseases are well-known ER stress-related diseases, it has been discovered that endocrine diseases are also related to ER stress. In this review, we focus on ER stress-related human endocrine disorders. In addition to diabetes mellitus, which is well characterized, several relatively rare genetic disorders such as familial neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus (FNDI, Wolfram syndrome, and isolated growth hormone deficiency type II (IGHD2 are discussed in this article.

  4. Application of Molecular Pathology in Endocrine Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linke, Ebru Serinsoz; Tezel, Gaye Güler

    2015-01-01

    Rapid growth in knowledge of cell and molecular biology led to the increased usage of molecular techniques in anatomical pathology. This is also due to the advances achieved in the techniques introduced in the last few years which are less laborious as compared to the techniques used at the beginning of the "molecular era". The initial assays were also very expensive and were not performed except for selected centers. Moreover, the clinicians were not sure how to make use of the accumulating molecular information. That situation has also changed and molecular techniques are being performed in a wide variety of medical settings which also has a reflection on the endocrine system pathology among other organ systems. This review will provide an update of genetic changes observed in different endocrine system pathologies and their diagnostic, therapeutic and prognostic values.

  5. Veliparib, Capecitabine, and Temozolomide in Patients With Advanced, Metastatic, and Recurrent Neuroendocrine Tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-26

    Functional Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumor; Malignant Somatostatinoma; Merkel Cell Carcinoma; Metastatic Adrenal Gland Pheochromocytoma; Metastatic Carcinoid Tumor; Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1; Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2A; Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2B; Neuroendocrine Neoplasm; Non-Functional Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumor; Pancreatic Glucagonoma; Pancreatic Insulinoma; Recurrent Adrenal Cortex Carcinoma; Recurrent Adrenal Gland Pheochromocytoma; Recurrent Merkel Cell Carcinoma; Somatostatin-Producing Neuroendocrine Tumor; Stage III Adrenal Cortex Carcinoma; Stage III Thyroid Gland Medullary Carcinoma; Stage IIIA Merkel Cell Carcinoma; Stage IIIB Merkel Cell Carcinoma; Stage IV Adrenal Cortex Carcinoma; Stage IV Merkel Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Medullary Carcinoma; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Medullary Carcinoma; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Medullary Carcinoma; Thymic Carcinoid Tumor; VIP-Producing Neuroendocrine Tumor; Well Differentiated Adrenal Cortex Carcinoma; Zollinger Ellison Syndrome

  6. Multicentricidade no carcinoma diferenciado da tireóide Multicentricity in the thyroid differentiated carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Francisco Salles Chagas

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available O tratamento cirúrgico de escolha no carcinoma diferenciado da tireóide sempre foi controverso. OBJETIVO: Analisar o acometimento tumoral do lobo contralateral da tireóide no carcinoma diferenciado, correlacionando risco e benefício com as complicações decorrentes da segunda intervenção. CASUÍSTICA E MÉTODO: Estudo retrospectivo, de 1998 a 2006, com 27 pacientes submetidos à tireoidectomia menos que total, sendo 21 lobectomias, cinco tireoidectomias subtotais e uma istmectomia. Foram analisados: gênero, idade, tipo de cirurgia, complicações, histopatológico do espécime cirúrgico e invasão do lobo contralateral. As idades variaram de 17 a 89 anos; o tipo histopatológico mais freqüente foi o carcinoma papilífero clássico (18 casos, seguido do carcinoma folicular (seis casos, do carcinoma papilífero variante folicular (dois casos e do carcinoma de células Hürthle (um caso. Vinte e um pacientes foram submetidos à totalização da tireoidectomia, 15 a 30 dias depois. RESULTADOS: A análise do lobo contralateral foi negativa para carcinoma em 16 (76,5% e positiva nos cinco restantes (23,8%. As complicações observadas foram: disfonia temporária (três casos e hipoparatireoidismo (dois casos, sendo um permanente. CONCLUSÃO: A totalização da tireoidectomia é um procedimento importante no tratamento do carcinoma bem diferenciado da tireóide pelo elevado acometimento contralateral (23,8%. A incidência de complicações é pequena.The treatment of choice for the well differentiated thyroid carcinoma has always been controversial. AIM: to analyze tumor invasion of the thyroid gland's contralateral lobe in cases of differentiated carcinoma, correlating risk/benefit with the complications of a second surgical approach. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective study, from 1998 to 2006, of 27 patients undergoing less than total thyroidectomy: lobectomy (21, subtotal thyroidectomy (5 or isthmusectomy (1. Gender, age, type of surgery

  7. Endocrine dysfunction in patients of leprosy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit Kumar Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Leprosy is a chronic granulomatous disease and affects many internal organs in addition to the skin and peripheral nerves. Endocrine dysfunction is often silent and is often missed in patients of leprosy leading to significant morbidity. We studied the presence of occult endocrine disorders in leprosy patients and compared the same with disease parameters. Materials and Methods: We evaluated 40 patients of leprosy (aged 18-70 years, any duration in this cross-sectional, observational study. All subjects were assessed for pituitary, thyroid, adrenal, gonadal function, and dynamic testing was done when deemed necessary. The participants were divided into two groups: Group 1 (Leprosy, n = 40 and Group 2 (Controls, n = 20 and the data were analyzed with appropriate statistical tests. Results: The study participants (35 males, 5 females had a mean age of 36.4 ± 11.3 years, and duration of the disease was 2.5 ± 5.5 years. Eleven out of 40 patients showed results consistent with an endocrine disorder, including subclinical hypothyroidism (n = 4, sick euthyroid syndrome (n = 3, growth hormone (GH deficiency (n = 2, primary hypogonadism (n = 2 and secondary hypogonadism in one patient. One patient had partial hypopituitarism (GH deficiency and secondary hypogonadism and none of the controls showed any hormonal dysfunction. Testosterone levels showed inverse correlation with the number of skin patches (P = 0.0006. Conclusion: Occult endocrine dysfunction is seen in a quarter of patients with leprosy. Thyroid and gonadal axes abnormalities are common, and the severity is more in lepromatous forms of the disease. Further large studies are required to confirm the findings observed in our study.

  8. Predicting chemical impacts on vertebrate endocrine systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, John W; Breen, Miyuki; Denver, Robert J; Distefano, Joseph J; Edwards, Jeremy S; Hoke, Robert A; Volz, David C; Zhang, Xiaowei

    2011-01-01

    Animals have evolved diverse protective mechanisms for responding to toxic chemicals of both natural and anthropogenic origin. From a governmental regulatory perspective, these protective responses complicate efforts to establish acceptable levels of chemical exposure. To explore this issue, we considered vertebrate endocrine systems as potential targets for environmental contaminants. Using the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT), hypothalamic-pituitary-gonad (HPG), and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axes as case examples, we identified features of these systems that allow them to accommodate and recover from chemical insults. In doing so, a distinction was made between effects on adults and those on developing organisms. This distinction was required because endocrine system disruption in early life stages may alter development of organs and organ systems, resulting in permanent changes in phenotypic expression later in life. Risk assessments of chemicals that impact highly regulated systems must consider the dynamics of these systems in relation to complex environmental exposures. A largely unanswered question is whether successful accommodation to a toxic insult exerts a fitness cost on individual animals, resulting in adverse consequences for populations. Mechanistically based mathematical models of endocrine systems provide a means for better understanding accommodation and recovery. In the short term, these models can be used to design experiments and interpret study findings. Over the long term, a set of validated models could be used to extrapolate limited in vitro and in vivo testing data to a broader range of untested chemicals, species, and exposure scenarios. With appropriate modification, Tier 2 assays developed in support of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program could be used to assess the potential for accommodation and recovery and inform the development of mechanistically based models.

  9. Essential Medicines for Children: An Endocrine Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Kalra

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of endocrine disease has created significant challenges for healthcare policy-makers and payers across the world. Policy-makers have to ensure availability of drugs used for various endocrinopathies. One way in which this is facilitated is through the World Health Organization (WHO List of Essential Medicines (LEM. The LEM aims to cover the basic pharmaceutical needs of the majority of people seeking healthcare (1.

  10. Gastrointestinal Neuroendocrine Tumors: Pancreatic Endocrine Tumors

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Pancreatic endocrine tumors (PETs) have long fascinated clinicians and investigators despite their relative rarity. Their clinical presentation varies depending upon whether the tumor is functional or not and also according to the specific hormonal syndrome produced. Tumors may be sporadic or inherited but little is known about their molecular pathology, especially the sporadic forms. Chromogranin A appears to be the most useful serum marker for diagnosis, staging and monitoring. Initially, t...

  11. Endocrine Disruption and Human Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    described in Task 1, was to expose pregnant female rats to vinclozolin and test if the inductive and instructive properties of the prostate stroma is...ethane dimethane sulphonate ) during sexual differentiation produces diverse profiles of reproductive malformations in the male rat. Toxicol Ind Health...BPH Benign prostate hyperplasia cDNA Complementary deoxyribonucleic acid DP Dorsal prostate EDC Endocrine disruptor E Estrogen FgF10

  12. The endocrine function of adipose tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner de Jesus Pinto

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Currently it is considered the adipose tissue as a dynamic structure involved in many physiological and metabolic processes, produces and releases a variety of active peptides known by the generic name of adipokines that act performing endocrine, paracrine and autocrine. Furthermore, numbers expressed receptors that respond allows the afferent signals from endocrine organs, and also central nervous system. In 1987, the adipose tissue has been identified as the major site of metabolism of steroid hormones, thereafter, in 1994, it was recognized as an endocrine organ and the leptin being an early secretory products identified. In addition other biologically active substances were being isolated, such as adiponectin, resistin, TNF-a, interleukin-6 and others. The adipokines derived from adipose tissue modulate many metabolic parameters such as control of food intake, energy balance and peripheral insulin sensitivity, for example. Thus, the altered secretion of adipokines by adipose tissue may have metabolic effects may present complex relations with the pathophysiological process of obesity, endothelial dysfunction, inflammation, atherosclerosis and Diabetes mellitus. The understanding of the molecular processes occurring in the adipocytes may provide new tools for the treatment of pathophysiological conditions such as, for example, metabolic syndrome, obesity and diabetes mellitus.

  13. The heart as an endocrine organ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Tsuneo; de Bold, Adolfo J

    2014-01-01

    The concept of the heart as an endocrine organ arises from the observation that the atrial cardiomyocytes in the mammalian heart display a phenotype that is partly that of endocrine cells. Investigations carried out between 1971 and 1983 characterised, by virtue of its natriuretic properties, a polypeptide referred to atrial natriuretic factor (ANF). Another polypeptide isolated from brain in 1988, brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), was subsequently characterised as a second hormone produced by the mammalian heart atria. These peptides were associated with the maintenance of extracellular fluid volume and blood pressure. Later work demonstrated a plethora of other properties for ANF and BNP, now designated cardiac natriuretic peptides (cNPs). In addition to the cNPs, other polypeptide hormones are expressed in the heart that likely act upon the myocardium in a paracrine or autocrine fashion. These include the C-type natriuretic peptide, adrenomedullin, proadrenomedullin N-terminal peptide and endothelin-1. Expression and secretion of ANF and BNP are increased in various cardiovascular pathologies and their levels in blood are used in the diagnosis and prognosis of cardiovascular disease. In addition, therapeutic uses for these peptides or related substances have been found. In all, the discovery of the endocrine heart provided a shift from the classical functional paradigm of the heart that regarded this organ solely as a blood pump to one that regards this organ as self-regulating its workload humorally and that also influences the function of several other organs that control cardiovascular function.

  14. [The potential dangers of endocrinal disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, E; Garfunkel, A; Findler, M; Malamed, S F; Zusman, S P; Elad, S; Galili, D

    2002-01-01

    The symptoms of most endocrine system diseases are usually clearly recognizable and most of the times are accompanied by a rich medical history. Many general practitioners are reluctant to treat such cases and prefer to refer these patients to specialists who are trained in management of the medically compromised thus increasing the chances of dental treatment without complications. However, sometimes endocrinal diseases develop slowly and their clinical manifestations are hidden or subclinical in nature. In these cases, neither the patient nor the dentist are aware of the condition and there is the potential of life threatening, emergency situations in what at first seem as simple, straightforward dental procedures. Therefore, the dentist must be able to recognize the clinical problem, differentiate between the different symptoms and initiate the proper management protocol. The most unstable endocrinal disorders that should be treated with great care are diabetes mellitus, mainly hypoglycemia, hyperthyroidism and adrenal insufficiency. The general practitioner dentist can treat patients suffering from these disorders providing the disease is well controlled and balanced and that the dental treatment is not very traumatic.

  15. Carcinoma verrugoso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban Quesada Jiménez

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el caso de un paciente masculino de 76 años, vecino de Turrialba, agricultor, que consultó por una lesión de 3 años de evolución, localizada en la palma de la mano derecha a nivel palmar y compromiso de los dedos de la misma mano, caracterizada como una neoformación exofítica verrugosa de 5 por 11 cm. aproximadamente, con material caseoso entre sus crestas. La lesión ha estado creciendo de forma acelerada en los últimos 3 meses, causándole dolor y que le imposibilita ellaborar. Se le realizaron exámenes y se descartaron varias causas infecciosas, y concluyendo luego de varias biopsias con el diagnóstico de un carcinoma verrugoso. El paciente fue tratado mediante una amputación parcial de la mano. Este tumor es una variante del carcinoma epidermoide y presentamos su clasificación, patogénesis, histopatología, manifestaciones clínicas más frecuentes y diagnóstico diferencial.

  16. Endocrine receptors as targets for new drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altman, Jennifer

    2006-01-01

    Increasingly detailed knowledge of cellular signalling pathways is providing a sound basis for the development of specific drugs aimed at selected components of the pathways. Many of these targets are receptors and the multitude of hormone receptors makes endocrine functions a rich proving ground for this research. This article reviews a recent meeting (Insights into Receptor Function and New Drug Development Targets; 5th Endocrinology Colloquium of the Fondation Ipsen, Paris, December 5, 2005) where progress in defining suitable targets for drug therapies in the endocrine system and in designing drugs for some of these targets was discussed. Although the family of G-protein-coupled receptors, ubiquitous in the endocrine system, was the central focus, comparisons with other receptor families were made. Many mutations affecting genes coding for receptors or other components of signalling pathways have been found in a wide range of endocrine disorders including obesity, parathyroid malfunction, disorders involving thyroid-stimulating hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone, and tumours in the anterior pituitary, as well as in many types of cancer. These are being used to dissect the normal control mechanisms as well as to provide information for the development of selective drugs. Recently identified mutations that affect the intracellular traffic in newly synthesised receptors open up possibilities of another dimension of cellular regulation of signalling. Both the discovery of hormones such as apelin and its pairing with an 'orphan' receptor, and the unexpected action of a drug against cannabinoid receptors point to further levels of complexity in cardiovascular regulation. Deeper understanding of the evolution of receptor families and of the molecular mechanisms of signal transduction is enabling the design of highly specific agonists and antagonists. Pharmacological intervention is not limited to the ligand-receptor interaction but can extend to inhibition of

  17. Contribution of the Endocrine Perspective in the Evaluation of Endocrine Disrupting Chemical Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bourguignon, Jean-Pierre; Juul, Anders; Franssen, Delphine

    2016-01-01

    to low doses of tenths or hundreds of chemicals since prenatal life, causation is most difficult to demonstrate and justifies a translational approach using animal models. Studies in rodents indicate an exquisite sensitivity of neuroendocrine endpoints to EDCs. Altogether, the data from both human......Debate makes science progress. In the field of endocrine disruption, endocrinology has brought up findings that substantiate a specific perspective on the definition of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), the role of the endocrine system and the endpoints of hormone and EDC actions among other...... that the increasing burden of EDCs could be an explanation. In fact, pubertal timing currently shows complex changes since advancement of some manifestations of puberty (e.g. breast development) and no change or delay of others (e.g. menarche, pubic hair development) can be observed. In a human setting with exposure...

  18. Usefulness of MRI in diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usuki, Noriaki; Kawabe, Jouji; Nishikawa, Minori; Fukuda, Haruyuki; Saiwai, Shigeo; Nakajima, Hideyuki; Miyamoto, Takeshi; Kudoh, Masatoshi (Kobe General City Hospital (Japan))

    1992-06-01

    Sixty-six cases of histologically proven hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC) were studied by MRI. Detectability was better by MRI than by CT, especially in the tumor under 2 cm in diameter. The capsule was detected in all cases of HCC over 3 cm in diameter. The capsule was able to be diagnosed only by dynamic MRI study in some cases. High intensity on the T1-weighted image and iso or low intensity on the T2-weighted image suggested that the nodule was adenomatous hyperplasi (AH) or well differentiated HCC. MRI is concluded to be an essential modality in the diagnosis of HCC. (author).

  19. Chronic renal disease in a captive two-toed sloth (Choloepus didactylus) with concurrent hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, Elisa; Wolf, Tiffany; Harris, Seth

    2014-06-01

    A 13-yr-old female two-toed sloth (Choloepus didactylus) with a prolonged history of worsening azotemia was necropsied shortly after euthanasia. On necropsy, the sloth had poor body condition, bilaterally shrunken kidneys, and a large neoplastic mass replacing the right liver lobe. Histologic examination demonstrated chronic renal disease with metastatic mineralization as the cause of morbidity. The liver mass was not associated with any known clinical signs and was diagnosed as a solitary and well-differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of hepatocellular carcinoma diagnosed in a sloth and the first detailed description of chronic renal disease in this species.

  20. Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the renal parenchyma: A rare occurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rina Mukherjee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary squamous cell carcinoma (SCC of renal parenchyma is a very rare entity although renal pelvic SCC is common. We probably are reporting the third case in a 35 years female presenting with left lumbar pain and weight loss. Lower pole mass was found on contrast enhanced computed tomography (CECT study of abdomen for which left total nephrectomy was done. Histopathological examination revealed a well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. Her physical condition did not permit for any adjuvant therapy. Two months after surgery she expired.

  1. SIADH Induced by Pharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma: Case Report and Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Aleida; Suhail, Faten

    2016-01-01

    Background. The Syndrome of Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone (SIADH) is considered to be the most common cause of euvolemic hyponatremia. The most common malignancy associated with SIADH is small cell lung cancer. We present a rare case of a patient with SIADH secondary to well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma of the naso-oropharynx. Case. A 46-year-old Caucasian woman presented to emergency department with four-week history of progressive dysphagia. On examination, she was found to have a pharyngeal mass. CT scan and MRI of neck confirmed a mass highly suspicious of carcinoma. Patient's serum sodium level decreased to 118 mEq/L and other labs including serum and urine osmolality confirmed SIADH. She was started on fluid restriction and oral sodium tablets which gradually improved her serum sodium levels. Biopsy confirmed diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma of pharynx. Conclusion. SIADH can be caused by squamous cell carcinoma. Appropriate management includes fluid restriction. PMID:27635269

  2. Primary Cutaneous Lymphoma-Associated Pseudoepitheliomatous Hyperplasia Masquerading as Squamous Cell Carcinoma in a Young Adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Mahsa; Azmoodeh Ardalan, Farid; Najafi, Masoumeh; Goodarzi, Azadeh; Ghanadan, Alireza

    2015-12-01

    Primary cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma is a T-cell malignancy with atypical CD30 positive lymphocytes. Pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia is an uncommon finding in primary cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma, and may mimic squamous cell carcinoma as pseudomalignancy. Careful attention of a pathologist to correct diagnosis of pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia and its underlying causes will help physicians to avoid inappropriate management. Here, we present a 22-year-old man referred to our hospital with a solitary nodule persistent on his forearm which was diagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma in the first biopsy. The lesion recurred after two months and histopathologic and immunohistochemistry examination revealed anaplastic large cell lymphoma with florid pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia which masquerading as well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. Diagnosis of pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia must guide the pathologist to search for underlying causes, such as primary cutaneous lymphoma. Pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia may mimic squamous cell carcinoma and this can result in inappropriate diagnosis and management.

  3. Cutaneous verrucous carcinoma - report of three cases with review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costache, Mariana; Desa, Laura Tatiana; Mitrache, Luminita Elena; Pătraşcu, Oana Maria; Dumitru, Adrian; Costache, Diana; Albu, Emanuel; Sajin, Maria; Simionescu, Olga

    2014-01-01

    Verrucous carcinoma is a rare variant of squamous cell carcinoma. It is well differentiated and rarely metastases but can sometimes be very aggressive locally in depth. The paper presents three cases of cutaneous verrucous carcinoma with different localizations. The first patient shows a lesion in the sacrogluteal region, the second one presented a tumor localized on the auricle (external ear), and the third patient showed a tumor on the sole of the foot. All patients underwent tumor excision and the histopathological diagnosis was verrucous carcinoma. In the first two cases, the surgery was completely curative by excision of the tumors. In the last case, the patient had relapsed and due to the aggressive nature of the tumor, which infiltrated the deeper plans, the tumor had reached the bone. None of the patients showed any metastases.

  4. Organic synthetic environmental endocrine disruptors: structural classes and metabolic fate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Jan; Peterlin-Mašič, Lucija

    2012-12-01

    Endocrine disruption is the modification of the endocrine system causing harmful effects in healthy subjects or their offspring. Physiological endocrine hormones act at very low plasma concentrations, and certain chemicals known as endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) are suspected of modifying endocrine function at similarly low concentrations. In our review we focus mainly on the structural classes of organic synthetic environmental endocrine disruptors and their common structural elements that enable them to interact with estrogen signalling. EDCs can affect estrogenic signalling directly through interaction with estrogen receptors (ERs) or indirectly through transcription factors such as the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) or by modulation of critical metabolic enzymes engaged in estrogen biosynthesis and metabolism. However, some structural elements can also pose a great risk of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity, especially after biotransformation to reactive metabolites.

  5. Influence of Endocrine Diseases on Reproductive System Functioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О.О. Коrytko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the lecture the questions of endocrine diseases influence on the reproductive system functioning are being considered. The reproductive system of woman is analyzed as a complex of interdependent structural elements: hypothalamus, pituitary organ, ovaries, organs-targets and other endocrine organs that provide realization of genesis function. During pregnancy, hormone metabolism changes that is an important factor for the diagnosis and treatment of endocrine diseases in pregnant women and women planning to become pregnant. It is shown that subclinical endocrine disorder is a factor reducing the normal hormonal functional response necessary for the adequate development of induced pregnancy. Therefore, in any violations of reproductive function (infertility, miscarriage, it is necessary to evaluate functioning of endocrine system, and pregnancy in women with endocrine pathology requires a significant correction of the conducted therapy.

  6. Endocrine Disruptors in Domestic Animal Reproduction: A Clinical Issue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson, Ulf; Persson, Sara

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this review was to discuss whether endocrine disruption is a clinical concern in domestic animal reproduction. To that end, we firstly summarize the phenomenon of endocrine disruption, giving examples of the agents of concern and their effects on the mammalian reproductive system. Then there is a brief overview of the literature on endocrine disruptors and domestic animal reproduction. Finally, the clinical implications of endocrine disruptors on the reproductive system of farm animals as well as in dogs and cats are discussed. It is concluded that the evidence for clinical cases of endocrine disruption by chemical pollutants is weak, whereas for phytooestrogens, it is well established. However, there is concern that particular dogs and cats may be exposed to man-made endocrine disruptors.

  7. Criteria for endocrine disrupters: report from the Danish centre on Endocrine Disrupters (CEHOS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holbech, Henrik; Bjerregaard, Poul; Hass, Ulla;

    The aim of this session is to give a presentation of the report (both ENV and HH) on criteria carried out by the Danish Centre on Endocrine Disrupters (CEHOS) as a project contracted by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency. CEHOS is an interdisciplinary scientific network without walls...... and the main purpose of the Centre is to build and gather new knowledge on endocrine disrupters (EDs) with focus on information needed for the preventive work of the regulatory authorities. The aim of the report was to propose scientific criteria for the identification of ED substances of concern for human...

  8. Immunohistochemical expression of keratin proteins in urinary bladder carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asamoto, M; Fukushima, S; Tatemoto, Y; Yamada, K; Fukui, S; Mori, M

    1989-02-01

    Transitional carcinomas of the urinary bladder were examined immunohistochemically for keratin proteins with the use of polyclonal antiserum (TK, 41-65 kDa) and 3 monoclonal antibodies (KL 1, 55-57 kDa; PKK 1, nos. 19, 18, 8; and K 8.12, nos. 16, 13). Umbrella cells gave particularly strong staining for TK, KL 1 and PKK 1, whereas they were negative for K 8.12. Basal- and intermediate-layer cells in urothelial epithelium were moderately positive for all keratins. Brunn's nests cells showed comparatively slight or moderate keratin staining, and K 8.12 staining of Brunn's nests was higher than in urothelial epithelial cells. Transitional carcinoma (grades I and II) indicated uniform keratin distribution, and staining was strong with TK, while that of KL 1, PKK 1 and K 8.12 varied, and grade III tumors showed the lowest intensity of staining. K 8.12 staining in papillary transitional carcinomas was strongly positive in basal located tumor cells, as compared with apical tumor cells. Squamous cell carcinoma was varying positive to keratin reactions dependent on the degree of keratinization. Heterogenity of keratin distribution in papillary transitional carcinomas was given between basal tumor cells and well differentiated tumor cells including umbrella-like cells.

  9. Evaluation of MDM2 and CDK4 amplification by real-time PCR on paraffin wax-embedded material: a potential tool for the diagnosis of atypical lipomatous tumours/well-differentiated liposarcomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostein, I; Pelmus, M; Aurias, A; Pedeutour, F; Mathoulin-Pélissier, S; Coindre, J M

    2004-01-01

    Atypical lipomatous tumours/well-differentiated liposarcomas and dedifferentiated liposarcomas are characterized by 12q13-15 region amplification. In contrast, this molecular event has not been reported in benign lipomas. Within the 12q13-15 chromosomal region, the MDM2, SAS, HMGA2, and CDK4 genes are the most frequent targets of amplification. A series of lipomas (36 cases) and liposarcomas (48 cases) was analysed for MDM2 and CDK4 gene amplification by real-time PCR. MDM2 and CDK4 gene amplification was detected in 2.8% and 5.6% of lipomas and 98.2% and 82.4% of liposarcomas, respectively. Moreover, co-amplification of the two genes as well as a higher-level amplification was observed more frequently in dedifferentiated liposarcomas than in atypical lipomatous tumours/well-differentiated liposarcomas. Real-time PCR proved to be a fast and reliable method to characterize lipomas and liposarcomas by quantification of MDM2 and CDK4 gene amplification. It is applicable to paraffin wax-embedded tissues and could be useful when histological diagnosis is difficult.

  10. Endocrine origins of rheumatic disease. Diagnostic clues to interrelated syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockshin, Michael D

    2002-04-01

    Heightened awareness of endocrine abnormalities is important in evaluation of patients presenting with musculoskeletal symptoms. Endocrine disorders such as diabetes, hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, hyperparathyroidism, hypoparathyroidism, hyperadrenocorticism, and acromegaly cause a unique array of rheumatic manifestations. Such conditions include Dupuytren's contracture, carpal tunnel syndrome, chondrocalcinosis, pseudogout, scleredema, and osteoporosis. Characteristic changes on radiologic evaluation and serum enzyme testing are additional clues to these atypical presentations. Consideration of a possible endocrine cause early in the evaluation may improve management in patients with such an underlying disorder.

  11. Research progress of the endocrine disrupting activities of polychlorinated biphenyls

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Jingming; QIN Zhanfen; CONG Lin; XU Xiaobai

    2004-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are global persistent organic pollutants. Almost all commercial PCBs mixtures, single PCB congener, and their metabolites possess endocrine disrupting activities. They can disrupt the estrogen/androgen system, thyroid hormone system and other endocrine systems by interfering with the synthesis, transport, storage, metabolism, and feedback regulation of hormones. The newest data related to the endocrine disrupting activities of PCBs and their mechanisms are reviewed and the research perspectives are also discussed.

  12. Human biological monitoring of suspected endocrine-disrupting compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faniband, Moosa; Lindh, Christian H; Jönsson, Bo AG

    2014-01-01

    Endocrine-disrupting compounds are exogenous agents that interfere with the natural hormones of the body. Human biological monitoring is a powerful method for monitoring exposure to endocrine disrupting compounds. In this review, we describe human biological monitoring systems for different groups of endocrine disrupting compounds, polychlorinated biphenyls, brominated flame retardants, phthalates, alkylphenols, pesticides, metals, perfluronated compounds, parabens, ultraviolet filters, and organic solvents. The aspects discussed are origin to exposure, metabolism, matrices to analyse, analytical determination methods, determinants, and time trends. PMID:24369128

  13. Human biological monitoring of suspected endocrine-disrupting compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faniband, Moosa; Lindh, Christian H; Jönsson, Bo A G

    2014-01-01

    Endocrine-disrupting compounds are exogenous agents that interfere with the natural hormones of the body. Human biological monitoring is a powerful method for monitoring exposure to endocrine disrupting compounds. In this review, we describe human biological monitoring systems for different groups of endocrine disrupting compounds, polychlorinated biphenyls, brominated flame retardants, phthalates, alkylphenols, pesticides, metals, perfluronated compounds, parabens, ultraviolet filters, and organic solvents. The aspects discussed are origin to exposure, metabolism, matrices to analyse, analytical determination methods, determinants, and time trends.

  14. FABP7 and HMGCS2 are novel protein markers for apocrine differentiation categorizing apocrine carcinoma of the breast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gromov, Pavel; Espinoza, Jaime A; Talman, Maj-Lis;

    2014-01-01

    Apocrine carcinoma of the breast is a distinctive malignancy with unique morphological and molecular features, generally characterized by being negative for estrogen and progesterone receptors, and thus not electable for endocrine therapy. Despite the fact that they are morphologically distinct f...

  15. Giant basal cell carcinoma Carcinoma basocelular gigante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton Nasser

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The basal cell carcinoma is the most common skin cancer but the giant vegetating basal cell carcinoma reaches less than 0.5 % of all basal cell carcinoma types. The Giant BCC, defined as a lesion with more than 5 cm at its largest diameter, is a rare form of BCC and commonly occurs on the trunk. This patient, male, 42 years old presents a Giant Basal Cell Carcinoma which reaches 180 cm2 on the right shoulder and was negligent in looking for treatment. Surgical treatment was performed and no signs of dissemination or local recurrence have been detected after follow up of five years.O carcinoma basocelular é o tipo mais comum de câncer de pele, mas o carcinoma basocelular gigante vegetante não atinge 0,5% de todos os tipos de carcinomas basocelulares. O Carcinoma Basocelular Gigante, definido como lesão maior que 5 cm no maior diâmetro, é uma forma rara de carcinoma basocelular e comumente ocorre no tronco. Este paciente apresenta um Carcinoma Basocelular Gigante com 180cm² no ombro direito e foi negligente em procurar tratamento. Foi realizado tratamento cirúrgico e nenhum sinal de disseminação ou recorrência local foi detectada após 5 anos.

  16. Clinical significance of Fas and FasL protein expression in gastric carcinoma and local lymph node tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian; Peng, Jie; Li, Xin-Hua; Liu, Ting; Liang, Qing-Chun; Zhang, Gui-Ying

    2010-03-14

    To investigate the relation of Fas and Fas ligand (FasL) protein expression with carcinogenesis and metastasis of gastric carcinoma. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect Fas and FasL protein expression in 64 gastric carcinoma tissue samples and 20 normal gastric tissue samples. Relation between FasL and Fas expression, age and gender of gastric cancer patients, and pathological subtype and lymph node metastasis of gastric cancer was analyzed. The Fas expression level was significantly higher in normal gastric tissue samples than in gastric carcinoma tissue samples (85.0% vs 25.0%, P gastric tissue samples than in gastric carcinoma tissue samples (30.0% vs 81.3%, P gastric carcinoma tissue samples than in poorly-differentiated gastric carcinoma tissue samples (50.0% vs 18.0%, P = 0.015). The FasL expression level was significantly lower in well-differentiated gastric carcinoma tissue samples than in poorly- differentiated gastric carcinoma tissue samples (42.9% vs 84.0%, P = 0.021). The Fas and FasL expression levels (25.0% and 81.3%) were significantly different in gastric carcinoma tissue samples (P gastric carcinoma and lymph node tissues are involved in carcinogenesis and metastasis of gastric cancer.

  17. Rare and unusual endocrine cancer syndromes with mutated genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodish, Maya B; Stratakis, Constantine A

    2010-12-01

    The study of a number of rare familial syndromes associated with endocrine tumor development has led to the identification of genes involved in the development of these tumors. Major advances have expanded our understanding of the pathophysiology of these rare endocrine tumors, resulting in the elucidation of causative genes in rare familial diseases and a better understanding of the signaling pathways implicated in endocrine cancers. Recognition of the familial syndrome associated with a particular patient's endocrine tumor has important implications in terms of prognosis, screening of family members, and screening for associated conditions.

  18. Nuclear medicine imaging in the evaluation of endocrine hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Punit Sharma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Endocrine hypertension forms a small (< 5% but curable subset of patients with hypertension. Common endocrine causes of hypertension include pheochromocytoma, Cushing′s syndrome, primary hyperaldosteronism, and thyroid disorders. Nuclear medicine imaging plays an important role in evaluation of patients with endocrine hypertension. It has established role in patients of pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma, Cushing′s syndrome, aldosteronism, and thyroid disorders. We present a brief overview of role of nuclear medicine imaging in endocrine hypertension. Development of newer radiotracers might further broaden the role of nuclear medicine in these patients.

  19. The eunuchs of India: An endocrine eye opener

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Kalra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There are established guidelines for the endocrine and overall treatment of transsexual persons. These guidelines provide information about the optimal endocrine management of male-to-female and female-to-male transsexual persons. India has a large community of eunuchs, also known as hijras, who are men with gender identity disorders. While this community has been studied from a social and medical point of new, no endocrine work has been done in them. This exploratory article tries to discuss the endocrine status, health, and management of the eunuchs.

  20. Syndromes that Link the Endocrine System and Genitourinary Tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özlük, Yasemin; Kılıçaslan, Işın

    2015-01-01

    The endocrine system and genitourinary tract unite in various syndromes. Genitourinary malignancies may cause paraneoplastic endocrine syndromes by secreting hormonal substances. These entities include Cushing`s syndrome, hypercalcemia, hyperglycemia, polycythemia, hypertension, and inappropriate ADH or HCG production. The most important syndromic scenarios that links these two systems are hereditary renal cancer syndromes with specific genotype/phenotype correlation. There are also some very rare entities in which endocrine and genitourinary systems are involved such as Carney complex, congenital adrenal hyperplasia and Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome. We will review all the syndromes regarding manifestations present in endocrine and genitourinary organs.

  1. Expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition regulators SNAI2 and TWIST1 in thyroid carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buehler, Darya; Hardin, Heather; Shan, Weihua; Montemayor-Garcia, Celina; Rush, Patrick S; Asioli, Sofia; Chen, Herbert; Lloyd, Ricardo V

    2013-01-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition is an important mechanism of epithelial tumor progression, local invasion and metastasis. The E-cadherin (CDH1) repressor SLUG (SNAI2) and the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor TWIST1 inhibit CDH1 expression in poorly differentiated malignancies as inducers of epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition has been implicated in progression from well to poorly differentiated/anaplastic thyroid carcinoma but the expression of SNAI2 and TWIST1 proteins and their phenotypic association in human thyroid cancers has not been extensively studied. We examined the expression of SNAI2, TWIST1 and CDH1 by immunohistochemistry in a panel of well-differentiated and anaplastic thyroid cancers and by qRT-PCR in thyroid cell lines. Ten normal thyroids, 33 follicular adenomas, 56 papillary thyroid carcinomas including 28 follicular variants, 27 follicular carcinomas and 10 anaplastic thyroid carcinomas were assembled on a tissue microarray and immunostained for SNAI2, TWIST1 and CDH1. Most (8/10) anaplastic thyroid carcinomas demonstrated strong nuclear immunoreactivity for SNAI2 with associated absence of CDH1 in 6/8 cases (75%). TWIST1 was expressed in 5/10 anaplastic thyroid carcinomas with absence of CDH1 in 3/5 (60%) cases. These findings were confirmed in whole sections of all anaplastic thyroid carcinomas and in a separate validation set of 10 additional anaplastic thyroid carcinomas. All normal thyroids, follicular adenomas, papillary and follicular thyroid carcinomas were negative for SNAI2 and TWIST1 (Pcarcinoma and two anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cell lines tested, but the highest levels of CDH1 mRNA were detected in the normal thyroid cell line while the anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cell line demonstrated the highest levels of SNAI2 and TWIST1 mRNA. Our findings support the role of epithelial-mesenchymal transition in the development of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma.

  2. Endocrine active chemicals and endocrine disruption in Minnesota streams and lakes: implications for aquatic resources, 1994-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kathy E.; Schoenfuss, Heiko L.; Barber, Larry B.; Writer, Jeff H.; Blazer, Vicki; Keisling, Richard L.; Ferrey, Mark L.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with St. Cloud State University, Minnesota Department of Health, Minnesota Pollution Control Agency, Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, Metropolitan Council Environmental Services, and the University of Minnesota, has conducted field monitoring studies and laboratory research to determine the presence of endocrine active chemicals and the incidence of endocrine disruption in Minnesota streams and lakes during 1994–2008. Endocrine active chemicals are chemicals that interfere with the natural regulation of endocrine systems, and may mimic or block the function of natural hormones in fish or other organisms. This interference commonly is referred to as endocrine disruption. Indicators of endocrine disruption in fish include vitellogenin (female egg yolk protein normally expressed in female fish) in male fish, oocytes present in male fish testes, reduced reproductive success, and changes in reproductive behavior.

  3. New pathologic entities in penile carcinomas: an update of the 2004 world health organization classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaux, Alcides; Velazquez, Elsa F; Barreto, José E; Ayala, Enrique; Cubilla, Antonio L

    2012-05-01

    Most primary malignant tumors of the penis are squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) of the usual type. In recent years several variants, each with distinctive clinicopathologic features, have been described. Pseudohyperplastic carcinoma and carcinoma cuniculatum are both low-grade, extremely well-differentiated SCC variants characterized by an indolent clinical course and good prognosis. The former, which may be confused with pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia, preferentially affects the inner foreskin mucosa of elderly men and the latter is a verruciform tumor with an endophytic, burrow-like pattern of growth. Pseudoglandular carcinoma (featuring solid tumor nests with extensive central acantholysis simulating glandular lumina) and clear cell carcinoma (human papillomavirus [HPV]-related tumors composed of periodic acid-Schiff positive clear cells) are aggressive tumors with a high incidence of inguinal nodal metastases. Papillary carcinomas are HPV-unrelated verruciform tumors composed of complex papillae with acanthosis, hyper- and parakeratosis, absence of koilocytes, irregular fibrovascular cores, and jagged tumor base. Finally, in warty-basaloid carcinomas areas of warty (condylomatous) and basaloid carcinomas coexist in the same tumor, either separated or intermingled, giving the tumor a variegated appearance. In this review special emphasis is given to the differential diagnosis of these special variants with a discussion of the possible implications for clinical management.

  4. Endoscopic submucosal dissection for an atypical small verrucous carcinoma: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Takahiro; Kato, Masayuki; Itagaki, Munenori; Hamatani, Sigeharu; Kawahara, Yosuke; Ito, Shuji; Aizawa, Yoshio; Matsuda, Koji; Sumiyama, Kazuki

    2016-03-25

    Esophageal verrucous carcinoma is a rare variant of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. In most cases, verrucous carcinoma presents as an exophytic, slow-growing mass with an extensive superficial growth pattern. Symptoms often include an insidious onset of dysphagia resulting in weight loss. In a patient presenting with super early-stage verrucous carcinoma, we were able to eliminate the aberration using endoscopic submucosal dissection. An asymptomatic 68-year-old Asian man was found to have an abnormality in his esophagus. The abnormality was discovered, by chance, in a barium study for a health checkup. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed a 1-centimeter polypoid lesion covered with squamous epithelium. Biopsies showed squamous high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia. An endoscopic submucosal dissection was performed and the histopathological findings showed a well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma with hyperkeratosis with a church spire configuration. These features are consistent with the growth pattern of verrucous carcinoma. Verrucous carcinoma can manifest as a small mass with nonclinical symptoms and endoscopic submucosal dissection is useful as a curative treatment. We must consider that verrucous carcinoma can manifest as appearance of a polyp that is not papillary or warty-like with and without extensive superficial growth appearance.

  5. A Case of Nonfunctioning Pituitary Carcinoma That Responded to Temozolomide Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruko Morokuma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pituitary carcinoma is a rare malignancy and is difficult to manage. Pituitary carcinomas commonly produce either PRL or ACTH, but some do not produce pituitary hormones. The alkylating reagent temozolomide (TMZ was recently shown to be effective as a treatment for pituitary carcinoma. Most of the published reports of TMZ use in pituitary carcinoma cases were against hormone-producing carcinomas. Only a few patients with a nonfunctioning pituitary carcinoma treated with TMZ have been reported. Here we describe our treatment of a patient with nonfunctioning pituitary carcinoma and a background of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1. The pituitary carcinoma was accompanied by meningeal dissemination with cerebral and L1 spinal bone metastasis. The patient received continuous dosing of TMZ along with external radiation, followed by standard dosing of TMZ. There was an apparent antitumor response seen in MRI. MGMT, an enzyme antagonized by TMZ, was negative in the tumor. The therapeutic efficacy of TMZ and dosing schedules of TMZ in pituitary carcinoma are discussed.

  6. Endocrine alterations in HIV-infected patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujit Kumar Tripathy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and objectives: To study the frequency of thyroid, adrenal and gonadal dysfunction in newly diagnosed HIV-infected patients and to correlate them at different levels of CD4 cell counts. Materials and Methods: Forty-three HIV-positive cases were included in the study group. Cases were divided into three groups on the basis of CD4 cell count. Serum free T3, free T4, TSH, Cortisol, FSH, LH, testosterone and estradiol were estimated by the radioimmunoassay method. Hormone levels between cases were compared and their correlation with CD4 count was analyzed. Results: Prevalence of gonadal dysfunction (88.3% was the most common endocrine dysfunction followed by thyroid (60.4% and adrenal dysfunction (27.9%. Secondary hypogonadism (68.4% was more common than primary (31.6%. Low T3 syndrome, that is, isolated low free T3, was the most common (25.6% thyroid dysfunction followed by secondary hypothyroidism (16.2% and subclinical hypothyroidism (11.6%. Adrenal excess (16.3% was more common than adrenal insufficiency (11.6%. The difference in hormonal dysfunction between male and female was statistically insignificant (P > 0.05. 27.9% of patients had multiple hormone deficiency. There was negligible or no correlation between CD4 count and serum hormone level. Conclusion: In our study, endocrine dysfunction was quite common among HIV-infected patients but there was no correlation between hormone levels and CD4 count. Endocrine dysfunctions and role of hormone replacement therapy in HIV-infected patient needs to be substantiated by large longitudinal study, so that it will help to reduce morbidity, improve quality of life.

  7. The endolymphatic sac, a potential endocrine gland?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvortrup, K; Rostgaard, J; Holstein-Rathlou, N H;

    1999-01-01

    is described, demonstrating that this organ fulfils the morphological criteria of a potential endocrine gland. Accordingly, the chief cells are shown to exhibit all the organelles and characteristics of cells that simultaneously synthesize, secrete, absorb and digest proteins.......A previous investigation indicated that the chief cells of the endolymphatic sac produce an endogenous inhibitor of sodium re-absorption in the kidneys, which has tentatively been named "saccin". In this study, the ultrastructure of the endolymphatic sac and in particular the chief cells...

  8. System chemical biology studies of endocrine disruptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taboureau, Olivier; Oprea, Tudor I.

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) alter hormonal balance and other physiological systems through inappropriate developmental or adult exposure, perturbing the reproductive function of further generations. While disruption of key receptors (e.g., estrogen, androgen, and thyroid) at the ligand...... binding domain (LBD) has been associated with EDCs, a significant number of EDCs do not appear to influence the LBDs of these receptors. Therefore, we evaluated the potential biological effects of EDCs in humans with the aim to rationalize the etiology of certain disorders associated with the reproductive...

  9. Practice of the integrated endocrine system course

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-han MEI; Rong CAI

    2015-01-01

    The integrated curriculum is an important direction of the medical medical education reform under new situation and challenges of medical development.Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine has implemented the integrated curriculum reform in recent years.The endocrine system course is one of important intergrated courses and integrates relevant contents of multiple disciplines of basic medicine,diagnostics and medical imaging.Various teaching methods are adopted,such as classroom lecture,discussion,problembased learning,experimental lesson and clinical clerkship,etc.The teaching practice is carried on in several aspects:course arrangement,teaching methods,course website construction,teaching team construction and so on.

  10. Sleep apnea syndrome in endocrine diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottini, Paolo; Tantucci, Claudio

    2003-01-01

    It is increasingly recognized that sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) - from snoring to apnea-hypopnea syndrome (SAHS) - can affect patients with various endocrine diseases (ED). Different mechanisms are implied in SDB, promoting either central or, more frequently, obstructive apnea in different ED. In the past, acromegaly and hypothyroidism were first associated with both central and obstructive SAHS. Today, great attention is placed on the complex cause-effect relationship between diabetes mellitus and obstructive SAHS (and vice versa). Symptoms and signs of SAHS may complicate the clinical course of these diseases and should be promptly suspected to detect and possibly treat the accompanying SDB. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

  11. Endocrine and paracrine role of bile acids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Verena Keitel; Ralf Kubitz; Dieter H(a)ussinger

    2008-01-01

    Bile acids are not only important for the absorption of dietary lipids and fat soluble vitamins but are signalling molecules with diverse endocrine and paracrine functions.Bile acids regulate bile acid,lipid and glucose metabolism and modulate temperature and energy homeostasis.Furthermore,bile acids can not only promote cell proliferation and liver regeneration but can also induce programmed cell death.Bile acid functions are mediated through different pathways which comprise the activation of nuclear hormone receptors,of intracellular kinases and of the plasma membranebound,G-protein coupled bile acid receptor TGR5/Gpbar-1.

  12. Mechanistic evaluation of endocrine disrupting chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taxvig, Camilla

    , no significant metabolic transformation of the azole fungicides was detected. CONCLUSIONS AND PERSPECTIVES: Overall, the results from the studies presented in this thesis support the evidence suggesting that nutrition relevant concentrations of PEs, both alone and in mixtures, induce various endocrine disrupting...... of in vitro metabolising systems in conection with in vitro testing of EDCs METHODS: Twelve dietary relevant phytoestrogens (PEs) either alone or in mixtures were analysed in a battery of in vitro bioassays designed to look for effects on: a) steroid hormone production in human adrenal corticocarcinoma cells...

  13. ORAL MYIASIS CONVERTING TO ORAL SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akshay

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Oral Myiasis, a condition of infestation of the body by fly larvae (maggots is a rare pathology in humans. It is associated with poor oral hygiene, alcoholism, senility, suppurating lesions, severe halitosis. It is seen frequently in tropical countries and hot climatic regions. The reported cases in literature of oral Myiasis associated with oral cancer are few. The treatment is a mechanical removal of the maggots but a systemic treatment with Ivermectin, a semi - synthetic macrolide antibiotic, has been used successfully for treatment for oral m yiasis. We present a case of 55 yr old male alcoholic patient with oral myiasis with extensive proliferative growth of oral cavity. Our patient was managed with manual debridement and administration of systemic ivermect in along with antibiotic coverage. Incisional biopsy of the proliferative lesion showed well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. Thus our patient showed presence of oral myiasis in association with oral squamous cell carcinoma.

  14. Health Disparities in Endocrine Disorders: Biological, Clinical, and Nonclinical Factors—An Endocrine Society Scientific Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Arleen; Cauley, Jane A.; Chin, Marshall H.; Gary-Webb, Tiffany L.; Kim, Catherine; Sosa, Julie Ann; Sumner, Anne E.; Anton, Blair

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The aim was to provide a scholarly review of the published literature on biological, clinical, and nonclinical contributors to race/ethnic and sex disparities in endocrine disorders and to identify current gaps in knowledge as a focus for future research needs. Participants in Development of Scientific Statement: The Endocrine Society's Scientific Statement Task Force (SSTF) selected the leader of the statement development group (S.H.G.). She selected an eight-member writing group with expertise in endocrinology and health disparities, which was approved by the Society. All discussions regarding the scientific statement content occurred via teleconference or written correspondence. No funding was provided to any expert or peer reviewer, and all participants volunteered their time to prepare this Scientific Statement. Evidence: The primary sources of data on global disease prevalence are from the World Health Organization. A comprehensive literature search of PubMed identified U.S. population-based studies. Search strategies combining Medical Subject Headings terms and keyword terms and phrases defined two concepts: 1) racial, ethnic, and sex differences including specific populations; and 2) the specific endocrine disorder or condition. The search identified systematic reviews, meta-analyses, large cohort and population-based studies, and original studies focusing on the prevalence and determinants of disparities in endocrine disorders. Consensus Process: The writing group focused on population differences in the highly prevalent endocrine diseases of type 2 diabetes mellitus and related conditions (prediabetes and diabetic complications), gestational diabetes, metabolic syndrome with a focus on obesity and dyslipidemia, thyroid disorders, osteoporosis, and vitamin D deficiency. Authors reviewed and synthesized evidence in their areas of expertise. The final statement incorporated responses to several levels of review: 1) comments of the SSTF and the

  15. Health disparities in endocrine disorders: biological, clinical, and nonclinical factors--an Endocrine Society scientific statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Sherita Hill; Brown, Arleen; Cauley, Jane A; Chin, Marshall H; Gary-Webb, Tiffany L; Kim, Catherine; Sosa, Julie Ann; Sumner, Anne E; Anton, Blair

    2012-09-01

    The aim was to provide a scholarly review of the published literature on biological, clinical, and nonclinical contributors to race/ethnic and sex disparities in endocrine disorders and to identify current gaps in knowledge as a focus for future research needs. PARTICIPANTS IN DEVELOPMENT OF SCIENTIFIC STATEMENT: The Endocrine Society's Scientific Statement Task Force (SSTF) selected the leader of the statement development group (S.H.G.). She selected an eight-member writing group with expertise in endocrinology and health disparities, which was approved by the Society. All discussions regarding the scientific statement content occurred via teleconference or written correspondence. No funding was provided to any expert or peer reviewer, and all participants volunteered their time to prepare this Scientific Statement. The primary sources of data on global disease prevalence are from the World Health Organization. A comprehensive literature search of PubMed identified U.S. population-based studies. Search strategies combining Medical Subject Headings terms and keyword terms and phrases defined two concepts: 1) racial, ethnic, and sex differences including specific populations; and 2) the specific endocrine disorder or condition. The search identified systematic reviews, meta-analyses, large cohort and population-based studies, and original studies focusing on the prevalence and determinants of disparities in endocrine disorders. consensus process: The writing group focused on population differences in the highly prevalent endocrine diseases of type 2 diabetes mellitus and related conditions (prediabetes and diabetic complications), gestational diabetes, metabolic syndrome with a focus on obesity and dyslipidemia, thyroid disorders, osteoporosis, and vitamin D deficiency. Authors reviewed and synthesized evidence in their areas of expertise. The final statement incorporated responses to several levels of review: 1) comments of the SSTF and the Advocacy and Public

  16. Double primary bronchogenic carcinoma of the lung and papillary thyroid carcinoma: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Jen-Hsun

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Double primary bronchogenic carcinoma and papillary carcinoma of the thyroid are extremely rare. We describe the case of a patient who underwent surgical resection for these two cancers. Case presentation A 56-year-old man presented to our hospital complaining of a cough with blood-tinged sputum. A slowly growing mass in the left lobe of the lung had been noted for about 1 year. He underwent video-assisted thoracic surgery of the left lower lobe and mediastinal lymph node dissection through an 8 cm utility incision. Pathology revealed a well-differentiated adenocarcinoma and the dissected lymph nodes were negative for malignancy. He also complained of a mass in his neck, which had grown slowly for over 5 years. A computed tomography scan of the neck revealed a left thyroid mass compressing the trachea towards the right side. There was no cervical lymphadenopathy. A left thyroid lobectomy was performed and pathology revealed a papillary carcinoma. Thus, he underwent a second operation to remove the right lobe of the thyroid. He underwent subsequent adjuvant chemotherapy. Conclusion In a review of the literature, it appears that there has only been one previously reported case of these two cancers, which was in Japan. The relationship between these two cancers is still unclear, and more case reports are required to determine this relationship.

  17. A Case Report of Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type IIa Associated with Cushing Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh. Borzouei

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Multiple endocrine neoplasia type IIa (MEN IIa is an autosomal dominant syn-drome characterized bypheochromocytoma ,medullary thyroid carcinoma and hyperparathy-roidism. Pheochromocytoma approximately occurs in 50% of patients with MEN IIa. This tumor has the capacity to produce ACTH ectopically and becomes manifest like Cushing syndrome,although it is very rare. Case Report: We report a 26-year-old woman patient with severe muscle weakness, skin le-sions in extremity, hypertension, new onset diabetes and in the laboratory data hypokalemia, metabolic alkalosis, high serum level of cortisol, metanephrine, normetanephrine, calcitonin and bilateral adrenal mass in computed tomography as the first clinical manifestations of an ACTH-secreting pheochromocytoma. Conclusion: In the patients with hypertension, new onset diabetes and hypokalemia Cushing syndrome and pheochromocytoma should always be ruled out. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2013; 20 (3:260-265

  18. Pituitary tumor-transforming gene and its binding factor in endocrine cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Vicki E; Franklyn, Jayne A; McCabe, Christopher J

    2010-12-03

    The pituitary tumor-transforming gene (PTTG1) encodes a multifunctional protein (PTTG) that is overexpressed in numerous tumours, including pituitary, thyroid, breast and ovarian carcinomas. PTTG induces cellular transformation in vitro and tumourigenesis in vivo, and several mechanisms by which PTTG contributes to tumourigenesis have been investigated. Also known as the human securin, PTTG is involved in cell cycle regulation, controlling the segregation of sister chromatids during mitosis. This review outlines current information regarding PTTG structure, expression, regulation and function in the pathogenesis of neoplasia. Recent progress concerning the use of PTTG as a prognostic marker or therapeutic target will be considered. In addition, the PTTG binding factor (PBF), identified through its interaction with PTTG, has also been established as a proto-oncogene that is upregulated in several cancers. Current knowledge regarding PBF is outlined and its role both independently and alongside PTTG in endocrine and related cancers is discussed.

  19. 75 FR 70248 - Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program; Second List of Chemicals for Tier 1 Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    .... List of Subjects Environmental protection, Chemicals, Drinking water, Endocrine disruptors, Pesticides... AGENCY Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program; Second List of Chemicals for Tier 1 Screening AGENCY... chemicals and substances for which EPA intends to issue test orders under the Endocrine Disruptor...

  20. 76 FR 60022 - Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program; Weight-of-Evidence Guidance Document; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-28

    ... protection, Endocrine disruptors, Screening assays, Weight-of-evidence. ] Dated: September 22, 2011. Stephen... AGENCY Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program; Weight-of-Evidence Guidance Document; Notice of Availability AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: EPA's Endocrine...

  1. 75 FR 70557 - Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program; Draft Policies and Procedures for Screening Safe Drinking...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ... Protection Agency Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program; Draft Policies and Procedures for Screening Safe..., 2010 / Notices#0;#0; ] ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program; Draft... requiring Tier 1 screening under the Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program (EDSP) of substances for...

  2. Comparison of the prognostic values of {sup 68}Ga-DOTANOC PET/CT and {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT in patients with well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Punit; Naswa, Niraj; Kc, Sudhir Suman; Yadav, Yashwant; Kumar, Rakesh; Bal, Chandrasekhar [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Ansari Nagar, New Delhi (India); Alvarado, Luis Andres; Dwivedi, Alok Kumar [Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Division of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, El Paso, TX (United States); Ammini, Ariachery C. [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, New Delhi (India)

    2014-12-15

    To determine the prognostic value of {sup 68}Ga-DOTANOC PET/CT in patients with well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumor (NET), and to compare the prognostic value with that of {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT and other conventional clinicopathological prognostic factors. Data from 37 consecutive patients (age 46.6 ± 13.5 years, 51 % men) with well-differentiated NET who underwent {sup 68}Ga-DOTANOC PET/CT and {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT were analyzed. All patients underwent a baseline visit with laboratory and radiological examinations. Clinical and imaging follow-up was performed in all patients. Progression-free survival (PFS) was measured from the date of the first PET/CT scan to the first documentation of progression of disease. {sup 68}Ga-DOTANOC PET/CT was positive in 37 of the 37 patients and {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT was positive in 21. During follow-up 10 patients (27 %) showed progression of disease and 27 (73 %) showed no progression (24 stable disease, 3 partial response). The median follow-up was 25 months (range 2 - 52 months). Among the variables evaluated none was significantly different between the progressive disease and nonprogressive disease groups, with only SUVmax on {sup 68}Ga-DOTANOC PET/CT being borderline significant (P = 0.073). In the univariate analysis for PFS outcome, SUVmax on {sup 68}Ga-DOTANOC PET/CT (HR 0.122, 95 % CI 0.019 - 0.779; P = 0.026) and histopathological tumor grade (HR 4.238, 95 % CI 1.058 - 16.976; P = 0.041) were found to be associated with PFS. Other factors including age, sex, primary site, Ki-67 index, TNM stage, {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT status (positive/negative), SUVmax on {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT and type of treatment were not significant. In multivariable analysis, only SUVmax on {sup 68}Ga-DOTANOC PET/CT was found to be an independent positive predictor of PFS (HR 0.122, 95 % CI 0.019 - 0.779; P = 0.026). SUVmax measured on {sup 68}Ga-DOTANOC PET/CT is an independent, positive prognostic factor in patients with well-differentiated NET and

  3. Interest of the PET with F DOPA in the exploration of endocrine para neoplastic syndromes (E.P.S.): about four cases; Interet de la TEP a la FDOPA dans l'exploration des syndromes paraneoplasiques endocriniens (SPE): a propos de 4 cas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreau Triby, C.; Pina, G.; Bournaud, C. [Centre de medecine nucleaire, groupement hospitalier Est, Lyon, (France); Billotey, C. [CERMEP, Lyon, (France); Raverot, G.; Borson Chazot, F. [service d' endocrinologie, groupement hospitalier Est, Lyon, (France)

    2009-05-15

    In front an ectopic secretion of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH or corticotropin) or growth hormone (GH) the existence of an endocrine tumor must be evoked. The topographical diagnosis of these tumors is often difficult. The positron computed tomography with 6-fluoro-({sup 18}F)-L-dihydroxy-phenylalanine (PET-FDOPA) showed recently a good sensitivity in the detection of well differentiated endocrine tumors. We report our experience of the PET-FDOPA in the explorations of para-neoplasic endocrine syndromes. Our experience was relatively disappointing, this examination being a little contributive for our patients. The scintigraphy of receptors with somatostatin with octreoscan keeps all this place in this indication. (N.C.)

  4. Clinical and radiological manifestations of paraneoplastic syndrome of bronchogenic carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldner Branislav

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to present some clinical and radiological manifestations of PNS in relation to bronchogenic carcinoma (BC and to evaluate the usefulness of imaging findings in the diagnosis of asymptomatic BC. In the study group of 204 patients (146 male and 58 female with proven bronchogenic carcinoma, PNS was present in 18 (8.62% patients. The patients with PNS were divided into two groups. The first one consisted of 13 (72.2% patients with symptoms related to primary tumours while the second one consisted of 5 (27.7% patients with symptoms, at initial appearance, indicative of disorders of other organs and systems. The predominant disorder was Lambert-Eaton Syndrome, associated with small-cell carcinoma. Endocrine manifestations included: inappropriate antidiuretic hormone production syndrome (small-cell carcinoma, a gonadotropin effect with gynaecomastia and testicular atrophy (planocellular carcinoma, small-cell carcinoma, a case of Cushing Syndrome (small-cell carcinoma, and hyper-calcaemia, due to the production of the parathyroid hormone-related peptide, which was associated with planocellular carcinoma. A rare case of bilateral exophthalmos was found as PNS at adenocarcinoma. Digital clubbing and hypertrophic osteoarthropathy (HO were associated with planocellular and adenocarcinoma, while clubbing was much more common than HO, especially among women. The differences between the two groups were related to the time of PNS appearance. In the first group, PNS occurred late on in the illness, while in the second group, PNS preceded the diagnosis of BC. Alternatively, the disappearance of a clinical or a radiological manifestation of PNS after surgery or chemotherapy may be an indicator of an improvement in health or PNS may be the first sign of illness recurrence. Radiological manifestations of PNS in asymptomatic patients may serve as a useful screen for identifying primary BC. In symptomatic patients, it may be an

  5. Liver cancer - hepatocellular carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primary liver cell carcinoma; Tumor - liver; Cancer - liver; Hepatoma ... Hepatocellular carcinoma accounts for most liver cancers. This type of cancer occurs more often in men than women. It is usually diagnosed in people age 50 or ...

  6. Stages of Adrenocortical Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Symptoms of adrenocortical carcinoma include pain in the abdomen. These and other signs and symptoms may be caused by adrenocortical carcinoma: A lump in the abdomen . Pain the abdomen or back. A feeling of ...

  7. Thyroid cancer - medullary carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyroid - medullary carcinoma; Cancer - thyroid (medullary carcinoma); MTC; Thyroid nodule - medullary ... in children and adults. Unlike other types of thyroid cancer, MTC is less likely to be caused by ...

  8. Undifferentiated salivary gland carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbst, H.; Hamilton-Dutoit, S.; Jakel, K.T.;

    2004-01-01

    Undifferentiated salivary gland carcinomas may be divided into small cell and large cell types. Among large cell undifferentiated carcinomas, lymphoepithelial carcinomas have to be distinguished, the latter of which are endemic in the Arctic regions and southern China where virtually all cases...... of these tumors are associated with the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Association with EBV may also be observed in sporadic cases, and detection of EBV gene products may aid their diagnosis. Immunohistology may be employed to resolve the differential diagnosis of undifferentiated salivary gland carcinomas, comprising...... malignant lymphomas, amelanotic melanomas, Merkel cell carcinomas, and adenoid cystic carcinomas, in particular in small biopsy materials. Because of the rarity of undifferentiated salivary gland carcinomas, the differential diagnosis should always include metastases of undifferentiated carcinomas arising...

  9. Risk Evaluation of Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Gioiosa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We review here our studies on early exposure to low doses of the estrogenic endocrine-disrupting chemical bisphenol A (BPA on behavior and metabolism in CD-1 mice. Mice were exposed in utero from gestation day (GD 11 to delivery (prenatal exposure or via maternal milk from birth to postnatal day 7 (postnatal exposure to 10 µg/kg body weight/d of BPA or no BPA (controls. Bisphenol A exposure resulted in long-term disruption of sexually dimorphic behaviors. Females exposed to BPA pre- and postnatally showed increased anxiety and behavioral profiles similar to control males. We also evaluated metabolic effects in prenatally exposed adult male offspring of dams fed (from GD 9 to 18 with BPA at doses ranging from 5 to 50 000 µg/kg/d. The males showed an age-related significant change in a number of metabolic indexes ranging from food intake to glucose regulation at BPA doses below the no observed adverse effect level (5000 µg/kg/d. Consistent with prior findings, low but not high BPA doses produced significant effects for many outcomes. These findings provide further evidence of the potential risks that developmental exposure to low doses of the endocrine disrupter BPA may pose to human health, with fetuses and infants being highly vulnerable.

  10. Metabolic, endocrine, and other genetic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahmoush, Hisham M; Melhem, Elias R; Vossough, Arastoo

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic, endocrine, and genetic diseases of the brain include a very large array of disorders caused by a wide range of underlying abnormalities and involving a variety of brain structures. Often these disorders manifest as recognizable, though sometimes overlapping, patterns on neuroimaging studies that may enable a diagnosis based on imaging or may alternatively provide enough clues to direct further diagnostic evaluation. The diagnostic workup can include various biochemical laboratory or genetic studies. In this chapter, after a brief review of normal white-matter development, we will describe a variety of leukodystrophies resulting from metabolic disorders involving the brain, including mitochondrial and respiratory chain diseases. We will then describe various acidurias, urea cycle disorders, disorders related to copper and iron metabolism, and disorders of ganglioside and mucopolysaccharide metabolism. Lastly, various other hypomyelinating and dysmyelinating leukodystrophies, including vanishing white-matter disease, megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts, and oculocerebrorenal syndrome will be presented. In the following section on endocrine disorders, we will examine various disorders of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, including developmental, inflammatory, and neoplastic diseases. Neonatal hypoglycemia will also be briefly reviewed. In the final section, we will review a few of the common genetic phakomatoses. Throughout the text, both imaging and brief clinical features of the various disorders will be discussed. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The obesity paradox: an endocrine perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Yee-Ming; Joham, Anju; Marks, Sharon; Teede, Helena

    2017-07-01

    Obesity is a growing epidemic both in Australia and worldwide. Being overweight or obese is known to be adversely associated with multiple cardiovascular risk factors, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, lipid disorders and hypertension. Despite the adverse impact of overweight and obesity, recent observational studies have suggested that in some overweight and obese individuals with established chronic disease, there is a survival advantage that is paradoxically better than individuals of normal weight. A burgeoning area of interest is the existence of this paradox in chronic endocrine disorders, especially with respect to osteoporosis and type 2 diabetes mellitus, as well as the latter's chronic complications, chronic kidney disease and coronary artery disease. In this article, we review the postulated mechanisms and latest evidence concerning the obesity paradox, with a focus on endocrine-related diseases. We discuss confounders and biases that exist in observational studies from which the paradox has been described and highlight that, despite the observed paradox, substantial literature exists supporting the benefits of weight reduction in obesity. © 2017 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  12. Sarcopenia and Age-Related Endocrine Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunihiro Sakuma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sarcopenia, the age-related loss of skeletal muscle, is characterized by a deterioration of muscle quantity and quality leading to a gradual slowing of movement, a decline in strength and power, and an increased risk of fall-related injuries. Since sarcopenia is largely attributed to various molecular mediators affecting fiber size, mitochondrial homeostasis, and apoptosis, numerous targets exist for drug discovery. In this paper, we summarize the current understanding of the endocrine contribution to sarcopenia and provide an update on hormonal intervention to try to improve endocrine defects. Myostatin inhibition seems to be the most interesting strategy for attenuating sarcopenia other than resistance training with amino acid supplementation. Testosterone supplementation in large amounts and at low frequency improves muscle defects with aging but has several side effects. Although IGF-I is a potent regulator of muscle mass, its therapeutic use has not had a positive effect probably due to local IGF-I resistance. Treatment with ghrelin may ameliorate the muscle atrophy elicited by age-dependent decreases in growth hormone. Ghrelin is an interesting candidate because it is orally active, avoiding the need for injections. A more comprehensive knowledge of vitamin-D-related mechanisms is needed to utilize this nutrient to prevent sarcopenia.

  13. Human infertility: are endocrine disruptors to blame?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques-Pinto, André; Carvalho, Davide

    2013-01-01

    Over recent decades, epidemiological studies have been reporting worrisome trends in the incidence of human infertility rates. Extensive detection of industrial chemicals in human serum, seminal plasma and follicular fluid has led the scientific community to hypothesise that these compounds may disrupt hormonal homoeostasis, leading to a vast array of physiological impairments. Numerous synthetic and natural substances have endocrine-disruptive effects, acting through several mechanisms. The main route of exposure to these chemicals is the ingestion of contaminated food and water. They may disturb intrauterine development, resulting in irreversible effects and may also induce transgenerational effects. This review aims to summarise the major scientific developments on the topic of human infertility associated with exposure to endocrine disruptors (EDs), integrating epidemiological and experimental evidence. Current data suggest that environmental levels of EDs may affect the development and functioning of the reproductive system in both sexes, particularly in foetuses, causing developmental and reproductive disorders, including infertility. EDs may be blamed for the rising incidence of human reproductive disorders. This constitutes a serious public health issue that should not be overlooked. The exposure of pregnant women and infants to EDs is of great concern. Therefore, precautionary avoidance of exposure to EDs is a prudent attitude in order to protect humans and wildlife from permanent harmful effects on fertility. PMID:23985363

  14. Hypothalamic-endocrine aspects in Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersén, Asa; Björkqvist, Maria

    2006-08-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a hereditary and fatal disorder caused by an expanded CAG triplet repeat in the HD gene, resulting in a mutant form of the protein huntingtin. Wild-type and mutant huntingtin are expressed in most tissues of the body but the normal function of huntingtin is not fully known. In HD, the neuropathology is characterized by intranuclear and cytoplasmic inclusions of huntingtin aggregates, and cell death primarily in striatum and cerebral cortex. However, hypothalamic atrophy occurs at early stages of HD with loss of orexin- and somatostatin-containing cell populations. Several symptoms of HD such as sleep disturbances, alterations in circadian rhythm, and weight loss may be due to hypothalamic dysfunction. Endocrine changes including increased cortisol levels, reduced testosterone levels and increased prevalence of diabetes are found in HD patients. In HD mice, alterations in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis occurs as well as pancreatic beta-cell and adipocyte dysfunction. Increasing evidence points towards important pathology of the hypothalamus and the endocrine system in HD. As many neuroendocrine factors are secreted into the cerebrospinal fluid, blood and urine, it is possible that their levels may reflect the disease state in the central nervous system. Investigating neuroendocrine changes in HD opens up the possibility of finding biomarkers to evaluate future therapies for HD, as well as of identifying novel targets for therapeutic interventions.

  15. Endocrine disruption: fact or urban legend?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nohynek, Gerhard J; Borgert, Christopher J; Dietrich, Daniel; Rozman, Karl K

    2013-12-16

    Endocrine disruptors (EDs) are substances that cause adverse health effects via endocrine-mediated mechanisms in an intact organism or its progeny or (sub) populations. Purported EDCs in personal care products include 4-MBC (UV filter) or parabens that showed oestrogenic activity in screening tests, although regulatory toxicity studies showed no adverse effects on reproductive endpoints. Hormonal potency is the key issue of the safety of EDCs. Oestrogen-based drugs, e.g. the contraceptive pill or the synthetic oestrogen DES, possess potencies up to 7 orders of magnitude higher than those of PCP ingredients; yet, in utero exposure to these drugs did not adversely affect fertility or sexual organ development of offspring unless exposed to extreme doses. Additive effects of EDs are unlikely due to the multitude of mechanisms how substances may produce a hormone-like activity; even after uptake of different substances with a similar mode of action, the possibility of additive effects is reduced by different absorption, metabolism and kinetics. This is supported by a number of studies on mixtures of chemical EDCs. Overall, despite of 20 years of research a human health risk from exposure to low concentrations of exogenous chemical substances with weak hormone-like activities remains an unproven and unlikely hypothesis.

  16. Insect-plant interactions: endocrine defences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, W S

    1984-01-01

    It is the inevitable consequence of evolution that competitive species living together in a restricted space must try to exclude each other. Plants and insects are prime examples of this eternal competition, and although neither of these is in danger of extinction, their mutual defensive strategies are of compelling interest to the human race. Plant defences based on the insecticidal activity of certain of their secondary chemicals are readily apparent. Only through research into the fundamentals of insect physiology and biochemistry are more subtle defensive mechanisms revealed, linked to the disruption of the insect endocrine system. A diverse number of chemical structures are found in plants, which interfere with hormone-mediated processes in insects. Examples include: mimics of the insect's juvenile hormones such as juvabione from the balsam fir and the juvocimenes from sweet basil, which lethally disrupt insect development, and the precocenes found in Ageratum species, which act as anti-juvenile hormonal agents. The latter appear to serve as 'suicide substrates', undergoing activation into cytotoxins when acted on by specialized enzymes resident in the insect endocrine gland (corpus allatum) that is responsible for juvenile hormone biosynthesis and secretion. Consideration of these plant defensive strategies, which have been reached through aeons of evolutionary experimentation, may assist the human race in its defences against its principal competitors for food, fibre and health.

  17. Ferrocene Functionalized Endocrine Modulators as Anticancer Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillard, Elizabeth A.; Vessières, Anne; Jaouen, Gerard

    We present here some of our studies on the synthesis and behaviour of ferrocenyl selective endocrine receptor modulators against cancer cells, particularly breast and prostate cancers. The proliferative/anti-proliferative effects of compounds based on steroidal and non-steroidal endocrine modulators have been extensively explored in vitro. Structure-activity relationship studies of such molecules, particularly the hydroxyferrocifens and ferrocene phenols, have shown the effect of (1) the presence and the length of the N,N-dimethylamino side chain, (2) the presence and position of the phenol group, (3) the role of the ferrocenyl moiety, (4) that of conjugation, (5) phenyl functionalisation and (6) the placement of the phenyl group. Compounds possessing a ferrocene moiety linked to a p-phenol by a conjugated π-system are among the most potent of the series, with IC50 values ranging from 0.090 to 0.6µM on hormone independent breast cancer cells. Based on the SAR data and electrochemical studies, we have proposed an original mechanism to explain the unusual behaviour of these bioorganometallic species and coin the term "kronatropic" to qualify this effect, involving ROS production and bio-oxidation. In addition, the importance of formulation is underlined. We also discuss the behaviour of ferrocenyl androgens and anti-androgens for possible use against prostate cancers. In sum, ferrocene has proven to be a fascinating substituent due to its vast potential for oncology.

  18. Hypertension in pregnancy: The endocrine and metabolic aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navneet Magon

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is the most common medical disorder complicating pregnancy. However, how pregnancy incites or aggravates hypertension remains unsolved despite decades of intensive research. Various endocrine and metabolic mechanisms have been postulated to contribute to the pathogenesis of hypertension in pregnancy. Understanding the endocrine aspect of the possible pathophysiological mechanism might open new vistas in prediction, prevention and management of this condition.

  19. EADB: An Estrogenic Activity Database for Assessing Potential Endocrine Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endocrine-active chemicals can potentially have adverse effects on both humans and wildlife. They can interfere with the body’s endocrine system through direct or indirect interactions with many protein targets. Estrogen receptors (ERs) are one of the major targets, and many ...

  20. Testicular dysgenesis syndrome: possible role of endocrine disrupters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Katrine; Asklund, Camilla; Skakkebaek, Niels E

    2006-01-01

    and molecular studies, all suggestive of an interrelation between the different symptoms. The aetiology of TDS is suspected to be related to genetic and/or environmental factors, including endocrine disrupters. Few human studies have found associations/correlations between endocrine disrupters, including...

  1. REST represses a subset of the pancreatic endocrine differentiation program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin, David; Kim, Yung-Hae; Sever, Dror

    2015-01-01

    To contribute to devise successful beta-cell differentiation strategies for the cure of Type 1 diabetes we sought to uncover barriers that restrict endocrine fate acquisition by studying the role of the transcriptional repressor REST in the developing pancreas. Rest expression is prevented...... in neurons and in endocrine cells, which is necessary for their normal function. During development, REST represses a subset of genes in the neuronal differentiation program and Rest is down-regulated as neurons differentiate. Here, we investigate the role of REST in the differentiation of pancreatic...... endocrine cells, which are molecularly close to neurons. We show that Rest is widely expressed in pancreas progenitors and that it is down-regulated in differentiated endocrine cells. Sustained expression of REST in Pdx1(+) progenitors impairs the differentiation of endocrine-committed Neurog3...

  2. Endocrine function in 97 patients with myotonic dystrophy type 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørngreen, Mette Cathrine; Arlien-Søborg, P; Duno, M

    2012-01-01

    . We found that patients with DM1 have an increased risk of abnormal endocrine function, particularly calcium metabolism disorders. However, the endocrine dysfunction appears not to be of clinical significance in all of the cases. Finally, we found correlations between CTG(n) expansion size and plasma......The aim of this study was to investigate the endocrine function and its association to number of CTG repeats in patients with myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1). Concentration of various hormones and metabolites in venous blood was used to assess the endocrine function in 97 patients with DM1...... LH, but normal testosterone levels, indicating relative insufficiency. Numbers of CTG repeats correlated directly with plasma PTH, phosphate, LH, and tended to correlate with plasma testosterone for males. This is the largest study of endocrine dysfunction in a cohort of Caucasian patients with DM1...

  3. Endocrine disrupting chemicals: harmful substances and how to test them

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olea-Serrano Nicolás

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of the opinions of different groups from: scientists, international regulatory bodies, non-governmental organizations and industry; with an interest in the problem of identifying chemical substances with endocrine disrupting activity. There is also discussion of the consequences that exposure to endocrine disruptors may have for human health, considering concrete issues related to: the estimation of risk; the tests that must be used to detect endocrine disruption; the difficulties to establish an association between dose, time of exposure, individual susceptibility, and effect; and the attempts to create a census of endocrine disruptors. Finally, it is proposed that not all hormonal mimics should be included under the single generic denomination of endocrine disruptors.

  4. Asthma and endocrine disorders: shared mechanisms and genetic pleiotropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesse, Riccardina; Schieck, Maximilian; Kabesch, Michael

    2011-02-20

    Asthma is a common inflammatory disease for which the cause is not yet known. Studies of the epidemiology and natural history of childhood asthma into adulthood demonstrate a change in gender prevalence with age. Hormones and inflammation may interact in asthma pathogenesis and determine its course. The same may be true for some endocrine disorders, including diabetes and obesity. Obesity plays a major role in the development of the metabolic syndrome and has been identified as an important risk factor for chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus. The prevalence of asthma has paralleled the rise in obesity, suggesting that shared environmental factors could affect both conditions. In addition, endocrine diseases and asthma may share common genetic determinants. In the first part of this review we assess endocrine influences on asthma and overlaps between endocrine disorders and asthma while in the second part we explore the potential benefit of comparative genetic analyses between asthma and endocrine diseases.

  5. Carcinoma adenoescamoso do colo uterino mimetizando carcinoma adenóide basal: relato de um caso e revisão da literatura Adenosquamous carcinoma of the cervix mimicking adenoid basal carcinoma: case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Piazzeta Pinto

    2007-02-01

    tumor that contains a mixture of malignant cells with squamous and glandular differentiation. The literature points to the importance of making this diagnosis when the cellular components are still well differentiated in the sample, otherwise the tumor may be erroneously interpreted as squamous carcinoma or adenocarcinoma. This study describes an unusual presentation of a adenosquamous carcinoma in a 47 year old patient. After conflicting cytological diagnoses and a history of abnormal uterine bleeding caused by cervical endometriosis, the patient was subjected to radical hysterectomy and a final diagnosis was obtained. The tumor was diagnosed as adenosquamous carcinoma. In many aspects, however, it was similar to the adenoid basal carcinoma. Characteristic features of the adenoid basal carcinoma such as the presence of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion in the surface epithelium, squamous and glandular differentiation in the center of the neoplastic mass, and basaloid cells in deep areas of the tumor were observed. Therefore, the following elements usually absent from adenoid basal carcinoma were present in this case: atypia and mitotic figures in undifferentiated cells, squamous-mucinous intraepithelial lesion (SMILE in the superficial areas. Epidemiological and clinical data, such as patient age (47, race (white and presentation (a cervical mass, concurred to exclude the diagnosis of adenoid basal carcinoma. Other differential diagnoses include pure squamous carcinoma or adenocarcinoma, collision tumor, and endometrial adenocarcinoma with squamous differentiation invading the uterine cervix.

  6. In vivo imaging of chromogranin A-positive endocrine tumours by three-step monoclonal antibody targeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siccardi, A.G. [Dipartimento di Ricerca Biologica e Tecnologica, Istituto Scientifico San Raffaele, Milano (Italy); Paganelli, G. [Dipartimento di Medicina Nucleare, Istituto Scientifico San Raffaele, Milano (Italy); Pontiroli, A.E. [Dipartimento di Medicina Interna, Istituto Scientifico San Raffaele, Milano (Italy); Pelagi, M. [Dipartimento di Ricerca Biologica e Tecnologica, Istituto Scientifico San Raffaele, Milano (Italy); Magnani, P. [Dipartimento di Medicina Nucleare, Istituto Scientifico San Raffaele, Milano (Italy); Viale, G. [Dipartimento di Ricerca Biologica e Tecnologica, Istituto Scientifico San Raffaele, Milano (Italy); Faglia, G. [Istituto di Scienze Endocrine, Universita di Milano (Italy); Fazio, F. [Dipartimento di Medicina Nucleare, Istituto Scientifico San Raffaele, Milano (Italy)

    1996-11-01

    The detection of chromogranins (Cg) by immunohistochemistry and serology represents a new in vitro diagnostic tool for endocrine tumours. We have recently reported on the feasibility of targeting chromogranin A (CgA) for in vivo detection of pituitary adenomas by immunoscintigraphy (ISG). The scintigraphic procedure, based on an anti-CgA monoclonal antibody and on the avidin-biotin three-step method (Cg-3S-ISG), was evaluated on a group of 29 consecutive patients with known or suspected endocrine tumours other than pituitary adenomas, i.e. medullary thyroid carcinoma, carcinoid, insulinoma and parathormone- or ACTH-producing tumours. Primary tumours (10) and recurrences (16) were visualised in 26 patients, whereas conventional imaging techniques (planar radiography, computerised tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasonography) failed to detect the tumour sites in ten of the same (Cg-3S-ISG-positive) patients. Therefore, these preliminary results indicate that Cg-3S-ISG, the first immunological method able to detect endocrine tumours in vivo, has a higher diagnostic accuracy than conventional imaging techniques (93.1% compared with 65.5%). (orig.). With 3 figs., 1 tab.

  7. The Youngest Korean Case of Urachal Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Ryeol Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Urachal anomalies are relatively uncommon and result from incomplete obliteration of the urachus perinatally. In children, most urachal diseases including urachal cysts and sinuses are benign, and these can sometimes become secondarily infected. Malignant involvement of the urachus is rarely reported, one in 5 million people, accounting for 0.35% to 0.7% of all bladder cancers. There are only five cases of urachal cancer diagnosed at the age of twenties in English written literature. Age at the diagnosis of urachal carcinoma is important to understand pathogenetic transition from benign to malignancy. A 26-year-old man visited our clinic with gross hematuria starting a few months before. CT scan showed a 4.0 × 6.8 cm sized lobulated cystic mass over the bladder dome. Cystoscopy showed a ball-shaped extrinsic mass from the bladder dome with intact bladder mucosa. With an impression of urachal cancer, laparoscopic partial cystectomy with wide excision of urachus was performed. Final diagnosis was well differentiated mucinous urachal adenocarcinoma invading bladder muscle, staged as pT3a based on Sheldon’s staging system. To our best knowledge, this case is the youngest Korean case of urachal carcinoma (the fourth youngest ever in English written literature.

  8. Developments in the EPA Computational Toxicology Program to Identify Environmental Endocrine Disruptors ( Environmental Endocrine Disruptors Gordon Conference)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presentation at the Environmental Endocrine Disruptors Gordon Conference in Newry, ME June 22, 2016 to give an overview of the use of high throughput screening and high throughput toxicokinetics to build models for endocrine disruption by environmental chemicals for estrogen rece...

  9. Medullary and papillary carcinoma of the thyroid gland occurring as a collision tumor with lymph node metastasis: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadat Alavi Mehr

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Papillary thyroid carcinoma and medullary thyroid carcinoma are two different thyroid neoplasia. The simultaneous occurrence of medullary thyroid carcinoma and papillary thyroid carcinoma as a collison tumor with metastases from both lesions in the regional lymph nodes is a rare phenomenon. Case presentation A 32-year-old Iranian man presented with a fixed anterior neck mass. Ultrasonography revealed two separate thyroid nodules as well as a suspicious neck mass that appeared to be a metastatic lesion. The results of thyroid function tests were normal, but the preoperative calcitonin serum value was elevated. Our patient underwent a total thyroidectomy with neck exploration. Two separate and ill-defined solid lesions grossly in the right lobe were noticed. Histological and immunohistochemical studies of these lesions suggested the presence of medullary thyroid carcinoma and papillary thyroid carcinoma. The lymph nodes isolated from a neck dissection specimen showed metastases from both lesions. Conclusions The concomitant occurrence of papillary thyroid carcinoma and medullary thyroid carcinoma and the exact diagnosis of this uncommon event are important. The treatment strategy should be reconsidered in such cases, and genetic screening to exclude multiple endocrine neoplasia 2 syndromes should be performed. For papillary thyroid carcinoma, radioiodine therapy and thyroid-stimulating hormone suppressive therapy are performed. However, the treatment of medullary thyroid carcinoma is mostly radical surgery with no effective adjuvant therapy.

  10. Poorly Differentiated Squamous Cell Carcinoma Arising in Tattooed Skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deba P. Sarma

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Tattoos have increasingly become accepted by mainstream Western society. As a result, the incidence of tattoo-associated dermatoses is on the rise. The presence of a poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma in an old tattooed skin is of interest as it has not been previously documented. Case Presentation. A 79-year-old white homeless man of European descent presented to the dermatology clinic with a painless raised nodule on his left forearm arising in a tattooed area. A biopsy of the lesion revealed a poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma infiltrating into a tattoo. The lesion was completely excised and the patient remains disease-free one year later. Conclusion. All previous reports of squamous cell carcinomas arising in tattoos have been well-differentiated low-grade type or keratoacanthoma-type and are considered to be coincidental rather than related to any carcinogenic effect of the tattoo pigments. Tattoo-associated poorly differentiated invasive carcinoma appears to be extremely rare.

  11. Oral Verrucous Carcinoma and Ameloblastoma: A Rare Coincidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Dalirsani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Oral verrucous carcinoma (OVC is a rare malignancy of the oral cavity that was first described by Ackerman. This tumor is a well-differentiated low-grade, slow growing cancer that is locally invasive without metastasis. Ameloblastoma is one of the most common odontogenic tumors, which originates from the odontogenic epithelium. Verrucous carcinoma along with central ambloblastoma is a rare phenomenon.   Case Report: A case of verrucous carcinoma along with central ambloblastoma in a 49-year-old man, which was referred with a painless exophytic lesion with a verrucous and granular surface, is reported.  Panoramic radiography revealed a well-defined radiolucency with sclerotic borders. To the best available knowledge, this phenomenon has not yet been reported.   Conclusion:  Verrucous carcinoma could occur in the wall of odontogenic cysts and tumors and should be considered during the differential diagnosis of a radiolucency, which is observed in the jaws with rapid growth or which presents some changes from its previous appearance. 

  12. EXPRESSION OF p16 AND p53 IN GASTRIC CARCINOMA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the clinical significance of p53 and p16 expression in gastric carcinoma with special reference to the prognosis.Methods:One hundred and fifty-two patients with gastric carcinoma undergoing operation in our hospital between 1991 and 1998 were evaluated for expression of p53 and p16 in formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tumor tissue utilizing Avidin-Biotin immunohistochemistry techniques. Statistical correlations with stage, histological type, differentiation degree, location, size, and overall survival were done. The Cox proportional hazard model was also performed to evaluate which factors had an independent prognostic value.Results:In 152 cases of resected gastric cancer, 110 (72.4%) were p16 positive and 49 (32.2%) showed p53 overexpression. Differences were observed in the frequency of p16 positivity with respect to age, gender and tumor size. The frequency of p53 positivity cells in well-differentiated tumors was significantly higher than that in poorly differentiated tumors (41.9% vs. 25.6%; P= 0.034). In a multivariate analysis, tumor TNM stage, perioperation chemotherapy and the expression of p16 were independent prognostic factors in gastric cancer.Conclusions:The results of the current study suggest that expression of p16 may be a useful prognostic factor for patients with gastric carcinoma, but the expression of p53 as detected by immunohistochemistry were of no value in predicting the prognosis of patients with gastric carcinoma independently.

  13. Poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma arising in tattooed skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, Deba P; Dentlinger, Renee B; Forystek, Amanda M; Stevens, Todd; Huerter, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Introduction. Tattoos have increasingly become accepted by mainstream Western society. As a result, the incidence of tattoo-associated dermatoses is on the rise. The presence of a poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma in an old tattooed skin is of interest as it has not been previously documented. Case Presentation. A 79-year-old white homeless man of European descent presented to the dermatology clinic with a painless raised nodule on his left forearm arising in a tattooed area. A biopsy of the lesion revealed a poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma infiltrating into a tattoo. The lesion was completely excised and the patient remains disease-free one year later. Conclusion. All previous reports of squamous cell carcinomas arising in tattoos have been well-differentiated low-grade type or keratoacanthoma-type and are considered to be coincidental rather than related to any carcinogenic effect of the tattoo pigments. Tattoo-associated poorly differentiated invasive carcinoma appears to be extremely rare.

  14. Surgical Treatment for 11 Cases of Penile Verrucous Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuanyu, Sun; Ke, Xu; Jie, Zheng; Guowei, Xia; Zujun, Fang

    2011-01-01

    Penile verrucous carcinoma is a rare, well-differentiated and low-grade tumor. The surgeons are deficiently aware about the biological behavior and the clinicopathological characteristic of this disease, which raises difficulties during the treatment. In our present study, the clinical and pathological data of 11 patients with penile verrucous carcinoma, aged between 49 to 85 years was retrospectively analyzed. The tumors exhibited exophytic, papillary, caulifower-like or verrucose lesions of great dimensions measuring between 2 to 10 cm on the penises. The tumors were located at glans in 6 cases, invaded the coronoid sulcus in 4 cases and invaded the shaft of the penis in 1 case. Eight cases underwent partial penectomy, while the other 3 were treated with local excision. The diagnosis of penile verrucous carcinoma was confirmed by histopathologic examination of the specimens with the negative surgical margins in all the cases. Within the period of 12 to 60 months of follow-up, all the patients were disease-free with no case of recurrence and metastasis. The novel knowledge and experience of the treatment of penile verrucous carcinoma will be a useful clinical guide for surgeons in the future. PMID:22346275

  15. A PROPOPSAL CONCERNING THE HISTOLOGICAL TYPING OF PRIMARY NASOPHARYNGEAL CARCINOMA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zong; Yong-sheng

    2001-01-01

    mirror examination of nasopharynx in the detection of asymptomatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma [J]. Cancer 1992; 69:3.[13]Zong YS, Zhang JX, Li Z, et al. Epstein-Barr virus infection in nasopharyngeal lymphoid hyperplasia [J]. Chin Med J 1999; 112:845.[14]Yao QY, Zong YS, and Li JT. Pathomorphological observation on vesicular-nucleus cell carcinoma of the nasopharynx [J]. Chin Med J 1985; 98:591.[15]Zhong BL, Zong YS. Effects of p53 overexpression on neoplastic cell mitosis and apoptosis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma [J]. Chin J Cancer Res 2001; 13 (1): 5.[16]Lo YM, Leung SF, Chan LY, et al. Kinetics of plasma Epstein-Barr virus DNA during radiation therapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma [J]. Cancer Res 2000; 60:2351.[17]Zong YS, Zhang RF, Chen ZH. Well differentiated nasopharyngeal adenocarcinoma, pathologic analysis of 34 cases [J]. Chin Med J 1983; 96:63.[18]Zong YS, Li QX. Histopathology of paracancerous nasopharyngeal carcinoma in situ [J]. Chin Med J 1986; 99:763.[19]Wei WI, Sham JS, Zong YS, et al. The efficacy of fiberoptic endoscopic examination and biopsy in the detection of early nasopharyngeal carcinoma [J]. Cancer 1991; 67:3127.[20]Sham JS, Wei WI, Zong YS, et al. Detection of subclinical nasopharyngeal carcinoma by fiberoptic endoscopy and multiple biopsy [J]. Lancet 1990; 335: 371.

  16. Squamoid eccrine ductal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraiva, Maria Isabel Ramos; Vieira, Marcella Amaral Horta Barbosa; Portocarrero, Larissa Karine Leite; Fraga, Rafael Cavanellas; Kakizaki, Priscila; Valente, Neusa Yuriko Sakai

    2016-01-01

    Squamoid eccrine ductal carcinoma is an eccrine carcinoma subtype, and only twelve cases have been reported until now. It is a rare tumor and its histopathological diagnosis is difficult. Almost half of patients are misdiagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma by the incisional biopsy. We report the thirteenth case of squamoid eccrine ductal carcinoma. Female patient, 72 years old, in the last 6 months presenting erythematous, keratotic and ulcerated papules on the nose. The incisional biopsy diagnosed squamoid eccrine ductal carcinoma. After excision, histopathology revealed positive margins. A wideningmargins surgery and grafting were performed, which again resulted in positive margins. The patient was then referred for radiotherapy. After 25 sessions, the injury reappeared. After another surgery, although the intraoperative biopsy showed free surgical margins, the product of resection revealed persistent lesion. Distinction between squamoid eccrine ductal carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma is important because of the more aggressive nature of the first, which requires wider margins surgery to avoid recurrence.

  17. Squamoid eccrine ductal carcinoma*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraiva, Maria Isabel Ramos; Vieira, Marcella Amaral Horta Barbosa; Portocarrero, Larissa Karine Leite; Fraga, Rafael Cavanellas; Kakizaki, Priscila; Valente, Neusa Yuriko Sakai

    2016-01-01

    Squamoid eccrine ductal carcinoma is an eccrine carcinoma subtype, and only twelve cases have been reported until now. It is a rare tumor and its histopathological diagnosis is difficult. Almost half of patients are misdiagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma by the incisional biopsy. We report the thirteenth case of squamoid eccrine ductal carcinoma. Female patient, 72 years old, in the last 6 months presenting erythematous, keratotic and ulcerated papules on the nose. The incisional biopsy diagnosed squamoid eccrine ductal carcinoma. After excision, histopathology revealed positive margins. A wideningmargins surgery and grafting were performed, which again resulted in positive margins. The patient was then referred for radiotherapy. After 25 sessions, the injury reappeared. After another surgery, although the intraoperative biopsy showed free surgical margins, the product of resection revealed persistent lesion. Distinction between squamoid eccrine ductal carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma is important because of the more aggressive nature of the first, which requires wider margins surgery to avoid recurrence. PMID:28099603

  18. Endocrine tumours in the guinea pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Künzel, Frank; Mayer, Jörg

    2015-12-01

    Functional endocrine tumours have long been thought to be rare in guinea pigs, although conditions such as hyperthyroidism and hyperadrenocorticism have been documented with increasing frequency so the prevalence of hormonal disorders may have been underestimated. Both the clinical signs and diagnosis of hyperthyroidism in guinea pigs appear to be very similar to those described in feline hyperthyroidism, and methimazole has been proven to be a practical therapy option. Hyperadrenocorticism has been confirmed in several guinea pigs with an adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation test using saliva as a non-invasive sample matrix; trilostane has been successfully used to treat a guinea pig with hyperadrenocorticism. Insulinomas have only rarely been documented in guinea pigs and one animal was effectively treated with diazoxide.

  19. Endocrine disrupter - estradiol - in Chesapeake Bay tributaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorabawila, Nelum [University of Maryland Eastern Shore, Princess Anne, MD 21853 (United States); Gupta, Gian [University of Maryland Eastern Shore, Princess Anne, MD 21853 (United States)]. E-mail: gcgupta@umes.edu

    2005-04-11

    Exogenous chemicals that interfere with natural hormonal functions are considered endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Estradiol (17{beta}-estradiol or E2) is the most potent of all xenoestrogens. Induction of vitellogenin (VTG) production in male fish occurs at E2 concentrations as low as 1 ng l{sup -1}. E2 reaches aquatic systems mainly through sewage and animal waste disposal. Surface water samples from ponds, rivers (Wicomico, Manokin and Pocomoke), sewage treatment plants (STPs), and coastal bays (Assawoman, Monie, Chincoteague, and Tangier Sound - Chesapeake Bay) on the Eastern Shore of Maryland were analyzed for E2 using enzyme linked immuno-sorbent assay (ELISA). E2 concentrations in river waters varied between 1.9 and 6.0 ng l{sup -1}. Highest E2 concentrations in river waters were observed immediately downstream of STPs. E2 concentrations in all the coastal bays tested were 2.3-3.2 ng l{sup -1}.

  20. Feline primary hyperaldosteronism: an emerging endocrine disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Diola Bento

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The primary hyperaldosteronism, an endocrine disease increasingly identified in cats, is characterized by adrenal gland dysfunction that interferes with the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, triggering the hypersecretion of aldosterone. Pathophysiological consequences of excessive aldosterone secretion are related to increased sodium and water retention, and increased excretion of potassium, which induce hypertension and severe hypokalemia, respectively. The most common clinical findings in cats include: polydipsia, nocturia, polyuria, generalized weakness, neck ventroflexion, syncope, anorexia, weight loss, pendulous abdomen and blindness. Diagnosis is based on the evidence of hormonal hypersecretion with suppression of renin release, imaging and histopathological evaluation of adrenal glands. Treatment may be curative with adrenalectomy, in cases of unilateral disease, or conservative, through administration of aldosterone antagonists, potassium supplementation and antihypertensives. Prognosis varies from fair to good with the appropriate therapy. This article reviews the main aspects of primary aldosteronism in cats, providing the clinician with important information for the diagnosis of this disease.