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Sample records for well-aligned boron nanowires

  1. Synthesis of well-aligned boron nanowires and their structural stability under high pressure

    CERN Document Server

    Cao Li Min; Gao Cun Xiao; Li Yan Cun; Li Xiao Dong; Wang, Y Q; Zhang, Z; Cui Qi Liang; Zou Guang Tian; Sun Li; Wang Wen Kui

    2002-01-01

    Owing to its unusual bonding and vast variety of unique crystal structures, boron is one of the most fascinating elements in the periodic table. Here we report the large-scale synthesis of well-ordered boron nanowires and their structural stability at high pressure. Boron nanowires with uniform diameter and length grown vertically on silicon substrates were synthesized by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering with a target of pure boron using argon as the sputtering atmosphere without involvement of templates and catalysts. Detailed characterization by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction indicates that the boron nanowires are amorphous. Structural stability of the boron nanowires at room temperature has been investigated by means of in situ high-pressure energy-dispersive x-ray powder diffraction using synchrotron radiation in a diamond anvil cell. No crystallization was observed up to a pressure of 103.5 GPa, suggesting that the amorphous structure of boron nanowires is s...

  2. Size-selected growth of transparent well-aligned ZnO nanowire arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Junsheng; Yuan, Zhaolin; Han, Shijiao; Ma, Zhu

    2012-09-21

    This paper reports the effect of precursor concentration, growth temperature, and growth time on the size and density of ZnO nanowire arrays (ZNAs). The well-aligned ZNAs were grown on indium tin oxide substrate using a facile chemical bath deposition method. The results showed that the ZnO nanowires could be tailored to the desired sizes with a simple variation of the growth parameters. Optical transmission spectra revealed a sufficient transparency of the ZNAs, qualifying them for photovoltaic and other optoelectronic applications. An inverted hybrid solar cell was fabricated using the ZNAs as the electron collecting layer, and the solar cell exhibited a power conversion efficiency of 0.91%.

  3. Enhancing ionic conductivity in composite polymer electrolytes with well-aligned ceramic nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Lee, Seok Woo; Lin, Dingchang; Shi, Feifei; Wang, Shuang; Sendek, Austin D.; Cui, Yi

    2017-04-01

    In contrast to conventional organic liquid electrolytes that have leakage, flammability and chemical stability issues, solid electrolytes are widely considered as a promising candidate for the development of next-generation safe lithium-ion batteries. In solid polymer electrolytes that contain polymers and lithium salts, inorganic nanoparticles are often used as fillers to improve electrochemical performance, structure stability, and mechanical strength. However, such composite polymer electrolytes generally have low ionic conductivity. Here we report that a composite polymer electrolyte with well-aligned inorganic Li+-conductive nanowires exhibits an ionic conductivity of 6.05 × 10-5 S cm-1 at 30 ∘C, which is one order of magnitude higher than previous polymer electrolytes with randomly aligned nanowires. The large conductivity enhancement is ascribed to a fast ion-conducting pathway without crossing junctions on the surfaces of the aligned nanowires. Moreover, the long-term structural stability of the polymer electrolyte is also improved by the use of nanowires.

  4. Preparation, formation mechanism and photoelectric properties of well-aligned CuSbS{sub 2} nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Liang, E-mail: sliang@ustc.edu.cn; Li, Yanan; Wu, Chunyan; Dai, Yumei

    2015-11-05

    Well-aligned CuSbS{sub 2} single crystalline nanowires array has been prepared via a solvothermal synthetic route. The as-prepared CuSbS{sub 2} nanowires are uniform with a growth direction perpendicular to the (101) planes. Porous anodic aluminum oxide was used as a morphology directing template and was found to play a significant role for the formation of single crystalline CuSbS{sub 2} nanowires. Thin film prepared from CuSbS{sub 2} nanowires displayed an obvious photoelectric response, suggesting its potential application as a low cost solar absorber material. A possible formation mechanism for the single crystalline CuSbS{sub 2} nanowires array is proposed. The structure, morphology, composition and optical absorption properties of the as-prepared CuSbS{sub 2} nanowires were characterized using X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry and UV–Vis spectrophotometry. - Highlights: • Uniform CuSbS{sub 2} single crystalline nanowires array has been synthesized. • The bandgap of the as-prepared CuSbS{sub 2} nanowires is 1.45 eV. • CuSbS{sub 2} nanowires displayed an obvious photoelectric response. • The growth direction of CuSbS{sub 2} nanowires is perpendicular to (101) planes.

  5. All-solid-state thin film battery based on well-aligned slanted LiCoO{sub 2} nanowires fabricated by glancing angle deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Miyoung [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Seunghwan [High Temperature Energy Materials Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Energy Science, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Daehee [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Joosun, E-mail: joosun@kist.re.kr [High Temperature Energy Materials Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Jooho, E-mail: jmoon@yonsei.ac.kr [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-08-01

    Graphical abstract: We successfully fabricated well-aligned slanted LiCoO{sub 2} nanowires as a one-dimensional nanostructured cathode by glancing angle deposition to enhance the electrochemical performance of all-solid-state thin film batteries. - Highlights: • Well-aligned slanted LiCoO{sub 2} nanowires are fabricated by glancing angle deposition. • One-dimensional nanostructured LiCoO{sub 2} cathode enlarges the contact area. • All-solid-state thin film battery exhibits enhances rate capability and cycling stability. - Abstract: We fabricated all-solid-state thin film batteries based on well-aligned slanted LiCoO{sub 2} nanowires by glancing angle deposition, as a facile template-free method in order to increase the electrochemically active site, i.e., the contact area between the solid electrolyte and the electrode. A highly porous thin film composed of well-separated slanted LiCoO{sub 2} nanowires not only facilitates the penetration of solid electrolyte phase into the cathode, but also alleviates the thermally and mechanically induced stresses during post-annealing and electrochemical cycling. The all-solid-state thin film battery based on the well-aligned slanted LiCoO{sub 2} nanowires, whose contact area between electrolyte and electrode was three times as high as that of a dense thin film, could provide additional migration pathways for lithium ion diffusion due to the enlarged reaction sites. This resulted in enhanced electrochemical kinetics, thereby leading to better rate capability and long-term cyclic stability as compared to the dense LiCoO{sub 2} thin film.

  6. Piezoresistive boron doped diamond nanowire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumant, Anirudha V.; Wang, Xinpeng

    2017-07-04

    A UNCD nanowire comprises a first end electrically coupled to a first contact pad which is disposed on a substrate. A second end is electrically coupled to a second contact pad also disposed on the substrate. The UNCD nanowire is doped with a dopant and disposed over the substrate. The UNCD nanowire is movable between a first configuration in which no force is exerted on the UNCD nanowire and a second configuration in which the UNCD nanowire bends about the first end and the second end in response to a force. The UNCD nanowire has a first resistance in the first configuration and a second resistance in the second configuration which is different from the first resistance. The UNCD nanowire is structured to have a gauge factor of at least about 70, for example, in the range of about 70 to about 1,800.

  7. Fabrication and characterization of well-aligned zinc oxide nanowire arrays and their realizations in Schottky-device applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, Kin Mun; Grote, Fabian; Sun, Hui; Lei, Yong [Institute of Materials Physics, Center for Nanotechnology, University of Muenster (Germany); Wen, Liaoyong; Fang, Yaoguo [Institute of Nanochemistry and Nanobiology, Shanghai University, Shanghai 201800 (China)

    2011-07-01

    Highly ordered arrays of vertical zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires (NWs) or nanopores were fabricated in our group by first thermal evaporating a thin film of gold on the ultrathin alumina membrane (UTAM). The UTAM was then utilized as a substrate for the growth of the ordered arrays using a chemical vapour deposition (CVD) process. Alternatively, a modified CVD process was also used to fabricate ultra-long ZnO NWs with the length of the nanowire exceeding 100 micrometres. Subsequently, densely packed arrays of ZnO NWs Schottky diodes were synthesized by transferring the long NWs on a substrate using a dry contact printing method and the electrical contacts were made on the NWs with a photolithographic process. The interesting electrical properties of the ZnO NWs, diodes or other metal oxide NWs such as the field emission, electron transport and piezoelectric properties were characterized by current-voltage or by other appropriate measurements.

  8. Synthesis and thermoluminescence of boron-doped germanium nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahedifar, M., E-mail: zhdfr@kashanu.ac.i [Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, University of Kashan, Kashan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hosseinmardi, F.; Eshraghi, L.; Ganjipour, B. [Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, University of Kashan, Kashan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-03-15

    Boron doped germanium nanowires were synthesized using chemical vapor deposition (CVD) with Au nanoparticles as nucleating centers, germanium tetrachloride as the source of germanium and B{sub 2}H{sub 6} gas as source of boron impurity. Au nanoparticles were deposited on Si using 3-aminopropyltriethylsilane (APTES). The single crystal Ge nanowires with diameters ranging from 19 to 200 nm were grown in a controllable manner. Effects of Au nanoparticle size, argon gas flow, temperature and duration of growth on diameter and length of nanowires were investigated. This is the first report on thermoluminescence (TL) properties of boron doped germanium nanowires. Glow curves were fitted using computerized glow curve deconvolution program and seven overlapped peaks were obtained. Further the response of synthesized nanowires to different dose levels of UV was studied and linear response regime was determined.

  9. Synthesis of boron nitride nanotubes with SiC nanowire as template

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, B.; Song, L. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology at Weihai, Weihai 264209 (China); Huang, X.X. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Wen, G.W., E-mail: g.wen@hit.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology at Weihai, Weihai 264209 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Xia, L. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology at Weihai, Weihai 264209 (China)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: {yields} Boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) have been fabricated using SiC nanowires as template. {yields} SiC nanowires could be effectively etched out by the vapors decomposed from ammonia borane, leading to the formation of BNNTs. {yields} A template self-sacrificing mechanism is responsible for the formation of BNNTs. -- Abstract: A novel template method for the preparation of boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) using SiC nanowire as template and ammonia borane as precursor is reported. We find out that the SiC nanowires could be effectively etched out by the vapors decomposed from ammonia borane, leading to the formation of BNNTs. The as-prepared products are well characterized by means of complementary analytical techniques. A possible formation mechanism is disclosed. The method developed here paves the way for large scale production of BNNTs.

  10. Urea route to coat inorganic nanowires, carbon fibers and nanotubes by boron nitride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomathi, A.; Ramya Harika, M. [Chemistry and Physics of Materials Unit, DST Unit on Nanoscience and CSIR Centre of Excellence in Chemistry, Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, Jakkur P.O., Bangalore 560064 (India); Rao, C.N.R. [Chemistry and Physics of Materials Unit, DST Unit on Nanoscience and CSIR Centre of Excellence in Chemistry, Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, Jakkur P.O., Bangalore 560064 (India)], E-mail: cnrrao@jncasr.ac.in

    2008-03-15

    A simple route involving urea as the nitrogen source has been employed to carry out boron nitride coating on carbon fibers, multi-walled carbon nanotubes and inorganic nanowires. The process involves heating the carbon fibers and nanotubes or inorganic nanowires in a mixture of H{sub 3}BO{sub 3} and urea, followed by a heat treatment at 1000 deg. C in a N{sub 2} atmosphere. We have been able to characterize the BN coating by transmission electron microscopy as well as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The urea decomposition route affords a simple method to coat boron nitride on one-dimensional nanostructures.

  11. Growth of Boron-Rich Nanowires by Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. J. Kleebe

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available B-rich nanowires are grown on Ni coated oxidized Si(111 substrate using diborane as the gas precursor in a CVD process at 20 torr and 900C∘. These nanowires have diameters around 20–100 nanometers and lengths up to microns. Icosahedron B12 is shown to be the basic building unit forming the amorphous B-rich nanowires as characterized by EDAX, XRD, XPS, and Raman spectroscopies. The gas chemistry at low [B2H6]/ [N2] ratio is monitored by the in situ mass spectroscopy, which identified N2 as an inert carrier gas leading to formation of the B-rich compounds. A nucleation controlled growth mechanism is proposed to explain the rugged nanowire growth of boron. The role of the Ni catalyst in the synthesis of the B-rich nanostructures is also discussed.

  12. Optical properties of boron-group (V) hexagonal nanowires: DFT ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-06-20

    Jun 20, 2017 ... Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 89; Issue 1. Optical properties of boron-group (V) ... MAHESH SONI1 ANURAG SRIVASTAVA1. Advanced Materials Research Group, CNT Laboratory, ABV-Indian Institute of Information Technology and Management, Gwalior 474 010, India ...

  13. Boron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boron is an essential micronutrient element required for plant growth. Boron deficiency is wide-spread in crop plants throughout the world especially in coarse-textured soils in humid areas. Boron toxicity can also occur, especially in arid regions under irrigation. Plants respond directly to the...

  14. Growth of inclined boron nanowire bundle arrays in an oxide-assisted vapor-liquid-solid process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, S. H.; Wu, J. Z.; Dibos, A.; Gao, X.; Karlsson, U. O.

    2005-09-01

    In the vapor-liquid-solid process typically employed for semiconductor nanowire growth, nucleation and anisotropic crystal growth of single nanowires are achieved with generation of a solid/liquid alloy interface using metal catalysts. The nucleation and growth mechanism of nanowires may be greatly altered when a second liquid is introduced into the solid/liquid alloy interface. In this work, we demonstrate bundled boron nanowire (BNW) array growth on Au coated Si substrates by introducing a second liquid of B2O3 onto the solid (B)/liquid alloy (Au-B) interface. The BNWs in each bundle are straight but highly inclined with respect to the normal of the substrate. A study of BNW morphology and chemical elemental distribution using electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy suggested that the catalyst Au provided the nucleation site for BNW bundles while the liquid B2O3 modified the initiation of BNWs from each nucleation site, resulting in multiple initiation of the BNWs from each site.

  15. Diamond-modified AFM probes: from diamond nanowires to atomic force microscopy-integrated boron-doped diamond electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, Waldemar; Kriele, Armin; Hoffmann, René; Sillero, Eugenio; Hees, Jakob; Williams, Oliver A; Yang, Nianjun; Kranz, Christine; Nebel, Christoph E

    2011-06-15

    In atomic force microscopy (AFM), sharp and wear-resistant tips are a critical issue. Regarding scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM), electrodes are required to be mechanically and chemically stable. Diamond is the perfect candidate for both AFM probes as well as for electrode materials if doped, due to diamond's unrivaled mechanical, chemical, and electrochemical properties. In this study, standard AFM tips were overgrown with typically 300 nm thick nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) layers and modified to obtain ultra sharp diamond nanowire-based AFM probes and probes that were used for combined AFM-SECM measurements based on integrated boron-doped conductive diamond electrodes. Analysis of the resonance properties of the diamond overgrown AFM cantilevers showed increasing resonance frequencies with increasing diamond coating thicknesses (i.e., from 160 to 260 kHz). The measured data were compared to performed simulations and show excellent correlation. A strong enhancement of the quality factor upon overgrowth was also observed (120 to 710). AFM tips with integrated diamond nanowires are shown to have apex radii as small as 5 nm and where fabricated by selectively etching diamond in a plasma etching process using self-organized metal nanomasks. These scanning tips showed superior imaging performance as compared to standard Si-tips or commercially available diamond-coated tips. The high imaging resolution and low tip wear are demonstrated using tapping and contact mode AFM measurements by imaging ultra hard substrates and DNA. Furthermore, AFM probes were coated with conductive boron-doped and insulating diamond layers to achieve bifunctional AFM-SECM probes. For this, focused ion beam (FIB) technology was used to expose the boron-doped diamond as a recessed electrode near the apex of the scanning tip. Such a modified probe was used to perform proof-of-concept AFM-SECM measurements. The results show that high-quality diamond probes can be fabricated, which are

  16. Growth of well-aligned carbon nanotubes with different shapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Tingkai, E-mail: ztk-xjtu@163.com; Ji, Xianglin, E-mail: jixianglinnwpu@outlook.com; Liu, Hongzhen; Yao, Pengyang; Liu, Wujian; Xiong, Chuanyin; Li, Tianxin; Wang, Chen

    2015-12-01

    Graphical abstract: - Abstract: Well-aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with different shapes, namely coiled CNTs (CCNTs), V-shape CNTs (VCNTs) and ribbon-like CNTs (RCNTs), were prepared by floating catalyst chemical vapor deposition (FC-CVD) using triethylsilane and ferrocene as catalyst precursors and xylene as carbon source. The products were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and energy dispersive spectrometer. The experimental results indicated that triethylsilane limited the catalyst effectivity in the formation of the novel shapes. When the mole ratio of ferrocene and triethylsilane reached 10:1, the array morphology was maintained and several shapes appeared. It inferred that the catalyst particles were formed by two phases, namely Fe–C–Si solid solution and cementite Fe{sub 3}C. The different absorption and desorption rates of carbon atoms between this two phases as well as the catalyst morphology change during the growth consequently lead to the formation of CCNTs and RCNTs. As for the VCNTs, it concluded that the partial inactivation of catalysts lead to two separated growth areas of CNTs which formed this CNTs. A mechanism is proposed to explain the relationships between the adding of triethylsilane and the formation of the novel structure.

  17. Growth of Well-Aligned ZnO Nanorod Arrays and Their Application for Photovoltaic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Zhaolin; Yao, Juncai

    2017-11-01

    We have fabricated well-aligned ZnO nanorod arrays (ZNRAs) on indium tin oxide-coated glass substrates by a facile chemical bath deposition method. We used field-emission scanning electron microscope, x-ray diffraction and UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy to study the morphology, crystalline structure and optical absorption of the fabricated ZNRAs, respectively. The results showed that ZnO nanorods stood almost perpendicularly on the substrate, were about 30-50 nm in diameter and 800-900 nm in length, and were wurtzite-structured (hexagonal) ZnO. In addition, well-aligned ZNRAs exhibited a weak absorption in the visible region and had an optical band gap value of 3.28 eV. Furthermore, a hybrid ZNRAs/polymer photovoltaic device was made, under 1 sun AM 1.5 illumination (light intensity, ˜100 mW/cm2), and the device showed an open circuit voltage ( V oc) of 0.32 V, a short circuit current density ( J sc) of 7.67 mA/cm2, and a fill factor ( FF) of 0.37, yielding an overall power conversion efficiency of 0.91%. Also, the exciton dissociation and transportation processes of charge carriers in the device under illumination were explained according to its current density-voltage ( J- V) curve and the energy level diagram.

  18. Recent progress in boron nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Takahiro

    2017-01-01

    Various types of zero, one, and two-dimensional boron nanomaterials such as nanoclusters, nanowires, nanotubes, nanobelts, nanoribbons, nanosheets, and monolayer crystalline sheets named borophene have been experimentally synthesized and identified in the last 20 years. Owing to their low dimensionality, boron nanomaterials have different bonding configurations from those of three-dimensional bulk boron crystals composed of icosahedra or icosahedral fragments. The resulting intriguing physical and chemical properties of boron nanomaterials are fascinating from the viewpoint of material science. Moreover, the wide variety of boron nanomaterials themselves could be the building blocks for combining with other existing nanomaterials, molecules, atoms, and/or ions to design and create materials with new functionalities and properties. Here, the progress of the boron nanomaterials is reviewed and perspectives and future directions are described.

  19. Investigation on the Photoelectrocatalytic Activity of Well-Aligned TiO2 Nanotube Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomeng Wu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Well-aligned TiO2 nanotube arrays were fabricated by anodizing Ti foil in viscous F− containing organic electrolytes, and the crystal structure and morphology of the TiO2 nanotube array were characterized and analyzed by XRD, SEM, and TEM, respectively. The photocatalytic activity of the TiO2 nanotube arrays was evaluated in the photocatalytic (PC and photoelectrocatalytic (PEC degradation of methylene blue (MB dye in different supporting solutions. The excellent performance of ca. 97% for color removal was reached after 90 min in the PEC process compared to that of PC process which indicates that a certain external potential bias favors the promotion of the electrode reaction rate on TiO2 nanotube array when it is under illumination. In addition, it is found that PEC process conducted in supporting solutions with low pH and containing Cl− is also beneficial to accelerate the degradation rate of MB.

  20. Alternative generation of well-aligned uniform lying helix texture in a cholesteric liquid crystal cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chia-Hua; Wu, Po-Chang; Lee, Wei

    2017-10-01

    This work demonstrates a simple approach for obtaining a well-aligned uniform lying helix (ULH) texture and a tri-bistable feature at ambient temperature in a typical 90°-twisted cell filled with a short-pitch cholesteric liquid crystal. This ULH texture is obtained at room temperature from initially field-induced helix-free homeotropic state by gradually decreasing the applied voltage. Depending on the way and rate of reducing the voltage, three stable states (i.e., Grandjean planar, focal conic, and ULH) are generated and switching between any two of them is realized. Moreover, the electrical operation of the cell in the ULH state enables the tunability in phase retardation via the deformation of the ULH. The observations made in this work may be useful for applications such as tunable phase modulators and energy-efficient photonic devices.

  1. Synthesis, microstructure and photoluminescence of well-aligned ZnO nanorods on Si substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Miao, Y. Ieda, S. Tanemura, Y.G. Cao, M. Tanemura, Y. Hayashi, S. Toh and K. Kaneko

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Well-aligned zinc oxide (ZnO nanorods were densely grown on Si substrate using ZnO thin-film seed layer without any catalysts and/or additives by a simple solid–vapour phase thermal sublimation technique. The growth mechanism can be interpreted as self-catalyst of zinc particles based on vapour–solid (VS mechanism. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM image and selected area electron diffraction (SAED pattern confirmed that the single-crystalline growth of the nanorods were preferentially along c-axis of hexagonal crystal system. High-crystal quality ZnO nanorods with strong near band edge emission centred at 380 nm can be achieved on Si substrate by the introduction of sufficient oxygen during the nanorod growth processing.

  2. Molecular precursor derived silicon boron carbonitride/carbon nanotube and silicon oxycarbide/carbon nanotube composite nanowires for energy based applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandavat, Romil

    Molecular precursor derived ceramics (also known as polymer-derived ceramics or PDCs) are high temperature glasses that have been studied for applications involving operation at elevated temperatures. Prepared from controlled thermal degradation of liquid-phase organosilicon precursors, these ceramics offer remarkable engineering properties such as resistance to crystallization up to 1400 °C, semiconductor behavior at high temperatures and intense photoluminescence. These properties are a direct result of their covalent bonded amorphous network and free (-sp2) carbon along with mixed Si/B/C/N/O bonds, which otherwise can not be obtained through conventional ceramic processing techniques. This thesis demonstrates synthesis of a unique core/shell type nanowire structure involving either siliconboroncarbonitride (SiBCN) or siliconoxycarbide (SiOC) as the shell with carbon nanotube (CNT) acting as the core. This was made possible by liquid phase functionalization of CNT surfaces with respective polymeric precursor (e.g., home-made boron-modified polyureamethylvinylsilazane for SiBCN/CNT and commercially obtained polysiloxane for SiOC/CNT), followed by controlled pyrolysis in inert conditions. This unique architecture has several benefits such as high temperature oxidation resistance (provided by the ceramic shell), improved electrical conductivity and mechanical toughness (attributed to the CNT core) that allowed us to explore its use in energy conversion and storage devices. The first application involved use of SiBCN/CNT composite as a high temperature radiation absorbant material for laser thermal calorimeter. SiBCN/CNT spray coatings on copper substrate were exposed to high energy laser beams (continuous wave at 10.6 mum 2.5 kW CO2 laser, 10 seconds) and resulting change in its microstructure was studied ex-situ. With the aid of multiple techniques we ascertained the thermal damage resistance to be 15 kW/cm -2 with optical absorbance exceeding 97%. This represents

  3. Organic Nanowires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balzer, Frank; Schiek, Manuela; Al-Shamery, Katharina

    Single crystalline nanowires from fluorescing organic molecules like para-phenylenes or thiophenes are supposed to become key elements in future integrated optoelectronic devices [1]. For a sophisticated design of devices based on nanowires the basic principles of the nanowire formation have...

  4. Self-Assembled Formation of Well-Aligned Cu-Te Nano-Rods on Heavily Cu-Doped ZnTe Thin Films

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liang, Jing; Cheng, Man Kit; Lai, Ying Hoi; Wei, Guanglu; Yang, Sean Derman; Wang, Gan; Ho, Sut Kam; Tam, Kam Weng; Sou, Iam Keong

    2016-01-01

    ... reported. We found an interesting self-assembled formation of crystalline well-aligned Cu-Te nano-rods near the surface of heavily Cu-doped ZnTe thin films grown via the molecular beam epitaxy technique...

  5. Semiconductor nanowires: Controlled growth and thermal properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yiying

    This dissertation presents an experimental study of the controlled growth of semiconductor nanowires and their thermophysical properties. The synthesis of nanowires was based on the well-known Vapor-Liquid-Solid (VLS) mechanism in which the growth of nanowire is initiated by a nanosized liquid droplet. The prepared nanowires are single-crystalline with certain preferred growth direction. Nanowires with different compositions have been synthesized, including Si, Ge, boron and MgB2. The control of nanowire composition, diameter and orientation has also been achieved. In addition, a Pulsed Laser Ablation-Chemical Vapor Deposition (PLA-CVD) hybrid process was developed to synthesize Si/SiGe longitudinally superlattice nanowires. The thermal conductivity of individual pure Si nanowire and Si/SiGe nanowire was measured using a microfabricated suspended device over a temperature range of 20--320 K. The thermal conductivities of individual 22, 37, 56, and 115 nm diameter single crystalline intrinsic Si nanowires were much lower than the bulk value due to the strong phonon boundary scattering. Except for the 22 nm diameter nanowire, theoretical predictions using a modified Callaway model fit the experimental data very well. The data for the 22 nm diameter wire suggest that changes in phonon dispersion due to confinement can cause additional thermal conductivity reduction. The Si/SiGe superlattice nanowires with diameters of 83 run and 58 nm were also measured. Their thermal conductivities are smaller than pure Si nanowire with similar diameter, as well as Si/SiGe superlattice thin film with comparable period. Both the alloying scattering and the boundary scattering are believed to contribute to this reduction. Size dependent melting-recrystallization study of the carbon-sheathed semiconductor Ge nanowires was carried out in in-situ high temperature transmission electron microscope (TEM). Significant depression in melting temperature with decreasing size of the nanowires as

  6. Single-crystalline zinc oxide nanowires as photoanode material for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Shu-Te; Hsiao, Ching-Lun; Lin, Hsin-Yu; Chen, Hsiang-An; Wang, Chiu-Yen; Lin, Heh-Nan

    2010-10-01

    This study reports the use of single-crystalline and well-aligned ZnO nanowires as photoanode material for dye-sensitized solar cells. The ZnO nanowires are grown on fluorine-doped tin oxide coated glass substrates without catalysts by thermal evaporation. In spite of low roughness factors of around 25 for the nanowire photoanodes, the fabricated solar cells yield power conversion efficiencies of around 1.3% under AM 1.5G (100 mW cm-2) illumination. Moreover, fill factors of around 0.5 have been achieved and are relatively high when compared with reported values from ZnO nanowire photoanodes. The results reveal the advantage of using single-crystalline nanowires as photoanode material and provide clues for the advancement of nanowire based dye-sensitized solar cells.

  7. Scaling theory put into practice: First-principles modeling of transport in doped silicon nanowires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Troels; Rurali, R.; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    2007-01-01

    We combine the ideas of scaling theory and universal conductance fluctuations with density-functional theory to analyze the conductance properties of doped silicon nanowires. Specifically, we study the crossover from ballistic to diffusive transport in boron or phosphorus doped Si nanowires...

  8. Crystalline boron nitride aerogels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zettl, Alexander K.; Rousseas, Michael; Goldstein, Anna P.; Mickelson, William; Worsley, Marcus A.; Woo, Leta

    2017-12-12

    This disclosure provides methods and materials related to boron nitride aerogels. For example, one aspect relates to a method for making an aerogel comprising boron nitride, comprising: (a) providing boron oxide and an aerogel comprising carbon; (b) heating the boron oxide to melt the boron oxide and heating the aerogel; (c) mixing a nitrogen-containing gas with boron oxide vapor from molten boron oxide; and (d) converting at least a portion of the carbon to boron nitride to obtain the aerogel comprising boron nitride. Another aspect relates to a method for making an aerogel comprising boron nitride, comprising heating boron oxide and an aerogel comprising carbon under flow of a nitrogen-containing gas, wherein boron oxide vapor and the nitrogen-containing gas convert at least a portion of the carbon to boron nitride to obtain the aerogel comprising boron nitride.

  9. Guided Growth of Horizontal p-Type ZnTe Nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reut, Gilad; Oksenberg, Eitan; Popovitz-Biro, Ronit; Rechav, Katya; Joselevich, Ernesto

    2016-08-04

    A major challenge toward large-scale integration of nanowires is the control over their alignment and position. A possible solution to this challenge is the guided growth process, which enables the synthesis of well-aligned horizontal nanowires that grow according to specific epitaxial or graphoepitaxial relations with the substrate. However, the guided growth of horizontal nanowires was demonstrated for a limited number of materials, most of which exhibit unintentional n-type behavior. Here we demonstrate the vapor-liquid-solid growth of guided horizontal ZnTe nanowires and nanowalls displaying p-type behavior on four different planes of sapphire. The growth directions of the nanowires are determined by epitaxial relations between the nanowires and the substrate or by a graphoepitaxial effect that guides their growth along nanogrooves or nanosteps along the surface. We characterized the crystallographic orientations and elemental composition of the nanowires using transmission electron microscopy and photoluminescence. The optoelectronic and electronic properties of the nanowires were studied by fabricating photodetectors and top-gate thin film transistors. These measurements showed that the guided ZnTe nanowires are p-type semiconductors and are photoconductive in the visible range. The guided growth of horizontal p-type nanowires opens up the possibility of parallel nanowire integration into functional systems with a variety of potential applications not available by other means.

  10. Epitaxial Growth of Single Crystalline GaN Nanowires on (0001) Al2O3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehagias, Th; Komninou, Ph; Dimitrakopulos, G. P.; Sahonta, S.-L.; Chèze, C.; Geelhaar, L.; Riechert, H.; Karakostas, Th

    Well-aligned single crystalline GaN nanowires were epitaxially grown on Al2O3 by molecular beam epitaxy. Controlled growth of the nanowires is achieved by tuning the V/III ratio during growth. Oxidised single crystalline catalyst droplets of a cubic symmetry are observed on the top surface of the nanowires. Adaptation of the cubic lattice on the wurtzite tip is realized via the introduction of a dense network of misfit dislocations at the interface. The {100} lattice spacing of the oxide droplets is found to be very close to its strain-free value, indicating almost full relaxation by the misfit dislocation network.

  11. Nanowire Lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Couteau C.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We review principles and trends in the use of semiconductor nanowires as gain media for stimulated emission and lasing. Semiconductor nanowires have recently been widely studied for use in integrated optoelectronic devices, such as light-emitting diodes (LEDs, solar cells, and transistors. Intensive research has also been conducted in the use of nanowires for subwavelength laser systems that take advantage of their quasione- dimensional (1D nature, flexibility in material choice and combination, and intrinsic optoelectronic properties. First, we provide an overview on using quasi-1D nanowire systems to realize subwavelength lasers with efficient, directional, and low-threshold emission. We then describe the state of the art for nanowire lasers in terms of materials, geometry, andwavelength tunability.Next,we present the basics of lasing in semiconductor nanowires, define the key parameters for stimulated emission, and introduce the properties of nanowires. We then review advanced nanowire laser designs from the literature. Finally, we present interesting perspectives for low-threshold nanoscale light sources and optical interconnects. We intend to illustrate the potential of nanolasers inmany applications, such as nanophotonic devices that integrate electronics and photonics for next-generation optoelectronic devices. For instance, these building blocks for nanoscale photonics can be used for data storage and biomedical applications when coupled to on-chip characterization tools. These nanoscale monochromatic laser light sources promise breakthroughs in nanophotonics, as they can operate at room temperature, can potentially be electrically driven, and can yield a better understanding of intrinsic nanomaterial properties and surface-state effects in lowdimensional semiconductor systems.

  12. Crystalline boron nitride aerogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zettl, Alexander K.; Rousseas, Michael; Goldstein, Anna P.; Mickelson, William; Worsley, Marcus A.; Woo, Leta

    2017-04-04

    This disclosure provides methods and materials related to boron nitride aerogels. In one aspect, a material comprises an aerogel comprising boron nitride. The boron nitride has an ordered crystalline structure. The ordered crystalline structure may include atomic layers of hexagonal boron nitride lying on top of one another, with atoms contained in a first layer being superimposed on atoms contained in a second layer.

  13. Boron Nitride Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael W. (Inventor); Jordan, Kevin (Inventor); Park, Cheol (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Boron nitride nanotubes are prepared by a process which includes: (a) creating a source of boron vapor; (b) mixing the boron vapor with nitrogen gas so that a mixture of boron vapor and nitrogen gas is present at a nucleation site, which is a surface, the nitrogen gas being provided at a pressure elevated above atmospheric, e.g., from greater than about 2 atmospheres up to about 250 atmospheres; and (c) harvesting boron nitride nanotubes, which are formed at the nucleation site.

  14. Boron nitride composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntz, Joshua D.; Ellsworth, German F.; Swenson, Fritz J.; Allen, Patrick G.

    2017-02-21

    According to one embodiment, a composite product includes: a matrix material including hexagonal boron nitride and one or more borate binders; and a plurality of cubic boron nitride particles dispersed in the matrix material. According to another embodiment, a composite product includes: a matrix material including hexagonal boron nitride and amorphous boron nitride; and a plurality of cubic boron nitride particles dispersed in the matrix material.

  15. The evolution of well-aligned amorphous carbon nanotubes and porous ZnO/C core-shell nanorod arrays for photosensor applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruey-Chi; Hsu, Chia-Chi; Chen, Shu-Jen

    2011-01-21

    Well-aligned amorphous carbon nanotube (a-CNT) and porous ZnO/C core-shell nanorod (NR) arrays were fabricated for the first time by a proposed deposition-etching-evaporation (DEE) route. The arrays were prepared by deposition of carbon on the surface of well-aligned ZnO NR arrays by thermal decomposition of acetone followed by spontaneous etching and evaporation of core-ZnO. By utilizing the decomposition of acetone as well as distinct degrees of interaction between intermediate products and ZnO, well-aligned nonporous ZnO/C core-shell NR, porous ZnO/C core-shell NR, and a-CNT arrays were separately prepared by varying the working temperature from 400 to 700 °C. Scanning electron microscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy show that the thickness of carbon shells increases from 3 to 10 nm with the increase in working temperature. Raman spectra demonstrate slight sp(2) bonds of carbon, indicating small graphite regions embedded in amorphous carbon nanoshells. The E(2) peaks of ZnO reduce with the increase in substrate temperature. Photoresponse measurements of ZnO/C NR arrays shows enhancement of both photoresponsivity and response velocity, and the interference of humidity with regard to photosensing is effectively reduced by the capping of carbon nanoshells. The work not only provides an effective route to improve the photosensing of semiconductor nanomaterials for practical applications, but also sheds light on preparing various hollow carbon and porous ZnO/C core-shell nanostructures with distinct morphologies by employing the routes presented in the paper on diverse ZnO nanostructures for optoelectrochemical applications.

  16. Fabrication of Well-Aligned ZnO Nanorods Using a Composite Seed Layer of ZnO Nanoparticles and Chitosan Polymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anees A. Ansari

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, by taking the advantage of both inorganic ZnO nanoparticles and the organic material chitosan as a composite seed layer, we have fabricated well-aligned ZnO nanorods on a gold-coated glass substrate using the hydrothermal growth method. The ZnO nanoparticles were characterized by the Raman spectroscopic techniques, which showed the nanocrystalline phase of the ZnO nanoparticles. Different composites of ZnO nanoparticles and chitosan were prepared and used as a seed layer for the fabrication of well-aligned ZnO nanorods. Field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and infrared reflection absorption spectroscopic techniques were utilized for the structural characterization of the ZnO nanoparticles/chitosan seed layer-coated ZnO nanorods on a gold-coated glass substrate. This study has shown that the ZnO nanorods are well-aligned, uniform, and dense, exhibit the wurtzite hexagonal structure, and are perpendicularly oriented to the substrate. Moreover, the ZnO nanorods are only composed of Zn and O atoms. An optical study was also carried out for the ZnO nanoparticles/chitosan seed layer-coated ZnO nanorods, and the obtained results have shown that the fabricated ZnO nanorods exhibit good crystal quality. This study has provided a cheap fabrication method for the controlled morphology and good alignment of ZnO nanorods, which is of high demand for enhancing the working performance of optoelectronic devices.

  17. Size-controlled growth of well-aligned ZnO nanorod arrays with two-step chemical bath deposition method

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Lili; Zhao,Qingxiang; Willander, Magnus

    2009-01-01

    Well-aligned ZnO nanorod arrays (ZNAs) with different sizes in diameter were fabricated on Si substrates by two-step chemical bath deposition method (CBD), i.e. substrate pre-treatment with spin coating to form ZnO nanoparticles layer and CBD growth. The effects of substrate pre-treatments, pH, angel (θ) between substrate and beaker bottom and growth time (t) on the structure of ZNAs were investigated in detail by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scan electronic microscope (SEM) and ph...

  18. Methods of forming boron nitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trowbridge, Tammy L; Wertsching, Alan K; Pinhero, Patrick J; Crandall, David L

    2015-03-03

    A method of forming a boron nitride. The method comprises contacting a metal article with a monomeric boron-nitrogen compound and converting the monomeric boron-nitrogen compound to a boron nitride. The boron nitride is formed on the same or a different metal article. The monomeric boron-nitrogen compound is borazine, cycloborazane, trimethylcycloborazane, polyborazylene, B-vinylborazine, poly(B-vinylborazine), or combinations thereof. The monomeric boron-nitrogen compound is polymerized to form the boron nitride by exposure to a temperature greater than approximately 100.degree. C. The boron nitride is amorphous boron nitride, hexagonal boron nitride, rhombohedral boron nitride, turbostratic boron nitride, wurzite boron nitride, combinations thereof, or boron nitride and carbon. A method of conditioning a ballistic weapon and a metal article coated with the monomeric boron-nitrogen compound are also disclosed.

  19. Considerable humidity response of a well-aligned SOMS micro-wire flexible sensor by moisture-induced releasing of trapped electrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kuei-Lin; Yang, Min-Han; Chiu, Hsin-Tien; Lee, Chi-Young

    2017-08-22

    Sandia Octahedral Molecular Sieves micro-wires (SOMS MWs) that exhibit ultra-high response to moisture and a short response time can be produced easily in an environmentally friendly mass production process. They are excellent candidate materials for use in humidity sensors. SOMS MWs were synthesized using niobium pentoxide as a precursor in concentrated sodium hydroxide solution. To fabricate humidity-sensing devices, electrophoresis was utilized to align the SOMS MWs on a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate. The degree of alignment of SOMS MWs can be tuned by controlling the electric field during electrophoresis. Both well-aligned SOMS MWs (S-1.00) and randomly distributed SOMS MWs (S-0.00) exhibit maximum sensitivities to humidity (RRH/RDRY) of almost 104 and 107 respectively, and both exhibit short response times (34 and 38 s) and recovery times (7 and 10 s); these MWs outperform metal oxide ceramic-based materials in sensing humidity. Furthermore, the humidity response of S-1.00 exceeds that of S-0.00 by three orders of magnitude, and this result cannot be explained with reference to the Grotthuss mechanism. Therefore, the moisture-induced carriers from trapped electrons contribute significantly to the humidity response of SOMS MWs. In addition, with outstanding humidity sensing-performance under extreme bending conditions and superior durability after being bent hundreds of times, the well-aligned SOMS MW sensor is a favorable candidate for emerging multifunctional electronic-skin.

  20. Nanowire Optoelectronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Zhihuan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Semiconductor nanowires have been used in a variety of passive and active optoelectronic devices including waveguides, photodetectors, solar cells, light-emitting diodes (LEDs, lasers, sensors, and optical antennas. We review the optical properties of these nanowires in terms of absorption, guiding, and radiation of light, which may be termed light management. Analysis of the interaction of light with long cylindrical/hexagonal structures with subwavelength diameters identifies radial resonant modes, such as Leaky Mode Resonances, or Whispering Gallery modes. The two-dimensional treatment should incorporate axial variations in “volumetric modes,”which have so far been presented in terms of Fabry–Perot (FP, and helical resonance modes. We report on finite-difference timedomain (FDTD simulations with the aim of identifying the dependence of these modes on geometry (length, width, tapering, shape (cylindrical, hexagonal, core–shell versus core-only, and dielectric cores with semiconductor shells. This demonstrates how nanowires (NWs form excellent optical cavities without the need for top and bottommirrors. However, optically equivalent structures such as hexagonal and cylindrical wires can have very different optoelectronic properties meaning that light management alone does not sufficiently describe the observed enhancement in upward (absorption and downward transitions (emission of light inNWs; rather, the electronic transition rates should be considered. We discuss this “rate management” scheme showing its strong dimensional dependence, making a case for photonic integrated circuits (PICs that can take advantage of the confluence of the desirable optical and electronic properties of these nanostructures.

  1. Boron nitride converted carbon fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseas, Michael; Mickelson, William; Zettl, Alexander K.

    2016-04-05

    This disclosure provides systems, methods, and apparatus related to boron nitride converted carbon fiber. In one aspect, a method may include the operations of providing boron oxide and carbon fiber, heating the boron oxide to melt the boron oxide and heating the carbon fiber, mixing a nitrogen-containing gas with boron oxide vapor from molten boron oxide, and converting at least a portion of the carbon fiber to boron nitride.

  2. Vertical nanowire architectures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vlad, A.; Mátéfl-Tempfli, M.; Piraux, L.

    2010-01-01

    Nanowires and statistics: A statistical process for reading ultradense arrays of nanostructured materials is presented (see image). The experimental realization is achieved through selective nanowire growth using porous alumina templates. The statistical patterning approach is found to provide ri...

  3. Nanowire-based detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berggren, Karl K; Hu, Xiaolong; Masciarelli, Daniele

    2014-06-24

    Systems, articles, and methods are provided related to nanowire-based detectors, which can be used for light detection in, for example, single-photon detectors. In one aspect, a variety of detectors are provided, for example one including an electrically superconductive nanowire or nanowires constructed and arranged to interact with photons to produce a detectable signal. In another aspect, fabrication methods are provided, including techniques to precisely reproduce patterns in subsequently formed layers of material using a relatively small number of fabrication steps. By precisely reproducing patterns in multiple material layers, one can form electrically insulating materials and electrically conductive materials in shapes such that incoming photons are redirected toward a nearby electrically superconductive materials (e.g., electrically superconductive nanowire(s)). For example, one or more resonance structures (e.g., comprising an electrically insulating material), which can trap electromagnetic radiation within its boundaries, can be positioned proximate the nanowire(s). The resonance structure can include, at its boundaries, electrically conductive material positioned proximate the electrically superconductive nanowire such that light that would otherwise be transmitted through the sensor is redirected toward the nanowire(s) and detected. In addition, electrically conductive material can be positioned proximate the electrically superconductive nanowire (e.g. at the aperture of the resonant structure), such that light is directed by scattering from this structure into the nanowire.

  4. Development of Well-Aligned TiO2 Nanotube Arrays to Improve Electron Transport in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Ho Chung

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We fabricated well-aligned one-dimensional (1-D titania nanotubes (TNT on transparent conducting oxide (TCO by anodization of Ti foil. Different lengths of TNTs were prepared by varying the applied potential (70 V time, and we investigated the performance of these TNTs in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs, transplanted onto a 6 μm TNP adhesion layer. The fabricated TNTs arrays (length 15 μm photoelectrode showed 24% increased efficiency compared to the TNP photoelectrode of 17 μm thickness. We further investigated the performances of DSSCs for the TNTs (1 wt% incorporated TNP photoelectrode and obtained 22% increased efficiency. The increased efficiency of the pure TNTs arrays and TNT-mixed TNP photoelectrodes was attributed to the directional electron movement of TNTs and light scattering effect of the TNT with the decreased rate of back electron transfer. The anodized and fabricated TNTs and DSSCs were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscope (TEM, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS.

  5. Self-Assembled Formation of Well-Aligned Cu-Te Nano-Rods on Heavily Cu-Doped ZnTe Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jing; Cheng, Man Kit; Lai, Ying Hoi; Wei, Guanglu; Yang, Sean Derman; Wang, Gan; Ho, Sut Kam; Tam, Kam Weng; Sou, Iam Keong

    2016-11-01

    Cu doping of ZnTe, which is an important semiconductor for various optoelectronic applications, has been successfully achieved previously by several techniques. However, besides its electrical transport characteristics, other physical and chemical properties of heavily Cu-doped ZnTe have not been reported. We found an interesting self-assembled formation of crystalline well-aligned Cu-Te nano-rods near the surface of heavily Cu-doped ZnTe thin films grown via the molecular beam epitaxy technique. A phenomenological growth model is presented based on the observed crystallographic morphology and measured chemical composition of the nano-rods using various imaging and chemical analysis techniques. When substitutional doping reaches its limit, the extra Cu atoms favor an up-migration toward the surface, leading to a one-dimensional surface modulation and formation of Cu-Te nano-rods, which explain unusual observations on the reflection high energy electron diffraction patterns and apparent resistivity of these thin films. This study provides an insight into some unexpected chemical reactions involved in the heavily Cu-doped ZnTe thin films, which may be applied to other material systems that contain a dopant having strong reactivity with the host matrix.

  6. C-axis correlated pinning mechanism in vortex liquid and solid phases for Sm123 film with well-aligned BaHfO3 nanorods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awaji, Satoshi; Tsuchiya, Yuji; Miura, Shun; Ichino, Yusuke; Yoshida, Yutaka; Matsumoto, Kaname

    2017-11-01

    Nanorods, which are nano-scaled columnar-shape precipitates, have recently been used to improve critical current density J c in magnetic fields for REBa2Cu3O y (RE123, RE: rare earth element) high temperature superconducting tapes/films. However, the flux pinning mechanism of the nanorod is not clear yet. We investigated the J c and resistivity ρ properties in detail and discussed the flux pinning properties on the basis of the flux pinning state diagram for high-quality Sm123 films with well-aligned 5.6 vol% BaHfO3 nanorods. Plateaus were observed in the field dependence of J c and ρ at high temperatures above the delocalization temperature. This suggests that nanorod pinning becomes effective in the vortex liquid phase and it grows up when the temperature decreases toward the delocalization temperature. In the ‘many-nanorod’ state in the high temperature region above the delocalization temperature, double peaks in the F p curves appear due to the coexistence of nanorod pinning and random pinning. At low temperatures below 70 K, however, the well-scaled F p curves at low fields and temperature dependent (non-scaled) normalized F p curves are observed. From detailed analysis using the cooperation model of the random and the correlated pinning centers, we found that nanorod pinning is dominant below the matching field and the cooperation between nanorod pinning and random pinning determines the high field J c properties above the matching field.

  7. Low-Temperature Growth of Well-Aligned ZnO Nanorod Arrays by Chemical Bath Deposition for Schottky Diode Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Zhaolin

    2015-04-01

    A well-aligned ZnO nanorod array (ZNRA) was successfully grown on an indium tin oxide (ITO) substrate by chemical bath deposition at low temperature. The morphology, crystalline structure, transmittance spectrum and photoluminescence spectrum of as-grown ZNRA were investigated by field emission scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy and spectrophotometer, respectively. The results of these measurements showed that the ZNRA contained densely packed, aligned nanorods with diameters from 30 nm to 40 nm and a wurtzite structure. The ZNRA exhibited good optical transparency within the visible spectral range, with >80% transmission. Gold (Au) was deposited on top of the ZNRA, and the current-voltage characteristics of the resulting ITO/ZNRA/Au device in the dark were evaluated in detail. The ITO/ZNRA/Au device acted as a Schottky barrier diode with rectifying behaviour, low turn-on voltage (0.6 V), small reverse-bias saturation current (3.73 × 10-6 A), a high ideality factor (3.75), and a reasonable barrier height (0.65 V) between the ZNRA and Au.

  8. Effect of the Si nanowire's diameter and doping profile on the electrical characteristics of gate-all-around twin Si-nanowire field-effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong Hun; Kim, Tae Whan

    2015-08-01

    The effect of the Si nanowire's diameter and doping profile on the electrical characteristics of gate-all-around twin Si-nanowire field-effect transistors (TSNWFETs) was simulated by using the three-dimensional technology computer-aided design simulation tools of Sentaurus and taking into account quantum effects. While the switching and the short-channel immunity characteristics were improved with decreasing nanowire diameter, the threshold voltage and the total on-current for the TSNWFETs decreased, resulting in a deterioration of device performances. The swing characteristics for the TSNWFETs maintained almost the same behaviors regardless of the boron concentration variation in the nanowire. Gate-induced drain leakage (GIDL) of the TSNWFETs appeared at a high drain voltage, and the GIDL current increased with increasing boron concentration in the Si nanowires. The electrical characteristics of the TSNWFETs were improved by optimizing the diameter and the doping concentration of the Si nanowire to lower the GIDL and the off-state leakage current.

  9. Stability of Organic Nanowires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balzer, F.; Schiek, M.; Wallmann, I.

    2011-01-01

    The morphological stability of organic nanowires over time and under thermal load is of major importance for their use in any device. In this study the growth and stability of organic nanowires from a naphthyl end-capped thiophene grown by organic molecular beam deposition is investigated via...... atomic force microscopy (AFM). Aging experiments under ambient conditions already show substantial morphological changes. Nanoscopic organic clusters, which initially coexist with the nanowires, vanish within hours. Thermal annealing of nanowire samples leads to even more pronounced morphology changes......, such as a strong decrease in nanowire number density, a strong increase in nanowire height, and the formation of new types of crystallites. This happens even before sublimation of organic material starts. These experiments also shine new light on the formation process of the nanowires....

  10. Boron-Based Nanostructures, Stability, Functionality and Synthetic Routes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yakobson, Boris I. [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States); Ajayan, Pulickel M. [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States)

    2017-08-04

    Boron (B) is one of the most intriguing elements not only because of its position between metals and nonmetals in periodic table but also because of its ability to form an enormous number of allotropes. Apart from several bulk three-dimensional (3D) phases, boron can form 0D clusters, 1D nanotubes and nanowires, and 2D layers. In particular, boron sheets of monoatomic thickness have raised interest as a potential new 2D-material and as a (conceptual) precursor, for example, so-called α-sheets, from which other boron structures - fullerene cages and tubes - might be constructed. In fact, a number of planar B clusters up to tens of atoms, found in experiments, appear as seeds for extended sheets. In this project we developed theoretical methods to guide synthesis, have successfully identified the material substrates (Ag, Au, Cu) to producing the pure boron layers, and further even predicted what atomistic structures should be expected. These guidelines have successfully led to discoveries in several labs and now have grown into an active line of research worldwide.

  11. The structure of boron in boron fibres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, J.; Krawitz, A. D.

    1983-01-01

    The structure of noncrystalline, chemically vapour-deposited boron fibres was investigated by computer modelling the experimentally obtained X-ray diffraction patterns. The diffraction patterns from the models were computed using the Debye scattering equation. The modelling was done utilizing the minimum nearest-neighbour distance, the density of the model, and the broadening and relative intensity of the various peaks as boundary conditions. The results suggest that the fibres consist of a continuous network of randomly oriented regions of local atomic order, about 2 nm in diameter, containing boron atoms arranged in icosahedra. Approximately half of these regions have a tetragonal structure and the remaining half a distorted rhombohedral structure. The model also indicates the presence of many partial icosahedra and loose atoms not associated with any icosahedra. The partial icosahedra and loose atoms indicated in the present model are in agreement with the relaxing sub-units which have been suggested to explain the anelastic behavior of fibre boron and the loosely bound boron atoms which have been postulated to explain the strengthening mechanism in boron fibres during thermal treatment.

  12. Measuring nanowire thermal conductivity at high temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaomeng; Yang, Juekuan; Xiong, Yucheng; Huang, Baoling; Xu, Terry T.; Li, Deyu; Xu, Dongyan

    2018-02-01

    This work extends the micro-thermal-bridge method for thermal conductivity measurements of nanowires to high temperatures. The thermal-bridge method, based on a microfabricated device with two side-by-side suspended membranes with integrated platinum resistance heaters/thermometers, has been used to determine thermal conductivity of various nanowires/nanotubes/nanoribbons at relatively low temperatures. However, to date, thermal conductivity characterization of nanowires at temperatures above 600 K has seldom been reported presumably due to several technical difficulties including the instability of the microfabricated thermometers, radiation heat loss, and the effect of the background conductance on the measurement. Here we report on our attempt to address the aforementioned challenges and demonstrate thermal conductivity measurement of boron nanoribbons up to 740 K. To eliminate high temperature resistance instability, the device is first annealed at 1023 K for 5 min in an argon atmosphere. Two radiation shields are installed in the measurement chamber to minimize radiation heat loss from the measurement device to the surroundings; and the temperature of the device at each set point is calibrated by an additional thermocouple directly mounted on the chip carrier. The effect of the background conductance is eliminated by adopting a differential measurement scheme. With all these modifications, we successfully measured the thermal conductivity of boron nanoribbons over a wide temperature range from 27 K to 740 K. The measured thermal conductivity increases monotonically with temperature and reaches a plateau of ~2.5 W m‑1 K‑1 at approximately 400 K, with no clear signature of Umklapp scattering observed in the whole measurement temperature range.

  13. Advances in nanowire bioelectronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wei; Dai, Xiaochuan; Lieber, Charles M.

    2017-01-01

    Semiconductor nanowires represent powerful building blocks for next generation bioelectronics given their attractive properties, including nanometer-scale footprint comparable to subcellular structures and bio-molecules, configurable in nonstandard device geometries readily interfaced with biological systems, high surface-to-volume ratios, fast signal responses, and minimum consumption of energy. In this review article, we summarize recent progress in the field of nanowire bioelectronics with a focus primarily on silicon nanowire field-effect transistor biosensors. First, the synthesis and assembly of semiconductor nanowires will be described, including the basics of nanowire FETs crucial to their configuration as biosensors. Second, we will introduce and review recent results in nanowire bioelectronics for biomedical applications ranging from label-free sensing of biomolecules, to extracellular and intracellular electrophysiological recording.

  14. Preparation and catalytic property of a non-crystalline alloy of iron boron with one-dimensional nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yan; Guo, Xiangke; Shen, Yeqian; Mo, Min; Guo, Xuefeng; Ding, Weiping; Chen, Yi

    2007-05-01

    This paper describes our recent progress on the synthesis and catalytic hydrogenation property of iron-boron non-crystalline alloy with one-dimensional nanostructures, including nanowires, nanorods and nanotubes. The synthesis of one-dimensional nanostructures of iron-boron non-crystalline alloy involves the use of lyotropic liquid crystals of non-ionic-anionic mixed surfactants as templates. The non-ionic surfactants used are Tween 40 (polyoxyethylene sorbitan monopalmitate) and Tween 60 (polyoxyethylene sorbitan monostearate), and the anionic surfactant is CSA (camphorsulfonic acid). The non-crystalline iron-boron nanotubes thus prepared are more effective than the corresponding nanowires and nanorods for the catalytic hydrogenation of m-nitrotoluene. The lyotropic liquid crystals of mixed surfactants provide an effective template for the fabrication of inorganic materials with one-dimensional nanostructures.

  15. Preparation and catalytic property of a non-crystalline alloy of iron-boron with one-dimensional nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu Yan; Guo Xiangke; Shen Yeqian; Mo Min; Guo Xuefeng; Ding Weiping; Chen Yi [Laboratory of Mesoscopic Chemistry, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2007-05-16

    This paper describes our recent progress on the synthesis and catalytic hydrogenation property of iron-boron non-crystalline alloy with one-dimensional nanostructures, including nanowires, nanorods and nanotubes. The synthesis of one-dimensional nanostructures of iron-boron non-crystalline alloy involves the use of lyotropic liquid crystals of non-ionic-anionic mixed surfactants as templates. The non-ionic surfactants used are Tween 40 (polyoxyethylene sorbitan monopalmitate) and Tween 60 (polyoxyethylene sorbitan monostearate), and the anionic surfactant is CSA (camphorsulfonic acid). The non-crystalline iron-boron nanotubes thus prepared are more effective than the corresponding nanowires and nanorods for the catalytic hydrogenation of m-nitrotoluene. The lyotropic liquid crystals of mixed surfactants provide an effective template for the fabrication of inorganic materials with one-dimensional nanostructures.

  16. Nanowire Photovoltaic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, David

    2015-01-01

    Firefly Technologies, in collaboration with the Rochester Institute of Technology and the University of Wisconsin-Madison, developed synthesis methods for highly strained nanowires. Two synthesis routes resulted in successful nanowire epitaxy: direct nucleation and growth on the substrate and a novel selective-epitaxy route based on nanolithography using diblock copolymers. The indium-arsenide (InAs) nanowires are implemented in situ within the epitaxy environment-a significant innovation relative to conventional semiconductor nanowire generation using ex situ gold nanoparticles. The introduction of these nanoscale features may enable an intermediate band solar cell while simultaneously increasing the effective absorption volume that can otherwise limit short-circuit current generated by thin quantized layers. The use of nanowires for photovoltaics decouples the absorption process from the current extraction process by virtue of the high aspect ratio. While no functional solar cells resulted from this effort, considerable fundamental understanding of the nanowire epitaxy kinetics and nanopatterning process was developed. This approach could, in principle, be an enabling technology for heterointegration of dissimilar materials. The technology also is applicable to virtual substrates. Incorporating nanowires onto a recrystallized germanium/metal foil substrate would potentially solve the problem of grain boundary shunting of generated carriers by restricting the cross-sectional area of the nanowire (tens of nanometers in diameter) to sizes smaller than the recrystallized grains (0.5 to 1 micron(exp 2).

  17. Metallic nanowire networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yujiang; Shelnutt, John A.

    2012-11-06

    A metallic nanowire network synthesized using chemical reduction of a metal ion source by a reducing agent in the presence of a soft template comprising a tubular inverse micellar network. The network of interconnected polycrystalline nanowires has a very high surface-area/volume ratio, which makes it highly suitable for use in catalytic applications.

  18. Temperature dependent current transport of Pd/ZnO nanowire Schottky diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayen, R. N.; Bhattacharyya, S. R.; Jana, P.

    2014-09-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowire based Schottky barrier diodes are fabricated by depositing Pd metal contact on top of vertically well-aligned ZnO nanowire arrays. A vertical array of ZnO nanowires on indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass substrates is synthesized by hybrid wet chemical route. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), x-ray diffraction (XRD) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurement confirm the formation of stoichiometric well-aligned hexagonal (h-ZnO) nanowire arrays with wurtzite structure. Temperature dependent current-voltage (I-V) measurements on palladium-ZnO (Pd/ZnO) nanowire Schottky junctions in the temperature range 303-383 K exhibit excellent rectifying character. From these nonlinear I-V plots, different electrical parameters of diode-like reverse saturation current, barrier height and ideality factor are determined as a function of temperature assuming pure thermionic emission model. The ideality factor is found to decrease while the barrier height increases with the increase in temperature. The series resistance values calculated from Cheung’s functions also show temperature dependency. Such behavior can be attributed to the presence of defects that traps carriers, and barrier height inhomogeneity at the interface of the barrier junction. After barrier height inhomogeneity correction, considering a Gaussian distributed barrier height fluctuation across the Pd/ZnO interface, the estimated values of mean barrier height and modified Richardson constant are more closely matched to the theoretically predicted value for Pd/ZnO Schottky barrier diodes. The variation of density of interface states as a function of interface state energy is also calculated.

  19. Nanowire Growth for Photovoltaics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Jeppe Vilstrup

    the small footprint of grown nanowires relaxes the crystal matching constraint. 1.7eV is the ideal bandgap for a top junction in a dual junction solar cell, where silicon is the bottom junction. This can be obtained with GaAs0.8P0.2. We have demonstrated how to incorporate phosphorous(P) into Ga......-catalyzed nanowire growth, and grown GaAs1−xPx nanowires with different inclusions of P(x) directly on silicon. The incorporation of P was generally higher in nanowires than for planar growth at identical P flux percentage. More interestingly, the percentage of P in the nanowire was found to be a concave function...

  20. Optimization of self-catalyzed InAs Nanowires on flexible graphite for photovoltaic infrared photodetectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyebe, Ezekiel A.; Sandall, I.; Jin, Z. M.; Sanchez, Ana M.; Rajpalke, Mohana K.; Veal, Timothy D.; Cao, Y. C.; Li, H. D.; Harvey, R.; Zhuang, Q. D.

    2017-04-01

    The recent discovery of flexible graphene monolayers has triggered extensive research interest for the development of III-V/graphene functional hybrid heterostructures. In order to fully exploit their enormous potential in device applications, it is essential to optimize epitaxial growth for the precise control of nanowire geometry and density. Herein, we present a comprehensive growth study of InAs nanowires on graphitic substrates by molecular beam epitaxy. Vertically well-aligned and thin InAs nanowires with high yield were obtained in a narrow growth temperature window of 420-450 °C within a restricted domain of growth rate and V/III flux ratio. The graphitic substrates enable high nanowire growth rates, which is favourable for cost-effective device fabrication. A relatively low density of defects was observed. We have also demonstrated InAs-NWs/graphite heterojunction devices exhibiting rectifying behaviour. Room temperature photovoltaic response with a cut-off wavelength of 3.4 μm was demonstrated. This elucidates a promising route towards the monolithic integration of InAs nanowires with graphite for flexible and functional hybrid devices.

  1. Rapid Hydrothermal Synthesis of Zinc Oxide Nanowires by Annealing Methods on Seed Layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jang Bo Shim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Well-aligned zinc oxide (ZnO nanowire arrays were successfully synthesized on a glass substrate using the rapid microwave heating process. The ZnO seed layers were produced by spinning the precursor solutions onto the substrate. Among coatings, the ZnO seed layers were annealed at 100°C for 5 minutes to ensure particle adhesion to the glass surface in air, nitrogen, and vacuum atmospheres. The annealing treatment of the ZnO seed layer was most important for achieving the high quality of ZnO nanowire arrays as ZnO seed nanoparticles of larger than 30 nm in diameter evolve into ZnO nanowire arrays. Transmission electron microscopy analysis revealed a single-crystalline lattice of the ZnO nanowires. Because of their low power (140 W, low operating temperatures (90°C, easy fabrication (variable microwave sintering system, and low cost (90% cost reduction compared with gas condensation methods, high quality ZnO nanowires created with the rapid microwave heating process show great promise for use in flexible solar cells and flexible display devices.

  2. Growth and characterization of ZnO/ZnTe core/shell nanowire arrays on transparent conducting oxide glass substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    We report the growth and characterization of ZnO/ZnTe core/shell nanowire arrays on indium tin oxide. Coating of the ZnTe layer on well-aligned vertical ZnO nanowires has been demonstrated by scanning electron microscope, tunneling electron microscope, X-ray diffraction pattern, photoluminescence, and transmission studies. The ZnO/ZnTe core/shell nanowire arrays were then used as the active layer and carrier transport medium to fabricate a photovoltaic device. The enhanced photocurrent and faster response observed in ZnO/ZnTe, together with the quenching of the UV emission in the PL spectra, indicate that carrier separation in this structure plays an important role in determining their optical response. The results also indicate that core/shell structures can be made into useful photovoltaic devices. PMID:22804871

  3. Boronated liposome development and evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawthorne, M.F. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    The boronated liposome development and evaluation effort consists of two separate tasks. The first is the development of new boron compounds and the synthesis of known boron species with BNCT potential. These compounds are then encapsulated within liposomes for the second task, biodistribution testing in tumor-bearing mice, which examines the potential for the liposomes and their contents to concentrate boron in cancerous tissues.

  4. Nanowire Growth for Photovoltaics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Jeppe Vilstrup

    cells. Resonance effects between the light and nanowire causes an inherent concentration of the sunlight into the nanowires, and means that a sparse array of nanowires (less than 5% of the area) can absorb all the incoming light. The resonance effects, as well as a graded index of refraction, also traps...... of the percentage of P in the flux, while for planar growth it was a convex function. We have demonstrated GaAs0.8P0.2 nanowires and further grown a shell surrounding the core with the same composition. The lattice matched GaAsP core-shell nanowire were doped to produce radial p-i-n junctions in each...... of the nanowires, some of which were removed from their growth substrate and turned into single nanowire solar cells (SNWSC). The best device showed a conversion efficiency of 6.8% under 1.5AMG 1-sun illumination. In order to improve the efficiency a surface passivating shell consisting of highly doped, wide...

  5. Nanowire-based thermoelectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Azhar; Chen, Yixi; Vasiraju, Venkata; Vaddiraju, Sreeram

    2017-07-01

    Research on thermoelectrics has seen a huge resurgence since the early 1990s. The ability of tuning a material’s electrical and thermal transport behavior upon nanostructuring has led to this revival. Nevertheless, thermoelectric performances of nanowires and related materials lag far behind those achieved with thin-film superlattices and quantum dot-based materials. This is despite the fact that nanowires offer many distinct advantages in enhancing the thermoelectric performances of materials. The simplicity of the strategy is the first and foremost advantage. For example, control of the nanowire diameters and their surface roughnesses will aid in enhancing their thermoelectric performances. Another major advantage is the possibility of obtaining high thermoelectric performances using simpler nanowire chemistries (e.g., elemental and binary compound semiconductors), paving the way for the fabrication of thermoelectric modules inexpensively from non-toxic elements. In this context, the topical review provides an overview of the current state of nanowire-based thermoelectrics. It concludes with a discussion of the future vision of nanowire-based thermoelectrics, including the need for developing strategies aimed at the mass production of nanowires and their interface-engineered assembly into devices. This eliminates the need for trial-and-error strategies and complex chemistries for enhancing the thermoelectric performances of materials.

  6. Fabrication of Coaxial Si(1-x)Ge(x) Heterostructure Nanowires by O(2) Flow-Induced Bifurcate Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ilsoo; Lee, Ki-Young; Kim, Ungkil; Park, Yong-Hee; Park, Tae-Eon; Choi, Heon-Jin

    2010-06-17

    We report on bifurcate reactions on the surface of well-aligned Si(1-x)Ge(x) nanowires that enable fabrication of two different coaxial heterostructure nanowires. The Si(1-x)Ge(x) nanowires were grown in a chemical vapor transport process using SiCl(4) gas and Ge powder as a source. After the growth of nanowires, SiCl(4) flow was terminated while O(2) gas flow was introduced under vacuum. On the surface of nanowires was deposited Ge by the vapor from the Ge powder or oxidized into SiO(2) by the O(2) gas. The transition from deposition to oxidation occurred abruptly at 2 torr of O(2) pressure without any intermediate region and enables selectively fabricated Ge/Si(1-x)Ge(x) or SiO(2)/Si(1-x)Ge(x) coaxial heterostructure nanowires. The rate of deposition and oxidation was dominated by interfacial reaction and diffusion of oxygen through the oxide layer, respectively.

  7. Fabrication of Coaxial Si1−xGex Heterostructure Nanowires by O2 Flow-Induced Bifurcate Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    We report on bifurcate reactions on the surface of well-aligned Si1−xGex nanowires that enable fabrication of two different coaxial heterostructure nanowires. The Si1−xGex nanowires were grown in a chemical vapor transport process using SiCl4 gas and Ge powder as a source. After the growth of nanowires, SiCl4 flow was terminated while O2 gas flow was introduced under vacuum. On the surface of nanowires was deposited Ge by the vapor from the Ge powder or oxidized into SiO2 by the O2 gas. The transition from deposition to oxidation occurred abruptly at 2 torr of O2 pressure without any intermediate region and enables selectively fabricated Ge/Si1−xGex or SiO2/Si1−xGex coaxial heterostructure nanowires. The rate of deposition and oxidation was dominated by interfacial reaction and diffusion of oxygen through the oxide layer, respectively. PMID:21076699

  8. Fabrication of Coaxial Si1−xGex Heterostructure Nanowires by O2 Flow-Induced Bifurcate Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Ilsoo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We report on bifurcate reactions on the surface of well-aligned Si1−xGex nanowires that enable fabrication of two different coaxial heterostructure nanowires. The Si1−xGex nanowires were grown in a chemical vapor transport process using SiCl4 gas and Ge powder as a source. After the growth of nanowires, SiCl4 flow was terminated while O2 gas flow was introduced under vacuum. On the surface of nanowires was deposited Ge by the vapor from the Ge powder or oxidized into SiO2 by the O2 gas. The transition from deposition to oxidation occurred abruptly at 2 torr of O2 pressure without any intermediate region and enables selectively fabricated Ge/Si1−xGex or SiO2/Si1−xGex coaxial heterostructure nanowires. The rate of deposition and oxidation was dominated by interfacial reaction and diffusion of oxygen through the oxide layer, respectively.

  9. Silicon nanowire hybrid photovoltaics

    KAUST Repository

    Garnett, Erik C.

    2010-06-01

    Silicon nanowire Schottky junction solar cells have been fabricated using n-type silicon nanowire arrays and a spin-coated conductive polymer (PEDOT). The polymer Schottky junction cells show superior surface passivation and open-circuit voltages compared to standard diffused junction cells with native oxide surfaces. External quantum efficiencies up to 88% were measured for these silicon nanowire/PEDOT solar cells further demonstrating excellent surface passivation. This process avoids high temperature processes which allows for low-cost substrates to be used. © 2010 IEEE.

  10. Thermodynamics of the adsorption of flexible polymers on nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Thomas; Gross, Jonathan; Bachmann, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Generalized-ensemble simulations enable the study of complex adsorption scenarios of a coarse-grained model polymer near an attractive nanostring, representing an ultrathin nanowire. We perform canonical and microcanonical statistical analyses to investigate structural transitions of the polymer and discuss their dependence on the temperature and on model parameters such as effective wire thickness and attraction strength. The result is a complete hyperphase diagram of the polymer phases, whose locations and stability are influenced by the effective material properties of the nanowire and the strength of the thermal fluctuations. Major structural polymer phases in the adsorbed state include compact droplets attached to or wrapping around the wire, and tubelike conformations with triangular pattern that resemble ideal boron nanotubes. The classification of the transitions is performed by microcanonical inflection-point analysis.

  11. Thermodynamics of the adsorption of flexible polymers on nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel, Thomas, E-mail: tvogel@lanl.gov [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Gross, Jonathan, E-mail: jonathan.gross@itp.uni-leipzig.de [Institut für Theoretische Physik and Centre for Theoretical Sciences (NTZ), Universität Leipzig, Postfach 100 920, D-04009 Leipzig (Germany); Soft Matter Systems Research Group, Center for Simulational Physics, The University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia 30602 (United States); Bachmann, Michael, E-mail: bachmann@smsyslab.org [Soft Matter Systems Research Group, Center for Simulational Physics, The University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia 30602 (United States); Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso, 78060-900 Cuiabá , Mato Grosso (Brazil); Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil)

    2015-03-14

    Generalized-ensemble simulations enable the study of complex adsorption scenarios of a coarse-grained model polymer near an attractive nanostring, representing an ultrathin nanowire. We perform canonical and microcanonical statistical analyses to investigate structural transitions of the polymer and discuss their dependence on the temperature and on model parameters such as effective wire thickness and attraction strength. The result is a complete hyperphase diagram of the polymer phases, whose locations and stability are influenced by the effective material properties of the nanowire and the strength of the thermal fluctuations. Major structural polymer phases in the adsorbed state include compact droplets attached to or wrapping around the wire, and tubelike conformations with triangular pattern that resemble ideal boron nanotubes. The classification of the transitions is performed by microcanonical inflection-point analysis.

  12. Optical properties of boron-group (V) hexagonal nanowires: DFT ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B Santhibhushan

    2017-06-20

    Jun 20, 2017 ... Advanced Materials Research Group, CNT Laboratory, ABV-Indian Institute of Information Technology and. Management, Gwalior 474 010, India. ∗. Corresponding author. E-mail: ... 1. Introduction. With declining natural fossil fuel sources and increasing global warming, the search for highly efficient clean.

  13. Synthesis of ZnO Nanowires and Their Photovoltaic Application: ZnO Nanowires/AgGaSe2 Thin Film Core-Shell Solar Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Peksu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this investigation, hydrothermal technique was employed for the synthesis of well-aligned dense arrays of ZnO nanowires (NWs on a wide range of substrates including silicon, soda-lime glass (SLG, indium tin oxide, and polyethylene terephthalate (PET. Results showed that ZnO NWs can be successfully grown on any substrate that can withstand the growth temperature (~90°C and precursor solution chemicals. Results also revealed that there was a strong impact of growth time and ZnO seed layer deposition route on the orientation, density, diameter, and uniformity of the synthesized nanowires. A core-shell n-ZnO NWs/p-AgGaSe2 (AGS thin film solar cell was fabricated as a device application of synthesized ZnO nanowires by decoration of nanowires with ~700 nm thick sputtering deposited AGS thin film layer, which demonstrated an energy conversion efficiency of 1.74% under 100 mW/cm2 of simulated solar illumination.

  14. Porous Silicon Nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Yongquan; Zhou, Hailong; Duan, Xiangfeng

    2011-01-01

    In this minreview, we summarize recent progress in the synthesis, properties and applications of a new type of one-dimensional nanostructures — single crystalline porous silicon nanowires. The growth of porous silicon nanowires starting from both p- and n-type Si wafers with a variety of dopant concentrations can be achieved through either one-step or two-step reactions. The mechanistic studies indicate the dopant concentration of Si wafers, oxidizer concentration, etching time and temperature can affect the morphology of the as-etched silicon nanowires. The porous silicon nanowires are both optically and electronically active and have been explored for potential applications in diverse areas including photocatalysis, lithium ion battery, gas sensor and drug delivery. PMID:21869999

  15. Ballistic Majorana nanowire devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gül, Önder

    2017-01-01

    The dissertation reports a series of electron transport experiments on semiconductor nanowires towards realizing the hypothesized topological quantum computation. A topological quantum computer manipulates information that is stored nonlocally in the topology of a physical system. Such an operation

  16. Facile Pyrolytic Synthesis of Silicon Nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Joo C; Tran, Hoang; Pattison, James W; Rananavare, Shankar B

    2010-10-01

    One-dimensional nanostructures such as silicon nanowires (SiNW) are attractive candidates for low power density electronic and optoelectronic devices including sensors. A new simple method for SiNW bulk synthesis[1, 2] is demonstrated in this work, which is inexpensive and uses low toxicity materials, thereby offering a safe, energy efficient and green approach. The method uses low flammability liquid phenylsilanes, offering a safer avenue for SiNW growth compared with using silane gas. A novel, duo-chamber glass vessel is used to create a low-pressure environment where SiNWs are grown through vapor-liquid-solid mechanism using gold nanoparticles as a catalyst. The catalyst decomposes silicon precursor vapors of diphenylsilane and triphenylsilane and precipitates single crystal SiNWs, which appear to grow parallel to the substrate surface. This opens up possibilities for synthesizing nano-junctions amongst wires which is important for the grid architecture of nanoelectronics proposed by Likharev[3]. Even bulk synthesis of SiNW is feasible using sacrificial substrates such as CaCO(3) that can be dissolved post-synthesis. Furthermore, by dissolving appropriate dopants in liquid diphenylsilane, a controlled doping of the nanowires is realized without the use of toxic gases and expensive mass flow controllers. Upon boron doping, we observe a characteristic red shift in photoluminescence spectra. In summary, an inexpensive and versatile method for SiNW is presented that makes these exotic materials available to any lab at low cost.

  17. Biofunctionalized Magnetic Nanowires

    KAUST Repository

    Kosel, Jurgen

    2013-12-19

    Magnetic nanowires can be used as an alternative method overcoming the limitations of current cancer treatments that lack specificity and are highly cytotoxic. Nanowires are developed so that they selectively attach to cancer cells via antibodies, potentially destroying them when a magnetic field induces their vibration. This will transmit a mechanical force to the targeted cells, which is expected to induce apoptosis on the cancer cells.

  18. Bright prospects for boron

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nanver, L.; Wassink, J.

    2012-01-01

    Professor Lis Nanver at Dimes has laid the foundation for a range of new photodetectors by creating a thin coating of boron on a silicon substrate. The sensors are used in ASML’s latest lithography machines and FEI’s most sensitive electron microscopes.

  19. Cleaved-Coupled Nanowire Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-15

    fabricated with micrometer -scale gaps (26, 27). This Fig. 1. Single-frequency lasing in 9-μm (4:3) cleaved-coupled nanowires. (A) SEM images showing the...modulation of modes observed in cleaved-coupled nanowire lasers can be predicted using transfer matrix methods. Although the Vernier effect provides an...Following the Vernier effect, coupled nanowires with integer ratios would produce the free spectral range of the shorter nanowire. The lasing spectra

  20. Impact of boron dilution accidents on low boron PWR safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papukchiev, A.; Liu, Y. [Dept. of Reactor Dynamics and Reactor Safety, Technical Univ. Munich, Walther Meissner-Str. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Schaefer, A. [ISaR Inst. for Safety and Reliability, Walther Meissner-Str. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    In conventional pressurized water reactor (PWR) designs, soluble boron is used for reactivity control over core fuel cycle. As an inadvertent reduction of the boron concentration during a boron dilution accident could introduce positive reactivity and have a negative impact on PWR safety, design changes to reduce boron concentration in the reactor coolant are of general interest. In the framework of an investigation into the feasibility of low boron design, a PWR core configuration based on fuel with higher gadolinium (Gd) load has been developed which permits to reduce the natural boron concentration at begin of cycle (BOC) to 518 ppm. For the assessment of the potential safety advantages, a boron dilution accident due to small break loss-of-coolant-accident (SBLOCA) has been simulated with the system code ATHLET for two PWR core designs: a low boron design and a standard core design. The results from the comparative analyses showed that the impact of the boron dilution accident on the new PWR design safety is significantly lower in comparison with the standard design. The new reactor design provided at least 4, 4% higher reactivity margin to recriticality during the whole accident which is equivalent to the negative reactivity worth of additional 63% of all control rods fully inserted in to the core. (authors)

  1. Nanowire mesh solar fuels generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Peidong; Chan, Candace; Sun, Jianwei; Liu, Bin

    2016-05-24

    This disclosure provides systems, methods, and apparatus related to a nanowire mesh solar fuels generator. In one aspect, a nanowire mesh solar fuels generator includes (1) a photoanode configured to perform water oxidation and (2) a photocathode configured to perform water reduction. The photocathode is in electrical contact with the photoanode. The photoanode may include a high surface area network of photoanode nanowires. The photocathode may include a high surface area network of photocathode nanowires. In some embodiments, the nanowire mesh solar fuels generator may include an ion conductive polymer infiltrating the photoanode and the photocathode in the region where the photocathode is in electrical contact with the photoanode.

  2. The Mechanical Properties of Nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shiliang; Shan, Zhiwei

    2017-01-01

    Applications of nanowires into future generation nanodevices require a complete understanding of the mechanical properties of the nanowires. A great research effort has been made in the past two decades to understand the deformation physics and mechanical behaviors of nanowires, and to interpret the discrepancies between experimental measurements and theoretical predictions. This review focused on the characterization and understanding of the mechanical properties of nanowires, including elasticity, plasticity, anelasticity and strength. As the results from the previous literature in this area appear inconsistent, a critical evaluation of the characterization techniques and methodologies were presented. In particular, the size effects of nanowires on the mechanical properties and their deformation mechanisms were discussed. PMID:28435775

  3. Mechanical transfer of ZnO nanowires for a flexible and conformal piezotronic strain sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Kory; Yang, Rusen

    2017-07-01

    We demonstrate a truly conformal and flexible piezotronic strain sensor using zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires. Well-aligned, vertical ZnO nanowires are grown by chemical vapor deposition on a silicon wafer with a hydrothermally grown ZnO seed layer. The nanowires are infiltrated with polydimethylsiloxane and mechanically transferred from the silicon substrate. Plasma etching exposes the top surface of the nanowires before deposition of a gold (Au) top electrode. The bottom electrode is formed by silver paint which also adheres the sensor to the measured structure. To demonstrate the sensor’s ability to conform to complex surfaces, a stepped shaft with a shoulder fillet is used. The sensor is attached to the shoulder fillet of the stepped shaft, conforming to both the circumference of the shaft, and the radius of the fillet. A periodic bending displacement is applied to the end of the shaft. The strain induces a piezoelectric potential in the ZnO nanowires which controls the barrier height and conductivity at the gold/ZnO interface, by what is known as the piezotronic effect. The conductivity change is measured for periodically applied strains. The nonlinear current-voltage (I-V) response of the device is due to the Schottky contact between the ZnO nanowires and gold electrode. The geometry of the stepped shaft corresponds to a known stress concentration factor, and the strain experienced by the shaft is estimated with a COMSOL FEA study. The conformal nature of the strain sensor makes it suitable for structural monitoring applications involving complex geometries and stress concentrators.

  4. Selective formation of tungsten nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bien Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We report on a process for fabricating self-aligned tungsten (W nanowires with polycrystalline silicon core. Tungsten nanowires as thin as 10 nm were formed by utilizing polysilicon sidewall transfer technology followed by selective deposition of tungsten by chemical vapor deposition (CVD using WF6 as the precursor. With selective CVD, the process is self-limiting whereby the tungsten formation is confined to the polysilicon regions; hence, the nanowires are formed without the need for lithography or for additional processing. The fabricated tungsten nanowires were observed to be perfectly aligned, showing 100% selectivity to polysilicon and can be made to be electrically isolated from one another. The electrical conductivity of the nanowires was characterized to determine the effect of its physical dimensions. The conductivity for the tungsten nanowires were found to be 40% higher when compared to doped polysilicon nanowires of similar dimensions.

  5. BORONIZING OF STEEL

    OpenAIRE

    ULUKÖY, Arzum; CAN, Ahmet Çetin

    2006-01-01

    Boride layer has many advantages in comparison with traditional hardening methods. The boride layer has high hardening value and keeps it's hardeness at high temperatures, and it also shows favorible properties, such as the resistance to wear, oxidation and corrosion. The process can be applied at variety of materials, for instance steel, cast iron, cast steel, nickel and cobalt alloys and cermets. In this rewiew, boronizing process properties, boride layer on steel surfaces and specification...

  6. cultivars to foliar and soil applied boron in boron

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-09-17

    Sep 17, 2008 ... Yield losses in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) may occur due to boron (B) deficiency when the susceptible cultivars are grown in calcareous boron deficient soils. The study was therefore aimed at investigating the effects of three B doses: control (0.0 kg ha-1), soil application (3.0 kg ha-1) and foliar.

  7. Synthesis of high crystallinity ZnO nanowire array on polymer substrate and flexible fiber-based sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinmei; Wu, Weiwei; Bai, Suo; Qin, Yong

    2011-11-01

    Well aligned ZnO nanowire (NW) arrays are grown on Kevlar fiber and Kapton film via the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. These NWs have better crystallinity than those synthesized through the low-temperature hydrothermal method. The average length and diameter of ZnO NWs grown on Kevlar fiber can be controlled from 0.5 to 2.76 μm and 30 to 300 nm, respectively. A flexible ultraviolet (UV) sensor based on Kevlar fiber/ZnO NWs hybrid structure is made to detect UV illumination quantificationally.

  8. Boron supplementation in broiler diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EJ Fassani

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Boron supplementation in broiler feed is not a routine practice. However, some reports suggest a positive effect of boron on performance. This study assessed the effects of boron supplementation on broiler performance. Diets were based on maize and soybean meal, using boric acid P.A. as boron source. Six supplementation levels (0, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 ppm were evaluated using 1,440 one-day old males housed at a density of 30 chickens in each of 48 experimental plots of 3m². A completely randomized block design was used with 8 replicates. Feed intake, weight gain and feed conversion were assessed in the periods from 1 to 7 days, 1 to 21 days and 1 to 42 days of age, and viability was evaluated for the total 42-day rearing period. No performance variable was affected by boron supplementation (p>0.05 in the period from 1 to 7 days. The regression analysis indicated an ideal level of 37.4 ppm of boron for weight gain from 1 to 21 days (p0.05, although feed intake was reduced linearly with increased boron levels (p0.05. Ash and calcium percentages in the tibias of broilers and viability in the total rearing period were not affected by boron supplementation (p>0.05.

  9. Aging of Organic Nanowires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balzer, Frank; Schiek, Manuela; Osadnik, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    conditions already expose substantial changes in sample morphology within hours. Clusters show Ostwald ripening, whereas nanowires reveal strong faceting and even fragmentation. All these aging effects are ascribed to the influence of water vapor. Decay curves (cluster number vs. time) for clusters...

  10. Magnetic and superconducting nanowires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piraux, L.; Encinas, A.; Vila, L.

    2005-01-01

    This article is focused on the use of electrodeposition and of various nanoporous templates for the fabrication of metallic nanowires made from single metals (Ni, Co, Pb, Sn), alloys (NiFe, CoFe, CoPt), and multilayers (Co/Cu, NiFe/Cu). An overview is given of our recent studies performed on both...... discussed....

  11. Endface reflectivities of optical nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shanshan; Hu, Zhifang; Yu, Huakang; Fang, Wei; Qiu, Min; Tong, Limin

    2009-06-22

    Endface reflectivities (ERs) of optical nanowires are investigated using three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain simulations. Typical ERs of both free-standing and substrate-supported silica, tellurite, PMMA and semiconductor nanowires or nanofibers are obtained. Unlike in conventional waveguides such as optical fibers, ERs of nanowires are usually considerably lower when operated in single mode. Dependences of ER on the diameter and the refractive index of the nanowire, and the wavelength of the guided light are also investigated. These results are helpful for estimating and understanding ERs in optical nanowires with diameters close to or smaller than the wavelengths of the light, and may offer valuable references for practical applications such as nanowire or nanofiber-based resonators and lasers.

  12. BORONIZING OF STEEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arzum ULUKÖY

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Boride layer has many advantages in comparison with traditional hardening methods. The boride layer has high hardening value and keeps it's hardeness at high temperatures, and it also shows favorible properties, such as the resistance to wear, oxidation and corrosion. The process can be applied at variety of materials, for instance steel, cast iron, cast steel, nickel and cobalt alloys and cermets. In this rewiew, boronizing process properties, boride layer on steel surfaces and specifications and the factors that effect boride layer are examined

  13. Functionalized boron nitride nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainsbury, Toby; Ikuno, Takashi; Zettl, Alexander K

    2014-04-22

    A plasma treatment has been used to modify the surface of BNNTs. In one example, the surface of the BNNT has been modified using ammonia plasma to include amine functional groups. Amine functionalization allows BNNTs to be soluble in chloroform, which had not been possible previously. Further functionalization of amine-functionalized BNNTs with thiol-terminated organic molecules has also been demonstrated. Gold nanoparticles have been self-assembled at the surface of both amine- and thiol-functionalized boron nitride Nanotubes (BNNTs) in solution. This approach constitutes a basis for the preparation of highly functionalized BNNTs and for their utilization as nanoscale templates for assembly and integration with other nanoscale materials.

  14. Optical Spectroscopy of Single Nanowires

    OpenAIRE

    Trägårdh, Johanna

    2008-01-01

    This thesis describes optical spectroscopy on III-V semiconductor nanowires. The nanowires were grown by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) and chemical beam epitaxy (CBE). Photoluminescence and photocurrent spectroscopy are used as tools to investigate issues such as the size of the band gap, the effects of surface states, and the charge carrier transport in core-shell nanowires. The band gap of InAs1-xPx nanowires with wurtzite crystal structure is measured as a function of ...

  15. Nanowire Field-Effect Transistors : Sensing Simplicity?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mescher, M.

    2014-01-01

    Silicon nanowires are structures made from silicon with at least one spatial dimension in the nanometer regime (1-100 nm). From these nanowires, silicon nanowire field-effect transistors can be constructed. Since their introduction in 2001 silicon nanowire field-effect transistors have been studied

  16. Silicon nanowire transistors

    CERN Document Server

    Bindal, Ahmet

    2016-01-01

    This book describes the n and p-channel Silicon Nanowire Transistor (SNT) designs with single and dual-work functions, emphasizing low static and dynamic power consumption. The authors describe a process flow for fabrication and generate SPICE models for building various digital and analog circuits. These include an SRAM, a baseband spread spectrum transmitter, a neuron cell and a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) platform in the digital domain, as well as high bandwidth single-stage and operational amplifiers, RF communication circuits in the analog domain, in order to show this technology’s true potential for the next generation VLSI. Describes Silicon Nanowire (SNW) Transistors, as vertically constructed MOS n and p-channel transistors, with low static and dynamic power consumption and small layout footprint; Targets System-on-Chip (SoC) design, supporting very high transistor count (ULSI), minimal power consumption requiring inexpensive substrates for packaging; Enables fabrication of different types...

  17. Nothing Boring About Boron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzorno, Lara

    2015-01-01

    The trace mineral boron is a micronutrient with diverse and vitally important roles in metabolism that render it necessary for plant, animal, and human health, and as recent research suggests, possibly for the evolution of life on Earth. As the current article shows, boron has been proven to be an important trace mineral because it (1) is essential for the growth and maintenance of bone; (2) greatly improves wound healing; (3) beneficially impacts the body’s use of estrogen, testosterone, and vitamin D; (4) boosts magnesium absorption; (5) reduces levels of inflammatory biomarkers, such as high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α); (6) raises levels of antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and glutathione peroxidase; (7) protects against pesticide-induced oxidative stress and heavy-metal toxicity; (8) improves the brains electrical activity, cognitive performance, and short-term memory for elders; (9) influences the formation and activity of key biomolecules, such as S-adenosyl methionine (SAM-e) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+); (10) has demonstrated preventive and therapeutic effects in a number of cancers, such as prostate, cervical, and lung cancers, and multiple and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma; and (11) may help ameliorate the adverse effects of traditional chemotherapeutic agents. In none of the numerous studies conducted to date, however, do boron’s beneficial effects appear at intakes > 3 mg/d. No estimated average requirements (EARs) or dietary reference intakes (DRIs) have been set for boron—only an upper intake level (UL) of 20 mg/d for individuals aged ≥ 18 y. The absence of studies showing harm in conjunction with the substantial number of articles showing benefits support the consideration of boron supplementation of 3 mg/d for any individual who is consuming a diet lacking in fruits and vegetables or who is at risk for or has osteopenia; osteoporosis

  18. Characterization of Boron Atom Aggregation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maier, John P

    2005-01-01

    ... in matrices ranging from neon to those doped with hydrogen. The studies of the aggregation properties were hampered by the lack of spectroscopic knowledge on the electronic transitions of the polyatomic boron molecules and their ions...

  19. Nano boron nitride flatland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakdel, Amir; Bando, Yoshio; Golberg, Dmitri

    2014-02-07

    Recent years have witnessed many breakthroughs in research on two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials, among which is hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), a layered material with a regular network of BN hexagons. This review provides an insight into the marvellous nano BN flatland, beginning with a concise introduction to BN and its low-dimensional nanostructures, followed by an overview of the past and current state of research on 2D BN nanostructures. A comprehensive review of the structural characteristics and synthetic routes of BN monolayers, multilayers, nanomeshes, nanowaves, nanoflakes, nanosheets and nanoribbons is presented. In addition, electronic, optical, thermal, mechanical, magnetic, piezoelectric, catalytic, ecological, biological and wetting properties, applications and research perspectives for these novel 2D nanomaterials are discussed.

  20. Boron diffusion in silicon devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohatgi, Ajeet; Kim, Dong Seop; Nakayashiki, Kenta; Rounsaville, Brian

    2010-09-07

    Disclosed are various embodiments that include a process, an arrangement, and an apparatus for boron diffusion in a wafer. In one representative embodiment, a process is provided in which a boric oxide solution is applied to a surface of the wafer. Thereafter, the wafer is subjected to a fast heat ramp-up associated with a first heating cycle that results in a release of an amount of boron for diffusion into the wafer.

  1. Status of Boron Combustion Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-10-01

    Chemical M. K. King, ARC L. Cook, NBS C. E. Kolb, Aerodyne *T. Curran, AFWAL/PO C. K. Law, U. Cal.-Davi3 P. Davidovits , Boston College *C. R. Martel...Homogeneous Combustion Kinetics of Boron Compounds. A. Fontijn, RPI. 1030 Simple Boron Atom Reactions. P. Davidovits , Boston College. 1050 Ultra-Fast Energy... DAVIDOVITS . J. Chem. Phys. 74, 3287 (1981). DED - T. G. DIGIUSEPPI. Rt. ESTES, and P. DAVIDOVITS . J. Phys. Chem.. 6, 260 (1982). ERF -A. J. ENGLISH

  2. Boron Fullerenes: A First-Principles Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalez Szwacki Nevill

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractA family of unusually stable boron cages was identified and examined using first-principles local-density functional method. The structure of the fullerenes is similar to that of the B12icosahedron and consists of six crossing double-rings. The energetically most stable fullerene is made up of 180 boron atoms. A connection between the fullerene family and its precursors, boron sheets, is made. We show that the most stable boron sheets are not necessarily precursors of very stable boron cages. Our finding is a step forward in the understanding of the structure of the recently produced boron nanotubes.

  3. Synthesis, characterization and spectroscopic studies of some boron-containing hydrogen storage materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jash, Panchatapa

    In this dissertation the synthesis and characterization of boron-related nanostructures and dehydrogenation studies of metal borohydrides using FTIR are reported. Boron-related nanostructures are of interest because of their potential applications in nanoelectronics and in hydrogen storage. A low pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) apparatus was built in order to grow boron nanostructures. Various techniques, namely, Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Raman spectroscopy were used to characterize the synthesized boron and boride nanostructures, and boron coated carbon nanotubes (CNTs). By the uncatalyzed pyrolysis of diborane, at relatively low temperature, crystalline boron nanoribbons were synthesized. Nickel-catalyzed growth also produced Ca, Sr and Y boride nanowires that were found to be crystalline. Amorphous boron coated CNTs were synthesized by LPCVD. Two growth mechanisms, vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) and vapor-solid (VS) were invoked to explain the observed nanostructures. A high vacuum apparatus for FTIR studies was built. The capabilities of the apparatus were first tested by acquiring low temperature and room temperature spectra of sodium and lithium borohydrides. The metal borohydrides are of high hydrogen content and dehydrogenation studies using FTIR were done. NaBH 4 and the K2B12H12 salt were studied. It was found that above its melting point (673 K), NaBH4 is probably converted to its B12H12-2 salt, which then loses all hydrogen to produce amorphous boron. This conversion of B 12H12-2 to boron clusters was confirmed through dehydrogenation studies of K2B12H12. Both SIMS and AES are surface sensitive techniques to study thin film surfaces and interfaces at nano-dimentions. Thin (9-10 mum) cadmium telluride films have application as the buffer layer on silicon substrates to form high

  4. Fabrication of carbohydrate microarrays through boronate formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Hsuan-Yi; Chen, Mu-Lin; Wu, Huan-Ting; Huang, Li-De; Chien, Wei-Ting; Yu, Ching-Ching; Jan, Fan-Dan; Sahabuddin, Sk; Chang, Tsung-Che; Lin, Chun-Cheng

    2011-01-28

    A straightforward method for fabricating a stable and covalent carbohydrate microarray based on boronate formation between the hydroxyl groups of carbohydrate and boronic acid (BA) on the glass surface was used to identify carbohydrate-protein interactions.

  5. Superconductivity in nanowires

    CERN Document Server

    Bezryadin, Alexey

    2012-01-01

    The importance and actuality of nanotechnology is unabated and will be for years to come. A main challenge is to understand the various properties of certain nanostructures, and how to generate structures with specific properties for use in actual applications in Electrical Engineering and Medicine.One of the most important structures are nanowires, in particular superconducting ones. They are highly promising for future electronics, transporting current without resistance and at scales of a few nanometers. To fabricate wires to certain defined standards however, is a major challenge, and so i

  6. Radiation Stability of Metal Nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedin, S. A.; Makhin'ko, F. F.; Ovchinnikov, V. V.; Gerasimenko, N. N.; Zagorskiy, D. L.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate the radiation stability of pure nickel and iron- nickel Fe0.56Ni0.44 alloy nanowires fabricated by matrix synthesis using polymer track membranes and Ar+ and Xe+ (E = 20 keV, j = 300 μA/cm2) beam irradiation. The dependence of the stability of nanowires on their diameter, fluence, and type of implanted ions is investigated. The assumption that the thermalized regions of dense cascades of atomic displacements (thermal spikes) play an important role in the nanowire structure change is made. These regions are nanosized zones of explosive energy release and heated to several thousands of degrees.

  7. Semiconductor nanowires and nanowire heterostructures: Nanoscience from the bottom up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Zhaohui

    2005-07-01

    Nanoscale science and technology involves interdisciplinary research at the interface of chemistry, physics, biology, and engineering sciences. By developing and following a unique intellectual path---the bottom-up paradigm of nanoscale science and technology---it is possible to assemble integrated nanoscale systems with novel functionalities beyond the conventional lithography limit. In this thesis, I present research efforts focused on fundamental aspects of this bottom-up paradigm using semiconductor nanowires (NWs) and nanowire heterostructures as nanoscale building blocks. We first present studies conducted on one of the most important semiconductor materials, silicon nanowires (SiNWs). SiNWs are rationally synthesized via a metal cluster-catalyzed vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth mechanism. Room temperature electrical transport studies carried out on SiNW field effect transistors (FETs) show exceptional device performance; estimated hole mobilities in p-SiNWs are significantly higher than bulk silicon at similar doping levels. Furthermore, low temperature transport studies on molecular scale SiNWs reveal phase coherent single charge transport through discrete single particle quantum levels with length scales up to several hundred nanometers. Finally, we show that SiNWs can be assembled into functional nanoelectronic devices. We then discuss two types of nanowire heterostructures: modulation doped silicon nanowires, and branched and hyper-branched nanowire structures. All key properties of modulation doped nanowires can be controlled during the synthesis, including the number, size and periodicity of the differentially doped regions. Their potential applications are also discussed. Moreover, branched and hyper-branched nanowire structures are synthesized via a multi-step nanocluster-catalyzed VLS approach, with branch density controlled by the nanocluster catalyst concentration. Lastly, we describe the realization of complementary doping in gallium nitride

  8. Interactions between semiconductor nanowires and living cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinz, Christelle N

    2015-06-17

    Semiconductor nanowires are increasingly used for biological applications and their small dimensions make them a promising tool for sensing and manipulating cells with minimal perturbation. In order to interface cells with nanowires in a controlled fashion, it is essential to understand the interactions between nanowires and living cells. The present paper reviews current progress in the understanding of these interactions, with knowledge gathered from studies where living cells were interfaced with vertical nanowire arrays. The effect of nanowires on cells is reported in terms of viability, cell-nanowire interface morphology, cell behavior, changes in gene expression as well as cellular stress markers. Unexplored issues and unanswered questions are discussed.

  9. In-situ doped junctionless polysilicon nanowires field effect transistors for low-cost biosensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zulfiqar, Azeem; Patou, François; Pfreundt, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Silicon nanowire (SiNW) field effect transistor based biosensors have already been proven to be a promising tool to detect biomolecules. However, the most commonly used fabrication techniques involve expensive Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) wafers, E-beam lithography and ion-implantation steps....... In the work presented here, a top down approach to fabricate SiNW junctionless field effect biosensors using novel in-situ doped polysilicon is demonstrated. The p-type polysilicon is grown with an optimum boron concentration that gives a good metal-silicon electrical contact while maintaining the doping...... level at a low enough level to provide a good sensitivity for the biosensor. The silicon nanowires are patterned using standard photolithography and a wet etch method. The metal contacts are made from magnetron sputtered TiW and e-beam evaporation of gold. The passivation of electrodes has been done...

  10. Bias dependence of sub-bandgap light detection for core-shell silicon nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuchun; Liu, Yu-hsin; Cheng, James; Lo, Yu-Hwa

    2012-11-14

    We experimentally demonstrate a vertically arrayed silicon nanowire-based device that exhibits voltage dependence of photoresponse to infrared sub-bandgap optical radiation. The device is fabricated using a proximity solid-state phosphorus diffusion method to convert the surface areas of highly boron-doped silicon nanowires into n-type, thus forming a radial core-shell p-n junction structure. Prominent photoresponse from such core-shell Si nanowires is observed under sub-bandgap illumination at 1310 nm. The strong bias dependence of the photoresponse and other device characteristics indicates that the sub-bandgap absorption is attributed to the intrinsic properties of core-shell Si nanowires rather than the surface states. The attractive characteristics are based on three physical mechanisms: the Franz-Keldysh effect, quasi-quantum confinement effect, and the impurity-state assisted photon absorption. The first two effects enhance carrier tunneling probability, rendering a stronger wave function overlap to facilitate sub-bandgap absorption. The last effect relaxes the k-selection rule by involving the localized impurity states, thus removing the limit imposed by the indirect bandgap nature of Si. The presented device uses single-crystal silicon and holds promise of fabricating nanophotonic systems in a fully complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) compatible process. The concept and approach can be applied to silicon and other materials to significantly extend the operable wavelength regime beyond the constraint of energy bandgap.

  11. Structures, stability, mechanical and electronic properties of a-boron and its twined brother a*-boron

    OpenAIRE

    He, Chaoyu; Zhong, Jianxin

    2013-01-01

    The structures, stability, mechanical and electronic properties of a-boron and its twined brother a*-boron have been studied by first-principles calculations. Both a-boron and a*-boron consist of equivalent icosahedra B12 clusters in different connecting configurations of "3S-6D-3S" and "2S-6D-4S", respectively. The total energy calculations show that a*-boron is less stable than a-boron but more favorable than beta-boron and Gamma-boron at zero pressure. Both a-boron and a*-boron are confirm...

  12. Surface Passivation of Germanium Nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adhikari, Hemant; Sun, Shiyu; Pianetta, Piero; Chidsey, Chirstopher E.D.; McIntyre, Paul C.; /SLAC, SSRL

    2005-05-13

    The surface of single crystal, cold-wall CVD-grown germanium nanowires was studied by synchrotron radiation photoemission spectroscopy (SR-PES) and also by conventional XPS. The as-grown germanium nanowires seem to be hydrogen terminated. Exposure to laboratory atmosphere leads to germanium oxide growth with oxidation states of Ge{sup 1+}, Ge{sup 2+}, Ge{sup 3+}, while exposure to UV light leads to a predominance of the Ge{sup 4+} oxidation state. Most of the surface oxide could be removed readily by aqueous HF treatment which putatively leaves the nanowire surface hydrogen terminated with limited stability in air. Alternatively, chlorine termination could be achieved by aq. HCl treatment of the native oxide-coated nanowires. Chlorine termination was found to be relatively more stable than the HF-last hydrogen termination.

  13. Ballistic superconductivity in semiconductor nanowires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, H.; Gül, Ö.; Conesa-Boj, S.; Nowak, M.P.; Wimmer, M.; Zuo, K.; Mourik, V.; Vries, F.K. de; Veen, J. van; Moor, M.W.A. de; Bommer, J.D.S.; Woerkom, D.J. van; Car, D.; Plissard, S.R.; Bakkers, E.P.A.M.; Quintero Pérez, M.; Cassidy, M.C.; Koelling, S.; Goswami, S.; Watanabe, K.; Taniguchi, T.; Kouwenhoven, L.P.

    2017-01-01

    Semiconductor nanowires have opened new research avenues in quantum transport owing to their confined geometry and electrostatic tunability. They have offered an exceptional testbed for superconductivity, leading to the realization of hybrid systems combining the macroscopic quantum properties of

  14. Nonlinear optics in photonic nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Mark A; Turner, Amy C; Lipson, Michal; Gaeta, Alexander L

    2008-01-21

    We review recent research on nonlinear optical interactions in waveguides with sub-micron transverse dimensions, which are termed photonic nanowires. Such nanowaveguides, fabricated from glasses or semiconductors, provide the maximal confinement of light for index guiding structures enabling large enhancement of nonlinear interactions and group-velocity dispersion engineering. The combination of these two properties make photonic nanowires ideally suited for many nonlinear optical applications including the generation of single-cycle pulses and optical processing with sub-mW powers.

  15. Boron cycling in subduction zones

    OpenAIRE

    Palmer, Martin R.

    2017-01-01

    Subduction zones are geologically dramatic features, with much of the drama being driven by the movement of water. The “light and lively” nature of boron, coupled with its wide variations in isotopic composition shown by the different geo-players in this drama, make it an ideal tracer for the role and movement of water during subduction. The utility of boron ranges from monitoring how the fluids that are expelled from the accretionary prism influence seawater chemistry, to the subduction of c...

  16. Boron Nitride Nanoribbons from Exfoliation of Boron Nitride Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Ching-Cheh; Hurst, Janet; Santiago, Diana

    2017-01-01

    Two types of boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) were exfoliated into boron nitride nanoribbons (BNNR), which were identified using transmission electron microscopy: (1) commercial BNNTs with thin tube walls and small diameters. Tube unzipping was indicated by a large decrease of the sample's surface area and volume for pores less than 2 nm in diameter. (2) BNNTs with large diameters and thick walls synthesized at NASA Glenn Research Center. Here, tube unraveling was indicated by a large increase in external surface area and pore volume. For both, the exfoliation process was similar to the previous reported method to exfoliate commercial hexagonal boron nitride (hBN): Mixtures of BNNT, FeCl3, and NaF (or KF) were sequentially treated in 250 to 350 C nitrogen for intercalation, 500 to 750 C air for exfoliation, and finally HCl for purification. Property changes of the nanosized boron nitride throughout this process were also similar to the previously observed changes of commercial hBN during the exfoliation process: Both crystal structure (x-ray diffraction data) and chemical properties (Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy data) of the original reactant changed after intercalation and exfoliation, but most (not all) of these changes revert back to those of the reactant once the final, purified products are obtained.

  17. Synthesis of boron nitride from boron containing poly (vinyl alcohol ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A ceramic precursor, prepared by condensation reaction from poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and boric acid (H3BO3) in 1:1, 2:1 and 4:1 molar ratios, was synthesized as low temperature synthesis route for boron nitride ceramic. Samples were pyrolyzed at 850°C in nitrogen atmosphere followed by characterization using Fourier ...

  18. Electrochemically grown rough-textured nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyagi, Pawan; Postetter, David; Saragnese, Daniel [Johns Hopkins University, Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering (United States); Papadakis, Stergios J. [Johns Hopkins University, Applied Physics Laboratory (United States); Gracias, David H., E-mail: dgracias@jhu.ed [Johns Hopkins University, Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering (United States)

    2010-03-15

    Nanowires with a rough surface texture show unusual electronic, optical, and chemical properties; however, there are only a few existing methods for producing these nanowires. Here, we describe two methods for growing both free standing and lithographically patterned gold (Au) nanowires with a rough surface texture. The first strategy is based on the deposition of nanowires from a silver (Ag)-Au plating solution mixture that precipitates an Ag-Au cyanide complex during electrodeposition at low current densities. This complex disperses in the plating solution, thereby altering the nanowire growth to yield a rough surface texture. These nanowires are mass produced in alumina membranes. The second strategy produces long and rough Au nanowires on lithographically patternable nickel edge templates with corrugations formed by partial etching. These rough nanowires can be easily arrayed and integrated with microscale devices.

  19. Optical second harmonic generation from Pt nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, N.; Aratake, K.; Okushio, R.; Iwai, T. [Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 1-1 Asahidai, Nomi, Ishikawa 923-1292 (Japan); Sugawara, A. [Hitachi Advanced Research Laboratory, Akanuma 2520, Hatoyama, Saitama 350-0395 (Japan); Sano, H. [Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 1-1 Asahidai, Nomi, Ishikawa 923-1292 (Japan); Mizutani, G. [Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 1-1 Asahidai, Nomi, Ishikawa 923-1292 (Japan)], E-mail: mizutani@jaist.ac.jp

    2007-09-15

    We have measured optical second harmonic intensity from arrays of Pt nanowires of 20 nm and 9 nm average widths, as a function of the incident and output light polarizations, the azimuthal angle, and the excitation photon energy. The nanowires were fabricated through shadow deposition on self-organized NaCl(1 1 0) faceted templates. The anisotropy of the SH intensity from the Pt nanowires was found to be stronger than that from the Au nanowires reported previously. The effective nonlinear susceptibility element {chi}{sub 222}{sup (2)}, with the suffix 2 indicating the direction [11-bar0], was observed for Pt nanowires, although it was not observed for Au nanowires. This difference is suggested to be due to the weaker suppression of the incident fundamental fields by the depolarization field in the Pt nanowires and the larger anisotropy in the nonlinearity of Pt nanowires due to the thinner widths.

  20. A silicon nanowire heater and thermometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xingyan; Dan, Yaping

    2017-07-01

    In the thermal conductivity measurements of thermoelectric materials, heaters and thermometers made of the same semiconducting materials under test, forming a homogeneous system, will significantly simplify fabrication and integration. In this work, we demonstrate a high-performance heater and thermometer made of single silicon nanowires (SiNWs). The SiNWs are patterned out of a silicon-on-insulator wafer by CMOS-compatible fabrication processes. The electronic properties of the nanowires are characterized by four-probe and low temperature Hall effect measurements. The I-V curves of the nanowires are linear at small voltage bias. The temperature dependence of the nanowire resistance allows the nanowire to be used as a highly sensitive thermometer. At high voltage bias, the I-V curves of the nanowire become nonlinear due to the effect of Joule heating. The temperature of the nanowire heater can be accurately monitored by the nanowire itself as a thermometer.

  1. Structural and tunneling properties of Si nanowires

    KAUST Repository

    Montes Muñoz, Enrique

    2013-12-06

    We investigate the electronic structure and electron transport properties of Si nanowires attached to Au electrodes from first principles using density functional theory and the nonequilibrium Green\\'s function method. We systematically study the dependence of the transport properties on the diameter of the nanowires, on the growth direction, and on the length. At the equilibrium Au-nanowire distance we find strong electronic coupling between the electrodes and nanowires, which results in a low contact resistance. With increasing nanowire length we study the transition from metallic to tunneling conductance for small applied bias. For the tunneling regime we investigate the decay of the conductance with the nanowire length and rationalize the results using the complex band structure of the pristine nanowires. The conductance is found to depend strongly on the growth direction, with nanowires grown along the ⟨110⟩ direction showing the smallest decay with length and the largest conductance and current.

  2. The effect of nanowire length and diameter on the properties of transparent, conducting nanowire films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergin, Stephen M.; Chen, Yu-Hui; Rathmell, Aaron R.; Charbonneau, Patrick; Li, Zhi-Yuan; Wiley, Benjamin J.

    2012-03-01

    This article describes how the dimensions of nanowires affect the transmittance and sheet resistance of a random nanowire network. Silver nanowires with independently controlled lengths and diameters were synthesized with a gram-scale polyol synthesis by controlling the reaction temperature and time. Characterization of films composed of nanowires of different lengths but the same diameter enabled the quantification of the effect of length on the conductance and transmittance of silver nanowire films. Finite-difference time-domain calculations were used to determine the effect of nanowire diameter, overlap, and hole size on the transmittance of a nanowire network. For individual nanowires with diameters greater than 50 nm, increasing diameter increases the electrical conductance to optical extinction ratio, but the opposite is true for nanowires with diameters less than this size. Calculations and experimental data show that for a random network of nanowires, decreasing nanowire diameter increases the number density of nanowires at a given transmittance, leading to improved connectivity and conductivity at high transmittance (>90%). This information will facilitate the design of transparent, conducting nanowire films for flexible displays, organic light emitting diodes and thin-film solar cells.This article describes how the dimensions of nanowires affect the transmittance and sheet resistance of a random nanowire network. Silver nanowires with independently controlled lengths and diameters were synthesized with a gram-scale polyol synthesis by controlling the reaction temperature and time. Characterization of films composed of nanowires of different lengths but the same diameter enabled the quantification of the effect of length on the conductance and transmittance of silver nanowire films. Finite-difference time-domain calculations were used to determine the effect of nanowire diameter, overlap, and hole size on the transmittance of a nanowire network. For

  3. Single-crystal vanadium pentoxide nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shaokang; Chen, Yuzhen; Luo, Haiyan; Jiang, Lilong; Ye, Binghuo; Wei, Mingdeng; Wei, Kemei

    2008-07-01

    Single-crystal V2O5 nanowires were successfully synthesized from the starting materials V6O13 powder and water. The experimental results indicate that high purity nanowires can be obtained using this simple synthetic route in absence of templates or catalysts. The diameter of the nanowires was found to be ca. 20 approximately 60 nm and the length up to several tens of micrometers, and the phases of nanowires were determined by XRD and TEM measurements.

  4. Semiconducting silicon nanowires for biomedical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Coffer, JL

    2014-01-01

    Biomedical applications have benefited greatly from the increasing interest and research into semiconducting silicon nanowires. Semiconducting Silicon Nanowires for Biomedical Applications reviews the fabrication, properties, and applications of this emerging material. The book begins by reviewing the basics, as well as the growth, characterization, biocompatibility, and surface modification, of semiconducting silicon nanowires. It goes on to focus on silicon nanowires for tissue engineering and delivery applications, including cellular binding and internalization, orthopedic tissue scaffol

  5. Nanowire resonant tunneling diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björk, M. T.; Ohlsson, B. J.; Thelander, C.; Persson, A. I.; Deppert, K.; Wallenberg, L. R.; Samuelson, L.

    2002-12-01

    Semiconductor heterostructures and their implementation into electronic and photonic devices have had tremendous impact on science and technology. In the development of quantum nanoelectronics, one-dimensional (1D) heterostructure devices are receiving a lot of interest. We report here functional 1D resonant tunneling diodes obtained via bottom-up assembly of designed segments of different semiconductor materials in III/V nanowires. The emitter, collector, and the central quantum dot are made from InAs and the barrier material from InP. Ideal resonant tunneling behavior, with peak-to-valley ratios of up to 50:1 and current densities of 1 nA/μm2 was observed at low temperatures.

  6. Corrosion detection of nanowires by magnetic sensors

    KAUST Repository

    Kosel, Jürgen

    2017-10-05

    Disclosed are various embodiments related to a corrosion detection device for detecting corrosive environments. A corrosion detection device comprises a magnetic sensor and at least one magnetic nanowire disposed on the magnetic sensor. The magnetic sensor is configured to detect corrosion of the one or more magnetic nanowires based at least in part on a magnetic field of the one or more magnetic nanowires.

  7. Method of separating boron isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Reed J.; Thorne, James M.; Cluff, Coran L.; Hayes, John K.

    1984-01-01

    A method of boron isotope enrichment involving the isotope preferential photolysis of (2-chloroethenyl)dichloroborane as the feed material. The photolysis can readily be achieved with CO.sub.2 laser radiation and using fluences significantly below those required to dissociate BCl.sub.3.

  8. Structural characterization of electrodeposited boron

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Structural characterization of electrodeposited boron was carried out by using transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Electron diffraction and phase contrast imaging were carried out by using transmission electron microscopy. Phase identification was done based on the analysis of electron diffraction ...

  9. Structural characterization of electrodeposited boron

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Structural characterization of electrodeposited boron was carried out by using transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Electron diffraction and phase contrast imaging were carried out by using transmission electron microscopy. Phase identification was done based on the analysis of electron ...

  10. Boron nitride nanotubes grown on stainless steel from a mixture of diboron trioxide and boron

    Science.gov (United States)

    E, Songfeng; Long, Xiaoyang; Li, Chaowei; Geng, Renjie; Han, Dongbo; Lu, Weibang; Yao, Yagang

    2017-11-01

    Boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) can be grown on stainless steel by annealing a mixture of diboron trioxide (B2O3) and boron (B) at 1200-1300 °C under ammonia (NH3). In previously reported boron oxide chemical vapor deposition methods for the synthesis of BNNTs, diboron dioxide (B2O2) is generated in situ by the reaction of boron and metal oxides. In this study, we directly used a mixture of B2O3 and boron as boron sources, thereby, avoiding the use of metal containing species in the starting material. The concentration of B2O3 significantly influenced the formation, quality and quantity of BNNTs.

  11. Phase diagram of boron crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirai, Koun

    2017-05-01

    The current status of study on the phase diagram of boron is given from the theoretical viewpoint. Boron is the last elemental crystal whose phase diagram is missing. In the last decade, several new structures of boron allotropes were found, while some were disproven. Presently, even the number of allotropes of boron is uncertain. A simple reason for this is that there are many and complicated structures, and some are minimally different from the others. A theoretical study thus requires very high accuracy. The difficulty, however, is not merely a technical difficulty of computational scale. The physics involved is quite different from what is obtained by band theory, which is the most successful theory of solids. It is only recent that a fundamental problem of metal/insulator has been solved. We come to know that the interrelationships between nonstoichiometry, partially occupied sites, and the balance of intra/inter-icosahedral bonding, which were considered to be uncorrelated properties, inevitably determine the relative stability of various structures. The configuration of the defects in boron crystals is not capricious but there is some correlation among the defects. Many problems were solved on this ground, and contributed to the creation of the phase diagram. However, there are still many unsolved problems and some newly arose. In particular, for the tetragonal phase, sharp discrepancies are present in both experiment and theory. Thus, the problem of tetragonal phase is described in more detail. From the viewpoint of material research, the phase diagram provides the basis for searching new materials. State-of-the-art methods of structural prediction have stimulated researchers’ interest.

  12. Micromagnetic simulations of cylindrical magnetic nanowires

    KAUST Repository

    Ivanov, Yurii P.

    2015-05-27

    This chapter reviews micromagnetic simulations of cylindrical magnetic nanowires and their ordered arrays. It starts with a description of the theoretical background of micromagnetism. The chapter discusses main magnetization reversal modes, domain wall types, and state diagrams in cylindrical nanowires of different types and sizes. The results of the hysteresis process in individual nanowires and nanowire arrays also are presented. Modeling results are compared with experimental ones. The chapter also discusses future trends in nanowire applications in relation to simulations, such as current-driven dynamics, spintronics, and spincaloritronics. The main micromagnetic programs are presented and discussed, together with the corresponding links.

  13. Controllable High-Speed Rotation of Nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, D. L.; Zhu, F. Q.; Cammarata, R. C.; Chien, C. L.

    2005-06-01

    We report a versatile method for executing controllable high-speed rotation of nanowires by ac voltages applied to multiple electrodes. The rotation of the nanowires can be instantly switched on or off with precisely controlled rotation speed (to at least 1800 rpm), definite chirality, and total angle of rotation. We have determined the torque due to the fluidic drag force on nanowire of different lengths. We also demonstrate a micromotor using a rotating nanowire driving a dust particle into circular motion. This method has been used to rotate magnetic and nonmagnetic nanowires as well as carbon nanotubes.

  14. Gold nanowires and the effect of impurities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novaes Frederico

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractMetal nanowires and in particular gold nanowires have received a great deal of attention in the past few years. Experiments on gold nanowires have prompted theory and simulation to help answer questions posed by these studies. Here we present results of computer simulations for the formation, evolution and breaking of very thin Au nanowires. We also discuss the influence of contaminants, such as atoms and small molecules, and their effect on the structural and mechanical properties of these nanowires.

  15. Ballistic superconductivity in semiconductor nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Gül, Önder; Conesa-Boj, Sonia; Nowak, Michał P; Wimmer, Michael; Zuo, Kun; Mourik, Vincent; de Vries, Folkert K; van Veen, Jasper; de Moor, Michiel W A; Bommer, Jouri D S; van Woerkom, David J; Car, Diana; Plissard, Sébastien R; Bakkers, Erik P A M; Quintero-Pérez, Marina; Cassidy, Maja C; Koelling, Sebastian; Goswami, Srijit; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Kouwenhoven, Leo P

    2017-07-06

    Semiconductor nanowires have opened new research avenues in quantum transport owing to their confined geometry and electrostatic tunability. They have offered an exceptional testbed for superconductivity, leading to the realization of hybrid systems combining the macroscopic quantum properties of superconductors with the possibility to control charges down to a single electron. These advances brought semiconductor nanowires to the forefront of efforts to realize topological superconductivity and Majorana modes. A prime challenge to benefit from the topological properties of Majoranas is to reduce the disorder in hybrid nanowire devices. Here we show ballistic superconductivity in InSb semiconductor nanowires. Our structural and chemical analyses demonstrate a high-quality interface between the nanowire and a NbTiN superconductor that enables ballistic transport. This is manifested by a quantized conductance for normal carriers, a strongly enhanced conductance for Andreev-reflecting carriers, and an induced hard gap with a significantly reduced density of states. These results pave the way for disorder-free Majorana devices.

  16. Diamond Nanowires: A Novel Platform for Electrochemistry and Matrix-Free Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Szunerits

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decades, carbon-based nanostructures have generated a huge interest from both fundamental and technological viewpoints owing to their physicochemical characteristics, markedly different from their corresponding bulk states. Among these nanostructured materials, carbon nanotubes (CNTs, and more recently graphene and its derivatives, hold a central position. The large amount of work devoted to these materials is driven not only by their unique mechanical and electrical properties, but also by the advances made in synthetic methods to produce these materials in large quantities with reasonably controllable morphologies. While much less studied than CNTs and graphene, diamond nanowires, the diamond analogue of CNTs, hold promise for several important applications. Diamond nanowires display several advantages such as chemical inertness, high mechanical strength, high thermal and electrical conductivity, together with proven biocompatibility and existence of various strategies to functionalize their surface. The unique physicochemical properties of diamond nanowires have generated wide interest for their use as fillers in nanocomposites, as light detectors and emitters, as substrates for nanoelectronic devices, as tips for scanning probe microscopy as well as for sensing applications. In the past few years, studies on boron-doped diamond nanowires (BDD NWs focused on increasing their electrochemical active surface area to achieve higher sensitivity and selectivity compared to planar diamond interfaces. The first part of the present review article will cover the promising applications of BDD NWS for label-free sensing. Then, the potential use of diamond nanowires as inorganic substrates for matrix-free laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry, a powerful label-free approach for quantification and identification of small compounds, will be discussed.

  17. Obtaining a Well-Aligned ZnO Nanotube Array Using the Hydrothermal Growth Method / Labi Sakārtotu Zno Nanocauruļu Kopu Iegūšana, Izmantojot Hidrotermālo Metodi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasovska, M.; Gerbreders, V.; Paskevics, V.; Ogurcovs, A.; Mihailova, I.

    2015-10-01

    Optimal growing parameters have been found using the hydrothermal method to obtain well-aligned vertical ZnO nanorod and nanotube arrays. The influence of different growing factors (such as temperature, growing solution concentration, method of obtaining seed layer and condition) on nanotube morphology and size is described in the paper. Well-structured ZnO nanotubes have been obtained by using a selfselective etching method with lowering temperatures of growth during the hydrothermal process. It is shown that the optical properties of the nanostructure arrays obtained are sensitive to the medium in which they are placed, which is why they can be used as sensors for pure substance detection and in different solutions for impurity determination. Dotajā darbā tika noteikti optimāli parametri labi sakārtotu ZnO nanocaurulīšu kopu iegūšanai, izmantojot hidrotermālo metodi ar temperatūras pazemināšanu, jeb t.s. selektīvu pa\\vskodināšanas metodi (self-selective etching), ir uzsvērtas šās metodes priekšrocības salīdzinājumā ar ķīmiskās kodināšanas metodi, kā arī tika aprakstīta dažādu augšanas faktora (tādu, ka darba šķīduma koncentrācija, augšanas temperatūra un laiks, iedīgļu slāņa iegūšanas veids un iegūšanas parametri) ietekme uz iegūtu nanostraktūra morfoloģiju. Tika konstatēts, ka noteicošu lomu ZnO nanocaurulīšu audzēšanas procesā spēlē iedīgļu slāņa graudu izmēri, kas savā staipā nosaka augošu nanostieņu izmērus un to tendenci pie pa\\vskodināšanas. Rentgenogrannnas parāda, ka iegūtām pie noteiktiem parametriem ZnO nanostruktūrām piemīt augsta kristāliskuma pakāpe un sakārtotība vertikālā virzienā. Optiskie mērījumi parāda, ka ZnO nanocauralītes ir jutīgas gan pret tīrām vielām (ūdens, spirts), gan pret dažādiem šķīdumiem, kas ļauj izmantot tos kā pie­jaukumu sensora. Salīdzinājumā ar ZnO nanostieņiem caurulīšu jūtība pieaug, jo pieaug nanostrakt

  18. Fabrication and Synthesis of Highly Ordered Nickel Cobalt Sulfide Nanowire-Grown Woven Kevlar Fiber/Reduced Graphene Oxide/Polyester Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazarika, Ankita; Deka, Biplab K; Kim, DoYoung; Roh, Hyung Doh; Park, Young-Bin; Park, Hyung Wook

    2017-10-18

    Well-aligned NiCo2S4 nanowires, synthesized hydrothermally on the surface of woven Kevlar fiber (WKF), were used to fabricate composites with reduced graphene oxide (rGO) dispersed in polyester resin (PES) by means of vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding. The NiCo2S4 nanowires were synthesized with three precursor concentrations. Nanowire growth was characterized using scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Hierarchical and high growth density of the nanowires led to exceptional mechanical properties of the composites. Compared with bare WKF/PES, the tensile strength and absorbed impact energy were enhanced by 96.2% and 92.3%, respectively, for WKF/NiCo2S4/rGO (1.5%)/PES. The synergistic effect of NiCo2S4 nanowires and rGO in the fabricated composites improved the electrical conductivity of insulating WKF/PES composites, reducing the resistance to ∼103 Ω. Joule heating performance depended strongly on the precursor concentration of the nanowires and the presence of rGO in the composite. A maximum surface temperature of 163 °C was obtained under low-voltage (5 V) application. The Joule heating performance of the composites was demonstrated in a surface deicing experiment; we observed that 17 g of ice melted from the surface of the composite in 14 min under an applied voltage of 5 V at -28 °C. The excellent performance of WKF/NiCo2S4/rGO/PES composites shows great potential for aerospace structural applications requiring outstanding mechanical properties and Joule heating capability for deicing of surfaces.

  19. Electrically Injected UV-Visible Nanowire Lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, George T.; Li, Changyi; Li, Qiming; Liu, Sheng; Wright, Jeremy Benjamin; Brener, Igal; Luk, Ting -Shan; Chow, Weng W.; Leung, Benjamin; Figiel, Jeffrey J.; Koleske, Daniel D.; Lu, Tzu-Ming

    2015-09-01

    There is strong interest in minimizing the volume of lasers to enable ultracompact, low-power, coherent light sources. Nanowires represent an ideal candidate for such nanolasers as stand-alone optical cavities and gain media, and optically pumped nanowire lasing has been demonstrated in several semiconductor systems. Electrically injected nanowire lasers are needed to realize actual working devices but have been elusive due to limitations of current methods to address the requirement for nanowire device heterostructures with high material quality, controlled doping and geometry, low optical loss, and efficient carrier injection. In this project we proposed to demonstrate electrically injected single nanowire lasers emitting in the important UV to visible wavelengths. Our approach to simultaneously address these challenges is based on high quality III-nitride nanowire device heterostructures with precisely controlled geometries and strong gain and mode confinement to minimize lasing thresholds, enabled by a unique top-down nanowire fabrication technique.

  20. Boronic acid functionalized polymers and hydrogels for biomedical applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piest, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Boronic acid functionalized polymers are a very interesting class of materials capable of forming reversible covalent boronic esters. With boronic acids reversible binding of diols and polyols, including carbohydrates, is possible. Although such polymers are promising biomaterials, they are only

  1. Tunneling magnetoresistance in Si nanowires

    KAUST Repository

    Montes Muñoz, Enrique

    2016-11-09

    We investigate the tunneling magnetoresistance of small diameter semiconducting Si nanowires attached to ferromagnetic Fe electrodes, using first principles density functional theory combined with the non-equilibrium Green\\'s functions method for quantum transport. Silicon nanowires represent an interesting platform for spin devices. They are compatible with mature silicon technology and their intrinsic electronic properties can be controlled by modifying the diameter and length. Here we systematically study the spin transport properties for neutral nanowires and both n and p doping conditions. We find a substantial low bias magnetoresistance for the neutral case, which halves for an applied voltage of about 0.35 V and persists up to 1 V. Doping in general decreases the magnetoresistance, as soon as the conductance is no longer dominated by tunneling.

  2. III-Nitride nanowire optoelectronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Songrui; Nguyen, Hieu P. T.; Kibria, Md. G.; Mi, Zetian

    2015-11-01

    Group-III nitride nanowire structures, including GaN, InN, AlN and their alloys, have been intensively studied in the past decade. Unique to this material system is that its energy bandgap can be tuned from the deep ultraviolet (~6.2 eV for AlN) to the near infrared (~0.65 eV for InN). In this article, we provide an overview on the recent progress made in III-nitride nanowire optoelectronic devices, including light emitting diodes, lasers, photodetectors, single photon sources, intraband devices, solar cells, and artificial photosynthesis. The present challenges and future prospects of III-nitride nanowire optoelectronic devices are also discussed.

  3. Electrochemical synthesis of multisegmented nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kok, Kuan-Ying; Ng, Inn-Khuan; Saidin, Nur Ubaidah [Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Bangi, 43000 Kajang (Malaysia)

    2012-11-27

    Electrochemical deposition has emerged as a promising route for nanostructure fabrication in recent years due to the many inherent advantages it possesses. This study focuses on the synthesis of high-aspect-ratio multisegmented Au/Ni nanowires using template-directed sequential electrochemical deposition techniques. By selectively removing the Ni segments in the nanowires, high-yield of pure gold nanorods of predetermined lengths was obtained. Alternatively, the sacrificial Ni segments in the nanowires can be galvanically displaced with Bi and Te to form barbells structures with Bi{sub x}Te{sub y} nanotubes attached to neighbouring gold segments. Detailed studies on the nanostructures obtained were carried out using various microscopy, diffraction and probebased techniques for structural, morphological and chemical characterizations.

  4. Semiconductor nanowires and templates for electronic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ying, Xiang

    2009-07-15

    This thesis starts by developing a platform for the organized growth of nanowires directly on a planar substrate. For this, a method to fabricate horizontal porous alumina membranes is studied. The second part of the thesis focuses on the study of nanowires. It starts by the understanding of the growth mechanisms of germanium nanowires and follows by the structural and electrical properties at the single nanowire level. Horizontally aligned porous anodic alumina (PAA) was used as a template for the nanowire synthesis. Three PAA arrangements were studied: - high density membranes - micron-sized fingers - multi-contacts Membranes formed by a high density of nanopores were obtained by anodizing aluminum thin films. Metallic and semiconducting nanowires were synthesized into the PAA structures via DC deposition, pulsed electro-depostion and CVD growth. The presence of gold, copper, indium, nickel, tellurium, and silicon nanowires inside PAA templates was verified by SEM and EDX analysis. Further, room-temperature transport measurements showed that the pores are completely filled till the bottom of the pores. In this dissertation, single crystalline and core-shell germanium nanowires are synthesized using indium and bismuth as catalyst in a chemical vapor deposition procedure with germane (GeH{sub 4}) as growth precursor. A systematic growth study has been performed to obtain high aspect-ratio germanium nanowires. The influence of the growth conditions on the final morphology and the crystalline structure has been determined via scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). In the case of indium catalyzed germanium nanowires, two different structures were identified: single crystalline and crystalline core-amorphous shell. The preferential growth axis of both kinds of nanowires is along the [110] direction. The occurrence of the two morphologies was found to only depend on the nanowire dimension. In the case of bismuth

  5. Air-Augmented Combustion of Boron and Boron-Metal Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    High speed cinematography was used to study the combustion characteristics of powdered boron, and of compounds of boron and magnesium, lithium, or...temperatures. Ignition delay and burning times were derived from the film tracks of burning particles. The boron-metal compounds gave ignition delay times in the

  6. Fabrication of nanowires and nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mátéfi-Tempfli, Stefan; Mátéfi-Tempfli, M.; Piraux, L.

    2009-01-01

    We report on different approaches that we have adopted and developed for the fabrication of nanowires and nanostructures. Methods based on template synthesis and on self organization seem to be the most promising for the fabrication of nanomaterials and nanostructures due to their easiness and low...... cost. The development of a supported nanoporous alumina template and the possibility of using this template to combine electrochemical synthesis with lithographic methods open new ways for the fabrication of complex nanostructures. The numerous advantages of the supported template and its compatibility...... with microelectronic processes make it an ideal candidate for further integration into large-scale fabrication of various nanowire-based devices....

  7. Mineral resource of the month: boron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crangle, Robert D.

    2012-01-01

    The article offers information on the mineral, boron. Boron compounds, particularly borates, have more commercial applications than its elemental relative which is a metalloid. Making up the 90% of the borates that are used worldwide are colemanite, kernite, tincal, and ulexite. The main borate deposits are located in the Mojave Desert of the U.S., the Tethyan belt in southern Asia, and the Andean belt of South America. Underground and surface mining are being used in gathering boron compounds. INSETS: Fun facts;Boron production and consumption.

  8. Germanium nanowires grown using different catalyst metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gouveia, R.C., E-mail: riama@ifsp.edu.br [Departamento de Física – NanO Lab, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, Rod. Washington Luís, Km 235 – SP 310, São Carlos, CEP 13565-905 (Brazil); Área de Ciências, Instituto Federal de Educação Ciência e Tecnologia de São Paulo, Rua Américo Ambrósio, 269, Jd. Canaã, Sertãozinho, CEP 14169-263 (Brazil); Kamimura, H.; Munhoz, R.; Rodrigues, A.D. [Departamento de Física – NanO Lab, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, Rod. Washington Luís, Km 235 – SP 310, São Carlos, CEP 13565-905 (Brazil); Leite, E.R. [Departamento de Química – LIEC, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, São Carlos, CEP 13565-905 (Brazil); Chiquito, A.J. [Departamento de Física – NanO Lab, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, Rod. Washington Luís, Km 235 – SP 310, São Carlos, CEP 13565-905 (Brazil)

    2016-11-01

    Germanium nanowires have been synthesized by the well known vapor-liquid-solid growth mechanism using gold, silver, cooper, indium and nickel as catalyst metals. The influence of metal seeds on nanowires structural and electronic transport properties was also investigated. Electron microscopy images demonstrated that, despite differences in diameters, all nanowires obtained presented single crystalline structures. X-ray patterns showed that all nanowires were composed by germanium with a small amount of germanium oxide, and the catalyst metal was restricted at the nanowires' tips. Raman spectroscopy evidenced the long range order in the crystalline structure of each sample. Electrical measurements indicated that variable range hopping was the dominant mechanism in carrier transport for all devices, with similar hopping distance, regardless the material used as catalyst. Then, in spite of the differences in synthesis temperatures and nanowires diameters, the catalyst metals have not affected the composition and crystalline quality of the germanium nanowires nor the carrier transport in the germanium nanowire network devices. - Highlights: • Ge nanowires were grown by VLS method using Au, Ag, Cu, In and Ni as catalysts. • All nanowires presented high single crystalline quality and long range order. • Devices showed semiconducting behavior having VRH as dominant transport mechanism. • The metal catalyst did not influence structural properties or the transport mechanism.

  9. Spin transport and Hanle effect in silicon nanowires using graphene tunnel barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    van't Erve, O. M. J.; Friedman, A. L.; Li, C. H.; Robinson, J. T.; Connell, J.; Lauhon, L. J.; Jonker, B. T.

    2015-06-01

    Spin-based devices offer non-volatile, scalable, low power and reprogrammable functionality for emerging device technologies. Here we fabricate nanoscale spintronic devices with ferromagnetic metal/single-layer graphene tunnel barriers used to generate spin accumulation and spin currents in a silicon nanowire transport channel. We report the first observation of spin precession via the Hanle effect in both local three-terminal and non-local spin-valve geometries, providing a direct measure of spin lifetimes and confirmation of spin accumulation and pure spin transport. The use of graphene as the tunnel barrier provides a low-resistance area product contact and clean magnetic switching characteristics, because it smoothly bridges the nanowire and minimizes complicated magnetic domains that otherwise compromise the magnetic behaviour. Utilizing intrinsic two-dimensional layers such as graphene or hexagonal boron nitride as tunnel contacts on nanowires offers many advantages over conventional materials deposited by vapour deposition, enabling a path to highly scaled electronic and spintronic devices.

  10. The noble gases adsorption on boron-rich boron nitride nanotubes: A theoretical investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chong; Guo, Chen

    2017-07-01

    In this work, using density functional theory (DFT) calculations, we have systematically explored the noble gases (Ng = He, Ne, Ar, Kr) adsorption on boron-rich boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) surface with antisite boron atom. One or two nitrogen atoms of BNNTs are replaced by boron atoms, which are considered as boron-rich BNNTs for Ng adsorption. It is found that the boron-rich BNNTs can adsorb Ng in exothermic process, and the adsorption energies increase in order from He to Kr. The quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM) and noncovalent interactions (NCIs) calculations show that the interactions between boron-rich BNNTs and Ng are noncovalent, and the interactions for Ar and Kr are obviously larger than those for He and Ne. The charge transfer from Ng to boron-rich BNNTs and the changes of energy gap caused by Ng adsorption demonstrate that the boron-rich BNNTs are expected to become the Ng adsorption and sensing materials. Moreover, the 2B-BNNTs do not decrease the Ng adsorption interactions on boron-rich BNNTs, compared with 1B-BNNTs. It is expected that the present results will provide a useful guide to develop novel boron nitride nanomaterials for storage and application of Ng.

  11. Photonic nanowires for quantum optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munsch, M.; Claudon, J.; Bleuse, J.

    Photonic nanowires (PWs) are simple dielectric structures for which a very efficient and broadband spontaneous emission (SE) control has been predicted [1]. Recently, a single photon source featuring a record high efficiency was demonstrated using this geometry [2]. Using time-resolved micro-phot...

  12. Tunneling and Transport in Nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldman, Allen M. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2016-08-16

    The goal of this program was to study new physical phenomena that might be relevant to the performance of conductive devices and circuits of the smallest realizable feature sizes possible using physical rather than biological techniques. Although the initial scientific work supported involved the use of scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy to ascertain the statistics of the energy level distribution of randomly sized and randomly shaped quantum dots, or nano-crystals, the main focus was on the investigation of selected properties, including superconductivity, of conducting and superconducting nanowires prepared using electron-beam-lithography. We discovered a magnetic-field-restoration of superconductivity in out-of-equilibrium nanowires driven resistive by current. This phenomenon was explained by the existence of a state in which dissipation coexisted with nonvanishing superconducting order. We also produced ultra-small superconducting loops to study a predicted anomalous fluxoid quantization, but instead, found a magnetic-field-dependent, high-resistance state, rather than superconductivity. Finally, we developed a simple and controllable nanowire in an induced charged layer near the surface of a masked single-crystal insulator, SrTiO3. The layer was induced using an electric double layer transistor employing an ionic liquid (IL). The transport properties of the induced nanowire resembled those of collective electronic transport through an array of quantum dots.

  13. Nanowire-based gas sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, X.; Wong, C.K.Y.; Yuan, C.A.; Zhang, G.

    2013-01-01

    Gas sensors fabricated with nanowires as the detecting elements are powerful due to their many improved characteristics such as high surface-to-volume ratios, ultrasensitivity, higher selectivity, low power consumption, and fast response. This paper gives an overview on the recent process of the

  14. Majorana fermions in semiconductor nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanescu, Tudor D.; Lutchyn, Roman M.; Das Sarma, S.

    2011-10-01

    We study multiband semiconducting nanowires proximity coupled with an s-wave superconductor and calculate the topological phase diagram as a function of the chemical potential and magnetic field. The nontrivial topological state corresponds to a superconducting phase supporting an odd number of pairs of Majorana modes localized at the ends of the wire, whereas the nontopological state corresponds to a superconducting phase with no Majoranas or with an even number of pairs of Majorana modes. Our key finding is that multiband occupancy not only lifts the stringent constraint of one-dimensionality, but also allows having higher carrier density in the nanowire. Consequently, multiband nanowires are better suited for stabilizing the topological superconducting phase and for observing the Majorana physics. We present a detailed study of the parameter space for multiband semiconductor nanowires focusing on understanding the key experimental conditions required for the realization and detection of Majorana fermions in solid-state systems. We include various sources of disorder and characterize their effects on the stability of the topological phase. Finally, we calculate the local density of states as well as the differential tunneling conductance as functions of external parameters and predict the experimental signatures that would establish the existence of emergent Majorana zero-energy modes in solid-state systems.

  15. Nanowire-based Quantum Photonics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulgarini, G.

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis work, I studied individual quantum dots embedded in one-dimensional nanostructures called nanowires. Amongst the effects given by the nanometric dimensions, quantum dots enable the generation of single light particles: photons. Single photon emitters and detectors are central building

  16. Synthesis of Ni(OH)2 nanoflakes on ZnO nanowires by pulse electrodeposition for high-performance supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, I.-Hsiang; Wang, Jun-Yi; Huang, Kuo-Yen; Huang, Jin-Hua; Kang, Weng P.

    2016-03-01

    A high-performance supercapacitor based on Ni(OH)2 nanoflakes modified ZnO nanowires (NWs) was developed. The well-aligned ZnO NWs were synthesized by chemical bath deposition, followed by pulse electrodeposition of Ni(OH)2 nanoflakes on the surface of ZnO NWs at 1 mA cm-2 current density. The effects of the pulse electrodeposition conditions were systematically investigated. Both the pulse time and relaxation time were found to affect the size and interspacing of the nanoflakes, while the deposition cycle number determines the thickness of the Ni(OH)2 nanoflake shell. The ZnO/Ni(OH)2 nanocomposite electrode fabricated under the optimal pulse electrodeposition conditions has exhibited a large specific capacitance of 1830 F g-1, a high energy density of 51.5 Wh kg-1, and a high power density of 9 kW kg-1, revealing its potential application in electrochemical capacitors.

  17. Magnetostatic Interaction in Fe-Co Nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Elbaile

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Arrays of Fe-Co alloy nanowires with diameter around 35 nm and several micrometers in length have been synthesized by codepositing Fe and Co into porous anodic alumina. The morphology, structure, and magnetic properties of the nanowires (hysteresis loops and remanence curves were characterized by SEM, TEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, and VSM, respectively. The XRD patterns indicate that the Fe-Co nanowires present a body-centered cubic (bcc structure and a preferred (110 orientation perpendicular to the template surface. From the hysteresis loops obtained with the magnetic field applied in the axis direction of the nanowires, we can observe that the coercive field slightly decreases when the nanowire length increases. This magnetic behaviour is analyzed considering the shape anisotropy and the dipolar interactions among nanowires.

  18. Boron rates for triticale and wheat crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrêa Juliano Corulli

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available No reports are registered on responses to boron fertilization nutrient deficiency and toxicity in triticale crops. The aim of this study was to evaluate triticale response to different rates of boron in comparison to wheat in an hapludox with initial boron level at 0.08 mg dm-3 4 4 factorial design trial completely randomized blocks design (n = 4. Boron rates were 0; 0.62; 1.24 and 1.86 mg dm-3; triticale cultivars were IAC 3, BR 4 and BR 53 and IAPAR 38 wheat crop was used for comparison. The wheat (IAPAR 38 crop presented the highest boron absorption level of all. Among triticale cultivars, the most responsive was IAC 53, presenting similar characteristics to wheat, followed by BR 4; these two crops are considered tolerant to higher boron rates in soil. Regarding to BR 53, no absorption effect was observed, and the cultivars was sensitive to boron toxicity. Absorption responses differed for each genotype. That makes it possible to choose and use the best-adapted plants to soils with different boron rates.

  19. Spectral tailoring for boron Neutron capture therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nievaart, V.A.

    2007-01-01

    In several places in the world, such as Petten and Delft in the Netherlands, investigations are in progress in the fight against certain types of cancer with Boron Neutron Capture Therapy. The basic idea is very simple: boron is loaded only into the cancer cells, using a special drug, after which

  20. Ultratough single crystal boron-doped diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemley, Russell J [Carnegie Inst. for Science, Washington, DC ; Mao, Ho-Kwang [Carnegie Inst. for Science, Washington, DC ; Yan, Chih-Shiue [Carnegie Inst. for Science, Washington, DC ; Liang, Qi [Carnegie Inst. for Science, Washington, DC

    2015-05-05

    The invention relates to a single crystal boron doped CVD diamond that has a toughness of at least about 22 MPa m.sup.1/2. The invention further relates to a method of manufacturing single crystal boron doped CVD diamond. The growth rate of the diamond can be from about 20-100 .mu.m/h.

  1. Possible toxicity of boron on sugar cane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bravo C., M.

    Analyses of necrotic and green leaf tissues from sugar cane grown in the Tambo Valley (Arequipa, Peru) have shown that the boron concentration in necrotic tissue (average 657.7 ppm) is several times higher than that in the green tissue (average 55.7 ppm). This suggests that the necrosis may be due to boron toxicity.

  2. Hot flow behavior of boron microalloyed steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Chipres, E. [Instituto de Investigaciones Metalurgicas, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas de Hidalgo. Edificio ' U' , Ciudad Universitaria, 58066 Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); Mejia, I. [Instituto de Investigaciones Metalurgicas, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas de Hidalgo. Edificio ' U' , Ciudad Universitaria, 58066 Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)], E-mail: imejia@zeus.umich.mx; Maldonado, C.; Bedolla-Jacuinde, A. [Instituto de Investigaciones Metalurgicas, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas de Hidalgo. Edificio ' U' , Ciudad Universitaria, 58066 Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); El-Wahabi, M. [Departament de Ciencia dels Materials i Enginyeria Metallurgica, ETSEIB, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya. Av. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Cabrera, J.M. [Departament de Ciencia dels Materials i Enginyeria Metallurgica, ETSEIB, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya. Av. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); CTM Centre Tecnologic. Av. de las Bases de Manresa, 1, de Manresa, 08240 Manresa (Spain)

    2008-05-15

    This research work studies the effect of boron contents on the hot flow behavior of boron microalloyed steels. For this purpose, uniaxial hot-compression tests were carried out in a low carbon steel microalloyed with four different amounts of boron over a wide range of temperatures (950, 1000, 1050 and 1100 deg. C) and constant true strain rates (10{sup -3}, 10{sup -2} and 10{sup -1} s{sup -1}). Experimental results revealed that both peak stress and peak strain tend to decrease as boron content increases, which indicates that boron additions have a solid solution softening effect. Likewise, the flow curves show a delaying effect on the kinetics of dynamic recrystallization (DRX) when increasing boron content. Deformed microstructures show a finer austenitic grain size in the steel with higher boron content (grain refinement effect). Results are discussed in terms of boron segregation towards austenitic grain boundaries during plastic deformation, which increases the movement of dislocations, enhances the grain boundary cohesion and modificates the grain boundary structure.

  3. Magnetic crossover effect in Nickel nanowire arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghaddar, A. [Laboratoire de Magnetisme de Bretagne, CNRS-FRE 3117, C.S. 93837, 29238 Brest, Cedex (France); Gloaguen, F. [Laboratoire de Chimie, Electrochimie Moleculaire et Chimie Analytique, CNRS-UMR 6521, C. S. 93837 Brest Cedex 3 (France); Gieraltowski, J. [Laboratoire de Magnetisme de Bretagne, CNRS-FRE 3117, C.S. 93837, 29238 Brest, Cedex (France); Tannous, C., E-mail: tannous@univ-brest.f [Laboratoire de Magnetisme de Bretagne, CNRS-FRE 3117, C.S. 93837, 29238 Brest, Cedex (France)

    2011-05-01

    A crossover effect in the magnetic reversal mechanism within arrays of Nickel nanowires whose diameter varies from 15 to 100 nm is observed around 50 nm. Hysteresis loops and FMR measurements confirm that nanowire diameter controls effectively the nanowire easy axis as well as the magnetization reversal mechanism. This might be very interesting for spintronic devices based on current-induced domain motion such as non-volatile magnetic memory elements (MRAM) and low Ohmic loss devices.

  4. Misfit dislocations in composites with nanowires

    CERN Document Server

    Gutkin, M Y; Sheinerman, A G

    2003-01-01

    A theoretical model is suggested which describes the generation and evolution of misfit dislocations in composite solids containing nanowires with rectangular cross-section. In the framework of the model, the ranges of the geometric parameters (nanowire sizes, misfit parameter, interspacing between the nanowire and the free surface of the composite) are calculated at which the generation of various misfit dislocation configurations (loops, semi-loops and dipoles) is energetically favourable. Transformations of these dislocation configurations and their specific features are discussed.

  5. XPS analysis of boron doped heterofullerenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnyder, B.; Koetz, R. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Muhr, H.J.; Nesper, R. [ETH Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland)

    1997-06-01

    Boron heterofullerenes were generated through arc-evaporation of doped graphite rods in a helium atmosphere. According to mass spectrometric analysis only mono-substituted fullerenes like C{sub 59}B, C{sub 69}B and higher homologues together with a large fraction of higher undoped fullerenes were extracted and enriched when pyridine was used as the solvent. XPS analysis of the extracts indicated the presence of two boron species with significantly different binding energies. One peak was assigned to borid acid. The second one corresponds to boron in the fullerene cage, which is mainly C{sub 59}B, according to the mass spectrum. This boron is in a somewhat higher oxidation state than that of ordinary boron-carbon compounds. The reported synthesis and extraction procedure opens a viable route for production of macroscopic amounts of these compounds. (author) 2 figs., 1 tab., 7 refs.

  6. Preparation and characterization of haematite nanowire arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Xue, D S; Liu, Q F; Zhang, L Y

    2003-01-01

    Arrays of alpha-Fe sub 2 O sub 3 nanowires embedded in anodic alumina membranes were obtained after heat-treating beta-FeOOH nanowire arrays fabricated by electrochemical deposition. Haematite polycrystalline nanowires with maximum length of about 7 mu m and average diameter of about 120 nm were characterized by means of x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The Morin temperature below 80 K and Neel temperature of about 350 K for the alpha-Fe sub 2 O sub 3 nanowire arrays, far lower than those of bulk material, were measured by Moessbauer spectroscopy and using a Magnetic Property Measurement System.

  7. Diluted magnetic semiconductor nanowires exhibiting magnetoresistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Peidong [El Cerrito, CA; Choi, Heonjin [Seoul, KR; Lee, Sangkwon [Daejeon, KR; He, Rongrui [Albany, CA; Zhang, Yanfeng [El Cerrito, CA; Kuykendal, Tevye [Berkeley, CA; Pauzauskie, Peter [Berkeley, CA

    2011-08-23

    A method for is disclosed for fabricating diluted magnetic semiconductor (DMS) nanowires by providing a catalyst-coated substrate and subjecting at least a portion of the substrate to a semiconductor, and dopant via chloride-based vapor transport to synthesize the nanowires. Using this novel chloride-based chemical vapor transport process, single crystalline diluted magnetic semiconductor nanowires Ga.sub.1-xMn.sub.xN (x=0.07) were synthesized. The nanowires, which have diameters of .about.10 nm to 100 nm and lengths of up to tens of micrometers, show ferromagnetism with Curie temperature above room temperature, and magnetoresistance up to 250 Kelvin.

  8. Boron enrichment in martian clay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D Stephenson

    Full Text Available We have detected a concentration of boron in martian clay far in excess of that in any previously reported extra-terrestrial object. This enrichment indicates that the chemistry necessary for the formation of ribose, a key component of RNA, could have existed on Mars since the formation of early clay deposits, contemporary to the emergence of life on Earth. Given the greater similarity of Earth and Mars early in their geological history, and the extensive disruption of Earth's earliest mineralogy by plate tectonics, we suggest that the conditions for prebiotic ribose synthesis may be better understood by further Mars exploration.

  9. Boron Enrichment in Martian Clay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagashima, Kazuhide; Freeland, Stephen J.

    2013-01-01

    We have detected a concentration of boron in martian clay far in excess of that in any previously reported extra-terrestrial object. This enrichment indicates that the chemistry necessary for the formation of ribose, a key component of RNA, could have existed on Mars since the formation of early clay deposits, contemporary to the emergence of life on Earth. Given the greater similarity of Earth and Mars early in their geological history, and the extensive disruption of Earth's earliest mineralogy by plate tectonics, we suggest that the conditions for prebiotic ribose synthesis may be better understood by further Mars exploration. PMID:23762242

  10. Positron annihilation in boron nitride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.Amrane

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Electron and positron charge densities are calculated as a function of position in the unit cell for boron nitride. Wave functions are derived from pseudopotential band structure calculations and the independent particle approximation (IPM, respectively, for electrons and positrons. It is observed that the positron density is maximum in the open interstices and is excluded not only from ion cores but also to a considerable degree from valence bonds. Electron-positron momentum densities are calculated for (001,110 planes. The results are used in order to analyse the positron effects in BN.

  11. Single crystalline PtSi nanowires, PtSi/Si/PtSi nanowire heterostructures, and nanodevices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yung-Chen; Lu, Kuo-Chang; Wu, Wen-Wei; Bai, Jingwei; Chen, Lih J; Tu, K N; Huang, Yu

    2008-03-01

    We report the formation of PtSi nanowires, PtSi/Si/PtSi nanowire heterostructures, and nanodevices from such heterostructures. Scanning electron microscopy studies show that silicon nanowires can be converted into PtSi nanowires through controlled reactions between lithographically defined platinum pads and silicon nanowires. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy studies show that PtSi/Si/PtSi heterostructure has an atomically sharp interface with epitaxial relationships of Si[110]//PtSi[010] and Si(111)//PtSi(101). Electrical measurements show that the pure PtSi nanowires have low resistivities approximately 28.6 microOmega.cm and high breakdown current densities>1x10(8) A/cm2. Furthermore, using single crystal PtSi/Si/PtSi nanowire heterostructures with atomically sharp interfaces, we have fabricated high-performance nanoscale field-effect transistors from intrinsic silicon nanowires, in which the source and drain contacts are defined by the metallic PtSi nanowire regions, and the gate length is defined by the Si nanowire region. Electrical measurements show nearly perfect p-channel enhancement mode transistor behavior with a normalized transconductance of 0.3 mS/microm, field-effect hole mobility of 168 cm2/V.s, and on/off ratio>10(7), demonstrating the best performing device from intrinsic silicon nanowires.

  12. Boron nanoparticles inhibit turnour growth by boron neutron capture therapy in the murine B16-OVA model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Mikkel Steen; Petersen, Charlotte Christie; Agger, Ralf

    2008-01-01

    Background: Boron neutron capture therapy usually relies on soluble, rather than particulate, boron compounds. This study evaluated the use of a novel boron nanoparticle for boron neutron capture therapy. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and fifty thousand B16-OVA tumour cells, pre...

  13. Indium Tin Oxide@Carbon Core–Shell Nanowire and Jagged Indium Tin Oxide Nanowire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yong

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper reports two new indium tin oxide (ITO-based nanostructures, namely ITO@carbon core–shell nanowire and jagged ITO nanowire. The ITO@carbon core–shell nanowires (~50 nm in diameter, 1–5 μm in length, were prepared by a chemical vapor deposition process from commercial ITO nanoparticles. A carbon overlayer (~5–10 in thickness was observed around ITO nanowire core, which was in situ formed by the catalytic decomposition of acetylene gas. This carbon overlayer could be easily removed after calcination in air at an elevated temperature of 700°C, thus forming jagged ITO nanowires (~40–45 nm in diameter. The growth mechanisms of ITO@carbon core–shell nanowire and jagged ITO nanowire were also suggested.

  14. Synthesis and characterization of ammonium phosphate fertilizers with boron

    OpenAIRE

    ANGELA MAGDA; RODICA PODE; CORNELIA MUNTEAN; MIHAI MEDELEANU; ALEXANDRU POPA

    2010-01-01

    The concentration of boron, an essential micronutrient for plants, presents a narrow range between deficiency and toxicity. In order to provide the boron requirement for plants, and to avoid toxicity problems, boron compounds are mixed with basic fertilizers. Sodium borate pentahydrate was used as a boron source. Ammonium orthophosphates fertilizers with boron were prepared by neutralizing phosphoric acid with ammonia and addition of variable amounts of sodium tetraborate pentahydrate to the ...

  15. Composite boron nitride neutron detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, M.; Mojaev, E.; Khakhan, O.; Fleider, A.; Dul`kin, E.; Schieber, M.

    2014-09-01

    Single phase polycrystalline hexagonal boron nitride (BN) or mixed with boron carbide (BxC) embedded in an insulating polymeric matrix acting as a binder and forming a composite material as well as pure submicron size polycrystalline BN has been tested as a thermal neutron converter in a multilayer thermal neutron detector design. Metal sheet electrodes were covered with 20-50 μm thick layers of composite materials and assembled in a multi-layer sandwich configuration. High voltage was applied to the metal electrodes to create an interspacing electric field. The spacing volume could be filled with air, nitrogen or argon. Thermal neutrons were captured in converter layers due to the presence of the 10B isotope. The resulting nuclear reaction produced α-particles and 7Li ions which ionized the gas in the spacing volume. Electron-ion pairs were collected by the field to create an electrical signal proportional to the intensity of the neutron source. The detection efficiency of the multilayer neutron detectors is found to increase with the number of active converter layers. Pixel structures of such neutron detectors necessary for imaging applications and incorporation of internal moderator materials for field measurements of fast neutron flux intensities are discussed as well.

  16. Electrical and thermal conductivities of the graphene, boron nitride and silicon boron honeycomb monolayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mousavi, Hamze, E-mail: hamze.mousavi@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khodadadi, Jabbar [Department of Physics, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moradi Kurdestany, Jamshid [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65201 (United States); Yarmohammadi, Zahra [Department of Physics, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-11-25

    Density of states, electrical and thermal conductivities of electrons in graphene, boron nitride and silicon boron single sheets are studied within the tight-binding Hamiltonian model and Green's function formalism, based on the linear response theory. The results show that while boron nitride keeps significantly the lowest amounts overall with an interval of zero value in low temperatures, due to its insulating nature, graphene exhibits the most electrical and thermal conductivities, slightly higher than silicon boron except for low temperature region where the latter surpasses, owing to its metallic character. This work might make ideas for creating new electronic devices based on honeycomb nanostructures. - Highlights: • Electronic properties of graphene, silicon boron, and boron nitride planes are compared. • Tight-binding Hamiltonian model and Green's function formalism are implemented. • This work might make ideas for creating new electronic devices based on honeycomb nanostructures.

  17. Requirement of ginkgo pollen-derived tissue cultures for boron and effects of boron deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yih, R Y; Hille, F K; Clark, H E

    1966-05-01

    Ginkgo biloba L. pollen-derived tissue, which is made up of small, friable masses of homogeneous parenchymatous cells, was shown to require boron in the culture medium. If no boron is supplied, growth soon stops. Growth responses to additions of boron were observed up to an optimum level of 0.1 mg of boron per liter.Histological examination and chemical analyses showed 2 general effects of boron deficiency: (1) a reduced rate of cell division, with no significant effect on cell size, and (2) some alteration in composition of the cell walls. With the exception of a reduction in fructose, the concentration of soluble and of readily hydrolyzable carbohydrates, and the concentration of protein in the tissue, were not affected by boron deficiency.

  18. X-ray diffraction study of boron produced by pyrolysis of boron tribromide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, David

    The goal of this research was to determine the composition of boron deposits produced by pyrolysis of boron tribromide, and to use the results to (a) determine the experimental conditions (reaction temperature, etc.) necessary to produce alpha-rhombohedral boron and (b) guide the development/refinement of the pyrolysis experiments such that large, high purity crystals of alpha-rhombohedral boron can be produced with consistency. Developing a method for producing large, high purity alpha-rhombohedral boron crystals is of interest because such crystals could potentially be used to achieve an alpha-rhombohedral boron based neutron detector design (a solid-state detector) that could serve as an alternative to existing neutron detector technologies. The supply of neutron detectors in the United States has been hampered for a number of years due to the current shortage of helium-3 (a gas used in many existing neutron detector technologies); the development of alternative neutron detector technology such as an alpha-rhombohedral boron based detector would help provide a more sustainable supply of neutron detectors in this country. In addition, the prospect/concept of an alpha-rhombohedral boron based neutron detector is attractive because it offers the possibility of achieving a design that is smaller, longer life, less power consuming, and potentially more sensitive than existing neutron detectors. The main difficulty associated with creating an alpha-rhombohedral boron based neutron detector is that producing large, high purity crystals of alpha-rhombohedral boron is extremely challenging. Past researchers have successfully made alpha-rhombohedral boron via a number of methods, but no one has developed a method for consistently producing large, high purity crystals. Alpha-rhombohedral boron is difficult to make because it is only stable at temperatures below around 1100-1200 °C, its formation is very sensitive to impurities, and the conditions necessary for its

  19. From Boron Cluster to Two-Dimensional Boron Sheet on Cu(111) Surface: Growth Mechanism and Hole Formation

    OpenAIRE

    Hongsheng Liu; Junfeng Gao; Jijun Zhao

    2013-01-01

    As attractive analogue of graphene, boron monolayers have been theoretically predicted. However, due to electron deficiency of boron atom, synthesizing boron monolayer is very challenging in experiments. Using first-principles calculations, we explore stability and growth mechanism of various boron sheets on Cu(111) substrate. The monotonic decrease of formation energy of boron cluster BN with increasing cluster size and low diffusion barrier for a single B atom on Cu(111) surface ensure cont...

  20. Effect of boron concentration on physicochemical properties of boron-doped carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keru, Godfrey; Ndungu, Patrick G.; Nyamori, Vincent O., E-mail: nyamori@ukzn.ac.za

    2015-03-01

    Boron-doped carbon nanotubes (B-CNTs) were synthesized using chemical vapour deposition (CVD) floating catalyst method. Toluene was used as the carbon source, triphenylborane as boron as well as the carbon source while ferrocene was used as the catalyst. The amount of triphenylborane used was varied in a solution of toluene and ferrocene. Ferrocene was kept constant at 2.5 wt.%. while a maximum temperature of 900 °C was used for the synthesis of the shaped carbon nanomaterial (SCNMs). SCNMs obtained were characterized by the use of transmission electron microscope (TEM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), high resolution-electron microscope, electron dispersive X-ay spectroscopy (EDX), Raman spectroscopy, inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), nitrogen adsorption at 77 K, and inverse gas chromatography. TEM and SEM analysis confirmed SCNMs obtained were a mixture of B-CNTs and carbon nanofibres (B-CNF). EDX and ICP-OES results showed that boron was successively incorporated into the carbon hexagonal network of CNTs and its concentration was dependent on the amount of triphenylborane used. From the VSM results, the boron doping within the CNTs introduced ferromagnetic properties, and as the percentage of boron increased the magnetic coactivity and squareness changed. In addition, boron doping changed the conductivity and the surface energy among other physicochemical properties of B-CNTs. - Highlights: • Boron-doping of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) changes their physiochemical properties. • Amount of boron-doping was dependent on the wt.% of boron precursor used. • Boron-doping changed CNTs surfaces and the distribution of dispersive energy sites. • Boron-doping affected the conductivity and ferromagnetic properties. • Increased boron-doping results in a more favourable interaction with polar probes.

  1. Developments in boron magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schweizer, M.

    1995-11-01

    This report summarizes progress during the past year on maturing Boron-11 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) methodology for noninvasive determination of BNCT agents (BSH) spatially in time. Three major areas are excerpted: (1) Boron-11 MRI of BSH distributions in a canine intracranial tumor model and the first human glioblastoma patient, (2) whole body Boron-11 MRI of BSH pharmacokinetics in a rat flank tumor model, and (3) penetration of gadolinium salts through the BBB as a function of tumor growth in the canine brain.

  2. Angular Magnetoresistance of Nanowires with Alternating Cobalt and Nickel Segments

    KAUST Repository

    Mohammed, Hanan

    2017-06-22

    Magnetization reversal in segmented Co/Ni nanowires with varying number of segments was studied using angular Magnetoresistance (MR) measurements on isolated nanowires. The MR measurements offer an insight into the pinning of domain walls within the nanowires. Angular MR measurements were performed on nanowires with two and multiple segments by varying the angle between the applied magnetic field and nanowire (−90° ≤θ≤90°). The angular MR measurements reveal that at lower values of θ the switching fields are nearly identical for the multisegmented and two-segmented nanowires, whereas at higher values of θ, a decrease in the switching field is observed in the case of two segmented nanowires. The two segmented nanowires generally exhibit a single domain wall pinning event, whereas an increased number of pinning events are characteristic of the multisegmented nanowires at higher values of θ. In-situ magnetic force microscopy substantiates reversal by domain wall nucleation and propagation in multisegmented nanowires.

  3. High-Performance Single Nanowire Tunnel Diodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallentin, Jesper; Persson, Johan Mikael; Wagner, Jakob Birkedal

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate single nanowire tunnel diodes with room temperature peak current densities of up to 329 A/cm(2). Despite the large surface to volume ratio of the type-II InP-GaAs axial heterostructure nanowires, we measure peak to valley current ratios (PVCR) of up to 8.2 at room temperature and 27...

  4. Mapping the local structure of nanowires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Johan Mikael; Wagner, Jakob Birkedal

    2013-01-01

    The crystallographic and compositional structure of heterostructured semiconductor nanowires has been studied by means of transmission electron microscopy. The native geometry of the studied InP-GaAs nanowires (80-100 nm in diameter) is in general too thick for reliable high-resolution TEM imaging...

  5. Epitaxy of advanced nanowire quantum devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gazibegovic, S.; Car, D.; Zhang, H.; Balk, S.C.; Logan, J.A.; Moor, M.W.A. de; Cassidy, M.C.; Schmits, R.; Xu, D.; Wang, G.; Krogstrup, P.; Veld, R.L.M. op het; Zuo, K.; Vos, Y.; Shen, J.; Bouman, D.; Shojaei, B.; Pennachio, D.; Lee, J.S.; Veldhoven, P.J. van; Koelling, S.; Verheijen, M.A.; Kouwenhoven, L.P.; Palmstrøm, C.J.; Bakkers, E.P.A.M.

    2017-01-01

    Semiconductor nanowires are ideal for realizing various low-dimensional quantum devices. In particular, topological phases of matter hosting non-Abelian quasiparticles (such as anyons) can emerge when a semiconductor nanowire with strong spin-orbit coupling is brought into contact with a

  6. Functionalization of magnetic nanowires by charged biopolymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnin, D.; Callegari, V.; Mátéfi-Tempfli, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    We report on a facile method for the preparation of biocompatible and bioactive magnetic nanowires. The method consists of the direct deposition of polysaccharides by layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly onto a brush of metallic nanowires; obtained by electrodeposition of the metal within the nanopores ...

  7. Electrical and thermal conductivities of the graphene, boron nitride and silicon boron honeycomb monolayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi, Hamze; Khodadadi, Jabbar; Moradi Kurdestany, Jamshid; Yarmohammadi, Zahra

    2016-11-01

    Density of states, electrical and thermal conductivities of electrons in graphene, boron nitride and silicon boron single sheets are studied within the tight-binding Hamiltonian model and Green's function formalism, based on the linear response theory. The results show that while boron nitride keeps significantly the lowest amounts overall with an interval of zero value in low temperatures, due to its insulating nature, graphene exhibits the most electrical and thermal conductivities, slightly higher than silicon boron except for low temperature region where the latter surpasses, owing to its metallic character. This work might make ideas for creating new electronic devices based on honeycomb nanostructures.

  8. Characterization of boron tolerant bacteria isolated from a fly ash dumping site for bacterial boron remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edward Raja, Chellaiah; Omine, Kiyoshi

    2013-08-01

    Boron is an essential micronutrient for plants, but can above certain concentrations be toxic to living organisms. A major environmental concern is the removal of boron from contaminated water and fly ash. For this purpose, the samples were collected from a fly ash dumping site, Nagasaki prefecture, Japan. The chemical characteristics and heavy metal concentration of the samples were performed by X-ray fluorescent analysis and leaching test. For bacterial analysis, samples were collected in sterile plastic sheets and isolation was carried out by serial dilution method. The boron tolerant isolates that showed values of maximum inhibitory concentration toward boron ranging from 100 to 260 mM level were screened. Based on 16S rRNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis, the isolates were most closely related to the genera Bacillus, Lysinibacillus, Microbacterium and Ralstonia. The boron tolerance of these strains was also associated with resistant to several heavy metals, such as As (III), Cr (VI), Cd, Cu, Pb, Ni, Se (III) and Zn. Indeed, these strains were arsenic oxidizing bacteria confirmed by silver nitrate test. These strains exhibited their salt resistances ranging from 4 to 15 % were determined in Trypticase soy agar medium. The boron tolerant strains were capable of removing 0.1-2.0 and 2.7-3.7 mg l(-1) boron from the medium and fly ash at 168 h. Thus, we have successfully identified the boron tolerant and removal bacteria from a fly ash dumping site for boron remediation.

  9. Growth and structural characterization of III-V semiconductor nanowires

    OpenAIRE

    Rieger, Torsten

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis, the growth and structural properties of III-V semiconductor nanowires and nanowire heterostructures are studied. These nanowires represent structures suitable for both fundamental physics and applications in electronic devices such as (tunnel) field effect transistors. The III-V nanowires are grown with molecular beam epitaxy, high κ dielectric layers are deposited conformally around the nanowires by atomic layer deposition. The morphological and structural characteristics of ...

  10. Preparation and Characterization of Tin Oxide Nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kabiri

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is preparation of SnO2 nanowires by means of Thermal chemical reaction vapor transport deposition (TCRVTD method from SnO powders. The morphology, chemical composition and microstructure properties of the nanowires are characterized using field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM, EDS, and XRD. The XRD diffraction patterns reveal that the SnO2 nanowires have been grown in the form of tetragonal crystal structures with the lattice parameter of a=b=0.440 nm, and c=0.370 nm. The SEM images reveal that SnO2 nanowires have successfully been grown on the Si substrate. The EDS patterns show that only elements of Sn, O and Au are detected. Prior to the VLS process the substrate is coated by a thin layer of Au. The diameter of nanowires is measured to be something between 20-100 nm.

  11. Synthesis of silicon and germanium nanowires.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clement, Teresa J. (Arizona State University); Hsu, Julia W. P.

    2007-11-01

    The vapor-liquid-solid growth process for synthesis of group-IV semiconducting nanowires using silane, germane, disilane and digermane precursor gases has been investigated. The nanowire growth process combines in situ gold seed formation by vapor deposition on atomically clean silicon (111) surfaces, in situ growth from the gaseous precursor(s), and real-time monitoring of nanowire growth as a function of temperature and pressure by a novel optical reflectometry technique. A significant dependence on precursor pressure and growth temperature for the synthesis of silicon and germanium nanowires is observed, depending on the stability of the specific precursor used. Also, the presence of a nucleation time for the onset of nanowire growth has been found using our new in situ optical reflectometry technique.

  12. Nanowires for thermal energy conversion and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Renkun

    This dissertation presents the application of nanowires in two aspects of thermal energy conversion and management: (i) silicon (Si) nanowires as efficient and scalable thermoelectric materials due to the reduced thermal conductivity (k), and (ii) Si and copper (Cu) nanowire arrays for enhanced phase change heat transfer including boiling and evaporation and their applications in thermal management of microelectronics. In the first half of the thesis (chapter 2 and 3), we describe thermal and thermoelectric measurements of individual Si nanowires for studying phonon transport properties and their potential application in thermoelectrics. A theoretical model based on coherent phonon scattering was developed to explain the experiemental data, which suggests that phonon-boundary scattering is highly frequency dependent. For low frequency (long wavelength) phonons, the transport is nearly ballistic, whereas high frequency or short wavelength phonons scatter diffusively at nanowire boundary. The competition between the two phonon transmission regimes results in the unusual linear behavior of the thermal conductance of thin VLS Si nanowires at low temperature. Next, the thermal conductivity of EE Si nanowires, which have much rougher surface compared to VLS nanowires, was measured and found to be five-eight times lower than that of VLS counterparts with similar diameters. The substantial reduction in k is presumably due to the higher surface roughness, since both types of nanowires have single crystalline cores. In particular, for ˜ 50 nm EE Si nanowires etched from 0.1 O-cm B-doped p-Si (˜2 x 1017 cm-3 dopant concentration), the k is around 1.6 Wm-1K-1 and the kL is ˜1.2 Wm-1 K-1 at room temperature, approaching that of amorphous Si. The single nanowire measurements show the great promise of using Si nanowire arrays as high-performance, scalable thermoelectric materials. As the second focus of the thesis (chapter 4 and 5), nanowire arrays were used for enhanced phase

  13. Core-shell silicon nanowire solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, M M; Anantram, M P; Karim, K S

    2013-01-01

    Silicon nanowires can enhance broadband optical absorption and reduce radial carrier collection distances in solar cell devices. Arrays of disordered nanowires grown by vapor-liquid-solid method are attractive because they can be grown on low-cost substrates such as glass, and are large area compatible. Here, we experimentally demonstrate that an array of disordered silicon nanowires surrounded by a thin transparent conductive oxide has both low diffuse and specular reflection with total values as low as nanowire facilitates enhancement in external quantum efficiency using two different active shell materials: amorphous silicon and nanocrystalline silicon. As a result, the core-shell nanowire device exhibits a short-circuit current enhancement of 15% with an amorphous Si shell and 26% with a nanocrystalline Si shell compared to their corresponding planar devices.

  14. Superconductive silicon nanowires using gallium beam lithography.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henry, Michael David; Jarecki, Robert Leo,

    2014-01-01

    This work was an early career LDRD investigating the idea of using a focused ion beam (FIB) to implant Ga into silicon to create embedded nanowires and/or fully suspended nanowires. The embedded Ga nanowires demonstrated electrical resistivity of 5 m-cm, conductivity down to 4 K, and acts as an Ohmic silicon contact. The suspended nanowires achieved dimensions down to 20 nm x 30 nm x 10 m with large sensitivity to pressure. These structures then performed well as Pirani gauges. Sputtered niobium was also developed in this research for use as a superconductive coating on the nanowire. Oxidation characteristics of Nb were detailed and a technique to place the Nb under tensile stress resulted in the Nb resisting bulk atmospheric oxidation for up to years.

  15. Thiolated Gold Nanowires: Metallic versus Semiconducting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Deen [ORNL; Luo, Weidong [ORNL; Nobusada, Katsuyuki [Institute for Molecular Science, Japan; Whetten, Robert L [Georgia Institute of Technology

    2009-01-01

    Tremendous research efforts have been spent on thiolated gold nanoparticles and self-assembled monolayers of thiolate (RS-) on gold, but thiolated gold nanowires have received almost no attention. Here we computationally design two such one-dimensional nanosystems by creating a linear chain of Au icosahedra, fused together by either vertex sharing or face sharing. Then neighboring Au icosahedra are bridged by five thiolate groups for the vertex-sharing model and three RS?Au?SR motifs for the face-sharing model. We show that the vertex-sharing thiolated gold nanowire can be made either semiconducting or metallic by tuning the charge, while the face-sharing one is always metallic. We explain this difference between the two nanowires by examining their band structures and invoking a previously proposed electron-count rule. Implications of our findings for previous experimentation of gold nanowires are discussed, and a potential way to make thiolated gold nanowires is proposed.

  16. Thiolated gold nanowires: metallic versus semiconducting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, De-en; Nobusada, Katsuyuki; Luo, Weidong; Whetten, Robert L

    2009-08-25

    Tremendous research efforts have been spent on thiolated gold nanoparticles and self-assembled monolayers of thiolate (RS-) on gold, but thiolated gold nanowires have received almost no attention. Here we computationally design two such one-dimensional nanosystems by creating a linear chain of Au icosahedra, fused together by either vertex sharing or face sharing. Then neighboring Au icosahedra are bridged by five thiolate groups for the vertex-sharing model and three RS-Au-SR motifs for the face-sharing model. We show that the vertex-sharing thiolated gold nanowire can be made either semiconducting or metallic by tuning the charge, while the face-sharing one is always metallic. We explain this difference between the two nanowires by examining their band structures and invoking a previously proposed electron-count rule. Implications of our findings for previous experimentation of gold nanowires are discussed, and a potential way to make thiolated gold nanowires is proposed.

  17. Precise Placement of Metallic Nanowires on a Substrate by Localized Electric Fields and Inter-Nanowire Electrostatic Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U Hyeok Choi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Placing nanowires at the predetermined locations on a substrate represents one of the significant hurdles to be tackled for realization of heterogeneous nanowire systems. Here, we demonstrate spatially-controlled assembly of a single nanowire at the photolithographically recessed region at the electrode gap with high integration yield (~90%. Two popular routes, such as protruding electrode tips and recessed wells, for spatially-controlled nanowire alignment, are compared to investigate long-range dielectrophoretic nanowire attraction and short-range nanowire-nanowire electrostatic interaction for determining the final alignment of attracted nanowires. Furthermore, the post-assembly process has been developed and tested to make a robust electrical contact to the assembled nanowires, which removes any misaligned ones and connects the nanowires to the underlying electrodes of circuit.

  18. Behaviour of boron in Mandovi estuary (Goa)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shirodkar, P.V.; Anand, S.P.

    and alkalinity gave positive correlations with a linear variation. Though the overall behavioural pattern of boron indicated non-conservative nature, it showed a quasi-conservative character during premonsoon and a non-conservative during rest of the seasons...

  19. Boron toxicity in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajaratnam, J.A.

    1973-01-01

    Potted oil palms were treated with fertilizer of borate-46 at several concentrations and the plants were observed for boron toxicity effects. Toxicity symptoms were apparent at high rates but not at rates equivalent to typical Malaysian soils.

  20. Innovative boron nitride-doped propellants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thelma Manning

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The U.S. military has a need for more powerful propellants with balanced/stoichiometric amounts of fuel and oxidants. However, balanced and more powerful propellants lead to accelerated gun barrel erosion and markedly shortened useful barrel life. Boron nitride (BN is an interesting potential additive for propellants that could reduce gun wear effects in advanced propellants (US patent pending 2015-026P. Hexagonal boron nitride is a good lubricant that can provide wear resistance and lower flame temperatures for gun barrels. Further, boron can dope steel, which drastically improves its strength and wear resistance, and can block the formation of softer carbides. A scalable synthesis method for producing boron nitride nano-particles that can be readily dispersed into propellants has been developed. Even dispersion of the nano-particles in a double-base propellant has been demonstrated using a solvent-based processing approach. Stability of a composite propellant with the BN additive was verified. In this paper, results from propellant testing of boron nitride nano-composite propellants are presented, including closed bomb and wear and erosion testing. Detailed characterization of the erosion tester substrates before and after firing was obtained by electron microscopy, inductively coupled plasma and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. This promising boron nitride additive shows the ability to improve gun wear and erosion resistance without any destabilizing effects to the propellant. Potential applications could include less erosive propellants in propellant ammunition for large, medium and small diameter fire arms.

  1. Synthesis of borophenes: Anisotropic, two-dimensional boron polymorphs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mannix, A. J.; Zhou, X. -F.; Kiraly, B.; Wood, J. D.; Alducin, D.; Myers, B. D.; Liu, X.; Fisher, B. L.; Santiago, U.; Guest, J. R.; Yacaman, M. J.; Ponce, A.; Oganov, A. R.; Hersam, M. C.; Guisinger, N. P.

    2015-12-17

    At the atomic-cluster scale, pure boron is markedly similar to carbon, forming simple planar molecules and cage-like fullerenes. Theoretical studies predict that two-dimensional (2D) boron sheets will adopt an atomic configuration similar to that of boron atomic clusters. We synthesized atomically thin, crystalline 2D boron sheets (i.e., borophene) on silver surfaces under ultrahigh-vacuum conditions. Atomic-scale characterization, supported by theoretical calculations, revealed structures reminiscent of fused boron clusters with multiple scales of anisotropic, out-of-plane buckling. Unlike bulk boron allotropes, borophene shows metallic characteristics that are consistent with predictions of a highly anisotropic, 2D metal.

  2. Development of magnetic resonance technology for noninvasive boron quantification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradshaw, K.M.

    1990-11-01

    Boron magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and spectroscopy (MRS) were developed in support of the noninvasive boron quantification task of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Power Burst Facility/Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (PBF/BNCT) program. The hardware and software described in this report are modifications specific to a GE Signa{trademark} MRI system, release 3.X and are necessary for boron magnetic resonance operation. The technology developed in this task has been applied to obtaining animal pharmacokinetic data of boron compounds (drug time response) and the in-vivo localization of boron in animal tissue noninvasively. 9 refs., 21 figs.

  3. Homoepitaxial n-core: p-shell gallium nitride nanowires: HVPE overgrowth on MBE nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Aric; Blanchard, Paul; Bertness, Kris; Brubaker, Matthew; Dodson, Christopher; Harvey, Todd; Herrero, Andrew; Rourke, Devin; Schlager, John; Sanford, Norman; Chiaramonti, Ann N; Davydov, Albert; Motayed, Abhishek; Tsvetkov, Denis

    2011-11-18

    We present the homoepitaxial growth of p-type, magnesium doped gallium nitride shells by use of halide vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) on n-type gallium nitride nanowires grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Scanning electron microscopy shows clear dopant contrast between the core and shell of the nanowire. The growth of magnesium doped nanowire shells shows little or no effect on the lattice parameters of the underlying nanowires, as measured by x-ray diffraction (XRD). Photoluminescence measurements of the nanowires show the appearance of sub-bandgap features in the blue and the ultraviolet, indicating the presence of acceptors. Finally, electrical measurements confirm the presence of electrically active holes in the nanowires.

  4. The effect of boron deficiency on gene expression and boron compartmentalization in sugarbeet

    Science.gov (United States)

    NIP5, BOR1, NIP6, and WRKY6 genes were investigated for their role in boron deficiency in sugar beet, each with a proposed role in boron use in model plant species. All genes showed evidence of polymorphism in fragment size and gene expression in the target genomic DNA and cDNA libraries, with no co...

  5. Proceedings of workshop on 'boron science and boron neutron capture therapy'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitaoka, Y. [ed.

    1998-12-01

    This volume contains the abstracts and programs of the 8th (1996), 9th (1997) and 10th (1998) of the workshop on 'the Boron Science and Boron Neutron Capture Therapy' and the recent progress reports especially subscribed. The 11 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  6. Synthesis and characterization of germanium nanowires and germanium/silicon radially heterostructured nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldthorpe, Irene Anne

    Semiconductor nanowires offer new opportunities to study physical phenomena in low-dimensional nanostructures. They also possess technologically useful properties for applications in electronics, optics, sensing, and thermoelectrics. Germanium nanowires are of particular interest, because of germanium's compatibility with standard silicon integrated circuit fabrication processes, its high electronic carrier mobilities, and the low temperature required for germanium nanowire growth. In this work, epitaxially-aligned germanium nanowires are grown on silicon substrates by chemical vapor deposition through the vapor-liquid-solid mechanism. Uniform nanowire diameters between 5 and 50 nm are obtained through the use of monodisperse gold colloids as catalysts. The crystallographic orientation of the nanowires, their strain, and their heteroepitaxial relationship with the substrate are characterized with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD). A process for removing the gold catalysts from the tips of the germanium nanowires is demonstrated. Silicon shells are then heteroepitaxially deposited around the wires to fabricate radial heterostructures. These shells passivate the germanium nanowire surface, create electronic band offsets to confine holes away the surface where they can scatter or recombine, and induce strain which could allow for the engineering of properties such as band gap and carrier mobilities. However, analogous to planar heteroepitaxy, surface roughening and misfit dislocations can relax this strain. The effects of coaxial dimensions on strain relaxation in these structures are analyzed quantitatively by TEM and synchrotron XRD, and these results are related to continuum elasticity models. Lessons learned generated two successful strategies for synthesizing coherent core-shell nanowires with large misfit strain: chlorine surface passivation and growth of nanowires with low-energy sidewall facets. Both approaches avoid the strain

  7. Oxide nanowires for solar cell applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qifeng; Yodyingyong, Supan; Xi, Junting; Myers, Daniel; Cao, Guozhong

    2012-03-07

    Oxide nanowire arrays were studied for their applications to solar cells. It was demonstrated that the nanowires could provide direct pathways for electron transport in dye-sensitized solar cells and therefore, while forming photoelectrode films, they offered better suppression of charge recombination than nanoparticles. However, the photoelectron films consisting of nanowires suffered a disadvantage in giving large surface area for dye adsorption. Such a shortcoming of nanowires had been exemplified in this paper illustrating that it could be well compensated by incorporating with nanoparticles to form a nanoparticle-nanowire array hybrid photoelectrode film. The oxide nanowires were also demonstrated to be able to enhance the performance of inverted structure polymer solar cells as a cathode buffer layer by establishing a large interface with the polymers so as to facilitate the transport of photogenerated electrons from the polymer to the electron collecting electrode. Such an enhancement effect could be further boosted while the nanowires were replaced with nanotubes; the latter may build up larger interface with the polymers than the former and therefore facilitates the electron transport more efficiently.

  8. Review on photonic properties of nanowires for photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokkapati, S; Jagadish, C

    2016-07-25

    III-V semiconductor nanowires behave as optical antennae because of their shape anisotropy and high refractive index. The antennae like behavior modifies the absorption and emission properties of nanowires compared to planar materials. Nanowires absorb light more efficiently compared to an equivalent volume planar material, leading to higher short circuit current densities. The modified emission from the nanowires has the potential to increase the open circuit voltage from nanowire solar cells compared to planar solar cells. In order to achieve high efficiency nanowire solar cells it is essential to control the surface state density and doping in nanowires. We review the physics of nanowire solar cells and progress made in addressing the surface recombination and doping of nanowires, with emphasis on GaAs and InP materials.

  9. Ceramic silicon-boron-carbon fibers from organic silicon-boron-polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccitiello, Salvatore R. (Inventor); Hsu, Ming-Ta S. (Inventor); Chen, Timothy S. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Novel high strength ceramic fibers derived from boron, silicon, and carbon organic precursor polymers are discussed. The ceramic fibers are thermally stable up to and beyond 1200 C in air. The method of preparation of the boron-silicon-carbon fibers from a low oxygen content organosilicon boron precursor polymer of the general formula Si(R2)BR(sup 1) includes melt-spinning, crosslinking, and pyrolysis. Specifically, the crosslinked (or cured) precursor organic polymer fibers do not melt or deform during pyrolysis to form the silicon-boron-carbon ceramic fiber. These novel silicon-boron-carbon ceramic fibers are useful in high temperature applications because they retain tensile and other properties up to 1200 C, from 1200 to 1300 C, and in some cases higher than 1300 C.

  10. Enhanced diffusion of boron by oxygen precipitation in heavily boron-doped silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torigoe, Kazuhisa; Ono, Toshiaki

    2017-06-01

    The enhanced diffusion of boron has been investigated by analyzing out-diffusion profiles in the vicinity of the interface between a lightly boron-doped silicon epitaxial layer and a heavily boron-doped silicon substrate with a resistivity of 8.2 mΩ cm and an oxide precipitate (O.P.) density of 108-1010 cm-3. It is found that the boron diffusion during annealing at 850-1000 °C is enhanced with the increase of the oxide precipitate density. On the basis of a model for boron diffusion mediated by silicon self-interstitials, we reveal that the enhanced diffusion is attributed to self-interstitials supersaturated as a result of the emission from oxide precipitates and the absorption by punched-out dislocations. In addition, the temperature dependence of the fraction of the self-interstitial emission obtained analyzing the diffusion enhancement well explains the morphology changes of oxide precipitates reported in literature.

  11. ZnO-nanowire as a nanogenerator?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubert, Markus Andreas; Senz, Stephan; Alexe, Marin; Goesele, Ulrich [Max Planck Institut fuer Mikrostrukturphysik, Halle (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Recently nanogenerators for powering nanodevices were reported in which ZnO-nanowire arrays convert mechanical energy in electrical energy by bending the ZnO-nanowires. We simulate the experiments in which the ZnO nanowires were bent by AFM tip by FEM-calculations for an ideal nonconducting piezoelectric ZnO-nanowire with a length of 600 nm and a diameter of 50 nm fixed perpendicular to a substrate. The top part of this nanowire was bent about 140 nm by a force applied at the top of the nanowire. At the point of the applied force the electrical potential has a maximum of +1.3 V. In the rest of the nanowire the electrical potential is +0.3 V for the stretched side and -0.3 V for the compressed. The piezoelectric charge generate the signal on the capacitance between the two sides, which is about 10{sup -5} pF for the whole wire. A lower value of 10{sup -7} pF is estimated for the AFM point contact. However, most ZnO-nanowires are n-doped semiconductors with a typically resistivity of 1 {omega}cm. One consequence is a very fast discharging of the piezoelectric generate charge in the order of magnitude of 1 ps. Even, in the case of an ideal nonconducting nanowire, the voltage at the input capacity of any preamplifier ({proportional_to}1-5 pF) would be of the order of 10{sup -7} V, which corresponds to a charge of about one electron.

  12. TiO2 nanowire-templated hierarchical nanowire network as water-repelling coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hang, Tian; Chen, Hui-Jiuan; Xiao, Shuai; Yang, Chengduan; Chen, Meiwan; Tao, Jun; Shieh, Han-ping; Yang, Bo-ru; Liu, Chuan; Xie, Xi

    2017-12-01

    Extraordinary water-repelling properties of superhydrophobic surfaces make them novel candidates for a great variety of potential applications. A general approach to achieve superhydrophobicity requires low-energy coating on the surface and roughness on nano- and micrometre scale. However, typical construction of superhydrophobic surfaces with micro-nano structure through top-down fabrication is restricted by sophisticated fabrication techniques and limited choices of substrate materials. Micro-nanoscale topographies templated by conventional microparticles through surface coating may produce large variations in roughness and uncontrollable defects, resulting in poorly controlled surface morphology and wettability. In this work, micro-nanoscale hierarchical nanowire network was fabricated to construct self-cleaning coating using one-dimensional TiO2 nanowires as microscale templates. Hierarchical structure with homogeneous morphology was achieved by branching ZnO nanowires on the TiO2 nanowire backbones through hydrothermal reaction. The hierarchical nanowire network displayed homogeneous micro/nano-topography, in contrast to hierarchical structure templated by traditional microparticles. This hierarchical nanowire network film exhibited high repellency to both water and cell culture medium after functionalization with fluorinated organic molecules. The hierarchical structure templated by TiO2 nanowire coating significantly increased the surface superhydrophobicity compared to vertical ZnO nanowires with nanotopography alone. Our results demonstrated a promising strategy of using nanowires as microscale templates for the rational design of hierarchical coatings with desired superhydrophobicity that can also be applied to various substrate materials.

  13. Optical properties of heavily doped GaAs nanowires and electroluminescent nanowire structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lysov, A; Offer, M; Gutsche, C; Regolin, I; Geller, M; Prost, W; Tegude, F-J [Center for Nanointegration Duisburg-Essen, University of Duisburg-Essen, D-47048 Duisburg (Germany); Topaloglu, S, E-mail: andrey.lysov@uni-due.de [Department of Electronics Engineering, Maltepe University, Marmara Egitim Koeyue, 34857, Maltepe, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2011-02-25

    We present GaAs electroluminescent nanowire structures fabricated by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy. Electroluminescent structures were realized in both axial pn-junctions in single GaAs nanowires and free-standing nanowire arrays with a pn-junction formed between nanowires and substrate, respectively. The electroluminescence emission peak from single nanowire pn-junctions at 10 K was registered at an energy of around 1.32 eV and shifted to 1.4 eV with an increasing current. The line is attributed to the recombination in the compensated region present in the nanowire due to the memory effect of the vapor-liquid-solid growth mechanism. Arrayed nanowire electroluminescent structures with a pn-junction formed between nanowires and substrate demonstrated at 5 K a strong electroluminescence peak at 1.488 eV and two shoulder peaks at 1.455 and 1.519 eV. The main emission line was attributed to the recombination in the p-doped GaAs. The other two lines correspond to the tunneling-assisted photon emission and band-edge recombination in the abrupt junction, respectively. Electroluminescence spectra are compared with the micro-photoluminescence spectra taken along the single p-, n- and single nanowire pn-junctions to find the origin of the electroluminescence peaks, the distribution of doping species and the sharpness of the junctions.

  14. Optical properties of heavily doped GaAs nanowires and electroluminescent nanowire structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysov, A.; Offer, M.; Gutsche, C.; Regolin, I.; Topaloglu, S.; Geller, M.; Prost, W.; Tegude, F.-J.

    2011-02-01

    We present GaAs electroluminescent nanowire structures fabricated by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy. Electroluminescent structures were realized in both axial pn-junctions in single GaAs nanowires and free-standing nanowire arrays with a pn-junction formed between nanowires and substrate, respectively. The electroluminescence emission peak from single nanowire pn-junctions at 10 K was registered at an energy of around 1.32 eV and shifted to 1.4 eV with an increasing current. The line is attributed to the recombination in the compensated region present in the nanowire due to the memory effect of the vapor-liquid-solid growth mechanism. Arrayed nanowire electroluminescent structures with a pn-junction formed between nanowires and substrate demonstrated at 5 K a strong electroluminescence peak at 1.488 eV and two shoulder peaks at 1.455 and 1.519 eV. The main emission line was attributed to the recombination in the p-doped GaAs. The other two lines correspond to the tunneling-assisted photon emission and band-edge recombination in the abrupt junction, respectively. Electroluminescence spectra are compared with the micro-photoluminescence spectra taken along the single p-, n- and single nanowire pn-junctions to find the origin of the electroluminescence peaks, the distribution of doping species and the sharpness of the junctions.

  15. Optical properties of heavily doped GaAs nanowires and electroluminescent nanowire structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysov, A; Offer, M; Gutsche, C; Regolin, I; Topaloglu, S; Geller, M; Prost, W; Tegude, F-J

    2011-02-25

    We present GaAs electroluminescent nanowire structures fabricated by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy. Electroluminescent structures were realized in both axial pn-junctions in single GaAs nanowires and free-standing nanowire arrays with a pn-junction formed between nanowires and substrate, respectively. The electroluminescence emission peak from single nanowire pn-junctions at 10 K was registered at an energy of around 1.32 eV and shifted to 1.4 eV with an increasing current. The line is attributed to the recombination in the compensated region present in the nanowire due to the memory effect of the vapor-liquid-solid growth mechanism. Arrayed nanowire electroluminescent structures with a pn-junction formed between nanowires and substrate demonstrated at 5 K a strong electroluminescence peak at 1.488 eV and two shoulder peaks at 1.455 and 1.519 eV. The main emission line was attributed to the recombination in the p-doped GaAs. The other two lines correspond to the tunneling-assisted photon emission and band-edge recombination in the abrupt junction, respectively. Electroluminescence spectra are compared with the micro-photoluminescence spectra taken along the single p-, n- and single nanowire pn-junctions to find the origin of the electroluminescence peaks, the distribution of doping species and the sharpness of the junctions.

  16. Atmospheric contribution to boron enrichment in aboveground wheat tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cheng; Ji, Junfeng; Chen, Mindong; Zhong, Cong; Yang, Zhongfang; Browne, Patrick

    2017-05-01

    Boron is an essential trace element for all organisms and has both beneficial and harmful biological functions. A particular amount of boron is discharged into the environment every year because of industrial activities; however, the effects of environmental boron emissions on boron accumulation in cereals has not yet been estimated. The present study characterized the accumulation of boron in wheat under different ecological conditions in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) area. This study aimed to estimate the effects of atmospheric boron that is associated with industrial activities on boron accumulation in wheat. The results showed that the concentrations of boron in aboveground wheat tissues from the highly industrialized region were significantly higher than those from the agriculture-dominated region, even though there was no significant difference in boron content in soils. Using the model based on the translocation coefficients of boron in the soil-wheat system, we estimated that the contribution of atmosphere to boron accumulation in wheat straw in the highly industrialized region exceeded that in the agriculture-dominated region by 36%. In addition, from the environmental implication of the model, it was estimated that the development of boron-utilizing industries had elevated the concentration of boron in aboveground wheat tissues by 28-53%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Quantum plasmonic waveguides: Au nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordaro, C. E. A.; Piccitto, G.; Priolo, F.

    2017-11-01

    Combining miniaturization and good operating speed is a compelling yet crucial task for our society. Plasmonic waveguides enable the possibility of carrying information at optical operating speed while maintaining the dimension of the device in the nanometer range. Here we present a theoretical study of plasmonic waveguides extending our investigation to structures so small that Quantum Size Effects (QSE) become non-negligible, namely quantum plasmonic waveguides. Specifically, we demonstrate and evaluate a blue-shift in Surface Plasmon (SP) resonance energy for an ultra-thin gold nanowire.

  18. Optical Properties of Rotationally Twinned Nanowire Superlattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bao, Jiming; Bell, David C.; Capasso, Federico

    2008-01-01

    blende InP nanowires. We have constructed the energy band diagram of the resulting multiquantum well heterostructure and have performed detailed quantum mechanical calculations of the electron and hole wave functions. The excitation power dependent blue-shift of the photoluminescence can be explained...... a heterostructure in a chemically homogeneous nanowire material and alter in a major way its optical properties opens new possibilities for band-structure engineering.......We have developed a technique so that both transmission electron microscopy and microphotoluminescence can be performed on the same semiconductor nanowire over a large range of optical power, thus allowing us to directly correlate structural and optical properties of rotationally twinned zinc...

  19. Antimonide Heterostructure Nanowires - Growth, Physics and Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Borg, Mattias

    2012-01-01

    This thesis investigates the growth and application of antimonide heterostructure nanowires for low-power electronics. In the first part of the thesis, GaSb, InSb and InAsSb nanowire growth is presented, and the distinguishing features of the growth are described. It is found that the presence of Sb results in more than 50 at. % group-III concentration in the Au seed particle on top of the nanowires. It is further concluded that the effective V/III ratio inside the seed particle is reduced co...

  20. Semiconductor Nanowires: What's Next?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Peidong; Yan, Ruoxue; Fardy, Melissa

    2010-04-28

    In this perspective, we take a critical look at the research progress within the nanowire community for the past decade. We discuss issues on the discovery of fundamentally new phenomena versus performance benchmarking for many of the nanowire applications. We also notice that both the bottom-up and top-down approaches have played important roles in advancing our fundamental understanding of this new class of nanostructures. Finally we attempt to look into the future and offer our personal opinions on what the future trends will be in nanowire research.

  1. Electrodeposited L10 CoPt nanowires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mallet, J.; Yu-Zhang, K.; Mátéfi-Tempfli, Stefan

    2005-01-01

    Arrays of face-centred cubic (fee) CoPt (0.45 nanowires were electrodeposited into thin film nanoporous alumina supported on a Si substrate. The heat treatment under specific conditions was then carried out in order to transform the fee phase into the face-centred tetragonal or L1 ordered...... phase. The influence of both the phase transition and the temperature on the magnetic properties of Co Pt nanowires has been studied. Coercive fields higher than 1 T (10kOe) have been obtained at room temperature with ordered nanowires, 80 nm in diameter....

  2. Silicon carbide nanowires: synthesis and cathodoluminescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huczko, Andrzej; Dabrowska, Agnieszka [Department of Chemistry, Warsaw University (Poland); Savchyn, Volodymyr; Karbovnyk, Ivan [Department of Electronics, Ivan Franko National University of Lviv (Ukraine); Popov, Anatoli I. [Institut Laue-Langevin, Grenoble (France); Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia, Riga (Latvia)

    2009-12-15

    Silicon carbide nanowires have been synthesized via a combustion synthesis route. Structural studies showed that obtained SiC nanowires belong dominantly to 3C polytype with zincblend structure. Cathodoluminescence spectra from these nanostructures within the temperature range of 77..300 K, show obvious differences with respect to the bulk materials. The exciton band of the bulk 3C-SiC is significantly damped and the prevailing line is found to be at 1.99 eV (77 K), proving the key role of defect centers in optical properties of the investigated nanomaterial. Purified SiC nanowires. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  3. Redistribution of boron in leaves reduces boron toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Robert J; Fitzpatrick, Kate L

    2009-11-01

    High soil boron (B) concentrations lead to the accumulation of B in leaves, causing the development of necrotic regions in leaf tips and margins, gradually extending back along the leaf. Plants vary considerably in their tolerance to B toxicity, and it was recently discovered that one of the tolerance mechanisms involved extrusion of B from the root. Expression of a gene encoding a root B efflux transporter was shown to be much higher in tolerant cultivars. In our current research we have shown that the same gene is also upregulated in leaves. However, unlike in the root, the increased activity of the B efflux transporter in the leaves cannot reduce the tissue B concentration. Instead, we have shown that in tolerant cultivars, these transporters redistribute B from the intracellular phase where it is toxic, into the apoplast which is much less sensitive to B. These results provide an explanation of why different cultivars with the same leaf B concentrations can show markedly different toxicity symptoms. We have also shown that rain can remove a large proportion of leaf B, leading to significant improvements of growth of both leaves and roots.

  4. Biofunctionalization of zinc oxide nanowires for DNA sensory applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolph Bettina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We report on the biofunctionalization of zinc oxide nanowires for the attachment of DNA target molecules on the nanowire surface. With the organosilane glycidyloxypropyltrimethoxysilane acting as a bifunctional linker, amino-modified capture molecule oligonucleotides have been immobilized on the nanowire surface. The dye-marked DNA molecules were detected via fluorescence microscopy, and our results reveal a successful attachment of DNA capture molecules onto the nanowire surface. The electrical field effect induced by the negatively charged attached DNA molecules should be able to control the electrical properties of the nanowires and gives way to a ZnO nanowire-based biosensing device.

  5. Epoxy resin composition containing metal tetrafluoroborate and boron ester

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morehead, G.T.

    1990-06-12

    This patent describes a curable composition. It comprises: a polyepoxide; a metal tetrafluoroborate; and at least one boron ester selected from the group consisting of triesters of boric acid and diesters of boronic acid.

  6. Method of manufacture of atomically thin boron nitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zettl, Alexander K

    2013-08-06

    The present invention provides a method of fabricating at least one single layer hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN). In an exemplary embodiment, the method includes (1) suspending at least one multilayer boron nitride across a gap of a support structure and (2) performing a reactive ion etch upon the multilayer boron nitride to produce the single layer hexagonal boron nitride suspended across the gap of the support structure. The present invention also provides a method of fabricating single layer hexagonal boron nitride. In an exemplary embodiment, the method includes (1) providing multilayer boron nitride suspended across a gap of a support structure and (2) performing a reactive ion etch upon the multilayer boron nitride to produce the single layer hexagonal boron nitride suspended across the gap of the support structure.

  7. Topological Insulator Nanowires and Nanoribbons

    KAUST Repository

    Kong, Desheng

    2010-01-13

    Recent theoretical calculations and photoemission spectroscopy measurements on the bulk Bi2Se3 material show that it is a three-dimensional topological insulator possessing conductive surface states with nondegenerate spins, attractive for dissipationless electronics and spintronics applications. Nanoscale topological insulator materials have a large surface-to-volume ratio that can manifest the conductive surface states and are promising candidates for devices. Here we report the synthesis and characterization of high quality single crystalline Bi2Se5 nanomaterials with a variety of morphologies. The synthesis of Bi 2Se5 nanowires and nanoribbons employs Au-catalyzed vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) mechanism. Nanowires, which exhibit rough surfaces, are formed by stacking nanoplatelets along the axial direction of the wires. Nanoribbons are grown along [1120] direction with a rectangular cross-section and have diverse morphologies, including quasi-one-dimensional, sheetlike, zigzag and sawtooth shapes. Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) studies on nanoribbons show atomically smooth surfaces with ∼ 1 nm step edges, indicating single Se-Bi-Se-Bi-Se quintuple layers. STM measurements reveal a honeycomb atomic lattice, suggesting that the STM tip couples not only to the top Se atomic layer, but also to the Bi atomic layer underneath, which opens up the possibility to investigate the contribution of different atomic orbitais to the topological surface states. Transport measurements of a single nanoribbon device (four terminal resistance and Hall resistance) show great promise for nanoribbons as candidates to study topological surface states. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  8. Nanopatterning of ultrananocrystalline diamond nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinpeng; Ocola, Leonidas E; Divan, Ralu S; Sumant, Anirudha V

    2012-02-24

    We report the fabrication of horizontally aligned ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) nanowires (NWs) via two different approaches. First, with the top-down approach by using electron beam lithography (EBL) and reactive ion etching (RIE) with a photo resist layer as an etch mask. Using this approach, we demonstrate fabrication of 50 µm long UNCD NWs with widths as narrow as 40 nm. We further present an alternative approach to grow UNCD NWs at pre-defined positions through a selective seeding process. No RIE was needed either to etch the NWs or to remove the mask. In this case, we achieved UNCD NWs with lengths of 50 µm and smallest width of 90 nm respectively. Characterization of these nanowires by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) shows that the UNCD NWs are well defined and fully released, with no indication of residual stress. Characterization using visible and ultraviolet (UV) Raman spectroscopy indicates that in both fabrication approaches, UNCD NWs maintain their intrinsic diamond structure.

  9. Nanopatterning of ultrananocrystalline diamond nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinpeng; Ocola, Leonidas E.; Divan, Ralu S.; Sumant, Anirudha V.

    2012-02-01

    We report the fabrication of horizontally aligned ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) nanowires (NWs) via two different approaches. First, with the top-down approach by using electron beam lithography (EBL) and reactive ion etching (RIE) with a photo resist layer as an etch mask. Using this approach, we demonstrate fabrication of 50 µm long UNCD NWs with widths as narrow as 40 nm. We further present an alternative approach to grow UNCD NWs at pre-defined positions through a selective seeding process. No RIE was needed either to etch the NWs or to remove the mask. In this case, we achieved UNCD NWs with lengths of 50 µm and smallest width of 90 nm respectively. Characterization of these nanowires by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) shows that the UNCD NWs are well defined and fully released, with no indication of residual stress. Characterization using visible and ultraviolet (UV) Raman spectroscopy indicates that in both fabrication approaches, UNCD NWs maintain their intrinsic diamond structure.

  10. Boron Removal in Seawater Reverse Osmosis System

    KAUST Repository

    Rahmawati, Karina

    2011-07-01

    Reverse osmosis successfully proves to remove more than 99% of solute in seawater, providing fresh water supply with satisfied quality. Due to some operational constraints, however, some trace contaminants removal, such as boron, cannot be achieved in one pass system. The stringent criterion for boron from World Health Organization (WHO) and Saudi Arabia local standard (0.5 mg/l) is hardly fulfilled by single pass sea water reverse osmosis (SWRO) plants. Some design processes have been proposed to deal with boron removal, but they are not economically efficient due to high energy and chemical consumption. The objective of this study was to study boron removal by different reverse osmosis membranes in two pH conditions, with and without antiscalant addition. Thus, it was expected to observe the possibility of operating single pass system and necessity to operate two pass system using low energy membrane. Five membrane samples were obtained from two different manufacturers. Three types of feed water pH were used, pH 8, pH 10, and pH 10 with antiscalant addition. Experiment was conducted in parallel to compare membrane performance from two manufacturers. Filtration was run with fully recycle mode for three days. Sample of permeate and feed were taken every 12 hours, and analyzed for their boron and TDS concentration. Membrane samples were also tested for their surface charge. The results showed that boron rejection increases as the feed pH increases. This was caused by dissociation of boric acid to negatively charged borate ion and more negatively charged membrane surface at elevated pH which enhance boron rejection. This study found that single pass reverse osmosis system, with and without elevating the pH, may not be possible to be applied because of two reasons. First, permeate quality in term of boron, does not fulfill WHO and local Saudi Arabia regulations. Second, severe scaling occurs due to operation in alkaline condition, since Ca and Mg concentration are

  11. Unilamellar liposomes with enhanced boron content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tiejun; Hamdi, Julie; Hawthorne, M Frederick

    2006-01-01

    A new type of boron-rich, DSPC-free, unilamellar liposomes was formed using the novel dual-chain, ionic, nido-carborane lipid, K[nido-7-(C16H33OCH2)2CHOCH2-7,8-C2B9H11] (DAC-16), and cholesterol for encapsulation of an aqueous buffer core. Since DSPC was not necessary for the formation of stable DAC-16 liposomes, the boron concentration of these vesicles was increased dramatically to approximately 8.8 wt % in the dry lipid; these liposomes had a high bilayer boron incorporation efficiency of 98%. DSPC-free liposomes exhibited a size distribution pattern of 40-60 nm, which was in the range normally associated with selective tumor uptake. This size distribution was maintained throughout storage at room temperature for several months. Additionally, optimized liposome formulations incorporating DAC-16, DSPC, and cholesterol were identified having stable size distribution patterns after storage for more than two months at a variety of temperatures. Although animal studies indicate that DAC-16 liposomes are toxic, this new ionic nido-carborane lipid allows the formation of liposomes of high boron content for in vitro applications that require the delivery of large amounts of boron.

  12. First gaseous boronization during pulsed discharge cleaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, J., E-mail: jinseok@nfri.re.kr [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Den Hartog, D.J.; Goetz, J.A.; Weix, P.J.; Limbach, S.T. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2013-01-15

    The first successful gaseous boronization during a pulsed discharge is reported. Sublimation of o-carborane (C{sub 2}B{sub 10}H{sub 12}) combined with pulsed discharge plasmas with a repetition rate of 1 Hz is used to produce a hard boron-containing coating for reversed field pinch (RFP) plasmas in the Madison Symmetric Torus. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy with Ar ion beam etching for silicon coupons installed at the plasma boundary shows about 60% boron concentration in the deposited layer. Both profilometer and scanning electron microscope analyses of the silicon coupons imply a strong toroidally non-uniform deposition depending on the location of the o-carborane injection. The layer thickness ranges from 50 to 300 nm. Ellipsometry calibrated with the profilometer results yields a refractive index of 2.2-2.3 for the films. The high refractive index implies that the coating is hard and has a well-ordered morphology. A reduction in wall recycling has consistently been observed after all boronization sessions. Comparison of the X-ray spectra in standard RFP plasmas before and after boronization indicates a slight decrease in the effective ionic charge.

  13. Boron tolerance in NS wheat lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brdar Milka

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Boron is an essential micronutrient for higher plants. Present in excessive amounts boron becomes toxic and can limit plant growth and yield. Suppression of root growth is one of the symptoms of boron toxicity in wheat. This study was undertaken to investigate the response of 10 perspective NS lines of wheat to high concentrations of boron. Analysis of root growth was done on young plants, germinated and grown in the presence of different concentrations of boric acid (0, 50,100 and 150 mg/1. Significant differences occurred between analyzed genotypes and treatments regarding root length. Average suppression of root growth was between 11,6 and 34,2%, for line NS 252/02 are even noted 61,4% longer roots at treatments in relation to the control. Lines with mean suppression of root growth less than 20% (NS 101/02, NS 138/01, NS 53/03 and NS 73/02 may be considered as boron tolerant. Spearmans coefficients showed high level of agreement regarding rang of root length for genotypes treated with 100 and 150 mg H3BO3/l.

  14. Update on human health effects of boron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Forrest H

    2014-10-01

    In vitro, animal, and human experiments have shown that boron is a bioactive element in nutritional amounts that beneficially affects bone growth and central nervous system function, alleviates arthritic symptoms, facilitates hormone action and is associated with a reduced risk for some types of cancer. The diverse effects of boron suggest that it influences the formation and/or activity of substances that are involved in numerous biochemical processes. Several findings suggest that this influence is through the formation of boroesters in biomolecules containing cis-hydroxyl groups. These biomolecules include those that contain ribose (e.g., S-adenosylmethionine, diadenosine phosphates, and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide). In addition, boron may form boroester complexes with phosphoinositides, glycoproteins, and glycolipids that affect cell membrane integrity and function. Both animal and human data indicate that an intake of less than 1.0mg/day inhibits the health benefits of boron. Dietary surveys indicate such an intake is not rare. Thus, increasing boron intake by consuming a diet rich in fruits, vegetables, nuts and pulses should be recognized as a reasonable dietary recommendation to enhance health and well-being. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  15. Boron-Loaded Silicone Rubber Scintillators

    CERN Document Server

    Bell, Z W; Maya, L; Sloop, F V J

    2003-01-01

    Silicone rubber received attention as an alternative to polyvinyltoluene in applications in which the scintillator is exposed to high doses because of the increased resistance of the rubber to the formation of blue-absorbing color centers. Work by Bowen, et al., and Harmon, et al., demonstrated their properties under gamma/x-ray irradiation, and Bell, et al. have shown their response to thermal neutrons. This last work, however, provided an example of a silicone in which both the boron and the scintillator were contained in the rubber as solutes, a formulation which led to the precipitation of solids and sublimation of the boron component. In the present work we describe a scintillator in which the boron is chemically bonded to the siloxane and so avoids the problem of precipitation and loss of boron to sublimation. Material containing up to 18% boron, by weight, was prepared, mounted on photomultipliers, and exposed to both neutron and gamma fluxes. Pulse height spectra showing the neutron and photon respons...

  16. Plasmonic Waveguide-Integrated Nanowire Laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bermudez-Urena, Esteban; Tutuncuoglu, Gozde; Cuerda, Javier

    2017-01-01

    Next-generation optoelectronic devices and photonic circuitry will have to incorporate on-chip compatible nanolaser sources. Semiconductor nanowire lasers have emerged as strong candidates for integrated systems with applications ranging from ultrasensitive sensing to data communication technolog...

  17. Optical properties of nanowire metamaterials with gain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isidio de Lima, Joaquim Junior; Adam, Jost; Rego, Davi

    2016-01-01

    The transmittance, reflectance and absorption of a nanowire metamaterial with optical gain are numerically simulated and investigated. It is assumed that the metamaterial is represented by aligned silver nanowires embedded into a semiconductor matrix, made of either silicon or gallium phosphide....... The gain in the matrix is modeled by adding a negative imaginary part to the dielectric function of the semiconductor. It is found that the optical coefficients of the metamaterial depend on the gain magnitude in a non-trivial way: they can both increase and decrease with gain depending on the lattice...... constant of the metamaterial. This peculiar behavior is explained by the field redistribution between the lossy metal nanowires and the amplifying matrix material. These findings are significant for a proper design of nanowire metamaterials with low optical losses for diverse applications....

  18. Oleylamine Assisted Synthesis of Ultralong Copper Nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Michael

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the hydrothermal synthesis of smooth and ultralong copper nanowires (Cu NW prepared using oleylamine (OM, oleic acid (OA, and Cl- ion as coordinating and etching agents respectively. Cu nanowires with mean diameters around 82.3 nm and lengths exceeding 300 μm were synthesized using 2 % vol. OM and 1.8 mM OA at 120ºC after 12 h. The Cu NWs exhibit five-fold twinning and growth along the [110] direction. The morphological evolution of the products were also observed and discussed. Without Cl-, octahedral crystals instead of nanowires were formed. The addition of oleic acid as coordinating agent resulted to fewer particles and smoother nanowires which exhibit excellent mechanical stability. This method provides a simple, low-cost and high yield synthesis of Cu NWs for applications such as gas sensors and transparent conducting electrodes.

  19. Nonradiative Step Facets in Semiconductor Nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Ana M; Zhang, Yunyan; Tait, Edward W; Hine, Nicholas D M; Liu, Huiyun; Beanland, Richard

    2017-04-12

    One of the main advantages of nanowires for functional applications is their high perfection, which results from surface image forces that act on line defects such as dislocations, rendering them unstable and driving them out of the crystal. Here we show that there is a class of step facets that are stable in nanowires, with no long-range strain field or dislocation character. In zinc-blende semiconductors, they take the form of Σ3 (112) facets with heights constrained to be a multiple of three {111} monolayers. Density functional theory calculations show that they act as nonradiative recombination centers and have deleterious effects on nanowire properties. We present experimental observations of these defects on twin boundaries and twins that terminate inside GaAsP nanowires and find that they are indeed always multiples of three monolayers in height. Strategies to use the three-monolayer rule during growth to prevent their formation are discussed.

  20. INFLUENCE OF FINE-DISPERSED BORON CARBIDE ON THE STRUCTURE AND CHARACTERISTICS OF IRON-BORON ALLOY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. F. Nevar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of boron carbide as fine-dispersed material input into the melt on structure morphology, founding, technological and exploitation characterisstics of cast iron-boron material is shown.

  1. An insight into evolution of electronic, magnetic, optical, and vibrational properties of ultrathin Pd nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Poorva; Bala, Anu; Nautiyal, Tashi; Auluck, Sushil

    2013-07-01

    We have studied evolution of the electronic, magnetic, optical, and vibrational properties of Pd nanowires (NWs) as we go from linear chains (LCs) (the ideal one-dimensional structure) to zigzag (ZZ) structure to 2 × 2 NWs. The 2 × 2 structure is found to be more stable and stiff, as compared to the LCs and ZZ NWs, with promising and versatile optical and vibrational properties. This 2 × 2 structure, built from the stacking of face-centered cubic (110) planes, has already been observed experimentally for silver NWs. Our calculations, which include relaxation of atomic positions, show that on stretching 2 × 2 NWs undergo a structural change from (110) stacking to a more symmetric (001) stacking, which culminates into a metastable state with stable magnetism. Furthermore, inclusion of spin orbit coupling beautifully illustrates its impact on the atomic magnetic moments in 2 × 2 NWs. Structure dependence of the axial anisotropy and azimuthal anisotropy is nicely brought out on comparison for the three structures. The charge density plots show charge accumulation transverse to NW axis for 2 × 2 NWs, consistent with their one-dimensional nature. A late start of the optical response, to the electric field perpendicular to the wire axis, indicates that well-aligned ultrathin Pd wires can effectively be used as polarizers of the light. Our systematic study also resolves discrepancies in the previous reports on Pd ZZ NWs.

  2. Solid source growth of Si oxide nanowires promoted by carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Congxiang [CINTRA CNRS/NTU/THALES, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 637553 (Singapore); Novitas, Nanoelectronics Centre of Excellence, School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Liu, Wen-wen; Wang, Xingli [Novitas, Nanoelectronics Centre of Excellence, School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Li, Xiaocheng [Laboratory of clean energy chemistry and materials, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 18 Tianshui Middle Road, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Tan, Chong Wei [CINTRA CNRS/NTU/THALES, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 637553 (Singapore); Novitas, Nanoelectronics Centre of Excellence, School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Tay, Beng Kang, E-mail: ebktay@ntu.edu.sg [CINTRA CNRS/NTU/THALES, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 637553 (Singapore); Novitas, Nanoelectronics Centre of Excellence, School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Coquet, Philippe [CINTRA CNRS/NTU/THALES, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 637553 (Singapore)

    2014-09-30

    Highlights: • An array of well aligned and uniform CNTs is successfully fabricated by PECVD. • SiONW growth utilizes Si substrate as the source, ruling out the usage of silane. • With CNT array on the substrate, SiONW growth is improved significantly. • CNTs help dispersion of the catalysts and diffusion of the Si atoms. - Abstract: We report a method to promote solid source growth of Si oxide nanowires (SiONWs) by using an array of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs). It starts with the fabrication of CNT array by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) on Si wafers, followed by growth of SiONWs. Herein, CNTs serve as a scaffold, which helps the dispersion of catalysts for SiONWs and also provides space for hydrogen which boosts the diffusion of Si atoms and hence formation of SiONWs. As the result, a three dimensional (3D) hybrid network of densely packed SiONWs and CNTs can be produced rapidly.

  3. The effects of boron management on soil microbial population and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-06-15

    Jun 15, 2011 ... Soil microorganisms directly influence boron content of soil as maximum boron release corresponds with the highest microbial activity. The objective of this study is to determine the effects of different levels of boron fertilizer on microbial population, microbial respiration and soil enzyme activities in different ...

  4. Screening of Wheat Genotypes for Boron Efficiency in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    A number of Bangladeshi wheat genotypes (varieties and advanced lines) have been tested for boron efficiency through sand culture experiments over two years (2007-08 & 2008-09) against two Thai check varieties ‘Fang 60’ (boron efficient) and ‘SW41’ (boron inefficient). Performances of the genotypes ...

  5. Production of boron carbide powder by carbothermal synthesis of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    TECS

    structure with 12-atom icosahedral clusters which are linked by direct covalent bonds and through three-atom interico- sahedral chains. Boron carbide has single phase ... in nuclear industry due to its high neutron absorption co- efficient (Sinha et al 2002). Boron carbide can be prepared by reaction of elemental boron and ...

  6. Dynamic response of multiwall boron nitride nanotubes subjected to ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dynamic behaviours of multiwall boron nitride nanotubes (MWBNNTs) with finite length were studied by employing continuum ... Multiwall boron nitride nanotube; dynamic response; impact; wave propagation. 1. Introduction. Boron nitride .... eV nm6 26 and R0 = 0.344 nm27 in equation (11) yields η = 0.262 GPa nm−1.

  7. Effects of dietary boron on performance, egg production, egg quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    engin

    Body weight was not affected by dietary boron supplementation at 16 and 40 weeks of age. ... and human nutrition. In bone metabolism, boron interacts with Ca, vitamin D and Mg (Chapin et al., 1998). In animals and plants, boron affects at least 26 enzymes involved in substrate metabolism, insulin release, oxidation and.

  8. Colorimetric Sugar Sensing Using Boronic Acid-Substituted Azobenzenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuya Egawa

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In association with increasing diabetes prevalence, it is desirable to develop new glucose sensing systems with low cost, ease of use, high stability and good portability. Boronic acid is one of the potential candidates for a future alternative to enzyme-based glucose sensors. Boronic acid derivatives have been widely used for the sugar recognition motif, because boronic acids bind adjacent diols to form cyclic boronate esters. In order to develop colorimetric sugar sensors, boronic acid-conjugated azobenzenes have been synthesized. There are several types of boronic acid azobenzenes, and their characteristics tend to rely on the substitute position of the boronic acid moiety. For example, o-substitution of boronic acid to the azo group gives the advantage of a significant color change upon sugar addition. Nitrogen-15 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR studies clearly show a signaling mechanism based on the formation and cleavage of the B–N dative bond between boronic acid and azo moieties in the dye. Some boronic acid-substituted azobenzenes were attached to a polymer or utilized for supramolecular chemistry to produce glucose-selective binding, in which two boronic acid moieties cooperatively bind one glucose molecule. In addition, boronic acid-substituted azobenzenes have been applied not only for glucose monitoring, but also for the sensing of glycated hemoglobin and dopamine.

  9. High-performance single nanowire tunnel diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallentin, Jesper; Persson, Johan M; Wagner, Jakob B; Samuelson, Lars; Deppert, Knut; Borgström, Magnus T

    2010-03-10

    We demonstrate single nanowire tunnel diodes with room temperature peak current densities of up to 329 A/cm(2). Despite the large surface to volume ratio of the type-II InP-GaAs axial heterostructure nanowires, we measure peak to valley current ratios (PVCR) of up to 8.2 at room temperature and 27.6 at liquid helium temperature. These sub-100-nm-diameter structures are promising components for solar cells as well as electronic applications.

  10. Step-flow kinetics in nanowire growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, C-Y; Tersoff, J; Reuter, M C; Stach, E A; Ross, F M

    2010-11-05

    Nanowire growth occurs by step flow at the wire-catalyst interface, with strikingly different step-flow kinetics for solid versus liquid catalysts. Here we report quantitative in situ measurements of step flow together with a kinetic model that reproduces the behavior. This allows us to identify the key parameters controlling step-flow growth, evaluate changes in the catalyst composition during growth, and identify the most favorable conditions for growing abrupt heterojunctions in nanowires.

  11. Plasmon resonant cavities in vertical nanowire arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bora, M; Bond, T; Behymer, E; Chang, A

    2010-02-23

    We investigate tunable plasmon resonant cavity arrays in paired parallel nanowire waveguides. Resonances are observed when the waveguide length is an odd multiple of quarter plasmon wavelengths, consistent with boundary conditions of node and antinode at the ends. Two nanowire waveguides satisfy the dispersion relation of a planar metal-dielectric-metal waveguide of equivalent width equal to the square field average weighted gap. Confinement factors over 103 are possible due to plasmon focusing in the inter-wire space.

  12. Periodic nanowire array at the crystal interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Atsutomo; Mizoguchi, Teruyasu; Matsunaga, Katsuyuki; Yamamoto, Takahisa; Shibata, Naoya; Ikuhara, Yuichi

    2013-07-23

    A dislocation in a crystalline material has dangling bonds at its core and a strong strain field in its vicinity. Consequently, the dislocation attracts solute atoms and forms a so-called Cottrell atmosphere along the dislocation. A crystalline dislocation can be used as a template to produce nanowires by selectively doping foreign atoms along the dislocation. However, control of the configuration, spacing, and density of the formed periodic nanowire array has heretofore been extremely difficult. Here we show a method for fabricating ordered, electrically conductive nanowire arrays using periodic dislocations at crystal interfaces. As a demonstration, we fabricated arrays of titanium nanowires arranged at intervals of either 13 or 90 nm and then confirmed by scanning probe microscopy that they exhibit electrical conductivity inside an insulating aluminum oxide. Significantly, we were able to precisely control nanowire periodicity by the choice of crystal orientation and/or crystal planes at the crystal interface. This simple method for the fabrication of periodic nanowire arrays of highly controlled density should be widely applicable to electrical, magnetic, and optical devices.

  13. Growth and characterization of bismuth telluride nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picht, Oliver

    2010-05-26

    Polycrystalline Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} nanowires are electrochemically grown in ion track-etched polycarbonate membranes. Potentiostatic growth is demonstrated in templates of various thicknesses ranging from 10 to 100 {mu}m. The smallest observed nanowire diameters are 20 nm in thin membranes and approx. 140-180 nm in thicker membranes. The influence of the various deposition parameters on the nanowire growth rate is presented. Slower growth rates are attained by selective change of deposition potentials and lower temperatures. Nanowires synthesized at slower growth rates have shown to possess a higher degree of crystalline order and smoother surface contours. With respect to structural properties, X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy verified the growth of Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} and evidenced the stability of specific properties, e.g. grain size or preferential orientation, with regard to variations in the deposition conditions. The interdependency of the fabrication parameters, i.e. temperature, deposition potential and nanochannel diameters, is demonstrated for wires grown in 30 {mu}m thick membranes. It is visible from diffraction analysis that texture is tunable by the growth conditions but depends also on the size of the nanochannels in the template. Both (015) and (110) reflexes are observed for the nanowire arrays. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis further points out that variation of nanochannel size could lead to a change in elemental composition of the nanowires. (orig.)

  14. Nanowire assembly, e.g. for optical probes, comprises optically trapping high aspect ratio semiconductor nanowire with infrared single-beam optical trap and attaching nanowire to organic or inorganic structure

    OpenAIRE

    Pauzauskie, P.; Radenovic, A.; Trepagnier, E.; Liphardt, J.; Yang, P.

    2007-01-01

    NOVELTY - A nanowire assembly method comprises optically trapping a semiconductor nanowire with an infrared single-beam optical trap and attaching the nanowire to an organic or inorganic structure by laser fusing. The nanowire is further trapped in a fluid environment. The optical trap has a beam wavelength of 1064 nm. The nanowire has an aspect ratio greater than 100 and a diameter less than 100 (preferably less than 80) nm. The nanowire and the organic or inorganic structure form a heterost...

  15. Insights into the Controllable Chemical Composition of Metal Oxide Nanowires and Graphene Aerogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Anna Patrice

    briefly, then isolated pockets of MTiO3 are formed on the nanowire surface. This structure retains the conductive channel in the center of the nanowire, which can be useful for charge separation. Longer annealing times result in segmented nanowires; the segments formed from a Ni-coated nanowire are bounded by TiO2(01-1) twin planes and NiTiO 3{100}/TiO2{03-1} interfaces. An alternative strategy for storing solar energy takes advantage of the capacitance between a semiconductor surface and adsorbed ions in solution. This type of energy storage device is called an electric double layer capacitor (EDLC). Graphene-based aerogels, which are porous materials composed of few-layer graphitic sheets, have the potential for higher surface area and higher conductivity than standard carbon aerogels. These properties make graphene-based aerogels a good material candidate for EDLC electrodes. Graphene oxide (GO) is the precursor material for the synthesis of a graphene-based aerogel, and it has been widely studied. Yet its hydrothermal gelation is still not fully understood, due to the high pressure reaction conditions and the non-uniform nature of GO. We demonstrate a number of changes that occur to the GO sheets during gelation: wrinkling, formation of a densified monolith, deoxygenation, increasing thermal stability, and color change. Plotting the time evolution of all these properties shows that they are simultaneous and likely of common origin. Possible mechanisms for gelation are explored. Graphene aerogels are synthesized by vapor phase thermal reduction of GO aerogels at temperatures up to 1600 °C. Further deoxygenation is observed in the aerogel during thermal reduction, along with enhanced crystallinity and an associated change in the electronic structure. When graphene aerogels are exposed to high-temperature boron oxide vapor, they are converted to boron nitride (BN) aerogels. The structure of the BN aerogel is investigated and shown to be similar in nanoscale morphology

  16. A comparative transcriptomic analysis of the extremely boron tolerant plant Puccinellia distans with the moderately boron tolerant Gypsophila arrostil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmanabhan, Priya; Babaoğlu, Mehmet; Terry, Norman

    2012-08-01

    The Turkish ecotype of Puccinellia distans displays exceptional boron (B) tolerance, >1,250 mg B L⁻¹, compared to toxicity stress. The molecular basis of boron tolerance of two plant species (Puccinellia distans and Gypsophila arrostil) that differ greatly in their boron tolerance was studied in this manuscript.

  17. Lateral gas phase diffusion length of boron atoms over Si/B surfaces during CVD of pure boron layers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohammadi, V.; Nihtianov, S.

    2016-01-01

    The lateral gas phase diffusion length of boron atoms, LB, along silicon and boron surfaces during chemical vapor deposition(CVD) using diborane (B2H6) is reported. The value of LB is critical for reliable and uniform boron layer coverage. The presented information was obtained experimentally and

  18. Nanoscale manipulation of Ge nanowires by ion hammering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picraux, Samuel T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Romano, Lucia [UNIV OF FLORIDA; Rudawski, Nicholas G [UNIV OF FLORIDA; Holzworth, Monta R [UNIV OF FLORIDA; Jones, Kevin S [UNIV OF FLORIDA; Choi, S G [NREL

    2009-01-01

    Nanowires generated considerable interest as nanoscale interconnects and as active components of both electronic and electromechanical devices. However, in many cases, manipulation and modification of nanowires are required to realize their full potential. It is essential, for instance, to control the orientation and positioning of nanowires in some specific applications. This work demonstrates a simple method to reversibly control the shape and the orientation of Ge nanowires by using ion beams. Initially, crystalline nanowires were partially amorphized by 30 keY Ga+-implantation. After amorphization, viscous flow and plastic deformation occurred due to the ion hammering effect, causing the nanowires to bend toward the beam direction. The bending was reversed multiple times by ion-implanting the opposite side of the nanowires, resulting in straightening of the nanowires and subsequent bending in the opposite direction. This ion hammering effect demonstrates the detailed manipulation of nanoscale structures is possible through the use of ion irradiation.

  19. Protein immobilization onto electrochemically synthesized CoFe nanowires

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Torati, Sri Ramulu; Reddy, Venu; Yoon, Seok Soo; Kim, CheolGi

    2015-01-01

    CoFe nanowires have been synthesized by the electrodeposition technique into the pores of a polycarbonate membrane with a nominal pore diameter of 50 nm, and the composition of CoFe nanowires varying...

  20. Resistance Fluctuations in GaAs Nanowire Grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Marasović

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a numerical study on resistance fluctuations in a series of nanowire-based grids. Each grid is made of GaAs nanowires arranged in parallel with metallic contacts crossing all nanowires perpendicularly. Electrical properties of GaAs nanowires known from previous experimental research are used as input parameters in the simulation procedure. Due to the nonhomogeneous doping, the resistivity changes along nanowire. Allowing two possible nanowire orientations (“upwards” or “downwards”, the resulting grid is partially disordered in vertical direction which causes resistance fluctuations. The system is modeled using a two-dimensional random resistor network. Transfer-matrix computation algorithm is used to calculate the total network resistance. It is found that probability density function (PDF of resistance fluctuations for a series of nanowire grids changes from Gaussian behavior towards the Bramwell-Holdsworth-Pinton distribution when both nanowire orientations are equally represented in the grid.

  1. Chemical and mechanical analysis of boron-rich boron carbide processed via spark plasma sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munhollon, Tyler Lee

    Boron carbide is a material of choice for many industrial and specialty applications due to the exceptional properties it exhibits such as high hardness, chemical inertness, low specific gravity, high neutron cross section and more. The combination of high hardness and low specific gravity makes it especially attractive for high pressure/high strain rate applications. However, boron carbide exhibits anomalous behavior when high pressures are applied. Impact pressures over the Hugoniot elastic limit result in catastrophic failure of the material. This failure has been linked to amorphization in cleavage planes and loss of shear strength. Atomistic modeling has suggested boron-rich boron carbide (B13C2) may be a better performing material than the commonly used B4C due to the elimination of amorphization and an increase in shear strength. Therefore, a clear experimental understanding of the factors that lead to the degradation of mechanical properties as well as the effects of chemistry changes in boron carbide is needed. For this reason, the goal of this thesis was to produce high purity boron carbide with varying stoichiometries for chemical and mechanical property characterization. Utilizing rapid carbothermal reduction and pressure assisted sintering, dense boron carbides with varying stoichiometries were produced. Microstructural characteristics such as impurity inclusions, porosity and grain size were controlled. The chemistry and common static mechanical properties that are of importance to superhard materials including elastic moduli, hardness and fracture toughness of the resulting boron-rich boron carbides were characterized. A series of six boron carbide samples were processed with varying amounts of amorphous boron (up to 45 wt. % amorphous boron). Samples with greater than 40 wt.% boron additions were shown to exhibit abnormal sintering behavior, making it difficult to characterize these samples. Near theoretical densities were achieved in samples with

  2. Boron removal by electrocoagulation and recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isa, Mohamed Hasnain; Ezechi, Ezerie Henry; Ahmed, Zubair; Magram, Saleh Faraj; Kutty, Shamsul Rahman Mohamed

    2014-03-15

    This work investigated the removal of boron from wastewater and its recovery by electrocoagulation and hydrothermal mineralization methods respectively. The experimental design was developed using Box-Behnken Model. An initial study was performed based on four preselected variables (pH, current density, concentration and time) using synthetic wastewater. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to evaluate the effect of process variables and their interaction on boron removal. The optimum conditions were obtained as pH 6.3, current density 17.4 mA/cm(2), and time 89 min. At these applied optimum conditions, 99.7% boron removal from an initial concentration of 10.4 mg/L was achieved. The process was effectively optimized by RSM with a desirability value of 1.0. The results showed that boron removal efficiency enhanced with increase in current density and treatment time. Removal efficiency also increased when pH was increased from 4 to 7 and subsequently decreased at pH 10. Adsorption kinetics study revealed that the reaction followed pseudo second order kinetic model; evidenced by high correlation and goodness of fit. Thermodynamics study showed that mechanism of boron adsorption was chemisorption and the reaction was endothermic in nature. Furthermore, the adsorption process was spontaneous as indicated by negative values of the adsorption free energy. Treatment of real produced water using electrocoagulation resulted in 98% boron removal. The hydrothermal mineralization study showed that borate minerals (Inyoite, Takadaite and Nifontovite) can be recovered as recyclable precipitate from electrocoagulation flocs of produced water. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Boron Nitride Nanotubes for Spintronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal B. Dhungana

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available With the end of Moore’s law in sight, researchers are in search of an alternative approach to manipulate information. Spintronics or spin-based electronics, which uses the spin state of electrons to store, process and communicate information, offers exciting opportunities to sustain the current growth in the information industry. For example, the discovery of the giant magneto resistance (GMR effect, which provides the foundation behind modern high density data storage devices, is an important success story of spintronics; GMR-based sensors have wide applications, ranging from automotive industry to biology. In recent years, with the tremendous progress in nanotechnology, spintronics has crossed the boundary of conventional, all metallic, solid state multi-layered structures to reach a new frontier, where nanostructures provide a pathway for the spin-carriers. Different materials such as organic and inorganic nanostructures are explored for possible applications in spintronics. In this short review, we focus on the boron nitride nanotube (BNNT, which has recently been explored for possible applications in spintronics. Unlike many organic materials, BNNTs offer higher thermal stability and higher resistance to oxidation. It has been reported that the metal-free fluorinated BNNT exhibits long range ferromagnetic spin ordering, which is stable at a temperature much higher than room temperature. Due to their large band gap, BNNTs are also explored as a tunnel magneto resistance device. In addition, the F-BNNT has recently been predicted as an ideal spin-filter. The purpose of this review is to highlight these recent progresses so that a concerted effort by both experimentalists and theorists can be carried out in the future to realize the true potential of BNNT-based spintronics.

  4. Titanium reinforced boron-polyimide composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, G. A.; Clayton, K. I.

    1969-01-01

    Processing techniques for boron polyimide prepreg were developed whereby composites could be molded under vacuum bag pressure only. A post-cure cycle was developed which resulted in no loss in room temperature mechanical properties of the composite at any time during up to 16 hours at 650 F. A design utilizing laminated titanium foil was developed to achieve a smooth transition of load from the titanium attachment points into the boron-reinforced body of the structure. The box beam test article was subjected to combined bending and torsional loads while exposed to 650 F. Loads were applied incrementally until failure occurred at 83% design limit load.

  5. Bottom-up and top-down fabrication of nanowire-based electronic devices: In situ doping of vapor liquid solid grown silicon nanowires and etch-dependent leakage current in InGaAs tunnel junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Meng-Wei

    Semiconductor nanowires are important components in future nanoelectronic and optoelectronic device applications. These nanowires can be fabricated using either bottom-up or top-down methods. While bottom-up techniques can achieve higher aspect ratio at reduced dimension without having surface and sub-surface damage, uniform doping distributions with abrupt junction profiles are less challenging for top-down methods. In this dissertation, nanowires fabricated by both methods were systematically investigated to understand: (1) the in situ incorporation of boron (B) dopants in Si nanowires grown by the bottom-up vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) technique, and (2) the impact of plasma-induced etch damage on InGaAs p +-i-n+ nanowire junctions for tunnel field-effect transistors (TFETs) applications. In Chapter 2 and 3, the in situ incorporation of B in Si nanowires grown using silane (SiH4) or silicon tetrachloride (SiCl4) as the Si precursor and trimethylboron (TMB) as the p-type dopant source is investigated by I-V measurements of individual nanowires. The results from measurements using a global-back-gated test structure reveal nonuniform B doping profiles on nanowires grown from SiH4, which is due to simultaneous incorporation of B from nanowire surface and the catalyst during VLS growth. In contrast, a uniform B doping profile in both the axial and radial directions is achieved for TMBdoped Si nanowires grown using SiCl4 at high substrate temperatures. In Chapter 4, the I-V characteristics of wet- and dry-etched InGaAs p+-i-n+ junctions with different mesa geometries, orientations, and perimeter-to-area ratios are compared to evaluate the impact of the dry etch process on the junction leakage current properties. Different post-dry etch treatments, including wet etching and thermal annealing, are performed and the effectiveness of each is assessed by temperaturedependent I-V measurements. As compared to wet-etched control devices, dry-etched junctions have a significantly

  6. Long-range magnetostatic interactions in arrays of nanowires

    CERN Document Server

    Raposo, V; González, J M; Vázquez, M

    2000-01-01

    Experimental measurements and micromagnetic simulations of the hysteresis loops of arrays of cobalt nanowires are compared here. Arrays of cobalt nanowires (200 nm in diameter) were electrodeposited into the pores of alumina membranes (thickness 60 mu m). Their hysteresis loops along the axial direction of nanowires were measured using vibrating sample magnetometry. Micromagnetic simulations were performed considering dipolar interaction between nanowires leading to similar hysteresis loops as those obtained experimentally.

  7. Manganese oxide nanowires, films, and membranes and methods of making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suib, Steven Lawrence [Storrs, CT; Yuan, Jikang [Storrs, CT

    2011-02-15

    Nanowires, films, and membranes comprising ordered porous manganese oxide-based octahedral molecular sieves and methods of making the same are disclosed. A method for forming nanowires includes hydrothermally treating a chemical precursor composition in a hydrothermal treating solvent to form the nanowires, wherein the chemical precursor composition comprises a source of manganese cations and a source of counter cations, and wherein the nanowires comprise ordered porous manganese oxide-based octahedral molecular sieves.

  8. Vertical nanowire probes for intracellular signaling of living cells

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Ki-Young; Kim, Ilsoo; Kim, So-Eun; Jeong, Du-Won; Kim, Ju-Jin; Rhim, Hyewhon; Ahn, Jae-Pyeong; Park, Seung-Han; Choi, Heon-Jin

    2014-01-01

    The single living cell action potential was measured in an intracellular mode by using a vertical nanoelectrode. For intracellular interfacing, Si nanowires were vertically grown in a controlled manner, and optimum conditions, such as diameter, length, and nanowire density, were determined by culturing cells on the nanowires. Vertical nanowire probes were then fabricated with a complimentary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) process including sequential deposition of the passivation and electr...

  9. Nanowires: properties, applications and synthesis via porous anodic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Quasi one-dimensional nanowires possess unique electrical, electronic, thermoelectrical, optical, magnetic and chemical properties, which are different from that of their parent counterpart. The physical properties of nanowires are influenced by the morphology of the nanowires, diameter dependent band gap, carrier ...

  10. Failure mechanisms and electromechanical coupling in semiconducting nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng B.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available One dimensional nanostructures, like nanowires and nanotubes, are increasingly being researched for the development of next generation devices like logic gates, transistors, and solar cells. In particular, semiconducting nanowires with a nonsymmetric wurtzitic crystal structure, such as zinc oxide (ZnO and gallium nitride (GaN, have drawn immense research interests due to their electromechanical coupling. The designing of the future nanowire-based devices requires component-level characterization of individual nanowires. In this paper, we present a unique experimental set-up to characterize the mechanical and electromechanical behaviour of individual nanowires. Using this set-up and complementary atomistic simulations, mechanical properties of ZnO nanowires and electromechanical properties of GaN nanowires were investigated. In ZnO nanowires, elastic modulus was found to depend on nanowire diameter decreasing from 190 GPa to 140 GPa as the wire diameter increased from 5 nm to 80 nm. Inconsistent failure mechanisms were observed in ZnO nanowires. Experiments revealed a brittle fracture, whereas simulations using a pairwise potential predicted a phase transformation prior to failure. This inconsistency is addressed in detail from an experimental as well as computational perspective. Lastly, in addition to mechanical properties, preliminary results on the electromechanical properties of gallium nitride nanowires are also reported. Initial investigations reveal that the piezoresistive and piezoelectric behaviour of nanowires is different from bulk gallium nitride.

  11. Theory of surface second-harmonic generation in silica nanowires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægsgaard, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    -based nanowires is critically discussed, based on simulations of second-harmonic generation in nanowires with a fluctuating phase-matching wavelength. It is concluded that efficient wavelength conversion will require strong improvements in the nanowire uniformity, peak powers well in excess of 10 KW, increase...

  12. Understanding quantum confinement in nanowires: basics, applications and possible laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, S Noor

    2014-10-22

    A comprehensive investigation of quantum confinement in nanowires has been carried out. Though applied to silicon nanowires (SiNWs), it is general and applicable to all nanowires. Fundamentals and applications of quantum confinement in nanowires and possible laws obeyed by these nanowires, have been investigated. These laws may serve as backbones of nanowire science and technology. The relationship between energy band gap and nanowire diameter has been studied. This relationship appears to be universal. A thorough review indicates that the first principles results for quantum confinement vary widely. The possible cause of this variation has been examined. Surface passivation and surface reconstruction of nanowires have been elucidated. It has been found that quantum confinement owes its origin to surface strain resulting from surface passivation and surface reconstruction and hence thin nanowires may actually be crystalline-core/amorphous-shell (c-Si/a-Si) nanowires. Experimental data available in the literature corroborate with the suggestion. The study also reveals an intrinsic relationship between quantum confinement and the surface amorphicity of nanowires. It demonstrates that surface amorphicity may be an important tool to investigate the electronic, optoelectronic and sensorial properties of quantum-confined nanowires.

  13. Controlled growth of single nanowires within a supported alumina template

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vlad, A.; Mátéfi-Tempfli, M.; Faniel, S.

    2006-01-01

    A simple technique for fabricating single nanowires with well-defined position is presented. The process implies the use of a silicon nitride mask for selective electrochemical growth of the nanowires in a porous alumina template. We show that this method allows the realization of complex nanowire...

  14. Measurement of light diffusion in ZnO nanowire forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versteegh, M.A.M.; van der Wel, R.E.C.; Dijkhuis, J.I.

    2012-01-01

    Optimum design of efficient nanowire solar cells requires better understanding of light diffusion in a nanowire array. Here we demonstrate that our recently developed ultrafast all-optical shutter can be used to directly measure the dwell time of light in a nanowire array. Our measurements on

  15. Microbial nanowires and methods of making and using

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reguera, Gemma; Cologgi, Dena; Worden, Robert Mark; Castro-Forero, Angelines A.; Steidl, Rebecca

    2017-03-21

    Electrically conductive nanowires, and genetically or chemically modified production and use of such nanowires with altered conductive, adhesive, coupling or other properties are described. The disclosed nanowires are used as device or device components or may be adapted for soluble metal remediation.

  16. Topological Insulator Nanowires and Nanoribbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, D.S.

    2010-06-02

    Recent theoretical calculations and photoemission spectroscopy measurements on the bulk Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} material show that it is a three-dimensional topological insulator possessing conductive surface states with nondegenerate spins, attractive for dissipationless electronics and spintronics applications. Nanoscale topological insulator materials have a large surface-to-volume ratio that can manifest the conductive surface states and are promising candidates for devices. Here we report the synthesis and characterization of high quality single crystalline Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} nanomaterials with a variety of morphologies. The synthesis of Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} nanowires and nanoribbons employs Au-catalyzed vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) mechanism. Nanowires, which exhibit rough surfaces, are formed by stacking nanoplatelets along the axial direction of the wires. Nanoribbons are grown along [11-20] direction with a rectangular crosssection and have diverse morphologies, including quasi-one-dimensional, sheetlike, zigzag and sawtooth shapes. Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) studies on nanoribbons show atomically smooth surfaces with {approx}1 nm step edges, indicating single Se-Bi-Se-Bi-Se quintuple layers. STM measurements reveal a honeycomb atomic lattice, suggesting that the STM tip couples not only to the top Se atomic layer, but also to the Bi atomic layer underneath, which opens up the possibility to investigate the contribution of different atomic orbitals to the topological surface states. Transport measurements of a single nanoribbon device (four terminal resistance and Hall resistance) show great promise for nanoribbons as candidates to study topological surface states.

  17. Hollow boron nitride nanospheres as boron reservoir for prostate cancer treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xia; Wang, Xiupeng; Zhang, Jun; Hanagata, Nobutaka; Wang, Xuebin; Weng, Qunhong; Ito, Atsuo; Bando, Yoshio; Golberg, Dmitri

    2017-01-01

    High global incidence of prostate cancer has led to a focus on prevention and treatment strategies to reduce the impact of this disease in public health. Boron compounds are increasingly recognized as preventative and chemotherapeutic agents. However, systemic administration of soluble boron compounds is hampered by their short half-life and low effectiveness. Here we report on hollow boron nitride (BN) spheres with controlled crystallinity and boron release that decrease cell viability and increase prostate cancer cell apoptosis. In vivo experiments on subcutaneous tumour mouse models treated with BN spheres demonstrated significant suppression of tumour growth. An orthotopic tumour growth model was also utilized and further confirmed the in vivo anti-cancer efficacy of BN spheres. Moreover, the administration of hollow BN spheres with paclitaxel leads to synergetic effects in the suppression of tumour growth. The work demonstrates that hollow BN spheres may function as a new agent for prostate cancer treatment.

  18. Boron gettering on cavities induced by helium implantation in Si

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roqueta, F.; Alquier, D.; Ventura, L.; Dubois, Ch.; Jérisian, R.

    2001-10-01

    In this paper, we shed light on the strong interaction between the cavity layer induced by helium implantation and boron. First of all, we evidence the impact of He gettering step on a boron-diffused profile. In order to study the boron-cavity interaction, we had used uniformly boron-doped wafers implanted with helium at high dose and anneal using usual furnace annealing (FA) as well as rapid thermal annealing. Then, to avoid any precipitation phenomena, conditions were chosen to not exceed the boron solid solubility value. Our experimental results exhibit a large trapping of boron within the cavity layer. This trapping occurs since the early stage of the annealing. These results enable us to have better understanding of this He gettering step as well as its interaction with boron atoms, which are of great interest for device.

  19. Electroluminescent, polycrystalline cadmium selenide nanowire arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayvazian, Talin; van der Veer, Wytze E; Xing, Wendong; Yan, Wenbo; Penner, Reginald M

    2013-10-22

    Electroluminescence (EL) from nanocrystalline CdSe (nc-CdSe) nanowire arrays is reported. The n-type, nc-CdSe nanowires, 400-450 nm in width and 60 nm in thickness, were synthesized using lithographically patterned nanowire electrodeposition, and metal-semiconductor-metal (M-S-M) devices were prepared by the evaporation of two gold contacts spaced by either 0.6 or 5 μm. These M-S-M devices showed symmetrical current voltage curves characterized by currents that increased exponentially with applied voltage bias. As the applied biased was increased, an increasing number of nanowires within the array "turned on", culminating in EL emission from 30 to 50% of these nanowires at applied voltages of 25-30 V. The spectrum of the emitted light was broad and centered at 770 nm, close to the 1.74 eV (712 nm) band gap of CdSe. EL light emission occurred with an external quantum efficiency of 4 × 10(-6) for devices with a 0.60 μm gap between the gold contacts and 0.5 × 10(-6) for a 5 μm gap-values similar to those reported for M-S-M devices constructed from single-crystalline CdSe nanowires. Kelvin probe force microscopy of 5 μm nc-CdSe nanowire arrays showed pronounced electric fields at the gold electrical contacts, coinciding with the location of strongest EL light emission in these devices. This electric field is implicated in the Poole-Frenkel minority carrier emission and recombination mechanism proposed to account for EL light emission in most of the devices that were investigated.

  20. Quantification of nanowire uptake by live cells

    KAUST Repository

    Margineanu, Michael B.

    2015-05-01

    Nanostructures fabricated by different methods have become increasingly important for various applications at the cellular level. In order to understand how these nanostructures “behave” and for studying their internalization kinetics, several attempts have been made at tagging and investigating their interaction with living cells. In this study, magnetic iron nanowires with an iron oxide layer are coated with (3-Aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES), and subsequently labeled with a fluorogenic pH-dependent dye pHrodo™ Red, covalently bound to the aminosilane surface. Time-lapse live imaging of human colon carcinoma HCT 116 cells interacting with the labeled iron nanowires is performed for 24 hours. As the pHrodo™ Red conjugated nanowires are non-fluorescent outside the cells but fluoresce brightly inside, internalized nanowires are distinguished from non-internalized ones and their behavior inside the cells can be tracked for the respective time length. A machine learning-based computational framework dedicated to automatic analysis of live cell imaging data, Cell Cognition, is adapted and used to classify cells with internalized and non-internalized nanowires and subsequently determine the uptake percentage by cells at different time points. An uptake of 85 % by HCT 116 cells is observed after 24 hours incubation at NW-to-cell ratios of 200. While the approach of using pHrodo™ Red for internalization studies is not novel in the literature, this study reports for the first time the utilization of a machine-learning based time-resolved automatic analysis pipeline for quantification of nanowire uptake by cells. This pipeline has also been used for comparison studies with nickel nanowires coated with APTES and labeled with pHrodo™ Red, and another cell line derived from the cervix carcinoma, HeLa. It has thus the potential to be used for studying the interaction of different types of nanostructures with potentially any live cell types.

  1. The investigation of physical conditions of boron uptake region in proton boron fusion therapy (PBFT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Joo-Young; Yoon, Do-Kun; Lee, Heui Chang; Lu, Bo; Suh, Tae Suk

    2016-09-01

    We conducted a quantitative study to identify the effectiveness of proton boron fusion therapy (PBFT). Four simulation scenarios were designed to investigate the escalation in total dose with the proton boron reaction using a Monte Carlo n-particle extended (MCNPX 2.6.0) simulation. The peak integrated dose was obtained for three different physical conditions (i.e., boron uptake region (BUR) thickness, BUR location, and boron concentration) with differing proton beam energy (60-90 MeV). We found that the peak integrated dose was increased by up to 96.62% compared to the pristine proton Bragg-peak. For the synergetic effect to take place with 60-70 MeV proton beam, the BUR had to be at least 0.3 cm thick while spanning the Bragg-peak. Similarly to the thickness, the BUR location needed to be within 0.3 cm from the Bragg-peak when the thickness was maintained at 0.9 cm. An effective proton boron reaction required the boron concentration to be equal to or greater than 14.4 mg/g. These results demonstrate the impact of various physical and beam conditions of the PBFT, which are critical environmental factors for the treatment planning. We envision that this study will advance our understanding of the PBFT, which can be an invaluable treatment method for maximizing the potential of proton therapy.

  2. Synthesis and evaluation of boron folates for Boron-Neutron-Capture-Therapy (BNCT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kettenbach, Kathrin; Schieferstein, Hanno; Grunewald, Catrin; Hampel, Gabriele; Schuetz, Christian L. [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Nuclear Chemistry; Iffland, Dorothee; Bings, Nicolas H. [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Inorganic Chemistry and Analytical Chemistry; Reffert, Laura M. [Hannover Medical School (Germany). Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry; Ross, Tobias L. [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Nuclear Chemistry; Hannover Medical School (Germany). Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry

    2015-07-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) employs {sup 10}B-pharmaceuticals administered for the treatment of malignancies, and subsequently irradiated with thermal neutrons. So far, clinical established pharmaceuticals like boron phenylalanine (BPA) or sodium boron mercaptate (BSH) use imperfect (BPA) or passive (BSH) targeting for accumulation at target sites. Due to the need of a selective transportation of boron drugs into cancer cells and sparing healthy tissues, we combined the BNCT approach with the specific and effective folate receptor (FR) targeting concept. The FR is overexpressed on many human carcinomas and provides a selective and specific target for molecular imaging as well as for tumor therapy. We synthesized and characterized a carborane-folate as well as a BSH-folate to study their in vitro characteristics and their potential as new boron-carriers for BNCT. Uptake studies were carried out using human KB cells showing a significant increase of the boron content in cells and demonstrating the successful combination of active FR-targeting and BNCT.

  3. Identification of a Novel System for Boron Transport: Atr1 Is a Main Boron Exporter in Yeast▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Alaattin; Karakaya, Huseyin C.; Fomenko, Dmitri E.; Gladyshev, Vadim N.; Koc, Ahmet

    2009-01-01

    Boron is a micronutrient in plants and animals, but its specific roles in cellular processes are not known. To understand boron transport and functions, we screened a yeast genomic DNA library for genes that confer resistance to the element in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Thirty boron-resistant transformants were isolated, and they all contained the ATR1 (YML116w) gene. Atr1 is a multidrug resistance transport protein belonging to the major facilitator superfamily. C-terminal green fluorescent protein-tagged Atr1 localized to the cell membrane and vacuole, and ATR1 gene expression was upregulated by boron and several stress conditions. We found that atr1Δ mutants were highly sensitive to boron treatment, whereas cells overexpressing ATR1 were boron resistant. In addition, atr1Δ cells accumulated boron, whereas ATR1-overexpressing cells had low intracellular levels of the element. Furthermore, atr1Δ cells showed stronger boron-dependent phenotypes than mutants deficient in genes previously reported to be implicated in boron metabolism. ATR1 is widely distributed in bacteria, archaea, and lower eukaryotes. Our data suggest that Atr1 functions as a boron efflux pump and is required for boron tolerance. PMID:19414602

  4. Trapping and Sympathetic Cooling of Boron Ions

    CERN Document Server

    Rugango, Rene; Shu, Gang; Brown, Kenneth R

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate the trapping and sympathetic cooling of B$^{+}$ ions in a Coulomb crystal of laser-cooled Ca$^{+}$, We non-destructively confirm the presence of the both B$^+$ isotopes by resonant excitation of the secular motion. The B$^{+}$ ions are loaded by ablation of boron and the secular excitation spectrum also reveals features consistent with ions of the form B$_{n}^{+}$.

  5. Compression and Associated Properties of Boron Carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    arsenide have been associated with icosahedron - chain modes (Tallent et al., 1989). Therefore, we tentatively assign these features in B4C to... icosahedron - chain modes. In boron arsenide, the intensity of these modes was found to be immensely sensitive to the crystalline orientation and a

  6. NEW ADVANCES IN BORON SOIL CHEMISTRY - Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boron is an essential plant micronutrient for which the range between deficiency and toxicity is narrower than for any other nutrient element. Plants respond directly to the amount of B in soil solution and only indirectly to the amount of B adsorbed on soil particle surfaces. ...

  7. NEW ADVANCES IN BORON SOIL CHEMISTRY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boron is an essential plant micronutrient for which the range between deficiency and toxicity is narrower than for any other nutrient element. Plants respond directly to the amount of B in soil solution and only indirectly to the amount of B adsorbed on soil particle surfaces. ...

  8. New insight into pecan boron nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternate bearing by individual pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch] trees is problematic for nut producers and processors. There are many unknowns regarding alternate bearing physiology, such as the relationship between boron and fruit set, nutmeat quality, and kernel maladies. Evidence...

  9. Intrinsic ferromagnetism in hexagonal boron nitride nanosheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, M S; Gao, Daqiang; Yang, Dezheng; Peng, Yong; Zhang, Z Y; Xue, Desheng; Liu, Yushen; Deng, Xiaohui; Zhang, G P

    2014-05-28

    Understanding the mechanism of ferromagnetism in hexagonal boron nitride nanosheets, which possess only s and p electrons in comparison with normal ferromagnets based on localized d or f electrons, is a current challenge. In this work, we report an experimental finding that the ferromagnetic coupling is an intrinsic property of hexagonal boron nitride nanosheets, which has never been reported before. Moreover, we further confirm it from ab initio calculations. We show that the measured ferromagnetism should be attributed to the localized π states at edges, where the electron-electron interaction plays the role in this ferromagnetic ordering. More importantly, we demonstrate such edge-induced ferromagnetism causes a high Curie temperature well above room temperature. Our systematical work, including experimental measurements and theoretical confirmation, proves that such unusual room temperature ferromagnetism in hexagonal boron nitride nanosheets is edge-dependent, similar to widely reported graphene-based materials. It is believed that this work will open new perspectives for hexagonal boron nitride spintronic devices.

  10. Influence of pollution of boron chlorinity ratio

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Narvekar, P.V.; Zingde, M.D.

    Presence of boron in domestic wastewater has resulted in high B/CI ratio at some locations in the coastal water around Bombay. A widest range (0.215-0.281) of B/CI was observed at a location with high influence of wastewater release. The mean B...

  11. Pyrotechnic Smoke Compositions Containing Boron Carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-10

    approach the performance of the AN-M8 HC composition (Al/ZnO/C2Cl6). 15. SUBJECT TERMS smoke, pyrotechnic, boron carbide 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION ...reduction of phosphate. This hypothesis was confirmed in an unexpected and alarming way, when the strong fishy- garlic odor of phosphorus and phosphines

  12. Biological activity of N(4)-boronated derivatives of 2'-deoxycytidine, potential agents for boron-neutron capture therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizioł, Joanna; Uram, Łukasz; Szuster, Magdalena; Sekuła, Justyna; Ruman, Tomasz

    2015-10-01

    Boron-neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a binary anticancer therapy that requires boron compound for nuclear reaction during which high energy alpha particles and lithium nuclei are formed. Unnatural, boron-containing nucleoside with hydrophobic pinacol moiety was investigated as a potential BNCT boron delivery agent. Biological properties of this compound are presented for the first time and prove that boron nucleoside has low cytotoxicity and that observed apoptotic effects suggest alteration of important functions of cancer cells. Mass spectrometry analysis of DNA from cancer cells proved that boron nucleoside is inserted into nucleic acids as a functional nucleotide derivative. NMR studies present very high degree of similarity of natural dG-dC base pair with dG-boron nucleoside system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Development and Elucidation of a Novel Fluorescent Boron-Sensor for the Analysis of Boronic Acid-Containing Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihide Hattori

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Novel boron-containing drugs have recently been suggested as a new class of pharmaceuticals. However, the majority of current boron-detection techniques require expensive facilities and/or tedious pretreatment methods. Thus, to develop a novel and convenient detection method for boron-based pharmaceuticals, imine-type boron-chelating-ligands were previously synthesized for use in a fluorescent sensor for boronic acid containing compounds. However, the fluorescence quantum yield of the imine-type sensor was particularly low, and the sensor was easily decomposed in aqueous media. Thus, in this paper, we report the development of a novel, convenient, and stable fluorescent boron-sensor based on O- and N-chelation (i.e., 2-(pyridine-2ylphenol, and a corresponding method for the quantitative and qualitative detection of boronic acid-containing compounds using this commercially available sensor is presented.

  14. Silicon nanowire properties from theory and experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheel, H.M.

    2007-09-10

    Silicon has played an outstanding role at the end of the 20th century and is still one of the most important components for micro computing. In recent years the ability to miniaturize semiconductor structures and devices to nanometer length scales has opened an all new field of physics, i.e. nanoscience. Simply by miniaturizing the size of semiconducting structures the physics describing electronic or vibronic properties has to be altered fundamentally leading to new phenomena and interesting effects. For silicon the two major mile-stones where the fabrication of porous silicon and later the fabrication of free-standing silicon nanowires. The intense research concerning the fabrication of silicon nanowires has led to single crystalline nanowires with diameters of only a few nanometers. The hope that drove these intense research efforts where to find efficient photonic properties in these quantized systems. In the first part of this work detailed theoretical investigations are presented for the commonly observed ([111] and [11 anti 2]) representatives of free-standing and for the most frequently discussed ([001]) silicon nanowires not (so far) observed as free standing wires. Using density functional theory in the local density approximation the electronic properties as well as the structural changes due to the reduced dimensionality of silicon nanowires are calculated and discussed. The comparison to recent experimental, scanning tunneling experiments reveal a fundamental discrepancy between the calculated band structures and experimental findings. With our results we are able to explain these differences. Raman investigations on silicon nanowires where in a state of controversial discussion about the origin of observed red shifted spectra. Various contributions like quantum confinement, photo excitation and thermal effects where discussed. The second part of this thesis contributes to this discussion, with detailed laser power dependent Raman spectroscopic

  15. Sensors and devices containing ultra-small nanowire arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Zhili

    2017-04-11

    A network of nanowires may be used for a sensor. The nanowires are metallic, each nanowire has a thickness of at most 20 nm, and each nanowire has a width of at most 20 nm. The sensor may include nanowires comprising Pd, and the sensor may sense a change in hydrogen concentration from 0 to 100%. A device may include the hydrogen sensor, such as a vehicle, a fuel cell, a hydrogen storage tank, a facility for manufacturing steel, or a facility for refining petroleum products.

  16. Light-trapping properties of the Si inclined nanowire arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhaopeng; Huangfu, Huichao; He, Long; Wang, Jiazhuang; Yang, Dong; Guo, Jingwei; Wang, Haiyan

    2017-01-01

    The light trapping performance of Si nanowire with different inclination angles were systematically studied by COMSOL Multiphysics. The inclined nanowires with inclination angles smaller than 60° show greater light trapping ability than their counterparts of the vertical nanowires. The Si solar cell with the inclined nanowires of the optimal parameters, whose θ=30°, P=400 nm, D=140 nm, can achieve a 32.395 mA/cm2 short circuit photocurrent density and a 35.655% conversion efficiency. The study of the inclined nanowire provides an effective way for further utilization of the incoming light.

  17. Identification and characterization of icosahedral metallic nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelaez, Samuel; Serena, Pedro A. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, c/Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz 3, Cantoblanco, 28049-Madrid (Spain); Guerrero, Carlo [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad Experimental de Ciencias, La Universidad del Zulia, Maracaibo (Venezuela); Paredes, Ricardo [Centro de Fisica, Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas, Apto. 20632, Caracas 1020A (Venezuela); Garcia-Mochales, Pedro [Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, c/Tomas y Valiente 7, Cantoblanco, 28049-Madrid (Spain)

    2009-10-15

    We present and discuss an algorithm to identify ans characterize the long icosahedral structures (staggered pentagonal nanowires with 1-5-1-5 atomic structure) that appear in Molecular Dynamics simulations of metallic nanowires of different species subjected to stretching. The use of the algorithm allows the identification of pentagonal rings forming the icosahedral structure as well as the determination of its number n{sub p}, and the maximum length of the pentagonal nanowire L{sub p}{sup m}. The algorithm is tested with some ideal structures to show its ability to discriminate between pentagonal rings and other ring structures. We applied the algorithm to Ni nanowires with temperatures ranging between 4 K and 865 K, stretched along the[100] direction. We studied statistically the formation of pentagonal nanowires obtaining the distributions of length L{sub p}{sup m} and number of rings n{sub p} as function of the temperature. The L{sub p}{sup m} distribution presents a peaked shape, with peaks locate at fixes distances whose separation corresponds to the distance between two consecutive pentagonal rings. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  18. Thermoelectric Properties of Semiconducting Silicide Nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Song; Sczech, Jeannine; Higgins, Jeremy; Zhou, Feng; Shi, Li

    2008-03-01

    Semiconducting silicides are promising thermoelectric materials. In addition to their respectable thermoelectric figure-of-merit (ZT up to 0.8), silicides have the advantages of low cost, excellent thermal stability and mechanical strength, and outstanding oxidation resistance, making them suitable for high temperature applications. We have developed general synthetic approaches to single crystal nanowires of silicides to investigate the enhancement of thermoelectric properties due to the reduced nanoscale dimension and to explore their applications in thermoelectrics. We will discuss the synthesis and structural characterization of nanowires of chromium disilicide (CrSi2) prepared via a chemical vapor transport (CVT) method and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of organometallic precursors to synthesize the Novontony Chimney ladder phase MnSi1.75. The Seebeck coefficient, electrical conductivity, and thermal conductivity of individual CrSi2 nanowires were characterized using a suspended microdevice and correlated with the structural information obtained by microscopy on the same nanowires. This combined Seebeck coefficient and electrical conductivity measurements also provide an effective approach to probing the Fermi level, carrier concentration and mobility in nanowires. We will also discuss our progress in using individual nanostructures combined well-defined structural characterization to conclusively investigate the complex thermoelectric behaviors of silicide materials.

  19. Nanomechanics of Single Crystalline Tungsten Nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volker Cimalla

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Single crystalline tungsten nanowires were prepared from directionally solidified NiAl-W alloys by a chemical release from the resulting binary phase material. Electron back scatter diffraction (EBSD proves that they are single crystals having identical crystallographic orientation. Mechanical investigations such as bending tests, lateral force measurements, and mechanical resonance measurements were performed on 100–300 nm diameter wires. The wires could be either directly employed using micro tweezers, as a singly clamped nanowire or in a doubly clamped nanobridge. The mechanical tests exhibit a surprisingly high flexibility for such a brittle material resulting from the small dimensions. Force displacement measurements on singly clamped W nanowires by an AFM measurement allowed the determination of a Young's modulus of 332 GPa very close to the bulk value of 355 GPa. Doubly clamped W nanowires were employed as resonant oscillating nanowires in a magnetomotively driven resonator running at 117 kHz. The Young's modulus determined from this setup was found to be higher 450 GPa which is likely to be an artefact resulting from the shift of the resonance frequency by an additional mass loading.

  20. Growth Mechanism of Nanowires: Ternary Chalcogenides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, N. B.; Coriell, S. R.; Hopkins, R. H.; Su, Ching Hua; Arnold, B.; Choa, Fow-Sen; Cullum, Brian

    2016-01-01

    In the past two decades there has been a large rise in the investment and expectations for nanotechnology use. Almost every area of research has projected improvements in sensors, or even a promise for the emergence of some novel device technologies. For these applications major focuses of research are in the areas of nanoparticles and graphene. Although there are some near term applications with nanowires in photodetectors and other low light detectors, there are few papers on the growth mechanism and fabrication of nanowire-based devices. Semiconductor nanowires exhibit very favorable and promising optical properties, including high transparency and a several order of magnitude better photocurrent than thin film and bulk materials. We present here an overview of the mechanism of nanowire growth from the melt, and some preliminary results for the thallium arsenic selenide material system. Thallium arsenic selenide (TAS) is a multifunctional material combining excellent acousto-optical, nonlinear and radiation detection properties. We observed that small units of (TAS) nanocubes arrange and rearrange at moderate melt undercooling to form the building block of a nanowire. In some cases very long wires (less than mm) are formed. Since we avoided the catalyst, we observed self-nucleation and uncontrolled growth of wires from different places.

  1. Nanowire Electrodes for Advanced Lithium Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei eHuang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Since the commercialization of lithium ion batteries (LIBs in the past two decades, rechargeable LIBs have become widespread power sources for portable devices used in daily life. However, current demands require higher energy density and power density of batteries. The electrochemical energy storage performance of LIBs could be improved by applying nanomaterial electrodes, but their fast capacity fading is still one of the key limitations and the mechanism needs to be clearly understood. Single nanowire electrode devices are considered as a versatile platform for in situ probing the direct relationship between electrical transport, structure change, and other properties of the single nanowire electrode along with the charge/discharge process. The results indicate the conductivity decrease of the nanowire electrode and the structural disorder/destruction during electrochemical reactions which limit the cycling performance of LIBs. Based on the in situ observations, some feasible structure architecture strategies, including prelithiation, coaxial structure, nanowire arrays and hierarchical structure architecture, are proposed and utilized to restrain the conductivity decrease and structural disorder/destruction. Further, the applications of nanowire electrodes in some beyond Li-ion batteries, such as Li-S and Li-air battery, are also described.

  2. Directed Assembly of Cells with Magnetic Nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanase, M.; Hultgren, A.; Chen, C. S.; Reich, D. H.

    2003-03-01

    We demonstrate the use of magnetic nanowires for assembly and manipulation of mammalian cells. Currently, superparamagnetic beads are used for manipulations of cells, but large field strengths and gradients are required for these to be effective. Unlike the beads, the large remnant magnetization of the nanowires offers the prospect of a variety of low-field manipulation techniques. Ferromagnetic nanowires suspended in fluids can be easily manipulated and assembled using small magnetic field [1]. The wires can be bound to cells, and the dipolar interaction between the nanowires can be used to create self-assembled cell chains. Microfabricated arrays of Py magnets were used to trap single cells or chains of cells bound to Ni nanowires. Possible applications of these techniques include controlled initiation of cell cultures, as well as isolation of individual cells. This work was supported by DARPA/AFOSR Grant No. F49620-02-1-0307 and by the David and Lucile Packard Foundation Grant No. 2001-17715. [1] M. Tanase et.al., Nanoletters 1, 155 (2001), J. Appl. Phys. 91, 8549 (2002).

  3. Metastable magnetic domain walls in cylindrical nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferguson, C.A.; MacLaren, D.A.; McVitie, S., E-mail: Stephen.McVitie@glasgow.ac.uk

    2015-05-01

    The stability of the asymmetric domain wall (ATDW) in soft magnetic cylindrical nanowires and nanotubes is investigated using micromagnetic simulations. Our calculated phase diagram shows that for cylindrical permalloy nanowires, the transverse domain wall (TDW) is the ground state for radii below 20 nm whilst the Bloch point wall (BPW) is favoured in thicker wires. The ATDW stabilises only as a metastable state but with energy close to that of the BPW. Characterisation of the DW spin structures reveals that the ATDW has a vortex-like surface spin state, in contrast to the divergent surface spins of the TDW. This results in lowering of surface charge above the critical radius. For both cylindrical nanotubes and nanowires we find that ATDWs only appear to exist as metastable static states and are particularly suppressed in nanotubes due to an increase in magnetostatic energy. - Highlights: • We simulate the micromagnetic structures of domain walls in cylindrical nanowires. • A phase diagram identifies ground and metastable states. • Asymmetric transverse walls are metastable in nanowires but suppressed in tubes. • Unrolling surface magnetisation aids visualisation of asymmetry and chirality. • We predict experimental discrimination based on magnetic charge distribution.

  4. Synthesis and characterization of ammonium phosphate fertilizers with boron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANGELA MAGDA

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The concentration of boron, an essential micronutrient for plants, presents a narrow range between deficiency and toxicity. In order to provide the boron requirement for plants, and to avoid toxicity problems, boron compounds are mixed with basic fertilizers. Sodium borate pentahydrate was used as a boron source. Ammonium orthophosphates fertilizers with boron were prepared by neutralizing phosphoric acid with ammonia and addition of variable amounts of sodium tetraborate pentahydrate to the reaction mixture at a NH3:H3PO4 molar ratio of 1.5. The fertilizers obtained with boron contents ranging from 0.05 to 1 % (w/w were fully characterized by chemical analysis, thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction and infrared spectrophotometry. The studies showed that up to 500 °C, regardless of the boron content, no significant changes concerning thermal stability and nutritional properties occurred. Above 500 °C, an increase of thermal stability with an increase of the boron content was observed. X-Ray diffraction of a heat-treated sample containing 5 % (w/w boron indicated the appearance of boron orthophosphate, BPO4, as a new crystalline phase, and the disappearance of the previous structures above 500 °C, which explains the increase in thermal stability.

  5. Higher boron rejection with a new TFC forward osmosis membrane

    KAUST Repository

    Valladares Linares, Rodrigo

    2014-07-17

    Due to the stringent limits for boron in drinking and irrigation water, water treatment facilities have to incur additional treatment to remove boron down to a safe concentration. Forward osmosis (FO) is a membrane technology that may reduce the energy required to remove boron present in seawater. In direct FO desalination hybrid systems, fresh water is recovered from seawater using a recoverable draw solution, FO membranes are expected to show high boron rejection. This study focuses on determining the boron rejection capabilities of a new generation thin-film composite (TFC) FO membrane compared to a first generation cellulose triacetate (CTA) FO membrane. The effects of water permeate flux, membrane structure, draw solute charge, and reverse solute flux on boron rejection were determined. For TFC and CTA FO membranes, experiments showed that when similar operating conditions are applied (e.g. membrane type and draw solute type) boron rejection decreases with increase in permeate flux. Reverse draw solute flux and membrane fouling have no significant impact on boron rejection. Compared to the first generation CTA FO membrane operated at the same conditions, the TFC FO membrane showed a 40% higher boron rejection capability and a 20% higher water flux. This demonstrates the potential for boron removal for new generation TFC FO membranes. © 2014 © 2014 Balaban Desalination Publications. All rights reserved.

  6. Synthesis of nanostructures in nanowires using sequential catalyst reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panciera, F.; Chou, Y.-C.; Reuter, M.C.; Zakharov, D.; Stach, E.A.; Hofmann, S.; Ross, F.M.

    2016-01-01

    Nanowire growth by the vapor-liquid-solid process enables a high level of control over nanowire composition, diameter, growth direction, branching and kinking, periodic twinning, and crystal structure. The tremendous impact of VLS-grown nanowires is due to this structural versatility, generating applications ranging from solid state lighting and single photon sources to thermoelectric devices. Here we show that the morphology of these nanostructures can be further tailored by using the liquid droplets that catalyze nanowire growth as a “mixing bowl”, in which growth materials are sequentially supplied to nucleate new phases. Growing within the liquid, these phases adopt the shape of faceted nanocrystals that are then incorporated into the nanowires by further growth. We demonstrate this concept by epitaxially incorporating metal silicide nanocrystals into Si nanowires with defect-free interfaces, and discuss how this process can be generalized to create complex nanowire-based heterostructures. PMID:26168344

  7. Large-scale organic nanowire lithography and electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Sung-Yong; Kim, Tae-Sik; Kim, Beom Joon; Cho, Himchan; Noh, Yong-Young; Yang, Hoichang; Cho, Jeong Ho; Lee, Tae-Woo

    2013-01-01

    Controlled alignment and patterning of individual semiconducting nanowires at a desired position in a large area is a key requirement for electronic device applications. High-speed, large-area printing of highly aligned individual nanowires that allows control of the exact numbers of wires, and their orientations and dimensions is a significant challenge for practical electronics applications. Here we use a high-speed electrohydrodynamic organic nanowire printer to print large-area organic semiconducting nanowire arrays directly on device substrates in a precisely, individually controlled manner; this method also enables sophisticated large-area nanowire lithography for nano-electronics. We achieve a maximum field-effect mobility up to 9.7 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) with extremely low contact resistance (organic semiconducting nanowires. Extremely fast nanolithography using printed semiconducting nanowire arrays provide a simple, reliable method of fabricating large-area and flexible nano-electronics.

  8. Optical properties of indium phosphide nanowire ensembles at various temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohn, Andrew J; Onishi, Takehiro; Kobayashi, Nobuhiko P [Baskin School of Engineering, University of California Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Nanostructured Energy Conversion Technology and Research (NECTAR), Advanced Studies Laboratories, University of California Santa Cruz-NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States)

    2010-09-03

    Ensembles that contain two types (zincblende and wurtzite) of indium phosphide nanowires grown on non-single crystalline surfaces were studied by micro-photoluminescence and micro-Raman spectroscopy at various low temperatures. The obtained spectra are discussed with the emphasis on the effects of differing lattice types, geometries, and crystallographic orientations present within an ensemble of nanowires grown on non-single crystalline surfaces. In the photoluminescence spectra, a typical Varshni dependence of band gap energy on temperature was observed for emissions from zincblende nanowires and in the high temperature regime energy transfer from excitonic transitions and band-edge transitions was identified. In contrast, the photoluminescence emissions associated with wurtzite nanowires were rather insensitive to temperature. Raman spectra were collected simultaneously from zincblende and wurtzite nanowires coexisting in an ensemble. Raman peaks of the wurtzite nanowires are interpreted as those related to the zincblende nanowires by a folding of the phonon dispersion.

  9. Tunable magnetic nanowires for biomedical and harsh environment applications

    KAUST Repository

    Ivanov, Yurii P.

    2016-04-13

    We have synthesized nanowires with an iron core and an iron oxide (magnetite) shell by a facile low-cost fabrication process. The magnetic properties of the nanowires can be tuned by changing shell thicknesses to yield remarkable new properties and multi-functionality. A multi-domain state at remanence can be obtained, which is an attractive feature for biomedical applications, where a low remanence is desirable. The nanowires can also be encoded with different remanence values. Notably, the oxidation process of single-crystal iron nanowires halts at a shell thickness of 10 nm. The oxide shell of these nanowires acts as a passivation layer, retaining the magnetic properties of the iron core even during high-temperature operations. This property renders these core-shell nanowires attractive materials for application to harsh environments. A cell viability study reveals a high degree of biocompatibility of the core-shell nanowires.

  10. A detailed study of magnetization reversal in individual Ni nanowires

    KAUST Repository

    Vidal, Enrique Vilanova

    2015-01-19

    Magnetic nanowires have emerged as essential components for a broad range of applications. In many cases, a key property of these components is the switching field, which is studied as a function of the angle between the field and the nanowire. We found remarkable differences of up to 100% between the switching fields of different nanowires from the same fabrication batch. Our experimental results and micromagnetic simulations indicate that the nanowires exhibit a single domain behavior and that the switching mechanism includes vortex domain wall motion across the nanowire. The differences between the switching fields are attributed to different cross-sections of the nanowires, as found by electron microscopy. While a circular cross-section yields the smallest switching field values, any deviation from this shape results in an increase of the switching field. The shape of the nanowires\\' cross-sections is thus a critical parameter that has not been previously taken into account.

  11. Microfiber coupled superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yingxin; Wu, Junjie; Fang, Wei; You, Lixing; Tong, Limin

    2017-12-01

    Superconducting nanowires single-photon detectors (SNSPDs or SSPDs) have emerged as an attractive single-photon detection technology with high performance. Two types of SNSPDs have been developed so far. One is the standard-fiber-coupled SNSPD with the light normally incident on the meandered nanowires, the other is waveguide-coupled SNSPD with the nanowires fabricated on the surface of the waveguide which guides photons while the fiber is coupled to the waveguide. Here we propose a new type of SNSPD integrated with microfiber. The photons are guided by a microfiber and evanescently absorbed by the nanowire of SNSPD when the nanowire is parallel and very close to the microfiber. The numerical simulation results show that the fiber to detector coupling efficiency can be close to unity with optimized device structure/parameters. With a minimal total NbN nanowire length of about 300 μm, the absorption of the nanowire can reach 90%.

  12. Vertically Integrated Multiple Nanowire Field Effect Transistor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byung-Hyun; Kang, Min-Ho; Ahn, Dae-Chul; Park, Jun-Young; Bang, Tewook; Jeon, Seung-Bae; Hur, Jae; Lee, Dongil; Choi, Yang-Kyu

    2015-12-09

    A vertically integrated multiple channel-based field-effect transistor (FET) with the highest number of nanowires reported ever is demonstrated on a bulk silicon substrate without use of wet etching. The driving current is increased by 5-fold due to the inherent vertically stacked five-level nanowires, thus showing good feasibility of three-dimensional integration-based high performance transistor. The developed fabrication process, which is simple and reproducible, is used to create multiple stiction-free and uniformly sized nanowires with the aid of the one-route all-dry etching process (ORADEP). Furthermore, the proposed FET is revamped to create nonvolatile memory with the adoption of a charge trapping layer for enhanced practicality. Thus, this research suggests an ultimate design for the end-of-the-roadmap devices to overcome the limits of scaling.

  13. Rare earth silicide nanowires on silicon surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wanke, Martina

    2008-11-10

    The growth, structure and electronic properties of rare earth silicide nanowires are investigated on planar and vicinal Si(001) und Si(111) surfaces with scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), low energy electron diffraction (LEED) and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (ARPES). On all surfaces investigated within this work hexagonal disilicides are grown epitaxially with a lattice mismatch of -2.55% up to +0.83% along the hexagonal a-axis. Along the hexagonal c-axis the lattice mismatch is essentially larger with 6.5%. On the Si(001)2 x 1 surface two types of nanowires are grown epitaxially. The socalled broad wires show a one-dimensional metallic valence band structure with states crossing the Fermi level. Along the nanowires two strongly dispersing states at the anti J point and a strongly dispersing state at the anti {gamma} point can be observed. Along the thin nanowires dispersing states could not be observed. Merely in the direction perpendicular to the wires an intensity variation could be observed, which corresponds to the observed spacial structure of the thin nanowires. The electronic properties of the broad erbium silicide nanowires are very similar to the broad dysprosium silicide nanowires. The electronic properties of the DySi{sub 2}-monolayer and the Dy{sub 3}Si{sub 5}-multilayer on the Si(111) surface are investigated in comparison to the known ErSi{sub 2}/Si(111) and Er{sub 3}Si{sub 5}/Si(111) system. The positions and the energetic locations of the observed band in the surface Brillouin zone will be confirmed for dysprosium. The shape of the electron pockets in the (vector)k {sub parallel} space is elliptical at the anti M points, while the hole pocket at the anti {gamma} point is showing a hexagonal symmetry. On the Si(557) surface the structural and electronic properties depend strongly on the different preparation conditions likewise, in particular on the rare earth coverage. At submonolayer coverage the thin nanowires grow in wide areas

  14. Electrowetting on ZnO nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jun; Xia, Jun; Lei, Wei; Wang, Bao-Ping

    2010-06-01

    In this paper, we study the electrowetting character on ZnO nanowires. We grow the ZnO nanowires on indium tin oxide (ITO) by a hydrothermal method, and the ZnO nanowires surface is further hydrophobized by spin-coating Teflon. Such a prepared surface shows superhydrophobic properties with an initial contact angle 165°. When the applied external voltage between the ITO and the sessile droplet is less than 50 V, the contact angle continuously changed from 165° to 120°, and exhibits instant reversibility. For a slightly higher voltage, a mutation of the contact angle changing to 100° was observed and the contact angle was not reversible after removing the applied voltage, which indicates a transition from non-wetting state to wetting state. Further increasing of the applied voltage, the apparent contact angle decreased to an invariable value 70°, and electrical breakdown emerged synchronously.

  15. Roll up nanowire battery from silicon chips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlad, Alexandru; Reddy, Arava Leela Mohana; Ajayan, Anakha; Singh, Neelam; Gohy, Jean-François; Melinte, Sorin; Ajayan, Pulickel M

    2012-09-18

    Here we report an approach to roll out Li-ion battery components from silicon chips by a continuous and repeatable etch-infiltrate-peel cycle. Vertically aligned silicon nanowires etched from recycled silicon wafers are captured in a polymer matrix that operates as Li(+) gel-electrolyte and electrode separator and peeled off to make multiple battery devices out of a single wafer. Porous, electrically interconnected copper nanoshells are conformally deposited around the silicon nanowires to stabilize the electrodes over extended cycles and provide efficient current collection. Using the above developed process we demonstrate an operational full cell 3.4 V lithium-polymer silicon nanowire (LIPOSIL) battery which is mechanically flexible and scalable to large dimensions.

  16. How Copper Nanowires Grow and How To Control Their Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Shengrong; Stewart, Ian E; Chen, Zuofeng; Li, Bo; Rathmell, Aaron R; Wiley, Benjamin J

    2016-03-15

    Scalable, solution-phase nanostructure synthesis has the promise to produce a wide variety of nanomaterials with novel properties at a cost that is low enough for these materials to be used to solve problems. For example, solution-synthesized metal nanowires are now being used to make low cost, flexible transparent electrodes in touch screens, organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), and solar cells. There has been a tremendous increase in the number of solution-phase syntheses that enable control over the assembly of atoms into nanowires in the last 15 years, but proposed mechanisms for nanowire formation are usually qualitative, and for many syntheses there is little consensus as to how nanowires form. It is often not clear what species is adding to a nanowire growing in solution or what mechanistic step limits its rate of growth. A deeper understanding of nanowire growth is important for efficiently directing the development of nanowire synthesis toward producing a wide variety of nanostructure morphologies for structure-property studies or producing precisely defined nanostructures for a specific application. This Account reviews our progress over the last five years toward understanding how copper nanowires form in solution, how to direct their growth into nanowires with dimensions ideally suited for use in transparent conducting films, and how to use copper nanowires as a template to grow core-shell nanowires. The key advance enabling a better understanding of copper nanowire growth is the first real-time visualization of nanowire growth in solution, enabling the acquisition of nanowire growth kinetics. By measuring the growth rate of individual nanowires as a function of concentration of the reactants and temperature, we show that a growing copper nanowire can be thought of as a microelectrode that is charged with electrons by hydrazine and grows through the diffusion-limited addition of Cu(OH)2(-). This deeper mechanistic understanding, coupled to an

  17. Imaging Electrons in Ultra-thin Nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Erin E.

    2011-12-01

    Ultra-thin semiconductor nanowires are promising systems in which to explore novel low-dimensional physics and are attractive candidates for future nanoelectronics. Ultra-thin nanowires with diameters of 20 to 30 nm are essentially one-dimensional (ID) for moderate electron number, because only one radial subband is occupied. Low-temperature scanning gate microscopy is especially well suited for improving our understanding of nanowires in order to optimize the construction of nanowire systems. We use a home-built liquid-He cooled scanning gate microscope (SGM) to probe and manipulate electrons beneath the surface of devices. The SGM's conductance images are obtained by scanning the charged SGM tip above the sample and recording the change in conductance through the device as a function of tip position. We present simulations of extracting the amplitude of the 1D electron wavefunction along the length of the quantum dot in an ultra-thin InAs/InP heterostructure nanowire (diameter = 30 nm) using a SGM. A weakly perturbing SGM tip slightly dents the electron wavefunction inside the quantum dot, and we propose measuring the change in energy of the dot due to the perturbation as a function of tip position. By measuring the change in energy of the dot and by knowing the form of the tip potential, the amplitude of the wavefunction can be found. This extraction technique could serve as a powerful tool to improve our understanding of electron behavior in quasi-1 D systems. We have used our SGM to image the conductance through an ultra-thin (diameter ˜ 30 nm) 1nAs nanowire with two InP barriers. Our imaging technique provides detailed information regarding the position and flow of electrons in the nanowire. We demonstrate that the charged SPM tip's position or voltage can be used to control the number of electrons on the quantum dots. We spatially locate three quantum dots in series along the length of the ultra-thin nanowire. Using energy level spectroscopy and the

  18. Synthesis and Characterization of Glassy Carbon Nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Lentz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The advent of carbon-based micro- and nanoelectromechanical systems has revived the interest in glassy carbon, whose properties are relatively unknown at lower dimensions. In this paper, electrical conductivity of individual glassy carbon nanowires was measured as a function of microstructure (controlled by heat treatment temperature and ambient temperature. The semiconducting nanowires with average diameter of 150 nm were synthesized from polyfurfuryl alcohol precursors and characterized using transmission electron and Raman microscopy. DC electrical measurements made at 90 K to 450 K show very strong dependence of temperature, following mixed modes of activation energy and hopping-based conduction.

  19. Magnetic logic using nanowires with perpendicular anisotropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworowicz, J; Vernier, N; Ferré, J; Maziewski, A; Stanescu, D; Ravelosona, D; Jacqueline, A S; Chappert, C; Rodmacq, B; Diény, B

    2009-05-27

    In addition to a storage function through the magnetization of nanowires, domain wall propagation can be used to trigger magnetic logic functions. Here, we present a new way to realize a pure magnetic logic operation by using magnetic nanowires with perpendicular anisotropy. Emphasis is given on the generation of the logic function 'NOT' that is based on the dipolar interaction between two neighbouring magnetic wires, which favours the creation of a domain wall. This concept has been validated on several prototypes and the results fit well with the expectations.

  20. Titanium catalyzed silicon nanowires and nanoplatelets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad A. U. Usman

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Silicon nanowires, nanoplatelets, and other morphologies resulted from silicon growth catalyzed by thin titanium layers. The nanowires have diameters down to 5 nm and lengths to tens of micrometers. The two-dimensional platelets, in some instances with filigreed, snow flake-like shapes, had thicknesses down to the 10 nm scale and spans to several micrometers. These platelets grew in a narrow temperature range around 900 celsius, apparently representing a new silicon crystallite morphology at this length scale. We surmise that the platelets grow with a faceted dendritic mechanism known for larger crystals nucleated by titanium silicide catalyst islands.

  1. Nanowires and nanostructures fabrication using template methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mátéfi-Tempfli, Stefan; Mátéfi-Tempfli, M.; Vlad, A.

    2009-01-01

    One of the great challenges of today is to find reliable techniques for the fabrication of nanomaterials and nanostructures. Methods based on template synthesis and on self organization are the most promising due to their easiness and low cost. This paper focuses on the electrochemical synthesis ...... of nanowires and nanostructures using nanoporous host materials such as supported anodic aluminum considering it as a key template for nanowires based devices. New ways are opened for applications by combining such template synthesis methods with nanolithographic techniques....

  2. Silicon nanowires for photovoltaic solar energy conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Kui-Qing; Lee, Shuit-Tong

    2011-01-11

    Semiconductor nanowires are attracting intense interest as a promising material for solar energy conversion for the new-generation photovoltaic (PV) technology. In particular, silicon nanowires (SiNWs) are under active investigation for PV applications because they offer novel approaches for solar-to-electric energy conversion leading to high-efficiency devices via simple manufacturing. This article reviews the recent developments in the utilization of SiNWs for PV applications, the relationship between SiNW-based PV device structure and performance, and the challenges to obtaining high-performance cost-effective solar cells.

  3. An optically guided microdevice comprising a nanowire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to a microdevice (100) for emitting electromagnetic radiation onto an associated object. Simultaneous non-contact spatial control over the microdevice in terms of translational movement in three dimensions, and rotational movement around at least two axes, preferably...... three axes, is possible. The microdevice further comprises a nanowire (150) being arranged for emitting electromagnetic radiation onto said associated object. This is advantageous for obtaining better spatial control of the microdevice comprising the nanowire, and this enables that light could more...

  4. Enhanced magnetotransport in nanopatterned manganite nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín, Lorena; Morellón, Luis; Algarabel, Pedro A; Rodríguez, Luis A; Magén, César; De Teresa, José M; Ibarra, Manuel R

    2014-02-12

    We have combined optical and focused ion beam lithographies to produce large aspect-ratio (length-to-width >300) single-crystal nanowires of La2/3Ca1/3MnO3 that preserve their functional properties. Remarkably, an enhanced magnetoresistance value of 34% in an applied magnetic field of 0.1 T in the narrowest 150 nm nanowire is obtained. The strain release at the edges together with a destabilization of the insulating regions is proposed to account for this behavior. This opens new strategies to implement these structures in functional spintronic devices.

  5. Smooth Nanowire/Polymer Composite Transparent Electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Gaynor, Whitney

    2011-04-29

    Smooth composite transparent electrodes are fabricated via lamination of silver nanowires into the polymer poly-(4,3-ethylene dioxythiophene): poly(styrene-sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS). The surface roughness is dramatically reduced compared to bare nanowires. High-efficiency P3HT:PCBM organic photovoltaic cells can be fabricated using these composites, reproducing the performance of cells on indium tin oxide (ITO) on glass and improving the performance of cells on ITO on plastic. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Smooth nanowire/polymer composite transparent electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaynor, Whitney; McGehee, Michael D. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Burkhard, George F. [Department of Applied Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Peumans, Peter [Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2011-07-12

    Smooth composite transparent electrodes are fabricated via lamination of silver nanowires into the polymer poly-(4,3-ethylene dioxythiophene):poly(styrene-sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS). The surface roughness is dramatically reduced compared to bare nanowires. High-efficiency P3HT:PCBM organic photovoltaic cells can be fabricated using these composites, reproducing the performance of cells on indium tin oxide (ITO) on glass and improving the performance of cells on ITO on plastic. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  7. Synchrotron characterization of functional tin dioxide nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domashevskaya, E. P., E-mail: ftt@phys.vsu.ru; Chuvenkova, O. A.; Turishchev, S. Yu. [Voronezh State University, Voronezh (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-31

    Wire-like crystals of tin dioxide were synthesized by a gas-transport technique. The wires, of mainly nanometric diameters, were characterized by spectroscopy and microscopy techniques with the use of highly brilliant and intense synchrotron radiation. We studied the influence of the surface chemical state and the oxygen vacancies on the atomic and electronic structure of the nanowires. The surface of the nanowires is covered by a few nanometers of tin suboxides. The lack of oxygen over the surface layers leads to specific sub-zone formation in a gap, as shown by synchrotron studies.

  8. Photon-triggered nanowire transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jungkil; Lee, Hoo-Cheol; Kim, Kyoung-Ho; Hwang, Min-Soo; Park, Jin-Sung; Lee, Jung Min; So, Jae-Pil; Choi, Jae-Hyuck; Kwon, Soon-Hong; Barrelet, Carl J.; Park, Hong-Gyu

    2017-10-01

    Photon-triggered electronic circuits have been a long-standing goal of photonics. Recent demonstrations include either all-optical transistors in which photons control other photons or phototransistors with the gate response tuned or enhanced by photons. However, only a few studies report on devices in which electronic currents are optically switched and amplified without an electrical gate. Here we show photon-triggered nanowire (NW) transistors, photon-triggered NW logic gates and a single NW photodetection system. NWs are synthesized with long crystalline silicon (CSi) segments connected by short porous silicon (PSi) segments. In a fabricated device, the electrical contacts on both ends of the NW are connected to a single PSi segment in the middle. Exposing the PSi segment to light triggers a current in the NW with a high on/off ratio of >8 × 106. A device that contains two PSi segments along the NW can be triggered using two independent optical input signals. Using localized pump lasers, we demonstrate photon-triggered logic gates including AND, OR and NAND gates. A photon-triggered NW transistor of diameter 25 nm with a single 100 nm PSi segment requires less than 300 pW of power. Furthermore, we take advantage of the high photosensitivity and fabricate a submicrometre-resolution photodetection system. Photon-triggered transistors offer a new venue towards multifunctional device applications such as programmable logic elements and ultrasensitive photodetectors.

  9. Hall hole mobility in boron-doped homoepitaxial diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernot, J.; Volpe, P. N.; Omnès, F.; Muret, P.; Mortet, V.; Haenen, K.; Teraji, T.

    2010-05-01

    Hall hole mobility of boron-doped homoepitaxial (100) diamond samples has been investigated in the temperature range of 100-900 K, both experimentally and theoretically. The temperature dependence of the mobility measured in high-quality and low boron-doped materials was compared with theoretical calculations to determine the phonon-hole coupling constants (deformation potential for acoustic phonons and coupling constant for optical phonons). The maximum hole mobility is found to be close to 2000cm2/Vs at room temperature. For boron-doped material, the hole scattering by neutral boron atoms is shown to be important in diamond due to the high ionization energy of the boron acceptor. The doping dependence of the Hall hole mobility is established for boron-doping levels ranging between 1014 and 1020cm-3 at 300 and 500 K. The physical reasons which make diamond a semiconductor with a higher mobility than other semiconductors of column IV are discussed.

  10. Synthesis of borophenes: Anisotropic, two-dimensional boron polymorphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannix, Andrew J; Zhou, Xiang-Feng; Kiraly, Brian; Wood, Joshua D; Alducin, Diego; Myers, Benjamin D; Liu, Xiaolong; Fisher, Brandon L; Santiago, Ulises; Guest, Jeffrey R; Yacaman, Miguel Jose; Ponce, Arturo; Oganov, Artem R; Hersam, Mark C; Guisinger, Nathan P

    2015-12-18

    At the atomic-cluster scale, pure boron is markedly similar to carbon, forming simple planar molecules and cage-like fullerenes. Theoretical studies predict that two-dimensional (2D) boron sheets will adopt an atomic configuration similar to that of boron atomic clusters. We synthesized atomically thin, crystalline 2D boron sheets (i.e., borophene) on silver surfaces under ultrahigh-vacuum conditions. Atomic-scale characterization, supported by theoretical calculations, revealed structures reminiscent of fused boron clusters with multiple scales of anisotropic, out-of-plane buckling. Unlike bulk boron allotropes, borophene shows metallic characteristics that are consistent with predictions of a highly anisotropic, 2D metal. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  11. 11B nuclear magnetic resonance in boron-doped diamond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miwa Murakami, Tadashi Shimizu, Masataka Tansho and Yoshihiko Takano

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This review summarizes recent results obtained by 11B solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR on boron-doped diamond, grown by the high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT or chemical vapor deposition techniques. Simple single-pulse experiments as well as advanced two-dimensional NMR experiments were applied to the boron sites in diamond. It is shown that magic-angle spinning at magnetic fields above 10 T is suitable for observation of high-resolution 11B spectra of boron-doped diamond. For boron-doped HPHT diamonds, the existence of the excess boron that does not contribute to electrical conductivity was confirmed and its 11B NMR signal was characterized. The point-defect structures (B+H complexes and -B-B-/-B-C-B- clusters, postulated previously for the excess boron, were discarded and graphite-like structures were assigned instead.

  12. Isotopic depletion of soluble boron in a PWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aragones, J.M.; Ahnert, C.; Crespo, A.; Leon, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of the work reported in this paper is to determine the isotopic depletion of the soluble boron in the primary of a pressurized water reactor (PWR) along cycle operation under the limiting condition of continuous boron dilution without fresh boron feeding, which maximizes the boron isotopic depletion effect. Presented here are the results for cycle 4 of the C.N. Almaraz-II PWR, which has been operated close to these continuous dilution conditions at rated power throughout most of the cycle. The limiting continuous boron dilution model with the /sup 10/B depletion calculations based on the COBAYA code is in quite good agreement with the measured boron concentrations for this cycle, explaining very well the differences found with the expected design letdown curve, which increased up to +60 ppm at middle of cycle when this work was done.

  13. Potential of using boric acid as a boron drug for boron neutron capture therapy for osteosarcoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, C.F.; Lin, S.Y. [Institute of Nuclear Engineering and Science, National Tsing Hua University, Taiwan (China); Peir, J.J. [Nuclear Science and Technology Development Center, National Tsing Hua University, Taiwan (China); Liao, J.W. [Graduate Institute of Veterinary Pathobiology, National Chung Hsing University, Taiwan (China); Lin, Y.C. [Department of Veterinary Medicine, National Chung Hsing University, Taiwan (China); Chou, F.I., E-mail: fichou@mx.nthu.edu.tw [Institute of Nuclear Engineering and Science, National Tsing Hua University, Taiwan (China)] [Nuclear Science and Technology Development Center, National Tsing Hua University, Taiwan (China)

    2011-12-15

    Osteosarcoma is a malignant tumor commonly found in human and animals. The ability of boric acid (BA) to accumulate in osteosarcoma due to the mechanism of the bone formation of cancer cells would make boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) an alternative therapy for osteosarcoma. This study evaluated the feasibility of using BA as the boron drug for BNCT of bone cancer. The cytotoxicity of BA to L929 cells exceeded that of UMR-106 cells. With 25 {mu}g {sup 10}B/mL medium of BA treatment, the boron concentration in UMR-106 cells was higher than that in L929 cells. The biodistribution and pharmacokinetics of BA in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were studied by administrating 25 mg {sup 10}B/kg body weight to SD rats. Blood boron level decreased rapidly within one hour after BA injection. Boron concentration in the long bone was 4-6 time higher than that of blood. Results of this study suggest that BA may be a potential drug for BNCT for osteosarcoma.

  14. Synthesis and characterization of WO3 nanowires and metal nanoparticle-WO3 nanowire composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, Mária; Pusztai, Péter; Leino, Anne-Riikka; Kordás, Krisztián; Kónya, Zoltán; Kukovecz, Ákos

    2013-07-01

    Tungsten-trioxide nanowire bundles were prepared using a simple hydrothermal method. Sodium-tungstate was used as precursor and sodium-sulfate as structure directing agent. All the reflections of the X-ray diffractogram of the synthesized wires belong to the hexagonal phase of the tungsten trioxide. The nanowires were successfully decorated with metal nanoparticles by wet impregnation. The TEM investigation showed that using different metal precursors resulted in different particle sizes and coverage on the surface.

  15. Apparatus for the production of boron nitride nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael W; Jordan, Kevin

    2014-06-17

    An apparatus for the large scale production of boron nitride nanotubes comprising; a pressure chamber containing; a continuously fed boron containing target; a source of thermal energy preferably a focused laser beam; a cooled condenser; a source of pressurized nitrogen gas; and a mechanism for extracting boron nitride nanotubes that are condensed on or in the area of the cooled condenser from the pressure chamber.

  16. Low-loss binder for hot pressing boron nitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maya, Leon

    1991-01-01

    Borazine derivatives used as low-loss binders and precursors for making ceramic boron nitride structures. The derivative forms the same composition as the boron nitride starting material, thereby filling the voids with the same boron nitride material upon forming and hot pressing. The derivatives have a further advantage of being low in carbon thus resulting in less volatile byproduct that can result in bubble formation during pressing.

  17. Plasmonic engineering of metal-oxide nanowire heterojunctions in integrated nanowire rectification units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Luchan; Zou, Guisheng; Liu, Lei; Duley, Walt W.; Zhou, Y. Norman

    2016-05-01

    We show that irradiation with femtosecond laser pulses can produce robust nanowire heterojunctions in coupled non-wetting metal-oxide Ag-TiO2 structures. Simulations indicate that joining arises from the effect of strong plasmonic localization in the region of the junction. Strong electric field effects occur in both Ag and TiO2 resulting in the modification of both surfaces and an increase in wettability of TiO2, facilitating the interconnection of Ag and TiO2 nanowires. Irradiation leads to the creation of a thin layer of highly defected TiO2 in the contact region between the Ag and TiO2 nanowires. The presence of this layer allows the formation of a heterojunction and offers the possibility of engineering the electronic characteristics of interfacial structures. Rectifying junctions with single and bipolar properties have been generated in Ag-TiO2 nanowire circuits incorporating asymmetrical and symmetrical interfacial structures, respectively. This fabrication technique should be applicable for the interconnection of other heterogeneous metal-oxide nanowire components and demonstrates that femtosecond laser irradiation enables interfacial engineering for electronic applications of integrated nanowire structures.

  18. Study of spin dynamics and damping on the magnetic nanowire arrays with various nanowire widths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Jaehun [Department of Physics, Inha University, Incheon, 402-751 (Korea, Republic of); Fujii, Yuya; Konioshi, Katsunori [Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan); Yoon, Jungbum [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Kim, Nam-Hui; Jung, Jinyong [Department of Physics, Inha University, Incheon, 402-751 (Korea, Republic of); Miwa, Shinji [Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan); Jung, Myung-Hwa [Department of Physics, Sogang University, Seoul, 121-742 (Korea, Republic of); Suzuki, Yoshishige [Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan); You, Chun-Yeol, E-mail: cyyou@inha.ac.kr [Department of Physics, Inha University, Incheon, 402-751 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-07-01

    We investigate the spin dynamics including Gilbert damping in the ferromagnetic nanowire arrays. We have measured the ferromagnetic resonance of ferromagnetic nanowire arrays using vector-network analyzer ferromagnetic resonance (VNA-FMR) and analyzed the results with the micromagnetic simulations. We find excellent agreement between the experimental VNA-FMR spectra and micromagnetic simulations result for various applied magnetic fields. We find that the same tendency of the demagnetization factor for longitudinal and transverse conditions, N{sub z} (N{sub y}) increases (decreases) as increasing the nanowire width in the micromagnetic simulations while N{sub x} is almost zero value in transverse case. We also find that the Gilbert damping constant increases from 0.018 to 0.051 as the increasing nanowire width for the transverse case, while it is almost constant as 0.021 for the longitudinal case. - Highlights: • We investigate the spin dynamic properties in the ferromagnetic nanowire arrays. • The demagnetization factors have similar tendency with the prism geometry results. • The Gilbert damping constant is increased from 0.018 to 0.051 as the increasing nanowire width for the transverse. • The Gilbert damping constant is almost constant as 0.021 for the longitudinal case.

  19. Plasmonic engineering of metal-oxide nanowire heterojunctions in integrated nanowire rectification units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Luchan; Zhou, Y. Norman, E-mail: liulei@tsinghua.edu.cn, E-mail: nzhou@uwaterloo.ca [Department of Mechanical Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Tribology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Centre for Advanced Materials Joining, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); Zou, Guisheng; Liu, Lei, E-mail: liulei@tsinghua.edu.cn, E-mail: nzhou@uwaterloo.ca [Department of Mechanical Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Tribology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Duley, Walt W. [Centre for Advanced Materials Joining, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2016-05-16

    We show that irradiation with femtosecond laser pulses can produce robust nanowire heterojunctions in coupled non-wetting metal-oxide Ag-TiO{sub 2} structures. Simulations indicate that joining arises from the effect of strong plasmonic localization in the region of the junction. Strong electric field effects occur in both Ag and TiO{sub 2} resulting in the modification of both surfaces and an increase in wettability of TiO{sub 2}, facilitating the interconnection of Ag and TiO{sub 2} nanowires. Irradiation leads to the creation of a thin layer of highly defected TiO{sub 2} in the contact region between the Ag and TiO{sub 2} nanowires. The presence of this layer allows the formation of a heterojunction and offers the possibility of engineering the electronic characteristics of interfacial structures. Rectifying junctions with single and bipolar properties have been generated in Ag-TiO{sub 2} nanowire circuits incorporating asymmetrical and symmetrical interfacial structures, respectively. This fabrication technique should be applicable for the interconnection of other heterogeneous metal-oxide nanowire components and demonstrates that femtosecond laser irradiation enables interfacial engineering for electronic applications of integrated nanowire structures.

  20. Microadditions of boron and vanadium in ADI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rzychoń T.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the second part of the study, describing the role of vanadium and boron microadditions in the process of structure formation in heavy-walled castings made from ADI, the results of own investigations were presented. Within this study two series of melts of the ductile iron were made, introducing microadditions of the above mentioned elements to both unalloyed ductile iron and the ductile iron containing high levels of nickel and copper (the composition typical of ADI. Melts were conducted with iron-nickel-magnesium master alloy. Thermal analysis of the solidification process of the cast keel blocks was conducted, the heat treatment of the alloys was carried out, and then the effect of the introduced additions of boron and vanadium on the hardenability of the investigated cast iron was examined and evaluated.

  1. Facile Synthesis of Ternary Boron Carbonitride Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo Lijie

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this study, a novel and facile approach for the synthesis of ternary boron carbonitride (B–C–N nanotubes was reported. Growth occurred by heating simple starting materials of boron powder, zinc oxide powder, and ethanol absolute at 1150 °C under a mixture gas flow of nitrogen and hydrogen. As substrate, commercial stainless steel foil with a typical thickness of 0.05 mm played an additional role of catalyst during the growth of nanotubes. The nanotubes were characterized by SEM, TEM, EDX, and EELS. The results indicate that the synthesized B–C–N nanotubes exhibit a bamboo-like morphology and B, C, and N elements are homogeneously distributed in the nanotubes. A catalyzed vapor–liquid–solid (VLS mechanism was proposed for the growth of the nanotubes.

  2. Boron Nitride Nanotube: Synthesis and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiano, Amanda L.; Park, Cheol; Lee, Joseph W.; Luong, Hoa H.; Gibbons, Luke J.; Chu, Sang-Hyon; Applin, Samantha I.; Gnoffo, Peter; Lowther, Sharon; Kim, Hyun Jung; hide

    2014-01-01

    Scientists have predicted that carbon's immediate neighbors on the periodic chart, boron and nitrogen, may also form perfect nanotubes, since the advent of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in 1991. First proposed then synthesized by researchers at UC Berkeley in the mid 1990's, the boron nitride nanotube (BNNT) has proven very difficult to make until now. Herein we provide an update on a catalyst-free method for synthesizing highly crystalline, small diameter BNNTs with a high aspect ratio using a high power laser under a high pressure and high temperature environment first discovered jointly by NASA/NIA JSA. Progress in purification methods, dispersion studies, BNNT mat and composite formation, and modeling and diagnostics will also be presented. The white BNNTs offer extraordinary properties including neutron radiation shielding, piezoelectricity, thermal oxidative stability (> 800 C in air), mechanical strength, and toughness. The characteristics of the novel BNNTs and BNNT polymer composites and their potential applications are discussed.

  3. Gap discrete breathers in strained boron nitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barani, Elham; Korznikova, Elena A.; Chetverikov, Alexander P.; Zhou, Kun; Dmitriev, Sergey V.

    2017-11-01

    Linear and nonlinear dynamics of hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) lattice is studied by means of molecular dynamics simulations with the use of the Tersoff interatomic potentials. It is found that sufficiently large homogeneous elastic strain along zigzag direction opens a wide gap in the phonon spectrum. Extended vibrational mode with boron and nitrogen sublattices vibrating in-plane as a whole in strained h-BN has frequency within the phonon gap. This fact suggests that a nonlinear spatially localized vibrational mode with frequencies in the phonon gap, called discrete breather (also often termed as intrinsic localized mode), can be excited. Properties of the gap discrete breathers in strained h-BN are contrasted with that for analogous vibrational mode found earlier in strained graphene. It is found that h-BN modeled with the Tersoff potentials does not support transverse discrete breathers.

  4. Boron nitride encapsulated graphene infrared emitters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnard, H. R.; Zossimova, E.; Mahlmeister, N. H.; Lawton, L. M.; Luxmoore, I. J.; Nash, G. R., E-mail: g.r.nash@exeter.ac.uk [College of Engineering, Mathematics and Physical Sciences, University of Exeter, Exeter EX4 4QF (United Kingdom)

    2016-03-28

    The spatial and spectral characteristics of mid-infrared thermal emission from devices containing a large area multilayer graphene layer, encapsulated using hexagonal boron nitride, have been investigated. The devices were run continuously in air for over 1000 h, with the emission spectrum covering the absorption bands of many important gases. An approximate solution to the heat equation was used to simulate the measured emission profile across the devices yielding an estimated value of the characteristic length, which defines the exponential rise/fall of the temperature profile across the device, of 40 μm. This is much larger than values obtained in smaller exfoliated graphene devices and reflects the device geometry, and the increase in lateral heat conduction within the devices due to the multilayer graphene and boron nitride layers.

  5. The Self- and Directed Assembly of Nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Benjamin David

    This thesis explores the self- and directed assembly of nanowires. Specifically, we examine the driving forces behind nanowire self-assembly and the macro-structures that are formed. Particle-dense, oriented nanowire structures show promise in the fields of photonics, energy, sensing, catalysis, and electronics. Arrays of spherical particles have already found uses in electronic inks, sensing arrays, and many other commercial applications; but, it is a challenge to create specific arrays of morphologically and/or compositionally anisotropic particles. The following chapters illuminate the interactions that drive the assembly of anisotropic particles in high density solutions in the absence of applied fields or solution drying. Special emphasis is placed on the structures that are formed. The properties of micro- and nanoparticles and their assembly are introduced in Chapter 1. In particular, the properties of shape and material anisotropic particles are highlighted, while challenges in producing desired arrays are discussed. In this thesis, metallic nanowires of increasing complexity were used to examine the self-assembly behavior of both shape and material anisotropic particles. Nanowires were synthesized through templated electrodeposition. In this process, porous alumina membranes served as a template in which metal salts were reduced to form particles. Upon template dissolution, billions of nominally identical particles were released. We specifically focused on segmented, metallic nanowires 2-13 mum in length and 180 to 350 nm in diameter. Since these particles have strong van der Waals (VDWs) attractions, an electrostatically repulsive coating was necessary to prevent aggregation; we used small molecule, DNA, or amorphous silica coatings. Nanowires and their coatings were characterized by electron microscopy. In order to study self-assembly behavior, particle-dense aqueous suspensions were placed within an assembly chamber defined by a silicone spacer. The

  6. Arrays of indefinitely long uniform nanowires and nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaman, Mecit; Khudiyev, Tural; Ozgur, Erol; Kanik, Mehmet; Aktas, Ozan; Ozgur, Ekin O.; Deniz, Hakan; Korkut, Enes; Bayindir, Mehmet

    2011-07-01

    Nanowires are arguably the most studied nanomaterial model to make functional devices and arrays. Although there is remarkable maturity in the chemical synthesis of complex nanowire structures, their integration and interfacing to macro systems with high yields and repeatability still require elaborate aligning, positioning and interfacing and post-synthesis techniques. Top-down fabrication methods for nanowire production, such as lithography and electrospinning, have not enjoyed comparable growth. Here we report a new thermal size-reduction process to produce well-ordered, globally oriented, indefinitely long nanowire and nanotube arrays with different materials. The new technique involves iterative co-drawing of hermetically sealed multimaterials in compatible polymer matrices similar to fibre drawing. Globally oriented, endlessly parallel, axially and radially uniform semiconducting and piezoelectric nanowire and nanotube arrays hundreds of metres long, with nanowire diameters less than 15 nm, are obtained. The resulting nanostructures are sealed inside a flexible substrate, facilitating the handling of and electrical contacting to the nanowires. Inexpensive, high-throughput, multimaterial nanowire arrays pave the way for applications including nanowire-based large-area flexible sensor platforms, phase-changememory, nanostructure-enhanced photovoltaics, semiconductor nanophotonics, dielectric metamaterials,linear and nonlinear photonics and nanowire-enabled high-performance composites.

  7. Size Effect and Deformation Mechanism in Twinned Copper Nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiapeng Sun

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Molecular dynamics simulations were performed to demonstrate the synergistic effects of the extrinsic size (nanowire length and intrinsic size (twin boundary spacing on the failure manner, yield strength, ductility and deformation mechanism of the twinned nanowires containing high density coherent twin boundaries CTBs paralleled to the nanowires’ axis. The twinned nanowires show an intense extrinsic size effect, i.e., shorter is stronger and more ductile, and an intense intrinsic size effect, i.e., thinner is stronger. Notably, the strengthening effect degradation of CTBs in the twinned nanowires is observed with an increase in nanowire length: remarkable strengthening effect can be obtained for the short nanowires, but the strengthening effect becomes less pronounced for the long nanowires. The twinned nanowires fail via a ductile manner or via a brittle manner depending on the synergistic effect of the nanowire length and twin boundary spacing. By atomic-level observation of the plastic deformation, we found that the emission of a trailing 30° partial from the free surface controls the yield behavior of the twinned nanowires. We also found that the special zigzag extended dislocations are formed by the dislocation–CTBs interactions, and propagate to sustain the plastic deformation.

  8. The all boron carbide diode neutron detector: Comparison with theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caruso, A.N. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Behlen Laboratory of Physics, University of Nebraska, P.O. Box 880111, Lincoln, NE 68588-0111 (United States); Nebraska Center for Materials and Nanoscience, 116 Brace Laboratory, University of Nebraska, P.O. Box 880111, Lincoln, NE 68588-0111 (United States); College of Engineering, N245 Walter Scott Engineering Center, 17th Vine Street, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68588-0511 (United States); Center for Nanoscale Science and Engineering, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND 58102 (United States); Dowben, P.A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Behlen Laboratory of Physics, University of Nebraska, P.O. Box 880111, Lincoln, NE 68588-0111 (United States) and Nebraska Center for Materials and Nanoscience, 116 Brace Laboratory, University of Nebraska, P.O. Box 880111, Lincoln, NE 68588-0111 (United States)]. E-mail: pdowben@unl.edu; Balkir, S. [Nebraska Center for Materials and Nanoscience, 116 Brace Laboratory, University of Nebraska, P.O. Box 880111, Lincoln, NE 68588-0111 (United States); Department of Electrical Engineering, College of Engineering, 237N Walter Scott Engineering Center, 17th Vine Street, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68588-0511 (United States); Schemm, Nathan [Nebraska Center for Materials and Nanoscience, 116 Brace Laboratory, University of Nebraska, P.O. Box 880111, Lincoln, NE 68588-0111 (United States); Department of Electrical Engineering, College of Engineering, 237N Walter Scott Engineering Center, 17th Vine Street, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68588-0511 (United States)] (and others)

    2006-11-25

    A boron carbide diode detector, fabricated from two different polytypes of semiconducting boron carbide, will detect neutrons in reasonable agreement with theory. Small deviations from the model calculations occur due to the detection efficiencies of the {sup 10}B capture products Li plus {alpha} sum signal differing somewhat from expectation in the thin diodes. The performance of the all boron carbide neutron detector does depart from the behavior of devices where a boron rich neutron capture layer is distinct from the diode charge collection region (i.e. a conversion layer solid state detector), as is expected.

  9. Microadditions of boron and vanadium in ADI

    OpenAIRE

    Rzychoń T.; Kiełbus A.; Szala J.

    2007-01-01

    In the second part of the study, describing the role of vanadium and boron microadditions in the process of structure formation in heavy-walled castings made from ADI, the results of own investigations were presented. Within this study two series of melts of the ductile iron were made, introducing microadditions of the above mentioned elements to both unalloyed ductile iron and the ductile iron containing high levels of nickel and copper (the composition typical of ADI). Melts were conducted ...

  10. Catalytic Asymmetric Synthesis of Phosphine Boronates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornillos, Valentín; Vila, Carlos; Otten, Edwin; Feringa, Ben L

    2015-06-26

    The first catalytic enantioselective synthesis of ambiphilic phosphine boronate esters is presented. The asymmetric boration of α,β-unsaturated phosphine oxides catalyzed by a copper bisphosphine complex affords optically active organoboronate esters that bear a vicinal phosphine oxide group in good yields and high enantiomeric excess. The synthetic utility of the products is demonstrated through stereospecific transformations into multifunctional optically active compounds. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Amorphous Carbon-Boron Nitride Nanotube Hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae Woo (Inventor); Siochi, Emilie J. (Inventor); Wise, Kristopher E. (Inventor); Lin, Yi (Inventor); Connell, John (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A method for joining or repairing boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs). In joining BNNTs, the nanotube structure is modified with amorphous carbon deposited by controlled electron beam irradiation to form well bonded hybrid a-C/BNNT structures. In repairing BNNTs, the damaged site of the nanotube structure is modified with amorphous carbon deposited by controlled electron beam irradiation to form well bonded hybrid a-C/BNNT structures at the damage site.

  12. Single step synthesis of nanostructured boron nitride for boron neutron capture therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Bikramjeet; Singh, Paviter; Kumar, Akshay, E-mail: akshaykumar.tiet@gmail.com [Advanced Functional Materials lab, Department of Nanotechnology, Sri Guru Granth Sahib World University, Fatehgarh Sahib-140406 Punjab (India); Kumar, Manjeet [Department of Materials Engineering, Defense Institute of Advanced Technology (DU), Pune 411025 (India); Thakur, Anup [Material Science Research Lab, Department of basic and Applied Sciences, Punjabi University Patiala 147002 (India)

    2015-05-15

    Nanostructured Boron Nitride (BN) has been successfully synthesized by carbo-thermic reduction of Boric Acid (H{sub 3}BO{sub 3}). This method is a relatively low temperature synthesis route and it can be used for large scale production of nanostructured BN. The synthesized nanoparticles have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and differential thermal analyzer (DTA). XRD analysis confirmed the formation of single phase nanostructured Boron Nitride. SEM analysis showed that the particles are spherical in shape. DTA analysis showed that the phase is stable upto 900 °C and the material can be used for high temperature applications as well boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT)

  13. Fabrication of Carbohydrate Microarrays by Boronate Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adak, Avijit K; Lin, Ting-Wei; Li, Ben-Yuan; Lin, Chun-Cheng

    2017-01-01

    The interactions between soluble carbohydrates and/or surface displayed glycans and protein receptors are essential to many biological processes and cellular recognition events. Carbohydrate microarrays provide opportunities for high-throughput quantitative analysis of carbohydrate-protein interactions. Over the past decade, various techniques have been implemented for immobilizing glycans on solid surfaces in a microarray format. Herein, we describe a detailed protocol for fabricating carbohydrate microarrays that capitalizes on the intrinsic reactivity of boronic acid toward carbohydrates to form stable boronate diesters. A large variety of unprotected carbohydrates ranging in structure from simple disaccharides and trisaccharides to considerably more complex human milk and blood group (oligo)saccharides have been covalently immobilized in a single step on glass slides, which were derivatized with high-affinity boronic acid ligands. The immobilized ligands in these microarrays maintain the receptor-binding activities including those of lectins and antibodies according to the structures of their pendant carbohydrates for rapid analysis of a number of carbohydrate-recognition events within 30 h. This method facilitates the direct construction of otherwise difficult to obtain carbohydrate microarrays from underivatized glycans.

  14. Broadband Nonlinear Signal Processing in Silicon Nanowires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yvind, Kresten; Pu, Minhao; Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    The fast non-linearity of silicon allows Tbit/s optical signal processing. By choosing suitable dimensions of silicon nanowires their dispersion can be tailored to ensure a high nonlinearity at power levels low enough to avoid significant two-photon abso We have fabricated low insertion...

  15. Superenhancers: novel opportunities for nanowire optoelectronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khudiyev, Tural; Bayindir, Mehmet

    2014-12-16

    Nanowires play a crucial role in the development of new generation optoelectronic devices ranging from photovoltaics to photodetectors, as these designs capitalize on the low material usage, utilize leaky-mode optical resonances and possess high conversion efficiencies associated with nanowire geometry. However, their current schemes lack sufficient absorption capacity demanded for their practical applicability, and more efficient materials cannot find widespread usage in these designs due to their rarity and cost. Here we suggest a novel and versatile nanoconcentrator scheme utilizing unique optical features of non-resonant Mie (NRM) scattering regime associated with low-index structures. The scattering regime is highly compatible with resonant Mie absorption effect taking place in nanowire absorbers. This technique in its optimized forms can provide up to 1500% total absorption enhancement, 400-fold material save and is suitable for large-area applications with significant area preservation compared to thin-film of same materials. Proposed superenhancer concept with its exceptional features such as broadband absorption enhancement, polarization immunity and material-independent manner paves the way for development of efficient nanowire photosensors or solar thermophotovoltaic devices and presents novel design opportunities for self-powered nanosystems.

  16. Visualizing hybridized quantum plasmons in coupled nanowires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kirsten; Jensen, Kristian Lund; Mortensen, N. Asger

    2013-01-01

    We present full quantum-mechanical calculations of the hybridized plasmon modes of two nanowires at small separation, providing real-space visualization of the modes in the transition from the classical to the quantum tunneling regime. The plasmon modes are obtained as certain eigenfunctions...

  17. Direct observation of nanowire growth and decomposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rackauskas, Simas; Shandakov, Sergey D; Jiang, Hua

    2017-01-01

    knowledge, so far this has been only postulated, but never observed at the atomic level. By means of in situ environmental transmission electron microscopy we monitored and examined the atomic layer transformation at the conditions of the crystal growth and its decomposition using CuO nanowires selected...

  18. Silicon Nanowire Field-effect Chemical Sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, S.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis describes the work that has been done on the project “Design and optimization of silicon nanowire for chemical sensing‿, including Si-NW fabrication, electrical/electrochemical modeling, the application as ISFET, and the build-up of Si- NW/LOC system for automatic sample delivery. A

  19. Surround-gated vertical nanowire quantum dots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Weert, M.H.M.; Den Heijer, M.; Van Kouwen, M.P.; Algra, R.E.; Bakkers, E.P.A.M.; Kouwenhoven, L.P.; Zwiller, V.

    2010-01-01

    We report voltage dependent photoluminescence experiments on single indium arsenide phosphide (InAsP) quantum dots embedded in vertical surround-gated indium phosphide (InP) nanowires. We show that by tuning the gate voltage, we can access different quantum dot charge states. We study the

  20. A Semiconductor Nanowire-Based Superconducting Qubit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, T. W.; Petersson, K. D.; Kuemmeth, F.

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a hybrid qubit based on a semiconductor nanowire with an epitaxially grown superconductor layer. Josephson energy of the transmon-like device ("gatemon") is controlled by an electrostatic gate that depletes carriers in a semiconducting weak link region. Strong coupling to an on...

  1. Krypton ion implantation effect on selenium nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchal, Suresh; Chauhan, R. P.

    2017-08-01

    Among the rapidly progressing interdisciplinary areas of physics, chemistry, material science etc. ion induced modifications of materials is one such evolving field. It has been realized in recent years that a material, in the form of an accelerated ion beam, embedded into a target specimen offers a most productive tool for transforming its properties in a controlled manner. In semiconductors particularly, where the transport behavior is determined by very small concentrations of certain impurities, implantation of ions may bring considerable changes. The present work is based on the study of the effect of krypton ion implantation on selenium nanowires. Selenium nanowires of diameter 80 nm were synthesized by template assisted electro deposition technique. Implantation of krypton ions was done at Inter University Accelerator Centre (IUAC), New Delhi, India. The effect of implantation on structural, electrical and optical properties of selenium nanowires was investigated. XRD analysis of pristine and implanted nanowires shows no shifting in the peak position but there is a variation in the relative intensity with fluence. UV-Visible spectroscopy shows the decrease in the optical band gap with fluence. PL spectra showed emission peak at higher wavelength. A substantial rise in the current was observed from I-V measurements, after implantation and with the increase in fluence. The increase in current conduction may be due to the increase in the current carriers.

  2. Optical Properties of PbSe Nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifton, E.; Tischler, J. G.; Foos, E. E.; Zega, T. J.; Stroud, R. M.; Boercker, J. E.; Cress, C. D.; Efros, Al L.; Erwin, S. C.

    2010-03-01

    Colloidal PbSe nanocrystals show potential as a material for high efficiency photovoltaics, for two reasons: (1) tunability of the band gap through a wide range in the near infrared, and (2) efficient multiexciton generation. The charge mobility of PbSe NCs is relatively high compared to other nanocrystalline materials, but is still far from optimal. One possible way to increase the mobility is to use nanowires instead of nanocrystals. To this end we have synthesized high-aspect-ratio (>100) PbSe nanowires in solution. Here we investigate the optical properties of these nanowires using photoluminescence and transmission. We observe clear quantum confinement, and demonstrate that the bandgap can be tuned over the range required, ˜0.4eV, for photovoltaic applications [1]. Finally, we investigate the evolution of quantum confinement when going from 0D to 1D by comparing the optical properties of nanocrystals and nanowires. [1] Schaller et al., Nanoletters 6, 424(2006)

  3. Lasing in nanowires: Ab initio semiclassical model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bordo, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    The semiclassical equations which describe lasing in nanowires are derived from first principles. Both the lasing threshold condition and the steady-state regime of operation are discussed. It is shown that the lasing is governed by the Fourier coefficients of the field susceptibility averaged ov...

  4. Quantum fluctuations of voltage in superconducting nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenov, Andrew G.; Zaikin, Andrei D.

    2017-07-01

    At low temperatures non-equilibrium voltage fluctuations can be generated in current-biased superconducting nanowires due to proliferation of quantum phase slips (QPS) or, equivalently, due to quantum tunneling of magnetic flux quanta across the wire. In this paper we review and further extend recent theoretical results related to this phenomenon. Employing the phase-charge duality arguments combined with Keldysh path integral technique we analyze such fluctuations within the two-point and four-point measurement schemes demonstrating that voltage noise detected in such nanowires in general depends on the particular measurement setup. In the low frequency limit we evaluate all cumulants of the voltage operator which turn out to obey Poisson statistics and exhibit a power law dependence on the external bias. We also specifically address a non-trivial frequency dependence of quantum shot noise power spectrum SΩ for both longer and shorter superconducting nanowires. In particular, we demonstrate that SΩ decreases with increasing frequency Ω and vanishes beyond a threshold value of Ω at T → 0. Furthermore, we predict that SΩ may depend non-monotonously on temperature due to quantum coherent nature of QPS noise. The results of our theoretical analysis can be directly tested in future experiments with superconducting nanowires.

  5. Shallow boron-doped layer formation by boron diffusion from poly-Si through thin SiO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Masayasu

    1994-06-01

    This paper discusses boron doping using metal oxide semiconductor structure (poly-Si/SiO2/Si). The thin SiO2 layer acts as a stopper to poly-Si removal after doping. When boron implantation is used for poly-Si doping, shallow boron-doped layers suitable for base application can be formed by wet O2-ambient drive-in. When BF2 implantation is used, shallow boron-doped layers can be formed even by N2-ambient drive-in. The surface boron concentration of boron-doped layers increases with dose and saturates, since boron concentration in poly-Si in the region near the interface with SiO2 also increases with dose and saturates. An estimate of the boron diffusion coefficient in SiO2, D(sub ox), shows that it increases by about one order of magnitude both for boron implantation with subsequent wet O2-ambient drive-in and for BF2 implantation with subsequent N2-ambient drive-in.

  6. Implementation of Low Boron Core for APR1400 Initial Cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, TaeKyun; Yang, SeungRyeol; Seong, K.B [KEPCO NF, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Low boron capability of a nuclear power plant is rather a qualitative specification requiring the nuclear power plant to be shut down by control rods alone at any time of a plant cycle according to EUR. The reduction of soluble boron is beneficial since it gives the reduction of the corrosive effects in the plant system and improves plant safety giving more negative MTC. Thus, it is necessary to reduce the amount of soluble boron for the criticality to achieve the low boron capability. However, the reduction of soluble boron has its own set of specific challenges that must be overcome. There are two methods to enable the reduction of soluble boron without modifying plant system significantly. The goal of this study is to investigate the loading pattern to achieve the soluble boron reduction for Shin-Kori Unit 5 APR1400 initial core using the low and high content gadolinia burnable absorbers with standard fuel rod enrichment and to verify the feasibility of low boron core with conventional gadolinia burnable absorbers only. For this study, KARMA has been employed to solve 2-D Transport equation, and ASTRA is used for full core analysis. It was possible to achieve the low boron core for APR1400 Cycle 1 using extended usage of two types of gadolinia burnable absorbers sacrificing fuel cycle economy a little bit while enhancing plant safety significantly. Gd rod patterns within an assembly were optimized through geometrical weighting and loading pattern was developed based on these patterns. The amount of soluble boron reduction achieved is 45.4%. The improvement in plant safety is significant resulting in the reduction of least negative best-estimate MTC by about 4 pcm. Also shutdown margin is increased slightly for low boron core. However, the behavior of axial power shape turns out to be undesirable showing a relatively large fluctuation caused by the more negative MTC. It was found that the low boron core might impose kind of operational difficulty. It is usually

  7. Boron Removal in Radioactive Liquid Waste by Forward Osmosis Membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Dooseong; Choi, Hei Min; Lee, Kune Woo; Moon Jeikwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    These wastes contain about 0.3-0.8 wt% boric acid and have been concentrated through an evaporation treatment. Boric acid tends to crystallize owing to its solubility, and to plug the evaporator. The volume reduction obtained through evaporation is limited by the amount of boric acid in the waste. As an emerging technology, forward osmosis (FO) has attracted growing interest in wastewater treatment and desalination. FO is a membrane process in which water flows across a semi-permeable membrane from a feed solution of lower osmotic pressure to a draw solution of higher osmotic pressure. However, very few studies on the removal of boron by FO have been performed. The objective of this study is to evaluate the possibility of boron separation in radioactive liquid waste by FO. In this study, the performance of FO was investigated to separate boron in the simulated liquid waste under the factors such as pH, osmotic pressure, ionic strength of the solution, and membrane characteristic. The boron separation in radioactive borate liquid waste was investigated with an FO membrane. When the feed solution containing boron is treated by the FO membrane, the boron permeation depends on the type of membrane, membrane orientation, pH of the feed solution, salt and boron concentration in the feed solution, and osmotic pressure of the draw solution. The boron flux begins to decline from pH 7, and increases with an increase in the osmotic driving force. The boron flux of the CTA-ES and ALFD membrane orientation is higher than those of the CTA-NW and ALFF orientation, respectively. The boron permeation rate is constant regardless of the osmotic pressure and membrane orientation. The boron flux decreases slightly with the salt concentration, but it is not heavily influenced at a low salt concentration.

  8. Magnetic properties of ferromagnetic nanowire arrays: Theory and experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghaddar, A; Gieraltowski, J [Laboratoire de Magnetisme de Bretagne, UBO, CNRS-FRE 3117, C. S. 93837 Brest Cedex 3 (France); Gloaguen, F, E-mail: abbas.ghaddar@univ-brest.f [Laboratoire de Chimie, Electrochimie Moleculaire et Chimie Analytique, UBO, CNRS-UMR 6521, C. S. 93837 Brest Cedex 3 (France)

    2010-01-01

    Magnetic nanowires are good candidates for microwave filters, sensors and data storage applications. An investigation of magnetic properties of single-component nanowires as a function of diameter and aspect ratio is performed in this work. Nickel nanowire (with 15 and 100 nm diameter and 6000 nm length) are grown with electrodeposition in polycarbonates templates. Two reversal modes (coherent and curling) are studied versus nanowire diameter. Magnetostatic interaction among wires and its effect on nanowire magnetic properties is also studied. Using vibrating magnetometer (VSM) and X-band ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) experiments at room temperature we infer that the interaction field H{sub c} value may vary significantly and may cause a change of magnetic easy axis orientation along geometrical wire axis (for large diameter) to an easy magnetic plane perpendicular to the nanowire axis (for small diameter).

  9. Electrochemical synthesis of CORE-shell magnetic nanowires

    KAUST Repository

    Ovejero, Jesús G.

    2015-04-16

    (Fe, Ni, CoFe) @ Au core-shell magnetic nanowires have been synthesized by optimized two-step potentiostatic electrodeposition inside self-assembled nanopores of anodic aluminium templates. The optimal electrochemical parameters (e.g., potential) have been firstly determined for the growth of continuous Au nanotubes at the inner wall of pores. Then, a magnetic core was synthesized inside the Au shells under suitable electrochemical conditions for a wide spectrum of single elements and alloy compositions (e.g., Fe, Ni and CoFe alloys). Novel opportunities offered by such nanowires are discussed particularly the magnetic behavior of (Fe, Ni, CoFe) @ Au core-shell nanowires was tested and compared with that of bare TM nanowires. These core-shell nanowires can be released from the template so, opening novel opportunities for biofunctionalization of individual nanowires.

  10. Electroless Fabrication of Cobalt Alloys Nanowires within Alumina Template

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazila Dadvand

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A new method of nanowire fabrication based on electroless deposition process is described. The method is novel compared to the current electroless procedure used in making nanowires as it involves growing nanowires from the bottom up. The length of the nanowires was controlled at will simply by adjusting the deposition time. The nanowires were fabricated within the nanopores of an alumina template. It was accomplished by coating one side of the template by a thin layer of palladium in order to activate the electroless deposition within the nanopores from bottom up. However, prior to electroless deposition process, the template was pretreated with a suitable wetting agent in order to facilitate the penetration of the plating solution through the pores. As well, the electroless deposition process combined with oblique metal evaporation process within a prestructured silicon wafer was used in order to fabricate long nanowires along one side of the grooves within the wafer.

  11. Theory of second-harmonic generation in silica nanowires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægsgaard, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    The possibility of second-harmonic generation based on surface dipole and bulk multipole nonlinearities in silica nanowires is investigated numerically. Both circular and microstructured nanowires are considered. Phase matching is provided by propagating the pump field in the fundamental mode......, while generating the second harmonic in one of the modes of the LP11 multiplet. This is shown to work in both circular and microstructured nanowires, although only one of the LP11 modes can be phase-matched in the microstructure. The prospect of obtaining large conversion efficiencies in silica......-based nanowires is critically discussed, based on simulations of second-harmonic generation in nanowires with a fluctuating phase-matching wavelength. It is concluded that efficient wavelength conversion will either require strong improvements in the nanowire uniformity, or an increase of the second...

  12. Properties of hexagonally ordered CoFe -- alloy nanowire arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fodor, Petru; Tsoi, Georgy; Wenger, Lowell

    2007-03-01

    The structural and magnetic properties of an array of micron-long Co0.45Fe0.55 alloy nanowires with diameters ranging from 12 to 52 nm electrodeposited in porous anodic alumina templates have been studied using X-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy, and magnetization measurements. The nanowires are found to crystallize in a body-centered-cubic (bcc) structure along the (110) axis for all diameters studied. The magnetization curves indicate a highly anisotropic behavior with the easy axis along the nanowire axis and a coercivity of 3500 Oe at room temperature. Results from the magnetization hysteresis and magnetic relaxation measurements suggest that the magnetization reversal takes place through localized nucleation in volumes smaller than the physical volume of the nanowires. The localization of the nucleation combined with the cooperative effects arising from magnetostatic interactions between the nanowires, limits the coercivity of the nanowire arrays.

  13. Increasing the efficiency of polymer solar cells by silicon nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhawer, B; Sensfuss, S; Sivakov, V; Pietsch, M; Andrä, G; Falk, F

    2011-08-05

    Silicon nanowires have been introduced into P3HT:[60]PCBM solar cells, resulting in hybrid organic/inorganic solar cells. A cell efficiency of 4.2% has been achieved, which is a relative improvement of 10% compared to a reference cell produced without nanowires. This increase in cell performance is possibly due to an enhancement of the electron transport properties imposed by the silicon nanowires. In this paper, we present a novel approach for introducing the nanowires by mixing them into the polymer blend and subsequently coating the polymer/nanowire blend onto a substrate. This new onset may represent a viable pathway to producing nanowire-enhanced polymer solar cells in a reel to reel process.

  14. Vertical nanowire probes for intracellular signaling of living cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ki-Young; Kim, Ilsoo; Kim, So-Eun; Jeong, Du-Won; Kim, Ju-Jin; Rhim, Hyewhon; Ahn, Jae-Pyeong; Park, Seung-Han; Choi, Heon-Jin

    2014-02-01

    The single living cell action potential was measured in an intracellular mode by using a vertical nanoelectrode. For intracellular interfacing, Si nanowires were vertically grown in a controlled manner, and optimum conditions, such as diameter, length, and nanowire density, were determined by culturing cells on the nanowires. Vertical nanowire probes were then fabricated with a complimentary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) process including sequential deposition of the passivation and electrode layers on the nanowires, and a subsequent partial etching process. The fabricated nanowire probes had an approximately 60-nm diameter and were intracellular. These probes interfaced with a GH3 cell and measured the spontaneous action potential. It successfully measured the action potential, which rapidly reached a steady state with average peak amplitude of approximately 10 mV, duration of approximately 140 ms, and period of 0.9 Hz.

  15. Synthetic Strategies and Applications of GaN Nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoquan Suo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available GaN is an important III-V semiconductor material with a direct band gap of 3.4 eV at 300 K. The wide direct band gap makes GaN an attractive material for various applications. GaN nanowires have demonstrated significant potential as fundamental building blocks for nanoelectronic and nanophotonic devices and also offer substantial promise for integrated nanosystems. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive review on the general synthetic strategies, characterizations, and applications of GaN nanowires. We first summarize several growth techniques of GaN nanowires. Subsequently, we discuss mechanisms involved to generate GaN nanowires from different synthetic schemes and conditions. Then we review some characterization methods of GaN nanowires. Finally, several kinds of main applications of GaN nanowires are discussed.

  16. Influence of Boron on transformation behavior during continuous cooling of low alloyed steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terzic, A., E-mail: Adnan.Terzic@imf.tu-freiberg.de [Technische Universität Bergakademie Freiberg, Institute of Metal Forming, Bernhard-von-Cotta-Str. 4, 09596 Freiberg (Germany); Calcagnotto, M. [Salzgitter Mannesmann Forschung GmbH, Eisenhüttenstr. 99, 38239 Salzgitter (Germany); Guk, S. [Technische Universität Bergakademie Freiberg, Institute of Metal Forming, Bernhard-von-Cotta-Str. 4, 09596 Freiberg (Germany); Schulz, T. [Salzgitter Mannesmann Forschung GmbH, Eisenhüttenstr. 99, 38239 Salzgitter (Germany); Kawalla, R. [Technische Universität Bergakademie Freiberg, Institute of Metal Forming, Bernhard-von-Cotta-Str. 4, 09596 Freiberg (Germany)

    2013-11-01

    Abstracts: The phase transformation behavior during continuous cooling of low-carbon (LC) Boron-treated steels was studied. Furthermore, the influence of combining Boron with Nb or Ti or V on transformation kinetics was investigated. Additions of Boron to LC steels have a strong influence on the ferrite transformation. By adding 30 ppm Boron to a Boron-free reference alloy the suppressing effect on the ferrite transformation is most pronounced, whereas 10 ppm Boron has almost no effect and 50 ppm Boron the same effect as 30 ppm Boron. Thereby the critical Boron concentration for transformation kinetics in this alloying concept is 30 ppm. The combination of Boron with Ti shifts the phase fields to shorter times and increase the ferrite start temperature, whereas the combination of B+V and B+Nb only affects the ferrite start temperature. Hardness values are mostly influenced by the presence of Boron and strongly depend on the cooling rate.

  17. Shape Evolution of Highly Lattice-Mismatched InN/InGaN Nanowire Heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Lifan; Hazari, Arnab; Bhattacharya, Pallab; Millunchick, Joanna M.

    2018-02-01

    We have investigated the structure and shape of GaN-based nanowires grown on (001) Si substrates for optoelectronic device applications. The nanowire heterostructures contained InN disks and In0.4Ga0.6N barrier layers in the active region. The resulting nanowire array comprised two differently shaped nanowires: shorter pencil-like nanowires and longer bead-like nanowires. The two different nanowire shapes evolve due to a variation in the In incorporation rate, which was faster for the bead-like nanowires. Both types of nanowires exhibited evidence of significant migration of both Ga and In during growth. Ga tended to diffuse away and down along the sidewalls, resulting in a Ga-rich shell for all nanowires. Despite the complex structure and great variability in the In composition, the optical properties of the nanowire arrays were very good, with strong luminescence peaking at ˜ 1.63 μm.

  18. Analysis of Critical Dimensions for Nanowire Core-Multishell Heterostructures

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Xin; Fan, Shuyu; Zhang, Xia; Ren, Xiaomin

    2015-01-01

    Critical dimensions for nanowire core-multishell heterostructures are analyzed by using finite-element method based on the energy equilibrium criteria. Results show that the nanowire core-shell heterostructure can sufficiently reduce the strain in the shell and increase the critical shell thickness. The critical dimensions for the nanowire core-multishell heterostructure are determined by the stress fields generated at two heterointerfaces. For thin barrier, the critical dimensions decrease a...

  19. Smart Core-Shell Nanowire Architectures for Multifunctional Nanoscale Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-16

    in Orlando, FL USA. “Electronic landscapes near semiconductor nanowire heterostructures ”, Department of Chemistry, Washington University of...Core-Shell Nanowire Architectures for Multifunctional Nanoscale Devices W911NF-08-1-0067 611103 Jonathan E Spanier Drexel University Office of...Hadas Shtrikman, Patrick Kung, Tsachi Livneh, Jonathan E. Spanier. Direct Measurement of Band Edge Discontinuity in Individual Core–Shell Nanowires by

  20. Abrupt Schottky Junctions in Al/Ge Nanowire Heterostructures

    OpenAIRE

    Kral, S.; Zeiner, C.; St?ger-Pollach, M.; Bertagnolli, E.; Den Hertog, M.I.; Lopez-Haro, M.; Robin, E.; El Hajraoui, K.; Lugstein, A.

    2015-01-01

    In this Letter we report on the exploration of axial metal/semiconductor (Al/Ge) nanowire heterostructures with abrupt interfaces. The formation process is enabled by a thermal induced exchange reaction between the vapor?liquid?solid grown Ge nanowire and Al contact pads due to the substantially different diffusion behavior of Ge in Al and vice versa. Temperature-dependent I?V measurements revealed the metallic properties of the crystalline Al nanowire segments with a maximum current carrying...

  1. Solar heating of GaAs nanowire solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shao-Hua; Povinelli, Michelle L

    2015-11-30

    We use a coupled thermal-optical approach to model the operating temperature rise in GaAs nanowire solar cells. We find that despite more highly concentrated light absorption and lower thermal conductivity, the overall temperature rise in a nanowire structure is no higher than in a planar structure. Moreover, coating the nanowires with a transparent polymer can increase the radiative cooling power by 2.2 times, lowering the operating temperature by nearly 7 K.

  2. In-situ doped junctionless polysilicon nanowires field effect transistors for low-cost biosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azeem Zulfiqar

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Silicon nanowire (SiNW field effect transistor based biosensors have already been proven to be a promising tool to detect biomolecules. However, the most commonly used fabrication techniques involve expensive Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI wafers, E-beam lithography and ion-implantation steps. In the work presented here, a top down approach to fabricate SiNW junctionless field effect biosensors using novel in-situ doped polysilicon is demonstrated. The p-type polysilicon is grown with an optimum boron concentration that gives a good metal-silicon electrical contact while maintaining the doping level at a low enough level to provide a good sensitivity for the biosensor. The silicon nanowires are patterned using standard photolithography and a wet etch method. The metal contacts are made from magnetron sputtered TiW and e-beam evaporation of gold. The passivation of electrodes has been done by sputtered Si3N4 which is patterned by a lift-off process. The characterization of the critical fabrication steps is done by Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (SIMS and by statistical analysis of the measurements made on the width of the SiNWs. The electrical characterization of the SiNW in air is done by sweeping the back gate voltage while keeping the source drain potential to a constant value and surface characterization is done by applying liquid gate in phosphate buffered saline (PBS solution. The fabricated SiNWs sensors functionalized with (3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES have demonstrated good sensitivity in detecting different pH buffer solutions.

  3. Raman Spectroscopy of InAs Based Nanowires & Electronic Characterization of Heterostructure InAs/GaInAs Nanowires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanta, Rawa

    The work presented in this thesis represents two main topics. The first one, which covers a bigger volume of the thesis, is mainly about Raman spectroscopy on individual InAs based nanowires. The second part presents electronic characterization of heterostructure InAs/GaInAs nanowires. Raman...... modes. In the last chapter of this thesis we present a study on electrical characterization of InAs/GaInAs heterostructure nanowires. First, we performed selective etching experiments in order to locate the barriers. Second, the barriers were probed electrically by performing thermally activated...... spectroscopy measurements on InAs based nanowires include several topics. Firstly, we use polarized Raman spectroscopy for determining the crystal orientation of the nanowires based on conventional Raman selection rules. We studied the effect of the high power laser irradiation on the nanowire, and its...

  4. Electronic homogeneity of nanowire heterostructure Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selcu, Camelia; May, Brelon J.; Sarwar, A. T. M. Golam; Myers, Roberto C.

    In addition to low defect densities and great tunability bandgap within a single heterostructure, the possibility of growing (Al, In,_) GaN nanowire heterostructure LEDs on different substrates while maintaining their high electronic and optical properties makes them very attractive. We investigated the electronic homogeneity of the (Al, In,_) GaN nanowire ensemble by acquiring current maps at certain applied biases using conductive AFM. By taken IVs on individual nanowires, we found that different wires have different turn on voltages and that some of the nanowires degrade due to the applied bias.

  5. Characterization of polymer nanowires fabricated using the nanoimprint method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viphavakit, Charusluk; Atthi, Nithi; Boonruang, Sakoolkan; Themistos, Christos; Mohammed, Waleed S.; Kalli, Kyriacos; Rahman, B. M. Azizur; Komodromos, Michael

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, an ormocomp polymer nanowire with possible use in integrated-optics sensing applications is presented. We discuss the structure design, the fabrication process and present results of the simulation and characterization of the optical field profile. Since the nanowires are designed and intended to be used as integrated optics devices, they are attached to tapered and feed waveguides at their ends. The fabrication process in this work is based mainly on the nanoimprint technique. The method assumes a silicon nanowire as an original pattern, and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) as thesoft mold. The PDMS mold is directly imprinted on the ormocomp layer and then cured by UV light to form the polymer based nanowire. The ormocomp nanowires are fabricated to have various dimensions of width and length at a fixed 500nm thickness. The length of the nanowires is varied from 250 µm to 2 mm, whereas the width of the structures is varied between 500nm and 1µm. The possible optical mode field profile that occurs in the proposed polymer nanowire design is studied using the H-field finite element method (FEM). In the characterization part, the optical field profile and the intensity at the device output are the main focus of this paper. The various lengths of the nanowires show different characteristics in term of output intensity. An image processing is used to process the image to obtain the intensity of the output signal. A comparison of the optical field and output intensity for each polymer nanowire is also discussed.

  6. Permanent bending and alignment of ZnO nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borschel, Christian; Spindler, Susann; Oertel, Michael; Ronning, Carsten [Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet Jena, Max-Wien-Platz 1, 07743 Jena (Germany); Lerose, Damiana [MPI fuer Mikrostrukturphysik, Weinberg 2, 06120 Halle/Saale (Germany); Institut fuer Photonische Technologien, Albert-Einstein-Strasse 9, 07745 Jena (Germany); Bochmann, Arne [Institut fuer Photonische Technologien, Albert-Einstein-Strasse 9, 07745 Jena (Germany); Christiansen, Silke H. [Institut fuer Photonische Technologien, Albert-Einstein-Strasse 9, 07745 Jena (Germany); MPI fuer die Physik des Lichts, Guenther-Scharowsky-Str. 1, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Nietzsche, Sandor [Zentrum fuer Elektronenmikroskopie, Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet Jena, Ziegelmuehlenweg 1, 07743 Jena (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Ion beams can be used to bend or re-align nanowires permanently, after they have been grown. We have irradiated ZnO nanowires with ions of different species and energy, achieving bending and alignment in various directions. We study the bending of single nanowires as well as the simultaneous alignment of large ensembles of ZnO nanowires in detail. Computer simulations show that the bending is initiated by ion beam induced damage. Dislocations are identified to relax stresses and make the bending and alignment permanent and resistant against annealing procedures.

  7. Cavity modes of tapered ZnO nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Xiulai; Brossard, Frederic S F; Williams, David A [Hitachi Cambridge Laboratory, Hitachi Europe Ltd, JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Collins, Daniel P; Holmes, Mark J; Taylor, Robert A [Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Zhang Xitian, E-mail: xx757@cam.ac.u, E-mail: xtzhangzhang@hotmail.co [Heilongjiang Key Laboratory for Advanced Functional Materials and Excited State Processes, School of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Harbin Normal University, Harbin 150025 (China)

    2010-08-15

    We report on a cavity mode mapping of ZnO tapered nanowires using micro-photoluminescence spectroscopy at room temperature. Both the Fabry-Perot (FP) and the whispering gallery (WG) modes are identified in a single wire. The emission spectra from single nanowires comprise regular Lorentzian peaks, which arise from the FP interference between the ends of the nanowire. The overall intensity along the tapered wire varies periodically. This variation is ascribed to WG mode resonances across the nanowire. The results agree well with the theoretical calculations using the finite-difference time-domain method.

  8. Single-crystalline vanadium dioxide nanowires with rectangular cross sections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiton, Beth S; Gu, Qian; Prieto, Amy L; Gudiksen, Mark S; Park, Hongkun

    2005-01-19

    We report the synthesis of single-crystalline VO2 nanowires with rectangular cross sections using a vapor transport method. These nanowires have typical diameters of 60 (+/-30) nm and lengths up to >10 mum. Electron microscopy and diffraction measurements show that the VO2 nanowires are single crystalline and exhibit a monoclinic structure. Moreover, they preferentially grow along the [100] direction and are bounded by the (01) and (011) facets. These VO2 nanowires should provide promising materials for fundamental investigations of nanoscale metal-insulator transitions.

  9. Aluminum-catalyzed silicon nanowires: Growth methods, properties, and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hainey, Mel F.; Redwing, Joan M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Research Institute, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States)

    2016-12-15

    Metal-mediated vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth is a promising approach for the fabrication of silicon nanowires, although residual metal incorporation into the nanowires during growth can adversely impact electronic properties particularly when metals such as gold and copper are utilized. Aluminum, which acts as a shallow acceptor in silicon, is therefore of significant interest for the growth of p-type silicon nanowires but has presented challenges due to its propensity for oxidation. This paper summarizes the key aspects of aluminum-catalyzed nanowire growth along with wire properties and device results. In the first section, aluminum-catalyzed nanowire growth is discussed with a specific emphasis on methods to mitigate aluminum oxide formation. Next, the influence of growth parameters such as growth temperature, precursor partial pressure, and hydrogen partial pressure on nanowire morphology is discussed, followed by a brief review of the growth of templated and patterned arrays of nanowires. Aluminum incorporation into the nanowires is then discussed in detail, including measurements of the aluminum concentration within wires using atom probe tomography and assessment of electrical properties by four point resistance measurements. Finally, the use of aluminum-catalyzed VLS growth for device fabrication is reviewed including results on single-wire radial p-n junction solar cells and planar solar cells fabricated with nanowire/nanopyramid texturing.

  10. Au nanowire junction breakup through surface atom diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigonski, Simon; Jansson, Ville; Vlassov, Sergei; Polyakov, Boris; Baibuz, Ekaterina; Oras, Sven; Aabloo, Alvo; Djurabekova, Flyura; Zadin, Vahur

    2018-01-01

    Metallic nanowires are known to break into shorter fragments due to the Rayleigh instability mechanism. This process is strongly accelerated at elevated temperatures and can completely hinder the functioning of nanowire-based devices like e.g. transparent conductive and flexible coatings. At the same time, arranged gold nanodots have important applications in electrochemical sensors. In this paper we perform a series of annealing experiments of gold and silver nanowires and nanowire junctions at fixed temperatures 473, 673, 873 and 973 K (200 °C, 400 °C, 600 °C and 700 °C) during a time period of 10 min. We show that nanowires are especially prone to fragmentation around junctions and crossing points even at comparatively low temperatures. The fragmentation process is highly temperature dependent and the junction region breaks up at a lower temperature than a single nanowire. We develop a gold parametrization for kinetic Monte Carlo simulations and demonstrate the surface diffusion origin of the nanowire junction fragmentation. We show that nanowire fragmentation starts at the junctions with high reliability and propose that aligning nanowires in a regular grid could be used as a technique for fabricating arrays of nanodots.

  11. Synthesis and Elastic Characterization of Zinc Oxide Nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Manoharan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Zinc oxide nanowires, nanobelts, and nanoneedles were synthesized using the vapor-liquid-solid technique. Young's modulus of the nanowires was measured by performing cantilever bending experiments on individual nanowires in situ inside a scanning electron microscope. The nanowires tested had diameters in the range of 200–750 nm. The average Young's modulus, measured to be 40 GPa, is about 30% of that reported at the bulk scale. The experimental results are discussed in light of the pronounced electromechanical coupling due to the piezoelectric nature of the material.

  12. Aluminum-catalyzed silicon nanowires: Growth methods, properties, and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hainey, Mel F.; Redwing, Joan M.

    2016-12-01

    Metal-mediated vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth is a promising approach for the fabrication of silicon nanowires, although residual metal incorporation into the nanowires during growth can adversely impact electronic properties particularly when metals such as gold and copper are utilized. Aluminum, which acts as a shallow acceptor in silicon, is therefore of significant interest for the growth of p-type silicon nanowires but has presented challenges due to its propensity for oxidation. This paper summarizes the key aspects of aluminum-catalyzed nanowire growth along with wire properties and device results. In the first section, aluminum-catalyzed nanowire growth is discussed with a specific emphasis on methods to mitigate aluminum oxide formation. Next, the influence of growth parameters such as growth temperature, precursor partial pressure, and hydrogen partial pressure on nanowire morphology is discussed, followed by a brief review of the growth of templated and patterned arrays of nanowires. Aluminum incorporation into the nanowires is then discussed in detail, including measurements of the aluminum concentration within wires using atom probe tomography and assessment of electrical properties by four point resistance measurements. Finally, the use of aluminum-catalyzed VLS growth for device fabrication is reviewed including results on single-wire radial p-n junction solar cells and planar solar cells fabricated with nanowire/nanopyramid texturing.

  13. 1D-transport properties of single superconducting lead nanowires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michotte, S.; Mátéfi-Tempfli, Stefan; Piraux, L.

    2003-01-01

    We report on the transport properties of single superconducting lead nanowires grown by an electrodeposition technique, embedded in a nanoporous track-etched polymer membrane. The nanowires are granular, have uniform diameter of ̃40 nm and a very large aspect ratio (̃500). The diameter of the nan......We report on the transport properties of single superconducting lead nanowires grown by an electrodeposition technique, embedded in a nanoporous track-etched polymer membrane. The nanowires are granular, have uniform diameter of ̃40 nm and a very large aspect ratio (̃500). The diameter...

  14. Deformation mechanisms of Cu nanowires with planar defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xia; Yang, Haixia; Cui, Junzhi; Yu, Xingang; Wan, Rui

    2015-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations are used to investigate the mechanical behavior of Cu nanowires (NWs) with planar defects such as grain boundaries (GBs), twin boundaries (TBs), stacking faults (SFs), etc. To investigate how the planar defects affect the deformation and fracture mechanisms of naowires, three types of nanowires are considered in this paper: (1) polycrystalline Cu nanowire; (2) single-crystalline Cu nanowire with twin boundaries; and (3) single-crystalline Cu nanowire with stacking faults. Because of the large fraction of atoms at grain boundaries, the energy of grain boundaries is higher than that of the grains. Thus, grain boundaries are proved to be the preferred sites for dislocations to nucleate. Moreover, necking and fracture prefer to occur at the grain boundary interface owing to the weakness of grain boundaries. For Cu nanowires in the presence of twin boundaries, it is found that twin boundaries can strength nanowires due to the restriction of the movement of dislocations. The pile up of dislocations on twin boundaries makes them rough, inducing high energy in twin boundaries. Hence, twin boundaries can emit dislocations, and necking initiates at twin boundaries. In the case of Cu nanowires with stacking faults, all pre-existing stacking faults in the nanowires are observed to disappear during deformation, giving rise to a fracture process resembling the samples without stacking fault.

  15. Synthesis of Single Crystal GaN Nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lining Fang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The straight and curved gallium nitride (GaN nanowires were successfully synthesized by controlling the gallium/ nitrogen reactant ratio via a chemical vapour deposition method. The structure and morphology of nanowires were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, transmission electronic microscopy (TEM, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM, selected area electron diffraction (SAED and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM. The straight and curved GaN nanowires are composed of wurtzite and a zinc blende structure, respectively. Photoluminescence (PL spectra of zinc blende GaN nanowires showed a strong UV emission band at 400 nm, indicating potential application in optoe‐ lectronic devices.

  16. The impact of nanocontact on nanowire based nanoelectronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yen-Fu; Jian, Wen-Bin

    2008-10-01

    Nanowire-based nanoelectronic devices will be innovative electronic building blocks from bottom up. The reduced nanocontact area of nanowire devices magnifies the contribution of contact electrical properties. Although a lot of two-contact-based ZnO nanoelectronics have been demonstrated, the electrical properties bringing either from the nanocontacts or from the nanowires have not been considered yet. High quality ZnO nanowires with a small deviation and an average diameter of 38 nm were synthesized to fabricate more than thirty nanowire devices. According to temperature behaviors of current-voltage curves and resistances, the devices could be grouped into three types. Type I devices expose thermally activated transport in ZnO nanowires and they could be considered as two Ohmic nanocontacts of the Ti electrode contacting directly on the nanowire. For those nanowire devices having a high resistance at room temperatures, they can be fitted accurately with the thermionic-emission theory and classified into type II and III devices according to their rectifying and symmetrical current-voltage behaviors. The type II device has only one deteriorated nanocontact and the other one Ohmic contact on single ZnO nanowire. An insulating oxide layer with thickness less than 20 nm should be introduced to describe electron hopping in the nanocontacts, so as to signalize one- and high-dimensional hopping conduction in type II and III devices.

  17. Synthesis and Growth Mechanism of Ni Nanotubes and Nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yiqian

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Highly ordered Ni nanotube and nanowire arrays were fabricated via electrodeposition. The Ni microstructures and the process of the formation were investigated using conventional and high-resolution transmission electron microscope. Herein, we demonstrated the systematic fabrication of Ni nanotube and nanowire arrays and proposed an original growth mechanism. With the different deposition time, nanotubes or nanowires can be obtained. Tubular nanostructures can be obtained at short time, while nanowires take longer time to form. This formation mechanism is applicable to design and synthesize other metal nanostructures and even compound nanostuctures via template-based electrodeposition.

  18. Flexible integration of free-standing nanowires into silicon photonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bigeng; Wu, Hao; Xin, Chenguang; Dai, Daoxin; Tong, Limin

    2017-06-14

    Silicon photonics has been developed successfully with a top-down fabrication technique to enable large-scale photonic integrated circuits with high reproducibility, but is limited intrinsically by the material capability for active or nonlinear applications. On the other hand, free-standing nanowires synthesized via a bottom-up growth present great material diversity and structural uniformity, but precisely assembling free-standing nanowires for on-demand photonic functionality remains a great challenge. Here we report hybrid integration of free-standing nanowires into silicon photonics with high flexibility by coupling free-standing nanowires onto target silicon waveguides that are simultaneously used for precise positioning. Coupling efficiency between a free-standing nanowire and a silicon waveguide is up to ~97% in the telecommunication band. A hybrid nonlinear-free-standing nanowires-silicon waveguides Mach-Zehnder interferometer and a racetrack resonator for significantly enhanced optical modulation are experimentally demonstrated, as well as hybrid active-free-standing nanowires-silicon waveguides circuits for light generation. These results suggest an alternative approach to flexible multifunctional on-chip nanophotonic devices.Precisely assembling free-standing nanowires for on-demand photonic functionality remains a challenge. Here, Chen et al. integrate free-standing nanowires into silicon waveguides and show all-optical modulation and light generation on silicon photonic chips.

  19. Nanomanufacturing of silica nanowires: Synthesis, characterization and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekhar, Praveen Kumar

    In this research, selective and bottom-up manufacturing of silica nanowires on silicon (Si) and its applications has been investigated. Localized synthesis of these nanowires on Si was achieved by metal thin film catalysis and metal ion implantation based seeding approach. The growth mechanism of the nanowires followed a vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) mechanism. Mass manufacturing aspects such as growth rate, re-usability of the substrate and experimental growth model were also investigated. Further, silica nanowires were explored as surface enhanced Raman (SER) substrate and immunoassay templates towards optical and electrochemical detection of cancer biomarkers respectively. Investigating their use in photonic applications, optically active silica nanowires were synthesized by erbium implantation after nanowire growth and implantation of erbium as a metal catalyst in Si to seed the nanowires. Ion implantation of Pd in Si and subsequent annealing in Ar at 1100 0 C for 60 mins in an open tube furnace resulted in silica nanowires of diameters ranging from 15 to 90 nm. Similarly, Pt was sputtered on to Si and further annealed to obtain silica nanowires of diameters ranging from 50 to 500 nm. Transmission electron microscopy studies revealed the amorphous nature of the wires. In addition, nano-sized Pd catalyst was found along the body of the nanowires seeded by Pd implantation into Si. After functionalization of the wires with 3 - AminoPropylTriMethoxySilane (APTMS), the Pd decorated silica nanowires served as an SER substrate exhibiting a sensitivity of 10 7 towards the detection of interleukin-10 (IL-10, a cancer biomarker) with higher spatial resolution. Voltammetric detection of IL-10 involved silica nanowires synthesized by Pd thin film catalysis on Si as an immunoassay template. Using the electrochemical scheme, the presence of IL-10 was detected down to 1fg/mL in ideal pure solution and 1 pg/mL in clinically relevant samples. Time resolved photoluminescence (PL

  20. Nanofabrication of structures for the study of nanowire doping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichfeld, Chad

    A variety of techniques were developed for the characterization of nanowires and applied to the study of nanowire growth and dopant incorporation. A technique to selectively plate gold on the n-type regions of modulation-doped silicon nanowires for junction delineation was developed. The ability to electrolessly deposit metal on segments of nanowires could also facilitate electrical contact formation. More complicated structures such as controlled placement of forks along the nanowire could be made by placement of the gold catalyst at predetermined locations along a nanowire followed by a second growth. Additionally, a process was developed that focuses on using this plating ability to grow silicon nanowires horizontally from pre-determined locations. The processing was worked out and nanowires were grown horizontally from plated gold, but the selectivity of gold limited the ability to grow wires in only the desired locations. A silicon nanowire local electrode atom probe test structure is discussed from the initial design steps to successfully using the test structure to analyze silicon nanowires. Initial results using laser pulsed assisted local electrode atom probe indicated that the thermal properties of the nanowire prevent the tip from cooling fast enough and resulted in large thermal tails in the mass spectra. Thermal modeling was used to identify what nanowire diameters and metal coatings would allow the nanowire tip to cool sufficiently fast. A silver catalyzed silicon nanowire with a diameter large enough to allow for sufficient cooling was analyzed, and the concentration of silver in the silicon nanowire was below the detection limit of 10 ppm or 5 x 10 17 cm-3. The growth and characterization of Al catalyzed silicon nanowires is also discussed. Nanowires were grown at higher pressures and using H 2 as a carrier gas resulting in much higher growth rates than previously observed for Al catalyzed nanowires in the literature. The nanowires were

  1. Research on weed species for phytoremediation of boron polluted soil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-09-15

    Sep 15, 2009 ... This research was aimed to investigate the application of weed species for phytoremediation of soil polluted with boron. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to study the effect of increasing boron. (B) application on the growth and B uptake of common weed species, Sorghum halepense L. Pers.,.

  2. Finite Element Analysis Of Boron Diffusion In Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krabbenhøft, Kristian; Hoffmeyer, Preben; Bechgaard, Carl

    2002-01-01

    The coupled heat and mass transfer equations for air, water and heat transfer are supplemented with a conservation equation for an additional species representing the concentration of boron in wood. Boundary conditions for wood-air. wood-soil and wood-boron interfaces arc discussed and finally...

  3. Progress in preparation, properties and application of boron nitride nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Youjun; Han, Jiaqi; Li, Yanjiao; Chen, Hao

    2017-08-01

    Boron nitride nanomaterials have attracted much and more interest in scientific research workers because of their excellent physical and chemical properties. They have become an important research hotspot in today's materials field. In this paper, boron nitride nanoparticles, "fullerenes", nanotubes, nanoribbons and Nano sheets were reviewed in terms of preparation methods, properties and potential applications.

  4. BORON NITRIDE CAPACITORS FOR ADVANCED POWER ELECTRONIC DEVICES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N. Badi; D. Starikov; C. Boney; A. Bensaoula; D. Johnstone

    2010-11-01

    This project fabricates long-life boron nitride/boron oxynitride thin film -based capacitors for advanced SiC power electronics with a broad operating temperature range using a physical vapor deposition (PVD) technique. The use of vapor deposition provides for precise control and quality material formation.

  5. Effect of boron on growth criteria of some wheat cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Metwally

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Toxic soil concentrations of the essential micronutrient boron (B represent major limitations to crop production worldwide. Plants have a range of defense systems that might be involved in their affinity to resist and tolerate nutrients stress.Materials and methods: The experiments were carried out to study the differential responses in five wheat cultivars to boron toxicity. Results: The fresh and dry matter yield of the test wheat cultivars showed marked decrease as the concentration of boron was increased. Elevated concentration of boron had a notable inhibitory effect on the biosynthesis of pigments fractions in the test wheat cultivars as severely as dry matter gain. The adverse concentration effects of boron on some metabolic responses were clearly displayed by shoot and root systems, exhibited in the elevated rates of proline, hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde formation. Potassium leakage was severely affected by boron-stress in some cultivars at all tested concentrations, while in some others a moderate damage was manifested only at the higher boron concentrations.Conclusions: Sakha 93 out of all the different cultivars investigated was found to display the lowest sensitivity to boron-stress, while Gemmeza 9 was the most sensitive one.

  6. Activation and deprotection of F-BODIPYs using boron trihalides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundrigan, Travis; Cameron, T Stanley; Thompson, Alison

    2014-07-07

    The activation of F-BODIPYs with boron trihalides, followed by treatment with a nucleophile, effects facile substitution at boron; using water as the nucleophile promotes deprotective removal of the -BF2 moiety and thereby production of the corresponding parent dipyrrin salt in quantitative yield under extremely mild conditions.

  7. New applications of the interaction between diols and boronic acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duval, F.L.

    2015-01-01

    Florine Duval - New applications of the interaction between diols and boronic acids – Summary Chapter 1 introduces the theory and known applications of the interaction between boronic acids and diols, and explains the context of this thesis. Diagnosis of

  8. Multidimensional potential of boron-containing molecules in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    However, their potential for further applications such as optically interesting effects such as Non-Linear Optics (NLO), medical uses for Boron Neutron Capture ... Among such materials are organoboron compounds in which the prototypical electron deficient (10B, 11B) boron vs. carbon centers can accept and help to ...

  9. Low-dimensional boron structures based on icosahedron B12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kah, C. B.; Yu, M.; Tandy, P.; Jayanthi, C. S.; Wu, S. Y.

    2015-10-01

    One-dimensional icosahedral boron chains and two-dimensional icosahedral boron sheets (icosahedral α, δ6, and δ4 sheets) that contain icosahedra B12 as their building units have been predicted in a computer simulation study using a state-of-the-art semi-empirical Hamiltonian. These novel low-dimensional icosahedral structures exhibit interesting bonding and electronic properties. Specifically, the three-center, two-electron bonding between icosahedra B12 of the boron bulk (rhombohedral boron) transforms into a two-center bonding in these new allotropes of boron sheets. In contrast to the previously reported stable buckled α and triangular boron monolayer sheets, these new allotropes of boron sheets form a planar network. Calculations of electronic density of states (DOS) reveal a semiconducting nature for both the icosahedral chain and the icosahedral δ6 and δ4 sheets, as well as a nearly gapless (or metallic-like) feature in the DOS for the icosahedral α sheet. The results for the energy barrier per atom between the icosahedral δ6 and α sheets (0.17 eV), the icosahedral δ6 and δ4 sheets (0.38 eV), and the icosahedral α and δ4 sheets (0.27 eV), as indicated in the respective parentheses, suggest that these new allotropes of boron sheets are relatively stable.

  10. Modelling boron-lined proportional counter response to neutrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahri, A; Ghal-Eh, N; Etaati, G R

    2013-09-01

    The detailed Monte Carlo simulation of a boron-lined proportional counter response to a neutron source has been presented. The MCNP4C and experimental data on different source-moderator geometries have been given for comparison. The influence of different irradiation geometries and boron-lining thicknesses on the detector response has been studied.

  11. Boron Diffusion in Surface-Treated Framing Lumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia K. Lebow; Stan T. Lebow; Steven A. Halverson

    2013-01-01

    The extent of boron penetration in framing lumber treated by spray applications during construction is not well quantified. This study evaluated the effect of formulation and concentration on diffusion of boron in lumber specimens that were equilibrated in conditions that produced wood moisture contents of 18 to 21 percent. One set of specimens was pressure treated...

  12. Growing evidence for human health benefits of boron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Growing evidence from numerous laboratories using a variety of experimental models shows that boron is a bioactive beneficial, perhaps essential, element for humans. Reported beneficial actions of boron include arthritis alleviation or risk reduction; bone growth and maintenance; central nervous sys...

  13. Synthesis of boron nitride from boron containing poly(vinyl alcohol ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    cal resistivity and high thermal conductivity (Li et al 2005). Recently, h-BN has been utilized as a raw material for ceramic composites to improve machinability and thermal shock resistance (Li et al 2005). Various production methods of boron nitride have been reported in the literature (Fister 1985; Brozek and Hubacek.

  14. Dietary boron: progress in establishing essential roles in human physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Curtiss D

    2012-06-01

    This review summarizes the progress made in establishing essential roles for boron in human physiology and assesses that progress in view of criteria for essentiality of elements. The evidence to date suggests that humans and at least some higher animals may use boron to support normal biological functions. These include roles in calcium metabolism, bone growth and maintenance, insulin metabolism, and completion of the life cycle. The biochemical mechanisms responsible for these effects are poorly understood but the nature of boron biochemistry suggests further characterization of the cell signaling molecules capable of complexing with boron. Such characterization may provide insights into the biochemical function(s) of boron in humans. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Investigation of boron segregation in low carbon steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Lis

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Traces of born in the range 0,002-0,009 % are usually added to many grades of steel. The effect of boron on phase transformations and hardenability of low carbon low alloy steels depends on the form of its behavior in solid solution either in segregations or in precipitations. Temperature and cooling rate determine the existence of boron segregations on grain boundaries. In present paper simulations of boron concentrations were calculated with computer programme DICTRA for low carbon 0,08 %C steel with 0,006 % boron. Investigations were carried out for temperature 1300 – 700°C and cooling rates from 1°C/s to 100°C/s. The changes of boron concentrations in austenite and ferrite after commencement of γ→α phase transformation were established.

  16. Morphological and electrochemical studies of spherical boron doped diamond electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendes de Barros, R.C. [IQ/USP, Av. Lineu Prestes, 748, Bloco 2 Superior, Cidade Universitaria, Sao Paulo/SP, 05508-900 (Brazil); Ferreira, N.G. [LAS/INPE, Av. dos Astronautas, 1758, Jardim da Granja, Sao Jose dos Campos/SP, 12245-970 (Brazil); Azevedo, A.F. [LAS/INPE, Av. dos Astronautas, 1758, Jardim da Granja, Sao Jose dos Campos/SP, 12245-970 (Brazil); Corat, E.J. [LAS/INPE, Av. dos Astronautas, 1758, Jardim da Granja, Sao Jose dos Campos/SP, 12245-970 (Brazil); Sumodjo, P.T.A. [IQ/USP, Av. Lineu Prestes, 748, Bloco 2 Superior, Cidade Universitaria, Sao Paulo/SP, 05508-900 (Brazil); Serrano, S.H.P. [IQ/USP, Av. Lineu Prestes, 748, Bloco 2 Superior, Cidade Universitaria, Sao Paulo/SP, 05508-900 (Brazil)]. E-mail: shps@iq.usp.br

    2006-08-14

    Morphological and electrochemical characteristics of boron doped diamond electrode in new geometric shape are presented. The main purpose of this study is a comparison among voltammetric behavior of planar glassy carbon electrode (GCE), planar boron doped diamond electrode (PDDE) and spherical boron doped diamond electrode (SDDE), obtained from similar experimental parameters. SDDE was obtained by the growth of boron doped film on textured molybdenum tip. This electrode does not present microelectrode characteristics. However, its voltammetric peak current, determined at low scan rates, is largest associated to the smallest {delta}E {sub p} values for ferrocyanide system when compared with PDDE or GCE. In addition, the capacitance is about 200 times smaller than that for GCE. These results show that the analytical performance of boron doped diamond electrodes can be implemented just by the change of sensor geometry, from plane to spherical shape.

  17. Safety Assessment of Boron Nitride as Used in Cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiume, Monice M; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2015-01-01

    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) assessed the safety of boron nitride which functions in cosmetics as a slip modifier (ie, it has a lubricating effect). Boron nitride is an inorganic compound with a crystalline form that can be hexagonal, spherical, or cubic; the hexagonal form is presumed to be used in cosmetics. The highest reported concentration of use of boron nitride is 25% in eye shadow formulations. Although boron nitride nanotubes are produced, boron nitride is not listed as a nanomaterial used in cosmetic formulations. The Panel reviewed available chemistry, animal data, and clinical data and concluded that this ingredient is safe in the present practices of use and concentration in cosmetic formulations. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Additive Manufacturing of Dense Hexagonal Boron Nitride Objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marquez Rossy, Andres E [ORNL; Armstrong, Beth L [ORNL; Elliott, Amy M [ORNL; Lara-Curzio, Edgar [ORNL

    2017-05-12

    The feasibility of manufacturing hexagonal boron nitride objects via additive manufacturing techniques was investigated. It was demonstrated that it is possible to hot-extrude thermoplastic filaments containing uniformly distributed boron nitride particles with a volume concentration as high as 60% and that these thermoplastic filaments can be used as feedstock for 3D-printing objects using a fused deposition system. Objects 3D-printed by fused deposition were subsequently sintered at high temperature to obtain dense ceramic products. In a parallel study the behavior of hexagonal boron nitride in aqueous solutions was investigated. It was shown that the addition of a cationic dispersant to an azeotrope enabled the formulation of slurries with a volume concentration of boron nitride as high as 33%. Although these slurries exhibited complex rheological behavior, the results from this study are encouraging and provide a pathway for manufacturing hexagonal boron nitride objects via robocasting.

  19. Salinity’s influence on boron toxicity in broccoli: II. Impacts on boron uptake, uptake mechanisms and tissue ion relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limited research has been conducted on the interactive effects of salinity and boron stresses on plants despite their common occurrence in natural systems. The purpose of this research was to determine and quantify the interactive effects of salinity, salt composition and boron on broccoli (Brassica...

  20. pH dependent salinity-boron interactions impact yield, biomass, evapotranspiration and boron uptake in broccoli (Brassica oleracea L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil pH is known to influence many important biochemical processes in plants and soils, however its role in salinity - boron interactions affecting plant growth and ion relations has not been examined. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the interactive effects of salinity, boron and soil ...

  1. Ion implantation of boron in germanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, K.S.

    1985-05-01

    Ion implantation of /sup 11/B/sup +/ into room temperature Ge samples leads to a p-type layer prior to any post implant annealing steps. Variable temperature Hall measurements and deep level transient spectroscopy experiments indicate that room temperature implantation of /sup 11/B/sup +/ into Ge results in 100% of the boron ions being electrically active as shallow acceptor, over the entire dose range (5 x 10/sup 11//cm/sup 2/ to 1 x 10/sup 14//cm/sup 2/) and energy range (25 keV to 100 keV) investigated, without any post implant annealing. The concentration of damage related acceptor centers is only 10% of the boron related, shallow acceptor center concentration for low energy implants (25 keV), but becomes dominant at high energies (100 keV) and low doses (<1 x 10/sup 12//cm/sup 2/). Three damage related hole traps are produced by ion implantation of /sup 11/B/sup +/. Two of these hole traps have also been observed in ..gamma..-irradiated Ge and may be oxygen-vacancy related defects, while the third trap may be divacancy related. All three traps anneal out at low temperatures (<300/sup 0/C). Boron, from room temperature implantation of BF/sub 2//sup +/ into Ge, is not substitutionally active prior to a post implant annealing step of 250/sup 0/C for 30 minutes. After annealing additional shallow acceptors are observed in BF/sub 2//sup +/ implanted samples which may be due to fluorine or flourine related complexes which are electrically active.

  2. Boron stress response and accumulation potential of the extremely tolerant species Puccinellia frigida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rámila, Consuelo d.P. [Departamento de Ingeniería Hidráulica y Ambiental, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Avenida Vicuña Mackenna 4860, 7820436 Santiago (Chile); Contreras, Samuel A.; Di Domenico, Camila [Facultad de Agronomía e Ingeniería Forestal, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Avenida Vicuña Mackenna 4860, 7820436 Santiago (Chile); Molina-Montenegro, Marco A. [Centro de Estudios Avanzados en Zonas Áridas (CEAZA), Facultad de Ciencias del Mar, Universidad Católica del Norte, Larrondo 1281, Coquimbo (Chile); Instituto de Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad de Talca, Avda. Lircay s/n, Talca (Chile); Vega, Andrea [Facultad de Agronomía e Ingeniería Forestal, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Avenida Vicuña Mackenna 4860, 7820436 Santiago (Chile); Handford, Michael [Departmento de Biología, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Avenida Las Palmeras 3425, 7800024 Santiago (Chile); Bonilla, Carlos A. [Departamento de Ingeniería Hidráulica y Ambiental, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Avenida Vicuña Mackenna 4860, 7820436 Santiago (Chile); Centro de Desarrollo Urbano Sustentable (CEDEUS), Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Avenida Vicuña Mackenna 4860, 7820436 Santiago (Chile); and others

    2016-11-05

    Highlights: • P. frigida presents an extremely high boron toxicity threshold. • Restricting uptake and internal tolerance mechanisms could confer boron tolerance. • P. frigida is a boron hyperaccumulator over a wide range of concentrations. • The species has potential for phytoremediation purposes. - Abstract: Phytoremediation is a promising technology to tackle boron toxicity, which restricts agricultural activities in many arid and semi-arid areas. Puccinellia frigida is a perennial grass that was reported to hyperaccumulate boron in extremely boron-contaminated sites. To further investigate its potential for phytoremediation, we determined its response to boron stress under controlled conditions (hydroponic culture). Also, as a first step towards understanding the mechanisms underlying its extreme tolerance, we evaluated the presence and expression of genes related with boron tolerance. We found that P. frigida grew normally even at highly toxic boron concentrations in the medium (500 mg/L), and within its tissues (>5000 mg/kg DW). We postulate that the strategies conferring this extreme tolerance involve both restricting boron accumulation and an internal tolerance mechanism; this is consistent with the identification of putative genes involved in both mechanisms, including the expression of a possible boron efflux transporter. We also found that P. frigida hyperaccumulated boron over a wide range of boron concentrations. We propose that P. frigida could be used for boron phytoremediation strategies in places with different soil characteristics and boron concentrations. Further studies should pave the way for the development of clean and low-cost solutions to boron toxicity problems.

  3. Synthesis of a boron modified phenolic resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparecida M. Kawamoto

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic resin has long been used as matrix for composites mainly because of its flame retardant behavior and high char yield after pyrolysis, which results in a self supporting structure. The addition of ceramic powders, such as SiC and B4C, as fillers to the phenolic resin, results in better thermo-oxidative stability, but as drawbacks, it has poor homogeneity, adhesion and processing difficulties during molding of the composites. The addition of single elements, such as boron, silicon and phosphorus in the main backbone of the thermo-set resin is a new strategy to obtain special high performance resins, which results in higher mechanical properties, avoiding the drawbacks of simply adding fillers, which results in enhanced thermo-oxidative stability compared to conventional phenol-formaldehyde resins. Therefore, the product can have several applications, including the use as ablative thermal protection for thermo-structural composites. This work describes the preparation of a boron-modified phenolic resin (BPR using salicyl alcohol and boric acid. The reaction was performed in refluxing toluene for a period of four hours, which produced a very high viscosity amber resin in 90% yield.The final structure of the compound, the boric acid double, substituted at the hydroxyl group of the aromatic ring, was determined with the help of the Infrared Spectroscopy, ¹H-NMR, TGA-DSC and boron elemental analysis. The absorption band of the group B-O at 1349 cm ˉ¹ can be visualized at the FT-IR spectrum. ¹H-NMR spectra showed peaks at 4.97-5.04 ppm and 3.60-3.90 ppm assigned to belong to CH2OH groups from the alcohol. The elemental analysis was also performed for boron determination.The product has also been tested in carbon and silicon fibers composite for the use in thermal structure. The results of the tests showed composites with superior mechanical properties when compared with the conventional phenolic resin.

  4. Method for exfoliation of hexagonal boron nitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yi (Inventor); Connell, John W. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A new method is disclosed for the exfoliation of hexagonal boron nitride into mono- and few-layered nanosheets (or nanoplatelets, nanomesh, nanoribbons). The method does not necessarily require high temperature or vacuum, but uses commercially available h-BN powders (or those derived from these materials, bulk crystals) and only requires wet chemical processing. The method is facile, cost efficient, and scalable. The resultant exfoliated h-BN is dispersible in an organic solvent or water thus amenable for solution processing for unique microelectronic or composite applications.

  5. Stability analysis of zigzag boron nitride nanoribbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rai, Hari Mohan, E-mail: rai.2208@gmail.com; Late, Ravikiran; Saxena, Shailendra K.; Kumar, Rajesh; Sagdeo, Pankaj R. [Indian Institute of Technology, Indore –452017 (India); Jaiswal, Neeraj K. [Discipline of Physics, PDPM- Indian Institute of Information Technology, Design and Manufacturing, Jabalpur – 482005 (India); Srivastava, Pankaj [Computational Nanoscience and Technology Lab. (CNTL), ABV- Indian Institute of Information Technology and Management, Gwalior – 474015 (India)

    2015-05-15

    We have explored the structural stability of bare and hydrogenated zigzag boron nitride nanoribbons (ZBNNRs). In order to investigate the structural stability, we calculate the cohesive energy for bare, one-edge and both edges H-terminated ZBNNRs with different widths. It is found that the ZBNNRs with width Nz=8 are energetically more favorable than the lower-width counterparts (Nz<8). Bare ZBNNRs have been found energetically most stable as compared to the edge terminated ribbons. Our analysis reveals that the structural stability is a function of ribbon-width and it is not affected significantly by the type of edge-passivation (one-edge or both-edges)

  6. Magnesium doping of boron nitride nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legg, Robert; Jordan, Kevin

    2015-06-16

    A method to fabricate boron nitride nanotubes incorporating magnesium diboride in their structure. In a first embodiment, magnesium wire is introduced into a reaction feed bundle during a BNNT fabrication process. In a second embodiment, magnesium in powder form is mixed into a nitrogen gas flow during the BNNT fabrication process. MgB.sub.2 yarn may be used for superconducting applications and, in that capacity, has considerably less susceptibility to stress and has considerably better thermal conductivity than these conventional materials when compared to both conventional low and high temperature superconducting materials.

  7. Materialization of single multicomposite nanowire: entrapment of ZnO nanoparticles in polyaniline nanowire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Seong

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We present materialization of single multicomposite nanowire (SMNW-entrapped ZnO nanoparticles (NPs via an electrochemical growth method, which is a newly developed fabrication method to grow a single nanowire between a pair of pre-patterned electrodes. Entrapment of ZnO NPs was controlled via different conditions of SMNW fabrication such as an applied potential and mixture ratio of NPs and aniline solution. The controlled concentration of ZnO NP results in changes in the physical properties of the SMNWs, as shown in transmission electron microscopy images. Furthermore, the electrical conductivity and elasticity of SMNWs show improvement over those of pure polyaniline nanowire. The new nano-multicomposite material showed synergistic effects on mechanical and electrical properties, with logarithmical change and saturation increasing ZnO NP concentration.

  8. Efficient Boron Nitride Nanotube Formation via Combined Laser-Gas Flow Levitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, R. Roy (Inventor); Jordan, Kevin (Inventor); Smith, Michael W. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A process for producing boron nitride nanotubes and/or boron-carbon-nitrogen nanotubes of the general formula B(sub x)C(sub y)N(sub z) The process utilizes a combination of laser light and nitrogen gas flow to support a boron ball target during heating of the boron ball target and production of a boron vapor plume which reacts with nitrogen or nitrogen and carbon to produce boron nitride nanotubes and/or boron-carbon-nitrogen nanotubes of the general formula B(sub x)C(sub y)N(sub z).

  9. Efficient boron nitride nanotube formation via combined laser-gas flow levitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, R. Roy; Jordan, Kevin; Smith, Michael

    2014-03-18

    A process for producing boron nitride nanotubes and/or boron-carbon-nitrogen nanotubes of the general formula B.sub.xC.sub.yN.sub.z. The process utilizes a combination of laser light and nitrogen gas flow to support a boron ball target during heating of the boron ball target and production of a boron vapor plume which reacts with nitrogen or nitrogen and carbon to produce boron nitride nanotubes and/or boron-carbon-nitrogen nanotubes of the general formula B.sub.xC.sub.yN.sub.z.

  10. Efficient Boron-Carbon-Nitrogen Nanotube Formation Via Combined Laser-Gas Flow Levitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, R. Roy (Inventor); Jordan, Kevin (Inventor); Smith, Michael W. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A process for producing boron nitride nanotubes and/or boron-carbon-nitrogen nanotubes of the general formula BxCyNz. The process utilizes a combination of laser light and nitrogen gas flow to support a boron ball target during heating of the boron ball target and production of a boron vapor plume which reacts with nitrogen or nitrogen and carbon to produce boron nitride nanotubes and/or boron-carbon-nitrogen nanotubes of the general formula BxCyNz.

  11. Application of Cycloaddition Reactions to the Syntheses of Novel Boron Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A. Maguire

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This review covers the application of cycloaddition reactions in forming the boron-containing compounds such as symmetric star-shaped boron-enriched dendritic molecules, nano-structured boron materials and aromatic boronic esters. The resulting boron compounds are potentially important reagents for both materials science and medical applications such as in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT in cancer treatment and as drug delivery agents and synthetic intermediates for carbon-carbon cross-coupling reactions. In addition, the use of boron cage compounds in a number of cycloaddition reactions to synthesize unique aromatic species will be reviewed briefly.

  12. Model of Fabry-Pérot-type electromagnetic modes of a cylindrical nanowire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bordo, Vladimir

    2010-01-01

    The rigorous theory of normal electromagnetic modes of a cylindrical nanowire of finite length is developed. The exact integral equation which determines the solution of Maxwell's equations obeying the boundary conditions at the whole nanowire surface is derived. The nanowire normal (Fabry...... if one introduces an effective wavelength-dependent phase shift which can be determined from the calculation of the nanowire response function....

  13. Detection of boron removal capacities of different microorganisms in wastewater and effective removal process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laçin, Bengü; Ertit Taştan, Burcu; Dönmez, Gönül

    2015-01-01

    In this study boron removal capacities of different microorganisms were tested. Candida tropicalis, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, Micrococcus luteus, Bacillus thuringiensis, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus pumilus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Aspergillus versicolor were examined for their boron bioaccumulation capacities in simulated municipal wastewater. A. versicolor and B. cereus were found as the most boron-tolerant microorganisms in the experiments. Also boron bioaccumulation yield of A. versicolor was 49.25% at 15 mg/L boron concentration. On the other hand biosorption experiments revealed that A. versicolor was more capable of boron removal in inactive form at the highest boron concentrations. In this paper maximum boron bioaccumulation yield was detected as 39.08% at 24.17 mg/L and the maximum boron biosorption yield was detected as 41.36% at 24.01 mg/L boron concentrations.

  14. Copper Nanowire Production for Interconnect Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jin-Woo (Inventor); Meyyappan, Meyya (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A method of fabricating metallic Cu nanowires with lengths up to about 25 micrometers and diameters in a range 20-100 nanometers, or greater if desired. Vertically oriented or laterally oriented copper oxide structures (CuO and/or Cu2O) are grown on a Cu substrate. The copper oxide structures are reduced with 99+ percent H or H2, and in this reduction process the lengths decrease (to no more than about 25 micrometers), the density of surviving nanostructures on a substrate decreases, and the diameters of the surviving nanostructures have a range, of about 20-100 nanometers. The resulting nanowires are substantially pure Cu and can be oriented laterally (for local or global interconnects) or can be oriented vertically (for standard vertical interconnects).

  15. Nanowire field effect transistors principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Jeong, Yoon-Ha

    2014-01-01

    Nanowire Field Effect Transistor: Basic Principles and Applications” places an emphasis on the application aspects of nanowire field effect transistors (NWFET). Device physics and electronics are discussed in a compact manner, together with the p-n junction diode and MOSFET, the former as an essential element in NWFET and the latter as a general background of the FET. During this discussion, the photo-diode, solar cell, LED, LD, DRAM, flash EEPROM and sensors are highlighted to pave the way for similar applications of NWFET. Modeling is discussed in close analogy and comparison with MOSFETs. Contributors focus on processing, electrostatic discharge (ESD) and application of NWFET. This includes coverage of solar and memory cells, biological and chemical sensors, displays and atomic scale light emitting diodes. Appropriate for scientists and engineers interested in acquiring a working knowledge of NWFET as well as graduate students specializing in this subject.

  16. Skyrmion oscillations in chiral cylindrical nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charilaou, Michalis; Loeffler, Joerg

    The occurrence of skyrmions on surfaces due to the competition of symmetric and antisymmetric interactions is a fascinating phenomenon with a promising potential for new technologies. The spatial confinement of spin textures in nanostructures, such as thin films, and the breaking of symmetry by an external or internal field enable the formation of skyrmions and skyrmion lattices. In cylindrical nanowires, the spatial confinement and the symmetry-breaking field are provided by the solid itself due to magnetostatics, i.e., shape anisotropy. Based on high-resolution micromagnetic simulations we will show that in cylindrical nanowires of FeGe non-trivial skyrmionic spin textures occur, which resemble a skyrmion chain. These break the translational symmetry along the wire via an oscillation of the topological charge. We will also discuss how external fields can manipulate the skyrmion-chain state and how magnetization switching occurs via the formation of Bloch points.

  17. Multispectral imaging with vertical silicon nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyunsung; Crozier, Kenneth B

    2013-01-01

    Multispectral imaging is a powerful tool that extends the capabilities of the human eye. However, multispectral imaging systems generally are expensive and bulky, and multiple exposures are needed. Here, we report the demonstration of a compact multispectral imaging system that uses vertical silicon nanowires to realize a filter array. Multiple filter functions covering visible to near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths are simultaneously defined in a single lithography step using a single material (silicon). Nanowires are then etched and embedded into polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), thereby realizing a device with eight filter functions. By attaching it to a monochrome silicon image sensor, we successfully realize an all-silicon multispectral imaging system. We demonstrate visible and NIR imaging. We show that the latter is highly sensitive to vegetation and furthermore enables imaging through objects opaque to the eye.

  18. Ballistic thermoelectric transport in structured nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Biao; Zhou, Jun; Yang, Ronggui; Li, Baowen

    2014-06-01

    Thermoelectric (TE) devices are solid-state energy converters that can be used for power generation through the Seebeck effect and TE cooling through the Peltier effect. Nanostructures give great opportunities to engineer TE energy conversion efficiency. In this work, we investigate TE transport properties in structured nanowires (NWs) in the ballistic transport regime, where the NWs are bent, kinked, stubbed and segmented like a superlattice nanowire using the Green’s function method and the Landauer-Büttiker formula. A large Seebeck coefficient is found when the transmission gap appears due to the quantum interference effect of electrons. The sign of the Seebeck coefficient can be controlled by the geometries of these structured NWs. This finding is helpful for the design of nanoscale TE devices, such as thermocouple, with the same type of material doping rather than those comprised of n-type and p-type materials.

  19. β-Rhombohedral Boron: At the Crossroads of the Chemistry of Boron and the Physics of Frustration [Boron: a frustrated element

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogitsu, Tadashi [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Schwegler, Eric [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Galli, Giulia [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    2013-05-08

    In the periodic table boron occupies a peculiar, crossover position: on the first row, it is surrounded by metal forming elements on the left and by non-metals on the right. In addition, it is the only non-metal of the third column. Therefore it is perhaps not surprising that the crystallographic structure and topology of its stable allotrope at room temperature (β-boron) are not shared by any other element, and are extremely complex. The formidable intricacy of β- boron, with interconnecting icosahedra, partially occupied sites, and an unusually large number of atoms per unit cell (more than 300) has been known for more than 40 years. Nevertheless boron remains the only element purified in significant quantities whose ground state geometry has not been completely determined by experiments. However theoretical progress reported in the last decade has shed light on numerous properties of elemental boron, leading to a thorough characterization of its structure at ambient conditions, as well as of its electronic and thermodynamic properties. This review discusses in detail the properties of β-boron, as inferred from experiments and the ab-initio theories developed in the last decade.

  20. Vertical Silicon Nanowires for Image Sensor Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Hyunsung

    2014-01-01

    Conventional image sensors achieve color imaging using absorptive organic dye filters. These face considerable challenges however in the trend toward ever higher pixel densities and advanced imaging methods such as multispectral imaging and polarization-resolved imaging. In this dissertation, we investigate the optical properties of vertical silicon nanowires with the goal of image sensor applications. First, we demonstrate a multispectral imaging system that uses a novel filter that consists...

  1. Efficient third harmonic generation in photonic nanowires

    OpenAIRE

    Broderick, N.G.R.; Lohe, M. A.; Lee, T; Shaaram, Afshar V.; Monro, T.M.

    2013-01-01

    In a photonic nanowire the strong optical confinement allows for the phase matching of nonlinear interactions that would not normally be phase matched, while the large longitudinal component of the electric field serves to further enhance the effective nonlinearity. Thus such waveguides are good choices for studying nonlinear effects such as third harmonic generation. In this paper we analyse third harmonic generation analytically and present the criteria for optimal harmonic generation. In a...

  2. Enhanced thermoelectric performance of rough silicon nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochbaum, Allon I.; Chen, Renkun; Delgado, Raul Diaz; Liang, Wenjie; Garnett, Erik C.; Najarian, Mark; Majumdar, Arun; Yang, Peidong

    2008-01-01

    Approximately 90 per cent of the world's power is generated by heat engines that use fossil fuel combustion as a heat source and typically operate at 30-40 per cent efficiency, such that roughly 15terawatts of heat is lost to the environment. Thermoelectric modules could potentially convert part of this low-grade waste heat to electricity. Their efficiency depends on the thermoelectric figure of merit ZT of their material components, which is a function of the Seebeck coefficient, electrical resistivity, thermal conductivity and absolute temperature. Over the past five decades it has been challenging to increase ZT>1, since the parameters of ZT are generally interdependent. While nanostructured thermoelectric materials can increase ZT>1 (refs 2-4), the materials (Bi, Te, Pb, Sb, and Ag) and processes used are not often easy to scale to practically useful dimensions. Here we report the electrochemical synthesis of large-area, wafer-scale arrays of rough Si nanowires that are 20-300nm in diameter. These nanowires have Seebeck coefficient and electrical resistivity values that are the same as doped bulk Si, but those with diameters of about 50nm exhibit 100-fold reduction in thermal conductivity, yielding ZT = 0.6 at room temperature. For such nanowires, the lattice contribution to thermal conductivity approaches the amorphous limit for Si, which cannot be explained by current theories. Although bulk Si is a poor thermoelectric material, by greatly reducing thermal conductivity without much affecting the Seebeck coefficient and electrical resistivity, Si nanowire arrays show promise as high-performance, scalable thermoelectric materials.

  3. Optofluidic applications with lithium niobate nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grange, Rachel; Choi, Jae-Woo; Hsieh, Chia-Lung; Pu, Ye; Psaltis, Demetri

    2010-08-01

    We report the hydrothermal synthesis of free-standing lithium niobate nanowires. We show that the versatile properties of bulk lithium niobate such as nonlinear optical effects can be exploited at the nanoscale. We describe the fabrication of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidics as well as indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes with different design for dedicated applications. The control of microfluidic channel dimensions and the corresponding particle concentration is explored. Finally, the selection of fluidic conductivity for optimal dielectrophoretic trapping conditions is discussed.

  4. Optofluidic applications with lithium niobate nanowires

    OpenAIRE

    GRANGE, Rachel; Choi, Jae-Woo; Hsieh, Chia-Lung; Pu, Ye; Psaltis, Demetri

    2010-01-01

    We report the hydrothermal synthesis of free-standing lithium niobate nanowires. We show that the versatile properties of bulk lithium niobate such as nonlinear optical effects can be exploited at the nanoscale. We describe the fabrication of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidics as well as indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes with different design for dedicated applications. The control of microfluidic channel dimensions and the corresponding particle concentration is explored. Finally, the...

  5. Multispectral imaging with vertical silicon nanowires

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Hyunsung; Crozier, Kenneth B.

    2013-01-01

    Multispectral imaging is a powerful tool that extends the capabilities of the human eye. However, multispectral imaging systems generally are expensive and bulky, and multiple exposures are needed. Here, we report the demonstration of a compact multispectral imaging system that uses vertical silicon nanowires to realize a filter array. Multiple filter functions covering visible to near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths are simultaneously defined in a single lithography step using a single material (...

  6. Nanowires and nanobelts, v.2 nanowires and nanobelts of functional materials

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Zhong Lin

    2010-01-01

    Nanowires, nanobelts, nanoribbons, nanorods ..., are a new class of quasi-one-dimensional materials that have been attracting a great research interest in the last few years. These non-carbon based materials have been demonstrated to exhibit superior electrical, optical, mechanical and thermal properties, and can be used as fundamental building blocks for nano-scale science and technology, ranging from chemical and biological sensors, field effect transistors to logic circuits. Nanocircuits built using semiconductor nanowires demonstrated were declared a ""breakthrough in science"" by Science

  7. Induced Superconductivity in Nanowires and Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouwenhoven, Leo

    2007-03-01

    We study experimentally electron transport in 1 dimensional semiconductor nanowires (consisting of InAs and InP combinations) and carbon nanotubes. The wires are connected to superconducting source-drain contacts with gate electrodes in the substrate or on the surface. In the regime of weak coupling to the contacts we observe Coulomb blockade effects. We present level spectroscopy including a determination of the spin states. In the regime of strong coupling to the contacts interference effects are observed. In this regime and using superconducting contacts, we find supercurrents flowing through InAs-nanowires over micrometer length scales. The critical current is tunable by gate voltage, thus realizing so-called JOFETs (Josephson FETs) [1]. When we define quantum dots in between superconducting contacts the direction of the supercurrent is determined by the single electron spin state in the quantum dot [2,3]. 1. Yong-Joo Doh, Jorden A. van Dam, Aarnoud L. Roest, Erik P. A. M. Bakkers, Leo P. Kouwenhoven, and Silvano De Franceschi, Tunable supercurrent through semiconductor nanowires, Science 309, 272-275 (2005) 2. P. Jarillo-Herrero, J.A. van Dam and L.P. Kouwenhoven, Quantum supercurrent transistors in carbon nanotubes, Nature 439, 953-956 (2006) 3. Jorden A. Van Dam, Yuli V. Nazarov, Erik P.A.M. Bakkers, Silvano De Franceschi and Leo P. Kouwenhoven, Supercurrent reversal in quantum dots, Nature 442, 667-670 (2006)

  8. Perspectives: Nanofibers and nanowires for disordered photonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Pisignano

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available As building blocks of microscopically non-homogeneous materials, semiconductor nanowires and polymer nanofibers are emerging component materials for disordered photonics, with unique properties of light emission and scattering. Effects found in assemblies of nanowires and nanofibers include broadband reflection, significant localization of light, strong and collective multiple scattering, enhanced absorption of incident photons, synergistic effects with plasmonic particles, and random lasing. We highlight recent related discoveries, with a focus on material aspects. The control of spatial correlations in complex assemblies during deposition, the coupling of modes with efficient transmission channels provided by nanofiber waveguides, and the embedment of random architectures into individually coded nanowires will allow the potential of these photonic materials to be fully exploited, unconventional physics to be highlighted, and next-generation optical devices to be achieved. The prospects opened by this technology include enhanced random lasing and mode-locking, multi-directionally guided coupling to sensors and receivers, and low-cost encrypting miniatures for encoders and labels.

  9. Directed growth of diameter-tunable nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozturk, Birol; Talukdar, Ishan; Flanders, Bret N [Department of Physics, Oklahoma State University, 145 Physical Sciences II, Stillwater, OK 74078 (United States)

    2007-09-12

    This study characterizes a method for controlling the nanowire diameter in the directed electrochemical nanowire assembly technique, where alternating voltages applied to electrodes in simple salt solutions induce the crystallization of metallic wires. Dendritic solidification is identified as an important component of this technique. A characteristic of dendritic solidification is that the growth velocity and tip radius are anti-correlated. This relationship is exploited here to realize diameter-tunable nanowire growth. The experimental parameter that provides this control is {omega}, the frequency of the alternating voltage. Increasing {omega} effectively steepens the metal cation concentration gradient at the wire-solution interface, thereby increasing the growth velocity of the wire. For indium wires, increasing {omega} from 0.5 to 3.5 MHz increases their growth velocity from 11 to 78 {mu}m s{sup -1} and reduces their diameter from 770 to 114 nm. Gold wires exhibit diameter-tunability that ranges from 150 nm to 45 nm. Thus, it is possible to tune the wire diameter from the microscale down to the nanoscale. Moreover, this control is a consequence of non-stationary dendritic growth, which distinguishes this process from most previously studied examples of dendritic solidification.

  10. Perspectives: Nanofibers and nanowires for disordered photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisignano, Dario; Persano, Luana; Camposeo, Andrea

    2017-03-01

    As building blocks of microscopically non-homogeneous materials, semiconductor nanowires and polymer nanofibers are emerging component materials for disordered photonics, with unique properties of light emission and scattering. Effects found in assemblies of nanowires and nanofibers include broadband reflection, significant localization of light, strong and collective multiple scattering, enhanced absorption of incident photons, synergistic effects with plasmonic particles, and random lasing. We highlight recent related discoveries, with a focus on material aspects. The control of spatial correlations in complex assemblies during deposition, the coupling of modes with efficient transmission channels provided by nanofiber waveguides, and the embedment of random architectures into individually coded nanowires will allow the potential of these photonic materials to be fully exploited, unconventional physics to be highlighted, and next-generation optical devices to be achieved. The prospects opened by this technology include enhanced random lasing and mode-locking, multi-directionally guided coupling to sensors and receivers, and low-cost encrypting miniatures for encoders and labels.

  11. Power Burst Facility/Boron Neutron Capture Therapy Program for cancer treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackermann, A.L. (ed.); Dorn, R.V. III.

    1990-08-01

    This report discusses monthly progress in the Power Boron Facility/Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (PBF/BNCT) Program for Cancer Treatment. Highlights of the PBF/BNCT Program during August 1990 include progress within the areas of: Gross Boron Analysis in Tissue, Blood, and Urine, boron microscopic (subcellular) analytical development, noninvasive boron quantitative determination, analytical radiation transport and interaction modeling for BNCT, large animal model studies, neutron source and facility preparation, administration and common support and PBF operations.

  12. Process to produce silicon carbide fibers using a controlled concentration of boron oxide vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Thomas Duncan (Inventor); Lipowitz, Jonathan (Inventor); Nguyen, Kimmai Thi (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A process for producing polycrystalline silicon carbide by heating an amorphous ceramic fiber that contains silicon and carbon in an environment containing boron oxide vapor. The boron oxide vapor is produced in situ by the reaction of a boron containing material such as boron carbide and an oxidizing agent such as carbon dioxide, and the amount of boron oxide vapor can be controlled by varying the amount and rate of addition of the oxidizing agent.

  13. SHB1/HY1 Alleviates Excess Boron Stress by Increasing BOR4 Expression Level and Maintaining Boron Homeostasis in Arabidopsis Roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Lv

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Boron is an essential mineral nutrient for higher plant growth and development. However, excessive amounts of boron can be toxic. Here, we report on the characterization of an Arabidopsis mutant, shb1 (sensitive to high-level of boron 1, which exhibits hypersensitivity to excessive boron in roots. Positional cloning demonstrated that the shb1 mutant bears a point mutation in a gene encoding a heme oxygenase 1 (HO1 corresponding to the HY1 gene involved in photomorphogenesis. The transcription level of the SHB1/HY1 gene in roots is up-regulated under excessive boron stimulation. Either overexpressing SHB1/HY1 or applying the HO1 inducer hematin reduces boron accumulation in roots and confers high boron tolerance. Furthermore, carbon monoxide and bilirubin, catalytic products of HO1, partially rescue the boron toxicity-induced inhibition of primary root growth in shb1. Additionally, the mRNA level of BOR4, a boron efflux transporter, is reduced in shb1 roots with high levels of boron supplementation, and hematin cannot relieve the boron toxicity-induced root inhibition in bor4 mutants. Taken together, our study reveals that HO1 acts via its catalytic by-products to promote tolerance of excessive boron by up-regulating the transcription of the BOR4 gene and therefore promoting the exclusion of excessive boron in root cells.

  14. Managing Phonon Transport by Core/Shell Nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-28

    core-shell nanowires, The Journal of Chemical Physics , 135, 104508, 14 September 2011. 2. J. Chen, G Zhang, and B Li, A universal gauge for thermal...conductivity of silicon nanowires with different cross sectional geometries, The Journal of Chemical Physics , 135, 204705, 29 November 2011. 3. J

  15. Piezoresistive effect in top-down fabricated silicon nanowires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reck, Kasper; Richter, Jacob; Hansen, Ole

    2008-01-01

    We have designed and fabricated silicon test chips to investigate the piezoresistive properties of both crystalline and polycrystalline nanowires using a top-down approach, in order to comply with conventional fabrication techniques. The test chip consists of 5 silicon nanowires and a reference...

  16. Nanowires: properties, applications and synthesis via porous anodic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    TECS

    to the different properties and applications of nanowires, herein we present a review on the current state of ..... nism of nanowires follows the classical laws of physics. On the other hand, when the carrier mean free path ... adsorption of hydrogen gas molecules on the wire sur- face. Recently, electron transport mechanism of ...

  17. Preparation and thermal stability of nickel nanowires via self ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    temperature was lower than 318°C. The study would provide a facile method to prepare nickel nanowires with homogeneous diameter and high thermal stability, which could be used in catalysing CO2 hydrogenation. Keywords. Nickel nanowires; magnetic field; self-assembly; thermal stability. 1. Introduction. In recent years ...

  18. Electronic Structure of Cdse Nanowires Terminated With Gold ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cadmium selenide nanowires in the wurtzite bulk phase, connected to gold electrodes are studied using local density approximation. The short wire is fully metalized by metal-induced gap states. For longer wires, a gap similar to that in bare cadmium selenide nanowires is observed near the center while sub-gap structure ...

  19. Effect of substrate texture on the growth of hematite nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, Himanshu, E-mail: himsri@rrcat.gov.in [Indus Synchrotron Utilization Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452013 (India); Tiwari, Pragya; Srivastava, A.K.; Rai, Sanjay; Ganguli, Tapas; Deb, S.K. [Indus Synchrotron Utilization Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452013 (India)

    2011-10-15

    The effect of texture of iron foil substrate on the growth of hematite nanowires by annealing method has been investigated in detail. Three substrates of different textures were prepared from a [2 0 0] oriented iron foil by some simple processes. The hematite nanowires on these substrates were synthesized by annealing iron foil at 700 deg. C in moist oxygen. The growth pattern of nanowires on these substrates showed that the growth of hematite nanowires depends strongly on the iron substrate texture and [1 1 0] oriented iron grains are necessary for their growth. The samples were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Electron Back Scatter Diffraction (EBSD) and Raman Spectroscopy. We have also tried to explain the various observations on the mechanism of growth. Mainly, the presence of water vapor significantly enhanced the formation of hematite nanowires which resulted in a very dense and aligned growth of nanowires on the substrate areas of favorable texture. Finally, the study proved the substrate texture to be a powerful tool to control growth of nanowires and can be used efficiently for patterning and large scale synthesis of the nanowires.

  20. Bisecting Microfluidic Channels with Metallic Nanowires Fabricated by Nanoskiving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalkman, Gerard A; Zhang, Yanxi; Monachino, Enrico; Mathwig, Klaus; Kamminga, Machteld E; Pourhossein Aghbolagh, Parisa; Oomen, Pieter E; Stratmann, Sarah A; Zhao, Zhiyuan; van Oijen, Antoine M; Verpoorte, Elisabeth; Chiechi, Ryan C

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the fabrication of millimeter-long gold nanowires that bisect the center of microfluidic channels. We fabricated the nanowires by nanoskiving and then suspended them over a trench in a glass structure. The channel was sealed by bonding it to a complementary

  1. Hybrid Surface Plasmon Polariton Modes of Subwavelength Nanowire Resonators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filonenko, Konstantin; Duggen, Lars; Willatzen, Morten

    2015-01-01

    We perform Comsol simulations of two types of hybrid plasmonic resonator configurations, similar to those proposed for nanowire plasmonic laser in [1] and [2]. In both references the nanowire - based plasmonic resonators are studied, which overall sizes are larger than the wavelength in vacuum...

  2. A catalyst-free synthesis of germanium nanowires obtained by ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A catalyst-free innovative synthesis, by combined X-ray chemical vapour deposition and lowtemperature thermal treatments, which has not been applied since so far to the growth of germanium nanowires (Ge-NWs), produced high yields of the nanoproducts with theGeH4 reactant gas. Nanowires were grown on both ...

  3. Simulation study of dielectrophoretic assembly of nanowire between electrode pairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Quan; Lan, Fei; Jiang, Minlin; Wei, Fanan; Li, Guangyong

    2015-07-01

    Dielectrophoresis (DEP) of rod-shaped nanostructures is attractive because of its exceptional capability to fabricate nanowire-based electronic devices. This efficient manipulation method, however, has a common side effect of assembling a certain number of nanowires at undesired positions. It is therefore essential to understand the underlying physics of DEP of nanowires in order to better guide the assembly. In this work, we propose theoretical methods to characterize the dielectrophoretic force and torque as well as the hydrodynamic drag force and torque on the nanowire (typical length: 10 μm). The trajectory of the nanowire is then simulated based on rigid body dynamics. The nanowire is predicted to either bridge the electrodes or attach on the surface of one electrode. A neighborhood in which the nanowire is more likely to bridge electrodes is found, which is conducive to successful assembly. The simulation study in this work provides us not only a better understanding of the underlying physics but also practical guidance on nanowire assembly by DEP.

  4. Spatially resolved Hall effect measurement in a single semiconductor nanowire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storm, Kristian; Halvardsson, Filip; Heurlin, Magnus; Lindgren, David; Gustafsson, Anders; Wu, Phillip M.; Monemar, Bo; Samuelson, Lars

    2012-12-01

    Efficient light-emitting diodes and photovoltaic energy-harvesting devices are expected to play an important role in the continued efforts towards sustainable global power consumption. Semiconductor nanowires are promising candidates as the active components of both light-emitting diodes and photovoltaic cells, primarily due to the added freedom in device design offered by the nanowire geometry. However, for nanowire-based components to move past the proof-of-concept stage and be implemented in production-grade devices, it is necessary to precisely quantify and control fundamental material properties such as doping and carrier mobility. Unfortunately, the nanoscale geometry that makes nanowires interesting for applications also makes them inherently difficult to characterize. Here, we report a method to carry out Hall measurements on single core-shell nanowires. Our technique allows spatially resolved and quantitative determination of the carrier concentration and mobility of the nanowire shell. As Hall measurements have previously been completely unavailable for nanowires, the experimental platform presented here should facilitate the implementation of nanowires in advanced practical devices.

  5. REVIEW ARTICLE: Optical fibre nanowires and microwires: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brambilla, G.

    2010-04-01

    Optical fibre nanowires and microwires offer a variety of enabling properties, including large evanescent fields, flexibility, configurability, high confinement, robustness and compactness. These distinctive features have been exploited in a wealth of applications ranging from telecommunication devices to sensors, from optical manipulation to high Q resonators. In this paper I will review the fundamentals and applications of nanowires and microwires manufactured from optical fibres.

  6. Single-Nanowire Strain Sensors Fabricated by Nanoskiving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jibril, Liban; Ramírez, Julián; Zaretski, Aliaksandr V; Lipomi, Darren J

    2017-08-15

    This article describes the fabrication of single-nanowire strain sensors by thin sectioning of gold films with an ultramicrotome-i.e., "nanoskiving." The nanowire sensors are transferred to various substrates from the water bath on which they float after sectioning. The electrical response of these single nanowires to mechanical strain is investigated, with the lowest detectable strain determined to be 1.6 × 10-5 with a repeatable response to strains as high as 7 × 10-4. The sensors are shown to have an enhanced sensitivity with a gauge factor of 3.1 on average, but as high as 9.5 in the low strain regime (ε ~ 1 × 10-5). Conventional thin films of gold of the same height as the nanowires are used as controls, and are unable to detect those same strains. The practicality of this sensor is investigated by transferring a single nanowire to polyimide tape, and placing the sensor on the wrist to monitor the pulse pressure waveform from the radial artery. The nanowires are fabricated with simple tools and require no lithography. Moreover, the sensors can be "manufactured" efficiently, as each consecutive section of the film is a quasi copy of the previous nanowire. The simple fabrication of these nanowires, along with the compatibility with flexible substrates, offers possibilities in developing new kinds of devices for biomedical applications and structural health monitoring.

  7. Silicon-on-Insulator Nanowire Based Optical Waveguide Biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mingyu; Liu, Yong; Chen, Yangqing; He, Jian-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Optical waveguide biosensors based on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) nanowire have been developed for label free molecular detection. This paper reviews our work on the design, fabrication and measurement of SOI nanowire based high-sensitivity biosensors employing Vernier effect. Biosensing experiments using cascaded double-ring sensor and Mach-Zehnder- ring sensor integrated with microfluidic channels are demonstrated

  8. Investigation of superconducting properties of nanowires prepared by template synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michotte, S.; Mátéfi-Tempfli, Stefan; Piraux, L.

    2003-01-01

    We report on the transport properties of single superconducting lead nanowires grown by an electrodeposition technique, embedded in a nanoporous track-etched polymer membrane. The nanowires are granular, have a uniform diameter of ∼40 nm and a very large aspect ratio (∼500). The diameter of the n...

  9. Gas sensing with vertical functionalized InAs nanowire arrays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Offermans, P.; Crego-Calama, M.; Brongersma, S.H.

    2010-01-01

    Nanowires show great promise for use in next generation (bio-)chemical sensing devices because of their high surface to volume ratio enabling efficient modulation of their current by charges or dipoles present at the surface. Here, we present a gas sensing device based on vertical InAs nanowire

  10. Functionalized vertical InAs nanowire arrays for gas sensing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Offermans, P.; Crego-Calama, M.; Brongersma, S.H.

    2012-01-01

    Vertical InAs nanowires are contacted in situ using an air-bridge construction and functionalized with a metalloporphyrin (Hemin). The response of bare and functionalized vertical InAs nanowire arrays to ppb-level concentrations of NO2 and NO is demonstrated. Hemin enhances the response to NO

  11. The Joule heating problem in silver nanowire transparent electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaligh, H. H.; Xu, L.; Khosropour, A.; Madeira, A.; Romano, M.; Pradére, C.; Tréguer-Delapierre, M.; Servant, L.; Pope, M. A.; Goldthorpe, I. A.

    2017-10-01

    Silver nanowire transparent electrodes have shown considerable potential to replace conventional transparent conductive materials. However, in this report we show that Joule heating is a unique and serious problem with these electrodes. When conducting current densities encountered in organic solar cells, the average surface temperature of indium tin oxide (ITO) and silver nanowire electrodes, both with sheet resistances of 60 ohms/square, remains below 35 °C. However, in contrast to ITO, the temperature in the nanowire electrode is very non-uniform, with some localized points reaching temperatures above 250 °C. These hotspots accelerate nanowire degradation, leading to electrode failure after 5 days of continuous current flow. We show that graphene, a commonly used passivation layer for these electrodes, slows nanowire degradation and creates a more uniform surface temperature under current flow. However, the graphene does not prevent Joule heating in the nanowires and local points of high temperature ultimately shift the failure mechanism from nanowire degradation to melting of the underlying plastic substrate. In this paper, surface temperature mapping, lifetime testing under current flow, post-mortem analysis, and modelling illuminate the behaviour and failure mechanisms of nanowires under extended current flow and provide guidelines for managing Joule heating.

  12. Perylenetetracarboxylic diimide (PTCDI) nanowires for sensing ethyl acetate in wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khopkar, Yashdeep; Kojtari, Arben; Swearer, Dayne; Zivanovic, Sandra; Ji, Hai-Feng

    2014-09-01

    We report the application of perylenetetracarboxylic diimide (PTCDI) nanowires for sensing ethyl acetate. The conductivity of the crystalline nano/microwires increases quickly and selectively in the presence of ethyl acetate vapor, but not with water, acid and alcohol vapors, suggesting that the nanowires of PTCDI may be used for monitoring ethyl acetate during a wine manufacturing process.

  13. Adsorption property of volatile molecules on ZnO nanowires ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    7

    energy of the ZnO nanowire and adsorbed ZnO nanowire system, an increase in the total energy was observed after ... This means that conductivity increased when the film surface was exposed to the reducing molecules. .... reality, there will be plenty of vapor molecules which will interact over the entire sensing element ...

  14. Oriented epitaxial TiO2 nanowires for water splitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Wenting; Cortez, Pablo; Wuhrer, Richard; Macartney, Sam; Bozhilov, Krassimir N.; Liu, Rong; Sheppard, Leigh R.; Kisailus, David

    2017-06-01

    Highly oriented epitaxial rutile titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanowire arrays have been hydrothermally grown on polycrystalline TiO2 templates with their orientation dependent on the underlying TiO2 grain. Both the diameter and areal density of the nanowires were tuned by controlling the precursor concentration, and the template surface energy and roughness. Nanowire tip sharpness was influenced by precursor solubility and diffusivity. A new secondary ion mass spectrometer technique has been developed to install additional nucleation sites in single crystal TiO2 templates and the effect on nanowire growth was probed. Using the acquired TiO2 nanowire synthesis knowhow, an assortment of nanowire arrays were installed upon the surface of undoped TiO2 photo-electrodes and assessed for their photo-electrochemical water splitting performance. The key result obtained was that the presence of short and dispersed nanowire arrays significantly improved the photocurrent when the illumination intensity was increased from 100 to 200 mW cm-2. This is attributed to the alignment of the homoepitaxially grown nanowires to the [001] direction, which provides the fastest charge transport in TiO2 and an improved pathway for photo-holes to find water molecules and undertake oxidation. This result lays a foundation for achieving efficient water splitting under conditions of concentrated solar illumination.

  15. Screening model for nanowire surface-charge sensors in liquid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Martin Hedegård; Mortensen, Asger; Brandbyge, Mads

    2007-01-01

    The conductance change of nanowire field-effect transistors is considered a highly sensitive probe for surface charge. However, Debye screening of relevant physiological liquid environments challenge device performance due to competing screening from the ionic liquid and nanowire charge carriers....

  16. Boron Particle Ignition in Secondary Chamber of Ducted Rocket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. X. Hu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the secondary chamber of ducted rocket, there exists a relative speed between boron particles and air stream. Hence, the ignition laws under static conditions cannot be simply applied to represent the actual ignition process of boron particles, and it is required to study the effect of forced convective on the ignition of boron particles. Preheating of boron particles in gas generator makes it possible to utilize the velocity difference between gas and particles in secondary chamber for removal of the liquid oxide layer with the aid of Stoke's forces. An ignition model of boron particles is formulated for the oxide layer removal by considering that it results from a boundary layer stripping mechanism. The shearing action exerted by the high-speed flow causes a boundary layer to be formed in the surface of the liquid oxide layer, and the stripping away of this layer accounts for the accelerated ignition of boron particles. Compared with the King model, as the ignition model of boron particles is formulated for the oxide layer removal by considering that it results from a boundary layer stripping mechanism, the oxide layer thickness thins at all times during the particle ignition and lower the ignition time.

  17. Boron neutron capture therapy for malignant melanoma: An experimental approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson, B.S.; Larsson, B.; Roberto, A. (Uppsala Univ. (Sweden))

    1989-07-01

    Previous studies have shown that some thioamides, e.g., thiouracil, are incorporated as false precursors into melanin during its synthesis. If boronated analogs of the thioamides share this property, the melanin of melanotic melanomas offers a possibility for specific tumoural uptake and retention of boron as a basis for neutron capture therapy. We report on the synthesis of boronated 1H-1,2,4-triazole-3-thiol (B-TZT), boronated 5-carboxy-2-thiouracil (B-CTU), and boronated 5-diethylaminomethyl-2-thiouracil (B-DEAMTU) and the localization of these substances in melanotic melanomas transplanted to mice. The distribution in the mice was studied by boron neutron capture radiography. B-TZT and B-CTU showed the highest tumour:normal tissue concentration ratios, with tumour:liver ratios of about 4 and tumour:muscle ratios of about 14; B-DEAMTU showed corresponding ratios of 1.4 and 5, respectively. The absolute concentration of boron in the tumours, however, was more than three times higher in the mice injected with B-TZT, compared with B-CTU. The results suggest that B-TZT may be the most promising compound of the three tested with regard to possible therapy of melanotic melanomas.

  18. Computational Studies of Physical Properties of Boron Carbide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lizhi Ouyang

    2011-09-30

    The overall goal is to provide valuable insight in to the mechanisms and processes that could lead to better engineering the widely used boron carbide which could play an important role in current plight towards greener energy. Carbon distribution in boron carbide, which has been difficult to retrieve from experimental methods, is critical to our understanding of its structure-properties relation. For modeling disorders in boron carbide, we implemented a first principles method based on supercell approach within our G(P,T) package. The supercell approach was applied to boron carbide to determine its carbon distribution. Our results reveal that carbon prefers to occupy the end sites of the 3-atom chain in boron carbide and further carbon atoms will distribute mainly on the equatorial sites with a small percentage on the 3-atom chains and the apex sites. Supercell approach was also applied to study mechanical properties of boron carbide under uniaxial load. We found that uniaxial load can lead to amorphization. Other physical properties of boron carbide were calculated using the G(P,T) package.

  19. Quantum transport in nanowire-based hybrid devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenel, Haci Yusuf

    2013-05-08

    We have studied the low-temperature transport properties of nanowires contacted by a normal metal as well as by superconducting electrodes. As a consequence of quantum coherence, we have demonstrated the electron interference effect in different aspects. The mesoscopic phase coherent transport properties were studied by contacting the semiconductor InAs and InSb nanowires with normal metal electrodes. Moreover, we explored the interaction of the microscopic quantum coherence of the nanowires with the macroscopic quantum coherence of the superconductors. In superconducting Nb contacted InAs nanowire junctions, we have investigated the effect of temperature, magnetic field and electric field on the supercurrent. Owing to relatively high critical temperature of superconducting Nb (T{sub c} ∝ 9 K), we have observed the supercurrent up to 4 K for highly doped nanowire-based junctions, while for low doped nanowire-based junctions a full control of the supercurrent was achieved. Due to low transversal dimension of the nanowires, we have found a monotonous decay of the critical current in magnetic field dependent measurements. The experimental results were analyzed within narrow junction model which has been developed recently. At high bias voltages, we have observed subharmonic energy gap structures as a consequence of multiple Andreev reflection. Some of the nanowires were etched, such that the superconducting Nb electrodes are connected to both ends of the nanowire rather than covering the surface of the nanowire. As a result of well defined nanowire-superconductor interfaces, we have examined quasiparticle interference effect in magnetotransport measurements. Furthermore, we have developed a new junction geometry, such that one of the superconducting Nb electrodes is replaced by a superconducting Al. Owing to the smaller critical magnetic field of superconducting Al (B{sub c} ∝ 15-50,mT), compared to superconducting Nb (B{sub c} ∝ 3 T), we were able to studied

  20. Treatment options : Copper/boron mobility in Pine and Cedar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elton, B.; Wall, W.; Smart, R. [Genics Inc., Edmonton, AB (Canada); Goodman, J. [Duke Energy, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    In this PowerPoint presentation, the authors present the mobility of copper and boron in both Pine and Cedar, with the focus on the Hilo project (decay hazard zone 5) and Surrey plot (decay hazard zone 4). With the use of a diagram, they discuss the fungi involved in wood decay. It was determined that boron is more effective against Basidiomycetes (brown and white rots), while copper is more effective against Ascomycetes (soft rot and mould). Since the trial expectations involved good diffusion downwards due to adequate moisture, copper and boron were applied at ground line. The hypothesis was for copper diffusion to be enhanced by interactions with borate, while borate diffusion would be a steady release over time. It was also expected that copper-borate complex would have a synergistic effect. The methodology for the trial was detailed, and the boron and copper migration were digitally photographed. Using aqueous and acid extractions, boron and copper were analyzed quantitatively. The results led to the following conclusions: (1) boron has greater mobility than copper, (2) copper mobility was limited to 50 millimetres, (3) boron movement exceeded 300 millimetres, (4) rapid migration of boron is due to high solubility in water, (5) limited mobility of copper from the rods attributed to a lower solubility in water as well as the possibility of chelating or reacting with the wood extractives, (6) type of movement of copper appears to be different than that of boron and suggests the possibility of mass flow, and (7) additional studies are required on other species. refs., 2 tabs., figs.

  1. Boron-Based Hydrogen Storage: Ternary Borides and Beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vajo, John J. [HRL Laboratories, LLC, Malibu, CA (United States)

    2016-04-28

    DOE continues to seek reversible solid-state hydrogen materials with hydrogen densities of ≥11 wt% and ≥80 g/L that can deliver hydrogen and be recharged at moderate temperatures (≤100 °C) and pressures (≤100 bar) enabling incorporation into hydrogen storage systems suitable for transportation applications. Boron-based hydrogen storage materials have the potential to meet the density requirements given boron’s low atomic weight, high chemical valance, and versatile chemistry. However, the rates of hydrogen exchange in boron-based compounds are thus far much too slow for practical applications. Although contributing to the high hydrogen densities, the high valance of boron also leads to slow rates of hydrogen exchange due to extensive boron-boron atom rearrangements during hydrogen cycling. This rearrangement often leads to multiple solid phases occurring over hydrogen release and recharge cycles. These phases must nucleate and react with each other across solid-solid phase boundaries leading to energy barriers that slow the rates of hydrogen exchange. This project sought to overcome the slow rates of hydrogen exchange in boron-based hydrogen storage materials by minimizing the number of solid phases and the boron atom rearrangement over a hydrogen release and recharge cycle. Two novel approaches were explored: 1) developing matched pairs of ternary borides and mixed-metal borohydrides that could exchange hydrogen with only one hydrogenated phase (the mixed-metal borohydride) and only one dehydrogenated phase (the ternary boride); and 2) developing boranes that could release hydrogen by being lithiated using lithium hydride with no boron-boron atom rearrangement.

  2. Abrupt Schottky Junctions in Al/Ge Nanowire Heterostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kral, S; Zeiner, C; Stöger-Pollach, M; Bertagnolli, E; den Hertog, M I; Lopez-Haro, M; Robin, E; El Hajraoui, K; Lugstein, A

    2015-07-08

    In this Letter we report on the exploration of axial metal/semiconductor (Al/Ge) nanowire heterostructures with abrupt interfaces. The formation process is enabled by a thermal induced exchange reaction between the vapor-liquid-solid grown Ge nanowire and Al contact pads due to the substantially different diffusion behavior of Ge in Al and vice versa. Temperature-dependent I-V measurements revealed the metallic properties of the crystalline Al nanowire segments with a maximum current carrying capacity of about 0.8 MA/cm(2). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) characterization has confirmed both the composition and crystalline nature of the pure Al nanowire segments. A very sharp interface between the ⟨111⟩ oriented Ge nanowire and the reacted Al part was observed with a Schottky barrier height of 361 meV. To demonstrate the potential of this approach, a monolithic Al/Ge/Al heterostructure was used to fabricate a novel impact ionization device.

  3. Methods of fabricating nanostructures and nanowires and devices fabricated therefrom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar,; Arun, [Orinda, CA; Shakouri, Ali [Santa Cruz, CA; Sands, Timothy D [Moraga, CA; Yang, Peidong [Berkeley, CA; Mao, Samuel S [Berkeley, CA; Russo, Richard E [Walnut Creek, CA; Feick, Henning [Kensington, CA; Weber, Eicke R [Oakland, CA; Kind, Hannes [Schaffhausen, CH; Huang, Michael [Los Angeles, CA; Yan, Haoquan [Albany, CA; Wu, Yiying [Albany, CA; Fan, Rong [El Cerrito, CA

    2009-08-04

    One-dimensional nanostructures having uniform diameters of less than approximately 200 nm. These inventive nanostructures, which we refer to as "nanowires", include single-crystalline homostructures as well as heterostructures of at least two single-crystalline materials having different chemical compositions. Because single-crystalline materials are used to form the heterostructure, the resultant heterostructure will be single-crystalline as well. The nanowire heterostructures are generally based on a semiconducting wire wherein the doping and composition are controlled in either the longitudinal or radial directions, or in both directions, to yield a wire that comprises different materials. Examples of resulting nanowire heterostructures include a longitudinal heterostructure nanowire (LOHN) and a coaxial heterostructure nanowire (COHN).

  4. Conductive Polymer Nanowire Gas Sensor Fabricated by Nanoscale Soft Lithography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ning; Jiang, Yang; Qu, Hemi; Duan, Xuexin

    2017-10-02

    Resistive devices composed of one dimensional nanostructures are promising candidate for next generation gas sensors. However, the large-scale fabrication of nanowires is still a challenge, restricting the commercialization of such type of devices. Here, we reported a highly efficient and facile approach to fabricate poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) nanowire chemiresistive type of gas sensor by nanoscale soft lithography. Well-defined sub-100 nm nanowires are fabricated on silicon substrate which facilitates the device integration. The nanowire chemiresistive gas sensor is demonstrated for NH3 and NO2 detection at room-temperature and shows a limit of detection at ppb level which is compatible with nanoscale PEDOT:PSS gas sensors fabricated with conventional lithography technique. In comparison with PEDOT:PSS thin film gas sensor, the nanowire gas sensor exhibits a higher sensitivity and much faster response to gas molecules. © 2017 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  5. Seedless Growth of Bismuth Nanowire Array via Vacuum Thermal Evaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mingzhao; Nam, Chang-Yong; Zhang, Lihua

    2015-01-01

    Here a seedless and template-free technique is demonstrated to scalably grow bismuth nanowires, through thermal evaporation in high vacuum at RT. Conventionally reserved for the fabrication of metal thin films, thermal evaporation deposits bismuth into an array of vertical single crystalline nanowires over a flat thin film of vanadium held at RT, which is freshly deposited by magnetron sputtering or thermal evaporation. By controlling the temperature of the growth substrate the length and width of the nanowires can be tuned over a wide range. Responsible for this novel technique is a previously unknown nanowire growth mechanism that roots in the mild porosity of the vanadium thin film. Infiltrated into the vanadium pores, the bismuth domains (~ 1 nm) carry excessive surface energy that suppresses their melting point and continuously expels them out of the vanadium matrix to form nanowires. This discovery demonstrates the feasibility of scalable vapor phase synthesis of high purity nanomaterials without using any catalysts. PMID:26709727

  6. Self assembled silicon nanowire Schottky junction assisted by collagen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stievenard, Didier; Sahli, Billel; Coffinier, Yannick; Boukherroub, Rabah; Melnyk, Oleg

    2008-03-01

    We present results on self assembled silicon nanowire Schottky junction assisted by collagen fibrous. The collagen is the principle protein of connective human tissues. It presents the double interest to be a low cost biological material with the possibility to be combed as the DNA molecule. First, the collagen was combed on OTS modified surface with gold electrodes. Second, silicon nanowires were grown on silicon substrate by CVD of silane gas (SiH4) at high temperature (500 C) using a vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) process and gold particles as catalysts. In order to increase electrostatic interaction between the collagen and the nanowires, these latters were chemically modified by mercaptopropylmethoxysilane (MPTS), then chemically oxidized. Therefore, the nanowires were transferred from their substrate into water and a drop of it deposited on the surface. Nanowires are only bound to collagen and in particular, in electrode gaps. The formation of spontaneous Schotkty junction is demonstrated by current-voltage characteristics.

  7. Photovoltaic measurements in single-nanowire silicon solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelzenberg, Michael D; Turner-Evans, Daniel B; Kayes, Brendan M; Filler, Michael A; Putnam, Morgan C; Lewis, Nathan S; Atwater, Harry A

    2008-02-01

    Single-nanowire solar cells were created by forming rectifying junctions in electrically contacted vapor-liquid-solid-grown Si nanowires. The nanowires had diameters in the range of 200 nm to 1.5 microm. Dark and light current-voltage measurements were made under simulated Air Mass 1.5 global illumination. Photovoltaic spectral response measurements were also performed. Scanning photocurrent microscopy indicated that the Si nanowire devices had minority carrier diffusion lengths of approximately 2 microm. Assuming bulk-dominated recombination, this value corresponds to a minimum carrier lifetime of approximately 15 ns, or assuming surface-dominated recombination, to a maximum surface recombination velocity of approximately 1350 cm s(-1). The methods described herein comprise a valuable platform for measuring the properties of semiconductor nanowires, and are expected to be instrumental when designing an efficient macroscopic solar cell based on arrays of such nanostructures.

  8. Seedless Growth of Bismuth Nanowire Array via Vacuum Thermal Evaporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mingzhao; Nam, Chang-Yong; Zhang, Lihua

    2015-12-21

    Here a seedless and template-free technique is demonstrated to scalably grow bismuth nanowires, through thermal evaporation in high vacuum at RT. Conventionally reserved for the fabrication of metal thin films, thermal evaporation deposits bismuth into an array of vertical single crystalline nanowires over a flat thin film of vanadium held at RT, which is freshly deposited by magnetron sputtering or thermal evaporation. By controlling the temperature of the growth substrate the length and width of the nanowires can be tuned over a wide range. Responsible for this novel technique is a previously unknown nanowire growth mechanism that roots in the mild porosity of the vanadium thin film. Infiltrated into the vanadium pores, the bismuth domains (~ 1 nm) carry excessive surface energy that suppresses their melting point and continuously expels them out of the vanadium matrix to form nanowires. This discovery demonstrates the feasibility of scalable vapor phase synthesis of high purity nanomaterials without using any catalysts.

  9. AC surface photovoltage of indium phosphide nanowire networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohn, Andrew J.; Kobayashi, Nobuhiko P. [California Univ., Santa Cruz, CA (United States). Baskin School of Engineering; California Univ., Santa Cruz, CA (US). Nanostructured Energy Conversion Technology and Research (NECTAR); NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA (United States). Advanced Studies Laboratories

    2012-06-15

    Surface photovoltage is used to study the dynamics of photogenerated carriers which are transported through a highly interconnected three-dimensional network of indium phosphide nanowires. Through the nanowire network charge transport is possible over distances far in excess of the nanowire lengths. Surface photovoltage was measured within a region 10.5-14.5 mm from the focus of the illumination, which was chopped at a range of frequencies from 15 Hz to 30 kHz. Carrier dynamics were modeled by approximating the nanowire network as a thin film, then fitted to experiment suggesting diffusion of electrons and holes at approximately 75% of the bulk value in InP but with significantly reduced built-in fields, presumably due to screening by nanowire surfaces. (orig.)

  10. Prismatic quantum heterostructures on MBE grown GaAs nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontcuberta i Morral, Anna [Walter Schottky Institut, TU Muenchen, Garching (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Semiconductor nanowires are believed to play a decisive role in the electronic and optoelectronic devices of the XXI century. Their synthesis is a rapidly expanding field, due to the expectations that nanoscale objects and their associated phenomena have to offer to basic and applied science. Here we report on a new method for the growth of GaAs nanowires and related prismatic quantum heterostructures using Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE), by avoiding the use of gold as seed for the nanowires. The use of Molecular Beam Epitaxy presents an additional interest, as this technique allows us to produce ultra-pure nanowires and quantum heterostructures on the nanowire facets with very high crystalline quality and atomically sharp interfaces. This new versatility of MBE in the growth of nanostructures opens great possibilities for the generation of novel devices with additional optical and electronic functionalities, as it has been previously shown in planar structures.

  11. Silicon nanowire photodetectors made by metal-assisted chemical etching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ying; Ni, Chuan; Sarangan, Andrew

    2016-09-01

    Silicon nanowires have unique optical effects, and have potential applications in photodetectors. They can exhibit simple optical effects such as anti-reflection, but can also produce quantum confined effects. In this work, we have fabricated silicon photodetectors, and then post-processed them by etching nanowires on the incident surface. These nanowires were produced by a wet-chemical etching process known as the metal-assisted-chemical etching, abbreviated as MACE. N-type silicon substrates were doped by thermal diffusion from a solid ceramic source, followed by etching, patterning and contact metallization. The detectors were first tested for functionality and optical performance. The nanowires were then made by depositing an ultra-thin film of gold below its percolation thickness to produce an interconnected porous film. This was then used as a template to etch high aspect ratio nanowires into the face of the detectors with a HF:H2O2 mixture.

  12. Core-shell magnetic nanowires fabrication and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalska-Szostko, B., E-mail: kalska@uwb.edu.pl [Institute of Chemistry, University of Bialystok, Ciolkowskiego 1K, 15-245 Bialystok (Poland); Faculty of Physics, University of Bialystok, Ciolkowskiego 1L, 15-245 Bialystok, Poland (Poland); Klekotka, U.; Satuła, D. [Institute of Chemistry, University of Bialystok, Ciolkowskiego 1K, 15-245 Bialystok (Poland); Faculty of Physics, University of Bialystok, Ciolkowskiego 1L, 15-245 Bialystok, Poland (Poland)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • New approach for nanowires modification are presented. • Physical and chemical characterization of the nanowires are shown. • Properties modulations as an effect of the surface layer composition are discussed. - Abstract: In this paper, a new way of the preparation of core-shell magnetic nanowires has been proposed. For the modification Fe nanowires were prepared by electrodeposition in anodic aluminium oxide matrixes, in first step. In second, by wetting chemical deposition, shell layers of Ag, Au or Cu were obtained. Resultant core-shell nanowires structure was characterized by X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and energy dispersive x-ray. Whereas magnetic properties by Mössbauer spectroscopy.

  13. Spatial features control of self-organised tungsten nanowire arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milenkovic, Srdjan; Hassel, Achim Walter [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Eisenforschung GmbH, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2009-03-15

    Self-organised tungsten nanowire arrays were produced by a recently established templateless method. Control of spatial features such as diameter and spacing of nanowires was successfully achieved by changing the growth rate during directional solidification. An increase in the growth rate from 1.4 {mu}m s{sup -1} to 55.5 {mu}m s{sup -1} led to a decrease in the nanowire diameter from 560 to 290 nm and the spacing from 3.5 {mu}m to 1.7 {mu}m. The scaling laws of the variation in nanowire diameter and spacing with growth rate are quantitatively determined. Distribution of both, the diameter and the spacing around the average value were quite narrow. Potential applications of such self-organised W nanowire arrays in nanotechnology are discussed. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  14. Domain wall oscillations induced by spin torque in magnetic nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sbiaa, R., E-mail: rachid@squ.edu.om [Department of Physics, Sultan Qaboos University, P.O. Box 36, PC 123, Muscat (Oman); Chantrell, R. W. [Department of Physics, University of York, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom)

    2015-02-07

    Using micromagnetic simulations, the effects of the non-adiabatic spin torque (β) and the geometry of nanowires on domain wall (DW) dynamics are investigated. For the case of in-plane anisotropy nanowire, it is observed that the type of DW and its dynamics depends on its dimension. For a fixed length, the critical switching current decreases almost exponentially with the width W, while the DW speed becomes faster for larger W. For the case of perpendicular anisotropy nanowire, it was observed that DW dynamics depends strongly on β. For small values of β, oscillations of DW around the center of nanowire were revealed even after the current is switched off. In addition to nanowire geometry and intrinsic material properties, β could provide a way to control DW dynamics.

  15. Manipulation of morphology and magnetic properties in cobalt nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chenglin; Wu, Qiong; Yue, Ming; Xu, Huanhuan; Palaka, Subhashini; Elkins, Kevin; Ping Liu, J.

    2017-05-01

    Ferromagnetic metallic Cobalt nanowires are synthesized by the reduction of carboxylate salts of Co in 1, 2-butanediol using a solvothermal chemical process. In this process, the size and shape of the nanocrystals can be controlled via reaction parameters such as surfactant ratio, precursor concentration, and the temperature ramp. Synthesized Co nanocrystals exhibit the hexagonally close-packed phase favored the growth of anisotropic particles and the (002) crystalline direction is along the long axis of the nanowires. By varying the catalyst concentration in proper range, the effect of synthetic parameters on controlling Co nanoparticles with different length of 50 - 700 nm was systematically studied. Magnetic measurements and TEM images of the Cobalt nanowires indicate that the coercivity of the Co nanowires depends substantially on the morphology. The obtained highest coercivity of 8.4 kOe can be attributed to their small mean diameter and high crystallinity of nanowires for 200 - 300 nm.

  16. Manipulation of morphology and magnetic properties in cobalt nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenglin Li

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Ferromagnetic metallic Cobalt nanowires are synthesized by the reduction of carboxylate salts of Co in 1, 2-butanediol using a solvothermal chemical process. In this process, the size and shape of the nanocrystals can be controlled via reaction parameters such as surfactant ratio, precursor concentration, and the temperature ramp. Synthesized Co nanocrystals exhibit the hexagonally close-packed phase favored the growth of anisotropic particles and the (002 crystalline direction is along the long axis of the nanowires. By varying the catalyst concentration in proper range, the effect of synthetic parameters on controlling Co nanoparticles with different length of 50 - 700 nm was systematically studied. Magnetic measurements and TEM images of the Cobalt nanowires indicate that the coercivity of the Co nanowires depends substantially on the morphology. The obtained highest coercivity of 8.4 kOe can be attributed to their small mean diameter and high crystallinity of nanowires for 200 - 300 nm.

  17. Gallium nitride nanowire based nanogenerators and light-emitting diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Yen; Zhu, Guang; Hu, Youfan; Yu, Jeng-Wei; Song, Jinghui; Cheng, Kai-Yuan; Peng, Lung-Han; Chou, Li-Jen; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2012-06-26

    Single-crystal n-type GaN nanowires have been grown epitaxially on a Mg-doped p-type GaN substrate. Piezoelectric nanognerators based on GaN nanowires are investigated by conductive AFM, and the results showed an output power density of nearly 12.5 mW/m(2). Luminous LED modules based on n-GaN nanowires/p-GaN substrate have been fabricated. CCD images of the lighted LED and the corresponding electroluminescence spectra are recorded at a forward bias. Moreover, the GaN nanowire LED can be lighted up by the power provided by a ZnO nanowire based nanogenerator, demonstrating a self-powered LED using wurtzite-structured nanomaterials.

  18. Conductive polymer nanowire gas sensor fabricated by nanoscale soft lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ning; Jiang, Yang; Qu, Hemi; Duan, Xuexin

    2017-12-01

    Resistive devices composed of one-dimensional nanostructures are promising candidates for the next generation of gas sensors. However, the large-scale fabrication of nanowires is still challenging, which restricts the commercialization of such devices. Here, we report a highly efficient and facile approach to fabricating poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) nanowire chemiresistive gas sensors by nanoscale soft lithography. Well-defined sub-100 nm nanowires are fabricated on silicon substrate, which facilitates device integration. The nanowire chemiresistive gas sensor is demonstrated for NH3 and NO2 detection at room temperature and shows a limit of detection at ppb level, which is compatible with nanoscale PEDOT:PSS gas sensors fabricated with the conventional lithography technique. In comparison with PEDOT:PSS thin-film gas sensors, the nanowire gas sensor exhibits higher sensitivity and a much faster response to gas molecules.

  19. Electrochemical fountain pen nanofabrication of vertically grown platinum nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryavanshi, Abhijit P.; Yu, Min-Feng

    2007-03-01

    Local electrochemical deposition of freestanding platinum nanowires was demonstrated with a new approach—electrochemical fountain pen nanofabrication (ec-FPN). The ec-FPN exploits the meniscus formed between an electrolyte-filled nanopipette ('the fountain pen') and a conductive substrate to serve as a confined electrochemical cell for reducing and depositing metal ions. Freestanding Pt nanowires were continuously grown off the substrate by moving the nanopipette away from the substrate while maintaining a stable meniscus between the nanopipette and the nanowire growth front. High quality and high aspect-ratio polycrystalline Pt nanowires with diameter of ~150 nm and length over 30 µm were locally grown with ec-FPN. The ec-FPN technique is shown to be an efficient and clean technique for localized fabrication of a variety of vertically grown metal nanowires and can potentially be used for fabricating freeform 3D nanostructures.

  20. Modeling of semiconductor nanowire selective-area MOCVD growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koriakin, A. A.; Reiter, M.; Sokolova, Zh V.; Sibirev, N. V.

    2017-11-01

    A numerical approach to the determination of gas kinetics in the case of non-planar nanostructure growth via the selective-area metal-organic chemical vapor deposition is developed. The direct simulation Monte-Carlo method is utilized to model the rarefied gas flow of precursor particles nearby the substrate. The computation is performed for the GaAs nanowire growth via the selective-area metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. The model allows the quantitative description of the decrease of nanowire length with the increase of distance between nanowires (the so-called synergetic effect). The optimal pitch of the mask that corresponds to the maximal nanowire length is found for typical growth conditions. In particular, our calculation shows that the optimal pitch increases with the increase of the nanowire diameter.