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Sample records for well spacing

  1. Well Spacing for Horizontal Wells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.D.S. Keuengoua

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In the developing phase of a hydrocarbon reservoir and planning for drilling the production wells, it is necessary to drill the wells in an appropriate spacing to achieve maximum economic revenues during the reservoir life span. Well spacing which is the real location and interrelationship between producing oil or gas wells in an oil field is an important parameter. It is determined for the maximum ultimate production of a given reservoir and should be taken in consideration during well planning to avoid drilling of unnecessary wells. This study presents the concept of drainage area on horizontal well and horizontal productivity indices with different equations and their applications. A user friendly Excel Spreadsheet program was developed to calculate the productivity values of horizontal wells using three major available productivity equations. Also, the developed spreadsheet program was used to evaluate the effect of well spacing on the productivities of horizontal wells using productivity index approach and drainage area concept. It also helps to review the comparison between vertical and horizontal wells spacing based on drainage area concept. This program was validated, and then was used to study the effect of horizontal well length on the ratio of horizontal well productivity to vertical well productivity. The results show that higher ratio of horizontal well productivity to vertical well productivity values are obtained with increase length of the horizontal well. It is a very useful tool for making decision about the application of well spacing for horizontal wells.

  2. Colin Rowe: Space as well-composed illusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Schnoor

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Architectural historian Colin Rowe, although well known for his intriguing analytical writings on modern architecture, rarely examined architectural space as a scholarly subject-matter. Historians examining Rowe’s writings rarely refer to the issue of space, either. Anthony Vidler, Werner Oechslin, Alexander Caragonne and others have examined Rowe’s investigations into urban space, his analyses of formal principles in architecture, or his critical stance towards the myths of modernism, but have not singled out architectural space as subject matter. Nevertheless, this paper argues that Rowe is indeed one of the few post-war historians writing in the English language to have conveyed analyses of architectural space, particularly in the volume The Mathematics of the Ideal Villa (1976. The paper examines how Rowe understood architectural space as relevant only when not seen as ‘pure’ but ‘contaminated’ with ambiguity and active character: notions of flatness versus depth and horizontal versus vertical, as well as the overlapping of conflicting scales or whole structural or spatial systems are central for Rowe’s reading of architectural space, which is also always infused with an idea of movement. Further, the paper traces influences of Rowe’s approach beyond the obvious influence by Rudolf Wittkower to Heinrich Wölfflin’s style and method, partially conveyed through the translation of Sigfried Giedion’s writings.

  3. Evolutionary Game Theory on Measure Spaces: Well-Posedness

    CERN Document Server

    Cleveland, John

    2012-01-01

    An attempt is made to find a comprehensive mathematical framework in which to investigate the problems of well-posedness and asymptotic analysis for fully nonlinear evolutionary game theoretic models. The model should be rich enough to include all classical nonlinearities, e.g., Beverton-Holt or Ricker type. For several such models formulated on the space of integrable functions, it is known that as the variance of the payoff kernel becomes small the solution converges in the long term to a Dirac measure centered at the fittest strategy; thus the limit of the solution is not in the state space of integrable functions. Starting with the replicator-mutator equation and a generalized logistic equation as bases, a general model is formulated as a dynamical system on the state space of finite signed measures. Well-posedness is established, and then it is shown that by choosing appropriate payoff kernels this model includes all classical density models, both selection and mutation, and discrete and continuous strat...

  4. "Religion" in Educational Spaces: Knowing, Knowing Well, and Knowing Differently

    Science.gov (United States)

    I'Anson, John; Jasper, Alison

    2011-01-01

    The focus of this article is how "religion", as a materially heterogeneous concept, becomes mobilized in different educational spaces, and the "kinds of knowing" to which this gives rise. Three "case studyish" illustrations are deployed in order to consider how religion and education produce kinds of knowing which may--or may not--involve knowing…

  5. Assessing Space Utilisation Relative to Key Performance Indicators--How Well, Not How Much, Space Is Used

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Simon; Apps, Nathan; Harbon, Paul; Baldock, Clive

    2012-01-01

    Efficient use of resources, including space, is critical in academic departments. Traditional space auditing simply assesses occupancy levels. We present a novel approach which assesses not just the extent to which space is used, but also how well it is used. We link space use quantitatively to key performance indicators in a research-intensive…

  6. Succinct Representation of Well-Spaced Point Clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Hudson, Benoît

    2009-01-01

    A set of n points in low dimensions takes Theta(n w) bits to store on a w-bit machine. Surface reconstruction and mesh refinement impose a requirement on the distribution of the points they process. I show how to use this assumption to lossily compress a set of n input points into a representation that takes only O(n) bits, independent of the word size. The loss can keep inter-point distances to within 10% relative error while still achieving a factor of three space savings. The representation allows standard quadtree operations, along with computing the restricted Voronoi cell of a point, in time O(w^2 + log n), which can be improved to time O(log n) if w is in Theta(log n). Thus one can use this compressed representation to perform mesh refinement or surface reconstruction in O(n) bits with only a logarithmic slowdown.

  7. Levitin-Polyak Well-Posedness of an Equilibrium-Like Problem in Banach Spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Ru-liang Deng

    2014-01-01

    The concept of Levitin-Polyak well-posedness of an equilibrium-like problem in Banach spaces is introduced. Under suitable conditions, some characterizations of its Levitin-Polyak well-posedness are established. Some conditions under which an equilibrium-like problem in Banach spaces is Levitin-Polyak well-posed are also derived.

  8. Levitin-Polyak Well-Posedness of an Equilibrium-Like Problem in Banach Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ru-liang Deng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of Levitin-Polyak well-posedness of an equilibrium-like problem in Banach spaces is introduced. Under suitable conditions, some characterizations of its Levitin-Polyak well-posedness are established. Some conditions under which an equilibrium-like problem in Banach spaces is Levitin-Polyak well-posed are also derived.

  9. Urban Green Space Perception and Its Contribution to Well-Being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyula Kothencz

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Individual perceptions are essential when evaluating the well-being benefits from urban green spaces. This study predicted the influence of perceived green space characteristics in the city of Szeged, Hungary, on two well-being variables: the green space visitors’ level of satisfaction and the self-reported quality of life. The applied logistic regression analysis used nine predictors: seven perceived green space characteristics from a questionnaire survey among visitors of five urban green spaces of Szeged; and the frequency of green space visitors’ crowd-sourced recreational running paths and photographs picturing green space aesthetics. Results revealed that perceived green space characteristics with direct well-being benefits were strong predictors of both dependent variables. Perceived green space characteristics with indirect, yet fundamental, well-being benefits, namely, regulating ecosystem services had minor influence on the dependent variables. The crowd-sourced geo-tagged data predicted only the perceived quality of life contributions; but revealed spatial patterns of recreational green space use and aesthetics. This study recommends that regulating ecosystem services should be planned with a focus on residents’ aesthetic and recreational needs. Further research on the combination of green space visitors´ perceptions and crowd-sourced geo-tagged data is suggested to promote planning for well-being and health benefits of urban green spaces.

  10. Urban Green Space Perception and Its Contribution to Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothencz, Gyula; Kolcsár, Ronald; Cabrera-Barona, Pablo; Szilassi, Péter

    2017-07-12

    Individual perceptions are essential when evaluating the well-being benefits from urban green spaces. This study predicted the influence of perceived green space characteristics in the city of Szeged, Hungary, on two well-being variables: the green space visitors' level of satisfaction and the self-reported quality of life. The applied logistic regression analysis used nine predictors: seven perceived green space characteristics from a questionnaire survey among visitors of five urban green spaces of Szeged; and the frequency of green space visitors' crowd-sourced recreational running paths and photographs picturing green space aesthetics. Results revealed that perceived green space characteristics with direct well-being benefits were strong predictors of both dependent variables. Perceived green space characteristics with indirect, yet fundamental, well-being benefits, namely, regulating ecosystem services had minor influence on the dependent variables. The crowd-sourced geo-tagged data predicted only the perceived quality of life contributions; but revealed spatial patterns of recreational green space use and aesthetics. This study recommends that regulating ecosystem services should be planned with a focus on residents' aesthetic and recreational needs. Further research on the combination of green space visitors´ perceptions and crowd-sourced geo-tagged data is suggested to promote planning for well-being and health benefits of urban green spaces.

  11. Vitamin G: effects of green space on health, well-being, and social safety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenewegen, P.P.; Berg, van den A.E.; Vries, de S.; Verheij, R.A.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Looking out on and being in the green elements of the landscape around us seem to affect health, well-being and feelings of social safety. This article discusses the design of a research program on the effects of green space in the living environment on health, well-being and social safe

  12. Vitamin G : effects of green space on health, well-being, and social safety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenewegen, Peter P.; Berg, Agnes E. van den; Vries, Sjerp de; Verheij, Robert A.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Looking out on and being in the green elements of the landscape around us seem to affect health, well-being and feelings of social safety. This article discusses the design of a research program on the effects of green space in the living environment on health, well-being and social safe

  13. On well posedness of best simultaneous approximation problems in Banach spaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The well posedness of best simultaneous approximation problems is considered. We establish the generic results on the well posedness of the best simultaneous approximation problems for any closed weakly compact nonempty subset in a strictly convex Kadec Banach space. Further, we prove that the set of all points in E(G) such that the best simultaneous approximation problems are not well posed is a σ-porous set in E(G) when X is a uniformly convex Banach space. In addition, we also investigate the generic property of the ambiguous loci of the best simultaneous approximation.

  14. Does Access to Green Space Impact the Mental Well-being of Children: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Rachel

    2017-09-04

    An increasing body of research is showing associations between green space and overall health. Children are spending more time indoors while pediatric mental and behavioral health problems are increasing. A systematic review of the literature was done to examine the association between access to green space and the mental well-being of children. Articles were limited to English language, ages 0-18 years, and publish date 2012-2017. The search yielded 341 articles in Ovid, 81 in Pub Med and 123 in Scopus. Articles that were not original research and that were not a pediatric population were excluded. Twelve articles fit the selection criteria. Twelve articles relating to green space and the mental well-being of children were reviewed. Three articles outside the date criteria were included as they are cited often in the literature as important early research on this topic. Access to green space was associated with improved mental well-being, overall health and cognitive development of children. It promotes attention restoration, memory, competence, supportive social groups, self-discipline, moderates stress, improves behaviors and symptoms of ADHD and was even associated with higher standardized test scores. Scientific evidence demonstrating the mental health benefits of access to nature for children can guide policy and urban planning, while nursing interventions and initiatives can enhance health by promoting outdoor play, educating patients and families, advocating for recess times and green environments at school as well as healing gardens in hospital settings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Vitamin G: effects of green space on health, well-being, and social safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van den Berg Agnes E

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Looking out on and being in the green elements of the landscape around us seem to affect health, well-being and feelings of social safety. This article discusses the design of a research program on the effects of green space in the living environment on health, well-being and social safety. Methods/design The program consists of three projects at three different scales: at a macro scale using data on the Netherlands as a whole, at an intermediate scale looking into the specific effect of green space in the urban environment, and at micro scale investigating the effects of allotment gardens. The projects are observational studies, combining existing data on land use and health interview survey data, and collecting new data through questionnaires and interviews. Multilevel analysis and GIS techniques will be used to analyze the data. Discussion Previous (experimental research in environmental psychology has shown that a natural environment has a positive effect on well-being through restoration of stress and attentional fatigue. Descriptive epidemiological research has shown a positive relationship between the amount of green space in the living environment and physical and mental health and longevity. The program has three aims. First, to document the relationship between the amount and type of green space in people's living environment and their health, well-being, and feelings of safety. Second, to investigate the mechanisms behind this relationship. Mechanisms relate to exposure (leading to stress reduction and attention restoration, healthy behavior and social integration, and selection. Third, to translate the results into policy on the crossroads of spatial planning, public health, and safety. Strong points of our program are: we study several interrelated dependent variables, in different ordinary settings (as opposed to experimental or extreme settings, focusing on different target groups, using appropriate multilevel

  16. On well posedness of best simultaneous approximation problems in Banach spaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; Chong

    2001-01-01

    [1]Pinkus, A., Uniqueness in vector-valued approximation, J. Approx. Theory, 1993, 73: 17—92.[2]Li, C., Watson, G. A., On best simultaneous approximation, J. Approx. Theory, 1997, 91: 332—348.[3]Tanimoto, S., A characterization of best simultaneous approximations, J. Approx. Theory, 1989, 59: 359—361.[4]Watson, G. A., A characterization of best simultaneous approximations, J. Approx. Theory, 1993, 75: 175—182.[5]Li, C., Watson, G. A., On best simultaneous approximation of a finite set of functions, Computer Math. Applic., 1999, 37: 1—9.[6]Stechkin, S. B., Approximation properties of sets in normed linear spaces, Rev. Roumaine Math. Pures and Appl. (in Russian), 1963, 8: 5—18.[7]Borwein, J. M., Fitzpatrick, S., Existence of nearest points in Banach spaces, Can. J. Math., 1989, 41: 702—720.[8]De Blasi, F. S., Myjak, J., On a generalized best approximation problem, J. Approx. Theory, 1998, 94: 54—72.[9]Georgiev, P. G., The strong Ekeland variational principle, the strong drop theorem and applications, J. Math. Anal. Appl., 1988, 131: 1—21.[10]Lau, K. S., Almost Chebyshev subsets in reflexive Banach spaces, Indiana Univ. Math. J., 1978, 27: 791—795.[11]Li, C., On mutually nearest and mutually furthest points in reflexive Banach spaces, J. Approx. Theory, 2000, 103: 1—17.[12]Li, C., On well posed generalized best approximation problems, J. Approx. Thory, 2000, 107: 96—108.[13]Li, C., Almost K-Chebyshev sets, Acta. Math. Sin. (in Chinese), 1990, 33: 251—259.[14]De Blasi, F. S., Myjak, J., Papini, P. L., On mutually nearest and mutually furthest points of sets in Banach spaces, J. Approx. Theory, 1992, 70: 142—155.[15]Dontchev, A., Zolezzi, T., Well Posed Optimization Problems, Lecture Notes in Math., Vol. 1543, New York: Springer-Verlag, 1993.[16]Li, C., Wang, X. H., Almost Chebyshev set with respect to bounded subsets, Science in China, Ser. A, 1997, 40: 375—383.[17]Ni, R

  17. Temperature dependence of active photonic band gap in bragg-spaced quantum wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu Zhiqiang; Wang Tao; Yu Chunchao; Xu Wei, E-mail: huzhiqianghzq@163.com [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, College of Optoelectronic Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, Hubei (China)

    2011-02-01

    A novel all-optical polarization switch of active photonic band gap structure based on non-resonant optical Stark effect bragg-spaced quantum wells was investigated and it could be compatible with the optical communication system. The theory is based on InGaAsP/InP Bragg-spaced quantum wells (BSQWs). Mainly through the design of the InGaAsP well layer component and InP barrier thickness to make the quantum-period cycle meet the bragg condition and the bragg frequency is equal to re-hole exciton resonance frequency. When a spectrally narrow control pulse is tuned within the forbidden gap, such BSQWs have been shown to exhibit large optical nonlinearities and ps recovery times, which can form T hz switch. However, the exciton binding energy of InGaAsP will be automatically separate at room temperature, so the effect of all-optical polarization switching of active photonic band gap bragg structure quantum wells can only be studied at low temperature. By a large number of experiments, we tested part of the material parameters of BSQWs in the temperature range 10-300K. On this basis, the InGaAsP and InP refractive index changes with wavelength, InP thermal expansion coefficient are studied and a relationship equation is established. Experimental results show that the bragg reflection spectra with temperature mainly is effected by InP refractive index changes with temperature. Our theoretical study and experiment are an instruction as a reference in the designs and experiments of future practical optical switches.

  18. Light and color as biological stimuli for the well-being in space long duration missions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlacht, I.; Masali, M.; Ferrino, M.

    Foreword In a microgravitational space environment the human biorhythm its sensory perception and all its psycho-physiological system comes completely upset by the absence of gravity and of external terrestrial references beyond the effects of constraint in a limited space This type of environment is defined extreme confined In order to create a human centered design in sight of missions of long duration We will have to consider above all these factors in order to try to increase the well-being the comfort and the productivity of the astronauts In this context we have elaborated a design concept that forecasts to resume the variety and the variability of the terrestrial stimuli through factors like the light and the color so as to recreate the input of the normal circadian cycle subsubsection Light and color and psycho-physiological well-being The human circadian rhythms day all around cycle of the organism s function are regulated by a sort of biological clock presumably localized in the hypothalamus The more obvious examples of this clock are the heartbeat the menstrual cycle the variation of the body temperature and the hormonal production during the day the behavior of plants and animals Those organism functions are influenced by the variation of the light around of the 24 hours The emission of an environmental light can restore sout s the earthly solar cycle irradiating the subject with the same frequency beams present on the Earth this irradiation should vary the intensity during the day like the

  19. Shades of green: Measuring the ecology of urban green space in the context of human health and well-being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anna Jorgensen; Paul H. Gobster

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we review and analyze the recent research literature on urban green space and human health and well-being, with an emphasis on studies that attempt to measure biodiversity and other green space concepts relevant to urban ecological restoration. We first conduct a broad scale assessment of the literature to identify typologies of urban green space and...

  20. Theory of resonant tunneling in a variably spaced multiquantum well structure - An Airy function approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, K. F.; Summers, C. J.

    1987-01-01

    A theoretical study of resonant tunneling in multilayered heterostructures is presented based on an exact solution of the Schroedinger equation under the application of a constant electric field. By use of the transfer matrix approach, the transmissivity of the structure is determined as a function of the incident electron energy. The approach presented herein is easily extended to many layer structures where it is more accurate than other existing transfer matrix or Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin (WKB) models. The transmission resonances are compared to the bound-state energies calculated for a finite square well under bias using either an asymmetric square-well model or the exact solution of an infinite square well under the application of an electric field. The results show good agreement with other existing models as well as with the bound-state energies. The calculations were then applied to a new superlattice structure, the variably spaced superlattice energy filter, which is designed such that under bias the spatial quantization levels fully align. Based on these calculations, a new class of resonant tunneling superlattice devices can be designed.

  1. On Generic Well-posedness of Restricted Chebyshev Center Problems in Banach Spaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chong LI; Genaro LOPEZ

    2006-01-01

    Let (B) (resp.(K), (B)(l), (k)(l))denote the set of all nonempty bounded(resp. compact, bounded convex, compact convex)closed subsets of the Banach space X, endowed with the Hausdorff metric, and let G be a nonempty relatively weakly compact closed subset of X.Let (b)o stand for the set of all F ∈(b) such that the problem(F,G)is well-posed. We proved that, if X is strictly convex and Kadec, the set (K) (L) (n) (Bo) is a dense Gб-subset of (k)(l)\\G. Furthermore, if X is a uniformly convex Banach space, we will prove more, namely that the set (B)\\(Bo) (resp.(K)\\(Bo), (B)(l)\\(Bo), (K)(L)\\(Bo) is σ-porous in (B) (resp.(K), (B)(L),(K)(L)). Moreover, we prove that for most (in the sense of the Baire category) closed bounded subsets G of X, the set (K)\\(Bo) is dense and uncountable in (K).

  2. Mingling, observing, and lingering: everyday public spaces and their implications for well-being and social relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattell, Vicky; Dines, Nick; Gesler, Wil; Curtis, Sarah

    2008-09-01

    The rejuvenation of public spaces is a key policy concern in the UK. Drawing on a wide literature and on qualitative research located in a multi-ethnic area of East London, this paper explores their relationship to well-being and social relations. It demonstrates that ordinary spaces are a significant resource for both individuals and communities. The beneficial properties of public spaces are not reducible to natural or aesthetic criteria, however. Social interaction in spaces can provide relief from daily routines, sustenance for people's sense of community, opportunities for sustaining bonding ties or making bridges, and can influence tolerance and raise people's spirits. They also possess subjective meanings that accumulate over time and can contribute to meeting diverse needs. Different users of public spaces attain a sense of well- being for different reasons: the paper calls for policy approaches in which the social and therapeutic properties of a range of everyday spaces are more widely recognised and nurtured.

  3. WELL-POSEDNESS FOR THE CAUCHY PROBLEM TO THE HIROTA EQUATION IN SOBOLEV SPACES OF NEGATIVE INDICES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUOZHAOHUI; JIA YUELING

    2005-01-01

    The local well-posedness of the Cauchy problem for the Hirota equation is established for low regularity data in Sobolev spaces Hs(s ≥ -1-4). Moreover, the global well-posedness for L2 data follows from the local well-posedness and the conserved quantity. For data in Hs(s > 0), the global well-posedness is also proved. The main idea is to use the generalized trilinear estimates, associated with the Fourier restriction norm method.

  4. Emotion-based Music Rretrieval on a Well-reduced Audio Feature Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruxanda, Maria Magdalena; Chua, Bee Yong; Nanopoulos, Alexandros

    2009-01-01

    Music expresses emotion. A number of audio extracted features have influence on the perceived emotional expression of music. These audio features generate a high-dimensional space, on which music similarity retrieval can be performed effectively, with respect to human perception of the music......-emotion. However, the real-time systems that retrieve music over large music databases, can achieve order of magnitude performance increase, if applying multidimensional indexing over a dimensionally reduced audio feature space. To meet this performance achievement, in this paper, extensive studies are conducted...... on a number of dimensionality reduction algorithms, including both classic and novel approaches. The paper clearly envisages which dimensionality reduction techniques on the considered audio feature space, can preserve in average the accuracy of the emotion-based music retrieval....

  5. A Tie for Third Place: Teens Need Physical Spaces as well as Virtual Places

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heeger, Paula Brehm

    2006-01-01

    "Third places" or public and informal gathering places have declined over the years. Third places, which are "neutral ground" where people gather to discuss, interact, and enjoy the company of those they know, are important for the health of communities. It's a known fact that teens have a strong need to socialize, and their third-space options…

  6. Space age telemetry for geothermal well logging: the wireline transmission link

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolar, J.D.; Dennis, B.R.; Stephani, E.L.; Gutierrez, P.

    1985-01-01

    The development of aerospace telemetry has opened new communication data links for making measurements in deep boreholes in the earth's crust. However, now a transmission line must be used since high-frequency signals will not propagate through this medium. Further restrictions are imposed upon well-logging transmission lines in high-temperature boreholes. It is possible to extend the bandwidth and number of data channels to enhance measurements in geothermal boreholes by combining aerospace telemetry techniques with thermal protection systems and careful selection of wireline data transmission configurations. 5 refs., 2 figs.

  7. Global Strong Well-Posedness of the Three Dimensional Primitive Equations in {L^p}-Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hieber, Matthias; Kashiwabara, Takahito

    2016-09-01

    In this article, an {L^p}-approach to the primitive equations is developed. In particular, it is shown that the three dimensional primitive equations admit a unique, global strong solution for all initial data {a in [X_p,D(A_p)]_{1/p}} provided {p in [6/5,infty)}. To this end, the hydrostatic Stokes operator {A_p} defined on {X_p}, the subspace of {L^p} associated with the hydrostatic Helmholtz projection, is introduced and investigated. Choosing {p} large, one obtains global well-posedness of the primitive equations for strong solutions for initial data {a} having less differentiability properties than {H^1}, hereby generalizing in particular a result by Cao and Titi (Ann Math 166:245-267, 2007) to the case of non-smooth initial data.

  8. Exciton and donor binding energies in quantum-well wires and quantum dots a fractional-dimensional space approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Hong; Kong Xiao-Jun

    2004-01-01

    A simple method for calculating the free-exciton binding energies in the fractional-dimensional-space model for single-quantum-well structure has been extended to quantum-well wires and quantum dots, in which the real anisotropic system is modelled through an effective isotropic environment with a fractional dimension. In this scheme, the fractionaldimensional parameter is chosen via an analytical procedure and involves no ansatz. We calculated the ground-state binding energies of excitons and donors in quantum-well wires with rectangular cross sections. Our results are found to be in good agreement with previous variational calculations and available experimental measurements. We also discussed the ground-state exciton binding energy changing with different shapes of quantum-well wires.

  9. Report of the Workshop on Biology-Based Technology to Enhance Human Well-Being and Function in Extended Space Exploration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Steering Group for the Workshop on Biology-based Technology for Enhanced Space Exploration

    1998-01-01

    ... on Biology-based Technology to Enhance Human Well-being and Function in Extended Space Exploration Steering Group for the Workshop on Biology-based Technology for Enhanced Space Exploration Space Studies Board Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington D.C. 1998 i Copyrighttr...

  10. EUB Decision 2003-101 : Polaris Resources Ltd. Applications for a well licence, special gas well spacing, compulsory pooling, and flaring permit Livingstone Field : Applications No. 1276521 and 1276489

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGee, T.M.; Bruni, M.J.; Waisman, D.D. [Alberta Energy and Utilities Board, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2003-12-16

    The Alberta Energy and Utilities Board received an application (No. 1276521) from Polaris Resources Limited (Polaris), requesting a licence to drill a vertical level-3 critical gas well from surface location in Legal Subdivision (LSD) 11 of Section 32, Township 10, Range 2, West of the 5th Meridian (11-32 well) in Alberta. It stated that the maximum hydrogen sulphide content for the well would be approximately 28.76 per cent. During the drilling phase of the well, the emergency planning zone would be 13.54 kilometres (km). The location of the well is about 32 km north of Lundbreck near the Maycroft community. In addition, a request was received (application No. 1276489) for an order to establish a special drilling spacing unit (DSU) comprising Sections 32 and 33 of Township 10, Range 2, West of the 5th Meridian, with the target area being within the DSU and having sides 300 m from and parallel to the sides of the DSU. It also included a compulsory pooling request and flaring permit. A public hearing was held in September 2003. The following issues were considered: need for the applied-for well, well design, adequacy of public consultation efforts for the proposed well, environmental effects of the proposed well, quality of life and visual impacts, safety implications of the proposed well, financial security and technical-operational ability of Polaris, and special gas well spacing, compulsory pooling, and flaring permit. After careful consideration of all arguments presented to the Board, the well licence Application No. 1276521, the special gas well spacing and compulsory pooling Application No. 1276489, and the flaring permit application were denied. 2 figs.

  11. The impact of blue space on human health and well-being - Salutogenetic health effects of inland surface waters: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Völker, Sebastian; Kistemann, Thomas

    2011-11-01

    Water is one of the most important physical, aesthetic landscape elements and possesses importance e.g. in environmental psychology, landscape design, and tourism research, but the relationship between water and health in current literature is only investigated in the field of environmental toxicology and microbiology, not explicitly in the research field of blue space and human well-being. Due to the lack of a systematic review of blue space and well-being in the various fields of research, the aim of this review is to provide a systematic, qualitative meta-analysis of existing studies that are relevant to this issue. Benefits for health and well-being clearly related to blue space can be identified with regard to perception and preference, landscape design, emotions, and restoration and recreation. Additionally, direct health benefits have already been stated. The studies included in the review are mostly experimental studies or cross-sectional surveys, focusing on students as the subject group. There is a need for more qualitative and multi-faceted, interdisciplinary studies, using triangulation as a method to achieve a resilient image of reality. A broader study design considering all age groups would contribute to identifying benefits for the whole of society. The inattentiveness to blue space makes it difficult to measure long-term effects of blue space on well-being. There is still little respect for water and health in planning issues, although salutogenetic health benefits can be identified. To close the gap regarding missing systematic concepts, a concept for assessing salutogenetic health effects in blue space is provided. Blue space is considered therein as a multi-dimensional term including four dimensions of appropriation, as well as at least five ontological dimensions of substantiality. The aim of the concept is to support researchers and practitioners analysing health effects in blue space. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Local well-posedness for a higher order nonlinear Schrodinger equation in Sobolev spaces of negative indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Carvajal

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We prove that the initial value problem associated with $$ partial_tu+ialpha partial^2_x u+Beta partial^3_x u +igamma|u|^2u = 0, quad x,t in mathbb{R}, $$ is locally well-posed in $H^s$ for $s>-1/4$.

  13. Fourier space approach to the classical density functional theory for multi-Yukawa and square-well fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlushak, Stepan P; McCabe, Clare; Cummings, Peter T

    2012-09-14

    We present a Fourier space density functional approach for hard particles with attractive interactions, which is based on a previously developed two-dimensional approach [S. Hlushak, W. Rżysko, and S. Sokołowski, J. Chem. Phys. 131, 094904 (2009)] for hard-sphere chains. The interactions are incorporated by means of a three-dimensional Fourier image of the direct correlation function that is obtained from the first-order mean-spherical approximation. In order to improve the computational efficiency, we make extensive use of fast Fourier transforms for calculating density convolution integrals. A two-dimensional implementation of the new density functional approach, based on the expansion of the functional around the bulk fluid density, is used to study structure and adsorption of two model fluids in narrow cylindrical pores. We also investigate two methods that improve the accuracy of the theory as compared to the conventional DFT approach, which expands the free energy functional around the bulk fluid density: One a variant of the reference fluid density functional theory used by Gillespie et al. [Phys. Rev. E 68, 031503 (2003)], and the second a weighted density approach with energy route thermodynamics. Results from these two methods are compared to the conventional approach and also to the results of Monte Carlo simulations. We find that the method of Gillespie et al. and the weighted density approach with energy route thermodynamics yield significant improvement over the conventional approach.

  14. Attempts to grow optically coupled Fibonacci-spaced InGaAs/GaAs quantum wells result in surface gratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, B C; Hendrickson, J; Sweet, J; Khitrova, G; Litvinov, D; Gerthsen, D; Myer, B; Pau, S; Sarid, D; Wegener, M; Ivchenko, E L; Poddubny, A N; Gibbs, H M

    2008-12-22

    An instability in the growth of nonperiodic InGaAs/GaAs multiple quantum well samples, ordinarily of high-quality when grown with equal periods of order of half the wavelength of light in the material, leads to a dramatic microscopic, self-organized surface grating. This effect was discovered while growing quantum wells with two unequal barrier lengths arranged in a Fibonacci sequence to form an optical quasicrystal. A laser beam incident normal to the surface of the sample is diffracted into a propeller-shaped pattern. The sample surface has a distinctly cloudy appearance when viewed along one crystal axis but is mirror-like when the sample is rotated 90 degrees. The instability results in a five-fold increase in the absorption linewidth of the heavy-hole exciton transition. Atomic force microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy were used to study the samples.

  15. A numerical approach to evaluating what percentage of a living space is well-ventilated, for the assessment of thermal comfort

    CERN Document Server

    Bastide, Alain; Garde, François; Boyer, Harry

    2012-01-01

    A bioclimatic approach to designing comfortable buildings in hot and humid tropical regions requires, firstly, some preliminary, important work on the building envelope to limit the energy contributions, and secondly, an airflow optimization of the building. For the first step, tools such as nodal or zonal models have been largely implemented. For the second step, the assessment of air velocities, in three dimensions and in a large space, can only be performed through the use of detailed models such as with CFD. This paper deals with the improvement of thermal comfort by ventilating around the occupants. For this purpose, the average velocity coefficient definition is modified to be adapted to CFD and the areas involving movement or the living spaces. We propose a new approach based on the derivation of a new quantity: the well-ventilated percentage of a living space. The well-ventilated percentage of a space allows a time analysis of the aeraulic behaviour of the building in its environment. These percentage...

  16. Distributed space scales in a semilinear reaction-diffusion system including a parabolic variational inequality: A well-posedness study

    CERN Document Server

    Fatima, Tasnim; Aiki, Toyohiko

    2012-01-01

    This paper treats the solvability of a semilinear reaction-diffusion system, which incorporates transport (diffusion) and reaction effects emerging from two separated spatial scales: $x$ - macro and $y$ - micro. The system's origin connects to the modeling of concrete corrosion in sewer concrete pipes. It consists of three partial differential equations which are mass-balances of concentrations, as well as, one ordinary differential equation tracking the damage-by-corrosion. The system is semilinear, partially dissipative, and coupled via the solid-water interface at the microstructure (pore) level. The structure of the model equations is obtained in \\cite{tasnim1} by upscaling of the physical and chemical processes taking place within the microstructure of the concrete. Herein we ensure the positivity and $L^\\infty-$bounds on concentrations, and then prove the global-in-time existence and uniqueness of a suitable class of positive and bounded solutions that are stable with respect to the two-scale data and m...

  17. Optical reading of field-effect transistors by phase-space absorption quenching in a single InGaAs quantum well conducting channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemla, D. S.; Bar-Joseph, I.; Klingshirn, C.; Miller, D. A. B.; Kuo, J. M.

    1987-03-01

    Absorption switching in a semiconductor quantum well by electrically varying the charge density in the quantum well conducting channel of a selectively doped heterostructure transistor is reported for the first time. The phase-space absorption quenching (PAQ) is observed at room temperature in an InGaAs/InAlAs grown on InP FET, and it shows large absorption coefficient changes with relatively broad spectral bandwidth. This PAQ is large enough to be used for direct optical determination of the logic state of the FET.

  18. Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maziar Nekovee

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive radio is being intensively researched as the enabling technology for license-exempt access to the so-called TV White Spaces (TVWS, large portions of spectrum in the UHF/VHF bands which become available on a geographical basis after digital switchover. Both in the US, and more recently, in the UK the regulators have given conditional endorsement to this new mode of access. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art in technology, regulation, and standardisation of cognitive access to TVWS. It examines the spectrum opportunity and commercial use cases associated with this form of secondary access.

  19. Sampling conformational space of intrinsically disordered proteins in explicit solvent: Comparison between well-tempered ensemble approach and solute tempering method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Mengzhi; Xu, Ji; Ren, Ying

    2017-03-01

    Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) are a class of proteins that expected to be largely unstructured under physiological conditions. Due to their heterogeneous nature, experimental characterization of IDP is challenging. Temperature replica exchange molecular dynamics (T-REMD) is a widely used enhanced sampling method to probe structural characteristics of these proteins. However, its application has been hindered due to its tremendous computational cost, especially when simulating large systems in explicit solvent. Two methods, parallel tempering well-tempered ensemble (PT-WTE) and replica exchange with solute tempering (REST), have been proposed to alleviate the computational expense of T-REMD. In this work, we select three different IDP systems to compare the sampling characteristics and efficiencies of the two methods Both the two methods could efficiently sample the conformational space of IDP and yield highly consistent results for all the three IDPs. The efficiencies of the two methods: are compatible, with about 5-6 times better than the plain T-REMD. Besides, the advantages and disadvantages of each method are also discussed. Specially, the PT-WTE method could provide temperature dependent data of the system which could not be achieved by REST, while the REST method could readily be used to a part of the system, which is quite efficient to simulate some biological processes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Space space space

    CERN Document Server

    Trembach, Vera

    2014-01-01

    Space is an introduction to the mysteries of the Universe. Included are Task Cards for independent learning, Journal Word Cards for creative writing, and Hands-On Activities for reinforcing skills in Math and Language Arts. Space is a perfect introduction to further research of the Solar System.

  1. Multipurpose Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    The concept of multipurpose spaces in schools is certainly not new. Especially in elementary schools, the combination of cafeteria and auditorium (and sometimes indoor physical activity space as well) is a well-established approach to maximizing the use of school space and a school district's budget. Nonetheless, there continue to be refinements…

  2. Hanford wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGhan, V.L.; Damschen, D.W.

    1977-06-01

    The Hanford Site contains about 2200 wells constructed from pre-Hanford Works days to the present. As of June 1977, about 1900 wells still exist, and about 850 of these existing wells were drilled to the ground-water table. About 700 of these wells (including about 24 farm wells) still contain water. The others have become dry through infiltration of sediments or a general lowering of the water table in their vicinity. This report, providing the most complete documentation of wells in and adjacent to the Hanford Site, supersedes all previous compilations of Hanford wells.

  3. Analysis of low efficiency droop of semipolar InGaN quantum well light-emitting diodes by modified rate equation with weak phase-space filling effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Houqiang; Lu, Zhijian; Zhao, Yuji [School of Electrical, Computer and Energy Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States)

    2016-06-15

    We study the low efficiency droop characteristics of semipolar InGaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs) using modified rate equation incoporating the phase-space filling (PSF) effect where the results on c-plane LEDs are also obtained and compared. Internal quantum efficiency (IQE) of LEDs was simulated using a modified ABC model with different PSF filling (n{sub 0}), Shockley-Read-Hall (A), radiative (B), Auger (C) coefficients and different active layer thickness (d), where the PSF effect showed a strong impact on the simulated LED efficiency results. A weaker PSF effect was found for low-droop semipolar LEDs possibly due to small quantum confined Stark effect, short carrier lifetime, and small average carrier density. A very good agreement between experimental data and the theoretical modeling was obtained for low-droop semipolar LEDs with weak PSF effect. These results suggest the low droop performance may be explained by different mechanisms for semipolar LEDs.

  4. Hanford wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGhan, V.L.

    1989-06-01

    The Site Characterization and Assessment Section of the Geosciences Department at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has compiled a list of wells located on or near the Hanford Site. Information has been updated on wells existing from the days before construction of the Hanford Works to the present. This work was funded by the US Department of Energy (DOE). The list of wells will be used by DOE contractors who need condensed, tabular information on well location, construction, and completion dates. This report does not include data on lithologic logs and ground-water contamination. Moreover, the completeness of this list is limited because of new well construction and existing well modifications, which are continually under way. Despite these limitations, this list represents the most complete description possible of data pertaining to wells on or adjacent to the Hanford Site. 7 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  5. Sonographic evaluation of the ranges of condylar translation and of temporomandibular joint space as well as first comparison with symptomatic joints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landes, Constantin A; Sader, Robert

    2007-12-01

    To assess the normal ranges of condylar translation and width of the lateral temporomandibular joint (TMJ) of a healthy population by sonography and permit comparison of findings made in individual patients using this norm. Fifty non-orthodontically treated, asymptomatic volunteers (100 joints) were subdivided by Angle classes (I = 20, II = 15, III = 15) and evaluated. Reliability was assessed in 15 of those volunteers. The validity was checked in 8 more patients with temporomandibular dysfunction (TMD), all class II with disc dislocation diagnosed by means of MRI. Sonographic assessment of condylar translation from centric occlusion to maximum opening and during protrusion and mediotrusion was performed with a probe positioned parallel to the zygomatic arch. Translation during opening was 12.7+/-3.2 mm in class I, 12.9+/-3.3 mm in class II and 10.9+/-3.6 mm in class III. Protrusive translation was 7.4+/-2.5 mm/10.3+/-4.4 mm/6.8+/-2.1mm, respectively; and mediotrusive translation was 7.9+/-2.6 mm/10.8+/-3.4 mm/6.7+/-2.4 mm, respectively. Class II had longer and class III shorter condylar translations. The lateral joint space in occlusion and protrusion was wider in class II than in classes I and III. Symptomatic patients had shorter condylar translations than asymptomatic volunteers. Patients with class II had a more anteroposterior mobility, class III shorter translation. Significant sonographic differences of condylar translation from the norm did not correspond with clinical findings. This demonstrates the higher sensitivity of sonography for the evaluation of individual condylar translation. It is a sensitive tool for assessing joint function.

  6. Towards a well-being focussed language pedagogy: enabling arts-based, multilingual learning spaces for young people with refugee backgrounds

    OpenAIRE

    Frimberger, K

    2016-01-01

    The following article explores the conceptual background and pedagogical realities of establishing a well-being focussed language pedagogy in the context of an informal educational event called ‘Language Fest’. The event was organised as part of the UK Arts and Humanities Research Council-funded large grant project ‘Researching Multilingually at the Borders of Language, the Body, Law and the State’ – for the UK’s ‘Being Human Festival’ 2014. The event aimed to celebrate the multiple languages...

  7. Hanford wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamness, M.A.; Merz, J.K.

    1993-08-01

    Records describing wells located on or near the Hanford Site have been maintained by Pacific Northwest Laboratory and the operating contractor, Westinghouse Hanford Company. In support of the Ground-Water Surveillance Project, portions of the data contained in these records have been compiled into the following report, which is intended to be used by those needing a condensed, tabular summary of well location and basic construction information. The wells listed in this report were constructed over a period of time spanning almost 70 years. Data included in this report were retrieved from the Hanford Envirorunental Information System (HEIS) database and supplemented with information not yet entered into HEIS. While considerable effort has been made to obtain the most accurate and complete tabulations possible of the Hanford Site wells, omissions and errors may exist. This document does not include data on lithologic logs, ground-water analyses, or specific well completion details.

  8. New challenges? Well, certainly!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Karen M.

    proficiency, but research as well as experience on the ground tells us that this is not enough. Everyone must learn to navigate in the multilingual and multicultural learning space because lecturers as well as students may come from different countries and cultures and therefore have different first languages...

  9. Militantly Well

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigh, Henrik Erdman

    2015-01-01

    futures that transcend conflict engagement and wartime suffering for young militiamen. It clarifies the positive prospects that are expected to lie beyond the known horrors of war. Though conflict and warfare may provide strange points of departure for talking about well-being, imaginaries of happiness...... stand out from a background of hardship and are talked about in both a quite concrete way, as a lack of insecurity, as well as in an abstract way, as realization of social being. However, for most of the people I talk to, happiness remains elusive and evades their desperate attempts to grasp it....... It appears, as such, simultaneously to be what life is most profoundly about, as well as the dimension of it that constantly seems to avoid capture....

  10. Liver Wellness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can cause the liver to swell and not work well. Prevention: Hepatitis A vaccination is the best way to prevent HAV. Other ways to stop the spread of HAV are: • Always washing your hands with soap and warm water immediately after using the bathroom ...

  11. Wellness Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arteaga, Brenda

    2011-01-01

    Creating a healthier school in today's world of budget cuts and seemingly endless to-do lists is not only possible, but it is also imperative. Beyond the health implications, one of the most compelling reasons for creating healthier schools is that wellness serves as a power booster for learning. Numerous studies have documented what educators…

  12. Wellness Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arteaga, Brenda

    2011-01-01

    Creating a healthier school in today's world of budget cuts and seemingly endless to-do lists is not only possible, but it is also imperative. Beyond the health implications, one of the most compelling reasons for creating healthier schools is that wellness serves as a power booster for learning. Numerous studies have documented what educators…

  13. Werable wellness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rozycki, Bartosz

    2015-01-01

    We live in a world full of rush and a ‘relaxed state of being’ might increasingly play a role in today’s fast paced society to overcome contemporary stress and related illnesses such as burn-outs. The Sleephones concept is a wearable wellness device that aims to support relaxation by combing music...

  14. Banach空间中分离变分不等式的Levitin-Polyak-α适定性%Levitin-Polyak a-well-posedness of Split Variational Inequality in Banach Space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏福全; 黎小波

    2012-01-01

    首先在Banach空间中给出了分离变分不等式的Levitin - Polyak -α适定性的概念.然后讨论了分离变分不等式解集的等价表述.最后,给出了分离变分不等式的Levitin - Polyak -α适定性的Furi - Vignoli型度量刻画.%In this paper,we generalize the concept of Levitin-Polyak α-well-posedness to a split variational inequality in Banach space.We study the equivalent statements of the solution set of split variational inequality.We also give some characterizations of Levitin-Polyak α-well-posedness for a split variational inequality.

  15. 南堡36-P3001井高温小间隙尾管固井技术%High temperature small annular space liner cementing techniques of Nanpu 36-P3001 well

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    和建勇; 党冬红; 刘艳军; 陈光; 张玉平; 朱泽鑫

    2014-01-01

    冀东油田南堡36-P3001井在四开钻进过程中发生溢流、井漏,后效比较严重,且井底循环温度150℃,下完尾管后环空间隙小,加之井斜较大,环空液柱流动阻力大。为了给五开欠平衡钻井提供优质的井筒环境,针对该井固井难点,优选了性能良好的高温水泥浆体系和相匹配的冲洗液,通过软件模拟优化扶正器的安放方法,完善配套固井技术措施,最终实现了安全固井施工,固井质量得到有效提高,为冀东油田该区块水平井小间隙尾管固井提供了技术支撑。%Overlfow and lost circulation occurred to Nanpu 36-P3001 well in Jidong Oilifeld during the 4th spud-in. The after-effect is very serious and the bottom hole circulating temperature is 150℃. The annular space is small after liner running. The well deviation is large and the lfow resistance of annulus lfuid column is large. To provide high-quality wellbore environment for under-balanced drilling for the 5th spud-in, high-performance high temperature cement slurry system and matching circulation lfuid are selected according to the cementing dififculty of this well; the setup method of centralizer is simulated and optimized by software; and the auxiliary cementing technique and measures are improved to perform cementing construction safety, effectively improve the cementing quality and provide technical support for small annular space liner cementing of horizontal well of Jidong Oilifeld.

  16. New characterizations of Hajlasz-Sobolev spaces on metric spaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG; Dachun(杨大春)

    2003-01-01

    This paper introduces the fractional Sobolev spaces on spaces of homogeneous type, includingmetric spaces and fractals. These Sobolev spaces include the well-known Hajfasz-Sobolev spaces as specialmodels. The author establishes various characterizations of (sharp) maximal functions for these spaces. Asapplications, the author identifies the fractional Sobolev spaces with some Lipscitz-type spaces. Moreover,some embedding theorems are also given.

  17. Evolution pattern and control mode of well deviation for circular-arc trajectories in space%空间圆弧轨迹的井斜演化规律及控制模式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘修善; 苏义脑

    2014-01-01

    The well deviation equation of circular-arc trajectory in space was established, the solution methods to determine the posture of the inclined plane that the circular-arc trajectory lies on and the extreme value of inclination angle of the circular-arc trajectory were presented, and the evolution pattern and control mode of well deviation for circular-arc trajectories in space was revealed. Some parameters can be calculated by the forward model and inverse model respectively, including the inclination angle and azimuth angle at any point along a circular-arc trajectory, the inclined angle and inclined azimuth angle of the inclined plane that the circular-arc trajectory lies on and the various parameters at the point with extreme inclination angle, and the calculated results from the forward model are the same as those from the inverse model. There are two points with extreme inclination angles along a circular-arc trajectory or its trendline, and the tangent lines of wellbore trajectory at the points with minimum and maximum inclination angles point to downdip and updip directions of the inclined plane respectively, the bending angle and azimuth angle differences between the two points are both 180°. The posture of inclined plane and parameters at extreme inclination points relate to the inclination angle and tool face angle at the beginning point of well interval, but have nothing to do with the interval length. The inclined angle mode for controlling a circular-arc trajectory is ambiguous, so the tool-face angle or directional azimuth angle modes should be used.%建立空间圆弧轨迹的井斜方程,得到空间圆弧轨迹所在斜平面姿态、空间圆弧轨迹井斜角极值等求解方法,揭示空间圆弧轨迹的井斜演化规律及控制模式。可分别由正演模型和反演模型计算出空间圆弧轨迹上任一点的井斜角和方位角、斜平面姿态的倾斜角和倾斜方位角以及轨迹井斜角极值点参数,正演模型

  18. 大港滩海地区少井多参数地质建模技术研究%Geological Modeling Using Multiple Parameters of Offshore Oilfield in Dagang under Sparse Well Spacing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐芳; 张文旗; 窦松江; 江艳平; 周连敏

    2015-01-01

    大港滩海地区为平台式钻井,以大斜度/水平井进行开发,钻、测井资料少。该区断层多而复杂,构造起伏大,储层横向变化快,钻井风险大。本文基于研究区构造特征、沉积特征等,利用地震解释成果及井数据依次建立断层模型、构造模型;将地震属性、地震反演等成果作为第二变量,充分应用有限的井资料,采取逐级约束、逐级控制的方法,从泥质含量模型到岩相模型,再到沉积微相模型,进一步到孔隙度模型,最后到渗透率模型,最终完成了地质模型的建立。同时利用地震数据体空间检验、剖面检验等多种方法检验地质模型,确保了模型的准确性。该套少井多参数联合地质建模技术解决了井资料匮乏带来的难题,所建立的地质模型为提高钻井成功率提供保障,为油藏数值模拟提供基础。%Well drilling is based on the platform,and the type of wells is mainly of high angle of shallow sea area in Dagang oilfield. Therefore,the drilling and logging data is limited. There are many faults,which leaded to the com-plicated structure. The reservoir changes so fast that the risk of drilling is increased. Based on the structure and sed-imentary features,the fault and structure model are set up with the seismic interpretation and well data. The step by step controlling method is adopted. VSH model is set up controlled by seismic data or seismic inversion result,and lithology model controlled by VSH model,microfacies model controlled by lithology model,and porosity model con-trolled by microfacies model,and permeability model controlled by porosity model. In the process limited well data is applied adequately. Meanwhile,the model is examined by seismic data in 3D space,etc. This method of multi-pa-rameters combination geological modeling technique solves the problem caused by lack of well data. The geological model can increase the success rate of

  19. Space polypropulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellett, B. J.; Griffin, D. K.; Bingham, R.; Campbell, R. N.; Forbes, A.; Michaelis, M. M.

    2008-05-01

    Hybrid space propulsion has been a feature of most space missions. Only the very early rocket propulsion experiments like the V2, employed a single form of propulsion. By the late fifties multi-staging was routine and the Space Shuttle employs three different kinds of fuel and rocket engines. During the development of chemical rockets, other forms of propulsion were being slowly tested, both theoretically and, relatively slowly, in practice. Rail and gas guns, ion engines, "slingshot" gravity assist, nuclear and solar power, tethers, solar sails have all seen some real applications. Yet the earliest type of non-chemical space propulsion to be thought of has never been attempted in space: laser and photon propulsion. The ideas of Eugen Saenger, Georgii Marx, Arthur Kantrowitz, Leik Myrabo, Claude Phipps and Robert Forward remain Earth-bound. In this paper we summarize the various forms of nonchemical propulsion and their results. We point out that missions beyond Saturn would benefit from a change of attitude to laser-propulsion as well as consideration of hybrid "polypropulsion" - which is to say using all the rocket "tools" available rather than possibly not the most appropriate. We conclude with three practical examples, two for the next decades and one for the next century; disposal of nuclear waste in space; a grand tour of the Jovian and Saturnian moons - with Huygens or Lunoxod type, landers; and eventually mankind's greatest space dream: robotic exploration of neighbouring planetary systems.

  20. Underground spaces/cybernetic spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaž Novljan

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A modern city space is a space where in the vertical and horizontal direction dynamic, non-linear processes exist, similar as in nature. Alongside the “common” city surface, cities have underground spaces as well that are increasingly affecting the functioning of the former. It is the space of material and cybernetic communication/transport. The psychophysical specifics of using underground places have an important role in their conceptualisation. The most evident facts being their limited volume and often limited connections to the surface and increased level of potential dangers of all kinds. An efficient mode for alleviating the effects of these specific features are artistic interventions, such as: shape, colour, lighting, all applications of the basic principles of fractal theory.

  1. Pyroelectric Quantum Well Energy Harvesters Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose the investigation of pyroelectric energy harvesters with enhanced efficiencies through quantum wells induced by a multilayer design.  Pyroelectric...

  2. Transit space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raahauge, Kirsten Marie

    2008-01-01

    This article deals with representations of one specific city, Århus, Denmark, especially its central district. The analysis is based on anthropological fieldwork conducted in Skåde Bakker and Fedet, two well-off neighborhoods. The overall purpose of the project is to study perceptions of space...... and the interaction of cultural, social, and spatial organizations, as seen from the point of view of people living in Skåde Bakker and Fedet. The focus is on the city dwellers’ representations of the central district of Århus with specific reference to the concept of transit space. When applied to various Århusian...

  3. Space of Spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Wheeler emphasized the study of Superspace - the space of 3-geometries on a spatial manifold of fixed topology. This is a configuration space for GR; knowledge of configuration spaces is useful as regards dynamics and QM.In this Article I consider furthmore generalized configuration spaces to all levels within the conventional `equipped sets' paradigm of mathematical structure used in fundamental Theoretical Physics. This covers A) the more familiar issue of topology change in the sense of topological manifolds (tied to cobordisms), including via pinched manifolds. B) The less familiar issue of not regarding as fixed the yet deeper levels of structure: topological spaces themselves (and their metric space subcase), collections of subsets and sets. Isham has previously presented quantization schemes for a number of these. I consider some classical preliminaries for this program, aside from the most obvious (classical dynamics for each). Rather, I provide I) to all levels Relational and Background Independence ...

  4. Silicon Germanium Quantum Well Solar Cell Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Quantum-well structures embodied on single crystal silicon germanium drastically enhanced carrier mobilities.  The cell-to-cell circuits of quantum-well PV...

  5. Analysis of the influence of well spacing on the injection rate behaviour for water injection under fracturing conditions; Analise da influencia do espacamento de pocos na determinacao da vazao de injecao para o processo de injecao com pressao cima da pressao de fratura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz Mazo, Eduin Orlando [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Centro de Estudo do Petroleo. Lab. de Simulacao de Fluxo em Meios Porosos (UNISIM); Costa, Odair Jose; Schiozer, Denis Jose [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Engenharia de Petroleo

    2008-07-01

    Water injection under fracturing conditions is a proved manner of overcoming injectivity loss in reservoirs affected by formation damage. Nevertheless, as shown by Munoz Mazo et al. (2006), there is the possibility of the generated and propagated fractures intercept the producer wells making that the injected water shall be re-circulated into the reservoir instead of its main function which is to drive the oil contained in the reservoir pore space. The objective of this work is to determine the influence of well spacing on the determination of the water injection rate under fracturing conditions, aiming to study its effects on the production performance and the sweep efficiency. To accomplish the work, an analytical model for representing the absolute permeability reduction near the wellbore and a model which reproduces the fracture propagation in a coupled manner are used. In this way the model sensitivity to several well spacing and the injection rate effects are analyzed using the Net Present Value and the sweep efficiency is evaluated as a function of the Recovery Factor. The results show that the water injection under fracturing conditions is an effective way of overcoming the injectivity loss problem and evidence its sensitivity to different spacing between the injector and the producer wells. (author)

  6. Function spaces, 1

    CERN Document Server

    Pick, Luboš; John, Oldrich; Fucík, Svatopluk

    2012-01-01

    This is the first part of the second revised and extended edition of a well established monograph. It is an introduction to function spaces defined in terms of differentiability and integrability classes. It provides a catalogue of various spaces and benefits as a handbook for those who use function spaces to study other topics such as partial differential equations. Volum

  7. Symmetric Spaces in Supergravity

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrara, Sergio

    2008-01-01

    We exploit the relation among irreducible Riemannian globally symmetric spaces (IRGS) and supergravity theories in 3, 4 and 5 space-time dimensions. IRGS appear as scalar manifolds of the theories, as well as moduli spaces of the various classes of solutions to the classical extremal black hole Attractor Equations. Relations with Jordan algebras of degree three and four are also outlined.

  8. Superanalysis on quantum spaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Alexander [Max-Planck-Institute for Mathematics in the Sciences, Inselstr. 22, D-04103 Leipzig (Germany); Arnold-Sommerfeld-Center, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Theresienstr. 37, D-80333 Munich (Germany); Wachter, Hartmut [Max-Planck-Institute for Mathematics in the Sciences, Inselstr. 22, D-04103 Leipzig (Germany); Arnold-Sommerfeld-Center, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Theresienstr. 37, D-80333 Munich (Germany)

    2006-01-15

    Attention is focused on antisymmetrised versions of quantum spaces that are of particular importance in physics, i.e. Manin plane, q-deformed euclidean space in three or four dimensions as well as q-deformed Minkowski space. For each of these quantum spaces we provide q-analogs for elements of superanalysis, i.e. Grassmann integrals, Grassmann exponentials, Grassmann translations and braided products with supernumbers.

  9. Well-being

    OpenAIRE

    Blatný, M. (Marek); Šolcová, I. (Iva)

    2015-01-01

    The chapter first discusses two essential theoretical concepts of well-being: subjective well-being and psychological well-being. Then the main findings on the links between well-being and socio-demographic variables are summarized. The main focus of the chapter is on the analysis of the links between personality and well-being. In agreement with the present views on personality domains, the relationships between well-being and personality traits, characteristic adaptations and personal narra...

  10. Dynamic reservoir well interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sturm, W.L.; Belfroid, S.P.C.; Wolfswinkel, O. van; Peters, M.C.A.M.; Verhelst, F.J.P.C.M.

    2004-01-01

    In order to develop smart well control systems for unstable oil wells, realistic modeling of the dynamics of the well is essential. Most dynamic well models use a semi-steady state inflow model to describe the inflow of oil and gas from the reservoir. On the other hand, reservoir models use steady s

  11. Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderton, D. A.

    1985-01-01

    The official start of a bold new space program, essential to maintain the United States' leadership in space was signaled by a Presidential directive to move aggressively again into space by proceeding with the development of a space station. Development concepts for a permanently manned space station are discussed. Reasons for establishing an inhabited space station are given. Cost estimates and timetables are also cited.

  12. Banach spaces of continuous functions as dual spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Dales, H G; Lau, A T -M; Strauss, D

    2016-01-01

    This book gives a coherent account of the theory of Banach spaces and Banach lattices, using the spaces C_0(K) of continuous functions on a locally compact space K as the main example. The study of C_0(K) has been an important area of functional analysis for many years. It gives several new constructions, some involving Boolean rings, of this space as well as many results on the Stonean space of Boolean rings. The book also discusses when Banach spaces of continuous functions are dual spaces and when they are bidual spaces.

  13. well-being perspective

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    well-being, namely: self-acceptance, personal growth, purpose in life, positive relations with others .... Sternberg, 2004] identifies the concepts of exploration and commitment from the work of ..... Clinical applications of well-being therapy.

  14. Pseudo-topological Riesz spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Muller, M. A.(Universidade Estadual de Campinas, IFGW, Campinas, SP, Brazil)

    1997-01-01

    Pseudo-topological spaces (i.e. limit spaces) were defined by Fischer in 1959. Properties of topological Riesz spaces are well-known. In this paper it is shown that if the topology on a Riesz space is replaced by a pseudo-topology more general results are obtained.

  15. Total well dominated trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finbow, Arthur; Frendrup, Allan; Vestergaard, Preben D.

    cardinality then G is a total well dominated graph. In this paper we study composition and decomposition of total well dominated trees. By a reversible process we prove that any total well dominated tree can both be reduced to and constructed from a family of three small trees....

  16. Space Detectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyszka, Steph; Saraiva, Jose; Doran, Rosa

    2017-04-01

    NUCLIO is a Portuguese non-profit organization with a strong record of investing in science education and outreach. We have developed and implemented many activities mostly directed to a young audience, in a bid to awaken and reinforce the interest that young people devote to Astronomy and all things spatial. In this framework, we have created a week-long program called Space Detectives, supported by the Municipality of Cascais, based on a story-line that provided a number of challenges and opportunities for learning matters as diverse as the electro-magnetic spectrum, means of communication, space travel, the martian environment, coding and robotics. We report on the first session that took place in December 2016. We had as participants several kids aged 9 to 12, with a mixed background in terms of interest in the sciences. Their response varied from enthusiastic to somewhat less interested, depending on the nature of the subject and the way it was presented - a reaction not necessarily related to its complexity. This week was taken as something of a trial run, in preparation for the European Commission- funded project "Stories of Tomorrow", to be implemented in schools. The individual activities and the way they were related to the story-line, as well as the smooth transition from one to the next, were subject to an analysis that will allow for improvements in the next installments of this program. We believe this is an excellent approach to the goals of using Space and Astronomy as an anchor for generating and keeping interest in the scientific areas, and of finding new and richer ways of learning.

  17. SpaceTech—Postgraduate space education

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruijn, Ferdi J.; Ashford, Edward W.; Larson, Wiley J.

    2008-07-01

    SpaceTech is a postgraduate program geared primarily for mid-career space professionals seeking to gain or improve their expertise in space systems engineering and in business engineering. SpaceTech provides a lifelong impact on its participants by broadening their capabilities, encouraging systematic "end-to-end" thinking and preparing them for any technical or business-related engineering challenges they may encounter. This flexible 1-year program offers high competency gain and increased business skills. It is held in attractive locations in a flexible, multi-cultural environment. SpaceTech is a highly effective master's program certified by the esteemed Technical University of Delft (TUD), Netherlands. SpaceTech provides expert instructors who place no barriers between themselves and participants. The program combines innovative and flexible new approaches with time-tested methods to give participants the skills required for future missions and new business, while allowing participants to meet their work commitments at the same time as they study for their master's degree. The SpaceTech program is conducted in separate sessions, generally each of 2-week duration, separated by periods of some 6-8 weeks, during which time participants may return to their normal jobs. It also includes introductory online course material that the participants can study at their leisure. The first session is held at the TUD, with subsequent sessions held at strategic space agency locations. By participating at two or more of these sessions, attendees can earn certificates of satisfactory completion from TU Delft. By participating in all of the sessions, as well as taking part in the companion Central Case Project (CCP), participants earn an accredited and highly respected master's degree in Space Systems Engineering from the TUD. Seven distinct SpaceTech modules are provided during these sessions: Space Mission Analysis and Design, Systems Engineering, Business Engineering

  18. Tilings in topological spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. G. Arenas

    1999-01-01

    pairwise-disjoint interiors. Tilings of ℝ2 have received considerable attention (see [2] for a wealth of interesting examples and results as well as an extensive bibliography. On the other hand, the study of tilings of general topological spaces is just beginning (see [1, 3, 4, 6]. We give some generalizations for topological spaces of some results known for certain classes of tilings of topological vector spaces.

  19. Well testing: interpretation methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourdarot, G. [Elf Aquitaine, 92 - Courbevoie (France)

    1998-12-31

    This book presents the different methods to use for interpreting well tests: conventional methods, type curves, derivative, according to the type of reservoir limits (faults, channels, secant faults, constant pressure limits, closed reservoir) and the well configuration (partial penetration, inclined, fractured, horizontal or injection well). It indicates the method to be used in the case of more complex reservoirs (fissured reservoirs, two-layered reservoirs), interference tests or pulse tests and when fluid produced is gas or polyphasic. (authors) 60 refs.

  20. Well testing: interpretation methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourdarot, G. (Elf Aquitaine, 92 - Courbevoie (France))

    1998-01-01

    This book presents the different methods to use for interpreting well tests: conventional methods, type curves, derivative, according to the type of reservoir limits (faults, channels, secant faults, constant pressure limits, closed reservoir) and the well configuration (partial penetration, inclined, fractured, horizontal or injection well). It indicates the method to be used in the case of more complex reservoirs (fissured reservoirs, two-layered reservoirs), interference tests or pulse tests and when fluid produced is gas or polyphasic. (authors) 60 refs.

  1. Spacecraft Architecture and well being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ören, Ayşe

    2016-07-01

    As we embark on a journey for new homes in the new worlds to lay solid foundations, we should consider not only the survival of frontiers but also well-being of those to live in zero gravity. As a versatile science, architecture encompasses abstract human needs as well. On our new different direction in the course of the Homo sapiens evolution, we can do this with designs addressing both our needs and senses. Well-being of humans can be achieved by creating environments supporting the cognitive and social stages in the evolution process. Space stations are going through their own evolution process. Any step taken can serve as a reference for further attempts. When studying the history of architecture, window designing is discussed in a later phase, which is the case for building a spaceship as well. We lean on the places we live both physically and metaphorically. The feeling of belonging is essential here, entailing trans-humanism, which is significant since the environment therein is like a dress comfortable enough to fit in, meeting needs without any burden. Utilizing the advent of technology, we can create moods and atmospheres to regulate night and day cycles, thus we can turn claustrophobic places into cozy or dream-like places. Senses provoke a psychological sensation going beyond cultural codes as they are rooted within consciousness, which allows designers to create a mood within a space that tells a story and evokes an emotional impact. Color, amount of light, sound and odor are not superficial. As much as intangible, they are real and powerful tools with a physical presence. Tapping into induction, we can solve a whole system based on a part thereof. Therefore, fractal designs may not yield good results unless used correctly in terms of design although they are functional, which makes geometric arrangement critical.

  2. Wellness in Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackleman, Karen T.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Reports on efforts of three institutions in response to need for consumer health information: Health Education Center (promotes health in southwestern Pennsylvania), Tulsa City-County Library (Oklahoma), and Wellness Council of the Midlands (WELCOM) (promotes wellness at work site in Omaha, Nebraska, area). WELCOM's 62-item reference list is…

  3. Staying Well at Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blai, Boris, Jr.

    Employee wellness directly affects business/industry operations and costs. When employees are helped and encouraged to stay well, this people-positive policy results in triple benefits: reduced worker absenteeism, increased employee productivity, and lower company expenditures for health costs. Health care programs at the worksite offer these…

  4. Water Treatment Technology - Wells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on wells provides instructional materials for five competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: dug, driven, and chilled wells, aquifer types, deep well…

  5. Provider Health and Wellness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanda, Anil; Wasan, Anita; Sussman, James

    2017-07-19

    Provider health and wellness is a significant issue and can impact patient care, including patient satisfaction, quality of care, medical errors, malpractice risk, as well as provider and office staff turnover and early retirement. Health and wellness encompasses various areas including burnout, depression, divorce, and suicide and affects providers of all specialties and at all levels of training. Providers deal with many everyday stresses, including electronic health records, office politics, insurance and billing issues, dissatisfied patients, and their own personal and family issues. Approximately half of all physicians suffer from burnout, and the rate of burnout among physicians of all specialties is increasing. An important first step in dealing with burnout is recognition and then seeking assistance. Strategies to prevent and treat burnout include increasing provider resiliency as well as implementing practical changes in the everyday practice of medicine. There is currently very little data regarding health and wellness specifically in the field of allergy and immunology, and studies are necessary to determine the prevalence of burnout and related issues in this field. Many medical specialties as well as state and national medical associations have health and wellness committees and other resources, which are essential for providers. Health and wellness programs should be introduced early in a provider's training and continued throughout a provider's career. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Well production decline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cvetkovic, Branimir

    2008-12-15

    Effective rate-time analysis during a declining production in an oil or gas wells is an important tool for establishing a successful management. The reasons behind the production decline include reservoir, fracture and well conditions. A well's decline rate is transient, signifying that the pressure wave propagates freely from the wellbore, leading to depletion when the outer boundary for the well is reached and to the wave propagation coming to a halt. This thesis studies the transient decline, with emphasis on a horizontal well with fracture wellbore responses. It also deals with the depletion decline, investigating the wellbore pressure responses for a vertical well producing under variable rate conditions of Arps decline. The well decline model solutions are analytical, and the modelling itself is carried out in two steps. The first step involves modelling the transient well responses of a multi fractured horizontal well. These responses originate from an infinitive reservoir and are considered as full-time rate-time responses. Multi-fractured horizontal well rate-time responses represent the solutions to a diffusion equation with varying boundary conditions and different fracture options (i.e., with or without fracture, a variety of fracture orientations, various fracture lengths, etc). The transient model calculates individual fracture rates, productivity indexes and an equivalent wellbore radius for the multi-fractured well. For the transient decline of a fractured-horizontal well model, well data is matched and the reservoir diagnosis and production prognosis are improved through the individual fracture production, with a model screening ability, and novel model features that can handle wellbore conditions changing from rate-to-pressure. Screening analyses can generate valuable information for fracture diagnosis in addition to a well and fracture production prognosis. Further model runs are carried out to match the real well data. The model solution is

  7. Sobolev spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, Robert A

    2003-01-01

    Sobolev Spaces presents an introduction to the theory of Sobolev Spaces and other related spaces of function, also to the imbedding characteristics of these spaces. This theory is widely used in pure and Applied Mathematics and in the Physical Sciences.This second edition of Adam''s ''classic'' reference text contains many additions and much modernizing and refining of material. The basic premise of the book remains unchanged: Sobolev Spaces is intended to provide a solid foundation in these spaces for graduate students and researchers alike.* Self-contained and accessible for readers in other disciplines.* Written at elementary level making it accessible to graduate students.

  8. The WELL Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Bellazzini, R; Brez, A; Gariano, G; Latronico, L; Lumb, N; Papanestis, A; Spandre, G; Massai, M M; Raffo, R; Spezziga, M A

    1999-01-01

    We introduce the WELL detector, a new type of position-sensitive gas proportional counter produced using advanced printed circuit board (PCB) technology. The WELL is based on a thin kapton foil, copp erclad on both sides. Charge amplifying micro-wells are etched into the first metal and kapton layers. These end on a micro-strip pattern which is defined on the second metal plane. The array of micr o-strips is used for read-out to obtain 1-D positional information. First results from our systematic assessment of this device are reported.

  9. Space Shuttle Cockpit exhibit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Want to sit in the cockpit of the Space Shuttle and watch astronauts work in outer space? At StenniSphere, you can do that and much more. StenniSphere, the visitor center at John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., presents 14,000-square-feet of interactive exhibits that depict America's race for space as well as a glimpse of the future. StenniSphere is open free of charge from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. daily.

  10. Space Shuttle Cockpit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Want to sit in the cockpit of the Space Shuttle and watch astronauts work in outer space? At StenniSphere, you can do that and much more. StenniSphere, the visitor center at John C. Stennis space Center in Hancock County, Miss., presents 14,000-square-feet of interactive exhibits that depict America's race for space as well as a glimpse of the future. Stennisphere is open free of charge from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. daily.

  11. A primer on Hilbert space theory linear spaces, topological spaces, metric spaces, normed spaces, and topological groups

    CERN Document Server

    Alabiso, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    This book is an introduction to the theory of Hilbert space, a fundamental tool for non-relativistic quantum mechanics. Linear, topological, metric, and normed spaces are all addressed in detail, in a rigorous but reader-friendly fashion. The rationale for an introduction to the theory of Hilbert space, rather than a detailed study of Hilbert space theory itself, resides in the very high mathematical difficulty of even the simplest physical case. Within an ordinary graduate course in physics there is insufficient time to cover the theory of Hilbert spaces and operators, as well as distribution theory, with sufficient mathematical rigor. Compromises must be found between full rigor and practical use of the instruments. The book is based on the author's lessons on functional analysis for graduate students in physics. It will equip the reader to approach Hilbert space and, subsequently, rigged Hilbert space, with a more practical attitude. With respect to the original lectures, the mathematical flavor in all sub...

  12. Agricultural Drainage Well Intakes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Locations of surface intakes for registered agriculture drainage wells according to the database maintained by IDALS. Surface intakes were located from their...

  13. Optimizing well intervention routes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paiva, Ronaldo O. [PETROBRAS S.A., Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Schiozer, Denis J.; Bordalo, Sergio N. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Centro de Estudo do Petroleo (CEPETRO)]. E-mail: denis@dep.fem.unicamp.br; bordalo@dep.fem.unicamp.br

    2000-07-01

    This work presents a method for optimizing the itinerary of work over rigs, i.e., the search for the route of minimum total cost, and demonstrates the importance of the dynamics of reservoir behaviour. The total cost of a route includes the rig expenses (transport, assembly and operation), which are functions of time and distances, plus the losses of revenue in wells waiting for the rig, which are also dependent of time. A reservoir simulator is used to evaluate the monetary influence of the well shutdown on the present value of the production curve. Finally, search algorithms are employed to determine the route of minimal cost. The Simulated Annealing algorithm was also successful in optimizing the distribution of a list of wells among different work over rigs. The rational approach presented here is recommended for management teams as a standard procedure to define the priority of wells scheduled for work over. (author)

  14. Emotional Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Nutrition Information (AICR) Emotional Well-Being Patient Empowerment Support Get Answers To Your Questions Meet Patients ... with kidney cancer, you may wish to seek professional assistance. These services may be covered by your ...

  15. Well Logging Symposium News

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Chunsheng

    1996-01-01

    @@ ‘96 International Symposium on Well Logging Techniques for Oilfield Development under Waterflood was held on 17-21 September, 1996 in Beijing. The symdrew than 160 experts and scholars in the well logging circle from Russia,The United States, France, Britain, Indonesia and China. About 80 papers were presented duringthe symposium. Mr. Zhang Yongyi,Vice President of CNPC delivered the opening remarks.

  16. Wellness as fairness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prilleltensky, Isaac

    2012-03-01

    I argue that distinct conditions of justice lead to diverse wellness outcomes through a series of psychosocial processes. Optimal conditions of justice, suboptimal conditions of justice, vulnerable conditions of injustice, and persisting conditions of injustice lead to thriving, coping, confronting, and suffering, respectively. The processes that mediate between optimal conditions of justice and thriving include the promotion of responsive conditions, the prevention of threats, individual pursuit, and avoidance of comparisons. The mechanisms that mediate between suboptimal conditions of justice and coping include resilience, adaptation, compensation, and downward comparisons. Critical experiences, critical consciousness, critical action, and righteous comparisons mediate between vulnerable conditions of injustice and confrontation with the system. Oppression, internalization, helplessness, and upward comparisons mediate between persisting conditions of injustice and suffering. These psychosocial processes operate within and across personal, interpersonal, organizational and community contexts. Different types of justice are hypothesized to influence well-being within each context. Intrapersonal injustice operates at the personal level, whereas distributive, procedural, relational, and developmental justice impact interpersonal well-being. At the organizational level, distributive, procedural, relational and informational justice influence well-being. Finally, at the community level, distributive, procedural, retributive, and cultural justice support community wellness. Data from a variety of sources support the suggested connections between justice and well-being.

  17. Space for personal hygiene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Danielsen, Claus

    2010-01-01

    This paper focuses on spaces used for personal hygiene in housing over the last hundred years. The paper begins with a description of the hygienic movement in the late 19th century. At that time urinating took place in semi-public spaces outside the dwelling. Today, the WC has moved well into the......This paper focuses on spaces used for personal hygiene in housing over the last hundred years. The paper begins with a description of the hygienic movement in the late 19th century. At that time urinating took place in semi-public spaces outside the dwelling. Today, the WC has moved well...... century will be studied by analysing the spatial organisation of dwellings: Where and how has the space for hygiene been situated and designed in housing in different periods over the last hundred years?...

  18. Gymnastics in Phase Space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, Alexander Wu; /SLAC

    2012-03-01

    As accelerator technology advances, the requirements on accelerator beam quality become increasingly demanding. Facing these new demands, the topic of phase space gymnastics is becoming a new focus of accelerator physics R&D. In a phase space gymnastics, the beam's phase space distribution is manipulated and precision tailored to meet the required beam qualities. On the other hand, all realization of such gymnastics will have to obey accelerator physics principles as well as technological limitations. Recent examples of phase space gymnastics include Emittance exchanges, Phase space exchanges, Emittance partitioning, Seeded FELs and Microbunched beams. The emittance related topics of this list are reviewed in this report. The accelerator physics basis, the optics design principles that provide these phase space manipulations, and the possible applications of these gymnastics, are discussed. This fascinating new field promises to be a powerful tool of the future.

  19. Cyber space bullying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović-Ćitić Branislava

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyber space bullying is a relatively new phenomenon that has received increased attention by scientists, researchers and practitioners in recent years. It is usually defined as an intentionally and repeatedly expression of aggression towards other people through information and communication technologies. Cyber space bullying is characterized by all the primary characteristics of traditional bullying and some specifics ones that clearly differ it from other forms of bullying. In addition to the analysis of characteristics and specifics of cyber space bullying, the paper describes the basic forms of cyber space bullying (flaming, harassment, denigration, impersonation, outing, trickery, exclusion, stalking and happy slapping, as well as, the types of cyber space bullies (vengeful angel, power-hungry, revenge of the nerd, mean girls and inadvertent. The main goal of this paper is to provide initial theoretical guidelines for designing future empirical research on the complex phenomenon of cyber space bullying.

  20. Capacity building in space law and space policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakhu, Ram

    2009-11-01

    A high level of expertise in space policy and law is required to initiate and keep pace with the expansion of space activities, including those undertaken by the private space industry. Space activities generally refer to those undertakings that are carried out with the use of several technologies for the exploration and utilization of outer space often for scientific, military, economic and social proposes within international and national policy and regulatory frameworks. Space policies and legal regimes determine the scope, nature, pace, possibility and development of space undertakings. Therefore, appropriate space policies and regulatory regimes, both at the international and national levels, are indispensable for the initiation, operation and enhancement of space activities. There are various regulatory models and approaches for regulating space activities, and for building capacity in space law and space policy. It is imperative to have the appropriate human resources and capabilities in the development and implementation of space policies and space legal regimes. This crucial requirement has been well recognized in the more advanced space-faring nations, but not to the same level in other space-faring or space-aspiring nations.

  1. Geothermal Well Stimulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, D. A.; Morris, C. W.; Sinclair, A. R.; Hanold, R. J.; Vetter, O. J.

    1981-03-01

    The stimulation of geothermal wells presents some new and challenging problems. Formation temperatures in the 300-600 F range can be expected. The behavior of stimulation fluids, frac proppants, and equipment at these temperatures in a hostile brine environment must be carefully evaluated before performance expectations can be determined. In order to avoid possible damage to the producing horizon of the formation, high temperature chemical compatibility between the in situ materials and the stimulation materials must be verified. Perhaps most significant of all, in geothermal wells the required techniques must be capable of bringing about the production of very large amounts of fluid. This necessity for high flow rates represents a significant departure from conventional petroleum well stimulation and demands the creation of very high near-wellbore permeability and/or fractures with very high flow conductivity.

  2. Pappus in optical space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenderink, Jan J; van Doorn, Andrea J; Kappers, Astrid M L; Todd, James T

    2002-04-01

    Optical space differs from physical space. The structure of optical space has generally been assumed to be metrical. In contradistinction, we do not assume any metric, but only incidence relations (i.e., we assume that optical points and lines exist and that two points define a unique line, and two lines a unique point). (The incidence relations have generally been assumed implicitly by earlier authors.) The condition that makes such an incidence structure into a projective space is the Pappus condition. The Pappus condition describes a projective relation between three collinear triples of points, whose validity can--in principle--be verified empirically. The Pappus condition is a necessary condition for optical space to be a homogeneous space (Lobatchevski hyperbolic or Riemann elliptic space) as assumed by, for example, the well-known Luneburg theory. We test the Pappus condition in a full-cue situation (open field, broad daylight, distances of up to 20 m, visual fields of up to 160 degrees diameter). We found that although optical space is definitely not veridical, even under full-cue conditions, violations of the Pappus condition are the exception. Apparently optical space is not totally different from a homogeneous space, although it is in no way close to Euclidean.

  3. Well Conductor Strain Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-06

    comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE JUL 2014 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES...849,429; filed on June 26, 2013 by the inventor, Dr. Anthony Ruffa and entitled “ SUBSEA WELL CONDUCTOR STRAIN MONITORING”. STATEMENT OF

  4. Rural Wellness and Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... governors of U.S. states have implemented wellness and prevention programs in their states in the last few years. The programs generally promote healthy habits, understanding of risks associated with lifestyles, disease management practices, and regular physical activity. Worksites provide ...

  5. Live Your Life Well

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Workplace Wellness Work-Life Balance Mental Illness and Work Support an Employee Workplace Bullying & Violence Signs of a Healthy Workplace ... you can thrive even in the face of stress. We want you to know that you can ... you focus at work, overcome obstacles, get along with the people around ...

  6. Hantush Well Function Revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veling, E.J.M.; Maas, C.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we comment on some recent numerical and analytical work to evaluate the Hantush Well Function. We correct an expression found in a Comment by Nadarajah (J. of Hydrology, vol. 338, p. 152-153 (2007)) to a paper by Prodanoff et al. (J. of Hydrology, vol. 318, p. 173-183 (2006)). We subse

  7. Child Wellness and Happiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rettew, David C.

    2009-01-01

    Wellness and happiness should be considered in the clinical treatment of child and adolescent psychiatry, in addition with thinking about illness. Meanwhile, various studies on child and adolescent psychiatry,which includes an article from the "Journal of Happiness Studies," are discussed.

  8. The world's deepest well

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlovskii, E. A.

    1984-12-01

    A 12,000-meter-deep research well at Kola in the Soviet Arctic is discussed. A major objective of the well was to penetrate into the basement rock of basaltic composition, presumably marked by an abrupt increase in the velocity of the seismic waves. At Kola the shift occurs at 9000 meters. However, instead of the basalt expected below that depth, an anomalous zone of disaggregated metamorphic rock was found. Further in that zone abundant flows of hot, highly mineralized 'water of crystallization' were found. Flows of gas, including helium, hydrogen, nitrogen, methane, and other hydrocarbons, and carbon dioxide were observed at all levels, thus indicating the existence of active gas-water processes, which raises the prospect of new ore deposits. The well utilizes a 400- to 500-ton aluminum alloy drill string. Unlike conventional drilling, the bit is powered by a turbine driven by the high-pressure flow of the drilling mud at 250 atm, which eliminates the disabling stresses at the surface caused by the rotation of the entire string. This technology opens the possibility of drilling to the depths of 15 to 17 km. The well is expected to help improve the interpretation of the seismic data.

  9. Why Does Well

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartorius, Tara Cady

    2010-01-01

    There is something disappointing about life. It is messy and out of control. It seems the more one tries to put life in order, the more ordering there is to do. The more one seeks explanations, the more confusing things become. Life's an impossible task. Maybe one should just give up. Or, then again, one might as well keep trying. It's this…

  10. Child Wellness and Happiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rettew, David C.

    2009-01-01

    Wellness and happiness should be considered in the clinical treatment of child and adolescent psychiatry, in addition with thinking about illness. Meanwhile, various studies on child and adolescent psychiatry,which includes an article from the "Journal of Happiness Studies," are discussed.

  11. [Space medicine and life sciences in space].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerstenbrand, F; Muigg, A

    1993-01-01

    The examination of pathophysiological disturbances and the process of adaptation in man during space flight is not for optimizing of the biological systems during the training of cosmonauts and astronauts for their stay in space only. These results are also important for medical application on patients. In real microgravity disturbances of motor performances, coordination of movements, accuracy of movements, muscle function as well as structural changes in muscles is found in real microgravity. Spinal reflexes and the control of vestibular system on eye movements are also afflicted. Higher brain functions, especially associative reactions, critical abilities, memory, as well as high brain function like space orientation, body scheme control, geometric and arithmetic analysis and its reproduction, at last speech production, writing and reading are decreased. Vegetative disorders, bone decalcification, primary muscular atrophy occur as well as changes in sleep--wake regulation and diminishing of vigility. Disturbances of blood and body fluid circulation and biologic radiation damage are further effects of man space flight. Several problems of space adaptation can be studied with the methods of the simulated microgravity using the dry water immersion, examination and the bed rest model in special laboratories. The routine medicine is learning from the scientific results of the research in real and simulated microgravity.

  12. Design spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2005-01-01

    Digital technologies and media are becoming increasingly embodied and entangled in the spaces and places at work and at home. However, our material environment is more than a geometric abstractions of space: it contains familiar places, social arenas for human action. For designers, the integration...... alternatives for integrating digital technology with space. Connecting practical design work with conceptual development and theorizing, art with technology, and usesr-centered methods with social sciences, Design Spaces provides a useful research paradigm for designing ubiquitous computing. This book...... of digital technology with space poses new challenges that call for new approaches. Creative alternatives to traditional systems methodologies are called for when designers use digital media to create new possibilities for action in space. Design Spaces explores how design and media art can provide creative...

  13. Studying Space: Improving Space Planning with User Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierard, Cindy; Lee, Norice

    2011-01-01

    How can libraries best assess and improve user space, even if they are not in a position to undertake new construction or a major renovation? Staff at New Mexico State University used a variety of ethnographic methods to learn how our spaces were being used as well as what our users considered to be ideal library space. Our findings helped us make…

  14. Method of treating wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knox, J.A.; Lasater, R.M.

    1966-11-22

    Chemical compositions and methods are provided for treating underground formations to render their surfaces water-repellent or preferentially oil-wettable. Previous methods have provided only temporary water-repellency because they do not actually act chemically with the reservoir rock. This improvement is obtained by using a treating agent which does not form a precipitate upon hydrolysis with water, such as a liquid organo-halogen- silane or its ester. A water-soluble anhydrous solvent which is nonreactive with the silane is used as a carrier. This method may be used for treating non-oil-bearing aquifers for increasing the flow rate of water, such as in water supply wells, or in water input rate, such as in water disposal wells. (10 claims)

  15. Space Commercialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Gary L.

    2011-01-01

    A robust and competitive commercial space sector is vital to continued progress in space. The United States is committed to encouraging and facilitating the growth of a U.S. commercial space sector that supports U.S. needs, is globally competitive, and advances U.S. leadership in the generation of new markets and innovation-driven entrepreneurship. Energize competitive domestic industries to participate in global markets and advance the development of: satellite manufacturing; satellite-based services; space launch; terrestrial applications; and increased entrepreneurship. Purchase and use commercial space capabilities and services to the maximum practical extent Actively explore the use of inventive, nontraditional arrangements for acquiring commercial space goods and services to meet United States Government requirements, including measures such as public-private partnerships, . Refrain from conducting United States Government space activities that preclude, discourage, or compete with U.S. commercial space activities. Pursue potential opportunities for transferring routine, operational space functions to the commercial space sector where beneficial and cost-effective.

  16. National Space Agencies vs. Commercial Space: Towards Improved Space Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelton, J.

    2013-09-01

    Traditional space policies as developed at the national level includes many elements but they are most typically driven by economic and political objectives. Legislatively administered programs apportion limited public funds to achieve "gains" that can involve employment, stimulus to the economy, national defense or other advancements. Yet political advantage is seldom far from the picture.Within the context of traditional space policies, safety issues cannot truly be described as "afterthoughts", but they are usually, at best, a secondary or even tertiary consideration. "Space safety" is often simply assumed to be "in there" somewhere. The current key question is can "safety and risk minimization", within new commercial space programs actually be elevated in importance and effectively be "designed in" at the outset. This has long been the case with commercial aviation and there is at least reasonable hope that this could also be the case for the commercial space industry in coming years. The cooperative role that the insurance industry has now played for centuries in the shipping industry and for decades in aviation can perhaps now play a constructive role in risk minimization in the commercial space domain as well. This paper begins by examining two historical case studies in the context of traditional national space policy development to see how major space policy decisions involving "manned space programs" have given undue primacy to "political considerations" over "safety" and other factors. The specific case histories examined here include first the decision to undertake the Space Shuttle Program (i.e. 1970-1972) and the second is the International Space Station. In both cases the key and overarching decisions were driven by political, schedule and cost considerations, and safety seems absence as a prime consideration. In publicly funded space programs—whether in the United States, Europe, Russia, Japan, China, India or elsewhere—it seems realistic to

  17. Drilling and well technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milheim, K. [Mining University Leoben Institute for Drilling Technology, (Austria)

    1996-12-31

    Over a billion dollars a year is lost by exploration and production companies drilling wells because of the lack of learn curve management (LMC) practices. This paper presents the importance of the LMC concept, what it is, why LMC has not yet been recognized as a major initiative for improving drilling cost performance. The paper discusses the different types of planning, problems with implementation of plans, the use and misuse of drilling results and data bases, and the lack of post analysis practices. The major point of the paper is to show the massive savings that can be achieved by valuing LMC, learning LMC and successfully implementing LMC. . 2 refs., 5 figs.

  18. Quantum well lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Zory, Jr, Peter S; Kelley, Paul

    1993-01-01

    This book provides the information necessary for the reader to achieve a thorough understanding of all aspects of QW lasers - from the basic mechanism of optical gain, through the current technolgoical state of the art, to the future technologies of quantum wires and quantum dots. In view of the growing importance of QW lasers, this book should be read by all those with an active interest in laser science and technology, from the advanced student to the experienced laser scientist.* The first comprehensive book-length treatment of quantum well lasers* Provides a detailed treatment

  19. Learning Spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Falmagne, Jean-Claude

    2011-01-01

    Learning spaces offer a rigorous mathematical foundation for practical systems of educational technology. Learning spaces generalize partially ordered sets and are special cases of knowledge spaces. The various structures are investigated from the standpoints of combinatorial properties and stochastic processes. Leaning spaces have become the essential structures to be used in assessing students' competence of various topics. A practical example is offered by ALEKS, a Web-based, artificially intelligent assessment and learning system in mathematics and other scholarly fields. At the heart of A

  20. Morrey spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, David R

    2015-01-01

    In this set of lecture notes, the author includes some of the latest research on the theory of Morrey Spaces associated with Harmonic Analysis. There are three main claims concerning these spaces that are covered: determining the integrability classes of the trace of Riesz potentials of an arbitrary Morrey function; determining the dimensions of singular sets of weak solutions of PDE (e.g. The Meyers-Elcart System); and determining whether there are any “full” interpolation results for linear operators between Morrey spaces. This book will serve as a useful reference to graduate students and researchers interested in Potential Theory, Harmonic Analysis, PDE, and/or Morrey Space Theory. .

  1. WellBe手环

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    来认识一下WellBe,一只能随时探测你精神压力状态,并立即提供解决建议的手环。WellBe判断佩戴者心理压力的依据是内藏的光学心率计所提供的实时测量值,在统计过最容易使佩戴者产生心理压力的场合后,为其提供量身定制的压力释放方式——包括冥思、深呼吸、引导想象,或是个性化过的学习课程或音乐播放列表。而它采用的软木腕带材质也在作出拥抱大自然,告别紧张快节奏的日常生活的暗示。

  2. Modeling Quantum Well Lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Alexandru Anghel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In semiconductor laser modeling, a good mathematical model gives near-reality results. Three methods of modeling solutions from the rate equations are presented and analyzed. A method based on the rate equations modeled in Simulink to describe quantum well lasers was presented. For different signal types like step function, saw tooth and sinus used as input, a good response of the used equations is obtained. Circuit model resulting from one of the rate equations models is presented and simulated in SPICE. Results show a good modeling behavior. Numerical simulation in MathCad gives satisfactory results for the study of the transitory and dynamic operation at small level of the injection current. The obtained numerical results show the specific limits of each model, according to theoretical analysis. Based on these results, software can be built that integrates circuit simulation and other modeling methods for quantum well lasers to have a tool that model and analysis these devices from all points of view.

  3. Quantum well nonlinear microcavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudar, J. L.; Kuszelewicz, R.; Sfez, B.; Pellat, D.; Azoulay, R.

    We report on recent progress in reducing the power threshold of all-optical bistable quantum well vertical microcavities. Significant improvements are achieved through an increase of the cavity finesse, together with a reduction of the device active layer thickness. A critical intensity of 5 μW/μm 2 has been observed on a microcavity of finesse 250, with a nonlinear medium of only 18 GaAs quantum wells of 10 nm thickness. Further improvements of the Bragg mirror quality resulted in a finesse of 700 and a power-lifetime product of 15 fJ/μm 2. Microresonator pixellation allows to obtain 2-dimensional arrays. A thermally-induced alloy-mixing technique is described, which produced a 110 meV carrier confinement energy, together with a refractive index change of -.012, averaged over the 2.6 μm nonlinear medium thickness. The resulting electrical and optical confinement is shown to improve the nonlinear characteristics, by limiting lateral carrier diffusion and light diffraction.

  4. Space Resources Roundtable 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignatiev, A.

    2000-01-01

    Contents include following: Developing Technologies for Space Resource Utilization - Concept for a Planetary Engineering Research Institute. Results of a Conceptual Systems Analysis of Systems for 200 m Deep Sampling of the Martian Subsurface. The Role of Near-Earth Asteroids in Long-Term Platinum Supply. Core Drilling for Extra-Terrestrial Mining. Recommendations by the "LSP and Manufacturing" Group to the NSF-NASA Workshop on Autonomous Construction and Manufacturing for Space Electrical Power Systems. Plasma Processing of Lunar and Planetary Materials. Percussive Force Magnitude in Permafrost. Summary of the Issues Regarding the Martian Subsurface Explorer. A Costing Strategy for Manufacturing in Orbit Using Extraterrestrial Resources. Mine Planning for Asteroid Orebodies. Organic-based Dissolution of Silicates: A New Approach to Element Extraction from LunarRegohth. Historic Frontier Processes Active in Future Space-based Mineral Extraction. The Near-Earth Space Surveillance (NIESS) Mission: Discovery, Tracking, and Characterization of Asteroids, Comets, and Artificial Satellites with a microsatellite. Privatized Space Resource Property Ownership. The Fabrication of Silicon Solar Cells on the Moon Using In-Situ Resources. A New Strategy for Exploration Technology Development: The Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) Exploratiori/Commercialization Technology Initiative. Space Resources for Space Tourism. Recovery of Volatiles from the Moon and Associated Issues. Preliminary Analysis of a Small Robot for Martian Regolith Excavation. The Registration of Space-based Property. Continuous Processing with Mars Gases. Drilling and Logging in Space; An Oil-Well Perspective. LORPEX for Power Surges: Drilling, Rock Crushing. An End-To-End Near-Earth Asteroid Resource Exploitation Plan. An Engineering and Cost Model for Human Space Settlement Architectures: Focus on Space Hotels and Moon/Mars Exploration. The Development and Realization of a Silicon-60-based

  5. Space Colonization: Problems and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krichevskiy S. V.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Space colonization is the top priority of mankind and the strategic target of manned cosmonautics. It is necessary to comprehend the outcome of human space flights and to give a new impulse to space expansion, scientific and practical solving the problem of space colonization by human beings. The attention is also paid to key issues, potentials, restrictions, forecasts, and prospects of space colonization as well as to the transformation of a man into "a man of the future", "homo cosmicus", and "a universal man", to the formation of "space mankind".

  6. Space for personal hygiene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Danielsen, Claus

    2010-01-01

    This paper focuses on spaces used for personal hygiene in housing over the last hundred years. The paper begins with a description of the hygienic movement in the late 19th century. At that time urinating took place in semi-public spaces outside the dwelling. Today, the WC has moved well...... into the dwelling, and in many dwellings the bathroom has developed into being the most private space. Thus, the bathroom can be regarded as the last domain of privacy in today's housing, and in a number of new dwellings this quality is exploited in new ways. The development of ‘space for hygiene’ in the 20th...... century will be studied by analysing the spatial organisation of dwellings: Where and how has the space for hygiene been situated and designed in housing in different periods over the last hundred years?...

  7. Well maintenance evaluation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGhan, V.L.

    1978-10-01

    The ground-water monitoring program is an integral part of the total environmental surveillance program for the Hanford Site. Extensive ground-water data have been collected and studied over the past several decades. All of this data is, of course, dependent upon the quality of the ground-water sampling structures. A program to upgrade the quality of ground-water sampling was initiated in early 1974. That program also included changes to avoid cross-contamination of ground-water samples by installing permanently mounted individual pumps in many of the sampling wells. These two programs have resulted in increased reliability of both the ground-water samples and the analytical data. This basic quality assurance effort has provided a high level of confidence in ground-water surveillance. The current program is providing data with reliabilities not previously attainable.

  8. Smooth Neutrosophic Topological Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. EL Gayyar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available As a new branch of philosophy, the neutrosophy was presented by Smarandache in 1980. It was presented as the study of origin, nature, and scope of neutralities; as well as their interactions with different ideational spectra. The aim in this paper is to introduce the concepts of smooth neutrosophic topological space, smooth neutrosophic cotopological space, smooth neutrosophic closure, and smooth neutrosophic interior. Furthermore, some properties of these concepts will be investigated.

  9. Smooth Neutrosophic Topological Spaces

    OpenAIRE

    M. K. EL GAYYAR

    2016-01-01

    As a new branch of philosophy, the neutrosophy was presented by Smarandache in 1980. It was presented as the study of origin, nature, and scope of neutralities; as well as their interactions with different ideational spectra. The aim in this paper is to introduce the concepts of smooth neutrosophic topological space, smooth neutrosophic cotopological space, smooth neutrosophic closure, and smooth neutrosophic interior. Furthermore, some properties of these concepts will be investigated.

  10. -Metric Space: A Generalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farshid Khojasteh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce the notion of -metric as a generalization of a metric by replacing the triangle inequality with a more generalized inequality. We investigate the topology of the spaces induced by a -metric and present some essential properties of it. Further, we give characterization of well-known fixed point theorems, such as the Banach and Caristi types in the context of such spaces.

  11. Space Bugz!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birke, Alexander; Schoenau-Fog, Henrik; Reng, Lars

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents Space Bugz! - a novel crowd game for large venues or cinemas that utilises the audience's smartphones as controllers for the game. This paper explains what crowd gaming is and describes how the approach used in Space Bugz! enables more advanced gameplay concepts and individual...

  12. Bispinor Space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin ZHU; Xiu Hong FENG; Yan Lin YU

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we give identifications of bispinor space with Grassmann algebra, and with Clifford algebra. The multiplication in Clifford algebra provides an action on them. Lastly we have researched on the geometry of bispinor space, and define Dirac operators to get a Pythagoras equality.

  13. Space psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parin, V. V.; Gorbov, F. D.; Kosmolinskiy, F. P.

    1974-01-01

    Psychological selection of astronauts considers mental responses and adaptation to the following space flight stress factors: (1) confinement in a small space; (2) changes in three dimensional orientation; (3) effects of altered gravity and weightlessness; (4) decrease in afferent nerve pulses; (5) a sensation of novelty and danger; and (6) a sense of separation from earth.

  14. Space Telescope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Huntsville, AL. George C. Marshall Space Flight Center.

    This pamphlet describes the Space Telescope, an unmanned multi-purpose telescope observatory planned for launch into orbit by the Space Shuttle in the 1980s. The unique capabilities of this telescope are detailed, the major elements of the telescope are described, and its proposed mission operations are outlined. (CS)

  15. Borel Spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Berberian, S K

    2002-01-01

    A detailed exposition of G.W. Mackey's theory of Borel spaces (standard, substandard, analytic), based on results in Chapter 9 of Bourbaki's General Topology. Appended are five informal lectures on the subject (given at the CIMPA/ICPAM Summer School, Nice, 1986), sketching the connection between Borel spaces and representations of operator algebras.

  16. Performative Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svaneklink, Annette

    2009-01-01

    that can be related to traditional architectural concepts in terms of dealing with space, body, time and movement. The paper considers this performativity and dual spatiality as being a processual architecture, constantly reconfiguring new hybrids between space, image and user. This dual spatiality raises...

  17. Space station operations management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Kathleen V.

    1989-01-01

    Space Station Freedom operations management concepts must be responsive to the unique challenges presented by the permanently manned international laboratory. Space Station Freedom will be assembled over a three year period where the operational environment will change as significant capability plateaus are reached. First Element Launch, Man-Tended Capability, and Permanent Manned Capability, represent milestones in operational capability that is increasing toward mature operations capability. Operations management concepts are being developed to accomodate the varying operational capabilities during assembly, as well as the mature operational environment. This paper describes operations management concepts designed to accomodate the uniqueness of Space Station Freedoom, utilizing tools and processes that seek to control operations costs.

  18. Green space as classroom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentsen, Peter; Schipperijn, Jasper; Jensen, Frank Søndergaard

    2013-01-01

    More and more Danish teachers have started introducing curriculum-based outdoor learning as a weekly or biweekly ‘outdoor school’ day for school children. This move towards schooling in non-classroom spaces presents a challenge for green space managers. Basic managerial knowledge related to what...... the same place and preferring natural environments with easy access. We recommend that green space managers try to accommodate the ecostrategy preferred by outdoor teachers, i.e. visits to local and well-known places....

  19. Theory of function spaces II

    CERN Document Server

    Triebel, Hans

    1992-01-01

    Theory of Function Spaces II deals with the theory of function spaces of type Bspq and Fspq as it stands at the present. These two scales of spaces cover many well-known function spaces such as Hölder-Zygmund spaces, (fractional) Sobolev spaces, Besov spaces, inhomogeneous Hardy spaces, spaces of BMO-type and local approximation spaces which are closely connected with Morrey-Campanato spaces. Theory of Function Spaces II is self-contained, although it may be considered an update of the author’s earlier book of the same title. The book’s 7 chapters start with a historical survey of the subject, and then analyze the theory of function spaces in Rn and in domains, applications to (exotic) pseudo-differential operators, and function spaces on Riemannian manifolds. ------ Reviews The first chapter deserves special attention. This chapter is both an outstanding historical survey of function spaces treated in the book and a remarkable survey of rather different techniques developed in the last 50 years. It is s...

  20. Abandoning wells working group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The primary objective of this working group is to identify major technical, regulatory, and environmental issues that are relevant to the abandonment of offshore wellbores. Once the issues have been identified, the working group also has the objective of making recommendations or providing potential solutions for consideration. Areas for process improvement will be identified and {open_quotes}best practices{close_quotes} will be discussed and compared to {open_quotes}minimum standards.{close_quotes} The working group will primarily focus on wellbore abandonment in the Gulf of Mexico. However, workshop participants are encouraged to discuss international issues which may be relevant to wellbore abandonment practices in the Gulf of Mexico. The Abandoning Wells Group has identified several major areas for discussion that have concerns related to both operators and service companies performing wellbore abandonments in the Gulf of Mexico. The following broad topics were selected for the agenda: (1) MMS minimum requirements and state regulations. (2) Co-existence of best practices, new technology, and P & A economics. (3) Liability and environmental issues relating to wellbore abandonment.

  1. Cognitive Neuroscience in Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel G. De la Torre

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Humans are the most adaptable species on this planet, able to live in vastly different environments on Earth. Space represents the ultimate frontier and a true challenge to human adaptive capabilities. As a group, astronauts and cosmonauts are selected for their ability to work in the highly perilous environment of space, giving their best. Terrestrial research has shown that human cognitive and perceptual motor performances deteriorate under stress. We would expect to observe these effects in space, which currently represents an exceptionally stressful environment for humans. Understanding the neurocognitive and neuropsychological parameters influencing space flight is of high relevance to neuroscientists, as well as psychologists. Many of the environmental characteristics specific to space missions, some of which are also present in space flight simulations, may affect neurocognitive performance. Previous work in space has shown that various psychomotor functions degrade during space flight, including central postural functions, the speed and accuracy of aimed movements, internal timekeeping, attentional processes, sensing of limb position and the central management of concurrent tasks. Other factors that might affect neurocognitive performance in space are illness, injury, toxic exposure, decompression accidents, medication side effects and excessive exposure to radiation. Different tools have been developed to assess and counteract these deficits and problems, including computerized tests and physical exercise devices. It is yet unknown how the brain will adapt to long-term space travel to the asteroids, Mars and beyond. This work represents a comprehensive review of the current knowledge and future challenges of cognitive neuroscience in space from simulations and analog missions to low Earth orbit and beyond.

  2. Cognitive neuroscience in space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Torre, Gabriel G

    2014-07-03

    Humans are the most adaptable species on this planet, able to live in vastly different environments on Earth. Space represents the ultimate frontier and a true challenge to human adaptive capabilities. As a group, astronauts and cosmonauts are selected for their ability to work in the highly perilous environment of space, giving their best. Terrestrial research has shown that human cognitive and perceptual motor performances deteriorate under stress. We would expect to observe these effects in space, which currently represents an exceptionally stressful environment for humans. Understanding the neurocognitive and neuropsychological parameters influencing space flight is of high relevance to neuroscientists, as well as psychologists. Many of the environmental characteristics specific to space missions, some of which are also present in space flight simulations, may affect neurocognitive performance. Previous work in space has shown that various psychomotor functions degrade during space flight, including central postural functions, the speed and accuracy of aimed movements, internal timekeeping, attentional processes, sensing of limb position and the central management of concurrent tasks. Other factors that might affect neurocognitive performance in space are illness, injury, toxic exposure, decompression accidents, medication side effects and excessive exposure to radiation. Different tools have been developed to assess and counteract these deficits and problems, including computerized tests and physical exercise devices. It is yet unknown how the brain will adapt to long-term space travel to the asteroids, Mars and beyond. This work represents a comprehensive review of the current knowledge and future challenges of cognitive neuroscience in space from simulations and analog missions to low Earth orbit and beyond.

  3. Knowledge spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Doignon, Jean-Paul

    1999-01-01

    Knowledge spaces offer a rigorous mathematical foundation for various practical systems of knowledge assessment. An example is offered by the ALEKS system (Assessment and LEarning in Knowledge Spaces), a software for the assessment of mathematical knowledge. From a mathematical standpoint, knowledge spaces generalize partially ordered sets. They are investigated both from a combinatorial and a stochastic viewpoint. The results are applied to real and simulated data. The book gives a systematic presentation of research and extends the results to new situations. It is of interest to mathematically oriented readers in education, computer science and combinatorics at research and graduate levels. The text contains numerous examples and exercises and an extensive bibliography.

  4. Space exploration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chris Moore

    2012-01-01

      Here, Moore presents a year in review on space exploration programs. This 2012 NASA's strategy of stimulating the development of commercial capabilities to launch crew and cargo to the ISS began to pay off...

  5. Target Space $\

    CERN Document Server

    Huggett, Nick

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the significance of T-duality in string theory: the indistinguishability with respect to all observables, of models attributing radically different radii to space -- larger than the observable universe, or far smaller than the Planck length, say. Two interpretational branch points are identified and discussed. First, whether duals are physically equivalent or not: by considering a duality of the familiar simple harmonic oscillator, I argue that they are. Unlike the oscillator, there are no measurements 'outside' string theory that could distinguish the duals. Second, whether duals agree or disagree on the radius of 'target space', the space in which strings evolve according to string theory. I argue for the latter position, because the alternative leaves it unknown what the radius is. Since duals are physically equivalent yet disagree on the radius of target space, it follows that the radius is indeterminate between them. Using an analysis of Brandenberger and Vafa (1989), I explain wh...

  6. Riesz spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Zaanen, A C

    1983-01-01

    While Volume I (by W.A.J. Luxemburg and A.C. Zaanen, NHML Volume 1, 1971) is devoted to the algebraic aspects of the theory, this volume emphasizes the analytical theory of Riesz spaces and operators between these spaces. Though the numbering of chapters continues on from the first volume, this does not imply that everything covered in Volume I is required for this volume, however the two volumes are to some extent complementary.

  7. The Sounds of Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurnett, Donald

    2009-11-01

    The popular concept of space is that it is a vacuum, with nothing of interest between the stars, planets, moons and other astronomical objects. In fact most of space is permeated by plasma, sometimes quite dense, as in the solar corona and planetary ionospheres, and sometimes quite tenuous, as is in planetary radiation belts. Even less well known is that these space plasmas support and produce an astonishing large variety of waves, the ``sounds of space.'' In this talk I will give you a tour of these space sounds, starting with the very early discovery of ``whistlers'' nearly a century ago, and proceeding through my nearly fifty years of research on space plasma waves using spacecraft-borne instrumentation. In addition to being of scientific interest, some of these sounds can even be described as ``musical,'' and have served as the basis for various musical compositions, including a production called ``Sun Rings,'' written by the well-known composer Terry Riley, that has been performed by the Kronos Quartet to audiences all around the world.

  8. Magnesium and Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.; Zwart, Sara R.

    2016-01-01

    Magnesium is an essential nutrient for muscle, cardiovascular, and bone health on Earth, and during space flight. We sought to evaluate magnesium status in astronauts before, during, and after space missions, in 43 astronauts (34 male, 9 female) on 4-6 month space flight missions. We also studied individuals participating in a ground analog of space flight, (head-down tilt bed rest, n=27, 35 +/- 7 y). We evaluated serum concentration and 24-hour urinary excretion of magnesium along with estimates of tissue magnesium status from sublingual cells. Serum magnesium increased late in flight, while urinary magnesium excretion was higher over the course of 180-d space missions. Urinary magnesium increased during flight but decreased significantly at landing. Neither serum nor urinary magnesium changed during bed rest. For flight and bed rest, significant correlations existed between the area under the curve of serum and urinary magnesium and the change in total body bone mineral content. Tissue magnesium concentration was unchanged after flight and bed rest. Increased excretion of magnesium is likely partially from bone and partially from diet, but importantly, it does not come at the expense of muscle tissue stores. While further study is needed to better understand the implications of these findings for longer space exploration missions, magnesium homeostasis and tissue status seem well maintained during 4- to 6-month space missions.

  9. International Space Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lits

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the modern day technologies that drive our global society are highly dependent on the use of outer space. For example, daily activities such as sending emails, making phone calls and carrying out bank transactions cannot be done unless satellite technologies are involved. When you catch a plane, the air traffic control is dependent on GPS. Even natural disaster management is dependent on satellite imaging. Taking into account the importance of this, it becomes increasingly necessary to be knowledgeable in the field of international law as it is the only sphere of law that reaches beyond the physical boundaries of the Earth, goes deep into space and provides protection for today’s society. With new steps being taken to exploit further the potentials of outer space, and with increasing talk of new space missions and new discoveries, current international space law is being placed under scrutiny, for it should be remembered that the major international legal documents in this field were adopted in the middle of the 20th century, and thus there are fears that the law may have become obsolete, irrelevant in the face of new challenges in the use of outer space. This paper delivers an analysis of existing international space law and attempts to raise several crucial issues pertinent in the area.

  10. Liquid lubrication in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaretsky, Erwin V.

    1990-01-01

    The requirement for long-term, reliable operation of aerospace mechanisms has, with a few exceptions, pushed the state of the art in tribology. Space mission life requirements in the early 1960s were generally 6 months to a year. The proposed U.S. space station schedule to be launched in the 1990s must be continuously usable for 10 to 20 years. Liquid lubrication systems are generally used for mission life requirements longer than a year. Although most spacecraft or satellites have reached their required lifetimes without a lubrication-related failure, the application of liquid lubricants in the space environment presents unique challenges. The state of the art of liquid lubrication in space as well as the problems and their solutions are reviewed.

  11. Quantum Space-Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashtekar, Abhay

    In general relativity space-time ends at singularities. The big bang is considered as the Beginning and the big crunch, the End. However these conclusions are arrived at by using general relativity in regimes which lie well beyond its physical domain of validity. Examples where detailed analysis is possible show that these singularities are naturally resolved by quantum geometry effects. Quantum space-times can be vastly larger than what Einstein had us believe. These non-trivial space-time extensions enable us to answer of some long standing questions and resolve of some puzzles in fundamental physics. Thus, a century after Minkowski's revolutionary ideas on the nature of space and time, yet another paradigm shift appears to await us in the wings.

  12. Future space transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grishin, S. D.; Chekalin, S. V.

    1984-01-01

    Prospects for the mastery of space and the basic problems which must be solved in developing systems for both manned and cargo spacecraft are examined. The achievements and flaws of rocket boosters are discussed as well as the use of reusable spacecraft. The need for orbiting satellite solar power plants and related astrionics for active control of large space structures for space stations and colonies in an age of space industrialization is demonstrated. Various forms of spacecraft propulsion are described including liquid propellant rocket engines, nuclear reactors, thermonuclear rocket engines, electrorocket engines, electromagnetic engines, magnetic gas dynamic generators, electromagnetic mass accelerators (rail guns), laser rocket engines, pulse nuclear rocket engines, ramjet thermonuclear rocket engines, and photon rockets. The possibilities of interstellar flight are assessed.

  13. Ombud's corner: space invaders

    CERN Multimedia

    Sudeshna Datta-Cockerill

    2015-01-01

    When normal communication breaks down and there is no sharing anymore, office-mates can become ‘space invaders’. Very often, the situation can be resolved effectively by taking just a few simple steps...   The lack of office space at CERN is a permanent issue that the various departments regularly have to address. As a result, very often this precious space where we spend the entire day has to be shared with other colleagues. Office-mates may come from different backgrounds and cultures and may have very different habits and behaviours; they may also have different activities during the day, sometimes requiring unusual, (perhaps even strange?) interactions with the space they occupy; finally, their presence might be irregular, making it very difficult for us to establish a stable relationship. Mark and Claire share an office as well as some professional activities. In the beginning, the relationship seems to work normally but, over time, the communication between them ste...

  14. public spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Grigoryeva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The topic of this issue is PUBLIC SPACES. It is familiar and clear to every citizen. The streets and courtyards as childhood experiences remain with us forever. And these are the places where we come with our parents at weekends, where we meet friends, where we have dates and where we already come for a walk with our children.The history of public spaces is long and captivating. It was the main city squares where the most important events took place in history. The Agoras of Ancient Greece and the Roman Forums, the squares of Vatican, Paris and London, Moscow and Saint Petersburg… Greve, Trafalgar, Senate, Palace, Red, Bolotnaya – behind every name there is life of capitals, countries and nations.Public spaces, their shapes, image and development greatly influence the perception of the city as a whole. Both visitors and inhabitants can see in public spaces not only the visage but the heart, the soul and the mind of the city.Unfortunately, sometimes we have to prove the value of public spaces and defend them from those who consider them nothing but a blank space, nobody’s land destined for barbarous development.What should happen to make citizens perceive public spaces as their own and to make authorities consider development and maintenance of squares and parks their priority task against the  background of increasing competition between cities and the fight for human capital? Lately they more often say about “a high-quality human capital”. And now, when they say “the city should be liveable” they add “for all groups of citizens, including the creative class”.

  15. Harmonic analysis on triple spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Thomas Hjortgaard

    In this thesis we study examples of triple spaces, both their structure theory, their invariant differential operators as well as analysis on them. The first major results provide us with some examples of triple spaces which are strongly spherical, i.e. satisfy some conditions reminiscent...... of properties of symmetric spaces. The algebras of invariant differential operators for these spaces are studied and the conclusion is that most of them are non-commutative. Finally, we restrict our attention to a single triple space, giving a specific polar decomposition and corresponding integration formula......, and studying the relations between open orbits of parabolic subgroups, multiplicities and distribution vectors....

  16. Environmental spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Gutzon

    Using the development of intergovernmental environmental cooperation in the Baltic Sea area as a concrete example, the aim of this study is to explore how the 'environment' in situations of environmental interdependence is identified and institutionalised as political-geographical objects....... 'Environmental interdependence' is to this end conceptualised as a tension between 'political spaces' of discrete state territories and 'environmental spaces' of spatially nested ecosystems. This tension between geographies of political separateness and environmental wholeness is the implicit or explicit basis...... for a large and varied literature. But in both its critical and problemsolving manifestations, this literature tends to naturalise the spatiality of environmental concerns: environmental spaces are generally taken for granted. On the suggestion that there is a subtle politics to the specification...

  17. Einstein spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Petrov, Aleksej Z

    1969-01-01

    Einstein Spaces presents the mathematical basis of the theory of gravitation and discusses the various spaces that form the basis of the theory of relativity. This book examines the contemporary development of the theory of relativity, leading to the study of such problems as gravitational radiation, the interaction of fields, and the behavior of elementary particles in a gravitational field. Organized into nine chapters, this book starts with an overview of the principles of the special theory of relativity, with emphasis on the mathematical aspects. This text then discusses the need for a ge

  18. Entering Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubrin, Robert

    The authors is giving a classification of civilisations depending on the degree of colonisation of the Earth, Solar System and Our Galaxy. The problems of: History of geographic discoveries (The great geographical discoveries during the Middle Age, the concurence of Chinnese and Europeans in this Area); The Astrophysics, such as: Asteroids, Water and Atmosphere on outer planets, Planet Mars Planet, Agriculture on outer planets, Minerals on outer planets; Cosmic flights: Fuels, Robotics, Moon (as an intermediary basis for interplanetary flights), Mars colonisation; Interstellar flights, Space research costs, strategy and tactics of the space colonisation; Policy: War and Peace, International Collaboration are discussed.

  19. Pulsed current cathodic protection of well casings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bich, N.N. [Shell Canada Ltd., Fort Saskatchewan, Alberta (Canada). Scotford Complex; Bauman, J. [Shell Canada Ltd., Cochrane, Alberta (Canada). Jumping Pound Complex

    1995-04-01

    Electric pulses of several hundred volts, applied for very brief periods of time, several thousand times per second, are more effective and economical than conventional steady-state DC currents in protecting deep and/or close-spaced well casings against external corrosion. More uniform current distribution, greater depth of protection, reduced stray current interference, and small anode bed requirements are the main benefits of pulsed technology. Operating principles, equivalent electrical circuits, design considerations, and field cathodic protection logging experience is reviewed.

  20. Entangled States and the Gravitational Quantum Well

    CERN Document Server

    Alves, Rui; Bertolami, Orfeu

    2016-01-01

    We study the continuous variable entanglement of a system of two particles under the influence of Earth's gravitational field. We determine a phase-space description of this bipartite system by calculating its Wigner function and verify its entanglement by applying a generalization of the PPT criterion for non-Gaussian states. We also examine the influence of gravity on an idealized entanglement protocol to be shared between stations at different potentials based on the correlation of states of the gravitational quantum well.

  1. N-维无限深球势阱中Klein-Gordon方程和Dirac方程的解%Exact solutions to the Klein-Gordon and Dirac equations of the spherical potential well of infinite depth in N-space dimensions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵静; 曲晓英

    2007-01-01

    精确求解了N-维无限深球势阱中的Klein-Gordon方程和Dirac方程,结果表明:在N-维无限深球势阱中,Klein-Gordon方程和Dirac方程的径向方程在形式上与非相对论中的三维中心场的径向方程一致,均为贝塞尔方程.通过求解Bessel方程,任意束缚态的本征函数已被获得,其解可用通常的球贝塞尔函数表示.利用径向波函数在r=a处的连续性条件,其相应的能谱公式也被发现.对于Klein-Gordon方程:E2nr,l'=m2+x2nr,l'/a2,而对于Dirac方程,则E2nr,l'=-m2+(√m2a2+x2nr,l'/a2).%The Klein-Gordon equation and Dirac equation of spherical potential well of infinite depth have been solved exactly in N-dimensions spaces.The results show that for spherical potential well of infinite depth,the radial equations of Klein-Gordon equation and Dirac equation are similar to the radial equation of three-dimensional schrdinger equation with spherical potential well of infinite depth.Through solving the Bessel equation,the radial wave function that can be expressed by the usual Bessel spherical function has been obtained for all bound states.The corresponding energy spectrum formulas (namely,E2nr,l'=m2+x2nr,l'/a2 and E2nr,l'=-m2+(√m2a2+x2nr,l'/a2)) also has been found by making use of the continuity of the radial wave function at r=a.

  2. Space Conquest

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    An old water tank from the time of the ISR is being converted into a temporary store for ATLAS muon chambers. This is the last chapter in the big programme by the PH Department to make better use of space at CERN.

  3. Space Gerontology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miquel, J. (Editor); Economos, A. C. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    Presentations are given which address the effects of space flght on the older person, the parallels between the physiological responses to weightlessness and the aging process, and experimental possibilities afforded by the weightless environment to fundamental research in gerontology and geriatrics.

  4. Holonomic Spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Solórzano, Pedro

    2010-01-01

    A holonomic space $(V,H,L)$ is a normed vector space, $V$, a subgroup, $H$, of $Aut(V, \\|\\cdot\\|)$ and a group-norm, $L$, with a convexity property. We prove that with the metric $d_L(u,v)=\\inf_{a\\in H}\\{\\sqrt{L^2(a)+\\|u-av\\|^2}\\}$, $V$ is a metric space which is locally isometric to a Euclidean ball. Given a Sasaki-type metric on a vector bundle $E$ over a Riemannian manifold, we prove that the triplet $(E_p,Hol_p,L_p)$ is a holonomic space, where $Hol_p$ is the holonomy group and $L_p$ is the length norm defined within. The topology on $Hol_p$ given by the $L_p$ is finer than the subspace topology while still preserving many desirable properties. Using these notions, we introduce the notion of holonomy radius for a Riemannian manifold and prove it is positive. These results are applicable to the Gromov-Hausdorff convergence of Riemannian manifolds.

  5. Trading Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cort, Cliff

    2006-01-01

    Education administrators face the dual dilemma of crowded, aging facilities and tightening capital budgets. The challenge is to build the necessary classroom, laboratory and activity space while minimizing the length and expense of the construction process. One solution that offers an affordable alternative is modular construction, a method that…

  6. Space Tourism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ One day after NASA brougnt the shuttle Discovery back form low Earth orbit,a Private company plans to announce a more audacious(1)v__,a tourist trip around the Moon. Space Adventrues,an American company ,has already sent two (A)t__into orbit.

  7. Trace spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fajstrup, Lisbeth; Goubault, Eric; Haucourt, Emmanuel;

    2012-01-01

    of concurrent languages, where programs are interpreted as directed topological spaces, and study its properties in order to devise an algorithm for computing dihomotopy classes of execution paths. In particular, our algorithm is able to compute a control-flow graph for concurrent programs, possibly containing...

  8. Trading Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cort, Cliff

    2006-01-01

    Education administrators face the dual dilemma of crowded, aging facilities and tightening capital budgets. The challenge is to build the necessary classroom, laboratory and activity space while minimizing the length and expense of the construction process. One solution that offers an affordable alternative is modular construction, a method that…

  9. Historical space steps of Turkey: It is high time to establish the Turkish space agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercan, Cihan; Kale, İzzet

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses the importance of space in today's space driven world, the current space activities of Turkey, its space organizations with legislation background information and calls for the necessity for the establishment of the Turkish Space Agency (TSA). Firstly, the importance of space is given which is followed by a brief background and current space activities in Turkey. Then, the answers to why Turkey needs a National Space Agency are outlined by stating its expected role and duties. Additionally, the framework for space policy for Turkey is proposed and the findings are compared with other developing regional space actors. Lastly, it is proposed and demonstrated that Turkey is on the right track with its space policy and it is suggested that the establishment of the TSA is critical both for a coherent space policy and progress as well as the successful development of its national space industry, security and international space relations.

  10. Magnesium and Space Flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M; Zwart, Sara R

    2015-12-08

    Magnesium is an essential nutrient for muscle, cardiovascular, and bone health on Earth, and during space flight. We sought to evaluate magnesium status in 43 astronauts (34 male, 9 female; 47 ± 5 years old, mean ± SD) before, during, and after 4-6-month space missions. We also studied individuals participating in a ground analog of space flight (head-down-tilt bed rest; n = 27 (17 male, 10 female), 35 ± 7 years old). We evaluated serum concentration and 24-h urinary excretion of magnesium, along with estimates of tissue magnesium status from sublingual cells. Serum magnesium increased late in flight, while urinary magnesium excretion was higher over the course of 180-day space missions. Urinary magnesium increased during flight but decreased significantly at landing. Neither serum nor urinary magnesium changed during bed rest. For flight and bed rest, significant correlations existed between the area under the curve of serum and urinary magnesium and the change in total body bone mineral content. Tissue magnesium concentration was unchanged after flight and bed rest. Increased excretion of magnesium is likely partially from bone and partially from diet, but importantly, it does not come at the expense of muscle tissue stores. While further study is needed to better understand the implications of these findings for longer space exploration missions, magnesium homeostasis and tissue status seem well maintained during 4-6-month space missions.

  11. Hardy spaces via distribution spaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Liguang

    2007-01-01

    Let (y)(Rn) be the Schwartz class on Rn and (y)∞(Rn) be the collection of functions (P) (E) (Y)(Rn) with additional property that ∫Rn xγ(p)(x)dx=0for all multiindices γ.Let ((y):(Rn))' and ((y)∞(Rn))' be their dual spaces,respectively.In this paper, it is proved that atomic Hardy spaces defined via ((y)(Rn))' and ((y)∞(Rn))' coincide with each other in some sense.As an application, we show that under the condition that the Littlewood-Paley function of f belongs to LP(Rn) for some p (e) (0, 1], the condition f (e) ((Y)∞(Rn))' is equivalent to that f (e) ((y)(Rn))' and f vanishes weakly at infinity. We further discuss some new classes of distributions defined via (y)(Rn) and (y)∞(Rn), also including their corresponding Hardy spaces.

  12. Second Symposium on Space Industrialization. [space commercialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jernigan, C. M. (Editor)

    1984-01-01

    The policy, legal, and economic aspects of space industrialization are considered along with satellite communications, material processing, remote sensing, and the role of space carriers and a space station in space industrialization.

  13. Alternatives for Military Space Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Because the characteristics and performance of Discov- erer II’s radar are well documented, CBO based the design of its notional Space Radar on that of...2005, report to accompany H.R. 4613, Report 108-553 (June 18, 2004). 13. Air Force Space and Missile Systems Center, “Fact Sheet: Discov- erer II...360-degree coverage in GMTI mode. See Federation of American Scientists, Space Policy Project, “Discov- erer II STARLITE” (January 24, 2000

  14. PREDUAL SPACES FOR Q SPACES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng Lizhong; Yang Qixiang

    2009-01-01

    To find the predual spaces PαRn) of QαRn) is an important motivation in the study of Q spaces. In this article, wavelet methods are used to solve this problem in a constructive way. First, an wavelet tent atomic characterization of PαRn) is given, then its usual atomic characterization and Poisson extension characterization are given. Finally, the continuity on Pαof Calderón-Zygmund operators is studied, and the result can be also applied to give the Morrey characterization of PαRn).

  15. Lasers in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaelis, M. M.; Forbes, A.; Bingham, R.; Kellett, B. J.; Mathye, A.

    2008-05-01

    A variety of laser applications in space, past, present, future and far future are reviewed together with the contributions of some of the scientists and engineers involved, especially those that happen to have South African connections. Historically, two of the earliest laser applications in space, were atmospheric LIDAR and lunar ranging. These applications involved atmospheric physicists, several astronauts and many of the staff recruited into the Soviet and North American lunar exploration programmes. There is a strong interest in South Africa in both LIDAR and lunar ranging. Shortly after the birth of the laser (and even just prior) theoretical work on photonic propulsion and space propulsion by laser ablation was initiated by Georgii Marx, Arthur Kantrowitz and Eugen Saenger. Present or near future experimental programs are developing in the following fields: laser ablation propulsion, possibly coupled with rail gun or gas gun propulsion; interplanetary laser transmission; laser altimetry; gravity wave detection by space based Michelson interferometry; the de-orbiting of space debris by high power lasers; atom laser interferometry in space. Far future applications of laser-photonic space-propulsion were also pioneered by Carl Sagan and Robert Forward. They envisaged means of putting Saenger's ideas into practice. Forward also invented a laser based method for manufacturing solid antimatter or SANTIM, well before the ongoing experiments at CERN with anti-hydrogen production and laser-trapping. SANTIM would be an ideal propellant for interstellar missions if it could be manufactured in sufficient quantities. It would be equally useful as a power source for the transmission of information over light year distances. We briefly mention military lasers. Last but not least, we address naturally occurring lasers in space and pose the question: "did the Big Bang lase?"

  16. Space weather & telecommunications

    CERN Document Server

    Goodman, John M

    2006-01-01

    This book is both a survey of practical concepts for forecasting the performance of various telecommunication systems as well as a balanced treatment of space-weather phenomena that give rise to telecommunication impairment episodes. It bridges the gap in the relationship that exists between the following two disciplines: space weather and telecommunication system performance. There are a number of books that address one of the two disciplines in some detail, but only merely mention the other as an afterthought. In this book the author has married the two disciplines so that the readership can

  17. Discussion on data-security of space-earth integrated network and analysis of space communications protocol standards

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zehui; Liu Yong; Sun Jin

    2005-01-01

    The architecture and protocols of Internet can' t work well in space environments. To form a reliable and safe space network, characteristics of space communication network one discusse, brief synthesis is performed for consultative committee for space data system (CCSDS) space communications protocol standards (SCPS), and a model accounting for data security problem of space-earth integrated network is provided.

  18. Space Guiding Us

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primikiri, Athina

    2016-04-01

    Taking into consideration the fact that general education provides the passport for a successful career the charting of Space consists of a constructive instrument available to every single teacher. Activities touching directly upon Space comprise a source of inspiration that encourages pupils to get acquainted with natural sciences and technology while consolidating their cross-curriculum knowledge. The applications and endeavors arising out of Space play a vital role for the further development and growth of our societies. Moreover, the prosperity of people is inextricably bound up with the implementation of Space policies adapted to different sectors such as the Environment, the phenomenon of climate change, matters affecting public or private safety, humanitarian aid and other technological issues. Therefore, the thorough analysis of Space endows us with insights about new products and innovative forms of industrial collaboration. As a teacher, I have consciously chosen to utilize the topic of Space in class as an instructive tool during the last 4 years. The lure of Space combined with the fascination provided by Space flights contributes to the enrichment of children's knowledge in the field of STEM. Space consists of the perfect cross-curriculum tool for the teaching of distinct subjects such as History, Geography, Science, Environment, Literature, Music, Religion and Physical Education. Following the Curriculum for pupils aged 9-10 I opted to teach the topic of Space under the title 'Space Guiding Us' as well as its subunits: • International Space Station • Cassini/Huygens, Mission to Titan • Rosetta & Philae • European Union and Space • Mission X: Train like an Astronaut The main purpose of choosing the module of 'Space' is to stimulate the scientific and critical thought of the pupils, to foster the co-operative spirit among them and to make them aware of how the application of Science affects their everyday lives. Aims • To incite pupils

  19. Children's Experience of Public Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsley, Susan

    2004-01-01

    Children and young people regard the external physical environment as important for their needs. Their use of space varies according to age and circumstance and includes designated play and leisure facilities as well as other informal areas within their neighbourhoods. However, children have little influence over the development of public space as…

  20. Penalty Algorithms in Hilbert Spaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jean Pierre DUSSAULT; Hai SHEN; André BANDRAUK

    2007-01-01

    We analyze the classical penalty algorithm for nonlinear programming in HUbert spaces and obtain global convergence results, as well as asymptotic superlinear convergence order. These convergence results generalize similar results obtained for finite-dimensional problems. Moreover, the nature of the algorithms allows us to solve the unconstrained subproblems in finite-dimensional spaces.

  1. Private Well Water and Fluoride

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... well. What do I need to know about fluoride and groundwater from a well? Fluoride is present ... well has less than the recommended level of fluoride for preventing tooth decay? The recommended fluoride level ...

  2. Space Toxicology

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, John T.

    2011-01-01

    Safe breathing air for space faring crews is essential whether they are inside an Extravehicular Mobility Suit (EMU), a small capsule such as Soyuz, or the expansive International Space Station (ISS). Sources of air pollution can include entry of propellants, excess offgassing from polymeric materials, leakage of systems compounds, escape of payload compounds, over-use of utility compounds, microbial metabolism, and human metabolism. The toxicological risk posed by a compound is comprised of the probability of escaping to cause air pollution and the magnitude of adverse effects on human health if escape occurs. The risk from highly toxic compounds is controlled by requiring multiple levels of containment to greatly reduce the probability of escape; whereas compounds that are virtually non-toxic may require little or no containment. The potential for toxicity is determined by the inherent toxicity of the compound and the amount that could potentially escape into the breathing air.

  3. Hanford well custodians. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schatz, A.L.; Underwood, D.J.

    1995-02-02

    The Hanford Site Groundwater Protection Management Program recognized the need to integrate monitoring well activities in a centralized manner. A key factor to Hanford Site well integration was the need to clearly identify a responsible party for each of the wells. WHC was asked to identify all wells on site, the program(s) using each well, and the program ultimately responsible for the well. This report lists the custodian and user(s) for each Hanford well and supplies a comprehensive list of all decommissioned and orphaned wells on the Hanford Site. This is the first update to the original report released in December 1993.

  4. Space Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corliss, William R.

    1968-01-01

    This booklet discusses three kinds of space radiation, cosmic rays, Van Allen Belts, and solar plasma. Cosmic rays are penetrating particles that we cannot see, hear or feel, which come from distant stars. Van Allen Belts, named after their discoverer are great belts of protons and electrons that the earth has captured in its magnetic trap. Solar plasma is a gaseous, electrically neutral mixture of positive and negative ions that the sun spews out from convulsed regions on its surface.

  5. Space Handbook,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    rehydratable drinks including black coffee, tea, cocoa , cocoa -flavored instant breakfast, grape drink, limeade. lemonade, orange drink, grapefruit drink...type of beverage. These packs expanded in length with the addition of the cold or hot water to the beverage powder . The astronauts sat at the food...versatility of the shuttle provides a number of advantages in space exploration, but the primary benefit will be reduced costs of building and launching

  6. Space Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.

    2009-01-01

    Optimal nutrition will be critical for crew members who embark on space exploration missions. Nutritional assessment provides an opportunity to ensure that crewmembers begin their missions in optimal nutritional status, to document changes during a mission and, if necessary, to provide intervention to maintain that status throughout the mission, and to assesses changes after landing in order to facilitate the return to their normal status as soon as possible after landing. We report here the findings from our nutritional assessment of astronauts who participated in the International Space Station (ISS) missions, along with flight and ground-based research findings. We also present ongoing and planned nutrition research activities. These studies provide evidence that bone loss, compromised vitamin status, and oxidative damage are the critical nutritional concerns for space travelers. Other nutrient issues exist, including concerns about the stability of nutrients in the food system, which are exposed to longterm storage and radiation during flight. Defining nutrient requirements, and being able to provide and maintain those nutrients on exploration missions, will be critical for maintaining crew member health.

  7. Game Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    , called “pervasive games.” These are games that are based on computer technology, but use a physical space as the game space as opposed to video games. Coupling spatial configuration with performance theory of rituals as liminal phenomena, I put forward a model and a new understanding of the magic circle......When we play games of any kind, from tennis to board games, it is easy to notice that games seem to be configured in space, often using stripes or a kind of map on a board. Some games are clearly performed within this marked border, while it may be difficult to pinpoint such a border in games like...... or she suddenly finds himself in another world, where artefacts are given new meaning and where other rules apply. This makes sense, but also demands that play and non-play can be easily separated. Even so, the concept of the magic circle has never been analysed with respect to the spatial configuration...

  8. Cafeteria/Multi-Purpose Spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Christopher W.

    2001-01-01

    Highlights school cafeteria design criteria that creates dining facilities that are both social areas as well as eating spaces. Also examined are key design considerations for multi-purpose areas. (GR)

  9. Well data summary sheets. Vol. 30. North Sea wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This thirtieth volume of the `Well Data Summary sheets` includes data from three recently released offshore wells from the North Sea. The two wells Amalie-1/1A and Skarv-1 are situated in the Danish Central Graben area. The Ida-1 well is one of a number of Danish North Sea wells situated outside the Central Graben (se also Volume 25). Minor corrections have been made since the first edition. The `Complete index of released wells` had been updated. Volume 27, 28 and 29 are regional volumes; volume 27 includes well data from Southern Jutland; volumes 28 and 29 cover well data from Northern Jutland. All data from released Danish North Sea wells are included in volumes 17-26 and 30. Data references are made to the revised volumes and not to the original published reference. (au)

  10. Remarks on G-Metric Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bessem Samet

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2005, Mustafa and Sims (2006 introduced and studied a new class of generalized metric spaces, which are called G-metric spaces, as a generalization of metric spaces. We establish some useful propositions to show that many fixed point theorems on (nonsymmetric G-metric spaces given recently by many authors follow directly from well-known theorems on metric spaces. Our technique can be easily extended to other results as shown in application.

  11. Differential Geometry of Microlinear Frolicher Spaces I

    CERN Document Server

    Nishimura, Hirokazu

    2010-01-01

    The central object of synthetic differential geometry is microlinear spaces. In our previous paper [Microlinearity in Frolicher spaces -beyond the regnant philosophy of manifolds-, to appear in International Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics] we have emancipated microlinearity from within well-adapted models to Frolicher spaces. Therein we have shown that Frolicher spaces which are microlinear as well as Weil exponentiable form a cartesian closed category. To make sure that such Frolicher spaces are the central object of infinite-dimensional differential geometry, we develop the theory of vector fields on them in this paper. The central result is that all vector fields on such a Frolicher space form a Lie algebra.

  12. Human reproductive issues in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santy, Patricia A.; Jennings, Richard T.

    1992-01-01

    A review of reproductive functioning in animal species studied during space flight demonstrated that most species were affected significantly by the absence of gravity and/or the presence of radiation. These two factors induced alterations in normal reproductive functioning independently of, as well as in combination with, each other. Based on animal models, several potential problem areas regarding human reproductive physiology and functioning in the space environment were identified. While there are no current space flight investigations, the animal studies suggest priorities for future research in human reproduction. Such studies will be critical for the successful colonization of the space frontier.

  13. Small Sensors for Space Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, A. C.

    2015-12-01

    The Naval Research Laboratory is actively pursuing enhancing the nation's space weather sensing capability. One aspect of this plan is the concept of flying Space Weather sensor suites on host spacecraft as secondary payloads. The emergence and advancement of the CubeSat spacecraft architecture has produced a viable platform for scientifically and operationally relevant Space Weather sensing. This talk will provide an overview of NRL's low size weight and power sensor technologies targeting Space Weather measurements. A summary of on-orbit results of past and current missions will be presented, as well as an overview of future flights that are manifested and potential constellation missions.

  14. Well data summary sheets. Vol. 33: North sea wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    This 33rd volume of the `Well Data Summary sheets` includes data from seven recently released offshore wells from the North Sea. The wells Baron-2, S.E. Adda-1 and Skjold Flank-1 were presented in our `Well Data Summary Sheets, special volume`, published May 1, 1997. In volume 33, the wells Baron-2 and Skjold Flank-1 are updated with respect to information on sidewall cores. Information regarding all released well data, included in our well data summary sheets, are available on GEUS homepage: http://www.geus.dk/ or the departments homepage: http://www.geus.dk/departments/geol-info-data-centre/geoldata.htm/. A complete index of releases wells in volumes 17-33 is included. (au)

  15. Women in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukai, Chiaki

    Since 1963 women have successfully flown and worked in space so much so that having a female aboard the shuttle, on Soyuz or on the International Space Station is considered commonplace. We do know that women have historically been virturally equal in capabilities and performance with their male counterparts. For example, there have been superb shuttle pilots, shuttle commanders, EVA participants as well as mission specialists and payload specialists. Thus, gender is not an issue within the ranks, rather a simple fact. In addition, there is a positive psychological factor that has been noted in that a mixed crew seems to have better intercommunications dynamics. JAXA has conducted the experiments on 7 subjects on bone mineral density in short duration of space flight and noticed a slight decrease in that density in both male and female. Lean body mass was also examined and found to be reduced by 3.0 % on average. There was no significant difference between male and female subjects in short duration of space flight. Unfortunately, only 1 of the 7 subjects was a woman. In fact, only 48 women have flown in total, some more than once, and science is still discovering the effects of the space experience. This is due to the limited exposure on orbit and in microgravity and the limited number of potential subjects. Time in space is beginning to increase with the continued progress of the ISS, thereby creating a demand for more knowledge on what effects long term exposure will have on the female of the species. The presentation will address these and other concerns involved with women in space from the perspective of a female scientist and an astronaut.

  16. Resonant Tunneling in Barrier-in-Well and Well-in-Well Structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Jiang-Hong; JIA Guo-Zhi; ZHANG Yan; LI Wei-Wu; SHU Yong-Chun; WANG Zhan-Guo; XU Jing-Jun

    2008-01-01

    @@ A Schr(o)dinger equation is solved numerically for a barrier in a quantum well and a quantum well in another well structure by the transfer matrix technique.Effect of structure parameters on the transmission probabilities is investigated in detail.The results suggest that symmetry plays an important role in the coupling effect between the quantum wells.The relationship between the width of the inner well and the resonant energy levels in well-in-well structures is also studied.It is found that the ground state energy and the second resonant energy decrease with increasing width of the inner well, while the first resonant energy remains constant.

  17. Space Flight Immunodeficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, William T.

    1999-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has had sufficient concern for the well-being of astronauts traveling in space to create the National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI), which is investigating several areas of biomedical research including those of immunology. As part of the Immunology, Infection, and Hematology Team, the co-investigators of the Space Flight Immunodeficiency Project began their research projects on April 1, 1998 and are now just into the second year of work. Two areas of research have been targeted: 1) specific immune (especially antibody) responses and 2) non-specific inflammation and adhesion. More precise knowledge of these two areas of research will help elucidate the potential harmful effects of space travel on the immune system, possibly sufficient to create a secondary state of immunodeficiency in astronauts. The results of these experiments are likely to lead to the delineation of functional alterations in antigen presentation, specific immune memory, cytokine regulation of immune responses, cell to cell interactions, and cell to endothelium interactions.

  18. Space debris executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canavan, G.H.; Judd, O.; Naka, R.F.

    1996-09-01

    Spacecraft, boosters, and fragments are potential hazards to space vehicles, and it is argued that collisions between them could produce a cascade that could preclude activity in LEO in 25 to 50 years. That has generated pressure for constraints on military space operations, so the AF SAB performed a study of technical aspects of the debris problem. The Study was independent of the efforts of the Air Force Space Command (AFSPC) as well as those of and NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC), which is the principal advocate for cascades and constraints. Most work on space debris has been performed by AFSPC and JSC, so the Study was in part an assessment of their efforts, in which both have been cooperative. The Study identified the main disagreements and quantified their impacts. It resolved some issues and provided bounds for the rest. It treated radar and optical observations; launch, explosion, and decay rates; and the number and distribution of fragments from explosions and collisions. That made it possible to address hazard to manned spacecraft at low altitudes and the possibility of cascading at higher altitudes, both of which now appear less likely.

  19. Reconstruction in Fourier space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burden, A.; Percival, W. J.; Howlett, C.

    2015-10-01

    We present a fast iterative fast Fourier transform (FFT) based reconstruction algorithm that allows for non-parallel redshift-space distortions (RSDs). We test our algorithm on both N-body dark matter simulations and mock distributions of galaxies designed to replicate galaxy survey conditions. We compare solenoidal and irrotational components of the redshift distortion and show that an approximation of this distortion leads to a better estimate of the real-space potential (and therefore faster convergence) than ignoring the RSD when estimating the displacement field. Our iterative reconstruction scheme converges in two iterations for the mock samples corresponding to Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey CMASS Data Release 11 when we start with an approximation of the RSD. The scheme takes six iterations when the initial estimate, measured from the redshift-space overdensity, has no RSD correction. Slower convergence would be expected for surveys covering a larger angle on the sky. We show that this FFT based method provides a better estimate of the real-space displacement field than a configuration space method that uses finite difference routines to compute the potential for the same grid resolution. Finally, we show that a lognormal transform of the overdensity, used as a proxy for the linear overdensity, is beneficial in estimating the full displacement field from a dense sample of tracers. However, the lognormal transform of the overdensity does not perform well when estimating the displacements from sparser simulations with a more realistic galaxy density.

  20. Raft River well stimulation experiments: geothermal reservoir well stimulation program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-08-01

    The Geothermal Reservoir Well Stimulation Program (GRWSP) performed two field experiments at the Raft River KGRA in 1979. Wells RRGP-4 and RRGP-5 were selected for the hydraulic fracture stimulation treatments. The well selection process, fracture treatment design, field execution, stimulation results, and pre- and post-job evaluations are presented.

  1. Electronic Quantum Confinement in Cylindrical Potential Well

    CERN Document Server

    Baltenkov, A S

    2016-01-01

    The effects of quantum confinement on the momentum distribution of electrons confined within a cylindrical potential well have been analyzed. The motivation is to understand specific features of the momentum distribution of electrons when the electron behavior is completely controlled by the parameters of a non-isotropic potential cavity. It is shown that studying the solutions of the wave equation for an electron confined in a cylindrical potential well offers the possibility to analyze the confinement behavior of an electron executing one- or two-dimensional motion in the three-dimensional space within the framework of the same mathematical model. Some low-lying electronic states with different symmetries have been considered and the corresponding wave functions have been calculated; the behavior of their nodes and their peak positions with respect to the parameters of the cylindrical well has been analyzed. Additionally, the momentum distributions of electrons in these states have been calculated. The limi...

  2. Potential of repeated polymer well treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakatos, I.; Lakatos-Szabo, J. (Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary)); Munkacsi, I.; Troemboeczki, S.

    1993-11-01

    This paper analyzes field results obtained by routine application of a polymer/silicate well treatment technique at the Algyo-2 field in Hungary. First, the reservoir is described briefly; then, the basic concept of the method is outlined. Reference is made to the multifunctioning chemical mechanism of gelation and the favorable rheological properties of the treating fluids that jointly result in a highly selective placement and an efficient permeability reduction in the target reservoir space. Application of the method 17 times in 16 producing wells yielded more than 90,000 Mg of incremental oil production. Typical well behaviors also are illustrated. Finally, the potential of repeated treatments is discussed, taking laboratory and field results into account.

  3. Space Pharmacology

    CERN Document Server

    Wotring, Virginia E

    2012-01-01

    Space Pharmacology” is a review of the current knowledge regarding the use of pharmaceuticals during spaceflights. It is a comprehensive review of the literature, addressing each area of pharmacokinetics and each major physiological system in turn. Every section begins with a topic overview, and is followed by a discussion of published data from spaceflight, and from ground experiments meant to model the spaceflight situation. Includes a discussion looking forward to the new medical challenges we are likely to face on longer duration exploration missions. This book is a snapshot of our current knowledge that also highlights areas of unknown.

  4. Space Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    In planning for the long duration Apollo missions, NASA conducted extensive research into space food. One of the techniques developed was freeze drying. Action Products commercialized this technique, concentrating on snack food including the first freeze-dried ice cream. The foods are cooked, quickly frozen and then slowly heated in a vacuum chamber to remove the ice crystals formed by the freezing process. The final product retains 98 percent of its nutrition and weighs only 20 percent of its original weight. Action snacks are sold at museums, NASA facilities and are exported to a number of foreign countries. Sales run to several million dollars annually.

  5. Space Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Xontech, Inc.'s software package, XonVu, simulates the missions of Voyager 1 at Jupiter and Saturn, Voyager 2 at Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune, and Giotto in close encounter with Comet Halley. With the program, the user can generate scenes of the planets, moons, stars or Halley's nucleus and tail as seen by Giotto, all graphically reproduced with high accuracy in wireframe representation. Program can be used on a wide range of computers, including PCs. User friendly and interactive, with many options, XonVu can be used by a space novice or a professional astronomer. With a companion user's manual, it sells for $79.

  6. Space exploration

    CERN Document Server

    2009-01-01

    Space Exploration, is one book in the Britannica Illustrated Science Library Series that is correlated to the science curriculum in grades 5-8. The Britannica Illustrated Science Library is a visually compelling set that covers earth science, life science, and physical science in 16 volumes.  Created for ages 10 and up, each volume provides an overview on a subject and thoroughly explains it through detailed and powerful graphics-more than 1,000 per volume-that turn complex subjects into information that students can grasp.  Each volume contains a glossary with full definitions for vocabulary help and an index.

  7. Space exploration

    CERN Document Server

    90, Sol

    2008-01-01

    Space Exploration, is one book in the Britannica Illustrated Science Library Series that is correlated to the science curriculum in grades 5-8. The Britannica Illustrated Science Library is a visually compelling set that covers earth science, life science, and physical science in 16 volumes.  Created for ages 10 and up, each volume provides an overview on a subject and thoroughly explains it through detailed and powerful graphics-more than 1,000 per volume-that turn complex subjects into information that students can grasp.  Each volume contains a glossary with full definitions for vocabulary

  8. Space Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 166 9. Space telescopes Figure 9.1: Paraboloid telescope. In the following sections, NI...planets nearby a brighter star. Normal-incidence telescopes One-mirror telescope The one-mirror telescope (mostly an off-axis paraboloid ; Figure 9.1) has...rotation of the whole instrument (see SUMER/SOHO, Wilhelm et al (1995) and EIS/Hinode, Culhane et al (2007)). The paraboloid field curvature (Petzval

  9. A Metric Conceptual Space Algebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Benjamin; Raubal, Martin

    The modeling of concepts from a cognitive perspective is important for designing spatial information systems that interoperate with human users. Concept representations that are built using geometric and topological conceptual space structures are well suited for semantic similarity and concept combination operations. In addition, concepts that are more closely grounded in the physical world, such as many spatial concepts, have a natural fit with the geometric structure of conceptual spaces. Despite these apparent advantages, conceptual spaces are underutilized because existing formalizations of conceptual space theory have focused on individual aspects of the theory rather than the creation of a comprehensive algebra. In this paper we present a metric conceptual space algebra that is designed to facilitate the creation of conceptual space knowledge bases and inferencing systems. Conceptual regions are represented as convex polytopes and context is built in as a fundamental element. We demonstrate the applicability of the algebra to spatial information systems with a proof-of-concept application.

  10. Grassmann variables on quantum spaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikulovic, D.; Schmidt, A.; Wachter, H. [Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Sektion Physik, Muenchen (Germany)

    2006-02-01

    Attention is focused on antisymmetrized versions of quantum spaces that are of particular importance in physics, i.e. two-dimensional quantum plane, q-deformed Euclidean space in three or four dimensions as well as q-deformed Minkowski space. For each case standard techniques for dealing with q-deformed Grassmann variables are developed. Formulae for multiplying supernumbers are given. The actions of symmetry generators and fermionic derivatives upon antisymmetrized quantum spaces are calculated. The complete Hopf structure for all types of quantum space generators is written down. From the formulae for the coproduct a realization of the L-matrices in terms of symmetry generators can be read off. The L-matrices together with the action of symmetry generators determine how quantum spaces of different type have to be fused together. (orig.)

  11. Space Weather Forecasting: An Enigma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sojka, J. J.

    2012-12-01

    The space age began in earnest on October 4, 1957 with the launch of Sputnik 1 and was fuelled for over a decade by very strong national societal concerns. Prior to this single event the adverse effects of space weather had been registered on telegraph lines as well as interference on early WWII radar systems, while for countless eons the beauty of space weather as mid-latitude auroral displays were much appreciated. These prior space weather impacts were in themselves only a low-level science puzzle pursued by a few dedicated researchers. The technology boost and innovation that the post Sputnik era generated has almost single handedly defined our present day societal technology infrastructure. During the decade following Neil's walk on the moon on July 21, 1969 an international thrust to understand the science of space, and its weather, was in progress. However, the search for scientific understand was parsed into independent "stove pipe" categories: The ionosphere-aeronomy, the magnetosphere, the heliosphere-sun. The present day scientific infrastructure of funding agencies, learned societies, and international organizations are still hampered by these 1960's logical divisions which today are outdated in the pursuit of understanding space weather. As this era of intensive and well funded scientific research progressed so did societies innovative uses for space technologies and space "spin-offs". Well over a decade ago leaders in technology, science, and the military realized that there was indeed an adverse side to space weather that with each passing year became more severe. In 1994 several U.S. agencies established the National Space Weather Program (NSWP) to focus scientific attention on the system wide issue of the adverse effects of space weather on society and its technologies. Indeed for the past two decades a significant fraction of the scientific community has actively engaged in understanding space weather and hence crossing the "stove

  12. New Space Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Rob

    2014-01-01

    Visitors from Moon Express, a privately funded commercial space company, will be visiting KSC Swamp Works. This presentation includes a high-level introduction to NASA and commercial partnerships, as well as brief background on the moon - what we used to think about it hundreds of years ago, and what we know today with advanced technologies.***This third part being added includes Swamp Works technical capabilities and has a high-level overview of a selection of projects.***

  13. Tomography in Hilbert spaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marmo, G; Simoni, A; Ventriglia, F [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche dell' Universita ' Federico II' e Sezione INFN di Napoli, Complesso Universitario di Monte S. Angelo, via Cintia, 80126 Naples (Italy)

    2007-11-15

    We present a method of constructing the tomographic probability distributions describing quantum states in parallel with density operators in abstract Hilbert spaces. After the study of an infinite dimensional example, the well known Husimi-Kano quasi-distribution is reconsidered in the new setting and a new tomographic scheme based on coherent states is suggested. Starting from the Sudarshan's diagonal coherent state representation, the associated identity decomposition providing Gram-Schmidt operators is explicitly given.

  14. China's Wellness Revolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MarkGodfrey

    2004-01-01

    SEVERAL years after its publication, the Wellness Revolution remains a cult best-selling book. Its writer, businessman and motivational speaker Paul Zane Pilzer, advised investors and ama-teur stock market players that "wellness" would be the next tril-

  15. Creating Wellness in Your Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tager, Mark J.

    1983-01-01

    Wellness programs emphasize positive motivation and usually include health awareness campaigns, behavior change programs, and cost containment strategies. Guides are offered for beginning wellness programs in school districts. (MLF)

  16. School wellness team best practices to promote wellness policy implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Profili, Erika; Rubio, Diana S; Lane, Hannah G; Jaspers, Lea H; Lopes, Megan S; Black, Maureen M; Hager, Erin R

    2017-08-01

    Schools with wellness teams are more likely to implement federally mandated Local Wellness Policies (LWPs, Local Education Agency-level policies for healthy eating/physical activity). Best practices have been developed for wellness teams based on minimal empirical evidence. The purpose of this study is to determine, among schools with wellness teams, associations between LWP implementation and six wellness team best practices (individually and as a sum score). An online survey targeting Maryland school wellness leaders/administrators (52.4% response rate, 2012-2013 school year) was administered that included LWP implementation (17-item scale: categorized as no, low, and high implementation) and six wellness team best practices. Analyses included multi-level multinomial logistic regression. Wellness teams were present in 311/707 (44.0%) schools, with no (19.6%), low (36.0%), and high (44.4%) LWP implementation. A sum score representing active wellness teams (mean=2.6) included: setting healthy eating/physical activity goals (66.9%), informing the public of LWP activities (71.4%), meeting ≥4times/year (45.8%), and having school staff (46.9%), parent (25.4%), or student (14.8%) representation. In adjusted models, goal setting, meeting ≥4times/year, and student representation were associated with high LWP implementation. For every one-unit increase in active wellness team sum score, schools were 41% more likely to be in high versus no implementation (Likelihood Ratio=1.41, 95% C.I.=1.13, 1.76). In conclusion, wellness teams meeting best practices are more likely to implement LWPs. Interventions should focus on the formation of wellness teams with recommended composition/activities. Study findings provide support for wellness team recommendations stemming from the 2016 Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act final rule. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Insomnia and Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Nancy A.; Gallagher, Matthew W.; Preacher, Kristopher J.; Stevens, Natalie; Nelson, Christy A.; Karlson, Cynthia; McCurdy, Danyale

    2007-01-01

    Most Americans have occasional problems with insomnia. The relationship of insomnia to illness is well known. However, insomnia may also relate to lower levels of well-being. Although there are various definitions of well-being, one of the most clearly articulated and comprehensive models identifies 2 overarching constructs, psychological…

  18. WELL TESTING (YOUQIJING CESHI)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Research of Theory & Method. Trilinear-Flow Well Test Model of Fractured Horizontal Well in Low Permeability Reservoir. 2011,20(5):1 ∽5 Yao Jun, Yin Xiuxing , Fan Dongyan, Sun Zhixue ( China Petroleum University (East China)) According to the characteristics of the threshold pressure gradient for low permeability reservoir, a mathematical model of tri-linear flow unsteady percolation for fractured horizontal well is established; then deduced from its analytical solution in Laplace space. Bottom hole pressure of fractured horizontal wells is got after considering wellbore storage and skin factor by Stehfest numerical inversion and Duhamel principle, finally discussing the influence factors of the bottom hole pressure of fractured horizontal wells . The study result showed that the threshold pressure gradient made the dimensionless pressure and its derivative curves go up in late time, the bigger the threshold pressure gradient , the higher the curve and the earlier the curve going up appears; the fractured conductivity mainly influence the appeared time of bilinear-flow; the fracture radial flow appears only when the fracture interspacing achieves some extent, and the larger the space is, the fracture radial flow lasts longer; storage capacity ratio co influences the hollow's width and depth of the pressure derivative curve , the smaller the co, the wider the deeper hollow; cross-flow coefficient ~, decides the position of hollow, the smaller the λ, the more right-hand the hollow; wellbore storage coefficient CD mainly affects the early freewheeling segment of the curve.

  19. Space weather and space anomalies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. I. Dorman

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available A large database of anomalies, registered by 220 satellites in different orbits over the period 1971-1994 has been compiled. For the first time, data from 49 Russian Kosmos satellites have been included in a statistical analysis. The database also contains a large set of daily and hourly space weather parameters. A series of statistical analyses made it possible to quantify, for different satellite orbits, space weather conditions on the days characterized by anomaly occurrences. In particular, very intense fluxes (>1000 pfu at energy >10 MeV of solar protons are linked to anomalies registered by satellites in high-altitude (>15000 km, near-polar (inclination >55° orbits typical for navigation satellites, such as those used in the GPS network, NAVSTAR, etc. (the rate of anomalies increases by a factor ~20, and to a much smaller extent to anomalies in geostationary orbits, (they increase by a factor ~4. Direct and indirect connections between anomaly occurrence and geomagnetic perturbations are also discussed.

  20. Introduction to Space Systems Design and Synthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Aguirre, Miguel A

    2013-01-01

    The definition of all space systems starts with the establishment of its fundamental parameters: requirements to be fulfilled, overall system and satellite design, analysis and design of the critical elements, developmental approach, cost, and schedule. There are only a few texts covering early design of space systems and none of them has been specifically dedicated to it. Furthermore all existing space engineering books concentrate on analysis. None of them deal with space system synthesis – with the interrelations between all the elements of the space system. Introduction to Space Systems concentrates on understanding the interaction between all the forces, both technical and non-technical, which influence the definition of a space system. This book refers to the entire system: space and ground segments, mission objectives as well as to cost, risk, and mission success probabilities. Introduction to Space Systems is divided into two parts. The first part analyzes the process of space system design in an ab...

  1. Well Integrity and Sealing in CO2 Sequestration Wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweatman, R.; Santra, A.; Kulakofsky, D.

    2009-12-01

    CO2 sequestration is a cost-effective and safe way to help mitigate climate change. Sustained well integrity and zonal isolation of CO2 by cement for the required 1000 year trapping period may be challenging. Some researchers report that cement fails when exposed to CO2 leading to potential leakage into the atmosphere or other underground zones. Others show cement samples from 30-50 year old CO2 wells that maintain the well’s sealing integrity, even though carbonization was found. This presentation provides reasons likely for this disparity between research lab test results and actual well performance data along with best practices to provide efficient cement-based systems for maintaining CO2 containment in storage and EOR (enhanced oil recovery) reservoirs. This discussion includes the geochemical conditions surrounding wells and the positive, long-term effects on cement durability, sealing integrity, and the protection of well casing from CO2 induced corrosion. Also discussed are recent laboratory results testing cement samples surrounded by formation material treated at two different downhole conditions. In one case the cement specimens were treated with a 40% humid CO2 at 140°F and 2000 psi whereas in the second case they were treated with saturated CO2 in water at 200°F and 2000 psi for various time intervals. Results show that samples of carefully designed cement systems had carbonization without any sign of loss of mechanical or sealing integrity which could lead to zonal isolation and well integrity failures. We also will report on a new lab method proposed to determine CO2 sealing performance by cement in a relatively short time period compared to previous methods. In summary, we will discuss a comprehensive approach that may be taken to help ensure longer term effective well integrity and CO2 containment in new CO2 wells and remedial solutions for old wells and for plugging and abandoning wells.

  2. Wellness as a worldwide phenomenon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Heather; Bernstein, Jennifer; Bowman, Diana M

    2014-10-01

    This article examines the concept of wellness through a comparative political economy and legal framework. It asks whether wellness, an increasingly defined term within US federal and state legislative instruments including, for example, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, is primarily a US-centric phenomenon. Or is wellness, in its various different guises, a worldwide phenomenon? By focusing on three distinctly different jurisdictions - the United States, Germany, and Australia - this article examines wellness through the lens of employers, the health care system, employment and tort law, and the greater political economy. It notes that while improving employee health, well-being, and productivity is common across the three countries and their respective cultures, the focus on wellness as a distinct legal concept is unique to the United States. Copyright © 2014 by Duke University Press.

  3. 2种间隙保持器的临床应用效果及对牙周健康状况的影响研究%Research on clinical application effects of two space maintainers as well as their influence on periodontal health

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄优; 陆史俊; 王林

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the clinical satisfaction and the success rateof a new style improved vacuum formed space maintainer and its influence on periodontal tissue compared with traditional band and loop space maintainer .Methods 40 patients with the need of maintaining space were divided into 2 groups randomly ,each wearing one kind of space maintainers .Visual Analogue Scales ( VAS) was used to evaluate the degree of comfort wearing different space maintainers after 4 weeks.Plaque indexes,gingival indexes and probe depth of the lower first molar ,and the success rate of the space maintainer were recorded after 4 weeks,8 weeks and 12 weeks respec-tively.All data were subject to t-test and χ2 analysis.Results The degree of comfort when wearing improved vacuum formed space maintainer was obviously higher than that when wearing traditional band and loop space maintainer and the periodontal index was also better (P0.05).Conclusions Improved vacuum formed space maintainer is more favorable compared with traditional band and loop space maintainer and is more effective in reducing the influ -ence on periodontal health .%目的:比较改良压膜间隙保持器与传统丝圈式间隙保持器在临床上的使用舒适度、成功率和对牙周健康状况的影响。方法40例下颌第二乳磨牙早失的患者分为2组,随机戴用改良压膜间隙保持器与传统丝圈式间隙保持器,1个月后使用VAS量表法评价佩戴舒适,并分别于第1、3、6个月检查2组患者缺隙侧第一磨牙的菌斑指数、牙龈指数和探诊深度及成功率,t检验与χ2检测2组间差异。结果戴用改良压膜间隙保持器在舒适度和牙周健康维护上显著优于传统丝圈式间隙保持器组(P<0.05)。在成功率上2组没有明显差异(P>0.05)。结论改良式压膜间隙保持器相比于传统丝圈式间隙保持器,戴用更为舒适,并能显著减少对牙周健康的影响,

  4. Well sealing via thermite reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowry, William Edward; Dunn, Sandra Dalvit

    2016-11-15

    A platform is formed in a well below a target plug zone by lowering a thermite reaction charge into the well and igniting it, whereby the products of the reaction are allowed to cool and expand to form a platform or support in the well. A main thermite reaction charge is placed above the platform and ignited to form a main sealing plug for the well. In some embodiments an upper plug is formed by igniting an upper thermite reaction charge above the main thermite reaction charge. The upper plug confines the products of ignition of the main thermite reaction charge.

  5. The new frontier of wellness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Ann D

    2008-01-01

    Businesses should focus on a proactive solution to rising health care costs, using integrated wellness programs that emphasize condition management and total health and well-being. If corporations wish to remain competitive, profitable and successful in attracting and retaining topnotch talent from all generations, they are going to have to start investing in and thinking creatively about wellness offerings. Not only do wellness programs have a proven track record of success in reducing health care costs, they also resonate loud and clear with modern-day employees who are determined to work for a company that understands their needs and is willing to make progress with the employee's best interests in mind.

  6. Entomophagy and space agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, N.; Ishikawa, Y.; Takaoki, M.; Yamashita, M.; Nakayama, S.; Kiguchi, K.; Kok, R.; Wada, H.; Mitsuhashi, J.; Space Agriculture Task Force, J.

    Supplying food for human occupants remains one of the primary issues in engineering space habitation Evidently for long-term occupation on a distant planet it is necessary to start agriculture on site Historically humans have consumed a variety of animals and it is required to fill our nutritional need when they live in space Among many candidate group and species of animal to breed in space agriculture insects are of great interest since they have a number of advantages over mammals and other vertebrates or invertebrates About 70-75 of animal species is insects and they play an important role in materials recycle loop of terrestrial biosphere at their various niche For space agriculture we propose several insect species such as the silkworm Bombyx mori the drugstore beetle Stegobium paniceum and the termite Macrotermes subhyalinus Among many advantages these insects do not compete with human in terms of food resources but convert inedible biomass or waste into an edible food source for human The silkworm has been domesticated since 5 000 years ago in China Silk moth has lost capability of flying after its domestication history This feature is advantageous in control of their breeding Silkworm larvae eat specifically mulberry leaves and metamorphose in their cocoon Silk fiber obtained from cocoon can be used to manufacture textile Farming system of the drugstore beetle has been well established Both the drugstore beetle and the termite are capable to convert cellulose or other inedible biomass

  7. Space Constrained Dynamic Covering

    CERN Document Server

    Antonellis, Ioannis; Dughmi, Shaddin

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we identify a fundamental algorithmic problem that we term space-constrained dynamic covering (SCDC), arising in many modern-day web applications, including ad-serving and online recommendation systems in eBay and Netflix. Roughly speaking, SCDC applies two restrictions to the well-studied Max-Coverage problem: Given an integer k, X={1,2,...,n} and I={S_1, ..., S_m}, S_i a subset of X, find a subset J of I, such that |J| <= k and the union of S in J is as large as possible. The two restrictions applied by SCDC are: (1) Dynamic: At query-time, we are given a query Q, a subset of X, and our goal is to find J such that the intersection of Q with the union of S in J is as large as possible; (2) Space-constrained: We don't have enough space to store (and process) the entire input; specifically, we have o(mn), sometimes even as little as O((m+n)polylog(mn)) space. The goal of SCDC is to maintain a small data structure so as to answer most dynamic queries with high accuracy. We present algorithms a...

  8. DSPACE: A New Space DSP Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Errico, Walter; Colonna, Annamaria; Piscopiello, Giuseppe; Tosi, Pietro; Bacci, Bruno; Pii, Vincenzo; Fanucci, Luca; Saponara, Sergio; Donati, Massimiliano; Vincenzi, Alessandro; Reiter, Frederic; Nuzzolo, Francesco; Leupers, Rainer; Odendahl, Maximilian; Yakoushkin, Sergey

    2012-08-01

    The need for a next generation of European space- qualified Digital Signal Processors (DSP) is well known to the space community. DSPACE is a research project whose goal is to design and develop a new high- performance floating-point DSP core for space applications. This paper describes the objectives of the DSPACE project, its design approach, and the technical results achieved so far.

  9. Qp-spaces on bounded symmetric domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Arazy

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We generalize the theory of Qp spaces, introduced on the unit disc in 1995 by Aulaskari, Xiao and Zhao, to bounded symmetric domains in Cd, as well as to analogous Moebius-invariant function spaces and Bloch spaces defined using higher order derivatives; the latter generalization contains new results even in the original context of the unit disc.

  10. q-exponentials on quantum spaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wachter, H. [Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Sektion Physik, Muenchen (Germany)

    2004-10-01

    We present explicit formulae for q-exponentials on quantum spaces which could be of particular importance in physics, i.e. the q-deformed Minkowski space and the q-deformed Euclidean space with two, three or four dimensions. Furthermore, these formulae can be viewed as 2-, 3- or 4-dimensional analogues of the well-known q-exponential function. (orig.)

  11. Game Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    When we play games of any kind, from tennis to board games, it is easy to notice that games seem to be configured in space, often using stripes or a kind of map on a board. Some games are clearly performed within this marked border, while it may be difficult to pinpoint such a border in games like...... hide-and-seek, but even these games are still spatially configured. The border (visible or not) both seem to separate and uphold the game that it is meant for. This chapter sets out to analyse the possible border that separates a game from the surrounding world. Johan Huizinga noted this “separateness......” in his classic work “Homo Ludens” (Huizinga 1938, translated into English 1971). This has since been developed into the concept of the “magic circle” by Salen and Zimmerman (2003), as an understanding of playing games as a kind of alternate reality. When a person cross the magic circle of a game, he...

  12. Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Dennis

    2017-01-01

    New range Passage Tomb may be the first structure with known astronomical significance. It was built around 3,200 B.C. in Ireland. It's central passage allows light end-to-end for about 2 weeks around winter solstice. The Sun, Moon, Planets, and Stars held significance in early times due to the seasons, significance for food crops, and mythology. Citation: Corel Photography and Windows to the Universe The Greek may be among the first to pursue analytical interpretations of what they saw in the sky. In about 280 B.C. Aristarchus suggested Earth revolves around the Sun and estimated the distance between. Around 130 B.C. Hipparchus developed the first accurate star map. Today still seek to understand how the universe formed and how we came to be and are we alone. Understanding the causes and consequences of climate change using advanced space missions with major Earth science and applications research. center dotFire the public imagination and inspire students to pursue STEM fields. Train college and graduate students to create a U.S. technical workforce with employees that embody the values of competence, innovation, and service. center dotDrive the technical innovations that enable exploration and become the engine of National economic growth. center dotPartner domestically and internationally to leverage resources to extend the reach of research.

  13. Water Well Locations - MO 2012 Certified Wells (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This data set provides information about wells that are certified by the State of Missouri. The parent data set is the Wellhead Information Management System (WIMS)...

  14. Community College Employee Wellness Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, L. Jay; Johnson, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the prevalence and characteristics of employee wellness programs in public community colleges accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools (SACS). A random sample of 250 public community colleges accredited by SACS was mailed a 46-item employee-wellness program survey. The survey solicited program information…

  15. Littlewood-Paley characterization for Campanato spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azzeddine El Baraka

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The Littlewood-Paley characterization for the local approximation Campanato spaces Lpα is well known in the cases α≥0 and α=−np. We give in this paper a characterization of such a type for L2α spaces (and for Morrey-Campanato spaces L2,λ for any α≥−n2. These spaces contain as spacial cases the well known spaces BMO of John and Nirenberg and its local version bmo.

  16. Well test analysis for wells producing layered reservoirs with crossflow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raghavan, R.; Prijambodo, R.; Reynolds, A.C.

    1985-06-01

    The pressure response of a well producing a two-layer reservoir with crossflow is examined. Virtually all studies on the response of a well in multilayered systems with crossflow claim that after a few hours of production these systems behave as if they are single-layer systems. In this study, the authors show that the flowing pressure response of a well at early times can be divided into three flow periods. The first period is one in which the reservoir behaves as if it were a stratified (no-crossflow) system. This period is followed by a transitional period. The response of the well during this period depends on the contrast in horizontal permeabilities and on the degree of communication between the layers. During the third period, the reservoir can be described by an equivalent single-layer system. An examination of the time ranges of the various flow periods indicates that, unless tests are designed properly, most of the interpretable pressure buildup data would be measured during the time the well response is influenced by the transitional period. The influence of the skin regions on the well response is examined. The significance of the estimate of the skin factor obtained from a pressure test is discussed. The authors show that the nature and the magnitude of the skin regions and the size of the reservoir determine the applicability of conventional semilog procedures to systems with interlayer communication.

  17. Large size space construction for space exploitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondyurin, Alexey

    2016-07-01

    Space exploitation is impossible without large space structures. We need to make sufficient large volume of pressurized protecting frames for crew, passengers, space processing equipment, & etc. We have to be unlimited in space. Now the size and mass of space constructions are limited by possibility of a launch vehicle. It limits our future in exploitation of space by humans and in development of space industry. Large-size space construction can be made with using of the curing technology of the fibers-filled composites and a reactionable matrix applied directly in free space. For curing the fabric impregnated with a liquid matrix (prepreg) is prepared in terrestrial conditions and shipped in a container to orbit. In due time the prepreg is unfolded by inflating. After polymerization reaction, the durable construction can be fitted out with air, apparatus and life support systems. Our experimental studies of the curing processes in the simulated free space environment showed that the curing of composite in free space is possible. The large-size space construction can be developed. A project of space station, Moon base, Mars base, mining station, interplanet space ship, telecommunication station, space observatory, space factory, antenna dish, radiation shield, solar sail is proposed and overviewed. The study was supported by Humboldt Foundation, ESA (contract 17083/03/NL/SFe), NASA program of the stratospheric balloons and RFBR grants (05-08-18277, 12-08-00970 and 14-08-96011).

  18. Space Science in Action: Space Exploration [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999

    In this videotape recording, students learn about the human quest to discover what is out in space. Students see the challenges and benefits of space exploration including the development of rocket science, a look back at the space race, and a history of manned space travel. A special section on the Saturn V rocket gives students insight into the…

  19. Space Launch System: Building the Future of Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Markeeva

    2016-01-01

    NASA has begun a new era of human space exploration, with the goal of landing humans on Mars. To carry out that mission, NASA is building the Space Launch System, the world's most powerful rocket. Space Launch System is currently under construction, with substantial amounts of hardware already created and testing well underway. Because of its unrivaled power, SLS can perform missions no other rocket can, like game-changing science and human landings on Mars. The Journey to Mars has begun; NASA has begun a series of missions that will result in astronauts taking the first steps on the Red Planet.

  20. Angles between Curves in Metric Measure Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Bang-Xian

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the paper is to study the angle between two curves in the framework of metric (and metric measure spaces. More precisely, we give a new notion of angle between two curves in a metric space. Such a notion has a natural interplay with optimal transportation and is particularly well suited for metric measure spaces satisfying the curvature-dimension condition. Indeed one of the main results is the validity of the cosine formula on RCD*(K, N metric measure spaces. As a consequence, the new introduced notions are compatible with the corresponding classical ones for Riemannian manifolds, Ricci limit spaces and Alexandrov spaces.

  1. Bounded distortion homeomorphisms on ultrametric spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Hughes, Bruce; Morón, Manuel A

    2010-01-01

    It is well-known that quasi-isometries between R-trees induce power quasi-symmetric homeomorphisms between their ultrametric end spaces. This paper investigates power quasi-symmetric homeomorphisms between bounded, complete, uniformly perfect, ultrametric spaces (i.e., those ultrametric spaces arising up to similarity as the end spaces of bushy trees). A bounded distortion property is found that characterizes power quasi-symmetric homeomorphisms between such ultrametric spaces that are also pseudo-doubling. Moreover, examples are given showing the extent to which the power quasi-symmetry of homeomorphisms is not captured by the quasiconformal and bi-H\\"older conditions for this class of ultrametric spaces.

  2. SPACE LIFE SCIENCE IN 2000-2001

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Chinese scientists studied some of the problems in the field of space life science and achieved success in the area during 2000-2001. Space biological experi ments were carried out in the orbit and the results of ground studies on protein crystallization, space radiation, space motion sickness were introduced in this paper. The influences of simulated weightlessness on the brain-function, the car diovascular, endocrine hormones, immunity, skeletal and muscle systems were presented. In addition, gravity medicine and space environment medicine, as well as countermeasures to space deconditioning, such as the traditional Chinese medicine, were also reported.

  3. Well-posedness and stability for abstract spline problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miglierina, E.; Molho, E.

    2007-09-01

    In this work well-posedness and stability properties of the abstract spline problem are studied in the framework of reflexive spaces. Tykhonov well-posedness is proved without restrictive assumptions. In the context of Hilbert spaces, also the stronger notion of Levitin-Polyak well-posedness is established. A sequence of parametric problems converging to the given abstract spline problem is considered in order to study stability. Under natural assumptions, convergence results for sequences of solutions of the perturbed problems are obtained.

  4. Peripersonal space in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Pellegrino, Giuseppe; Làdavas, Elisabetta

    2015-01-01

    Research in neuroscience reveals that the brain constructs multiple representation of space. Here, we primarily focus on peripersonal space (PPS) representation, the region of space immediately surrounding our bodies and in which objects can be grasped and manipulated. We review convergent results from several generations of studies, including neurophysiological studies in animals, neuropsychological investigations in monkeys and brain-damaged patients with spatial cognition disorders, as well as recent neuroimaging experiments in neurologically normal individuals. Collectively, these studies show that the primate brain constructs multiple, rapidly modifiable representations of space, centered on different body parts (i.e., hand-centered, head-centered, and trunk-centered), which arise through extensive multisensory interactions within a set of interconnected parietal and frontal regions. PPS representations are pivotal in the sensory guidance of motor behavior, allowing us to interact with objects and, as demonstrated by recent studies, with other people in the space around us.

  5. Space shuttle and life sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    During the 1980's, some 200 Spacelab missions will be flown on space shuttle in earth-orbit. Within these 200 missions, it is planned that at least 20 will be dedicated to life sciences research, projects which are yet to be outlined by the life sciences community. Objectives of the Life Sciences Shuttle/Spacelab Payloads Program are presented. Also discussed are major space life sciences programs including space medicine and physiology, clinical medicine, life support technology, and a variety of space biology topics. The shuttle, spacelab, and other life sciences payload carriers are described. Concepts for carry-on experiment packages, mini-labs, shared and dedicated spacelabs, as well as common operational research equipment (CORE) are reviewed. Current NASA planning and development includes Spacelab Mission Simulations, an Announcement of Planning Opportunity for Life Sciences, and a forthcoming Announcement of Opportunity for Flight Experiments which will together assist in forging a Life Science Program in space.

  6. as well as, as well, might as well 之用法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盛艳明

    2009-01-01

    1. as well as =not only/just … but(also),但两者在意义上有不同之处:as well as 侧重前者,而not only /just…but (also)侧重后者,通常要理解为A as well as B=not only/just B but(also) A。如:

  7. Modeling multiaquifer wells with MODFLOW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neville, Christopher J; Tonkin, Matthew J

    2004-01-01

    Multiaquifer wells, i.e., wells that are open across more than one aquifer, can have a profound effect on the hydraulics of a ground water system. These wells change the physical system by establishing direct hydraulic links between otherwise isolated strata. Several methods are available to simulate multiaquifer wells in the context of comprehensive ground water flow simulators. In this paper, we review four methods to represent multiaquifer wells with the widely used code MODFLOW. These methods include a specialized code developed, but never formally released, by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the Multi-Aquifer Well (MAW1) Package. An expanded implementation of the techniques in the MAW1 Package has been incorporated in the Multi-Node Well Package released recently by the USGS (Halford and Hanson 2002). We examine the performance of the methods in the context of a benchmarking study against the analytical solutions of Papadopulos (1966) and Sokol (1963). Our results demonstrate that results obtained with the MAW1 Package closely match exact solutions for pumping and nonpumping conditions, using both coarse and refined grids.

  8. Brentano on Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie Kavanaugh

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In Vienna at the end of the nineteenth century, a virtual explosion occured of thought, creativity and revolutionary energy. At the origins of phenomenology, Franz Brentano took inspiration from Aristotle's de Anima in order to provide the bridge between mental acts [psychisch] and sensible phenomena [physisch]; the link or relationship which he called intentional in-existence. Phenomenology would completely change the direction of how philosophy constituted its problems – the relation between the “physical” and the “psychic”, the inter-relatedness of all things, the relation of our body to space and time, as well as how phenomena “appear” to consciousness. This essay briefly sketches out this geneology, and explicates the importance of Brentano's thought on the issues of space-time-continuum.

  9. THE PRODUCTIVITY OF WELL PATTERN WITH HORIZONTAL WELLS AND VERTICAL WELLS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Chun-sen; Cui Hai-qing; Song Wen-ling; Zhang Zhen

    2003-01-01

    The calculation of productivity and the choice of well pattern of mixed horizontal and vertical wells were discussed in this paper. Because the naturall drainage areas of horizontal wells are oval rather than circular, rectangular drainage well patterns should be adopted. Using pseudo 3-dimensional method and conformal transformation, the potential function of a row of horizontal wells was deduced. Using this function and the superposition principle, an analytical solution of the productivity for the rectangular mixed well pattern was given. Quantitative means for defining the shapes of the optimum pattern were developed in this paper by introducing two dimensionless parameters, the shape factor and dimensionless length of horizontal well. The formula for productvity was used to optimize the mixed well patterns. The curves of the optimized shape factor against dimensionless length of horizontal well were drawn. The results show that the pattern area and formation thickness have no effect on the optimal shape factors and can be applied to the design of development for oil fields.

  10. Department of Defense Space Technology Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    out integrated circuits (ROICs), quantum well IR photodetectors (QWIPs) • Advanced small, high-capacity, space-qualified cryocoolers – More efficient...passive) • Space-based laser, lidar or relay mirrors for remote optical sensing – Large-aperture, lightweight, modular, deployable membrane mirrors...change materials • Space-based laser/ lidar remote optical sensing • Sensors to monitor the space environment and alert host spacecraft of natural

  11. Well test analysis for Devonian-shale wells. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serra, K.; Chen, C.C.; Yeh, N.S.; Ohaeri, C.; Reynolds, A.C.; Raghavan, R.

    1981-09-30

    This work presents broad interpretive rules for analyzing Devonian Shale Wells based on simulated drawdown and buildup tests. The report consists of four parts: (1) New Pressure Transient Analysis Methods for Naturally Fractured Reservoirs, (2) Pressure Transient Analysis Methods for Bounded Naturally Fractured Reservoirs, (3) Pressure Response at Observation Wells in Fractured Reservoirs, and (4) Unsteady Flow to a Well Produced at a Constant Pressure in a Fractured Reservoir. Each of these sections is an independent unit; that is, knowledge of the other sections, even though desirable, is not necessary to understand the material in a given section. The principal contribution of this work is the identification of a new flow regime during the early transient period. The discovery of this flow regime represents a major advance in our ability to analyze pressure transient tests. The identification of the new flow regime also explains the response of wells in fractured reservoirs that until now have been considered anomalous. Systematic procedures to analyze single well (drawdown and buildup) tests and multiwell (interference) tests are discussed.

  12. Session: Long Valley Exploratory Well

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tennyson, George P. Jr.; Finger, John T.; Eichelberger, John C.; Hickox, Charles E.

    1992-01-01

    This session at the Geothermal Energy Program Review X: Geothermal Energy and the Utility Market consisted of four presentations: ''Long Valley Exploratory Well - Summary'' by George P. Tennyson, Jr.; ''The Long Valley Well - Phase II Operations'' by John T. Finger; ''Geologic results from the Long Valley Exploratory Well'' by John C. Eichelberger; and ''A Model for Large-Scale Thermal Convection in the Long Valley Geothermal Region'' by Charles E. Hickox.

  13. Conveying International Space Station Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goza, Sharon P.

    2017-01-01

    Over 1,000 experiments have been completed, and others are being conducted and planed on the International Space Station (ISS). In order to make the information on these experiments accessible, the IGOAL develops mobile applications to easily access this content and video products to convey high level concepts. This presentation will feature the Space Station Research Explorer as well as several publicly available video examples.

  14. United Nations Human Space Technology Initiative (HSTI)

    CERN Document Server

    Ochiai, M; Steffens, H; Balogh, W; Haubold, H J; Othman, M; Doi, T

    2015-01-01

    The Human Space Technology Initiative was launched in 2010 within the framework of the United Nations Programme on Space Applications implemented by the Office for Outer Space Affairs of the United Nations. It aims to involve more countries in activities related to human spaceflight and space exploration and to increase the benefits from the outcome of such activities through international cooperation, to make space exploration a truly international effort. The role of the Initiative in these efforts is to provide a platform to exchange information, foster collaboration between partners from spacefaring and non-spacefaring countries, and encourage emerging and developing countries to take part in space research and benefit from space applications. The Initiative organizes expert meetings and workshops annually to raise awareness of the current status of space exploration activities as well as of the benefits of utilizing human space technology and its applications. The Initiative is also carrying out primary ...

  15. A Quantum Space Behind Simple Quantum Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Chew, Chuan Sheng; Payne, Jason

    2016-01-01

    In physics, we are supposed to learn from experiments what constitutes a good/correct theoretical/mathematical model of any physical concept, the physical space should not be an exception. The best picture of the physical space, in Newtonian physics, is given by the configuration space of a free particle. The space, as well as the phase space, can be constructed as a representation space of the relativity symmetry. Starting with the corresponding quantum symmetry, we illustrate the construction of a quantum space along the lines of the quantum phase space and demonstrate the retrieval of the classical picture as an approximation through the contraction of the (relativity) symmetry and the representations of it. The result suggests a picture of the physical space beyond that of a finite dimensional manifold.

  16. 7 Steps to Aging Well

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issue Past Issues Special Section 7 Steps to Aging Well Past Issues / Winter 2007 Table of Contents ... Exercise: A Guide from the National Institute on Aging is a publication from NIA that has strength, ...

  17. The well-being questionnaire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pouwer, F; Snoek, Frank J; Van Der Ploeg, Henk M

    2000-01-01

    analyses were conducted. Group B (N = 736) was split up into four subgroups of male or female patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. In these subgroups, confirmatory factor analyses were employed to test the model(s) developed in group A and the two models described in the literature (four-factor model......BACKGROUND: The Well-being Questionnaire (W-BQ) has been designed to measure psychological well-being in people with a chronic somatic illness and is recommended by the World Health Organization for widespread use. However, studies into the factor structure of this instrument are still limited....... This factor solution was stable across gender, type of diabetes and level of education. CONCLUSIONS: The best description of the factor structure of the Dutch translation of the W-BQ was given by a three-factor solution with 12 items (W-BQ12), measuring positive well-being (four items), negative well...

  18. Monitoring Animal Well-being

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gronskyte, Ruta

    In recent years, animal well-being in industrial slaughterhouses has become a significant concern for consumers, farmers, and meat producers. Different groups have different interpretations of animal well-being. For the majority of consumers, animal well-being is highly influenced by their values......, it is common to mix pigs from different farmers in one area. Such mixing can cause fights between pigs, which can lead to additional stress or the animals being harmed. The unfamiliar environment also increases the animals’ stress levels. In some industrial slaughterhouses, up to 62,000 pigs per week...... are handled. Ensuring the well-being of such large numbers of pigs using only personnel is a complicated task. Video surveillance of humans has been widely used to ensure safety and order in multiple situations. Methods have been developed to detect individual actions or abnormal behavior in small groups...

  19. Wellness strategies for smaller businesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neely, Marc

    2012-01-01

    While innovative smaller companies are implementing employee wellness programs, many smaller firms may point to a lack of resources, such as staffing and financial resources, to establish and sustain a wellness program. The uncertain economy and rising health care costs have caused many smaller businesses to focus on core business strategies to keep the doors open and the business going. However, innovative companies realize that building a culture of health is a long-term business strategy directly related to improving the bottom line. This article highlights one company's approach to wellness and the results of the company's programs. It also outlines the components of a successful wellness program and suggests practical implementation steps for smaller businesses.

  20. Abelian properties of Anick spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Gray, Brayton

    2017-01-01

    Anick spaces are closely connected with both EHP sequences and the study of torsion exponents. In addition they refine the secondary suspension and enter unstable periodicity. This work describes their H-space properties as well as universal properties. Techniques include a new kind on Whitehead product defined for maps out of co-H spaces, calculations in an additive category that lies between the unstable category and the stable category, and a controlled version of the extension theorem of Gray and Theriault (Geom. Topol. 14 (2010), no. 1, 243-275).

  1. Space Radiation Cancer Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2007-01-01

    cancer risk relies on the three assumptions of linearity, additivity, and scaling along with the use of population averages. We describe uncertainty estimates for this model, and new experimental data that sheds light on the accuracy of the underlying assumptions. These methods make it possible to express risk management objectives in terms of quantitative metrics, i.e., the number of days in space without exceeding a given risk level within well defined confidence limits. The resulting methodology is applied to several human space exploration mission scenarios including lunar station, deep space outpost, and a Mars mission. Factors that dominate risk projection uncertainties and application of this approach to assess candidate mitigation approaches are described.

  2. All's Well That Ends Well: Shakespeare's treatment of anal fistula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosman, B C

    1998-07-01

    Textual and contextual evidence suggests that the French king's fistula, a central plot device in Shakespeare's play All's Well That Ends Well, is a fistula-in-ano. Anal fistula was known to the lay public in Shakespeare's time. In addition, Shakespeare may have known of the anal fistula treatise of John Arderne, an ancestor on Shakespeare's mother's side. Shakespeare's use of anal fistula differs from all previous versions of the story, which first appeared in Boccaccio's Decameron and from its possible historical antecedent, the fistula of Charles V of France. This difference makes sense given the conventions of Elizabethan comedy, which included anal humor. It is also understandable when one looks at what wounds in different locations mean in European legend. In this light, it is not surprising that subsequent expurgations treat Boccaccio's and Shakespeare's fistulas differently, censoring only Shakespeare's. This reading has implications for the staging of All's Well That Ends Well, and for our view of the place of anal fistulas in cultural history.

  3. The Nonlinear Field Space Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielczarek, Jakub; Trześniewski, Tomasz

    2016-08-01

    In recent years the idea that not only the configuration space of particles, i.e. spacetime, but also the corresponding momentum space may have nontrivial geometry has attracted significant attention, especially in the context of quantum gravity. The aim of this letter is to extend this concept to the domain of field theories, by introducing field spaces (i.e. phase spaces of field values) that are not affine spaces. After discussing the motivation and general aspects of our approach we present a detailed analysis of the prototype (quantum) Nonlinear Field Space Theory of a scalar field on the Minkowski background. We show that the nonlinear structure of a field space leads to numerous interesting predictions, including: non-locality, generalization of the uncertainty relations, algebra deformations, constraining of the maximal occupation number, shifting of the vacuum energy and renormalization of the charge and speed of propagation of field excitations. Furthermore, a compact field space is a natural way to implement the "Principle of finiteness" of physical theories, which once motivated the Born-Infeld theory. Thus the presented framework has a variety of potential applications in the theories of fundamental interactions (e.g. quantum gravity), as well as in condensed matter physics (e.g. continuous spin chains), and can shed new light on the issue of divergences in quantum field theories.

  4. The Nonlinear Field Space Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mielczarek, Jakub, E-mail: jakub.mielczarek@uj.edu.pl [Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, ul. Łojasiewicza 11, 30-348 Kraków (Poland); Trześniewski, Tomasz, E-mail: tbwbt@ift.uni.wroc.pl [Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, ul. Łojasiewicza 11, 30-348 Kraków (Poland); Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Wrocław, pl. Borna 9, 50-204 Wrocław (Poland)

    2016-08-10

    In recent years the idea that not only the configuration space of particles, i.e. spacetime, but also the corresponding momentum space may have nontrivial geometry has attracted significant attention, especially in the context of quantum gravity. The aim of this letter is to extend this concept to the domain of field theories, by introducing field spaces (i.e. phase spaces of field values) that are not affine spaces. After discussing the motivation and general aspects of our approach we present a detailed analysis of the prototype (quantum) Nonlinear Field Space Theory of a scalar field on the Minkowski background. We show that the nonlinear structure of a field space leads to numerous interesting predictions, including: non-locality, generalization of the uncertainty relations, algebra deformations, constraining of the maximal occupation number, shifting of the vacuum energy and renormalization of the charge and speed of propagation of field excitations. Furthermore, a compact field space is a natural way to implement the “Principle of finiteness” of physical theories, which once motivated the Born–Infeld theory. Thus the presented framework has a variety of potential applications in the theories of fundamental interactions (e.g. quantum gravity), as well as in condensed matter physics (e.g. continuous spin chains), and can shed new light on the issue of divergences in quantum field theories.

  5. The Nonlinear Field Space Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Mielczarek

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years the idea that not only the configuration space of particles, i.e. spacetime, but also the corresponding momentum space may have nontrivial geometry has attracted significant attention, especially in the context of quantum gravity. The aim of this letter is to extend this concept to the domain of field theories, by introducing field spaces (i.e. phase spaces of field values that are not affine spaces. After discussing the motivation and general aspects of our approach we present a detailed analysis of the prototype (quantum Nonlinear Field Space Theory of a scalar field on the Minkowski background. We show that the nonlinear structure of a field space leads to numerous interesting predictions, including: non-locality, generalization of the uncertainty relations, algebra deformations, constraining of the maximal occupation number, shifting of the vacuum energy and renormalization of the charge and speed of propagation of field excitations. Furthermore, a compact field space is a natural way to implement the “Principle of finiteness” of physical theories, which once motivated the Born–Infeld theory. Thus the presented framework has a variety of potential applications in the theories of fundamental interactions (e.g. quantum gravity, as well as in condensed matter physics (e.g. continuous spin chains, and can shed new light on the issue of divergences in quantum field theories.

  6. Mexican Space Weather Service (SCIESMEX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Esparza, A.; De la Luz, V.; Mejia-Ambriz, J. C.; Aguilar-Rodriguez, E.; Corona-Romero, P.; Gonzalez, L. X.

    2015-12-01

    Recent modifications of the Civil Protection Law in Mexico include now specific mentions to space hazards and space weather phenomena. During the last few years, the UN has promoted international cooperation on Space Weather awareness, studies and monitoring. Internal and external conditions motivated the creation of a Space Weather Service in Mexico (SCIESMEX). The SCIESMEX (www.sciesmex.unam.mx) is operated by the Geophysics Institute at the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM). The UNAM has the experience of operating several critical national services, including the National Seismological Service (SSN); besides that has a well established scientific group with expertise in space physics and solar- terrestrial phenomena. The SCIESMEX is also related with the recent creation of the Mexican Space Agency (AEM). The project combines a network of different ground instruments covering solar, interplanetary, geomagnetic, and ionospheric observations. The SCIESMEX has already in operation computing infrastructure running the web application, a virtual observatory and a high performance computing server to run numerical models. SCIESMEX participates in the International Space Environment Services (ISES) and in the Inter-progamme Coordination Team on Space Weather (ICTSW) of the Word Meteorological Organization (WMO).

  7. Space Age Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Teledyne Brown developed a computer-based interactive multimedia training system for use with the Crystal Growth Furnace in the U.S. Microgravity Laboratory-2 mission on the Space Shuttle. Teledyne Brown commercialized the system and customized it for PPG Industries Aircraft Products. The system challenges learners with role-playing scenarios and software-driven simulations engaging all the senses using text, video, animation, voice, sounds and music. The transfer of this technology to commercial industrial process training has resulted in significant improvements in effectiveness, standardization, and quality control, as well as cost reductions over the usual classroom and on-the- job training approaches.

  8. PRODUCTIVITY OF FRACTURED HORIZONTAL WELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stjepan Antolović

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The interest and performance of horizontal drilling and completions has increased during the last two decades. Horizontal wells are advantageous compared to vertical wells in thin reservoirs, reservoirs with favorable vertical permeability and reservoirs with water and gas coning problems. In many reservoirs, the ratio of horizontal permeability to the vertical permeability is substantially larger than one and often is close to 10. Thus, these reservoirs are very good candidates for hydraulic fracturing. By hydraulic fracturing one or more fractures are created, which can be longitudinal or orthogonal. By that, flow is altered and it mostly conducts horizontally through reservoir toward horizontal wellbore. With this altered flow, fluid is produced faster, with less pressure loss by fluid unit of produced fluid. Some of the existing mathematical models to determine the productivity of multifractured horizontal wells are presented in this work (the paper is published in Croatian.

  9. Optimization of well field management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Annette Kirstine

    Groundwater is a limited but important resource for fresh water supply. Differ- ent conflicting objectives are important when operating a well field. This study investigates how the management of a well field can be improved with respect to different objectives simultaneously. A framework...... objectives. The sequential scheduling optimizes the management stepwise for daily time steps, and allows the final management to vary in time. The research shows that this method performs better than the constant scheduling when large variations in the hydrological conditions occur. This novel approach can...... multi-objective optimization framework has shown to be useful in optimizing the management of well fields, and it has successfully been applied to the two case studies, Hardhof and Søndersø waterworks. If the method is applied to all Danish waterworks it is estimated that 20-32 GWh/year could be saved...

  10. Quantum-Well Thermophotovoltaic Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freudlich, Alex; Ignatiev, Alex

    2009-01-01

    Thermophotovoltaic cells containing multiple quantum wells have been invented as improved means of conversion of thermal to electrical energy. The semiconductor bandgaps of the quantum wells can be tailored to be narrower than those of prior thermophotovoltaic cells, thereby enabling the cells to convert energy from longer-wavelength photons that dominate the infrared-rich spectra of typical thermal sources with which these cells would be used. Moreover, in comparison with a conventional single-junction thermophotovoltaic cell, a cell containing multiple narrow-bandgap quantum wells according to the invention can convert energy from a wider range of wavelengths. Hence, the invention increases the achievable thermal-to-electrical energy-conversion efficiency. These thermophotovoltaic cells are expected to be especially useful for extracting electrical energy from combustion, waste-heat, and nuclear sources having temperatures in the approximate range from 1,000 to 1,500 C.

  11. Inhibiting scale in oil wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Errico, M.J.; Adler, S.F.

    1972-09-27

    An oil well treatment is described to inhibit the formation of hard scale by precipitation from the oil well brine of scale-forming water insoluble sulfate, carbonate, and other salts. The process consists of incorporating into the oil well during a fracturing treatment, a fluid containing a solid polymeric material characterized by molecular weight in the range of 1,000 to 15,000 and a substantially linear structure, derived by the linear polymerization of at least one monoolefinically unsaturated compound through the olefinically unsaturated group. The linear structure has pendent groups, 50% of which are carboxy groups, the carboxy groups being neutralized with a sufficient proportion of at least one compound having a cation of a metal selected from alkaline earth metals, chromium, aluminum, iron, cobalt, zinc, nickel or copper to render the polymer soluble in water at 25$C to a concentration of not more than 50 ppm. (8 claims)

  12. Preventing Space Warfare

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The international community should join forces to avoid possible conflicts in space Military competition and conflict in outer space can be divided into three stages:militarization,wea- ponization and the space battle- field. Space militarization has become a thing of the past.Now,many countries are re- searching more advanced space weaponry technology,which means space weapon- ization is becoming a growing reality.The process of space competition is astonishingly

  13. Well test analysis for wells producing layered reservoirs with crossflow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prijambodo, R.; Raghavan, R.; Reynolds, A.C.

    1981-01-01

    The pressure response of a well producing a two-layer reservoir with crossflow is examined. It is shown that the flowing pressure response of a well at early times can be divided into three flow periods. The first period is one in which the reservoir behaves as if it were a stratified system (no-crossflow). This period is followed by a transitional period. During the third period, the reservoir can be described by an equivalent single-layer system. The influence of the skin regions is presented. The significance of the estimate of the skin factor obtained from a pressure test is discussed. It is shown that the nature and magnitude of the skin regions and the size of the reservoir determine the applicability of procedures that are based on single-layer systems. 17 refs.

  14. Health and Wellness Policy Ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank J. Cavico

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This perspective is an ethical brief overview and examination of “wellness” policies in the modern workplace using practical examples and a general application of utilitarianism. Many employers are implementing policies that provide incentives to employees who lead a “healthy” lifestyle. The authors address how these policies could adversely affect “non-healthy” employees. There are a wide variety of ethical issues that impact wellness policies and practices in the workplace. The authors conclude that wellness programs can be ethical, while also providing a general reflective analysis of healthcare challenges in order to reflect on the externalities associated with such policies in the workplace.

  15. ADVANCED CEMENTS FOR GEOTHERMAL WELLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SUGAMA,T.

    2007-01-01

    Using the conventional well cements consisting of the calcium silicate hydrates (CaO-SiO{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O system) and calcium aluminum silicate hydrates (CaO-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O system) for the integrity of geothermal wells, the serious concern confronting the cementing industries was their poor performance in mechanically supporting the metallic well casing pipes and in mitigating the pipe's corrosion in very harsh geothermal reservoirs. These difficulties are particularly acute in two geological regions: One is the deep hot downhole area ({approx} 1700 m depth at temperatures of {approx} 320 C) that contains hyper saline water with high concentrations of CO{sub 2} (> 40,000 ppm) in conjunction with {approx} 100 ppm H{sub 2}S at a mild acid of pH {approx} 5.0; the other is the upper well region between the well's surface and {approx} 1000 m depth at temperatures up to 200 C. The specific environment of the latter region is characterized by highly concentrated H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} (pH < 1.5) brine containing at least 5000 ppm CO{sub 2}. When these conventional cements are emplaced in these harsh environments, their major shortcoming is their susceptibility to reactions with hot CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}SO4, thereby causing their deterioration brought about by CO{sub 2}-catalyzed carbonation and acid-initiated erosion. Such degradation not only reduced rapidly the strength of cements, lowering the mechanical support of casing pipes, but also increased the extent of permeability of the brine through the cement layer, promoting the rate of the pipe's corrosion. Severely carbonated and acid eroded cements often impaired the integrity of a well in less than one year; in the worst cases, casings have collapsed within three months, leading to the need for costly and time-consuming repairs or redrilling operations. These were the reasons why the geothermal well drilling and cementing industries were concerned about using conventional well

  16. Health and Wellness Policy Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavico, Frank J.; Mujtaba, Bahaudin G.

    2013-01-01

    This perspective is an ethical brief overview and examination of “wellness” policies in the modern workplace using practical examples and a general application of utilitarianism. Many employers are implementing policies that provide incentives to employees who lead a “healthy” lifestyle. The authors address how these policies could adversely affect “non-healthy” employees. There are a wide variety of ethical issues that impact wellness policies and practices in the workplace. The authors conclude that wellness programs can be ethical, while also providing a general reflective analysis of healthcare challenges in order to reflect on the externalities associated with such policies in the workplace. PMID:24596847

  17. Computing Flow through Well Screens Using an Embedded Well Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    the three- dimensional (3D) groundwater (GW) flow simulation using the finite element (FE) method. BACKGROUND: Accurate estimation of flow rates...equations of the coupled GW/well system that include the 3D Richards equation for subsurface flow and a one- dimensional (1D) steady-state equation...fluxes from multi- dimensional finite element flow simulations. ERDC TN-SWWRP-10-4. Vicksburg, MS: U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center

  18. US Space Situational Awareness activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Stephen, , Col; Hand, Kelly; Smith, Bradley, , Col

    A new ESA Programme on Space Situational Awareness (SSA) has been approved during the ESA Council at Ministerial level in November 2008. A preparatory phase is in progress, covering the timeframe 2009 -2012. It concentrates on the architectural design of the SSA System, its governance and data policy, as well as on the provision of precursor services based on the federation of existing National and European assets. A continuation of the SSA programme will be proposed at the next Ministerial Council for the years 2012 and onwards. The SSA Preparatory Programme covers three distinct segments, namely: -Space Surveillance and Tracking of artificial objects orbiting the Earth -Space Weather -Near Earth Objects Each of the above segments has a strong relation with Science and is supported by specific RD Programmes at National, EC and ESA levels. In this paper, the scientific aspects of the three SSA Segments are outlined and the following main topics developed: • Space Surveillance: statistical models of the evolution of the space debris population in Earth-bound orbits, study of active mitigation measures, impact analysis, tracking and char-acterisation principles based on radar and optical techniques. • Space Weather: awareness of the natural space environment, detection and forecasting of space weather effects and interferences, analysis of appropriate ground and space-based sensors for the monitoring of the Sun, the solar wind, the radiation belts, the magnetosphere and the ionosphere. • Near Earth Objects (NEOs): methods for determination of physical characteristics of newly discovered objects, study of appropriate sensors based on radar and optical techniques, iden-tification and ranking of collision risks of NEOs with the Earth, study of possible mitigation measures (e.g. Don Quichotes project). The research topics undertaken during the preparatory programme, as well as those foreseen during the next phase, possibly with a strong international cooperation

  19. Space, myth and cinematography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambardzumov, Arsen

    2016-12-01

    There exist both ancient and modern myths. The competition of good and evil, sanctity, mythic hero character, etc. make up those myths. Connection between the myth and literature, art and mainly cinematography is highly essential. Hollywood is a striking example of that connection, in other words "A Dream Factory". The mythic component in American films is obvious. It refers to the product structure which is frequently created by mythic rules. One of its striking examples is D. Lucas's film "Star wars. Episode IV – New Hope" (1977): The film plot is built on the struggle between the good and the evil. On one hand those are the representatives of the Empire with Darth Vader and princess Leia with her devotees on the other. The space has played a unique role for Greek philosophers as well. It was the symbol of perfection and grace. The attempt to approach this perfection, the desire to see the internal similarity besides the external one has been reflected in S. Kubrick's film "2001: Space Odyssey" (1968). Showing the space distance director looks for perfection in us which lies in the harmony of truth, human and nature.

  20. Berkovich spaces and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Favre, Charles; Nicaise, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    We present an introduction to Berkovich’s theory of non-archimedean analytic spaces that emphasizes its applications in various fields. The first part contains surveys of a foundational nature, including an introduction to Berkovich analytic spaces by M. Temkin, and to étale cohomology by A. Ducros, as well as a short note by C. Favre on the topology of some Berkovich spaces. The second part focuses on applications to geometry. A second text by A. Ducros contains a new proof of the fact that the higher direct images of a coherent sheaf under a proper map are coherent, and B. Rémy, A. Thuillier and A. Werner provide an overview of their work on the compactification of Bruhat-Tits buildings using Berkovich analytic geometry. The third and final part explores the relationship between non-archimedean geometry and dynamics. A contribution by M. Jonsson contains a thorough discussion of non-archimedean dynamical systems in dimension 1 and 2. Finally a survey by J.-P. Otal gives an account of Morgan-Shalen's the...

  1. Nozzle Bricks and Well Bricks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Xiaohui; Peng Xigao

    2011-01-01

    1 Scope This standard specifies the classification,brand,technical requirements,test methods,inspection rules,marking,packing,transportation,storage,and quality certificate of nozzle bricks and well bricks.This standard is applicable to unfired and fired products.

  2. CCSD Well Logging Engineering Program

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This paper introduces briefly the tasks and characteristics of China Continent Science Drilling (CCSD) Well Logging Engineering, the logging methods measured with CCSD, the quality control of original logging information, the logging plan of CCSD, the logging engineering management of CCSD,the logging interpretation and the results and reports made with CCSD.

  3. The theory and application of space microbiology: China's experiences in space experiments and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changting

    2017-02-01

    Microorganisms exhibit high adaptability to extreme environments of outer space via phenotypic and genetic changes. These changes may affect astronauts in the space environment as well as on Earth because mutant microbes will inevitably return with the spacecraft. However, the role and significance of these phenotypic changes and the underlying mechanisms are important unresolved questions in the field of space biology. By reviewing, especially the Chinese studies, we propose a space microbial molecular effect theory, that is, the space environment affects the nature of genes and the molecular structure of microorganisms to produce phenotypic changes. In this review, we discussed three basic theories for the research of space microbiology, including (1) space microbial pathogenicity and virulence mutations and the human mutualism theory; (2) space microbial drug-resistance mutations and metabolism associated with space pharmaceuticals theory; (3) space corrosion, microbial decontamination, and new materials technology theory.

  4. Space Politics and Policy. An Evolutionary Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeh, E.

    2003-01-01

    This book is the first comprehensive source for the Space Politics and Policies of the United States Civil, Military, Intelligence, and Commercial Space Programs. Space Politics and Policy: An Evolutionary Perspective provides a comprehensive survey of Space Policy. This book is organized around two themes. Space Policy is evolutionary in that it has responded to dramatic political events, such as the launching of Sputnik and the Cold War, and has undergone dynamic and evolutionary policy changes over the course of the space age. Space Policy is an integral part of and interacts with public policy processes in the United States and abroad. The book analyzes Space Policy at several levels including historical context, political actors and institutions, political processes and policy outcomes. It examines the symbiotic relationships between policy, technology, and science; provides a review and synthesis of the existing body of knowledge in Space Policy; and identifies Space Policy trends and developments from the beginnings of the space age through the current era of the twenty-first century. The book is intended for those interested in Space Policy, especially Space Policy decision-makers, program and project managers, as well as students and lecturers of Space Policy. Link: http://www.wkap.nl/prod/b/1-4020-0879-1 and http://www.wkap.nl/prod/b/1-4020-0902-X

  5. Atmosphere and Ambient Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Ulrik

    Atmosphere and Ambient Space This paper explores the relation between atmosphere and ambient space. Atmosphere and ambient space share many salient properties. They are both ontologically indeterminate, constantly varying and formally diffuse and they are both experienced as a subtle, non......-signifying property of a given space. But from a certain point of view, the two concepts also designate quite dissimilar experiences of space. To be ’ambient’ means to surround. Accordingly, ambient space is that space, which surrounds something or somebody. (Gibson 1987: 65) Since space is essentially...... of a surrounding character, all space can thus be described as having a fundamentally ambient character. So what precisely is an ambient space, then? As I will argue in my presentation, ambient space is a sensory effect of spatiality when a space is experienced as being particularly surrounding: a ‘space effect...

  6. Atmosphere and Ambient Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Ulrik

    Atmosphere and Ambient Space This paper explores the relation between atmosphere and ambient space. Atmosphere and ambient space share many salient properties. They are both ontologically indeterminate, constantly varying and formally diffuse and they are both experienced as a subtle, non......-signifying property of a given space. But from a certain point of view, the two concepts also designate quite dissimilar experiences of space. To be ’ambient’ means to surround. Accordingly, ambient space is that space, which surrounds something or somebody. (Gibson 1987: 65) Since space is essentially...... of a surrounding character, all space can thus be described as having a fundamentally ambient character. So what precisely is an ambient space, then? As I will argue in my presentation, ambient space is a sensory effect of spatiality when a space is experienced as being particularly surrounding: a ‘space effect...

  7. Hewitt-Nachbin spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Weir, Maurice D

    2013-01-01

    North-Holland Mathematics Studies: Hewitt-Nachbin Spaces exposes the theory of Hewitt-Nachbin spaces, also called realcompact or Q-spaces, taking into account synergistic points of view from which these spaces are investigated. The publication first offers information on embedding in topological products and Hewitt-Nachbin spaces and convergence, including notation and terminology, embedding lemma, E-completely regular spaces, E-compact spaces, and characterizations and properties of Hewitt-Nachbin spaces. The text also touches on Hewitt-Nachbin spaces, uniformities, and related topological sp

  8. Space programs in Taiwan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Lou-Chuang [Academia Sinica, Institute of Earth Sciences, 128, Sec. 2, Academia Road, Nangang, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China); Institute of Space Science, National Central University, 300, Jhongda Rd., Jhongli City, Taoyuan County 32001, Taiwan (China); Chang, Guey-Shin, E-mail: gschang@nspo.narl.org.tw [National Space Organization, 8F, 9 Prosperity 1st Rd., Hsinchu Science Park, Hsinchu 30078, Taiwan (China); Ting, Nan-Hong [National Applied Research Laboratories, 3F, 106, Sec. 2, Hepin East Rd., Taipei 10622, Taiwan (China)

    2013-10-15

    Taiwan's current and future space programs are briefly introduced in this paper. The National Space Organization (NSPO) in Taiwan has successfully carried out three satellite programs (FORMOSAT-1, 2, and 3) since its establishment in 1991. FORMOSAT-1 is a scientific satellite performing three scientific experiments for measuring the density, velocity and temperature of ionospheric plasmas, taking the ocean color image, and conducting Ka-band communication experiments. Equipped with a 2m ground resolution remote sensing instrument, FORMOSAT-2 operates in a sun-synchronous orbit with revisit time equal to one day. This unique feature of the daily revisit capability is significantly useful for post disaster assessment and environmental monitoring. FORMOSAT-2 also carries a scientific payload “Imager of Sprites and Upper Atmospheric Lightning (ISUAL)”. ISUAL provides the world's first long-term satellite observations on the lighting phenomenon in the earth's upper atmosphere. FORMOSAT-3 is a constellation of six micro-satellites to collect atmospheric and ionospheric data for weather prediction and for climate, ionosphere, and geodesy research. FORMOSAT-3 has demonstrated the ability to significantly increase the accuracy of weather forecasting by utilizing the GPS Radio Occultation (GPS-RO) technique. Currently, NSPO is pursuing the follow-on space missions of FORMOSAT-5 and FORMOSAT-7. FORMOSAT-5 will be the first to utilize a CMOS detector on a high-resolution earth-observation camera. FORMOSAT-7 is a joint mission of Taiwan/US to deploy a 12-satellite constellation operational system to provide dense and timely GNSS RO data to the global communities for real-time weather forecast as well as space science research.

  9. Space Station - Implications for space manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tingey, D. L.; Willenberg, H. J.; Atkins, H. L.

    1985-01-01

    Space-based materials processing R&D is examined. It is proposed that the Space Station's Microgravity and Materials Processing Facility will be utilized by academic, government, and commercial customers. Users requirements for materials processing in space are discussed. Consideration is given to the time allocation of the facility, charges to users, and the property rights of the users.

  10. Space history, space policy, and executive leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, Sylvia K.

    1993-01-01

    A lecture that attempts to establish the role of space historians in formulating space policy is presented. The discussion focusses on two adages and their relevance to space policy. The adages are as follows: 'write about what you know;' and 'good managers do things right; good executives do the right things.'

  11. Prebiotic Matter in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Elsaesser, Andreas; Groen, J.

    2015-03-01

    A significant number of molecules that are used in contemporary biochemistry on Earth are found in interstellar and circumstellar regions as well as solar system environments. In particular small solar system bodies hold clues to processes that formed our solar system. Comets, asteroids, and meteorite delivered extraterrestrial material during the heavy bombardment phase ~3.9 billion years ago to the young planets, a process that made carbonaceous material available to the early Earth. In-depth understanding of the organic reservoir in different space environments as well as data on the stability of organic and prebiotic material in solar system environments are vital to assess and quantify the extraterrestrial contribution of prebiotic sources available to the young Earth.

  12. DRILL BITS FOR HORIZONTAL WELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Macini

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper underlines the importance of the correct drill bit application in horizontal wells. Afler the analysis of the peculiarities of horizontal wells and drainholes drilling techniques, advantages and disadvantages of the application of both roller cone and fixed cutters drill bits have been discussed. Also, a review of the potential specific featuries useful for a correct drill bit selection in horizontal small diameter holes has been highlighted. Drill bits for these special applications, whose importance is quickly increasing nowadays, should be characterised by a design capable to deliver a good penetration rate low WOB, and, at the same time, be able to withstand high RPM without premature cutting structure failure and undergauge. Formation properties will also determine the cutting structure type and the eventual specific features for additional gauge and shoulder protection.

  13. The Space Puppets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lago, M. Miguel; Esteban Berea, J.; Miñambres Fernández, M.; Rufino, M.

    2002-01-01

    This proposal is a response to the initiative "Physics on Stage 2" to excite interest in physics and science by a dance and puppetry performance. The purpose of this piece is to show the possibilities and characteristics of entertainment with space knowledge and education for the audience of teachers and children through a show. Two virtually opposite areas (science and arts), both generally inaccessible for children, will be introduced in a funny and amusing way, with the interaction of puppets. Education is not "fashion"... we need to develop an educational package to focus the attention of children on the uses of Space in everyday life. Our world today is mainly logic and mathematical. The presence of art in the children's lives is often scarce or even inexistent. With the performance children will gain a better understanding of space physics through the joy of a dance performance like an educational tool. Dance as body expression, is a very powerful tool to explain and interact with children and teachers. Through dance the physics of movement may be studied in a visual way, within the body's limits. We consider as priority the use of dance as well as theater (in this case, puppet theater) as an efficient and fun didactic method, which we may go further and explain in an imaginative funny way all those complex processes of physics, which are further unknown. Aiming to teach in a relaxing atmosphere the performance is based on the " Earth Space Alphabet", a first dictionary for Primary Schools combining Science, Space and Education... Did you ever realize that people are not interested in something because they do not understand the words or the meaning? The alphabet is intended to meet the overwhelming need that exists for education on space, and allows both teachers and children to learn about the "Art of Teaching Space" combining earth and space language linked by space technology. The performance explains many concepts of physics through a comet puppet, which

  14. Implementing an effective wellness program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickson, N. [Bruce Power Inc., Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    Bruce Power is one of the largest nuclear sites in the world, with more than 3,700 employees. The utility strives to be one of Canada's most dynamic and innovative teams. The values of Bruce Power include: safety first; profit through progress; openness; respect and recognition; and professional and personal integrity. With respect to health and safety, Bruce Power strives to have zero medically treated injuries. Details of the healthy workplace committee were presented as well as details of the health and wellness program. Charts of health and mental health screening strategies were presented. Other programs include: an excellent benefits package; flexible working hours; family care days; banked time; an electronic suggestion box; and station condition records. It was noted that there is a strong external focus on health and safety as well. Details of community involvement and sponsorship were presented, along with details of on-site fitness facilities and fitness membership subsidies. Details of the National Quality Institute certification were also provided, including physical environment; lifestyle behaviours; and psycho-social environment. The importance of strong leadership in encouraging feedback, team talk and continuous leadership development was emphasized. Strategies to strengthen leadership include new hiring criteria for managers; management days; first line manager academy; a mentoring program; and task observation and coaching. Communication strategies include articles in weekly newspapers; monthly safety meeting video segments; posters and electronic signs; and voice mail messages from the chief executive officer. Details of the Eat Smart and Weight Challenge certification were provided. The management at human resources faces the challenge of continual change, demographics, and the fact that wellness is difficult to measure. tabs., figs.

  15. Dual relations in physical and cyber space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    With the rapid development of computer, communication, and sensing technology, our living space has been transformed from physical space into a space shared by physical space and cyberspace. In the light of this fact and based on analyzing the characteristics of physical and cyberspace, respectively, this paper proposed that there are dual relations between physical space and cyberspace. Establishing dual relations is realized in the following two processes: the process of information extraction, analysis and structurization from physical space to cyberspace and the process of providing the information services from cyberspace to physical space by means of inferring the intention, state and demand of users, as well. HCI (Human Cyberspace Interaction) in dual space means to establish the dual relations, which embodied the human centered HCI, i.e. the interaction is carried out in the way accustomed to users and without distracting their attention.

  16. Flat Panel Space Based Space Surveillance Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendrick, R.; Duncan, A.; Wilm, J.; Thurman, S. T.; Stubbs, D. M.; Ogden, C.

    2013-09-01

    limited telescope is, therefore, replaced by in-process integration and test as part of the PIC fabrication that substantially reduces associated schedule and cost. The low profile and low SWaP of a SPIDER system enables high resolution imaging with a payload that is similar in size and aspect ratio to a solar panel. This allows high resolution low cost options for space based space surveillance telescopes. The low SWaP design enables hosted payloads, cubesat designs as well as traditional bus options that are lower cost. We present a description of the concept and preliminary simulation and experimental data that demonstrate the imaging capabilities of the SPIDER technique.

  17. Life activities in space environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Akihisa; Ohnishi, Ken; Ohnishi, Takeo [Nara Medical Univ., Kashihara (Japan)

    1999-03-01

    This review summarized biological life activities in space environment for investigating which many experiments had been done in spacecraft's. The space is characterized by a good view, high vacuum, scarce gravity and cosmic ray of which exposure dose in the craft at 4,000 km height is around 1,000 times higher than the dose on the ground. In humans, reductions of bone content, muscle strength, immune function are known as well as space intoxication and eye-flash. Authors carried out 17 experiments in American and Russian space stations from 1992. The experiments concerned DNA breakage by cosmic ray where they first visualized the DNA damage by the ray with autoradiographic method with [{sup 3}H]dATP in HMV1 cells; cell differentiation and morphogenesis in the space with the use of radio-sensitive cellular slime mold of {gamma}s13 strain; influences of the scarce gravity on the repair of broken artificially prepared double-strand DNA and on the induced-mutation in E. coli and yeast; and stress proteins which were shown to be accumulated in the space. The space experiments are concluded to be useful for radiation biology further in future. (K.H.)

  18. Configuration Spaces in Fundamental Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Edward

    2015-01-01

    I consider configuration spaces for $N$-body problems, gauge theories and for GR in both geometrodynamical and Ashtekar variables forms, including minisuperspace and inhomogeneous perturbations thereabout in the former case. These include many interesting spaces of shapes (with and without whichever of local or global notions of scale). In considering reduced configuration spaces, stratified manifolds arise. Three strategies to deal with these are `excise', `unfold' and `accept'. I show that spaces of triangles arising from various interpretations of 3-body problems already serve as model arena for all three. I furthermore argue in favour of the `accept' strategy on relational grounds. Sheaf methods then become relevant in this case, as does the stratifold construct that pairs some well-behaved stratified manifolds with sheaves. I apply arguing against `excise' and `unfold' to GR's superspace and thin sandwich, and to the removal of collinear configurations in mechanics. Non-redundant configurations are also ...

  19. Towards a Derivation of Space

    CERN Document Server

    Nielsen, H B

    2014-01-01

    This attempt to "derive" space is part of the Random Dynamics project. The Random Dynamics philosophy is that what we observe at our low energy level can be interpreted as some Taylor tail of the physics taking place at a higher energy level, and all the concepts like numbers, space, symmetry, as well as the known physical laws, emerge from a "fundamental world machinery" being a most general, random mathematical structure. Here we concentrate on obtaining spacetime in such a Random Dynamics way. Because of quantum mechanics, we get space identified with about half the dimension of the phase space of a very extended wave packet, which we call "the Snake". In the last section we also explain locality from diffeomorphism symmetry.

  20. From Physical Space to Visual Image Space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Zetian; LIN Hui; LIU Xianlin

    2003-01-01

    The theoretical framework of visual simulation in virtual reality is discussed. The new concept of visual image space is supposed. On the basis of visual image space, in visual perceptive sense, VR is considered as a spatial simulation. The objective of the spatial simulation is to transform physical space to visual image space.Last, the prototype system, surveying & mapping virtual Reality (SMVR),is developed, and the space simulation above is realized. By use of SMVR,the real 3D representation, 3D visual analysis, virtual plan and designs can be implemented.

  1. Fundamentals of space medicine

    CERN Document Server

    Clément, Gilles

    2011-01-01

    This book details the findings from life science experiments conducted during and after space missions. It looks at the future of human space flight and what comes next, especially in the areas of planetary exploration and space tourism.

  2. Quasi-uniform Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coghetto Roland

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, using mostly Pervin [9], Kunzi [6], [8], [7], Williams [11] and Bourbaki [3] works, we formalize in Mizar [2] the notions of quasiuniform space, semi-uniform space and locally uniform space.

  3. Space Solar Power Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arif, H.; Barbosa, H.; Bardet, C.; Baroud, M.; Behar, A.; Berrier, K.; Berthe, P.; Bertrand, R.; Bibyk, I.; Bisson, J.; Bloch, L.; Bobadilla, G.; Bourque, D.; Bush, L.; Carandang, R.; Chiku, T.; Crosby, N.; De Seixas, M.; De Vries, J.; Doll, S.; Dufour, F.; Eckart, P.; Fahey, M.; Fenot, F.; Foeckersperger, S.; Fontaine, J.E.; Fowler, R.; Frey, H.; Fujio, H.; Gasa, J.M.; Gleave, J.; Godoe, J.; Green, I.; Haeberli, R.; Hanada, T.; Ha

    1992-08-01

    Information pertaining to the Space Solar Power Program is presented on energy analysis; markets; overall development plan; organizational plan; environmental and safety issues; power systems; space transportation; space manufacturing, construction, operations; design examples; and finance.

  4. Phosphate based oil well cements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natarajan, Ramkumar

    The main application of the cement in an oil well is to stabilize the steel casing in the borehole and protect it from corrosion. The cement is pumped through the borehole and is pushed upwards through the annulus between the casing and the formation. The cement will be exposed to temperature and pressure gradients of the borehole. Modified Portland cement that is being used presently has several shortcomings for borehole sealant. The setting of the Portland cement in permafrost regions is poor because the water in it will freeze even before the cement sets and because of high porosity and calcium oxide, a major ingredient it gets easily affected by the down hole gases such as carbon dioxide. The concept of phosphate bonded cements was born out of considerable work at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) on their use in stabilization of radioactive and hazardous wastes. Novel cements were synthesized by an acid base reaction between a metal oxide and acid phosphate solution. The major objective of this research is to develop phosphate based oil well cements. We have used thermodynamics along with solution chemistry principles to select calcined magnesium oxide as candidate metal oxide for temperatures up to 200°F (93.3°C) and alumina for temperatures greater than 200°F (93.3°C). Solution chemistry helped us in selecting mono potassium phosphate as the acid component for temperatures less than 200°F (93.3°C) and phosphoric acid solution greater than 200°F (93.3°C). These phosphate cements have performance superior to common Portland well cements in providing suitable thickening time, better mechanical and physical properties.

  5. Why Mathematics Works So Well

    CERN Document Server

    Yanofsky, Noson S

    2015-01-01

    A major question in philosophy of science involves the unreasonable effectiveness of mathematics in physics. Why should mathematics, created or discovered, with nothing empirical in mind be so perfectly suited to describe the laws of the physical universe? We review the well-known fact that the symmetries of the laws of physics are their defining properties. We show that there are similar symmetries of mathematical facts and that these symmetries are the defining properties of mathematics. By examining the symmetries of physics and mathematics, we show that the effectiveness is actually quite reasonable. In essence, we show that the regularities of physics are a subset of the regularities of mathematics.

  6. Quantum Wells in Photovoltaic Cells

    CERN Document Server

    Rohr, C; Ballard, I M; Bushnell, D B; Connolly, J P; Daukes, N J Ekins-; Barnham, K W J

    2016-01-01

    The fundamental efficiency limit of a single bandgap solar cell is about 31% at one sun with a bandgap of about Eg = 1.35 eV (1), determined by the trade-off of maximising current with a smaller bandgap and voltage with a larger bandgap. Multiple bandgaps can be introduced to absorb the broad solar spectrum more efficiently. This can be realised in multi- junction cells, for example, where two or more cells are stacked on top of each other either mechanically or monolithically connected by a tunnel junction. An alternative or complementary (see section 1.4) approach is the quantum well cell (QWC).

  7. 11th International Space Conference on Protection of Materials and Structures from Space Environment

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    The proceedings published in this book document and foster the goals of the 11th International Space Conference on “Protection of Materials and Structures from Space Environment” ICPMSE-11 to facilitate exchanges between members of the various engineering and science disciplines involved in the development of space materials. Contributions cover aspects of interaction with space environment of LEO, GEO, Deep Space, Planetary environments, ground-based qualification and in-flight experiments, as well as lessons learned from operational vehicles that are closely interrelated to disciplines of atmospheric sciences, solar-terrestrial interactions and space life sciences.

  8. Excitons in asymmetric quantum wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoryev, P. S.; Kurdyubov, A. S.; Kuznetsova, M. S.; Ignatiev, I. V.; Efimov, Yu. P.; Eliseev, S. A.; Petrov, V. V.; Lovtcius, V. A.; Shapochkin, P. Yu.

    2016-09-01

    Resonance dielectric response of excitons is studied for the high-quality InGaAs/GaAs heterostructures with wide asymmetric quantum wells (QWs). To highlight effects of the QW asymmetry, we have grown and studied several heterostructures with nominally square QWs as well as with triangle-like QWs. Several quantum confined exciton states are experimentally observed as narrow exciton resonances. A standard approach for the phenomenological analysis of the profiles is generalized by introducing different phase shifts for the light waves reflected from the QWs at different exciton resonances. Good agreement of the phenomenological fit to the experimentally observed exciton spectra for high-quality structures allowed us to reliably obtain parameters of the exciton resonances: the exciton transition energies, the radiative broadenings, and the phase shifts. A direct numerical solution of the Schrödinger equation for the heavy-hole excitons in asymmetric QWs is used for microscopic modeling of the exciton resonances. Remarkable agreement with the experiment is achieved when the effect of indium segregation is taken into account. The segregation results in a modification of the potential profile, in particular, in an asymmetry of the nominally square QWs.

  9. Computer Security: Well fought, FP!

    CERN Multimedia

    Stefan Lueders, Computer Security Team

    2015-01-01

    We are used to spam and phishing emails. But at the end of last year, a very special email struck one of our colleagues in the FP Department.   An accountant was gently asked in an email from “Rolf.Heuer@cern.ch” to prepare a financial transaction - in the strictest confidence. A phone call from the beneficiary to the accountant was made in an attempt to support this request. Despite being instructed not to talk to anyone, the e-mail, the phone conversation and the circumstances were all so suspicious that our colleague consulted his hierarchy, the internal audit service and us. Well done, FP Department! This is a rare case of an attempt at “social engineering”, i.e. luring someone into doing something detrimental to the Organization. The e-mail was fake. While it appeared to come from “Rolf.Heuer@cern.ch”, it actually came from an alleged fraudster outside CERN. The e-mail and the phone call showed that he was well prepared and dire...

  10. Un aspect du calcul d'erreur sur les réserves en place d'un gisement : L'influence du nombre et de la disposition spatiale des puits One Aspect of Error Computing for Reserves in a Reservoir. Influence of Well Number and Spacing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haas A.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available L'erreur sur l'évaluation des réserves en place d'un gisement d'hydrocarbures dépend de trois facteurs : - erreur aux puits sur la détermination des porosités et saturations; - erreur géostatistique d'extension au gisement des mesures effectuées aux puits ; - erreur géométrique d'évaluation de la surface ou du volume du gisement. Dans ce texte nous avons étudié l'influence du nombre et de la distribution des puits sur l'erreur géostatistique dans le cas d'un gisement fictif de forme elliptique. Nous nous sommes placés à différents niveaux de reconnaissance, depuis l'implantation d'un seul puits en position variable jusqu'à la couverture complète du gisement par une grille régulière de 48 puits... La méthode utilisée est le « krigeage » élaboré par G. MATHERON de l'École des Mines de Paris. Les calculs ont été réalisés à l'aide du programme KRIGEPACK développé par une association CFP-SNPA. L'erreur d'estimation dépend de la position des puits dans le gisement, de la plus ou moins grande continuité spatiale de la variable et des erreurs aux puits. L'erreur que l'on peut calculer par la statistique classique ne dépend que du nombre de puits et suivant le cas peut être trop importante (si les puits sont implantés de manière optimale ou au contraire trop faible (si les puits sont mal disposés. The error in evaluating reserves in place in a hydrocarbon reservoir depends on The following three factors I - an erorr in wells when determining porosities and saturations ; 2 - a geosfatistical error in extending well measurements ta the entire reservoir; 3 - a geometric error in evaluating the area or volume of the reservoir. This article studies the influence of well number and distribution on the geostatistical error in the case of an elliptically-shaped imaginary reservoir. Various levels of exploration are considered, from the existence of a single well in various positions to full coverage of the reservoir by a

  11. Space debris: modeling and detectability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedemann, C.; Lorenz, J.; Radtke, J.; Kebschull, C.; Horstmann, A.; Stoll, E.

    2017-01-01

    High precision orbit determination is required for the detection and removal of space debris. Knowledge of the distribution of debris objects in orbit is necessary for orbit determination by active or passive sensors. The results can be used to investigate the orbits on which objects of a certain size at a certain frequency can be found. The knowledge of the orbital distribution of the objects as well as their properties in accordance with sensor performance models provide the basis for estimating the expected detection rates. Comprehensive modeling of the space debris environment is required for this. This paper provides an overview of the current state of knowledge about the space debris environment. In particular non-cataloged small objects are evaluated. Furthermore, improvements concerning the update of the current space debris model are addressed. The model of the space debris environment is based on the simulation of historical events, such as fragmentations due to explosions and collisions that actually occurred in Earth orbits. The orbital distribution of debris is simulated by propagating the orbits considering all perturbing forces up to a reference epoch. The modeled object population is compared with measured data and validated. The model provides a statistical distribution of space objects, according to their size and number. This distribution is based on the correct consideration of orbital mechanics. This allows for a realistic description of the space debris environment. Subsequently, a realistic prediction can be provided concerning the question, how many pieces of debris can be expected on certain orbits. To validate the model, a software tool has been developed which allows the simulation of the observation behavior of ground-based or space-based sensors. Thus, it is possible to compare the results of published measurement data with simulated detections. This tool can also be used for the simulation of sensor measurement campaigns. It is

  12. Free flight in parameter space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlstedt, Palle; Nilsson, Per Anders

    2008-01-01

    The well-known difficulty of controlling many synthesis parameters in performance, for exploration and expression, is addressed. Inspired by interactive evolution, random vectors in parameter space are assigned to an array of pressure sensitive pads. Vectors are scaled with pressure and added to ...

  13. Dirac particle in a square well and in a box

    CERN Document Server

    Alhaidari, A D

    2009-01-01

    We obtain an exact solution of the 1D Dirac equation for a square well potential of depth greater then twice the particle's mass. The energy spectrum formula in the Klein zone is surprisingly very simple and independent of the depth of the well. This implies that the same solution is also valid for the potential box (infinitely deep well). In the nonrelativistic limit, the well-known energy spectrum of a particle in a box is obtained. We also provide in tabular form the elements of the complete solution space of the problem for all energies.

  14. Integral type operators from normal weighted Bloch spaces to QT,S spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongyi GU

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Operator theory is an important research content of the analytic function space theory. The discussion of simultaneous operator and function space is an effective way to study operator and function space. Assuming that  is an analytic self map on the unit disk Δ, and the normal weighted bloch space μ-B is a Banach space on the unit disk Δ, defining a composition operator C∶C(f=f on μ-B for all f∈μ-B, integral type operator JhC and CJh are generalized by integral operator and composition operator. The boundeness and compactness of the integral type operator JhC acting from normal weighted Bloch spaces to QT,S spaces are discussed, as well as the boundeness of the integral type operators CJh acting from normal weighted Bloch spaces to QT,S spaces. The related sufficient and necessary conditions are given.

  15. Metric modular spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Chistyakov, Vyacheslav

    2015-01-01

    Aimed toward researchers and graduate students familiar with elements of functional analysis, linear algebra, and general topology; this book contains a general study of modulars, modular spaces, and metric modular spaces. Modulars may be thought of as generalized velocity fields and serve two important purposes: generate metric spaces in a unified manner and provide a weaker convergence, the modular convergence, whose topology is non-metrizable in general. Metric modular spaces are extensions of metric spaces, metric linear spaces, and classical modular linear spaces. The topics covered include the classification of modulars, metrizability of modular spaces, modular transforms and duality between modular spaces, metric  and modular topologies. Applications illustrated in this book include: the description of superposition operators acting in modular spaces, the existence of regular selections of set-valued mappings, new interpretations of spaces of Lipschitzian and absolutely continuous mappings, the existe...

  16. Near Space and Its Relation to Claustrophobic Fear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenco, Stella F.; Longo, Matthew R.; Pathman, Thanujeni

    2011-01-01

    It is well established that the near space immediately surrounding the body (also known as peripersonal space) is represented differently than the space farther away. When bisecting horizontal lines, for example, neurologically-healthy adults show a slight leftward bias (known as pseudoneglect) in near space; this attentional bias, however,…

  17. FUZZY PRETOPOLOGICAL SPACES, AN EXTENSIONALTOPOLOGICAL EXTENSION OF FTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGDEXUE

    1999-01-01

    The category of fuzzy pretopological spaces is introduced, and it is proved that this categoryis a well-fibred extensional topological construct, and it is a finally dense extension of thecategory of fuzzy topological spaces. Moreover this category contains both the category ofpretopological spaces and the category of probabillstic nelghbourhood spaces as aimuitaneouslybireflective and bicoreflective full subcategories.

  18. Ultra Thin Quantum Well Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr Saeid Ghamaty

    2012-08-16

    This project has enabled Hi-Z technology Inc. (Hi-Z) to understand how to improve the thermoelectric properties of Si/SiGe Quantum Well Thermoelectric Materials. The research that was completed under this project has enabled Hi-Z Technology, Inc. (Hi-Z) to satisfy the project goal to understand how to improve thermoelectric conversion efficiency and reduce costs by fabricating ultra thin Si/SiGe quantum well (QW) materials and measuring their properties. In addition, Hi-Z gained critical new understanding on how thin film fabrication increases the silicon substrate's electrical conductivity, which is important new knowledge to develop critical material fabrication parameters. QW materials are constructed with alternate layers of an electrical conductor, SiGe and an electrical insulator, Si. Film thicknesses were varied, ranging from 2nm to 10nm where 10 nm was the original film thickness prior to this work. The optimum performance was determined at a Si and SiGe thickness of 4nm for an electrical current and heat flow parallel to the films, which was an important conclusion of this work. Essential new information was obtained on how the Si substrate electrical conductivity increases by up to an order of magnitude upon deposition of QW films. Test measurements and calculations are accurate and include both the quantum well and the substrate. The large increase in substrate electrical conductivity means that a larger portion of the electrical current passes through the substrate. The silicon substrate's increased electrical conductivity is due to inherent impurities and thermal donors which are activated during both molecular beam epitaxy and sputtering deposition of QW materials. Hi-Z's forward looking cost estimations based on future high performance QW modules, in which the best Seebeck coefficient and electrical resistivity are taken from separate samples predict that the electricity cost produced with a QW module could be achieved at <$0.35/W

  19. Well Monitoring System For EGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Normann, Randy [Perma Works LLC, Pattonville, TX (United States); Glowka, Dave [Perma Works LLC, Pattonville, TX (United States); Normann, Charles [Perma Works LLC, Pattonville, TX (United States); Parker, James [Electrochemical Systems Inc, Knoxville, TN (United States); Caja, Josip [Electrochemical Systems Inc, Knoxville, TN (United States); Dustan, Don [Electrochemical Systems Inc, Knoxville, TN (United States); Caja, Mario [Electrochemical Systems Inc, Knoxville, TN (United States); Sariri, Kouros [Frequency Management Int. Inc., Huntington Beach, CA (United States); Beal, Craig [MajiQ Technologies Inc., Somerville, MA (United States)

    2017-02-26

    This grant is a collection of projects designed to move aircraft high temperature electronics technology into the geothermal industry. Randy Normann is the lead. He licensed the HT83SNL00 chip from Sandia National Labs. This chip enables aircraft developed electronics for work within a geothermal well logging tool. However, additional elements are needed to achieve commercially successful logging tools. These elements are offered by a strong list of industrial partners on this grant as: Electrochemical Systems Inc. for HT Rechargeable Batteries, Frequency Management Systems for 300C digital clock, Sandia National Labs for experts in high temperature solder, Honeywell Solid-State Electronics Center for reprogrammable high temperature memory. During the course of this project MagiQ Technologies for high temperature fiber optics.

  20. Biomedical wellness challenges and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangney, John F.

    2012-06-01

    The mission of ONR's Human and Bioengineered Systems Division is to direct, plan, foster, and encourage Science and Technology in cognitive science, computational neuroscience, bioscience and bio-mimetic technology, social/organizational science, training, human factors, and decision making as related to future Naval needs. This paper highlights current programs that contribute to future biomedical wellness needs in context of humanitarian assistance and disaster relief. ONR supports fundamental research and related technology demonstrations in several related areas, including biometrics and human activity recognition; cognitive sciences; computational neurosciences and bio-robotics; human factors, organizational design and decision research; social, cultural and behavioral modeling; and training, education and human performance. In context of a possible future with automated casualty evacuation, elements of current science and technology programs are illustrated.

  1. 7 CFR 51.902 - Fairly well filled.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946.... Fairly well filled means that the berries are reasonably closely spaced on main and lateral stems and...

  2. Space Toxicology: Human Health during Space Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan-Mayberry, Noreen; James, John T.; Tyl, ROchelle; Lam, Chiu-Wing

    2010-01-01

    Space Toxicology is a unique and targeted discipline for spaceflight, space habitation and occupation of celestial bodies including planets, moons and asteroids. Astronaut explorers face distinctive health challenges and limited resources for rescue and medical care during space operation. A central goal of space toxicology is to protect the health of the astronaut by assessing potential chemical exposures during spaceflight and setting safe limits that will protect the astronaut against chemical exposures, in a physiologically altered state. In order to maintain sustained occupation in space on the International Space Station (ISS), toxicological risks must be assessed and managed within the context of isolation continuous exposures, reuse of air and water, limited rescue options, and the need to use highly toxic compounds for propulsion. As we begin to explore other celestial bodies in situ toxicological risks, such as inhalation of reactive mineral dusts, must also be managed.

  3. In Outer Space without a Space Suit?

    CERN Document Server

    Bolonkin, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    The author proposes and investigates his old idea - a living human in space without the encumbrance of a complex space suit. Only in this condition can biological humanity seriously attempt to colonize space because all planets of Solar system (except the Earth) do not have suitable atmospheres. Aside from the issue of temperature, a suitable partial pressure of oxygen is lacking. In this case the main problem is how to satiate human blood with oxygen and delete carbonic acid gas (carbon dioxide). The proposed system would enable a person to function in outer space without a space suit and, for a long time, without food. That is useful also in the Earth for sustaining working men in an otherwise deadly atmosphere laden with lethal particulates (in case of nuclear, chemical or biological war), in underground confined spaces without fresh air, under water or a top high mountains above a height that can sustain respiration.

  4. Space weather: European Space Agency perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, E. J.; Hilgers, A.

    Spacecraft and payloads have become steadily more sophisticated and therefore more susceptible to space weather effects. ESA has long been active in applying models and tools to the problems associated with such effects on its spacecraft. In parallel, ESA and European agencies have built a highly successful solar-terrestrial physics capability. ESA is now investigating the marriage of these technological and scientific capabilities to address perceived user needs for space weather products and services. Two major ESA-sponsored studies are laying the groundwork for a possible operational European space weather service. The wide-ranging activities of ESA in the Space Weather/Space Environment domain are summarized and recent important examples of space weather concerns given.

  5. Spin photocurrents in quantum wells

    CERN Document Server

    Ganichev, S D

    2003-01-01

    Spin photocurrents generated by homogeneous optical excitation with circularly polarized radiation in quantum wells (QWs) are reviewed. The absorption of circularly polarized light results in optical spin orientation due to the transfer of the angular momentum of photons to electrons of a two-dimensional electron gas. It is shown that in QWs belonging to one of the gyrotropic crystal classes a non-equilibrium spin polarization of uniformly distributed electrons causes a directed motion of electrons in the plane of the QW. A characteristic feature of this electric current, which occurs in unbiased samples, is that it reverses its direction upon changing the radiation helicity from left-handed to right-handed and vice versa. Two microscopic mechanisms are responsible for the occurrence of an electric current linked to a uniform spin polarization in a QW: the spin polarization-induced circular photogalvanic effect and the spin-galvanic effect. In both effects the current flow is driven by an asymmetric distribut...

  6. Linking individual and organizational wellness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canosa, J F; Lewandowski, L M

    1993-09-01

    In addition to intervening when workers have substance abuse or stress problems, many hospital employee assistance programs (EAPs) now include a wellness component that emphasizes prevention and organizational wholeness. The EAP at St. Joseph's Hospital & Medical Center, Paterson, NJ, has taken a number of steps to improve its responsiveness to employees' needs and promote constructive organizational changes. To meet increasing requests for mental health services, St. Joseph's EAP implemented a short-term (up to 12 sessions) counseling program that focuses on problem-solving techniques. The EAP has also used feedback from clients to address organizational issues. For example, a survey that revealed differences between managers' and employees' perceptions of managers' leadership skills has led St. Joseph's to consider development of further workshops to train managers on how to be more effective leaders. And in response to complaints from nurses about a lack of communication with physicians, St. Joseph's invested $8,000 to implement nursing support groups and seminars to enhance nurse-physician collaboration. Additional EAP activities include consulting services for other corporations and help for employees in overcoming financial barriers to access to healthcare and social services. As budgets tighten, effective marketing of EAPs will be essential to their continued growth. In particular, EAP administrators must learn how to document the strategic and financial benefits of their programs.

  7. Organic chemistry in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R. D.

    1977-01-01

    Organic cosmochemistry, organic materials in space exploration, and biochemistry of man in space are briefly surveyed. A model of Jupiter's atmosphere is considered, and the search for organic molecules in the solar system and in interstellar space is discussed. Materials and analytical techniques relevant to space exploration are indicated, and the blood and urine analyses performed on Skylab are described.

  8. Budgeting Academic Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Watson

    2011-01-01

    There are many articles about space management, including those that discuss space calculations, metrics, and categories. Fewer articles discuss the space budgeting processes used by administrators to allocate space. The author attempts to fill this void by discussing her administrative experiences with Middle Tennessee State University's (MTSU)…

  9. Invariants of directed spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raussen, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Directed spaces are the objects of study within directed algebraic topology. They are characterised by spaces of directed paths associated to a source and a target, both elements of an underlying topological space. The algebraic topology of these path spaces and their connections are studied from...

  10. A Quantum Space behind Simple Quantum Mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan Sheng Chew

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In physics, experiments ultimately inform us about what constitutes a good theoretical model of any physical concept: physical space should be no exception. The best picture of physical space in Newtonian physics is given by the configuration space of a free particle (or the center of mass of a closed system of particles. This configuration space (as well as phase space can be constructed as a representation space for the relativity symmetry. From the corresponding quantum symmetry, we illustrate the construction of a quantum configuration space, similar to that of quantum phase space, and recover the classical picture as an approximation through a contraction of the (relativity symmetry and its representations. The quantum Hilbert space reduces into a sum of one-dimensional representations for the observable algebra, with the only admissible states given by coherent states and position eigenstates for the phase and configuration space pictures, respectively. This analysis, founded firmly on known physics, provides a quantum picture of physical space beyond that of a finite-dimensional manifold and provides a crucial first link for any theoretical model of quantum space-time at levels beyond simple quantum mechanics. It also suggests looking at quantum physics from a different perspective.

  11. Drug Information in Space Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayuse, Tina M.

    2009-01-01

    Published drug information is widely available for terrestrial conditions. However, information on dosing, administration, drug interactions, stability, and side effects is scant as it relates to use in Space Medicine. Multinational crews on board the International Space Station present additional challenges for drug information because medication nomenclature, information available for the drug as well as the intended use for the drug is not standard across countries. This presentation will look at unique needs for drug information and how the information is managed in Space Medicine. A review was conducted of the drug information requests submitted to the Johnson Space Center Pharmacy by Space Medicine practitioners, astronaut crewmembers and researchers. The information requested was defined and cataloged. A list of references used was maintained. The wide range of information was identified. Due to the information needs for the medications in the on-board medical kits, the Drug Monograph Project was created. A standard method for answering specific drug information questions was generated and maintained by the Johnson Space Center Pharmacy. The Drug Monograph Project will be presented. Topic-centered requests, including multinational drug information, drug-induced adverse reactions, and medication events due to the environment will be highlighted. Information management of the drug information will be explained. Future considerations for drug information needs will be outlined.

  12. Space Physiology and Operational Space Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuring, Richard A.

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of this slide presentation are to teach a level of familiarity with: the effects of short and long duration space flight on the human body, the major medical concerns regarding future long duration missions, the environmental issues that have potential medical impact on the crew, the role and capabilities of the Space Medicine Flight Surgeon and the environmental impacts experienced by the Apollo crews. The main physiological effects of space flight on the human body reviewed in this presentation are: space motion sickness (SMS), neurovestibular, cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, immune/hematopoietic system and behavioral/psycho-social. Some countermeasures are discussed to these effects.

  13. Geophysical methods for locating abandoned wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frischknecht, Frank C.; Muth, L.; Grette, R.; Buckley, T.; Kornegay, B.

    1983-01-01

    A preliminary study of the feasibility of using geophysical exploration methods to locate abandoned wells containing steel casing indicated that magnetic methods promise to be effective and that some electrical techniques might be useful as auxiliary methods. Ground magnetic measurements made in the vicinity of several known cased wells yielded total field anomalies with peak values ranging from about 1,500 to 6,000 gammas. The anomalies measured on the ground are very narrow and, considering noise due to other cultural and geologic sources, a line spacing on the order of 50 feet (15.2 m) would be necessary to locate all casings in the test area. The mathematical model used to represent a casing was a set of magnetic pole pairs. By use of a non-linear least squares curve fitting (inversion) program, model parameters which characterize each test casing were determined. The position and strength of the uppermost pole was usually well resolved. The parameters of lower poles were not as well resolved but it appears that the results are adequate for predicting the anomalies which would be observed at aircraft altitudes. Modeling based on the parameters determined from the ground data indicates that all of the test casings could be detected by airborne measurements made at heights of 150 to 200 feet (45.7-61.0 m) above the ground, provided lines spaced as closely as 330 feet (100 m) were used and provided noise due to other cultural and geologic sources is not very large. Given the noise levels of currently available equipment and assuming very low magnetic gradients due to geologic sources, the detection range for total field measurements is greater than that for measurements of the horizontal or vertical gradient of the total intensity. Electrical self-potential anomalies were found to be associated with most of the casings where measurements were made. However, the anomalies tend to be very narrow and, in several cases, they are comparable in magnitude to other small

  14. Overview of NASA's space radiation research program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimmerling, Walter

    2003-06-01

    NASA is developing the knowledge required to accurately predict and to efficiently manage radiation risk in space. The strategy employed has three research components: (1) ground-based simulation of space radiation components to develop a science-based understanding of radiation risk; (2) space-based measurements of the radiation environment on planetary surfaces and interplanetary space, as well as use of space platforms to validate predictions; and, (3) implementation of countermeasures to mitigate risk. NASA intends to significantly expand its support of ground-based radiation research in line with completion of the Booster Applications Facility at Brookhaven National Laboratory, expected in summer of 2003. A joint research solicitation with the Department of Energy is under way and other interagency collaborations are being considered. In addition, a Space Radiation Initiative has been submitted by the Administration to Congress that would provide answers to most questions related to the International Space Station within the next 10 years.

  15. Worship space acoustics 3 decades of design

    CERN Document Server

    Ryherd, Erica; Ronsse, Lauren

    2016-01-01

    This book takes the reader on a wide-ranging tour through churches, synagogues, mosques, and other worship spaces designed during the past 30 years. The book begins with a series of essays on topics ranging from the soundscape of worship spaces to ecclesiastical design at the turn of the 21st Century. Perspective pieces from an architect, audio designer, music director, and worship space owner are also included. The core of the book presents the acoustical and architectural design of a wide variety of individual worship space venues. Acoustical consulting firms, architects, and worship space designers from across the world contributed their recent innovative works in the area of worship space acoustics. The contributions include detailed renderings and architectural drawings, as well as informative acoustic data graphs and evocative descriptions of the spaces. Filled with beautiful photography and fascinating modern design, this book is a must-read for anyone interested in religious architecture, acoustical d...

  16. Polynomial approximation of functions in Sobolev spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont, T.; Scott, R.

    1980-01-01

    Constructive proofs and several generalizations of approximation results of J. H. Bramble and S. R. Hilbert are presented. Using an averaged Taylor series, we represent a function as a polynomial plus a remainder. The remainder can be manipulated in many ways to give different types of bounds. Approximation of functions in fractional order Sobolev spaces is treated as well as the usual integer order spaces and several nonstandard Sobolev-like spaces.

  17. Architecture of (impossibilities: Robert Smithson's expositive spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bráulio Romeiro

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This work investigates the North American artist Robert Smithson’s considerations on traditional expositive spaces: the museum and art gallery, as well as unusual and unexplored spaces by art up to that time. Looking through his texts we notice some enhanced perspectives and reset others, increasing limitation set on White Cube’s abstract and neutral quality and the substantiation on ideologies behind of these spaces manifestation.

  18. MAKING PUBLIC OUTDOOR SPACE IN TRANSITION

    OpenAIRE

    Maspoli, Rossella

    2013-01-01

    In urban public outdoor space, the possibility to define multi-functional islands, to create "fusion" of socialization, leisure and work spaces ‒ for example lounges with wireless connectivity, quiet corners to work as well as areas for socializing and relax … ‒ reduces isolation and increases innovation opportunities. The development of electronic live/work areas and villages is becoming an attractive option for the rehabilitation of open space in historic and postindustrial cities. There ar...

  19. How well can centenarians hear?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Zhongping; Zhao, Lijun; Pu, Lichun; Wang, Mingxiao; Zhang, Qian; He, David Z Z

    2013-01-01

    With advancements in modern medicine and significant improvements in life conditions in the past four decades, the elderly population is rapidly expanding. There is a growing number of those aged 100 years and older. While many changes in the human body occur with physiological aging, as many as 35% to 50% of the population aged 65 to 75 years have presbycusis. Presbycusis is a progressive sensorineural hearing loss that occurs as people get older. There are many studies of the prevalence of age-related hearing loss in the United States, Europe, and Asia. However, no audiological assessment of the population aged 100 years and older has been done. Therefore, it is not clear how well centenarians can hear. We measured middle ear impedance, pure-tone behavioral thresholds, and distortion-product otoacoustic emission from 74 centenarians living in the city of Shaoxing, China, to evaluate their middle and inner ear functions. We show that most centenarian listeners had an "As" type tympanogram, suggesting reduced static compliance of the tympanic membrane. Hearing threshold tests using pure-tone audiometry show that all centenarian subjects had varying degrees of hearing loss. More than 90% suffered from moderate to severe (41 to 80 dB) hearing loss below 2,000 Hz, and profound (>81 dB) hearing loss at 4,000 and 8,000 Hz. Otoacoustic emission, which is generated by the active process of cochlear outer hair cells, was undetectable in the majority of listeners. Our study shows the extent and severity of hearing loss in the centenarian population and represents the first audiological assessment of their middle and inner ear functions.

  20. How well can centenarians hear?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongping Mao

    Full Text Available With advancements in modern medicine and significant improvements in life conditions in the past four decades, the elderly population is rapidly expanding. There is a growing number of those aged 100 years and older. While many changes in the human body occur with physiological aging, as many as 35% to 50% of the population aged 65 to 75 years have presbycusis. Presbycusis is a progressive sensorineural hearing loss that occurs as people get older. There are many studies of the prevalence of age-related hearing loss in the United States, Europe, and Asia. However, no audiological assessment of the population aged 100 years and older has been done. Therefore, it is not clear how well centenarians can hear. We measured middle ear impedance, pure-tone behavioral thresholds, and distortion-product otoacoustic emission from 74 centenarians living in the city of Shaoxing, China, to evaluate their middle and inner ear functions. We show that most centenarian listeners had an "As" type tympanogram, suggesting reduced static compliance of the tympanic membrane. Hearing threshold tests using pure-tone audiometry show that all centenarian subjects had varying degrees of hearing loss. More than 90% suffered from moderate to severe (41 to 80 dB hearing loss below 2,000 Hz, and profound (>81 dB hearing loss at 4,000 and 8,000 Hz. Otoacoustic emission, which is generated by the active process of cochlear outer hair cells, was undetectable in the majority of listeners. Our study shows the extent and severity of hearing loss in the centenarian population and represents the first audiological assessment of their middle and inner ear functions.

  1. Space Sciences Focus Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reeves, Geoffrey D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-08-10

    To advance our understanding of the space environment (from the Sun to the Earth and beyond) and to advance our ability to operate systems in space that protect life and society. Space Science is distinct from other field, such as astrophysics or cosmology, in that Space Science utilizes in-situ measurements from high altitude rockets, balloons and spacecraft or ground-based measurements of objects and conditions in space.

  2. Relative Smooth Topological Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Ghazanfari

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In 1992, Ramadan introduced the concept of a smooth topological space and relativeness between smooth topological space and fuzzy topological space in Chang's (1968 view points. In this paper we give a new definition of smooth topological space. This definition can be considered as a generalization of the smooth topological space which was given by Ramadan. Some general properties such as relative smooth continuity and relative smooth compactness are studied.

  3. An Introduction to Space Debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, David

    2008-04-01

    Space debris is any human-made object in orbit that no longer serves a useful purpose, including defunct satellites, discarded equipment and rocket stages, and fragments from the breakup of satellites and rocket stages. It is a concern because--due to its very high speed in orbit--even relatively small pieces can damage or destroy satellites in a collision. Since debris at high altitudes can stay in orbit for decades or longer, it accumulates as more is produced and the risk of collisions with satellites grows. Since there is currently no effective way to remove large amounts of debris from orbit, controlling the production of debris is essential for preserving the long-term use of space. Today there are 860 active satellites in orbit, supporting a wide range of civil and military uses. The 50 years of space activity since the launch of Sputnik 1 has also resulted in well over half a million pieces of orbiting debris larger than 1 cm in size. There are two main sources of space debris: (1) routine space activity and the accidental breakup of satellites and stages placed in orbit by such activity, and (2) the testing or use of destructive anti-satellite (ASAT) weapons that physically collide with satellites at high speed. The international community is attempting to reduce the first category by developing strict guidelines to limit the debris created as a result of routine space activities. However, the destruction of a single large spy satellite by an ASAT weapon could double the total amount of large debris in low earth orbit, and there are currently no international restrictions on these systems. This talk will give an introduction to what's in space, the origins of space debris, efforts to stem its growth, the threat it poses to satellites in orbit, and the long-term evolution of the debris population.

  4. The Convergent Learning Space:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Hanne Wacher; Kjeldsen, Lars Peter; Asmussen, Jørgen Bering

    2013-01-01

    is described as well as the theoretical construct and hypotheses surrounding the emergence of the concept in technology-rich classrooms, where students bring their own devices and involve their personal learning spaces and networks. The need for new ways of approaching concepts like choice, learning resources......This paper describes the concept of “The Convergent Learning Space” as it is being explored in an ongoing action research project carried out at undergraduate level in select bachelor programs at a Danish University College. The background nature, design, and beginning of this work in progress......, trajectories of participation etc. calls for new action and new pedagogies by teachers in order to secure alignment between students’ worlds and expectations and aims and plans of the teacher. Action research methods are being used to define and test the constituents and variables of the convergent learning...

  5. Spectroradiometry with Space Telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Pauluhn, Anuschka; Smith, Peter L; Colina, Luis

    2015-01-01

    Radiometry has been of fundamental importance in astronomy from the early beginnings. Initially, astronomers had their own radiometric system, based on extraterrestrial standards, namely the irradiance of stars expressed in visual magnitudes. Observing and comparing magnitudes in specific spectral bands then led to the astronomical spectrophotometry. The advent of astronomical high-resolution spectroscopy offered the possibility to interpret observations through physical models of stellar atmospheres. Such models had to be constructed based on physics-related units, and such units, rather than magnitudes, were then used for observational tests of the models. In this review, we provide an overview of how to achieve a valid laboratory calibration, and discuss ways to reliably extend this calibration to the spectroscopic telescope's performance in space. Recently, the quest for independent calibrations traceable to laboratory standards has become a well-supported aim, and has led to plans for now also launching ...

  6. Space Weather Studies at Istanbul Technical University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaymaz, Zerefsan

    2016-07-01

    This presentation will introduce the Upper Atmosphere and Space Weather Laboratory of Istanbul Technical University (ITU). It has been established to support the educational needs of the Faculty of Aeronautics and Astronautics in 2011 to conduct scientific research in Space Weather, Space Environment, Space Environment-Spacecraft Interactions, Space instrumentation and Upper Atmospheric studies. Currently the laboratory has some essential infrastructure and the most instrumentation for ionospheric observations and ground induced currents from the magnetosphere. The laboratory has two subunits: SWIFT dealing with Space Weather Instrumentation and Forecasting unit and SWDPA dealing with Space Weather Data Processing and Analysis. The research area covers wide range of upper atmospheric and space science studies from ionosphere, ionosphere-magnetosphere coupling, magnetic storms and magnetospheric substorms, distant magnetotail, magnetopause and bow shock studies, as well as solar and solar wind disturbances and their interaction with the Earth's space environment. We also study the spacecraft environment interaction and novel plasma instrument design. Several scientific projects have been carried out in the laboratory. Operational objectives of our laboratory will be carried out with the collaboration of NASA's Space Weather Laboratory and the facilities are in the process of integration to their prediction services. Educational and research objectives, as well as the examples from the research carried out in our laboratory will be demonstrated in this presentation.

  7. ONERA's contribution to space environment standardization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maget, Vincent; Ecoffet, Robert; Roussel, Jean-Francois

    Ever since its creation in 1967, the Space Environment Department (DESP) at ONERA's objective has been to evaluate the environmental conditions of space missions and prevent the damage they may cause. The DESP studies and models the different components of the space mission environment (mainly charged particles) and evaluates the associated risks with on-board experiments and simulations on the ground. As the reference expert in space environment for both the French Space Agency and European space industries, the DESP has been named as the French representative in the ISO TC20 / SC14 / WG4 working group. In parallel to this contribution, the DESP is also involved in WG1 (Design engineering and production) and WG6 (Materials and Processes),as well as in the European Cooperation for Space Standardization (ECSS) committee dedicated to Space Environment standards (ECSS-10.04C). The purpose of this presentation is, first, to detail the ONERA’s contributions to space environment standardizations (its role as well as the standards developed at ONERA). In a second step, I shall also present some on-going works such as data assimilation and specifications model for other planets (Jupiter and Saturn) conducted at ONERA, in order to prepare the next generation standards and anticipate Space community needs.

  8. Solar origins of space weather and space climate

    CERN Document Server

    Komm, Rudolf; Pevtsov, Alexei; Leibacher, John

    2014-01-01

    This topical issue is based on the presentations given at the 26th National Solar Observatory (NSO) Summer Workshop held at the National Solar Observatory/Sacramento Peak, New Mexico, USA from 30 April to 4 May 2012. This unique forum brought together experts in different areas of solar and space physics to help in developing a full picture of the origin of solar phenomena that affect Earth’s technological systems.  The articles include theory, model, and observation research on the origin of the solar activity and its cycle, as well as a discussion on how to incorporate the research into space-weather forecasting tools.  This volume is aimed at graduate students and researchers active in solar physics and space science.  Previously published in Solar Physics, Vol. 289/2, 2014.

  9. International Space Station External Contamination Environment for Space Science Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Carlos E.; Mikatarian, Ronald R.; Steagall, Courtney A.; Huang, Alvin Y.; Koontz, Steven; Worthy, Erica

    2014-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is the largest and most complex on-orbit platform for space science utilization in low Earth orbit. Multiple sites for external payloads, with exposure to the associated natural and induced environments, are available to support a variety of space science utilization objectives. Contamination is one of the induced environments that can impact performance, mission success and science utilization on the vehicle. The ISS has been designed, built and integrated with strict contamination requirements to provide low levels of induced contamination on external payload assets. This paper addresses the ISS induced contamination environment at attached payload sites, both at the requirements level as well as measurements made on returned hardware, and contamination forecasting maps being generated to support external payload topology studies and science utilization.

  10. Space for Hygiene in Housing Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Danielsen, Claus

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the author focuses on spaces used for personal hygiene—the bathroom. The paper begins with a description of the hygienic movement in the late 19th century. At that time, urinating took place in semi-public spaces outside the dwelling. Today, the WC has moved well into the dwelling,...

  11. Dynamic models in space and time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elhorst, J.P.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a first-order autoregressive distributed lag model in both space and time. It is shown that this model encompasses a wide series of simpler models frequently used in the analysis of space-time data as well as models that better fit the data and have never been used before. A fram

  12. Hyperbolic spaces in Teichm\\"uller spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Leininger, Christopher J

    2011-01-01

    We prove, for any n, that there is a closed connected orientable surface S so that the hyperbolic space H^n almost-isometrically embeds into the Teichm\\"uller space of S, with quasi-convex image lying in the thick part. As a consequence, H^n quasi-isometrically embeds in the curve complex of S.

  13. NASA GSFC Space Weather Center - Innovative Space Weather Dissemination: Web-Interfaces, Mobile Applications, and More

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddox, Marlo; Zheng, Yihua; Rastaetter, Lutz; Taktakishvili, A.; Mays, M. L.; Kuznetsova, M.; Lee, Hyesook; Chulaki, Anna; Hesse, Michael; Mullinix, Richard; hide

    2012-01-01

    The NASA GSFC Space Weather Center (http://swc.gsfc.nasa.gov) is committed to providing forecasts, alerts, research, and educational support to address NASA's space weather needs - in addition to the needs of the general space weather community. We provide a host of services including spacecraft anomaly resolution, historical impact analysis, real-time monitoring and forecasting, custom space weather alerts and products, weekly summaries and reports, and most recently - video casts. There are many challenges in providing accurate descriptions of past, present, and expected space weather events - and the Space Weather Center at NASA GSFC employs several innovative solutions to provide access to a comprehensive collection of both observational data, as well as space weather model/simulation data. We'll describe the challenges we've faced with managing hundreds of data streams, running models in real-time, data storage, and data dissemination. We'll also highlight several systems and tools that are utilized by the Space Weather Center in our daily operations, all of which are available to the general community as well. These systems and services include a web-based application called the Integrated Space Weather Analysis System (iSWA http://iswa.gsfc.nasa.gov), two mobile space weather applications for both IOS and Android devices, an external API for web-service style access to data, google earth compatible data products, and a downloadable client-based visualization tool.

  14. Section 2: The Space of Media Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Steve

    We began our study of media space with the social aspects of mediated communication because many in the computer-supported cooperative work (CSCW) realm are familiar with models, theories, frameworks, issues, and design approaches related to sociality. But the first media space research came from another set of traditions — the ordering of space and the making of place. Formally, these are the professional and intellectual provinces of architecture, which are probably remote from the disciplinary backgrounds of most readers. However, remoteness in terms of rhetoric and training does not prevent proximity to everyday human experience. The meaning of media space with respect to human experience is the focus of the articles in this section. The spaces are designed to have meaning, and the meaning of the design derives from spatial experience.

  15. Shape Calculus: Timed Operational Semantics and Well-formedness

    CERN Document Server

    Bartocci, Ezio; Di Berardini, Maria Rita; Merelli, Emanuela; Tesei, Luca

    2010-01-01

    The Shape Calculus is a bio-inspired calculus for describing 3D shapes moving in a space. A shape forms a 3D process when combined with a behaviour. Behaviours are specified with a timed CCS-like process algebra using a notion of channel that models naturally binding sites on the surface of shapes. Processes can represent molecules or other mobile objects and can be part of networks of processes that move simultaneously and interact in a given geometrical space. The calculus embeds collision detection and response, binding of compatible 3D processes and splitting of previously established bonds. In this work the full formal timed operational semantics of the calculus is provided, together with examples that illustrate the use of the calculus in a well-known biological scenario. Moreover, a result of well-formedness about the evolution of a given network of well-formed 3D processes is proved.

  16. Space Sciences and Idealism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, M.

    Erwin Schrodinger suggested that " Scientific knowledge forms part of the idealistic background of human life", which exalted man from a nude and savage state to true humanity [Science and Humanism, Cambridge, 1961, p9]. Modern space sciences an space exploration are a brilliant demonstration of the validity of Schrodinger's thesis on Idealism. Moreover, Schrodingers thesis could be considered also as a basic principle for the New Educational Space Philosophical Project "TIMAEUS"."TIMAEUS" is not only an attempt to to start a new dialogue between Science, the Humanities and Religion; but also it is an origin of the cultural innovations of our so strange of globilisation. TIMAEUS, thus, can reveal Idealism as something more fundamental , more refined, more developed than is now accepted by the scientific community and the piblic. TIMAEUS has a significant cultural agenda, connected with the high orbital performance of the synthetic arts, combining a knowledge of the truly spiritual as well as the universal. In particular, classical ballet as a synthetic art can be a new and powerful perfector and re-creator of the real human, real idealistic, real complex culture in orbit. As is well known, Carlo Blasis, the most important dance theorist of the 19t h .century, made probably the first attempts to use the scientific ideas of Leonardo da Vinci and Isaac Newton for the understanding of the gravitational nature of balance and allegro in ballet. In particular Blasis's idea of the limited use of the legs in classical dance realised by the gifted pupils of Enrico Cecchetti - M.Fokine, A.Pavlova and V.Nijinsky, with thinkable purity and elegance of style. V.Nijinsky in his remarkable animation of the dance of two dimensional creatures of a Euclidean flat world (L'Apres Midi d'un Faune,1912) discovered that true classical dance has some gravitational limits. For example, Nijinsky's Faunes and Nymphs mut use running on the heels (In accordance with "Partitura" 1916); they

  17. Separably injective Banach spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Avilés, Antonio; Castillo, Jesús M F; González, Manuel; Moreno, Yolanda

    2016-01-01

    This monograph contains a detailed exposition of the up-to-date theory of separably injective spaces: new and old results are put into perspective with concrete examples (such as l∞/c0 and C(K) spaces, where K is a finite height compact space or an F-space, ultrapowers of L∞ spaces and spaces of universal disposition). It is no exaggeration to say that the theory of separably injective Banach spaces is strikingly different from that of injective spaces. For instance, separably injective Banach spaces are not necessarily isometric to, or complemented subspaces of, spaces of continuous functions on a compact space. Moreover, in contrast to the scarcity of examples and general results concerning injective spaces, we know of many different types of separably injective spaces and there is a rich theory around them. The monograph is completed with a preparatory chapter on injective spaces, a chapter on higher cardinal versions of separable injectivity and a lively discussion of open problems and further lines o...

  18. Quantum-well thickness dependence of spin polarization of excitons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Idrish Miah

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The optical orientation of exciton spins in semiconductor quantum wells (SQWs was investigated by observing the circular polarization of the photoluminescence (PL. The left/right circularly polarized PL in SQWs was measured. It was found that there is a difference between the two different polarization conditions, which is caused by spin-dependent phase-space filling. The PL polarization was estimated from the signals of the left and right circularly polarized PL and was found to depend on the well thickness of SQWs as well as on the sample temperature. The influence of an electric field on the PL polarization was studied.

  19. Timed Operational Semantics and Well-Formedness of Shape Calculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Bartocci

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Shape Calculus is a bio-inspired calculus for describing 3D shapes moving in a space. A shape forms a 3D process when combined with a behaviour. Behaviours are specified with a timed CCS-like process algebra using a notion of channel that models naturally binding sites on the surface of shapes. In this paper, the full formal timed operational semantics of the calculus is provided, together with examples that illustrate the use of the calculus in a well-known biological scenario. Moreover, a result of well-formedness about the evolution of a given network of well-formed 3D processes is proved.

  20. 3D Flash LIDAR Space Laser Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced Scientific Concepts, Inc (ASC) is a small business, which has developed a compact, eye-safe 3D Flash LIDARTM Camera (FLC) well suited for real-time...

  1. Social space: Philosophical reflections | Strauss | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Higher Education ... as well as the social space required by educational and academic institutions within a differentiated society. Finally ... with special reference to the task of 'community service' and 'affirmative action'.

  2. Space-Ready Advanced Imaging System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this Phase II effort Toyon will increase the state-of-the-art for video/image systems. This will include digital image compression algorithms as well as system...

  3. Space-qualifiable Digital Radar Transceiver Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Radar technology offers a very flexible, powerful tool for applications such as object detection, tracking, and characterization, as well as remote sensing, imaging,...

  4. Strict property (M) in Banach spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Cui, Yunan

    1999-01-01

    A new property, namely strict property $(M)$, that implies the Opial property is introduced. We discuss relations between this property and some other well known properties. We also prove that Cesaro sequence spaces have strict property $(M)$.

  5. Space-Time Approximation with Sparse Grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griebel, M; Oeltz, D; Vassilevski, P S

    2005-04-14

    In this article we introduce approximation spaces for parabolic problems which are based on the tensor product construction of a multiscale basis in space and a multiscale basis in time. Proper truncation then leads to so-called space-time sparse grid spaces. For a uniform discretization of the spatial space of dimension d with O(N{sup d}) degrees of freedom, these spaces involve for d > 1 also only O(N{sup d}) degrees of freedom for the discretization of the whole space-time problem. But they provide the same approximation rate as classical space-time Finite Element spaces which need O(N{sup d+1}) degrees of freedoms. This makes these approximation spaces well suited for conventional parabolic and for time-dependent optimization problems. We analyze the approximation properties and the dimension of these sparse grid space-time spaces for general stable multiscale bases. We then restrict ourselves to an interpolatory multiscale basis, i.e. a hierarchical basis. Here, to be able to handle also complicated spatial domains {Omega}, we construct the hierarchical basis from a given spatial Finite Element basis as follows: First we determine coarse grid points recursively over the levels by the coarsening step of the algebraic multigrid method. Then, we derive interpolatory prolongation operators between the respective coarse and fine grid points by a least squares approach. This way we obtain an algebraic hierarchical basis for the spatial domain which we then use in our space-time sparse grid approach. We give numerical results on the convergence rate of the interpolation error of these spaces for various space-time problems with two spatial dimensions. Also implementational issues, data structures and questions of adaptivity are addressed to some extent.

  6. Operational Space Weather Activities in the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Thomas; Singer, Howard; Onsager, Terrance; Viereck, Rodney; Murtagh, William; Rutledge, Robert

    2016-07-01

    We review the current activities in the civil operational space weather forecasting enterprise of the United States. The NOAA/Space Weather Prediction Center is the nation's official source of space weather watches, warnings, and alerts, working with partners in the Air Force as well as international operational forecast services to provide predictions, data, and products on a large variety of space weather phenomena and impacts. In October 2015, the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy released the National Space Weather Strategy (NSWS) and associated Space Weather Action Plan (SWAP) that define how the nation will better forecast, mitigate, and respond to an extreme space weather event. The SWAP defines actions involving multiple federal agencies and mandates coordination and collaboration with academia, the private sector, and international bodies to, among other things, develop and sustain an operational space weather observing system; develop and deploy new models of space weather impacts to critical infrastructure systems; define new mechanisms for the transition of research models to operations and to ensure that the research community is supported for, and has access to, operational model upgrade paths; and to enhance fundamental understanding of space weather through support of research models and observations. The SWAP will guide significant aspects of space weather operational and research activities for the next decade, with opportunities to revisit the strategy in the coming years through the auspices of the National Science and Technology Council.

  7. Some Oscillatory Singular Integrals on Herz-type Spaces (Ⅱ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gary Sampson; Jing-shi Xu; Da-chun Yang

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, the authors prove that some oscillatory singular integral operators of non-convolution type with non-polynomial phases are bounded from the Herz-type Hardy spaces to the Herz spaces and from the Hardy spaces associated with the Beurling algebras to the Beurling algebras in higher dimensions, even though it is well-known that these operators are not bounded from the Hardy space H1(Rn) into the Lebesgue space L1(Rn).

  8. Some nonlinear space decomposition algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tai, Xue-Cheng; Espedal, M. [Univ. of Bergen (Norway)

    1996-12-31

    Convergence of a space decomposition method is proved for a general convex programming problem. The space decomposition refers to methods that decompose a space into sums of subspaces, which could be a domain decomposition or a multigrid method for partial differential equations. Two algorithms are proposed. Both can be used for linear as well as nonlinear elliptic problems and they reduce to the standard additive and multiplicative Schwarz methods for linear elliptic problems. Two {open_quotes}hybrid{close_quotes} algorithms are also presented. They converge faster than the additive one and have better parallelism than the multiplicative method. Numerical tests with a two level domain decomposition for linear, nonlinear and interface elliptic problems are presented for the proposed algorithms.

  9. Geant4 Applications in Space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asai, M.; /SLAC

    2007-11-07

    Use of Geant4 is rapidly expanding in space application domain. I try to overview three major application areas of Geant4 in space, which are apparatus simulation for pre-launch design and post-launch analysis, planetary scale simulation for radiation spectra and surface and sub-surface explorations, and micro-dosimetry simulation for single event study and radiation-hardening of semiconductor devices. Recently, not only the mission dependent applications but also various multi-purpose or common tools built on top of Geant4 are also widely available. I overview some of such tools as well. The Geant4 Collaboration identifies that the space applications are now one of the major driving forces of the further developments and refinements of Geant4 toolkit. Highlights of such developments are introduced.

  10. Elements of linear space

    CERN Document Server

    Amir-Moez, A R; Sneddon, I N

    1962-01-01

    Elements of Linear Space is a detailed treatment of the elements of linear spaces, including real spaces with no more than three dimensions and complex n-dimensional spaces. The geometry of conic sections and quadric surfaces is considered, along with algebraic structures, especially vector spaces and transformations. Problems drawn from various branches of geometry are given.Comprised of 12 chapters, this volume begins with an introduction to real Euclidean space, followed by a discussion on linear transformations and matrices. The addition and multiplication of transformations and matrices a

  11. Free topological vector spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriyelyan, Saak S.; Morris, Sidney A.

    2016-01-01

    We define and study the free topological vector space $\\mathbb{V}(X)$ over a Tychonoff space $X$. We prove that $\\mathbb{V}(X)$ is a $k_\\omega$-space if and only if $X$ is a $k_\\omega$-space. If $X$ is infinite, then $\\mathbb{V}(X)$ contains a closed vector subspace which is topologically isomorphic to $\\mathbb{V}(\\mathbb{N})$. It is proved that if $X$ is a $k$-space, then $\\mathbb{V}(X)$ is locally convex if and only if $X$ is discrete and countable. If $X$ is a metrizable space it is shown ...

  12. China's Space Activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    China National Space Administration

    2004-01-01

    @@ Currently, space activities are very active around the world. Space technologies continuously expand to various areas of human activities, and space technology and applications are becoming an indispensable part of modern information society,while the development of space science brings a brand-new view to the development of science and technology. The development of space law is not only an important approach to improving people' s quality of lives, expanding the living space of human being, and exploiting new resources, but also an important symbol of the comprehensive strength and civilization of a nation.

  13. A Foothold in Space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO BIN

    2011-01-01

    With the successful launch of Tiangong-I (Heavenly Palace -I)unmanned module on September 29,China took a significant step forward in realizing its ambitions in space.China's manned space program consists of three steps.The first step,to send an astronaut into space,was achieved in 2003.The second step,to realize multi-person space flight for extended periods of time,has been fulfilled twice.During China's third manned space flight in 2008,Chinese astronauts walked in space.

  14. Beyond Spaces of Counselling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bank, Mads; Nissen, Morten

    2015-01-01

    The article articulates experiments with spatial constructions in two Danish social work agencies, basing on a) a sketchy genealogical reconstruction of conceptualisations and uses of space in social work and counselling; b) a search for theoretical resources to articulate new spaces, and c) data...... from a long-standing collaboration with the social workers. Beside the classical disciplinary and pastoral spaces, we find spaces of attunement, spaces of production, and public spaces as forms of spatialisations which might be taken as prototypical in attempts to develop social work and counselling....

  15. Overview of global space activities in 2007/2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Nicolas; Delmotte, Raphaëlle

    2009-08-01

    The period ranging from July 2007 to June 2008 has been marked by significant trends and issues in the space sector, particularly under the impulsion of space-faring countries. The internationalisation and globalisation of the space sector which started a few years ago have been gaining momentum as well. As a consequence, the size of the space sector has been growing, as well as the global competition for market shares.

  16. Generalized topological spaces in evolutionary theory and combinatorial chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadler, Bärbel M R; Stadler, Peter F

    2002-01-01

    The search spaces in combinatorial chemistry as well as the sequence spaces underlying (molecular) evolution are conventionally thought of as graphs. Recombination, however, implies a nongraphical structure of the combinatorial search spaces. These structures, and their implications for search process itself, are heretofore not well understood in general. In this contribution we review a very general formalism from point set topology and discuss its application to combinatorial search spaces, fitness landscapes, evolutionary trajectories, and artificial chemistries.

  17. Space in Space: Designing for Privacy in the Workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akin, Jonie

    2015-01-01

    Privacy is cultural, socially embedded in the spatial, temporal, and material aspects of the lived experience. Definitions of privacy are as varied among scholars as they are among those who fight for their personal rights in the home and the workplace. Privacy in the workplace has become a topic of interest in recent years, as evident in discussions on Big Data as well as the shrinking office spaces in which people work. An article in The New York Times published in February of this year noted that "many companies are looking to cut costs, and one way to do that is by trimming personal space". Increasingly, organizations ranging from tech start-ups to large corporations are downsizing square footage and opting for open-office floorplans hoping to trim the budget and spark creative, productive communication among their employees. The question of how much is too much to trim when it comes to privacy, is one that is being actively addressed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) as they explore habitat designs for future space missions. NASA recognizes privacy as a design-related stressor impacting human health and performance. Given the challenges of sustaining life in an isolated, confined, and extreme environment such as Mars, NASA deems it necessary to determine the acceptable minimal amount for habitable volume for activities requiring at least some level of privacy in order to support optimal crew performance. Ethnographic research was conducted in 2013 to explore perceptions of privacy and privacy needs among astronauts living and working in space as part of a long-distance, long-duration mission. The allocation of space, or habitable volume, becomes an increasingly complex issue in outer space due to the costs associated with maintaining an artificial, confined environment bounded by limitations of mass while located in an extreme environment. Privacy in space, or space in space, provides a unique case study of the complex notions of

  18. Space Biology in Russia Today

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoriev, Anatoly; Sychev, Vladimir; Ilyin, Eugene

    At present space biology research in Russia is making significant progress in several areas of high priority. Gravitational biology. In April-May 2013, a successful 30-day flight of the biological satellite (biosatellite) Bion-M1 was conducted, which carried rodents (mice and gerbils), geckos, fish, mollusks, crustaceans, microorganisms, insects, lower and higher plants, seeds, etc. The investigations were performed by Russian scientists as well as by researchers from NASA, CNES, DLR and South Korea. Foton-M4 carrying various biological specimens is scheduled to launch in 2014. Work has begun to develop science research programs to be implemented onboard Bion-M2 and Bion-M3 as well as on high apogee recoverable spacecraft. Study of the effects of microgravity on the growth and development of higher plants cultivated over several generations on the International Space Station (ISS) has been recently completed. Space radiobiology. Regular experiments aimed at investigating the effects of high-energy galactic cosmic rays on the animal central nervous system and behavior are being carried out using the Particle Accelerator in the town of Dubna. Biological (environmental) life support systems. In recent years, experiments have been performed on the ISS to upgrade technologies of plant cultivation in microgravity. Advanced greenhouse mockups have been built and are currentlyundergoing bioengineering tests. Technologies of waste utilization in space are being developed. Astrobiology experiments in orbital missions. In 2010, the Biorisk experiment on bacterial and fungal spores, seeds and dormant forms of organisms was completed. The payload containing the specimens was installed on the exterior wall of the ISS and was exposed to outer space for 31 months. In addition, Bion-M1 also carried seeds, bacterial spores and microbes that were exposed to outer space effects. The survival rate of bacterial spores incorporated into man-made meteorites, that were attached to the

  19. [Reflections on physical spaces and mental spaces].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hung-Yi

    2013-08-01

    This article analyzes certain reciprocal impacts from physical spaces to mental spaces. If the epistemological construction and the spatial imagination from the subject of cogito or the social collectivities are able to influence the construction and creation of the physical spaces of that subject, then the context of that physical space may also affect the cognitive or social subject's mental cognition. This article applies the methodology of iconology from art history (E. Panofsky) and sociology (P. Bourdieu) to explore correlations between the creation of imaginative and physical spaces from the collective consciousness and mental cognition. The author uses Gilles Deleuses's opinion regarding the 17th-century Baroque style and contemporary social collective symptoms as an explanation. From these theoretical studies, the author analyzes the differences of spatial epistemology generated by Taiwan's special geological text. Finally, the author applies Michel Foucault's studies on spatial context to assess the possible application of this thesis of reciprocal impacts from mental spaces to physical spaces in a nursing context.

  20. The State-of-the-art in Space Robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Fonseca, Ijar M.; Pontuschka, Maurício N.

    2015-10-01

    This paper deals with the space robotics and associate space applications. An overview of the space era and the robotic space probes is presented to contextualize the space robotics in the space exploration scenario. Concepts, classification and key-questions associated with robotics for space applications are presented and discussed. Safety-critical aspects of the space robotics are discussed as well the human limitation to operate in the hostile space environment and long time duration missions. The paper also focuses on the state-of-the- art of robotics for the International Space Station EVA operations, for the planetary exploration such as the ongoing Mars exploration, Hayabusa rendezvous and landing in asteroids and the robotic probe Rosetta landed in a comet recently. The paper also includes a discussion of the applications of new concepts like the robonauts, the space tugs applications and robots for future planetary exploration.

  1. Grand challenges in space synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Amor A; Montague, Michael G; Cumbers, John; Hogan, John A; Arkin, Adam P

    2015-12-06

    Space synthetic biology is a branch of biotechnology dedicated to engineering biological systems for space exploration, industry and science. There is significant public and private interest in designing robust and reliable organisms that can assist on long-duration astronaut missions. Recent work has also demonstrated that such synthetic biology is a feasible payload minimization and life support approach as well. This article identifies the challenges and opportunities that lie ahead in the field of space synthetic biology, while highlighting relevant progress. It also outlines anticipated broader benefits from this field, because space engineering advances will drive technological innovation on Earth.

  2. Marked metric measure spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Depperschmidt, Andrej; Pfaffelhuber, Peter

    2011-01-01

    A marked metric measure space (mmm-space) is a triple (X,r,mu), where (X,r) is a complete and separable metric space and mu is a probability measure on XxI for some Polish space I of possible marks. We study the space of all (equivalence classes of) marked metric measure spaces for some fixed I. It arises as state space in the construction of Markov processes which take values in random graphs, e.g. tree-valued dynamics describing randomly evolving genealogical structures in population models. We derive here the topological properties of the space of mmm-spaces needed to study convergence in distribution of random mmm-spaces. Extending the notion of the Gromov-weak topology introduced in (Greven, Pfaffelhuber and Winter, 2009), we define the marked Gromov-weak topology, which turns the set of mmm-spaces into a Polish space. We give a characterization of tightness for families of distributions of random mmm- spaces and identify a convergence determining algebra of functions, called polynomials.

  3. History of Space Shuttle Rendezvous

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, John L.

    2011-01-01

    This technical history is intended to provide a technical audience with an introduction to the rendezvous and proximity operations history of the Space Shuttle Program. It details the programmatic constraints and technical challenges encountered during shuttle development in the 1970s and over thirty years of shuttle missions. An overview of rendezvous and proximity operations on many shuttle missions is provided, as well as how some shuttle rendezvous and proximity operations systems and flight techniques evolved to meet new programmatic objectives. This revised edition provides additional information on Mercury, Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, and Apollo/Soyuz. Some chapters on the Space Shuttle have been updated and expanded. Four special focus chapters have been added to provide more detailed information on shuttle rendezvous. A chapter on the STS-39 mission of April/May 1991 describes the most complex deploy/retrieve mission flown by the shuttle. Another chapter focuses on the Hubble Space Telescope servicing missions. A third chapter gives the reader a detailed look at the February 2010 STS-130 mission to the International Space Station. The fourth chapter answers the question why rendezvous was not completely automated on the Gemini, Apollo, and Space Shuttle vehicles.

  4. Vital phase of space science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, E.N. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States)

    1994-10-01

    Space science began with the indirect phase where the activity in space was inferred from such terrestrial phenomena as geomagnetic storms, ionospheric variations, and fluctuations in the cosmic ray intensity. The direct phase was initiated with spaceflight placing instruments directly in space and permitting the direct observation of UV and X rays, as well as precision observations of solar luminosity variations. The evidence from these many direct studies, together with the historical record of terrestrial conditions, shows that the variations of the luminosity of the Sun affect the terrestrial atmosphere at all levels, with devastating changes in climate tracking the major changes in the activity level and luminosity of the Sun. The quantification and understanding of this vital connection should be the first priority of space science and geophysics, from oceans and atmosphere through the ionosphere, magnetosphere, and all the way to the convective zone of the Sun. It becomes the vital phase of space science, focused on the basic science of the changing habitability of Earth. 13 refs.

  5. Inform@ed space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, Peter; Olsen, Kasper Nefer

    2001-01-01

    Inform@ed space Sensorial Perception And Computer Enchancement - bidrag til Nordisk Arkitekturforskningsforenings IT-konference, AAA april 2001.......Inform@ed space Sensorial Perception And Computer Enchancement - bidrag til Nordisk Arkitekturforskningsforenings IT-konference, AAA april 2001....

  6. Space Power Facility (SPF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Space Power Facility (SPF) houses the world's largest space environment simulation chamber, measuring 100 ft. in diameter by 122 ft. high. In this chamber, large...

  7. Chinese Space Insurance Opportunities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiuJie

    2005-01-01

    Jiang Tai Insurance Broker Co., Ltd and China Pacific Insurance (group) Co., Ltd jointly held a conference on Space and Space Insurance on January 13 and 14, 2005. About 50 representatives from 30 domestic insurance companies attended the event.

  8. Space Environment Modeling

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes presentation materials and outputs from operational space environment models produced by the NOAA Space Weather Prediction Center (SWPC) and...

  9. Space, time, matter

    CERN Document Server

    Weyl, Hermann

    1999-01-01

    Excellent introduction probes deeply into Euclidean space, Riemann's space, Einstein's general relativity, gravitational waves and energy, and laws of conservation. "A classic of physics." - British Journal for Philosophy and Science.

  10. Space as interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke-Olesen, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    of interactive systems through the Ph.D. project, I have identified different significant aspects in the relation between space and interface. Based on empirical work, I distill a fragment of work concerned with cameras as the interface for bridging the gap between physical and digital space. By looking across...... multiple projects spanning over fields such as tangible user interfaces, augmented reality, and mobile computing, a conceptual framework characterizing camera-based mixed interaction spaces is developed. To show the applicability of the framework, it is deployed on one of the presented cases and discussed...... to conceptualize space as more than the physical container for human activity. I do this by investigating space as interface. Based on a theory of space and place set forth by Tuan (Tuan, 1977), and informed by an explorative research approach, I make the distinction between space and place as a Euclidian space...

  11. Habitats in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Gerard K.

    1977-01-01

    Student visions of large human communities in space are illustrated and explained. Space between the Earth and moon was utilized and several designs for stations as Earthlike as possible were suggested. A bibliography is included. (AJ)

  12. Probabilistic metric spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Schweizer, B

    2005-01-01

    Topics include special classes of probabilistic metric spaces, topologies, and several related structures, such as probabilistic normed and inner-product spaces. 1983 edition, updated with 3 new appendixes. Includes 17 illustrations.

  13. Occupational Space Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarver, William J.

    2012-01-01

    Learning Objectives are: (1) Understand the unique work environment of astronauts. (2) Understand the effect microgravity has on human physiology (3) Understand how NASA Space Medicine Division is mitigating the health risks of space missions.

  14. NASA Space Sounds API

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA has released a series of space sounds via sound cloud. We have abstracted away some of the hassle in accessing these sounds, so that developers can play with...

  15. Reutilizing Existing Library Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Marlys Cresap

    1987-01-01

    This discussion of the reutilization of existing library space reviews the decision process and considerations for implementation. Two case studies of small public libraries which reassigned space to better use are provided, including floor plans. (1 reference) (MES)

  16. Wide-Band Multi-spectral Space for Color Representation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KONG Lingwang; ZHU Yuanhong; Kurt Muenger; ZHANG Xuliang

    2003-01-01

    This paper develops a wide-band multi-spectral space for color representation with Aitken PCA algorithm. This novel mathematical space using the broad-band spectra matching method aims at improving the accuracy of color representation as well as reducing costs for processing and storing multi-spectral images. The results show that the space can present our experimental original spectral spaces (i. e. Munsell color matt and DIN-6164 color chips) with high efficiency, and that the spanning space with three eigenvectors can present the original space at more than 98%CSCR, and when 5 eigenvectors are used it can cover almost the whole original spaces.

  17. Projective loop quantum gravity. I. State space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanéry, Suzanne; Thiemann, Thomas

    2016-12-01

    Instead of formulating the state space of a quantum field theory over one big Hilbert space, it has been proposed by Kijowski to describe quantum states as projective families of density matrices over a collection of smaller, simpler Hilbert spaces. Beside the physical motivations for this approach, it could help designing a quantum state space holding the states we need. In a latter work by Okolów, the description of a theory of Abelian connections within this framework was developed, an important insight being to use building blocks labeled by combinations of edges and surfaces. The present work generalizes this construction to an arbitrary gauge group G (in particular, G is neither assumed to be Abelian nor compact). This involves refining the definition of the label set, as well as deriving explicit formulas to relate the Hilbert spaces attached to different labels. If the gauge group happens to be compact, we also have at our disposal the well-established Ashtekar-Lewandowski Hilbert space, which is defined as an inductive limit using building blocks labeled by edges only. We then show that the quantum state space presented here can be thought as a natural extension of the space of density matrices over this Hilbert space. In addition, it is manifest from the classical counterparts of both formalisms that the projective approach allows for a more balanced treatment of the holonomy and flux variables, so it might pave the way for the development of more satisfactory coherent states.

  18. Logic for physical space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aiello, Marco; Bezhanishvili, Guram; Bloch, Isabelle

    2012-01-01

    of mathematical tools developed to represent and work with space. Here we take a special look at this evolution by considering the perspective of Logic. From the initial axiomatic efforts of Euclid, we revisit the major milestones in the logical representation of space and investigate current trends. In doing so......, we do not only consider classical logic, but we indulge ourselves with modal logics. These present themselves naturally by providing simple axiomatizations of different geometries, topologies, space-time causality, and vector spaces....

  19. A Conceptual Space Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Jørgen Fischer

    1999-01-01

    Conceptual spaces have been proposed as topological or geometric means for establishing conceptual structures and models. This paper, after briey reviewing conceptual spaces, focusses on the relationship between conceptual spaces and logical concept languages with operations for combining concepts...... to form concepts. Speci cally is introduced an algebraic concept logic, for which conceptual spaces are installed as semantic domain as replacement for, or enrichment of, the traditional....

  20. Amarts on Riesz Spaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen Chi KUO; Coenraad C.A.LABUSCHAGNE; Bruce A.WATSON

    2008-01-01

    The concepts of conditional expectations, martingales and stopping times were extended to the Riesz space context by Kuo, Labuschagne and Watson (Discrete time stochastic processes on Riesz spaces, Indag. Math., 15 (2004), 435-451). Here we extend the definition of an asymptotic martingale (amart) to the Riesz spaces context, and prove that Riesz space amarts can be decomposed into the sum of a martingale and an adapted sequence convergent to zero. Consequently an amart convergence theorem is deduced.

  1. Space, composition, vertical wall ...

    OpenAIRE

    Despot, Katerina; Sandeva, Vaska

    2016-01-01

    The space in which it is an integral segment of our life is nourished with many functional and decorative elements. One aspect for consideration of vertical walls or The vertical gardens and their aesthetic impact in space called function. Vertical gardens bordering the decoration to totally functional garden in areas where there is little oxygen and space, ideal for residential buildings and public spaces where missing greenery, special place occupies in interior design where their expres...

  2. Topological Test Spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Wilce, Alexander

    2004-01-01

    A test space is the set of outcome-sets associated with a collection of experiments. This notion provides a simple mathematical framework for the study of probabilistic theories -- notably, quantum mechanics -- in which one is faced with incommensurable random quantities. In the case of quantum mechanics, the relevant test space, the set of orthonormal bases of a Hilbert space, carries significant topological structure. This paper inaugurates a general study of topological test spaces. Among ...

  3. Space Fence Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haimerl, J.; Fonder, G.

    Space is no longer a vast, empty void. Unprecedented quantities of new satellites, derelict satellites, and debris litter the skies, posing an imminent threat to America's space assets. The Space Fence System is a ground-based system of S-band radars designed to greatly enhance the Air Force Space Surveillance network. Space Fence provides unprecedented sensitivity, coverage and tracking accuracy, and contributes to key mission threads with the ability to detect, track and catalog small objects in LEO, MEO and GEO. Space Fence capabilities will revolutionize space situational awareness. Space Fence includes up to two minimally-manned radar sites and the Space Fence Operations Center. Each radar site features a design with closely-spaced, but separate, Transmit and Receive Arrays that are mission-optimized for high availability and low lifetime support costs, including prime power. The radar architecture is based on Digital Beam-forming. This capability permits tremendous user-defined flexibility to customize volume surveillance and track sectors instantaneously without impacting routine surveillance functions. Space Fence offers assured surveillance coverage for improved custody and features the capability to develop long arc tracks for accurate orbit determination, while simultaneously maintaining a persistent surveillance volume. Space Fence allows operators to reconstruct recent events such as collisions or satellite break-ups and accurately predict future events. For high-interest objects, a micro fence can be electronically constructed to gather more track data, focusing radar resources specifically on that object, providing more timely and accurate information. The Space Fence System is net-centric and will seamlessly integrate into the existing Space Surveillance Network, providing services to external users such as JSpOC and coordinating handoffs to other SSN sites. Space Fence is a robust, flexible, advanced end-to-end system that will meet the warfighters

  4. White noise calculus and Fock space

    CERN Document Server

    Obata, Nobuaki

    1994-01-01

    White Noise Calculus is a distribution theory on Gaussian space, proposed by T. Hida in 1975. This approach enables us to use pointwise defined creation and annihilation operators as well as the well-established theory of nuclear space.This self-contained monograph presents, for the first time, a systematic introduction to operator theory on fock space by means of white noise calculus. The goal is a comprehensive account of general expansion theory of Fock space operators and its applications. In particular,first order differential operators, Laplacians, rotation group, Fourier transform and their interrelations are discussed in detail w.r.t. harmonic analysis on Gaussian space. The mathematical formalism used here is based on distribution theory and functional analysis , prior knowledge of white noise calculus is not required.

  5. 46 CFR 154.1210 - Hold space, void space, cofferdam, and spaces containing cargo piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hold space, void space, cofferdam, and spaces containing... Design, Construction and Equipment Cargo Area: Mechanical Ventilation System § 154.1210 Hold space, void space, cofferdam, and spaces containing cargo piping. (a) Each hold space, void space, cofferdam,...

  6. Chemical Engineering in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobmeyer, Dennis A.; Meneghelli, Barry; Steinrock, Todd (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    sources is paramount to success. We are currently working on several processes to produce the propellants that would allow us to visit and explore the surface of Mars. The capabilities currently at our disposal for launching and delivering equipment to another planet or satellite dictate that the size and scale of any hardware must be extremely small. The miniaturization of the processes needed to prepare the in situ propellants and life support commodities is a real challenge. Chemical engineers are faced with the prospect of reproducing an entire production facility in miniature so the complex can be lifted into space and delivered to our destination. Another area that does not normally concern chemical engineers is the extreme physical aspects payloads are subjected to with the launch of a spacecraft. Extreme accelerations followed by the sudden loss of nearly all gravitational forces are well outside normal equipment design conditions. If the equipment cannot survive the overall trip, then it obviously will not be able to yield the needed products upon arrival. These launch constraints must be taken into account. Finally, we must consider both the effectiveness and efficiencies of the processes. A facility located on the Moon or Mars will not have an unlimited supply of power or other ancillary utilities. For a Mars expedition, the available electric power is severely limited. The design of both the processes and the equipment must be considered. With these constraints in mind, only the most efficient designs will be viable. Cryogenics, in situ resource utilization, miniaturization, launchability, and power/process efficiencies are only a few of the areas that chemical engineers provide support and expertise for the exploration of space.

  7. Venturing Further Into Space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    China launches a prototype space module as a precursor to a manned space station China’s first unmanned space module Tiangong-1,or Heavenly Palace-1,successfully lifted off from the Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center in northwest China’s Gansu Province on September 29. "The successful launch of the 8.5-ton

  8. Dependent Probability Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, William F.; Shiflett, Ray C.; Shultz, Harris

    2008-01-01

    The mathematical model used to describe independence between two events in probability has a non-intuitive consequence called dependent spaces. The paper begins with a very brief history of the development of probability, then defines dependent spaces, and reviews what is known about finite spaces with uniform probability. The study of finite…

  9. Maintaining Space Superiority

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    owned by the Iridium Corpora- tion. That event sparked international concern as issues of on-orbit safety became a hot topic for international... Attacks on Space Systems," Space and De- fense 4, no. 1 (Winter 2010): 10, http:/ /www.usafa.edu/df/dfe/dfer/centers/ecsds/docs /Space_and_Defense_

  10. New Special Finsler Spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Youssef, Nabil L

    2016-01-01

    The pullback approach to global Finsler geometry is adopted. Some new types of special Finsler spaces are introduced and investigated, namely, Ricci, generalized Ricci, projectively recurrent and m-projectively recurrent Finsler spaces. The properties of these special Finsler spaces are studied and the relations between them are singled out.

  11. A Foothold in Space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    With the successful launch of Tiangong-1 (Heavenly Palace-1) unmanned module on September 29,China took a significant step forward in realizing its ambitions in space.China’s manned space program consists of three steps.The first step,to send an astronaut into space,was achieved in 2003.The

  12. On Real Operator Spaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong Jin RUAN (Zhong-Jin Ruan)

    2003-01-01

    During the last ten to fifteen years , a lot of progress has been achieved in the study ofcomplex operator spaces. In this paper, we show that a corresponding theory can be developed forreal operator spaces. With some appropriate modifications, many complex results still hold for realoperator spaces.

  13. On generalized topological spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Piȩkosz, Artur

    2009-01-01

    In this paper a systematic study of the category GTS of generalized topological spaces (in the sense of H. Delfs and M. Knebusch) and their strictly continuous mappings begins. Some completeness and cocompleteness results are achieved. Generalized topological spaces help to reconstruct the important elements of the theory of locally definable and weakly definable spaces in the wide context of weakly topological structures.

  14. New Window to Space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Ground has been broken for a new space launch complex in Hainan Province china on September 14 began building a space launch center on tropical Hainan Island and continued to construct the foundations for the nation’s sophisticated space program.

  15. OneSpace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ledo, David; Aseniero, Bon Adriel; Greenberg, Saul

    2013-01-01

    Video conferencing commonly employs a video portal metaphor to connect individuals from remote spaces. In this work, we explore an alternate metaphor, a shared depth-mirror, where video images of two spaces are fused into a single shared, depth-corrected video space. We realize this metaphor in O...

  16. Augmented Spinor Space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiuhong FENG; Lin ZHU; Yanlin YU

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, based on the Pauli matrices, a notion of augmented spinor space is introduced, and a uniqueness of such augmented spinor space of rank n is proved. It may be expected that this new notion of spaces can be used in mathematical physics and geometry.

  17. Prediction Techniques in Operational Space Weather Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukov, Andrei

    2016-07-01

    The importance of forecasting space weather conditions is steadily increasing as our society is becoming more and more dependent on advanced technologies that may be affected by disturbed space weather. Operational space weather forecasting is still a difficult task that requires the real-time availability of input data and specific prediction techniques that are reviewed in this presentation, with an emphasis on solar and interplanetary weather. Key observations that are essential for operational space weather forecasting are listed. Predictions made on the base of empirical and statistical methods, as well as physical models, are described. Their validation, accuracy, and limitations are discussed in the context of operational forecasting. Several important problems in the scientific basis of predicting space weather are described, and possible ways to overcome them are discussed, including novel space-borne observations that could be available in future.

  18. Human space exploration the next fifty years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David R; Turnock, Matthew

    2011-06-01

    Preparation for the fiftieth anniversary of human spaceflight in the spring of 2011 provides the space faring nations with an opportunity to reflect on past achievements as well as consider the next fifty years of human spaceflight. The International Space Station is a unique platform for long duration life science research that will play a critical role in preparing for future human space exploration beyond low earth orbit. Some feel the future path back to the Moon and on to Mars may be delayed with the current commitment of the United States to support the development of human-rated commercial spacecraft. Others see this as a unique opportunity to leverage the capability of the private sector in expanding access to space exploration. This article provides an overview of the past achievements in human spaceflight and discusses future missions over the next fifty years and the role space medicine will play in extending the time-distance constant of human space exploration.

  19. Value Adding Space Management in Higher Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    Purpose : Develop a methodology for space optimisation in educational facilities, that can add value to organisations with particular focus on gymnasiums in Denmark. Background : Gymnasiums are pre-university higher educational institutions, which in 2007 went from being state-owned to being self......-governing. Many older gymnasiums face the challenge that the institutions’ buildings and spaces are unsuitable to support modern teaching methods. A space optimisation process can help overcome some of these challenges as long as it makes use of a holistic analysis, is related to the strategic objectives....... The study examined which aspects should be included in a space optimisation process in order to add value and included extensive user involvement. Results : A number of space optimisation initiatives that could lead to improvements in space utilisation as well as in the learning environment were identified...

  20. Space, time, and black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darling, D.

    1980-10-01

    A discussion of Einstein's General Relativity and how it can explain black holes is included. The key idea of general relativity being that gravitational forces are a direct outcome of local curvature of space-time. The more mass something has the deeper the depression or well it causes in space-time. Black holes are supermassive objects, hence their gravity well is so steep even light can't escape. The three properties associated with a black hole are mass angular momentum, and electric charge. Non-rotating, Schwarzchild, and rotating, Kerr, black holes are studied. A Kruskal-Szekeres diagram for each type is given and explained. (SC)

  1. NASA Space Exploration Logistics Workshop Proceedings

    Science.gov (United States)

    deWeek, Oliver; Evans, William A.; Parrish, Joe; James, Sarah

    2006-01-01

    As NASA has embarked on a new Vision for Space Exploration, there is new energy and focus around the area of manned space exploration. These activities encompass the design of new vehicles such as the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) and Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) and the identification of commercial opportunities for space transportation services, as well as continued operations of the Space Shuttle and the International Space Station. Reaching the Moon and eventually Mars with a mix of both robotic and human explorers for short term missions is a formidable challenge in itself. How to achieve this in a safe, efficient and long-term sustainable way is yet another question. The challenge is not only one of vehicle design, launch, and operations but also one of space logistics. Oftentimes, logistical issues are not given enough consideration upfront, in relation to the large share of operating budgets they consume. In this context, a group of 54 experts in space logistics met for a two-day workshop to discuss the following key questions: 1. What is the current state-of the art in space logistics, in terms of architectures, concepts, technologies as well as enabling processes? 2. What are the main challenges for space logistics for future human exploration of the Moon and Mars, at the intersection of engineering and space operations? 3. What lessons can be drawn from past successes and failures in human space flight logistics? 4. What lessons and connections do we see from terrestrial analogies as well as activities in other areas, such as U.S. military logistics? 5. What key advances are required to enable long-term success in the context of a future interplanetary supply chain? These proceedings summarize the outcomes of the workshop, reference particular presentations, panels and breakout sessions, and record specific observations that should help guide future efforts.

  2. Hausdorff operators on Euclidean spaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jie-cheng; FAN Da-shan; WANG Si-lei

    2013-01-01

    Hausdorff operator is an important operator raised from the dilation on Euclidean space and rooted in the classical summability of number series and Fourier series. It is also connected to many well known operators in real and complex analysis. This article is a survey of some recent developments and extensions on the Hausdorff operator. Particularly, various boundedness properties of the Hausdorff operators, studied recently by our research group, are addressed.

  3. Open Spaces, Public Spaces, Publics, Open-minded Places

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Bravo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In 1993 a double issue of the international architectural review (published in Italy “Casabella” was dedicated to “The design of open spaces”. Different positions and scholars and diverse point of views explored this complex theme, trying to explain the reasons, the modes and the possibilities of a new strategy in design research and practice. The starting point was the very term “open space”, which doesn’t belong to the classical vocabulary of architectural theory, with no reference to modern town planning manuals.Nowadays the difference between “open space”, as indicated in regulations of urban city spaces, and “public space” has found new declensions related to public life of groups or individuals, taking place in consolidated environments as well as in peripheral areas or in residual spaces up to edge cities, able to give values and functions to neglected or abandoned places. Next to public meeting spaces, such as large congress hall, fair precincts, political or cultural events, shopping centers, and to waiting spaces, such as offices, public institutions, underground stations, airports, many public spaces do not have an architectural connotation: life can be found at the corner of two suburban roads, where spontaneous conversation or some kind of special event slowly starts to layer, indicating a kind of rituality, or in anonymous suburban places where minority ethnic or immigrant groups gather, becoming places of solidarity and sharing. All these expressions, as already Vittorio Gregotti pointed out in his introductory essay on Casabella, articulate in a new way the demands for public space and for its architectural definition.

  4. Venturing Further Into Space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN PUMIN

    2011-01-01

    China's first unmanNed space module Tiangong-Ⅰ,or Heavenly Palace-Ⅰ,successfully lifted off from the Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center in northwest China's Gansu Province on September 29."The successful launch of the 8.5-ton prototype space laboratory has opened the gates for China's deep space exploration program," said Qi Faren,former chief designer of China's Shenzhou spacecraft.“It is a decisive leap forward for the Chinese space industry and will bring about the rapid development of space science and related techologies."

  5. At Home in Space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yin Pumin

    2011-01-01

    CHINA'S first unmanned space module Tiangong-1,or Heavenly Palace-1,successfully lifted off from the Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center in northwest China's Gansu Province on September 29."The successfullaunch of the 8.5-ton prototype space laboratory has opened the gates for China's deep space exploration program," said Qi Faren,former chief designer of China's Shenzhou spacecraft."It is a decisive leap forward for the Chinese space industry and will bring about the rapid development of space science and related technologies."

  6. Uniformly Convex Metric Spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Kell Martin

    2014-01-01

    In this paper the theory of uniformly convex metric spaces is developed. These spaces exhibit a generalized convexity of the metric from a fixed point. Using a (nearly) uniform convexity property a simple proof of reflexivity is presented and a weak topology of such spaces is analyzed. This topology called co-convex topology agrees with the usualy weak topology in Banach spaces. An example of a $CAT(0)$-spaces with weak topology which is not Hausdorff is given. This answers questions raised b...

  7. Space Acquired Photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2008-01-01

    Interested in a photograph of the first space walk by an American astronaut, or the first photograph from space of a solar eclipse? Or maybe your interest is in a specific geologic, oceanic, or meteorological phenomenon? The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center is making photographs of the Earth taken from space available for search, download, and ordering. These photographs were taken by Gemini mission astronauts with handheld cameras or by the Large Format Camera that flew on space shuttle Challenger in October 1984. Space photographs are distributed by EROS only as high-resolution scanned or medium-resolution digital products.

  8. TANK SPACE OPTIONS REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WILLIS WL; AHRENDT MR

    2009-08-11

    Since this report was originally issued in 2001, several options proposed for increasing double-shell tank (DST) storage space were implemented or are in the process of implementation. Changes to the single-shell tank (SST) waste retrieval schedule, completion of DST space saving options, and the DST space saving options in progress have delayed the projected shortfall of DST storage space from the 2007-2011 to the 2018-2025 timeframe (ORP-11242, River Protection Project System Plan). This report reevaluates options from Rev. 0 and includes evaluations of new options for alleviating projected restrictions on SST waste retrieval beginning in 2018 because of the lack of DST storage space.

  9. Space vehicle chassis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judd, Stephen; Dallmann, Nicholas; Seitz, Daniel; Martinez, John; Storms, Steven; Kestell, Gayle

    2017-07-18

    A modular space vehicle chassis may facilitate convenient access to internal components of the space vehicle. Each module may be removable from the others such that each module may be worked on individually. Multiple panels of at least one of the modules may swing open or otherwise be removable, exposing large portions of the internal components of the space vehicle. Such chassis architectures may reduce the time required for and difficulty of performing maintenance or modifications, may allow multiple space vehicles to take advantage of a common chassis design, and may further allow for highly customizable space vehicles.

  10. Skeletally Dugundji spaces

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    We introduce and investigate the class of skeletally Dugundji spaces as a skeletal analogue of Dugundji space. The main result states that the following conditions are equivalent for a given space $X$: (i) $X$ is skeletally Dugundji; (ii) Every compactification of $X$ is co-absolute to a Dugundji space; (iii) Every $C^*$-embedding of the absolute $p(X)$ in another space is strongly $\\pi$-regular; (iv) $X$ has a multiplicative lattice in the sense of Shchepin \\cite{s76} consisting of skeletal ...

  11. Compactness in Metric Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakasho Kazuhisa

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we mainly formalize in Mizar [2] the equivalence among a few compactness definitions of metric spaces, norm spaces, and the real line. In the first section, we formalized general topological properties of metric spaces. We discussed openness and closedness of subsets in metric spaces in terms of convergence of element sequences. In the second section, we firstly formalize the definition of sequentially compact, and then discuss the equivalence of compactness, countable compactness, sequential compactness, and totally boundedness with completeness in metric spaces.

  12. Global Trends in Space Access and Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Shamim A.; Keim, Nicholas S.; Zeender, Peter E.

    2010-01-01

    In the not-so-distant past, space access and air/space technology superiority were within the purview of the U.S. and former Soviet Union's respective space agencies, both vying for global leadership in space exploitation. In more recent years, with the emergence of the European Space Agency (ESA) member countries and Asian countries joining the family of space-faring nations, it is truer now more than ever that space access and utilization has become a truly global enterprise. In fact, according to the Space Report 2007, this enterprise is a $251-billion economy. It is possible to gauge the vitality of worldwide efforts from open sources in today's transparent, media-based society. In particular, print and web broadcasters regularly report and catalog global space activities for defense and civil purposes. For the purposes of this paper, a representative catalog of missions is used to illustrate the nature of the emerging "globalization." This paper highlights global trends in terms of not only the providers of space access, but also the end-users for the various recently accomplished missions. With well over 50 launches per year, in recent years, the launch-log reveals a surprising percentage of "cooperative or co-dependent missions" where different agencies, countries, and/or commercial entities are so engaged presumably to the benefit of all who participate. Statistics are cited and used to show that recently over d0% of the 50-plus missions involved multiple nations working collectively to deliver payloads to orbit. Observers, space policy professionals, and space agency leaders have eloquently proposed that it might require the combined resources and talents of multiple nations to advance human exploration goals beyond low earth orbit. This paper does not intend to offer new information with respect to whether international collaboration is necessary but to observe that, in continuing to monitor global trends, the results seem to support the thesis that a

  13. Augmented reality for biomedical wellness sensor systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Jeffrey; Szu, Harold

    2013-05-01

    -definition digital reconstruction. Then an entire scene can be viewed from any position in virtual space, and AR can display certain measurements values which either constituted an alert, or otherwise indicate signs of the transition from wellness to illness.

  14. Optimization Research of Urban Space Configuration Based on Space Syntax

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Qing; Wang Jingwen

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a new method based on the space syntax is presented to optimize the urban space configuration. Space syntax theory is used to detect systematically whether one urban space configuration is optimal or not from four aspects including traffic space, cognition space, land use space and culture space. After introducing the computational and cognitive aspects of space syntax for the research of urban space, a framework of urban space optimization based on space syntax is proposed, then the integration with GIS and the extension to third dimension are discussed. Finally, a case study for Kanmen town of Zhejiang province of P.R.China is illustrated by using Axwoman tool.

  15. NASDA and the Space Industry in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamatsu, Hideo

    2002-01-01

    With over 30 years of history in space activities, Japan is now recognized as one of space powers in the world. Compared to other countries though, the features of Japanese space development are unique in several aspects. At first, its efforts are directed solely toward peaceful purposes and strictly separated from military uses. Secondly, there are many space related governmental agencies and institutes which are under supervision of different ministries. Thirdly, although the government budget is moderate and sales revenue of space industries is not so large, many large companies in aerospace or electronics industries see the importance of this business and compete each other mainly in the domestic market. NASDA, founded in 1969, is the largest governmental space organization and has played an important role in realizing practical applications of space activities. It has rapidly caught up the technology gap behind leading countries and has achieved remarkable successes with its own launch vehicles and satellites. Space industries, under the guidance of NASDA, have learned much from the U.S. companies and improved their technology levels and enjoyed steady growth during the early stage of Japanese space development. But before they became competitive enough in the world space business, the trade conflict between Japan and the U.S. made the procurement of Japanese non-R&D satellites open to the foreign satellite companies. Furthermore, interruptions of space activities due to recent successive failures of launch vehicles as well as Japanese economic slump have made space industries face hard situations. Under these circumstances, M&A of launch vehicle companies as well as satellite makers took place for the first time in Japanese aero-space history. Also at the government level, reorganization of space agencies is now under process. It is expected as a natural consequence of the merge of the Ministry of Education and the Science an Technology Agency, three space

  16. Quantum Spaces are Modular

    CERN Document Server

    Freidel, Laurent; Minic, Djordje

    2016-01-01

    At present, our notion of space is a classical concept. Taking the point of view that quantum theory is more fundamental than classical physics, and that space should be given a purely quantum definition, we revisit the notion of Euclidean space from the point of view of quantum mechanics. Since space appears in physics in the form of labels on relativistic fields or Schrodinger wave functionals, we propose to define Euclidean quantum space as a choice of polarization for the Heisenberg algebra of quantum theory. We show, following Mackey, that generically, such polarizations contain a fundamental length scale and that contrary to what is implied by the Schrodinger polarization, they possess topologically distinct spectra. These are the modular spaces. We show that they naturally come equipped with additional geometrical structures usually encountered in the context of string theory or generalized geometry. Moreover, we show how modular space reconciles the presence of a fundamental scale with translation and...

  17. Space weather in the EU’s FP7 Space Theme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiarini Paola

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Technological infrastructures in space and on ground provide services on which modern society and economies rely. Space weather related research is funded under the 7th Framework Programme for Research and Innovation (FP7 of the European Union in response to the need of protecting such critical infrastructures from the damage which could be caused by extreme space weather events. The calls for proposals published under the topic “Security of space assets from space weather events” of the FP7 Space Theme aimed to improve forecasts and predictions of disruptive space weather events as well as identify best practices to limit the impacts on space- and ground-based infrastructures and their data provision. Space weather related work was also funded under the topic “Exploitation of space science and exploration data”, which aims to add value to space missions and Earth-based observations by contributing to the effective scientific exploitation of collected data. Since 2007 a total of 20 collaborative projects have been funded, covering a variety of physical phenomena associated with space weather, from ionospheric disturbances and scintillation, to geomagnetically induced currents at Earth’s surface, to coronal mass ejections and solar energetic particles. This article provides an overview of the funded projects, touching upon some results and referring to specific websites for a more exhaustive description of the projects’ outcomes.

  18. Cathodic protection of well casings by pulsed current

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bich, N.N. [Shell Canada Ltd., Fort Saskatchewan, Alberta (Canada). Scotford Complex; Bauman, J. [Shell Canada Ltd., Cochrane, Alberta (Canada). Jumping Pound Complex

    1994-12-31

    Electric pulses of several hundred volts, applied for very brief periods of time, several thousand times per second, are more effective and economical than conventional DC currents in protecting deep and/or close spaced well casings against external corrosion. More uniform current distribution, greater depth of protection, reduced stray current interference, and smaller anode bed requirements are the main benefits of pulsed technology. Operating principles, equivalent electrical circuits, design considerations and field cathodic protection logging experience will be reviewed.

  19. Hole transport simulations in SiGe cascade quantum wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikonić, Z.; Harrison, P.; Kelsall, R. W.

    2004-03-01

    Hole transport in p-Si/SiGe quantum well cascade structures has been analyzed using a rate equation method with thermal balancing (self-consistent energy balance method). The carrier and energy relaxation due to alloy disorder, acoustic and optical phonon scattering are included. The model includes the in-plane k-space anisotropy. The results are compared to those obtained from Monte Carlo simulations and from the basic particle rate equation method.

  20. Space Biology and Medicine. Volume I; Space and Its Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicogossian, Arnauld E.; Mohler, Stanley R.; Gazenko, Oleg G.; Grigoryev, Anatoliy I.

    1993-01-01

    and a path to our common future. But for humanity to embark on this path, we need to understand ourselves in a new environment. As such, an understanding of the biological consequences of and opportunities in space flight is essential. In this, the first volume of a joint U.S./Russian series on space biology and medicine, we describe the current status of our understanding of space and present general information that will prove useful when reading subsequent volumes. Since we are witnesses to the beginning of a new era of interplanetary travel, a significant portion of the first volume will concentrate on the physical and ecological conditions that exist in near and outer space, as well as heavenly bodies from the smallest ones to the giant planets and stars. While space exploration is a comparatively recent endeavor, its foundations were laid much more than 30 years ago, and its history has been an eventful one. In the first part of this volume, Rauschenbach, Sokolskiy, and Gurjian address the "Historical Aspects of Space Exploration" from its beginnings to a present-day view of the events of the space age. The nature of space itself and its features is the focus of the second section of the volume. In the first chapter of the part, "Stars and Interstellar Space," the origin and evolution of stars, and the nature of the portions of space most distant from Earth are described by Galeev and Marochnik. In Chapter 2, Pisarenko, Logachev, and Kurt in "The Sun and Interplanetary Space" bring us to the vicinity of our own solar system and provide a description and discussion of the nearest star and its influence on the space environment that our Earth and the other planets inhabit. In our solar system there are many fascinating objects, remnants of the formation of a rather ordinary star in a rather obscure portion of the galaxy. Historical accident has caused us to be much more curious (and knowledgeable) about "The Inner Planets of the Solar System" than about any of

  1. Concept for an International Standard related to Space Weather Effects on Space Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobiska, W. Kent; Tomky, Alyssa

    There is great interest in developing an international standard related to space weather in order to specify the tools and parameters needed for space systems operations. In particular, a standard is important for satellite operators who may not be familiar with space weather. In addition, there are others who participate in space systems operations that would also benefit from such a document. For example, the developers of software systems that provide LEO satellite orbit determination, radio communication availability for scintillation events (GEO-to-ground L and UHF bands), GPS uncertainties, and the radiation environment from ground-to-space for commercial space tourism. These groups require recent historical data, current epoch specification, and forecast of space weather events into their automated or manual systems. Other examples are national government agencies that rely on space weather data provided by their organizations such as those represented in the International Space Environment Service (ISES) group of 14 national agencies. Designers, manufacturers, and launchers of space systems require real-time, operational space weather parameters that can be measured, monitored, or built into automated systems. Thus, a broad scope for the document will provide a useful international standard product to a variety of engineering and science domains. The structure of the document should contain a well-defined scope, consensus space weather terms and definitions, and internationally accepted descriptions of the main elements of space weather, its sources, and its effects upon space systems. Appendices will be useful for describing expanded material such as guidelines on how to use the standard, how to obtain specific space weather parameters, and short but detailed descriptions such as when best to use some parameters and not others; appendices provide a path for easily updating the standard since the domain of space weather is rapidly changing with new advances

  2. Elements that influence living quality in open urban space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Krajner

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of people living in cities in Slovenia is increasing. There fore, the city spreads, urban space is created mostly by different buildings with minimum of open space, usually designed for parking spaces. But despite the fact, that urban structure is spreading, and there should be more of public open spaces, or green open spaces, those are in many cases reached by developers as well. Despite global worming, higher temperatures in city centres and what appears to be what citizens want, the urban open spaces are not big enough, and are usually not designed with key elements, to improve quality of lifestyle in the urban space such as trees, water or natural elements. Therefore at all levels of urban planning it is necessary to strive for larger amount of space that could be designed as public open space or green space to improve quality of life in the city.

  3. Microscopic Theory and Simulation of Quantum-Well Intersubband Absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianzhong; Ning, C. Z.

    2004-01-01

    We study the linear intersubband absorption spectra of a 15 nm InAs quantum well using the intersubband semiconductor Bloch equations with a three-subband model and a constant dephasing rate. We demonstrate the evolution of intersubband absorption spectral line shape as a function of temperature and electron density. Through a detailed examination of various contributions, such as the phase space filling effects, the Coulomb many-body effects and the non-parabolicity effect, we illuminate the underlying physics that shapes the spectra. Keywords: Intersubband transition, linear absorption, semiconductor heterostructure, InAs quantum well

  4. Space Technology Research Grants Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Space Technology Research Grants Program will accelerate the development of "push" technologies to support the future space science and exploration...

  5. Space Qualified Heterogeneous Processing Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Space Micro proposes to develop a radiation hardened, monolithic, heterogeneous processor for space imaging and radar systems. High performance processors are needed...

  6. Quantum spaces are modular

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freidel, Laurent; Leigh, Robert G.; Minic, Djordje

    2016-11-01

    At present, our notion of space is a classical concept. Taking the point of view that quantum theory is more fundamental than classical physics, and that space should be given a purely quantum definition, we revisit the notion of Euclidean space from the point of view of quantum mechanics. Since space appears in physics in the form of labels on relativistic fields or Schrödinger wave functionals, we propose to define Euclidean quantum space as a choice of polarization for the Heisenberg algebra of quantum theory. We show, following Mackey, that generically, such polarizations contain a fundamental length scale and that contrary to what is implied by the Schrödinger polarization, they possess topologically distinct spectra. These are the modular spaces. We show that they naturally come equipped with additional geometrical structures usually encountered in the context of string theory or generalized geometry. Moreover, we show how modular space reconciles the presence of a fundamental scale with translation and rotation invariance. We also discuss how the usual classical notion of space comes out as a form of thermodynamical limit of modular space while the Schrödinger space is a singular limit.

  7. INFORMATION SPACE– EDUCATIONAL SPACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica LIA

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper has set the objective of researching how education is influenced by the information society. The first step was to define more precisely the information space. The second step was to identify how information space intersects with the family space and institutional space educational levels represented by pre-school / school and pre-university (kindergarten, at elementary / middle school / high school. Interrelationship between the above mentioned areas was another objective of the research. All these elements have been investigated through the original intention to identify how the information space can become an educational tool to support the family space, education and institutional space. Also, the aim of this research is to offer some solutions in this regard. Often the educational efforts appear to be blocked by the existence of this space. But this paper demonstrates that Informational space can be an enemy of the educational system or can support systems if we knew the internal structure and mechanisms. We can make the Informational Space to work in order to accomplish the educational scope.

  8. Kinematic space and wormholes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian-dong; Chen, Bin

    2017-01-01

    The kinematic space could play a key role in constructing the bulk geometry from dual CFT. In this paper, we study the kinematic space from geometric points of view, without resorting to differential entropy. We find that the kinematic space could be intrinsically defined in the embedding space. For each oriented geodesic in the Poincaré disk, there is a corresponding point in the kinematic space. This point is the tip of the causal diamond of the disk whose intersection with the Poincaré disk determines the geodesic. In this geometric construction, the causal structure in the kinematic space can be seen clearly. Moreover, we find that every transformation in the SL(2,R) leads to a geodesic in the kinematic space. In particular, for a hyperbolic transformation defining a BTZ black hole, it is a timelike geodesic in the kinematic space. We show that the horizon length of the static BTZ black hole could be computed by the geodesic length of corresponding points in the kinematic space. Furthermore, we discuss the fundamental regions in the kinematic space for the BTZ blackhole and multi-boundary wormholes.

  9. Solving and creating Raven Progressive Matrices: reasoning in well- and ill-defined problem spaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaarsveld, S.; Lachmann, T.; Hamel, R.; van Leeuwen, C.

    2010-01-01

    We studied the development of creative cognition in children ranging from nursery school to Grade 6 (4-12 yr old, N¼511), performing a problem generation task. The task involved inventing a novel item for a classical problem solving task they had completed beforehand: the Raven Progressive Matrices

  10. Working in the Space Between

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Hemelryk Donald

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available All of the contributors to this special issue have reflected on the stakes involved in negotiating differences in language and culture. In their research and professional practice they inhabit the ‘space between’: the space between languages, the space between cultures, and the space between academic disciplines. While many of our contributors are located in the Australian university system, we also have contributors from outside that system, as well as contributors who are theorising disparate sites for the negotiation of difference. The most exciting aspect of the papers presented here is the ability to move between the spheres of cultural theory and the everyday. Analytical techniques originally developed for literary and cultural analysis are brought to bear on the texts and practices of everyday life. The loci for these investigations include the classroom, the police station, the streets, local government and the university itself. The practices examined include translating and interpreting, language teaching, academic writing, literary production and critique, language planning and small business and shadow economies. The academic disciplines drawn on include theoretical and applied linguistics, discourse analysis, language teaching pedagogy, policy studies, cultural studies, literary studies, political science, gender studies and postcolonial theory.

  11. The influence of anxiety and personality factors on comfort and reachability space a correlational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iachini, Tina; Ruggiero, Gennaro; Ruotolo, Francesco; Schiano di Cola, Armando; Senese, Vincenzo Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Although the effects of several personality factors on interpersonal space (i.e. social space within personal comfort area) are well documented, it is not clear whether they also extend to peripersonal space (i.e. reaching space). Indeed, no study has directly compared these spaces in relation to pe

  12. The influence of anxiety and personality factors on comfort and reachability space a correlational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iachini, Tina; Ruggiero, Gennaro; Ruotolo, Francesco; Schiano di Cola, Armando; Senese, Vincenzo Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Although the effects of several personality factors on interpersonal space (i.e. social space within personal comfort area) are well documented, it is not clear whether they also extend to peripersonal space (i.e. reaching space). Indeed, no study has directly compared these spaces in relation to pe

  13. Space Manufacturing: The Next Great Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Ann F.; Curreri, Peter; Sharpe, Jonathan B.; Colberg, Wendell R.; Vickers, John H.

    1998-01-01

    Space manufacturing encompasses the research, development and manufacture necessary for the production of any product to be used in near zero gravity, and the production of spacecraft required for transporting research or production devices to space. Manufacturing for space, and manufacturing in space will require significant breakthroughs in materials and manufacturing technology, as well as in equipment designs. This report reviews some of the current initiatives in achieving space manufacturing. The first initiative deals with materials processing in space, e.g., processing non-terrestrial and terrestrial materials, especially metals. Some of the ramifications of the United States Microgravity Payloads fourth (USMP-4) mission are discussed. Some problems in non-terrestrial materials processing are mentioned. The second initiative is structures processing in space. In order to accomplish this, the International Space Welding Experiment was designed to demonstrate welding technology in near-zero gravity. The third initiative is advancements in earth-based manufacturing technologies necessary to achieve low cost access to space. The advancements discussed include development of lightweight material having high specific strength, and automated fabrication and manufacturing methods for these materials.

  14. Mid-space-independent deformable image registration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aganj, Iman; Iglesias, Juan Eugenio; Reuter, Martin; Sabuncu, Mert Rory; Fischl, Bruce

    2017-02-24

    Aligning images in a mid-space is a common approach to ensuring that deformable image registration is symmetric - that it does not depend on the arbitrary ordering of the input images. The results are, however, generally dependent on the mathematical definition of the mid-space. In particular, the set of possible solutions is typically restricted by the constraints that are enforced on the transformations to prevent the mid-space from drifting too far from the native image spaces. The use of an implicit atlas has been proposed as an approach to mid-space image registration. In this work, we show that when the atlas is aligned to each image in the native image space, the data term of implicit-atlas-based deformable registration is inherently independent of the mid-space. In addition, we show that the regularization term can be reformulated independently of the mid-space as well. We derive a new symmetric cost function that only depends on the transformation morphing the images to each other, rather than to the atlas. This eliminates the need for anti-drift constraints, thereby expanding the space of allowable deformations. We provide an implementation scheme for the proposed framework, and validate it through diffeomorphic registration experiments on brain magnetic resonance images.

  15. The Objectives of the Egyptian Space Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaltout, Mosalam

    : The aim of the Egyptsat series is to build on the experience gained from these missions to extend Egypt's space effort into scientific research and to expand its role in educational, agricultural and other development fields. The Egyptian Space Programme envisages that Egypt will be able to join the space age through the gradual establishment of the facilities needed for the manufacture of small research and remote sensing satellites, by acquiring appropriate technological knowledge and capabilities, and by building up the necessary infrastructure to enable the country to design and manufacture its own small satellites. Included in this overall vision would be the capacity to utilize space technologies And applications to serve the national development plans and contribute to the development of scientific and technological research in Egypt, as well as to the establishment of a scientific and research base for advanced industries in Egypt. To hasten the achievement of some or all of these objectives, it will be necessary to: • Transfer advanced space technologies in communication, computers, programs, optics, sensors, new materials, command and control, and energy into the domain of the Egyptian scientific community. • Utilize space technologies and apply these to the country's development plans. • Acquire national capabilities in space technology disciplines. Establish scientific and industrial base in advanced technology fields. • Enhance our human resource capabilities for space sciences fields. • Promote cooperation between the country's research and industrial centres in order to bring about successful project within the national space programme.

  16. Multicultural Ground Teams in Space Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, M.

    2012-01-01

    In the early years of space flight only two countries had access to space. In the last twenty years, there have been major changes in how we conduct space business. With the fall of the iron curtain and the growing of the European Union, more and more players were able to join the space business and space science. By end of the last century, numerous countries, agencies and companies earned the right to be equal partners in space projects. This paper investigates the impact of multicultural teams in the space arena. Fortunately, in manned spaceflight, especially for long duration missions, there are several studies and simulations reporting on multicultural team impact. These data have not been as well explored on the team interactions within the ground crews. The focus of this paper are the teams working on the ISS project. Hypotheses will be drawn from the results of space crew research to determine parallels and differences for this vital segment of success in space missions. The key source of the data will be drawn from structured interviews with managers and other ground crews on the ISS project.

  17. Art and Architectural Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Unterrainer, Walter

    2014-01-01

    art and architectural space museums and other exhibition spaces or how artists learn to love architects Over the last two decades, innumerable new museums, art galleries and other exhibition spaces have been built and opened all over the globe. The most extreme growth happened in China, where...... historically considered even the mother of all arts) - but more relevant: what are appropriate architectural spaces for presenting, exhibiting, contemplating, reflecting, meditating, discussing, enjoying, dissenting, debating creations of art. Simplified, this is a question about the relation between package...... and its content. The urban and spatial question goes far beyond museums and other buildings for art: how in democratic societies should public spaces be supported by art and how can public art support ´cityness´ and meaning versus spaces of consumerism. Famous but egocentric buildings with the main...

  18. A Space Apart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Lynch

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines how the preschool child is enabled to withdraw from the peer group and create a private, individual space within the institutional collective. The question under consideration is, “What factors are necessary to enable a child to create and maintain a withdrawal space in the preschool?” Data were collected through ethnographic fieldwork at two Montessori schools in the south of Sweden. Analysis of the results reveals that a child is enabled through a combination of two elements: a level of opportunity to create a space and a level of defense of a created space. These two factors are dependent on the teachers’ ability to correctly identify space creation, alongside their desire for the child’s space creation effort to be successful.

  19. Space biology research development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonting, Sjoerd L.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) Institute is to conduct and promote research related activities regarding the search for extraterrestrial life, particularly intelligent life. Such research encompasses the broad discipline of 'Life in the Universe', including all scientific and technological aspects of astronomy and the planetary sciences, chemical evolution, the origin of life, biological evolution, and cultural evolution. The primary purpose was to provide funding for the Principal Investigator to collaborate with the personnel of the SETI Institute and the NASA-Ames Research center in order to plan and develop space biology research on and in connection with Space Station Freedom; to promote cooperation with the international partners in the space station; to conduct a study on the use of biosensors in space biology research and life support system operation; and to promote space biology research through the initiation of an annual publication 'Advances in Space Biology and Medicine'.

  20. Kennedy Space Center Spaceport Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wary, Samantha A.

    2013-01-01

    Until the Shuttle Atlantis' final landing on July 21, 2011, Kennedy Space Center (KSC) served as NASA's main spaceport, which is a launch and landing facility for rockets and spacecraft that are attempting to enter orbit. Many of the facilities at KSC were created to assist the Shuttle Program. One of the most important and used facilities is the Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF), This was the main landing area for the return of the shuttle after her mission in space. · However, the SLF has also been used for a number of other projects including straight-line testing by Gibbs Racing, weather data collection by NOAA, and an airfield for the KSC helicopters. This runway is three miles long with control tower at midfield and a fire department located at the end in care of an emergency. This facility, which was part of the great space race, will continue to be used for historical events as Kennedy begins to commercialize its facilities. KSC continues to be an important spaceport to the government, and it will transform into an important spaceport for the commercial industry as well. During my internship at KSC's Center Planning and Development Directorate, I had the opportunity to be a part of the negotiation team working on the agreement for Space Florida to control the Shuttle Landing Facility. This gave me the opportunity to learn about all the changes that are occurring here at Kennedy Space Center. Through various meetings, I discovered the Master Plan and its focus is to transform the existing facilities that were primarily used for the Shuttle Program, to support government operations and commercial flights in the future. This. idea is also in a new strategic business plan and completion of a space industry market analysis. All of these different documentations were brought to my attention and I. saw how they came together in the discussions of transitioning the SLF to a commercial operator, Space Florida. After attending meetings and partaking in discussions for

  1. Space Propulsion and Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-08

    uniform dense plasmas ? Distribution A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Space Propulsion and Power - New Research Areas Non ...interactions of the Matters in Space Propulsion Systems Space Propulsion and Power Portfolio Coupled Materials and Plasma Processes Far From...primary electron  1 • Effective secondary electron emission * accounts for non - Maxwellian effects * > 1 * < 1 ~4 MHz Sheath Beams of SEE

  2. Space between us

    OpenAIRE

    Twigg, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Work shown as part of the Erasure exhibition at Stoke City Museum and Art Gallery, January - May 2011. The theme of the exhibition focused on the idea of removing or erasing something, to create something new. 'Space Between Us' is a graphic exposition of the spaces we construct in the built environment. The exhibition formed an open and participatory investigation into space and how it may relate to the human condition as lived within it.

  3. Aging and space travel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohler, S. R.

    1982-01-01

    The matter of aging and its relation to space vehicle crewmembers undertaking prolonged space missions is addressed. The capabilities of the older space traveler to recover from bone demineralization and muscle atrophy are discussed. Certain advantages of the older person are noted, for example, a greater tolerance of monotony and repetitious activities. Additional parameters are delineated including the cardiovascular system, the reproductive system, ionizing radiation, performance, and group dynamics.

  4. *-products on quantum spaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wachter, H.; Wohlgenannt, M. [Sektion Physik der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen (Germany)

    2002-04-01

    In this paper we present explicit formulas for the *-product on quantum spaces which are of particular importance in physics, i.e., the q-deformed Minkowski space and the q-deformed Euclidean space in 3 and 4 dimensions, respectively. Our formulas are complete and formulated using the deformation parameter q. In addition, we worked out an expansion in powers of h=ln q up to second order, for all considered cases. (orig.)

  5. Learning Space Service Design

    OpenAIRE

    Elliot Felix

    2011-01-01

    Much progress has been made in creating informal learning spaces that incorporate technology and flexibly support a variety of activities. This progress has been principally in designing the right combination of furniture, technology, and space. However, colleges and universities do not design services within learning spaces with nearly the same level of sophistication or integration. Nor do they adequately assess their services. This paper calls for a focus on designing services to facilitat...

  6. The past and space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Christian

    2013-01-01

    of legitimate forms of land control, complex combinations of claims emerge. The ubiquity of ‘the past’ in African politics and the increasing competition over space suggest that the naturalness with which some refer to the past and others conceive of space should be under constant scrutiny. Based on work...... that competing social elite groups instrumentalize. Each group sees its interests best served by a particular reading of the past and a particular conception of space....

  7. Discourses of space

    CERN Document Server

    Ajtony, Zsuzsanna

    2013-01-01

    Ever since the emergence of the spatial turn in several scientific discourses, special attention has been paid to the surrounding space conceived as a construct created by the dynamics of human activity. The notion of space assists us in describing the most varied spheres of human existence. We can speak of various physical, metaphysical, social and cultural, and communicative spaces, as structuring components providing access to various literary, linguistic, social and cultural phenomena, th...

  8. Loops in Twistor Space

    CERN Document Server

    Bena, I; Kosower, D A; Roiban, R; Bena, Iosif; Bern, Zvi; Kosower, David A.; Roiban, Radu

    2004-01-01

    We elucidate the one-loop twistor-space structure corresponding to momentum-space MHV diagrams. We also discuss the infrared divergences, and argue that only a limited set of MHV diagrams contain them. We show how to introduce a twistor-space regulator corresponding to dimensional regularization for the infrared-divergent diagrams. We also evaluate explicitly the `holomorphic anomaly' pointed out by Cachazo, Svrcek, and Witten, and use the result to define modified differential operators which can be used to probe the twistor-space structure of one-loop amplitudes.

  9. Constructing Healthcare Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harty, Chris; Holm Jacobsen, Peter; Tryggestad, Kjell

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to inquire into the role of project visualisations in shaping healthcare spaces and practices. The study draws upon an ethnographic field study from a large on-going hospital construction project in Denmark, and focuses on the early phases of on-boarding the design team...... process), 2.Organisational space (work processes and their spatial-temporal dimension) and; 3. Economic space (cost estimations and budgets). In practice, our findings show that the visualisations of different yet connected project spaces and the development of future clinical practices is related...

  10. Sweeping the State Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mailund, Thomas

    The thesis describes the sweep-line method, a newly developed reduction method for alleviating the state explosion problem inherent in explicit-state state space exploration. The basic idea underlying the sweep-line method is, when calculating the state space, to recognise and delete states...... that are not reachable from the currently unprocessed states. Intuitively we drag a sweep-line through the state space with the invariant that all states behind the sweep-line have been processed and are unreachable from the states in front of the sweep-line. When calculating the state space of a system we iteratively...

  11. Analytical chemistry in space

    CERN Document Server

    Wainerdi, Richard E

    1970-01-01

    Analytical Chemistry in Space presents an analysis of the chemical constitution of space, particularly the particles in the solar wind, of the planetary atmospheres, and the surfaces of the moon and planets. Topics range from space engineering considerations to solar system atmospheres and recovered extraterrestrial materials. Mass spectroscopy in space exploration is also discussed, along with lunar and planetary surface analysis using neutron inelastic scattering. This book is comprised of seven chapters and opens with a discussion on the possibilities for exploration of the solar system by

  12. Our Future in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Impey, Chris David

    2017-06-01

    The Space Age is half a century old. Its early successes were driven by a fierce superpower rivalry between the Soviet Union and the United States, which tended to obscure the fact that exploration and risk-taking is built into human DNA. Decades after we last set foot on the Moon, and years after the Space Shuttle was retired, the space activity is finally leaving the doldrums. A vibrant private sector led by SpaceX, Blue Origins, and Virgin Galactic plans to launch supplies cheaply into Earth orbit and give anyone the chance of a sub-orbital joy ride. New materials are being developed that could lead to space elevators and transform the economics of space travel. Fighting gravity will always be difficult but engineers are rethinking rockets and developing new propulsion technologies. Permanent bases on the Moon and Mars are now within reach, and a new Space Race is brewing, with China ascendant. Medical advances might even allow us to reach for the stars. The talk will review the history and landmarks of the international space program, give a snapshot of the current dynamic situation, and plot the trajectory of the future of space travel. The time has come to envision our future off-Earth.

  13. Finding industrial space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riesto, Svava

    2011-01-01

    Spaces marked by industrial rationalities are easily overseen or rejected without further consideration during urban redevelopment processes. This is striking in an era where urban space is often seen as a cornerstone for the future city. This article investigates different concepts of open space...... that have been operative in the redevelopment of the so-called Carlsberg Square in Copenhagen between 2006-2009. It concludes with general remarcs on dealing with the complex matter open space in the practices of design and heritage management in urban redevelopment processes....

  14. Space Weather Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Space Weather Computational Laboratory is a Unix and PC based modeling and simulation facility devoted to research analysis of naturally occurring electrically...

  15. Space Weather Analysis

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Space Weather Analysis archives are model output of ionospheric, thermospheric and magnetospheric particle populations, energies and electrodynamics

  16. Space vs. Place

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zimmerman, Chris; Madsen, Rene; Hammer Eliassen, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    of Importance’. Second, we elaborate on methods deployed for collecting both mobile GPS and social media traces that the smart phone generates in physical spaces. Third, we compare and contrast the automatically geocoded presence in space and at events with the intentionally socially tagged consumption...... of these spaces and events as place-based experiences. In doing so, these two layers of space-based movements and place-based experiences reveal the appropriation of affordances and choices of aesthetic appreciation by the crowd at large of what is subjectively and relatively meaningful, actionable, and valuable....

  17. Multimegawatt space power reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dearien, J.A.; Whitbeck, J.F.

    1989-01-01

    In response to the need of the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) and long range space exploration and extra-terrestrial basing by the National Air and Space Administration (NASA), concepts for nuclear power systems in the multi-megawatt levels are being designed and evaluated. The requirements for these power systems are being driven primarily by the need to minimize weight and maximize safety and reliability. This paper will discuss the present requirements for space based advanced power systems, technological issues associated with the development of these advanced nuclear power systems, and some of the concepts proposed for generating large amounts of power in space. 31 figs.

  18. Kinematic Space and Wormholes

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Jian-dong

    2016-01-01

    The kinematic space could play a key role in constructing the bulk geometry from dual CFT. In this paper, we study the kinematic space from geometric points of view, without resorting to differential entropy. We find that the kinematic space could be intrinsically defined in the embedding space. For each oriented geodesic in the Poincar\\'e disk, there is a corresponding point in the kinematic space. This point is the tip of the causal diamond of the disk whose intersection with the Poincar\\'e disk determines the geodesic. In this geometric construction, the causal structure in the kinematic space can be seen clearly. Moreover, we find that every transformation in the $SL(2,\\mathbb{R})$ leads to a geodesic in the kinematic space. In particular, for a hyperbolic transformation defining a BTZ black hole, it is a timelike geodesic in the kinematic space. We show that the horizon length of the static BTZ black hole could be computed by the geodesic length of corresponding points in the kinematic space. Furthermore...

  19. Quantisation on general spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Patwardhan, A

    2002-01-01

    Quantisation on spaces with properties of curvature, multiple connectedness and non orientablility is obtained. The geodesic length spectrum for the Laplacian operator is extended to solve the Schroedinger operator. Homotopy fundamental group representations are used to obtain a direct sum of Hilbert spaces, with a Holonomy method for the non simply connected manifolds.The covering spaces of isometric and hence isospectral manifolds are used to obtain the representation of states on orientable and non orientable spaces. Problems of deformations of the operators and the domains are discussed.Possible applications of the geometric and topological effects in physics are mentioned.

  20. Modular assembled space telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Lee D.; Budinoff, Jason; MacEwen, Howard; Matthews, Gary; Postman, Marc

    2013-09-01

    We present a new approach to building a modular segmented space telescope that greatly leverages the heritage of the Hubble Space Telescope and the James Webb Space Telescope. The modular design in which mirror segments are assembled into identical panels allows for economies of scale and for efficient space assembly that make a 20-m aperture approach cost effective. This assembly approach can leverage NASA's future capabilities and has the power to excite the public's imagination. We discuss the science drivers, basic architecture, technology, and leveraged NASA infrastructure, concluding with a proposed plan for going forward.

  1. Learning Space Service Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elliot Felix

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Much progress has been made in creating informal learning spaces that incorporate technology and flexibly support a variety of activities. This progress has been principally in designing the right combination of furniture, technology, and space. However, colleges and universities do not design services within learning spaces with nearly the same level of sophistication or integration. Nor do they adequately assess their services. This paper calls for a focus on designing services to facilitate better learning experiences. It describes the fundamentals of service design practice, a selection of exemplary spaces, and the implications for design, budgeting, and staffing.

  2. Sweeping the State Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mailund, Thomas

    The thesis describes the sweep-line method, a newly developed reduction method for alleviating the state explosion problem inherent in explicit-state state space exploration. The basic idea underlying the sweep-line method is, when calculating the state space, to recognise and delete states...... that are not reachable from the currently unprocessed states. Intuitively we drag a sweep-line through the state space with the invariant that all states behind the sweep-line have been processed and are unreachable from the states in front of the sweep-line. When calculating the state space of a system we iteratively...

  3. Collective space and urbanity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kajita, Masashi

    2015-01-01

    of evolving urbanity. The focus is on the essential and iconic collective space of the building 8TALLET- ramps and open stairs. How could space beyond private domain contribute to nurture social interactions among the residents but also enhance their relations to urban environments, while protecting...... the privacy of individual households? Envisaging potential functions and uses of the shared access route, this paper discusses the importance of continuous reflections of two perspectives: 1) architects’ logic (opportunistic attempt) of space making and 2) residents’ consideration and appropriation of spaces....

  4. Spa-Wellness Center as Part of the Hotel Facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milica Rančić

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decades “wellness spa” industry has experienced a boom around the world. The word “Wellness” has been formed by merging two words: “Well Being” + “fitness”, and appeared in the thirties of the last century in the United States. The primary objective of this movement is an ancient philosophy, according to which there ́s no fulfilled life without the assent of the physical and mental, also physical and spiritual. Hotel guests, today more than ever, want higher quality offer for their money. This means that wellness is today a very important criterion by which customers select hotels. For this reason it is necessary to pay great attention to the planning, design and construction of this part of the hotel facility. The subject of this paper is wellness and spa centers as part of the hotel facility. The task is to investigate and analyze elements of this space, to determine spatial areas of wellness center, as well as their relationships and spatial organization, in order to reach the goal - getting useful guidelines for planning quality wellness center. To all of this could be achieved, we must first go back to distant history where dating back the beginnings of wellness.

  5. Horizontal well performance in Hassi-Messaoud oil field, Algeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azzouguen, A.; Mazouzi, A.; Delhomme, A.; Deghmoum, A. [Sonatrach Inc., Hydra, (Algeria)

    2000-11-01

    The performance of non-conventional wells drilled in Hassi-Messaoud field in Algeria was analyzed using a pressure transient analysis technique called Tiab's direct synthesis (TDS). This technique makes it possible to determine the permeability tensor and the effective length of horizontal wells. Transient tests were analyzed using the TDS method for 33 non-conventional wells. For the first time it was possible to obtain the permeability tensor and the vertical permeability anisotropy. Future horizontal well drilling can now be optimized through sensitivity studies. The performance of slanted horizontal and multilateral wells was also compared. It was determined that because of their low risk, slanted wells are more appropriate for the Hassi-Messaoud field. Besides improving productivity, horizontal wells have the added advantage of providing substantial information regarding the geology of the field. It was determined that the two parameters that control production are the length and the vertical permeability. Several recommendations were presented regarding the well spacing. The recommendations were based on different geological models. 21 refs., 12 figs.

  6. Space Synthetic Biology Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, David; Roman, Monsi; Mansell, James (Matt)

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic biology is an effort to make genetic engineering more useful by standardizing sections of genetic code. By standardizing genetic components, biological engineering will become much more similar to traditional fields of engineering, in which well-defined components and subsystems are readily available in markets. Specifications of the behavior of those components and subsystems can be used to model a system which incorporates them. Then, the behavior of the novel system can be simulated and optimized. Finally, the components and subsystems can be purchased and assembled to create the optimized system, which most often will exhibit behavior similar to that indicated by the model. The Space Synthetic Biology project began in 2012 as a multi-Center effort. The purpose of this project was to harness Synthetic Biology principals to enable NASA's missions. A central target for application was to Environmental Control & Life Support (ECLS). Engineers from NASA Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC's) ECLS Systems Development Branch (ES62) were brought into the project to contribute expertise in operational ECLS systems. Project lead scientists chose to pursue the development of bioelectrochemical technologies to spacecraft life support. Therefore, the ECLS element of the project became essentially an effort to develop a bioelectrochemical ECLS subsystem. Bioelectrochemical systems exploit the ability of many microorganisms to drive their metabolisms by direct or indirect utilization of electrical potential gradients. Whereas many microorganisms are capable of deriving the energy required for the processes of interest (such as carbon dioxide (CO2) fixation) from sunlight, it is believed that subsystems utilizing electrotrophs will exhibit smaller mass, volume, and power requirements than those that derive their energy from sunlight. In the first 2 years of the project, MSFC personnel conducted modeling, simulation, and conceptual design efforts to assist the

  7. Restorative urban open space: Exploring the spatial configuration of human emotional fulfilment in urban open space

    OpenAIRE

    Thwaites, K.; Helleur, E.; Simkins, I.M.

    2005-01-01

    The capacity of outdoor settings to benefit human well being is well established by research. Examples of restorative settings can be found throughout history and are still applied today in health-care facilities, as healing or restorative gardens for the sick, but their wider significance in the urban public realm remains insufficiently explored. A conceptual framework for restorative urban open space based on mosaics of linked and nested spaces woven into the urban fabric is presented. The ...

  8. Commercialization of the Space Frontier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piland, William M.

    1997-01-01

    This paper discusses the current outlook for space business, how growing space business will improve the quality of life for all, and identified strategies for better relating international space research, technology, and space system operations to commercial interests in space. By drawing on recent assessments of the future potential for business in space, opportunities will be defined for encouraging the growth of business uses of space and regaining the public's awareness and support for expanding the space frontier.

  9. Intuitionistic supra fuzzy topological spaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbas, S.E. E-mail: sabbas73@yahoo.com

    2004-09-01

    In this paper, We introduce an intuitionistic supra fuzzy closure space and investigate the relationship between intuitionistic supra fuzzy topological spaces and intuitionistic supra fuzzy closure spaces. Moreover, we can obtain intuitionistic supra fuzzy topological space induced by an intuitionistic fuzzy bitopological space. We study the relationship between intuitionistic supra fuzzy closure space and the intuitionistic supra fuzzy topological space induced by an intuitionistic fuzzy bitopological space.

  10. Space weather research and forecast in USA

    CERN Document Server

    Pevtsov, Alexei A

    2016-01-01

    In the United States, scientific research in space weather is funded by several Government Agencies including the National Science Foundation (NSF) and the National Aeronautics and Space Agency (NASA). For commercial purposes, space weather forecast is made by the Space Weather Prediction Center (SWPC) of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). Observations come from the network of groundbased observatories funded via various sources, as well as from the instruments on spacecraft. Numerical models used in forecast are developed in the framework of individual research projects. Later, the most promising models are selected for additional testing at SWPC. In order to increase the application of models in research and education, NASA in collaboration with other agencies created Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC). In mid-1990, US scientific community presented compelling evidence for developing the National Program on Space Weather, and in 1995, such program has been formally created...

  11. Exploration of the Medicinal Peptide Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevaert, Bert; Stalmans, Sofie; Wynendaele, Evelien; Taevernier, Lien; Bracke, Nathalie; D'Hondt, Matthias; De Spiegeleer, Bart

    2016-01-01

    The chemical properties of peptide medicines, known as the 'medicinal peptide space' is considered a multi-dimensional subset of the global peptide space, where each dimension represents a chemical descriptor. These descriptors can be linked to biofunctional, medicinal properties to varying degrees. Knowledge of this space can increase the efficiency of the peptide-drug discovery and development process, as well as advance our understanding and classification of peptide medicines. For 245 peptide drugs, already available on the market or in clinical development, multivariate dataexploration was performed using peptide relevant physicochemical descriptors, their specific peptidedrug target and their clinical use. Our retrospective analysis indicates that clusters in the medicinal peptide space are located in a relatively narrow range of the physicochemical space: dense and empty regions were found, which can be explored for the discovery of novel peptide drugs.

  12. Ramified optimal transportation in geodesic metric spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Xia, Qinglan

    2009-01-01

    An optimal transport path may be viewed as a geodesic in the space of probability measures under a suitable family of metrics. This geodesic may exhibit a tree-shaped branching structure in many applications such as trees, blood vessels, draining and irrigation systems. Here, we extend the study of ramified optimal transportation between probability measures from Euclidean spaces to a geodesic metric space. We investigate the existence as well as the behavior of optimal transport paths under various properties of the metric such as completeness, doubling, or curvature upper boundedness. We also introduce the transport dimension of a probability measure on a complete geodesic metric space, and show that the transport dimension of a probability measure is bounded above by the Minkowski dimension and below by the Hausdorff dimension of the measure. Moreover, we introduce a metric, called "the dimensional distance", on the space of probability measures. This metric gives a geometric meaning to the transport dimen...

  13. Electrodynamic Dust Shield for Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Paul J.; Johansen, Michael R.; Olsen, Robert C.; Raines, Matthew G.; Phillips, James R., III; Cox, Rachel E.; Hogue, Michael D.; Pollard, Jacob R. S.; Calle, Carlos I.

    2016-01-01

    Dust mitigation technology has been highlighted by NASA and the International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG) as a Global Exploration Roadmap (GER) critical technology need in order to reduce life cycle cost and risk, and increase the probability of mission success. The Electrostatics and Surface Physics Lab in Swamp Works at the Kennedy Space Center has developed an Electrodynamic Dust Shield (EDS) to remove dust from multiple surfaces, including glass shields and thermal radiators. Further development is underway to improve the operation and reliability of the EDS as well as to perform material and component testing outside of the International Space Station (ISS) on the Materials on International Space Station Experiment (MISSE). This experiment is designed to verify that the EDS can withstand the harsh environment of space and will look to closely replicate the solar environment experienced on the Moon.

  14. The City's new hybrid experience spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Lasse; Kiib, Hans

    2007-01-01

    .  We argue that " hybrid economy" and "hybrid space" can be understood as a linkage of "a traditional economy" to a new "experience economy", as well as  a merging of  "traditional private urban spaces" with "new types of public domains". This coupling is the departure point for the mental movement...... from an industrial mindset towards a new pragmatic philosophy in the development of our cities, cities based on knowledge and culture. The term "hybrid urban spaces" breaks down the traditional division between public and private and seeks to choreograph the city as the space of experience which both...... is to understand the notion of creative alliances between cultural institutions and business life as a basis for new urban development - the city's new hybrid experience spaces....

  15. Local well-posedness of lower regularity solutions for the incompressible viscoelastic fluid system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In the present paper,the local well-posedness of the incompressible viscoelastic fluid system in the whole space is proved under the following assumption on the initial data:the deformation tensor is Hlder continuous and the velocity is Lp integrable,p>d,where d is the space dimension.

  16. Neuroplasticity changes during space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slenzka, K.

    Neuroplasticity refers to the ability of neurons to alter some functional property in response to alterations in input. Most of the inputs received by the brain and thus the neurons are coming from the overall sensory system. The lack of gravity during space flight or even the reduction of gravity during the planned Mars missions are and will change these inputs. The often observed "loop swimming" of some aquatic species is under discussion to be based on sensory input changes as well as the observed motion sickness of astronauts and cosmonauts. Several reports are published regarding these changes being based on alterations of general neurophysiological parameters. In this paper a summing-up of recent results obtained in the last years during space flight missions will be presented. Beside data obtained from astronauts and cosmonauts, main focus of this paper will be on animal model system data.

  17. Are local wind power resources well estimated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundtang Petersen, Erik; Troen, Ib; Jørgensen, Hans E.; Mann, Jakob

    2013-03-01

    Planning and financing of wind power installations require very importantly accurate resource estimation in addition to a number of other considerations relating to environment and economy. Furthermore, individual wind energy installations cannot in general be seen in isolation. It is well known that the spacing of turbines in wind farms is critical for maximum power production. It is also well established that the collective effect of wind turbines in large wind farms or of several wind farms can limit the wind power extraction downwind. This has been documented by many years of production statistics. For the very large, regional sized wind farms, a number of numerical studies have pointed to additional adverse changes to the regional wind climate, most recently by the detailed studies of Adams and Keith [1]. They show that the geophysical limit to wind power production is likely to be lower than previously estimated. Although this problem is of far future concern, it has to be considered seriously. In their paper they estimate that a wind farm larger than 100 km2 is limited to about 1 W m-2. However, a 20 km2 off shore farm, Horns Rev 1, has in the last five years produced 3.98 W m-2 [5]. In that light it is highly unlikely that the effects pointed out by [1] will pose any immediate threat to wind energy in coming decades. Today a number of well-established mesoscale and microscale models exist for estimating wind resources and design parameters and in many cases they work well. This is especially true if good local data are available for calibrating the models or for their validation. The wind energy industry is still troubled by many projects showing considerable negative discrepancies between calculated and actually experienced production numbers and operating conditions. Therefore it has been decided on a European Union level to launch a project, 'The New European Wind Atlas', aiming at reducing overall uncertainties in determining wind conditions. The

  18. Well-posedness of (N = 1) classical supergravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao, D.; Choquet-Bruhat, Y.; Isenberg, J.; Yasskin, P.B.

    1985-02-01

    In this paper we investigate whether classical (N = 1) supergravity has a well-posed locally causal Cauchy problem. We define well-posedness to mean that any choice of initial data (from an appropriate function space) which satisfies the supergravity constraint equations and a set of gauge conditions can be continuously developed into a space-time solution of the supergravity field equations around the initial surface. Local causality means that the domains of dependence of the evolution equations coincide with those determined by the light cones. We show that when the fields of classical supergravity are treated as formal objects, the field equations are (under certain gauge conditions) equivalent to a coupled system of quasilinear nondiagonal second-order partial differential equations which is formally nonstrictly hyperbolic (in the sense of Leray--Ohya). Hence, if the fields were numerical valued, there would be an applicable existence theorem leading to well-posedness. We shall observe that well-posedness is assured if the fields are taken to be Grassmann (i.e., exterior algebra) valued, for then the second-order system decouples into the vacuum Einstein equation and a sequence of numerical valued linear diagonal strictly hyperbolic partial differential equations which can be solved successively.

  19. SPACE DEBRIS RESEARCH IN CHINA(2000-2002)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    @@ Space debris is is referred to as the human made pollution in the space environment.Ever since the first launch of man made satellite in 1957, millions of kilograms of objects have been sent into the space. Large space objects that are traceable and cataloged by ground base telescope and radar reach around 9 000, becoming grave threat to the social development of human beings as well as astronautics.

  20. Custom 3D Printers Revolutionize Space Supply Chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Under a series of SBIR contracts with Marshall Space Flight Center, start-up company Made In Space, located on the center's campus, developed a high-precision 3D printer capable of manufacturing items in microgravity. The company will soon have a printer installed on the International Space Station, altering the space supply chain. It will print supplies and tools for NASA, as well as nanosatellite shells and other items for public and private entities.