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Sample records for well bore damage

  1. Borehole imaging tool detects well bore fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, T.A.; Bigelow, E.L.

    1993-01-01

    This paper reports on borehole imaging data which can provide high quality geological and petrophysical information to improve fracture identification, dip computations, and lithology determinations in a well bore. The ability to visually quantify the area of a borehole wall occupied by fractures and vugs enhances reservoir characterization and well completion operations. The circumferential borehole imaging log (CBIL) instrument is an acoustic logging device designed to produce a map of the entire borehole wall. The visual images can confirm computed dips and the geological features related to dip. Borehole geometry, including breakout, are accurately described by complete circumferential caliper measurements, which is important information for drilling and completion engineers. In may reservoirs, the images can identify porosity type, bedding characteristics, and petrophysical parameters

  2. Removing well bore liquid blockage by gas injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Tarek

    2000-01-01

    Gas condensate reservoirs have long presented production problems when the pressure around the well bore drops below the dew point pressure. The formation of the condensate around the well bore can be thought of as an additional 'skin' that causes a reduction in the gas flow rates. Many processes have been used successfully to prevent or reduce the formation of liquids within the entire reservoir, such as pressure maintenance schemes and gas cycling processes. The pressure maintenance scheme is designed to keep the reservoir pressure at or above the dew point pressure while the gas cycling process is intended to reduce the liquid dropout by vaporization.Often times the pressure in the near-well bore region of the reservoir falls below the dew point pressure, while the pressure in the reservoir remains higher than the dew point pressure. As the near-well bore pressure drops below the dew point pressure, retrograde condensation occurs leading to the formation and then the mobilization of the condensate phase towards the producing wells. The liquid phase accumulates in the near Well bore region, forming a ring, which progressively reduces the gas deliverability. This study is designed to provide an insight into the mechanism of gas injection process in reducing gas-well productivity losses due to condensate blocking in the near well bore region. The study also evaluates the effectiveness of lean gas, N 2 , and CO 2 Huff 'n' Puff injection technique in removing the liquid dropout accumulation in and around the well bore. Results of the study show the importance of selecting the optimum injection volume and pressure. (author)

  3. Function of drilling mud during well boring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinko, B

    1982-01-01

    This paper provides an analysis of primary functions that an emulsion mud must have when shallow wells are drilled: remove drilled waste matter from well, monitor stratal pressure, retain material when circulation is absent, release material to the surface, form an impermeable clay coating on walls of the well, prevent caving of soil, and prevent instrument corrosion. Recommendations are provided to achieve the above listed requirements in mud characteristics: density, filtration, viscosity, gelation and alkalization must be adjusted to the given requirements. It is concluded that fresh water alone cannot satisfy all the necessary requirements and it is recommended to avoid using it where possible, and instead utilize water with additives (emulsions). A number of water and additive compositions are offered. A polymer solution, consisting of water, NaCl or CaCl/sub 2/ to the required density, polymer (vegetative rubber or hydroxethylcellulose) in the amount of 3-6 kg/m/sup 3/ for circulation and 6-9 kg/m/sup 3/ when there's mud loss, can be utilized. Also finely ground CaCO/sub 3/ in the amount of 20-30 kg/m/sup 3/ can be utilized for cementing media. Formulas for a bentonite emulsion and others are included.

  4. Cutting tool for removing materials from well bore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynde, G.D.; Harvey, H.H. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes a cutting tool adapted to be positioned downhole in a well bore for removing a metal member from the well bore; a tool body adapted to be received within said well bore and to be supported at its upper end for rotation about a longitudinal axis; blades at spaced intervals on the body and extending outwardly therefrom, each of the blades having a base with a leading surface relative to the direction of rotation; closely spaced cutting elements of hard cutting material secured to said leading surface of the base in a plurality of transversely extending rows, each cutting element being of a predetermined size and shape and arranged in a predetermined generally symmetrical pattern on the base relative to the other elements, each of said cutting elements having an exposed from cutting face forming a cutting surface, a rear face secured to the leading surface of said base, a peripheral surface extending between said faces, and a relatively sharp edge formed at the juncture of the front face and peripheral surface; the front cutting face of each cutting element being arranged and constructed for directing an extending end portion of a turning cut form said member to effect a breaking of said turning from the member being cut in a predetermined manner to minimize interesting of the turning

  5. Environmental impact of a flocculant used to enhance solids transport during well bore clean-up operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yunus, M.N.M.; Procyk, A.D.; Malbrel, C.A.; Ling, K.L.C.

    1995-01-01

    This paper investigates particle flocculation as a mechanism to remove residual contaminants in well bores during completion operations. Laboratory tests and field trials were conducted demonstrating the ability of flocculating polymer sweeps to improve well bore cleaning efficiency. This process reduces the volume of fluid accumulated in the well bore that is discharged to the environment and minimizes the risk of formation damage by residuals left in the well bore. In addition, a comprehensive environmental impact study was performed on the flocculating polymers which included 72 hrs-EC50, 48 hrs-LC50, 10 day- LC50 tests on a variety of marine organisms, and bioaccumulation and biodegradability tests. In all cases, the flocculating polymers were shown to be environmentally safe at the recommended concentrations

  6. Boring crustaceans damage polystyrene floats under docks polluting marine waters with microplastic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Timothy M

    2012-09-01

    Boring isopods damage expanded polystyrene floats under docks and, in the process, expel copious numbers of microplastic particles. This paper describes the impacts of boring isopods in aquaculture facilities and docks, quantifies and discusses the implications of these microplastics, and tests if an alternate foam type prevents boring. Floats from aquaculture facilities and docks were heavily damaged by thousands of isopods and their burrows. Multiple sites in Asia, Australia, Panama, and the USA exhibited evidence of isopod damage. One isopod creates thousands of microplastic particles when excavating a burrow; colonies can expel millions of particles. Microplastics similar in size to these particles may facilitate the spread of non-native species or be ingested by organisms causing physical or toxicological harm. Extruded polystyrene inhibited boring, suggesting this foam may prevent damage in the field. These results reveal boring isopods cause widespread damage to docks and are a novel source of microplastic pollution. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. THE EFFECT OF WELL-BORE REVERSE FLOW OF FLUID ON ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ES Obe

    1980-03-01

    Mar 1, 1980 ... ABSTRACT. Well-bore storage may dominate the bottom-hole pressure profile of ... Type- curve matching is however only accurate when the storage factor .... numerical integration technique ... existence of a measure of well-.

  8. Tubular bending and pull-out forces in high-curvature well bores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dareing, D.W.; Ahlers, C.A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper is concerned with drag forces developed on tubulars in high-curvature well bores typically found in drainhole and horizontal drilling. The dog-leg severity of these types of boreholes are considerably higher than those typically found in conventional directional drilling. The objective of the study was to determine the significance of bending stiffness on drag forces in the pull-out mode. The method of analysis treats the tubular as a multi-spanned curved beam under tension and solves for radial displacements, slope, shear and bending moment over each span. Calculations show that bending stiffness is a minor factor provided there are no locally severe dog legs superimposed in the high-curvature well bore

  9. ZEDEX - A study of damage and disturbance from tunnel excavation by blasting and tunnel boring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emsley, S.; Olsson, Olle; Stenberg, L.; Alheid, H.J.; Falls, S.

    1997-12-01

    The objectives of the ZEDEX project were to understand the mechanical behaviour of the excavation disturbed zone (EDZ) with respect to its origin, character, magnitude of property change, extent and its dependence on excavation method. Excavation with normal smooth blasting, blasting with low shock explosives and tunnel boring were studied. The drifts are located at Aespoe at a depth of 420 m, the profiles are circular and 5 m in diameter. The results have shown that there is a damaged zone, close to the drift wall dominated by changes in rock properties which are irreversible, and that there is a disturbed zone beyond the damaged zone that is dominated by changes in stress state and mainly reversible. There is no distinct boundary between the two zones. The results from ZEDEX indicate that the role of the EDZ as a preferential pathway to radionuclide transport is limited to the damaged zone. The extent of the damaged zone can be limited through application of appropriate excavation methods. By limiting the extent of the damaged zone it should also be feasible to block pathways in the damaged zone by plugs placed at strategic locations

  10. ZEDEX - A study of damage and disturbance from tunnel excavation by blasting and tunnel boring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emsley, S [Golder Associates, Maidenhead (United Kingdom); Olsson, Olle; Stenberg, L [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Co., Figeholm (Sweden); Alheid, H J [Federal Inst. for Geosciences and Natural Resources, Hannover (Germany); Falls, S [Queens Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada)

    1997-12-01

    The objectives of the ZEDEX project were to understand the mechanical behaviour of the excavation disturbed zone (EDZ) with respect to its origin, character, magnitude of property change, extent and its dependence on excavation method. Excavation with normal smooth blasting, blasting with low shock explosives and tunnel boring were studied. The drifts are located at Aespoe at a depth of 420 m, the profiles are circular and 5 m in diameter. The results have shown that there is a damaged zone, close to the drift wall dominated by changes in rock properties which are irreversible, and that there is a disturbed zone beyond the damaged zone that is dominated by changes in stress state and mainly reversible. There is no distinct boundary between the two zones. The results from ZEDEX indicate that the role of the EDZ as a preferential pathway to radionuclide transport is limited to the damaged zone. The extent of the damaged zone can be limited through application of appropriate excavation methods. By limiting the extent of the damaged zone it should also be feasible to block pathways in the damaged zone by plugs placed at strategic locations 68 refs, 92 figs, 31 tabs

  11. Numerical simulation of two-phase filtration in the near well bore zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksat, Kalimoldayev; Kalipa, Kuspanova; Kulyash, Baisalbayeva; Orken, Mamyrbayev; Assel, Abdildayeva

    2018-04-01

    On the basis of the fundamental laws of energy conservation, nonstationary processes of filtration of two-phase liquids in multilayered reservoirs in the near well bore zone are considered. Number of reservoirs, fluid pressure in the given reservoirs, reservoir permeability, oil viscosity, etc. are taken into account upon that. Plane-parallel flow and axisymmetric cases have been studied. In the numerical solution, non-structured meshes are used. Closer to the well, the meshes thicken. The integration step over time is defined by the generalized Courant inequality. As a result, there are no large oscillations in the numerical solutions obtained. Oil production rates, Poisson's ratios, D-diameters of the well, filter height, filter permeability, and cumulative thickness of the filter cake and the area have been taken as the main inputs in numerical simulation of non-stationary processes of two-phase filtration.

  12. Disinfection of bore well water with chlorine dioxide/sodium hypochlorite and hydrodynamic cavitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yifei; Jia, Aiyin; Wu, Yue; Wu, Chunde; Chen, Lijun

    2015-01-01

    The effect of hydrodynamic cavitation (HC) on potable water disinfection of chemicals was investigated. The bore well water was introduced into HC set-up to examine the effect of HC alone and combination of HC and chemicals such as chlorine dioxide and sodium hypochlorite. The effect of inlet pressure and geometrical parameters on disinfection was studied using HC alone and the results showed that increasing inlet pressure and using more and bigger holes of orifice plates can result in a higher disinfection rates. When HC was combined with chemicals, HC can reduce the doses of the chemicals and shorten the time of disinfection. It was also found that the decrease in bacteria concentration followed a first-order kinetic model. As for the experiment of combination of HC and sodium hypochlorite for disinfection, HC not only improves the disinfection rate but also degrades natural organic matter and chloroform. Compared with only sodium hypochlorite disinfection, combined processes get higher disinfection rate and lower production of chloroform, particularly the pretreatment with HC enhances the disinfection rate by 32% and there is a simultaneous reduction in production of chloroform by 39%.

  13. Study on tsunami damage mechanism in Fukushima Prefecture focusing on the generation of bores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuma, Shohei; Sato, Shinji; Yamanaka, Yusuke; Sanuki, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Destruction mechanisms of coastal structures due to the 2011 Tohoku Tsunami were investigated on the basis of field surveys in Fukushima Prefecture. Severe destruction appeared to be developed by the action of breaking bores. Laboratory experiments demonstrated that the angle of the tsunami front was an essential parameter for the generation of breaking bores. Larger wave force was observed as the angle of the tsunami front became steeper. Numerical simulation revealed that such a steep tsunami was developed in the central part of Fukushima Prefecture, where the reflection of the preceding tsunami by coastal cliff enhanced the steepness of the largest tsunami. (author)

  14. Acceptance test procedure for the ultra high pressure bore head for use in the self-installing liquid observation well

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hertelendy, N.A.

    1995-01-01

    In order to monitor waste stored in single-shell tanks, liquid observation wells (LOWs) are installed to permit periodic insertion of instrumentation probes to evaluate the waste cross sections. An ultra high pressure water bore head, developed for installing instrument trees, was adapted for use with the LOWs. The modification facilitates the removal of the high pressure water feed system after installation. This document describes a series of tests that ensures that the design meets all the functional requirements

  15. You've got 'scale' : developments in well-bore remediation technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zemlak, Z. [Schlumberger Canada Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Kortash, B. [Amoco Canada Petroleum Co. Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2000-06-01

    The Kaybob field Beaver Hill Lake formation in Central Alberta is an aquifer driven maturing gas reservoir with high concentrations of iron sulfide scale. This scale, in combination with a time layered asphaltenes has an impact on production. Since the scale forms on tubular walls and results in corrosion of metal, it also increases risks during well intervention. Past techniques to remove the scale have not proven to be successful. This study presents a newly developed Blaster scale removal system to clean tubings. Blaster techniques use high-pressure jetting in combination with special abrasives to remove extremely hard, inert scales without damaging the tubing or completion components. Amoco Canada has been involved in the continual improvement and modification of the method since its introduction in 1998. To date, a total of 19 wells have been completed, providing valuable data about the method. It was concluded that although iron sulfide scale is common throughout the gas reservoir, the composition and solubility varies from well to well. Amoco Canada has found that Blaster techniques are a safe, low risk method of cleaning coiled tubulars to known drift parameters, in areas where scale and corrosion have been uncontrollable. 5 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig.

  16. Application of Laser Pulse Heating to Simulate Thermomechanical Damage at Gun Bore Surfaces

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cote, Paul

    2003-01-01

    Laser pulse heating experiments were performed to provide insights into the thermomechanical damage effects that occur at the surface of coated and uncoated gun steel under cyclic rapid heating and cooling...

  17. INFLUENCE OF WINE ACID ON RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF WELL BORE CEMENT SLURRIES AND HARDENED CEMENT PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nediljka Gaurina-Međimurec

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available Adaptation of commercial types of domestic cements for use in cementing the deep wells is a process by which Yugoslav oil industry tends to solve problems of completion of those wells independently. In order to design a domestic, cheep and effective retarder, tests of applicability of wine acid on cement slurries have been carried out. Besides examining the necessary wine acid content to achieve desirable Theological properties, the influence of this additive on properties of hardened cement samples has been tested too (the paper is published in Croatian.

  18. Steam heating of local well bore area in light crude oil horizons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikerin, B P

    1968-02-01

    Beneficial results were obtained from a series of small steam injection treatments of oil producing wells in Asfaltov field. In this field, spacing between producing wells is 200 m, well depth is about 450 m, formation temperature is 27$C, oil gravity is 0,845 g/cu cm, and oil viscosity is 6-10 Hz. In every treatment, 200 g of ''disolvan'' was added per ton of steam, to minimize clay swelling in the formation. Form treatment results it is concluded that: (1) steam stimulation gives positive results 65% of the time; (2) best results were obtained in compact sand formations, 5-6 m thick; (3) positive results last up to one yr after steam soak; (4) with repeated treatments oil production increases 1.5-2 times; (5) temperature of steam during flow from wellhead to well bottom at 350 m, is decreased by 25%; and (6) about 1.3 million kcal were used per 1 m of net sand thickness.

  19. Final Scientific/Technical Report for "Nanite" for Better Well-Bore Integrity and Zonal Isolation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veedu, Vinod [Oceanit Laboratories, Inc., Honolulu, HI (United States); Hadmack, Michael [Oceanit Laboratories, Inc., Honolulu, HI (United States); Pollock, Jacob [Oceanit Laboratories, Inc., Honolulu, HI (United States); Pernambuco-Wise, Paul [Oceanit Laboratories, Inc., Honolulu, HI (United States); Ah Yo, Derek [Oceanit Laboratories, Inc., Honolulu, HI (United States)

    2017-05-30

    Nanite™ is a cementitious material that contains a proprietary formulation of functionalized nanomaterial additive to transform conventional cement into a smart material responsive to pressure (or stress), temperature, and any intrinsic changes in composition. This project has identified optimal sensing modalities of smart well cement and demonstrated how real-time sensing of Nanite™ can improve long-term wellbore integrity and zonal isolation in shale gas and applicable oil and gas operations. Oceanit has explored Nanite’s electrical sensing properties in depth and has advanced the technology from laboratory proof-of-concept to sub-scale testing in preparation for field trials.

  20. Analysing the geothermal state of the ICDP COSC-1 well bore, Central Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löwe, R.; Pascal, C.; Renner, J.

    2017-12-01

    In 2014 the first well of the ICDP project "Collisional Orogeny in the Scandinavian Caledonides (COSC)" was drilled to 2495.8 m (MD) near Åre in Central Sweden. The well penetrates the Seve Nappe complex, a result of subduction/exhumation processes during the collision of Baltica and Laurentia 400 Ma. To gain detailed understanding of the geothermal state of fossil mountain belts and cratonic areas, it is necessary to study present-day heat transfer in the Earth's crust in appropriate deep wells. Heat transfer in the crust is governed by heat conduction and hydrothermal convection. The primary aims of our study are to determine which heat transfer mechanisms dominate in the study area around COSC-1 and how much heat flows to the surface. Permeability was determined for selected samples for various confining pressures using an oscillatory pore pressure method. The determined values range from 5.8 10-19 to 1.3 10-22 m2 and an empirical permeability-pressure trend was derived. Our results imply that convection plays a negligible role for heat transfer in the study area. A modified "Ångström" device was used to determine thermal diffusivity (α) from transient (oscillatory) temperature signals. It was tested on selected COSC-1 cores in an inter-laboratory round robin involving five international research organisations. Determination of specific heat capacity, density, and α for the 105 core samples, allowed us to calculate thermal conductivity (λ). In addition, we conducted measurements to assess the anisotropy of λ and α and their temperature dependencies. For the first 2000 m λ amounts to 2.8±0.4 W/(m.K) on average and increases to 4.1±1 W/(m.K) in the lowermost section of the well. Average heat generation, as derived from spectral gamma ray logs, is as low as 0.8 µW/m3. Three temperature logs were measured about one week, one month, and one year after drilling, with the latest log measured close to thermal equilibrium below 1500 m depth. Based on the logs

  1. Deep bore well water level fluctuations in the Koyna region, India: the presence of a low order dynamical system in a seismically active environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Ramana

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Water level fluctuations in deep bore wells in the vicinity of seismically active Koyna region in western India provides an opportunity to understand the causative mechanism underlying reservoir-triggered earthquakes. As the crustal porous rocks behave nonlinearly, their characteristics can be obtained by analysing water level fluctuations, which reflect an integrated response of the medium. A Fractal dimension is one such measure of nonlinear characteristics of porous rock as observed in water level data from the Koyna region. It is inferred in our study that a low nonlinear dynamical system with three variables can predict the water level fluctuations in bore wells.

  2. A boring solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radiuk, M I; Iushkova, N E; Kozubovskii, A I

    1979-10-25

    A boring solution is being patented for boring for oil and gas, which can be used in wells, where the temperature of the circulating liquid reaches 100/sup 0/. Polyvinyl acetate emulsion (PVE) is added for the purpose of decreasing viscosity of the solution at a temperature of agression into the boring solution containing clay, water, carboxymethylcellulose (CBC), a chloride from the number of sodium, potassium, or magnesium chlorides. The solution has the following composition in %: clay, 10 to 20; CBC, 1.5 to 2.0; chloride, 5 to 20; PVE, 0.5 to 2; water, up to 100. In accordance to GOST 1000-62 for the accepted PVE, the compound has the following composition, in %: monomer, 0.8; dry residue, greater than or equal to 50; plasticizer (tributyl phthalate), 5 to 15. The boring solution is processed according to the following method. The original solution, containing clay, water, salts, receives 1.5 to 2% CBC and afterwards it is processed with 0.5 to 2% PVE.

  3. TMI-2 core bore acquisition summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolman, E.L.; Smith, R.P.; Martin, M.R.; McCardell, R.K.; Broughton, J.M.

    1986-09-01

    Core bore samples were obtained from the severely damaged TMI-2 core during July and August, 1986. A description of the TMI-2 core bore drilling unit used to obtain samples; a summary and discussion of the data from the ten core bore segments which were obtained; and the initial results of analysis and evaluation of these data are presented in this report. The impact of the major findings relative to our understanding of the accident scenario is also discussed

  4. Determination of mechanical damage from wells under oil and gas flow condition; Determinacao de dano mecanico em pocos sob condicao de escoamento de oleo e gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques, J. B.D. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Trevisan, O. V. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The well bore effect is one of the most difficult variables obtained from well test analysis under two-phase condition. The presence of the gas in a well inserted in reservoir, which operates under gas drive solution, hinders the development of the analytical model to determine the mechanical damage. It is one of the reasons of the using the single phase well test analysis methodologies become suitable to the multiphase cases. The determination of the well bore effect is justified; therefore it is possible to work over in the well in order to determinate the real potential productive. The main objective of this work is to reevaluate a method of determination of the mechanical damage gotten from a well test under two-phase condition. In this work a simplified model of reservoir simulation is constructed in a commercial simulator in order to validate the methodology. The refinement of the blocks near to the well adopted in the simulation is a good representation of the well mechanical damage which occurs in a homogeneous reservoir. The types of well test analysis used in this work are two: drawdown and buildup test. The results gotten for this methodology, as will be shown, are excellent quality and the model of simulation presented here can be used for other analytical methods studies in order to determinate the mechanical damage or other variable of the reservoir. (author)

  5. Mechanisms of formation damage in matrix-permeability geothermal wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergosh, J.L.; Wiggins, R.B.; Enniss, D.O.

    1982-04-01

    Tests were conducted to determine mechanisms of formation damage that can occur in matrix permeability geothermal wells. Two types of cores were used in the testing, actual cores from the East Mesa Well 78-30RD and cores from a fairly uniform generic sandstone formation. Three different types of tests were run. The East Mesa cores were used in the testing of the sensitivity of core to filtrate chemistry. The tests began with the cores exposed to simulated East Mesa brine and then different filtrates were introduced and the effects of the fluid contrast on core permeability were measured. The East Mesa cores were also used in the second series of tests which tested formation sandstone cores were used in the third test series which investigated the effects of different sizes of entrained particles in the fluid. Tests were run with both single-particle sizes and distributions of particle mixes. In addition to the testing, core preparation techniques for simulating fracture permeability were evaluated. Three different fracture formation mechanisms were identified and compared. Measurement techniques for measuring fracture size and permeability were also developed.

  6. Mind where you bore!

    CERN Document Server

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2012-01-01

    With renewable energies on the up and up, geothermal heating is becoming increasingly popular. An ardent supporter of sustainable development, CERN welcomes this trend, even though it has certain risks for the Laboratory.   More and more people in Switzerland and France are switching to geothermal heating, with the result that more and more bore holes are being sunk for geothermal probes. Since, on average, such bore holes go down to depths of 100 m they can have an impact on CERN’s underground facilities, which are also located at approximately that depth. In the Canton of Geneva, all bore holes, whatever their depth, are subject to planning permission. Applications for planning permission are granted – or refused – only after consultation with the Ground survey department (GESDEC). In France, only bore holes below a depth of 100 m require planning permission. In theory, bore holes to lesser depths simply need to be declared to the DREAL (Dire...

  7. The use of well completion efficiency in the assessment of formation damage in initial well completion and workover operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amieibibama JOSEPH

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The calculation of well completion efficiency is very important in comparing pre/post workover or re-entry completion efficiencies of wells to enable the quantification and ranking of the success of workover operations. However, the quantification of the success of an operation could be misleading if comparisons are wrongly placed on wells or fields basis by different operators. In this work, comparative analysis of pre and post well completion efficiencies for different completions types are evaluated for wells in different fields using averaging techniques. According with this, the aim is to quantify the success rate of workover operations. The average completion efficiencies were calculated using the arithmetic mean for wells in different reservoirs and fields having the same completion type. The analysis of the results from the workover operation showed that some operations were successful while others are not and no field had all operations completely successful. Those that were adjudged successful are fields were enhanced production due to the operations was able to offset low productions from failed operations. However, it was observed in some fields that there was complete failure in the operations as all post-operation productions are lower than the pre-operation productions. The operations where failure occurred are due to loss of completion fluids into the formations, resulting to formation damage. Hence, chemical consolidation treatments must be handled with caution as they seem to be more susceptible to damage than other completion types.

  8. Tunnel boring machine applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, K.K.; McDonald, R.; Saunders, R.S.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that characterization of Yucca Mountain for a potential repository requires construction of an underground Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF). Mechanical excavating methods have been proposed for construction of the ESF as they offer a number of advantages over drilling and blasting at the Yucca Mountain site, including; less ground disturbance and therefore a potential for less adverse effects on the integrity of the site, creation of a more stable excavation cross section requiring less ground support, and an inherently safer and cleaner working environment. The tunnel boring machine (TBM) provides a proven technology for excavating the welded and unwelded Yucca Mountain tuffs. The access ramps and main underground tunnels form the largest part of the ESF underground construction work, and have been designed for excavation by TBM

  9. Bore pile foundation tall buildings closed in the heritage building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triastuti, Nusa Setiani

    2017-11-01

    Bore pile foundation for high building surroundings heritage building should be not damage. Construction proses must good, no necking, no mixed deep water, no sliding soil, nonporous concrete. Objective the execution of bore pile so that heritage buildings and neighboring buildings that are old do not experience cracks, damage and tilting. The survey methodology was observe the process of the implementation of the dominant silt, clay soil, in addition a limited space and to analyze the results of loading tests, investigations of soil and daily reports. Construction process determines the success of the structure bore pile in high building structure bearing, without damaging a heritage building. Attainment the hard soil depth, density concrete, observable clean reinforcement in the implementation. Monitoring the implementation of, among others, the face of the ground water little reduce in the area and outside the footprint of the building, no impact of vibration drilling equipment, watching the mud content on the water coming out at the time of drilling, concrete volume was monitored each 2 m bore depth of pile, The result researched heritage building was not damage. The test results bore pile axial, lateral analyzed the results have the appropriate force design required.

  10. TMI-2 core boring machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croft, K.M.; Helbert, H.J.; Laney, W.M.

    1986-01-01

    An important and essential aspect of the TMI-2 defueling effort is to determine what occurred in the core region during the accident. Remote cameras and probes only portray a portion of the overall picture. What lies beneath the rubble bed and solidified sublayer is, as yet, unknown. This paper discusses the TMI-2 Core Boring Machine, which has been developed to drill into the damaged core of the TMI-2 reactor and extract stratified samples of the core. This machine, its unique support structure, positioning and leveling systems, and specially designed drill bits, combine to provide a unique mechanical system. In addition, the machine is controlled by a microprocessor; which actually controls the drilling operation, allowing relatively inexperienced operators to drill the core samples. A data acquisition system is data integral with the controlling system and collects data relative to system conditions and monitored parameters during drilling. Data obtained during the actual drilling operations are collected in a data base which will be used for actual mapping of the core region, identifying materials and stratification levels that are present

  11. Large-bore pipe decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebadian, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    The decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of 1200 buildings within the US Department of Energy-Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) Complex will require the disposition of miles of pipe. The disposition of large-bore pipe, in particular, presents difficulties in the area of decontamination and characterization. The pipe is potentially contaminated internally as well as externally. This situation requires a system capable of decontaminating and characterizing both the inside and outside of the pipe. Current decontamination and characterization systems are not designed for application to this geometry, making the direct disposal of piping systems necessary in many cases. The pipe often creates voids in the disposal cell, which requires the pipe to be cut in half or filled with a grout material. These methods are labor intensive and costly to perform on large volumes of pipe. Direct disposal does not take advantage of recycling, which could provide monetary dividends. To facilitate the decontamination and characterization of large-bore piping and thereby reduce the volume of piping required for disposal, a detailed analysis will be conducted to document the pipe remediation problem set; determine potential technologies to solve this remediation problem set; design and laboratory test potential decontamination and characterization technologies; fabricate a prototype system; provide a cost-benefit analysis of the proposed system; and transfer the technology to industry. This report summarizes the activities performed during fiscal year 1997 and describes the planned activities for fiscal year 1998. Accomplishments for FY97 include the development of the applicable and relevant and appropriate regulations, the screening of decontamination and characterization technologies, and the selection and initial design of the decontamination system

  12. Investigation on vibrational evaluation criteria for small-bore pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuji, Takashi; Maekawa, Akira; Takahashi, Tsuneo; Kato, Minoru; Torigoe, Yuichi

    2013-01-01

    The well-known organization such as API and SwRI in USA developed criteria for piping vibrational evaluation. These criteria are targeted for main pipes, but not branch pipes with small bore. In this study, applicability of criteria of API and SwRI to branch pipes was investigated. Vibration test using piping system with small bore branch pipe was conducted and amplitudes of vibrational stress and displacement were measured for various exciting force. In comparison of the measurements with the two criteria, though the criteria of API and SwRI were applicable to small bore branch pipe, they made too conservative evaluation. (author)

  13. Atmospheric noise of a breaking tidal bore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanson, Hubert

    2016-01-01

    A tidal bore is a surge of waters propagating upstream in an estuary as the tidal flow turns to rising and the flood tide propagates into a funnel-shaped system. Large tidal bores have a marked breaking roller. The sounds generated by breaking tidal bores were herein investigated in the field (Qiantang River) and in laboratory. The sound pressure record showed two dominant periods, with some similarity with an earlier study [Chanson (2009). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 125(6), 3561-3568]. The two distinct phases were the incoming tidal bore when the sound amplitude increased with the approaching bore, and the passage of the tidal bore in front of the microphone when loud and powerful noises were heard. The dominant frequency ranged from 57 to 131 Hz in the Qiantang River bore. A comparison between laboratory and prototype tidal bores illustrated both common features and differences. The low pitch sound of the breaking bore had a dominant frequency close to the collective oscillations of bubble clouds, which could be modeled with a bubble cloud model using a transverse dimension of the bore roller. The findings suggest that this model might be over simplistic in the case of a powerful breaking bore, like that of the Qiantang River.

  14. Simulation of bearing capacity of bored piles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majeed Ahmed

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on how one can possibly predict the ultimate load for the piles that did not reach failure. This challenge was acquired through Chin- Konder method by which, the estimated settlement that correspond to failure load is well defined. Hence, this research aims to make a comparative study between the results of pile load tests carried out in Al-Basrah sewage treatment plant project, and those results induced from the numerical analysis in term of ultimate pile capacity. Consequently, it may give a clear idea on the ability of numerical simulation in getting close to the actual behavior of piles. In the current study, a numerical study using Plaxis 3D Foundation program has been performed on bored piles by the assistance of site investigations of soil. Mohr- Coulomb and linear elastic models were adopted in the simulation for soil and pile respectively. Ten bored piles were used in this analysis under different values of loading. The diameter and length of pile are 0.6m and 24m respectively. The test results indicate that, an excellent agreement has been found as a response of pile capacity between the field and numerical studies. Also, ideal load- settlement curves were created using Chin- Konder method to predict the failure load of bored piles. Also, the results have demonstrated that, the pile capacity obtained from the simulation process is larger about 51% than that design load estimated before the design of piles. This may present a priority to use the finite element method to be accounted as an effective approach in the primary analysis.

  15. Solid-to-hybrid transitioning armature railgun with non-conforming-to-prejudice bore profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solberg, Jerome Michael

    2012-12-04

    An improved railgun, railgun barrel, railgun projectile, and railgun system for accelerating a solid-to-hybrid transitioning armature projectile using a barrel having a bore that does not conform to a cross-sectional profile of the projectile, to contact and guide the projectile only by the rails in a low pressure bore volume so as to minimize damage, failure, and/or underperformance caused by plasma armatures, insulator ablation, and/or restrikes.

  16. Looking ahead of a tunnel boring machine with 2-D SH full waveform inversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pisupati, P.B.; Mulder, W.A.; Drijkoningen, G.G.; Reijnen, R.

    2015-01-01

    In the near-surface with unconsolidated soils, shear properties can be well imaged, sometimes better than P-wave properties. To facilitate ground prediction ahead of a tunnel boring machine (TBM), active ‘surveys’ with shear-wave vibrators are carried out during boring. In such surveys, only a few

  17. Energy Efficiency of Tunnel Boring Machines.

    OpenAIRE

    Grishenko, Vitaly

    2014-01-01

    Herrenknecht AG is a German world-leading Tunnel Boring Machines manufacturer showing strong awareness and concern regarding environmental issues. The company supports research on the Energy Efficiency (EE) of their products, aimed at the development of intelligent design for a green Tunnel Boring Machine. The aim of this project is to produce a ’status quo’ report on EE of three types of Tunnel Boring Machines (Hardrock, EPB and Mixshield TBM). In the framework of this research 39 projects a...

  18. Railgun bore material test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S.Y.; Burton, R.L.; Witherspoon, F.D.; Bloomberg, H.W.; Goldstein, S.A.; Tidman, D.A.; Winsor, N.K.

    1987-01-01

    GT-Devices, Inc. has constructed a material test facility (MTF) to study the fundamental heat transfer problem of both railgun and electrothermal guns, and to test candidate gun materials under real plasma conditions. The MTF electrothermally produces gigawatt-level plasmas with pulse lengths of 10-30 microseconds. Circular bore and non-circular bore test barrels have been successfully operated under a wide range of simulated heating environments for EM launchers. Diagnostics include piezoelectric MHz pressure probes, time-of-flight probes, and current and voltage probes. Ablation measurements are accomplished by weighing and optical inspection, including borescope, optical microscope, and scanning electron microscope (SEM). From these measurements the ablation threshold for both the rail and insulator materials can be determined as a function of plasma heating. The MTF diagnostics are supported by an unsteady 1-D model of MTF which uses the flux-corrected transport (FCT) algorithm to calculate the fluid equations in conservative form. A major advantage of the FCT algorithm is that it can model gas dynamic shock behaviour without the requirement of numerical diffusion. The principle use of the code is to predict the material surface temperature ΔT/α from the unsteady heat transfer q(t)

  19. A new method of damage determination in geothermal wells from geothermal inflow with application to Los Humeros, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aragon, A [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Moya, S. L [Centro Nacional de Investigacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Garcia-Gutierrez, A; Arellano, V [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2008-10-15

    Geothermal inflow type curves were obtained for different values of well damage (i.e., inflow performance relationships). The method was evaluated by diagnosing the damage of thirteen producing wells in the Los Humeros, Puebla, Mexico geothermal field. Permeability determinations were carried out for these wells and their productivity indices were estimated. Comparison of the diagnoses made via damage effects against the results of field pressure tests showed that the maximum difference between both approaches is on the order of 0.7 damage units. The methodology allows reservoir characterization along its productive life, since several production tests are carried out while the reservoir is producing. The data obtained from production tests are used to determine the damage effect and permeability of the rock formation. Previously the damage (skin factor) could only be determined from the analyses of transient pressure tests. [Spanish] Se presenta la obtencion de curvas-tipo de influjo geotermico para diferentes valores de dano, y se demuestra su aplicacion en los analisis de produccion de pozos geotermicos determinando el dano en trece pozos del campo geotermico de Los Humeros, Puebla, Mexico. Tambien se hicieron determinaciones de la permeabilidad en las zonas de produccion de estos pozos y de sus respectivos indices de productividad. Se compararon los resultados del valor de dano obtenido con la metodologia propuesta, con los valores de dano obtenidos a partir de pruebas de presion, encontrando que las diferencias maximas entre ambas tecnicas es del orden de 0.7 unidades de dano. La presente metodologia permite la caracterizacion del yacimiento a lo largo de su vida productiva a partir de las mediciones de las pruebas de produccion efectuadas en los pozos. La metodologia propuesta es innovadora porque anteriormente el dano solamente se podia determinar a partir de los analisis de las mediciones de la pruebas de presion.

  20. Tunnel boring waste test plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patricio, J.G.

    1984-03-01

    The test plan has been prepared in anticipation of the need to excavate certain repository openings by relying upon mechanical excavation techniques. The test plan proposes that specific technical issues can be resolved and key design parameters defined by excavating openings in basalt near the surface, utilizing a full face tunnel boring machine (TBM). The purpose and objective of this type of testing will define the overall feasibility and attributes of mechanical excavation in basalt. The test plan recognizes that although this technology is generally available for underground construction for some geologic settings, the current state of technology for excavation in basalt is limited and the potential for improvement is considerable. The test plan recommends that it is economically advantageous to conduct additional testing in the laboratory to allow refinement of this plan based on the laboratory results. Thus, this test plan is considered preliminary in nature, with respect to detailed testing recommendations. However, the gross design attributes and resource requirements of a near-surface TBM demonstration are considered to be valid. 15 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs

  1. Tunnel Boring Machine Performance Study. Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-06-01

    Full face tunnel boring machine "TBM" performance during the excavation of 6 tunnels in sedimentary rock is considered in terms of utilization, penetration rates and cutter wear. The construction records are analyzed and the results are used to inves...

  2. Boring of full scale deposition holes using a novel dry blind boring method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Autio, J.; Kirkkomaeki, T.

    1996-11-01

    As a part of the Finnish radioactive waste disposal research three holes (the size of deposition holes) were bored in the research tunnel at Olkiluoto in Finland. A novel full-face boring technique was used based on rotary crushing of rock and removal of crushed rock by vacuum flushing through the drill string an the purpose of the work was to demonstrate the feasibility of the technique. During the boring test procedures were carried out in order to determine the effect of charges in operating parameters on the performance of the boring machine and the quality of the hole. (refs.)

  3. Boring of full scale deposition holes using a novel dry blind boring method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Autio, J.; Kirkkomaeki, T. [Saanio and Riekkola Consulting Engineers, Helsinki (Finland)

    1996-11-01

    As a part of the Finnish radioactive waste disposal research three holes (the size of deposition holes) were bored in the research tunnel at Olkiluoto in Finland. A novel full-face boring technique was used based on rotary crushing of rock and removal of crushed rock by vacuum flushing through the drill string an the purpose of the work was to demonstrate the feasibility of the technique. During the boring test procedures were carried out in order to determine the effect of charges in operating parameters on the performance of the boring machine and the quality of the hole. (refs.).

  4. Casing Pipe Damage Detection with Optical Fiber Sensors: A Case Study in Oil Well Constructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Zhou

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Casing pipes in oil well constructions may suddenly buckle inward as their inside and outside hydrostatic pressure difference increases. For the safety of construction workers and the steady development of oil industries, it is critically important to measure the stress state of a casing pipe. This study develops a rugged, real-time monitoring, and warning system that combines the distributed Brillouin Scattering Time Domain Reflectometry (BOTDR and the discrete fiber Bragg grating (FBG measurement. The BOTDR optical fiber sensors were embedded with no optical fiber splice joints in a fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP rebar and the FBG sensors were wrapped in epoxy resins and glass clothes, both installed during the segmental construction of casing pipes. In situ tests indicate that the proposed sensing system and installation technique can survive the downhole driving process of casing pipes, withstand a harsh service environment, and remain intact with the casing pipes for compatible strain measurements. The relative error of the measured strains between the distributed and discrete sensors is less than 12%. The FBG sensors successfully measured the maximum horizontal principal stress with a relative error of 6.7% in comparison with a cross multipole array acoustic instrument.

  5. A bayesian nework based risk model for volume loss in soft soils in mechanized bored tunnels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chivatá Cárdenas, Ibsen; Al-Jibouri, Saad H.S.; Halman, Johannes I.M.

    2012-01-01

    Volume loss is one of the most important risks when boring a tunnel. This is particularly true when a tunnel is being constructed in soft soils. The risk of excessive volume loss, if materialised can lead to large consequences such as damage in buildings on the surface. This paper describes the

  6. Evidence of cellulose digestion in the wood boring isopod Sphaeroma terebrans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lori K. Benson; Stanley A. Rice; Bruce R. Johnson

    1999-01-01

    Sphaeroma terebrans Bate is a widespread estuarine, wood-boring, isopod found in red mangrove (Rhizophora mangle) forests of tropical and subtropical estuarine waters. Because it causes extensive damage to man-made structures in marine coastal zones and is resistant to common methods of wood preservation it is important to understand fully how S. terebrans uses the...

  7. Evaluation of an advanced rotor bore examination system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alford, J.W.

    1990-01-01

    Evaluations of in-service turbine-generator rotor forgings are often based on an ultrasonic examination of the near-bore region. A portable rotor bore examination system has been developed that provides discontinuity characterization required for a thorough rotor evaluation. This automated system, its procedures and operations personnel have now been qualified for full-scale field application. System development has benefited from merging several technologies with new methods for precise alignment of the drive unit, calibration block and rotor. The system runs a custom interactive software package that allows for flexible calibration and motion control as well as data acquisition and manipulation. A comprehensive evaluation procedure was developed for system qualification using test specimens with natural and artificial reflectors, including a unique fatigue-crack block. Following a discussion of the system features, this paper discusses the system evaluation based on this procedure

  8. Optimization of large bore gas engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laiminger, S.

    1999-01-01

    This doctoral thesis is concerned with the experimental part of combustion optimization of a large bore gas engine. Nevertheless there was a very close co-operation with the simultaneous numeric simulation. The terms of reference were a systematic investigation of the optimization potential of the current combustion mode with the objective target to get a higher brake efficiency and lower NO x emissions. In a second part a new combustion mode for fuels containing H 2 , for fuels with very low heating value and for special fuels should be developed. The optimization contained all relevant components of the engine to achieve a stable and well suited combustion with short duration even with very lean mixture. After the optimization the engine was running stable with substantial lower NO x emissions. It was world-wide the first time when a gas medium-sized engine could reach a total electrical efficiency of more than 40 percent. Finally a combustion mode for gaseous fuels containing H 2 was developed. The engine is running now with direct ignition and with prechamber ignition. Both modes reach approximately the same efficiency and thermodynamic stability. (author)

  9. Mechanisms for closing bores and releasably securing articles within the bores under longitudinal load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klahn, F.C.; Nolan, J.H.; Wills, C.

    1979-01-01

    This invention relates to mechanisms for closing bores of tubular passages and for releasably securing articles within the bores under longitudinal load. The system includes an axially movable latch, an actuator and locking devices. Embodiments of the invention can be used as closure mechanisms for tubular irradiation surveillance specimen assembly holders used in nuclear reactors. (UK)

  10. Mechanisms for closing bores and releasably securing articles within the bores under longitudinal load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalen, D.D.; Mitchem, J.W.

    1979-01-01

    This invention relates to mechanisms for closing bores of tubular passages and for releasably securing articles within the bores under longitudinal load. The system includes an axially movable actuator and a latch which engages the tubular opening. Embodiments of the invention can be used as closure mechanisms for tubular irradiation surveillance specimen assembly holders used in nuclear reactors. (UK)

  11. Need for a well-balanced sunscreen to protect human skin from both Ultraviolet A and Ultraviolet B damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Moyal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Skin exposure to sunlight can cause many adverse effects. It is now recognized that both Ultraviolet A (UVA and UVB wavelengths are responsible for the detrimental effects of solar radiation on skin. With our increasing knowledge on the harmful effects of UVA, the need for effective, well-balanced photoprotection has become more crucial. Numerous clinical studies showed that well-balanced sunscreen, with a SPF/UVAPF ratio ≤ 3, provide the most effective protection against pigmentation (especially on dark skin, DNA damage, UV-induced skin immunosuppression and photodermatoses. The calculation of UVA protection required in Asia revealed its particular importance in India, and gives clear evidence that the SPF value alone is not sufficient to evaluate the efficacy of a sunscreen.

  12. A Well-Designed Parameter Estimation Method for Lifetime Prediction of Deteriorating Systems with Both Smooth Degradation and Abrupt Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanqiang Yu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Deteriorating systems, which are subject to both continuous smooth degradation and additional abrupt damages due to a shock process, can be often encountered in engineering. Modeling the degradation evolution and predicting the lifetime of this kind of systems are both interesting and challenging in practice. In this paper, we model the degradation trajectory of the deteriorating system by a random coefficient regression (RCR model with positive jumps, where the RCR part is used to model the continuous smooth degradation of the system and the jump part is used to characterize the abrupt damages due to random shocks. Based on a specified threshold level, the probability density function (PDF and cumulative distribution function (CDF of the lifetime can be derived analytically. The unknown parameters associated with the derived lifetime distributions can be estimated via a well-designed parameter estimation procedure on the basis of the available degradation recordings of the deteriorating systems. An illustrative example is finally provided to demonstrate the implementation and superiority of the newly proposed lifetime prediction method. The experimental results reveal that our proposed lifetime prediction method with the dedicated parameter estimation strategy can get more accurate lifetime predictions than the rival model in literature.

  13. In-bore instrumentation/diagnostics for large-bore EMLs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, M.J.; Ager, S.A.; Hudson, R.D.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on a flying laboratory technique of in-bore diagnostics for large-bore electromagnetic launchers (EMLs). The high pressure, heat, and magnetic flux environment of the EML and its containment structures do not allow easy implementation of conventional diagnostic techniques. Researchers have relied on remote sensing methods, such as B probes (isolated from the bore), for data. The accuracy and relevance of such discrete, remote measurement is somewhat questionable. An in-house program has been initiated to determine the feasibility of making measurement of EML parameters on board a projectile. This technique utilizes off-the-shelf components in a configuration that has been proven effective in measuring projectile acceleration in the bore of propellant driven guns

  14. Tunnel boring an alternative method in construction of spent fuel repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christersson, Jukka

    1984-05-01

    In projecting of the final disposal of nuclear waste in geological formations a great importance should be paid to the selection of the tunneling method. The environment of the chosen repository area should not be exposed to any but as minor disturbances as possible by the excavation method applied. This study approaches full face tunneling methods as an alternative to conventional drill-and-blast methods in the construction of spent fuel repository tunnels. According to experiences up till now it is obvious, that tunnelboring today is fully capable technically competing with conventional tunneling methods, even in the hardest granitic rocks. The most important advantages, it provides for the construction of repositories, are: The methods does not produce any damage in the surrounding rock. Possibility to use placement techniques, which do not require preparing of additive repository holes for the fuel elements. Saving in the use of expensive filling material. The fact, that tunnel boring in hard rock is an expensive alternative, is still valid. Constuction of straight lined tunnels in unfractured rocks by tunnel boring would cost about 30-40% more than by conventional methods. The lay out arrangement of bored tunnels still have a great influence on tunnel boring machine's economy. Due to this it would be round 40-70% more expensive method in the construction of spent fuel repositories. However intensive development w is being carried out to eliminate these limitations and to make machines more flexible. Future trends in tunnel boring look good at the moment. The number of sold units has been increasing and new applications have widen out during last ten years. Harder and more abrasive rocks can now be bored than ever before and the trend seems to continue. It also looks like the cost difference in the hardest rocks is firmly getting smaller and smaller all the time. (author)

  15. Tension Tests On Bored Piles In Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krabbenhøft, Sven; Clausen, Johan; Damkilde, Lars

    2006-01-01

    The lengths of the bored piles varied from 2 m to 6 m and all were of a diameter of 140 mm. The piles were tested to failure in tension and the load-displacement relations were recorded. The investigation has shown pronounced differences between the load bearing capacities obtained by different...... design methods. The methods proposed by Fleming et al. and Reese & O’Neill seem to produce the best match with the test results....

  16. Integrated test plan for directional boring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volk, B.W.

    1993-01-01

    This integrated test plan describes the field testing of the DITCH WITCH Directional Boring System. DITCH WITCH is a registered trademark of The Charles Machine Works, Inc., Perry, Oklahoma. The test is being conducted as a coordinated effort between Charles Machine Works (CMW), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), and the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC). Funding for the WHC portion of the project is through the Volatile Organic Compound-Arid Integrated Demonstration (VOC-Arid ID). The purpose of the test is to evaluate the performance of the directional boring system for possible future use on environmental restoration projects at Hanford and other Department of Energy (DOE) sites. The test will be conducted near the 200 Areas Fire Station located between the 200 East and 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. The directional boring system will be used to drill and complete (with fiberglass casing) two horizontal boreholes. A third borehole will be drilled to test sampling equipment but will not be completed with casing

  17. Boring of full scale deposition holes using a novel dry blind boring method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Autio, J.; Kirkkomaeki, T. [Saanio and Riekkola Oy, Helsinki (Finland)

    1996-10-01

    Three holes the size of deposition holes (depth 7.5 m and diameter 1.5 m) were bored in the Research Tunnel at Olkiluoto, Finland. A novel full-face boring technique was used based on rotary crushing of rock and removal of crushed rock by vacuum flushing through the drill string. The purpose of the work was to demonstrate the feasibility of the technique. During the boring test procedures were carried out in order to determine the effect of changes in operating parameters on the performance of the boring machine and the quality of the hole. The boring method was found to be technically feasible and efficient. Evaluation of the quality of the hole included studies of the geometry of the hole, measurements of the surface roughness using a laser profilometer and study of excavation disturbances in the zone adjacent to the surface of the holes using two novel methods, He-gas diffusion and the {sup 14}C-polymethylmethacrylate methods. 43 refs.

  18. Development of Managing Program for Small Bore Piping Socket Weld on the Secondary System of NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dong Min; Ryu, Jong Myeong; Cho, Hong Seok; Cho, Ki Hyun; Choi, Sang Hoon; Kim, Man Hee

    2011-01-01

    Kori unit 3 had stopped operation due to leakage at steam generator drain line socket weld on June 6th, 2008. The cause of socket weld damage was known as welding defect and fatigue by vibration under normal operation. With above reason, the government has been required developing management program for small bore piping socket weld. Therefore, we have developed the socket weld management program to secure reliability and soundness of socket welds which are located at all domestic NPPs

  19. Estimation of strength parameters of small-bore metal-polymer pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaydakov, V. V.; Chernova, K. V.; Penzin, A. V.

    2018-03-01

    The paper presents results from a set of laboratory studies of strength parameters of small-bore metal-polymer pipes of type TG-5/15. A wave method was used to estimate the provisional modulus of elasticity of the metal-polymer material of the pipes. Longitudinal deformation, transverse deformation and leak-off pressure were determined experimentally, with considerations for mechanical damage and pipe bend.

  20. Development of large bore superconducting magnet for wastewater treatment application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Hui Ming; Xu, Dong; Shen, Fuzhi; Zhang, Hengcheng; Li, Lafeng [State Key Laboratory of Technologies in Space Cryogenic Propellants, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China)

    2017-03-15

    Water issue, especially water pollution, is a serious issue of 21st century. Being an significant technique for securing water resources, superconducting magnetic separation wastewater system was indispensable. A large bore conduction-cooled magnet was custom-tailored for wastewater treatment. The superconducting magnet has been designed, fabricated and tested. The superconducting magnet was composed of NbTi solenoid coils with an effective horizontal warm bore of 400 mm and a maximum central field of 2.56T. The superconducting magnet system was cooled by a two-stage 1.5W 4K GM cryocooler. The NbTi solenoid coils were wound around an aluminum former that is thermally connected to the second stage cold head of the cryocooler through a conductive copper link. The temperature distribution along the conductive link was measured during the cool-down process as well as at steady state. The magnet was cooled down to 4.8K in approximately 65 hours. The test of the magnetic field and quench analysis has been performed to verify the safe operation for the magnet system. Experimental results show that the superconducting magnet reached the designed magnetic performance.

  1. Pulverization of boron element and proportions of boron carbide in boron; Broyage de bore element et dosage de carbure de bore dans le bore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lang, F M; Finck, C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1956-07-01

    It is possible to reduce boron element into fine powder by means of a mortar and pestle made of sintered boron carbide, the ratio of boron carbide introduced being less than one per cent. Boron element at our disposal is made of sharp edged, dark brown, little grains of average size greater than 5 {mu}. Grain sizes smaller than 1{mu} are required for applying thin layers of such boron. (author) [French] Il est possible de pulveriser finement du bore element au moyen de mortier et pilon en carbure de bore fritte, le taux de carbure de bore introduit etant inferieur a 1 pour cent. Le bore element dont nous disposons est constitue de petits grains brun fonce, a aretes vives, de dimension moyenne superieure a 5 {mu}. L'application de ce bore en couches minces demande des grains de dimensions inferieures a 1 {mu}. (aute0008.

  2. A Computer-Controlled Laser Bore Scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Charles C.

    1980-08-01

    This paper describes the design and engineering of a laser scanning system for production applications. The laser scanning techniques, the timing control, the logic design of the pattern recognition subsystem, the digital computer servo control for the loading and un-loading of parts, and the laser probe rotation and its synchronization will be discussed. The laser inspection machine is designed to automatically inspect the surface of precision-bored holes, such as those in automobile master cylinders, without contacting the machined surface. Although the controls are relatively sophisticated, operation of the laser inspection machine is simple. A laser light beam from a commercially available gas laser, directed through a probe, scans the entire surface of the bore. Reflected light, picked up through optics by photoelectric sensors, generates signals that are fed to a mini-computer for processing. A pattern recognition techniques program in the computer determines acceptance or rejection of the part being inspected. The system's acceptance specifications are adjustable and are set to the user's established tolerances. However, the computer-controlled laser system is capable of defining from 10 to 75 rms surface finish, and voids or flaws from 0.0005 to 0.020 inch. Following the successful demonstration with an engineering prototype, the described laser machine has proved its capability to consistently ensure high-quality master brake cylinders. It thus provides a safety improvement for the automotive braking system. Flawless, smooth cylinder bores eliminate premature wearing of the rubber seals, resulting in a longer-lasting master brake cylinder and a safer and more reliable automobile. The results obtained from use of this system, which has been in operation about a year for replacement of a tedious, manual operation on one of the high-volume lines at the Bendix Hydraulics Division, have been very satisfactory.

  3. Large Bore Powder Gun Qualification (U)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabern, Donald A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Valdiviez, Robert [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-04-02

    A Large Bore Powder Gun (LBPG) is being designed to enable experimentalists to characterize material behavior outside the capabilities of the NNSS JASPER and LANL TA-55 PF-4 guns. The combination of these three guns will create a capability to conduct impact experiments over a wide range of pressures and shock profiles. The Large Bore Powder Gun will be fielded at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) U1a Complex. The Complex is nearly 1000 ft below ground with dedicated drifts for testing, instrumentation, and post-shot entombment. To ensure the reliability, safety, and performance of the LBPG, a qualification plan has been established and documented here. Requirements for the LBPG have been established and documented in WE-14-TR-0065 U A, Large Bore Powder Gun Customer Requirements. The document includes the requirements for the physics experiments, the gun and confinement systems, and operations at NNSS. A detailed description of the requirements is established in that document and is referred to and quoted throughout this document. Two Gun and Confinement Systems will be fielded. The Prototype Gun will be used primarily to characterize the gun and confinement performance and be the primary platform for qualification actions. This gun will also be used to investigate and qualify target and diagnostic modifications through the life of the program (U1a.104 Drift). An identical gun, the Physics Gun, will be fielded for confirmatory and Pu experiments (U1a.102D Drift). Both guns will be qualified for operation. The Gun and Confinement System design will be qualified through analysis, inspection, and testing using the Prototype Gun for the majority of process. The Physics Gun will be qualified through inspection and a limited number of qualification tests to ensure performance and behavior equivalent to the Prototype gun. Figure 1.1 shows the partial configuration of U1a and the locations of the Prototype and Physics Gun/Confinement Systems.

  4. Measurement of Antenna Bore-Sight Gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortinberry, Jarrod; Shumpert, Thomas H.

    2016-01-01

    The absolute or free-field gain of a simple antenna can be approximated using standard antenna theory formulae or for a more accurate prediction, numerical methods may be employed to solve for antenna parameters including gain. Both of these methods will result in relatively reasonable estimates but in practice antenna gain is usually verified and documented via measurements and calibration. In this paper, a relatively simple and low-cost, yet effective means of determining the bore-sight free-field gain of a VHF/UHF antenna is proposed by using the Brewster angle relationship.

  5. The Bored Self in Knowledge Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costas, Jana; Kärreman, Dan

    2016-01-01

    of the bored self as a combination of unfilled aspirations and the sense of stagnation, leading to an arrested identity. Our contribution is to expand extant conceptualizations of employee interactions with identity regulation, in particular relating to identity work and identification. The findings provide......This article draws attention to reported experiences of boredom in knowledge work. Drawing on extensive qualitative data gathered at two management consultancy firms, we analyze these experiences as a particular interaction with identity regulation and work experiences. We conceptualize the reports...

  6. Conditions for tidal bore formation in convergent alluvial estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonneton, Philippe; Filippini, Andrea Gilberto; Arpaia, Luca; Bonneton, Natalie; Ricchiuto, Mario

    2016-04-01

    Over the last decade there has been an increasing interest in tidal bore dynamics. However most studies have been focused on small-scale bore processes. The present paper describes the first quantitative study, at the estuary scale, of the conditions for tidal bore formation in convergent alluvial estuaries. When freshwater discharge and large-scale spatial variations of the estuary water depth can be neglected, tide propagation in such estuaries is controlled by three main dimensionless parameters: the nonlinearity parameter ε0 , the convergence ratio δ0 and the friction parameter ϕ0. In this paper we explore this dimensionless parameter space, in terms of tidal bore occurrence, from a database of 21 estuaries (8 tidal-bore estuaries and 13 non tidal-bore estuaries). The field data point out that tidal bores occur for convergence ratios close to the critical convergence δc. A new proposed definition of the friction parameter highlights a clear separation on the parameter plane (ϕ0,ε0) between tidal-bore estuaries and non tidal-bore estuaries. More specifically, we have established that tidal bores occur in convergent estuaries when the nonlinearity parameter is greater than a critical value, εc , which is an increasing function of the friction parameter ϕ0. This result has been confirmed by numerical simulations of the two-dimensional Saint Venant equations. The real-estuary observations and the numerical simulations also show that, contrary to what is generally assumed, tide amplification is not a necessary condition for tidal bore formation. The effect of freshwater discharge on tidal bore occurrence has been analyzed from the database acquired during three long-term campaigns carried out on the Gironde/Garonne estuary. We have shown that in the upper estuary the tidal bore intensity is mainly governed by the local dimensionless tide amplitude ε. The bore intensity is an increasing function of ε and this relationship does not depend on freshwater

  7. Customer Overview of Pulsed Laser Heating for Evaluation of Gun Bore Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    properties of the gun bore materials. Ideally, well validated interior ballistics modeling has been carried out (typically with NOVA) to provide time...03002, February 2003. 5. J. Warrender, C. Mulligan, and J. Underwood , “Analysis of thermo-mechanical cracking in refractory coatings using variable pulse duration laser pulse heating,” Wear 263 1540 (2007).

  8. Simulation of rock fragmentation induced by a tunnel boring machine disk cutter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiyun Li

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A constitutive model based on the Johnson–Cook material model and the extended Drucker–Prager strength criterion was implemented in LS-DYNA to simulate the rock failure process induced by a single disk cutter of a tunnel boring machine. The normal, rolling, and side forces were determined by numerical tests. The simulation results showed that the normal and rolling forces increased with increasing penetration while the side force changed little. The normal force also increased under the conditions of confining pressures. The damage region of rock and cutting forces were also obtained by simulation of two disk cutters acting in tandem with different cutting spacings. The optimum ratio of cutter spacing to penetration depth determined from numerical modeling agrees well with that obtained by linear cutting machine tests. The average normal and rolling forces acting on the first cutter are slightly greater than those acting on the second when the cutting disk spacing is relatively small. The numerical modeling was verified to accurately capture the fragmentation of rock induced by disk cutter.

  9. An Analysis of the Guided Wave Patterns in a Small-bore Titanium Tube by a Magnetostrictive Sensor Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheong, Yong-Moo; Kim, Shin

    2007-01-01

    The presence of damage or defects in pipes or tubes is one of the major problems in nuclear power plants. However, in many cases, it is difficult to inspect all of them by the conventional ultrasonic methods, because of their geometrical complexity and inaccessibility. The magnetostrictive guided wave technique has several advantages for practical applications, such as a 100- percent volumetric coverage of a long segment of a structure, a reduced inspection time and its cost effectiveness, as well as its' relatively simple structure. One promising feature of the magnetostrictive sensor technique is that the wave patterns are relatively clear and simple compared to the conventional piezoelectric ultrasonic transducer. If we can characterize the evolution of the defect signals, it can be a promising tool for a structural health monitoring of pipes for a long period as well as the identification of flaws. An in-bore guided wave probe was developed for an application to small bore heat exchanger tubes. The magnetostrictive probe installed on the hollow cylindrical waveguide generates and detects torsional waves in the waveguide. This waveguide is expanded by the draw bar to create an intimate mechanical contact between the waveguide and the inside surface of the tube being tested. In this paper, we analyzed the wave patterns reflected from various artificial holes in a titanium tube, which is used in the condenser in a nuclear power plant. The torsional guided waves were generated and received by a coil and a DC magnetized nickel strip as well as an inbore guided wave probe. The wave patterns from various defects were compared with two different sensor techniques and a detectable limit of the defected was estimated

  10. Small Bore Piping Socket Weld Evaluation System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dong Min; Cho, Hong Seok; Choi, Sang Hoon; Cho, Ki Hyun; Lee, Jang Wook

    2009-01-01

    Kori unit 3 had stopped operation due to leakage at Steam Generator drain line socket weld on June 6, 2008. The Cause of socket weld damage was known as a fatigue crack. According to this case, all socket welds located in RCS pressure boundary are carrying out Radiographic Testing. But to inspect socket welds by RT has some problems. The result of EPRI study showed that RT has limitation to find flaws at socket welds.The orientation of flaws has big influence on RT inspection capability and there is not enough space at socket welds for RT, dose problems as well. Although the gap between coupling and pipe at socket welds must follow up code, surface inspection can't inspect the gap. If there is absence of the gap, socket welds are damaged during operation. The gap should be identified by RT but the distance of gap can't be measured. As this paper, the ultrasonic inspection system was introduced to figure out indication and gap in the socket welds

  11. Automating horizontal boring and milling machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naqvi, S.A.R.; Mahmood, T.; Choudhry, M.A.; Hanif, A.

    2012-01-01

    Aiming at the requirements of modification for many old import machine tools in industry, the schemes suited to the renovation are presented in this paper. A horizontal boring and milling machine (HBM) involved in machining of tank Al-Khalid has been modified using Mitsubishi FX-1N and FX-2N PLC. The developed software is for control of all the functions of the said machine. These functions include power on/off oil pump, spindle rotation and machine movement in all axes. All the decisions required by the machine for actuation of instructions are based on the data acquired from the control panel, timers and limit switches. Also the developed software minimize the down time, safety of operator and error free actuation of instructions. (author)

  12. Formulating entompathogens for control of boring beetles in avocado orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    A foam formulation of Beauveria bassiana was adapted to control boring beetles in avocado orchards. The two geographically independent avocado growing areas in the United States are threatened by emerging diseases vectored by boring beetles. In the California growing region, Fusarium dieback is vect...

  13. Key technologies of drilling process with raise boring method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqiang Liu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the concept of shaft constructed by raise boring in underground mines, and the idea of inverse construction can be extended to other fields of underground engineering. The conventional raise boring methods, such as the wood support method, the hanging cage method, the creeping cage method, and the deep-hole blasting method, are analyzed and compared. In addition, the raise boring machines are classified into different types and the characteristics of each type are described. The components of a raise boring machine including the drill rig, the drill string and the auxiliary system are also presented. Based on the analysis of the raise boring method, the rock mechanics problems during the raise boring process are put forward, including rock fragmentation, removal of cuttings, shaft wall stability, and borehole deviation control. Finally, the development trends of raise boring technology are described as follows: (i improvement of rock-breaking modes to raise drilling efficiency, (ii development of an intelligent control technique, and (iii development of technology and equipment for nonlinear raise boring.

  14. Investigation of reactive-ion-etch-induced damage of InP/InGaAs multiple quantum wells by photoluminescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffensen, O. M.; Birkedal, Dan; Hanberg, J.

    1995-01-01

    The effects of CH4/H2 reactive ion etching (RIE) on the optical properties of an InP/InGaAs multiple-quantum-well structure have been investigated by low-temperature photoluminescence (PL). The structure consisted of eight InGaAs quantum wells, lattice matched to InP, with nominal thicknesses of 0...

  15. Bacteriophage T4 gene 32 participates in excision repair as well as recombinational repair of UV damages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosig, G.

    1985-01-01

    Gene 32 of phage T4 has been shown previously to be involved in recombinational repair of UV damages but, based on a mutant study, was thought not to be required for excision repair. However, a comparison of UV-inactivation curves of several gene 32 mutants grown under conditions permissive for progeny production in wild-type or polA- hosts demonstrates that gene 32 participates in both kinds of repair. Different gene 32 mutations differentially inactivate these repair functions. Under conditions permissive for DNA replication and progeny production, all gene 32 mutants investigated here are partially defective in recombinational repair, whereas only two of them, P7 and P401, are also defective in excision repair. P401 is the only mutant whose final slope of the inactivation curve is significantly steeper than that of wild-type T4. These results are discussed in terms of interactions of gp32, a single-stranded DNA-binding protein, with DNA and with other proteins

  16. Revisiting resolution in hydrodynamic countercurrent chromatography: tubing bore effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthod, A; Faure, K

    2015-04-17

    A major challenge in countercurrent chromatography (CCC), the technique that works with a support-free biphasic liquid system, is to retain the liquid stationary phase inside the CCC column (Sf parameter). Two solutions are commercially available: the hydrostatic CCC columns, also called centrifugal partition chromatographs (CPC), with disks of interconnected channels and rotary seals, and the hydrodynamic CCC columns with bobbins of coiled open tube and no rotary seals. It was demonstrated that the amount of liquid stationary phase retained by a coiled tube was higher with larger bore tubing than with small bore tubes. At constant column volume, small bore tubing will be longer producing more efficiency than larger bore tube that will better retain the liquid stationary phase. Since the resolution equation in CCC is depending on both column efficiency and stationary phase retention ratio, the influence of the tubing bore should be studied. This theoretical work showed that there is an optimum tubing bore size depending on solute partition coefficient and mobile phase flow rate. The interesting result of the theoretical study is that larger tubing bores allow for dramatically reduced experiment durations for all solutes: in reversed phase CCC (polar mobile phase), hydrophobic solutes are usually highly retained. These apolar solutes can be separated by the same coil at high flow rates and reduced Sf with similar retention times as polar solutes separated at smaller flow rates and much higher Sf. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Application of EPR, thermoluminescence as well as DNA damage examination methods and sprout inhibition for identification of irradiated food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malec-Czechowska, K.; Stachowicz, W.; Dancewicz, A.M.; Szot, Z.

    1998-01-01

    Irradiation of food with doses up to 10 kGy of gamma, X-rays or electron beam is a relatively new technology improving hygienic quality of food, diminishing morbidity due to food pathogens and reducing losses during food storage. Application of this technology increases constantly in the world; more and more irradiated food appears on the market in various countries. In Europe it is agreed notion that detection of irradiated foods should be obligatory procedure included into administrative control system of foodstuffs. For this purpose the reliable methods are needed by which detection of irradiation fact will be possible. Such methods are not easy to be worked out because irradiation induces changes which are to small to be detected by methods commonly applied for food control. Working out the methods suitable for identification of irradiated food has been carried out in many countries in the world and during the last decade within several local and/or international programmes including the intercomparison of results obtained in different laboratories. In our institute such investigations began already in the 80-ties using EPR spectrometry and thermoluminescence measurements. Applications of these methods were approved in 1996 as European Community Standards. Other methods are still under investigation. They include the analyses of DNA damage in irradiated foodstuffs of animal or plant origin and measurements of germination effectiveness of irradiated grains and fruits. In this communication we present some results obtained upon application of forementioned methods to detection of different kinds of food irradiated with gamma rays or electron beam. (author)

  18. Determination of the geothermal well damage from its production tests; Determinacion del dano en pozos geotermicos a partir de sus pruebas de produccion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aragon Aguilar, Alfonso; Izquierdo Montalvo, Georgina; Arellano Gomez, Victor [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2011-06-13

    In this work the evolution is described that undergoes the factor of damage in a well during its productive stage, which is identifiable from the diminution in the characteristics of its production. It is mentioned that during the productive stage of wells, its declination is, in many occasions, synonymous of the damage presence. Traditionally, the damage effect is determined from the equations for analysis of the transitory tests of pressure. Nevertheless, the execution of this type of tests requires relatively long periods of time to obtain the stabilization of the well and of significant costs. By the previous facts the development of techniques to determine the damage from production tests was initiated. In this article is presented the curve-type of geothermal inflow affected by the damage, from which the value of this one in a geothermal well for the time in which its test of production is realized can be determined. A methodology is proposed to determine the damage effect in the well using the proposed curve-type and its applicability with examples of test measurements of well discharge is demonstrated in Mexican geothermal fields. From the conducted analyses it is found that the numerical value of the damage determined in selected wells increases based on the time of exploitation, which indicates a deterioration of its productive characteristics. The previous statements aid to constitute a technical endorsement for the decision making, on the pertinent actions that can be executed in the well. [Spanish] En este trabajo se describe la evolucion que sufre el factor de dano en un pozo durante su etapa productiva, el cual es identificable a partir de la disminucion en las caracteristicas de su produccion. Se menciona que durante la etapa productiva de los pozos, su declinacion es, en muchas ocasiones, sinonimo de la presencia de dano. Tradicionalmente, el efecto de dano se determina a partir de las ecuaciones para analisis de las pruebas transitorias de presion

  19. Osedax borings in fossil marine bird bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiel, Steffen; Kahl, Wolf-Achim; Goedert, James L.

    2011-01-01

    The bone-eating marine annelid Osedax consumes mainly whale bones on the deep-sea floor, but recent colonization experiments with cow bones and molecular age estimates suggesting a possible Cretaceous origin of Osedax indicate that this worm might be able grow on a wider range of substrates. The suggested Cretaceous origin was thought to imply that Osedax could colonize marine reptile or fish bones, but there is currently no evidence that Osedax consumes bones other than those of mammals. We provide the first evidence that Osedax was, and most likely still is, able to consume non-mammalian bones, namely bird bones. Borings resembling those produced by living Osedax were found in bones of early Oligocene marine flightless diving birds (family Plotopteridae). The species that produced these boreholes had a branching filiform root that grew to a length of at least 3 mm, and lived in densities of up to 40 individuals per square centimeter. The inclusion of bird bones into the diet of Osedax has interesting implications for the recent suggestion of a Cretaceous origin of this worm because marine birds have existed continuously since the Cretaceous. Bird bones could have enabled this worm to survive times in the Earth's history when large marine vertebrates other than fish were rare, specifically after the disappearance of large marine reptiles at the end-Cretaceous mass extinction event and before the rise of whales in the Eocene.

  20. Bored tunnel storage of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penberthy, L.

    1983-01-01

    Contrary to the current emphasis on deep geologic disposal of high-level nuclear waste, simple bored tunnels offer many advantages. Much lower cost is important in this period of severe budget crisis. Recoverability is feasible from a tunnel in a mountain, but dubious from a flooded mine 3000 ft deep. It is quite possible that the world will need the breeder energy cycle urgently 200 years from now. In the writer's opinion, it would be a sin for our generation to make so much fertile and fissile uranium fuel unavailable for future generations. Storage conditions in a near-surface repository are much better than deep because the temperature can be kept down, pressure will be atmospheric instead of potentially 1200 psi, and flooding will not occur. The so-called ''hydrothermal'' conditions are thus completely avoided. Accordingly, endless studies of hydrogeology, water pathway times, waste-host rock interactions and the like are unnecessary, and the time for action is much shorter

  1. Tunnel Boring Machine for nuclear waste repository research project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janzon, H.A.

    1994-01-01

    A description is presented of a Tunnel Boring Machine and its intended use on a research project underway in Sweden for demonstrating and testing methods for rock investigation at a suitable depth for a deep repository for nuclear waste

  2. A study of DNA damage in buccal cells of consumers of well- and/or tap-water using the comet assay: Assessment of occupational exposure to genotoxicants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez Boucard, Celia; Lee-Cruz, Larisa; Mercier, Laurence; Ramírez Orozco, Martín; Serrano Pinto, Vania; Anguiano, Gerardo; Cazares, Linette; Díaz, Daniel

    2017-10-01

    Because of concerns that natural aquifers in the region of Todos Santos (Baja California Sur, Mexico) might be contaminated by organochlorine pesticides and heavy metals, a case-control study was conducted among consumers and non-consumers of well- and/or tap-water to determine risks to human health. This study was based on a genotoxic evaluation of buccal cells using the Comet assay technique. Levels of DNA damage in the consumers group were significantly higher than those of the control group. However, occupational exposure to genotoxicants showed to be the critical factor rather than water consumption. Taking into account the professions of well- and/or tap-water consumers, agricultural workers exposed directly (those who fumigated) or indirectly (those not involved in fumigating) to agrochemicals showed greater genetic damage than controls. This difference persisted even when age, and whether the person smoked or consumed alcoholic drinks were considered. These factors were not associated with the level of genetic damage observed. Chemical analyses of organochlorine pesticides and heavy metals were carried out to evaluate the water quality of wells, faucets, and surface water of canals consumed by the population and/or used for irrigation. High concentrations of α and β endosulfan were detected in water of surface canals. Although our inventory of agrochemicals employed in the region showed the use of products considered carcinogenic and/or mutagenic, they were not detected by the analytical techniques used. Heavy metals (arsenic, mercury, and lead) were detected in water of some wells used for irrigation and human consumption. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 58:619-627, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Plasma immersion ion implantation of the interior surface of a large cylindrical bore using an auxiliary electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, X.C.; Kwok, T.K.; Liu, A.G.; Chu, P.K.; Tang, B.Y.

    1998-01-01

    A model utilizing cold, unmagnetized, and collisionless fluid ions as well as Boltzmann electrons is used to comprehensively investigate the sheath expansion into a translationally invariant large bore in the presence of an auxiliary electrode during plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) of a cylindrical bore sample. The governing equation of ion continuity, ion motion, and Poisson close-quote s equation are solved by using a numerical finite difference method for different cylindrical bore radii, auxiliary electrode radii, and voltage rise times. The ion density and ion impact energy at the cylindrical inner surface, as well as the ion energy distribution, maximum ion impact energy, and average ion impact energy for the various cases are obtained. Our results show a dramatic improvement in the impact energy when an auxiliary electrode is used and the recommended normalized auxiliary electrode radius is in the range of 0.1 endash 0.3. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics

  4. Analysis of in-situ renewal technology for the backhoe bucket bores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torims, Toms; Ratkus, Andris; Vilcans, Janis; Zarins, Marcis; Rusa, Aldis [Department of Material Processing Technology Faculty of Transport and Mechanical Engineering Riga Technical University, Riga (Latvia)

    2011-07-01

    The overall aim of this article is to outline the progress of the research on how to develop an economically and scientifically justified backhoe buckets boreholes renewal technology by using mobile on-site technological equipment. Today the new mobile (in-situ) repair technologies are extensively used for the specialized equipment and machinery repairs. This repair technology is deployed directly on the damaged product: repair equipment is installed by using specialized centering devices. The bucket bores central axes are used as a reference base and damaged layer of material is removed mechanically applying turning operation. Subsequently the renewable surface is covered by new material layer by means of regular MIG/MAG welding. The last technological operation is final turning to the nominal diameter. Outlined renewal technology should meet high expectations – this necessitates in-depth and systematic study of pins and bores which are the most repaired objects of shovel bucket excavators. Therefore, research on established accuracy and technical requirements, both for the repaired unit and technological equipment in line with in-situ repair technology specifics, has been done. It was supported by impact analysis of the technological regimes to surface integrity with ambition to provide practical recommendations for the optimal choice of the technological regimes. Key words: in-situ repair technology, surface integrity, technological parameters.

  5. On the derivation of a creep law from isothermal bore hole convergence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prij, J.; Mengelers, J.H.J.

    1981-01-01

    Some analytical as well as numerical aspects relevant to the creep behaviour of cavity-like structures in salt domes are presented. Two finite element models are presented for the modelling of the bore hole configuration, both dealing with the problem of a correct choice of the amount of salts which must be taken into account. A numerical procedure is suggested to derive a material creep law from measured bore hole convergence. This procedure is applied on convergence measurement in the ASSE mine (Germany) leading to a secondary creep law (depsilon/dt)sup(c)=8.8x10 -11 sigmasup(5.5) (sigma in MPa, (depsilon/dt)sup(c) in days -1 ) which describes the transient convergence behaviour correctly. Some questions concerning the uniqueness of the derived creep law are discussed

  6. Enhanced hole boring with two-color relativistic laser pulses in the fast ignition scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Changhai; Tian, Ye; Li, Wentao; Wang, Wentao; Zhang, Zhijun; Qi, Rong; Wang, Cheng [State Key Laboratory of High Field Laser Physics, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Deng, Aihua, E-mail: aihuadeng1985@gmail.com [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Liu, Jiansheng, E-mail: michaeljs-liu@siom.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of High Field Laser Physics, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of IFSA (CICIFSA), Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2016-08-15

    A scheme of using two-color laser pulses for hole boring into overdense plasma as well as energy transfer into electron and ion beams has been studied using particle-in-cell simulations. Following an ultra-short ultra-intense hole-boring laser pulse with a short central wavelength in extreme ultra-violet range, the main infrared driving laser pulse can be guided in the hollow channel preformed by the former laser and propagate much deeper into an overdense plasma, as compared to the case using the infrared laser only. In addition to efficiently transferring the main driving laser energy into energetic electrons and ions generation deep inside the overdense plasma, the ion beam divergence can be greatly reduced. The results might be beneficial for the fast ignition concept of inertial confinement fusion.

  7. Evaluation methods of vibration stress of small bore piping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiramatsu, Miki; Sasaki, Toru [Institute of Nuclear Safety System Inc., Mihama, Fukui (Japan)

    2001-09-01

    Fatigue fracture by vibration stress is one of the main causes of troubles which occur at small bore piping in nuclear power plants. Therefore at the plants they manage small bore piping using a method in which their vibration accelerations are measured and the vibration stresses are calculated. In this work, vibration tests for two sets of mock-ups simulating actual piping in the plants by sinusoidal oscillation and by that obtained at an actual plant were carried out, and then an evaluation method was developed to obtain proper value of vibration stress from the measured data by the vibration tests. In comparison of the vibration stress obtained from the measured acceleration with that directly measured using strain gauges, it is confirmed that accurate vibration stress can be evaluated by a formula in which the real center of gravity of small bore piping and the acceleration of main (system) piping are considered. (author)

  8. West Germany's super-deep boring project KTB. To make thw world deepest dream come true

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urabe, Tetsuro [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba, (Japan)

    1989-07-01

    West Germany has started a project of the world deepest boring of 14km depth which requires more than 10 years and as much as 40 billion yen. This is a national project of scientific research called Continental Deep Boring Project(abbreviated as KTB). This project was proposed by the West German Research Association about 10 years ago, and pre-investigation, technical investigation and selection of proper field were started in 1981. The project was approved by the Federal Research Technology Ministry in 1985 and was started with the overall budget(upper limit) of 450 million Deutchemarks. At present, a 5,000m deep well for the investigation of the shallow part is being drilled, and mud analysis and core analysis are being carried out. Super deep drilling is comprehensive system engineering that includes the robotizing of lifts, the development of drill pipe material which is strong and light enough not to be torn by its own weight, the improvement of the turbo drill bit, and the development of heat resisting and pressure-tight semiconductor for in-the-bore-measuring instruments. In West Germany, the official, civil and academic circles participate in this project. 18 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Continuous measurements of in-bore projectile velocity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asay, J.R.; Konrad, C.H.; Hall, C.A.; Shahinpoor, M.

    1989-01-01

    The application of velocity interferometry to the continuous measurement of in-bore projectile velocity in a small-bore three-stage railgun is described. These measurements are useful for determining projectile acceleration and for evaluating gun performance. The launcher employed in these studies consists of a two-stage light gas gun used to inject projectiles into a railgun for additional acceleration. Results obtained for projectile velocities to 7.4 km/s with the two-stage injector are reported and potential improvements for railgun applications are discussed

  10. Grinding tool for making hemispherical bores in hard materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran, E.L.

    1985-04-03

    A grinding tool for forming hemispherical bores in hard materials such as boron carbide. The tool comprises a hemicircular grinding bit, formed of a metal bond diamond matrix, which is mounted transversely on one end of a tubular tool shaft. The bit includes a spherically curved outer edge surface which is the active grinding surface of the tool. Two coolant fluid ports on opposite sides of the bit enable introduction of coolant fluid through the bore of the tool shaft so as to be emitted adjacent the opposite sides of the grinding bit, thereby providing optimum cooling of both the workpiece and the bit.

  11. High-Pressure Hot-Gas Self-Acting Floating Ring Shaft Seal for Liquid Rocket Turbopumps. [tapered bore seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burcham, R. E.; Diamond, W. A.

    1980-01-01

    Design analysis, detail design, fabrication, and experimental evaluation was performed on two self acting floating ring shaft seals for a rocket engine turbopump high pressure 24132500 n/sq m (3500 psig) hot gas 533 K 9500 F) high speed 3142 rad/sec (30000 rmp) turbine. The initial design used Rayleigh step hydrodynamic lift pads to assist in centering the seal ring with minimum rubbing contact. The final design used a convergent tapered bore to provide hydrostatic centering force. The Rayleigh step design was tested for 107 starts and 4.52 hours total. The leakage was satisfactory; however, the design was not acceptable due to excessive wear caused by inadequate centering force and failure of the sealing dam caused by erosion damage. The tapered bore design was tested for 370 starts and 15.93 hours total. Satisfactory performance for the required life of 7.5 hours per seal was successfully demonstrated.

  12. Boring of full scale deposition holes at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Operational experiences including boring performance and a work time analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Christer [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Johansson, Aasa [SWECO, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2002-12-01

    Thirteen experimental deposition holes similar to those in the present KBS-3 design have been bored at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory, Oskarshamn, Sweden. The objective with the boring program was to test and demonstrate the current technique for boring of large vertical holes in granitic rock. Conclusions and results from this project is used in the planning process for the deposition holes that will be bored in the real repository for spent nuclear fuel. The boreholes are also important for three major projects. The Prototype Repository, the Canister Retrieval Test and the Demonstration project will all need full-scale deposition holes for their commissioning. The holes are bored in full scale and have a radius of 1.75 m and a depth of 8.5 m. To bore the holes an existing TBM design was modified to produce a novel type Shaft Boring Machine (SBM) suitable for boring 1.75 m diameter holes from a relatively small tunnel. The cutter head was equipped with two types of roller cutters: two row carbide button cutters and disc cutters. Removal of the cuttings was made with a vacuum suction system. The boring was monitored and boring parameters recorded by a computerised system for the evaluation of the boring performance. During boring of four of the holes temperature, stress and strain measurements were performed. Acoustic emission measurements were also performed during boring of these four holes. The results of these activities will not be discussed in this report since they are reported separately. Criteria regarding nominal borehole diameter, deviation of start and end centre point, surface roughness and performance of the machine were set up according to the KBS-3 design and were fulfilled with a fair margin. The average total time for boring one deposition hole during this project was 105 hours.

  13. Boring of full scale deposition holes at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Operational experiences including boring performance and a work time analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Christer; Johansson, Aasa

    2002-12-01

    Thirteen experimental deposition holes similar to those in the present KBS-3 design have been bored at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory, Oskarshamn, Sweden. The objective with the boring program was to test and demonstrate the current technique for boring of large vertical holes in granitic rock. Conclusions and results from this project is used in the planning process for the deposition holes that will be bored in the real repository for spent nuclear fuel. The boreholes are also important for three major projects. The Prototype Repository, the Canister Retrieval Test and the Demonstration project will all need full-scale deposition holes for their commissioning. The holes are bored in full scale and have a radius of 1.75 m and a depth of 8.5 m. To bore the holes an existing TBM design was modified to produce a novel type Shaft Boring Machine (SBM) suitable for boring 1.75 m diameter holes from a relatively small tunnel. The cutter head was equipped with two types of roller cutters: two row carbide button cutters and disc cutters. Removal of the cuttings was made with a vacuum suction system. The boring was monitored and boring parameters recorded by a computerised system for the evaluation of the boring performance. During boring of four of the holes temperature, stress and strain measurements were performed. Acoustic emission measurements were also performed during boring of these four holes. The results of these activities will not be discussed in this report since they are reported separately. Criteria regarding nominal borehole diameter, deviation of start and end centre point, surface roughness and performance of the machine were set up according to the KBS-3 design and were fulfilled with a fair margin. The average total time for boring one deposition hole during this project was 105 hours

  14. Quality Designed Twin Wire Arc Spraying of Aluminum Bores

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Johannes; Lahres, Michael; Methner, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    After 125 years of development in combustion engines, the attractiveness of these powerplants still gains a great deal of attention. The efficiency of engines has been increased continuously through numerous innovations during the last years. Especially in the field of motor engineering, consequent friction optimization leads to cost-effective fuel consumption advantages and a CO2 reduction. This is the motivation and adjusting lever of NANOSLIDE® from Mercedes-Benz. The twin wire arc-spraying process of the aluminum bore creates a thin, iron-carbon-alloyed coating which is surface-finished through honing. Due to the continuous development in engines, the coating strategies must be adapted in parallel to achieve a quality-conformed coating result. The most important factors to this end are the controlled indemnification of a minimal coating thickness and a homogeneous coating deposition of the complete bore. A specific system enables the measuring and adjusting of the part and the central plunging of the coating torch into the bore to achieve a homogeneous coating thickness. Before and after measurement of the bore diameter enables conclusions about the coating thickness. A software tool specifically developed for coating deposition can transfer this information to a model that predicts the coating deposition as a function of the coating strategy.

  15. Pressure bump instability in very large cold bore storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limon, P.

    1983-12-01

    Calculations have been done to estimate the circulating current necessary to induce the onset of a pressure bump instability in a cold bore storage ring. For a wide range of storage ring parameters, the instability threshold current is more than an order of magnitude higher than the operating current. 4 references, 2 tables

  16. A finite element thermohydrodynamic analyis of profile bore bearing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah Nor bin Basri

    1994-01-01

    A finite element-based method is presented for analysing the thermohydrodynamic (THD) behaviour of profile bore bearing. A variational statement for the governing equation is derived and used to formulate a non-linear quadrilateral finite element of serendipity family. The predicted behaviour is compared with experimental evidence where possible and favorable correlation is obtained

  17. Shaft Boring Machine: A method of mechanized vertical shaft excavation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodell, T.M.

    1991-01-01

    The Shaft Boring Machine (SBM) is a vertical application of proven rock boring technology. The machine applies a rotating cutter wheel with disk cutters for shaft excavation. The wheel is thrust against the rock by hydraulic cylinders and slews about the shaft bottom as it rotates. Cuttings are removed by a clam shell device similar to conventional shaft mucking and the muck is hoisted by buckets. The entire machine moves down (and up) the shaft through the use of a system of grippers thrust against the shaft wall. These grippers and their associated cylinders also provide the means to maintain verticality and stability of the machine. The machine applies the same principles as tunnel boring machines but in a vertical mode. Other shaft construction activities such as rock bolting, utility installation and shaft concrete lining can be accomplished concurrent with shaft boring. The method is comparable in cost to conventional sinking to a depth of about 460 meters (1500 feet) beyond which the SBM has a clear host advantage. The SBM has a greater advantage in productivity in that it can excavate significantly faster than drill and blast methods

  18. Acoustic Monitoring for Tunnel Boring in Soft Soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swinnen, G.

    2003-01-01

    The TBM, not a blind mole! This thesis deals with some aspects of seismic imaging of the soft soil in front of a Tunnel Boring Machine to help tunnel constructors ``see'' the subsurface they are approaching, instead of steering the TBM forward like a ``blind mole''. The Dutch shallow subsurface has

  19. Investigation of the structure of filter cakes from bore flushing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartmann, A; Oezerler, M; Marx, C; Hartmann, A; Oezerler, M; Marx, C; Poege, S; Young, F

    1985-01-01

    After a description of the tasks and functions of the filter cake in bores, the requirements for filter cakes are explained. The aim of the investigation is finding a correlation between the filter cake structures and the prehistory of flushing. The technique of preparing the samples and previous results from investigations with electron microscopes are introduced and discussed.

  20. Procedure for seismic evaluation and design of small bore piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilanin, W.; Sills, S.

    1991-01-01

    Simplified methods for the seismic design of small bore piping in nuclear power plants have teen used for many years. Various number of designers have developed unique methods to treat the large number of class 2 and 3 small bore piping systems. This practice has led to a proliferation of methods which are not standardized in the industry. These methods are generally based on enveloping the results of rigorous dynamic or conservative static analysis and result in an excessive number of supports and unrealistically high support loadings. Experience and test data have become available which warranted taking another look at the present methods for analysis of small bore piping. A recently completed Electric Power Research Institute and NCIG (a utility group) activity developed a new procedure for the seismic design and evaluation of small bore piping which provides significant safety and cost benefits. The procedure streamlines the approach to inertial stresses, which is the main feature that achieves the new benefits. Criteria in the procedure for seismic anchor movement and support design are based analysis and focus the designer on credible failure mechanisms. A walkdown of the as-constructed piping system to identify and eliminate undesirable piping features such as adverse spatial interaction is required

  1. Influence of friction on buckling of a drill string in the circular channel of a bore hole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valery Gulyayev

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Enhancement of technology and techniques for drilling deep directed oil and gas bore hole is one of the most important problems of the current petroleum industry. Not infrequently, the drilling of these bore holes is attended by occurrence of extraordinary situations associated with technical accidents. Among these is the Eulerian loss of stability of a drill string in the channel of a curvilinear bore hole. Methods of computer simulation should play a dominant role in prediction of these states. In this paper, a new statement of the problem of critical buckling of the drill strings in 3D curvilinear bore holes is proposed. It is based on combined use of the theory of curvilinear elastic rods, Eulerian theory of stability, theory of channel surfaces, and methods of classical mechanics of systems with nonlinear constraints. It is noted that the stated problem is singularly perturbed and its solutions have the shapes of localized harmonic wavelets. The calculation results showed that the friction effects lead to essential redistribution of internal axial forces, as well as changing the eigenmode shapes and sites of their localization. These features make the buckling phenomena less predictable and raise the role of computer simulation of these effects.

  2. Analysis of Driven Pile Capacity within Pre-Bored Soil : Research Project Capsule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Pre-boring is a method used to facilitate large displacement pile driving in hard/dense soils (see Figure 1). By pre-boring a pilot hole, the end bearing and side friction within the pre-bored zone are reduced, thus aiding pile driving installation. ...

  3. Turbulent mixing and wave radiation in non-Boussinesq internal bores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borden, Zac; Koblitz, Tilman; Meiburg, Eckart

    2012-01-01

    Bores, or hydraulic jumps, appear in many natural settings and are useful in many industrial applications. If the densities of the two fluids between which a bore propagates are very different (i.e., water and air), the less dense fluid can be neglected when modeling a bore analytically-a single...... ratio, defined as the ratio of the density of the lighter fluid to the heavier fluid, is greater than approximately one half. For smaller density ratios, undular waves generated at the bore's front dominate over the effects of turbulent mixing, and the expanding layer loses energy across the bore. Based...

  4. External Microflora of a Marine Wood-Boring Isopod

    OpenAIRE

    Boyle, Paul J.; Mitchell, Ralph

    1981-01-01

    Bacteria associated with the marine wood-boring isopod Limnoria lignorum were enumerated by acridine orange epifluorescence microscopy and by plate counts on several media; the plate-viable bacteria were isolated and identified. Similar procedures were followed to enumerate and identify bacteria associated with the wood substrate from which the isopods were collected and with the surrounding water from the isopod habitat. Approximately 1.4 × 107 bacterial cells were associated with each indiv...

  5. Interaction between groundwater and TBM (Tunnel Boring Machine) excavated tunnels

    OpenAIRE

    Font Capó, Jordi

    2012-01-01

    A number of problems, e.g. sudden inflows are encountered during tunneling under the piezometric level, especially when the excavation crosses high transmissivity areas. These inflows may drag materials when the tunnel crosses low competent layers, resulting in subsidence, chimney formation and collapses. Moreover, inflows can lead to a decrease in head level because of aquifer drainage. Tunnels can be drilled by a tunnel boring machine (TBM) to minimize inflows and groundwater impacts, restr...

  6. Four-layer, two-inch bore, superconducting dipole magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassenzahl, W.V.; Peters, C.; Gilbert, W.; Taylor, C.; Meuser, R.

    1982-11-01

    Superconductors provide the accelerator designer with a unique opportunity to construct machines that can achieve high particle energies and yet have low operating costs. This paper describes the design, fabrication and testing of a 4 layer, 50 mm bore superconducting dipole magnet, D-9A. The magnet reached short sample, 5.8 T at 4.4 K and 8.0 T and 1.8 K, with little training, and exhibited low losses and low ramp rate sensitivity

  7. Why is archaeometry so boring for archaeologists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widemann, F.

    1980-01-01

    This is a tentative for shaking the intellectual confort of physicists, chemists and mathematicians working for archaeology. It is a well-known fact that the meetings for archaeometry attract more and more scientists, but archaeologists, in principle directly interested in the methods, the objects and the results of the work are not present in a significant amount in those meetings. The aim of this paper is a brief analysis of this phenomenon and of various solutions attempted. It would be simplistic attributing only to archaeologists the responsability of this situation. In fact some archaeometrists are happy with it. Also, the archaeological impact of a few communications in the Archaeometry Symposia is low, either from the hit pursued or because the results are irrelevant for misuse of methods, or inconsistent sampling. Technical details interesting only a small circle are sometimes explained in large sessions. They are not only problems of organization common to any large congress but could be a sign of a scientific community loosing sometimes a clear consciousness of its own object. The organization of the interdisciplinary permanent team in Orsay-Saclay is presented as a search for keeping a good link between laboratory and field work. The choosen example, the study of the Gallo-Roman production and trade of amphorae, is studied in a methodological point of view showing the interest of permanent exchange and control of the historical validity of the results without neglecting the technical needs for building up relevant data

  8. Ethylene glycol as bore fluid for hollow fiber membrane preparation

    KAUST Repository

    Le, Ngoc Lieu

    2017-03-31

    We proposed the use of ethylene glycol and its mixture with water as bore fluid for the preparation of poly(ether imide) (PEI) hollow fiber membranes and compared their performance and morphology with membranes obtained with conventional coagulants (water and its mixture with the solvent N-methylpyrrolidone (NMP)). Thermodynamics and kinetics of the systems were investigated. Water and 1:1 water:EG mixtures lead to fast precipitation rates. Slow precipitation is observed for both pure EG and 9:1 NMP:water mixture, but the reasons for that are different. While low osmotic driving force leads to slow NMP and water transport when NMP:water is used, the high EG viscosity is the reason for the slow phase separation when EG is the bore fluid. The NMP:water mixture produces fibers with mixed sponge-like and finger-like structure with large pores in the inner and outer layers; and hence leading to a high water permeance and a high MWCO suitable for separation of large-sized proteins. As compared to NMP:water, using EG as bore fluid provides fibers with a finger-like bilayered structure and sponge-like layers near the surfaces, and hence contributing to the higher water permeance. It also induces small pores for better protein rejection.

  9. Bore erosion due to plasma armatures in EM launchers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Askew, R.F.; Brown, J.L.; Jensen, D.B.

    1987-01-01

    Bore erosion, both to insulators and rails, has been a major concern in the EM Launcher community. Plasma armatures have generally produced both melting and ablation from the rails, with the result that the surface texture of the rails is course and uneven upon resolidification. Ablation evidence for insulators varies with material but mass lose by decomposition appears prevalent. Theoretical models for EML performance, both one and two dimensional, have a strong dependence on armature mass, which is turn is influenced by rail and insulator ablation. Ablation models are strongly dependent on the armature plasma temperature. In order to test the accuracy of models detailed information is needed on the time dependence of the in-bore plasma parameters such as pressure, temperature, and electron density. Previously reported experimental data indicated that mechanisms other than plasma radiation are involved in the ablation process. New experiments have been conducted using a small, square bore (1 cm) facility, 60 cm in length, to quantify the erosions and to relate this to conditions within the armature and possible plasma chemistry processes at the rails and insulators. Mass loss has been measured as a function of position on both the rails and insulators. These have been correlated with the time history of the gas dynamic pressure at that location. In addition, the armature current time history has been correlated with the pressure

  10. Ethylene glycol as bore fluid for hollow fiber membrane preparation

    KAUST Repository

    Le, Ngoc Lieu; Nunes, Suzana Pereira

    2017-01-01

    We proposed the use of ethylene glycol and its mixture with water as bore fluid for the preparation of poly(ether imide) (PEI) hollow fiber membranes and compared their performance and morphology with membranes obtained with conventional coagulants (water and its mixture with the solvent N-methylpyrrolidone (NMP)). Thermodynamics and kinetics of the systems were investigated. Water and 1:1 water:EG mixtures lead to fast precipitation rates. Slow precipitation is observed for both pure EG and 9:1 NMP:water mixture, but the reasons for that are different. While low osmotic driving force leads to slow NMP and water transport when NMP:water is used, the high EG viscosity is the reason for the slow phase separation when EG is the bore fluid. The NMP:water mixture produces fibers with mixed sponge-like and finger-like structure with large pores in the inner and outer layers; and hence leading to a high water permeance and a high MWCO suitable for separation of large-sized proteins. As compared to NMP:water, using EG as bore fluid provides fibers with a finger-like bilayered structure and sponge-like layers near the surfaces, and hence contributing to the higher water permeance. It also induces small pores for better protein rejection.

  11. The necessity and application of stratigraphic borings in hydrogeologic site assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sciacca, J.

    1991-01-01

    The siting and placement of monitoring wells is one of the most critical elements in hydrogeologic assessments of contaminated sites. Monitoring wells are placed to collect hydraulic and chemical concentration data to: (1) determine potential groundwater flow paths and rates: (2) analyze the nature and extent of chemical constituents in groundwater; and (3) estimate contaminant fate and transport. In many instances monitoring wells provide inappropriate or erroneous hydraulic data, do not provide coverage of potential high permeability flow pathways (such as channel sands) or may themselves create (through improper construction) a vertical conduit for contaminant flow from low permeability to high permeability units. This problem is commonly due to installing monitoring wells before conducting essential stratigraphic analysis and formulating a depositional model for the site area. This paper presents case examples where stratigraphic borings were drilled and logged in the vicinity of proposed well locations to effectively design and install the monitoring well network. The borings were continuously sampled or geophysically logged to provide a vertical profile of the borehole. In addition, the geophysical logs provided curve signatures which allowed interpretation of depositional facies. These data were used to interpret subsurface stratigraphy and effectively position monitoring wells that achieve the above objectives and prevent problems associated with faulty well positioning. This method may cost more initially. However, these initial costs are cheaper than long-term project expenses for abandoning improperly completed wells. subsequently installing supplemental monitoring wells or modifying poorly designed treatment systems which resulted from improper or insufficient data generated from the initial monitoring network

  12. Numerical model for surge and swab pressures on wells with cross-section variation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedevjcyk, Joao Victor; Junqueira, Silvio Luiz de Mello; Negrao, Cezar Otaviano Ribeiro [UTFPR - Federal University of Technology - Parana - Curitiba, PR (Brazil)], e-mails: silvio@utfpr.edu.br, negrao@utfpr.edu.br

    2010-07-01

    Drilling is one of the most complex steps in petroleum exploration. The process is accomplished by rotating a drill bit to compress the rock formation. During drilling, a fluid is pumped into the well to lubricate and cool down the drill bit, to clean up the well, to avoid the formation fluid influx to the well and also to stabilize the borehole walls. Fluid circulation, however, can be interrupted for maintenance reasons and the drill pipe can be moved to remove the drill bit. The downward or upward movement of the drill pipe displaces the fluid within the well causing either under pressure (swab) or over pressure (surge), respectively. If the pressure at the well bore overcomes the formation fracture pressure, a loss of circulation can take place. On the other way round, the upward movement may reduce the pressure below the pore pressure and an inflow of fluid to the well (kick) can occur. An uncontrolled kick may cause a blowout with serious damages. The transient flow induced by the axial movement of the drill pipe is responsible for the pressure changes at the well bore. Nevertheless, the well bore cross section variation may modify the pressure change within the pipe. In this paper, the effects of diameter variation of the drilling well on the surge and swab pressures are investigated. The equations that represent the phenomenon (mass and momentum conservation) are discretized by the finite volume method. Despite its non-Newtonian properties, the fluid is considered Newtonian in this first work. The drill pipe is considered closed and the flow is assumed as single-phased, one-dimensional, isothermal, laminar, compressible and transient. A sensitivity analysis of the flow parameters is carried out. The cross-section changes cause the reflection of the pressure wave, and consequently pressure oscillations. (author)

  13. Prediction of temperature profile in oil wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laderion, A.

    2000-01-01

    A mathematical model has been developed to predict the temperature distribution in well bores either offshore or inshore. It is incorporate the different activities encountered during drilling operations. Furthermore, the effect of drill collar and casings and bit rotating in a well during completion has been considered. The two dimensional approach is presented in the form of a computer program which is adopted for solution of the finite difference equations describing the heat transmission in the well bore in the form of a direct solution technique. The power law model has been selected for drilling mud and its indices have been calculated. Comparing measured data, recorded for a period of 82 hours during different activities in a drilling operation for 15/20 A-4, an exploration well in the Central North Sea with calculated results, show there is a good agreement between the prediction and measured temperatures in the well bore

  14. Four Weeks of Supplementation With Isolated Soy Protein Attenuates Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage and Enhances Muscle Recovery in Well Trained Athletes: A Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenoy, Shweta; Dhawan, Mrinal; Singh Sandhu, Jaspal

    2016-09-01

    The effects of consumption of isolated soy protein (ISP) for a chronic period (4 weeks) on exercise induced muscle damage (EIMD) in athletic population have never been explored. To examine the effects of ISP on muscle damage indices elicited via a bout of damaging exercise. Forty males (20 boxers, 20 cyclists) aged 18 - 28 years were randomly assigned to two groups (ISP and Placebo) (n = 20). All participants who engaged themselves in specific, regular training of 30 hours a week during the competitive season were included in the study. Participants consumed the supplement and the placebo for 4 weeks. The damaging exercise consisted of 100 consecutive drop-jumps. Pre and post supplementation readings of the criterion variables, highly sensitive C reactive protein (hs-cRP), creatine Kinase (CK), myeloperoxidase (MPO), isometric muscle strength, maximum aerobic capacity (VO 2 max), heart rate (HR) and muscle soreness were obtained at baseline (Day 1), at 24 hours (Day 2) and at 48 hours (Day 3) following EIMD. Differences were observed in pre and post supplementation values (P athletic population.

  15. Single well techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drost, W.

    1983-01-01

    The single well technique method includes measurement of parameters of groundwater flow in saturated rock. For determination of filtration velocity the dilution of radioactive tracer is measured, for direction logging the collimeter is rotated in the probe linked with the compass. The limiting factor for measurement of high filtration velocities is the occurrence of turbulent flow. The single well technique is used in civil engineering projects, water works and subsurface drainage of liquid waste from disposal sites. The radioactive tracer method for logging the vertical fluid movement in bore-holes is broadly used in groundwater survey and exploitation. (author)

  16. Detailed design of the large-bore 8 T superconducting magnet for the NAFASSY test facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corato, V.; Affinito, L.; Anemona, A.; Besi Vetrella, U.; Di Zenobio, A.; Fiamozzi Zignani, C.; Freda, R.; Messina, G.; Muzzi, L.; Perrella, M.; Reccia, L.; Tomassetti, G.; Turtù, S.; della Corte, A.

    2015-03-01

    The ‘NAFASSY’ (NAtional FAcility for Superconducting SYstems) facility is designed to test wound conductor samples under high-field conditions at variable temperatures. Due to its unique features, it is reasonable to assume that in the near future NAFASSY will have a preeminent role at the international level in the qualification of long coiled cables in operative conditions. The magnetic system consists of a large warm bore background solenoid, made up of three series-connected grading sections obtained by winding three different Nb3Sn Cable-in-Conduit Conductors. Thanks to the financial support of the Italian Ministry for University and Research the low-field coil is currently under production. The design has been properly modified to allow the system to operate also as a stand-alone facility, with an inner bore diameter of 1144 mm. This magnet is able to provide about 7 T on its axis and about 8 T close to the insert inner radius, giving the possibility of performing a test relevant for large-sized NbTi or medium-field Nb3Sn conductors. The detailed design of the 8 T magnet, including the electro-magnetic, structural and thermo-hydraulic analysis, is here reported, as well as the production status.

  17. E-cigarette smoke damages DNA and reduces repair activity in mouse lung, heart, and bladder as well as in human lung and bladder cells

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hyun-Wook; Park, Sung-Hyun; Weng, Mao-wen; Wang, Hsiang-Tsui; Huang, William C.; Lepor, Herbert; Wu, Xue-Ru; Chen, Lung-Chi; Tang, Moon-shong

    2018-01-01

    Significance E-cigarette smoke (ECS) delivers nicotine through aerosols without burning tobacco. ECS is promoted as noncarcinogenic. We found that ECS induces DNA damage in mouse lung, bladder, and heart and reduces DNA-repair functions and proteins in lung. Nicotine and its nitrosation product 4-(methylnitrosamine)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone can cause the same effects as ECS and enhance mutations and tumorigenic cell transformation in cultured human lung and bladder cells. These results indica...

  18. Generic methods for design of small-bore pipe supports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, G.L.; LaSalle, F.R.

    1981-01-01

    Large numbers of supports for small-bore, low-temperature pipe are utilized in nuclear power plants. These supports often must meet ASME code and project seismic design requirements. Detailed analysis for each support is time consuming and costly. This paper describes some economical generic methods developed to design and qualify supports for two-inch and smaller pipe operating at temperatures less than 300 0 F (185 0 C), on the Fast Flux Test Facility. Use of standard designs, standard support spacing tables, anchor bolt and baseplate considerations, and field qualification methods are discussed

  19. Grouting guidelines for Hanford Tanks Initiative cone penetrometer borings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwatate, D.F.

    1998-01-01

    Grouting of an open cone penetrometer (CP) borehole is done to construct a barrier that prevents the vertical migration of fluids and contaminants between geologic units and aquifers intersected by the boring. Whether to grout, the types of grout, and the method of deployment are functions of the site-specific conditions. This report recommends the strategy that should be followed both before and during HTI [Hanford Tanks Initiative] CP deployment to decide specific borehole grouting needs at Hanford SST farms. Topics discussed in this report that bear on this strategy include: Regulatory guidance, hydrogeologic conditions, operational factors, specific CP grouting deployment recommendations

  20. System safety analysis of the Yucca Mountain tunnel boring machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.G.; Booth, L.; Eisler, L.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis was to systematically identify and evaluate hazards related to the tunnel boring machine to be used at Yucca Mountain. This analysis required three steps to complete the risk evaluation: hazard/scenario identification, consequence assessment, and frequency assessment. The result was a 'risk evaluation' of the scenarios identified in this analysis in accordance with MIL-STD-882C. The risk assessment in this analysis characterized the accident scenarios associated with the TBM in terms of relative risk and included recommendations for mitigating all identified risks

  1. Twin header bore welded steam generator for pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, R.J.; Hirst, B.

    1979-01-01

    A description is given of a pressurized water reactor (PWR) steam generator concept, several examples of which have been in service for up to fourteen years. Details are given of the highly successful service record of this equipment and the features which have been incorporated to minimize corrosion and deposition pockets. The design employs a vertical U tube bundle carried off two horizontal headers to which the tubes are welded by the Foster Wheeler Power Products (FWPP) bore welding process. The factors to be considered in uprating the design to meet the current operating conditions for a 1000 MW unit are discussed. (author)

  2. High-cycle fatigue properties of small-bore socket-welded pipe joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekawa, Akira; Noda, Michiyasu; Suzuki, Michiaki

    2009-01-01

    Piping and equipment in nuclear power plants are structures including many welded joints. Reliability of welded joints is one of high-priority issues to improve the safety of nuclear power plants. However, occurrence of fatigue failures in small-bore socket-welded pipe joints by high-cycle vibrations is still reported. In this study, fatigue experiments on a socket-welded joint of austenitic stainless steel pipe was conducted under excitation conditions similar to those in actual plants to investigate vibration characteristics and fatigue strength. It was found that the natural frequency of pipe with socket-welded joint gradually decreased as fatigue damage developed, according to the Miner rule for fatigue life evaluation. The results indicate that the fatigue life of the welded pipe joint could be estimated by monitoring the decreasing ratio of the natural frequency of the pipe. The evaluation of decreasing ratio of the natural frequency in addition to fatigue damage evaluation by the Miner rule could enhance the accuracy of fatigue life evaluation. (author)

  3. The Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program 1991 well installation report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    This report is a summary of the well and environmental soil boring information compiled for the groundwater monitoring program of the Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) during 1991. It includes discussion of environmental soil borings, surveying, well installations, abandonments, maintenance, and stabilization

  4. Gun bore flaw image matching based on improved SIFT descriptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Luan; Xiong, Wei; Zhai, You

    2013-01-01

    In order to increase the operation speed and matching ability of SIFT algorithm, the SIFT descriptor and matching strategy are improved. First, a method of constructing feature descriptor based on sector area is proposed. By computing the gradients histogram of location bins which are parted into 6 sector areas, a descriptor with 48 dimensions is constituted. It can reduce the dimension of feature vector and decrease the complexity of structuring descriptor. Second, it introduce a strategy that partitions the circular region into 6 identical sector areas starting from the dominate orientation. Consequently, the computational complexity is reduced due to cancellation of rotation operation for the area. The experimental results indicate that comparing with the OpenCV SIFT arithmetic, the average matching speed of the new method increase by about 55.86%. The matching veracity can be increased even under some variation of view point, illumination, rotation, scale and out of focus. The new method got satisfied results in gun bore flaw image matching. Keywords: Metrology, Flaw image matching, Gun bore, Feature descriptor

  5. The Boring Billion, a slingshot for Complex Life on Earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Indrani; Large, Ross R; Corkrey, Ross; Danyushevsky, Leonid V

    2018-03-13

    The period 1800 to 800 Ma ("Boring Billion") is believed to mark a delay in the evolution of complex life, primarily due to low levels of oxygen in the atmosphere. Earlier studies highlight the remarkably flat C, Cr isotopes and low trace element trends during the so-called stasis, caused by prolonged nutrient, climatic, atmospheric and tectonic stability. In contrast, we suggest a first-order variability of bio-essential trace element availability in the oceans by combining systematic sampling of the Proterozoic rock record with sensitive geochemical analyses of marine pyrite by LA-ICP-MS technique. We also recall that several critical biological evolutionary events, such as the appearance of eukaryotes, origin of multicellularity & sexual reproduction, and the first major diversification of eukaryotes (crown group) occurred during this period. Therefore, it appears possible that the period of low nutrient trace elements (1800-1400 Ma) caused evolutionary pressures which became an essential trigger for promoting biological innovations in the eukaryotic domain. Later periods of stress-free conditions, with relatively high nutrient trace element concentration, facilitated diversification. We propose that the "Boring Billion" was a period of sequential stepwise evolution and diversification of complex eukaryotes, triggering evolutionary pathways that made possible the later rise of micro-metazoans and their macroscopic counterparts.

  6. Analysis and separation of boron isotopes; Analyse et separation des isotopes du bore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perie, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-11-01

    The nuclear applications of boron-10 justify the study of a method of measurement of its isotopic abundance as well as of very small traces of boron in different materials. A systematic study of thermionic emission of BO{sub 2}Na{sub 2}{sup +} has been carried out. In the presence of a slight excess of alkalis, the thermionic emission is considerably reduced. On the other hand, the addition of a mixture of sodium hydroxide-glycerol (or mannitol) to borax permits to obtain an intense and stable beam. These results have permitted to establish an operative method for the analysis of traces of boron by isotopic dilution. In other respects, the needs of boron-10 in nuclear industry Justify the study of procedures of separation of isotopes of boron. A considerable isotopic effect has been exhibited in the chemical exchange reaction between methyl borate and borate salt in solution. In the case of exchange between methyl borate and sodium borate, the elementary separation factor {alpha} is: {alpha}=(({sup 11}B/{sup 10}B)vap.)/(({sup 11}B/{sup 10}B)liq.)=1.03{sub 3}. The high value of this elementary effect has been multiplied in a distillation column in which the problem of regeneration of the reactive has been resolved. An alternative procedure replacing the alkali borate by a borate of volatile base, for example diethylamine, has also been studied ({alpha}=1,02{sub 5} in medium hydro-methanolic with 2,2 per cent water). (author) [French] Les applications nucleaires du bore 10 justifient l'etude d'une methode de mesure de son abondance isotopique dans divers materiaux ainsi que le dosage de tres faibles traces de bore. Une etude systematique de l'emission thermoionique de BO{sub 2} Na{sub 2}{sup +} a ete effectuee. En presence d'un leger exces d'alcalins, l'emission thermoionique est considerablement reduite. Par contre l'addition au borax d'un melange soude-glycerol (ou mannitol) permet d'obtenir un faisceau stable et intense. Ces resultats ont permis d'etablir un mode

  7. Dynamic nuclear polarization for magnetic resonance imaging. An in-bore approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krummenacker, Jan G.

    2012-07-01

    In this thesis, the development of an in-bore liquid state DNP polarizer for MRI applications operating in flow through mode at a magnetic field strength of 1.5 T was described. After an introductory chapter 1 and a chapter 2 on the theoretical background, chapter 3 dealt chiefly with the challenge of performing liquid state DNP at a high magnetic field of 9.2 T. The feasibility of performing liquid state DNP at this field was demonstrated for various solvents, as well as for metabolites in solution. Chapter 4 then moved to the aim of this work, the application of liquid state DNP for MRI experiments. It introduced the rationale of our approach, the hardware that was developed and demonstrated its performance in a clinical MRI tomograph.

  8. Dynamic nuclear polarization for magnetic resonance imaging. An in-bore approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krummenacker, Jan G.

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis, the development of an in-bore liquid state DNP polarizer for MRI applications operating in flow through mode at a magnetic field strength of 1.5 T was described. After an introductory chapter 1 and a chapter 2 on the theoretical background, chapter 3 dealt chiefly with the challenge of performing liquid state DNP at a high magnetic field of 9.2 T. The feasibility of performing liquid state DNP at this field was demonstrated for various solvents, as well as for metabolites in solution. Chapter 4 then moved to the aim of this work, the application of liquid state DNP for MRI experiments. It introduced the rationale of our approach, the hardware that was developed and demonstrated its performance in a clinical MRI tomograph.

  9. Ion acceleration by laser hole-boring into plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pogorelsky, I. V.; Dover, N. P.; Babzien, M.; Bell, A. R.; Dangor, A. E.; Horbury, T.; Palmer, C. A. J.; Polyanskiy, M.; Schreiber, J.; Schwartz, S.; Shkolnikov, P.; Yakimenko, V.; Najmudin, Z.

    2012-01-01

    By experiment and simulations, we study the interaction of an intense CO 2 laser pulse with slightly overcritical plasmas of fully ionized helium gas. Transverse optical probing is used to show a recession of the front plasma surface with an initial velocity >10 6 m/s driven by hole-boring by the laser pulse and the resulting radiation pressure driven electrostatic shocks. The collisionless shock propagates through the plasma, dissipates into an ion-acoustic solitary wave, and eventually becomes collisional as it slows further. These observations are supported by PIC simulations which prove the conclusion that monoenergetic protons observed in our earlier reported experiment with a hydrogen jet result from ion trapping and reflection from a shock wave driven through the plasma.

  10. Analytical and Numerical Modeling of Tsunami Wave Propagation for double layer state in Bore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuvaraj, V.; Rajasekaran, S.; Nagarajan, D.

    2018-04-01

    Tsunami wave enters into the river bore in the landslide. Tsunami wave propagation are described in two-layer states. The velocity and amplitude of the tsunami wave propagation are calculated using the double layer. The numerical and analytical solutions are given for the nonlinear equation of motion of the wave propagation in a bore.

  11. Boring sponges (Porifera, Clionidae) collected during the "Tydeman" Canary Islands expedition Cancap-II, 1977

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, de R.A.

    1980-01-01

    INTRODUCTION AND MATERIAL The boring sponges of the Canary Islands have never been studied in any detail, but the boring fauna of this archipelago cannot be expected to be very rich. All islands are volcanic and calcareous rocks are not common. Consequently, in most areas large shells and rhodophyte

  12. A foam formulation of an entomopathogenic fungus for control of boring beetles in avocado orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    A foam formulation of Beauveria bassiana was adapted to control boring beetles in avocado orchards. The two geographically independent avocado growing areas in the United States are threatened by emerging diseases vectored by boring beetles. In the California growing region, Fusarium dieback is vect...

  13. 30 CFR 18.22 - Boring-type machines equipped for auxiliary face ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Boring-type machines equipped for auxiliary..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES Construction and Design Requirements § 18.22 Boring-type machines equipped for...

  14. Ten Years of bored tunnels in the Netherlands : Part I: Geotechnical issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, K.J.; Bezuijen, A.

    2008-01-01

    Ten years have passed since in 1997 for the first time construction of bored tunnels in the Netherlands soft soil was undertaken. Before that date essentially only immersed tunnels and cut-and-cover tunnels were constructed in the Netherlands. The first two bored tunnels were Pilot Projects, the 2nd

  15. Fiscal year 1995 well plugging and abandonment program Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    This report is a synopsis of the progress of the well plugging and abandonment program at the Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, from September 1994 through August 1995. A total of 67 wells, piezometers, and borings were plugged and abandoned during the period of time covered in this report. All wells and borings were plugged and abandoned if (1) its construction did not meet current standards (substandard construction); (2) it was irreparably damaged or had deteriorated beyond practical repair; (3) its location interfered with or otherwise impeded site operations, construction, or closure activities; or (4) special circumstances existed as defined on a case-by-case basis and approved by the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) Manager. This summary report contains: general geologic setting of the Y-12 Plant and vicinity; discussion of well plugging and abandonment methods, grouting procedures, and waste management practices (a Waste Management Plan for Drilling Activities is included in Appendix C); summaries of plugging and abandonment activities at each site; and quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) and health and safety protocols used during the FY 1995 Plugging and Abandonment Program

  16. Fiscal year 1995 well plugging and abandonment program Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    This report is a synopsis of the progress of the well plugging and abandonment program at the Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, from September 1994 through August 1995. A total of 67 wells, piezometers, and borings were plugged and abandoned during the period of time covered in this report. All wells and borings were plugged and abandoned if (1) its construction did not meet current standards (substandard construction); (2) it was irreparably damaged or had deteriorated beyond practical repair; (3) its location interfered with or otherwise impeded site operations, construction, or closure activities; or (4) special circumstances existed as defined on a case-by-case basis and approved by the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) Manager. This summary report contains: general geologic setting of the Y-12 Plant and vicinity; discussion of well plugging and abandonment methods, grouting procedures, and waste management practices (a Waste Management Plan for Drilling Activities is included in Appendix C); summaries of plugging and abandonment activities at each site; and quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) and health and safety protocols used during the FY 1995 Plugging and Abandonment Program.

  17. Optimal chest drain size: the rise of the small-bore pleural catheter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fysh, Edward T H; Smith, Nicola A; Lee, Y C Gary

    2010-12-01

    Drainage of the pleural space is not a modern concept, but the optimal size of chest drains to use remains debated. Conventional teaching advocates blunt dissection and large-bore tubes; but in recent years, small-bore catheters have gained popularity. In the absence of high-quality randomized data, this review summarizes the available literature on the choice of chest drains. The objective data supporting the use of large-bore tubes is scarce in most pleural diseases. Increasing evidence shows that small-bore catheters induce less pain and are of comparable efficacy to large-bore tubes, including in the management of pleural infection, malignant effusion, and pneumothoraces. The onus now is on those who favor large tubes to produce clinical data to justify the more invasive approach. © Thieme Medical Publishers.

  18. Influence of the mineral composition of clay rocks on the stability of oil wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amorocho, P. R; Badillo, Juan

    2012-01-01

    In the oil companies, the operation of drilling well bore could be more expensive if the composition of the rocks is clay, the cost could increase between 10 and 15% from the starting budget. In order to decrease this problem, the oil industry has spent too much money for developing mechanisms that can provide better control and stability in clay formations during the drilling. The Society Petroleum Engineers (SPE) in some researches have published that the main chemical effects that are involved in the interaction of perforation fluids and the clay formation are: 1) chemical osmosis; and 2) hydration stresses, although, there are others like: Capillary effects, dehydration, differences in pressure and cationic exchange. These factors are not present generally in independent form. At Piedemonte Llanero the problem of the well bore stability represents a high spending of money for oil companies, caused in this region by chemical factors between fluid/rock and mechanical factors as resulted of the stresses in the area. Metil Blue Testing (MBT) and X-ray Diffraction (DR-X) were made in samples of clay; these were taken from cuts extracted of boreholes drilled in some places of the Colombian Llanos. It was found that these samples had a moderate content of reactive and low content of swell minerals.The samples main component was kaolinite, this mineral does not let the rock get swell, but it produces caving in the hole. However, it is necessary to do other tests to quantify the damages and evaluate the influence of there gime of the stress during the perforation of well bore.

  19. UVA activation of N-dialkylnitrosamines releasing nitric oxide, producing strand breaks as well as oxidative damages in DNA, and inducing mutations in the Ames test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arimoto-Kobayashi, Sakae; Sano, Kayoko; Machida, Masaki; Kaji, Keiko; Yakushi, Keiko

    2010-01-01

    alkylative DNA damages and mutation.

  20. UVA activation of N-dialkylnitrosamines releasing nitric oxide, producing strand breaks as well as oxidative damages in DNA, and inducing mutations in the Ames test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arimoto-Kobayashi, Sakae [Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama University, 1-1-1 Tsushima, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Sano, Kayoko; Machida, Masaki; Kaji, Keiko; Yakushi, Keiko [Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama University, 1-1-1 Tsushima, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan)

    2010-09-10

    alkylative DNA damages and mutation.

  1. Dosimetric impact of image artifact from a wide-bore CT scanner in radiotherapy treatment planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Vincent; Podgorsak, Matthew B.; Tran, Tuan-Anh; Malhotra, Harish K.; Wang, Iris Z. [Department of Radiation Medicine, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, New York 14263 (United States); Department of Radiation Medicine, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, New York 14263 and Department of Physiology and Biophysics, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York 14214 (United States); Department of Radiation Medicine, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, New York 14263 (United States); Department of Radiation Medicine, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, New York 14263 and Department of Physiology and Biophysics, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York 14214 (United States)

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: Traditional computed tomography (CT) units provide a maximum scan field-of-view (sFOV) diameter of 50 cm and a limited bore size, which cannot accommodate a large patient habitus or an extended simulation setup in radiation therapy (RT). Wide-bore CT scanners with increased bore size were developed to address these needs. Some scanners have the capacity to reconstruct the CT images at an extended FOV (eFOV), through data interpolation or extrapolation, using projection data acquired with a conventional sFOV. Objects that extend past the sFOV for eFOV reconstruction may generate image artifacts resulting from truncated projection data; this may distort CT numbers and structure contours in the region beyond the sFOV. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the dosimetric impact of image artifacts from eFOV reconstruction with a wide-bore CT scanner in radiotherapy (RT) treatment planning. Methods: Testing phantoms (i.e., a mini CT phantom with equivalent tissue inserts, a set of CT normal phantoms and anthropomorphic phantoms of the thorax and the pelvis) were used to evaluate eFOV artifacts. Reference baseline images of these phantoms were acquired with the phantom centrally positioned within the sFOV. For comparison, the phantoms were then shifted laterally and scanned partially outside the sFOV, but still within the eFOV. Treatment plans were generated for the thoracic and pelvic anthropomorphic phantoms utilizing the Eclipse treatment planning system (TPS) to study the potential effects of eFOV artifacts on dose calculations. All dose calculations of baseline and test treatment plans were carried out using the same MU. Results: Results show that both body contour and CT numbers are altered by image artifacts in eFOV reconstruction. CT number distortions of up to -356 HU for bone tissue and up to 323 HU for lung tissue were observed in the mini CT phantom. Results from the large body normal phantom, which is close to a clinical patient size, show

  2. Earthquake induced rock shear through a deposition hole. Influence of shear plane inclination and location as well as buffer properties on the damage caused to the canister

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boergesson, Lennart [Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden); Hernelind, Jan [5T Engineering AB, Vaesteraas (Sweden)

    2006-10-15

    The effect on the canister of an earthquake induced 20 cm rock shear with the shear rate 1 m/s along a fracture intersecting a deposition hole in a KBS-V repository has been investigated for a number of different shear cases and for different properties of the buffer material. The scenarios have been modelled with the finite element method and calculations have been done using the code ABAQUS. D-element models of the rock, the buffer and the canister have been used. Contact elements that can model separation have been used for the interfaces between the buffer and the rock and the interfaces between the buffer and the canister. The influence of mainly the following factors has been investigated: 1. Inclination of the intersecting fracture. 2. Shear direction when the fracture is not horizontal (inclination deviates from 90 deg). 3. Location of the shear plane when the inclination is 90 deg. 4. Magnitude of the shear displacement. 5. Bentonite type. 6. Bentonite density. 7. Transformation of the buffer to illite or cemented bentonite. The results from the calculations show that all these factors have important influence on the damage of the canister but the influence is for most factors not easily described since there are mutual interferences between the different factors. Plastic strain larger than 1% was reached in the copper already at 10 cm shear in all cases with Na- and Ca- bentonite. However, for several cases of Na-bentonite and one case of Ca-bentonite such plastic strain was only reached in the lid. The plastic strain in the steel was generally smaller than in the copper mainly due to the higher yield stress in the steel. For all cases of Na-bentonite except one and for about half of the Ca-bentonite cases the plastic strain in the steel was smaller than 1% after 10 cm shear. The shear inclination 45 deg was more harmful for the copper tube than the shear inclination 90 deg when tension shear was considered. At the shear inclinations 45 deg and 22.5 deg

  3. Earthquake induced rock shear through a deposition hole. Influence of shear plane inclination and location as well as buffer properties on the damage caused to the canister

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boergesson, Lennart; Hernelind, Jan

    2006-10-01

    The effect on the canister of an earthquake induced 20 cm rock shear with the shear rate 1 m/s along a fracture intersecting a deposition hole in a KBS-V repository has been investigated for a number of different shear cases and for different properties of the buffer material. The scenarios have been modelled with the finite element method and calculations have been done using the code ABAQUS. D-element models of the rock, the buffer and the canister have been used. Contact elements that can model separation have been used for the interfaces between the buffer and the rock and the interfaces between the buffer and the canister. The influence of mainly the following factors has been investigated: 1. Inclination of the intersecting fracture. 2. Shear direction when the fracture is not horizontal (inclination deviates from 90 deg). 3. Location of the shear plane when the inclination is 90 deg. 4. Magnitude of the shear displacement. 5. Bentonite type. 6. Bentonite density. 7. Transformation of the buffer to illite or cemented bentonite. The results from the calculations show that all these factors have important influence on the damage of the canister but the influence is for most factors not easily described since there are mutual interferences between the different factors. Plastic strain larger than 1% was reached in the copper already at 10 cm shear in all cases with Na- and Ca- bentonite. However, for several cases of Na-bentonite and one case of Ca-bentonite such plastic strain was only reached in the lid. The plastic strain in the steel was generally smaller than in the copper mainly due to the higher yield stress in the steel. For all cases of Na-bentonite except one and for about half of the Ca-bentonite cases the plastic strain in the steel was smaller than 1% after 10 cm shear. The shear inclination 45 deg was more harmful for the copper tube than the shear inclination 90 deg when tension shear was considered. At the shear inclinations 45 deg and 22.5 deg

  4. Seismic monitoring experiment of raise boring in 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saari, J.; Malm, M.

    2015-01-01

    In Olkiluoto, Posiva Oy has operated a local seismic network since February 2002. The purpose of the microearthquake measurements at Olkiluoto is to improve understanding of the structure, behaviour and long term stability of the bedrock. The studies include both tectonic and excavation-induced microearthquakes. An additional task of monitoring is related to safeguarding of ONKALO. The possibility to excavate an illegal access to ONKALO has been concerned when the safeguards are discussed. Therefore all recorded explosions in the Olkiluoto area and in ONKALO are located. If a concentration of explosions is observed, the origin of that is found out. Also a concept of hidden illegal explosions, detonated at the same time as the real excavation blasts, has been examined. According to the experience gained in Olkiluoto, it can be concluded that, as long the seismic network is in operation and the results are analysed by a skilled person, it is practically impossible to do illegal undetected excavation by blasting within the Olkiluoto seismic network area. In this report a possibility of seismic monitoring of undeclared excavation done by tunnel boring machine (TBM) has been investigated. In the earlier investigations the instruments were at the ground surface and the sensors were triaxial short period (1 Hz) geophones or broadband geophones. The characteristics (frequency content, polarity and amplitude) of the continuous seismic vibration generated by TMB were studied. The onset time of the seismic signal were not distinguished. Altogether 16 new 10 kHz accelerometers were installed in boreholes inside ONKALO March 2012. The sensors comprised a new subnetwork that monitored the raise boring of two shafts done 2014, from the level -455 m to the level -290 m. The aim was to record the seismic signal generated when the drill bit hits the rock at the moment the tunnel boring begins. Altogether 113 seismic signals generated by the drill bit were located during the

  5. Seismic monitoring experiment of raise boring in 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saari, J.; Malm, M. [AaF-Consult Oy, Espoo (Finland)

    2015-01-15

    In Olkiluoto, Posiva Oy has operated a local seismic network since February 2002. The purpose of the microearthquake measurements at Olkiluoto is to improve understanding of the structure, behaviour and long term stability of the bedrock. The studies include both tectonic and excavation-induced microearthquakes. An additional task of monitoring is related to safeguarding of ONKALO. The possibility to excavate an illegal access to ONKALO has been concerned when the safeguards are discussed. Therefore all recorded explosions in the Olkiluoto area and in ONKALO are located. If a concentration of explosions is observed, the origin of that is found out. Also a concept of hidden illegal explosions, detonated at the same time as the real excavation blasts, has been examined. According to the experience gained in Olkiluoto, it can be concluded that, as long the seismic network is in operation and the results are analysed by a skilled person, it is practically impossible to do illegal undetected excavation by blasting within the Olkiluoto seismic network area. In this report a possibility of seismic monitoring of undeclared excavation done by tunnel boring machine (TBM) has been investigated. In the earlier investigations the instruments were at the ground surface and the sensors were triaxial short period (1 Hz) geophones or broadband geophones. The characteristics (frequency content, polarity and amplitude) of the continuous seismic vibration generated by TMB were studied. The onset time of the seismic signal were not distinguished. Altogether 16 new 10 kHz accelerometers were installed in boreholes inside ONKALO March 2012. The sensors comprised a new subnetwork that monitored the raise boring of two shafts done 2014, from the level -455 m to the level -290 m. The aim was to record the seismic signal generated when the drill bit hits the rock at the moment the tunnel boring begins. Altogether 113 seismic signals generated by the drill bit were located during the

  6. Simulation of Single Reed Instruments Oscillations Based on Modal Decomposition of Bore and Reed Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Fabrice; Debut, Vincent; Kergomard, Jean; Vergez, Christophe; Deblevid, Aude; Guillemain, Philippe

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates the sound production in a system made of a bore coupled with a reed valve. Extending previous work (Debut, 2004), the input impedance of the bore is projected on the modes of the air column. The acoustic pressure is therefore calculated as the sum of modal components. The airrrflow blown into the bore is modulated by reed motion, assuming the reed to be a single degree of freedom oscillator. Calculation of self-sustained oscillations controlled by time-varyi...

  7. Comparative characterization of the quaternary deposits of Northwest Peninsular Malaysia by wash boring and CPTU site investigation methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selamat, Mohamad R.; Rosli, Ros N.; Ramli, Muhd H.; Azmi, Mastura; Kumaravelu, Prakash; Govindasamy, Darvintharen

    2017-10-01

    A site investigation by wash boring method was carried out in the compound of the Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, in Northwest Peninsular Malaysia. The subsurface soils of the region are known to be comprised of quaternary deposits including the prominent marine clays of the Gula formation. The conventional Standard Penetration Test, or SPT, was carried out for every 1.5m depth. The 18 disturbed samples collected were tested for grain size distribution, Atterberg limits, and specific gravity; and categorized according to the unified soil classification system. The results indicate low SPT numbers, or SPTN, i.e. SPTN8 for depths deeper than 12m. Samples from shallower than 12m were mostly classified as low plasticity clay, or CL, which represents the soft marine clay while the underlying materials were mostly sands, namely poorly graded sand, or SP, silty sand, or SM, clayey sand, or SC, and well graded sand, or SW. Another site investigation by the CPTU method was also carried out 5m from the wash boring position, penetrating the entire soft clay stratum, thus giving another marine clay characterization in addition to the one given by the first method. The CPTU results generally gave SPTN≤2 for depths lesser than 8m, 2≤;SPTN≤4 for depths between 8 and 12m, and SPTN=23 at 12.5m, where the CPTU test terminated. The CPTU method classified the soft materials as sensitive fine grains, clays, and clayey silts to silty clays. Thus the CPTU results did not agree very well with the conventional wash boring SPT results in terms of the SPTN obtained. Nevertheless both methods equally identified the prominent presence of the soft marine clay stratum in the top 12.5m and the underlying strong sandy bed with higher bearing capacity values.

  8. Persistence motives in irrational decisions to complete a boring task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halkjelsvik, Torleif; Rise, Jostein

    2015-01-01

    We explored a novel task paradigm where participants from the online work marketplace Amazon Mechanical Turk were given the choice to quit or continue an unfinished boring task for identical economic rewards. In Studies 1a and 1b, about half the participants chose to continue (corresponding to an average of 55 and 35 cents in foregone earnings). Participants' self-reported reasons for continuing involved various types of persistence motives, reflecting a desire to persist or complete per se. Studies 2, 3a, 3b, and 3c ruled out the possibility that people continued because they enjoyed the task or believed there were additional rewards for continuing. Study 4 showed that the choice to quit/continue was associated with the manner in which the choice was presented (persistence test vs. decision-making test) and individual differences in dispositional persistence motives. The present data indicate that motivational forces independent of the focal reward may affect intertemporal decisions. © 2014 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  9. Load-deflection characteristics of small bore insulated pipe clamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severud, L.K.; Clark, G.L.

    1982-01-01

    High temperature LMFBR piping is subject to rapid temperature changes during transient events. Typically, this pipe is supported by specially designed insulated pipe clamps to prevent excessive thermal stress from developing during these transients. The special insulated clamps used on both FFTF and CRBR piping utilize a Belleville spring arrangement to compensate for pipe thermal expansion. Analysis indicates that this produces a non-linear, directionally sensitive clamp spring rate. Since these spring rates influence the seismic response of a supported piping system, it was deemed necessary to evaluate them further by test. This has been accomplished for the FFTF clamps. A more standard insulated pipe clamp, which does not incorporate Belleville springs to accommodate thermal expansion, was also tested. This type clamp is simple in design, and economically attractive. It may have wide application prospects for use in LMFBR small bore auxiliary piping operating at temperatures below 427 0 C. Load deflection tests were conducted on 2.54 CM and 7.62 CM diameter samples of these commercial clamps

  10. Metabolite Damage and Metabolite Damage Control in Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, Andrew D. [Horticultural Sciences Department and; Henry, Christopher S. [Mathematics and Computer Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439, email:; Computation Institute, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637; Fiehn, Oliver [Genome Center, University of California, Davis, California 95616, email:; de Crécy-Lagard, Valérie [Microbiology and Cell Science Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611, email: ,

    2016-04-29

    It is increasingly clear that (a) many metabolites undergo spontaneous or enzyme-catalyzed side reactions in vivo, (b) the damaged metabolites formed by these reactions can be harmful, and (c) organisms have biochemical systems that limit the buildup of damaged metabolites. These damage-control systems either return a damaged molecule to its pristine state (metabolite repair) or convert harmful molecules to harmless ones (damage preemption). Because all organisms share a core set of metabolites that suffer the same chemical and enzymatic damage reactions, certain damage-control systems are widely conserved across the kingdoms of life. Relatively few damage reactions and damage-control systems are well known. Uncovering new damage reactions and identifying the corresponding damaged metabolites, damage-control genes, and enzymes demands a coordinated mix of chemistry, metabolomics, cheminformatics, biochemistry, and comparative genomics. This review illustrates the above points using examples from plants, which are at least as prone to metabolite damage as other organisms.

  11. Fracturing formations in wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daroza, R A

    1964-05-15

    This well stimulation method comprises introducing through the well bore a low-penetrating, dilatant fluid, and subjecting the fluid to sufficient pressure to produce fractures in the formation. The fluid is permitted to remain in contact with the formation so as to become diluted by the formation fluids, and thereby lose its properties of dilatancy. Also, a penetrating fluid, containing a propping agent suspended therein, in introduced into contact with the fractures at a pressure substantially reduced with respect to that pressure which would have been required, prior to the fracturing operation performed using the low-penetrating dilatant fluid. The propping agent is deposited within the fractures, and thereafter, fluid production is resumed from the fractured formation. (2 claims)

  12. Fiscal Year 1993 Well Plugging and Abandonment Program Summary Report Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-09-01

    This report is a synopsis of the progress of the well plugging and abandonment program at the Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, from October 1993 through August 1994. A total of 57 wells and borings were plugged and abandoned during the period of time covered in this report. All wells and borings were plugged and abandoned in accordance with the Monitoring Well Plugging and Abandonment Plan for the U.S. Department of Energy, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee.

  13. Fiscal year 1993 well plugging and abandonment program, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    This report is a synopsis of the progress of the well plugging and abandonment program at the Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, from December 1992 through August 20, 1993. A total of 70 wells and borings were plugged and abandoned during the period of time covered in this report. All wells and borings were plugged and abandoned in accordance with the Monitoring Well Plugging and Abandonment Plan for the US Department of Energy, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (HSW, Inc. 1991).

  14. Two lepidopteran pests and damage on the cones of Abies koreana (Pinaceae in Jeju Island, Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Min Shin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we report two lepidopteran pests and their damage on the cones of Abies koreana E. H. Wilson from Mt. Halla, Jeju, South Korea: Cydia kamijoi Oku and Dioryctria abietella (Denis & Schiffermüller. The former is new to Korea, and the latter is well known as an insect pest on cones of various coniferous trees. Larvae of these species bore into the immature cones of the host tree. Damaged cones can be easily distinguished by reddish brown frass piled around the holes that were made by the moths, and the cones that are severely damaged become crooked and eventually are folded in half. The average damage rate on the cones was 75.3±2.34% from the survey sites in 2014, but the insect damage could not be found again from the sites as the host did not bear any cones in 2015. Descriptions and images of C. kamijoi and D. abietella are provided along with a list of host species and distribution.

  15. Problems in the wellbore integrity of a shale gas horizontal well and corresponding countermeasures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhonglan Tian

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Changning–Weiyuan national shale gas demonstration area, SW Sichuan Basin, the wellbore integrity damage occurs in some shale gas wells and has direct effect on the gas production rate of single shale gas horizontal well. After statistics analysis was performed on the problems related with wellbore integrity, such as casing damage, casing running difficulty and cement sheath blow-by, the multi-factor coupling casing stress calculation and evaluation mode laws established. Then study was conducted on the influential mechanism of multi-factor coupling (temperature effect, casing bending and axial pressure on casing damage. The shale slip mechanism and its relationship with casing sheared formation were analyzed by using the Mohr–Coulomb criterion. Inversion analysis was performed on the main controlling factors of casing friction by using the developed casing hook load prediction and friction analysis software. And finally, based on the characteristics of shale gas horizontal wells, wellbore integrity control measures were proposed in terms of design and construction process, so as to improve the drilling quality (DQ. More specifically, shale gas well casing design calculation method and check standard were modified, well structure and full bore hole trajectory design were optimized, drilling quality was improved, cement properties were optimized and cement sealing integrity during fracturing process was checked. These research findings are significant in the design and management of future shale gas borehole integrity.

  16. Seismic response and damping tests of small bore LMFBR piping and supports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barta, D.A.; Anderson, M.J.; Severud, L.K.; Lindquist, M.R.

    1984-01-01

    Seismic testing and analysis of a prototypical Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) small bore piping system is described. Measured responses to simulated seismic excitations are compared with analytical predictions based on NRC Regulatory Guide 1.61 and measured system damping values. The test specimen was representative of a typical LMFBR insulated small bore piping system, and it was supported from a rigid test frame by prototypic dead weight supports, mechanical snubbers and pipe clamps

  17. Techniques for Interventional MRI Guidance in Closed-Bore Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busse, Harald; Kahn, Thomas; Moche, Michael

    2018-02-01

    Efficient image guidance is the basis for minimally invasive interventions. In comparison with X-ray, computed tomography (CT), or ultrasound imaging, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides the best soft tissue contrast without ionizing radiation and is therefore predestined for procedural control. But MRI is also characterized by spatial constraints, electromagnetic interactions, long imaging times, and resulting workflow issues. Although many technical requirements have been met over the years-most notably magnetic resonance (MR) compatibility of tools, interventional pulse sequences, and powerful processing hardware and software-there is still a large variety of stand-alone devices and systems for specific procedures only.Stereotactic guidance with the table outside the magnet is common and relies on proper registration of the guiding grids or manipulators to the MR images. Instrument tracking, often by optical sensing, can be added to provide the physicians with proper eye-hand coordination during their navigated approach. Only in very short wide-bore systems, needles can be advanced at the extended arm under near real-time imaging. In standard magnets, control and workflow may be improved by remote operation using robotic or manual driving elements.This work highlights a number of devices and techniques for different interventional settings with a focus on percutaneous, interstitial procedures in different organ regions. The goal is to identify technical and procedural elements that might be relevant for interventional guidance in a broader context, independent of the clinical application given here. Key challenges remain the seamless integration into the interventional workflow, safe clinical translation, and proper cost effectiveness.

  18. Seismic source characterisation of a Tunnel Boring Machine (TBM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreutzer, Ingrid; Brückl, Ewald; Radinger, Alexander

    2015-04-01

    The Tunnel Seismic While Drilling (TSWD) method aims at predicting continuously the geological situation ahead of the tunnel without disturbing the construction work. Thereby the Tunnel Boring Machine (TBM) itself is used as seismic source. The cutting process generates seismic waves radiating into the rock mass and vibrations propagating to the main bearing of the cutter head. These vibrations are monitored and used as pilot signal. For the processing and interpretation it was hypothesized so far that the TBM acts like a single force. To prove this assumption the radiation pattern of several TBM's under construction were investigated. Therefore 3-components geophones were installed at the surface, which were situated directly above the tunnel axes and also with lateral offset. Additional, borehole geophones were placed in the wall of one tube of a two-tube tunnel. The geophones collected the forward and backward radiated wave field, as the TBM, operating in the other tube, passed their positions. The obtained seismic data contains continuous records over a range of 600 m of the TBM position. The offsets vary from 25 m to 400 m and the frequency ranges from 20-250 Hertz. The polarisation of the p-wave and the s-wave and their amplitude ratio were determined and compared with modelled seismograms with different source mechanism. The results show that the description of the source mechanism by a single force can be used as a first order approximation. More complex radiation pattern including tensile forces and several source locations like the transmission of reaction forces over the gripper to the tunnel wall are further tested and addressed.

  19. An experimental and computational investigation of electrical resistivity imaging for prediction ahead of tunnel boring machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeffer, Kevin P.

    Tunnel boring machines (TBMs) are routinely used for the excavation of tunnels across a range of ground conditions, from hard rock to soft ground. In complex ground conditions and in urban environments, the TBM susceptible to damage due to uncertainty of what lies ahead of the tunnel face. The research presented here explores the application of electrical resistivity theory for use in the TBM tunneling environment to detect changing conditions ahead of the machine. Electrical resistivity offers a real-time and continuous imaging solution to increase the resolution of information along the tunnel alignment and may even unveil previously unknown geologic or man-made features ahead of the TBM. The studies presented herein, break down the tunneling environment and the electrical system to understand how its fundamental parameters can be isolated and tested, identifying how they influence the ability to predict changes ahead of the tunnel face. A proof-of-concept, scaled experimental model was constructed in order assess the ability of the model to predict a metal pipe (or rod) ahead of face as the TBM excavates through a saturated sand. The model shows that a prediction of up to three tunnel diameters could be achieved, but the unique presence of the pipe (or rod) could not be concluded with certainty. Full scale finite element models were developed in order evaluate the various influences on the ability to detect changing conditions ahead of the face. Results show that TBM/tunnel geometry, TBM type, and electrode geometry can drastically influence prediction ahead of the face by tens of meters. In certain conditions (i.e., small TBM diameter, low cover depth, large material contrasts), changes can be detected over 100 meters in front of the TBM. Various electrode arrays were considered and show that in order to better detect more finite differences (e.g., boulder, lens, pipe), the use of individual cutting tools as electrodes is highly advantageous to increase spatial

  20. Liver acquisition with volume acceleration flex on 70-cm wide-bore and 60-cm conventional-bore 3.0-T MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Shigeyoshi; Tanaka, Keiko; Hashido, Takashi

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to compare the uniformity of fat suppression and image quality between liver acquisition with volume acceleration flex (LAVA-Flex) and LAVA on 60-cm conventional-bore and 70-cm wide-bore 3.0-T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The uniformity of fat suppression by LAVA-Flex and LAVA was assessed as the efficiency of suppression of superficial fat at the levels of the liver dome, porta, and renal hilum. Percentage standard deviation (%SD) was calculated using the following equation: %SD (%) = 100 × SD of the regions of interest (ROIs)/mean value of the signal intensity (SI) in the ROIs. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast ratio (CR) were calculated. In the LAVA sequence, the %SD in all slices on wide-bore 3.0-T MRI was significantly higher than that on conventional-bore 3.0-T MRI (P 3.0-T MRI.

  1. Environmental monitoring well housing and protection method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenner, D.A.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes a method for housing and protecting an environmental monitoring well having a well pipe disposed in a well bore with an upper and extending toward the surface of the ground. It comprises: placing an enclosure ins aid well bore around the upper end of the well pipe, the enclosure being of unitary construction and having an upper opening, a lower opening and an inwardly-protruding ledge between the upper opening and the lower opening, placing sealing means in the well bore between the outter surface of the well pipe and the inner surface of the enclosure, the sealing means being a composition distinct from the well pipe; placing on the ledge a flexible gasket having a shape substantially identical to the shape of the surface of the ledge; placing on the gasket within the enclosure a cover having an upper surface and a peripheral shape substantially identical to the shape of the interior of the enclosure, and attaching the cover to the enclosure so that the upper opening of the enclosure and the upper surface of the cover are substantially flush with the surface of the ground

  2. New Rock Abrasivity Test Method for Tool Life Assessments on Hard Rock Tunnel Boring: The Rolling Indentation Abrasion Test (RIAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macias, F. J.; Dahl, F.; Bruland, A.

    2016-05-01

    The tunnel boring machine (TBM) method has become widely used and is currently an important presence within the tunnelling industry. Large investments and high geological risk are involved using TBMs, and disc cutter consumption has a great influence on performance and cost, especially in hard rock conditions. Furthermore, reliable cutter life assessments facilitate the control of risk as well as avoiding delays and budget overruns. Since abrasive wear is the most common process affecting cutter consumption, good laboratory tests for rock abrasivity assessments are needed. A new abrasivity test method by rolling disc named Rolling Indentation Abrasion Test (RIAT) has been developed. The goal of the new test design and procedure is to reproduce wear behaviour on hard rock tunnel boring in a more realistic way than the traditionally used methods. Wear by rolling contact on intact rock samples is introduced and several rock types, covering a wide rock abrasiveness range, have been tested by RIAT. The RIAT procedure indicates a great ability of the testing method to assess abrasive wear on rolling discs. In addition and to evaluate the newly developed RIAT test method, a comprehensive laboratory testing programme including the most commonly used abrasivity test methods and the mineral composition were carried out. Relationships between the achieved results from conventional testing and RIAT results have been analysed.

  3. Dominance of hole-boring radiation pressure acceleration regime with thin ribbon of ionized solid hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psikal, J.; Matys, M.

    2018-04-01

    Laser-driven proton acceleration from novel cryogenic hydrogen target of the thickness of tens of microns irradiated by multiPW laser pulse is investigated here for relevant laser parameters accessible in near future. It is demonstrated that the efficiency of proton acceleration from relatively thick hydrogen solid ribbon largely exceeds the acceleration efficiency for a thinner ionized plastic foil, which can be explained by enhanced hole boring (HB) driven by laser ponderomotive force in the case of light ions and lower target density. Three-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations of laser pulse interaction with relatively thick hydrogen target show larger energies of protons accelerated in the target interior during the HB phase and reduced energies of protons accelerated from the rear side of the target by quasistatic electric field compared with the results obtained from two-dimensional PIC calculations. Linearly and circularly polarized multiPW laser pulses of duration exceeding 100 fs show similar performance in terms of proton acceleration from both the target interior as well as from the rear side of the target. When ultrashort pulse (∼30 fs) is assumed, the number of accelerated protons from the target interior is substantially reduced.

  4. Locating scatterers while drilling using seismic noise due to tunnel boring machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmankaya, U.; Kaslilar, A.; Wapenaar, K.; Draganov, D.

    2018-05-01

    Unexpected geological structures can cause safety and economic risks during underground excavation. Therefore, predicting possible geological threats while drilling a tunnel is important for operational safety and for preventing expensive standstills. Subsurface information for tunneling is provided by exploratory wells and by surface geological and geophysical investigations, which are limited by location and resolution, respectively. For detailed information about the structures ahead of the tunnel face, geophysical methods are applied during the tunnel-drilling activity. We present a method inspired by seismic interferometry and ambient-noise correlation that can be used for detecting scatterers, such as boulders and cavities, ahead of a tunnel while drilling. A similar method has been proposed for active-source seismic data and validated using laboratory and field data. Here, we propose to utilize the seismic noise generated by a Tunnel Boring Machine (TBM), and recorded at the surface. We explain our method at the hand of data from finite-difference modelling of noise-source wave propagation in a medium where scatterers are present. Using the modelled noise records, we apply cross-correlation to obtain correlation gathers. After isolating the scattered arrivals in these gathers, we cross-correlate again and invert for the correlated traveltime to locate scatterers. We show the potential of the method for locating the scatterers while drilling using noise records due to TBM.

  5. A methodology for laser diagnostics in large-bore marine two-stroke diesel engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hult, J; Mayer, S

    2013-01-01

    Large two-stroke diesel engines for marine propulsion offer several challenges to successful implementation of the laser diagnostic techniques applied extensively in smaller automotive engines. For this purpose a fully operational large-bore engine has been modified to allow flexible optical access, through 24 optical ports with clear diameters of 40 mm. By mounting the entire optical set-up directly to the engine, effects of the vigorous vibrations and thermal drifts on alignment can be minimized. Wide-angle observation and illumination, as well as relatively large aperture detection, is made possible through mounting of optical modules and relays inside optical ports. This allows positioning of the last optical element within 10 mm from the cylinder wall. Finally, the implementation on a multi-cylinder engine allows for flexible and independent operation of the optically accessible cylinder for testing purposes. The performance of the integrated optical engine and imaging system developed is demonstrated through laser Mie scattering imaging of fuel jet structures, from which information on liquid penetration and spray angles can be deduced. Double pulse laser-sheet imaging of native in-cylinder structures is also demonstrated, for the purpose of velocimetry. (paper)

  6. Triple-bore hollow fiber membrane contactor for liquid desiccant based air dehumidification

    KAUST Repository

    Bettahalli Narasimha, Murthy Srivatsa

    2016-04-26

    Dehumidification is responsible for a large part of the energy consumption in cooling systems in high humidity environments worldwide. Improving efficiency is therefore essential. Liquid desiccants offer a promising solution for dehumidification, as desired levels of humidity removal could be easily regulated. The use of membrane contactors in combination with liquid desiccant is attractive for dehumidification because they prevent direct contact between the humid air and the desiccant, removing both the potential for desiccant carryover to the air and the potential for contamination of the liquid desiccant by dust and other airborne materials, as well as minimizing corrosion. However, the expected additional mass transport barrier of the membrane surface can lower the expected desiccation rate per unit of desiccant surface area. In this context, hollow fiber membranes present an attractive option for membrane liquid desiccant contactors because of their high surface area per unit volume. We demonstrate in this work the performance of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) based triple-bore hollow fiber membranes as liquid desiccant contactors, which are permeable to water vapor but impermeable to liquid water, for dehumidification of hot and humid air.

  7. The assessment of bore-hole water quality of Kakamega County, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christine, Adika A.; Kibet, Joshua K.; Kiprop, Ambsrose K.; Were, Munyendo L.

    2018-03-01

    Numerous deleterious impacts of anthropogenic activities on water quality are typically observed in areas bursting with mineral exploitation, agricultural activities, and industrial processes. Therefore, this contribution details the water quality and water origin in selected hand-dug wells of one the most prominent mining areas in Kenya (Kakamega County). The toxicological impacts of drinking water from a mining site may include cancer and genetic aberrations largely because of the toxic effects of waterborne metals including Hg and As. Accordingly, this study focuses primarily on the investigation of heavy metals, essential elements such as Na and K. Heavy metals and essential elements were determined using spectroscopic and titrimetric techniques. The study revealed that mercury (Hg) concentration ranged between 0.00256 and 0.0611 ± 0.00005 mg/L while arsenic (As) concentration ranged from 0.0103 to 0.0119 ± 0.00005 mg/L. The concentration of potassium ranged from 2.53 to 4.08 ± 0.15 mg/L while that of sodium varied from 6.74 to 9.260 ± 0.2 mg/L. Although the concentration of cadmium was lower than that recommended by W.H.O, the concentrations of Hg, Pb, and As in Kakamega waters were higher than the internationally accepted levels. The generally high level of heavy metals in Kakamega bore-hole waters is, therefore, a public health concern that needs immediate intervention.

  8. SU-E-I-20: Comprehensive Quality Assurance Test of Second Generation Toshiba Aquilion Large Bore CT Simulator Based On AAPM TG-66 Recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, D [Toshiba America Medical Systems, Tustin, CA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: AAPM radiation therapy committee task group No. 66 (TG-66) published a report which described a general approach to CT simulator QA. The report outlines the testing procedures and specifications for the evaluation of patient dose, radiation safety, electromechanical components, and image quality for a CT simulator. The purpose of this study is to thoroughly evaluate the performance of a second generation Toshiba Aquilion Large Bore CT simulator with 90 cm bore size (Toshiba, Nasu, JP) based on the TG-66 criteria. The testing procedures and results from this study provide baselines for a routine QA program. Methods: Different measurements and analysis were performed including CTDIvol measurements, alignment and orientation of gantry lasers, orientation of the tabletop with respect to the imaging plane, table movement and indexing accuracy, Scanogram location accuracy, high contrast spatial resolution, low contrast resolution, field uniformity, CT number accuracy, mA linearity and mA reproducibility using a number of different phantoms and measuring devices, such as CTDI phantom, ACR image quality phantom, TG-66 laser QA phantom, pencil ion chamber (Fluke Victoreen) and electrometer (RTI Solidose 400). Results: The CTDI measurements were within 20% of the console displayed values. The alignment and orientation for both gantry laser and tabletop, as well as the table movement and indexing and scanogram location accuracy were within 2mm as specified in TG66. The spatial resolution, low contrast resolution, field uniformity and CT number accuracy were all within ACR’s recommended limits. The mA linearity and reproducibility were both well below the TG66 threshold. Conclusion: The 90 cm bore size second generation Toshiba Aquilion Large Bore CT simulator that comes with 70 cm true FOV can consistently meet various clinical needs. The results demonstrated that this simulator complies with the TG-66 protocol in all aspects including electromechanical component

  9. Intense Undular Bores on the Autumn Pycnocline of Shelf Waters of the Peter the Great Bay (Sea of Japan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolgikh, G. I.; Novotryasov, V. V.; Yaroshchuk, I. O.; Permyakov, M. S.

    2018-03-01

    The results of field observations of an internal undular bore that were performed in a coastal zone of constant depth in the Sea of Japan are presented. A hydrodynamic model of undular bores is discussed according to which the recorded disturbances of the water medium are an experimental prototype of strongly nonlinear (intense) internal undular bores on the pycnocline of shelf waters of Peter the Great Bay with an intensity close to the limit.

  10. Improvement of the center boring device for the irradiated fuel pellets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usami, Koji; Onozawa, Atsushi; Kimura, Yasuhiko; Sakuraba, Naotoshi; Shiina, Hidenori; Harada, Akito; Nakata, Masahito [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Nuclear Science Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2012-03-15

    The power ramp tests performed at JMTR in Oarai R and D Center are objected to study the safety margin of the high burnup fuels. One of the important parameters measured during this test is the center temperature of the fuel pellet. For this measurement, a thermocouple is installed into the hole bored at the pellet center by the center boring device, which can fix the fuel pellet with the frozen CO{sub 2} gas during its boring process. At the Reactor Fuel Examination Facility (RFEF) in Tokai R and D Center, several improvements were applied for the previous boring device to gain its performance and reliability. The major improvements are the change of the drill bit, modification of the boring process and the optimization of the remote operability. The mock-up test will be performed with the irradiated fuel pellet to confirm the benefit of improvement. This study was conducted under a contract with the Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency (NISA) of the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI). (author)

  11. Plasma dynamics near critical density inferred from direct measurements of laser hole boring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Chao; Tochitsky, Sergei Ya.; Fiuza, Frederico; Pigeon, Jeremy J.; Joshi, Chan

    2016-06-01

    We have used multiframe picosecond optical interferometry to make direct measurements of the hole boring velocity, vHB, of the density cavity pushed forward by a train of C O2 laser pulses in a near critical density helium plasma. As the pulse train intensity rises, the increasing radiation pressure of each pulse pushes the density cavity forward and the plasma electrons are strongly heated. After the peak laser intensity, the plasma pressure exerted by the heated electrons strongly impedes the hole boring process and the vHB falls rapidly as the laser pulse intensity falls at the back of the laser pulse train. A heuristic theory is presented that allows the estimation of the plasma electron temperature from the measurements of the hole boring velocity. The measured values of vHB, and the estimated values of the heated electron temperature as a function of laser intensity are in reasonable agreement with those obtained from two-dimensional numerical simulations.

  12. Straddle packer system design and operation for vertical characterization of open bore holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, J.K.

    1994-01-01

    Bore holes open to large intervals provide groundwater samples and test results which represent an unknown integration of properties throughout the depth of the hole. The State of Idaho's INEL Oversight Program is utilizing a custom straddle-packer system to develop a vertical characterization of water chemistry and hydrology in selected open bore holes at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. This report describes the design and operation for bore hole zone isolation, water sampling, and hydrologic testing. To reduce potential influences on in situ water chemistry, the system utilizes chemically inert components to the extent possible. Straddle packer systems are effective in producing representative water samples from isolated formations. Hydrologic testing is limited by the ability to produce a measurable stress on the aquifer in individual formations, and head measurement sensitivity. 4 figs

  13. Development of a screening procedure for vibrational fatigue in small bore piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.K.; Riccardella, P.C.; Gosselin, S.R.

    1995-01-01

    Approximately 80% of the documented fatigue failures in nuclear power plants are caused by high cycle vibrational fatigue. These failures typically occur in socket welded pipe fittings in small bore piping (2 in. nominal diameter and smaller). These failures have been unexpected, and have caused costly, unscheduled outages in some cases. In order to reduce the number of vibrational fatigue failures in operating nuclear power plants, a vibrational fatigue screening procedure has been developed under Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) sponsorship. The purpose of this paper is to describe this procedure, and to discuss topics related to vibrational fatigue failures. These topics include sources of vibration in nuclear power plants, the effect of socket welds on vibrational fatigue failures, vibrational fatigue screening criteria for small bore piping systems, and good design practices for reducing the number of vibrational fatigue failures in small bore piping

  14. Considerations for design of a Fourier transform mass spectrometer in the 4.2 K cold bore of a superconducting magnet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Peter B

    2002-01-01

    An external source Fourier transform mass spectrometer (FTMS) constructed inside the vertical cold bore of a superconducting magnet will have dramatic advantages in effective magnetic field, noise figures, and base pressure over current commercially available external source FTMS systems. There are substantial, but solvable, difficulties in the design, primarily with regard to control of the helium boiloff rate to an acceptable level, as well as relatively minor design challenges with heat sinks, contraction of metallic ion optic elements in the extreme temperature, and tandem mass spectrometry experiments. However, the ability to construct the FTMS inside the narrow bore tube of existing, commercially available vertical bore NMR magnets will allow access to the upper magnetic field limit currently used by 900 MHz (21 Tesla) - 1 GHz (23.3 Tesla) NMR experiments. The vacuum system, simply by being held inside the cold bore at 4.2 K, will cryopump itself dropping base pressures substantially, and heat sinking the input resistor of the preamplifier to this cryogenically cooled vacuum chamber will allow reduction of the input Johnson noise by a factor of 8.4 with associated 8.4-fold improvement in signal/noise, sensitivity, and dynamic range. The simultaneous improvement of three fundamental limiting factors in the FTMS (field strength, base pressure, and Johnson noise figure) will clearly outweigh the concomitant increased helium boiloff rate particularly if this rate can be dropped to the estimated <5 L/day range. The additional use of modern cryorefrigerators will further reduce helium boiloff to zero except during MS(n) experiments and system cooldown. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. In-bore setup and software for 3T MRI-guided transperineal prostate biopsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokuda, Junichi; Tuncali, Kemal; Song, Sang-Eun; Fedorov, Andriy; Oguro, Sota; Fennessy, Fiona M; Tempany, Clare M; Hata, Nobuhiko; Iordachita, Iulian; Lasso, Andras

    2012-01-01

    MRI-guided prostate biopsy in conventional closed-bore scanners requires transferring the patient outside the bore during needle insertion due to the constrained in-bore space, causing a safety hazard and limiting image feedback. To address this issue, we present our custom-made in-bore setup and software to support MRI-guided transperineal prostate biopsy in a wide-bore 3 T MRI scanner. The setup consists of a specially designed tabletop and a needle-guiding template with a Z-frame that gives a physician access to the perineum of the patient at the imaging position and allows the physician to perform MRI-guided transperineal biopsy without moving the patient out of the scanner. The software and Z-frame allow registration of the template, target planning and biopsy guidance. Initially, we performed phantom experiments to assess the accuracy of template registration and needle placement in a controlled environment. Subsequently, we embarked on our clinical trial (N = 10). The phantom experiments showed that the translational errors of the template registration along the right–left (RP) and anterior–posterior (AP) axes were 1.1 ± 0.8 and 1.4 ± 1.1 mm, respectively, while the rotational errors around the RL, AP and superior–inferior axes were (0.8 ± 1.0)°, (1.7 ± 1.6)° and (0.0 ± 0.0)°, respectively. The 2D root-mean-square (RMS) needle-placement error was 3 mm. The clinical biopsy procedures were safely carried out in all ten clinical cases with a needle-placement error of 5.4 mm (2D RMS). In conclusion, transperineal prostate biopsy in a wide-bore 3T scanner is feasible using our custom-made tabletop setup and software, which supports manual needle placement without moving the patient out of the magnet. (paper)

  16. 25 CFR 226.32 - Well records and reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Superintendent; a copy of electrical, mechanical or radioactive log, or other types of survey of the well bore... pressure or fluid sample surveys, temperature surveys, directional surveys, and the like; the materials and... such tests and surveys as may be required by the Superintendent to determine conditions in the well or...

  17. Separation of amino acids and antibiotics by narrow-bore and normal-bore high-performance liquid chromatography with pre-column derivatization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedler, H P; Plaga, A

    1987-01-16

    The selectivity, efficiency and lifetime of normal- and narrow-bore columns for high-performance liquid chromatography were investigated for the separation and quantification of amino acids and the amino acid-like antibiotics phosphinothricin and phosphinothricylalanylalanine in biological samples. These compounds were determined by an automated pre-column derivatization with o-phthalaldehyde-2-mercaptoethanol reagent and UV detection at 338 nm.

  18. Analysis on pile testing results of post-grouting bored pile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, A. R.

    2017-04-01

    Based on static load test results, the bearing capacity of bored piles with pile-toe and pile-shaft post-grouting has been analyzed. The analysis reveals that: with post-grouting, the interface between pile and surrounding soil are strengthened and the relative sliding displacement in between is reduced; end resistance of pile is enhanced and can be mobilized at earlier stage with smaller sliding displacement. As a result, the performance of bored pile is improved with increased bearing capacity and reduced settlement.

  19. Nuclear piping and pipe support design and operability relating to loadings and small bore piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stout, D.H.; Tubbs, J.M.; Callaway, W.O.; Tang, H.T.; Van Duyne, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    The present nuclear piping system design practices for loadings, multiple support design and small bore piping evaluation are overly conservative. The paper discusses the results developed for realistic definitions of loadings and loading combinations with methodology for combining loads under various conditions for supports and multiple support design. The paper also discusses a simplified method developed for performing deadweight and thermal evaluations of small bore piping systems. Although the simplified method is oriented towards the qualification of piping in older plants, this approach is applicable to plants designed to any edition of the ASME Section III or B31.1 piping codes

  20. Edwin G. Boring: The Historian's Path in the Pages of The American Journal of Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Shawn R

    2017-01-01

    Although he is best known for his classic textbook, A History of Experimental Psychology, Edwin Garrigues Boring published dozens of articles in The American Journal of Psychology and used its various formats to guide the discipline in the early 20th century. This report reviews a small sample of his publications, including obituaries, notes, and experimental articles, and presents them in historical and biographical context. A central objective is to show how Boring shared the values of his structuralist training with the emerging American schools and how time allowed him to reconsider his approach to history and the legacy of his iconic mentor, Edward Bradford Titchener.

  1. Damage evaluation system for materials used in fossil thermal power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okamura, Hiroyuki [Science Univ. of Tokyo (Japan); Sakai, Shinsuke [Tokyo Univ. (Japan); Tomita, Akira [Japan Power Engineering and Inspection Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Koyama, Teruo [Babcock Hitachi K.K., Tokyo (Japan); Sakurai, Shigeo; Kawasaki, Yoshiya [Hitachi Ltd., Ibaraki (Japan)

    1998-11-01

    The summary of this research paper is as follows: The fundamental design of the damage evaluation system is carried out based on the basic concept. Prototype systems for boilers and turbines have been constructed: (a) Boiler: (I) Evaluation part: Outer surface of the primary pendant superheater tube; (II) Damage mode: Creep; (III) Damage evaluation method: Hardness measurement method; (b) Turbine: (I) Evaluation part: Inner surface at the center bore of high pressure turbine rotor; (II) Damage mode: Creep; (III) Damage evaluation method: Electric potential method. (orig./MM)

  2. In-Bore Prostate Transperineal Interventions with an MRI-guided Parallel Manipulator: System Development and Preliminary Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslami, Sohrab; Shang, Weijian; Li, Gang; Patel, Nirav; Fischer, Gregory S.; Tokuda, Junichi; Hata, Nobuhiko; Tempany, Clare M.; Iordachita, Iulian

    2015-01-01

    Background The robot-assisted minimally-invasive surgery is well recognized as a feasible solution for diagnosis and treatment of the prostate cancer in human. Methods In this paper the kinematics of a parallel 4 Degrees-of-Freedom (DOF) surgical manipulator designed for minimally invasive in-bore prostate percutaneous interventions through the patient's perineum. The proposed manipulator takes advantage of 4 sliders actuated by MRI-compatible piezoelectric motors and incremental rotary encoders. Errors, mostly originating from the design and manufacturing process, need to be identified and reduced before the robot is deployed in the clinical trials. Results The manipulator has undergone several experiments to evaluate the repeatability and accuracy of the needle placement which is an essential concern in percutaneous prostate interventions. Conclusion The acquired results endorse the sustainability, precision (about 1 mm in air (in x or y direction) at the needle's reference point) and reliability of the manipulator. PMID:26111458

  3. Exploring the role of wood waste landfills in early detection of non-native alien wood-boring beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davide Rassati; Massimo Faccoli; Lorenzo Marini; Robert A. Haack; Andrea Battisti; Edoardo. Petrucco Toffolo

    2015-01-01

    Non-native wood-boring beetles (Coleoptera) represent one of the most commonly intercepted groups of insects at ports worldwide. The development of early detection methods is a crucial step when implementing rapid response programs so that non-native wood-boring beetles can be quickly detected and a timely action plan can be produced. However, due to the limited...

  4. Wear analysis of disc cutters of full face rock tunnel boring machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhaohuang; Meng, Liang; Sun, Fei

    2014-11-01

    Wear is a major factor of disc cutters' failure. No current theory offers a standard for the prediction of disc cutter wear yet. In the field the wear prediction method commonly used is based on the excavation length of tunnel boring machine(TBM) to predict the disc cutter wear and its wear law, considering the location number of each disc cutter on the cutterhead(radius for installation); in theory, there is a prediction method of using arc wear coefficient. However, the preceding two methods have their own errors, with their accuracy being 40% or so and largely relying on the technicians' experience. Therefore, radial wear coefficient, axial wear coefficient and trajectory wear coefficient are defined on the basis of the operating characteristics of TBM. With reference to the installation and characteristics of disc cutters, those coefficients are modified according to penetration, which gives rise to the presentation of comprehensive axial wear coefficient, comprehensive radial wear coefficient and comprehensive trajectory wear coefficient. Calculation and determination of wear coefficients are made with consideration of data from a segment of TBM project(excavation length 173 m). The resulting wear coefficient values, after modification, are adopted to predict the disc cutter wear in the follow-up segment of the TBM project(excavation length of 5621 m). The prediction results show that the disc cutter wear predicted with comprehensive radial wear coefficient and comprehensive trajectory wear coefficient are not only accurate(accuracy 16.12%) but also highly congruous, whereas there is a larger deviation in the prediction with comprehensive axial wear coefficient(accuracy 41%, which is in agreement with the prediction of disc cutters' life in the field). This paper puts forth a new method concerning prediction of life span and wear of TBM disc cutters as well as timing for replacing disc cutters.

  5. Frictional effects between Overton sand and a simulated casing for a bore hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, R.G.

    1975-01-01

    A series of tests were run to simulate the frictional effects between Overton sand and the casing for a bore hole for an underground nuclear test. The objective was to find a description for this frictional interaction which can be applied to an analysis of stemming materials under field conditions

  6. Construction of a cylindrical brine test room using a tunnel boring machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Likar, V.F.; Burrington, T.P.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses the construction of a horizontal cylindrical brine test room at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The room was constructed in the bedded salt formation at a depth of 655 meters with a tunnel boring machine. The machine leasing, technical and operational management, parameters involved, and successful completion of this effort are included. 3 figs

  7. Ultra narrow bore thick film capillaries for microcolumn separations. Part 1. GC experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenackers, D.; Sandra, P.J.F.; Sandra, P.; Devos, G.

    1993-01-01

    Ultra narrow bore (50 mum 1.0.) fused silica columns were statically coated with apolar stationary phases to obtain beta values ranging from 6.25 to 50 (filmthickness 2 to 0.25 mum). Performance of the 1 and 2 mum columns in Capillary Gas Chromatography (CGC) is highlighted.

  8. Distribution and biomass estimation of shell-boring algae in the intertidal area at Goa India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghukumar, C.; Sharma, S.; Lande, V.

    The distribution and frequency of shell-boring green and blue-green algae in the intertidal at Goa, India were studied. The green alga Gomontia sp. and the blue green algae Hyella caespitosa Bornet et Flahault, H. gigas Lucas et Golubic...

  9. Tunnelling in Soft Soil : Tunnel Boring Machine Operation and Soil Response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Festa, D.; Broere, W.; Bosch, J.W.

    2013-01-01

    Constructing tunnels in soft soil with the use of Tunnel Boring Machines may induce settlements including soil movements ahead of the face, soil relaxation into the tail void, possible heave due to grouting, long lasting consolidation processes, and potentially several other mechanisms. A

  10. Recent development in the design of hard rock tunnel boring machines for the mining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snyder, L.L.; Williams, R.I.

    1991-01-01

    Underground development for nuclear waste storage will possibly require tunnels to be excavated in a variety of rock conditions and configurations. Recent innovations in Tunnel Boring Machine (TBM) design have allowed for an evolved style of TBM which has distinct advantages over the standard machines. Present day conventional hard rock TBM's were developed primarily for the long, relatively straight tunnels of the civil construction industry, thereby making them for the most part, unsuitable for the sharp curves, turnouts, declines, inclines and ramps required in many underground environments. The five foot to 36 foot (1.52 to 11 m) diameter machines are capable of boring tunnels with curve radiuses as small as 40 to 90 feet (12.2 to 27.5 m) depending on size. These short turning radiuses can be accomplished while gripping the tunnel walls horizontally in the traditional manner or vertically as required when intersecting existing tunnels, or making turnouts from the tunnel that the machine has just bored. The machine's length is approximately half of a traditional machine's length while still employing a full measure of thrust, horsepower and rock cutting ability. The machine's short length, combined with a patented machine structure allows it to steer while boring without causing harmful eccentric loads on the cutterhead and main bearing assembly. The machine configuration is versatile and can be easily modified to operate in a wide variety of conditions

  11. On the Interaction between a Tunnel Boring Machine and the Surrounding Soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Festa, D.

    2015-01-01

    The thesis investigates the mechanical equilibrium of a Tunnel Boring Machine (TBM) driving in soft soil. The interaction between the TBM-shield and the soil is also investigated. The analysis is based on monitoring data gathered during the construction of the Hubertus tunnel in The Hague,

  12. Construction of a cylindrical brine test room using a tunnel boring machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Likar, V.F.; Burrington, T.P.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses the construction of a horizontal cylindrical brine test room at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The room was constructed in the bedded salt formation at a depth of 655 meters with a tunnel boring machine. The machine leasing technical and operational management, parameters involved, and successful completion of this effort are included. 3 figs

  13. A Shear-Wave Seismic System to Look Ahead of a Tunnel Boring Machine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bharadwaj, Pawan; Drijkoningen, G.G.; Mulder, W.A.; Tscharner, Thomas; Jenneskens, Rob

    2016-01-01

    The Earth’s properties, composition and structure ahead of a tunnel boring machine (TBM) should be mapped for hazard assessment during excavation. We study the use of seismic-exploration techniques for this purpose. We focus on a seismic system for soft soils, where shear waves are better and easier

  14. An Account on marine wood-boring organisms of offshore waters of Bombay High, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wagh, A.B.; Raveendran, T.V.

    An incidence of wood-boring organisms in a water column of 75 meters depth, 160 km off the Bombay coast is reported. The destruction of untreated panels of mango wood exposed for periods varying from 1-12 months was caused by eight species...

  15. Stakeout electronic total station construction layout boring of the experience and precision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Zhiqiang

    2012-01-01

    Electronic total station can simultaneously measure angle and distance, together with the appropriate calculation methods and operating skills, able to efficiently complete the survey work, this paper based on practical experience, theoretical analysis, based on total station introduced in setting out a few boring in the skills and the measurement of total station in the construction layout for accuracy. (authors)

  16. Mechanics of Cutting and Boring. Part 7. Dynamics and Energetics of Axial Rotation Machines,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-01

    systematic analytical scheme that can be used to facilitate future work on the mechanics of cutting and boring machines. In the industrial sector, rock...Proceedings. Chapter 66, p. 1149-1158. Mellor, M. and I. Hawkes (1972) How to rate a hard-rock borer. World Construction, Sept, p. 21-23. (Also in Ingenieria

  17. Monitoring pilot projects on bored tunnelling : The Second Heinenoord Tunnel and the Botlek Rail Tunnel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, K.J.; De Boer, F.; Admiraal, J.B.M.; Van Jaarsveld, E.P.

    1999-01-01

    Two pilot projects for bored tunnelling in soft soil have been undertaken in the Netherlands. The monitoring was commissioned under the authority of the Centre for Underground Construction (COB). A description of the research related to the Second Heinenoord Tunnel and the Botlek Rail Tunnel will be

  18. Wood-Boring Bivalves (Mollusca: Teredinidae, Pholadidae) of Pacific coast of Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantera K, Jaime R

    2010-01-01

    Twelve species of wood-boring bivalves, ten of the family Teredinidae and two of family Pholadidae were collected in mangroves at 6 locations of the Pacific coast of Colombia. This paper presents a brief escription of these species, including size, ecological notes and geographical distribution.

  19. In situ stress determination by the overcoring of large surface strain gauge rosettes on the walls of a raise-bored shaft at the Underground Research Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandler, N.A.

    1991-08-01

    AECL Research is conducting a series of experiments to examine the influence of scale on measured in situ stresses in granite rock. The ventilation raise rosette overcoring experiment is one such test. This experiment, modelled on a previous test conducted in Australia, consisted of overcoring four 120-mm strain gauge rosettes glued to the surface of a 1.8-m-diameter bored raise. The in situ stresses were calculated from the measured strains using the equations for stresses around a cylindrical excavation in an elastic material. The possibility of excavation disturbance around the ventilation raise was investigated using overcore stress measurements, elastic modulus tests on retrieved core, and visual inspection of thin sections obtained from removed core. The effect of a stress-dependent elastic modulus (referred to as non-linear elastic behaviour) is also addressed. Results from the ventilation raise rosette overcoring experiment suggest that rosette overcoring in a bored raise is an acceptable stress-measurement method. The effects of scale and excavation damage on the stress measurements were not considered to be significant; however, if the elastic modulus of the rock is strongly stress-dependent, non-linear elastic behaviour may have a small effect on the measured stresses

  20. A summary of the conclusions of generic issue 113: Dynamic qualification and testing of large bore hydraulic snubbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ware, A.G.; Nitzel, M.E.

    1993-01-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) developed Generic Issue 113, Dynamic Qualification and Testing of Large Bore Hydraulic Snubbers (LBHSs), with the objective of evaluating the reliability of LBHSs in operating commercial nuclear power plants. For the purposes of this research, LBHSs were defined as those hydraulic snubbers with rated load capacities ≥50 kips. Relatively high LBHS failure rates were common during the early 1980s; however, industry actions taken during the last several years in response to increased inspection and testing requirements have resulted in lower LBHS failure rates. To address the issue of LBHS adequacy, the NRC developed Generic Issue 113 (GI-113). This paper provides a summary of the important findings of the GI-113 research program and a discussion of the recommendations that were made in NUREG/CR-5416. Fifteen potential improvements in LBHS reliability were identified, covering the areas of design, environmental (including dynamic) qualification, functional testing, visual inspection, and personnel training. Probabilistic risk assessment studies were used to perform a cost/benefit analysis for each. There were five potential improvements in functional testing and visual inspections with low cost/benefit ratios for both existing and future nuclear plants, and an additional six potential improvements that were determined to be cost beneficial only for future plants. Further investigations of the single failure of snubbers that could damage critical components or systems were recommended in NUREG/CR-5416

  1. Empyema and Effusion: Outcome of Image-Guided Small-Bore Catheter Drainage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keeling, A. N.; Leong, S.; Logan, P. M.; Lee, M. J.

    2008-01-01

    Empyema and complicated pleural effusion represent common medical problems. Current treatment options are multiple. The purpose of this study was to access the outcome of image-guided, small-bore catheter drainage of empyema and effusion. We evaluated 93 small-bore catheters in 82 patients with pleural effusion (n = 30) or empyema (n = 52), over a 2-year period. Image guidance was with ultrasound (US; n = 56) and CT (n = 37). All patients were followed clinically, with catheter dwell times, catheter outcome, pleural fluid outcome, reinsertion rates, and need for urokinase or surgery recorded. Ninety-three small-bore chest drains (mean=10.2 Fr; range, 8.2-12.2 Fr) were inserted, with an average dwell time of 7.81 days for empyemas and 7.14 days for effusions (p > 0.05). Elective removal rates (73% empyema vs 86% effusions) and dislodgement rates (12% empyema vs 13% effusions) were similar for both groups. Eight percent of catheters became blocked and 17% necessitated reinsertion in empyemas, with no catheters blocked or requiring reinsertion in effusions (p < 0.05). Thirty-two patients (51%) required urokinase in the empyema group, versus 2 patients (6%) in the effusion group (p < 0.05). All treatment failures, requiring surgery, occurred in the empyema group (19%; n = 12; p < 0.05). In conclusion, noninfected pleural collections are adequately treated with small-bore catheters, however, empyemas have a failure rate of 19%. The threshold for using urokinase and larger-bore catheters should be low in empyema

  2. Preliminary Study for Development of Welds Integrity Verification Equipment for the Small Bore Piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Geun Suk; Lee, Jong Eun; Ryu, Jung Hoon; Cho, Kyoung Youn; Sohn, Myoung Sung; Lee, Sanghoon; Sung, Gi Ho; Cho, Hong Seok

    2016-01-01

    It has been reported leakage accident of small-bore piping in Korea. Leakage accident of small-bore pipes are those that will increase due to the aging of the nuclear power plant. And if leakage of the pipe is repaired by using the clamping device when it occur accident, it is economically benefits. The clamping device is a fastening device used to hold or secure objects tightly together to prevent movement or separation through the application of inward pressure. However, when the accident occurs, it can't immediately respond because maintenance and repairing technology are not institutionalized in KEPIC. Thus it appears an economic loss. The technology for corresponding thereto is necessary for the safety of the operation of nuclear power plants. The purpose of this research is to develop an online repairing technology of socket welded pipe and vibration monitoring system of small-bore pipe in the nuclear power plant. Specifically, detailed studies are as follows : • Development of weld overlay method of safety class socket welded connections • Development of Mechanical Clamping Devices for Safety Class 2, 3 small-bore pipe. The purpose of this study is to develop an online repairing technology of socket welded pipe and vibration monitoring system of small-bore pipe, resulting in degraded plant systems. And it is necessary to institutionalize the technology. The fatigue crack testing of socket welded overlay will be performed and fatigue life evaluation method will be developed in second year. Also prototype fabrication of mechanical clamping device will be completed. Base on final goal, the intent is to propose practical evaluation tools, design and fabrication methods for socket welded connection integrity. And result of this study is to development of KEPIC code case approved technology for on-line repairing system of socket welded connection and fabrication of mechanical clamping device

  3. Development of Inspection Technique for Socket Weld of Small Bore Piping in Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Byungsik; Kim, Yongsik; Lee, Jeongseok

    2013-01-01

    The losses incurred by unplanned shutdowns are significant; consequently, early crack initiation and crack detection, including the detection of fillet weld manufacturing defects, is of the utmost importance. Current inspection techniques are not capable of reliably inspecting socket welds; therefore, new approaches are needed. The new technique must be sensitive to socket weld cracking, which usually initiates from the root, in order to detect the cracking during the early failure phase. In 2008, Kori unit 3 experienced leakage from the drain line socket weld of a steam generator. From this experience, KHNP enforced a management program to focus on enhancing the reliability of small bore socket weld piping inspections. Currently, conventional manual ultrasonic inspection techniques are used to detect service induced fatigue cracks. But there was uncertainty on manual ultrasonic inspection because of limited access to the welds and difficulties with contact between the ultrasonic probe and the OD surface of small bore piping. In this study, phased array ultrasonic inspection techniques are applied to increase inspection speed and reliability. Additionally a manually encoded scanner has been developed to enhance contact conditions and maintain constant signal quality. A phased array UT technique and system was developed to inspect small bore socket welds. The experimental results show all artificial flaws in the specimen were detected and measured. These experimental results show, that the newly developed inspection system, has improved the reliability and speed of small bore socket weld inspection. Based on these results, future works shall focus on additional experiments, with more realistic flaw responses. By applying this technique to the field, we expect that it can improve the integrity of small bore piping in nuclear power plants

  4. Navigated MRI-guided liver biopsies in a closed-bore scanner: experience in 52 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moche, Michael; Heinig, Susann; Garnov, Nikita; Fuchs, Jochen; Petersen, Tim-Ole; Seider, Daniel; Brandmaier, Philipp; Kahn, Thomas; Busse, Harald

    2016-08-01

    To evaluate clinical effectiveness and diagnostic efficiency of a navigation device for MR-guided biopsies of focal liver lesions in a closed-bore scanner. In 52 patients, 55 biopsies were performed. An add-on MR navigation system with optical instrument tracking was used for image guidance and biopsy device insertion outside the bore. Fast control imaging allowed visualization of the true needle position at any time. The biopsy workflow and procedure duration were recorded. Histological analysis and clinical course/outcome were used to calculate sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy. Fifty-four of 55 liver biopsies were performed successfully with the system. No major and four minor complications occurred. Mean tumour size was 23 ± 14 mm and the skin-to-target length ranged from 22 to 177 mm. In 39 cases, access path was double oblique. Sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy were 88 %, 100 % and 92 %, respectively. The mean procedure time was 51 ± 12 min, whereas the puncture itself lasted 16 ± 6 min. On average, four control scans were taken. Using this navigation device, biopsies of poorly visible and difficult accessible liver lesions could be performed safely and reliably in a closed-bore MRI scanner. The system can be easily implemented in clinical routine workflow. • Targeted liver biopsies could be reliably performed in a closed-bore MRI. • The navigation system allows for image guidance outside of the scanner bore. • Assisted MRI-guided biopsies are helpful for focal lesions with a difficult access. • Successful integration of the method in clinical workflow was shown. • Subsequent system installation in an existing MRI environment is feasible.

  5. Flow and turbulence structure in a hypertidal estuary with the world's biggest tidal bore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Junbiao; Fan, Daidu

    2017-04-01

    Turbulent and flow structure associated with breaking tidal bores are deliberately investigated on the basis of field measurements. High-resolution velocity and hydrographic data are collected in the middle Qiantang Estuary by a vertical array of acoustic Doppler velocimeters and optical backscatter sensors, collaborated with a bottom-mounted acoustic Doppler current profiler. Besides obvious variations in diurnal and spring-neap tidal cycles, the estuarine dynamics is featured by extreme asymmetry in flood and ebb tides. The flood tide is abnormally accelerated to generate tidal bores at the first 10 min or more, with breaking or undular configurations at the front. The occurrence of peak flow velocity, turbulent kinetic energy (TKE), and TKE dissipation rate (ɛ) is definitely associated with breaking bores, with their values several times to 2 orders of magnitude larger than the corresponding secondary peak values during the maximum ebb flows. Flow and turbulence dynamics are significantly affected by the tidal-bore Froude number. A sandwich ɛ structure is clear exhibited with the maximum value at the surface, secondary maximum near the bed, and the minimum at the intermediate. Dual TKE sources are indicated by an approximate local balance between shear production and dissipation near the bottom, and a top-down TKE dissipation using the modified Froude scaling in the vertical water column. The highly elevated dissipation by breaking bores is comparable to that by intense breaking waves in the surf zone, and the former potentially penetrates the entire water column to produce extreme sediment-resuspension events in combination with intense bottom shear stress.

  6. 40 CFR 144.6 - Classification of wells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... radioactive waste disposal sites to dispose of hazardous waste or radioactive waste into a formation which... waste management facilities, or by owners or operators of radioactive waste disposal sites to dispose of... one quarter mile of the well bore, an underground source of drinking water. (3) Radioactive waste...

  7. Well construction hydraulics in challenging environments; Hidraulica de construcao de pocos em cenarios criticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Andre Leibsohn; Folsta, Mauricio Gimenes; Waldmann, Alex Tadeu de Almeida; Gandelman, Roni Abensur [Centro de Pesquisas da Petrobras (CENPES). Gerencia de Interacao Rocha-Fluido (Brazil)], e-mails: aleibsohn@petrobras.com.br, folsta@petrobras.com.br, awaldmann@petrobras.com.br, roniag@petrobras.com.br; Aragao, Atila Fernando Lima [E and P Construcao de Pocos Maritimos. Gerencia de Tecnologia de Fluidos (Brazil)], e-mail: atila-aragao@petrobras.com.br; Aranha, Pedro Esteves [Centro de Pesquisas da Petrobras (CENPES). Gerencia de Perfuracao e Completacao de Pocos (Brazil)], e-mail: pearanha@petrobras.com.br

    2009-12-15

    This article reports the main R and D efforts on well bore construction hydraulics which facilitated the technological development of major Brazilian offshore fields in challenging scenarios. These include: deep and ultra deep water exploratory campaigns, inclined, horizontal and complex trajectory development wells, extended reach wells, long horizontal section wells and drilling through sensitive formations (heavy oil reservoirs, salt zones and fractured carbonates). The relevant scenarios, technical aspects, project development strategies, the history of well bore hydraulics in the main PETROBRAS R and D programs, as well as the contribution of Brazilian universities are detailed. (author)

  8. Problematic fine bore nasogastric intubation: A radiographer led service development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Law, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Developing from the intubation and performing of small bowel enteroclysis a consultant radiographer led service expanded to include problematic gastric, enteric and colonic intubations for diagnostic, therapeutic and interventional purposes. The radiographer led service has also extended to include 'hot reporting' chest images taken to check siting of ward placed nasogastric tubes as well as resiting those tubes that were misplaced. The service has demonstrated itself to be safe and efficient. It has also proven to be both cost and clinically effective. The protracted discomfort and distress to the patient are reduced by minimizing the delay in correctly relocating misplaced tubes

  9. The use of a Tunnel Boring Machine (TBM) as a seismic source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreutzer, Ingrid; Chwatal, Werner; Radinger, Alexander; Brückl, Ewald

    2014-05-01

    The Tunnel Seismic While Drilling (TSWD) method uses the Tunnel Boring Machine (TBM) as the seismic source. The method has been developed to predict the geological situation from reflections ahead of the tunnel face without disturbing the tunneling. The vibrations of the TBM are continuously monitored near the drilling head (pilot signal) as well as the direct and reflected seismic wave field at borehole geophones (geophone signal) situated in the tunnel wall behind the TBM. During the processing these signals are correlated and result in excellent seismic traces comparable to conventional seismic methods. The interpretation of the reflections leads to a nearly daily prognosis about 100 m ahead of the TBM. This system was successfully implemented at three different construction sites in Austria and is currently operating at one further. The cutters on front of the TBM head are pressed against the tunnel face and split the rock during rotating which is called the chipping process. This cutting process generates seismic waves radiated into the rock mass and results also in vibrations of the TBM itself. On the one hand it is important to know the source mechanism of the TBM and the radiation pattern of the seismic waves in all directions. Until now this is not well understood. To investigate this 3C-geophones were installed at the surface above the tunnel axis at different construction sites. The obtained seismograms show the forward and backward radiated seismic wave field of the TBM, for the present without consideration of the influence of the free surface. We compare this data with modelled seismograms in which we use different possible source mechanism, like single force or force due to tensile cracks. First results are shown in the scope of this work. On the other hand it is essential to know how good the recorded pilot signal represents the entire chipping process. Due to technically reasons the pilot signal has been registered so far on the non-rotating part

  10. Integrity and As-built capacity of bored pile group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, D.E.; Kissenpfennig, J.F.; Huemmer, M.R.

    1983-01-01

    This paper discusses the application of statistical methods to the reliability evaluation of cast-in-place concrete piles. The difficulties associated with pile construction can lead to larger uncertainties than would be associated with normal reinforced concrete structures both due to uncertainty in concrete quality and end bearing capacity. These uncertainties can be dealt with through the use of statistical methods. A statistical model of an individual pile is formulated along with a methodology for determining necessary statistical parameters from results of concrete batch tests, core strength tests and visual logs, sonic geophysical testing methods, and proof tests. Strength models for both static vertical and seismic horizontal loadings are discussed. The overall safety of a pile foundation is dependent upon the distribution of individual pile strength as well as the additional reliability due to the use of a large number of parallel load paths provided by a pile group foundation. The paper presents a mechanical model of global pile behavior which accounts for individual pile ductility along with the possibility of redistribution of loads from weaker to stronger piles. The use of the Monte Carlo method to determine the overall reliability of the pile foundation is discussed. Numerical results for both individual pile behavior as well as overall foundation behavior are presented. (orig.)

  11. A study of the complications of small bore 'Seldinger' intercostal chest drains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Helen E; Merchant, Shairoz; McGown, Anne

    2008-06-01

    Use of small bore chest drains (drainage over a 12-month period. One hundred consecutive small bore Seldinger (12F) chest drain insertions were evaluated. Few serious complications occurred. However, 21% of the chest drains were displaced ('fell out') and 9% of the drains became blocked. This contributed to high morbidity rates, with 13% of patients requiring repeat pleural procedures. The frequency of drain blockage in pleural effusion was reduced by administration of regular normal saline drain flushes (odds ratio for blockage in flushed drains compared with non-flushed drains 0.04, 95% CI: 0.01-0.37, P < 0.001). Regular chest drain flushes are advocated in order to reduce rates of drain blockage, and further studies are needed to determine optimal fixation strategies that may reduce associated patient morbidity.

  12. Experimental Study on Post Grouting Bearing Capacity of Large Diameter Bored Piles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Duanduan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Post grouting can improve the inherent defects such as the formation of the mud cake at pile side and the sediment at pile end in the process of bored pile construction. Thus post grouting has been widely used in Engineering. The purpose of this paper is to research the influences of post grouting to pile bearing capacity more systematically and intuitively. Combined with the static load test of four test piles in Weihe River Bridge test area of new airport highway in Xi’an, the bearing capacity and settlement of routine piles and post grouting piles are comparatively analyzed. The test results show that under the same geological condition, post grouting can improve the properties of pile tip and pile shaft soil of bored piles significantly, enhance the ultimate resistance, improve the ultimate bearing capacity and reduce the pile tip settlement. Then post grouting can aim to optimize pile foundation.

  13. Neutron activation for logging the distribution of gold in bore-hole cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahmanian, H.; Watterson, J.I.W.

    1992-01-01

    A new method for the non-destructive determination of gold in bore-hole cores has been developed using instrumental neutron activation analysis with a 252 Cf source. The procedure obtains the distribution and concentration of gold along the longitudinal axis of the core i.e. a log of the gold concentration. The accuracy of the method is comparable to fire assay at a level of 2 ppm and has a detection limit of 1 ppm under the conditions used. The assay of the gold is carried out by employing a novel variation of the conventional comparator method using gold wires as both standard and flux monitor. A method is described for logging gold in bore-hole cores using neutron activation with a 160 μg 252 Cf neutron source. The method has a limit of detection of about 1 ppm under the described conditions. (author)

  14. In-Bore MR-Guided Biopsy Systems and Utility of PI-RADS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fütterer, Jurgen J; Moche, Michael; Busse, Harald; Yakar, Derya

    2016-06-01

    A diagnostic dilemma exists in cases wherein a patient with clinical suspicion for prostate cancer has a negative transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy session. Although transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy is the standard of care, a paradigm shift is being observed. In biopsy-naive patients and patients with at least 1 negative biopsy session, multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is being utilized for tumor detection and subsequent targeting. Several commercial devices are now available for targeted prostate biopsy ranging from transrectal ultrasound-MR fusion biopsy to in bore MR-guided biopsy. In this review, we will give an update on the current status of in-bore MRI-guided biopsy systems and discuss value of prostate imaging-reporting and data system (PIRADS).

  15. Retained foreign body following pleural drainage with a small-bore catheter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paddle, Alenka; Elahi, Maqsood; Newcomb, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Small-bore radiopaque drains can be used to drain pleural effusions. They offer reliable drainage of simple pleural effusions and provide a safe, less-invasive, more comfortable alternative to the standard tube thoracostomy. Importantly, removal of such drains does not require purse-string sutures and hence can be removed without assistance. We report here the cautionary tale of a retained foreign body related to drainage of a pleural effusion with a Pleurocath in a patient following cardiac surgery to raise awareness of this potential complication. Emphasized is the need for all staff to be familiar with the normal appearance of equipment being utilized in the ward and to report when incomplete removal of drain equipment is suspected. In addition, amendments to insertion techniques for such small-bore drains are proposed to avoid similar undue complications.

  16. Seismic damping factors of small-bore piping as influenced by insulation and support elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severud, L.K.; Anderson, M.J.; Barta, D.A.

    1983-01-01

    Seismic damping tests of a prototypical Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) small-bore piping system is described, and measured transient responses to pulse excitations are reported. The test specimen was representative of a typical LMFBR insulated small-bore piping system, and it was supported from a rigid test fame by prototypic dead-weight supports, mechanical snubbers, and pipe clamps. Various support configurations were tested to assess the reponse sensitivity to insulation and use of mechanical snubbers. Factors much higher than the magnitudes currently allowed in design, by the USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.61, were found. This verified the design values but also pointed out the possibility of undue conservatism and costly overdesign resulting from use of the present design values

  17. Compact and air-transportable ultrasonic turbine disc bore inspection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, R.E.; Leon-Salamanca, T.

    1990-01-01

    A compact, lightweight, air-transportable ultrasonic inspection system for bore and keyway regions of shrunk-on turbine discs has been developed. The system utilizes a proprietary ultrasound liquid coupling technique in conjunction with a single pair of gimballed search units to achieve rapid and thorough coverage of bores and keyways in both heavy nuclear and standard fossil discs of nearly any size and having any conceivable web surface contour. Search unit positioning and angulation parameter settings are established in near real-time through a computation algorithm based on a compact vector ray tracing protocol. Modular construction and the use of lightweight, stiff materials throughout facilitates air shipment of the system and its rapid deployment at continental and overseas field sites. Mechanical and ultrasonic features of the system are described. Development and application of the computation algorithm to the ultrasonic inspection of heavy discs at an overseas power station is discussed

  18. Seismic damping factors of small bore piping as influenced by insulation and support elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severud, L.K.; Anderson, M.J.; Barta, D.A.

    1985-01-01

    Seismic damping tests of a prototypical Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) small bore piping system is described, and measured transient responses to pulse excitations are reported. The test specimen was representative of a typical LMFBR insulated small bore piping system, and it was supported from a rigid test frame by prototypic dead weight supports, mechanical snubbers, and pipe clamps. Various support configurations were tested to assess the response sensitivity to insulation and other nonlinear support characteristics. Damping factors increased significantly due to the insulation and use of mechanical snubbers. Factors much higher than the magnitudes currently allowed in design by the USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.61, were found. This verified the design values, and it also pointed out the possibility of undue conservatism and costly overdesign resulting from use of the present design values

  19. Seismic damping factors of small bore piping as influenced by insulation and support elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severud, L.K.; Barta, D.A.

    1983-01-01

    Seismic damping tests of a prototypical Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) small bore piping system is described, and measured transient responses to pulse excitations are reported. The test specimen was representative of a typical LMFBR insulated small bore piping system, and it was supported from a rigid test frame by prototypic dead weight supports, mechanical snubbers, and pipe clamps. Various support configurations were tested to assess the response sensitivity to insulation and other nonlinear support characteristics. Damping factors increased significantly due to the insulation and use of mechanical snubbers. Factors much higher than the magnitudes currently allowed in design, by the USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.61, were found. This verified the design values but also pointed out the possibility of undue conservatism and costly overdesign resulting from use of the present design values

  20. Boring and Sealing Rock with Directed Energy Millimeter-Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woskov, P.; Einstein, H. H.; Oglesby, K.

    2015-12-01

    Millimeter-wave directed energy is being investigated to penetrate into deep crystalline basement rock formations to lower well costs and to melt rocks, metals, and other additives to seal wells for applications that include nuclear waste storage and geothermal energy. Laboratory tests have established that intense millimeter-wave (MMW) beams > 1 kW/cm2 can melt and/ or vaporize hard crystalline rocks. In principle this will make it possible to create open boreholes and a method to seal them with a glass/ceramic liner and plug formed from the original rock or with other materials. A 10 kW, 28 GHz commercial (CPI) gyrotron system with a launched beam diameter of about 32 mm was used to heat basalt, granite, limestone, and sandstone specimens to temperatures over 2500 °C to create melts and holes. A calibrated 137 GHz radiometer view, collinear with the heating beam, monitored real time peak rock temperature. A water load surrounding the rock test specimen primarily monitored unabsorbed power at 28 GHz. Power balance analysis of the laboratory observations shows that the temperature rise is limited by radiative heat loss, which would be expected to be trapped in a borehole. The analysis also indicates that the emissivity (absorption efficiency) in the radiated infrared range is lower than the emissivity at 28 GHz, giving the MMW frequency range an important advantage for rock melting. Strength tests on one granite type indicated that heating the rock initially weakens it, but with exposure to higher temperatures the resolidified black glassy product regains strength. Basalt was the easiest to melt and penetrate, if a melt leak path was provided, because of its low viscosity. Full beam holes up to about 50 mm diameter (diffraction increased beam size) were achieved through 30 mm thick basalt and granite specimens. Laboratory experiments to form a seal in an existing hole have also been carried out by melting rock and a simulated steel casing.

  1. Catastrophic failure of a raise boring machine during underground reaming operations

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    James, A

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available rights reserved. 1. INTRODUCTION The process of raise boring (or back reaming) has been in use for over 30 years, and has proved to be a very successful technique in underground mining operations. Its primary use... the overhaul, the equipment was moved from its underground location to the surface. All the drive head bolts were replaced. A cutaway diagram of the drive head installation, showing the relative positions of the cover, drive...

  2. Prechamber ignition concepts for stationary large bore gas engines; Vorkammerzuendkonzepte fuer stationaer betriebene Grossgasmotoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinz, Christoph [MTU Friedrichshafen GmbH (Germany); Kammerstaetter, Stefan; Sattelmayer, Thomas [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Thermodynamik

    2012-01-15

    A testing facility for the optical investigation of ignition and combustion in large bore gas engines is described. The test rig was developed at the Institute of Thermodynamics at Technical University of Munich. Core element of the setup is an optically accessible high pressure combustion cell which can be charged, ignited, and discharged repeatedly according to the cycle times of a real engine. Until now the apparatus was used for the investigation of two different prechamber concepts. (orig.)

  3. On the testing fast response NPP's valves of large nominal bores and high parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majorov, A.P.; Ostretsov, I.N.

    1990-01-01

    Investigation technique for valves of large norminal bores and high parameters which is based on application of simulation effect for operation and accident loadings during movement of valve lock at bench tests with medium flow rate by 100-1000 times less than during operation is given. Loading simulation technique is provided using simulator of lock loading. Investigation results are essential to make decision concerning advisability of serial production of fittings without full-scale test conducting

  4. The evolution of an internal bore at the Malin shelf break

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Small

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available Observations of internal waves were made at the Malin shelf edge during SESAME (Shelf Edge Studies Acoustic Measurement Experiment, a part of the NERC LOIS-SES experiment, in August-September 1996. These measurements provide a high resolution dataset demonstrating internal wave generation and propagation. This note presents observations of the evolution of an internal bore. The process is shown clearly in a sequence of thermistor chain tows across the shelf break covering a complete tidal cycle, as the double-sided bore transforms into a group of undulations and eventually into more distinct solitary waveforms. Current structures associated with the bore and waves were also observed by ship-mounted ADCP. Analysis of the waveforms in terms of the linear modes and empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs indicate the dominance of the first mode, which is typical of a shallow water seasonal thermocline environment. Determination of the phase speed of the waves from the consecutive ship surveys enabled the Doppler shift in the towed data to be removed, allowing analysis of the real length scales of the waves. The bore evolution has been modelled using a first order non-linear KdV model for the first mode, initialised with the waveform in the first survey. Comparison of the model and the observations show close agreement in the amplitudes, length scales, phase speeds and separations of the leading internal waves as they evolve. Finally, analysis of the observed internal wave shapes indicates that, within the uncertainties of measurement, the wave-lengths lie between those predicted by first and second order soliton theory.Key words. Oceanography: general (continental shelf processes; ocean prediction. Oceanography: physical (internal and inertial waves

  5. A geostatistical estimation of zinc grade in bore-core samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starzec, A.

    1987-01-01

    Possibilities and preliminary results of geostatistical interpretation of the XRF determination of zinc in bore-core samples are considered. For the spherical model of the variogram the estimation variance of grade in a disk-shape sample (estimated from the grade on the circumference sample) is calculated. Variograms of zinc grade in core samples are presented and examples of the grade estimation are discussed. 4 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab. (author)

  6. An innovative jet boring mining method available for the high grade uranium ore underground deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narcy, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    An innovative mining method, based on the capability of a high pressure water jet to desaggregate rock, has been conceived and tested with success at the highest grade uranium ore deposit in the world, the Cigar Lake deposit in Saskatchewan, Canada. 113 tonnes of ore at 13% U were mined out by a new jet-boring mining method operated on a semi-industrial basis, in 1992 during the test mining program of Cigar Lake Project. (author). 9 figs

  7. High Frequency Field Measurements of an Undular Bore Using a 2D LiDAR Scanner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kévin Martins

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The secondary wave field associated with undular tidal bores (known as whelps has been barely studied in field conditions: the wave field can be strongly non-hydrostatic, and the turbidity is generally high. In situ measurements based on pressure or acoustic signals can therefore be limited or inadequate. The intermittent nature of this process in the field and the complications encountered in the downscaling to laboratory conditions also render its study difficult. Here, we present a new methodology based on LiDAR technology to provide high spatial and temporal resolution measurements of the free surface of an undular tidal bore. A wave-by-wave analysis is performed on the whelps, and comparisons between LiDAR, acoustic and pressure-derived measurements are used to quantify the non-hydrostatic nature of this phenomenon. A correction based on linear wave theory applied on individual wave properties improves the results from the pressure transducer (Root mean square error, R M S E of 0 . 19 m against 0 . 38 m; however, more robust data is obtained from an upwards-looking acoustic sensor despite high turbidity during the passage of the whelps ( R M S E of 0 . 05 m. Finally, the LiDAR scanner provides the unique possibility to study the wave geometry: the distribution of measured wave height, period, celerity, steepness and wavelength are presented. It is found that the highest wave from the whelps can be steeper than the bore front, explaining why breaking events are sometimes observed in the secondary wave field of undular tidal bores.

  8. Magnetic susceptibility measurements of boring cores obtained from regional hydrological study project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Ken

    2010-02-01

    We measured the magnetic susceptibility of boring cores obtained from the Regional Hydrological Study Project to interpret the aeromagnetic survey data which was carried out in Tono area with about 40km square surrounding Tono Geoscience Center. The result of measurements indicates that the magnetic susceptibility of the Toki Granite is not distributed uniformly and the maximum value becomes two orders in magnitude larger than its minimum value. (author)

  9. The evolution of an internal bore at the Malin shelf break

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Small

    Full Text Available Observations of internal waves were made at the Malin shelf edge during SESAME (Shelf Edge Studies Acoustic Measurement Experiment, a part of the NERC LOIS-SES experiment, in August-September 1996. These measurements provide a high resolution dataset demonstrating internal wave generation and propagation. This note presents observations of the evolution of an internal bore. The process is shown clearly in a sequence of thermistor chain tows across the shelf break covering a complete tidal cycle, as the double-sided bore transforms into a group of undulations and eventually into more distinct solitary waveforms. Current structures associated with the bore and waves were also observed by ship-mounted ADCP. Analysis of the waveforms in terms of the linear modes and empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs indicate the dominance of the first mode, which is typical of a shallow water seasonal thermocline environment. Determination of the phase speed of the waves from the consecutive ship surveys enabled the Doppler shift in the towed data to be removed, allowing analysis of the real length scales of the waves. The bore evolution has been modelled using a first order non-linear KdV model for the first mode, initialised with the waveform in the first survey. Comparison of the model and the observations show close agreement in the amplitudes, length scales, phase speeds and separations of the leading internal waves as they evolve. Finally, analysis of the observed internal wave shapes indicates that, within the uncertainties of measurement, the wave-lengths lie between those predicted by first and second order soliton theory.

    Key words. Oceanography: general (continental shelf processes; ocean prediction. Oceanography: physical (internal and inertial waves

  10. Radiation damage

    CERN Document Server

    Heijne, Erik H M; CERN. Geneva

    1998-01-01

    a) Radiation damage in organic materials. This series of lectures will give an overview of radiation effects on materials and components frequently used in accelerator engineering and experiments. Basic degradation phenomena will be presented for organic materials with comprehensive damage threshold doses for commonly used rubbers, thermoplastics, thermosets and composite materials. Some indications will be given for glass, scintillators and optical fibres. b) Radiation effects in semiconductor materials and devices. The major part of the time will be devoted to treat radiation effects in semiconductor sensors and the associated electronics, in particular displacement damage, interface and single event phenomena. Evaluation methods and practical aspects will be shown. Strategies will be developed for the survival of the materials under the expected environmental conditions of the LHC machine and detectors. I will describe profound revolution in our understanding of black holes and their relation to quantum me...

  11. Tunnel boring machine collision with an ancient boulder beach during the excavation of the Barcelona city subway L10 line: a case of adverse geology and resulting engineering solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Filbà, Marta; Salvany Duran, Josep Maria; Jubany, Jordi; Carrasco, Laura

    2016-01-01

    The existence of a layer of hard boulders up to 1 m in size within the soft sediments of the Holocene Llobregat delta in the SW of Barcelona city caused the damage and stoppage of the EPB-type tunnel boring machine that excavated the subway L10 line. This layer constitutes a detrital deposit of exceptionally large grain size developed in the base of the delta. It originated as an alluvial fan in the northern margin of the delta during the last fall of the Mediterranean Sea level, at the end o...

  12. Tri-bore PVDF hollow fibers with a super-hydrophobic coating for membrane distillation

    KAUST Repository

    Lu, Kang-Jia; Zuo, Jian; Chung, Tai-Shung

    2016-01-01

    Membranes with good mechanical strength, high vapor flux and outstanding anti-wetting properties are essential for membrane distillation (MD) applications. In this work, porous polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) tri-bore hollow fiber membranes with super-hydrophobicity are developed to achieve these desired properties. The tri-bore hollow fiber offers better mechanical strength than the conventional single-bore fiber. To improve its anti-wetting properties, Teflon® AF 2400 is coated on the membrane surface. The effects of coating on membrane morphology, performance and anti-wetting properties have been thoroughly investigated. With an optimal coating condition (0.025 wt% of Teflon® AF 2400, 30 s), a super-hydrophobic surface with a contact angle of 151o is achieved. The resultant membrane shows an increase of 109% in liquid entry pressure (LEP) with a slight sacrifice of 21% in flux. Long term direct contact MD tests have confirmed that the Teflon® AF 2400 coated membrane has enhanced stability with an average flux of 21 kg m-2 h-1 and rejection of 99.99% at 60 °° C for desalination application.

  13. Chatter reduction in boring process by using piezoelectric shunt damping with experimental verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yigit, Ufuk; Cigeroglu, Ender; Budak, Erhan

    2017-09-01

    Chatter is a self-excited type of vibration that develops during machining due to process-structure dynamic interactions resulting in modulated chip thickness. Chatter is an important problem as it results in poor surface quality, reduced productivity and tool life. The stability of a cutting process is strongly influenced by the frequency response function (FRF) at the cutting point. In this study, the effect of piezoelectric shunt damping on chatter vibrations in a boring process is studied. In piezoelectric shunt damping method, an electrical impedance is connected to a piezoelectric transducer which is bonded on cutting tool. Electrical impedance of the circuit consisting of piezoceramic transducer and passive shunt is tuned to the desired natural frequency of the cutting tool in order to maximize damping. The optimum damping is achieved in analytical and finite element models (FEM) by using a genetic algorithm focusing on the real part of the tool point FRF rather than the amplitude. Later, a practical boring bar is considered where the optimum circuit parameters are obtained by the FEM. Afterwards, the effect of the optimized piezoelectric shunt damping on the dynamic rigidity and absolute stability limit of the cutting process are investigated experimentally by modal analysis and cutting tests. It is both theoretically and experimentally shown that application of piezoelectric shunt damping results in a significant increase in the absolute stability limit in boring operations.

  14. A Dual Operational Refrigerator/Flow Cryostat with Wide Bore Medium Field Magnet for Application Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, E. A.; Bailey, W. O. S.; Al-Mosawi, M. K.; Beduz, C.; Yang, Y.; Chappell, S.; Twin, A.

    Since stand alone cryocooler systems have become more widely available, there has been increased commercial interest in superconductor applications in the temperature range intermediate to liquid helium and liquid nitrogen. There are however few facilities that have large in-field bore size with variable temperatures. A large bore system can reduce costs associated with full scale demonstration magnets by testing smaller coils and qualify medium length (up to meters) conductors. A 5 T, wide bore, (170 mm) Nb3Sn Oxford Instrument magnet has been integrated into a custom built dual mode refrigerator/helium flow cryostat with 600A HTS current leads. In one mode the system can be used with zero field without cost of liquid helium relying for cooling on a Sumitomo GM cryocooler with 1.5W at 4.2K: (no He) this can be used either as the sole characterisation method, or as a preliminary check before more expensive and extensive measurements are taken. The first measurements using MgB2 wire from 10 to 20K were made using a transient current step of ∼5s duration, as opposed to a DC measurement. This has the advantage of not requiring thermal equilibrium to be achieved at nominal current. The feasibility of this technique for determining critical transport properties is discussed.

  15. Chemical and mechanical bioerosion of boring sponges from Mexican Pacific coral reefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava, Héctor; Carballo, José Luis

    2008-09-01

    Species richness (S) and frequency of invasion (IF) by boring sponges on living colonies of Pocillopora spp. from National Park Isla Isabel (México, East Pacific Ocean) are presented. Twelve species belonging to the genera Aka, Cliona, Pione, Thoosa and Spheciospongia were found, and 56% of coral colonies were invaded by boring sponges, with Cliona vermifera Hancock 1867 being the most abundant species (30%). Carbonate dissolution rate and sediment production were quantified for C. vermifera and Cliona flavifodina Rützler 1974. Both species exhibited similar rates of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) dissolution (1.2+/-0.4 and 0.5+/-0.2 kg CaCO3 m(-2) year(-1), respectively, mean +/- s.e.m.), and sediment production (3.3+/-0.6 and 4.6+/-0.5 kg CaCO3 m(-2) year(-1)), resulting in mean bioerosion rates of 4.5+/-0.9 and 5.1+/-0.5 kg CaCO3 m(-2) year(-1), respectively. These bioerosion rates are close to previous records of coral calcification per unit of area, suggesting that sponge bioerosion alone can promote disequilibrium in the reef accretion/destruction ratio in localities that are heavily invaded by boring sponges. The proportion of dissolved material by C. vermifera and C. flavifodina (27 and 10.2%, respectively) confirms that chemical bioerosion plays an important role in sponge bioerosion and in the CaCO3 cycle in coral reefs.

  16. Tri-bore PVDF hollow fibers with a super-hydrophobic coating for membrane distillation

    KAUST Repository

    Lu, Kang-Jia

    2016-04-26

    Membranes with good mechanical strength, high vapor flux and outstanding anti-wetting properties are essential for membrane distillation (MD) applications. In this work, porous polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) tri-bore hollow fiber membranes with super-hydrophobicity are developed to achieve these desired properties. The tri-bore hollow fiber offers better mechanical strength than the conventional single-bore fiber. To improve its anti-wetting properties, Teflon® AF 2400 is coated on the membrane surface. The effects of coating on membrane morphology, performance and anti-wetting properties have been thoroughly investigated. With an optimal coating condition (0.025 wt% of Teflon® AF 2400, 30 s), a super-hydrophobic surface with a contact angle of 151o is achieved. The resultant membrane shows an increase of 109% in liquid entry pressure (LEP) with a slight sacrifice of 21% in flux. Long term direct contact MD tests have confirmed that the Teflon® AF 2400 coated membrane has enhanced stability with an average flux of 21 kg m-2 h-1 and rejection of 99.99% at 60 °° C for desalination application.

  17. Late Permian wood-borings reveal an intricate network of ecological relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zhuo; Wang, Jun; Rößler, Ronny; Ślipiński, Adam; Labandeira, Conrad

    2017-09-15

    Beetles are the most diverse group of macroscopic organisms since the mid-Mesozoic. Much of beetle speciosity is attributable to myriad life habits, particularly diverse-feeding strategies involving interactions with plant substrates, such as wood. However, the life habits and early evolution of wood-boring beetles remain shrouded in mystery from a limited fossil record. Here we report new material from the upper Permian (Changhsingian Stage, ca. 254-252 million-years ago) of China documenting a microcosm of ecological associations involving a polyphagan wood-borer consuming cambial and wood tissues of the conifer Ningxiaites specialis. This earliest evidence for a component community of several trophically interacting taxa is frozen in time by exceptional preservation. The combination of an entry tunnel through bark, a cambium mother gallery, and up to 11 eggs placed in lateral niches-from which emerge multi-instar larval tunnels that consume cambium, wood and bark-is ecologically convergent with Early Cretaceous bark-beetle borings 120 million-years later.Numerous gaps remain in our knowledge of how groups of organisms interacted in ancient ecosystems. Here, Feng and colleagues describe a late Permian fossil wood-boring beetle microcosm, with the oldest known example of complex tunnel geometry, host tissue response, and the presence of fungi within.

  18. Deposition of high-level radioactive waste products in bore-holes with buffer substance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobsson, A.; Pusch, R.

    1977-05-01

    The present investigation comprised a compilation of available literature data concerning the possible use of clayey masses as buffer substances in bore-holes (in rock) with canisters containing radioactive waste products. The aim was to find a suitable composition of the buffer mass and to recommend a suitable storing technique. The criteria concerning the function of the buffer substance were: Sufficient mechanical supporting power, suitable mechanical properties, prevention of free circulation of ground water, ion-adsorption ability, sufficiently good heat conduction properties. These criteria suggest that a buffer substance containing Na-montmorillonite would be suitable. Literature studies and own experience show that montmorillonite is permanently stable at 100 degrees C temperature and 5 MPa pressure when pH is within the range of 6.5-10 while quartz is stable at pH <9. The authors conclude that the suggested principle of storing the canisters in sealed bore-holes filled with a 10 percent bentonite/90 percent quartz (silt, sand) mass is suitable provided that the tunnel system, from which the holes are bored, is sealed with a dense buffer mass consisting of quartz (silt, sand) and 20-50 percent bentonite powder. (author)

  19. Documentation of damage events concerning geothermal probes; Dokumentation von Schadensfaellen bei Erdwaermesonden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bassetti, S.; Rohner, E.; Signorelli, S. [Geowatt AG, Zuerich (Switzerland); Matthey, B. [Ingenieurs-Conseils SA, Montezillon (Switzerland)

    2006-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the various faults and damages encountered when geothermal probes are inappropriately used. The various fault conditions dealt with include: Connection of additional users, incorrect determination of the heat demand, incorrect thermal values for the subsoil, under-dimensioning of the bore-hole heat exchanger (BHE), neglecting the effects of interaction, incorrect or missing grouting of the BHE, incorrect control of the heat pump, incorrect hydraulics and leakage. In this report examples of frequently-noted damage events and the corrections necessary are presented. For some cases, the reason for the damage is additionally illustrated by a comparison with simulation results. Finally, tips for the professional planning and construction of bore-hole heat exchanger systems are presented.

  20. Design of a machine to bore and line a long horizontal hole in tuff: Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friant, J.E.; Dowden, P.B.

    1987-09-01

    This report describes an engineering design for equipment capable of simultaneously drilling and lining deep horizontal bore holes. The ultimate use of the equipment is to bore up to 600 ft long, 3 ft diameter emplacement holes for a nuclear waste repository. The specific system designed is referred to as a Development Prototype Boring Machine (DPBM) which will be used to demonstrate the drilling/lining capability in field development tests. The system utilizes as in-hole electric drive and a vacuum chip removal and handling system. The drilling unit is capable of active directional control and uses laser-type alignment equipment. The system combines the features of a small steerable tunnel boring machine, combined with a horizontally-oriented raise drill, thereby utilizing current technology. All elements of the system are compact and mobile as required for a shaft entry, underground mining environment. 3 refs., 35 figs., 1 tab

  1. Fiscal year 1996 well plugging and abandonment program Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    This report is a synopsis of the progress of the well plugging and abandonment program at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, from August 1995 through August 1996. A total of 27 wells, piezometers, and borings were plugged and abandoned during the period of time covered in this report. All wells and borings were plugged and abandoned in accordance with the Monitoring Well Plugging and Abandonment Plan for the U.S. Department of Energy, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (HSW, Inc. 1991).

  2. Tort Damages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.T. Visscher (Louis)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractAbstract: In this Chapter, I provide an overview of Law and Economics literature regarding tort damages. Where necessary, attention is also spent to rules of tort liability. Both types of rules provide behavioral incentives to both injurers and victims, with respect to their level of

  3. Small-bore chest tubes seem to perform better than larger tubes in treatment of spontaneous pneumothorax

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iepsen, Ulrik Winning; Ringbæk, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and complications of surgical (large-bore) chest tube drainage with smaller and less invasive chest tubes in the treatment of non-traumatic pneumothorax (PT). ......The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and complications of surgical (large-bore) chest tube drainage with smaller and less invasive chest tubes in the treatment of non-traumatic pneumothorax (PT). ...

  4. 1000m depth boring at Inagawa, Hyogo prefecture. 1. Overviews; Hyogoken Inagawamachi ni okeru 1000m boring chosa. 1. Gaiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, T; Kusunose, K; Cho, A; Tosha, T [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan); Kiyama, T; Yamada, F [Mitsui Construction Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Aizawa, T [Sancoh Consultants Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    Various field experiments were carried out using a 1000m deep borehole at Inagawa town, about 10km north of the focus of the Hanshin-Awaji Great Earthquake and directly above the area where shallow earthquake activities have intermittently occurred. These experiments included stress measurement by hydraulic fracturing, hydrophone-aided VSP, permeability tests and observation of various types of logging. The laboratory experiments were also carried out, including measurement of various properties and stresses of the core samples. The stress-depth relationship, determined by the hydraulic fracturing method, shows that the stress gradient well coincides with the Western Japan standard at a depth up to 700m, whereas it is approximately twice as high as the standard at a depth of 946m, at which core disking and borehole break-out are clearly observed, and hence stresses conceivably concentrate locally. Orientation of the maximum horizontal compressive stress is E-W at a depth of around 600m, but greatly changes to NNW-SSE at a deeper position. 4 refs., 5 figs.

  5. When you lubricate well, you go well? A cause analysis of damages on bearer rings at a hydrogen compressor recently brought into service with the aid of monitoring the lubricating points of cylinder liners; Wer gut schmiert, der gut faehrt? Ursachenanalyse an Tragringschaeden bei einem neu in Betrieb genommenen Wasserstoffverdichter mit Hilfe einer Zylinderschmierstellenueberwachung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klinger, Lars [Bayernoil Raffineriegesellschaft mbH, Neustadt a.d. Donau (Germany)

    2013-02-15

    For humans the blood circuit transports the ''lifeblood''. It supplies the body with the different essential nutrients and disposes adverse waste. The circuit of lubricant in recip compressors has quiet similar functions. It provides all relevant components with lubricant. This lubricant circuit supplies i.a. the crosshead slide way and bearings, where a hydrodynamic flooding is created. At the same time frictional heat is conducted and pollutions as well as deposits are washed away. But especially for recip compressors there is also another lubricating system, which is barely applied in the real operating process. It is about the supply of the packing glands and the piston liners with lubricant inside the compression chamber at ''wet running machines''. In the case of the lubricant supply at cylinder liners the lubricating oil is dispatched to the appropriate areas by an external lubricating system, which consists of a reservoir and an oil pump. This is a loss lubrication, i.e. the used lubricate is transported into the process by the transfer medium. The mechanical quality of this lubricating system can have great influence on the durability of bearer rings and sealing rings in a recip compressor. Especially the homogeneity of the dispatched lubricating oil amount and the absolute dispatched amount are two very important factors. The absolute amount is within the range of cm{sup 3} per hour. The influences of the cylinder liner lubricant supply on the durability of piston seal rings and bearer rings are shown with the concrete example of one recip compressor. Analytical measures to clearly detect such damages at the bearer rings are disclosed, just as which possibility there is to measure the low quantity of lubricant to the cylinder liners reliably. Furthermore a solution is presented, which allows the solid operation of the compressor.

  6. Are oysters being bored to death? Influence of Cliona celata on Crassostrea virginica condition, growth and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, John M; O'Shaughnessy, Kathryn A; Diedrich, Grant A; Finelli, Christopher M

    2015-11-17

    The boring sponge Cliona celata is a nuisance species that can have deleterious effects on eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica growth, condition, and survival. Surprisingly, however, these effects have not been well documented and when examined, results have been equi-vocal. In this study, we provide a direct comparison of growth, condition, and survival of sponge-colonized and uncolonized oysters in southeast North Carolina in 2 separate experiments. In the first experiment, sponge-colonized oysters exhibited significantly slower growth rates, reduced condition, and lower survival relative to uncolonized oysters, although results may have been confounded by oyster source. In the second experiment, using smaller oysters from the same source population, growth rate was again significantly reduced in colonized oysters relative to uncolonized oysters, however neither condition nor survival differed. In field surveys of the same population, colonized individuals across a range of sizes demonstrated significantly reduced condition. Further, condition index was negatively correlated with sponge biomass, which was positively correlated with oyster size, suggesting that the impact of the sponge changes with ontogeny. By investigating clearance rates, tissue isotopic and nutrient content, as well as caloric value, this study provides further evidence that sponge presence causes the oysters to divert energy into costly shell maintenance and repair at the expense of shell and somatic growth. Thus, although variable, our results demonstrate negative impacts of sponge infestation on oyster demographics, particularly as oysters grow larger.

  7. New concept of tunnel boring machine: high performance using water jet and diamond wire as rock cutting technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Pacheco dos Santos

    Full Text Available Abstract Tunnel boring machines are important tools in underground infrastructure projects. Although being well established equipment, these machinesare based on designsof more than 60 years ago and are characterized by big dimensions, enormous weight and high power consumption. Commercial aspects should be noted too. The model adopted by the TBM industry requires constant replacement of cutter discs and specific labor skills, usually offered by the same manufacturingcompany. In some cases the cost of replacement parts and technical assistance can be higher than the acquisition cost of an entire machine. These aspects are no longer compatible with the concept of sustainability that is an important aspect of currentsociety. While the technical characteristics require a large quantity of steel and several inputs, the adoptedmodel is not competitive. One alternative is looking for new technologies that break the old paradigms and allow the development of high performance concepts with lower social and environmental impact. This studydealswith this opportunity by proposing a high performance tunnel boring machine that makes use of high power water jet and diamond wire to compose a double shield cutter head. It works in two stages. In the fristone, an annular cut is executed by hydrodemolition,and in the second one, the diamond wire station slices the rock core. Only with the action of diamond wire is the rock core separated from the rock mass and the removal process is finished. A smart water jet nozzle movement system is described and non circular tunnels can be executed. The new technologies involved requirea different type of backup system, lighter and smaller. The non-existence of mechanical contact between the equipment and the rock mass at theexcavation front allows low power consumption. The advanced rate and primary excavation cost analyses can also be encountered herein. It shows that it is possible to reach an advanced rate of 174 m/day in

  8. An MRI-Conditional External Cardiac Defibrillator for Resuscitation Within the MRI Scanner Bore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Ehud J.; Watkins, Ronald D.; Zviman, Menekhem M.; Guttman, Michael A.; Wang, Wei; Halperin, Henry A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Subjects undergoing cardiac arrest within an MRI scanner are currently removed from the bore and then from the MRI suite, prior to delivery of CPR and defibrillation, potentially increasing risk of mortality. This precludes many higher-risk (acute-ischemic, acute-stroke) patients from undergoing MRI imaging and MRI-guided intervention. An MRI-conditional cardiac defibrillator should enable scanning with defibrillation pads attached and the generator ON, enabling application of defibrillation within the MRI seconds after a cardiac event. An MRI-conditional external defibrillator may improve patient acceptance for MRI procedures. Methods and Results A commercial external defibrillator was rendered 1.5 Tesla MRI-conditional by addition of novel Radio-Frequency (RF) filters between the generator and commercial disposable surface-pads. The RF filters reduced emission into the MRI scanner, and prevented cable/surface-pad heating during imaging, while preserving all the defibrillator’s monitoring and delivery functions. Human volunteers were imaged using high Specific-Absorption-Rate sequences to validate MRI image quality (IQ) and lack of heating. Swine were electrically fibrillated (N=4) and thereafter defibrillated both outside and inside the MRI bore. MRI IQ was reduced by 0.8 or 1.6 dB, with the generator in monitoring mode and operating on battery or AC power, respectively. Commercial surface-pads did not create artifacts deeper than 6mm below the skin surface. RF heating was within FDA guidelines. Defibrillation was completely successful inside and outside the MRI bore. Conclusions A prototype MRI-conditional defibrillation system successfully defibrillated in the MRI without degrading image quality, or increasing the time needed for defibrillation. It can increase patient acceptance for MRI procedures. PMID:27729363

  9. Estimation of Tsunami Bore Forces on a Coastal Bridge Using an Extreme Learning Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman Mazinani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a procedure to estimate tsunami wave forces on coastal bridges through a novel method based on Extreme Learning Machine (ELM and laboratory experiments. This research included three water depths, ten wave heights, and four bridge models with a variety of girders providing a total of 120 cases. The research was designed and adapted to estimate tsunami bore forces including horizontal force, vertical uplift and overturning moment on a coastal bridge. The experiments were carried out on 1:40 scaled concrete bridge models in a wave flume with dimensions of 24 m × 1.5 m × 2 m. Two six-axis load cells and four pressure sensors were installed to the base plate to measure forces. In the numerical procedure, estimation and prediction results of the ELM model were compared with Genetic Programming (GP and Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs models. The experimental results showed an improvement in predictive accuracy, and capability of generalization could be achieved by the ELM approach in comparison with GP and ANN. Moreover, results indicated that the ELM models developed could be used with confidence for further work on formulating novel model predictive strategy for tsunami bore forces on a coastal bridge. The experimental results indicated that the new algorithm could produce good generalization performance in most cases and could learn thousands of times faster than conventional popular learning algorithms. Therefore, it can be conclusively obtained that utilization of ELM is certainly developing as an alternative approach to estimate the tsunami bore forces on a coastal bridge.

  10. Non-contact and contact measurement system for detecting projectile position in electromagnetic launch bore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Weidong; Yuan, Weiqun; Xu, Rong; Zhao, Hui; Cheng, Wenping; Zhang, Dongdong; Zhao, Ying; Yan, Ping

    2017-12-01

    This paper introduces a new measurement system for measuring the position of a projectile within a rapid fire electromagnetic launching system. The measurement system contains both non-contact laser shading and metal fiber contact measurement devices. Two projectiles are placed in the rapid fire electromagnetic launch bore, one in the main accelerating segment and the other in the pre-loading segment. The projectile placed in the main accelerating segment should be shot first, and then the other is loaded into the main segment from the pre-loading segment. The main driving current (I-main) can only be discharged again when the second projectile has arrived at the key position (the projectile position corresponds to the discharging time) in the main accelerating segment. So, it is important to be able to detect when the second projectile arrives at the key position in the main accelerating segment. The B-dot probe is the most widely used system for detecting the position of the projectile in the electromagnetic launch bore. However, the B-dot signal is affected by the driving current amplitude and the projectile velocity. There is no current in the main accelerating segment when the second projectile moves into this segment in rapid fire mode, so the B-dot signal for detecting the key position is invalid. Due to the presence of a high-intensity magnetic field, a high current, a high-temperature aluminum attachment, smoke and strong vibrations, it is very difficult to detect the projectile position in the bore accurately. So, other measurements need to be researched and developed in order to achieve high reliability. A measurement system based on a laser (non-contact) and metal fibers (contact) has been designed, and the integrated output signal based on this detector is described in the following paper.

  11. Hanford wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGhan, V.L.; Myers, D.A.; Damschen, D.W.

    1976-03-01

    The Hanford Reservation contains about 2100 wells constructed from pre-Hanford Works to the present. As of Jan. 1976, about 1800 wells still exist, 850 of which were drilled to the groundwater table; 700 still contain water. This report provides the most complete documentation of these wells and supersedes all previous compilations, including BNWL-1739

  12. A device for taking samples of scale from bore pipes used for collecting groundwater; Dispositivo para la toma de muestras de incrustaciones en tuberias de sondeos en la captacion de aguas subterraneas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez Rubio, J.; Ruano Magan, P. [Tecnologias y Servicios Agrarios, S. A. (Spain); Gonzalez Yelamos, J. [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (Spain); Rebollo Ferreiro, L. F. [Universidad de Alcala (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    A study was made of the problem of corrosion/scale in water collection bore pipes, beginning with a review of the existing literature. This led to the conclusion that thorough knowledge of such phenomena requires taking samples from the walls of the pipes and filters to determine the physiocochemical and biological details. A new instrument, based on a previous appliance, has been developed for this purpose. It has a pair of arms and is capable of going down inside the well or bore hole, generally with a video camera attached. It has a cup on the end of each arm that can scrape the wall, catch the sample and protect it with a lid. A prototype has proved to be efficient at obtaining representative samples that can be analysed to determine the corrosion/scale processes. (Author) 9 refs.

  13. Tunnel Boring Machine Cutter Maintenance for Constructing Underground Cable Lines from Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae Wang; Yee, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The tunnel boring machine (TBM) can construct an underground tunnel efficiently and without construction noise vibration related problems. Many civil projects, such as NPP construction, set importance on the economics of construction. Thus, advance rate, which is the speed at which the TBM is able to progress along its intended route, is one of the key factors affecting construction period and construction expenses. As the saying goes, time is money. Right Double Quotation Mark In addition, it is important to manage construction permits and civil complaints, even when construction expenses and construction periods are excluded. So, accurate prediction for advance rate is important when designing tunnel project. Several designers and project owners have tried to improve construction efficiency and tunneling advance rate.. There have been several studies on managing the rate of wear, designing an optimum tunnel face, and finding the optimum cutter spacing. Cutter replacements due to cutter wear and tear are very important because the wear and tear of cutters attached to the cutter head profoundly affect the advance rate. To manage cutter wear and tear is to control parameters related to cutter shape and cutter wear rate. There have been studies on the relationship between rock properties or TBM characteristics, and cutter wear or replacement. However, many of these studies relied on computer simulations or other small scale experiments. Therefore, this paper attempts to present a correlation between cutter replacement or cutter wear, against various parameters using practical data such as rock quality and TBM shield specifications, from an actual construction site. This study was conducted to suggest directions in the improvement of TBM cutters by analyzing relationships between rock conditions and cutter maintenance as well as TBM advance rates. Actual field data was collected and compared to actual design values in evaluating the effectiveness of traditional

  14. Tunnel Boring Machine Cutter Maintenance for Constructing Underground Cable Lines from Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Wang; Yee, Eric [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    The tunnel boring machine (TBM) can construct an underground tunnel efficiently and without construction noise vibration related problems. Many civil projects, such as NPP construction, set importance on the economics of construction. Thus, advance rate, which is the speed at which the TBM is able to progress along its intended route, is one of the key factors affecting construction period and construction expenses. As the saying goes, time is money. Right Double Quotation Mark In addition, it is important to manage construction permits and civil complaints, even when construction expenses and construction periods are excluded. So, accurate prediction for advance rate is important when designing tunnel project. Several designers and project owners have tried to improve construction efficiency and tunneling advance rate.. There have been several studies on managing the rate of wear, designing an optimum tunnel face, and finding the optimum cutter spacing. Cutter replacements due to cutter wear and tear are very important because the wear and tear of cutters attached to the cutter head profoundly affect the advance rate. To manage cutter wear and tear is to control parameters related to cutter shape and cutter wear rate. There have been studies on the relationship between rock properties or TBM characteristics, and cutter wear or replacement. However, many of these studies relied on computer simulations or other small scale experiments. Therefore, this paper attempts to present a correlation between cutter replacement or cutter wear, against various parameters using practical data such as rock quality and TBM shield specifications, from an actual construction site. This study was conducted to suggest directions in the improvement of TBM cutters by analyzing relationships between rock conditions and cutter maintenance as well as TBM advance rates. Actual field data was collected and compared to actual design values in evaluating the effectiveness of traditional

  15. Correction of magnetization sextupole and decapole in a 5 centimeter bore SSC dipole using passive superconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, M.A.

    1991-05-01

    Higher multipoles due to magnetization of the superconductor in four and five centimeter bore Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) superconducting dipole magnets have been observed. The use of passive superconductor to correct out the magnetization sextupole has been demonstrated on two dipoles built by the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL). This reports shows how passive correction can be applied to the five centimeter SSC dipoles to remove sextupole and decapole caused by magnetization of the dipole superconductor. Two passive superconductor corrector options will be presented. The change in magnetization sextupole and decapole due to flux creep decay of the superconductor during injection can be partially compensated for using the passive superconductor. 9 refs; 5 figs

  16. Some conclusions about the concrete strength of the bored piles of Angra 2 nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomaz, E.C.S.; Joia, L.A.

    1984-01-01

    The concrete of the bored piles of Angra 2 was submitted to a deep control, so more than five thousand core samples were analyzed to verify the quality of the concrete. Based on these samples and using statistics regression theory some conclusions could be done. It was analyzed the dependence of the concrete strength upon the depth of the pile. Also based on these samples some probability distribution functions that could simulate the concrete strength were studied applying the Kolmogorov - Smirnov fitness test. Finally, a method for evaluating a confidence interval of one of the probability function (Weibull distribution) was developed adopting the Monte Carlo simulation technique. (Author) [pt

  17. A 120 mm Bore Quadrupole for the Phase 1 LHC Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Fessia, P; Borgnolutti, F; Regis, F; Richter, D; Todesco, E

    2010-01-01

    The phase I LHC upgrade foresees the installation of a new final focusing for the high luminosity experiences in order to be able to focus the beams in the interaction points to b*~ 0.25 cm. Key element of this upgrade is a large bore (120 mm) superconducting quadrupole. This article proposes a magnet design that will make use of the LHC main dipole superconducting cable. Due to the schedule constraints and to the budget restrictions, it is mandatory to integrate in the design the maximum number of features successfully used during the LHC construction. This paper presents this design option and the rationales behind the several technical choices.

  18. Simple method for the generation of multiple homogeneous field volumes inside the bore of superconducting magnets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Ching-Yu; Ferrage, Fabien; Aubert, Guy; Sakellariou, Dimitris

    2015-07-17

    Standard Magnetic Resonance magnets produce a single homogeneous field volume, where the analysis is performed. Nonetheless, several modern applications could benefit from the generation of multiple homogeneous field volumes along the axis and inside the bore of the magnet. In this communication, we propose a straightforward method using a combination of ring structures of permanent magnets in order to cancel the gradient of the stray field in a series of distinct volumes. These concepts were demonstrated numerically on an experimentally measured magnetic field profile. We discuss advantages and limitations of our method and present the key steps required for an experimental validation.

  19. Estimation of the equilibrium formation temperature in the presence of bore fluid invasion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Søren Erbs; Nielsen, S.B.; Balling, N.

    2012-01-01

    from BHT measurements in the presence of bore fluid invasion. The scheme is based on finite element analysis in conjunction with Markov chain Monte Carlo inversion. The axisymmetric forward model assumes a cylindrical source of finite radius and contrasting thermal parameters, which includes...... by correction schemes based on purely conductive models. The influence of the borehole radius and fluid invasion on the temperature measured at the borehole axis attenuates over time. It is further demonstrated that the invasion radius and the matrix thermal conductivity cannot be estimated simultaneously...

  20. Geological mappability of bored versus drill and blast excavations for radioactive waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsen, B.; Ozdemir, L.

    1992-01-01

    The issue of accurate geological mappability has been subject of intense debate in the selection of bored versus drill and blast excavation for radioactive waste repositories. This paper is intended to provide an assessment of the problems usually encountered in mappability on the basis of field experience from a large number of completed tunnels, mainly as part of the Norwegian hydropower projects. The main conclusion is that mapping in a mechanically excavated underground opening, with very few exceptions, reflects the in-situ conditions more accurately than mapping in a drill and blast tunnel. This is due to the overbreak effects of drill and blast excavation, primarily

  1. Water Well Locations - Conservation Wells

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — The conservation well layer identifies the permitted surface location of oil and gas conservation wells that have not been plugged. These include active, regulatory...

  2. Development of self-boring type pressuremeter and proposal of empirical formula to estimate mechanical properties of gravelly soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Yasuo; Ikemi, Motonobu; Kokusho, Takaji

    1990-01-01

    Diluvial gravelly grounds seem to have the great potential as the foundation ground for constructing nuclear power plants. The Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry develops the in-situ testing method to evaluate the settlement and the stability of the foundations of important nuclear power plant structures against earthquakes. As a part of the development, the CRIEPI has developed a new self boring type pressure meter which enables a probe to penetrate into gravelly deposit with minimum disturbance. This equipment can impose static or dynamic repeated pressure on bore walls. In this report, the test results of this equipment used in five gravelly grounds in Japan are described. The test results were compared with those obtained by other methods, and the efficiency of this in situ method was demonstrated. The bore wall pressurizing tester which can be inserted simultaneously with boring was developed, and its features are the effects of stress release and bore wall disturbance are little. Consequently, the accurate data on ground stability can be obtained. (K.I.)

  3. Amazing wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, E.; Leschart, M.; Mahoney, J.; Smith, M.

    2002-02-01

    Six wells and a drilling rig, setting company, national and world records such as deepest well, longest horizontal well, and record setting completion technology are described. Steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) is mainly responsible for these outstanding successes. Discovered more than 20 years ago by a then Imperial oil scientist (Dr. Roger Butler) SAGD promises recovery rates of about 70 per cent for the right reservoir; more than twice the 25 to 30 per cent recovery rate with cyclic stimulation at Cold Lake and an average recovery rate of about 28 per cent for all Alberta light, medium and heavy oil wells. The seven facilities discussed in this article are : (1) Alberta Energy Company's Forest Hill oil sands project near Cold Lake, the first commercial SAGD operation where well pairs are producing 1,200-1,500 bbls per day; (2) Talisman Energy's Lovett River wells, which hold the company's depth record for a horizontal well in the Alberta Foothills; (3) Also owned by Talisman Energy in the Buchan Field in the North Sea, this well is famous for the fact that it was drilled with coiled tubing from a floating production vessel; : (4) in the Peco Field, south of Edson Alberta and owned by EOG Resources Canada, this well holds the Canadian offshore record for a single run using rotary steerable technology; (5) Burlington Resources Canada 's Burlington HZ Hinton 2-34-52-26 W5M well is best known for its record setting extended reach open hole coiled tubing job; (6) another Burlington Resources well holds the record for the deepest one-trip whipstock system ever run in Canada and milled successfully in one trip; and (7) a drilling rig in the Wabasca-Brintnell area of northern Alberta, owned by Canadian Natural Resources Limited, holds the record for drilling the largest number of horizontal holes in one year with the same rig.

  4. Prediction of tunnel boring machine performance using machine and rock mass data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dastgir, G.

    2012-01-01

    Performance of the tunnel boring machine and its prediction by different methods has been a hot issue since the first TBM came into being. For the sake of safe and sound transport, improvement of hydro-power, mining, civil and many other tunneling projects that cannot be driven efficiently and economically by conventional drill and blast, TBMs are quite frequently used. TBM parameters and rock mass properties, which heavily influence machine performance, should be estimated or known before choice of TBM-type and start of excavation. By applying linear regression analysis (SPSS19), fuzzy logic tools and a special Math-Lab code on actual field data collected from seven TBM driven tunnels (Hieflau expansion, Queen water tunnel, Vereina, Hemerwald, Maen, Pieve and Varzo tunnel), an attempt was made to provide prediction of rock mass class (RMC), rock fracture class (RFC), penetration rate (PR) and advance rate (AR). For detailed analysis of TBM performance, machine parameters (thrust, machine rpm, torque, power etc.), machine types and specification and rock mass properties (UCS, discontinuity in rock mass, RMC, RFC, RMR, etc.) were analyzed by 3-D surface plotting using statistical software R. Correlations between machine parameters and rock mass properties which effectively influence prediction models, are presented as well. In Hieflau expansion tunnel AR linearly decreases with increase of thrust due to high dependence of machine advance rate upon rock strength. For Hieflau expansion tunnel three types of data (TBM, rock mass and seismic data e.g. amplitude, pseudo velocity etc.) were coupled and simultaneously analyzed by plotting 3-D surfaces. No appreciable correlation between seismic data (Amplitude and Pseudo velocity) and rock mass properties and machine parameters could be found. Tool wear as a function of TBM operational parameters was analyzed which revealed that tool wear is minimum if applied thrust is moderate and that tool wear is high when thrust is

  5. Tooth damage in captive orcas (Orcinus orca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jett, John; Visser, Ingrid N; Ventre, Jeffrey; Waltz, Jordan; Loch, Carolina

    2017-12-01

    Tooth damage as a result of oral stereotypies is evident in captive orca, yet little research on the topic exists. This study examines the associations between dental pathology, sex, facility, duration of captivity and other factors in captive orca. We evaluated mandibular and maxillary teeth from dental images of 29 captive orca owned by a US-based theme park. Each tooth was scored for coronal wear, wear at or below gum line and bore holes. Fractured and missing teeth were also noted. Summary statistics described the distribution and severity of pathologies; inferential statistics examined how pathologies differed between sexes, between wild-captured and captive-born orcas and between captive orca at four facilities. We also evaluated how dental pathology and duration of captivity were related. Approximately 24% of whales exhibited "major" to "extreme" mandibular coronal tooth wear, with coronal wear and wear at or below gum line highly correlated. More than 60% of mandibular teeth 2 and 3 exhibited fractures. Bore holes were observed primarily among anterior mandibular teeth, with more than 61% of teeth 2 and 3 bearing evidence of having been drilled. Four of five orca with the highest age-adjusted tooth pathology indices were captive-born. Various dental pathologies were observed across all whales, with pathologies beginning at a young age. Oral stereotypies exhibited by captive orca contributed to the observed dental damage. By making dental and health records of captive whales publicly available, the theme park industry is uniquely positioned to provide further insight into dental pathology and resultant health consequences in captive orca. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Live Well

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Conditions Live Well Mental Health Substance Use Smoking Healthy Diet Physical Activity Family Planning Living with HIV: Travel ... to his or her health and well-being. Smoking - Tobacco use is the ... year. Healthy Diet - No matter your HIV status, healthy eating is ...

  7. Earthquake damage to underground facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pratt, H.R.; Hustrulid, W.A.; Stephenson, D.E.

    1978-11-01

    The potential seismic risk for an underground nuclear waste repository will be one of the considerations in evaluating its ultimate location. However, the risk to subsurface facilities cannot be judged by applying intensity ratings derived from the surface effects of an earthquake. A literature review and analysis were performed to document the damage and non-damage due to earthquakes to underground facilities. Damage from earthquakes to tunnels, s, and wells and damage (rock bursts) from mining operations were investigated. Damage from documented nuclear events was also included in the study where applicable. There are very few data on damage in the subsurface due to earthquakes. This fact itself attests to the lessened effect of earthquakes in the subsurface because mines exist in areas where strong earthquakes have done extensive surface damage. More damage is reported in shallow tunnels near the surface than in deep mines. In mines and tunnels, large displacements occur primarily along pre-existing faults and fractures or at the surface entrance to these facilities.Data indicate vertical structures such as wells and shafts are less susceptible to damage than surface facilities. More analysis is required before seismic criteria can be formulated for the siting of a nuclear waste repository

  8. Hanford wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamness, M.A.; Merz, J.K.

    1993-08-01

    Records describing wells located on or near the Hanford Site have been maintained by Pacific Northwest Laboratory and the operating contractor, Westinghouse Hanford Company. In support of the Ground-Water Surveillance Project, portions of the data contained in these records have been compiled into the following report, which is intended to be used by those needing a condensed, tabular summary of well location and basic construction information. The wells listed in this report were constructed over a period of time spanning almost 70 years. Data included in this report were retrieved from the Hanford Envirorunental Information System (HEIS) database and supplemented with information not yet entered into HEIS. While considerable effort has been made to obtain the most accurate and complete tabulations possible of the Hanford Site wells, omissions and errors may exist. This document does not include data on lithologic logs, ground-water analyses, or specific well completion details

  9. Aspiration of Breast Abscess through Wide Bore 14-Gauge Intravenous Cannula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afridi, S. P.; Alam, S. N.; Ainuddin, S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To aspirate breast abscess through a wide bore (14-gauge) intravenous (I/V) cannula and determine its efficacy in terms of the number of recurrences and number of aspirations. Study Design: Case series. Place and Duration of Study: Dow University of Health Sciences and Civil Hospital and Bantva Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan, from January 2009 to December 2011. Methodology: Patients with breast abscesses confirmed on ultrasound without skin ulceration were selected. The soft area of breast abscess with positive fluctuation was marked and fixed with index finger and thumb. A 14-gauge cannula was inserted. Pus was aspirated through a 50 cc syringe, repeated till no aspirate could be obtained. All patients were followed weekly for 4 weeks, clinically for size of lump, local tenderness and temperature, while complete resolution was confirmed on ultrasound, as resolution of the lesion. Results: A total of 55 patients were included in this study. Mean age was 29 +- 5.58 years while ranging from 20 - 40 years. Complete resolution of abscess was seen in 31 (56.4%) cases by single aspiration. Second aspiration was required in 24 (43.6%) patients and third aspiration in single setting was required in one case only. Recurrence after the second aspiration occurred in 08 (14.5%). Incision drainage was required in 7 (12.7%) patients. Conclusion: Percutaneous aspiration of breast abscess through a wide bore (14-gauge) I/V cannula is a simple alternative to incision and drainage. (author)

  10. Aspiration of breast abscess through wide bore 14-gauge intravenous cannula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afridi, Shahida Parveen; Alam, Shams Nadeem; Ainuddin, Saman

    2014-10-01

    To aspirate breast abscess through a wide bore (14-gauge) intravenous (I/V) cannula and determine its efficacy in terms of the number of recurrences and number of aspirations. Case series. Dow University of Health Sciences and Civil Hospital and Bantva Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan, from January 2009 to December 2011. Patients with breast abscesses confirmed on ultrasound without skin ulceration were selected. The soft area of breast abscess with positive fluctuation was marked and fixed with index finger and thumb. A 14-gauge cannula was inserted. Pus was aspirated through a 50 cc syringe, repeated till no aspirate could be obtained. All patients were followed weekly for 4 weeks, clinically for size of lump, local tenderness and temperature, while complete resolution was confirmed on ultrasound, as resolution of the lesion. A total of 55 patients were included in this study. Mean age was 29 ± 5.58 years while ranging from 20 - 40 years. Complete resolution of abscess was seen in 31 (56.4%) cases by single aspiration. Second aspiration was required in 24 (43.6%) patients and third aspiration in single setting was required in one case only. Recurrence after the second aspiration occurred in 08 (14.5%). Incision drainage was required in 7 (12.7%) patients. Percutaneous aspiration of breast abscess through a wide bore (14-gauge) I/V cannula is a simple alternative to incision and drainage.

  11. Boring but important: a self-transcendent purpose for learning fosters academic self-regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeager, David S; Henderson, Marlone D; Paunesku, David; Walton, Gregory M; D'Mello, Sidney; Spitzer, Brian J; Duckworth, Angela Lee

    2014-10-01

    Many important learning tasks feel uninteresting and tedious to learners. This research proposed that promoting a prosocial, self-transcendent purpose could improve academic self-regulation on such tasks. This proposal was supported in 4 studies with over 2,000 adolescents and young adults. Study 1 documented a correlation between a self-transcendent purpose for learning and self-reported trait measures of academic self-regulation. Those with more of a purpose for learning also persisted longer on a boring task rather than giving in to a tempting alternative and, many months later, were less likely to drop out of college. Study 2 addressed causality. It showed that a brief, one-time psychological intervention promoting a self-transcendent purpose for learning could improve high school science and math grade point average (GPA) over several months. Studies 3 and 4 were short-term experiments that explored possible mechanisms. They showed that the self-transcendent purpose manipulation could increase deeper learning behavior on tedious test review materials (Study 3), and sustain self-regulation over the course of an increasingly boring task (Study 4). More self-oriented motives for learning--such as the desire to have an interesting or enjoyable career--did not, on their own, consistently produce these benefits (Studies 1 and 4). 2014 APA, all rights reserved

  12. Measurement of in-bore side loads and comparison to first maximum yaw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald E. Carlucci

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In-bore yaw of a projectile in a gun tube has been shown to result in range loss if the yaw is significant. An attempt was made to determine if relationships between in-bore yaw and projectile First Maximum Yaw (FMY were observable. Experiments were conducted in which pressure transducers were mounted near the muzzle of a 155 mm cannon in three sets of four. Each set formed a cruciform pattern to obtain a differential pressure across the projectile. These data were then integrated to form a picture of what the overall pressure distribution was along the side of the projectile. The pressure distribution was used to determine a magnitude and direction of the overturning moment acting on the projectile. This moment and its resulting angular acceleration were then compared to the actual first maximum yaw observed in the test. The degree of correlation was examined using various statistical techniques. Overall uncertainty in the projectile dynamics was between 20% and 40% of the mean values of FMY.

  13. Outcome of ultrasound-guided small-bore catheter drainage in exudative pleural effusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiranantawat, Nantaka; Sungsiri, Jitpreedee; Geater, Sarayut L

    2014-05-01

    To evaluate the outcome and safety of ultrasound-guided percutaneous catheter drainage of exudative pleural effusion. The present study was a retrospective analysis of 412 pleural effusions from 373 patients that underwent ultrasound-guided small-bore catheter drainage in exudative pleural effusions between 2004 and 2009. The two most common causes for drainage were parapneumonic effusion or empyema (52.2%) and malignant effusion (30.3%), while the remains were trauma, iatrogenic, and others. Overall clinical success rate was 76.5%. The success rate was lower among malignant pleural effusion (p = 0.003). Causes of effusion were the only independent predictors related to success. Only five (1.2%) patients developed complication during the procedure. Seventy-five of 412 effusions (15.8%) developed complication during the period of drainage; the majority were drain blockage (9%) and accidental dislodgment (4.1%). Ultrasound-guided small-bore catheter drainage was a safe and efficient procedure for exudative pleural effusions.

  14. Safety precautions of Dover Channel Tunnel boring machine; Kaitei tonneru kussakuki to anzen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondo, Y.; Fujioka, K. [Kawasaki Heavy Industries Ltd., Kobe (Japan)

    1995-02-15

    In May 6th 1994, the Dover Channel Tunnel referred to the largest project in this century has been opened for traffic. France and England, which have been separated by the strait with a width of about 38 km, have been connected through the submarine railway tunnel and became to be a land continuation. Since Napoleon the first, who conquested European Continent, has made a tunnel construction plan towards England, in really 27th planning, the Eurotunnel, which has been a dream in Europe for 200 years, was realized. A position of this tunnel is at a depth of 100 m under marine surface, and a geology of the strait part is a chalk layer with a calcium carbonate as a main component. For a tunnel excavation, 6 units in England side, and 5 units in France side, and therefore total 11 units of tunnel boring machines were used. Out of them, in 2 tunnels for train from France side, 2 units of tunnel boring machine (TBM) made in Japan were used. In this paper a structure and excavation method of TBM was explained, and a safety countermeasure of TBM adopted in this project was outlined. 1 ref., 10 figs.

  15. Geotechnical maps for recommendation on bored pile capacity in Nakhon Ratchasima municipality, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suksun Horpibulsuk

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development of geotechnical maps in Nakhon Ratchasima municipality, Nakhon Ratchasima province, Thailand based on the boring logs and in situ test results collected from public and private sector sources. The standard penetration number, N was used to identify the soil type. The soil deposits in Nakhon Ratchasima municipality are divided into three layers: medium-to-stiff silty clay with N 50. The medium-to-stiff silty clay layer has a thickness varying from 1.8 to 7.5 metres and an average N value of 14 with a relatively low standard deviation of 1.08. The first hard silty clay layer has a thickness varying from 1.2 to 3.0 metres and an average N value of 42 with a standard deviation of 1.37. For a practical application in foundation engineering in which the pile tips of the bored piles are located in the second hard stratum with N > 50, eight pile tip zones with approximated load capacity are recommended for pile lengths of 3-10 metres.

  16. D Modelling of Tunnel Excavation Using Pressurized Tunnel Boring Machine in Overconsolidated Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demagh, Rafik; Emeriault, Fabrice

    2013-06-01

    The construction of shallow tunnels in urban areas requires a prior assessment of their effects on the existing structures. In the case of shield tunnel boring machines (TBM), the various construction stages carried out constitute a highly three-dimensional problem of soil/structure interaction and are not easy to represent in a complete numerical simulation. Consequently, the tunnelling- induced soil movements are quite difficult to evaluate. A 3D simulation procedure, using a finite differences code, namely FLAC3D, taking into account, in an explicit manner, the main sources of movements in the soil mass is proposed in this paper. It is illustrated by the particular case of Toulouse Subway Line B for which experimental data are available and where the soil is saturated and highly overconsolidated. A comparison made between the numerical simulation results and the insitu measurements shows that the 3D procedure of simulation proposed is relevant, in particular regarding the adopted representation of the different operations performed by the tunnel boring machine (excavation, confining pressure, shield advancement, installation of the tunnel lining, grouting of the annular void, etc). Furthermore, a parametric study enabled a better understanding of the singular behaviour origin observed on the ground surface and within the solid soil mass, till now not mentioned in the literature.

  17. Fragmentation Energy-Saving Theory of Full Face Rock Tunnel Boring Machine Disc Cutters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhao-Huang; Gong, Guo-Fang; Gao, Qing-Feng; Sun, Fei

    2017-07-01

    Attempts to minimize energy consumption of a tunnel boring machine disc cutter during the process of fragmentation have largely focused on optimizing disc-cutter spacing, as determined by the minimum specific energy required for fragmentation; however, indentation tests showed that rock deforms plastically beneath the cutters. Equations for thrust were developed for both the traditional, popularly employed disc cutter and anew design based on three-dimensional theory. The respective energy consumption for penetration, rolling, and side-slip fragmentations were obtained. A change in disc-cutter fragmentation angles resulted in a change in the nature of the interaction between the cutter and rock, which lowered the specific energy of fragmentation. During actual field excavations to the same penetration length, the combined energy consumption for fragmentation using the newly designed cutters was 15% lower than that when using the traditional design. This paper presents a theory for energy saving in tunnel boring machines. Investigation results showed that the disc cutters designed using this theory were more durable than traditional designs, and effectively lowered the energy consumption.

  18. Imaging system models for small-bore DOI-PET scanners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Hisashi; Kobayashi, Tetsuya; Yamaya, Taiga; Murayama, Hideo; Kitamura, Keishi; Hasegawa, Tomoyuki; Suga, Mikio

    2006-01-01

    Depth-of-interaction (DOI) information, which improves resolution uniformity in the field of view (FOV), is expected to lead to high-sensitivity PET scanners with small-bore detector rings. We are developing small-bore PET scanners with DOI detectors arranged in hexagonal or overlapped tetragonal patterns for small animal imaging or mammography. It is necessary to optimize the imaging system model because these scanners exhibit irregular detector sampling. In this work, we compared two imaging system models: (a) a parallel sub-LOR model in which the detector response functions (DRFs) are assumed to be uniform along the line of responses (LORs) and (b) a sub-crystal model in which each crystal is divided into a set of smaller volumes. These two models were applied to the overlapped tetragonal scanner (FOV 38.1 mm in diameter) and the hexagonal scanner (FOV 85.2 mm in diameter) simulated by GATE. We showed that the resolution non-uniformity of system model (b) was improved by 40% compared with that of system model (a) in the overlapped tetragonal scanner and that the resolution non-uniformity of system model (a) was improved by 18% compared with that of system model (b) in the hexagonal scanner. These results indicate that system model (b) should be applied to the overlapped tetragonal scanner and system model (a) should be applied to the hexagonal scanner. (author)

  19. Enhanced Automated Guidance System for Horizontal Auger Boring Based on Image Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lingling; Wen, Guojun; Wang, Yudan; Huang, Lei; Zhou, Jiang

    2018-02-15

    Horizontal auger boring (HAB) is a widely used trenchless technology for the high-accuracy installation of gravity or pressure pipelines on line and grade. Differing from other pipeline installations, HAB requires a more precise and automated guidance system for use in a practical project. This paper proposes an economic and enhanced automated optical guidance system, based on optimization research of light-emitting diode (LED) light target and five automated image processing bore-path deviation algorithms. An LED light target was optimized for many qualities, including light color, filter plate color, luminous intensity, and LED layout. The image preprocessing algorithm, direction location algorithm, angle measurement algorithm, deflection detection algorithm, and auto-focus algorithm, compiled in MATLAB, are used to automate image processing for deflection computing and judging. After multiple indoor experiments, this guidance system is applied in a project of hot water pipeline installation, with accuracy controlled within 2 mm in 48-m distance, providing accurate line and grade controls and verifying the feasibility and reliability of the guidance system.

  20. Optical probe for porosity defect detection on inner diameter surfaces of machined bores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Ojas P.; Islam, Mohammed N.; Terry, Fred L.

    2010-12-01

    We demonstrate an optical probe for detection of porosity inside spool bores of a transmission valve body with diameters down to 5 mm. The probe consists of a graded-index relay rod that focuses a laser beam spot onto the inner surface of the bore. Detectors, placed in the specular and grazing directions with respect to the incident beam, measure the change in scattered intensity when a surface defect is encountered. Based on the scattering signatures in the two directions, the system can also validate the depth of the defect and distinguish porosity from bump-type defects coming out of the metal surface. The system can detect porosity down to a 50-μm lateral dimension and ~40 μm in depth with >3-dB contrast over the background intensity fluctuations. Porosity detection systems currently use manual inspection techniques on the plant floor, and the demonstrated probe provides a noncontact technique that can help automotive manufacturers meet high-quality standards during production.

  1. Irradiation damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howe, L.M

    2000-07-01

    There is considerable interest in irradiation effects in intermetallic compounds from both the applied and fundamental aspects. Initially, this interest was associated mainly with nuclear reactor programs but it now extends to the fields of ion-beam modification of metals, behaviour of amorphous materials, ion-beam processing of electronic materials, and ion-beam simulations of various kinds. The field of irradiation damage in intermetallic compounds is rapidly expanding, and no attempt will be made in this chapter to cover all of the various aspects. Instead, attention will be focused on some specific areas and, hopefully, through these, some insight will be given into the physical processes involved, the present state of our knowledge, and the challenge of obtaining more comprehensive understanding in the future. The specific areas that will be covered are: point defects in intermetallic compounds; irradiation-enhanced ordering and irradiation-induced disordering of ordered alloys; irradiation-induced amorphization.

  2. Irradiation damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howe, L.M.

    2000-01-01

    There is considerable interest in irradiation effects in intermetallic compounds from both the applied and fundamental aspects. Initially, this interest was associated mainly with nuclear reactor programs but it now extends to the fields of ion-beam modification of metals, behaviour of amorphous materials, ion-beam processing of electronic materials, and ion-beam simulations of various kinds. The field of irradiation damage in intermetallic compounds is rapidly expanding, and no attempt will be made in this chapter to cover all of the various aspects. Instead, attention will be focused on some specific areas and, hopefully, through these, some insight will be given into the physical processes involved, the present state of our knowledge, and the challenge of obtaining more comprehensive understanding in the future. The specific areas that will be covered are: point defects in intermetallic compounds; irradiation-enhanced ordering and irradiation-induced disordering of ordered alloys; irradiation-induced amorphization

  3. Process for recovering oil from oil-bearing layers traversed by a well

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandon, C W

    1967-09-11

    In this process, pressure is applied to the surface of the strata exposed in the well. The applied pressure is varied between values above and below the pressure of the formation adjacent to the well bore, thus causing fracturing and breaking of the formation under the influence of the internal pressure of the layer.

  4. Groundwater sampling with well-points

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laubacher, R.C.; Bailey, W.M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that BP Oil Company and Engineering-Science (ES) conducted a groundwater investigation at a BP Oil Distribution facility in the coastal plain of south central Alabama. The predominant lithologies include unconsolidated Quaternary-aged gravels, sands, silts and clay. Wellpoints were used to determine the vertical and horizontal extent of volatile hydrocarbons in the water table aquifer. To determine the vertical extent of contaminant migration, the hollow-stem augers were advanced approximately 10 feet into the aquifer near a suspected source. The drill stem and bit were removed very slowly to prevent sand heaving. The well-point was again driven ahead of the augers and four volumes (18 liters) of groundwater were purged. A sample was collected and the headspace vapor was analyzed as before. Groundwater from a total of seven borings was analyzed using these techniques. Permanent monitoring wells were installed at four boring locations which had volatile concentrations less than 1 part per million. Later groundwater sampling and laboratory analysis confirmed the wells had been installed near or beyond both the horizontal and vertical plume boundaries

  5. Ultra-intense laser pulse propagation in plasmas: from classic hole-boring to incomplete hole-boring with relativistic transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weng, S M; Murakami, M; Mulser, P; Sheng, Z M

    2012-01-01

    Relativistic laser pulse propagation into homogeneous plasmas has been investigated as a function of plasma density. At first, the propagation features are compared systematically between relativistic transparency (RT) and hole-boring (HB). Paramountly, a considerably broad intermediate regime, namely the incomplete HB regime, has been found between the RT regime and the HB regime for an extremely intense circularly polarized (CP) pulse. In this regime HB proceeds in collaboration with RT, resulting in a much faster propagation speed and a higher cut-off energy of fast ions than in the classic HB regime. Similarly to the classic HB regime, formulae are presented to model the laser propagation and the ion acceleration according to the modified momentum flux balance in this incomplete HB regime. The simulations give the density boundary between this incomplete HB regime and the classic HB regime for CP pulses, which is crucial for estimating the maximum mean ion energy and the maximum conversion efficiency that can be achieved by the classic HB acceleration at a given laser intensity. For linear polarization (LP) the propagation mechanism apparently undergoes a transition in time between these two regimes. A detailed comparison between LP and circular polarization is made for these phenomena. (paper)

  6. Space-borne observation of mesospheric bore by Visible and near Infrared Spectral Imager onboard the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hozumi, Y.; Saito, A.; Sakanoi, T.; Yamazaki, A.; Hosokawa, K.

    2017-12-01

    Mesospheric bores were observed by Visible and near Infrared Spectral Imager (VISI) of the ISS-IMAP mission (Ionosphere, Mesosphere, upper Atmosphere and Plasmasphere mapping mission from the International Space Station) in O2 airglow at 762 nm wavelength. The mesospheric bore is moving front of sharp jump followed by undulations or turbulence in the mesopause region. Since previous studies of mesospheric bore were mainly based on ground-based airglow imaging that is limited in field-of-view and observing site, little is known about its horizontal extent and global behavior. Space-borne imaging by ISS-IMAP/VISI provides an opportunity to study the mesospheric bore with a wide field-of-view and global coverage. A mesospheric bore was captured by VISI in two consecutive paths on 9 July 2015 over the south of African continent (48ºS - 54ºS and 15ºE). The wave front aligned with south-north direction and propagated to west. The phase velocity and wave length of the following undulation were estimated to 100 m/s and 30 km, respectively. Those parameters are similar to those reported by previous studies. 30º anti-clockwise rotation of the wave front was recognized in 100 min. Another mesospheric bore was captured on 9 May 2013 over the south Atlantic ocean (35ºS - 43ºS and 24ºW - 1ºE) with more than 2,200 km horizontal extent of wave front. The wave front aligned with southeast-northwest direction. Because the following undulation is recognized in the southwest side of the wave front, it is estimated to propagate to northeast direction. The wave front was modulated with 1,000 km wave length. This modulation implies inhomogeneity of the phase velocity.

  7. Incident wave, infragravity wave, and non-linear low-frequency bore evolution across fringing coral reefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storlazzi, C. D.; Griffioen, D.; Cheriton, O. M.

    2016-12-01

    Coral reefs have been shown to significantly attenuate incident wave energy and thus provide protection for 100s of millions of people globally. To better constrain wave dynamics and wave-driven water levels over fringing coral reefs, a 4-month deployment of wave and tide gauges was conducted across two shore-normal transects on Roi-Namur Island and two transects on Kwajalein Island in the Republic of the Marshall Islands. At all locations, although incident wave (periods 250 s) heights on the outer reef flat just inshore of the zone of wave breaking, the infragravity wave heights generally equaled the incident wave heights by the middle of the reef flat and exceeded the incident wave heights on the inner reef flat by the shoreline. The infragravity waves generally were asymmetric, positively skewed, bore-like forms with incident-band waves riding the infragravity wave crest at the head of the bore; these wave packets have similar structure to high-frequency internal waves on an internal wave bore. Bore height was shown to scale with water depth, offshore wave height, and offshore wave period. For a given tidal elevation, with increasing offshore wave heights, such bores occurred more frequently on the middle reef flat, whereas they occurred less frequently on the inner reef flat. Skewed, asymmetric waves are known to drive large gradients in velocity and shear stress that can transport material onshore. Thus, a better understanding of these low-frequency, energetic bores on reef flats is critical to forecasting how coral reef-lined coasts may respond to sea-level rise and climate change.

  8. Maintaining Masculinity in Mid-Twentieth-Century American Psychology: Edwin Boring, Scientific Eminence, and the "Woman Problem".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    Using mid-twentieth-century American psychology as my focus, I explore how scientific psychology was constructed as a distinctly masculine enterprise and was navigated by those who did not conform easily to this masculine ideal. I show how women emerged as problems for science through the vigorous gatekeeping activities and personal and professional writings of disciplinary figurehead Edwin G. Boring. I trace Boring's intellectual and professional socialization into masculine science and his efforts to understand women's apparent lack of scientific eminence, efforts that were clearly undergirded by preexisting and widely shared assumptions about men's and women's capacities and preferences.

  9. Primary Signet Ring Cell Carcinoma of Rectum Diagnosed by Boring Biopsy in Combination with Endoscopic Mucosal Resection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshito Hirata

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A 46-year-old man with severe back pain visited our hospital. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed extensive bone metastasis and rectal wall thickness. Colonoscopy revealed circumferential stenosis with edematous mucosa, suggesting colon cancer. However, histological findings of biopsy specimens revealed inflammatory cells but no malignant cells. The patient underwent endoscopic ultrasound, which demonstrated edematous wall thickness without destruction of the normal layer structure. After unsuccessful detection of neoplastic cells by boring biopsies, we performed endoscopic mucosal resection followed by boring biopsies that finally revealed signet ring cell carcinoma. Herein, we present a case and provide a review of the literature.

  10. Fiscal 1982 Sunshine Project research report. Development of bore hole measurement technology; 1982 nendo koseinai sokutei gijutsu no kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1983-03-01

    This report summarizes the fiscal 1982 research result on development of measuring instruments for information collection in geothermal bore holes under high-temperature high-pressure conditions. In development of high-temperature well logging cable, the new TFE Teflon insulated well logging cable (3,300m) applicable up to 320 degreesC was prepared. In development of digital well logging system, the data analyzer for edition and analysis of recorded digital logging data, the depth panel with an automatic depth correction mechanism, and the fiber optics controller were prepared. Preparation of the whole digital well logging system was thus completed. Field test was made at 3 wells in 2 geothermal areas. At the test well in Nigori-Gawa area, Hokkaido, performance test was made on the digital well logging system, TFE Teflon well logging cable, and improved winch completed in this fiscal year. At the same time, the radioactive well logging test using radioactive isotope showed the satisfactory result except neutron well logging. (NEDO)

  11. Militantly Well

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigh, Henrik Erdman

    2015-01-01

    futures that transcend conflict engagement and wartime suffering for young militiamen. It clarifies the positive prospects that are expected to lie beyond the known horrors of war. Though conflict and warfare may provide strange points of departure for talking about well-being, imaginaries of happiness...... stand out from a background of hardship and are talked about in both a quite concrete way, as a lack of insecurity, as well as in an abstract way, as realization of social being. However, for most of the people I talk to, happiness remains elusive and evades their desperate attempts to grasp it...

  12. Damaged Skylab

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    The Saturn V vehicle, carrying the unmarned orbital workshop for the Skylab-1 mission, lifted off successfully and all systems performed normally. Sixty-three seconds into the flight, engineers in the operation support and control center saw an unexpected telemetry indication that signalled that damages occurred on one solar array and the micrometeoroid shield during the launch. The micrometeoroid shield, a thin protective cylinder surrounding the workshop protecting it from tiny space particles and the sun's scorching heat, ripped loose from its position around the workshop. This caused the loss of one solar wing and jammed the other. Still unoccupied, the Skylab was stricken with the loss of the heat shield and sunlight beat mercilessly on the lab's sensitive skin. Internal temperatures soared, rendering the station uninhabitable, threatening foods, medicines, films, and experiments. This image, taken during a fly-around inspection by the Skylab-2 crew, shows a crippled Skylab in orbit. The crew found their home in space to be in serious shape; the heat shield gone, one solar wing gone, and the other jammed. The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed, tested, rehearsed, and approved three repair options. These options included a parasol sunshade and a twin-pole sunshade to restore the temperature inside the workshop, and a set of metal cutting tools to free the jammed solar panel.

  13. Structural damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, R.E.; Bruhn, R.W.

    1992-01-01

    Virtually all structures show some signs of distress due to deterioration of the building components, to changed loads, or to changed support conditions. Changed support conditions result from ground movements. In mining regions many cases of structural distress are attributed to mining without considering alternative causes. This is particularly true of coal mining since it occurs under extensive areas. Coal mining is estimated to have already undermined more than eight million acres and may eventually undermine 40 million acres in the United States. Other nonmetal and metal underground mines impact much smaller areas. Although it is sometimes difficult, even with careful study, to identify the actual cause of damage, persons responsible for underground coal mining should at least be aware of possible causes of building stress other than mine subsidence. This paper presents information on distress to structures and briefly reviews a number of causes of ground movements other than subsidence: Mass movements, dissolution, erosion, frost action, shrinking and swelling, yield into excavations and compressibility

  14. Radiation damage prediction system using damage function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Yoshihisa; Mori, Seiji

    1979-01-01

    The irradiation damage analysis system using a damage function was investigated. This irradiation damage analysis system consists of the following three processes, the unfolding of a damage function, the calculation of the neutron flux spectrum of the object of damage analysis and the estimation of irradiation effect of the object of damage analysis. The damage function is calculated by applying the SAND-2 code. The ANISN and DOT3, 5 codes are used to calculate neutron flux. The neutron radiation and the allowable time of reactor operation can be estimated based on these calculations of the damage function and neutron flux. The flow diagram of the process of analyzing irradiation damage by a damage function and the flow diagram of SAND-2 code are presented, and the analytical code for estimating damage, which is determined with a damage function and a neutron spectrum, is explained. The application of the irradiation damage analysis system using a damage function was carried out to the core support structure of a fast breeder reactor for the damage estimation and the uncertainty evaluation. The fundamental analytical conditions and the analytical model for this work are presented, then the irradiation data for SUS304, the initial estimated values of a damage function, the error analysis for a damage function and the analytical results are explained concerning the computation of a damage function for 10% total elongation. Concerning the damage estimation of FBR core support structure, the standard and lower limiting values of damage, the permissible neutron flux and the allowable years of reactor operation are presented and were evaluated. (Nakai, Y.)

  15. Measurements of cutter forces and cutter temperature of boring machine in Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Z.X.; Kou, S.Q.; Lindqvist, P.-A. [Luleaa Univ. of Technology (Sweden)

    2001-04-01

    This report presents both the testing methods used and the testing results obtained for cutter forces and cutter temperature during field boring in Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. In order to estimate the strains induced by cutter forces in the cutter shaft and choose proper transducers, first a numerical simulation was performed. The simulation results indicated that the cutter forces should be measurable by ordinary strain gauges. Furthermore, an independent three-direction loading system for laboratory calibration was set up to solve force-coupling problems appearing in field measurements. By means of the established measuring system, which was proved successfully in the laboratory, the normal forces, tangential forces, and side forces of two button cutters in the boring machine were measured in the field. In addition, the temperature in the shaft of the front cutter was measured. After the measurements of the cutter forces and cutter temperature, rock core samples were taken from the bottom and the wall of the testing borehole. Then the samples were cut, polished, and examined by means of the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). After that, the lengths of major cracks induced by the cutters in the rock samples were measured, and an approximate relationship between the length of the medium cracks and the relevant cutter forces was obtained. This relationship was compared with the theoretical relationship established before. Finally, according to the measured results, the cracked zones around the borehole were described. The results show that: (1) there are two kinds of cracked zones: one in the borehole wall and the other in the bottom of the borehole. The depth of the cracked zone in the borehole bottom is much larger than that in the borehole wall because the maximum normal force of the front cutter is always much larger than that of the gauge cutter. (2) Each cracked zone includes a densely cracked zone and all the longest medium cracks caused by mechanical

  16. Minimal analytical model for undular tidal bore profile; quantum and Hawking effect analogies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, M. V.

    2018-05-01

    Waves travelling up-river, driven by high tides, often consist of a smooth front followed by a series of undulations. A simple approximate theory gives the rigidly travelling profile of such ‘undular hydraulic jumps’, up to scaling, as the integral of the Airy function; applying self-consistency fixes the scaling. The theory combines the standard hydraulic jump with ideas borrowed from quantum physics: Hamiltonian operators and zero-energy eigenfunctions. There is an analogy between undular bores and the Hawking effect in relativity: both concern waves associated with horizons. ‘Physics is not just Concerning the Nature of Things, but Concerning the Interconnectedness of all the Natures of Things’(Sir Charles Frank, retirement speech 1976).

  17. Load-deflection characteristics of small-bore insulated-pipe clamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severud, L.K.; Clark, G.L.

    1981-12-01

    The special insulated clamps used on both FFTF and CRBR piping utilize a Belleville spring arrangement to compensate for pipe thermal expansion. Analysis indicates that this produces a non-linear, directionally sensitive clamp spring rate. Since these spring rates influence the seismic response of a supported piping system, it was deemed necessary to evaluate them further by test. This has been accomplished for the FFTF clamps. A more standard insulated pipe clamp, which does not incorporate Belleville springs to accommodate thermal expansion, was also tested. This type clamp is simple in design, and economically attractive. It may have wide application prospects for use in LMFBR small bore auxiliary piping operating at temperatures below 427 0 C. Load deflection tests were conducted on 2.54 CM and 7.62 CM diameter samples of these commercial clamps

  18. Performance of Small Bore 60NiTi Hybrid Ball Bearings: Preliminary Life Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellacorte, Christopher; Howard, S. Adam

    2016-01-01

    Small bore (R8 size) hybrid ball bearings made with 60NiTi races and silicon nitride balls are under development for highly corrosive aerospace applications that are also exposed to heavy static (shock) loads. The target application is the vacuum pump used inside the wastewater recycling system on the International Space Station. To verify bearing longevity, life tests are run at 2000rpm for time periods up to 5000 hours. Accelerometers with data tracking are used to monitor operation and the bearings are disassembled and inspected at intervals to assess wear. Preliminary tests show that bearings made from 60NiTi are feasible for this aerospace and potentially other industrial applications that must endure similar operating environments.

  19. Measurements of laser-hole boring into overdense plasmas using x-ray laser refractometry (invited)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodama, R.; Takahashi, K.; Tanaka, K.A.; Kato, Y.; Murai, K.; Weber, F.; Barbee, T.W.; DaSilva, L.B.

    1999-01-01

    We developed a 19.6 nm laser x-ray laser grid-image refractometer (XRL-GIR) to diagnose laser-hole boring into overdense plasmas. The XRL-GIR was optimized to measure two-dimensional electron density perturbation on a scale of a few tens of μm in underdense plasmas. Electron density profiles of laser-produced plasmas were obtained for 10 20 - 10 22 cm -3 with the XRL-GIR and for 10 19 - 10 20 cm -3 from an ultraviolet interferometer, the profiles of which were compared with those from hydrodynamic simulation. By using this XRL-GIR, we directly observed laser channeling into overdense plasmas accompanied by a bow shock wave showing a Mach cone ascribed to supersonic propagation of the channel front. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  20. Diagnostic Evaluation of the Knee in the Office Setting Using Small-Bore Needle Arthroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Karan A; Hartigan, David E; Makovicka, Justin L; Dulle, Donald L; Chhabra, Anikar

    2018-01-01

    Arthroscopy is currently the gold standard for diagnosing intra-articular knee pathology. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be a clinical adjunct for diagnosis; however, it is not without its shortcomings. Although highly accurate, even advanced imaging misdiagnoses the condition in 1 in 14 patients with regard to anterior cruciate ligament pathology. Previous studies have indicated that MRI fails to identify meniscal pathology when one exists in 1 of every 10 cases, and diagnoses pathology when pathology truly does not exist in 1 of every 5 patients. In-office arthroscopy offers an alternative to formal diagnostic arthroscopy, with reduced cost and risk of complications. This is a technique article that discusses the use of small-bore needle arthroscopy in the office setting.

  1. Drilling Load Model of an Inchworm Boring Robot for Lunar Subsurface Exploration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past decade, the wireline robot has received increasing attention due to the advantages of light weight, low cost, and flexibility compared to the traditional drilling instruments in space missions. For the lunar subsurface in situ exploration mission, we proposed a type of wireline robot named IBR (Inchworm Boring Robot drawing inspiration from the inchworm. Two auger tools are utilized to remove chips for IBR, which directly interacted with the lunar regolith in the drilling process. Therefore, for obtaining the tools drilling characteristics, the chips removal principle of IBR is analyzed and its drilling load model is further established based on the soil mechanical theory in this paper. And then the proposed theoretical drilling load model is experimentally validated. In addition, according to the theoretical drilling load model, this paper discusses the effect of the drilling parameters on the tools drilling moments and power consumption. These results imply a possible energy-efficient control strategy for IBR.

  2. Design And Construction Of A 15 T, 120 MM Bore IR Quadrupole Magnet For LARP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caspi, S.; Cheng, D.; Dietderich, D.; Felice, H.; Ferracin, P.; Hafalia, R.; Hannaford, R.; Sabbi, G.S.; Anerella, M.; Ghosh, A.; Schmalzle, J.; Wanderer, P.; Ambrosio, G.; Bossert, R.; Kashikhin, V.; Pasholk, D.; Zlobin, A.

    2009-01-01

    Pushing accelerator magnets beyond 10 T holds a promise of future upgrades to machines like the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. Nb 3 Sn conductor is at the present time the only practical superconductor capable of generating fields beyond 10 T. In support of the LHC Phase-II upgrade, the US LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP) is developing a large bore (120 mm) IR quadrupole (HQ) capable of reaching 15 T at its conductor peak field and a peak gradient of 219 T/m at 1.9 K. While exploring the magnet performance limits in terms of gradient, forces and stresses the 1 m long two-layer coil will demonstrate additional features such as alignment and accelerator field quality. In this paper we summarize the design and report on the magnet construction progress.

  3. Small bore pipe acceptance criteria for watts bar nuclear plant Tennessee Valley Authority

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, W.S.; Lee, R.L.; Kalyanan, N.

    1991-01-01

    Small bore pipe (≤2 inches NPS) is traditionally analyzed by simplified techniques using Cook Book approach, which yield conservative results. However, reconciliation of these systems for as-built condition where the original criteria is observed to have been exceeded (or due to additions etc.) generally becomes a time consuming and expensive operation since a rigorous computer aided analysis or a detailed hand calculation becomes necessary. The acceptance criteria in this paper can be effectively used in such cases. The approach involves utilizing basic engineering principles and plant specific parameters (such as earthquake spectra) to estimate the system response such as pipe stress due to various loading conditions, piping frequency, support and anchor loads, valve acceleration etc

  4. Automation of eddy current system for in-service inspection of turbine and generator rotor bores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    The current project (EPRI-RP-1975-5) is a continuation of activities that began several years ago. Those results (EPRI-RP-1957-1) indicated that eddy current testing shows promise for in-service inspection. The current project investigates the degree to which eddy current testing can be used to replace bore magnetic particle testing. For this purpose, correlation studies between eddy current and magnetic particle tests are being undertaken on laboratory rotor sections and field test pieces of rotors. The eddy current data are to be gathered automatically by a combination of the Nortec-25L Eddyscope (to provide the analog eddy current signals) and the General Electric DATAQ/sup TM/ (a registered trademark of the General Electric Co.) System (to perform the automatic data acquisition). This paper describes some test results on a flaked laboratory rotor section

  5. Simultaneous in-bore rail and insulator spectra from a railgun plasma armature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keefer, D.; Sedghinasah, A.; Crawford, R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on absolute spectral radiance measurements obtained simultaneously at the rail and insulator surface of the UTSI 1 cm square-bore railgun. The emission spectra were obtained through the use of quartz optical fibers which penetrated both the rail and the insulator walls. The spectral characteristics of the rail and insulator emission are quite similar but differ significantly in magnitude. A detailed plasma radiation model was used to analyze these spectra. In order to obtain reasonable agreement between the model predictions and the experimental spectra, it was necessary to assume that these existed a broadband absorbing layer at the insulator surface. This result suggests a new physical model of the plasma armature in which insulator ablation leads to significant 3-dimensional flow and affects the shape of the current emission pattern on the rail surfaces

  6. Thermal properties of a large-bore cryocooled 10 T superconducting magnet for a hybrid magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishizuka, M.; Hamajima, T.; Itou, T.; Sakuraba, J.; Nishijima, G.; Awaji, S.; Watanabe, K.

    2010-01-01

    A cryocooled 10 T superconducting magnet with a 360 mm room temperature bore has been developed for a hybrid magnet. The superconducting magnet cooled by four Gifford-McMahon cryocoolers has been designed to generate a magnetic field of 10 T. Since superconducting wires composed of coils were subjected to large hoop stress over 150 MPa and Nb 3 Sn superconducting wires particularly showed a low mechanical strength due to those brittle property, Nb 3 Sn wires strengthened by NbTi-filaments were developed for the cryocooled superconducting magnet. We have already reported that the hybrid magnet could generate the resultant magnetic field of 27.5 T by adding 8.5 T from the superconducting magnet and 19 T from a water-cooled Bitter resistive magnet, after the water-cooled resistive magnet was inserted into the 360 mm room temperature bore of the cryocooled superconducting magnet. When the hybrid magnet generated the field of 27.5 T, it achieved the high magnetic-force field (B x ∂Bz/∂z) of 4500 T 2 /m, which was useful for magneto-science in high fields such as materials levitation research. In this paper, we particularly focus on the cause that the cryocooled superconducting magnet was limited to generate the designed magnetic field of 10 T in the hybrid magnet operation. As a result, it was found that there existed mainly two causes as the limitation of the magnetic field generation. One was a decrease of thermal conductive passes due to exfoliation from the coil bobbin of the cooling flange. The other was large AC loss due to both a thick Nb 3 Sn layer and its large diameter formed on Nb-barrier component in Nb 3 Sn wires.

  7. In-bore transrectal MRI-guided prostate biopsies: Are there risk factors for complications?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier-Schroers, Michael, E-mail: michael.meier@ukb.uni-bonn.de [Department of Radiology, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Str 25, 53127 Bonn (Germany); Homsi, Rami, E-mail: rami.homsi@ukb.uni-bonn.de [Department of Radiology, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Str 25, 53127 Bonn (Germany); Kukuk, Guido, E-mail: guido.kukuk@ukb.uni-bonn.de [Department of Radiology, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Str 25, 53127 Bonn (Germany); Wolter, Karsten, E-mail: karsten.wolter@ukb.uni-bonn.de [Department of Radiology, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Str 25, 53127 Bonn (Germany); Decker, Georges, E-mail: georges.decker@ukb.uni-bonn.de [Department of Radiology, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Str 25, 53127 Bonn (Germany); Fischer, Stefan, E-mail: stefan.fischer@ukb.uni-bonn.de [Department of Radiology, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Str 25, 53127 Bonn (Germany); Marx, Christian, E-mail: christian.marx@ukb.uni-bonn.de [Department of Radiology, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Str 25, 53127 Bonn (Germany); Schmeel, Frederic Carsten, E-mail: carsten.schmeel@ukb.uni-bonn.de [Department of Radiology, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Str 25, 53127 Bonn (Germany); Block, Wolfgang, E-mail: wolfgang.block@ukb.uni-bonn.de [Department of Radiology, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Str 25, 53127 Bonn (Germany); Sprinkart, Alois Martin, E-mail: sprinkart@uni-bonn.de [Department of Radiology, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Str 25, 53127 Bonn (Germany); Traeber, Frank, E-mail: frank.traeber@ukb.uni-bonn.de [Department of Radiology, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Str 25, 53127 Bonn (Germany); Schild, Hans Heinz, E-mail: hans.schild@ukb.uni-bonn.de [Department of Radiology, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Str 25, 53127 Bonn (Germany); Willinek, Winfried, E-mail: w.willinek@bk-trier.de [Department of Radiology, Neuroradiology, Sonography and Nuclear Medicine, Hospital of the Barmherzige Brüder Trier, Nordallee 1, 54292 Trier (Germany)

    2016-12-15

    Purpose: To systematically analyze risk factors for complications of in-bore transrectal MRI-guided prostate biopsies (MRGB). Materials and methods: 90 patients, who were scheduled for MRGB were included for this study. Exclusion criteria were coagulation disorders, therapy with anticoagulant drugs, and acute infections of the urinary and the lower gastrointestinal tract. Directly after, one week and one year after the biopsy, we assessed biopsy related complications (e.g. hemorrhages or signs of prostatitis). Differences between patients with and without complications were analyzed regarding possible risk factors: age, prostate volume, number of taken samples, biopsy duration, biopsy of more than one lesion, diabetes, arterial hypertension, hemorrhoids, benign prostate hyperplasia, carcinoma or prostatitis (according to histopathological analysis), and lesion localization. Complications were classified according to the Clavien-Dindo classification. Results: We observed 15 grade I complications in 90 biopsies (16.7%) with slight hematuria in 9 cases (10%), minor vasovagal reactions in 4 cases (4.4%), and urinary retention and positioning-related facial dysesthesia in 1 case each (1.1%). One patient showed acute prostatitis requiring antibiotics as the only grade II complication (1.1%). There were no adverse events that occurred later than one week. Complications grade III or higher such as pelvic abscesses, urosepsis or severe hemorrhages were not seen. There were no significant associations between the assessed risk factors and biopsy-related complications. Conclusion: In-bore transrectal MRI-guided prostate biopsies can be considered safe procedures in the diagnosis of prostate cancer with very low complication rates. There seem to be no risk factors for complications.

  8. Improved Safety and Efficacy of Small-Bore Feeding Tube Confirmation Using an Electromagnetic Placement Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Jan; Luebbehusen, Michael; Aguirre, Lillian; Cluff, Julia; David, Mary Ann; Holly, Vince; Linford, Lorraine; Park, Nancy; Brunelle, Rocco

    2018-04-01

    Early enteral nutrition has been shown to decrease complications and improve patient outcomes. Post pyloric feeding is recommended for patients with gastric intolerance or at high risk for aspiration. Feeding tube placement can be challenging and pose risk of pulmonary complications. Reliance on radiographic confirmation for feeding tube placement exposes the patient to radiation. Electromagnetic placement device (EMPD) may offer a method to minimize pulmonary complications, increase successful placement, and decrease radiation exposure to the patient. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of using EMPD verification, instead of routine abdominal radiographic confirmation, for small-bore feeding tube placement. Variables evaluated were adverse events, utilization of radiographs for confirmation, and success rate of feeding tube placement in the ordered location. Two time frames were reviewed. In a 1-year period, 3754 small-bore feeding tubes were placed using EMPD, with zero adverse events noted. Radiographic confirmation was utilized in 0%-29.2% of the EMPD placed tubes. Successful placement of feeding tubes using EMPD ranged from 94%-99.6%. During a 5-year period, 7081 EMPD feeding tubes were evaluated. One adverse event, pneumothorax, occurred during the placement of these 7081 tubes, for a rate of 0.014%. Feeding tube placement confirmation is safe and efficacious via EMPD providing an effective method of feeding tube placement with a success rate >94% into the desired location. EMPD is an accurate verification method of distal tip location, eliminating the need for routine abdominal radiographic confirmation. © 2018 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  9. Feasibility study and technical proposal for seismic monitoring of tunnel boring machine in Olkiluoto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saari, J.; Lakio, A. (AF-Consult Ltd, Vantaa (Finland))

    2009-01-15

    In Olkiluoto, Posiva Oy has operated a local seismic network since February 2002. The purpose of the microearthquake measurements at Olkiluoto is to improve understanding of the structure, behaviour and long term stability of the bedrock. The studies include both tectonic and excavation-induced microearthquakes. An additional task of monitoring is related to safeguarding of the ONKALO. The possibility to excavate an illegal access to the ONKALO, have been concerned when the safeguards are discussed. Therefore all recorded explosions in the Olkiluoto area and in the ONKALO are located. If a concentration of explosions is observed, the origin of that is found out. Also a concept of hidden illegal explosions, detonated at the same time as the real excavation blasts, has been examined. According to the experience gained in Olkiluoto, it can be concluded that, as long the seismic network is in operation and the results are analysed by a skilled person, it is practically impossible to do illegal excavation by blasts. In this report a possibility of seismic monitoring of illegal excavation done by tunnel boring machine (TBM) has been investigated. Characteristics of the seismic signal generated by the raise boring machine are described. According to this study, it can be concluded that the generated seismic signal can be detected and the source of the signal can be located. However, this task calls for different kind of monitoring system than that, which is currently used for monitoring microearthquakes and explosions. The presented technical proposal for seismic monitoring of TBM in Olkiluoto is capable to detect and locate TBM coming outside the ONKALO area about two months before it would reach the ONKALO. (orig.)

  10. Feasibility study and technical proposal for seismic monitoring of tunnel boring machine in Olkiluoto

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saari, J.; Lakio, A.

    2009-01-01

    In Olkiluoto, Posiva Oy has operated a local seismic network since February 2002. The purpose of the microearthquake measurements at Olkiluoto is to improve understanding of the structure, behaviour and long term stability of the bedrock. The studies include both tectonic and excavation-induced microearthquakes. An additional task of monitoring is related to safeguarding of the ONKALO. The possibility to excavate an illegal access to the ONKALO, have been concerned when the safeguards are discussed. Therefore all recorded explosions in the Olkiluoto area and in the ONKALO are located. If a concentration of explosions is observed, the origin of that is found out. Also a concept of hidden illegal explosions, detonated at the same time as the real excavation blasts, has been examined. According to the experience gained in Olkiluoto, it can be concluded that, as long the seismic network is in operation and the results are analysed by a skilled person, it is practically impossible to do illegal excavation by blasts. In this report a possibility of seismic monitoring of illegal excavation done by tunnel boring machine (TBM) has been investigated. Characteristics of the seismic signal generated by the raise boring machine are described. According to this study, it can be concluded that the generated seismic signal can be detected and the source of the signal can be located. However, this task calls for different kind of monitoring system than that, which is currently used for monitoring microearthquakes and explosions. The presented technical proposal for seismic monitoring of TBM in Olkiluoto is capable to detect and locate TBM coming outside the ONKALO area about two months before it would reach the ONKALO. (orig.)

  11. Efficacy and safety in performing of large bore percutaneous nephrostomy under ultrasound guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smilov, N.; Mlachkova, D.; Rizov, A.; Lozev, I.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the success rate, complications and the outcomes from large-bore percutaneous nephrostomy under ultrasound guidance performed to 178 cases with another 54 when nephrostomy under x-ray control was performed. We have performed 178 large-bore percutaneous nephrostomy under ultrasound guidance and another 54 percutaneous nephrostomy under x-ray guidance to patients diagnosed with obstructive uropathy resulting from benign or malignant supravesical obstruction. We have performed successful nephrostomy in 93,8% of the cases under ultrasound guidance and 100% successful nephrostomy in the cases under x-ray control. In 2,8% of patients under ultrasound guidance the nephrostomy was performed using 4 additional punctures of the pyelocaliceal system and artificially caused hydronephrosis via infiltration of normal saline; and in the remaining 1,7% it was successful at the second attempt after 24 hours. It was not necessary to perform open surgery nephrostomy in any of the cases. The performance of percutaneous nephrostomy under ultrasound guidance has a success rate similar to the one done under x-ray guidance and with commensurable frequency and severity of complications, however without the patient and the operator being exposed to x-ray radiation. In general, the percutaneous nephrostomy under ultrasound guidance is performed without difficulties in the cases of third or fourth degree hydronephrosis. The lateral decubital patient position, the appropriate place for the puncture, the usage of Color Doppler imaging when the puncture is performed and the continuos ultrasound guidance during dilatation and placement of the nephrostomy tube should ensure the successful performance of the procedure in the case of first or second degree hydronephrosis. When hydronephrosis is absent, the nephrostomy should be performed under x-ray guidance. In emergency cases the application of ultrasound guidance allows the nephrostomy to be performed along the

  12. Electronically rotated and translated field-free line generation for open bore magnetic particle imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Top, Can Barış; Ilbey, Serhat; Güven, Hüseyin Emre

    2017-12-01

    We propose a coil arrangement for open bore field-free line (FFL) magnetic particle imaging (MPI) system, which is suitable for accessing the subject from the sides. The purpose of this study is twofold, to show that the FFL can be rotated and translated electronically in a volume of interest with this arrangement and to analyze the current, voltage and power requirements for a 1 T/m gradient human sized scanner for a 200 mm diameter × 200 mm height cylindrical field of view (FOV). We used split coils side by side with alternating current directions to generate a field-free line. Employing two of these coil groups, one of which is rotated 90 degrees with respect to the other, a rotating FFL was generated. We conducted numerical simulations to show the feasibility of this arrangement for three-dimensional (3D) electronical scan of the FFL. Using simulations, we obtained images of a two-dimensional (2D) in silico dot phantom for a human size scanner with system matrix-based reconstruction. Simulations showed that the FFL can be generated and rotated in one plane and can be translated in two axes, allowing for 3D imaging of a large subject with the proposed arrangement. Human sized scanner required 63-215 kW power for the selection field coils to scan the focus inside the FOV. The proposed setup is suitable for FFL MPI imaging with an open bore configuration without the need for mechanical rotation, which is preferable for clinical usage in terms of imaging time and patient access. Further studies are necessary to determine the limitations imposed by peripheral nerve stimulation, and to optimize the system parameters and the sequence design. © 2017 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  13. Biogeography of Wood-Boring Crustaceans (Isopoda: Limnoriidae) Established in European Coastal Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Luísa M. S.; Merckelbach, Lucas M.; Cragg, Simon M.

    2014-01-01

    Marine wood-borers of the Limnoriidae cause great destruction to wooden structures exposed in the marine environment. In this study we collated occurrence data obtained from field surveys, spanning over a period of 10 years, and from an extensive literature review. We aimed to determine which wood-boring limnoriid species are established in European coastal waters; to map their past and recent distribution in Europe in order to infer species range extension or contraction; to determine species environmental requirements using climatic envelopes. Of the six species of wood-boring Limnoria previously reported occurring in Europe, only Limnoria lignorum, L. quadripunctata and L. tripunctata are established in European coastal waters. L. carinata and L. tuberculata have uncertain established status, whereas L. borealis is not established in European waters. The species with the widest distribution in Europe is Limnoria lignorum, which is also the most tolerant species to a range of salinities. L. quadripunctata and L. tripunctata appear to be stenohaline. However, the present study shows that both L. quadripunctata and L. tripunctata are more widespread in Europe than previous reports suggested. Both species have been found occurring in Europe since they were described, and their increased distribution is probably the results of a range expansion. On the other hand L. lignorum appears to be retreating poleward with ocean warming. In certain areas (e.g. southern England, and southern Portugal), limnoriids appear to be very abundant and their activity is rivalling that of teredinids. Therefore, it is important to monitor the distribution and destructive activity of these organisms in Europe. PMID:25313796

  14. In-bore transrectal MRI-guided prostate biopsies: Are there risk factors for complications?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier-Schroers, Michael; Homsi, Rami; Kukuk, Guido; Wolter, Karsten; Decker, Georges; Fischer, Stefan; Marx, Christian; Schmeel, Frederic Carsten; Block, Wolfgang; Sprinkart, Alois Martin; Traeber, Frank; Schild, Hans Heinz; Willinek, Winfried

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To systematically analyze risk factors for complications of in-bore transrectal MRI-guided prostate biopsies (MRGB). Materials and methods: 90 patients, who were scheduled for MRGB were included for this study. Exclusion criteria were coagulation disorders, therapy with anticoagulant drugs, and acute infections of the urinary and the lower gastrointestinal tract. Directly after, one week and one year after the biopsy, we assessed biopsy related complications (e.g. hemorrhages or signs of prostatitis). Differences between patients with and without complications were analyzed regarding possible risk factors: age, prostate volume, number of taken samples, biopsy duration, biopsy of more than one lesion, diabetes, arterial hypertension, hemorrhoids, benign prostate hyperplasia, carcinoma or prostatitis (according to histopathological analysis), and lesion localization. Complications were classified according to the Clavien-Dindo classification. Results: We observed 15 grade I complications in 90 biopsies (16.7%) with slight hematuria in 9 cases (10%), minor vasovagal reactions in 4 cases (4.4%), and urinary retention and positioning-related facial dysesthesia in 1 case each (1.1%). One patient showed acute prostatitis requiring antibiotics as the only grade II complication (1.1%). There were no adverse events that occurred later than one week. Complications grade III or higher such as pelvic abscesses, urosepsis or severe hemorrhages were not seen. There were no significant associations between the assessed risk factors and biopsy-related complications. Conclusion: In-bore transrectal MRI-guided prostate biopsies can be considered safe procedures in the diagnosis of prostate cancer with very low complication rates. There seem to be no risk factors for complications.

  15. Wellness centrum

    OpenAIRE

    Krchňák, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Diplomová práce „Wellness centrum'' je zpracována ve formě prováděcí dokumentace obsahující všechny náležitosti dle platných norem a předpisů. Navržený objekt je řešen jako třípodlažní budova. Objekt slouží veřejnosti k rekreaci a sportu. V 1S je umístěno technické zázemí, zázemí pro zaměstnance, šatny a posilovna. V 1 NP se nachází kavárna a wellness. Ve 2NP se nachází kanceláře pro administrativu budovy, masáže, solárium, šatny a fitness sál. Budova je založena na základových patkách a nosn...

  16. The complete genome of Teredinibacter turnerae T7901: an intracellular endosymbiont of marine wood-boring bivalves (shipworms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce C Yang

    Full Text Available Here we report the complete genome sequence of Teredinibacter turnerae T7901. T. turnerae is a marine gamma proteobacterium that occurs as an intracellular endosymbiont in the gills of wood-boring marine bivalves of the family Teredinidae (shipworms. This species is the sole cultivated member of an endosymbiotic consortium thought to provide the host with enzymes, including cellulases and nitrogenase, critical for digestion of wood and supplementation of the host's nitrogen-deficient diet. T. turnerae is closely related to the free-living marine polysaccharide degrading bacterium Saccharophagus degradans str. 2-40 and to as yet uncultivated endosymbionts with which it coexists in shipworm cells. Like S. degradans, the T. turnerae genome encodes a large number of enzymes predicted to be involved in complex polysaccharide degradation (>100. However, unlike S. degradans, which degrades a broad spectrum (>10 classes of complex plant, fungal and algal polysaccharides, T. turnerae primarily encodes enzymes associated with deconstruction of terrestrial woody plant material. Also unlike S. degradans and many other eubacteria, T. turnerae dedicates a large proportion of its genome to genes predicted to function in secondary metabolism. Despite its intracellular niche, the T. turnerae genome lacks many features associated with obligate intracellular existence (e.g. reduced genome size, reduced %G+C, loss of genes of core metabolism and displays evidence of adaptations common to free-living bacteria (e.g. defense against bacteriophage infection. These results suggest that T. turnerae is likely a facultative intracellular ensosymbiont whose niche presently includes, or recently included, free-living existence. As such, the T. turnerae genome provides insights into the range of genomic adaptations associated with intracellular endosymbiosis as well as enzymatic mechanisms relevant to the recycling of plant materials in marine environments and the production

  17. Three-dimensional rail-current distribution near the armature of simple, square-bore, two-rail railguns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beno, J.H.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper vector potential is solved as a three dimensional, boundary value problem for a conductor geometry consisting of square-bore railgun rails and a stationary armature. Conductors are infinitely conducting and perfect contact is assumed between rails and the armature. From the vector potential solution, surface current distribution is inferred

  18. Bivalve wood borings of the ichnogenus Teredolites Leymerie from the Bohemian Cretaceous Basin (Upper Cretaceous, Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kříž, J.; Mikuláš, Radek

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 3 (2006), s. 159-174 ISSN 1042-0940 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : Borings * Mollusca * sedimentary environment Subject RIV: EG - Zoology http://rzblx1.uni-regensburg.de/ezeit/detail.phtml?bibid=CASCR& colors =7&lang=en&jour_id=41560

  19. Development of the teneral adult Anoplophora glabripennis (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae): time to initiate and completely bore out of maple wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    V. Sanchez; M.A. Keena

    2013-01-01

    Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky) is an introduced invasive pest with the potential to devastate hardwood forests in North America. Using artificial pupal chambers, we documented the time required by teneral adults at three temperatures (20, 25, and 30°C), 60-80% RH, and a photoperiod of 16:8 (L:D) h to initiate boring after eclosion...

  20. Large-diameter boring of rock bed by a reveres circulation drill; Ribasu sakyureshon doriru ni yoru daikokei ganban sakko

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakae, S.; Torii, K. [Kajima Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Hoshino, S.; Motoyama, M.

    1995-09-25

    The Itojima Large Bridge is a road bridge of 675 m in the total length connecting together the Nagashima Island and the Itojima Island in the northwest district of Kagoshima Prefecture, having a central span of 260 m and comprising a 5-span-continuous PC cable stayed bridges and PC box girder bridges. The foundation of this bridge employs a multi-pillar type pile structure. The piling work was started in July, 1991 by a hole inset method in a severe working environment where the depth of water is 20 m, the range of the tides is 4 m, the speed of tidal current is 2 kt, the rock bed structure is complicated and the steep seabed is steeply inclined. This report describes the results of the execution of the reverse circulation drilling, which has a high general versatility in rock bed boring, using self-lifting barges and large working boats during the rock bed boring for the foundation piling for the construction of the Itojima Large Bridge. The report, especially, also introduces the details of the work that casing pipes were driven into a stable rock bed by a vibrojet method for the measure against the collapse of a bore wall which occurred during the boring work. 24 figs., 14 tabs.

  1. 40 CFR 144.80 - What is a Class V injection well?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of radioactive waste disposal sites to dispose of hazardous waste or radioactive waste into a... hazardous waste management facilities, or by owners or operators of radioactive waste disposal sites to... one quarter mile of the well bore, an underground source of drinking water; (3) Radioactive waste...

  2. 77 FR 27691 - Oil and Gas; Well Stimulation, Including Hydraulic Fracturing, on Federal and Indian Lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-11

    ... generally generate flow of hydrocarbons to well bores unless mechanical changes to the properties of the..., Division Chief, Fluid Minerals Division, 202-912-7143 for information regarding the substance of the rule or information about the BLM's Fluid Minerals Program. Persons who use a telecommunications device...

  3. 25 CFR 226.28 - Shutdown, abandonment, and plugging of wells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... OSAGE RESERVATION LANDS FOR OIL AND GAS MINING Cessation of Operations § 226.28 Shutdown, abandonment... production of oil and/or gas has been demonstrated to the satisfaction of the Superintendent. Lessee shall... the means by which the well bore is to be protected, and the contemplated eventual disposition of the...

  4. Wellness hotel

    OpenAIRE

    Bambas, Vratislav

    2013-01-01

    Novostavba Wellness hotelu. Objekt je částečně podsklepen. Hotel se skládá ze tří částí. Střední trakt je železobetonový skelet a má pět nadzemních podlaží. Tato část slouží jako vstupní hala a hlavní schodiště. Boční trakty mají čtyři nadzemní podlaží a jejich nosný systém je příčný stěnový, zděný, ze systému Porotherm. V suterénu se nachází zázemí hotelu a bazén. Do přízemí je umístěno restaurační zařízení. Ve druhém patře se nacházejí pokoje, posilovna a služby. V posledním patře jsou pouz...

  5. Well acidizing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Street, E H

    1980-01-23

    The apparatus relates in particular to a well-treating process in which an aqueous acid solution having a pH of < 2 is injected into a subterranean reservoir in a manner such that materials that contain ferric ions are present in the acid and, as the acid reacts within the reservoir and attains a pH exceeding 3, tend to be precipitated as ferric ion-containing solid materials that may plug the pores of the reservoir. Such a precipitation is prevented by dissolving in the acid solution an amount of 5-sulfosalicylic acid which is at least sufficient to sequester significant proportions of ferric ions when the pH of the acid is from 0.5 to 3 but is less than enough to cause a significant salting-out of solid materials, and an amount of citric acid which is at least sufficient to sequester significant proportions of ferric ions when the pH of the acid is from 3 to 6 but is less than enough to precipitate a significant amount of calcium citrate. The amount of the 5-sulfosalicylic acid may be from 0.01 to 0.05 moles/l and the amount of citric acid is from 0.001 to 0.009 moles/l. 11 claims.

  6. Exergy analysis of a two-stage ground source heat pump with a vertical bore for residential space conditioning under simulated occupancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ally, Moonis R.; Munk, Jeffrey D.; Baxter, Van D.; Gehl, Anthony C.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Exergy and energy analysis of a vertical-bore ground source heat pump over a 12-month period is presented. • The ground provided more than 75% of the heating energy. • Performance metrics are presented. • Sources of systemic inefficiency are identified and prioritized using Exergy analysis. • Understanding performance metrics is vital for judicial use of renewable energy. - Abstract: This twelve-month field study analyzes the performance of a 7.56 W (2.16-ton) water-to-air-ground source heat pump (WA-GSHP) to satisfy domestic space conditioning loads in a 253 m 2 house in a mixed-humid climate in the United States. The practical feasibility of using the ground as a source of renewable energy is clearly demonstrated. Better than 75% of the energy needed for space heating was extracted from the ground. The average monthly electricity consumption for space conditioning was only 40 kW h at summer and winter thermostat set points of 24.4 °C and 21.7 °C, respectively. The WA-GSHP shared the same 94.5 m vertical bore ground loop with a separate water-to-water ground-source heat pump (WW-GSHP) for meeting domestic hot water needs in the same house. Sources of systemic irreversibility, the main cause of lost work, are identified using Exergy and energy analysis. Quantifying the sources of Exergy and energy losses is essential for further systemic improvements. The research findings suggest that the WA-GSHPs are a practical and viable technology to reduce primary energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions under the IECC 2012 Standard, as well as the European Union (EU) 2020 targets of using renewable energy resources

  7. About the burial of nuclear power plants, damaged or in the process of decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elbrond, J.

    1994-01-01

    Some underground mining methods leave deep empty holes in the earth's surface behind them. In this paper it is described how to use such mining methods for the burial of damaged nuclear power plants and for the decommissioning by burial of nuclear reactors. The design of a new power plant should be integrated with that of an escapeway - an underground arrangement for burial. The described mining methods are block caving for catastrophy burial, and various stoping methods for planned burial and decommissioning. Blind shaft sinking by full face boring machines for burial and decommissioning of the reactor vessel is also described. All the described activities of mining and shaft sinking are well known. The total costs of burial by these methods are estimated using standard mining industry cost data. These include the costs for normal mine ventilation and groundwater control. However, the estimates of the cost and duration do not include the capital and operational costs of the pre- and post burial activities of ventilation and groundwater control related to the radioactivity. (author)

  8. An ultra-high field strength MR image-guided robotic needle delivery system for in-bore small animal interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravett, Matthew; Cepek, Jeremy; Fenster, Aaron

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and validate an image-guided robotic needle delivery system for accurate and repeatable needle targeting procedures in mouse brains inside the 12 cm inner diameter gradient coil insert of a 9.4 T MR scanner. Many preclinical research techniques require the use of accurate needle deliveries to soft tissues, including brain tissue. Soft tissues are optimally visualized in MR images, which offer high-soft tissue contrast, as well as a range of unique imaging techniques, including functional, spectroscopy and thermal imaging, however, there are currently no solutions for delivering needles to small animal brains inside the bore of an ultra-high field MR scanner. This paper describes the mechatronic design, evaluation of MR compatibility, registration technique, mechanical calibration, the quantitative validation of the in-bore image-guided needle targeting accuracy and repeatability, and demonstrated the system's ability to deliver needles in situ. Our six degree-of-freedom, MR compatible, mechatronic system was designed to fit inside the bore of a 9.4 T MR scanner and is actuated using a combination of piezoelectric and hydraulic mechanisms. The MR compatibility and targeting accuracy of the needle delivery system are evaluated to ensure that the system is precisely calibrated to perform the needle targeting procedures. A semi-automated image registration is performed to link the robot coordinates to the MR coordinate system. Soft tissue targets can be accurately localized in MR images, followed by automatic alignment of the needle trajectory to the target. Intra-procedure visualization of the needle target location and the needle were confirmed through MR images after needle insertion. The effects of geometric distortions and signal noise were found to be below threshold that would have an impact on the accuracy of the system. The system was found to have negligible effect on the MR image signal noise and geometric distortion

  9. Implementation of virtual simulation with a wide-bore multislice helcalct scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greer, P.; Kenny, J.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Multislice large-bore CT scanners specifically designed for radiotherapy have very recently become available. The issues relating to these type of scanners in radiotherapy and the implementation of virtual simulation are therefore of much current interest. A GE LightSpeed RT 4-slice helical CT scanner with a 80 cm bore size was installed in the radiation oncology department of the Newcastle Mater Hospital. This replaced our only simulator, a conventional unit. Specific issues relating to the imaging performance, and virtual simulation process with the large-bore multislice scanner were studied to ensure an accurate radiotherapy process. The detector array fully samples a 50 cm diameter scan circle. The reconstructed diameter can be increased to 65 cm with partial sampling of the extra volume. The GE Advantage Sim (ASim) virtual simulation software was commissioned, with transfer of CT images and DICOM RT plans to the Pinnacle radiotherapy planning system (RTPS) for dose calculation. Some specific issues investigated were: 1) The image quality performance for image reconstruction with the 65 cm area compared to 50 cm was measured with a line-pair phantom. 2) The accuracy of CT numbers with lateral position was assessed with a commercial electron density phantom. 3) Couch lateral movement and sag during acquisition were measured with the couch weighted with 86 kg. 4) The accuracy of the transfer of plans from ASim to Pinnacle was verified with known plan geometries. Image resolution throughout the entire CT image was found to be significantly lower when scan reconstruction was performed with 65 cm scan circle compared to 50 cm. The 0.3, 0.38 and 0.5 1p/mm bars were clearly distinguishable with the 50 cm reconstruction compared to only the 0.3 1p/mm bars in the 65 cm reconstruction. 2) CT numbers varied significantly outside the 50 cm reconstructed area. 3) Couch lateral movement during scanning was within 1 mm. Couch sag was 4 mm at the imaging plane

  10. Anisotropic creep damage in the framework of continuum damage mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caboche, J.L.

    1983-01-01

    For some years, various works have shown the possibility of applying continuum mechanics to model the evolution of the damage variable, initially introduced by Kachanov. Of interest here are the complex problems posed by the anisotropy which affects both the elastic behaviour and the viscoplastic one, and also the rupture phenomenon. The main concepts of the Continuum Damage Mechanics are briefly reviewed together with some classical ways to introduce anisotropy of damage in the particular case of proportional loadings. Based on previous works, two generalizations are presented and discussed, which use different kinds of tensors to describe the anisotropy of creep damage: - The first one, by Murakami and Ohno introduces a second rank damage tensor and a net stress tensor through a net area definition. The effective stress-strain behaviour is then obtained by a fourth rank tensor. - The second theory, by the author, uses one effective stress tensor only, defined in terms of the macroscopic strain behaviour, through a fourth-order non-symmetrical damage tensor. The two theories are compared at several levels: difference and similarities are pointed out for the damage evolution during tensile creep as well as for anisotropy effects. The possibilities are discussed and compared on the basis of some existing experimental results, which leads to a partial validation of the two approaches. (orig.)

  11. Automatic detection of ''bore slug'' in tubes; Detection automatique des manques de metal internes sur tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisiaux, B.; Deutsch, S.; Tailleux, O.; Mette, F. [CEV Vallourec, Aulnoye (France)

    2001-07-01

    During the tube manufacturing for the petroleum industry, the lacks of internal metal (called Bore Slug) can be created during the hot rolling. These large defects are not good detected by the classic UT and by the wall thickness measurement. That's why VALLOUREC developed an automatic UT device which works by transmission. Nevertheless, this system is too little selective and can cause no doubtful pipes (tubes good detected bad). We adapted a Bore Slug control system on the VMOG UK RP20 at the end of August. The results are rather good and showed a good detection of the Bore Slug and very little no doubtful pipes. (authors)

  12. Introducing passive acoustic filter in acoustic based condition monitoring: Motor bike piston-bore fault identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jena, D. P.; Panigrahi, S. N.

    2016-03-01

    Requirement of designing a sophisticated digital band-pass filter in acoustic based condition monitoring has been eliminated by introducing a passive acoustic filter in the present work. So far, no one has attempted to explore the possibility of implementing passive acoustic filters in acoustic based condition monitoring as a pre-conditioner. In order to enhance the acoustic based condition monitoring, a passive acoustic band-pass filter has been designed and deployed. Towards achieving an efficient band-pass acoustic filter, a generalized design methodology has been proposed to design and optimize the desired acoustic filter using multiple filter components in series. An appropriate objective function has been identified for genetic algorithm (GA) based optimization technique with multiple design constraints. In addition, the sturdiness of the proposed method has been demonstrated in designing a band-pass filter by using an n-branch Quincke tube, a high pass filter and multiple Helmholtz resonators. The performance of the designed acoustic band-pass filter has been shown by investigating the piston-bore defect of a motor-bike using engine noise signature. On the introducing a passive acoustic filter in acoustic based condition monitoring reveals the enhancement in machine learning based fault identification practice significantly. This is also a first attempt of its own kind.

  13. YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE CHARACTERIZATIONS PROJECT TUNNEL BORING MACHINE (TBM) SYSTEM SAFETY ANALYSIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to systematically identify and evaluate hazards related to the tunnel boring machine (TBM) used in the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) at the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. This process is an integral part of the systems engineering process; whereby safety is considered during planning, design, testing, and construction. Since the TBM is an ''as built'' system, the MandO is conducting the System Safety Analysis during the construction or assembly phase of the TBM. A largely qualitative approach was used since a radiological System Safety Analysis is not required. The risk assessment in this analysis characterizes the accident scenarios associated with the TBM in terms of relative risk and includes recommendations for mitigating all identified risks. The priority for recommending and implementing mitigation control features is: (1) Incorporate measures to reduce risks and hazards into the system/subsystem/component design, (2) add safety features and capabilities to existing designs, and (3) develop procedures and conduct training to increase worker awareness of potential hazards, on methods to reduce exposure to hazards, and on the actions required to avoid accidents or correct hazardous conditions. The scope of this analysis is limited to the TBM during normal operations, excluding hazards occurring during assembly and test of the TBM or maintenance of the TBM equipment

  14. Initial studies of Bremsstrahlung energy deposition in small-bore superconducting undulator structures in linac environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cremer, T.; Tatchyn, R. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    One of the more promising technologies for developing minimal-length insertion devices for linac-driven, single-pass Free Electron Lasers (FELs) operating in the x-ray range is based on the use of superconducting (SC) materials. In recent FEL simulations, for example, a bifilar helical SC device with a 2 cm period and 1.8 T field was found to require a 30 m saturation length for operation at 1.5{Angstrom} on a 15 GeV linac, more than 40% shorter than an alternative hybrid/permanent magnet (hybrid/PM) undulator. AT the same time, however, SC technology is known to present characteristic difficulties for insertion device design, both in engineering detail and in operation. Perhaps the most critical problem, as observed, e.g., by Madey and co-workers in their initial FEL experiments, was the frequent quenching induced by scattered electrons upstream of their (bifilar) device. Postulating that this quenching was precipitated by directly-scattered or bremsstrahlung-induced particle energy deposited into the SC material or into material contiguous with it, the importance of numerical and experimental characterizations of this phenomenon for linac-based, user-facility SC undulator design becomes evident. In this paper we discuss selected prior experimental results and report on initial EGS4 code studies of scattered and bremsstrahlung induced particle energy deposition into SC structures with geometries comparable to a small-bore bifilar helical undulator.

  15. An in vivo wide bore NMR spectrometer at 2 T for human metabolic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran Dinh, S.; Jehenson, P.; Chalot, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    A wide bore (53 cm diameter) superconducting magnet operating at 2 T was built by the Service des Techniques Instrumentales des Particules Elementaires at C.E.N.-Saclay (Institut de Recherche Fondamentale of the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique) for NMR spectroscopic studies in humans. The magnet consists of two main components: a magnetic circuit and a cryostat. The magnetic circuit is made of a main coil (four solenoids with 23 km of niobium-titanium superconductor) and its superconducting shim coils (correcting for nine terms: Z, Z 2 , Z 3 , X, Y, XY, XZ, YZ, X 2 -Y 2 ). The current in the main coil is 200 A and the maximum current in each shim coil is 20A. The magnetic field homogeneity is about 4.10 -8 in a 20 mm diameter sphere and its time drift is less than 10 -8 /hour. The whole NMR spectrometer, including the superconducting magnet and a Bruker CXP-90 console associated with an Aspect 2000 calculator was recently installed in the Service Hospitalier Frederic-Joliot, Biology Department of the C.E.A. Preliminary results obtained by 31 P-NMR in humans using surface coils of various diameters (3,5 and 10 cm) are also presented [fr

  16. Particularies of recultivation of bore muds on oil-gas fields of Tyumen region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petuhova, V. S.; Skipin, L. N.; Skipin, D. L.; Gaevaya, E. V.

    2017-10-01

    The article reflects negative physical and chemical properties of the bore muds in respect to Tyumen region (high dispersion, swelling ability, ash structure, crust formation, low filterability, a high degree of salinization, alkalinity and toxicity). Indicated properties are mainly stipulated by the increased content of exchangeable sodium in the absorbing complex and by the presence of soda in aqueous solution. The source of absorbed sodium and soda in water extract is the use of caustic soda in the drilling mixture. It was found out that these negative properties are illuminated using coagulant in a form of phosphogypsum - waste of chemical industry. Necessity in the nitrogen for the bean cultures-phytomeliorants is provided at the expense of legume bacteria in a form of the rizotorphin formulation. It is worth noting that growing of legume bacteria in extremely salted breeding ground on the leguminous agar has allowed choosing the most salt resistant species among the numerous strains of Melilotus officinalis and medicago. The presence of phosphorus in phosphogypsum positively influences the productivity of leguminous crops in the beginning of recultivation.

  17. Neutral beam energy and power requirements for expanding radius and full bore startup of tokamak reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houlberg, W.A.; Mense, A.T.; Attenberger, S.E.

    1979-09-01

    Natural beam power and energy requirements are compared for full density full bore and expanding radius startup scenarios in an elongated plasma, The Next Step (TNS), as a function of beam pulse time and plasma density. Because of the similarity of parameters, the results should also be applicable to Engineering Test Facility (ETF) and International Tokamak Reactor (INTOR) studies. A transport model consisting of neoclassical ion conduction and anomalous electron conduction and diffusion based on ALCATOR scaling leads to average densities in the range approx. 0.8 to 1.2 x 10 14 cm -3 being sufficient for ignition. Neutral deuterium beam energies in the range 120 to 180 keV are adequate for penetration, with the required power injected into the plasma decreasing with increasing beam energy. The neutral beam power decreases strongly with increasing beam pulse length b/sub b/ until t/sub b/ exceeds a few total energy confinement times, yielding b/sub b/ approx. = 4 to 6 s for the TNS plasma

  18. A Method Using Optical Contactless Displacement Sensors to Measure Vibration Stress of Small-Bore Piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maekawa, Akira; Tsuji, Takashi; Takahashi, Tsuneo; Noda, Michiyasu

    2014-02-01

    In nuclear power plants, vibration stress of piping is frequently evaluated to prevent fatigue failure. A simple and fast measurement method is attractive to evaluate many piping systems efficiently. In this study, a method to measure the vibration stress using optical contactless displacement sensors was proposed, the prototype instrument was developed, and the instrument practicality for the method was verified. In the proposed method, light emitting diodes (LEDs) were used as measurement sensors and the vibration stress was estimated by measuring the deformation geometry of the piping caused by oscillation, which was measured as the piping curvature radius. The method provided fast and simple vibration estimates for small-bore piping. Its verification and practicality were confirmed by vibration tests using a test pipe and mock-up piping. The stress measured by both the proposed method and an accurate conventional method using strain gauges were in agreement, and it was concluded that the proposed method could be used for actual plant piping systems.

  19. YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE CHARACTERIZATIONS PROJECT TUNNEL BORING MACHINE (TBM) SYSTEM SAFETY ANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    1997-02-19

    The purpose of this analysis is to systematically identify and evaluate hazards related to the tunnel boring machine (TBM) used in the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) at the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. This process is an integral part of the systems engineering process; whereby safety is considered during planning, design, testing, and construction. Since the TBM is an ''as built'' system, the M&O is conducting the System Safety Analysis during the construction or assembly phase of the TBM. A largely qualitative approach was used since a radiological System Safety Analysis is not required. The risk assessment in this analysis characterizes the accident scenarios associated with the TBM in terms of relative risk and includes recommendations for mitigating all identified risks. The priority for recommending and implementing mitigation control features is: (1) Incorporate measures to reduce risks and hazards into the system/subsystem/component design, (2) add safety features and capabilities to existing designs, and (3) develop procedures and conduct training to increase worker awareness of potential hazards, on methods to reduce exposure to hazards, and on the actions required to avoid accidents or correct hazardous conditions. The scope of this analysis is limited to the TBM during normal operations, excluding hazards occurring during assembly and test of the TBM or maintenance of the TBM equipment.

  20. Flexible but boring: medical students' perceptions of a career in general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, Nicole; McMenamin, Christine

    2016-07-01

    Australia will continue to face a general practitioner (GP) shortage unless a significant number of medical students make general practice their chosen career. Perceptions regarding general practice may influence career choices. Thus this study investigated what Australian medical students perceived to be the advantages and disadvantages of pursuing a career in general practice via an anonymous online survey. Fifty-one students indicated general practice to be their first ranked career preference, 200 indicated a career other than general practice, and 106 were undecided. Two-hundred and two students reported having been on a GP placement, whereas 88 students had not. Flexibility, continuity of patient care and work-life balance were the three most common stated advantages to pursuing a career in general practice whereas general practice being boring, poorly paid, and of low prestige were the three most common disadvantages stated. Some disadvantages stated by those with a non-GP preference were not stated by those with a GP preference (e.g. lack of procedural skills, lack of career advancement opportunities). Students with more than 80 h of GP placement experience were more likely to list the advantages of work-life balance and a diversity of problems/illnesses/patients than those with no placement experience but were also more likely to list the disadvantage of low prestige. Negative stereotypes regarding general practice continue to exist which may influence students' career choices.

  1. Hazardous situation in the MR bore: induction in ECG leads causes fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kugel, Harald; Bremer, Christoph; Fischbach, Roman; Lenzen, Horst; Tombach, Bernd; Heindel, Walter; Pueschel, Marco; Aken, Hugo van

    2003-01-01

    There is a potential hazard during examinations of patients with attached or implanted long conductors, e.g. ECG leads: an MR exam of the lumbar spine of a patient was performed in a 1.5-T scanner under ECG monitoring using equipment marked as MR compatible. Standard cabling of 370-cm length was guided without loops from the electrodes through the caudal opening of the magnet bore. During a sagittal T1-weighted turbo-spin-echo scan suddenly a flame of approximately 3 cm arose from the patient's shirt, close to the position of the electrodes. The supervising anaesthesiologist extinguished the flames with his hands. A subsequent physical examination revealed second- to third-degree burns. The analysis of the incident revealed that high voltages can be induced in straight conductors without loops as ECG cables by coupling with the electric component of the HF field. Local heating or sparking can cause an open flame at the position of the electrodes. This danger exists even with ECG equipment that is specifically marked as MR compatible. (orig.)

  2. Wear Analysis of Top Piston Ring to Reduce Top Ring Reversal Bore Wear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ilanthirayan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The piston rings are the most important part in engine which controls the lubricating oil consumption and blowby of the gases. The lubricating film of oil is provided to seal of gases towards crankcase and also to give smooth friction free translatory motion between rings and liner. Of the three rings present top ring is more crucial as it does the main work of restricting gases downwards the crankcase. Boundary lubrication is present at the Top dead centre (TDC and Bottom dead centre (BDC of the liner surface. In addition to this, top ring is exposed to high temperature gases which makes the oil present near the top ring to get evaporated and decreasing its viscosity, making metal-metal contact most of the time. Due to this at TDC, excess wear happens on the liner which is termed as Top ring reversal bore wear. The wear rate depends upon many parameters such as lubrication condition, viscosity index, contact type, normal forces acting on ring, geometry of ring face, surface roughness, material property. The present work explores the wear depth for different geometries of barrel ring using Finite Element model with the help of Archard wear law and the same is validated through experimentation. The study reveals that Asymmetric barrel rings have less contact pressure which in turn reduces the wear at Top dead centre.

  3. Structure and mineralization of the Richton Dome Caprock Boring MRIG-9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, M.L.

    1986-08-01

    Observations of the texture, fracture fabric, and vein mineralization in the caprock core from Boring MRIG-9 were used to provide data on the origin, deformation, and alteration of the caprock at Richton Salt Dome. The anhydrite portion of the caprock was formed by accumulation of anhydrite residuum from the salt stock. Lithification appears to have occurred through pressure solution, with the compression being applied by the rising salt stock. The origin of the limestone caprock is not yet understood. The fracturing at MRIG-9 is interpreted to have been caused by the upward arching movement of the underlying salt stock. Water entered the fractures, causing anhydrite to alter to gypsum along the fracture walls. The transformation to gypsum involved a volume increase, which in turn induced additional fracturing and allowed further penetration of water into the anhydrite. Three hydrochemical events are observed in the anhydrite rock. In order of occurrence, they are (1) formation of gypsum veins, (2) slight dissolution of gypsum and precipitation of small quantities of calcite and sulfur, and (3) dissolution of both gypsum and calcite from a small fraction of the veins. The effects of all three events are limited to the fractures that are interpreted to have formed in late Oligocene

  4. Electromagnetic Design Study for a Large Bore 15T Superconducting Dipole Magnet

    CERN Document Server

    Schwerg, N; Devred, Arnaud; Henke, H

    2005-01-01

    In the framework of research and development (R&D) activities at CERN the Next European Dipole (NED) program is one which is to the development of a high-field dipole magnet using Nb_3Sn superconductors. Part of the NED activities is a design study of different possible dipole configurations which is shared amongst the collaborating institutes. This thesis covers the electromagnetic design study of an 88 mm large bore superconducting 15 T dipole magnet with a coil cross section in cos-theta-layer design. Based on analytically describable geometries the sources of multipole errors are studied and elementary estimations of the magnet are carried out, e.g., the required amount of superconductors or the influence of the iron yoke thickness on the field quality. The magnet cross section for NED is optimized by means of the CERN field computation program ROXIE. The preliminary NED design serves as starting point for the coil cross section optimization with respect to field quality and a radial positioning of th...

  5. Laser welding to expand the allowable gap in bore welding for ITER blanket hydraulic connection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanigawa, Hisashi, E-mail: tanigawa.hisashi@jaea.go.jp; Maruyama, Takahito; Noguchi, Yuto; Takeda, Nobukazu; Kakudate, Satoshi

    2015-10-15

    For application to bore welding of hydraulic connection in the ITER blanket module, laser welding presents the following benefits: low weld heat input is preferred for re-welding of the irradiated material. Its contactless process can intrinsically avoid a failure mode of the tool sticking on the weld. The exact requirements for pipe alignment were assessed in comparison with the assembly tolerance. The groove geometry was modified to expand the allowable initial gap. The groove was machined to be partially thick to obviate the filler wire. First, plates with partially thick grooves were welded to elucidate the preferred groove geometry and welding conditions. With the modified groove, the plates were welded for the initial gap of 1.0 mm. Then the groove geometry and welding conditions were adjusted based on results of pipe welding tests. By application of the additional 0.5-mm-thick and 2.5-mm-wide metal in the groove, pipes with an initial gap of 0.7 mm were welded successfully.

  6. Automation of eddy current system for in-service inspection of turbine and generator bores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viertl, J.R.M.

    1988-01-01

    The most commonly applied inspection method for ferromagnetic turbine and generator rotor bores is the magnetic particle test technique. This method is subjective, depends on the test operator's skill and diligence in identifying test indications, and suffers from poor repeatability, especially for small indications. Automation would improve repeatability. However, magnetic particle tests are not easily automated, because the data are in the form of sketches, photographs, and written and oral descriptions of the indications. Eddy current inspection has obvious potential to replace magnetic particle methods in this application. Eddy current tests can be readily automated, as the data are in the form of voltages that can be recorded, digitized, and manipulated by a computer. The current project continues the investigation of the correlation between eddy current and magnetic particle inspection. Two systems have been combined to acquire eddy current data automatically. This combination of systems consists of the Nortec-25L Eddyscope (to provide the analog eddy current signals) and the General Electric DATAQ (TM) System (to perform the automatic data acquisition). The automation of the system is discussed

  7. Hard rock tunnel boring machine penetration test as an indicator of chipping process efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C. Villeneuve

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The transition from grinding to chipping can be observed in tunnel boring machine (TBM penetration test data by plotting the penetration rate (distance/revolution against the net cutter thrust (force per cutter over the full range of penetration rates in the test. Correlating penetration test data to the geological and geomechanical characteristics of rock masses through which a penetration test is conducted provides the ability to reveal the efficiency of the chipping process in response to changing geological conditions. Penetration test data can also be used to identify stress-induced tunnel face instability. This research shows that the strength of the rock is an important parameter for controlling how much net cutter thrust is required to transition from grinding to chipping. It also shows that the geological characteristics of a rock will determine how efficient chipping occurs once it has begun. In particular, geological characteristics that lead to efficient fracture propagation, such as fabric and mica contents, will lead to efficient chipping. These findings will enable a better correlation between TBM performance and geological conditions for use in TBM design, as a basis for contractual payments where penetration rate dominates the excavation cycle and in further academic investigations into the TBM excavation process.

  8. RAM analysis of earth pressure balance tunnel boring machines: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasel Amini Khoshalan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Earth pressure balance tunnel boring machines (EPB-TBMs are favorably applied in urban tunneling projects. Despite their numerous advantages, considerable delays and high maintenance cost are the main disadvantages these machines suffer from. Reliability, availability, and maintainability (RAM analysis is a practical technique that uses failure and repair dataset obtained over a reasonable time for dealing with proper machine operation, maintenance scheduling, cost control, and improving the availability and performance of such machines. In the present study, a database of failures and repairs of an EBP-TBM was collected in line 1 of Tabriz subway project over a 26-month interval of machine operation. In order to model the reliability of the TBM, this machine was divided into five distinct subsystems including mechanical, electrical, hydraulic, pneumatic, and water systems in a series configuration. According to trend and serial correlation tests, the renewal processes were applied, for analysis of all subsystems. After calculating the reliability and maintainability functions for all subsystems, it was revealed that the mechanical subsystem with the highest failure frequency has the lowest reliability and maintainability. Similarly, estimating the availability of all subsystems indicated that the mechanical subsystem has a relatively low availability level of 52.6%, while other subsystems have acceptable availability level of 97%. Finally, the overall availability of studied machine was calculated as 48.3%.

  9. Modeling and Dynamic Analysis of Cutterhead Driving System in Tunnel Boring Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Sun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Failure of cutterhead driving system (CDS of tunnel boring machine (TBM often occurs under shock and vibration conditions. To investigate the dynamic characteristics and reduce system vibration further, an electromechanical coupling model of CDS is established which includes the model of direct torque control (DTC system for three-phase asynchronous motor and purely torsional dynamic model of multistage gear transmission system. The proposed DTC model can provide driving torque just as the practical inverter motor operates so that the influence of motor operating behavior will not be erroneously estimated. Moreover, nonlinear gear meshing factors, such as time-variant mesh stiffness and transmission error, are involved in the dynamic model. Based on the established nonlinear model of CDS, vibration modes can be classified into three types, that is, rigid motion mode, rotational vibration mode, and planet vibration mode. Moreover, dynamic responses under actual driving torque and idealized equivalent torque are compared, which reveals that the ripple of actual driving torque would aggravate vibration of gear transmission system. Influence index of torque ripple is proposed to show that vibration of system increases with torque ripple. This study provides useful guideline for antivibration design and motor control of CDS in TBM.

  10. Research on Dynamic Models and Performances of Shield Tunnel Boring Machine Cutterhead Driving System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianhong Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A general nonlinear time-varying (NLTV dynamic model and linear time-varying (LTV dynamic model are presented for shield tunnel boring machine (TBM cutterhead driving system, respectively. Different gear backlashes and mesh damped and transmission errors are considered in the NLTV dynamic model. The corresponding multiple-input and multiple-output (MIMO state space models are also presented. Through analyzing the linear dynamic model, the optimal reducer ratio (ORR and optimal transmission ratio (OTR are obtained for the shield TBM cutterhead driving system, respectively. The NLTV and LTV dynamic models are numerically simulated, and the effects of physical parameters under various conditions of NLTV dynamic model are analyzed. Physical parameters such as the load torque, gear backlash and transmission error, gear mesh stiffness and damped, pinions inertia and damped, large gear inertia and damped, and motor rotor inertia and damped are investigated in detail to analyze their effects on dynamic response and performances of the shield TBM cutterhead driving system. Some preliminary approaches are proposed to improve dynamic performances of the cutterhead driving system, and dynamic models will provide a foundation for shield TBM cutterhead driving system's cutterhead fault diagnosis, motion control, and torque synchronous control.

  11. Electronic motion in the pre-oscillation phase of a smooth bore magnetron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garelis, E.; Hickman, R.B.

    1979-01-01

    The calculation of the electronic motion in the pre-oscillation phase of a smooth bore magnetron is the problem of calculating the electronic motion in the region between two concentric cylinders with an applied radial electric field and a constant axial B/sub z/ magnetic field. The inner cylinder represents the electron emitting cathode and the outer cylinder represents the anode. The emission is assumed to be space charge limited. This results in an electronic cloud surrounding the cathode. The radial velocity of the electrons is limited by the space charge and in addition the axial magnetic field tends to curve the path of the electrons so that they return to the cathode. Consequently, the electronic orbit extends to some distance r 0 from the cathode and for values of the radius r > r 0 exists a charge free region. The model assumes relativistic electronic motion with self-consistent magnetic fields. The magnetic flux is assumed to be conserved; i.e., conducting cylindrical walls

  12. Incidence of bark- and wood-boring insects in firewood: a survey at Michigan's Mackinac Bridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haack, Robert A; Petrice, Toby R; Wiedenhoeft, Alex C

    2010-10-01

    Firewood is a major pathway for the inadvertent movement of bark- and wood-infesting insects. After discovery of Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in southeastern Michigan in 2002, quarantines were enacted including prohibition of transporting firewood across the Mackinac Bridge between Michigan's Lower and Upper peninsulas. Drivers are required to surrender firewood before crossing the bridge. We surveyed recently surrendered firewood in April, July, and September 2008 and categorized it by genus, cross-sectional shape (whole, half, or quarter), approximate age (years since it was a live tree), presence of bark, and evidence of bark- and wood-boring insects. The 1045 pieces of firewood examined represented 21 tree genera: primarily Acer (30%), Quercus (18%), Fraxinus (15%), Ulmus (12%), Betula (5%), and Prunus (5%). Live borers (Bostrichoidea, Brentidae, Buprestidae, Cerambycidae, Cossidae, Curculionidae [Scolytinae and non-Scolytinae], and Siricidae) were found in 23% of the pieces and another 41% had evidence of previous borer infestation. Of the 152 Fraxinus firewood pieces, 13% had evidence of past A. planipennis infestation, but we found no live A. planipennis. We discuss national "don't move firewood" campaigns and U.S. imports of fuelwood. During 1996-2009, the United States imported fuelwood valued at > dollars U.S. 98 million from 34 countries.

  13. Seismic Design of a Single Bored Tunnel: Longitudinal Deformations and Seismic Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, J.; Moon, T.

    2018-03-01

    The large diameter bored tunnel passing through rock and alluvial deposits subjected to seismic loading is analyzed for estimating longitudinal deformations and member forces on the segmental tunnel liners. The project site has challenges including high hydrostatic pressure, variable ground profile and high seismic loading. To ensure the safety of segmental tunnel liner from the seismic demands, the performance-based two-level design earthquake approach, Functional Evaluation Earthquake and Safety Evaluation Earthquake, has been adopted. The longitudinal tunnel and ground response seismic analyses are performed using a three-dimensional quasi-static linear elastic and nonlinear elastic discrete beam-spring elements to represent segmental liner and ground spring, respectively. Three components (longitudinal, transverse and vertical) of free-field ground displacement-time histories evaluated from site response analyses considering wave passage effects have been applied at the end support of the strain-compatible ground springs. The result of the longitudinal seismic analyses suggests that seismic joint for the mitigation measure requiring the design deflection capacity of 5-7.5 cm is to be furnished at the transition zone between hard and soft ground condition where the maximum member forces on the segmental liner (i.e., axial, shear forces and bending moments) are induced. The paper illustrates how detailed numerical analyses can be practically applied to evaluate the axial and curvature deformations along the tunnel alignment under difficult ground conditions and to provide the seismic joints at proper locations to effectively reduce the seismic demands below the allowable levels.

  14. Eaten Up by Boredom: Consuming Food to Escape Awareness of the Bored Self.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Bryan Moynihan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Research indicates that being bored affectively marks an appraised lack of meaning in the present situation and in life. We propose that state boredom increases eating in an attempt to distract from this experience, especially among people high in objective self-awareness. Three studies were conducted to investigate boredom’s effects on eating, both naturally occurring in a diary study and manipulated in two experiments. In Study 1, a week-long diary study showed that state boredom positively predicted calorie, fat, sugar, and protein consumption. In Study 2, a high (vs. low boredom task increased the desire to snack as opposed to eating something healthy, especially amongst those participants high in objective self-awareness. In addition, Study 3 demonstrated that among people high in objective self-awareness, high (vs. low boredom increased the consumption of less healthy foods and the consumption of more exciting, healthy foods. However, this did not extend to unexciting, healthy food. Collectively, these novel findings signify the role of boredom in predicting maladaptive and adaptive eating behaviors as a function of the need to distant from the experience of boredom. Further, our results suggest that more exciting, healthy food serves as alternative to maladaptive consumption following boredom.

  15. Arrival of the Robbins machine in LSS1 after completing the boring of the SPS tunnel.

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1974-01-01

    A few months after the signature of the agreement giving the go-ahead for the expansion of CERN into French territory (see Bulletin no.24/2004), work began on the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS). Two years later, on 31 July 1974, the Robbins tunnel-boring machine excavating the SPS tunnel returned to its starting point (see photograph). It had excavated a tunnel with a circumference of 7 kilometres, at an average depth of 40 metres below the surface. The tunnel straddled the Franco-Swiss border, making the SPS the first cross-border accelerator. More than a thousand magnets were needed to equip the ring. The civil engineering and installation work was completed in record time after only four years. The SPS was equipped with a control system which was ahead of its time, consisting of 24 small control computers distributed in the tunnel and the control room and communicating by means of a high-rate data transmission system. The main control room housed only four consoles as opposed to the banks of electronic eq...

  16. Establishment of tunnel-boring machine disk cutter rock-breaking model from energy perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liwei Song

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available As the most important cutting tools during tunnel-boring machine tunneling construction process, V-type disk cutter’s rock-breaking mechanism has been researched by many scholars all over the world. Adopting finite element method, this article focused on the interaction between V-type disk cutters and the intact rock to carry out microscopic parameter analysis methods: first, the stress model of rock breaking was established through V-type disk cutter motion trajectory analysis; second, based on the incremental theorem of the elastic–plastic theory, the strain model of the relative changes of rock displacement during breaking process was created. According to the principle of admissible work by energy method of the elastic–plastic theory to analyze energy transfer rules in the process of breaking rock, rock-breaking force of the V-type disk cutter could be regarded as the external force in the rock system. Finally, by taking the rock system as the reference object, the total potential energy equivalent model of rock system was derived to obtain the forces of the three directions acting on V-type disk cutter during the rock-breaking process. This derived model, which has been proved to be effective and scientific through comparisons with some original force models and by comparative analysis with experimental data, also initiates a new research strategy taking the view of the micro elastic–plastic theory to study the rock-breaking mechanism.

  17. Evaluation of vibration and vibration fatigue life for small bore pipe in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhaoxi; Xue Fei; Gong Mingxiang; Ti Wenxin; Lin Lei; Liu Peng

    2011-01-01

    The assessment method of the steady state vibration and vibration fatigue life of the small bore pipe in the supporting system of the nuclear power plants is proposed according to the ASME-OM3 and EDF evaluation methods. The GGR supporting pipe system vibration is evaluated with this method. The evaluation process includes the filtration of inborn sensitivity, visual inspection, vibration tests, allowable vibration effective velocity calculation and vibration stress calculation. With the allowable vibration effective velocity calculated and the vibration velocity calculated according to the acceleration data tested, the filtrations are performed. The vibration stress at the welding coat is calculated with the spectrum method and compared with the allowable value. The response of the stress is calculated with the transient dynamic method, with which the fatigue life is evaluated with the Miners linear accumulation model. The vibration stress calculated with the spectrum method exceeds the allowable value, while the fatigue life calculated from the transient dynamic method is larger than the designed life with a big safety margin. (authors)

  18. Combined measurement system for double shield tunnel boring machine guidance based on optical and visual methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jiarui; Gao, Kai; Gao, Yang; Wang, Zheng

    2017-10-01

    In order to detect the position of the cutting shield at the head of a double shield tunnel boring machine (TBM) during the excavation, this paper develops a combined measurement system which is mainly composed of several optical feature points, a monocular vision sensor, a laser target sensor, and a total station. The different elements of the combined system are mounted on the TBM in suitable sequence, and the position of the cutting shield in the reference total station frame is determined by coordinate transformations. Subsequently, the structure of the feature points and matching technique for them are expounded, the position measurement method based on monocular vision is presented, and the calibration methods for the unknown relationships among different parts of the system are proposed. Finally, a set of experimental platforms to simulate the double shield TBM is established, and accuracy verification experiments are conducted. Experimental results show that the mean deviation of the system is 6.8 mm, which satisfies the requirements of double shield TBM guidance.

  19. Damage analysis: damage function development and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simons, R.L.; Odette, G.R.

    1975-01-01

    The derivation and application of damage functions, including recent developments for the U.S. LMFBR and CTR programs, is reviewed. A primary application of damage functions is in predicting component life expectancies; i.e., the fluence required in a service spectrum to attain a specified design property change. An important part of the analysis is the estimation of the uncertainty in such fluence limit predictions. The status of standardizing the procedures for the derivation and application of damage functions is discussed. Improvements in several areas of damage function development are needed before standardization can be completed. These include increasing the quantity and quality of the data used in the analysis, determining the limitations of the analysis due to the presence of multiple damage mechanisms, and finally, testing of damage function predictions against data obtained from material surveillance programs in operating thermal and fast reactors. 23 references. (auth)

  20. Echo-Planar Imaging for a 9.4 Tesla Vertical-Bore Superconducting Magnet Using an Unshielded Gradient Coil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, Nao; Kose, Katsumi

    2016-10-11

    Echo-planar imaging (EPI) sequences were developed for a 9.4 Tesla vertical standard bore (~54 mm) superconducting magnet using an unshielded gradient coil optimized for live mice imaging and a data correction technique with reference scans. Because EPI requires fast switching of intense magnetic field gradients, eddy currents were induced in the surrounding metallic materials, e.g., the room temperature bore, and this produced serious artifacts on the EPI images. We solved the problem using an unshielded gradient coil set of proper size (outer diameter = 39 mm, inner diameter = 32 mm) with time control of the current rise and reference scans. The obtained EPI images of a phantom and a plant sample were almost artifact-free and demonstrated the promise of our approach.

  1. Echo-Planar Imaging for a 9.4 Tesla Vertical-Bore Superconducting Magnet Using an Unshielded Gradient Coil

    Science.gov (United States)

    KODAMA, Nao; KOSE, Katsumi

    2016-01-01

    Echo-planar imaging (EPI) sequences were developed for a 9.4 Tesla vertical standard bore (∼54 mm) superconducting magnet using an unshielded gradient coil optimized for live mice imaging and a data correction technique with reference scans. Because EPI requires fast switching of intense magnetic field gradients, eddy currents were induced in the surrounding metallic materials, e.g., the room temperature bore, and this produced serious artifacts on the EPI images. We solved the problem using an unshielded gradient coil set of proper size (outer diameter = 39 mm, inner diameter = 32 mm) with time control of the current rise and reference scans. The obtained EPI images of a phantom and a plant sample were almost artifact-free and demonstrated the promise of our approach. PMID:27001398

  2. Design of an RF Antenna for a Large-Bore, High Power, Steady State Plasma Processing Chamber for Material Separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, D.A.; Freeman, R.L.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between UT-Battelle, LLC, (Contractor), and Archimedes Technology Group, (Participant) is to evaluate the design of an RF antenna for a large-bore, high power, steady state plasma processing chamber for material separation. Criteria for optimization will be to maximize the power deposition in the plasma while operating at acceptable voltages and currents in the antenna structure. The project objectives are to evaluate the design of an RF antenna for a large-bore, high power, steady state plasma processing chamber for material separation. Criteria for optimization will be to maximize the power deposition in the plasma while operating at acceptable voltages and currents in the antenna structure

  3. North American Lauraceae: terpenoid emissions, relative attraction and boring preferences of redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus (coleoptera: curculionidae: scolytinae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul E Kendra

    Full Text Available The invasive redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, is the primary vector of Raffaelea lauricola, a symbiotic fungus and the etiologic agent of laurel wilt. This lethal disease has caused severe mortality of redbay (Persea borbonia and swampbay (P. palustris trees in the southeastern USA, threatens avocado (P. americana production in Florida, and has potential to impact additional New World species. To date, all North American hosts of X. glabratus and suscepts of laurel wilt are members of the family Lauraceae. This comparative study combined field tests and laboratory bioassays to evaluate attraction and boring preferences of female X. glabratus using freshly-cut bolts from nine species of Lauraceae: avocado (one cultivar of each botanical race, redbay, swampbay, silkbay (Persea humilis, California bay laurel (Umbellularia californica, sassafras (Sassafras albidum, northern spicebush (Lindera benzoin, camphor tree (Cinnamomum camphora, and lancewood (Nectandra coriacea. In addition, volatile collections and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS were conducted to quantify terpenoid emissions from test bolts, and electroantennography (EAG was performed to measure olfactory responses of X. glabratus to terpenoids identified by GC-MS. Significant differences were observed among treatments in both field and laboratory tests. Silkbay and camphor tree attracted the highest numbers of the beetle in the field, and lancewood and spicebush the lowest, whereas boring activity was greatest on silkbay, bay laurel, swampbay, and redbay, and lowest on lancewood, spicebush, and camphor tree. The Guatemalan cultivar of avocado was more attractive than those of the other races, but boring response among the three was equivalent. The results suggest that camphor tree may contain a chemical deterrent to boring, and that different cues are associated with host location and host acceptance. Emissions of α-cubebene, α-copaene, α-humulene, and

  4. North American Lauraceae: terpenoid emissions, relative attraction and boring preferences of redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus (coleoptera: curculionidae: scolytinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendra, Paul E; Montgomery, Wayne S; Niogret, Jerome; Pruett, Grechen E; Mayfield, Albert E; MacKenzie, Martin; Deyrup, Mark A; Bauchan, Gary R; Ploetz, Randy C; Epsky, Nancy D

    2014-01-01

    The invasive redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, is the primary vector of Raffaelea lauricola, a symbiotic fungus and the etiologic agent of laurel wilt. This lethal disease has caused severe mortality of redbay (Persea borbonia) and swampbay (P. palustris) trees in the southeastern USA, threatens avocado (P. americana) production in Florida, and has potential to impact additional New World species. To date, all North American hosts of X. glabratus and suscepts of laurel wilt are members of the family Lauraceae. This comparative study combined field tests and laboratory bioassays to evaluate attraction and boring preferences of female X. glabratus using freshly-cut bolts from nine species of Lauraceae: avocado (one cultivar of each botanical race), redbay, swampbay, silkbay (Persea humilis), California bay laurel (Umbellularia californica), sassafras (Sassafras albidum), northern spicebush (Lindera benzoin), camphor tree (Cinnamomum camphora), and lancewood (Nectandra coriacea). In addition, volatile collections and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) were conducted to quantify terpenoid emissions from test bolts, and electroantennography (EAG) was performed to measure olfactory responses of X. glabratus to terpenoids identified by GC-MS. Significant differences were observed among treatments in both field and laboratory tests. Silkbay and camphor tree attracted the highest numbers of the beetle in the field, and lancewood and spicebush the lowest, whereas boring activity was greatest on silkbay, bay laurel, swampbay, and redbay, and lowest on lancewood, spicebush, and camphor tree. The Guatemalan cultivar of avocado was more attractive than those of the other races, but boring response among the three was equivalent. The results suggest that camphor tree may contain a chemical deterrent to boring, and that different cues are associated with host location and host acceptance. Emissions of α-cubebene, α-copaene, α-humulene, and calamenene were

  5. Proof-of-concept experimental study of damage detection of concrete piles using embedded piezoceramic transducers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, R L; Gu, H; Song, G; Mo, Y L

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a proof-of-concept experimental study of an innovative active-sensing approach for damage detection of concrete piles by using embedded piezoceramic transducers. In the proposed active-sensing approach, one piezoceramic transducer is used as an actuator to generate a stress wave to propagate through the concrete pile and the other distributed piezoceramic transducers are used as sensors to detect the wave response. Cracks or damage inside the concrete structure act as stress relief in the wave propagation path. The amplitude of the wave and the transmission energy will decrease due to the existence of cracks or damage. Experiments were performed on two bored piles instrumented with embedded piezoceramic transducers. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach for pile damage detection. (fast track communication)

  6. Blast damage predictions from vibration measurements at the SKB underground laboratories at Aespoe in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouchterlony, F.; Sjoeberg, C.; Jonsson, B.A.

    1993-01-01

    This contribution reports an investigation of the blasting damage in the contour of an access ramp to a Swedish underground laboratory for nuclear waste related studies. Near zone vibration measurements were made for 7 rounds and the results converted to a site specific scaling law. A simple engineering correction for the influence of the charge length was developed and the resulting equations used to predict the damage zone depths of three different drilling and charging patterns. These predictions were then compared with actual blast damage measurements. The agreement with geophysical borehole logging results is remarkably good. This gives good support to the engineering method in which a critical vibration velocity is used to predict the zones of blast damage around bore holes

  7. Internal-bore-welding of 2 1/4 Cr--1 Mo steel tube-to-tubesheet joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moorhead, A.J.; Slaughter, G.M.

    1976-01-01

    In order to avoid the disadvantages of the conventional face-side tube-to-tubesheet weld, the steam generators for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (a power-producing demonstration LMFBR) will be built using a relatively new technique known as internal-bore-welding (IBW). In IBW the tube does not pass through the tubesheet but rather is welded to a short stub machined on the tube side of the tubesheet. This joint has the important advantages of being inspectable by radiography and eliminating the crevice; however, it is much more difficult to weld than is the face-side design. Because of the close proximity of the tubes, there is not room for an orbiting-arc welding head on the outside of the tube. Consequently, this weld must be made by welding from the inside- or bore-side of the tube. The results are presented of the initial phases of a program undertaken at ORNL to develop improved bore-side welding equipment, to gain further understanding of this technique, and to develop mechanical property data for autogeneous welds in 2 1/4 Cr-1 Mo steel tube and tubesheet materials

  8. A research for Class II defect Bored Pile’s Accept Criteria: A case of Penang Second Marine bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kang

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this preliminary research is to study the accept criteria of class II bored pile with subtle defect. According to a detailed comparison of the existed different standards, Chinese ones are more applicable especially for the large diameter bored piles. Through the concrete coring at pile No P25-03 of this case and the comparison to the actual calculation, the Class II pile’s defects were very minor. Comparison was also made for the effects on pile structural capacities before and after repair of the defects. the feasible repair proposal may bring forward to more defects to the piles. The Class II piles don’t need any further repairation when piles have typical of similar character and sonic logging test result with P25-03‘s one. For other Class II piles with some differences in characters, verification is needed through further concrete coring on the pile. The recommendation of this research could be adopted for the similar huge marine structures which installed large diameter bored piles.

  9. Flexible add-on solution for MR image-guided interventions in a closed-bore scanner environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busse, Harald; Garnov, Nikita; Thörmer, Gregor; Zajonz, Dirk; Gründer, Wilfried; Kahn, Thomas; Moche, Michael

    2010-09-01

    MRI is of great clinical utility for the guidance of various diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. In a standard closed-bore scanner, the simplest approach is to manipulate the instrument outside the bore and move the patient into the bore for reference and control imaging only. Without navigational assistance, however, such an approach can be difficult, inaccurate, and time consuming. Therefore, an add-on navigation solution is described that addresses these limitations. Patient registration is established by an automatic, robust, and fast (<30 sec) localization of table-mounted MR reference markers and the instrument is tracked optically. Good hand-eye coordination is provided by following the virtual instrument on MR images that are reconstructed in real time from the reference data. Needle displacements of 2.2 +/- 0.6 mm and 3.9 +/- 2.4 mm were determined in a phantom (P < 0.05), depending on whether the reference markers were placed at smaller (98-139 mm) or larger (147-188 mm) distances from the isocenter. Clinical functionality of the navigation concept is demonstrated by a double oblique, subscapular hook-wire insertion in a patient with a body mass index of 30.1 kg/m(2). Ease of use, compactness, and flexibility of this technique suggest that it can be used for many other procedures in different body regions. More patient cases are needed to evaluate clinical performance and workflow. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Respiratory-Gated MRgHIFU in Upper Abdomen Using an MR-Compatible In-Bore Digital Camera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Auboiroux

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To demonstrate the technical feasibility and the potential interest of using a digital optical camera inside the MR magnet bore for monitoring the breathing cycle and subsequently gating the PRFS MR thermometry, MR-ARFI measurement, and MRgHIFU sonication in the upper abdomen. Materials and Methods. A digital camera was reengineered to remove its magnetic parts and was further equipped with a 7 m long USB cable. The system was electromagnetically shielded and operated inside the bore of a closed 3T clinical scanner. Suitable triggers were generated based on real-time motion analysis of the images produced by the camera (resolution 640×480 pixels, 30 fps. Respiratory-gated MR-ARFI prepared MRgHIFU ablation was performed in the kidney and liver of two sheep in vivo, under general anaesthesia and ventilator-driven forced breathing. Results. The optical device demonstrated very good MR compatibility. The current setup permitted the acquisition of motion artefact-free and high resolution MR 2D ARFI and multiplanar interleaved PRFS thermometry (average SNR 30 in liver and 56 in kidney. Microscopic histology indicated precise focal lesions with sharply delineated margins following the respiratory-gated HIFU sonications. Conclusion. The proof-of-concept for respiratory motion management in MRgHIFU using an in-bore digital camera has been validated in vivo.

  11. Analyzing the Risk of Well Plug Failure after Abandonment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mainguy, M.; Longuemare, P.; Audibert, A.; Lecolier, E.

    2007-01-01

    All oil and gas wells will have to be plugged and abandoned at some time. The plugging and abandonment procedure must provide an effective isolation of the well fluids all along the well to reduce environmental risks of contamination and prevent from costly remedial jobs. Previous works have analyzed the plug behavior when submitted to local pressure or thermal changes but no work has looked to the effects of external pressure, thermal and stress changes resulting from a global equilibrium restoration in a hydrocarbon reservoir once production has stopped. This work estimates those changes after abandonment on a reservoir field case using a reservoir simulator in conjunction with a geomechanical simulator. Such simulations provide the pressure and thermal changes and the maximum effective stress changes in the reservoir cap rock where critical plugs are put in place for isolating the production intervals. These changes are used as loads in a well bore stress model that explicitly models an injector well and predict stress rearrangements in the plug after abandonment. Results obtained with the well bore stress model for a conventional class G cement plug show that the main risk of failure is tensile failure because of the low tensile strength of the cement. Actually, soft sealing materials or initially pre-stressed plug appears to be more adapted to the downhole conditions changes that may occurs after well plugging and abandonment. (authors)

  12. Interpretation of Geological Correlation Borings 1, 2, 3 in the A/M Area of the Savannah River Site, South Carolina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyatt, D.E.; Cumbest, R.J.; Aadland, R.K.; Syms, F.H.; Stephenson, D.E.; Sherrill, J.C.

    1997-06-01

    The Geophysical Correlation Boring (GCB) Program was organized to provide a comprehensive correlation capability between geological core and advanced borehole geophysical data, surface high resolution reflection seismic information and, when available, borehole geochemical and cone penetrometer data. This report provides results and initial geological interpretations of borings one, two, and three (GCB-1, GCB-2, GCB-3) located within the Upper Three Runs Watershed (A/M Area) of the Savannah River Site

  13. Plastohydrodynamic drawing and coating of stainless steel wire using a tapered bore die of no metal to metal contact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, S.; Basmage, O.; Stokes, J. T.; Hashmi, M. S. J.

    2018-05-01

    A review of wire coating studies using plasto-hydrodynamic pressure shows that most of the works were carried out by conducting experiments simultaneously with simulation analysis based upon Bernoulli's principle and Euler and Navier-Stokes (N-S) equations. These characteristics relate to the domain of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) which is an interdisciplinary topic (Fluid Mechanics, Numerical Analysis of Fluid flow and Computer Science). This research investigates two aspects: (i) simulation work and (ii) experimentation. A mathematical model was developed to investigate the flow pattern of the molten polymer and pressure distribution within the wire-drawing dies, assessment of polymer coating thickness on the coated wires and speed of coating on the wires at the outlet of the drawing dies, without deploying any pressurizing pump. In addition to a physical model which was developed within ANSYS™ environment through the simulation design of ANSYS™ Workbench. The design was customized to simulate the process of wire-coating on the fine stainless-steel wires using drawing dies having different bore geometries such as: stepped parallel bore, tapered bore and combined parallel and tapered bore. The convergence of the designed CFD model and numerical and physical solution parameters for simulation were dynamically monitored for the viscous flow of the polypropylene (PP) polymer. Simulation results were validated against experimental results and used to predict the ideal bore shape to produce a thin coating on stainless wires with different diameter. Simulation studies confirmed that a specific speed should be attained by the stainless-steel wires while passing through the drawing dies. It has been observed that all the speed values within specific speed range did not produce a coating thickness having the desired coating characteristic features. Therefore, some optimization of the experimental set up through design of experiments (Stat-Ease) was applied to

  14. RENAL DAMAGE WITH MALIGNANT NEOPLASMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. B. Kolina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between renal damage and malignant neoplasms is one of the most actual problems of the medicine of internal diseases. Very often, exactly availability of renal damage determines the forecast of cancer patients. The range of renal pathologies associated with tumors is unusually wide: from the mechanical effect of the tumor or metastases on the kidneys and/or the urinary tract and paraneoplastic manifestations in the form of nephritis or amyloidosis to nephropathies induced with drugs or tumor lysis, etc. Thrombotic complications that develop as a result of exposure to tumor effects, side effects of certain drugs or irradiation also play an important role in the development of the kidney damage. The most frequent variants of renal damage observed in the practice of medical internists (therapists, urologists, surgeons, etc., as well as methods of diagnosis and treatment approaches are described in the article. Timely and successful prevention and treatment of tumor-associated nephropathies give hope for retaining renal functions, therefore, a higher life standard after completion of anti-tumor therapy. Even a shortterm episode of acute renal damage suffered by a cancer patient must be accompanied with relevant examination and treatment. In the caseof transformation of acute renal damage into the chronic kidney disease, such patients need systematic and weighted renoprotective therapy and correct dosing of nephrotoxic drugs.

  15. Conversion of low BMEP 4-cylinder to high BMEP 2-cylinder large bore natural gas engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladd, John

    There are more than 6,000 integral compressor engines in use on US natural gas pipelines, operating 24 hours a day, 365 days a year. Many of these engines have operated continuously for more than 50 years, with little to no modifications. Due to recent emission regulations at the local, state and federal levels much of the aging infrastructure requires retrofit technology to remain within compliance. The Engines and Energy Conversion Laboratory was founded to test these retrofit technologies on its large bore engine testbed (LBET). The LBET is a low brake mean effective pressure (BMEP) Cooper Bessemer GMVTF-4. Newer GMV models, constructed in 1980's, utilize turbocharging to increase the output power, achieving BMEP's nearly double that of the LBET. To expand the lab's testing capability and to reduce the LBET's running cost: material testing, in-depth modeling, and on engine testing was completed to evaluate the feasibility of uprating the LBET to a high BMEP two cylinder engine. Due to the LBET's age, the crankcase material properties were not known. Material samples were removed from engine to conduct an in-depth material analysis. It was found that the crankcase was cast out of a specific grade of gray iron, class 25 meehanite. A complete three dimensional model of the LBET's crankcase and power cylinders was created. Using historical engine data, the force inputs were created for a finite element analysis model of the LBET, to determine the regions of high stress. The areas of high stress were instrumented with strain gauges to iterate and validate the model's findings. Several test cases were run at the high and intermediate BMEP engine conditions. The model found, at high BMEP conditions the LBET would operate at the fatigue limit of the class 25 meehanite, operating with no factor of safety but the intermediate case were deemed acceptable.

  16. Design and Operating Characteristics of High-Speed, Small-Bore, Angular-Contact Ball Bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinel, Stanley I.; Signer, Hans R.; Zaretsky, Erwin V.

    1998-01-01

    The computer program SHABERTH was used to analyze 35-mm-bore, angular-contact ball bearings designed and manufactured for high-speed turbomachinery applications. Parametric tests of the bearings were conducted on a high-speed, high-temperature bearing tester and were compared with the computer predictions. Four bearing and cage designs were studied. The bearings were lubricated either by jet lubrication or through the split inner ring with and without outer-ring cooling. The predicted bearing life decreased with increasing speed because of increased operating contact stresses caused by changes in contact angle and centrifugal load. For thrust loads only, the difference in calculated life for the 24 deg. and 30 deg. contact-angle bearings was insignificant. However, for combined loading, the 24 deg. contact-angle bearing gave longer life. For split-inner-ring bearings, optimal operating conditions were obtained with a 24 deg. contact angle and an inner-ring, land-guided cage, using outer-ring cooling in conjunction with low lubricant flow rates. Lower temperature and power losses were obtained with a single-outer-ring, land-guided cage for the 24 deg. contact-angle bearing having a relieved inner ring and partially relieved outer ring. Inner-ring temperatures were independent of lubrication mode and cage design. In comparison with measured values, reasonably good engineering correlation was obtained using the computer program SHABERTH for predicted bearing power loss and for inner- and outer-ring temperatures. The Parker formula for XCAV (used in SHABERTH, a measure of oil volume in the bearing cavity) may need to be refined to reflect bearing lubrication mode, cage design, and location of cage-controlling land.

  17. A Closer Look at the Design of Cutterheads for Hard Rock Tunnel-Boring Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Rostami

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The success of a tunnel-boring machine (TBM in a given project depends on the functionality of all components of the system, from the cutters to the backup system, and on the entire rolling stock. However, no part of the machine plays a more crucial role in the efficient operation of the machine than its cutterhead. The design of the cutterhead impacts the efficiency of cutting, the balance of the head, the life of the cutters, the maintenance of the main bearing/gearbox, and the effectiveness of the mucking along with its effects on the wear of the face and gage cutters/muck buckets. Overall, cutterhead design heavily impacts the rate of penetration (ROP, rate of machine utilization (U, and daily advance rate (AR. Although there has been some discussion in commonly available publications regarding disk cutters, cutting forces, and some design features of the head, there is limited literature on this subject because the design of cutterheads is mainly handled by machine manufacturers. Most of the design process involves proprietary algorithms by the manufacturers, and despite recent attention on the subject, the design of rock TBMs has been somewhat of a mystery to most end-users. This paper is an attempt to demystify the basic concepts in design. Although it may not be sufficient for a full-fledged design by the readers, this paper allows engineers and contractors to understand the thought process in the design steps, what to look for in a proper design, and the implications of the head design on machine operation and life cycle. Keywords: TBM cutterhead design, Cutterhead layout, Disk cutters, Cutting pattern, TBM efficiency

  18. Design theory of full face rock tunnel boring machine transition cutter edge angle and its application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhaohuang; Meng, Liang; Sun, Fei

    2013-05-01

    At present, the inner cutters of a full face rock tunnel boring machine (TBM) and transition cutter edge angles are designed on the basis of indentation test or linear grooving test. The inner and outer edge angles of disc cutters are characterized as symmetric to each other with respect to the cutter edge plane. This design has some practical defects, such as severe eccentric wear and tipping, etc. In this paper, the current design theory of disc cutter edge angle is analyzed, and the characteristics of the rock-breaking movement of disc cutters are studied. The researching results show that the rotational motion of disc cutters with the cutter head gives rise to the difference between the interactions of inner rock and outer rock with the contact area of disc cutters, with shearing and extrusion on the inner rock and attrition on the outer rock. The wear of disc cutters at the contact area is unbalanced, among which the wear in the largest normal stress area is most apparent. Therefore, a three-dimensional model theory of rock breaking and an edge angle design theory of transition disc cutter are proposed to overcome the flaws of the currently used TBM cutter heads, such as short life span, camber wearing, tipping. And a corresponding equation is established. With reference to a specific construction case, the edge angle of the transition disc cutter has been designed based on the theory. The application of TBM in some practical project proves that the theory has obvious advantages in enhancing disc cutter life, decreasing replacement frequency, and making economic benefits. The proposed research provides a theoretical basis for the design of TBM three-dimensional disc cutters whose rock-breaking operation time can be effectively increased.

  19. MRI-Guided Percutaneous Biopsy of Mediastinal Masses Using a Large Bore Magnet: Technical Feasibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garnon, J., E-mail: juliengarnon@gmail.com [Nouvel Hôpital Civil, Department of Interventional Radiology (France); Ramamurthy, N., E-mail: nitin-ramamurthy@hotmail.com [Norfolk and Norwich University Hospital, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom); Caudrelier J, J., E-mail: caudjean@yahoo.fr [Nouvel Hôpital Civil, Department of Interventional Radiology (France); Erceg, G., E-mail: erceggorislav@yahoo.com; Breton, E., E-mail: ebreton@unistra.fr [ICube, University of Strasbourg, CNRS (France); Tsoumakidou, G., E-mail: gtsoumakidou@yahoo.com; Rao, P., E-mail: pramodrao@me.com; Gangi, A., E-mail: gangi@unistra.fr [Nouvel Hôpital Civil, Department of Interventional Radiology (France)

    2016-05-15

    ObjectiveTo evaluate the diagnostic accuracy and safety of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided percutaneous biopsy of mediastinal masses performed using a wide-bore high-field scanner.Materials and MethodsThis is a retrospective study of 16 consecutive patients (8 male, 8 female; mean age 74 years) who underwent MRI-guided core needle biopsy of a mediastinal mass between February 2010 and January 2014. Size and location of lesion, approach taken, time for needle placement, overall duration of procedure, and post-procedural complications were evaluated. Technical success rates and correlation with surgical pathology (where available) were assessed.ResultsTarget lesions were located in the anterior (n = 13), middle (n = 2), and posterior mediastinum (n = 1), respectively. Mean size was 7.2 cm (range 3.6–11 cm). Average time for needle placement was 9.4 min (range 3–18 min); average duration of entire procedure was 42 min (range 27–62 min). 2–5 core samples were obtained from each lesion (mean 2.6). Technical success rate was 100 %, with specimens successfully obtained in all 16 patients. There were no immediate complications. Histopathology revealed malignancy in 12 cases (4 of which were surgically confirmed), benign lesions in 3 cases (1 of which was false negative following surgical resection), and one inconclusive specimen (treated as inaccurate since repeat CT-guided biopsy demonstrated thymic hyperplasia). Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy in our study were 92.3, 100, 100, 66.7, and 87.5 %, respectively.ConclusionMRI-guided mediastinal biopsy is a safe procedure with high diagnostic accuracy, which may offer a non-ionizing alternative to CT guidance.

  20. Commissioning and quality control of a dedicated wide bore 3T MRI simulator for radiotherapy planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aitang Xing

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe a practical approach to commissioning and quality assurance (QA of a dedicated wide-bore 3 Tesla (3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI scanner for radiotherapy planning.Methods: A comprehensive commissioning protocol focusing on radiotherapy (RT specific requirements was developed and performed. RT specific tests included: uniformity characteristics of radio-frequency (RF coil, couch top attenuation, geometric distortion, laser and couch movement and an end-to-end radiotherapy treatment planning test. General tests for overall system performance and safety measurements were also performed.Results: The use of pre-scan based intensity correction increased the uniformity from 61.7% to 97% (body flexible coil, from 50% to 90% (large flexible coil and from 51% to 98% (small flexible coil. RT flat top couch decreased signal-to-noise ratio (SNR by an average of 42%. The mean and maximum geometric distortion was found to be 1.25 mm and 4.08 mm for three dimensional (3D corrected image acquisition, 2.07 mm and 7.88 mm for two dimensional (2D corrected image acquisition over 500 mm × 375 mm × 252 mm field of view (FOV. The accuracy of the laser and couch movement was less than ±1 mm. The standard deviation of registration parameters for the end-to-end test was less than 0.41 mm. An on-going QA program was developed to monitor the system’s performance.Conclusion: A number of RT specific tests have been described for commissioning and subsequent performance monitoring of a dedicated MRI simulator (MRI-Sim. These tests have been important in establishing and maintaining its operation for RT planning.

  1. Closed-bore XMR (CBXMR) systems for aortic valve replacement: X-ray tube imaging performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bracken, John A.; Komljenovic, Philip; Lillaney, Prasheel V.; Fahrig, Rebecca; Rowlands, J. A.

    2009-01-01

    A hybrid closed-bore x-ray/MRI system (CBXMR) is proposed to improve the safety and efficacy of percutaneous aortic valve replacement procedures. In this system, an x-ray C-arm will be positioned about 1 m from the entrance of a 1.5 T MRI scanner. The CBXMR system will harness the complementary strengths of both modalities to guide and deploy a bioprosthetic valve into the aortic annulus of the heart without coronary artery obstruction. A major challenge in constructing this system is ensuring proper operation of a rotating-anode x-ray tube in the MRI magnetic fringe field environment. The electron beam in the x-ray tube responsible for producing x rays can be deflected by the fringe field. However, the clinical impact of electron beam deflection in a magnetic field has not yet been studied. Here, the authors investigated changes in focal spot resolving power, field of view shift, and field of view truncation in x-ray images as a result of electron beam deflection. The authors found that in the fringe field acting on the x-ray tube at the clinical location for the x-ray C-arm (4 mT), focal spot size increased by only 2%, so the fringe field did not limit the resolving power of the x-ray system. The magnetic field also caused the field of view to shift by 3 mm. This shift must be corrected to avoid unnecessary primary radiation exposure to the patient and the staff in the cardiac catheterization laboratory. The fringe field was too weak to cause field of view truncation.

  2. Damage Atlas for Photographic materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristel Van Camp

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available La conservation des documents photographiques peut nécessiter des interventions préventives ou curatives. Ce choix est guidé par leur état de conservation. Une meilleure connaissance des détériorations est donc cruciale. Le répertoire présenté ici essaie de les classifier selon des caractéristiques spécifiques et leur niveau de gravité. Les différents types de dégradation sont illustrés et décrits avec une terminologie précise. L’auteur propose en regard de ceux-ci l’intervention qui semble la plus appropriée. Ce répertoire s’adresse à toutes les personnes concernées par la photographie, qu’ils soient dans le milieu de la conservation ou dans le domaine artistique, dans les musées ou dans les archives. In order to rescue a damaged photographic object, preventive or conservative actions are needed. Knowing the specific characteristics of different types of damage is crucial. A damage atlas can provide these characteristics. With this atlas the damage can be recognised and appropriate actions can be taken. This damage atlas offers a first attempt to such a characterisation in the field of photography. The damage atlas contains images and the necessary information about damage on photographic material. The atlas with special annotations about the terminology and the grade of the damage is meant for everybody who works with photographic material, as well in museums as in archives.

  3. Radiation damage of nonmetallic solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goland, A.N.

    1975-01-01

    A review of data and information on radiation damage in nonmetallic solids is presented. Discussions are included on defects in nonmetals, radiation damage processes in nonmetals, electronic damage processes, physical damage processes, atomic displacement, photochemical damage processes, and ion implantation

  4. Theoretical modeling for optimizing horizontal production well placement in thermal recovery environments to maximize recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourgeois, D.J. [Schlumberger Canada Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    Heavy oil has a high viscosity and a low API gravity rating. Since it is difficult to get a fluid of this nature to flow, enhanced oil recovery techniques are required to extract the oil from the reservoir. Thermal recovery strategies such as steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) and cyclic steam injection stimulation (CSS) can be used. These techniques involve injecting steam into a formation which heats up the fluid in place decreasing its viscosity and allowing it to flow into the producing well bore. In order to maximize hydrocarbon recovery from this type of geological environment, the placement of the horizontal production well bore relative to the base of the reservoir is important. In conventional oil and gas plays, well placement methods involving directional deep resistivity logging while drilling (DDR-LWD) measurements to map formation contacts while drilling have enabled wells to be placed relative to formation boundaries. This paper discussed a study that presented some theoretical resistivity inversion and forward modeling results generated from a three-dimensional geocellular model to confirm that this evolving DDR-LWD technology may be applicable to western Canada's Athabasca heavy oil drilling environments. The paper discussed the effect of well bore position, thermal recovery, and pro-active well placement. Resistivity modeling work flow was also presented. It was concluded that being able to drill a horizontal production well relative to the base of the formation could help minimize abandoned oil ultimately leading to better recovery. 4 refs., 8 figs.

  5. Femoral nerve damage (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The femoral nerve is located in the leg and supplies the muscles that assist help straighten the leg. It supplies sensation ... leg. One risk of damage to the femoral nerve is pelvic fracture. Symptoms of femoral nerve damage ...

  6. Energy analysis of crack-damage interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudnovsky, A.; Wu, Shaofu

    1989-01-01

    The energy release rates associated with a main crack propagating into a surrounding damage zone, and a damage zone translation relative to the main crack, as well as an energy of interaction between the two are analyzed. The displacement and stress fields for the crack-damage interaction problem are reconstructed employing a semi-empirical stress analysis and experimental evaluation of the average craze density in the crazed zone.

  7. Civil liability for nuclear and radiological damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puig, D.

    2001-10-01

    The present work gives details of the nuclear damage, the accidents of Chernobil, three Mile Inland and Tokaimura with their respective legal consequences, the nature of the responsibility and bases for their establishment, conventions about civil responsibility for nuclear damages to regional and world level as well as other condition of conventions of the Ibero-American countries with regard to the approval of the conventions it has more than enough civil responsibility for nuclear and radiological accident damages

  8. Anatomical study on Myoforceps aristatus, an invasive boring bivalve in S.E. Brazilian coast (Mytilidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Ricardo L. Simone

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The bivalve Myoforceps aristatus (Dillwyn, 1817, also known as Lithophaga aristata, have been recently collected in the coasts of Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo, Brazil; a species that bores shells of other mollusks. This occurrence has been interpreted as an invasion of this species, originally from the Caribbean. The distinguishing character of the species is the posterior extensions of the shell crossing with each other. Because specimens with this character have also been collected in the Pacific Ocean, they all have been considered a single species. However, it is possible that more than one species may be involved in such worldwide distribution. With the objective of providing full information based on Atlantic specimens, a complete anatomical description is provided, which can be used in comparative studies with specimens from other oceans. Additional distinctive features of M. aristatus are the complexity of the incurrent siphon, the kidney opening widely into the supra-branchial chamber (instead of via a nephropore, and the multi-lobed auricle.O bivalve Myoforceps aristatus (Dillwyn, 1817, também conhecido como Lithophaga aristata, tem sido recentemente coletado nas costas do Rio de Janeiro e São Paulo, Brasil; uma espécie que perfura conchas de outros moluscos. Esta ocorrência está sendo interpretada como uma invasão de uma espécie originada do Caribe. O caráter distintivo da espécie é a região posterior da concha, com extensões que se cruzam. Como espécimes com esta característica também têm sido coletados no oceano Pacífico, eles tem sido considerados como pertencentes à mesma espécie. Entretanto, é possível que mais de uma espécie possam estar envolvidas nesta suposta distribuição mundial. Com o objetivo de fornecer informação completa baseada em material do Atlântico, uma descrição anatômica completa é dada, a qual pode ser usada em estudos comparativos com espécimes de outros oceanos. As caracter

  9. Like a hotel, but boring: users' experience with short-time community-based residential aftercare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Eirik; Bjerkeset, Ottar; Svavarsdóttir, Margrét Hrönn; Steinsbekk, Aslak

    2017-12-16

    The discharge process from hospital to home for patients with severe mental illness (SMI) is often complex, and most are in need of tailored and coordinated community services at home. One solution is to discharge patients to inpatient short-stay community residential aftercare (CRA). The aim of this study was to explore how patients with SMI experience a stay in CRA established in a City in Central Norway. A descriptive qualitative study with individual interviews and a group interview with 13 persons. The CRA aims to improve the discharge process from hospital to independent supported living by facilitating the establishment of health and social services and preparing the patients. The philosophy is to help patients use community resources by e.g. not offering any organized in-house activities. The main question in the interviews was "How have you experienced the stay at the CRA?" The interviews were analyzed with a thematic approach using systematic text condensation. The participants experienced the stay at the CRA "Like a hotel" but also boring, due to the lack of organized in-house activities. The patients generally said they were not informed about the philosophy of the CRA before the stay. The participants had to come up with activities outside the CRA and said they got active help from the staff to do so; some experienced this as positive, whereas others wanted more organized in-house activities like they were used to from mental health hospital stays. Participants described the staff in the CRA to be helpful and forthcoming, but they did not notice the staff being active in organizing the aftercare. The stay at the CRA was experienced as different from other services, with more freedom and focus on self-care, and lack of in-house activities. This led to increased self-activity among the patients, but some wanted more in-house activities. To prepare the patients better for the stay at the CRA, more information about the philosophy is needed in the pre

  10. Characteristic of fretting damage in metal material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, D.; Zhi, F.

    1988-10-01

    The fretting fatigue experiment of LC4 high strength aluminum alloy is described. An SEM examination of the fractology and morphology of fretting damage is carried out as well as an EDAX analysis of the chemical composition of fretting particles. The results show that many loose oxide particles were produced and accumulated in the fretting damage region. 10 references.

  11. A Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Conditional External Cardiac Defibrillator for Resuscitation Within the Magnetic Resonance Imaging Scanner Bore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Ehud J; Watkins, Ronald D; Zviman, Menekhem M; Guttman, Michael A; Wang, Wei; Halperin, Henry A

    2016-10-01

    Subjects undergoing cardiac arrest within a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner are currently removed from the bore and then from the MRI suite, before the delivery of cardiopulmonary resuscitation and defibrillation, potentially increasing the risk of mortality. This precludes many higher-risk (acute ischemic and acute stroke) patients from undergoing MRI and MRI-guided intervention. An MRI-conditional cardiac defibrillator should enable scanning with defibrillation pads attached and the generator ON, enabling application of defibrillation within the seconds of MRI after a cardiac event. An MRI-conditional external defibrillator may improve patient acceptance for MRI procedures. A commercial external defibrillator was rendered 1.5 Tesla MRI-conditional by the addition of novel radiofrequency filters between the generator and commercial disposable surface pads. The radiofrequency filters reduced emission into the MRI scanner and prevented cable/surface pad heating during imaging, while preserving all the defibrillator monitoring and delivery functions. Human volunteers were imaged using high specific absorption rate sequences to validate MRI image quality and lack of heating. Swine were electrically fibrillated (n=4) and thereafter defibrillated both outside and inside the MRI bore. MRI image quality was reduced by 0.8 or 1.6 dB, with the generator in monitoring mode and operating on battery or AC power, respectively. Commercial surface pads did not create artifacts deeper than 6 mm below the skin surface. Radiofrequency heating was within US Food and Drug Administration guidelines. Defibrillation was completely successful inside and outside the MRI bore. A prototype MRI-conditional defibrillation system successfully defibrillated in the MRI without degrading the image quality or increasing the time needed for defibrillation. It can increase patient acceptance for MRI procedures. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  12. Probabilistic Damage Stability Calculations for Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    1996-01-01

    The aim of these notes is to provide background material for the present probabilistic damage stability rules fro dry cargo ships.The formulas for the damage statistics are derived and shortcomings as well as possible improvements are discussed. The advantage of the definiton of fictitious...... compartments in the formulation of a computer-based general procedure for probabilistic damaged stability assessment is shown. Some comments are given on the current state of knowledge on the ship survivability in damaged conditions. Finally, problems regarding proper account of water ingress through openings...

  13. Flood damage curves for consistent global risk assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moel, Hans; Huizinga, Jan; Szewczyk, Wojtek

    2016-04-01

    Assessing potential damage of flood events is an important component in flood risk management. Determining direct flood damage is commonly done using depth-damage curves, which denote the flood damage that would occur at specific water depths per asset or land-use class. Many countries around the world have developed flood damage models using such curves which are based on analysis of past flood events and/or on expert judgement. However, such damage curves are not available for all regions, which hampers damage assessments in those regions. Moreover, due to different methodologies employed for various damage models in different countries, damage assessments cannot be directly compared with each other, obstructing also supra-national flood damage assessments. To address these problems, a globally consistent dataset of depth-damage curves has been developed. This dataset contains damage curves depicting percent of damage as a function of water depth as well as maximum damage values for a variety of assets and land use classes (i.e. residential, commercial, agriculture). Based on an extensive literature survey concave damage curves have been developed for each continent, while differentiation in flood damage between countries is established by determining maximum damage values at the country scale. These maximum damage values are based on construction cost surveys from multinational construction companies, which provide a coherent set of detailed building cost data across dozens of countries. A consistent set of maximum flood damage values for all countries was computed using statistical regressions with socio-economic World Development Indicators from the World Bank. Further, based on insights from the literature survey, guidance is also given on how the damage curves and maximum damage values can be adjusted for specific local circumstances, such as urban vs. rural locations, use of specific building material, etc. This dataset can be used for consistent supra

  14. Evaluación de tres dietas con harina de hoja de bore (Alocasia macrorrhiza) en pollos de engorde

    OpenAIRE

    López M, Fredy; Caicedo G, Alex; Alegría F, Gustavo

    2012-01-01

    RESUMENObjetivo. Evaluar el efecto nutricional de incluir la harina de hoja de bore, en proporciones de 0 (T1), 5 (T2), 10 (T3) y 15% (T4), en la alimentación de 100 pollos machos de la línea Ross 308. Materiales y Métodos. Se empleo un diseño experimental completamente al azar con cuatro tratamientos, cinco repeticiones por tratamiento y cinco unidades experimentales por repetición. Para su respectivo análisis se registró consumo diario, ganancia de peso, conversión alimenticia, mortalidad y...

  15. Design, Fabrication and Initial Testing of a Large Bore Single Aperture 1 m Long Superconducting Dipole Made with Phenolic Inserts

    CERN Document Server

    Boschmann, H; Kirby, G A; Lucas, J; Ostojic, R; Russenschuck, Stephan; Siemko, A; Vanenkov, I; Weterings, W

    1997-01-01

    In the framework of the LHC magnet development programme, a large bore single aperture 1-meter long superconducting dipole has been built in collaboration with HOLEC. The magnet features a single layer coil wound using the LHC main dipole outer layer cable, phenolic inserts, and a keyed two part structural iron yoke. This paper presents the magnetic and mechanical design and optimisation of the magnet. We describe the coil winding and curing, and present the construction and assembly procedures. Finally we report on the mechanical behaviour during assembly and cooling, and present the magnet training behaviour.

  16. Performance characteristics of tunnel boring machine in basalt and pyroclastic rocks of Deccan traps – A case study

    OpenAIRE

    Prasnna Jain; A.K. Naithani; T.N. Singh

    2014-01-01

    A 12.24 km long tunnel between Maroshi and Ruparel College is being excavated by tunnel boring machine (TBM) to improve the water supply system of Greater Mumbai, India. In this paper, attempt has been made to establish the relationship between various litho-units of Deccan traps, stability of tunnel and TBM performances during the construction of 5.83 km long tunnel between Maroshi and Vakola. The Maroshi–Vakola tunnel passes under the Mumbai Airport and crosses both runways with an overburd...

  17. Teredo navalis in the Baltic Sea: Larval Dynamics of an Invasive Wood-Boring Bivalve at the Edge of Its Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heike Lippert

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Wooden groin systems on the southwestern Baltic Sea coast are a traditional and important coastal-protection facility, but have been regularly infested and destroyed by the wood-boring bivalve Teredo navalis since the early 1990s. The occurrence of T. navalis was presumed to be limited mainly by the prevailing low salinities. Recently, a possible range expansion of this invasive species to the more eastern parts of the Baltic Sea has been discussed. T. navalis larval settlement was therefore monitored at the distribution boundary of the species in the Baltic Sea over a period of 4 years. At 7 stations along the prevailing salinity gradient on the Mecklenburg-western Pomeranian coast, larval traps were installed at regular time intervals, while at the same time water temperature and salinity were measured continuously every hour. Correlations between measured abiotic parameters and borehole abundance of T. navalis were tested. For the German Baltic Sea coast, no range expansion of T. navalis was confirmed. The salinity and temperatures at the groin systems varied among the study years, and significant correlations between T. navalis borehole abundance and salinity as well as temperature were found. Higher summer temperatures favor the T. navalis borehole abundance on the Mecklenburg-western Pomeranian coast, and may slightly shift the distribution border of this species toward lower salinities.

  18. Influence of ethanol as bore fluid component on the morphological structure and performance of PES hollow fiber membrane for oil in water separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otitoju, Tunmise Ayode; Ahmad, Abdul Latif; Ooi, Boon Seng [Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang (Malaysia)

    2017-10-15

    The relationships among varying bore fluid compositions containing ethanol/water were studied. The ethanol composition was varied in the ratio of 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%. The membrane dope solutions were prepared from 17.25 wt% polyethersulfone (PES), 0.75 wt% polyethylene glycol (PEG), 3 wt% silicon dioxide sol and 78.25 wt% of 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) via dry-jet spinning process. The membranes’ morphology as a result of varying ethanol ratio in the bore fluid composition was characterized and their effects on crude oil/water emulsion separation were evaluated. Results show that the membrane pore size and porosity decreased with increasing ethanol content in the bore fluid mixture, whereas the inner wall thickness of fibers increased. Furthermore, an increase in ethanol concentration also resulted in a slight increase in water contact angle. The use of 100/0 of ethanol/water resulted in UF membranes with the lowest performance. On the other hand, bore fluid mixture containing 25/75 ethanol/water produced membrane with the best performance for crude oil/water separation. Overall, the use of bore fluid mixture containing 25/75 ethanol/water mixture was found to be a powerful way to tune the morphological properties and performance of HF membrane.

  19. Influence of ethanol as bore fluid component on the morphological structure and performance of PES hollow fiber membrane for oil in water separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otitoju, Tunmise Ayode; Ahmad, Abdul Latif; Ooi, Boon Seng

    2017-01-01

    The relationships among varying bore fluid compositions containing ethanol/water were studied. The ethanol composition was varied in the ratio of 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%. The membrane dope solutions were prepared from 17.25 wt% polyethersulfone (PES), 0.75 wt% polyethylene glycol (PEG), 3 wt% silicon dioxide sol and 78.25 wt% of 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) via dry-jet spinning process. The membranes’ morphology as a result of varying ethanol ratio in the bore fluid composition was characterized and their effects on crude oil/water emulsion separation were evaluated. Results show that the membrane pore size and porosity decreased with increasing ethanol content in the bore fluid mixture, whereas the inner wall thickness of fibers increased. Furthermore, an increase in ethanol concentration also resulted in a slight increase in water contact angle. The use of 100/0 of ethanol/water resulted in UF membranes with the lowest performance. On the other hand, bore fluid mixture containing 25/75 ethanol/water produced membrane with the best performance for crude oil/water separation. Overall, the use of bore fluid mixture containing 25/75 ethanol/water mixture was found to be a powerful way to tune the morphological properties and performance of HF membrane.

  20. Determination of bore efficiency loss employed as powder in boral fabrication, proportionately to the dimension of grain; Determination de la reduction d'efficacite du bore ou d'un autre absorbeur employe sous forme de poudre dissemine dans un produit non absorbant, en fonction de la grosseur des grains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laforge, P; Millot, J P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1957-07-01

    Authors' mind was attracted by the importance of bore granulometry when employed as powder in boral fabrication. The calculation, object of this report, permits to give values for bore efficiency loss, proportionately to the dimension of spherical or ellipsoidal supposed grains. Grains to be employed should exceptionally only exceed 20 {mu} for a correspondent efficiency loss of 8 per cent about. (author) [French] L'attention des auteurs a ete attiree sur l'importance de la granulometrie du bore employe sous forme de poudre dans la fabrication du boral. Le calcul qui fait l'objet de ce rapport permet de chiffrer la perte d'efficacite du bore en fonction de la dimension des grains supposes spheriques ou ellipsoidaux. Les grains a employer ne devraient qu'exceptionnellement etre superieurs a 20 microns, ce qui correspond a une perte d'efficacite d'environ 8 pour cent. (auteur)

  1. Cone Penetration Test and Soil Boring at the Bayside Groundwater Project Site in San Lorenzo, Alameda County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Michael J.; Sneed, Michelle; Noce, Thomas E.; Tinsley, John C.

    2009-01-01

    Aquifer-system deformation associated with ground-water-level changes is being investigated cooperatively by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the East Bay Municipal Utility District (EBMUD) at the Bayside Groundwater Project (BGP) near the modern San Francisco Bay shore in San Lorenzo, California. As a part of this project, EBMUD has proposed an aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) program to store and recover as much as 3.78x104 m3/d of water. Water will be stored in a 30-m sequence of coarse-grained sediment (the 'Deep Aquifer') underlying the east bay alluvium and the adjacent ground-water basin. Storing and recovering water could cause subsidence and uplift at the ASR site and adjacent areas because the land surface will deform as aquifers and confining units elastically expand and contract with ASR cycles. The Deep Aquifer is overlain by more than 150 m of clayey fine-grained sediments and underlain by comparable units. These sediments are similar to the clayey sediments found in the nearby Santa Clara Valley, where inelastic compaction resulted in about 4.3 m of subsidence near San Jose from 1910 to 1995 due to overdraft of the aquifer. The Deep Aquifer is an important regional resource, and EBMUD is required to demonstrate that ASR activities will not affect nearby ground-water management, salinity levels, or cause permanent land subsidence. Subsidence in the east bay area could induce coastal flooding and create difficulty conveying winter storm runoff from urbanized areas. The objective of the cooperative investigation is to monitor and analyze aquifer-system compaction and expansion, as well as consequent land subsidence and uplift resulting from natural causes and any anthropogenic causes related to ground-water development and ASR activities at the BGP. Therefore, soil properties related to compressibility (and the potential for deformation associated with ground-water-level changes) are of the most concern. To achieve this objective, 3 boreholes

  2. Proof-of-feasibility of using well bore deformation as a diagnostic tool to improve CO2 sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murdoch, Larry [Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Moysey, Stephen [Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Germanovich, Leonid [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Hughes, Baker [Clemson Univ., SC (United States)

    2016-01-13

    Injecting CO2 raises pore pressure and this causes subsurface formations to deform. The pattern and amount of deformation will reflect the distribution of pressure and formation properties in the subsurface, two quantities of interest during CO2 storage. The hypothesis underlying this research is that the small deformation accompanying CO2 storage can be measured and interpreted to improve the storage process.

  3. Well bore Flow Treatment Used to Predict Radioactive Brine Releases to the Surface from Future Drilling Penetrations into the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), New Mexico, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brien, D.G.O.; Stoelzel, D.M.; Hadgu, T.

    1999-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) mined geologic repository in southeastern New Mexico, USA.This site is designed for the permanent burial of transuranic radioactive waste generated by defense related activities.The waste produces gases when exposed to brine. This gas generation may result in increased pressures over time. Therefore, a future driller that unknowingly penetrates through the site may experience a blowout. This paper describes the methodology used to predict the resultant volumes of contaminated brine released

  4. Sandy Damage Estimates by Block Group

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — A FEMA housing inspection for renters is used to assess personal property loss and for owners to assess damage to their home as well as personal property. This...

  5. 7 CFR 51.2657 - Serious damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the edible or marketing quality of the fruit. The following specific defects shall be considered as serious damage: (a) Decay; (b) Insect larvae or holes caused by them; (c) Skin breaks which are not well...

  6. Assembly and Test of HD2, a 36 mm bore high field Nb3Sn Dipole Magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferracin, P.; Bingham, B.; Caspi, S.; Cheng, D.W.; Dietderich, D.R.; Felice, H.; Godeke, A.; Hafalia, A.R.; Hannaford, C.R.; Joseph, J.; Lietzke, A.F.; Lizarazo, J.; Sabbi, G.; Trillaud, F.; Wang, X.

    2008-01-01

    We report on the fabrication, assembly, and test of the Nb 3 Sn dipole magnet HD2. The magnet, aimed at demonstrating the application of Nb 3 Sn superconductor in high field accelerator-type dipoles, features a 36 mm clear bore surrounded by block-type coils with tilted ends. The coil design is optimized to minimize geometric harmonics in the aperture and the magnetic peak field on the conductor in the coil ends. The target bore field of 15 T at 4.3 K is consistent with critical current measurements of extracted strands. The coils are horizontally pre-stressed during assembly using an external aluminum shell pre-tensioned with water-pressurized bladders. Axial pre-loading of the coil ends is accomplished through two end plates and four aluminum tension rods. The strain in coil, shell, and rods is monitored with strain gauges during assembly, cool-down and magnet excitation, and compared with 3D finite element computations. Magnet's training performance, quench locations, and ramp-rate dependence are then analyzed and discussed.

  7. Evaluación de tres dietas con harina de hoja de bore (Alocasia macrorrhiza en pollos de engorde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredy López M.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Evaluar el efecto nutricional de incluir la harina de hoja de bore, en proporciones de 0 (T1, 5 (T2, 10 (T3 y 15% (T4, en la alimentación de 100 pollos machos de la línea Ross 308. Materiales y Métodos. Se empleo un diseño experimental completamente al azar con cuatro tratamientos, cinco repeticiones por tratamiento y cinco unidades experimentales por repetición. Para su respectivo análisis se registró consumo diario, ganancia de peso, conversión alimenticia, mortalidad y eficiencia económica, durante un periodo de 6 semanas. Resultados. Se observó que no existieron diferencias estadísticas significativas en conversión alimenticia, pero si en consumo, ganancia de peso y eficiencia económica (p< 0.05, siendo el mejor tratamiento el T2, con un consumo de 4003.4 g, una ganancia de peso de 1794.4g una conversión de 2.4 y un beneficio neto de campo de 107.88%. Conclusiones. La harina de hoja de bore es una alternativa de alimentación para pollos de engorde, al emplearla al 5% de nivel de inclusión, como materia prima no convencional, la cual permite generar un buen comportamiento productivo y económico.

  8. Eddy current and quench loads and stress of SSC collider 4-K liner and the bore tube during magnet quench

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, K.K.; Shu, Q.S.

    1993-07-01

    This paper describes the response of the eddy current and quench loads on a proposed Superconducting SuperCollider 4-K liner system. The liner within a bore tube is designed to remove the radiated power and the photodesorbed gas that impair the beam tube vacuum. The bimetallic liner tube is subjected to cooldown and eddy current loads. The square liner tube is a two-shell laminated Nitronic-40 steel is used for strength and a copper inner layer for low impedance to the image currents. Perforated holes are used to remove the photodesorbed gases for vacuum maintenance. The holes are located in a low-stress area of the liner. Rectangular holes in a four-pole symmetry pattern are required for beam dynamic stability. The liner is conductivity cooled by the round steel bore tube with a 2-mm wall. The copper layer must not be stressed over the yield strength limit because copper properties such as conductivity are known to change when the copper is stressed over yield strength. This analysis will address liner system response under thermal, eddy current, and vaporized liquid helium loads in a quenching dipole magnet

  9. Raise Boring of the ventilation shaft in Olkiluoto, 17. - 23.5.2006. Preliminary analysis of seismic signal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saari, J.; Lakio, A. [AaF-Enprima Oy, Vantaa (Finland)

    2007-01-15

    In Olkiluoto, Posiva Oy has operated a local seismic network since February 2002. The purpose of the microearthquake measurements at Olkiluoto is to improve understanding of the structure, behaviour and long term stability of the bedrock. The studies include both tectonic and excavation-induced microearthquakes. An additional task of monitoring is related to safeguarding of the ONKALO. The possibility to excavate an illegal access to the ONKALO, have been concerned when the safeguards are discussed. Therefore all recorded explosions in the Olkiluoto area and in the ONKALO are located. If a concentration of explosions is observed, the origin of that is found out. Also a concept of hidden illegal explosions, detonated at the same time as the real excavation blasts, has been examined. According to the experience gained in Olkiluoto, it can be concluded that, as long the seismic network is in operation and the results are analysed by a skilled person, it is practically impossible to do illegal excavation by blasts. In this report a possibility of seismic monitoring of illegal excavation done by tunnel boring machine has been investigated. Characteristics of the seismic signal generated by the raise boring machine are analysed. According to this study, it can be concluded that the generated seismic signal can be detected and the source of the signal can be located. However, this task calls for different kind of monitoring system than that, which is currently used for monitoring microearthquakes and explosions. (orig.)

  10. A new-generation asymmetric multi-bore hollow fiber membrane for sustainable water production via vacuum membrane distillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Chung, Tai-Shung

    2013-06-18

    Due to the growing demand for potable water, the capacities for wastewater reclamation and saline water desalination have been increasing. More concerns are raised on the poor efficiency of removing certain contaminants by the current water purification technologies. Recent studies demonstrated superior separation performance of the vacuum membrane distillation (VMD) technology for the rejection of trace contaminants such as boron, dye, endocrine-disruptive chemical, and chloro-compound. However, the absence of suitable membranes with excellent wetting resistance and high permeation flux has severely hindered the VMD application as an effective water production process. This work presents a new generation multibore hollow fiber (MBF) membrane with excellent mechanical durability developed for VMD. Its micromorphology was uniquely designed with a tight surface and a fully porous matrix to maximize both high wetting resistance and permeation flux. Credit to the multibore configuration, a 65% improvement was obtained on the antiwetting property. Using a synthetic seawater feed, the new membrane with optimized fabrication condition exhibits a high flux and the salt rejection is consistently greater than 99.99%. In addition, a comparison of 7-bore and 6-bore MBF membranes was performed to investigate the optimum geometry design. The newly designed MBF membrane not only demonstrates its suitability for VMD but also makes VMD come true as an efficient process for water production.

  11. Comparing sensitivity and count rate performance of small-bore DOI-PET scanners by computer simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Tetsuya; Takahashi, Hisashi; Yamaya, Taiga; Murayama, Hideo; Kitamura, Keishi; Hasegawa, Tomoyuki; Suga, Mikio

    2006-01-01

    In the development of a dedicated small-bore DOI-PET scanner for small animals (jPET-RD), we performed Monte Carlo simulations using the GATE based on Geant4 and investigated the influence of the proximity of the detectors to the target object on the sensitivity and count rate performance. The jPET-RD is based on a large-size depth-of-interaction (DOI) block detector that consists of a 4-layered array of 32 x 32 LSO crystals (1.4 mm x 1.4 mm x 4.5 mm) and a 256-ch flat panel position-sensitive photomultiplier tube. In this work, three detector geometries were simulated: two rings of six detector blocks arranged in a hexagonal pattern (FOV 85 mm in diameter) and four detector blocks arranged in a tetragonal pattern (FOV 49 mm in diameter) and in an overlapped tetragonal pattern (FOV 38 mm in diameter). The simulation results showed that the smaller bore geometry can provide higher sensitivity because of its larger solid angle. Although it clearly affected the noise equivalent count rate (NECR) due to its high dead-time, parallel readout with appropriate anode segmentation improved the NECR at 20 MBq by a factor of 1.1 to 1.4 compared with the case of 256-ch anodes read out by one front-end circuit. (author)

  12. A cradle-shaped gradient coil to expand the clear-bore width of an animal MRI scanner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, K M; Gati, J S; Klassen, L M; Menon, R S [Centre for Functional and Metabolic Mapping, Robarts Research Institute, The University of Western Ontario, PO Box 5015, 100 Perth Drive, London, Ontario, N6A 5K8 (Canada)], E-mail: kgilbert@imaging.robarts.ca

    2010-01-21

    The never ending quest for higher magnetic field strengths in MRI and MRS has led to small and medium bore scanners at 9.4 T and above for both human and animal use; however, these bore diameters restrict the size of object that can be accommodated when using a conventional gradient coil. By replacing a cylindrical gradient-coil insert with a single-sided gradient coil, the scanner's functionality can be extended to include localized imaging of wider samples. As a prototype, a three-axis, cradle-shaped gradient coil was designed, fabricated and implemented in a 9.4 T animal MRI scanner. Since gradient fields are required only to be monotonic over the desired field of view, the cradle gradient coil was designed to produce high gradient efficiencies (up to 2.25 mT m{sup -1} A{sup -1} over a 5 cm imaging region) at the expense of gradient linearity. A dedicated three-dimensional algorithm was developed to correct the resultant image distortion. Preliminary images of a grid phantom and a mouse demonstrated the fidelity of the algorithm in correcting image distortion of greater than 200%. Eddy currents were measured along each gradient axis. A large 65.2 (Hz mT{sup -1} m) B{sub 0} eddy current was produced by the y-axis, suggesting potential limitations of single-sided gradient coils.

  13. Raise Boring of the ventilation shaft in Olkiluoto, 17. - 23.5.2006. Preliminary analysis of seismic signal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saari, J.; Lakio, A.

    2007-01-01

    In Olkiluoto, Posiva Oy has operated a local seismic network since February 2002. The purpose of the microearthquake measurements at Olkiluoto is to improve understanding of the structure, behaviour and long term stability of the bedrock. The studies include both tectonic and excavation-induced microearthquakes. An additional task of monitoring is related to safeguarding of the ONKALO. The possibility to excavate an illegal access to the ONKALO, have been concerned when the safeguards are discussed. Therefore all recorded explosions in the Olkiluoto area and in the ONKALO are located. If a concentration of explosions is observed, the origin of that is found out. Also a concept of hidden illegal explosions, detonated at the same time as the real excavation blasts, has been examined. According to the experience gained in Olkiluoto, it can be concluded that, as long the seismic network is in operation and the results are analysed by a skilled person, it is practically impossible to do illegal excavation by blasts. In this report a possibility of seismic monitoring of illegal excavation done by tunnel boring machine has been investigated. Characteristics of the seismic signal generated by the raise boring machine are analysed. According to this study, it can be concluded that the generated seismic signal can be detected and the source of the signal can be located. However, this task calls for different kind of monitoring system than that, which is currently used for monitoring microearthquakes and explosions. (orig.)

  14. Radiation-induced liver damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcial, V.A.; Santiago-Delpin, E.A.; Lanaro, A.E.; Castro-Vita, H.; Arroyo, G.; Moscol, J.A.; Gomez, C.; Velazquez, J.; Prado, K.

    1977-01-01

    Due to the recent increase in the use of radiation therapy in the treatment of cancer with or without chemotherapy, the risk of liver radiation damage has become a significant concern for the radiotherapist when the treated tumour is located in the upper abdomen or lower thorax. Clinically evident radiation liver damage may result in significant mortality, but at times patients recover without sequelae. The dose of 3000 rads in 3 weeks to the entire liver with 5 fractions per week of 200 rads each, seems to be tolerated well clinically by adult humans. Lower doses may lead to damage when used in children, when chemotherapy is added, as in recent hepatectomy cases, and in the presence of pre-existent liver damage. Reduced fractionation may lead to increased damage. Increased fractionation, limitation of the dose delivered to the entire liver, and restriction of the high dose irradiation volume may afford protection. With the aim of studying the problems of hepatic radiation injury in humans, a project of liver irradiation in the dog is being conducted. Mongrel dogs are being conditioned, submitted to pre-irradiation studies (haemogram, blood chemistry, liver scan and biopsy), irradiated under conditions resembling human cancer therapy, and submitted to post-irradiation evaluation of the liver. Twenty-two dogs have been entered in the study but only four qualify for the evaluation of all the study parameters. It has been found that dogs are susceptible to liver irradiation damage similar to humans. The initial mortality has been high mainly due to non-radiation factors which are being kept under control at the present phase of the study. After the initial experiences, the study will involve variations in total dose and fractionation, and the addition of anticoagulant therapy for possible prevention of radiation liver injury. (author)

  15. Using PDV to Understand Damage in Rocket Motor Propellants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tear, Gareth; Chapman, David; Ottley, Phillip; Proud, William; Gould, Peter; Cullis, Ian

    2017-06-01

    There is a continuing requirement to design and manufacture insensitive munition (IM) rocket motors for in-service use under a wide range of conditions, particularly due to shock initiation and detonation of damaged propellant spalled across the central bore of the rocket motor (XDT). High speed photography has been crucial in determining this behaviour, however attempts to model the dynamic behaviour are limited by the lack of precision particle and wave velocity data with which to validate against. In this work Photonic Doppler Velocimetery (PDV) has been combined with high speed video to give accurate point velocity and timing measurements of the rear surface of a propellant block impacted by a fragment travelling upto 1.4 km s-1. By combining traditional high speed video with PDV through a dichroic mirror, the point of velocity measurement within the debris cloud has been determined. This demonstrates a new capability to characterise the damage behaviour of a double base rocket motor propellant and hence validate the damage and fragmentation algorithms used in the numerical simulations.

  16. Subsurface deposition of Cu-rich massive sulphide underneath a Palaeoproterozoic seafloor hydrothermal system—the Red Bore prospect, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agangi, Andrea; Reddy, S. M.; Plavsa, D.; Vieru, C.; Selvaraja, V.; LaFlamme, C.; Jeon, H.; Martin, L.; Nozaki, T.; Takaya, Y.; Suzuki, K.

    2018-02-01

    The Proterozoic Bryah and Yerrida basins of Western Australia contain important base and precious metal deposits. Here we present microtextural data, trace element and S isotope analyses of massive sulphide mineralisation hosted in Palaeoproterozoic subvolcanic rocks (dolerite) recently discovered at Red Bore. The small-scale high-grade mineralisation, which extends from the sub-surface to at least 95 m down-hole, is dominated by massive chalcopyrite and contains minor pyrite and Bi-Te-(Se) phases. Massive sulphide mineralisation is surrounded by discontinuous brecciated massive magnetite, and a narrow (data are permissive of a genetic association of Red Bore mineralisation with VHMS deposits nearby, thus suggesting a direct connection between magmatism and mineralising fluids responsible for VHMS deposition at surface. Therefore, the Red Bore mineralisation may represent the magmatic roots of a VHMS system.

  17. Damage-resistant brittle coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawn, B.R.; Lee, K.S. [National Inst. of Stand. and Technol., Gaithersburg, MD (United States). Mater. Sci. and Eng. Lab.; Chai, H. [Tel Aviv Univ. (Israel). Faculty of Engineering; Pajares, A. [Universidad de Extremadura, Badajoz (Spain). Dept. de Fisica; Kim, D.K. [Korea Advanced Inst. of Science and Technolgy, Taejon (Korea). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Wuttiphan, S. [National Metal and Materials Technology Center, Bangkok (Thailand); Peterson, I.M. [Corning Inc., NY (United States); Hu Xiaozhi [Western Australia Univ., Nedlands, WA (Australia). Dept. of Mechanical and Materials Engineering

    2000-11-01

    Laminate structures consisting of hard, brittle coatings and soft, tough substrates are important in a wide variety of engineering applications, biological structures, and traditional pottery. In this study the authors introduce a new approach to the design of damage-resistant brittle coatings, based on a combination of new and existing relations for crack initiation in well-defined contact-induced stress fields. (orig.)

  18. Long-term influence of multiple heat extraction bore-holes; programme 3-D FRACTure and comparison with a g-function calculated with the SBM programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenni, R.; Kohl, Th. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule (ETH), Institut fuer Geophysik, Hoenggerberg (Switzerland); Pahud, D. [Scuola universitaria professionale della Svizzera italiana (SUPSI), Dipartimento delle costruzioni e del territorio (DCT), Laboratorio di energia, ecologia ed economia LEEE, Canobbio (Switzerland)

    2001-07-01

    For typical bore-hole heat exchangers (length of about 100 m), the long-term influence of neighbouring bore-hole heat exchangers normally appears after several years of operation, and approaches asymptotically a stationary state. Depending on the number of bore-holes involved, it may take from several tens up to several hundred of years before the magnitude of the influence stabilises. Under these conditions it is difficult to collect measurements of thermally interacting bore-hole heat exchangers. However, there is a need to be able to answer the question of the long-term influence of neighbouring borehole heat exchangers, as this situation is supposed to occur more often in the future, as the number of ground-coupled heat pump systems (GCHP system) steadily increases with time. This topic needs also to be studied if themes such as 'neighbour rights' or sustainability related to GCHP system are discussed. This report is focused on the first phase of the project, whose objective is to check the g-function calculation with a more detailed programme. Three bore-holes on an equilateral triangle is the borehole configuration chosen for the comparison between the two computer programmes FRACTure and SBM. SBM is used in the g-function mode, in order to test the concept of g-function against the more detailed programme FRACTure. The agreement between the results obtained with the two programmes indicates that for typical 100 m deep bore-holes the g-function analysis provides fast and sufficiently accurate results. (author)

  19. Logging while drilling keeps horizontal well on small target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leake, J.; Shray, F.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that the logging-while-drilling (LWD) measurement to two resistivities of different characteristics had led to a new interpretation method for the analysis of horizontal wells. By logging deep and shallow resistivity in real-time, marker beds were identified to help maintain well bore trajectory. The resistivity measurements were split into vertical and horizontal components to provide additional information of formation evaluation. In 1945, Ark Fuel Co. discovered and began developing the Olla field on the crest of the La Salle arch in La Salle Parish, La. Oil production comes from the Wilcox formation from alluvial sand packages that range in thickness from 3 ft to 120 ft. Now operated by Oxy U.S.A. Inc., Olla field was chosen in 1990 for a horizontal well pilot project. It was hoped that a horizontal well could alleviate water coming in one of the field's more productive sand packages- the 40-ft Cruse sand

  20. Radiation damage to mushrooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sattler, P.W.

    1986-01-01

    This document contains newspaper cuttings and correspondence with various ministries in Hessen on the subject of radiation damage to mushrooms from the Odenwald area. The reader is given, amongst other things, detailed information on radiation damage to different types of mushroom in 1986. (MG) [de

  1. Animal damage to birch

    Science.gov (United States)

    James S. Jordan; Francis M. Rushmore

    1969-01-01

    A relatively few animal species are responsible for most of the reported damage to the birches. White-tailed deer, yellow-bellied sapsuckers, porcupines, moose, and hares are the major animals involved. We will review reports of damage, discuss the underlying causes, and describe possible methods of control. For example, heavy deer browsing that eliminates birch...

  2. Animal damage management handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugh C. Black

    1994-01-01

    This handbook treats animal damage management (ADM) in the West in relation to forest, range, and recreation resources; predator management is not addressed. It provides a comprehensive reference of safe, effective, and practical methods for managing animal damage on National Forest System lands. Supporting information is included in references after each chapter and...

  3. Nuclear damage - civil liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simoes, A.C.

    1980-01-01

    An analysis is made of the civil liability for nuclear damage since there is a need to adjust the existing rules to the new situations created. The conventions that set up the new disciplining rules not considered in the common law for the liability of nuclear damage are also mentioned. (A.L.) [pt

  4. DNA damage and autophagy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez-Rocha, Humberto; Garcia-Garcia, Aracely; Panayiotidis, Mihalis I.; Franco, Rodrigo

    2011-01-01

    Both exogenous and endogenous agents are a threat to DNA integrity. Exogenous environmental agents such as ultraviolet (UV) and ionizing radiation, genotoxic chemicals and endogenous byproducts of metabolism including reactive oxygen species can cause alterations in DNA structure (DNA damage). Unrepaired DNA damage has been linked to a variety of human disorders including cancer and neurodegenerative disease. Thus, efficient mechanisms to detect DNA lesions, signal their presence and promote their repair have been evolved in cells. If DNA is effectively repaired, DNA damage response is inactivated and normal cell functioning resumes. In contrast, when DNA lesions cannot be removed, chronic DNA damage triggers specific cell responses such as cell death and senescence. Recently, DNA damage has been shown to induce autophagy, a cellular catabolic process that maintains a balance between synthesis, degradation, and recycling of cellular components. But the exact mechanisms by which DNA damage triggers autophagy are unclear. More importantly, the role of autophagy in the DNA damage response and cellular fate is unknown. In this review we analyze evidence that supports a role for autophagy as an integral part of the DNA damage response.

  5. Excavation damage and disturbance in crystalline rock - results from experiments and analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baeckblom, Goeran

    2008-11-01

    calculations using the PHREEQC code showed that fracture precipitation is unlikely to clog the water-conducting fractures within a 10-year period, even when considering construction material such as cement and nitrogen compounds. For most of the modelling cases, the estimated decrease in hydraulic conductivity over a period of ten years is less than 2% due to mineral precipitation. It was further concluded that it is more likely for fractures to clog (self-heal) than become open as a result of fracture mineral dissolution. With respect to the microbial evolution it was concluded that the potential for microbial iron hydroxide production will be large in all groundwater with ferrous iron. The potential for microbial calcite formation production will be large in all groundwater with high concentrations of Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC) and methane, irrespective of oxygen, Eh (redox) or pH. The kinetics of the microbial evolution is not yet known, and microbes may then play a role in fracture clogging which could possibly be the factor that contributes to lower groundwater inflow to underground facilities with time, as shown for many facilities. The compilation of results from the relevant tests at underground laboratories in Canada, Japan, Sweden and Switzerland was focussed on the extent of the damage and its dependency on excavation methods and measurements of the hydraulic properties. The most important factor controlling the excavation damage is the choice of excavation method. Use of mechanical excavation may create irreversible damage less than 30 mm from the rock wall where increased micro-fracturing contributes to an increase in hydraulic conductivity. Several methods and sample scales have been used to characterise the damage zone. For a Tunnel Boring Machine -9 m/s over a distance of 1-2 mm from the tunnel periphery, 2x10 -11 m/s at a depth of 5 mm, and 10 -13 m/s at a distance of 30 mm from the tunnel wall. The virgin crystal matrix of the rock is in the range of 10

  6. Increased productivity in construction of civil and mining tunnels through the use of high-capacity tunnel-boring machines and continuous belt conveyor muck haulage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beatty, J.G.; Ganey, R.J.; Killingsworth, J.E. [Perini Corp., Chicago, IL (United States). US Heavy Division

    1994-12-31

    The use of a large diameter high production tunnel boring machine interfaced with a high capacity continuous belt conveyor system provides a highly productive and cost effective construction system for both civil and mining tunnels. Continuous advance of the tunnel boring machine for a distance of 1,000 feet (305 m) allows for very efficient operation of the system. The available cost reductions will likely prove that this approach to waste handling will make marginally viable projects economically feasible. 9 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Test with different stress measurement methods in two orthogonal bore holes in Aespoe HRL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janson, Thomas; Stigsson, Martin [Golder Associates AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2002-12-01

    conclusions have been drawn, based on the stress measurements and deeper investigations: The following stress state is obtained at the target volume at about -455 m. The minimum horizontal stress is between 10 and 13 MPa, which is lower than the theoretical vertical stress. The maximum horizontal stress is 24 {+-}5 MPa, most likely within the upper range. The vertical stress is between 15 and 20 MPa, most probably is this value only local due to the presence of a nearby fracture. The local disturbance of the stress field in the rock mass, due to discontinuities has been demonstrated. This also indicates one of the problems with stress measurements in boreholes. In the area with significant anisotropic stress conditions all the tested methods were able to determine the orientation of the principal major horizontal stress within {+-} 10 deg. The microscopy investigations confirm two sets of microcracks in the overcored core. One set was parallel and near the bore hole bottom and one set was perpendicular to the bottom and located a bit away from the hole bottom. The results from the overcoring may be influenced by microcracks, causing additional non-elastic strains. Only the results from the DDGS seem to have been influenced, indicating that the hollow cylinder of a 3D stress cell may be less sensitive for stress induced sample disturbance than core samples from the 2D Door stopper cell. The determination of Young's modulus in a medium grained crystalline rock with heterogeneity may not be trivial using core samples. The results from the determination influence the calculated stresses. Hydraulic fracturing most likely measures the most correct value of the minimum horizontal stress, provided that the induced fracture is aligned with the borehole. If the rock behaves reasonable elastic the overcoring methods provide stress magnitudes with an uncertainty of 15-20%. It seems likely that the overcoring methods may overestimate the stress magnitudes at large depth, due to the

  8. Flood damage estimation of companies: A comparison of Stage-Damage-Functions and Random Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieg, Tobias; Kreibich, Heidi; Vogel, Kristin; Merz, Bruno

    2017-04-01

    The development of appropriate flood damage models plays an important role not only for the damage assessment after an event but also to develop adaptation and risk mitigation strategies. So called Stage-Damage-Functions (SDFs) are often applied as a standard approach to estimate flood damage. These functions assign a certain damage to the water depth depending on the use or other characteristics of the exposed objects. Recent studies apply machine learning algorithms like Random Forests (RFs) to model flood damage. These algorithms usually consider more influencing variables and promise to depict a more detailed insight into the damage processes. In addition they provide an inherent validation scheme. Our study focuses on direct, tangible damage of single companies. The objective is to model and validate the flood damage suffered by single companies with SDFs and RFs. The data sets used are taken from two surveys conducted after the floods in the Elbe and Danube catchments in the years 2002 and 2013 in Germany. Damage to buildings (n = 430), equipment (n = 651) as well as goods and stock (n = 530) are taken into account. The model outputs are validated via a comparison with the actual flood damage acquired by the surveys and subsequently compared with each other. This study investigates the gain in model performance with the use of additional data and the advantages and disadvantages of the RFs compared to SDFs. RFs show an increase in model performance with an increasing amount of data records over a comparatively large range, while the model performance of the SDFs is already saturated for a small set of records. In addition, the RFs are able to identify damage influencing variables, which improves the understanding of damage processes. Hence, RFs can slightly improve flood damage predictions and provide additional insight into the underlying mechanisms compared to SDFs.

  9. DNA damage and polyploidization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Jeremy; Poon, Randy Y C

    2010-01-01

    A growing body of evidence indicates that polyploidization triggers chromosomal instability and contributes to tumorigenesis. DNA damage is increasingly being recognized for its roles in promoting polyploidization. Although elegant mechanisms known as the DNA damage checkpoints are responsible for halting the cell cycle after DNA damage, agents that uncouple the checkpoints can induce unscheduled entry into mitosis. Likewise, defects of the checkpoints in several disorders permit mitotic entry even in the presence of DNA damage. Forcing cells with damaged DNA into mitosis causes severe chromosome segregation defects, including lagging chromosomes, chromosomal fragments and chromosomal bridges. The presence of these lesions in the cleavage plane is believed to abort cytokinesis. It is postulated that if cytokinesis failure is coupled with defects of the p53-dependent postmitotic checkpoint pathway, cells can enter S phase and become polyploids. Progress in the past several years has unraveled some of the underlying principles of these pathways and underscored the important role of DNA damage in polyploidization. Furthermore, polyploidization per se may also be an important determinant of sensitivity to DNA damage, thereby may offer an opportunity for novel therapies.

  10. Excavation damage and disturbance in crystalline rock - results from experiments and analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baeckblom, Goeran (Conrox AB, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2008-11-15

    calculations using the PHREEQC code showed that fracture precipitation is unlikely to clog the water-conducting fractures within a 10-year period, even when considering construction material such as cement and nitrogen compounds. For most of the modelling cases, the estimated decrease in hydraulic conductivity over a period of ten years is less than 2% due to mineral precipitation. It was further concluded that it is more likely for fractures to clog (self-heal) than become open as a result of fracture mineral dissolution. With respect to the microbial evolution it was concluded that the potential for microbial iron hydroxide production will be large in all groundwater with ferrous iron. The potential for microbial calcite formation production will be large in all groundwater with high concentrations of Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC) and methane, irrespective of oxygen, Eh (redox) or pH. The kinetics of the microbial evolution is not yet known, and microbes may then play a role in fracture clogging which could possibly be the factor that contributes to lower groundwater inflow to underground facilities with time, as shown for many facilities. The compilation of results from the relevant tests at underground laboratories in Canada, Japan, Sweden and Switzerland was focussed on the extent of the damage and its dependency on excavation methods and measurements of the hydraulic properties. The most important factor controlling the excavation damage is the choice of excavation method. Use of mechanical excavation may create irreversible damage less than 30 mm from the rock wall where increased micro-fracturing contributes to an increase in hydraulic conductivity. Several methods and sample scales have been used to characterise the damage zone. For a Tunnel Boring Machine < 5 mm of damage was recorded at Aespoe HRL and at Grimsel in Switzerland. The hydraulic conductivity was at e.g. Aespoe HRL determined to be in the range of 10-9 m/s over a distance of 1-2 mm from the tunnel

  11. Assembly And Test Of A 120 MM Bore 15 T Nb3Sn Quadrupole For The LHC Upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felice, H.; Caspi, S.; Cheng, D.; Dietderich, D.; Ferracin, P.; Hafalia, R.; Joseph, J.; Lizarazo, J.; Sabbi, G.L.; Wang, X.; Anerella, M.; Ghosh, A.K.; Schmalzle, J.; Wanderer, P.; Ambrosio, G.; Bossert, R.; Zlobin, A.V.

    2010-01-01

    In support of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) luminosity upgrade, the US LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP) has been developing a 1-meter long, 120 mm bore Nb 3 Sn IR quadrupole magnet (HQ). With a design short sample gradient of 219 T/m at 1.9 K and a peak field approaching 15 T, one of the main challenges of this magnet is to provide appropriate mechanical support to the coils. Compared to the previous LARP Technology Quadrupole and Long Quadrupole magnets, the purpose of HQ is also to demonstrate accelerator quality features such as alignment and cooling. So far, 8 HQ coils have been fabricated and 4 of them have been assembled and tested in HQ01a. This paper presents the mechanical assembly and test results of HQ01a.

  12. Single failure effects of reactor coolant system large bore hydraulic snubbers for Korean Standard Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, T.S.; Park, S.H.; Sung, K.K.; Kim, T.W.; Jheon, J.H.

    1996-01-01

    A potential snubber single failure is one of the safety significances identified in General Safety Issue 113 for Large Bore Hydraulic Snubber (LBHS) dynamic qualification. This paper investigates dynamic structural effects of single failures of the steam generator and reactor coolant pump snubbers in Korean Standard Nuclear Power Plant by performing the time history dynamic analyses for the reactor coolant system under seismic and postulated pipe break events. The seismic input motions considered are the synthesized ground time histories conforming to SRP 3.7.1, and he postulated pipe break input loadings result from steam generator main seam line and feedwater line pipe breaks which govern pipe breaks remaining after applying LBB to the main coolant line and primary side ranch lines equal to and greater than 12 inch nominal pipe size

  13. CONCEPTUAL DESIGN OF PION CAPTURE MAGNETS OF UP TO 15 CM BORE AND 20 T PEAK FIELD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weggel, R.J.

    2001-01-01

    For the Neutrino Factory and Muon Collider Collaboration, BNL has considered solenoidal magnet systems of several types to capture pions generated by bombarding a mercury jet with multi-GeV protons. The magnet systems generate up to 20 T, uniform to 5% throughout a cylindrical volume 0.15 m in diameter and 0.6 m long. Axially downstream the field ramps gradually downward by a factor of sixteen, while the bore increases fourfold. The steady-state system needed for an accelerator has many superconducting coils and a radiation-resistant insert of mineral-insulated hollow conductor. Less costly, pulsed systems suffice to study pion capture and the effect of a magnetic field on a jet hit by a proton beam. BNL has explored three types of magnets, each with its principal coils precooled by liquid nitrogen. One type employs two sets of coils energized sequentially. Charged in 23 s by a power supply of 5 MVA, the 16ton outer set generates 10 T and stores 28 MJ, from which, in 1/3 s, to charge a half-ton inner coil that adds 12 1/2 T to the 7 1/2 T remaining from the outer set. An alternative design uses 25 MVA to energize, in 1.4 s, a single 3-ton set of coils. The third type bows to budgetary constraints and is more modest in size and performance. A magnet of 2-3 tons generates 10-11 T with only 2 MVA, in a bore big enough (11 cm) to accommodate the jet. It forgoes the field ramp that improves pion retention

  14. Analysis on the Relationship Between Layout and Consumption of Face Cutters on Hard Rock Tunnel Boring Machines (TBMs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Qi; Bruland, Amund; Macias, Francisco Javier

    2018-01-01

    The consumption of TBM disc cutters is influenced by the ground conditions (e.g. intact rock properties, rock mass properties, etc.), the TBM boring parameters (e.g. thrust, RPM, penetration, etc.) and the cutterhead design parameters (e.g. cutterhead shape, cutter layout). Previous researchers have done much work on the influence of the ground conditions and TBM boring parameters on cutter consumption; however, limited research has been found on the relationship between the cutterhead design and cutter consumption. The purpose of the present paper is to study the influence of layout on consumption for the TBM face cutters. Data collected from six tunnels (i.e. the Røssåga Headrace Tunnel in Norway, the Qinling Railway Tunnel in China, tubes 3 and 4 of the Guadarrama Railway Tunnel in Spain, the parallel tubes of the Vigo-Das Maceiras Tunnel in Spain) were used for analysis. The cutter consumption shape curve defined as the fitted function of the normalized cutter consumption versus the cutter position radius is found to be uniquely determined by the cutter layout and was used for analysis. The straightness and smoothness indexes are introduced to evaluate the quality of the shape curves. The analytical results suggest that the spacing of face cutters in the inner and outer parts of cutterhead should to be slightly larger and smaller, respectively, than the average spacing, and the difference of the position angles between the neighbouring cutters should be constant among the cutter positions. The 2-spiral layout pattern is found to be better than other layout patterns in view of cutter consumption and cutterhead force balance.

  15. Civil liability for nuclear damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1963-01-01

    An international Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage was adopted in Vienna on 19 May 1963 by a sixty-nation conference convened by the International Atomic Energy Agency. The Convention, which is subject to ratification by the States signing it, will come into force three months after the deposit of the fifth instrument of ratification. The Convention is designee only to establish minimum rules regarding civil liability for nuclear damage; it may thus well be described as a framework convention, the main provisions of which represent the essential common denomination acceptable to as many States as possible. It leaves wide scope for national legislation and regional arrangements with a view to implementing these provisions The Convention does not purport to create a uniform civil law in this field, but it contains the minimal essential for protection of the public and forms the legal basis for uniform world-wide liability rules

  16. The law concerning indemnification of nuclear damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    This Law aims at determining the basic system concerning indemnification for nuclear damage caused by the operation of reactors, fabrication, reprocessing and use of nuclear fuel materials as well as the transportation, storing or disposal of such materials or those contaminated by such materials (including fission products) accompanying these operations in view of protecting the sufferers and contributing to the wholesome development of atomic energy enterprises. The ''nuclear damage'' referred to in this Law is the damages caused by the action during the process of fission of nuclear fuel materials or the action of radiation or the poisonous action of said nuclear fuel materials or matters contaminated by said materials (those causing poisoning or deuteropathy in human bodies by taking in or inhaling such materials). Upon giving nuclear damage by the operation of reactors and others, the atomic energy entrepreneurs concerned are responsible for indemnifying the damage. Atomic energy entrepreneurs should not operate reactors without first taking the measures for indemnifying nuclear damages. Said measures are conclusion of nuclear damage indemnification responsibility insurance contract and nuclear damage indemnification contract or deposit, by which 6,000 million yen may be earmarked for such indemnification per factory, place of business or nuclear ship

  17. LSD and Genetic Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dishotsky, Norman I.; And Others

    1971-01-01

    Reviews studies of the effects of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) on man and other organisms. Concludes that pure LSD injected in moderate doses does not cause chromosome or detectable genetic damage and is not a teratogen or carcinogen. (JM)

  18. Diabetes and nerve damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabetic neuropathy; Diabetes - neuropathy; Diabetes - peripheral neuropathy ... In people with diabetes, the body's nerves can be damaged by decreased blood flow and a high blood sugar level. This condition is ...

  19. Development of small-bore, high-current-density railgun as testbed for study of plasma-materials interaction. Progress report for October 16, 2000 - May 13, 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyekyoon, Kim-Kevin

    2003-01-01

    The present document is a final technical report summarizing the progress made during 10/16/2000 - 05/13/2003 toward the development of a small-bore railgun with transaugmentation as a testbed for investigating plasma-materials interaction

  20. Sintering of beryllium oxide with 3-4 per cent elemental boron; Frittage de l'oxyde de beryllium a 3 et 5 pour cent de bore element

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pointud, R; Rispal, Ch; Le Garec, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    In order to manufacture a baffle absorbing neutrons of various energies, there was developed or mixture of a slower and an absorber. It is made by hot pressing impure beryllium containing boron carbide. The dense briquette has 100 x 100 x 50 mm and is machined on all her faces. She is of 2,85 density and about 3 to 4 per cent porosity, according to 5 per cent of boron. Difference of boron amount is lower than ten per cent between any two points of the briquette. (author) [French] Pour fabriquer un ecran absorbeur des neutrons d'energies diverses, on a realise l'association d'un element ralentisseur, Ie beryllium, et d'un element absorbant, le bore, par frittage sous charge d'une poudre mixte contenant de l'oxyde de beryllium technique et du carbure de bore technique. Le comprime obtenu est une brique de 100 x 100 x 50 mm, usinee sur toutes sur toutes surfaces, d'une densite de 2,85, porosite d'environ 3 a 4 pour cent pour une teneur en bore de 5 pour cent. L'heterogeneite en bore entre les differents points de cette brique est inferieure a 10 pour cent. (auteur)

  1. Cost-Effectiveness Comparison of Imaging-Guided Prostate Biopsy Techniques: Systematic Transrectal Ultrasound, Direct In-Bore MRI, and Image Fusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venderink, W.; Govers, T.M.; Rooij, M. de; Futterer, J.J.; Sedelaar, J.P.M.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Three commonly used prostate biopsy approaches are systematic transrectal ultrasound guided, direct in-bore MRI guided, and image fusion guided. The aim of this study was to calculate which strategy is most cost-effective. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A decision tree and Markov model were

  2. Dosage of boron traces in graphite, uranium and beryllium oxide; Dosage de traces de bore dans le graphite, l'uranium et l'oxyde de beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coursier, J [Ecole Nationale Superieure de Physique et Chimie Industrielles, 75 - Paris (France); Hure, J; Platzer, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1955-07-01

    The problem of the dosage of the boron in the materials serving to the construction of nuclear reactors arises of the following way: to determine to about 0,1 ppm close to the quantities of boron of the order of tenth ppm. We have chosen the colorimetric analysis with curcumin as method of dosage. To reach the indicated contents, it is necessary to do a previous separation of the boron and the materials of basis, either by extraction of tetraphenylarsonium fluoborate in the case of the boron dosage in uranium and the beryllium oxide, either by the use of a cations exchanger resin of in the case of graphite. (M.B.) [French] Le probleme du dosage du bore dans les materiaux servant a la construction de reacteurs nucleaires se pose de la facon suivante: determiner a environ 0,1 ppm pres des quantites de bore de l'ordre de quelques dixiemes de ppm. Nous avons choisit la colorimetrie a la curcumine comme methode de dosage. Pour atteindre les teneurs indiquees, il est necessaire d'effectuer une separation prealable du bore et des materiaux de base, soit par extraction du fluoborate de tetraphenylarsonium dans le cas du dosage de bore dans l'uranium et l'oxyde de beryllium, soit par l'utilisation d'une resine echangeuse de cations dans le cas du graphite. (M.B.)

  3. Convention on supplementary compensation for nuclear damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chinese Nuclear Society, Beijing; U.S. Nuclear Energy Institute

    2000-01-01

    The Contracting parties recognize the importance of the measures provided in the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage and the Paris Convention on Third party liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy as well as in national legislation on compensation for nuclear damage consistent with the principles of these conventions. The Contracting parties desire to establish a worldwide liability regime to supplement and enhance these measures with a view to increasing the amount of compensation for nuclear damage and encourage regional and global co-operation to promote a higher level of nuclear safety in accordance with the principle of international partnership and solidarity

  4. An Intense Traveling Airglow Front in the Upper Mesosphere-Lower Thermosphere with Characteristic of a Turbulent Bore Observed over Alice Springs, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walterscheid, R. L.; Hecht, J. H.; Hickey, M. P.; Gelinas, L. J.; Vincent, R. A.; Reid, I. M.; Woithe, J.

    2010-12-01

    The Aerospace Corporation’s Nightglow Imager observed a large step-function change in airglow in the form of a traveling front in the OH and O2 airglow emissions over Alice Springs Australia on February 2, 2003. The front exhibited a stepwise increase of nearly a factor two in the OH brightness and a stepwise decrease in the O2 brightness. The change in brightness in each layer was associated with a strong leading disturbance followed by a train of weak barely visible waves. The OH airglow brightness behind the front was the brightness night for 02 at Alice Springs that we have measured in seven years of observations. The OH brightness was among the five brightest. The event was associated with a strong phase-locked two-day wave (TDW).We have analyzed the stability conditions for the upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere and found that the airglow layers were found in a region of strong ducting. The thermal structure was obtained from combining data from the SABER instrument on the TIMED satellite and the NRLMSISE-00 model. The wind profile was obtained by combining the HWM07 model and MF radar winds from Buckland Park Australia. We found that the TDW-disturbed profile was significantly more effective in supporting a high degree of ducting than a profile based only on HWM07 winds. Dramatic wall events have been interpreted as manifestations of undular bores (e.g., Smith et al. [2003]). Undular bores are nonlinear high Froude number events that must generate an ever increasing train of waves to carry the excess energy away from the bore front. Only a very weak wave train behind the initial disturbance was seen for the Alice Springs event. The form of the amplitude ordering was not typical of a nonlinear wave train. Therefore a bore interpretation requires another means of energy dissipation, namely turbulent dissipation. We suggest that a reasonable interpretation of the observed event is a turbulent bore. We are unaware of any previous event having

  5. Characterization of the excavation disturbance caused by boring of the experimental full scale deposition holes in the Research Tunnel of Olkiluoto

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Autio, J.

    1997-09-01

    Three holes, the size of deposition holes, were bored in the Research Tunnel using a novel full-face boring technique. During the boring test, procedures were carried out in order to determine the effect of changes in operating parameters on the performance of the boring machine and the quality of the hole. Evaluation of the quality of the hole included studies of the geometry of the holes, measurements of surface roughness using a laser profilometer, rock mechanical determinations and study of excavation disturbances in the zone adjacent to the surface of the holes using two novel methods, the He-gas method and the 14 C-polymethylmethacrylate ( 14 C-PMMA) method. It was found that there is a distinct disturbed zone adjacent to the surface of the full scale deposition holes which can be divided into three different zones. The zones are as follows: a crushed zone penetrating to a depth of about 3 mm from the surface, a fractured zone extending to a depth of 6 - 10 mm from the crushed zone and a micro fractured zone extending to a depth of 15 - 31 mm from the fractured zone. The porosity of the rock in the disturbed zone measured using the 14 C-PMMA method was clearly greater than the porosity of undisturbed rock to a depth of about 11 mm. The values of permeability and effective diffusion coefficient in the disturbed zone measured in a direction perpendicular to the disturbed surface were found to be approximately one order of magnitude larger than those of undisturbed rock. The degree of disturbance was found to be greater where higher levels of thrust had been employed during the boring process. The results obtained also suggest that the disturbance caused by using 4- and 5-row cutters in the cutter head is more pronounced than the disturbance caused when using 5- and 6-row cutters

  6. Triple-bore hollow fiber membrane contactor for liquid desiccant based air dehumidification

    KAUST Repository

    Bettahalli Narasimha, Murthy Srivatsa; Lefers, Ryan; Fedoroff, Nina V.; Leiknes, TorOve; Nunes, Suzana Pereira

    2016-01-01

    the potential for desiccant carryover to the air and the potential for contamination of the liquid desiccant by dust and other airborne materials, as well as minimizing corrosion. However, the expected additional mass transport barrier of the membrane surface

  7. Radiation damage of structural materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koutsky, J.; Kocik, J.

    1994-01-01

    Maintaining the integrity of nuclear power plants (NPP) is critical in the prevention or control of severe accidents. This monograph deals with both basic groups of structural materials used in the design of light-water nuclear reactors, making the primary safety barriers of NPPs. Emphasis is placed on materials used in VVER-type nuclear reactors: Cr-Mo-V and Cr-Ni-Mo-V steel for reactor pressure vessels (RPV) and Zr-Nb alloys for fuel element cladding. The book is divided into seven main chapters, with the exception of the opening one and the chapter providing phenomenological background for the subject of radiation damage. Chapters 3-6 are devoted to RPV steels and chapters 7-9 to zirconium alloys, analyzing their radiation damage structure, changes of mechanical properties due to neutron irradiation as well as factors influencing the degree of their performance degradation. The recovery of damaged materials is also discussed. Considerable attention is paid to a comparison of VVER-type and western-type light-water materials

  8. Damage-induced tensile instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hult, J.

    1975-01-01

    The paper presents a unified description of ductile and brittle rupture phenomena in structural components under tensile loading with particular emphasis on creep rupture. Two structural elements are analyzed in detail: 1) the uniform tensile bar subject to a Heaviside history of tensile force and superimposed such loadings, i.e. staircase histories, and 2) the thinwalled spherical pressure vessel subject to a Heaviside history of internal pressure. For both these structures the conditions for instantaneous as well as delayed rupture are analysed. It is shown that a state of mechanical instability will be reached at a certain load or after a certain time. The cases of purely ductile rupture and purely brittle fracture are identified as two limiting cases of this general instability phenomenon. The Kachanov-Rabotnov damage law implies that a structural component will fail in tension only when it has reached a state of complete damage, i.e. zero load carrying capacity. The extended law predicts failure at an earlier stage of the deterioration process and is therefore more compatible with experimental observation. Further experimental support is offered by predictions for staircase loading histories, both step-up and step-down type. The presented damage theory here predicts strain histories which are in closer agreement with test data than predictions based on other phenomenological theories

  9. DNA Damage and Pulmonary Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranchoux, Benoît; Meloche, Jolyane; Paulin, Roxane; Boucherat, Olivier; Provencher, Steeve; Bonnet, Sébastien

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is defined by a mean pulmonary arterial pressure over 25 mmHg at rest and is diagnosed by right heart catheterization. Among the different groups of PH, pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is characterized by a progressive obstruction of distal pulmonary arteries, related to endothelial cell dysfunction and vascular cell proliferation, which leads to an increased pulmonary vascular resistance, right ventricular hypertrophy, and right heart failure. Although the primary trigger of PAH remains unknown, oxidative stress and inflammation have been shown to play a key role in the development and progression of vascular remodeling. These factors are known to increase DNA damage that might favor the emergence of the proliferative and apoptosis-resistant phenotype observed in PAH vascular cells. High levels of DNA damage were reported to occur in PAH lungs and remodeled arteries as well as in animal models of PH. Moreover, recent studies have demonstrated that impaired DNA-response mechanisms may lead to an increased mutagen sensitivity in PAH patients. Finally, PAH was linked with decreased breast cancer 1 protein (BRCA1) and DNA topoisomerase 2-binding protein 1 (TopBP1) expression, both involved in maintaining genome integrity. This review aims to provide an overview of recent evidence of DNA damage and DNA repair deficiency and their implication in PAH pathogenesis. PMID:27338373

  10. Temperature and Pressure Effects on Drilling Fluid Rheology and ECD in Very Deep Wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rommetveit, R.; Bjoerkvoll, K.S.

    1997-12-31

    The rheological properties of drilling fluids are usually approximated to be independent of pressure and temperature. In many cases this is a good approximation. However, for wells with small margins between pore and fracture pressure, careful evaluations and analysis of the effects of temperature and pressure on well bore hydraulics and kick probability are needed. In this publication the effects of pressure and temperature are discussed and described for typical HPHT (High Pressure High Temperature) wells. Laboratory measurements show that rheology is very pressure and temperature dependent. The practical implications of these observations are illustrated through a series of calculations with an advanced pressure and temperature simulator. 10 refs., 15 figs.

  11. Natural gas in 1951: Petroleum in 1951: Logs of wells for 1951. Annual publication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1954-12-31

    The first part of this report summarises natural gas exploration activity, well drilling, infrastructure changes and improvements, production, distribution, consumption, and leakage during transmission or distribution of natural gas in Ontario. Includes lists of operators licensed to lease, prospect, drill or bore for, produce, and distribute natural gas in the province. The second part summarises oil industry activities, oil production, well drilling, petroleum and refined products imports, and petroleum refining operations. Relevant statistics are provided throughout both parts of the report. Also includes drillers` logs for oil and gas wells completed during the year.

  12. Problem analysis of geotechnical well drilling in complex environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasenov, A K; Biletskiy, M T; Ratov, B T; Korotchenko, T V

    2015-01-01

    The article examines primary causes of problems occurring during the drilling of geotechnical wells (injection, production and monitoring wells) for in-situ leaching to extract uranium in South Kazakhstan. Such a drilling problem as hole caving which is basically caused by various chemical and physical factors (hydraulic, mechanical, etc.) has been thoroughly investigated. The analysis of packing causes has revealed that this problem usually occurs because of insufficient amount of drilling mud being associated with small cross section downward flow and relatively large cross section upward flow. This is explained by the fact that when spear bores are used to drill clay rocks, cutting size is usually rather big and there is a risk for clay particles to coagulate

  13. FY 1994 report on the survey of geothermal development promotion. Investigative construction and analysis for structural boring (No. A-1 - Haneyama area); 1994 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa. Kozo shitsui chosakoji oyobi kaiseki hokokusho (No. A-1 Haneyama chiiki)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    For the contribution to elucidation of the geothermal structure in the Haneyama area, Oita Prefecture, the paper carried out the drilling of structural boring exploration wells, N6-HN-1 (1,605m) and N6-HN-2 (1,402m), and the well exploration. In the well exploration, the following were conducted: measurement of earth temperature, temperature recovery test, electrical log, simple water injection test, core/cutting observation, core test, powder X-ray diffraction analysis, physical property test, measurement of homogenization temperature of fluid inclusion, etc. In the temperature log and temperature recovery test, the terminal temperature at a 1,600m depth of N6-HN-1 well and at a 1,400m depth of N6-HN-2 well was 139.6 degrees C and 26.2 degrees C, respectively. The homogenization temperature of fluid inclusion was relatively higher, +70 degrees C to +100 degrees C, than that in the results of the temperature log, but was on the side of lower temperature, -30 degrees C to -100 degrees C, in a comparison with the saturated boiling curve of the earth surface and ground water level. Namely, it was thought that around the N6-HN-1 well, there used to exist the high temperature fluid of 250 degrees C or higher at the peak period of geothermal activities, but there only existed the geothermal water of approximately 140 degrees C at the present time. (NEDO)

  14. Damage Analysis and Evaluation of High Strength Concrete Frame Based on Deformation-Energy Damage Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang-bin Lin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A new method of characterizing the damage of high strength concrete structures is presented, which is based on the deformation energy double parameters damage model and incorporates both of the main forms of damage by earthquakes: first time damage beyond destruction and energy consumption. Firstly, test data of high strength reinforced concrete (RC columns were evaluated. Then, the relationship between stiffness degradation, strength degradation, and ductility performance was obtained. And an expression for damage in terms of model parameters was determined, as well as the critical input data for the restoring force model to be used in analytical damage evaluation. Experimentally, the unloading stiffness was found to be related to the cycle number. Then, a correction for this changing was applied to better describe the unloading phenomenon and compensate for the shortcomings of structure elastic-plastic time history analysis. The above algorithm was embedded into an IDARC program. Finally, a case study of high strength RC multistory frames was presented. Under various seismic wave inputs, the structural damages were predicted. The damage model and correction algorithm of stiffness unloading were proved to be suitable and applicable in engineering design and damage evaluation of a high strength concrete structure.

  15. Very deep borehole. Deutag's opinion on boring, canister emplacement and retrievability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, Tim [Well Engineering Partners BV, The Hague (Netherlands)

    2000-05-01

    An engineering feasibility study has been carried out to determine whether or not it is possible to drill the proposed Very Deep Borehole concept wells required by SKB for nuclear waste disposal. A conceptual well design has been proposed. All aspects of well design have been considered, including drilling tools, rig design, drilling fluids, casing design and annulus isolation. The proposed well design is for 1168.4 mm hole to be drilled to 500 m. A 1066.8 mm outer diameter (OD) casing will be run and cemented. A 1016 mm hole will be drilled to approximately 2000 m, where 914.4 mm OD casing will be run. This annulus will be sealed with bentonite slurry apart from the bottom 100 m which will be cemented. 838.2 mm hole will be drilled to a final depth of 4000 m, where 762 mm OD slotted casing will be run. All the hole sections will be drilled using a downhole hammer with foam as the drilling fluid medium. Prior to running each casing string, the hole will be displaced to mud to assist with casing running and cementing. The waste canisters will be run on a simple J-slot tool, with integral backup system in case the J-slot fails. The canisters will all be centralised. Canisters can be retrieved using the same tool as used to run them. Procedures are given for both running and retrieving. Logging and testing is recommended only in the exploratory wells, in a maximum hole size of 311.1 mm. This will require the drilling of pilot holes to enable logging and testing to take place. It is estimated that each well will take approximately 137 days to drill and case, at an estimated cost of 4.65 Meuro per well. This time and cost estimate does not include any logging, testing, pilot hole drilling or time taken to run the canisters. New technology developments to enhance the drilling process are required in recyclable foam systems, in hammer bit technology, and in the development of robust under-reamers. It is the authors conclusion that it is possible to drill the well with

  16. Very deep borehole. Deutag's opinion on boring, canister emplacement and retrievability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, Tim

    2000-05-01

    An engineering feasibility study has been carried out to determine whether or not it is possible to drill the proposed Very Deep Borehole concept wells required by SKB for nuclear waste disposal. A conceptual well design has been proposed. All aspects of well design have been considered, including drilling tools, rig design, drilling fluids, casing design and annulus isolation. The proposed well design is for 1168.4 mm hole to be drilled to 500 m. A 1066.8 mm outer diameter (OD) casing will be run and cemented. A 1016 mm hole will be drilled to approximately 2000 m, where 914.4 mm OD casing will be run. This annulus will be sealed with bentonite slurry apart from the bottom 100 m which will be cemented. 838.2 mm hole will be drilled to a final depth of 4000 m, where 762 mm OD slotted casing will be run. All the hole sections will be drilled using a downhole hammer with foam as the drilling fluid medium. Prior to running each casing string, the hole will be displaced to mud to assist with casing running and cementing. The waste canisters will be run on a simple J-slot tool, with integral backup system in case the J-slot fails. The canisters will all be centralised. Canisters can be retrieved using the same tool as used to run them. Procedures are given for both running and retrieving. Logging and testing is recommended only in the exploratory wells, in a maximum hole size of 311.1 mm. This will require the drilling of pilot holes to enable logging and testing to take place. It is estimated that each well will take approximately 137 days to drill and case, at an estimated cost of 4.65 Meuro per well. This time and cost estimate does not include any logging, testing, pilot hole drilling or time taken to run the canisters. New technology developments to enhance the drilling process are required in recyclable foam systems, in hammer bit technology, and in the development of robust under-reamers. It is the authors conclusion that it is possible to drill the well with

  17. Coal transportation road damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burtraw, D.; Harrison, K.; Pawlowski, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    Heavy trucks are primarily responsible for pavement damage to the nation's highways. In this paper we evaluate the pavement damage caused by coal trucks. We analyze the chief source of pavement damage (vehicle weight per axle, not total vehicle weight) and the chief cost involved (the periodic overlay that is required when a road's surface becomes worn). This analysis is presented in two stages. In the first section we present a synopsis of current economic theory including simple versions of the formulas that can be: used to calculate costs of pavement wear. In the second section we apply this theory to a specific example proximate to the reference environment for the Fuel Cycle Study in New Mexico in order to provide a numerical measure of the magnitude of the costs

  18. Natural resource damage assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seddelmeyer, J.

    1991-01-01

    The assessment and collection of natural resource damages from petroleum and chemical companies unfortunate enough to have injured publicly owned natural resources is perhaps the most rapidly expanding area of environmental liability. The idea of recovering for injury to publicly owned natural resources is an extension of traditional common law tort concepts under which a person who negligently injures another or his property is called upon to compensate the injured party. Normally, once liability has been established, it is a fairly straightforward matter to calculate the various elements of loss, such as the cost to repair or replace damaged property, or medical expenses, and lost income. More difficult questions, such as the amount to be awarded for pain and suffering or emotional distress, are left to the jury, although courts limit the circumstances in which the jury is permitted to award such damages

  19. Early models of DNA damage formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Śmiałek, Małgorzata A

    2012-01-01

    Quantification of DNA damage, induced by various types of incident radiation as well as chemical agents, has been the subject of many theoretical and experimental studies, supporting the development of modern cancer therapy. The primary observations showed that many factors can lead to damage of DNA molecules. It became clear that the development of experimental techniques for exploring this phenomenon is required. Another problem was simultaneously dealt with, anticipating on how the damage is distributed within the double helix of the DNA molecule and how the single strand break formation and accumulation can influence the lethal double strand break formation. In this work the most important probabilistic models for DNA strand breakage and damage propagation are summarized and compared.

  20. The DNA damage response during mitosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heijink, Anne Margriet; Krajewska, Małgorzata; Vugt, Marcel A.T.M. van

    2013-01-01

    Cells are equipped with a cell-intrinsic signaling network called the DNA damage response (DDR). This signaling network recognizes DNA lesions and initiates various downstream pathways to coordinate a cell cycle arrest with the repair of the damaged DNA. Alternatively, the DDR can mediate clearance of affected cells that are beyond repair through apoptosis or senescence. The DDR can be activated in response to DNA damage throughout the cell cycle, although the extent of DDR signaling is different in each cell cycle phase. Especially in response to DNA double strand breaks, only a very marginal response was observed during mitosis. Early on it was recognized that cells which are irradiated during mitosis continued division without repairing broken chromosomes. Although these initial observations indicated diminished DNA repair and lack of an acute DNA damage-induced cell cycle arrest, insight into the mechanistic re-wiring of DDR signaling during mitosis was only recently provided. Different mechanisms appear to be at play to inactivate specific signaling axes of the DDR network in mitosis. Importantly, mitotic cells not simply inactivate the entire DDR, but appear to mark their DNA damage for repair after mitotic exit. Since the treatment of cancer frequently involves agents that induce DNA damage as well as agents that block mitotic progression, it is clinically relevant to obtain a better understanding of how cancer cells deal with DNA damage during interphase versus mitosis. In this review, the molecular details concerning DDR signaling during mitosis as well as the consequences of encountering DNA damage during mitosis for cellular fate are discussed

  1. The DNA damage response during mitosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heijink, Anne Margriet; Krajewska, Małgorzata; Vugt, Marcel A.T.M. van, E-mail: m.vugt@umcg.nl

    2013-10-15

    Cells are equipped with a cell-intrinsic signaling network called the DNA damage response (DDR). This signaling network recognizes DNA lesions and initiates various downstream pathways to coordinate a cell cycle arrest with the repair of the damaged DNA. Alternatively, the DDR can mediate clearance of affected cells that are beyond repair through apoptosis or senescence. The DDR can be activated in response to DNA damage throughout the cell cycle, although the extent of DDR signaling is different in each cell cycle phase. Especially in response to DNA double strand breaks, only a very marginal response was observed during mitosis. Early on it was recognized that cells which are irradiated during mitosis continued division without repairing broken chromosomes. Although these initial observations indicated diminished DNA repair and lack of an acute DNA damage-induced cell cycle arrest, insight into the mechanistic re-wiring of DDR signaling during mitosis was only recently provided. Different mechanisms appear to be at play to inactivate specific signaling axes of the DDR network in mitosis. Importantly, mitotic cells not simply inactivate the entire DDR, but appear to mark their DNA damage for repair after mitotic exit. Since the treatment of cancer frequently involves agents that induce DNA damage as well as agents that block mitotic progression, it is clinically relevant to obtain a better understanding of how cancer cells deal with DNA damage during interphase versus mitosis. In this review, the molecular details concerning DDR signaling during mitosis as well as the consequences of encountering DNA damage during mitosis for cellular fate are discussed.

  2. The DNA damage response during mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heijink, Anne Margriet; Krajewska, Małgorzata; van Vugt, Marcel A T M

    2013-10-01

    Cells are equipped with a cell-intrinsic signaling network called the DNA damage response (DDR). This signaling network recognizes DNA lesions and initiates various downstream pathways to coordinate a cell cycle arrest with the repair of the damaged DNA. Alternatively, the DDR can mediate clearance of affected cells that are beyond repair through apoptosis or senescence. The DDR can be activated in response to DNA damage throughout the cell cycle, although the extent of DDR signaling is different in each cell cycle phase. Especially in response to DNA double strand breaks, only a very marginal response was observed during mitosis. Early on it was recognized that cells which are irradiated during mitosis continued division without repairing broken chromosomes. Although these initial observations indicated diminished DNA repair and lack of an acute DNA damage-induced cell cycle arrest, insight into the mechanistic re-wiring of DDR signaling during mitosis was only recently provided. Different mechanisms appear to be at play to inactivate specific signaling axes of the DDR network in mitosis. Importantly, mitotic cells not simply inactivate the entire DDR, but appear to mark their DNA damage for repair after mitotic exit. Since the treatment of cancer frequently involves agents that induce DNA damage as well as agents that block mitotic progression, it is clinically relevant to obtain a better understanding of how cancer cells deal with DNA damage during interphase versus mitosis. In this review, the molecular details concerning DDR signaling during mitosis as well as the consequences of encountering DNA damage during mitosis for cellular fate are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Inelastic damage using continuum damage mechanics in composite plate reinforced by unidirectional fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žmindák Milan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well that a finite element method is very popular simulation method to predict the physical behavior of systems and structures. In the last years an increase of interest in a new type of numerical methods known as meshless methods was observed. The paper deals with application of radial basis functions on modelling of inelastic damage using continuum damage mechanics of layered plate composite structures reinforced with long unidirectional fibers. For numerical simulations of elastic-plastic damage of layered composite plates own computational programs were implemented in MATLAB programming language. We will use the Newton-Raphson method to solve nonlinear systems of equations. Evaluation damage during plasticity has been solved using return mapping algorithm. The results of elastic-plastic damage analysis of composite plate with unsymmetrical laminate stacking sequence are presented.

  4. Single well surfactant test to evaluate surfactant floods using multi tracer method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheely, Clyde Q.

    1979-01-01

    Data useful for evaluating the effectiveness of or designing an enhanced recovery process said process involving mobilizing and moving hydrocarbons through a hydrocarbon bearing subterranean formation from an injection well to a production well by injecting a mobilizing fluid into the injection well, comprising (a) determining hydrocarbon saturation in a volume in the formation near a well bore penetrating formation, (b) injecting sufficient mobilizing fluid to mobilize and move hydrocarbons from a volume in the formation near the well bore, and (c) determining the hydrocarbon saturation in a volume including at least a part of the volume of (b) by an improved single well surfactant method comprising injecting 2 or more slugs of water containing the primary tracer separated by water slugs containing no primary tracer. Alternatively, the plurality of ester tracers can be injected in a single slug said tracers penetrating varying distances into the formation wherein the esters have different partition coefficients and essentially equal reaction times. The single well tracer method employed is disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 3,623,842. This method designated the single well surfactant test (SWST) is useful for evaluating the effect of surfactant floods, polymer floods, carbon dioxide floods, micellar floods, caustic floods and the like in subterranean formations in much less time and at much reduced cost compared to conventional multiwell pilot tests.

  5. mapDamage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ginolhac, Aurélien; Rasmussen, Morten; Gilbert, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Ancient DNA extracts consist of a mixture of contaminant DNA molecules, most often originating from environmental microbes, and endogenous fragments exhibiting substantial levels of DNA damage. The latter introduce specific nucleotide misincorporations and DNA fragmentation signatures in sequenci...... of the SAMtools suite and R environment and has been validated on both GNU/Linux and MacOSX operating systems....

  6. Core damage risk indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szikszai, T.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to show a method for the fast recalculation of the PSA. To avoid the information loose, it is necessary to simplify the PSA models, or at least reorganize them. The method, introduced in this document, require that preparation, so we try to show, how to do that. This document is an introduction. This is the starting point of the work related to the development of the risk indicators. In the future, with the application of this method, we are going to show an everyday use of the PSA results to produce the indicators of the core damage risk. There are two different indicators of the plant safety performance, related to the core damage risk. The first is the core damage frequency indicator (CDFI), and the second is the core damage probability indicator (CDPI). Of course, we cannot describe all of the possible ways to use these indicators, rather we will try to introduce the requirements to establish such an indicator system and the calculation process

  7. Risk of nuclear damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kienzl, K.

    1997-01-01

    Following the opening and words of welcome by Mr. Fritz Unterpertinger (unit director at the Austrian Federal Ministry for the Environment, Youth and Family; BMUJF) Mrs Helga Kromp-Kolb (professor at the Institute for Meteorology and Physics of the University of Natural Resources Science Vienna) illustrated the risks of nuclear damage in Europe by means of a nuclear risk map. She explained that even from a scientific or technical point of view the assessment of risks arising from nuclear power stations was fraught with great uncertainties. Estimates about in how far MCAs (maximum credible accident) could still be controlled by safety systems vary widely and so do assessments of the probability of a core melt. But there is wide agreement in all risk assessments conducted so far that MCAs might occur within a - from a human point of view - conceivable number of years. In this connection one has to bear in mind that the occurrence of such a major accident - whatever its probability may be - could entail immense damage and the question arises whether or not it is at all justifiable to expose the general public to such a risk. Klaus Rennings (Centre for European Economic Research, Mannheim, Germany) dealt with the economic aspects of nuclear risk assessment. He explained that there are already a number of studies available aiming to assess the risk of damage resulting from a core melt accident in economic terms. As to the probability of occurrence estimates vary widely between one incident in 3,333 and 250,000 year of reactor operation. It is assumed, however, that a nuclear accident involving a core melt in Germany would probably exceed the damage caused by the Chernobyl accident. The following speakers addressed the legal aspects of risks associated with nuclear installations. Mrs Monika Gimpel-Hinteregger (professor at the Institute for Civil Law in Graz) gave an overview on the applicable Austrian law concerning third party liability in the field of nuclear energy

  8. DNA damage repair and radiosensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Norio

    2003-01-01

    Tailored treatment is not new in radiotherapy; it has been the major subject for the last 20-30 years. Radiation responses and RBE (relative biological effectiveness) depend on assay systems, endpoints, type of tissues and tumors, radiation quality, dose rate, dose fractionation, physiological and environmental factors etc, Latent times to develop damages also differ among tissues and endpoints depending on doses and radiation quality. Recent progress in clarification of radiation induced cell death, especially of apoptotic cell death, is quite important for understanding radiosensitivity of tumor cure process as well as of tumorigenesis. Apoptotic cell death as well as dormant cells had been unaccounted and missed into a part of reproductive cell death. Another area of major progress has been made in clarifying repair mechanisms of radiation damage, i.e., non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) and homologous recombinational repair (HRR). New approaches and developments such as cDNA or protein micro arrays and so called informatics in addition to basic molecular biological analysis are expected to aid identifying molecules and their roles in signal transduction pathways, which are multi-factorial and interactive each other being involved in radiation responses. (authors)

  9. International Co-operation in providing insurance cover for nuclear damage to third parties and for damage to nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deprimoz, Jacques

    1983-01-01

    This article in three parts analyses cover for damage to third parties by fixed nuclear installations, cover for damage to third parties during transport of nuclear substances and finally, cover for damage to nuclear installations. Part I reviews the principles of nuclear third party liability and describes nuclear insurance pools, the coverage and contracts provided. Part II describes inter alia the role of pools in transport operations as well as the type of contracts available, while Part III discusses material damage, the pools' capacities and the vast sums involved in indemnifying such damage. (NEA) [fr

  10. Selected Abiotic and Biotic Environmental Stress Factors Affecting Two Economically Important Sugarcane Stalk Boring Pests in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan T. Showler

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane, Saccharum spp., in the United States is attacked by a number of different arthropod pests. The most serious among those pests are two stalk boring moths in the Family Crambidae: the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F., and the Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar. The two species are affected by abiotic and biotic environmental stress factors. Water deficit and excessive soil nitrogen alter physical and physiochemical aspects of the sugarcane plant that make the crop increasingly vulnerable to E. loftini. Weed growth can be competitive with sugarcane but it also supports enhanced abundances and diversity of natural enemies that can suppress infestations of D. saccharalis. In an instance where the stalk borer is considered a stress factor, proximity of vulnerable crops to sugarcane can influence levels of E. loftini infestation of sugarcane. The adverse effects of each stress factor, in terms of stalk borer attack, can be reduced by adopting appropriate cultural practices, such as adequate irrigation, judicious use of nitrogen fertilizer, using noncompetitive weed growth, and not planting vulnerable crops near sugarcane fields. Understanding the relationships between stress factors and crop pests can provide valuable insights for plant breeders and tools for incorporation into integrated pest management strategies.

  11. Generation of x-ray radiation in a storage ring by a superconductive cold-bore in-vacuum undulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Casalbuoni

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The first beam measurements with a cold-bore superconducting in-vacuum undulator in a storage ring are reported. Undulators are x-ray generators in light sources. The physical limitations of these devices limit the intensity and the brilliance of the x-ray beam. At present the undulators are made from permanent magnets. It was shown in earlier papers that at low electron beam intensities superconductive wires in the vacuum beam pipe can overcome the limitations inherent to permanent magnet undulators. It was argued that the use of these novel devices in light sources with high beam currents may be limited by the extreme anomalous skin effect regime in Cu at 4.2 K, which has so far undergone very little investigation, and the power deposited by the infrared part of the synchrotron radiation. The purpose of this paper is to present measurements of these effects at the synchrotron light source ANKA with stored currents up to 200 mA.

  12. Surface-Treated versus Untreated Large-Bore Catheters as Vascular Access in Hemodialysis and Apheresis Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Bambauer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Catheter-related infections, thrombosis, and stenosis are among the most frequent complications associated with catheters, which are inserted in vessels. Surface treatment processes of the outer surface, such as ion-beam-assisted deposition, can be used to mitigate such complications. Methods. This retrospective study (1992–2007 evaluated silver-coated (54 patients and noncoated (105 patients implanted large-bore catheters used for extracorporeal detoxification. The catheters were inserted into the internal jugular or subclavian veins. After removal, the catheters were cultured for bacterial colonization using standard microbiologic assays. They also were examined using scanning electron microscope. Results. The silver coated catheters showed a tendency towards longer in situ time. The microbiologic examinations of the catheter tips were in both catheter types high positive, but not significant. Conclusion. The silver-coated catheters showed no significantly reduction in infection rate by evaluation of all collected data in this retrospective study. There was no association between both catheters in significantly reducing savings in treatment costs and in reducing patient discomfort. Other new developed catheter materials such as the microdomain-structured inner and outer surface are considered more biocompatible because they mimic the structure of natural biological surface.

  13. Free-face-Assisted Rock Breaking Method Based on the Multi-stage Tunnel Boring Machine (TBM) Cutterhead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Qi; Wei, Zhengying; Meng, Hao; Macias, Francisco Javier; Bruland, Amund

    2016-11-01

    In order to improve the rock breaking efficiency of hard rock tunnel boring, many innovative rock breaking methods have been proposed (e.g., the water jet cutting, the high-power laser cutting, the impact-rotary drilling, and the undercutting method). However, most of the methods are not applicable to TBMs due to some structural reasons. Aiming on this problem, a free-face-assisted rock breaking method based on the multi-stage TBM cutterhead has been proposed. Series of proof-of-concept tests includes (1) the static compression test with vertical free face and (2) the rotary cutting tests in different free surface conditions were designed and carried out. The results show that the rock breaking force and efficiency can be significantly reduced and improved, respectively, with the assistance of the free face, due to the failure of the rock close to the free face is tensile-dominated failure. The influencing distance of the free face in the radial direction is at least 330 mm which covers about 5 disk cutters. Finally, the general structure of a small two-stage cutterhead (4 m in diameter) was tentatively designed in order to provide a possible approach to apply the free-face effect to TBMs.

  14. Experimental investigation of hole boring and light sail regimes of RPA by varying laser and target parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kar, S; Kakolee, K F; Doria, D; Quinn, K; Ramakrishna, B; Sarri, G; Zepf, M; Borghesi, M; Cerchez, M; Osterholz, J; Willi, O; Macchi, A; McKenna, P; Yuan, X H; Neely, D

    2013-01-01

    Temporal evolution of plasma jets from micrometre-scale thick foils following the interaction of intense (3 × 10 20  W cm −2 ) laser pulses is studied systematically by time resolved optical interferometry. The fluid velocity in the plasma jets is determined by comparing the data with 2D hydrodynamic simulation, which agrees with the expected hole-boring (HB) velocity due to the laser radiation pressure. The homogeneity of the plasma density across the jets has been found to be improved substantially when irradiating the laser at circular polarization compared to linear polarization. While overdense plasma jets were formed efficiently for micrometre thick targets, decreasing the target areal density and/or increasing the irradiance on the target have provided indication of transition from the ‘HB’ to the ‘light sail (LS)’ regime of RPA, characterized by the appearance of narrow-band spectral features at several MeV/nucleon in proton and carbon spectra. (paper)

  15. Mechanical Design of HD2, a 15 T Nb3Sn Dipole Magnet with a 35 mm Bore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferracin, P.; Bartlett, S.E.; Caspi, S.; Dietderich, D.R.; Gourlay, S.A.; Hafalia, A.R.; Hannaford, C.R.; Lietzke, A.F.; Mattafirri, S.; McInturff, A.D.; Sabbi, G.L.

    2006-06-01

    After the fabrication and test of HD1, a 16 T Nb{sub 3}Sn dipole magnet based on flat racetrack coil configuration, the Superconducting Magnet Program at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) is developing the Nb{sub 3}Sn dipole HD2. With a dipole field above 15 T, a 35 mm clear bore, and nominal field harmonics within a fraction of one unit, HD2 represents a further step towards the application of block-type coils to high-field accelerator magnets. The design features tilted racetrack-type ends, to avoid obstructing the beam path, and a 4 mm thick stainless steel tube, to support the coil during the preloading operation. The mechanical structure, similar to the one used for HD1, is based on an external aluminum shell pretensioned with pressurized bladders. Axial rods and stainless steel plates provide longitudinal support to the coil ends during magnet excitation. A 3D finite element analysis has been performed to evaluate stresses and deformations from assembly to excitation, with particular emphasis on conductor displacements due to Lorentz forces. Numerical results are presented and discussed.

  16. Pilot study of a novel, large-bore, fully covered self-expandable metallic stent for unresectable distal biliary malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukai, Tsuyoshi; Yasuda, Ichiro; Isayama, Hiroyuki; Iwashita, Takuji; Itoi, Takao; Kawakami, Hiroshi; Kogure, Hirofumi; Nakai, Yousuke

    2016-09-01

    In patients with unresectable malignant distal biliary obstruction, covered self-expandable metallic stents (CSEMS) may remain patent longer than uncovered self-expandable metallic stents as a result of tumor ingrowth prevention. One main cause of recurrent biliary obstruction (RBO) in CSEMS is sludge formation, which can be prevented using a large-bore stent. Therefore, we developed a novel, 12-mm diameter fully covered SEMS (FCSEMS) and investigated its clinical safety, efficacy, and rate of adverse events. This prospective, multicenter pilot study, which ran between June 2011 and November 2012, included 38 consecutive patients with unresectable malignant distal biliary obstruction. All patients underwent endoscopic insertion of our novel stent. Primary endpoint was non-RBO rate 6 months after placement. Technical and functional success rates of the procedures were 100%. Six-month non-RBO rate was 50%, and median time to RBO was 184 days. Median survival time was 241 days. Twelve patients died within 6 months after stent placement without RBO. RBO was observed in 10 patients (26%), with seven experiencing stent occlusion and three experiencing stent migration. Adverse events other than RBO (at Stent removal for reintervention was successfully completed in eight patients. Our novel FCSEMS may be safe and effective for managing malignant distal obstruction with an acceptable incidence of adverse events. © 2016 Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society.

  17. Performance characteristics of tunnel boring machine in basalt and pyroclastic rocks of Deccan traps – A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasnna Jain

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A 12.24 km long tunnel between Maroshi and Ruparel College is being excavated by tunnel boring machine (TBM to improve the water supply system of Greater Mumbai, India. In this paper, attempt has been made to establish the relationship between various litho-units of Deccan traps, stability of tunnel and TBM performances during the construction of 5.83 km long tunnel between Maroshi and Vakola. The Maroshi–Vakola tunnel passes under the Mumbai Airport and crosses both runways with an overburden cover of around 70 m. The tunneling work was carried out without disturbance to the ground. The rock types encountered during excavation are fine compacted basalt, porphyritic basalt, amygdaloidal basalt, pyroclastic rocks with layers of red boles and intertrappean beds consisting of various types of shales. Relations between rock mass properties, physico-mechanical properties, TBM specifications and the corresponding TBM performance were established. A number of support systems installed in the tunnel during excavation were also discussed. The aim of this paper is to establish, with appropriate accuracy, the nature of subsurface rock mass condition and to study how it will react to or behave during underground excavation by TBM. The experiences gained from this project will increase the ability to cope with unexpected ground conditions during tunneling using TBM.

  18. Microbial Communities in Sunken Wood Are Structured by Wood-Boring Bivalves and Location in a Submarine Canyon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagervold, Sonja K.; Romano, Chiara; Kalenitchenko, Dimitri; Borowski, Christian; Nunes-Jorge, Amandine; Martin, Daniel; Galand, Pierre E.

    2014-01-01

    The cornerstones of sunken wood ecosystems are microorganisms involved in cellulose degradation. These can either be free-living microorganisms in the wood matrix or symbiotic bacteria associated with wood-boring bivalves such as emblematic species of Xylophaga, the most common deep-sea woodborer. Here we use experimentally submerged pine wood, placed in and outside the Mediterranean submarine Blanes Canyon, to compare the microbial communities on the wood, in fecal pellets of Xylophaga spp. and associated with the gills of these animals. Analyses based on tag pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA bacterial gene showed that sunken wood contained three distinct microbial communities. Wood and pellet communities were different from each other suggesting that Xylophaga spp. create new microbial niches by excreting fecal pellets into their burrows. In turn, gills of Xylophaga spp. contain potential bacterial symbionts, as illustrated by the presence of sequences closely related to symbiotic bacteria found in other wood eating marine invertebrates. Finally, we found that sunken wood communities inside the canyon were different and more diverse than the ones outside the canyon. This finding extends to the microbial world the view that submarine canyons are sites of diverse marine life. PMID:24805961

  19. Damage Prediction in Sheet Metal Forming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saanouni, Khemais; Badreddine, Houssem

    2007-01-01

    Ductile (or plastic) damage often occurs during sheet metal forming processes due to the large plastic flow localization. Accordingly, it is crucial for numerical tools, used in the simulation of that processes, to use fully coupled constitutive equations accounting for both hardening and damage. This can be used in both cases, namely to overcome the damage initiation during some sheet metal forming processes as deep drawing, ... or to enhance the damage initiation and growth as in sheet metal cutting. In this paper, a fully coupled constitutive equations accounting for combined isotropic and kinematic hardening as well as the ductile damage is implemented into the general purpose Finite Element code for metal forming simulation. First, the fully coupled anisotropic constitutive equations in the framework of Continuum Damage Mechanics are presented. Attention is paid to the strong coupling between the main mechanical fields as elasto-viscoplasticity, mixed hardening, ductile isotropic damage and contact with friction. The anisotropy of the plastic flow is taken into account using various kinds of quadratic or non quadratic yield criteria in the framework of non associative finite plasticity theory with two types of normality rules. The associated numerical aspects concerning both the local integration of the coupled constitutive equations as well as the (global) equilibrium integration schemes are presented. The local integration is outlined thanks to the Newton iterative scheme applied to a reduced system of 2 equations. For the global resolution of the initial and boundary value problem, the classical dynamic explicit (DE) scheme with an adaptive time step control is used. The numerical implementation of the damage is made in such a manner that calculations can be executed with or without damage effect, i.e. fully coupled or uncoupled calculations. For the 2D processes an advanced adaptive meshing procedure is used in order to enhance the numerical solution and

  20. Performance of 1m long/100 mm bore superconducting dipole prototypes for HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horlitz, G; Wolff, S.

    1983-01-01

    Three 1 m long superconducting dipole prototypes with 100 mm inner coil diameter for the proposed HERA electron-proton storage ring have been built and tested. Main design principles are a two layer coil clamped with stainless steel collars inside a cryostat with warm beam tube and surrounded by a warm iron yoke. All prototypes have been tested without yoke and one of them with yoke. The design induction of 4.73 Tesla at 4.6 K has been easily surpassed up to short sample fields with negligible training. The quench behaviour has been investigated between temperatures of 3.8 K and 5.0 K. The field quality has been found well within the specified limits given by the requirements of the storage ring optics. The reproducibility found in this sample of magnets gives great confidence for the production of dipole prototypes of full length

  1. When the job is boring: the role of boredom in organizational contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guglielmi, Dina; Simbula, Silvia; Mazzetti, Greta; Tabanelli, Maria Carla; Bonfiglioli, Roberta

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigates the role of boredom within the Job Demands-Resources model. Although empirical evidence suggests that the incidence of boredom at work is widespread, the study of job boredom remains neglected today. Data were collected from 269 mass-retail workers, by means of structured face-to-face interviews. Results of multiple mediation analyses partially supported our hypotheses. Boredom mediates the relationship between transformational leadership, low learning opportunities and general dysphoria, while work engagement mediates the relationship between transformational leadership, low learning opportunities and job satisfaction as well as general dysphoria. Taken together, our results confirm the suitability of conceptualizing boredom within the JD-R model and contribute to the ongoing conceptualization of both the boredom literature and the JD-R literature.

  2. Report of boring made in the South of Cerro Largo district (Cerro Largo) 1977-1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massa, E.

    1984-01-01

    The present work are within the framework and compiles the data obtained by means of the study of the perforations executed in the District Cerro Largo Sur of the detailed prospection of uranium minerals. This study was carried out by technicians of Geologic ex--Institute of Uruguay (IGU) - at the moment National Direction of Mining and Geology. (DINAMIGE). The works began at the beginning of 1977 and continued until 1978 July; The headquarters of the program of prospection of uranium was carried out by Ing. Hector Goso. In this report the conclusions drawn at the time of the detection of the works in the District already published, as well as the litologicos cuts of all the executed perforations are included

  3. Ecological studies of wood-boring bivalves in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station. Progress report Sep-Nov 81

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoagland, K.E.; Crocket, L.

    1982-06-01

    The species composition, distribution, and population dynamics of wood-boring bivalves are being studied in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station, Barnegat Bay, New Jersey. Untreated wood test panels are used to collect organisms at 12 stations. Physiological tolerances of 3 species are also under investigation in the laboratory. Competition among the species is being analyzed. In the fall of 1981, Teredo bartschi remained in Oyster Creek despite continuous prolonged outages of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station

  4. Well screening for matrix stimulation treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saavedra, N; Solano, R; Gidley, J; Reyes, C.A; Rodriguez; Kondo, F; Hernandez, J

    1998-01-01

    Matrix acidizing is a stimulation technique only applicable to wells with surrounding damage. It is therefore very important to differentiate the real formation damage from the damage caused by flow Ni dynamic effects. The mechanical damage corresponds to flow restrictions caused by partial penetration, poor perforation as well as to reduce diameters of the production tubing. The dynamic effects are generated by inertia caused by high flow rates and high-pressure differentials. A common practice in our oil fields is to use a general formulation as acid treatment, most of the times without previous lab studies that guarantee the applicability of the treatment in the formation. Additionally, stimulation is randomly applied even treating undamaged wells with negative results and in the best of the cases, loss of the treatment. The selection of the well for matrix stimulation is an essential factor for the success of the treatment. Selection is done through the evaluation of the skin factor (S) and of the economic benefits of reducing the skin in comparison to the cost of the work. The most appropriate tool for skin evaluation is a good pressure test where the radial flow period can be identified. Nevertheless, we normally find-outdated tests most of the times taken with inaccurate tools. The interpretation problem is worsened by completions in which there is simultaneous production from several sand packages and it is difficult to individually differentiate damage factors. This works states a procedure for the selection of wells appropriate for stimulation; it also proposes a method to evaluate the skin factor when there are no accurate interpretations of the pressure tests. A new and increasingly applied methodology to treat wells with high water cuts, which are usually discarded due to the risk of stimulating water zones, is also mentioned

  5. Failure Predictions for DP Steel Cross-die Test Using Anisotropic Damage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niazi, Muhammad Sohail; Wisselink, H.H.; Meinders, Vincent T.; Huetink, Han

    2012-01-01

    The Lemaitre's continuum damage model is well known in the field of damage mechanics. The anisotropic damage model given by Lemaitre is relatively simple, applicable to nonproportional loads and uses only four damage parameters. The hypothesis of strain equivalence is used to map the effective

  6. Fast Determination of Toxic Arsenic Species in Food Samples Using Narrow-bore High-Performance Liquid-Chromatography Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terol, Amanda; Marcinkowska, Monika; Ardini, Francisco; Grotti, Marco

    2016-01-01

    A new method for the speciation analysis of arsenic in food using narrow-bore high-performance liquid-chromatography inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS) has been developed. Fast separation of arsenite, arsenate, monomethylarsonic acid and dimethylarsinic acid was carried out in 7 min using an anion-exchange narrow-bore Nucleosil 100 SB column and 12 mM ammonium dihydrogen phosphate of pH 5.2 as the mobile phase, at a flow rate of 0.3 mL min(-1). A PFA-ST micronebulizer jointed to a cyclonic spray chamber was used for HPLC-ICP-MS coupling. Compared with standard-bore HPLC-ICP-MS, the new method has provided higher sensitivity, reduced mobile-phase consumption, a lower matrix plasma load and a shorter analysis time. The achieved instrumental limits of detection were in the 0.3 - 0.4 ng As mL(-1) range, and the precision was better than 3%. The arsenic compounds were efficiently (>80%) extracted from various food samples using a 1:5 methanol/water solution, with additional ultrasonic treatment for rice products. The applicability of this method was demonstrated by the analysis of several samples, such as seafood (fish, mussels, shrimps, edible algae) and rice-based products (Jasmine and Arborio rice, spaghetti, flour, crackers), including three certified reference materials.

  7. A study on optimal scan conditions of big bore multi-slice computed tomography based on radiation dose and image noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J. S.; Ye, S. J.; Kim, E. H.

    2011-01-01

    The newly introduced Big Bore computed tomography (CT) has a possibility to increase the tube current product scan time (mA s) for compensation of image degradation due to larger gentry opening without sound guideline. The objective of this paper is to derive optimal scan conditions for Big Bore CT scanner, mainly relating to the dose of diagnostic CT. The weighted CT dose index (CTDI w ) was estimated at five typical protocols, such as head and neck, brain, paediatric, chest and abdomen. Noises were analysed in a circle of 1 or 2 cm of diameter in CT image slice. The results showed that measured CTDI w values generally follow the theoretical rule at all scanning conditions of every protocol. Although image noises decrease with increment of mA s, analysed image noises do follow the theoretical rule, but only in specific protocols. This phenomenon is presumed to result from the photon energy spectra arriving at the detection system of the Big Bore scanner. (authors)

  8. Laser damage studies on MgF2 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Protopapa, Maria Lucia; De Tomasi, Ferdinando; Perrone, Maria Rita; Piegari, Angela; Masetti, Enrico; Ristau, Detlev; Quesnel, Etienne; Duparre, Angela

    2001-01-01

    The results of laser damage studies performed at 248 nm (KrF excimer laser) on MgF 2 thin films deposited by different techniques (electron-beam evaporation, thermal boat evaporation, and ion-beam sputtering) on fused silica and CaF 2 substrates are presented. We find that the films deposited on CaF 2 substrates by the electron-beam evaporation technique present the highest damage threshold fluence (9 J/cm2). The photoacoustic (PA) beam deflection technique was employed, in addition to microscopical inspection, to determine laser damage fluences. We confirm, by scanning electron microscopy analysis of the damaged spots, the capability of the PA technique to provide information on the mechanisms leading to damage. The dependence of both laser damage fluence and damage morphology on the film deposition technique, as well as on the film substrate, is discussed

  9. Immunoassay of DNA damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasparro, F.P.; Santella, R.M.

    1988-01-01

    The direct photomodification of DNA by ultraviolet light or the photo-induced addition of exogenous compounds to DNA components results in alterations of DNA structure ranging from subtle to profound. There are two consequences of these conformational changes. First, cells in which the DNA has been damaged are capable of executing repair steps. Second, the DNA which is usually of very low immunogenicity now becomes highly antigenic. This latter property has allowed the production of a series of monoclonal antibodies that recognize photo-induced DNA damage. Monoclonal antibodies have been generated that recognize the 4',5'-monoadduct and the crosslink of 8-methoxypsoralen in DNA. In addition, another antibody has been prepared which recognizes the furan-side monoadduct of 6,4,4'-trimethylangelicin in DNA. These monoclonal antibodies have been characterized as to sensitivity and specificity using non-competitive and competitive enzyme-linked-immunosorbent assays (ELISA). (author)

  10. Neutron induced radiation damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, M.M.R.

    1977-01-01

    We derive a general expression for the number of displaced atoms of type j caused by a primary knock-on of type i. The Kinchin-Pease model is used, but considerably generalised to allow for realistic atomic potentials. Two cases are considered in detail: the single particle problem causing a cascade and the neutron initiated problem which leads to multiple subcascades. Numerical results have been obtained for a variety of scattering laws. An important conclusion is that neutron initiated damage is much more severe than atom-initiated damage and leads to the number of displaced atoms being a factor of (A+1) 2 /4A larger than the single primary knock-on theory predicts. A is the ratio of the atomic mass to the neutron mass. The importance of this result to the theory of neutron sputtering is explained. (orig.) [de

  11. Immunoassay of DNA damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasparro, F P; Santella, R M

    1988-09-01

    The direct photomodification of DNA by ultraviolet light or the photo-induced addition of exogenous compounds to DNA components results in alterations of DNA structure ranging from subtle to profound. There are two consequences of these conformational changes. First, cells in which the DNA has been damaged are capable of executing repair steps. Second, the DNA which is usually of very low immunogenicity now becomes highly antigenic. This latter property has allowed the production of a series of monoclonal antibodies that recognize photo-induced DNA damage. Monoclonal antibodies have been generated that recognize the 4',5'-monoadduct and the crosslink of 8-methoxypsoralen in DNA. In addition, another antibody has been prepared which recognizes the furan-side monoadduct of 6,4,4'-trimethylangelicin in DNA. These monoclonal antibodies have been characterized as to sensitivity and specificity using non-competitive and competitive enzyme-linked-immunosorbent assays (ELISA).

  12. Radiation damage in DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafleur, V.

    1978-01-01

    A number of experiments are described with the purpose to obtain a better insight in the chemical nature and the biological significance of radiation-induced damage in DNA, with some emphasis on the significance of alkali-labile sites. It is shown that not only reactions of OH radicals but also of H radicals introduce breaks and other inactivating damage in single-standed phiX174 DNA. It is found that phosphate buffer is very suitable for the study of the reactions of H radicals with DNA, as the H 2 PO 4 - ions convert the hydrated electrons into H radicals. The hydrated electron, which does react with DNA, does not cause a detectable inactivation. (Auth.)

  13. Production of the heat exchanger tubes, which will cool down the LHC magnets, and of the cold bore tubes, in which the proton beams will circulate, is due to be completed around the end of 2004. These essential components of the LHC magnets are receiving their finishing touches at CERN : cold bore tubes

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    Insulation of the cold bore tubes in which the LHC beams will circulate takes place in Building 927. In the background, Bruno Meunier checks the wrapping machine while, in the foreground, Olivier Vasseur removes the polyester wrapping that covers the tube's insulating layers.

  14. Radiation damage of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazarevic, Dj.

    1966-11-01

    Study of radiation damage covered the following: Kinetics of electric resistance of uranium and uranium alloy with 1% of molybdenum dependent on the second phase and burnup rate; Study of gas precipitation and diffusion of bubbles by transmission electron microscopy; Numerical analysis of the influence of defects distribution and concentration on the rare gas precipitation in uranium; study of thermal sedimentation of uranium alloy with molybdenum; diffusion of rare gas in metal by gas chromatography method

  15. Cavitation damage of ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovalenko, V.I.; Marinin, V.G.

    1988-01-01

    Consideration is given to results of investigation of ceramic material damage under the effect of cavitation field on their surface, formed in water under the face of exponential concentrator, connected with ultrasonic generator UZY-3-0.4. Amplitude of vibrations of concentrator face (30+-2)x10 -6 m, frequency-21 kHz. It was established that ceramics resistance to cavitation effect correlated with the product of critical of stress intensity factor and material hardness

  16. Nondestructive damage detection and evaluation technique for seismically damaged structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Yukio; Unjoh, Shigeki; Kondoh, Masuo; Ohsumi, Michio

    1999-02-01

    The development of quantitative damage detection and evaluation technique, and damage detection technique for invisible damages of structures are required according to the lessons from the 1995 Hyogo-ken Nanbu earthquake. In this study, two quantitative damage sensing techniques for highway bridge structures are proposed. One method is to measure the change of vibration characteristics of the bridge structure. According to the damage detection test for damaged bridge column by shaking table test, this method can successfully detect the vibration characteristic change caused by damage progress due to increment excitations. The other method is to use self-diagnosis intelligent materials. According to the reinforced concrete beam specimen test, the second method can detect the damage by rupture of intelligent sensors, such as optical fiber or carbon fiber reinforced plastic rod.

  17. Site response assessment at the city of Alkhobar, Eastern Saudi Arabia from microtremor and boring data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fnais, M. S.

    2014-12-01

    The AlKhobar City affected by distant earthquakes from Zagros fold-fault belt of subduction zone. These earthquakes produced great site effects on the sedimentary layers that in turn significantly influenced earthquake ground motions in the area. Mapping of site response using microtremor measurements compared with geological and borehole data of Alkhobar city is the main target of this work. The resonance frequency and their H/V values have been calculated using Nakamura technique through deployed of seismograph instruments at 113 sites in AlKhobar city for different time periods. The recording length was about one hour with sampling frequency of 100 Hz. Most of the measured sites present three peaks for the resonance frequency; the first peak ranges from 0.33 to 1.03 Hz, the second peak ranges from 1.03 to 1.23 Hz, while the third peak ranges from 1.23-1.73. Tests have been conducted to ensure that these peaks are natural in origin. The northern zones of AlKhobar City have lower values of resonance frequency indicating great thickness of sediments. In contrast, the southern parts of the city have higher values of resonance frequency illustrating shallow depths of the bedrock. Furthermore, twenty of boreholes have been conducted through AlKhobar City to different depth. Standard penetration test (SPT) data has been corrected and used to calculate the resonance frequency at their locations. Borehole results clarified that the resonance frequency values range from 0.27 to 1.95 Hz. These results are correlated well with that of the microtremor measurements. Accordingly, the first peak have been interpreted due to the impedance contrast between the limestone and the overlying sediments, while the third peak is originated from a boundary between the upper most surface layer and the underlying sediments. These results must be applied for earthquake risk mitigation in AlKhobar City.

  18. Analysis of packing microstructure and wall effects in a narrow-bore ultrahigh pressure liquid chromatography column using focused ion-beam scanning electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reising, Arved E; Schlabach, Sabine; Baranau, Vasili; Stoeckel, Daniela; Tallarek, Ulrich

    2017-09-01

    Column wall effects are well recognized as major limiting factor in achieving high separation efficiency in HPLC. This is especially important for modern analytical columns packed with small particles, where wall effects dominate the band broadening. Detailed knowledge about the packing microstructure of packed analytical columns has so far not been acquired. Here, we present the first three-dimensional reconstruction protocol for these columns utilizing focused ion-beam scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM) on a commercial 2.1mm inner diameter×50mm length narrow-bore analytical column packed with 1.7μm bridged-ethyl hybrid silica particles. Two sections from the packed bed are chosen for reconstruction by FIB-SEM: one from the bulk packing region of the column and one from its critical wall region. This allows quantification of structural differences between the wall region and the center of the bed due to effects induced by the hard, confining column wall. Consequences of these effects on local flow velocity in the column are analyzed with flow simulations utilizing the lattice-Boltzmann method. The reconstructions of the bed structures reveal significant structural differences in the wall region (extending radially over approximately 62 particle diameters) compared to the center of the column. It includes the local reduction of the external porosity by up to 10% and an increase of the mean particle diameter by up to 3%, resulting in a decrease of the local flow velocity by up to 23%. In addition, four (more ordered) layers of particles in the direct vicinity of the column wall induce local velocity fluctuations by up to a factor of three regarding the involved velocity amplitudes. These observations highlight the impact of radial variations in packing microstructure on band migration and column performance. This knowledge on morphological peculiarities of column wall effects helps guiding us towards further optimization of the packing process for analytical

  19. DNA DAMAGE QUANTITATION BY ALKALINE GEL ELECTROPHORESIS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SUTHERLAND,B.M.; BENNETT,P.V.; SUTHERLAND, J.C.

    2004-03-24

    Physical and chemical agents in the environment, those used in clinical applications, or encountered during recreational exposures to sunlight, induce damages in DNA. Understanding the biological impact of these agents requires quantitation of the levels of such damages in laboratory test systems as well as in field or clinical samples. Alkaline gel electrophoresis provides a sensitive (down to {approx} a few lesions/5Mb), rapid method of direct quantitation of a wide variety of DNA damages in nanogram quantities of non-radioactive DNAs from laboratory, field, or clinical specimens, including higher plants and animals. This method stems from velocity sedimentation studies of DNA populations, and from the simple methods of agarose gel electrophoresis. Our laboratories have developed quantitative agarose gel methods, analytical descriptions of DNA migration during electrophoresis on agarose gels (1-6), and electronic imaging for accurate determinations of DNA mass (7-9). Although all these components improve sensitivity and throughput of large numbers of samples (7,8,10), a simple version using only standard molecular biology equipment allows routine analysis of DNA damages at moderate frequencies. We present here a description of the methods, as well as a brief description of the underlying principles, required for a simplified approach to quantitation of DNA damages by alkaline gel electrophoresis.

  20. Experimental study of oxidative DNA damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loft, Steffen; Deng, Xin-Sheng; Tuo, Jingsheng

    1998-01-01

    Animal experiments allow the study of oxidative DNA damage in target organs and the elucidation of dose-response relationships of carcinogenic and other harmful chemicals and conditions as well as the study of interactions of several factors. So far the effects of more than 50 different chemical ...