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Sample records for welfare technosystem kobe-chuo-ku

  1. Achievement report for fiscal 1998 on Welfare Technosystem Kobe-Chuo-Ku research and development; 1998 nendo Walfare technosystem kenkyu kaihatsu (Kobeshi Chuo-ku) seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Research on the transmission and management of information on those who necessitate nursing care will lead to the development of computer-aided nursing and welfare supporting systems and this in turn will help businesses who provide aged people with service they require for the enhancement of nursing care at home and at facilities for aged people to enjoy independent, unaided living. It is important to prepare liaising methods and coordinate with physicians in case of physical condition suddenly turning worse. Exchange of data at a visited place is important for a visiting nurse, and handling of information on such an occasion has to be easy and rapid to ensure high efficiency. When transmitting or receiving data on patients via PHS (personal handyphone system) or handyphone system, transmission of large-capacity data such as pictures should be avoided. In case a picture has to be transmitted, it should be compressed. ISDN (integrated services digital network) is preferred in all cases. The IEEE1394 interface is deemed to be the best for automatically transmitting as digital data the pictures etc. collected from other measuring instruments on nursing welfare and nursing assisting systems. It is necessary, however, to watch the development of digital interfaces in the future. (NEDO)

  2. Fiscal 2000 achievement report. Welfare technosystem research and development (Sapporo); 2000 nendo Welfare technosystem kenkyu kaihatsu (Sapporo) seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Activities are conducted on system technologies for ensuring comfortable living circumstances and thereby helping aged or handicapped people live independently in snowy cold regions. The research and development efforts center about the three fields of (1) in-house systems to help aged or handicapped people live an independent life, (2) in-home care equipment systems suitable for advanced welfare oriented residences, and (3) user interface controllers to improve on operating sensation in a motor driven wheelchair. In field (1), studies involve the development of low floor residences for snowy cold regions, improvement on entrances for independent residences helping the inhabitants lead an independent life, and functionally excellent designs for handrails for steps, stairs, or bathrooms. In field (2), surveys are conducted concerning design improvements and their acceptability relative to a universal welfare equipment controller, optimum sound that welfare equipment alarms should produce, and transfer devices. In field (3), studies are made about motor driven wheelchair controllers. (NEDO)

  3. Fiscal 2000 achievement report. Welfare technosystem research and development (Chofu); 2000 nendo welfare technosystem kenkyu kaihatsu (Chofu) seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Research and development efforts are exerted to realize (1) a variable function residential circumstance system for the aged people and (2) a medical welfare and life assisting information system for helping the aged or handicapped people lead an independent life. Under item (1), a variable function residential circumstance system under which functions of the residence may be changed dependent upon inhabitants' degree of debility will be developed, and an information system will be developed under which medical welfare assistance and life assistance are integrated. Under item (2), residences, welfare appliances, and nurse/attendant assisting systems will be assessed and examined. In fiscal 2000, under item (1), a variable function residential unit was fabricated and was inhabited experimentally by people approximately 1 to 4 in the degree of need for nursing care, and problems were isolated to be discussed toward putting the system to practical use. Under item (2), physical power required for nursing and attending was measured using medical assistance appliances for in-home nursing care installed at Welfare Technohouse Chofu, and ergonomic studies were conducted with a view to relieving the load to be imposed upon those engaged in the nursing and attending work. (NEDO)

  4. Fiscal 2000 achievement report. Welfare technosystem research and development (Niihama); 2000 nendo walfare technosystem kenkyu kaihatsu (Niihama) seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Efforts are made to develop welfare equipment systems for helping people needing care lead an independent life. In collecting data on the transfer of patients and carrying out research and development in this connection, activities are conducted to develop (1) a transfer wheelchair and a transfer aiding wheelchair, (2) a simplified transfer type toilet, and (3) a tilt mechanism installable on a standard wheelchair. Under item (1), a wheelchair and an auxiliary wheelchair enabling the transfer of a person who cannot move without help between a wheelchair and an automobile are experimentally built. Under item (2), a simplified transfer type toilet to which a single attendant can easily guide the patient from the bed is developed. Under item (3), a tilt mechanism is developed, installable on a wheelchair to recline the same for the aged person to assume a comfortable attitude. In the development of a portable character reading device, a finger tip reader was experimentally manufactured for reading Japanese characters. (NEDO)

  5. Fiscal 2000 achievement report. Welfare technosystem research and development (Ube); 2000 nendo walfare technosystem kenkyu kaihatsu (Ube) seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Efforts continue to develop welfare nursing equipment for helping persons in need of nursing care or handicapped persons who live an independent life. Efforts are exerted in three fields for developing (1) a motor driven wheelchair in which the occupant feels as if driving a car, (2) an online cardiac function monitoring system using a cardiac sound sensor, (3) an automatic pressure belt for patients of postural low blood pressure, (4) and a seated position aiding and stabilizing device for workers with legs not fully useful. In field (1), the steering wheel, brake, and driving system are contrived so that the occupant may easily drive the wheelchair as if in an automobile driver's seat. In field (2), a device is developed to monitor and examine the heart rate and respiration rate, for which a cardiac sensor has to be installed on the water bed or an air mattress. In field (3), a computer controlled automatic pressure belt is developed for patients of myelopathy or cerebrovascular disease. In field (4), a work assisting device is developed to help seated workers with leg troubles. (NEDO)

  6. Fiscal 1998 achievement report on welfare technosystem research and development. Kyoto; 1998 nendo walfare technosystem kenkyu kaihatsu (Kyoto) seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    To be ready for the computing-everywhere age to come, it is necessary to create environments in which the barrier-free utilization is ensured of various apparatuses of the daily routine, such as various bodily function substituting apparatuses capable of compensating for the degraded functions of disabled or aged individuals. Under the circumstances, a system for building man-machine interfaces in the home or the like is required, and fundamental technologies of architecture and information infrastructure have to be established on which the development of technologies for the field involved will proceed. Concerning the technologies already in existence in this field of research, a survey is conducted of the status of research and development of information interface techniques primarily at Stanford University, and a report is made thereon. Also reported is the information obtained at Technology and Persons with Disabilities Conference 1999. The result of a survey of the trend of research and development of the smart house under the TIDE (Technology Initiative for Disabled and Elderly People) project and the result of a survey of an information standardization project for equipment control in Europe are reported, and the result of a survey of the approach of Kyoto's welfare apparatus distributors to the development of equipment is made known. (NEDO)

  7. Fiscal 1998 achievement report on welfare technosystem research and development. Tokushima; 1998 nendo walfare technosystem kenkyu kaihatsu (Tokushima) seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The project aims to construct a real-time system capable of searching a wider living area through establishing a management system centralized by remote control by improving on radio transmitters in a communication network and on a central station communication control system centering about a health and welfare office, for alleviating the burden of the nursing of old persons who wander, for preventing them from accidents attributable to wandering, and for finding and protecting them in time. For the construction of such a system, surveys and studies are conducted for the preparation of fundamental designs for personal data files on individuals carrying radio transmitters, monitor screen manipulation, program for acquiring information from a transmitter about its current position and for receiving information from the terminal station, and a frequency selecting program or the like to give instructions to the terminal station to probe the frequency on which the missing person's transmitter operates. In this fiscal year, specifications are studied of software programs based on data obtained from an experiment conducted for the practical application of a search network system utilizing the currently available radio direction finding technique, which effort is exerted mainly at the infirmary of Hanoura-cho, Tokushima Prefecture. (NEDO)

  8. Report on achievements in fiscal 1999 on research and development of the Welfare Techno-system (Niihama); 1999 nendo Welfare Techno system kenkyu kaihatsu (Niihama) seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Research and development has been performed on a welfare techno-system that takes into account the interface between houses themselves and welfare devices and between the welfare devices to perform without troubles the life actions in houses such as movement, excretion and bathing. This paper summarizes the achievements in fiscal 1999. In developing a bath tub that promotes autonomous life for handicapped elderly people, data were collected on bath tubs having been fabricated on the trial basis in the previous fiscal year, problems were extracted, and a shape of a corner-installed type bath tub for home use was decided. In developing a reclining transfer-assisting wheelchair, the wheelchair developed in the previous fiscal year was added with the function by which a wheelchair can be reclined to an optional angle by using person's own force. In developing a horizontally transferring wheelchair, improvement was made on the mechanism to transfer a person from a wheelchair to a bed, resulting in a good result that it can be operated by one helper. In developing a wheelchair accommodating lifter, a lifter was developed that allows a wheelchair to be accommodated easily into the trunk of a passenger car even by one female helper. Research and development was also performed on a portable letter reading device for sight handicapped persons. (NEDO)

  9. Achievement report for fiscal 1998 on Welfare Technosystem Kamogawa research and development; 1998 nendo Welfare technosystem kenkyu kaihatsu (Kamogawa) seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Opinions were heard from residents about residences designed for aged people. According to their physical conditions, residents of advanced age may be classified into four groups, that is, 'Aged person who is self-reliant,' 'Patient who can walk using a walking stick or handrail, with a caregiver,' 'Patient who rides a wheelchair, with a caregiver,' 'Patient who is bedridden, with a caregiver.' The collected data will be effectively utilized in the future for planning residences that respect an advanced age. The difference between the four groups ensues from difference in human relationship in the residences and in movement and caregiving in daily life. When a residence in which a patient lives with the family is set forth for premise, what is important is to consider the request of the patient that the residence be functionally perfect and, at the same time, attention must be paid to the psychological desire that the residence be equipped with what a home is generally supposed to offer. Emerging increasingly definite out of the research conducted this fiscal year are policies towards the development of, and the feasibility of, a remotely controlled medical assistance system with patients allowed to stay at home and terminal equipment therefor. An experimentally constructed movement assistance unit is tested at Welfare Technohouse Kamogawa, and findings are obtained about the safe use of a barrier-free condominium thanks to such functions as motor-assisted walking, assistance for standing-up, collision avoidance, etc. (NEDO)

  10. Achievement report for fiscal 1998 on Welfare Technosystem Takaoka research and development; 1998 nendo Walfare technosystem kenkyu kaihatsu (Takaoka) chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    In an effort at developing nursing equipment, a cursor-controlled system for on-the-screen operation is experimentally constructed, which facilitates the use of indoor electronic devices and help aged persons engaged in in-house work. Vocal communicators are investigated for feasibility. In relation to equipment for mobility training, a dynamic equilibrium function evaluating system is experimentally built, and a system for electric stimulation-aided mobility rehabilitation is studied. Sensors are imbedded into the stool, and an excellent result is obtained in the measurement of the user's weight and the discharged amount. Studies are conducted about algorithm for calculating changes in heartbeats while bathing and about recording electrocardiograms while in bed. For welfare equipment to be effectively utilized at home, it has to be easy to use on the one hand and, on the other hand, house configuration and facilities have to be appropriate for welfare equipment application. It is important to improve the mechanism of providing advice on house modification and to expand financial assistance. A measuring method is developed using the state of the art in sensor technologies for the construction of a system for checking old people's activities of daily living, and their activities are evaluated. The system supplies a sufficient amount of data to grasp their behavior, which shows that it is a serviceable system. (NEDO)

  11. Achievement report for fiscal 1998 on Welfare Technosystem Oita research and development; 1998 nendo Walfare technosystem kenkyu kaihatsu (Oita) seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Before a welfare facility is introduced into a home, studies should be sufficiently conducted about the circumstances of daily life, not only of the aged user but also of the family members who take care of the aged user. In the development of handrails, it is found that plastic foam containing wood flour presents the feel of wood, easy to bend when heated. Materials are investigated for flexural strength, and ABS (acrylonitrile butadiene styrene) is chosen as the suitable material. As for devices to assist toileting, a system is developed under which the patient's legs are raised. Since there are arguments for and against the operation itself of mechanically raising a patient's legs, however, efforts will continue to develop much advanced systems. In the study of walk and transfer behavior, a toilet frame mockup is designed and manufactured, which is for collecting data. In an preliminary experiment, tests are conducted about a transfer from a chair to another and, assuming a physically handicapped patient, a transfer from a wheelchair. The data thus collected are to be subjected to analysis and image processing by the use of measuring sensors. Development is described of interfaces, for use in devices to serve as information mediums, which consider the cognition characteristics of the aged people. As for the development of devices for communication, environmental control, and display, their basic operation and feasibility are discussed. Actualities of costumes for physically handicapped people are also investigated, and development is carried out as required. (NEDO)

  12. Achievement report for fiscal 1998 on Welfare Technosystem Oita research and development; 1998 nendo Walfare technosystem kenkyu kaihatsu (Oita) seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Before a welfare facility is introduced into a home, studies should be sufficiently conducted about the circumstances of daily life, not only of the aged user but also of the family members who take care of the aged user. In the development of handrails, it is found that plastic foam containing wood flour presents the feel of wood, easy to bend when heated. Materials are investigated for flexural strength, and ABS (acrylonitrile butadiene styrene) is chosen as the suitable material. As for devices to assist toileting, a system is developed under which the patient's legs are raised. Since there are arguments for and against the operation itself of mechanically raising a patient's legs, however, efforts will continue to develop much advanced systems. In the study of walk and transfer behavior, a toilet frame mockup is designed and manufactured, which is for collecting data. In an preliminary experiment, tests are conducted about a transfer from a chair to another and, assuming a physically handicapped patient, a transfer from a wheelchair. The data thus collected are to be subjected to analysis and image processing by the use of measuring sensors. Development is described of interfaces, for use in devices to serve as information mediums, which consider the cognition characteristics of the aged people. As for the development of devices for communication, environmental control, and display, their basic operation and feasibility are discussed. Actualities of costumes for physically handicapped people are also investigated, and development is carried out as required. (NEDO)

  13. Achievement report for fiscal 1998 on Welfare Technosystem Osaka research and development; 1998 nendo Walfare technosystem kenkyu kaihatsu (Osaka) seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Old people's need for illumination is sufficiently covered by the JIS-stipulated illumination range. Although the minimum safe limit for the aged is serval times higher than that of the young, yet electricity saving may still be enhanced by proper adjustment without spoiling amenity for the aged. A hard floor puts a burden on the knees. The degree of fatigue due to the use of footgear is dependent not only on the shape but also on the user's habit. The transfer equipment seat surface height, if improperly set, oppresses the user psychologically and physiologically, the burdens heavier when the seat is lower. As compared with transfer aboard the wheelchair, a horizontal movement on the seat surface by the use of arms (fore and aft, right and left) demands less physiological burden. The above-said matters are taken into consideration when designing transfer equipment. As for emergency information systems, it is necessary to study seat pressure distribution, change in body temperature in a bath, change in blood pressure on the stool, and to develop a pulse counting simulator. A life space simulator and welfare utensil fitness evaluation are discussed. Also discussed are the development of a simulator for the comprehensive evaluation of motorized wheelchairs for their capability to encourage self-reliance, monitoring systems, and supervising/reporting systems (toilet irregularity annunciators etc.). (NEDO)

  14. FY 1999 report on the results of the R and D of a welfare techno-system (Sapporo, Hokkaido); 1999 nendo welfare techno system kenkyu kaihatsu (Sapporo) seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    The paper described the FY 1999 results of the R and D of a welfare techno-system (Sapporo). As to the development of an in-house system for the old/the handicapped living their life independently, the design of functional house by a new idea of moving space was studied in which attention is paid to the efficiency of snow disposal. As to the space where life patterns of the aged are considered, it was found good that the space can be a circuit style by increasing the area of the first floor. Home elevator also plays an important role. For safe going up/down of the stairs, the shape and extension of effective handrail are desirable. The motion of holding can considerably reduce slipping in bathtub. As to the home care equipment, studies were made on the easiness of switch recognition, alarm (about 1,000Hz is appropriate), and chair for care (analysis of the motion of transfer). The user interface controller was studied for improvement of sensation of operating electrically-driven wheelchair. The problem is that there is no feedback between wheelchair and joystick, and the crawling speed traveling/position control traveling were proposed. Also proposed is a function to improve sensation of the operation by reinforcing the feedback system. (NEDO)

  15. Report on achievements in fiscal 1999 on research and development of the Welfare Techno-system (Chofu); 1999 nendo Welfare Techno system kenkyu kaihatsu (Chofu) seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Research and development has been performed on a variable type living environment system for elderly people and a system to assist medical welfare and life as a whole for elderly people at the Chofu Welfare Techno-house. This paper summarizes the achievements in fiscal 1999. In the research and development of the variable type living environment system for elderly people, fabrication was performed on the trial basis for a unit to facilitate transfer from a bed to a toilet and taking shower at the toilet seat position. The unit was installed at a hospital in the city of Chiba after discussions and improvements have been made. In the survey and research on welfare devices, for the purpose of serving for selecting welfare devices to be incorporated in variable type welfare houses, surveys were carried out on commercially available welfare devices capable of dealing with daily life actions. Welfare mini-town cases in overseas countries were investigated, taking up the Netherlands, Denmark and the U.S.A. as the object. In the research and development of the system to assist medical welfare and life as a whole for elderly people, design and preparation were carried out on the house terminal information systems and the town management systems. Operation of each information system was verified on a simulated network. (NEDO)

  16. Report on achievements in fiscal 1998. Research and development of a welfare techno-system; 1998 nendo welfare techno system kenkyu kaihatsu (Sapporo) seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The surveys and studies having been performed in the present fiscal year are as follows: (1) in the surveys and studies on self-reliant and at-home care-taking for elderly people living in residential houses, using biological information of snowy and cold districts as the parameters, (a) effect of changing the attitude in two-step ascent and descent motions was studied, (b) stair ascent and descent motions were analyzed, (c) standing-up motion using a sitting position handrail was analyzed, and (d) stride-over motion patterns and hip joint movements were experimented; (2) in the studies of a living environment system to support self-reliant way of living of elderly and physically handicapped people in snowy and cold districts, studies were made on (a) shapes of entrance and exit spaces of a residential house, and features of moving motions of elderly and physically handicapped people, (b) living activity patterns and pleasantness centering around the living section in the house of the at-home elderly people, (c) forms of approach spaces for independent residential houses that consider snow disposal: (3) in development and improvement of care-taking devices with importance placed on physical and psychological adapting function of the users and harmony with the users, studies were given on (a) noise characteristics of rooms in which at-home welfare devices are installed, (b) colors and recognizability of switches on welfare devices for elderly persons, (c) drive experiments of moving devices in winter, and (d) motion simulation of ridable devices; and studies were made on (4) moving and riding welfare device systems for elderly and physically handicapped people in snowy and cold districts, and (5) user interface of motor-driven wheelchairs. (NEDO)

  17. Report on achievements in fiscal 1999 on research and development of the Welfare Techno-system (Shiga); 1999 nendo Welfare Techno system kenkyu kaihatsu (Shiga) seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Research and development has been performed on a welfare device system that meets the regional needs at the Welfare Techno-house Shiga for the purpose of assisting autonomy in help requiring persons, assisting their social activities, and reducing burdens on helpers. This paper summarizes the achievements in fiscal 1999. In developing a walking action supporting appliance of muscular strength utilizing type, the relationship was investigated between motions of knee joints and muscular output when going up the stairs to perform discussions, experiments and measurements on timing for using auxiliary strength required when the knee joints are bent and stretched. In developing an auxiliary device to support spontaneous movements of lower leg handicapped persons, the standing up motion from the sitting position was analyzed, an action supporting device was designed for the method to help the transfer action, and for transfer actions in vertical and forward-backward directions, and fabrication and experiment were executed thereon. In developing a long-term action and physical condition monitoring system, discussions were given on methods to monitor body action amount and activities in daily life of the subjects, by receiving signals from an acceleration sensor fitted to the front of waist of a subject into a portable digital biological signal monitor. (NEDO)

  18. Report on achievements in fiscal 1999 on research and development of the Welfare Techno-system (Shizuoka); 1999 nendo Welfare Techno system kenkyu kaihatsu (Shizuoka) seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Research and development has been performed at the Shizuoka Welfare Techno-house to assist entry into the welfare industry field of the local industries in the prefecture, such as for wood products, furniture and music instruments, and to provide products which take into consideration the society with more elderly people and less children. This paper summarizes the achievements in fiscal 1999. In developing barrier-free kitchens capable of handling change in bodily functions, a prototype kitchen was used to evaluate work load variation as a result of existence of a foot space under the kitchen table. In addition, a human simulation software was used to evaluate compatibility of humans with products. By utilizing these technical data, a system was arranged by which barrier-free kitchens can be commercialized by changing the specifications according to individual requirements. In developing a bed unit to prevent bedsore by using the multi-point pressure and fluctuation mechanism, the unit weight was reduced, and addition was made to such functions as controlling finger-pressing cycle and positions by electronic control. Development was made on a music instrument for rehabilitation by which anyone can play music by repetitively giving stimulation to human eyes and ears. (NEDO)

  19. Report on achievements in fiscal 1999 on research and development of the Welfare Techno-system (Chuo Ward, Kobe); 1999 nendo Welfare Techno system kenkyu kaihatsu (Kobe-shi Chuo-ku) seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Research and development has been performed on a help and welfare system to transmit and accumulate monitoring data by utilizing a computer system. This paper summarizes the achievements in fiscal 1999. In the research of transmission and management of information on help requiring persons, a server and its peripheral devices were modified to structure a system to measure body temperatures, pulses, and blood pressures, and transmit them to a central server. In the research on support for the visiting helps, a mobile system was developed, which has map information and scheduling function that shows distribution of help requiring persons. In the research of a simulation to link hospitals, medical organizations and homes, the LAN at health facilities for elderly people was structured, and so was a network for linking hospitals, medical organizations and homes (simulated). Investigations and discussions were performed on interface between body information (vital data) measuring instruments and personal computers. Developmental research was executed on private certification office servers and the certification software that consider security in the help systems. (NEDO)

  20. Report on achievements in fiscal 1999 on research and development of the Welfare Techno-system (Nishi Ward, Kobe); 1999 nendo Welfare Techno system kenkyu kaihatsu (Kobe-shi Nishi-ku) seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Research and development has been performed on devices to enhance autonomy, safety and comfort for elderly and handicapped people in houses and homes. This paper summarizes the achievements in fiscal 1999. In developing wheelchairs to allow autonomy in meal taking and working at homes, a small upper arm holding device that can be installed on a wheelchair was fabricated on the trial basis according to the experience obtained in making the first prototype in the previous fiscal year, and clinical evaluation was given. In the research and development on a safe walk assisting appliance for elderly and handicapped people, development, improvement and trial fabrication were carried out on a caster in which the brake will not work during walking, but it works automatically in a sudden movement such as falling down. In developing an environment information transmitting system for elderly and handicapped people, a first prototype fabrication was performed on a system to detect sound of an alarm or vibration caused by knocking a door, and convey information to elderly and handicapped people by utilizing the communication services including the commercially available cellular phones. In the research on a welfare device support system for use in disaster and emergency, design and structuring were carried out on a nighttime electric power utilizing system having solar cells combined with storage batteries. Related data were measured. (NEDO)

  1. Fiscal 2000 report on results of R and D of welfare techno-system in West Ward, Kobe City; 2000 nendo walfare techno system kenkyu kaihatsu (Kobe-shi Nishi-ku) seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    R and D was conducted on devices for promoting self-support, mitigating nursing care, and improving safety and comfort for the elderly and the disabled, with the fiscal 2000 results reported. In the development of a wheelchair system (small arm sling mountable on a wheelchair) capable of assisting self-support for eating and vocational activity at home, a mounting device of an arm sling was experimentally manufactured for five different types of wheelchairs. In the research on the welfare device support system at a disaster or emergency, the system was modified based on the result of the system operation in the preceding year. Consequently, it became possible to make use of a power from a solar battery, a storage battery and an utility line, and also to reduce instantaneous interruption caused by switching of the self-sustaining operation for example. Further, a load control adaptor linked with an inverter was developed, enabling the system to use electricity for a long period even at the time of power failure. In addition, a conventional simple charge/discharge control was found to cause a marked deterioration in storage cell properties; hence, an accurate charge controller was added. (NEDO)

  2. Fiscal 2000 report on results of R and D of welfare techno-system in Chuo Ward, Kobe City; 2000 nendo walfare techno system kenkyu kaihatsu (Kobe-shi Chuo-ku) seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    'R and D on systems for supporting care and welfare through transmission and accumulation of monitored data' was conducted for the purpose of assisting the operation of service providers for the elderly in need of care and supporting nursing care at home and at facilities, for which the results in fiscal 2000 was reported. In the development of vital data measuring devices and inter-computer interfaces, a USB or IEEE1394 interface was developed which was for automatically inputting, into personal computers (PC), the information such as body temperature, heart rate and blood pressure of a person requiring care; and the interface was incorporated in the system. In the research on support for home visit care centers, a geographic information system (GIS) and data were selected, which were to be installed on server's side, with linkage with portable PC's carried out. However, it was pointed out that data transmission took time between the server in the center and the portable PC at a home to visit. Further, investigative research on care services at facilities under the care insurance system was conducted, as were studies on linkage between general practitioners and hospitals, and studies on prevention of illegal access and wiretapping, among others. (NEDO)

  3. Fiscal 2000 achievement report. Welfare technosystem research and development (Kamogawa); 2000 nendo welfare technosystem kenkyu kaihatsu (Kamogawa) seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    For the purpose of assisting in-home medical care, a system to enable in-home acquisition, compression, accumulation, distribution, and regeneration of auscultatory sounds (cardiac sound, respiratory sound) is added to telemedicine assisting system technologies for remotely located doctors' decisions and instructions for in-home medical care. In fiscal 2000, for improvement on the already-developed system, operationality was improved, uptake was realized of still images (digital camera pictures) mainly for diseases in dematology where such is strongly demanded, and a transmitter function was augmented. The system enables the PHS (personal handyphone system) aided exchange of medical data between portable terminals on patrol and (doctors') personal computers through the personal computer server in the hospital. Doctors are able to administer remote telemedicine now that biomimetic information on remotely located patients such as still medical images and auscultatory sounds necessary for diagnosing is available in the hospital. (NEDO)

  4. Fiscal 2000 achievement report. Welfare technosystem research and development (Mizusawa); 2000 nendo walfare technosystem kenkyu kaihatsu (Mizusawa) seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    For assisting aged people, healthy and living alone, in living without help, activities were conducted for (1) an electrical transmission experiment connecting residences (two, inhabited for the experiment) and a remote location (Techno-House) and (2) the development of a home server equipped with an electrocardiograph. Under item (1), data collected by sensors (occupancy sensor, open/close sensor, flame sensor, waterflow sensor) installed at the residences occupied by aged persons living alone were forwarded to Techno-House via CATV (cable television) and analyzed for the study of elderly people's behavior and daily life pattern. It was found that using this system the behavior of elderly people living alone might be detected even in the absence of their intention to report or communicate. Under item (2), an Ni-based electrode sheet was fabricated and installed in a bed and, via the sheet and a CATV channel, cardiographic waveforms were transmitted to Techno-House where the data were put into an analyzer for the examination of the elderly person's physical conditions. (NEDO)

  5. Medical and welfare device session. Toward medical treatment and welfare of tomorrow; Iryo fukushi kiki session. Ashita no iryo fukushi ni mukete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-09-01

    This paper is the material distributed in the medical and welfare device session held under the auspices of NEDO in September 2000. Diversification of needs in the medical and welfare areas and handling of age advancement are the growing issue. NEDO is putting efforts toward enhancement of quality of life (QOL) and realization of the nation with great life by providing high-quality and high-efficiency medical and welfare services. The NEDO's efforts cover the areas of treating adult diseases such as cancers and cardiac diseases whose seriousness is growing, early diagnoses of diseases, medical treatment with low invasion, elderly people helping, reduction of helpers' burden, reduction of handicaps to elderly people and mentally and physically handicapped persons, and assistance to participation in the society. To achieve these goals, NEDO is implementing the following four projects: research and development of medical and welfare device technologies, researches of medical science and engineering collaboration type, and promotion of developing welfare techno-systems and practical application of welfare appliances. Developments are being made toward practical application of medical and welfare devices with excellent safety and convenience, of low cost and high performance. The session gave the keynote addresses related to medical treatment and prevention of brain diseases; brain, the universe and MRI (the world of mind as seen in images), and high-tech medical treatments to protect brain (challenge to brain that starts now). (NEDO)

  6. Achievement report for fiscal 1998 on Welfare Technosystem Ube research and development; 1998 nendo Walfare technosystem kenkyu kaihatsu (Chiba) seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Research is conducted into burdens to be imposed on the nurse and the attended person during nursing activities and into measures to lighten such burdens, and basic data are collected about physical strains to be produced when raising a patient on the bed, pushing a wheelchair, and about stool shapes appropriate for the aged. In a study about escape from a disaster, many shortcomings are discovered requiring remedy, such as difference in height and doors failing to open in case of power outage. For communication in case of emergency, it is concluded that the most promising method will be a combination of a mobile computer and handyphone system. A photoelectric pulse wave monitoring system and an acceleration sensor-equipped water bed, on which the patient lies unrestrained for the measurement of heartbeats and respiration waveforms, are developed. A concept wheelchair is under development which will be a 2-motor 4-wheel design, to be equipped with a steering wheel and a vertically movable seat which will facilitate boarding and alighting. Many projects are in store for fiscal 2001, which include the development of a system to ensure sitting position stability and an automatic pressure belt for the prevention of orthostatic hypotension. A multiple function bed is under development for domestic use, which will be provided with a discharge system (automatic toilet) whose mechanism is quite sophisticated. (NEDO)

  7. FY 1999 achievement report on the R and D of welfare techno-systems (Kyoto); 1999 nendo welfare techno system kenkyu kaihatsu (Kyoto) seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    The R and D were carried out of various kinds of physically functional substitution equipment which supplements the worsened functional ability of the aged/handicapped. In the research on various prototypes of physically functional substitution equipment, experiments on the use were conducted using Japanese speech recognition devices/programs which are standard products commercially available, so that the aged/handicapped can operate equipment (various devices such as home electric appliances) by speech (words). Further, the specifications were studied for technology to use the Japanese speech recognition technique for physically substitution functions. In the R and D of information infrastructure and various kinds of physically functional substitution equipment, the specifications were established for technology to operate lighting equipment, heater and TV by the Japanese speech, and the experiment was made using the prototype manufactured. As a result, the power source operation by speech of TV/lighting desk lump/electric stove has been finished almost certainly. Further study is needed such as TV channel selection by remote control. The investigation was made of the aid needs for the handicapped. (NEDO)

  8. Fiscal 2000 report on results of R and D of welfare techno-system in Takaoka City; 2000 nendo welfare techno system kenkyu kaihatsu (Takaoka) seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    R and D was conducted on a 'system for monitoring living situation of elderly people' for the purpose of supporting the elderly living alone, with the fiscal 2000 results reported. In the development of a knowledge engineering system, a system was developed estimating the present position of an elderly person in his home or calculating his daily living activities, by analyzing data measured by infrared sensors, and thereby automatically inferring his behavior or health condition. In the research for practicability of the system, infrared sensors and sensors for detecting opening/closing of a door were improved, which included improvement by using telephone lines for example. In the demonstrative experiment, data were obtained which seemed to show a change for the worse of a disability condition due to senile dementia, or else, which appeared to be an inability to move occurring finally as a result of gradual deterioration of health. Another data measured disclosed that elderly people, unlike a normal life pattern, were living in a state with night and day reversed. From these results, the system can safely be said to have a function for monitoring the lives of the elderly people in point of their mind and body. (NEDO)

  9. Report on achievements in fiscal 1999 on research and development of the Welfare Techno-system (Kochi); 1999 nendo Welfare Techno system kenkyu kaihatsu (Kochi) seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    With an objective to prevent increase of bedridden elderly people, research and development has been performed on a device to prevent retrogression of walking strength in long-term bedridden people, and on the safety device for a walking training machine. This paper summarizes the achievements in fiscal 1999. In developing the device to prevent retrogression of walking strength, a stepping exercising device was fabricated on a trial basis for two types, a hydraulic type and a timing belt type. Operation experiments were carried out. The hydraulic type device has flexibility when making stepping motions, gives good feeling, and operates smoothly. However, it is difficult to achieve the target values for the weight of 70N and the height of 600 mm. The timing belt type device allows reduction in size and weight, but would not operate smoothly if the brake is applied, requiring improvements in various points. In the research and development of the safety device for a walking training machine, discussions were given on a sensing method for the two typical patterns of a patient falling or tumbling down. As a result, a method was discovered, which has a possibility of identifying to some extent how the falling or tumbling is occurring. The existing walking training machines were modified by adding computers and sensors. (NEDO)

  10. Miners' welfare

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckley, C

    1984-06-13

    The Miners' Welfare Committee (MWC) was formed in Britain in 1921 and initiated building programmes to provide welfare amenities for miners and families, using architecture to improve the quality of a miner's working and leisure time. The article reviews the MWC's work, and assesses the design and architecture at the Selby Coalfield. (7 refs.)

  11. Fiscal 2000 report on results of R and D of welfare techno-system in Mitaka City; 2000 nendo walfare techno system kenkyu kaihatsu (Mitaka) seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Studies were made for the purpose of probing effects of utilizing body sensory game machines for the functional recovery training and exercise of the elderly and handicapped, with the fiscal 2000 results reported. In the verification by existing game machines, a game center was made available free of charge, providing free experience for the elderly, with the image traced of the elderly for the game machines based on the record of the machines used, questionnaires and interviews. In addition, four body-sensory game machines that were supposed to be effective for the exercise of the joints were installed in a day care center for six months, with a verification test performed on the adaptability of the elderly to the speed and the like of the game machines. In the development of a game machine intended for the exercise of the lower extremities, researchers tackled the development of a game machine in which an entertainment/amusement nature was added to the exercise of the lower extremities. An experimental model was developed based on a principle providing a virtual reality as if the user were walking in a tourist area of scenic beauty by moving a scenery linked with a foot pedal type exercising pattern. (NEDO)

  12. Fiscal 2000 report on results of R and D of welfare techno-system in Kochi Prefecture; 2000 nendo walfare techno system kenkyu kaihatsu (Kochi) seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    With the purpose of preventing increase in the number of bedridden elderly people, R and D was conducted on equipment for preventing degeneration of walking ability of long bedridden people and a safety device for walking exercise machines, for which the fiscal 2000 results were reported. In the development of the preventive equipment for the degeneration of walking ability, a chain type foot-operated exerciser was experimentally manufactured this year, with test and improvement carried out for the operating characteristics. The test result showed that this exerciser proved to be the equipment as originally intended in the prevention of lumbago, muscle/joint degeneration, etc.. The machine was also found effective for peripheral blood circulation. In the development of the safety device for walking exercise machines, clinical trial tests were conducted on falling and collapsing simulations. The result elucidated that, when a walking exercise machine stopped, a force imparted to the handle by a patient was intensified if the patient had paralysis of one side of the body and that, however, a preventive device installed adjustably to the patient's height was effective against falling. Further, as to collapsing, it was confirmed that, by setting the machine to stop by receiving a load of 20% or more of the body weight, the machine stopped concurrently with the collapsing of the patient. (NEDO)

  13. Fiscal 2000 report on results of R and D of welfare techno-system in Shiga Prefecture; 2000 nendo walfare techno system kenkyu kaihatsu (Shiga) seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    R and D was conducted on systems and technology for realizing desirable at-home nursing care in the coming super aging society, with the fiscal 2000 results reported. In the development of a muscle using type walking frame, a device was developed using mechanism of the functional element. As a result, it was found that the device was operable through a normal movement pattern, and that the torque generating by the human body side was uniformly reducible, enabling the load to be alleviated physiologically. In the development of a lower extremity orthosis for self-sustained movement, a rising motion from a seated position was observed, with a transfer motion analyzed, leading to the examination of the supporting method and the design/manufacturing of an orthosis for transfer movement. In the development of a monitor system for a long-term behavior and physical condition, an uninvasive unrestrictive earring type pulse wave sensor system was experimentally manufactured as a monitor for heart activity, particularly, for heartbeat fluctuation. This monitor was integrated with the physical activity monitoring device developed in the previous year, with a simultaneous measuring experiment performed for elderly people in their daily life. (NEDO)

  14. State Welfarism and Social Welfare in Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr Indra P TIWARI

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper has analyzed and discussed the social welfare policies of the Asian countries—the responsibilities of international activist institutions and the State towards individuals in terms of state welfarism and social and economic protection, and the conventional family system, which was and still is the core responsible institution for the well-being of its members. The paper has presented economic and poverty indicators (19, demographic, social and economic indicators associated social welfarism (16, satisfaction related indicators (7, and funding related indicators that have association with social welfarism (9. This has also analyzed and discussed the gap between the international propaganda on social welfare, social policies of the Government and its actual delivery and the situation of vacuum being created due to the moribund family system of slothful state welfarism, in the new living context created by the notion of right-prone individualism. The study has identified along with their history of starting social security provisions the present state major workfare and welfare and welfare protection in the Asian countries, thereby explored countries falling into five levels of social welfare system by taking a combined state of poverty, vulnerable employment, and government expenditure on education, health and social protection, namely (i early stage of welfare system; (ii transition to take-off stage of welfare system; (iii take-off stage of welfare system; (iv transition to drive to maturity stage of welfare system; and (v the drive to maturity stage of welfare system. Finally, the paper has presented the critical areas for dialogue where the synergy of the propagandist international activism, state slothfulness, moribund family dynamics, and right-prone individualism interface for a reliable and sustainable social welfare with affection, protection, nurturance, and protection thereby live in peace and harmony with dignity.

  15. Family welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, N K

    1992-01-01

    Between 1901-1921, India gained 12.9 million people because mortality remained high. The death rate fell between 1921-1951, but birth rates remained the same. Therefore 110 million people were added--2 times the population increase between 1891-1921. Between 1951-1981, the population increased to 324 million. Socioeconomic development was responsible for most of the downward trend in the birth rate during the 20th century. Even though large families were the norm in early India, religious leaders encouraged small family size. The 1st government family planning clinics in the world opened in Mysore and Bangalore in 1930. Right before Independence, the Bhore Committee made recommendations to reduce population growth such as increasing the age of marriage for girls. Since 1951 there has been a change in measures and policies geared towards population growth with each of the 7 5-Year Plans because policy makers applied what they learned from each previous plan. The 1st 5-Year Plan emphasized the need to understand what factors contribute to population growth. It also integrated family planning services into health services of hospitals and health centers. The government was over zealous in its implementation of the sterilization program (2nd 5-Year Plan, 1956-1961), however, which hurt family planning programs for many years. As of early 1992, sterilization, especially tubectomy, remained the most popular family planning method, however. The 7th 5-Year Plan changed its target of reaching a Net Reproductive Rate of 1 by 2001 to 2006-2011. It set a goal of 100% immunization coverage by 1990 but it did not occur. In 1986, the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare planned to make free contraceptives available in urban and rural areas and to involve voluntary organizations. The government needs to instill measures to increase women's status, women's literacy, and age of marriage as well as to eliminate poverty, ensure old age security, and ensure child survival and

  16. Scandinavian Model of Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamson, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Within the so-called welfare modeling business Scandinavia stands out as a space with a particular welfare regime. It is a peculiar combination of market, state, and civil societal interventions into people's social life, that define this welfare regime. The particular welfare mix emphasizes univ...... of conditions with respect to political culture and ethnic homogeneity. The East Asian welfare regime resembles that of Southern Europe, characterized as it is by a high degree of informality regarding care for children, fragile elderly and the handicapped....

  17. Welfare in horse breeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, M.L.H.; Sandøe, Peter

    2015-01-01

    and identifies areas in which data is lacking. We suggest that all methods of horse breeding are associated with potential welfare problems, but also that the judicious use of ARTs can sometimes help to address those problems. We discuss how negative welfare effects could be identified and limited and how...... positive welfare effects associated with breeding might be maximised. Further studies are needed to establish an evidence base about how stressful or painful various breeding procedures are for the animals involved, and what the lifetime welfare implications of ARTs are for future animal generations....

  18. Animal welfare and eggs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Laura Mørch

    and private good attributes of different types of eggs. We find that the estimated correlations are consistent with the levels of animal welfare, and that consumers perceiving a stronger connection between animal welfare and the organic label have higher willingness to pay for organic eggs, even when we...

  19. Welfare State Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obinger, Herbert; Starke, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes welfare state transformation in OECD countries since the 1970s against the background of the post-war settlement. Relying on quantitative macro-data and qualitative information from the literature, we show that welfare states have con-verged, especially regarding various...

  20. The Danish welfare state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jørgen Elm; Bengtsson, Tea Torbenfeldt; Frederiksen, Morten

    The Danish Welfare State analyzes a broad range of areas, such as globalization, labor marked, family life, health and social exclusion, the book demonstrates that life in a modern welfare state is changing rapidly, creating both challenges and possibilities for future management....

  1. Market Access and Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis; Woodland, Alan D.

    2015-01-01

    Well known tariff reform rules that are guaranteed to increase welfare will not necessarily increase market access, while rules that are guaranteed to increase market access will not necessarily increase welfare. The present paper proposes a new set of tariff reforms that can achieve both...

  2. Teenagers and Welfare Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offner, Paul

    This report examines the extent to which welfare reform is changing adolescent behaviors that lead to welfare dependency. It begins by discussing the provisions in the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 that require teenagers to stay in school and live with a parent, concluding that relatively little can be…

  3. Wellbeing or welfare benefits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handlos, Line Neerup; Kristiansen, Maria; Nørredam, Marie Louise

    2016-01-01

    This debate article debunks the myth that migrants are driven primarily by the size of the welfare benefits in the host country, when they decide where to migrate to. We show that instead of welfare benefits, migrants are driven by a desire for safety, wellbeing, social networks and opportunities...

  4. Ethical Child Welfare Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leever, Martin G.; DeCiani, Gina; Mulaney, Ellen; Hasslinger, Heather; Gambrill, Eileen

    Noting that child welfare professionals can improve the quality and integrity of the services they provide if they develop ethical decision making skills, this book provides child welfare administrators and caseworkers with a framework for assessing ethical dilemmas, making sound ethical decisions, and delivering services with integrity to…

  5. The Child Welfare Cartel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoesz, David

    2016-01-01

    The probity of the Children's Bureau's National Child Welfare Workforce Institute (NCWWI) is examined with respect to the status of child welfare as well as the performance of social work education. By requiring that funding go only to accredited schools of social work, which is not authorized by relevant provisions of the Social Security Act,…

  6. Fiscal 1993 investigational study of a model of international cooperation for an environmentally harmony type green technosystem; 1993 nendo Oshu ni okeru haikibutsu shori oyobi recycle no doko ni kansuru chosa kenkyu hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-03-01

    For the natural environment preservation, effective utilization of resources, and maintenance of the ecosystem, an international cooperation model was proposed for the environmental harmony type green technosystem. A comprehensive evaluating analysis of a green forest resource, etc. as the global resource, and an intensive extraction of subjects and needs was made. The analysis was conducted of technical possibility and abstract business development effects toward the industrialization with high values added which is in harmony with the environment. As a case study, the Papua New Guinea area, Malaysia was selected and re-evaluated. For this typical tropical forest area, a new technical system was studied based on the natural environment, industry/economy, social/cultural assessment, etc., and a model for industrializing new international cooperation was proposed. For the model making for industrialization, various steps to be taken and conditions to be prepared were studied and arranged for the realization. Upon going ahead with the international technical cooperation, Japan, a large lumber consuming country, needs to always consider the fostering and effective use of lumber resource in particular. 27 refs., 28 figs., 30 tabs.

  7. Technology and Poultry Welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neila Ben Sassi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Consideration of animal welfare is essential to address the consumers’ demands and for the long term sustainability of commercial poultry. However, assessing welfare in large poultry flocks, to be able to detect potential welfare risks and to control or minimize its impact is difficult. Current developments in technology and mathematical modelling open new possibilities for real-time automatic monitoring of animal welfare and health. New technological innovations potentially adaptable to commercial poultry are appearing, although their practical implementation is still being defined. In this paper, we review the latest technological developments with potential to be applied to poultry welfare, especially for broiler chickens and laying hens. Some of the examples that are presented and discussed include the following: sensors for farm environmental monitoring, movement, or physiological parameters; imaging technologies such as optical flow to detect gait problems and feather pecking; infrared technologies to evaluate birds’ thermoregulatory features and metabolism changes, that may be indicative of welfare, health and management problems. All these technologies have the potential to be implemented at the commercial level to improve birds’ welfare and to optimize flock management, therefore, improving the efficiency of the system in terms of use of resources and, thus, long term sustainability.

  8. Technology and Poultry Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Sassi, Neila; Averós, Xavier; Estevez, Inma

    2016-01-01

    Consideration of animal welfare is essential to address the consumers’ demands and for the long term sustainability of commercial poultry. However, assessing welfare in large poultry flocks, to be able to detect potential welfare risks and to control or minimize its impact is difficult. Current developments in technology and mathematical modelling open new possibilities for real-time automatic monitoring of animal welfare and health. New technological innovations potentially adaptable to commercial poultry are appearing, although their practical implementation is still being defined. In this paper, we review the latest technological developments with potential to be applied to poultry welfare, especially for broiler chickens and laying hens. Some of the examples that are presented and discussed include the following: sensors for farm environmental monitoring, movement, or physiological parameters; imaging technologies such as optical flow to detect gait problems and feather pecking; infrared technologies to evaluate birds’ thermoregulatory features and metabolism changes, that may be indicative of welfare, health and management problems. All these technologies have the potential to be implemented at the commercial level to improve birds’ welfare and to optimize flock management, therefore, improving the efficiency of the system in terms of use of resources and, thus, long term sustainability. PMID:27727169

  9. The Danish Welfare Commission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerding, Allan Næs

    2006-01-01

    on public services, and install economic incentives for the behaviour of private households. The paper then digs into the proposals of the commission that are broadly grouped into five policy target areas con-cerning (1) the ageing of the population, (2) the incentives for labour market participation, (3......The paper deals with the main report of the Danish Welfare Commission and the one-hundred-and-nine proposals on the structure of the future Danish welfare state that the com-mission has put forward. Following upon a brief review of the discussion on the work of the Danish Welfare Commission......) competitiveness in the global economy, (4) behavioural regulation of the use of public bene-fits and services, and (5) management within tight budgets of an increasing demand on health and care. Finally, the concluding section sums up the discussion and elaborates on the debate on the Welfare Commission’s work...

  10. Market Access and Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis; Woodland, Alan D.

    According to the literature, well known tariff reform rules that are guaranteed to increase welfare will not necessarily increase market access, while rules that are guaranteed to increase market access will not necessarily increase welfare. Such conflict between welfare and market access...... objectives of trade policy is problematic and calls for finding alternative tariff reform rules that can achieve both objectives at the same time. The present paper contributes to this aim by using a new set of tariff reforms that are based on local optimality. Using such reforms it is shown that market...... access and consumer welfare will always be weakly compatible, in the sense that reforms based on each objective have the same signed effect on the other objective. For strong compatibility, whereby both objectives increase as a result of a locally optimal tariff reform, we derive both a necessary...

  11. Power and welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mik-Meyer, Nanna; Villadsen, Kasper

    readily evident that power is at stake when institutions educate, counsel or ‘empower’ citizens. This book offers a framework for understanding and analyzing these complex and implicit forms of power at play in the encounters between citizens and welfare institutions. Taking as its starting point the idea......In the welfare provision of today, power takes both the shape of juridical sanctions and of attractive offers for self-development. When state institutions punish criminals, remove children at risk, or enforce sanctions upon welfare recipients the question of power is immediately urgent. It is less...... that power takes many different shapes, and that different approaches to power may be necessary in the diverse contexts where citizens encounter welfare professionals, the book demonstrates how significant social theorists, spanning from Goffman to Foucault, can be used for inquiries into these encounters...

  12. Power and Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mik-Meyer, Nanna; Villadsen, Kaspar

    readily evident that power is at stake when institutions educate, counsel or 'empower' citizens. This book offers a framework for understanding and analyzing these complex and implicit forms of power at play in the encounters between citizens and welfare institutions. Taking as its starting point the idea......In the welfare provision of today, power takes both the shape of juridical sanctions and of attractive offers for self-development. When state institutions punish criminals, remove children at risk, or enforce sanctions upon welfare recipients the question of power is immediately urgent. It is less...... that power takes many different shapes, and that different approaches to power may be necessary in the diverse contexts where citizens encounter welfare professionals, the book demonstrates how significant social theorists, spanning from Goffman to Foucault, can be used for inquiries into these encounters...

  13. Zoo Animal Welfare Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koene, P.

    2012-01-01

    Species with specific environmental adaptations may show specific behavioral adaptations, difficulty in adapting to a new environment, and hence suboptimal functioning and fitness. Discrepancy between natural behavioral adaptations and behavioral possibilities in captivity may cause welfare

  14. Trade, Environment & Animal Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morrison, Peter; Nielsen, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Regulation of animal welfare and the environment under the WTO GATT and GATS Agreements - including introduction of the innovative idea of limiting consumption abroad (mode 2) for e.g. bull fights.......Regulation of animal welfare and the environment under the WTO GATT and GATS Agreements - including introduction of the innovative idea of limiting consumption abroad (mode 2) for e.g. bull fights....

  15. Welfare Professions in Transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette Kamp

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Welfare professions constitute one of the backbones in the development of the Nordic welfare states. Working in the public sector was for decades associated with high status; public sector employees were trusted employees. Through their work, they had important responsibilities for the welfare state and its citizens. To provide job security—through employment as officials—was a part of ensuring the stability of the state (Åkerstrøm, 2001, and we saw the establishment of what could be called a public ethos, a special morality aimed at serving the needs of the citizens and the state (Hoggett, 2005. The term welfare professions is widely used, referring to public sector employees in the field of, for example, health, education, care, and social work. So this term covers professionals who work directly in contact with patients, citizens, clients, students, etc. (Brante, 1990; Järvinen & Mik-Meyer, 2012. Along with the development and modernization of the welfare state, a number of new welfare professions, such as pedagogues, social works, physiotherapists, social care assistants, and auxiliary nurses have joined the existing ones like nurses, teachers, psychologists, and physicians. At the same time, however, the public sector has undergone dramatic changes as part of a neoliberal transformation of the welfare state. With the New Public Management (NPM wave from 1980s and onwards efforts to restructure public institutions and introduce market-like relationships between them, to outsource and privatize public services and to transform citizens to customers in a market have prevailed (Busch, 2005; Christensen & Lægreid, 2007; Greve, 2008. Within this reform strategy, welfare professionals are perceived as part of the problem that NPM is created to solve, namely an uncontrollable and wildly growing bureaucracy (Clarke & Newman, 1997 (...

  16. Welfare and self care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulløv, Eva

    2011-01-01

    Using the case of early childcare institutions in contemporary Denmark, the aim of the article is to show that welfare entails visions of living that are made manifest through the requirements of everyday institutional practices. The main argument is that welfare institutions are designed not onl...... their enculturation. Therefore, studying the collective investments in children, for example by paying attention to the institutional arrangements set up for them, offers insight into dominant cultural priorities and hoped-for outcomes....

  17. Modelling Farm Animal Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Lisa M.; Part, Chérie E.

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary In this review paper we discuss the different modeling techniques that have been used in animal welfare research to date. We look at what questions they have been used to answer, the advantages and pitfalls of the methods, and how future research can best use these approaches to answer some of the most important upcoming questions in farm animal welfare. Abstract The use of models in the life sciences has greatly expanded in scope and advanced in technique in recent decades. However, the range, type and complexity of models used in farm animal welfare is comparatively poor, despite the great scope for use of modeling in this field of research. In this paper, we review the different modeling approaches used in farm animal welfare science to date, discussing the types of questions they have been used to answer, the merits and problems associated with the method, and possible future applications of each technique. We find that the most frequently published types of model used in farm animal welfare are conceptual and assessment models; two types of model that are frequently (though not exclusively) based on expert opinion. Simulation, optimization, scenario, and systems modeling approaches are rarer in animal welfare, despite being commonly used in other related fields. Finally, common issues such as a lack of quantitative data to parameterize models, and model selection and validation are discussed throughout the review, with possible solutions and alternative approaches suggested. PMID:26487411

  18. The Nordic Welfare Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Helle; Thrane, Claus

     The aim of this paper is to elucidate the impact of welfare policies on women's entrepreneurship because the benefits of these policies do not reflect in the numbers of female entrepreneurs. These are consistently similar to those in other countries that do not have a similar welfare model. Hence...... this article seeks to investigate the reasons underlying this apparent anomaly so that future policies in Scandinavia nd Europe may be tailored to suit the needs of female entrepreneurs. We are addressing this through the analytical lens of a gender regime model which shows that hierarchical gender patterns...... have proven remarkably resilient and that social context matters. The results of the analysis shows that there is a schism between welfare models that facilitate employment and those that facilitate   entrepreneurship and that in order to overcome the obstacles female entrepreneurs 'babystrap'....

  19. Welfare Landscape and Communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braae, Ellen Marie

    2017-01-01

    Danish housing developments of the post-war era were a cornerstone in the implementation of the welfare vision and the overall urban and landscape planning in the post-war period. The new city was a horizontal city and – as it will be my primary ambition to show – a green and landscape-like city....... The landscape came, in Denmark, to play a prominent role and became synonymous with ‘The Good Life’, but it also presented a number of moral imperatives. The article concerns how communities and community feelings found their expression in the Danish ‘welfare landscapes’....

  20. Drivers for Welfare Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wegener, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Innovation has become a key goal towards which teaching and workplace learning needs to be directed. Now perceived as germane and even necessary in almost all kinds of welfare work, the innovation potential in everyday practices and ways of allowing for employer creativity have become a highly...... on the empirical material, the paper proposes a ‘driver’ model for context sensitive research of innovation in welfare workplaces. The model involves three elements which can be regarded as drivers for innovation: i) craft (i.e. professional skills and knowledge), ii) levers (i.e. experiments and adjustment...

  1. Utilitarianism & Welfare Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshizawa,Masayasu

    1992-01-01

    §1 Characteristics of Utilitarianism §2 Bentham's Ethical Theory §3 Faults of Bentham's Ethical Theory Ⅱ Pigou's The Economics of Welfare §4 The National Dividend and the Condition of Maximizing It §5 Three Questions Concerning Income Distribution §6 The National Dividend and Labor's Real Income Ⅲ The New Welfare Economics §7 Law of Diminishing Marginal Utility and Income Redistribution §8 Hicks and the New Welfare Economics §9 Feast and Starvation Ⅳ Income Distribution, Market, and Economic ...

  2. The Nordic Welfare Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Helle; Thrane, Claus

    2011-01-01

    to include maternity/paternity leave, benefits, childcare and leave to take care of sick children. The aim of this paper is to increase awareness and elucidate the impact of welfare policies on women’s entrepreneurship because it may impact on women’s entrepreneurial behaviour. The paper investigates...... that the initiation of public childcare would facilitate increased entrepreneurship among women. Our study shows that this is not necessarily so, that women utilize ‘babystrapping’ strategies, and that there is a schism between welfare models that facilitate employment and those that facilitate entrepreneurship....

  3. Farm animal welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; Christiansen, Stine Billeschou; Appleby, M. C.

    2003-01-01

    An experimental survey was undertaken to explore the links between the characteristics of a moral issue, the degree of moral intensity/moral imperative associated with the issue (Jones, 1991), and people’s stated willingness to pay (wtp) for policy to address the issue. Two farm animal welfare...

  4. Unequal Welfare States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. Soede; J.C. Vrooman; P.M. Ferraresi; G. Segre

    2004-01-01

    The financial sustainability of the ageing welfare states in Europe has become a key policy issue recently. This study highlights a different aspect of the ageing process, namely its potential impact on income distributions. Since older people usually live on a lower income, their growing share

  5. Modelling Farm Animal Welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chérie E. Part

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of models in the life sciences has greatly expanded in scope and advanced in technique in recent decades. However, the range, type and complexity of models used in farm animal welfare is comparatively poor, despite the great scope for use of modeling in this field of research. In this paper, we review the different modeling approaches used in farm animal welfare science to date, discussing the types of questions they have been used to answer, the merits and problems associated with the method, and possible future applications of each technique. We find that the most frequently published types of model used in farm animal welfare are conceptual and assessment models; two types of model that are frequently (though not exclusively based on expert opinion. Simulation, optimization, scenario, and systems modeling approaches are rarer in animal welfare, despite being commonly used in other related fields. Finally, common issues such as a lack of quantitative data to parameterize models, and model selection and validation are discussed throughout the review, with possible solutions and alternative approaches suggested.

  6. East Asian welfare regime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamson, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The paper asks if East Asian welfare regimes are still productivist and Confucian? And, have they developed public care policies? The literature is split on the first question but (mostly) confirmative on the second. Care has to a large, but insufficient extent, been rolled out in the region...

  7. Welfare's Children. Discussion Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiseman, Michael

    States with family cap public assistance policies deny or reduce additional welfare benefits to mothers who conceive and give birth to additional children while they are receiving aid. By 1999, 22 states had family cap policies in place. This paper reports estimates of the number and cost implications of infants conceived by mothers receiving…

  8. Peace, welfare, culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gad, Ulrik Pram

    2011-01-01

    and multiculturalism – pitted in opposition. By analytically focusing on “security narratives”, the article details how initial narratives of Muslims as threats to culture, welfare and societal peace merged and morphed to award surprising new roles to the state and multiculturalism. The re-evaluation of cultural...

  9. Welfare Reform and Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitler, Marianne P.; Gelback, Jonah B.; Hoynes, Hilary W.

    2005-01-01

    A study of the effect of state and federal welfare reforms over the period 1990-2000 on health insurance coverage and healthcare utilization by single women aged between 20-45 is presented. It is observed that Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Act of 1996 which replaced the Aid to Families with Dependent Children program of 1990s with…

  10. Cortisol and finfish welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellis, T.; Yildiz, H.Y.; López-Olmeda, J.; Spedicato, M.T.; Tort, L.; Overli, O.; Martins, C.I.

    2012-01-01

    Previous reviews of stress, and the stress hormone cortisol, in fish have focussed on physiology, due to interest in impacts on aquaculture production. Here, we discuss cortisol in relation to fish welfare. Cortisol is a readily measured component of the primary (neuroendocrine) stress response and

  11. Stereotypes and Welfare Attitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Troels Fage

    2014-01-01

    recipients lacking both the financial incentives and the will to work. According to theories of the impact of media on welfare attitudes, this had the potential to undermine public support. A two-wave panel survey, however, showed only a small drop in public support for spending on social assistance...

  12. Technologcal Literacy in welfare professions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busch-Jensen, Peter; Kondrup, Sissel

    to be ‘welfare technological literate’ – both generally as well as within specific welfare professions. Secondly to support the development of a helpful educational framework that enables students to develop welfare technological literacy. This paper discusses some difficulties and preliminary findings...

  13. Fish welfare in capture fisheries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuizen, L.J.L.; Berentsen, P.B.M.; Boer, de I.J.M.; Vis, van de J.W.; Bokkers, E.A.M.

    2018-01-01

    Concerns about the welfare of production animals have extended from farm animals to fish, but an overview of the impact of especially capture fisheries on fish welfare is lacking. This review provides a synthesis of 85 articles, which demonstrates that research interest in fish welfare in capture

  14. Welfare assessment in pet rabbits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, F.; Koene, P.; Beerda, B.

    2009-01-01

    One million pet rabbits are kept in The Netherlands, but there are no data available on their behaviour and welfare. This study seeks to assess the welfare of pet rabbits in Dutch households and is a first step in the development of a welfare assessment system. In an internet survey, housing

  15. The Gentrification of Public Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dattalo, Patrick

    1992-01-01

    Notes that public welfare agencies are serving middle-class Americans. Examines six factors that may contribute to gentrification of public welfare agencies: growing demands for services from nontraditional clients; restructuring of public welfare's service delivery system; declining resources; increasing emphasis on child protective services;…

  16. Animal welfare impact assessments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; Gamborg, Christian

    2017-01-01

    aimed at dealing with wild animals. McCulloch and Reiss argue that this could be remedied by means of a “mandatory application of formal and systematic Animal Welfare Impact Assessment (AWIA)”. Optimistically, they consider that an AWIA could help to resolve controversies involving wild animals. The aim...... is a welfare issue. Furthermore, we argue that AWIA is unlikely to prevent serious moral disagreements over how to weigh concerns about wild animals against priorities in human health, the health of domestic and farm animals, and biodiversity, but that it may nonetheless serve to limit harms imposed......Control of wild animals may give rise to controversy, as is seen in the case of badger control to manage TB in cattle in the UK. However, it is striking that concerns about the potential suffering of the affected animals themselves are often given little attention or completely ignored in policies...

  17. From Vikings to Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gert Tinggaard, Svendsen; Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase

    not destroyed but rather accumulated in the following centuries up till the universal welfare state of the 20th century. Focusing on the case of Denmark, our tentative argument is that social trust was not destroyed through five subsequent phases of state building but rather enhanced. Long-run political...... stability arguably allows such a self-reinforcing process over time between institutions and social trust....

  18. Political Parties’ Welfare Image, Electoral Punishment and Welfare State Retrenchment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schumacher, Gijs; Vis, Barbara; van Kersbergen, Kees

    2013-01-01

    of voters supports the welfare state, the usual assumption is that retrenchment backfires equally on all political parties. This study contributes to an emerging body of research that demonstrates that this assumption is incorrect. On the basis of a regression analysis of the electoral fate of the governing...... parties of 14 OECD countries between 1970 and 2002, we show that most parties with a positive welfare image lose after they implemented cutbacks, whereas most parties with a negative welfare image do not. In addition, we show that positive welfare image parties in opposition gain votes, at the expense...... of those positive welfare image parties in government that implemented welfare state retrenchment. Comparative European Politics (2013) 11, 1-21. doi:10.1057/cep.2012.5; published online 11 June 2012...

  19. Welfare of Aged Horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine McGowan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Horses form a unique and special part of their owners’ lives and aged horses are no exception. This review considers the health and management of aged horses, including the role of the owner and their perceptions of aged horses, potential threats or risks to their welfare and finally, factors affecting quality of life and euthanasia of aged horses. Owners of aged horses are concerned about the health, welfare and quality of life of their aged animals. Yet surveys of management and preventive healthcare reflect that there may be some limitations to what owners are actually achieving in practice. They show declining management as horses age, particularly for the retired horse and insufficient appropriate preventive healthcare via veterinary surgeons. The veterinary surgeon plays an essential and influential role in preventive healthcare, management of diseases and disorders and ultimately in the decision making process for euthanasia of aged horses at the end of their lives. The value of aged horses should not be underestimated by veterinarians and others working with them and the continuing care of aged horses should be regarded with the same importance as the care of younger horses with more obvious monetary value.

  20. Rents in a welfare state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paldam, Martin

    2015-01-01

    This chapter describes rents in Denmark, a developed welfare state in which the private sector is sharply delimitated and kept efficient by secure property rights and markets including free trade. In the public sector, rents in the form of excess costs that provide benefits are difficult to measure......-governmental organizations have been coopted to serve large welfare expenditure programs that benefit the welfare coalition....

  1. Scientific assessment of animal welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemsworth, P H; Mellor, D J; Cronin, G M; Tilbrook, A J

    2015-01-01

    Animal welfare is a state within the animal and a scientific perspective provides methodologies for evidence-based assessment of an animal's welfare. A simplistic definition of animal welfare might be how the animal feels now. Affective experiences including emotions, are subjective states so cannot be measured directly in animals, but there are informative indirect physiological and behavioural indices that can be cautiously used to interpret such experiences. This review enunciates several key science-based frameworks for understanding animal welfare. The biological functioning and affective state frameworks were initially seen as competing, but a recent more unified approach is that biological functioning is taken to include affective experiences and affective experiences are recognised as products of biological functioning, and knowledge of the dynamic interactions between the two is considered to be fundamental to managing and improving animal welfare. The value of these two frameworks in understanding the welfare of group-housed sows is reviewed. The majority of studies of the welfare of group-housed sows have employed the biological functioning framework to infer compromised sow welfare, on the basis that suboptimal biological functioning accompanies negative affective states such as sow hunger, pain, fear, helplessness, frustration and anger. Group housing facilitates social living, but group housing of gestating sows raises different welfare considerations to stall housing, such as high levels of aggression, injuries and stress, at least for several days after mixing, as well as subordinate sows being underfed due to competition at feeding. This paper highlights the challenges and potential opportunities for the continued improvement in sow management through well-focused research and multidisciplinary assessment of animal welfare. In future the management of sentient animals will require the promotion of positive affective experiences in animals and this

  2. Activating Welfare States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Jon

    for children and the elderly, which in turn allows in particular women to (re-)enter the labour market, de-commodification of labour through easy accessible and relative generous cash benefits providing a more flexible labour market, and re-commodification of labour through conditioning of benefits and active......This paper investigates how welfare states may actively contribute to promote employment opportunities, i.e. participation in the labour market through various operations and policies. The principal operations concern in particular the de-familiarisation of caring tasks through social services...... labour market policies giving long-term unemployed and people with low skills better opportunities to participate in the labour market, whether the ordinary or in special activities....

  3. Draught animals and welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaswamy, N S

    1994-03-01

    In fifty developing countries, which contain half of the total human population of the world, there is a heavy dependence on draught animals as an energy source. These animals are used for agriculture operations in 52% of cultivated areas of the world, as well as for hauling 25 million carts. This situation is likely to continue for at least another fifty years. The work performed annually by these draught animals would require 20 million tons of petroleum, valued at US$6 billion, if it were performed by motorized vehicles. The poor working conditions of these animals often adversely affect their productivity. The application of improved technology and better management (i.e. through better feed and health services, and improved design of agricultural implements and carts) could considerably improve the welfare of these animals. Improved systems would generate sufficient benefits for the economy to justify the required investment. High priority should therefore be given to draught animal power in the economic development agenda.

  4. The science of animal welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    People differ in their culture, education, economic status, and values; thus they may view an animal’s welfare status as good or poor based on their individuality. However, regardless of these human differences in perception the actual state of welfare for the animal does exist in a range from good ...

  5. Monotonicity of social welfare optima

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of maximizing social welfare subject to participation constraints. It is shown that for an income allocation method that maximizes a social welfare function there is a monotonic relationship between the incomes allocated to individual agents in a given coalition...

  6. Rescaling Welfare Policies in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haddad Thorgaard, Camilla; Vinter, Henrik

    The report is a contribution to the research project ”Rescaling of Social Welfare Policies: a comparative study on the path towards multilevel governance in Europe”, which is coordinated by the European Centre for Social Welfare Policy and Research. The report is a background paper for the projec...

  7. The Child Welfare Cartel, "Redux"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoesz, David

    2016-01-01

    In response to "The Child Welfare Cartel," defenders of the National Child Welfare Workforce Institute (NCWWI) make three errors: First, restricting federal funds to schools of social work is "not" authorized by the statute cited in the creation of NCWWI. Second, social work is "not" the only discipline engaged in…

  8. ABOUT WELFARE IN CULTURAL CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica-Nicoleta NECULĂESEI

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to briefly analyze the research efforts on measuring welfare indices in terms of cultural relativism. It presents the limitations of GDP and some of the proposed alternatives over time, to understand the wideness and interest in this topic, but also the consequences of imposing a certain type of indicators to reflect the progress and welfare of a country. To provide a coherent overview on the proposed subject, the approach starts with the presentation of general acceptation of the welfare concept. Further, the literature review reveals many concerns about the welfare and progress, but also the difficulties associated with this effort. Critical comments generally reflect the need to consider the culture factor in the debate on welfare.

  9. Animal welfare in a global perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bracke, M.B.M.

    2009-01-01

    Global survey of animal-welfare regulations, practices and perceptions, with case studies on poultry meat from Brazil and Thailand, eggs from India and the USA, welfare regulations of farmed fish and welfare aspects related to (perceived) overpopulation of wildlife

  10. The economics of animal welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, T J; Jackson, E L

    2017-04-01

    This paper examines four examples of animal welfare issues, demonstrating the interactions between welfare and economic principles. Welfare issues associated with purebred companion animals are examined in terms of predicted inherited diseases, highlighting the power of supply and demand in perpetuating traits in pets that compromise their well-being. The livestock industry is presented from the point of view of pig production and the impact that a major disease (pleurisy) has on production and the animals' welfare. The authors investigate the conflicting and complementary demands of animal welfare and economic gains during the transport and slaughter of livestock and poultry. Finally, wildlife species are considered in terms of their prevalence as pests, and the different types of economic analysis that have been conducted to understand the losses caused by these organisms. Also included in this example are decisions made about cost effectiveness and opportunity costs, and regulatory and financial barriers to the development of humane control agents. In conclusion, animal welfare is illustrated as a central factor in the benefits that humans enjoy from the role played by animals in society. There are, however, tradeoffs between optimal animal welfare and meeting the needs of modern human society.

  11. Welfare standards in hospital mergers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katona, Katalin; Canoy, Marcel

    2013-08-01

    There is a broad literature on the consequences of applying different welfare standards in merger control. Total welfare is usually defined as the sum of consumer and provider surplus, i.e., potential external effects are not considered. The general result is then that consumer welfare is a more restrictive standard than total welfare, which is advantageous in certain situations. This relationship between the two standards is not necessarily true when the merger has significant external effects. We model mergers on hospital markets and allow for not-profit-maximizing behavior of providers and mandatory health insurance. Mandatory health insurance detaches the financial and consumption side of health care markets, and the concept consumer in merger control becomes non-evident. Patients not visiting the merging hospitals still are affected by price changes through their insurance premiums. External financial effects emerge on not directly affected consumers. We show that applying a restricted interpretation of consumer (neglecting externality) in health care merger control can reverse the relation between the two standards; consumer welfare standard can be weaker than total welfare. Consequently, applying the wrong standard can lead to both clearing socially undesirable and to blocking socially desirable mergers. The possible negative consequences of applying a simple consumer welfare standard in merger control can be even stronger when hospitals maximize quality and put less weight on financial considerations. We also investigate the implications of these results for the practice of merger control.

  12. Naturalness and Animal Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeates, James

    2018-04-05

    Naturalness is considered important for animals, and is one criterion for assessing how we care for them. However, it is a vague and ambiguous term, which needs definition and assessments suitable for scientific and ethical questions. This paper makes a start on that aim. This paper differentiates the term from other related concepts, such as species-typical behaviour and wellbeing. It identifies contingent ways in which naturalness might be used, as: (i) prompts for further welfare assessment; (ii) a plausible hypothesis for what safeguards wellbeing; (iii) a threshold for what is acceptable; (iv) constraints on what improvements are unacceptable; and (v) demarcating what is not morally wrong, because of a lack of human agency. It then suggests an approach to evaluating animals' behaviour that is quantitative, is based on reality, and which assesses naturalness by degrees. It proposes classing unaffected wild populations as natural by definition. Where animals might have been affected by humans, they should be compared to the closest population(s) of unaffected animals. This approach could allow us both to assess naturalness scientifically, and to make practical decisions about the behaviour of domestic animals.

  13. Child Welfare Outcomes Data Portal

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The most current Child Welfare Outcomes data is featured on this site. Through the site, you can view the data before the full report is published. The most recently...

  14. Four Normative Languages of Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mathias Herup

    2018-01-01

    This article explores the normative languages used by ordinary citizens to measure ongoing welfare state transformations in Denmark. Empirically, the article turns to qualitative data from a deliberative democratic forum where 35 citizens gathered to reflect upon and discuss the future of the wel...... of worth stating welfare dependency to be one of the big problems and stressing the need for individual responsibility and for giving structural incentives for such behaviour....

  15. [Prescription annotations in Welfare Pharmacy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yi

    2018-03-01

    Welfare Pharmacy contains medical formulas documented by the government and official prescriptions used by the official pharmacy in the pharmaceutical process. In the last years of Southern Song Dynasty, anonyms gave a lot of prescription annotations, made textual researches for the name, source, composition and origin of the prescriptions, and supplemented important historical data of medical cases and researched historical facts. The annotations of Welfare Pharmacy gathered the essence of medical theory, and can be used as precious materials to correctly understand the syndrome differentiation, compatibility regularity and clinical application of prescriptions. This article deeply investigated the style and form of the prescription annotations in Welfare Pharmacy, the name of prescriptions and the evolution of terminology, the major functions of the prescriptions, processing methods, instructions for taking medicine and taboos of prescriptions, the medical cases and clinical efficacy of prescriptions, the backgrounds, sources, composition and cultural meanings of prescriptions, proposed that the prescription annotations played an active role in the textual dissemination, patent medicine production and clinical diagnosis and treatment of Welfare Pharmacy. This not only helps understand the changes in the names and terms of traditional Chinese medicines in Welfare Pharmacy, but also provides the basis for understanding the knowledge sources, compatibility regularity, important drug innovations and clinical medications of prescriptions in Welfare Pharmacy. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  16. Positive animal welfare states and reference standards for welfare assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellor, D J

    2015-01-01

    Developments in affective neuroscience and behavioural science during the last 10-15 years have together made it increasingly apparent that sentient animals are potentially much more sensitive to their environmental and social circumstances than was previously thought to be the case. It therefore seems likely that both the range and magnitude of welfare trade-offs that occur when animals are managed for human purposes have been underestimated even when minimalistic but arguably well-intentioned attempts have been made to maintain high levels of welfare. In light of these neuroscience-supported behaviour-based insights, the present review considers the extent to which the use of currently available reference standards might draw attention to these previously neglected areas of concern. It is concluded that the natural living orientation cannot provide an all-embracing or definitive welfare benchmark because of its primary focus on behavioural freedom. However assessments of this type, supported by neuroscience insights into behavioural motivation, may now carry greater weight when used to identify management practices that should be avoided, discontinued or substantially modified. Using currently accepted baseline standards as welfare reference points may result in small changes being accorded greater significance than would be the case if they were compared with higher standards, and this could slow the progress towards better levels of welfare. On the other hand, using "what animals want" as a reference standard has the appeal of focusing on the specific resources or conditions the animals would choose themselves and can potentially improve their welfare more quickly than the approach of making small increments above baseline standards. It is concluded that the cautious use of these approaches in different combinations could lead to recommendations that would more effectively promote positive welfare states in hitherto neglected areas of concern.

  17. Three Worlds of Welfare Capitalism or Four?

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Deborah; Castles, Francis

    1991-01-01

    This paper is developed in response to Gosta Esping-Andersen's study, The Three Worlds of Welfare Capitalism (1990), in which he categorizes welfare capitalism as Liberal, Conservative, and Social Democratic. The authors argue that there also exists radical welfare capitalism which describes Australia's welfare state.

  18. Social Media Use in Child Welfare Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Todd Edward Sage; Melanie Sage

    2016-01-01

    The scholarly child welfare literature offers little information about the use of social media by child welfare workers. We conducted a study of 171 child welfare workers across several states using an online survey. The resulting data offer insights from workers about current practices related to social media use in a child welfare work setting. Most respondents see social media as an acceptable tool for conducting child welfare assessments. Respondents describe strains and benefits of socia...

  19. Invertebrate welfare: an overlooked issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelsey Horvath

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available While invertebrates make up the majority of animal species, their welfare is overlooked compared to the concern shown to vertebrates. This fact is highlighted by the near absence of regulations in animal research, with the exception of cephalopods in the European Union. This is often justified by assumptions that invertebrates do not experience pain and stress while lacking the capacity for higher order cognitive functions. Recent research suggests that invertebrates may be just as capable as vertebrates in experiencing pain and stress, and some species display comparable cognitive capacities. Another obstacle is the negative view of invertebrates by the public, which often regards them as pests with no individual personalities, gastronomic entities, or individuals for scientific experimentation without rules. Increasingly, studies have revealed that invertebrates possess individual profiles comparable to the personalities found in vertebrates. Given the large economic impact of invertebrates, developing certain attitude changes in invertebrate welfare may be beneficial for producers while providing higher welfare conditions for the animals. While the immense number and type of species makes it difficult to suggest that all invertebrates will benefit from increased welfare, in this review we provide evidence that the topic of invertebrate welfare should be revisited, more thoroughly investigated, and in cases where appropriate, formally instituted.

  20. Gender and Welfare Regimes Revised

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamson, Peter

    2015-01-01

    demographic patterns, with more elderly persons in need of both care and support, coupled with smaller working-age populations to deliver that care and support. Mapping and comparing the combinations of welfare regarding care for the elderly in China and Denmark reveals serious inequalities of class, gender...... and generation. Both states are in principle fully committed to the wellbeing of all citizens through universal welfare state protection, but in reality both rely very much on market and civil society solutions, which leaves the population strongly differentiated and polarized, not only when it comes to gender...... and generation, but also with respect to class. The conclusion is that Denmark and China are converging towards a model of welfare combinations set within an overall framework of universalism. The most important lines of conflict revolve around generation, though class and gender also remain influential....

  1. Post-Communist Welfare Pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cerami, Alfio; Vanhuysse, Pieter

    . The authors' impressive analysis of causal factors, including political elites' strategic use of social policy, makes the book an original and important contribution to the comparative welfare state literature.'- Professor Linda J. Cook, Brown University“ 'This edited volume is extraordinarily good...... factors such as micro-causal mechanisms, ideas, discourses, path departures, power politics, and elite strategies. This book includes contributions from leading international Experts such as Claus Offe, Robert Kaufman, Stefan Haggard, Tomasz Inglot, and Mitchell Orenstein, to examine welfare in specific...... countries and across social policy domains. By providing a broad overview based on a theoretical foundation and drawing on recent empirical evidence, Post-Communist Welfare Pathways offers a comprehensive, state-of-the-art account of the progress that has been made since 1989, and the main challenges...

  2. Who cares about fish welfare?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellingsen, Kristian; Grimsrud, Kristine; Nielsen, Hanne Marie

    2015-01-01

    . Research limitations/implications – In this study willingness to pay is measured using a hypothetical choice experiment. Values people express as citizens, however, may not accurately predict true consumer behaviour. This is generally referred to as “citizen-consumer duality” and may have affected...... about the appropriate way to pay for better welfare standards in fish production. Design/methodology/approach – On the basis of two focus group sessions, a survey questionnaire was developed and distributed to a representative sample of 2,147 Norwegian households via e-mail. Findings – Results showed...... the results. Practical implications – The study shows that there is a national market for welfare-assured fish products, but education initiatives focusing on fish farming and fish welfare issues would further influence the attitudes and purchasing habits of Norwegian consumers. Originality/value – Although...

  3. Housing Welfare Policies in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lotte

    2013-01-01

    It is commonplace to refer to the Nordic countries of Sweden, Norway, Denmark, Finland and Iceland as a distinctive and homogenous welfare regime. As far as social housing is concerned, however, the institutional heritage of the respective countries significantly frames the ways in which social...... housing is understood, regulated and subsidized, and, in turn, how housing regimes respond to the general challenges to the national welfare states. The paper presents a historical institutionalist approach to understanding the diversity of regime responses in the modern era characterized by increasing...... marketization, welfare criticism and internationalization. The aim is to provide outside readers a theoretically guided empirical insight into Scandinavian social housing policy. The paper first lines up the core of the inbuilt argument of historical institutionalism in housing policy. Secondly, it briefly...

  4. Ethnicization in Welfare State Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Frederik Georg

    , but also why it is more likely for some issues (such as European integration or crime) than others (such as welfare). The dissertation includes four stand-alone articles illustrating the influence of group identities in political cognition. Compared to the existing literature, they suggest...... is to a significant extent shaped by studies of American public opinion, where public opinion on some issues is widely considered 'racialized', i.e. in part based on attitudes toward racial outgroups. The dissertation examines whether by the same token, political attitudes in universal welfare states can become...... 'ethnicized', i.e. in part based on attitudes toward ethnic outgroups. The existing literature has tended to focus on the issue of welfare, where the expectation is that ethnic diversity will diminish public support. I outline a theoretical framework which explains why political attitudes can be ethnicized...

  5. European welfare states beyond neoliberalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamson, Peter

    2010-01-01

    After the golden age of welfare state development in Europe, the glorious thirty years from 1945 to 1974, perceptions changed and the welfare state was interpreted to be in crisis. One solution to the crisis was a neo-liberal approach emphasizing privatization and retrenchment. And at least...... identifying retrenchment even if parts of the literature do argue for such a perspective. This seeming contradiction within the scholarly community calls for a more precise definition of all three import concepts: What should be understood by neo-liberal reform or a neo-liberal approach? Which welfare...... policies are in question? And what parts of Europe are being investigated? Furthermore, the time perspective is crucial. From the perspective of the late 2000s this paper argues first that neo-liberalism in the form of the so-called Washington consensus is no longer promoted by international organizations...

  6. Welfare: The Negative Societal Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knight Victoria

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The welfare system was instituted, presumably, to decrease poverty, increase the wealth and well-being of the poor. Paradoxically, it has had just about the opposite effect. How did this boomerang in public policy occur? It is simple. Welfare payments helped break up the family, disproportionately in the black community. But a non-intact family is one of the most effective causal agents in impoverishment. Hence, a program that throws massive amounts of money at poor people reduces their economic wellbeing, does not increase it.

  7. Welfare-Reducing Trade Liberalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Philipp J.H.; Jørgensen, Jan G.

    Recent literature on the workhorse model of intra-industry trade has explored heterogeneous cost structures at the firm level. These approaches have proven to add realism and predictive power. This note shows, however, that this added realism also implies that there may exist a positive bilateral...... tariff that maximizes national and world welfare. Applying one of the simplest specifications possible, namely a symmetric two-country intra-industry trade model with fixed export costs that are heterogeneous across firms, we find that the reciprocal reduction of small tariffs reduces welfare. We explore...

  8. Welfare-Reducing Trade Liberalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Philipp J.H.; Jørgensen, Jan G.

    Recent literature on the workhorse model of intra-industry trade has explored heterogeneous cost structures at the firm level. These approaches have proven to add realism and predictive power. This paper shows, however, that this added realism also implies that there may exist a positive bilateral...... tariff that maximizes national and world welfare. Applying one of the simplest specifications possible, namely a symmetric two-country intra-industry trade model with fixed export costs that are heterogeneous across firms, we find that the reciprocal reduction of small tariffs reduces welfare....

  9. Crafting the English Welfare State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ydesen, Christian

    2016-01-01

    administrators in England during the constitutive years of English welfare state formation. Using Birmingham local education administration as an empirical and historical case, the influential Children Acts of 1948 and 1963 serve to demarcate the period treated. The theoretical framework is drawn from Bourdieu...... and Wacquant’s concept of state, with the key concept being ‘state-crafting’. The article contributes knowledge about the imaginaries, and the manufacturing and managing of ‘the public good’ – understood as a referent for modern governing – of the English welfare state. The article concludes...

  10. Faces of the Welfare State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Mette-Louise

    2012-01-01

    The paper is a short presentation of a central theme in my PhD thesis, which revolves around the way the welfare State is approached as dangerous by parents struggling to keep their family from falling apart. The thesis is an excavation of the risks and dangers they navigate in relation to both...... the welfare State and other realms of life, such as their family and neighborhood, threatening to take away their children (to crime, to prison, to foster families or to the divorced partner, etc). The paper conceptualizes immobility and confinement as embedded in the contrary; a continuous spatial placement...

  11. Assessment of welfare in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Antonella Volpelli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the definition given by Appleby (1996, animal welfare represents the state of well-being brought about by meeting the physical, environmental, nutritional, behavioural and social needs of the animal or groups of animals under the care, supervision or influence of people. Suitable husbandry techniques and disease control (in which man is directly involved may satisfy an animal’s physical, environmental and nutritive needs. However, it cannot be stated that people’s supervision or influence always guarantee the satisfaction of behavioural and social needs. Thus, special attention must be paid to these factors in intensive husbandry. This paper calls attention to the main factors characterizing pig welfare on the basis of productive, physiological, pathological and behavioural indicators; to the behavioural needs, which are characterised by several peculiar traits (it is noteworthy that, since the beginning, all categories of reared pigs have been involved in welfare legislation; to all categories of pigs that often show the effects of negative stimuli on their behaviour (limitations, variations; to the main critical points on the farm likely to cause welfare impairment or stress including buildings, inner facilities, space allowance, microclimate, lighting systems, environmental stressors, feeding management, mutilations, weaning, social factors, and stockmanship; and to environmental stressors including dust, odours (especially ammonia and noises. This paper takes into account sources, effects and possible solutions for noises; the positive effect of fibrous feeding; environmental enrichment and other possible techniques for improving social status and for preventing/reducing stereotypic behaviour and abnormal reactions (e.g. tail biting. The scientific/objective evaluation of welfare for intensively reared pigs may be carried out by means of direct observation of the animals themselves (animal-based or encompassing performance

  12. Has the Nordic Welfare Model Been Transformed?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Bent; Kvist, Jon

    2011-01-01

    The Nordic welfare model is undergoing a fundamental transformation. Using Denmark we show how a universal welfare state model is gradually being transformed into an emergent multi-tiered welfare state. Whereas the Danish pension system's having become multi-tiered in the 1990s, with private...... and the sick. Although Denmark still offers universal coverage in core welfare state areas, the increased use of occupational and fiscal welfare as well as changes in public schemes has gradually transformed the nation into a multi-tiered welfare state that is more dualistic and individualistic...

  13. Laboratory Animal Welfare Supplement IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluckstein, Fritz P., Comp.

    This document is the fourth supplement to a 1984 bibliography on laboratory animal welfare. Items presented were selected because they represent some of the most significant of those providing recent information or because they were considered useful. The period covered is October, 1986 through October, 1987. Monographs, conference proceedings,…

  14. European welfare states in motion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemerijck, A.C.; Dräbing, V.; Vis, B.; Nelson, M.L.; Soentken, M.F.F.

    2013-01-01

    In this working paper, we assess to what extent European welfare states have moved in the direction of social investment in terms of spending and how well they are performing socio-economically, for instance in terms of unemployment, poverty-reduction and work-family life reconciliation. Moreover,

  15. Governance Strategies and Welfare Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trifkovic, Neda

    on processor-owned estate farms is estimated using a maximum simulated likelihood estimator. Our results show positive welfare effects from participating in contract farming, but not from employment on processor-owned estate farms. The results imply that contract farming presents opportunities for economic...

  16. Air quality and human welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundseth K.

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Human welfare is generally referring to allocation of resources to fit the well being of humans. If high standard of well-being is to be maintained, the concerns for a healthy environment must be balanced against requirements of economic growth. In a natural capital system, human welfare is best served by improving the quality and flow of desired services delivered rather than merely increasing the total money flow. An ecosystem based management of living and natural resource use will steer this progress to the best of human welfare while the efficiency of ecosystem based management depends strongly on the availability of integrated assessment tools that will combine environmental models and monitoring data with ecological economic valuation methods. In applied welfare economics, the methodological approach to assess resource allocations towards societal optimality and thereby establish criteria for government intervention is often linked to tools as Cost-ffectiveness Analysis (CEA, Cost-Benefit Assessment (CBA or Multi-criteria Analysis (MCA. By illustrating an assessment on costs and benefits of the implementation of Hg emission reduction measures in the coal sector, it becomes obvious that for a full analysis of societal costs and benefits, several aspects of Hg pollution, sources, impacts and co-benefits need to be considered.

  17. Welfare reform in European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Immervoll, Herwig; Kleven, Henrik Jacobsen; Kreiner, Claus Thustrup

    2007-01-01

    This article compares the effects of increasing traditional welfare to introducing in-work benefits in the 15 (pre-enlargement) countries of the European Union. We use a labour supply model encompassing responses to taxes and transfers along both the intensive and extensive margins, and the EUROMOD...

  18. Measuring Welfare of Productive Consumers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Tinbergen (Jan)

    1987-01-01

    textabstractIn the last few decades an increasing number of economists have contributed to new methods of welfare (or utility) measurement. As set out in this journal (Tinbergen, 1985) three groups of economists have been active in this field since 1968, initially relatively independently; an

  19. Jobs and welfare in Mozambique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Sam; Tarp, Finn

    Mozambique has achieved remarkable macroeconomic success over recent decades, boasting one of the world’s highest rates of GDP growth. However, absolute poverty remains persistent, spilling over into social unrest. To better understand the link between aggregate growth and household welfare...

  20. Intercultural Health Care and Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ben

    2014-01-01

    Artiklen har fokus på undervisning, planlægning, udvikling og evaluering af et internationalt tværfagligt valgfag Intercultural Health Care and Welfare, der udbydes på Det Sundhedsfaglige og Teknologiske Fakultet på Professionshøjskolen Metropol. Ifølge den tysk-amerikanske professor Iris Varner og...

  1. 'Genericism' in Danish welfare professions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Verner

    and skills in the basic disciplines of the professions also termed as disciplinary and procedural knowledge '. Thus the main research question for this paper is: What consequences do recent reform actions in Danish welfare education concerning generic competence have on developing professional knowledge...

  2. STRESS AND ANIMAL-WELFARE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WIEPKEMA, PR; KOOLHAAS, JM

    When individual vertebrates loose grip on their life conditions stress symptoms appear and their welfare becomes problematic. Present day research supports the view that stress can originate when an organism experiences a substantial reduction of predictability and/or controllability (P/C) of

  3. Health and welfare in animals and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordenfelt, Lennart

    2011-06-01

    This paper contains a brief comparative analysis of some philosophical and scientific discourses on human and animal health and welfare, focusing mainly on the welfare of sentient animals. The paper sets forth two kinds of proposals for the analysis of animal welfare which do not appear in the contemporary philosophical discussion of human welfare, viz. the coping theory of welfare and the theory of welfare in terms of natural behaviour. These proposals are scrutinized in the light of some similar theories dealing with human health and quality of life. My conclusion is that the coping theory and the natural behaviour theory are not in themselves adequate for the characterization of welfare, either for humans or for sentient animals. I contend, finally, that, in the light of the previous discussion, there are good arguments for a particular set of analyses of both animal and human welfare, viz. the ones that are based on the notions of preference satisfaction and positive subjective experiences.

  4. Final model of multicriterionevaluation of animal welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Marianne; Botreau, R; Bracke, MBM

    One major objective of Welfare Quality® is to propose harmonized methods for the overall assessment of animal welfare on farm and at slaughter that are science based and meet societal concerns. Welfare is a multidimensional concept and its assessment requires measures of different aspects. Welfar......, acceptable welfare and not classified. This evaluation model is tuned according to the views of experts from animal and social sciences, and stakeholders....... Quality® proposes a formal evaluation model whereby the data on animals or their environment are transformed into value scores that reflect compliance with 12 subcriteria and 4 criteria of good welfare. Each animal unit is then allocated to one of four categories: excellent welfare, enhanced welfare...

  5. Towards Farm Animal Welfare and Sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buller, Henry; Blokhuis, Harry; Jensen, Per; Keeling, Linda

    2018-05-25

    As farm animal welfare becomes an increasingly important component of contemporary global livestock production, animal welfare science and animal welfare policy-making need to find new ways of entering global debates over food security and sustainability. In this paper, we explore the means by which both animal welfare science and policy should articulate with these emerging global debates. Having first established the important gains in animal welfare policy and the maturity of animal welfare science, we identify and explore the potential impact of these current debates and argue that they have the potential for profound change in our understanding of, and our response to, the welfare of animals. We conclude the paper with a number of possible recommendations for how a scientifically informed, sustainable animal welfare policy might flourish.

  6. Welfarism and extra-welfarism: a critical overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brayan Viegas Seixas

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Rules and principles for guiding decision-making in the health care sector have been debated for decades. Here, we present a critical appraisal of the two most important paradigms in this respect: welfarism and extra-welfarism. While the former deals with the maximization of the overall sum of individual utilities as its primary outcome, the latter has been focusing on the maximization of the overall health status. We argue that welfarism has three main problems: (1 its central idea of overall sum of individual utilities does not capture societal values decisively relevant in the context of health; (2 the use of the Potential Pareto Improvement brings an unresolvable separation between efficiency and equity; and (3 individual utility may not be a good measure in the health sector, given that individuals might value things that diminish their overall health. In turn, the extra-welfarist approach is criticized regarding four main limitations: (1 the advocated expansion of the evaluative space, moving from utility to health, may have represented in reality a narrowing of it; (2 it operates using non-explicit considerations of equity; (3 it still holds the issue of “inability to desire” of unprivileged people being considered the best judges of weighing the criteria used to building the health measures; and (4 there is controversial empirical evidence about society members’ values that support its assumptions. Overall, both paradigms show significant weaknesses, but the debate has still been within the realm of welfare economics, and even the new approaches to resource allocation in health care systems appear to be unable to escape from these boundaries.

  7. Implications of Animal Welfare on Toxicity Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Otto A.

    1993-01-01

    The testing strategy for chemical substances is discussed with regard to obtaining improved quality of data for health assessment while respecting the ethical responsibility for consideration of the welfare of the animals involved. Ensuring animal welfare without indulging too much in anthropomor......The testing strategy for chemical substances is discussed with regard to obtaining improved quality of data for health assessment while respecting the ethical responsibility for consideration of the welfare of the animals involved. Ensuring animal welfare without indulging too much...

  8. Advertising and Consumer Welfare: Scaling versus Translating

    OpenAIRE

    Alston, Julian M.; Chalfant, James A.; Piggott, Nicholas E.

    1997-01-01

    Controversy has surrounded the welfare effects of advertising, mainly concerning the consumer welfare effects. Unfortunately, the measures of consumer welfare effects in most studies have been ad hoc and incorrect. The consumer welfare consequences of advertising can be measured consistently when consumer demand equations are derived from an expenditure function. This is illustrated using the Almost Ideal demand system, which is popular in econometric estimation of food demand systems. An emp...

  9. The Future of the Welfare State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Bent

    This book challenges the common beliefs that the European welfare states are already in or are heading towards crisis and that the process of globalisation necessarily takes away any hopes of eventual worldwide welfare.......This book challenges the common beliefs that the European welfare states are already in or are heading towards crisis and that the process of globalisation necessarily takes away any hopes of eventual worldwide welfare....

  10. Welfare Rights in the Liberal Tradition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, Thomas A.

    1990-01-01

    Maintains that welfare rights are not incompatible with liberalism's commitment to private property and freedom. Argues that students need to be aware of liberalism's favorable historical position on welfare. Examines the positions of John Locke, Thomas Paine, and John Stuart Mills on poverty, welfare, and the role of the state. (RW)

  11. Marketization of welfare services in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Ole Helby; Hjelmar, Ulf

    2013-01-01

    Scandinavian welfare states are undergoing a gradual transformation towards a more market-based mode of public service delivery. The results of these marketization reforms are, however, insufficiently documented in terms of their consequences for the price and quality of welfare services...... the evidence base and inform future policy-making on marketization in general and within the welfare areas in particular....

  12. Health and welfare of organic livestock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sukkel, W.; Hommes, M.

    2009-01-01

    Animal health and welfare are important principles of organic animal husbandry. In the Netherlands organic animal husbandry has proven to perform better than the conventional sector on many aspects of animal welfare. The Dutch organic animal husbandry sector has recognised animal health and welfare

  13. The Paradigmatic Struggle for Legitimacy of the Danish Welfare State regarding the Provision of Welfare Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, John Storm; Nielsen, Anna Lyneborg; Rendtorff, Jacob Dahl

    2014-01-01

    The Danish welfare state constitutes a paradigmatic case of the welfare struggle of modern welfare states. Taking care of vulnerable children and youths is used as a case study here, to illustrate the efforts of the welfare state to acquire legitimacy as a body of public administration. That is, ...

  14. Animal Welfare in Air Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Popović

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Animal welfare is becoming an evermore-important factorfor air carriers from the economical viewpoint, due to its importantimpact on the carrier public image. High standard care hasto be taken of animals during transport in order to satisfy an importantsegment of airline customers, either the Business/Firstclass passengers travelling with pets, or influential shippers ofracing horses, dogs, Zoo species etc.Air transp011 of animals, disregarding other advantages,may pose a threat to their health and welfare being a significantmultifactorial stressor. Along with cardiovascular, endocrineand metabolic abe1mtions, it affects the immune response ofan animal and increases susceptibility to infection. Therefore,strict conditions for air transport of eve1y animal species havebeen imposed. Transport of only healthy animals is approved,as it is necessG/y to prevent the spread of disease during transportand to provide satisfactOJy environment for animals to betransported.

  15. Wages, Welfare Benefits and Migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennan, John; Walker, James R

    2010-05-01

    Differences in economic opportunities give rise to strong migration incentives, across regions within countries, and across countries. In this paper we focus on responses to differences in welfare benefits across States. We apply the model developed in Kennan and Walker (2008), which emphasizes that migration decisions are often reversed, and that many alternative locations must be considered. We model individual decisions to migrate as a job search problem. A worker starts the life-cycle in some home location and must determine the optimal sequence of moves before settling down. The model is sparsely parameterized. We estimate the model using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (1979). Our main finding is that income differences do help explain the migration decisions of young welfare-eligible women, but large differences in benefit levels provide surprisingly weak migration incentives.

  16. We Develop Welfare Together - Locally

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flindt, Helle; Carlsbæk, Poul Hornshøj

    information: Poul Carlsbæk:  Master of Science (MSc) in Political Science  Senior lecturer at Department of Management and Administration and head responsible for the interprofessional course We Develop Welfare Together – Locally.  Has taught adults at the Diploma programme in Public Administration for 26...... years  Former Information Manager in municipalities and Senior Executive Consultant in a Danish consultant firm and in a IT-firm's innovative department  Volunteer in e.g. DJØF (association for layers and economists) and DN (society for nature conservation) Helle Flindt:  Occupational Therapist.......  Master in Medical Anthropology  Senior lecturer at Department of physiotherapy and Occupational Therapy  Lecturer at the the interprofessional course We Develop Welfare Together – Locally. 'Equality in Health' depend on both interprofessional collaboration regarding the individual citizen...

  17. Exploring the work/ welfare relationship

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The impact of current transformations in European labor markets social policy and employment patterns on women gender relations motherhood and family: implications for social work and social care (Editorial) We are delighted to introduce this exciting Special Edition for the Swiss Journal of Social Work. This special guest edited issue will interrogate a particular problem of the impact of the shifting axis on family gender relations and gendered impacts of welfare reform and change. In the c...

  18. Outsourcing, Unemployment and Welfare Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Keuschnigg; Evelyn Ribi

    2007-01-01

    Outsourcing of labor intensive activities challenges the welfare state and undermines the protection of low-skilled workers. The stylized facts are that profits are concentrated among the high-skilled, involuntary unemployment is mostly among the low-skilled, and private unemployment insurance is missing. This paper analyzes the effectiveness of redistribution and insurance policies when heterogeneous firms can outsource labor intensive components to low-wage economies. The main results are: ...

  19. Tax Havens, Growth, and Welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Chu, Hsun; Lai, Ching-Chong; Cheng, Chu-Chuan

    2013-01-01

    This paper develops an endogenous growth model featuring tax havens, and uses it to examine how the existence of tax havens affects the economic growth rate and social welfare in high-tax countries. We show that the presence of tax havens generates two conflicting channels in determining the growth effect. First, the public investment effect states that tax havens may erode tax revenues and in turn decrease the government’s infrastructure expenditure, thereby reducing growth. Second, the t...

  20. Human cloning and child welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burley, J; Harris, J

    1999-01-01

    In this paper we discuss an objection to human cloning which appeals to the welfare of the child. This objection varies according to the sort of harm it is expected the clone will suffer. The three formulations of it that we will consider are: 1. Clones will be harmed by the fearful or prejudicial attitudes people may have about or towards them (H1); 2. Clones will be harmed by the demands and expectations of parents or genotype donors (H2); 3. Clones will be harmed by their own awareness of their origins, for example the knowledge that the genetic donor is a stranger (H3). We will show why these three versions of the child welfare objection do not necessarily supply compelling reasons to ban human reproductive cloning. The claim that we will develop and defend in the course of our discussion is that even if it is the case that a cloned child will suffer harms of the type H1-H3, it is none the less permissible to conceive by cloning so long as these cloning-induced welfare deficits are not such as to blight the existence of the resultant child, whoever this may be. PMID:10226914

  1. Welfare State Changes and Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alves, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    . The conclusion of this article is that income inequality has been steadily increasing in Danish society; while in Portugal, despite improvements in many social domains (healthcare, poverty alleviation, unemployment protection), problems of inequality remain deeply embedded in the country’s social......It is well known that welfare states ensure a certain level of social protection affecting levels of well-being and the extent of inequalities in society. Changes within crucial domains of social policy, such as education, health, or social protection, have, therefore, a major effect upon...

  2. Environmental Sustainability based on Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen

    2005-01-01

    The paper argues that the Scandinavian countries have some traditions of equity and social welfare, which are essential for reaching a truly environmentally sustainable society. But for the highly polluting Denmark, this would require a dramatic change in the political visions. Maintaining...... the present low birth rate is one condition necessary, environmentally better technology is another, and finally a saturation with material consumption, which is required. The latter is in line with people's quest for more leisure time rather than more consumption, but unfortunately counteracted by government...

  3. A Universal Animal Welfare Framework for Zoos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, Ron; Carter, Scott; Allard, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    The Detroit Zoological Society's (DZS) Center for Zoo Animal Welfare (CZAW) was created to advance the science and policy of the welfare of exotic nonhuman animals in captivity. This important part of the DZS mission is achieved through assessments of, and research on, the welfare of animals in zoos; by recognizing extraordinary achievement in the advancement of animal welfare; by widely sharing knowledge through a bibliographic resource center; by conducting professional training for animal care staff; and by convening important discussions in the form of international symposia. This special issue of the Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science features selected papers from the most recent international CZAW symposium held at the Detroit Zoo in November 2014, as well as a universal framework for zoo animal welfare developed by the DZS. PMID:26440494

  4. European Integration between Equity, Efficiency and Welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Marchis

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Throughout this article I tried to highlight the path for improving the Europeans standards ofliving. Poverty, inequality and efficiency are the key concepts of the welfare economic. Similar to many otherarticles about equity, efficiency and welfare, this article offers an account of the challenges facing theEuropean Union welfare in a context of global economy assessing the ability of different components of thewelfare governance to respond to these challenges. The welfare of European Union is analyzed under themultidimensional aspects of integration, such as: internal versus external integration and multilevelintegration. Aging, changes in the labor market, increased mobility are particular aspects that characterize EUand under the fundamental reform of Europe 2020 Strategy, welfare economic becomes a priority even if thepolitical integration comes first to the economic one. As Europe grows more diverse, the welfare economictranslates from desire to necessity.

  5. Welfare Economics: A Story of Existence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Iqbal

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to explore that, despite severe challenges, welfare economics still exists. This descriptive study is conducted through some specific time line developments in this field. Economists are divided over the veracity and survival of the welfare economics. Welfare economics emphasizes on the optimum resource and goods allocation with the objective of better living standard, materialistic gains, social welfare and ethical decisions. It origins back to the political economics and utilitarianism. Adam Smith, Irving Fisher and Pareto contributed significantly towards it. During 1930 to 1940, American and British approaches were developed. Many economists tried to explore the relationship between level of income and happiness. Amartya Sen gave the comparative approach and Tinbergen pioneered the theory of equity. Contemporarily the futuristic restoration of welfare economics is on trial and hopes are alive. This study may be useful to understand the transitional and survival process of welfare economics.

  6. Animal welfare at the group level: more than the sum of individual welfare?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohl, F; Putman, R J

    2014-03-01

    Currently assessment and management of animal welfare are based on the supposition that welfare status is something experienced identically by each individual animal when exposed to the same conditions. However, many authors argue that individual welfare cannot be seen as an 'objective' state, but is based on the animal's own self-perception; such perception might vary significantly between individuals which appear to be exposed to exactly the same challenges. We argue that this has two implications: (1) actual perceived welfare status of individuals in a population may vary over a wide range even under identical environmental conditions; (2) animals that appear to an external observer to be in better or poorer welfare condition may all in fact perceive their own individual status as the same. This would imply that optimum welfare of a social group might be achieved in situations where individual group members differ markedly in apparent welfare status and perceive their own welfare as being optimal under differing circumstances. Welfare phenotypes may also vary along a continuum between self-regarding and other-regarding behaviour; a variety of situations exist where (social) individuals appear to invest in the welfare of other individuals instead of maximising their own welfare; in such a case it is necessary to re-evaluate individual welfare within the context of a social group and recognise that there may be consequences for the welfare of individuals, of decisions made at the group level or by other group members.

  7. Drivers for animal welfare policies in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalla Villa, P; Matthews, L R; Alessandrini, B; Messori, S; Migliorati, G

    2014-04-01

    The European region has been, and remains, a global leader in the development of animal welfare policies. The region has a great diversity of cultures and religions, different levels of socio-economic development, and varied legislation, policies and practices. Nevertheless, there are common drivers for animal welfare policy based on a history of animal welfare ethics and obligations to animal users and society in general. A unifying goal of countries in the region is to achieve sustainable compliance with the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) standards on animal health and welfare. Ethics isthe overarching driver, supported by the actions of governmental, inter-governmental and non-governmental activities, markets and trade, science and knowledge. Historically, organisations involved in promoting animal welfare have tended to act in isolation. For example, non-governmental organisations (NGOs) have run campaigns to influence retailers and the welfare policies of their farmer suppliers. Increasingly, different organisations with common or complementary goals are working together. For example, competent authorities, inter-governmental bodies and NGOs have combined their efforts to address dog population control across several countries in the region. Also, animal welfare is becoming integrated into the corporate social responsibility targets of private companies. Science and knowledge, as drivers and tools, are assisting with the harmonisation of welfare standards, e.g. by providing a common basis for measuring welfare impacts through animal-based measures and widespread sharing of this information. Current trends suggest that there will be greater collaboration among the organisations driving change, and increasing convergence of animal welfare strategies and welfare assessment tools. The result will be increased harmonisation of animal welfare standards throughout the region.

  8. Collapsing Worlds and Varieties of welfare capitalism: In search of a new political economy of welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Waltraud Schelkle

    2012-01-01

    The study of welfare capitalism is concerned with a founding question of political economy, namely how capitalism and democracy can be combined. Ever since the publication of Esping-Andersen’s Three Worlds of Welfare Capitalism in 1990, the answer was sought in identifying ideal types of welfare states that support a class compromise. The Varieties of (Welfare) Capitalism literature is increasingly used as a complementary theory of production systems although its rationale for social policies...

  9. Consumer preferences for pig welfare - can the market accommodate more than one level of welfare pork?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denver, Sigrid; Sandøe, Peter; Christensen, Tove

    2017-01-01

    and high level animal welfare pork will have to be quite narrow. In addition, full willingness-to-pay of consumers who want to buy high level welfare pork cannot be relied upon to incentivise new consumers to buy medium welfare pork. Further, raising brand awareness in the shopping situation and improving...... consumer's understanding of brand attributes for high level welfare brands were found to be vital....

  10. A history of animal welfare science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broom, Donald M

    2011-06-01

    Human attitudes to animals have changed as non-humans have become more widely incorporated in the category of moral agents who deserve some respect. Parallels between the functioning of humans and non-humans have been made for thousands of years but the idea that the animals that we keep can suffer has spread recently. An improved understanding of motivation, cognition and the complexity of social behaviour in animals has led in the last 30 years to the rapid development of animal welfare science. Early attempts to define welfare referred to individuals being in harmony with nature but the first usable definition incorporated feelings and health as part of attempts to cope with the environment. Others considered that welfare is only about feelings but it is argued that as feelings are mechanisms that have evolved they are a part of welfare rather than all of it. Most reviews of welfare now start with listing the needs of the animal, including needs to show certain behaviours. This approach has used sophisticated studies of what is important to animals and has replaced the earlier general guidelines described as freedoms. Many measures of welfare are now used and indicate how good or how poor the welfare is. Naturalness is not a part of the definition of welfare but explains why some needs exist. In recent years, welfare has become established as one of various criteria used to decide on whether a system is sustainable because members of the public will not accept systems that cause poor welfare. The study of welfare has become part of the scientific basis upon which important political decisions are made.

  11. The Relationship Between Mental Representations of Welfare Recipients and Attitudes Toward Welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown-Iannuzzi, Jazmin L; Dotsch, Ron; Cooley, Erin; Payne, B Keith

    2016-01-01

    Scholars have argued that opposition to welfare is, in part, driven by stereotypes of African Americans. This argument assumes that when individuals think about welfare, they spontaneously think about Black recipients. We investigated people's mental representations of welfare recipients. In Studies

  12. The relationship between mental representations of welfare recipients and attitudes toward welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown-Iannuzzi, J.L.; Dotsch, R.; Cooley, E.; Payne, B.K.

    2017-01-01

    Scholars have argued that opposition to welfare is, in part, driven by stereotypes of African Americans. This argument assumes that when individuals think about welfare, they spontaneously think about Black recipients. We investigated people's mental representations of welfare recipients. In Studies

  13. Welfare Quality assessment protocol for laying hens = Welfare Quality assessment protocol voor leghennen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niekerk, van T.G.C.M.; Gunnink, H.; Reenen, van C.G.

    2012-01-01

    Results of a study on the Welfare Quality® assessment protocol for laying hens. It reports the development of the integration of welfare assessment as scores per criteria as well as simplification of the Welfare Quality® assessment protocol. Results are given from assessment of 122 farms.

  14. Reciprocity, World Prices and Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis; Woodland, Alan D.

    We examine in detail the circumstances under which reciprocity, as defined in Bagwell and Staiger (1999), leads to fixed world prices. We show that a change of tariffs satisfying reciprocity does not necessarily imply constant world prices in a world of many goods and countries. While it is possi...... of all countries, independently of whether world prices change and independently of the relative numbers of goods and countries.......We examine in detail the circumstances under which reciprocity, as defined in Bagwell and Staiger (1999), leads to fixed world prices. We show that a change of tariffs satisfying reciprocity does not necessarily imply constant world prices in a world of many goods and countries. While...... it is possible to find tariff reforms that are consistent with both reciprocity and constant world prices, these reforms do not follow from the reciprocity condition, but rather from the requirement of unchanged world prices. We propose an alternative reciprocity rule that is guaranteed to raise the welfare...

  15. Social Welfare Activism in Jordan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Marie Juul

    Many Jordanians perceive formal politics in Jordan as illegitimate, corrupt and authoritarian. Thus, when searching for agents of change and reform, we have to look beyond the formal political system. In this regard, recent years have seen an increasing interest in civil society. However, this in...... the organisations' positions on a number of concepts often associated with "democratisation", namely women's rights, participation and pluralism, paying particular attention to the role of Islam......., this interest tends to focus on secular organisations and institutions, overlooking religious ones, although these make up a large part of Jordanian civil society. Particularly interesting are the country's many Muslim social welfare organisations, engaged in activities such as education, health care...... and financial assistance to the poor. This brief asks whether these organisations can be considered potential agents of democratic change or rather as preservers of the status quo. Moreover, do they employ Islam as a means of control or empowerment? Attempting to answer these questions, the brief discusses...

  16. The globalisation of farm animal welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, D

    2014-04-01

    Animal welfare has achieved significant global prominence for perhaps three reasons. First, several centuries of scientific research, especially in anatomy, evolutionary biology and animal behaviour, have led to a gradual narrowing of the gap that people perceive between humans and other species; this altered perception has prompted grass-roots attention to animals and their welfare, initially in Western countries but now more globally asthe influence of science has expanded. Second, scientific research on animal welfare has provided insights and methods for improving the handling, housing and management of animals; this 'animal welfare science' is increasingly seen as relevant to improving animal husbandry worldwide. Third, the development and use of explicit animal welfare standards has helped to integrate animal welfare as a component of national and international public policy, commerce and trade. To date, social debate about animal welfare has been dominated bythe industrialised nations. However, as the issue becomes increasingly global, it will be important for the non-industrialised countries to develop locally appropriate approaches to improving animal welfare, for example, by facilitating the provision of shelter, food, water and health care, and by improving basic handling, transportation and slaughter.

  17. Bioethical Problems: Animal Welfare, Animal Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    March, B. E.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses various bioethical issues and problems related to animal welfare and animal rights. Areas examined include: Aristotelian views; animal welfare legislation; Darwin and evolutionary theory; animal and human behavior; and vegetarianism. A 14-point universal declaration of the rights of animals is included. (JN)

  18. Animal Welfare: What's coming down the pipe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concern for farm animal welfare is not a new concept. However, increased public pressure and an increasingly entangled global economy are effecting change across the world. The conversation about farm animal welfare is difficult because the world’s population has become disconnected from agricultur...

  19. What Works in Education and Social Welfare?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krejsler, John B.

    2013-01-01

    -up professional strategy. It is subsequently reworked and launched into education and social welfare in moves that largely bypass professionals to serve policy-maker and market needs to enable evidence-based choices among public services. From this perspective, the author argues that education and social welfare...

  20. Rights, solidarity and the animal welfare state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harfeld, Jes

    2016-01-01

    This article argues that aspects of the animal rights view can be constructively modulated through a communitarian approach and come to promote animal welfare through the social contexts of expanded caring communities. The Nordic welfare state is presented as a conceivable caring community within...... which animals could be viewed and treated appropriately as co-citizens with solidarity based rights and duties....

  1. Child Welfare Worker Caseload: What's Just Right?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamatani, Hide; Engel, Rafael; Spjeldnes, Solveig

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to establish a caseload standard for child welfare workers. Understanding reasonable workload expectations for child welfare workers is a cornerstone of quality service provision and the recruitment and retention of qualified workers. Because of the analytic complexity of this question, qualitative and quantitative methods…

  2. Animal Welfare in organic framing systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoolder, H.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    The concept of farm animal welfare can, for practical purposes, be translated into the so-called Five Freedoms.[1] Organic farming aims to meet animal welfare needs and should therefore comply with these Freedoms. The first Freedom, from hunger and thirst, is met in any system properly managed to

  3. Nash social welfare in multiagent resource allocation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramezani, S.; Endriss, U.; David, E.; Gerding, E.; Sarne, D.; Shehory, O.

    2010-01-01

    We study different aspects of the multiagent resource allocation problem when the objective is to find an allocation that maximizes Nash social welfare, the product of the utilities of the individual agents. The Nash solution is an important welfare criterion that combines efficiency and fairness

  4. The Climate of Child Welfare Employee Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahalane, Helen; Sites, Edward W.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes differences in perceptions of the child welfare work environment among Title IV-E educated individuals who remain within public child welfare and those who sought employment elsewhere after fulfilling a legal work commitment. Job satisfaction, emotional exhaustion, and personal accomplishment were predictive of staying…

  5. Does the Minimum Wage Affect Welfare Caseloads?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Marianne E.; Spetz, Joanne; Millar, Jane

    2005-01-01

    Although minimum wages are advocated as a policy that will help the poor, few studies have examined their effect on poor families. This paper uses variation in minimum wages across states and over time to estimate the impact of minimum wage legislation on welfare caseloads. We find that the elasticity of the welfare caseload with respect to the…

  6. Trade liberalisation, resource sustainability and welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Max

    2006-01-01

    that even though liberalising trade in products supplied by such a fishery might cause steady-state welfare reductions in the supplier countries, these welfare reductions are small compared to the welfare gains from a hypothetical change to optimal management. Hence, the introduction of better fisheries......Recent research has warned that liberalising trade in capture fish products originating from inefficiently managed fisheries might cause over-exploitation, reduced fish stocks and thereby a reduced steady-state of welfare. This paper qualifies the warning in a case study of the East Baltic cod...... market by developing an age-structured bio-economic supply model combined with basic theory of trade between two countries. Welfare effects of trade liberalisation are identified taking fishing quotas, input limitations, mesh-size regulations and shared ownership of stocks into account. It is shown...

  7. Images of welfare in law and society: the British welfare state in comparative perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wincott, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Designed by Beveridge and built by Attlee's post-war Labour government, the welfare state was created during the 1940s. Britain has been seen – in domestic debates and internationally – as a world first: the place where both the idea and the practice of the welfare state were invented. I draw together comparative welfare state analysis with law and society scholarship (previously largely developed in isolation from one another) – as well as using British political cartoons as a source – to develop a revisionist historical critique of this conventional wisdom. First, the British welfare state has always been comparatively parsimonious. Second, the idea of the welfare state seems to have its origins outside the United Kingdom and this terminology was adopted relatively late and with some ambivalence in public debate and scholarly analysis. Third, a large body of socio-legal scholarship shows that robust ‘welfare rights’ were never embedded in the British ‘welfare state’.

  8. The Digital Society and Provision of Welfare Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, John Storm; Wilkinson, Adrian

    2018-01-01

    The digital society has been announced and subconsequently, the digital welfare state. The digital society and the digital welfare state changes the provision of welfare services to the citizens as end-users. The article analyses how....

  9. Policing Welfare: Risk, Gender and Criminality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scarlet Wilcock

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the last three decades, welfare states across the West have embraced a host of new technologies and initiatives in the name of fighting welfare abuse and fraud (see Cook 1989, 2006; Wacquant 2001, 2009. Increasingly, these practices of ‘welfare policing’ are graduated according to risk; particular welfare populations considered at greater risk of welfare fraud are subject to more intense scrutiny. Drawing on interview research with compliance staff from the Australian Department of Human Services, this paper critically explores how the rationality of risk figures in the process of welfare surveillance in Australia. It pays particular attention to the ways in which risk formulations are embedded in gender and class politics, and how this has led to the characterisation of single mothers and unemployed recipients as more ‘risky’ than the general welfare population, a point that is often overlooked in the literature. But, far from being immutable, this paper also considers how the politics of risk are open to reformulation with often unexpected results.

  10. WELFARE REGIMES IN LATIN AMERICA AND CARIBBEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melisa Campana-Alabarce

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a characterization of Latin American and Caribbean Welfare regimes in historiographical perspective. Firstly, it makes a review of the emergence conditions of Welfare States in Western Europe and its core features, with particular emphasis on its role as a method to regulate inequalities in industrial capitalism. Dialoguing with it, then stops in the specific configurations that welfare regimes have taken in Latin America during the course of the twentieth century. Finally, it provides a map of its contemporary features and the major challenges that the States of the region face in his capacity as right guarantors for the future.

  11. The politics of welfare state retrenchment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starke, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Welfare state retrenchment is widely seen as a highly unpopular endeavour and, therefore, as politically difficult to pursue. This assumption has underpinned most of the political science research on this issue, notably Paul Pierson's seminal contributions about the 'new politics of the welfare...... state'. Yet, the question remains why and under what circumstances cutbacks take place in highly developed welfare states despite these formidable political obstacles. This article reviews the literature on the politics of retrenchment, namely on the impact of socio-economic problem pressure, political...... parties, political institutions, welfare state structures and ideas. Most authors agree that socio-economic problems - particularly domestic problems - contribute to an atmosphere of 'permanent austerity' which inspires cutbacks. Moreover, according to most scholars, the extent of retrenchment possible...

  12. Disability and the Worlds of Welfare Capitalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rourke O’Brien

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A higher proportion of working- age persons receive disability assistance in the Nordic countries and the Netherlands than in other European countries. Whereas current research emphasizes the connection between disability assistance and rates of labor force exit, to date there has been no exploration of how welfare state context influences individual self-reported disability. Using nationally representative data from 15 countries (n = 88, 478, I find that residents of generous welfare states are significantly more likely to report a disability net of self-reported health, sociodemographic, and labor force characteristics and, notably, that this association extends to younger and more educated workers. I argue that welfare state context may directly shape what it means to be disabled, which may have consequences for evaluations of welfare state performance and social exclusion.

  13. Taxation and Welfare: A Revision Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boden, Andrew

    1992-01-01

    Offers a revision exercise intended to remind students of some economic terminology associated with taxation and welfare. Provides a set of definitions for which students are to supply matching terms. Includes an answer list and suggests related exercises. (SG)

  14. 37 Subjective Welfarism, Communitarian Paternalism and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ngozi Ezenwa-Ohaeto

    debate between the advocates of liberal welfarism and ... Once the first step is taken towards the emergence of the state, ... power once this division of power or collaboration of ..... compromise the existence of future generation yet unborn.

  15. The Welfare State vs. the Redistributive State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plattner, Marc F.

    1979-01-01

    While the principles of progressive taxation and the welfare state have come to be almost universally accepted, it would be a serious error to infer that American policy has ever embraced the idea of income redistribution. (Author)

  16. 77 FR 895 - Tribal Child Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-06

    ... note that for title IV-E funding purposes, criminal record and child abuse and neglect registry checks... Administration for Children and Families 45 CFR Parts 1355 and 1356 Tribal Child Welfare; Interim Final Rule #0... 896

  17. Gendering European welfare states and citizenship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siim, Birte; Borchorst, Anette

    2017-01-01

    on gender, class, ethnicity or race, and nationality. One issue is what has been the effect of the European emphasis on women’s wage work and gender equality policies for women in different European countries? Another issue concerns how multiple discrimination is tackled and institutionalized in European......The chapter revisits the feminist scholarship on gendering of European welfare states and European citizenship, and reflects on the effects of globalization, Europeanization and migration. It first presents feminist perspectives on the liberal, the conservative and the social democratic welfare...... welfare states. A third issue is to what extent the Nordic welfare states still represent an attractive alternative model of social and gender equality to neo-liberalism. The final part discusses feminist approaches to reframe gender equality and gender justice from the transnational European contexts....

  18. Major welfare issues in broiler breeders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de I.C.; Guemene, D.

    2011-01-01

    Under current practices, broiler parent stock (broiler breeders) encounter several welfare problems, such as feed restriction and injury during mating. Intensive selection for production traits, especially growth rate, is associated with increased nutritious requirement and thus feed consumption,

  19. Animal-based measures for welfare assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agostino Sevi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Animal welfare assessment can’t be irrespective of measures taken on animals. Indeed, housing parametersrelatedtostructures, designandmicro-environment, evenifreliable parameters related to structures, design and micro-environment, even if reliable and easier to take, can only identify conditions which could be detrimental to animal welfare, but can’t predict poor welfare in animals per se. Welfare assessment through animal-based measures is almost complex, given that animals’ responses to stressful conditions largely depend on the nature, length and intensity of challenges and on physiological status, age, genetic susceptibility and previous experience of animals. Welfare assessment requires a multi-disciplinary approach and the monitoring of productive, ethological, endocrine, immunological and pathological param- eters to be exhaustive and reliable. So many measures are needed, because stresses can act only on some of the mentioned parameters or on all of them but at different times and degree. Under this point of view, the main aim of research is to find feasible and most responsive indicators of poor animal welfare. In last decades, studies focused on the following parameters for animal wel- fare assessment indexes of biological efficiency, responses to behavioral tests, cortisol secretion, neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio, lymphocyte proliferation, production of antigen specific IgG and cytokine release, somatic cell count and acute phase proteins. Recently, a lot of studies have been addressed to reduce handling and constraint of animals for taking measures to be used in welfare assessment, since such procedures can induce stress in animals and undermined the reliability of measures taken for welfare assessment. Range of animal-based measures for welfare assessment is much wider under experimental condition than at on-farm level. In welfare monitoring on-farm the main aim is to find feasible measures of proved validity and reliability

  20. Market Integration, Choice of Technology and Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jørgen Drud; Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller

    2010-01-01

    technologies. Market integration may induce a technological restructuring where firms either diversify their technologies or switch to a homogeneous technology. In general, market integration improves welfare. However, a small decrease of trade costs which induces a switch from heterogeneous technologies...... to a homogeneous technology may locally reduce global welfare. The model also shows that productivity differences lead to intra-industry firm heterogeneity in size and exports similar to the "new-new" trade models with monopolistic competition....

  1. Water and the Welfare of Farm Animals

    OpenAIRE

    Von Keyserlingk, Marina A.G.; Phillips, Clive J.C.; Nielsen, Birte

    2016-01-01

    Provision of adequate water supplies is essential for the welfare of farmanimals. Water forms the largest component of an animal's body and is an essentialnutrient required for all biological functions, including temperature regulation, digestion, foetal development, and production. This essential nutrient can only be restricted for short periods of time. Water deprivation results in substantial welfare concerns, as it can hinder biological functioning, and has been associated withmorbidity a...

  2. Welfare improving barter in imperfect competition

    OpenAIRE

    CRESTI, Barbara

    2002-01-01

    This paper offers a rationale for the development of the barter industry in industrialized economies. It argues that, in a context of imperfect competition, barter represents a profitable and efficient system of exchange. Thanks to barter, even if already at the optimum, a monopolist can still reduce the production costs and thus increase profits. Moreover, by adopting a barter strategy, he also improves social welfare, as he raises total output and decreases market price. Social welfare impr...

  3. Work culture and migrant women's welfare marginalization

    OpenAIRE

    Psimmenos, Iordanis

    2007-01-01

    Central to this paper is the relationship between work and welfare marginalization ofmigrant women domestic workers. Based upon the findings of a recent (2005-2007)research study on Albanian and Ukrainian domestic workers’ access to socialinsurance, medical and children’s care (i.e. nurseries, kindergartens), the paper claimsthat welfare barriers are constituted around lack of resources, discriminations as well asconditions and values at work.At the highest level of generality, paid domestic ...

  4. Drivers for animal welfare policies in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molomo, M; Mumba, T

    2014-04-01

    Livestock in Africa represent on average 30% of the agricultural gross domestic product (GDP) and about 10% of the national GDP. Up to 300 million people depend on livestock for their income and livelihood. Accordingly, livestock are considered to be important for the African continent. Despite this, little or no provision for animal welfare is made in the laws and regulations of most African countries. However, the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Performance of Veterinary Services (PVS) Tool includes animal welfare as a critical competency in Veterinary Services, and most African countries have now conducted PVS appraisals. The development of a Regional Animal Welfare Strategy in Africa is also important because it will provide opportunities for full engagement by all relevant parties. Key elements in this process should include collaboration and coordination in information dissemination to all stakeholders, who should include all those in the value chain. The roles played by the OIE Member Delegates and Focal Points, and non-governmental organisations (NGOs), in driving animal welfare policy in most African countries are notable. Without a level of understanding of animal welfare that is sufficient to support clear animal welfare policy development and implementation, problems may appear in the near future which could jeopardise the attainment of increased animal productivity and product quality. This may have negative implications for economic growth and for national and international trade.

  5. Animal welfare: an animal science approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koknaroglu, H; Akunal, T

    2013-12-01

    Increasing world population and demand for animal-derived protein puts pressure on animal production to meet this demand. For this purpose animal breeding efforts were conducted to obtain the maximum yield that the genetic makeup of the animals permits. Under the influence of economics which is the driving force behind animal production, animal farming became more concentrated and controlled which resulted in rearing animals under confinement. Since more attention was given on economics and yield per animal, animal welfare and behavior were neglected. Animal welfare which can be defined as providing environmental conditions in which animals can display all their natural behaviors in nature started gaining importance in recent years. This does not necessarily mean that animals provided with good management practices would have better welfare conditions as some animals may be distressed even though they are in good environmental conditions. Consumers are willing to pay more for welfare-friendly products (e.g.: free range vs caged egg) and this will change the animal production practices in the future. Thus animal scientists will have to adapt themselves for the changing animal welfare rules and regulations that differ for farm animal species and countries. In this review paper, animal welfare is discussed from an animal science standpoint. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The electoral feedback effects of welfare reform in mature European welfare states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    The electoral hazard of welfare state reforms in mature welfare states has been a widely acknowledged feedback effect in the literature. However, the literature does typically no distinct between party families when it comes to the electoral consequences of welfare state reforms and treats...... electorates as unity. This paper analysis the feedback effects of social policy retrenchment under Third Way social democracy since 1994. The paper argues that Third Way reforms resulted in lasting electoral setback for social democracy since these reforms went against the social policy preferences of social....... The restructuring of mature Western welfare states thus accounts for changing patterns of political behaviour as a consequence of policy feedback....

  7. 43 CFR 17.250 - Health, welfare, and social services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Health, welfare, and social services. 17... § 17.250 Health, welfare, and social services. This subpart applies to health, welfare, and other...) General. In providing health, welfare, or other social services or benefits, a recipient may not, on the...

  8. Operational welfare indicators (OWI) in rainbow trout farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchmann, Kurt

    2007-01-01

    A number of welfare parameters are defined in order to create tools for the future management of welfare in farmed fish......A number of welfare parameters are defined in order to create tools for the future management of welfare in farmed fish...

  9. How should death be taken into account in welfare assessments?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Klint

    2017-01-01

    That death is not a welfare issue appears to be a widespread view among animal welfare researchers. This paper demonstrates that this view is based on a mistaken assumption about harm, which is coupled to ‘welfare’ being conceived as ‘welfare at a time’. Assessments of welfare at a time ignore is...

  10. How should death be taken into account in welfare assessments?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Klint

    2016-01-01

    It appears to be a widespread view among animal welfare researchers that death is not a welfare issue. This paper demonstrates that this view is based on the mistaken assumption that welfare assessment is absolute, which moreover is coupled with the assumption that ‘welfare’ means ‘welfare...... at a time’. It also demonstrates that to exclude the welfare issues of being deprived of life from the ethical assessment of killing distorts the ethical considerations. In order to assess the welfare issues of death, it is necessary to structure welfare assessment as comparisons of possible whole lives...

  11. Consumer preferences for pig welfare - Can the market accommodate more than one level of welfare pork?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denver, Sigrid; Sandøe, Peter; Christensen, Tove

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to investigate the market potential of pork labelled to indicate medium and high levels of animal welfare. The paper asks, in particular, whether there is a risk that Danish consumers will abandon high level welfare pork if less expensive products with a medium level of animal welfare became available. The study was based on an online questionnaire with a choice experiment involving 396 Danish respondents. The results indicated that the Danish market could accommodate more than one pork product with a welfare label but the price differential separating medium and high level animal welfare pork will have to be quite narrow. In addition, full willingness-to-pay of consumers who want to buy high level welfare pork cannot be relied upon to incentivise new consumers to buy medium welfare pork. Further, raising brand awareness in the shopping situation and improving consumer's understanding of brand attributes for high level welfare brands were found to be vital. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Welfare inequality, regionalisation, and welfare policy : measurement and analysis for Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quadrado, L.

    1999-01-01

    This study is focused on the changes in regional inequality in Spain over the last four decades, with emphasis on regional welfare. The two most important items of welfare in Spain are, health and education, and so these are the main focus of this study. Attention is paid to the levels and

  13. Welfare and Work: Job-Retention Outcomes of Federal Welfare-to-Work Employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooden, Susan Tinsley; Bailey, Margo

    2001-01-01

    Comparison of differences in job-retention outcomes for 1,777 welfare-to-work employees and 16,723 other employees in federal agencies reveals that welfare-to-work employees have greater odds of retaining their jobs. (Contains 32 references.) (JOW)

  14. On economic inequality and social welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Begović Boris

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to explore the relations between economic inequality and social welfare staring from the assumption that causality goes from economic inequality to social welfare. Standard methodological framework of economic science was enhanced with interpersonal function of individual welfare so the effects of economic inequality of the level of social welfare can be considered. It was demonstrated that there is no unequivocal theoretical conclusion and that differences in the preferences among people should be empirical considered for more insights. The analysis of the consequences of economic inequality to economic growth, i.e. dynamics of social welfare, demonstrated that there are numerous mechanisms of causality with the countervailing effects. The most important mechanism by which inequality speeds-up economic growth is based on the increased saving and invents rates, and the most important mechanism by which it slows-down growth is based on decreasing investments in human capital. Accordingly, there is no unequivocal theoretical conclusion also in this case. Nonetheless, modern growth theory has demonstrated that that the most dangerous economic growth is inequality of the treatment of economic agents, i.e. discrimination and exclusion, as that kind of inequality creates substantial allocative inefficiency.

  15. Reproductive activity and welfare of rabbit does

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Castellini

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the relationships between reproductive performance and welfare of the rabbit does. In the last 10 years the profitability of rabbit farms has increased mainly due to improvements in management and genetic selection but several problems mainly related to animal welfare have also occurred. The mortality and rates of female replacement per year are very high and the replaced females often show poor body condition and low performance. The effect of kindling order, litter size, genetic strain, weaning age and reproduction rhythm on the reproductive performance and welfare of females and some mechanisms implicated in these effects are discussed. Modern rabbit does produce a lot of milk which have a high energetic value which leads to a mobilization of body fat which results in an energy deficit. In the current reproductive rhythms, there is an extensive overlap between lactation and gestation. The resulting energetic and hormonal antagonism reduces the fertility rate and lifespan of the doe. Strategies to improve the fertility, lifespan and welfare of does are discussed. An approach which combines various strategies seems to be required to meet these objectives. Since the factors involved in this productive system are fixed (genetic strain, environment the most powerful way to improve doe welfare is to choose a reproductive rhythm that is adapted to the physiology of the does.

  16. The Elusiveness of Welfare-State Specificity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahl Kaminer

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Review of Architecture and the Welfare State, edited by Mark Swenarton, Tom Avermaete and Dirk van den Heuvel (Oxon and New York: Routledge, 2015.Incomprehensibly, the relation of architecture to society is, on the one hand, a trivial fact, and, on the other, a perplexing assumption. Trivial, because the evidence of the tight relationship is ubiquitous, screaming its existence from the tops of skyscrapers, from the basements of gloomy panopticon prisons, and from the doorsteps of Levittown houses. Perplexing, because, despite of such an abundance of evidence, the actual form of such a relationship remains contested and, mostly, obscure. This review article will interrogate the relation of architecture to society via the recently published anthology Architecture and the Welfare State, edited by Mark Swenarton, Tom Avermaete and Dirk van den Heuvel. The anthology postulates that a rigorous correlation can be established between architectural design and the welfare state. The review article, in turn, posits two questions to the anthology: what is specific about the welfare state which differentiates it from other societies of the era, and how is a rigorous correlation of a specific form of architecture to the welfare state established, beyond limited notions such as zeitgeist? 

  17. Effect of grazing on the cow welfare of dairy herds evaluated by a multidimensional welfare index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burow, E.; Rousing, T.; Thomsen, P. T.

    2013-01-01

    Structural development in the prime sector has led to increasing herd sizes and new barn systems, followed by less summer grazing for dairy cows in Denmark. Effects of grazing on single welfare measures in dairy cows - for example, the presence of integument alterations or mortality - have been......) inspired multidimensional dairy cow welfare assessment protocol, the within-herd effect of summer grazing compared with winter barn housing in Danish dairy herds with cubicle free-stall systems for the lactating cows. Our hypothesis was that cow welfare in dairy herds was better during summer grazing than...... out to be more beneficial than few daily grazing hours (range average above 9 to 21 h) for the welfare of the dairy herds. In conclusion, this study reports a positive within-herd effect of summer grazing on dairy cow welfare, where many daily grazing hours were more beneficial than few daily grazing...

  18. Some aspects of chicken behavior and welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LS Costa

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is the world leader in broiler production and export. It achieved this position mainly to its excellent supply chain structure and climate, which favor poultry and grain production throughout its territory. Although Brazilian egg production is not as important as broiler production, this segment presents great potential of increasing its share in the global market. However, as elsewhere in the world, Brazilian poultry production faces the challenge to balance two elements within its supply chain: cruelty and productivity. The consumers of the European Union (EU are very concerned with animal welfare issues. In order to increase its share in the European market, and eventually in the world market, Brazilian poultry producers must understand the effects of production systems on poultry welfare, and try to develop systems that are suited for its climate and other production conditions. There is a consensus that the natural behaviors performed by poultry in intensive production systems allow better welfare. This objective of this review is to present scientific research studies that relate different behaviors to chicken welfare. Poultry behavior is a reflex of their welfare status at a particular moment, and it is related to internal (physiological and external (environmental factors. Several natural behaviors that favor welfare, as well as undesirable behaviors, may be stimulated by environmental enrichment. The correct interpretation of the behaviors expressed by poultry, including their frequency, duration, and sequence, may be used to estimate their welfare. Animal production is an import sector of Brazilian economy. It significantly contributes to the Gross Domestic Product (GDP, in terms of products destined both to domestic consumption and exports. New technologies applied to products and management practices have been developed for field application, aiming at improving producers' productivity and profitability. In order to comply

  19. Animal welfare: a social networks perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinhappel, Tanja K; John, Elizabeth A; Pike, Thomas W; Wilkinson, Anna; Burman, Oliver H P

    2016-01-01

    Social network theory provides a useful tool to study complex social relationships in animals. The possibility to look beyond dyadic interactions by considering whole networks of social relationships allows researchers the opportunity to study social groups in more natural ways. As such, network-based analyses provide an informative way to investigate the factors influencing the social environment of group-living animals, and so has direct application to animal welfare. For example, animal groups in captivity are frequently disrupted by separations, reintroductions and/or mixing with unfamiliar individuals and this can lead to social stress and associated aggression. Social network analysis ofanimal groups can help identify the underlying causes of these socially-derived animal welfare concerns. In this review we discuss how this approach can be applied, and how it could be used to identify potential interventions and solutions in the area of animal welfare.

  20. Labor, Welfare and Coping with the Crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    of contemporary capitalism – the discredited Anglo-Saxon finance-driven model versus the export-driven production model of growth, with weak safety nets, adopted by East Asian countries in contrast to the export-oriented Nordic social welfare model. The third section documents the impact of the crisis...... are the weaknesses? What are the human costs and collateral damage in the context of new types of regulation of labor markets and social welfare in the broadest sense and what are the differences and similarities between the models in general specifically with regard to crisis management? The approach guiding...... on the economies, and discusses core examples of state intervention in the socio-economic sectors such as labor markets and social welfare in the Nordic as well as Korean contexts. The final section discusses some tentative conclusions about the resilience of the Nordic and ROK models and their potential...

  1. Social capital, migration and the welfare state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard; Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase

    2009-01-01

    welfare state and based on data from our ongoing SoCap project, we suggest how more bridging social capital can be established between parallel societies and the rest of society. Our ‘institutions matter' model is tentative and needs to be tested rigorously in future empirical research.......  The full potential of migrants from non-western countries has not yet been realized in the modern welfare state. Rather, parallel societies have risen, as often counteracting integration. It is however crucial to integrate migrants from non-western countries more successfully - also simply...... to rescue the ageing populations in Western Europe. Though the modern welfare state seems in strong need of reform within a globalized world, it nevertheless enjoys strong support among voters in its present form. Thus, an empirical puzzle exists. Given the existing institutional set-up of the modern...

  2. Market Behavior in the Welfare State:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Nørgaard; christensen, bjarke

    2018-01-01

    The “consumerist citizen” is a type of citizen who develops his or her public and political commitments on the basis of market-like principles. For this citizen the important thing is the possibility to make individual choices in public contexts. In this article the implications of the consumerist...... of the consumerist citizen, and finally we suggest its implications for the welfare state. The dissemination of consumerist identity represents a serious change in the relationship between citizens and the welfare state. The rise of a public acting on the basis of market-logic is a serious change taking place...... in relation to citizenship. Regardless of whether this development is perceived as positive or negative, it will inevitably influence the ways in which the public sector is perceived. The rise of the consumerist citizen can be seen as a factor erosive of the basic solidary principles of the welfare state...

  3. WOMEN IN THE PATRIARCHAL WELFARE STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darshi Thoradeniya

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This essay analyses the implications of the state performing a welfare function for an extended period of time in relation to the social contract between women citizens and the state. It argues that a prolonged status of ‘welfare provider’ ascribes certain patriarchal attributes to the state, which in turn reduces the position of the citizens, especially women, to a mere ‘beneficiary’ level. With the use of two specific policy documents relating to public health – Well Woman Clinic (WWC programme launched in 1996, and the Population and Reproductive Health (PRH policy designed in 1998 – it shows that in the absence of a rights based approach to public health, women have become mere beneficiaries, as opposed to active citizens, of the prolonged welfare State of Sri Lanka. This relationship has deterred women citizens from exercising the right to demand their needs from the State.

  4. Animal Welfare: Data from an Online Consultation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sechi, Paola; Baldinelli, Chiara; Iulietto, Maria F; Goga, Beniamino T Cenci

    2015-11-02

    This paper analyses data obtained from an online survey related to animal welfare and religious slaughter topics. The questionnaire was conducted with the purpose of examining the purchase behaviour of a group of consumers (with different religious orientation) and their views on animal protection and ritual slaughter. The main results of the consultation were two. The first evidenced the respondents' great interest about the question on animal welfare, which is in accordance with the growing interest of European citizens concerning this issue. The second was the demand for a more transparent labelling of animal products, which would also reflect animal welfare and the slaughter method used. These results are in contrast with marketing analysis, which finds that consumers want to only receive positive information. Paradoxically, the more information is transmitted to reassure consumers, the higher is the risk to alarm them.

  5. Immigration and welfare state cash benefits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Peder J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to summarize existing evidence on welfare dependence among immigrants in Denmark and to produce new evidence with focus on the most recent years. Design/methodology/approach – The paper combines a broad descriptive/analytical approach with multivariate...... estimation on the impact on welfare dependence from individual background factors. Findings – The main finding is the importance of aggregate low unemployment for immigrants to assimilate out of welfare dependence. Fairly small effects are reported from policy changes intending to influence the economic...... policy programs and to extend the analysis to cover the period including the financial crisis years. Social implications – The paper has a potential to influence public attitudes in this area and to inform further public policy regarding benefit programs. Originality/value – The main new result...

  6. Evaluating the Welfare of Index Insurance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Glenn W.; Martínez-Correa, Jimmy; Ng, Jia Min

    affects both the demand for the product and the welfare of individuals making take-up decisions. We study the impact of basis risk on insurance take-up and on expected welfare in a laboratory experiment with an insurance frame. We measure the expected welfare of index insurance to individuals while......Index insurance was conceived to be a product that would simplify the claim settlement process and make it more objective, reducing transaction costs and moral hazard. However, index insurance also exposes the insured to basis risk, which arises because there can be a mismatch between the index...... risks that are different from preferences exhibited for their actuarially-equivalent counterparts. We study the potential link between index insurance demand and attitudes towards compound risks. We test the hypothesis that the compound risk nature of index insurance induced by basis risk negatively...

  7. RECOUNTING STORIES IN SOUTH AFRICAN CHILD WELFARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmid, Jeanette

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to proactively bring about change, it is critical in a post-apartheid context for South African social workers to appreciate how colonial and apartheid forces have shaped the inherited welfare priorities, structures, legislation, policies and practices. It is as necessary also to identify stories of resistance as these offer hope and alternative possibilities. Authors such as McKendrick (2001, Patel (2005 and Loffell (2000 have tracked many aspects of South African welfare history. In its submission to the Truth and Reconciliation Commission – a body set up to formally acknowledge past injustices with the goal of bringing about political reconciliation – the welfare sector set out how it had contributed to historical discrimination and wrongs (Truth and Reconciliation Commission, 1999. While these narratives provide the framework for the development of child welfare in South Africa, relatively little is known about its particular history, especially its earliest roots. Beukes and Gannon (1999 and Allsopp (2005 have attempted to explore the origins of that profession in the child and youth work field. Badroodien (2001 examined the extensive impact of one institution, the Ottery School of Industry, on “coloured” youths and their families. Scordillis and Becker (2005 recount briefly the history of adoption practice in South Africa. Some of the child welfare societies have been able to provide sketches of their agency history. In this article the author attempts to add to the child welfare record, gathering the existing strands of literature and inserting the stories that emerged in her doctoral research (Schmid, 2008b

  8. Welfare Commonsense, Poverty Porn and Doxosophy

    OpenAIRE

    Tracey Jensen

    2014-01-01

    This article critically examine how Benefits Street – and the broader genre of poverty porn television – functions to embed new forms of ‘commonsense’ about welfare and worklessness. It argues that such television content and commentary crowds out critical perspectives with what Pierre Bourdieu (1999) called ‘doxa', making the social world appear self-evident and requiring no interpretation, and creating new forms of neoliberal commonsense around welfare and social security. The art...

  9. Negotiating privacy in surveillant welfare relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Bo; Lauritsen, Peter; Bøge, Ask Risom

    . However, while privacy is central to debates of surveillance, it has proven less productive as an analytical resource for studying surveillance in practice. Consequently, this paper reviews different conceptualisations of privacy in relation to welfare and surveillance and argues for strengthening...... the analytical capacity of the concept by rendering it a situated and relational concept. The argument is developed through a research and design project called Teledialogue meant to improve the relation between case managers and children placed at institutions or in foster families. Privacy in Teledialogue...... notion of privacy are discussed in relation to both research- and public debates on surveillance in a welfare setting....

  10. Trust, Welfare States and Income Equality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergh, Andreas; Bjørnskov, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The cross-country correlation between social trust and income equality is well documented, but few studies examine the direction of causality. We show theoretically that by facilitating cooperation, trust may lead to more equal outcomes, while the feedback from inequality to trust is ambiguous....... Using a structural equation model estimated on a large country sample, we find that trust has a positive effect on both market and net income equality. Larger welfare states lead to higher net equality but neither net income equality nor welfare state size seems to have a causal effect on trust. We...

  11. The effect of steps to promote higher levels of farm animal welfare across the EU. Societal versus animal scientists’ perceptions of animal welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Averós, X.; Aparicio, M.A.; Ferrari, P.; Guy, J.H.; Hubbard, C.; Schmid, O.; Ilieski, V.; Spoolder, H.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Information about animal welfare standards and initiatives from eight European countries was collected, grouped, and compared to EU welfare standards to detect those aspects beyond minimum welfare levels demanded by EU welfare legislation. Literature was reviewed to determine the scientific

  12. Welfare Technology and Surveillance in Care Work for Elderly Citizens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Agnete Meldgaard; Kamp, Annette; Grosen, Sidsel Lond

    Welfare technologies’ are increasingly used in a variety of settings in the Danish welfare state (Mortensen 2015), where they are envisioned as leading to a new and smarter form of welfare state service delivery, promising increased efficiency, better quality, and citizen empowerment (Finansmini......‘Welfare technologies’ are increasingly used in a variety of settings in the Danish welfare state (Mortensen 2015), where they are envisioned as leading to a new and smarter form of welfare state service delivery, promising increased efficiency, better quality, and citizen empowerment...

  13. The use of animal welfare indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    At any given time, an animal’s welfare ranges on a scale of very good to very poor. It contains both physical elements and mental elements. The physical elements, such as behaviour, physiology, health, productivity and pathology, can be measured relatively easily, in an experimental setting, but the...

  14. Literary Fiction Influences Attitudes Toward Animal Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Małecki, Wojciech; Pawłowski, Bogusław; Sorokowski, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Literary fiction has been credited with considerable power to improve attitudes toward outgroups. It was even argued that it has been an important factor behind the global decline of violence against various minorities in the last centuries. Could it also help to reduce the human-inflicted suffering of animals? To test this, we studied the attitude toward animal welfare of n = 921 (experimental group) people of both sexes who read a short fragment of an unpublished novel with a motif of the physical abuse of an animal. The control group (n = 912) read a fragment of a similar length but not related to animals. After reading the text all subjects filled out an on-line questionnaire with seven items (camouflaged among many others items) measuring attitudes toward animal welfare. The questionnaire included also demographical questions, such as whether the subject keeps pets. We found that in comparison with the control group, the experimental group was significantly more concerned about animal welfare. This result indicates that literary fiction can influence attitudes toward other species. It is also worth noting that our study is characterized by a high level of ecological validity, i.e. a relatively high extent to which its results can be generalized (or extended) to real-world settings. Due to its specific design, which involved the cooperation of a bestselling author and his publisher, the study approximated the typical conditions in which people read fiction in a remarkably accurate way. Finally, our research has potential practical implications for promoting animal welfare.

  15. Beyond home ownership: housing, welfare and society

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ronald, R.; Elsinga, M.

    2012-01-01

    In context of ongoing transformations in housing markets and socioeconomic conditions, this book focuses on past, current and future roles of home ownership in social policies and welfare practices. It considers owner-occupied housing in terms of diverse meanings and manifestations, but in

  16. The institutional logic of welfare attitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christian Albrekt

    to link institutions and welfare attitudes have not been convincing. The empirical studies have had large difficulties in finding the expected effects from regime dependent differences in self-interest, class-interest, and egalitarian values. This book develops a new theoretical macro-micro link...

  17. The institutional logic of welfare attitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christian Albrekt

    2008-01-01

    to link institutions and welfare attitudes have not been convincing. The empirical studies have had large difficulties in finding the expected effects from regime dependent differences in self-interest, class-interest, and egalitarian values. This article develops a new theoretical macro-micro link...

  18. Energy efficiency program at the Welfare Ministry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, Marco Aurelio Lenzi; Ferreira Filho, Anesio de Leles; Monteiro, Fernando Figueiredo de

    2003-01-01

    his article presents the detailed study performed at the annexe building of the Welfare Ministry, viewing an implantation of a efficient and rational use of energy. The article also presents the results of installed load assesment and for correction of the power factor with capacitor bank

  19. Child Welfare and Stigma: Principles into Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colton, Matthew; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Investigated the stigma attached to child welfare services in the Netherlands, United Kingdom, and Spain. Found that stigma continues to be part of the experience of using and delivering such services, despite positive determination of policies in all three countries that this should not be so. Also found that the experience of stigma can, with…

  20. Sustainable Welfare in Low Energy Societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen

    1996-01-01

    The chapter presents some general basic concepts which are useful in analyzing future options for saving energy and thereby mitigate the environmental problems. Three factors are suggested as determinants of the energy demand, namely the population, the level of energy services (material welfare)...

  1. The Handbook of Welfare in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The Handbook is a timely compilation dedicated to exploring a rare diversity of perspectives and content on the development, successes, reforms and challenges within China’s contemporary welfare system. It showcases an extensive introduction and 20 original chapters by leading and emerging area...... case-based research from diverse disciplines and perspectives, engage existing literature and further key debates....

  2. Welfare States and Labour Market Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Bent

    2017-01-01

    to labour markets, and whether there might be in the future, including arguments pro and con the possible impact thereof. The article thus provides a review of knowledge within the field, with a focus especially on how this can or might have an impact on welfare states, given the often strong connection...

  3. Ordinal Welfare Comparisons with Multiple Discrete Indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Distante, Roberta; Hussain, M. Azhar

    We develop an ordinal method for making welfare comparisons between populations with multidimensional discrete well-being indicators observed at the micro level. The approach assumes that, for each well-being indicator, the levels can be ranked from worse to better; however, no assumptions are made...

  4. Work and Welfare: A Reevaluation of AFDC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Jan; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Reviews policy development and research trends relating to work, welfare, and AFDC. Examines the persistence over time of the values of capitalism, liberalism, and positivism, which have resulted in the work ethic and influenced the AFDC. Outlines a research agenda to counter these influences. (Author/JAC)

  5. Social Welfare and the Market Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Joel I.

    1992-01-01

    Reports on a study that questions whether private enterprise can maintain quality while reducing costs of providing social welfare services. Reviews three aspects of privatization: (1) competitive markets; (2) rationality; and (3) cost reduction. Concludes by questioning a central claim of economic theory: that free markets and private firms are…

  6. Towards the Measurement of Spatial Welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grevers, Wilbert

    2005-01-01

    This paper develops a framework for assessing the welfare effects of the capitalisation of the value of environmental quality in the price for land, combining elements from environmental and spatial economics on the basis of equilibrium considerations for population games. Its main contribution to

  7. General versus program-specific welfare chauvinism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christian Albrekt

    2018-01-01

    similarity across programs. The Danish welfare chauvinist attitudes are in general fuelled by lack of shared identity with migrants and sociotropic concerns about the economic burden of migration. The article finds little evidence of narrow self-interest effects; with a notable exception of disability...

  8. Reciprocity, Materialism and Welfare: An Evolutionary Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Anders

    2001-01-01

    We analyze preference evolution in a simple bargaining situation. Preferences for reciprocity, who sustain a conflict-free outcome, may be viable if players have enough information about the opponent's preferences. However, depending on the initial starting point preference evolution can in gener...... both enhance and reduce welfare, relative to the situation where all players have materialistic perferences....

  9. Multiple-Father Families and Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evenhouse, Eirik; Reilly, Siobhan

    2012-01-01

    In the United States, multipartnered fertility (MPF) has become commonplace. This study provides the first nationally representative measures of women's MPF, across multiple years, using the U.S. Census Bureau's Surveys of Income and Program Participation. Because welfare rules contain strong incentives for MPF, and because MPF is especially…

  10. European welfare regimes: Political orientations versus poverty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josifidis Kosta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This inquiry analyzes how political orientations shape welfare states and labour market institutions when seeking to reduce poverty. In order to identify effects of these two key variables, we conduct a panel regression analysis that includes two poverty measures: poverty rates before and after social spending. This inquiry considers 14 EU countries, and in the period from 1995 to 2008, which are grouped according to welfare state regimes. We consider Social Democratic, Corporatist, Mediterranean and Liberal welfare state regimes. Panel regression results indicate that political orientation engenders no significant statistically measurable effects on poverty rates before social spending. Effects register, however, as significant when considering poverty rates after social spending. With respect to the first set of results, we advance two key explanations. First, we note a longer period of time is necessary in order to observe actual effects of political orientation on market generated poverty. Second, political parties with their respective programs do not register as influential enough to solve social problems related to income distribution when taken alone. Influences register as indirect and are expressed through changes in employment rates and social spending. The second set of results support the hypothesis that a selected political regime does indeed contribute to poverty reduction. In sum, political orientation and political regime does indeed affect poverty through welfare state institutions, as well as through labour market institutions.

  11. The Ideology of Welfare Reform: Deconstructing Stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Frederick B.

    1996-01-01

    Critiques recent welfare reform proposals and recommends social work practices that humanize Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC). The critique deconstructs the labels "dependent,""addict," and "illegitimate" as they are applied to AFDC mothers and explores the reproduction of stigma through social work…

  12. Measuring rural welfare in colonial Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haas, De Michiel

    2017-01-01

    Recent scholarship on historical welfare development in Sub-Saharan Africa has uncovered long-term trends in standards of living. How the majority of rural dwellers fared, however, remains largely elusive. This study develops a new approach to reconstruct rural living standards in a historical

  13. Welfare financing : Grant allocation and efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toolsema-Veldman, Linda; Allers, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    Welfare is often administered locally, but financed through grants from the central government. This raises the question how the central government can prevent local governments from spending more than necessary. Block grants are more efficient than matching grants, because the latter reduce the

  14. Welfare work addressing immigrants and refugees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øland, Trine

    and membership of the Danish community, e.g., promoting Danish culture as sort of a superior democratic culture, appealing for morally apt behaviour and interest in own individual development. The aim of the analyses is to understand welfare workers’ visions and divisions as significant factors in the making...

  15. Market barriers to welfare product innovations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Binnekamp, M.H.A.; Ingenbleek, P.T.M.

    2006-01-01

    New products that are based on higher animal welfare standards encounter several barriers on the road to market acceptance. The authors focus on the Dutch poultry sector and distinguish between retailer and consumer barriers. Retailer barriers include the powerful position of retailers, the price

  16. Energy, economic growth, and human welfare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schurr, S.H.

    1984-01-01

    The subject is covered in sections, entitled: economic growth and human welfare; world-wide economic growth; economic growth and energy consumption; assessing the future; caution advised; energy supply and economic growth; supply as constraint; sound policies needed. (U.K.)

  17. From Welfare to Work: The Endorsement of the Money Ethic and the Work Ethic among Welfare Recipients, Welfare Recipients in Training Programs, and Employed Past Welfare Recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Thomas Li-Ping; Smith-Brandon, Vancie L.

    2001-01-01

    Work-related attitudes of 164 welfare recipients, 159 recipients in job training, and 158 employed former recipients were compared. Those employed had the highest scores in money ethic, work ethic, and self-esteem; higher education and income; and longer job tenure. Recipients not in training had the least positive money and work ethic. (Contains…

  18. Fun, animal welfare or community development? Understanding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper explores the impact of young travellers' value orientations on their choice for a wildlife tourism package. On the basis of existing literature, four different packages were designed: one mirroring the traditional offer of wildlife tourism as a hedonic experience; one enhancing the animal welfare aspect and intended ...

  19. Welfare benefits of agglomeration and worker heterogenity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teulings, C.N.; Ossokina, I.V.; de Groot, H.L.F.

    2014-01-01

    The direct impact of local public goods on welfare is relatively easy to measure from land rents. However, the indirect effects on home and job location, on land use, and on agglomeration benefits are hard to pin down. We develop a spatial general equilibrium model for the valuation of these

  20. Welfare Financing : Grant Allocation and Efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toolsema, L.A.; Allers, Maarten A.

    Welfare is often administered locally, but financed through grants from the central government. This raises the question how the central government can prevent local governments from spending more than necessary. We analyze block grants used in The Netherlands, which depend on exogenous spending

  1. What Characterise the Nordic Welfare State Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Bent

    2007-01-01

    The main distinctive characteristics of the Nordic welfare states are presented. These include full employment, high degree of equality, a high level of taxes and public sector spending. The Nordic countries are compared to other European countries. The conclusion being that the Nordic Model...... is here to stay, although a movement in a European direction is underway....

  2. What Use Is Science to Animal Welfare?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, A. J. F.

    1998-06-01

    My concern is to question the quality and utility of science in general and ethology in particular as applied to animal welfare. This topic has in the past provoked me to some severe criticism, for example, 'A lot of well-intended welfare research is neither very good science nor very helpful to the animals.... Too much welfare research is (in my opinion) flawed either because it is oversimplistic, or because it is not so much designed to test preconceptions but to reinforce prejudice' (Webster 1994). Dawkins (1997) has recently responded to this challenge, addressing the question 'Why has there not been more progress in welfare research?' Her response is concerned largely with applied ethology. My own criticism was not directed at ethologists in particular. I was more concerned by the misuse of scientific method by those who seek to obtain a so-called 'objective' measurement of something which they preconceive to be a stress (e.g. measurement of plasma concentrations of cortisol or endorphins in animals following transportation). Here the 'objective' measure frequently becomes the test that gives the answer that they want, and if it fails, then they seek other 'objective' markers until they achieve a set of measurements that supports the subjective impression which they had at the outset. My second main concern is that the welfare state of a sentient animal is a very complex affair and cannot be embraced by any single scientific discipline, be it ethology, physiology, molecular or neurobiology. Unfortunately it is also too complex to be embraced by a single-sentence definition. The best I can do is to suggest that it is determined by the capacity of an animal to sustain physical fitness and avoid mental suffering. The assessment of this is necessarily multidisciplinary.

  3. Model to evaluate welfare in dairy cow farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Calamari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of herd welfare is a scientific discipline that is rapidly developing. The scientific community plays an important role in delivering appropriate, repeatable, valid and feasible models for this assessment. Unfortunately, there are different feelings regarding the welfare of animals and it is imperative for its assessment that certain agreement on the meaning of animal welfare is accepted. Then it is necessary to look at the goals of the models of welfare assessment because different goals require a different combination of welfare indicators. The different models for welfare assessment can be categorized broadly into research, legislative requirements, certification systems, and advisory/management tools. These models may have various goals: quantification of welfare, provision of welfare assurance or welfare management. However, it is widely accepted that welfare is best assessed with multiple different measures; therefore, a welfare assessment model for a livestock herd can include two types of measure: a description of the housing system and management (indirect indicators and data recording on how the animals react to the system (direct indicators. The first type provides information on risk factors for welfare problems. Direct measures on the animals provide information on their response to the environment and are more direct measures of welfare than their counterparts, but direct welfare indicators alone do not point out the causes of impaired welfare. Because welfare is a complex construct, different approaches for the aggregation of the different aspects of welfare have been proposed, although the aggregation in an overall welfare value is not sufficient. The thresholds between acceptable and unacceptable welfare levels have to be included in the model of welfare assessment but it seems useful to set certain minimum standards for each single welfare aspect. Afterward, judging the validity of a common welfare assessment

  4. The Nordic welfare model and welfare services - Can we maintain acceptable standards?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben M.

    used only by those who cannot afford better solutions. Can the Nordic welfare model meet this objective in the future? Increasing productivity and wealth challenge this. Services tend to have lower productivity growth and thus to become more expensive (Baumol’s cost disease), but also to have a high......A key feature of the Nordic welfare model is provision of welfare services like care, education and health. They are individual entitlements, and collectively financed. It is a prerequisite that contemporary standards of services are provided; thus the public solution is not a second rate solution...... income elasticity, and thus demands rise alongside improved material living standards (Wagner effects). The same implies to leisure, implying that tax bases may be eroded. In short, expenditures are on an upward drift and revenues on a downward trend, challenging the financial viability of the welfare...

  5. Highlighting ethical decisions underlying the scoring of animal welfare in the Welfare Quality® scheme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veissier, I.; Jensen, Karsten Klint; Botreau, R.

    2011-01-01

    dimension of scoring and labelling does not mean that we should reject them, but it does mean that we need to make the normative and ethical background explicit. The Welfare Quality® scoring system is used as a case study in order to highlight the role of underlying value-based decisions. In this scoring......, but the rules governing the assignment of an animal unit to a category take into account what had been observed on European farms. The scientists behind Welfare Quality® are keen to make the value-based choices underlying assessments of animal welfare transparent. This is essential to allow stakeholder groups......All systems of scoring animal units (groups, farms, slaughter plants, etc.) according to the level of the animals’ welfare are based inevitably on normative decisions. Similarly, all methods of labelling, in terms of acceptability, are based on choices reflecting ethical values. The evaluative...

  6. The 'Real Welfare' scheme: benchmarking welfare outcomes for commercially farmed pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandolfi, F; Stoddart, K; Wainwright, N; Kyriazakis, I; Edwards, S A

    2017-10-01

    Animal welfare standards have been incorporated in EU legislation and in farm assurance schemes, based on scientific information and aiming to safeguard the welfare of the species concerned. Recently, emphasis has shifted from resource-based measures of welfare to animal-based measures, which are considered to assess more accurately the welfare status. The data used in this analysis were collected from April 2013 to May 2016 through the 'Real Welfare' scheme in order to assess on-farm pig welfare, as required for those finishing pigs under the UK Red Tractor Assurance scheme. The assessment involved five main measures (percentage of pigs requiring hospitalization, percentage of lame pigs, percentage of pigs with severe tail lesions, percentage of pigs with severe body marks and enrichment use ratio) and optional secondary measures (percentage of pigs with mild tail lesions, percentage of pigs with dirty tails, percentage of pigs with mild body marks, percentage of pigs with dirty bodies), with associated information about the environment and the enrichment in the farms. For the complete database, a sample of pens was assessed from 1928 farm units. Repeated measures were taken in the same farm unit over time, giving 112 240 records at pen level. These concerned a total of 13 480 289 pigs present on the farm during the assessments, with 5 463 348 pigs directly assessed using the 'Real Welfare' protocol. The three most common enrichment types were straw, chain and plastic objects. The main substrate was straw which was present in 67.9% of the farms. Compared with 2013, a significant increase of pens with undocked-tail pigs, substrates and objects was observed over time (P0.3). The results from the first 3 years of the scheme demonstrate a reduction of the prevalence of animal-based measures of welfare problems and highlight the value of this initiative.

  7. How welfare states care : Culture, gender and citizenship in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kremer, M.

    2005-01-01

    Women's employment patterns changed drastically the last decades. But they are still different across Europe. Welfare state scholars often presume that diversity and change in women's employment across Europe is based on financial (dis) incentive structures embedded in welfare states

  8. Show Horse Welfare: Horse Show Competitors' Understanding, Awareness, and Perceptions of Equine Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Melissa A; Hiney, Kristina; Richardson, Jennifer C; Waite, Karen; Borron, Abigail; Brady, Colleen M

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain a better understanding of stock-type horse show competitors' understanding of welfare and level of concern for stock-type show horses' welfare. Data were collected through an online questionnaire that included questions relating to (a) interest and general understanding of horse welfare, (b) welfare concerns of the horse show industry and specifically the stock-type horse show industry, (c) decision-making influences, and (d) level of empathic characteristics. The majority of respondents indicated they agree or strongly agree that physical metrics should be a factor when assessing horse welfare, while fewer agreed that behavioral and mental metrics should be a factor. Respondent empathy levels were moderate to high and were positively correlated with the belief that mental and behavioral metrics should be a factor in assessing horse welfare. Respondents indicated the inhumane practices that most often occur at stock-type shows include excessive jerking on reins, excessive spurring, and induced excessive unnatural movement. Additionally, respondents indicated association rules, hired trainers, and hired riding instructors are the most influential regarding the decisions they make related to their horses' care and treatment.

  9. Financing the Welfare State and the Politics of Taxation

    OpenAIRE

    Morel , Nathalie; Palme , Joakim

    2012-01-01

    In an era of 'permanent austerity' (Pierson, 2001) and financial crisis, the issue of financing welfare state provision is topical. Moreover, the future of welfare state funding in countries with ageing populations is no doubt raising increasing interest in scholarly as well as policy circles. Yet the financing side of welfare provision has traditionally been given little attention and remains somewhat of a black box of the welfare state. The fact that some of the financing mechanisms have re...

  10. A new animal welfare concept based on allostasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korte, S. Mechiel; Olivier, Berend; Koolhaas, Jaap M.

    2007-01-01

    Animal welfare is an increasing issue of public concern and debate. As a result, many countries are reconsidering the way animal welfare is embedded in the legislation and rules for housing and care of animals. This requires general agreement of what animal welfare is. Unfortunately, the current

  11. 42 CFR 86.19 - Human subjects; animal welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Human subjects; animal welfare. 86.19 Section 86.19... Occupational Safety and Health Training Grants § 86.19 Human subjects; animal welfare. No grant award may be... concerning animal welfare. 2 The Department Grants Administration Manual is available for inspection at the...

  12. 48 CFR 252.235-7002 - Animal welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Animal welfare. 252.235... Clauses 252.235-7002 Animal welfare. As prescribed in 235.072(a), use the following clause: Animal Welfare... animals only from dealers licensed by the Secretary of Agriculture under 7 U.S.C. 2133 and 9 CFR subpart A...

  13. 42 CFR 86.33 - Human subjects; animal welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Human subjects; animal welfare. 86.33 Section 86.33... Occupational Safety and Health Direct Traineeships § 86.33 Human subjects; animal welfare. Where the...) Chapter 1-43 of the Department Grants Administration Manual 2 068 concerning animal welfare. 2 See...

  14. Impacts of toxic plants on the welfare of grazing livestock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interest in farm animal welfare has been increasing for several decades. Animal health is an integral part of animal welfare, but the concept of animal welfare has evolved from an emphasis on physical health, and coping ability to a greater sensitivity to and recognition of animals’ experiences of...

  15. Review A balanced perspective on animal welfare for improved ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chulayo, Amanda

    2015-12-01

    Dec 1, 2015 ... Increased public concern for animal welfare in the logistics chain has .... still complain about poor management of animals and state that ... assurance of good animal welfare and healthier foods to all participating supply chains, animal genetics has ...... Toward a global perspective on farm animal welfare.

  16. Transformations of the Danish Field of Welfare Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Jan Thorhauge

    2017-01-01

    a set of welfare professions, each of which provides a specific subset of welfare benefits, or services. These professionals - agents of the Danish field of welfare work – make up the population of the analysis: teachers, social workers, occupational therapists, social educators, nurses, librarians...

  17. Patterns of Welfare Attitudes in the Australian Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Timothy P.; Butterworth, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The study of community attitudes toward welfare and welfare recipients is an area of increasing interest. This is not only because negative attitudes can lead to stigmatization and discrimination, but because of the relevance of social attitudes to policy decisions. We quantify the attitudes toward welfare in the Australian population using attitude data from a nationally representative survey (N = 3243). Although there was broad support for the social welfare system, negative attitudes are held toward those who receive welfare benefits. Using canonical correlation analysis we identify multivariate associations between welfare attitudes and respondent demographic characteristics. A primary attitudinal dimension of welfare positivity was found amongst those with higher levels of education, life instability, and personal exposure to the welfare system. Other patterns of negative welfare attitudes appeared to be motivated by beliefs that the respondent’s personal circumstances indicate their deservingness. Moreover, a previously unidentified and unconsidered subset of respondents was identified. This group had positive attitudes toward receiving government benefits despite having no recent experience of welfare. They did, however, possess many of the characteristics that frequently lead to welfare receipt. These results provide insights into not only how attitudinal patterns segment across the population, but are of relevance to policy makers considering how to align welfare reform with community attitudes. PMID:26554361

  18. At the heart of the Nordic occupational welfare model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Bent

    2018-01-01

    Sweden and Denmark are countries with a strong tradition of the involvement of labor market partners in welfare policies, and this begs the question whether this influences the development of occupational welfare. This article depicts the reasons for, and the development of, occupational welfare,...

  19. Patterns of Welfare Attitudes in the Australian Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Timothy P; Butterworth, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The study of community attitudes toward welfare and welfare recipients is an area of increasing interest. This is not only because negative attitudes can lead to stigmatization and discrimination, but because of the relevance of social attitudes to policy decisions. We quantify the attitudes toward welfare in the Australian population using attitude data from a nationally representative survey (N = 3243). Although there was broad support for the social welfare system, negative attitudes are held toward those who receive welfare benefits. Using canonical correlation analysis we identify multivariate associations between welfare attitudes and respondent demographic characteristics. A primary attitudinal dimension of welfare positivity was found amongst those with higher levels of education, life instability, and personal exposure to the welfare system. Other patterns of negative welfare attitudes appeared to be motivated by beliefs that the respondent's personal circumstances indicate their deservingness. Moreover, a previously unidentified and unconsidered subset of respondents was identified. This group had positive attitudes toward receiving government benefits despite having no recent experience of welfare. They did, however, possess many of the characteristics that frequently lead to welfare receipt. These results provide insights into not only how attitudinal patterns segment across the population, but are of relevance to policy makers considering how to align welfare reform with community attitudes.

  20. The importance of reward-evaluating mechanisms for animal welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harst, Johanneke van der; Spruijt, Berry

    An increasing need exists for tools to assess and improve animal welfare in an objective and scientifically based manner. This review presents an overview of knowledge and factors related to animal welfare, and explains a new concept to approach animal welfare research. This concept is based on

  1. Child Welfare Research and Training: A Response to David Stoesz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Brenda D.; Vandiver, Vikki L.

    2016-01-01

    In this response to David Stoesz' critique, "The Child Welfare Cartel," the authors agree that child welfare research and training must be improved. The authors disagree, however, with Stoesz' critique of social work education, his assessment of the most-needed forms of child welfare research, and his depiction of the goals and…

  2. Welfare indicators in laying hens in relation to nest exclusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alm, M; Tauson, R; Holm, L

    2016-01-01

    Consumer concerns about the welfare of laying hens are increasing, leading to increased interest in identifying reliable ways to assess welfare. The present study evaluated invasive and non-invasive welfare indicators in relation to a stressful challenge. The study included 126 Lohmann Selected...

  3. 12 CFR 24.3 - Public welfare investments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Public welfare investments. 24.3 Section 24.3... DEVELOPMENT ENTITIES, COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS, AND OTHER PUBLIC WELFARE INVESTMENTS § 24.3 Public welfare investments. A national bank or national bank subsidiary may make an investment directly or...

  4. FISCAL AUSTERITY POLICY IMPACT ON WELFARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romina Pržiklas Družeta

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The ongoing global financial and economic crisis has caused a dramatic fall in growth, increased deficit, higher unemployment rates and strong price fluctuations. To achieve a balanced budget and reduce the national debt, the most of the national government have sacrificed the employment - one of the main indicators that reflect societies’ well-being and implemented fiscal austerity policy. The aim of this paper is to contribute to the literature on this topic and assess the short analysis of fiscal consolidation. Despite the ongoing debate and numerous studies no consensus about whether and when austerity is likely to be beneficial has been achieved. Further, there are still open issues to understand the impact of austerity on poverty and welfare because of the difficulty of defining poverty and welfare also. The main conclusion is that the emphasis should be placed on correctly defining austerity methodology in a broader economic and social context.

  5. When do fat taxes increase consumer welfare?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusk, Jayson L; Schroeter, Christiane

    2012-11-01

    Previous analyses of fat taxes have generally worked within an empirical framework in which it is difficult to determine whether consumers benefit from the policy. This note outlines on simple means to determine whether consumers benefit from a fat tax by comparing the ratio of expenditures on the taxed good to the weight effect of the tax against the individual's willingness to pay for a one-pound weight reduction. Our empirical calculations suggest that an individual would have to be willing to pay about $1500 to reduce weight by one pound for a tax on sugary beverages to be welfare enhancing. The results suggest either that a soda tax is very unlikely to increase individual consumer welfare or that the policy must be justified on some other grounds that abandon standard rationality assumptions. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Energy price disparity and public welfare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Templet, P.H.

    2001-01-01

    The differences in the price of energy to economic sectors are linked to a number of system parameters and to public welfare. There are large disparities in energy prices within states when comparing residential and industrial prices although neoclassical economics predicts one price in markets. The large disparities between the two sectors across states negatively affects the efficiency of resource allocation, creates subsidies for those getting the cheap energy and results in unequal access to energy. These in turn lead to inefficient partitioning of energy between products and waste, higher pollution, leakage of wealth and poorer energy use efficiency, i.e. high energy intensity. States with large energy price disparities between sectors have statistically higher poverty, lower incomes, more pollution and use more energy but with less efficiency. Higher energy price disparities also result in higher throughput per unit of output thus reducing the chances for sustainability and lower public welfare. 31 refs

  7. Fish welfare: Fish capacity to experience pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučinić Marijana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Teleost fish possess similar nociceptive processing systems to those found in terrestrial vertebrates. It means that they react to potential painful stimuli in a similar manner as mammals and birds. However, the welfare of fish has been the focus of less research than that of higher vertebrates. Humans may affect the welfare of fish through fisheries, aquaculture and a number of other activities. There is scientific evidence to support the assumption that fish have the capacity to experience pain because they possess functional nociceptors, endogenous opioids and opioid receptors, brain structures involved in pain processing and pathways leading from nociceptors to higher brain structures. Also, it is well documented that some anaesthetics and analgesics may reduce nociceptive responses in fish. Behavioural indicators in fish such as lip-rubbing and rocking behaviours are the best proof that fish react to potential painful stimuli. This paper is an overview of some scientific evidence on fish capacity to experience pain.

  8. Religious Education research in welfare state Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchardt, Mette

    2017-01-01

    The article deals with forms of knowledge and types of research interests in scholarly work on Religious Education at the primary and lower secondary levels in Denmark throughout the heyday of the welfare state from the 1960s and up until the 2000s, when the welfare state model not least...... and thus in a changed institutional field. Drawing on the conceptual understanding of the field of educational sciences deriving from Hofstetter and Schneuwly (2002), the article analyzes ways of doing research in and related to Religious Education and the scholarly disciplines involved. Focus...... with regard to education was in transition. The point of departure is the work and oeuvre of K.E. Bugge, for many years – and remaining until now – the last professor of Religious Education in Denmark, namely at the Royal Danish School of Education (Danmarks Lærerhøjskole) which reorganized as Danish...

  9. Skill level, Cognitive Ability, Unemployment and Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Birthe

    2004-01-01

    -biasedtechnological shocks increase unemployment, this may explain why themarket it-self cannot respond to this by making it sufficiently attractiveto acquire skills. Consequently, the trade-off in-between subsidizing educationand thereby reducing unemployment and optimizing welfare maybe eliminated. We analyse this issue...... in a simple educational model andnext in a search equilibrium model including a skill choice decision.Keywords: Education, subsidies, efficiency, unemployment.JEL codes: I20, J64....

  10. Insider trading: regulation, risk reallocation, and welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Estrada, Javier

    1995-01-01

    I argue in this paper that the imposition of insider trading regulations on a securities market generates not on1y a reallocation of wealth from insiders to liquidity traders, but also a reallocation of risk from the former to the latter. I further argue that, although the wealth reallocation has no impact on social welfare, under plausible assumptions, the risk reallocation imposes a cost on society.

  11. Macroeconomic Volatility and Welfare in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Loayza, Norman V.; Rancière, Romain; Servén, Luis; Ventura, Jaume

    2007-01-01

    Macroeconomic Volatility and Welfare in Developing Countries: An Introduction Norman V. Loayza, Romain Ranciere, Luis Serven, ` and Jaume Ventura Macroeconomic volatility, both a source and a reflection of underdevelopment, is a fundamental concern for developing countries. This article provides a brief overview of the recent literature on macroeconomic volatility in developing countries, highlighting its causes, consequences, and possible remedies. to reduce domestic policy-induced macroecon...

  12. Working across Europe to improve donkey welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiemann, Alex; Foxcroft, Andy

    2016-09-24

    The UK public and veterinary profession often think of the equine charity sector as dealing with issues directly related to the UK equine population - overproduction, rehoming, shelter and welfare. However, the Donkey Sanctuary, like many UK-based equine charities, also works in Europe and further afield to try to address a much broader range of issues, as Alex Thiemann and Andy Foxcroft explain. British Veterinary Association.

  13. Literary Fiction Influences Attitudes Toward Animal Welfare.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Małecki

    Full Text Available Literary fiction has been credited with considerable power to improve attitudes toward outgroups. It was even argued that it has been an important factor behind the global decline of violence against various minorities in the last centuries. Could it also help to reduce the human-inflicted suffering of animals? To test this, we studied the attitude toward animal welfare of n = 921 (experimental group people of both sexes who read a short fragment of an unpublished novel with a motif of the physical abuse of an animal. The control group (n = 912 read a fragment of a similar length but not related to animals. After reading the text all subjects filled out an on-line questionnaire with seven items (camouflaged among many others items measuring attitudes toward animal welfare. The questionnaire included also demographical questions, such as whether the subject keeps pets. We found that in comparison with the control group, the experimental group was significantly more concerned about animal welfare. This result indicates that literary fiction can influence attitudes toward other species. It is also worth noting that our study is characterized by a high level of ecological validity, i.e. a relatively high extent to which its results can be generalized (or extended to real-world settings. Due to its specific design, which involved the cooperation of a bestselling author and his publisher, the study approximated the typical conditions in which people read fiction in a remarkably accurate way. Finally, our research has potential practical implications for promoting animal welfare.

  14. Romanian welfare state between excess and failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Ciuraru-Andrica

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Timely or not, our issue can bring back to life some prolific discussions, sometimes diametrical. We strike the social assistance, where, at this moment, is still uncertain if, once unleashed the excess, the failure will come inevitably or there is a “Salvation Ark”. However, the difference between the excess and the failure of the welfare state is almost intangible, the reason of his potential failure being actually the abuses made until the start of depression.

  15. Agricultural Market Structure, Generic Advertising, and Welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Cardon, James H.; Pope, Rulon D.

    2003-01-01

    This analysis begins with a definition and discussion of productive advertising. Then, following Dixit and Norman, persuasive advertising is used to study the welfare effects of generic advertising by marketing orders. The study first examines horizontal competition when the competing advertiser is a monopoly, and results show that the socially optimal level of advertising for a competitive marketing order is positive only if advertising raises monopoly output. Next, advertising choices of a ...

  16. Animal health and welfare: equivalent or complementary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicks, B; Vandenheede, M

    2014-04-01

    The concepts of 'health' and 'welfare', whether applied to humans or animals, are increasingly becoming linked. But are they really indissociable, or even synonymous? Although human health is generally defined as a complete state of physical, mental and social well-being, animal health is still considered as simply the absence of disease. However, recent advances in scientific knowledge are forcing us to revise our ideas about the mental complexity of animals and to recognise their ability to feel emotions and to have needs and a degree of consciousness. The precise objective of animal welfare science is to study their mental states and their ability to adapt to domestication. Pending a global application of this concept of health, including mental health, to animals as well as to humans, the idea of welfare remains an important element in addition to traditional health concerns. More generally, this linkage fuels the ethical debate about the ways in which people use animals, prompting society to change its stance on some aspects of the issue.

  17. Welfare aspects in rabbit rearing and transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Cavani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The review starts with the description of the rabbits’ (Oryctolagus cuniculus main habits and the current situation concerning the rabbit husbandry and management systems, as well as their effects on the welfare of these animals. As far as the intensive rabbit husbandry systems are concerned, the main problems are related to the time since rabbits have been domesticated and their adaptive capacity and coping styles as respects the farming environment and management systems. Both these aspects have implications in the present and future of rabbit rearing for different purposes. Examples are given on the effects of different housing and management systems on rabbit welfare, as well as examples of the ethological, physiological and productive indicators used to evaluate these effects. Transportation and, more generally, preslaughter phases including catching, fasting and lairage at the abattoir are considered major stressors for farmed rabbits and might have deleterious effects on health, well-being, performance, and finally, product quality. A general statement of the recent scientific studies considering the effects of pre-slaughter factors on physiological and productive measurements are reported. Finally, some indications in order to improve rabbit welfare, already present at the European level, are also outlined, together with the European Food Safety Authority opinions.

  18. Citizen empowerment using healthcare and welfare cards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheshire, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Cards are used in health and welfare to establish the identity of the person presenting the card; to prove their entitlement to a welfare or healthcare service; to store data needed within the care process; and to store data to use in the administration process. There is a desire to empower citizens - to give them greater control over their lives, their health and wellbeing. How can a healthcare and welfare card support this aim? Does having a card empower the citizen? What can a citizen do more easily, reliably, securely or cost-effectively because they have a card? A number of possibilities include: Choice of service provider; Mobility across regional and national boundaries; Privacy; and Anonymity. But in all of these possibilities a card is just one component of a total system and process, and there may be other solutions--technological and manual. There are risks and problems from relying on a card; and issues of Inclusion for people who are unable use a card. The article concludes that: cards need to be viewed in the context of the whole solution; cards are not the only technological mechanism; cards are not the best mechanism in all circumstances; but cards are very convenient method in very many situations.

  19. Health and Welfare in Organic Poultry Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berg C

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available This review paper deals with the major health and welfare aspects of organic poultry production. The differences between organic and conventional egg and poultry meat production are discussed, with the main emphasis on housing and management requirements, feed composition and the use of veterinary prophylactic and therapeutic drugs. The effects of the legislation and statutes for organic farming on the health and welfare of the birds are also discussed, especially in relation to the biosecurity problems associated with free-range systems, the occurrence of behavioural disturbances in loose housed flocks and the use of veterinary drugs and vaccinations in general. The results from a questionnaire sent out to all Swedish organic egg producers, where questions about the farmer's perception of the birds' health status were included, are presented at the end of the paper. It is concluded that most of the health and welfare problems seen in conventional poultry systems for loose housed or free ranging birds can also been found on organic poultry farms. It is also concluded that there is a need for information about biosecurity, disease detection and disease prevention on organic poultry farms.

  20. Female headship, feminization of poverty and welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimenyi, M S; Mbaku, J M

    1995-07-01

    Female-headed households are at greater risk of slipping into poverty than male-headed households. Indeed, sex and marital status of the head of household are the most important determinants of a family's poverty status in the US. Divorce, separation, death of a husband, and out-of-wedlock births can lead to female headship. Transfer payments, especially the Aid to Families with Dependent Children program, are blamed for contributing to increased marital instability and out-of-wedlock births. The authors examined the role of welfare benefits in influencing female headship. Preliminary results using standard estimation procedures indicate that transfers do not significantly influence female headship. Standard estimation procedures are, however, erroneous because they ignore differences in propensities to establish mother-only households. Therefore, adjusting for differences in propensities to establish female-headed households, the level of welfare benefits is indeed an important factor in explaining the variation in the changes in the birth rates to unmarried women. The use of a weighted measure suggests that welfare benefits, by increasing female headship of women who otherwise have low propensities to be female heads, have played a significant role in the feminization of poverty.

  1. Slowed ageing, welfare, and population problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wareham, Christopher

    2015-10-01

    Biological studies have demonstrated that it is possible to slow the ageing process and extend lifespan in a wide variety of organisms, perhaps including humans. Making use of the findings of these studies, this article examines two problems concerning the effect of life extension on population size and welfare. The first--the problem of overpopulation--is that as a result of life extension too many people will co-exist at the same time, resulting in decreases in average welfare. The second--the problem of underpopulation--is that life extension will result in too few people existing across time, resulting in decreases in total welfare. I argue that overpopulation is highly unlikely to result from technologies that slow ageing. Moreover, I claim that the problem of underpopulation relies on claims about life extension that are false in the case of life extension by slowed ageing. The upshot of these arguments is that the population problems discussed provide scant reason to oppose life extension by slowed ageing.

  2. Welfare issues of modern deer farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Mattiello

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper will start with briefly outlining the recent domestication history of red deer (Cervus elaphus and fallow deer (Dama dama, followed by a description of the present status of modern deer farming. It will then review the main welfare issues of deer farming. The following aspects will be considered: accommodation and housing, management and handling, nutrition (feed and water provision, transport and slaughter, plus a short mention of velvet harvest. As a summary, the following practices can be recommended to ensure animal welfare in modern deer farming: the adoption of suitable housing systems and of adequate management techniques (e.g. specific handling pens and drop-floor cradles or crushes and the respect of specific needs (e.g. provision of protection and shelter from predators as well as from climatic extremes, such as cold winds or direct solar radiation. Handling and yarding operations will be easier when they occur in dim light. Special attention must be paid to the manipulation of the newborns. At the slaughterhouse, facilities must be designed specifically for deer. The presence of well trained stockpersons, with a sound knowledge of deer physiology and behaviour, is also a key-factor for improving welfare levels in deer farms. To achieve these aims, training of the managers and stockpersons and the adoption of specific codes of conducts are highly recommendable.

  3. Features of the development of a welfare system for visually disabled people in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, S. Ry

    2004-01-01

    ophthalmology, formalizid welfare for blind and partially sighted people, laws and help towards welfare, obligations to visually disabled people......ophthalmology, formalizid welfare for blind and partially sighted people, laws and help towards welfare, obligations to visually disabled people...

  4. Nationalism and social welfare in the post-Soviet context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    This paper offers hypotheses on the role that state social welfare measures can play in reflecting nationalism and in aggravating interethnic tensions. Social welfare is often overlooked in theoretical literature on nationalism, because of the widespread assumption that the welfare state promotes social cohesion. However, social welfare systems may face contradictions between the goal of promoting universal access to all citizens on the one hand, and social pressures to recognize particular groups in distinct ways on the other. Examples from the post-Soviet context (particularly Russia) are offered to illustrate the ways in which social welfare issues may be perceived as having ethnic connotations.

  5. Nonprofit Organizations in Danish Welfare Provision – Explaining Differences Across Welfare Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, Malene

    This paper describes and analyzes the large variation in the proportion of non-profit providers across different welfare areas in Denmark with specific focus on two selected areas: Primary schools and care homes for elderly. With inspiration from niche theory, the aim is to get a deeper insight...... in the characteristics of the institutional framework in the two areas. The main argument of the paper is that non-profit welfare providers cannot be lumped together. It is necessary to take a closer look at both the differences and similarities across areas, but also across non-profit providers and their public...... counterparts within the same niche. In the preliminary results a number of explanatory factors are identified and analyzed: Regulative rules, funding issues, norms and expectations and the degree of competition. The analysis show that an indepth analysis of the two selected welfare areas can provide useful...

  6. From cruelty to welfare: the emergence of farm animal welfare in Britain, 1964-71.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Abigail

    2012-03-01

    There is a long history of concern in Britain for how animals are treated. Until the 1960s, these concerns were expressed largely in terms of cruelty or suffering, which was prevented through various acts of Parliament. Over the period 1964-71, amidst public debates about intensive farming, a new discourse of animal welfare emerged. To understand what welfare meant and how it became established as a term, a concept and a target of government regulation, it is necessary to examine farming politics and practices, the existing tradition of animal protection and attempts to rethink the nature of animal suffering. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Corporate Reporting on Farm Animal Welfare: An Evaluation of Global Food Companies’ Discourse and Disclosures on Farm Animal Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Rory; Amos, Nicky; van de Weerd, Heleen A.

    2017-01-01

    Simple Summary Companies that produce or sell food products from farm animals can have a major influence on the lives and welfare of these animals. The Business Benchmark on Farm Animal Welfare (BBFAW) conducts an annual evaluation of the farm animal welfare-related disclosures of some of the world’s largest food companies. The programme looks at companies’ published policies and commitments and examines whether these might lead to actions that can improve animal welfare on farms. It also assesses whether companies show leadership in this field. The BBFAW found that, in 2012 and 2013, around 70% of companies acknowledged animal welfare as a business issue, and that, between 2012 and 2013, there was clear evidence of an increased level of disclosure on farm animal welfare awareness in the companies that were assessed. However, only 34% (2012) and 44% (2013) of companies had published comprehensive farm animal welfare policies, suggesting that many companies have yet to report on farm animal welfare as a business issue or disclose their approach to farm animal welfare to stakeholders and society. Abstract The views that food companies hold about their responsibilities for animal welfare can strongly influence the lives and welfare of farm animals. If a company’s commitment is translated into action, it can be a major driver of animal welfare. The Business Benchmark on Farm Animal Welfare (BBFAW) is an annual evaluation of farm animal welfare-related practices, reporting and performance of food companies. The framework evaluates how close, based on their disclosures, companies are to best practice in three areas: Management Commitment, Governance & Performance and Leadership & Innovation. The BBFAW analysed information published by 68 (2012) and 70 (2013) of the world’s largest food companies. Around 70% of companies acknowledged animal welfare as a business issue. Between 2012 and 2013, the mean BBFAW score increased significantly by 5% (p animal welfare

  8. A Survey of Chinese Citizens’ Perceptions on Farm Animal Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Xiaolin; Li, Yibo; Zhang, Min; Yan, Huoqi; Zhao, Ruqian

    2014-01-01

    Farm animal welfare has been gradually recognized as an important issue in most parts of the world. In China, domestic animals were traditionally raised in backyard and treated as an important component of family wealth. Industrialization of animal production brings forth the farm animal welfare concerns recently in China, yet the modern concept of animal welfare has not been publicized and a comprehensive recognition on how consumers and farmers perceive animal welfare is lacking. Therefore, we conducted a survey on public opinions toward farm animal welfare in China, based on pigs (including sows, piglets, and fattening pigs), domestic fowls (including layers and broilers) and their products. From 6,006 effective questionnaires approximately two thirds of the respondents had never heard of ‘animal welfare’; 72.9% of the respondents claimed that, for the sake of animal derived food safety, human beings should improve the rearing conditions for pigs and domestic fowls; 65.8% of the respondents totally or partly agreed on establishing laws to improve animal welfare; more than half of the respondents were willing, or to some extent willing, to pay more for high-welfare animal products, whereas 45.5% of the respondents were not willing or reluctant to pay more. In summary, farm animal welfare is still in its early stage of development and more efforts are needed to improve the public conception to animal welfare in the process of establishing farm animal welfare standards and legislations in China. PMID:25314159

  9. Determinants of Welfare Dynamics in Rural Nicaragua

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Kristian Thor

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the determinants of poverty movements in rural Nicaragua by introducing a bivariate probate model, making it possible to treat the initial state of poverty as endogenous and thus avoiding introducing selection bias. The results indicate that this is relevant when exploring...... welfare dynamics in rural Nicaragua, as initially poor households face a higher probability of being poor in the subsequent period compared with non-poor households. It is also found that household composition, access to non-agriculture wage income and ownership of productive assets are important factors...

  10. Health and Welfare IT Product Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merritt, Timothy; Grønbæk, Kaj

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we describe the outcomes from a university design class focused on the design of systems intended to solve problems faced by health care professionals, patients and systems that support welfare or extended independence for older people. The students worked in groups for 10 weeks...... finding a suitable problem to solve, iterating and refining their designs, evaluating prototypes with users, and finally presenting their work as a potential product with a detailed plan for how the product would be sold in the market. The primary contribution of this paper is to share innovative design...

  11. Linking water treatment practices and fish welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zubiaurre, Claire; Pedersen, Lars-Flemming

    2016-01-01

    Peracetic acids can be used as sanitizers to control water quality in aquaculture systems. As an alternative to formalin, chloramine-T or copper sulphate, PAA has strong anti-microbial effects, degrades quickly and is relatively safe to use. Its mode of action and associated rapid decay can make....... Supportive enzymatic, biochemical and physiological biomarkers can be used along with gill and epidermal histological measures to evaluate the effects on water treatment regimens. The ultimate goal is to define the therapeutic window where fish welfare is not compromised.PAA is among the few disinfectants...

  12. Individual welfare analysis for collective households

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cherchye, Laurens; Cosaert, Sam; de Rock, Bram

    We propose novel tools for the analysis of individual welfare on the basis of aggregate household demand behavior. The method assumes a collective model of household consumption with the public and private nature of goods specified by the empirical analyst. A main distinguishing feature of our......-to-pay for public consumption (i.e. Lindahl prices). The method is easy to use in practice and yields informative empirical results, which we demonstrate through a simulation analysis and an empirical application to labor supply data....

  13. Corporate Reporting on Farm Animal Welfare: An Evaluation of Global Food Companies’ Discourse and Disclosures on Farm Animal Welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rory Sullivan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The views that food companies hold about their responsibilities for animal welfare can strongly influence the lives and welfare of farm animals. If a company’s commitment is translated into action, it can be a major driver of animal welfare. The Business Benchmark on Farm Animal Welfare (BBFAW is an annual evaluation of farm animal welfare-related practices, reporting and performance of food companies. The framework evaluates how close, based on their disclosures, companies are to best practice in three areas: Management Commitment, Governance & Performance and Leadership & Innovation. The BBFAW analysed information published by 68 (2012 and 70 (2013 of the world’s largest food companies. Around 70% of companies acknowledged animal welfare as a business issue. Between 2012 and 2013, the mean BBFAW score increased significantly by 5% (p < 0.001, Wilcoxon Signed-Rank test. However, only 34% (2012 and 44% (2013 of companies published comprehensive animal welfare policies. This increase suggests that global food companies are increasingly aware that farm animal welfare is of interest to their stakeholders, but also that many companies have yet to acknowledge farm animal welfare as a business issue or to demonstrate their approach to farm animal welfare to stakeholders and society.

  14. Corporate Reporting on Farm Animal Welfare: An Evaluation of Global Food Companies' Discourse and Disclosures on Farm Animal Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Rory; Amos, Nicky; van de Weerd, Heleen A

    2017-03-06

    The views that food companies hold about their responsibilities for animal welfare can strongly influence the lives and welfare of farm animals. If a company's commitment is translated into action, it can be a major driver of animal welfare. The Business Benchmark on Farm Animal Welfare (BBFAW) is an annual evaluation of farm animal welfare-related practices, reporting and performance of food companies. The framework evaluates how close, based on their disclosures, companies are to best practice in three areas: Management Commitment, Governance & Performance and Leadership & Innovation. The BBFAW analysed information published by 68 (2012) and 70 (2013) of the world's largest food companies. Around 70% of companies acknowledged animal welfare as a business issue. Between 2012 and 2013, the mean BBFAW score increased significantly by 5% ( p < 0.001, Wilcoxon Signed-Rank test). However, only 34% (2012) and 44% (2013) of companies published comprehensive animal welfare policies. This increase suggests that global food companies are increasingly aware that farm animal welfare is of interest to their stakeholders, but also that many companies have yet to acknowledge farm animal welfare as a business issue or to demonstrate their approach to farm animal welfare to stakeholders and society.

  15. On Welfare and Terror: Social Welfare Policies and Political-Economic Roots of Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgoon, Brian

    2006-01-01

    This article argues that social welfare policies may reduce international and domestic terrorism. Social policies likely affect terrorism in offsetting ways but, on balance, should diminish preferences for terrorism by reducing economic insecurity, inequality, poverty, and religious-political extremism. Thus, countries with more generous welfare…

  16. Welfare state and voluntarism. Or why 'changing the welfare mix' means different things in different contexts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Skov; Boje, Thomas; Ibsen, Bjarne

    general and popular ‘civil society talk’ leaves too little room for taking into consideration the specific ‘division of labour’ between state, market and voluntary sector that characterize different welfare systems; a fact that, as we shall demonstrate, is highly consequential for not only the capacity...

  17. Development of animal welfare understanding drives change in minimum welfare standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellor, D J; Webster, J R

    2014-04-01

    The process by which societies adapt to increasing knowledge about the mental and physical capacities of animals and the ways in which they are affected by human activities has been described as a journey. Different countries and regions are at various stages of this journey, and will take a unique path, depending on their specific social and cultural dynamics. However, all participants are unified by an increasing awareness of, and concern for, animal welfare. This journey has been characterised by a number of landmark events, one of which was the release of the Five Freedoms concept. Although aspirational and abstract, as it did not outline specific practical goals, nonetheless this concept became a catalyst for moving animal welfare thinking in a new direction, and set up a number of important targets for research. This eventually led to a key shift in thinking from a focus on biological functioning and resources, to ways of assessing welfare outcomes in terms of animals' experiences, i.e. their affective states. Behaviour science played an important role in the interpretation of animals' affective experiences, receiving compelling support from parallel studies in affective neuroscience. An important aspect of our understanding of animal welfare is that affective states can be negative or positive. Enabling animals to perform specific behaviours at key times when they are needed is central to the achievement of positive affective states. Another important event has been the development of practical ways to shift the spectrum of affective states towards a positive balance and their incorporation into welfare codes and regulations. The recent focus on positive affective states does not mean that negative experiences should be given less attention. In fact, in those countries that are at the early stages of the journey, improving function and productivity may be the most effective way to promote some important aspects of animal welfare. For example, alleviating

  18. Improved animal welfare, the right technology and increased business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Støier, S; Larsen, H D; Aaslyng, M D; Lykke, L

    2016-10-01

    Animal welfare is receiving increasing attention from the authorities, the public and NGOs. For this reason, the improvement of animal welfare and animal handling systems is of the utmost importance for the meat industry. Technological developments have led to more animal friendly systems that handle animals on the day of slaughter, and these developments will be even more important as consideration for animal welfare and sustainability is no longer just a trend but a licence to operate. Improvement of animal welfare also leads to a higher value of the carcasses due to higher product quality, less cut-off caused by fewer injuries, and reduced working load, which leads to increased business opportunities. Therefore, good animal welfare is good business, and the development and implementation of new technology is the way to obtain improved animal welfare. These subjects will be addressed using examples and cases from the pork and broiler production industry. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Animal Welfare in Different Human Cultures, Traditions and Religious Faiths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Szűcs

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Animal welfare has become a growing concern affecting acceptability of agricultural systems in many countries around the world. An earlier Judeo-Christian interpretation of the Bible (1982 that dominion over animals meant that any degree of exploitation was acceptable has changed for most people to mean that each person has responsibility for animal welfare. This view was evident in some ancient Greek writings and has parallels in Islamic teaching. A minority view of Christians, which is a widespread view of Jains, Buddhists and many Hindus, is that animals should not be used by humans as food or for other purposes. The commonest philosophical positions now, concerning how animals should be treated, are a blend of deontological and utilitarian approaches. Most people think that extremes of poor welfare in animals are unacceptable and that those who keep animals should strive for good welfare. Hence animal welfare science, which allows the evaluation of welfare, has developed rapidly.

  20. Effects of Welfare Reform on Vocational Education and Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Dhaval M.; Reichman, Nancy E.; Corman, Hope; Das, Dhiman

    2011-01-01

    Exploiting variation in welfare reform across states and over time and using relevant comparison groups, this study estimates the effects of welfare reform on an important source of human capital acquisition among women at risk for relying on welfare: vocational education and training. The results suggest that welfare reform reduced enrollment in full-time vocational education and had no significant effects on part-time vocational education or participation in other types of work-related courses, though there appears to be considerable heterogeneity across states with respect to the strictness of educational policy and the strength of work incentives under welfare reform. In addition, we find evidence of heterogeneous effects by prior educational attainment. We find no evidence that the previously-observed negative effects of welfare reform on formal education (including college enrollment), which we replicated in this study, have been offset by increases in vocational education and training. PMID:22125356

  1. Role of joy in farm animal welfare legislation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Gall, Philipp; Gjerris, Mickey

    2017-01-01

    While animal welfare is commonly invoked in legal debates regarding non-human animals kept for food purposes, the concept of animal joy is rarely mentioned in such contexts. This paper analyzes the relationship between welfare and joy in the German animal protection law (GAPL) and in the EU...... directive 98/58/EC. Based on a review of scientific and philosophical approaches towards animal welfare, joy is argued to be a part of welfare. Nevertheless, joy is ignored in the German and EU legal provisions. While there may be economic disadvantages of legally protecting animal joy, it is argued...... that overlooking elements of joy cannot be justified from any ethical perspective that claims to take animal welfare into consideration. In order to clarify the aims of the legal provisions, decision-makers need to define the role joy ought to play in welfare legislation....

  2. Perceived importance and responsibility for market-driven pig welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorslund, Cecilie Agnete H; Aaslyng, Margit Dall; Lassen, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    This review explores barriers and opportunities for market-driven pig welfare in Europe. It finds, first, that consumers generally rank animal welfare as important, but they also rank it low relative to other societal problems. Second, consumers have a wide range of concerns about pig welfare......, but they focus especially on naturalness. Third, pig welfare is seen as an important indicator of meat quality. Fourth, consumers tend to think that responsibility for pig welfare lies with several actors: farmers, governments and themselves. The paper concludes that there is an opportunity for the market......-driven strategy to sell a narrative about naturalness supplemented with other attractive qualities (such as eating quality). It also emphasizes that pig welfare needs to be on the political/societal agenda permanently if it is to be viewed as an important issue by consumers and if consumers are to assume some...

  3. The idea of animal welfare - developments and tensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; Jensen, Karsten Klint

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on developments and tensions within the idea of animal welfare. There is divergence among those who believe in the idea of animal welfare. First, we discuss what it takes for farm animal welfare to be good enough. How far should society go beyond the starting point...... of the Brambell Committee, which was to prevent avoidable suffering? Secondly, we turn to the tricky question of how welfare should be distributed between animals. Here, a tension within the concept of animal welfare, between a focus on the indivudual animal and on the herd, flock or shoal, is pointed out....... Finally, the role of economic considerations is considered, given that animal production takes place in a global market with free trade between countries with various standards of animal welfare....

  4. TEAM CONSOLIDATION BY DEVELOPING WELFARE AT WORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CATALINA BONCIU

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The development of welfare at work should contribute not only to strengthen the company’s position on the market. Maybe before measuring the economical results we should first analyze the social consequences of a microeconomic policy supportive of all the elements of good practice conducive to employees. Environmental aspects (inside or outside the company, which affect the workers’ current behavior, should be interpreted. It is the case of the actual conditions on the world market, as well as the state of things among employees’ needs: job security, new aspirations for wage and personal development; professional entourage: complexity, uncertainty, lack of flexibility, fluctuation…The most pressing element of the employees’ welfare is the research of: the work psychopathology; the psychoactive substances at work; the stress causes and manifestations, exhaustion, sleep disorders, but also behavioral; strikes, conflicts, crises, bullying and violence, harassment and sexism…To opt for a leadership where understanding and helping employees is a must also means having an interest in generalizing the state of health among employees, and this is reflected in their high quality of life.

  5. Gender - an Issue for German Welfare Organisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available During the last months and years the English expression 'gender' has become a well-known word all over Germany, often with the annex 'mainstreaming'. Gender mainstreaming was initiated as a political strategy by the Women's World Conference in Beijing in 1995 and adopted by the European Union in 1997 (COM(9676 final. It basically means that all actions and initiatives planned have to be tested as to their effects on women and men and should not be taken if they disadvantage either one. But gender is also a category in the discussion about democratic features. Gender democracy means that males and females should be represented equally in the public, political, cultural, social and economic sphere of a society. On this background, this paper traces the gender issue in the field of organizations in the social sector of Germany, in particular the 'welfare organizations'. In this article, 'welfare organizations' is used as a translation of the German word 'Wohlfahrtsverbände'. The reason for this choice is the endeavor to indicate their difference from for instance English 'charitable associations' or French 'associations sociale et sanitaire', because social organizations in the EU-member states differ considerably in regard to their history, function, self-image , financing, political power etc.. The terms 'social non-governmental organizations' (NGOs or 'social nonprofit organizations' (NPOs are used synonymously.

  6. The Power of Citizens and Professionals in Welfare Encounters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mik-Meyer, Nanna

    relationships with welfare workers. However, other factors impact these interactions; factors which often pull in different directions. Welfare encounters are thus influenced by bureaucratic principles and market values as well. Consequently, this book engages with both Weberian (bureaucracy) and Foucauldian...... (market values/NPM) studies when investigating the powerful welfare encounter. The book is targeted Academics, post-graduates, and undergraduates within sociology, anthropology and political science....

  7. Social capital, houshold welfare, and poverty in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Grootaert, Christiaan

    1999-01-01

    The author empirically estimates how social capital affects household welfare and poverty in Indonesia. His focus: household memberships in local associations, an aspect of social capital especially relevant to daily household decisions that affect welfare and consumption. The data suggest that households with higher social capital spend more per capita. They also have more assets, more savings, and better access to credit. To estimate how social capital contributes to household welfare, the ...

  8. Conflicting and complementary ethics of animal welfare considerations in reintroductions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Lauren A; Moehrenschlager, Axel; Gelling, Merryl; Atkinson, Rob P D; Hughes, Joelene; Macdonald, David W

    2013-06-01

    Despite differences in focus, goals, and strategies between conservation biology and animal welfare, both are inextricably linked in many ways, and greater consideration of animal welfare, although important in its own right, also has considerable potential to contribute to conservation success. Nevertheless, animal welfare and animal ethics are not always considered explicitly within conservation practice. We systematically reviewed the recent scientific peer-reviewed and online gray literature on reintroductions of captive-bred and wild-caught animals (mammals, birds, amphibians, and reptiles) to quantify the occurrence of animal welfare issues. We considered monitoring that could be indicative of the animal's welfare status and supportive management actions that could improve animal welfare (regardless of whether the aim was explicitly animal-welfare orientated). Potential welfare issues (of variable nature and extent) were recorded in 67% of 199 projects reviewed; the most common were mortality >50%, dispersal or loss of animals, disease, and human conflict. Most (>70%) projects monitored survival, 18% assessed body condition, and 2% monitored stress levels. Animal welfare, explicitly, was referred to in 6% of projects. Supportive actions, most commonly use of on-site prerelease pens and provision of supplemental food or water, were implemented in 79% of projects, although the extent and duration of support varied. Practitioners can address animal-welfare issues in reintroductions by considering the potential implications for individual animals at all stages of the release process using the decision tree presented. We urge practitioners to report potential animal-welfare issues, describe mitigation actions, and evaluate their efficacy to facilitate transparent evaluation of common moral dilemmas and to advance communal strategies for dealing with them. Currently, comparative mortality rates, health risks, postrelease stress, effectiveness of supportive measures

  9. Does self-regulation of advertisement length improve consumer welfare?

    OpenAIRE

    Matsubae, Taisuke; Matsushima, Noriaki

    2012-01-01

    In Japan, TV platforms regulate themselves as to the length of the advertisements they air. Using modified Hotelling models, we investigate whether such self-regulation improves consumer and social welfare or not. When all consumers choose a single TV program (the utility functions of consumers satisfy the standard 'full-coverage' condition), self-regulation always reduces consumer welfare. It improves social welfare only if the advertisement revenue of each platform is not small and the cost...

  10. WELFARE ASPECTS OF THE LONG DISTANCE TRANSPORTATION OF CATTLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EVANGELIA N. SOSSIDOU

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper sets out to examine the facts behind the trade of long distance transportation of cattle. In particular it looks at the various welfare implications during handling and transport with examples from research work on cattle. The role of the science is explained and the methodology for assessing the welfare of animals is then presented. Finally, public concerns and legal position are presented as they play an important role to promote farm animal welfare principles during transportation.

  11. Historical Trust Levels Predict Current Welfare State Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergh, Andreas; Bjørnskov, Christian

    Using cross-sectional data for 76 countries, we apply instrumental variable techniques based on pronoun drop, temperature and monarchies to demonstrate that historical trust levels predict several indicators of current welfare state design, including universalism and high levels of regulatory...... freedom. We argue that high levels of trust and trustworthiness are necessary, but not sufficient, conditions for societies to develop successful universal welfare states that would otherwise be highly vulnerable to free riding and fraudulent behavior. Our results do not exclude positive feedback from...... welfare state universalism to individual trust, although we claim that the important causal link runs from historically trust levels to current welfare state design....

  12. Welfare payments and other economic determinants of female migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enchautegui, M E

    1997-07-01

    "This article investigates the effects of welfare payments, wages, and unemployment on women's probability of interstate migration [in the United States]. It also investigates if the income attraction of locations varies with recency of labor market experience. Welfare gains increase the probability of interstate migration. Welfare effects are largest for single mothers with small children and stronger among women with no recent labor market experience. The welfare effects, albeit small, are larger than the wage effects. The wage effects are weaker among women with no recent work experience. Ethnic-specific analyses suggest differences in migration behavior among Anglos, African-Americans, and Puerto Ricans." excerpt

  13. Perceptions of Administrative and Supervisory Support in Public Child Welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonya M. Westbrook

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Using the Child Welfare Organizational Culture Inventory (CWOCI in a public child welfare agency, perceptions of administrative and supervisory support held by employees with social work degrees (BSW and MSW were compared to perceptions of administrative and supervisory support held by employees without social work degrees. Child welfare employees with social work degrees reported lower administrative and supervisory support than employees without social work degrees. Implications for social work educators, public child welfare administrators and supervisors, and future research are presented.

  14. Demand and welfare effects in recreational travel models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellström, Jörgen; Nordström, Leif Jonas

    2012-01-01

    for the households welfare loss. Approximatingthe welfare loss by the change in consumer surplus, accounting for the positiveeffect from longer stays, imposes a lower bound on the households welfare loss. The differencein the estimated loss measures, from the considered CO2 tax reform, is about 20%. Thisemphasizes......In this paper we present a non-linear demand system for households’ joint choice of numberof trips and days to spend at a destination. The approach, which facilitates welfare analysis of exogenous policy and price changes, is used empirically to study the effects of an increased CO2 tax...... the importance of accounting for substitutions toward longer stays in traveldemand policy evaluations....

  15. Medicine as a corporate enterprise, patient welfare centered profession, or patient welfare centered professional enterprise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ajai; Singh, Shakuntala

    2005-11-01

    enterprise or remain a patient welfare centered profession. A third approach involves an eclectic resolution of the two. Such amount of patient welfare as also ensures profit, and such amount of profit as also ensures patient welfare is to be forwarded. For, profit, without patient welfare, is blind. And patient welfare, without profit, is lame. According to this approach, medicine becomes a patient welfare centered professional enterprise.The various ramifications of each of these approaches are discussed in this monograph.

  16. The Supply Chain’s Role in Improving Animal Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, David; Hubbard, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary The ability of supply chains to deliver high(er) levels and standards of animal welfare is subject to two critical conditions: (a) the innovative and adaptive capacity of actors in the chain to respond to society’s demands; (b) consumers actually buying animal-friendly products. Unless citizens are willing to support suppliers who comply with high(er) standards, their votes for better animal welfare risk exporting poor animal welfare to other countries with less rigorous standards. The logic of market failure in the case of animal welfare points to the superiority of consumer subsidies over producer subsidies to deliver improved animal welfare. Abstract Supply chains are already incorporating citizen/consumer demands for improved animal welfare, especially through product differentiation and the associated segmentation of markets. Nonetheless, the ability of the chain to deliver high(er) levels and standards of animal welfare is subject to two critical conditions: (a) the innovative and adaptive capacity of the chain to respond to society’s demands; (b) the extent to which consumers actually purchase animal-friendly products. Despite a substantial literature reporting estimates of willingness to pay (WTP) for animal welfare, there is a belief that in practice people vote for substantially more and better animal welfare as citizens than they are willing to pay for as consumers. This citizen-consumer gap has significant consequences on the supply chain, although there is limited literature on the capacity and willingness of supply chains to deliver what the consumer wants and is willing to pay for. This paper outlines an economic analysis of supply chain delivery of improved standards for farm animal welfare in the EU and illustrates the possible consequences of improving animal welfare standards for the supply chain using a prototype belief network analysis. PMID:26479533

  17. Active Social Policy meets Welfare Professions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Marie Østergaard

    2013-01-01

    Active social policy is an example of New Public Management, which contains a set of policy tools directly affecting the various professions working in the welfare sector (Harrits & Møller 2011). The legitimization of the policy is based in a need to strengthen control with public expenditures...... capacities and the doctor’s specialized focus on physical deviations. As such, the paper is an empirically informed contribution to understanding what happens when new forms of New Public Management meet front-line workers such as social workers and doctors who use both rules and professional norms...... and to restore public support for redistributive social benefits such as early retirement pension. Yet, New Public Management and professional norms are typically seen as two distinct rationalities, as reflected in the conflicting aims of the political system (retrenchment) and the ‘street-level bureaucrats...

  18. Social Polarisation and the Danish Welfare State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anders Bøggild; Rasmussen, Tove Valborg

    look at Aarhus in the light of these theories and studies of other cities. We present some preliminary results of a study based on public registered data covering income, capital, occupation, social services, types of dwellings, localisation etc. in the municipality of Aarhus. On the one hand we paint...... a preliminary picture of Aarhus looking at the distribution of poverty and wealth showing some indicators towards inequality. Furthermore we discuss central theories, concepts and measured indicators......Globalisation and the information society tend - according to leading theories - to increase social polarisation and create dual cities. Studies have shown that the tendencies are more complicated in several of the European cities and the welfare state seems to have an impact on the development. We...

  19. Health and Welfare IT Product Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merritt, Timothy; Grønbæk, Kaj

    2012-01-01

    finding a suitable problem to solve, iterating and refining their designs, evaluating prototypes with users, and finally presenting their work as a potential product with a detailed plan for how the product would be sold in the market. The primary contribution of this paper is to share innovative design......In this paper we describe the outcomes from a university design class focused on the design of systems intended to solve problems faced by health care professionals, patients and systems that support welfare or extended independence for older people. The students worked in groups for 10 weeks...... ideas with the design community and to reflect on lessons learned by the students who, for the first time, were designing robust prototypes that solve real world problems....

  20. Work-life balance and welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Lois; Young, Greg

    2017-04-01

    An online survey and focus groups were conducted, providing qualitative information on the work-life balance of psychiatrists and trainees in Australasia. An invitation to participate in an anonymous online welfare survey was emailed to all the Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists trainees, Fellows, and Affiliates. Following this, nine focus groups were held across Australia and New Zealand. Responses received were thematically analysed. The emergent patterns are presented in this report. Our research suggests that work-life balance can be subjectively and objectively measured. There are phases of good and bad work-life balance, depending on stage of career and other commitments. Work-life balance may be an indicator of the health of individuals and organisations. Due to its complexity, with intrinsic and extrinsic factors involved, solutions are unlikely to be simple. Further studies are needed to substantiate our findings.

  1. Animal Health and Welfare – Pig Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hämeenoja Pirkko

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Requirements of the organic pig farming create an opportunity to offer good life for animals. The space requirements give animals the possibility to exhibit species-specific behavior and provide them opportunity for more exercise. Bedding and roughage are important in helping to reduce production stress. The most difficult question in a veterinary point of view is how to manage the animal health care. Vaccinations, antibiotics and anthelmintic can be used in organic production but only in a limited way. A lot can be achieved with good management but there are still situations when the use of medicine is necessary. What is the amount of joint inflammations or liver spots to justify the use of medicine? The question has to be solved case by case. The profitability of the production is a crucial point in an organic farm because a poor economy is a great threat to animal welfare.

  2. Client Abuse to Public Welfare Workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøbæk, Pernille Solveig; Korczynski, Marek

    2016-01-01

    We analyse a case study of workers’ experience of client abuse in a Danish public welfare organisation. We make an original contribution by putting forward two different theoretical expectations of the case. One expectation is that the case follows a pattern of customer abuse processes in a social...... patterns of customer abuse associated with a liberal market economy – in which the customer is treated as sovereign against the relatively powerless worker, and in which workers bear heavy emotional costs of abuse. Our findings show a greater match to the social processes of abuse within a social market...... market economy – in which workers are accorded power and resources, in which workers tend to frame the abuse as the outcome of a co-citizen caught in system failure and in which workers demonstrate some resilience to abuse. Another expectation is that New Public Management reforms push the case to follow...

  3. Employee-driven Innovation in Welfare Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Wihlman

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing interest in both employee-driven innovation (EDI and innovation in welfare services, but a lack of empirical studies addressing innovation from the employee perspective. Accordingly, this study was designed to contribute with well-grounded empirical knowledge, aiming to explore the barriers to and opportunities for participation in innovation experienced by employees of the Swedish welfare services. In order to reach the aim, a qualitative thematic analysis of 27 semi-structured interviews with employees in four municipalities was performed. The study identified three main themes, with a great impact on the innovative performance of the studied organizations: support, including leadership and innovation processes; development, including creativity and learning; and organizational culture, which includes attitudes and communication, all essential ingredients in EDI. Experienced barriers for innovation were unclear or non-existing innovation processes with ambiguous goals, insufficient learning, and deficient organizational slack, thus creating a tension between day-to-day work and innovation and hindering reflection and exploration. Attitudes of colleagues and lack of communication were also barriers to implementing innovation, suggesting the need for better management support for a communicative and open culture. Opportunities were found, including commitment to innovation and willingness to try new ideas, but the employees must be given the mandate and sufficient time to develop the potential that emerges from continuous learning, time for reflection, and user dialogue. The conclusion was that incremental innovations existed, but the full potential of these did not benefit the entire organization due to inadequate communication and lack of innovation processes. The study improves our understanding of how employees regard their involvement in innovation. It also discusses how to make better use of employees’ resources in

  4. 45 CFR 605.52 - Health, welfare, and other social services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Health, welfare, and other social services. 605.52... ASSISTANCE Health, Welfare, and Social Services § 605.52 Health, welfare, and other social services. (a) General. In providing health, welfare, or other social services or benefits, a recipient may not, on the...

  5. 45 CFR 84.52 - Health, welfare, and other social services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Health, welfare, and other social services. 84.52..., Welfare, and Social Services § 84.52 Health, welfare, and other social services. (a) General. In providing health, welfare, or other social services or benefits, a recipient may not, on the basis of handicap: (1...

  6. Attitudes of Dutch pig farmers towards animal welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huik, van M.M.; Bock, B.B.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose ¿ The purpose of this paper is to provide insights into the rationale of Dutch pig farmers concerning animal welfare and animal-friendly production. It aims to show the interrelations between farmers' production logic, their ideas about good farming and animal welfare and the characteristics

  7. Animal welfare decisions in Dutch poultry and pig farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gocsik, E.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract

    The minimum level of animal welfare (AW) is guaranteed by EU and national legislation in most European countries. Within the current international economic and political environment further improvements in the welfare of farm animals predominantly rely on market

  8. Earned Citizenship: Labour Migrants’ Views on the Welfare State

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kremer, M.

    2016-01-01

    In policy and research, migration and the welfare state are often seen as being at odds. When ‘strangers’ enter the welfare state, the financial and social foundations of solidarity are said to crumble. A prominent question, therefore, is whether immigrants should have the same rights as the

  9. Television Programming, Monopolistic Competition and Welfare. Technical Report No. 159.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Michael; Owen, Bruce

    An economic analysis of television programing was conducted focusing on the public welfare implications of alternative market structures and policies in the broadcasting industry. Welfare was measured by the sum of producer's and consumer's surplus. It was demonstrated that any of the private market systems considered contain biases against…

  10. Re-imagining the (Welfare) Professional as a Specialised Generalist

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Hanne Marlene

    2005-01-01

    The new welfare professions are often linked to the enlargement of the welfare state and the extension of social rights. Recently, this story has become more complex. The increasing prevalence of New Public Management (NPM) in state regulation sets a new discursive (meta) context for groups...

  11. Enhancing Early Childhood Outcomes: Connecting Child Welfare and Head Start

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrae, Julie S.; Brown, Samantha M.; Yang, Jessica; Groneman, Sheila

    2016-01-01

    Head Start is a preschool program for families with low incomes and nearly 85% of child welfare-involved families are low-income, yet little is known about Head Start and child welfare collaboration. This study uses data from 28 Head Start directors to describe collaboration facilitators and barriers, and collaborative mechanisms in place. The…

  12. 25 Years of Three Worlds of Welfare Capitalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emmenegger, Patrick; Kvist, Jon; Marx, Paul

    2015-01-01

    In this introduction to the special issue, we review the various debates spurred by Esping-Andersen’s The Three Worlds of Welfare Capitalism. Tracing its impact since the book’s publication in 1990, we show that Three Worlds continues to be the point of reference for comparative welfare state...

  13. Preslaughter treatment of pigs : consequences for welfare and meat quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geverink, N.A.

    1998-01-01

    Chapter 1 is a general introduction to this thesis. Welfare of slaughter pigs may be impaired by preslaughter treatment. Frequently used welfare indicators are behavioural and physiological responses. The responses to preslaughter treatment may also have an effect on perimortem muscle

  14. Welfare Effects of Entry into International Markets with Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, F. A.; Ferreira, Fl.

    2008-10-01

    We study the effects of entry of a foreign firm on domestic welfare in the presence of licensing, when the entrant is technologically inferior to the incumbent. We show that foreign entry increases domestic welfare for intermediate (respectively, sufficiently large) technological differences between the firms under licensing with fixed fee (respectively, output royalty).

  15. Business Interests and the Development of the German Welfare State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paster, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    the core of the model of the ‘Bismarckian welfare state’, for which Germany became the prototype. After giving a brief overview of the main characteristics of the German welfare state and its historical origins, the chapter analyses the attitudes of German employers towards the adoption of these four...

  16. Animal welfare in multipurpose cattle production Systems and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Animal welfare and its influence on beef production are major considerations in many developed countries. In the developing world, where food insecurity and poverty are prevalent, the welfare of animals receives low priority due to factors such as traditional customs and beliefs, lack of knowledge in animal handling and ...

  17. Dutch Consumers’ Willingness to Pay for Broiler Welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, Machiel; Zomer, Sigourney

    2017-01-01

    This article analyzes Dutch consumers’ willingness to pay (WTP) for the welfare of broiler chickens and the consequences for nonhuman animal welfare policies. Using data from a discrete-choice experiment and a random parameter logit model, this study showed that consumers particularly value

  18. Welfare regimes and the incentives to work and get educated

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez-Pose, Andres; Tselios, Vassilis

    This paper examines whether differences in welfare regimes shape the incentives to work and get educated. Using microeconomic data for more than 100 ON European individuals, we show that welfare regimes make a difference for wages and education. First, people-based and household-based effects

  19. Household Inequality, Welfare, and the Setting of Trade Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.F. François (Joseph); H. Rojas-Romagosa

    2004-01-01

    textabstractWe analyze general equilibrium relationships between trade policy and the household distribution of income, decomposing social welfare into real income level and variance components through Gini and Atkinson indexes. We embed these inequality-adjusted social welfare functions in a

  20. Assessing the importance of natural behavior for animal welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bracke, M.B.M.; Hopster, H.

    2006-01-01

    The concept of natural behavior is a key element in current Dutch policy-making on animal welfare. It emphasizes that animals need positive experiences, in addition to minimized suffering. This paper interprets the concept of natural behavior in the context of the scientific framework for welfare

  1. Welfare and distribution effects of water pricing policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijs, A.J.W.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, distribution and welfare effects of changes in block price systems are evaluated. A method is discussed to determine, for a Marshallian demand function, equivalent variation in case of a block price system. The method is applied to analyze welfare and distribution effects of changing

  2. Review of wallowing in pigs: implications for animal welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bracke, M.B.M.; Spoolder, H.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Most modern production systems, especially in temperate climates, do not offer wallowing facilities to pigs and, to date, this has neither generated much concern in welfare science nor public debate on pig welfare. Nevertheless, wallowing is a natural behaviour of pigs which may be important to

  3. Socioeconomic roles and welfare aspects of donkey ( Equus asinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Given the fact that donkeys contribute to valuable socio-economic activities in small holders agricultural sectors, they are under low welfare condition in developing countries. This is need assessment of the profiles, socioeconomic roles and welfare of donkeys in developing countries like Ethiopia. A total of 384 randomly ...

  4. Farm workers’ perception of animal welfare – A Danish Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anneberg, Inger

    2017-01-01

    The welfare of farm animals depends on development in production systems, economic drivers and regulation but also human factors – such as farmers’ perceptions of animal welfare, management strategies, communication, knowledge and training. In this study I have examined the perception of animal...

  5. Employer Demand for Welfare Recipients by Race. Discussion Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzer, Harry J.; Stoll, Michael A.

    This paper uses new survey data on employers in four large metropolitan areas to examine the determinants of employer demand for welfare recipients. Data come from a telephone survey of approximately 750 establishments. Results suggest a high level of demand for welfare recipients, although such demand appears fairly sensitive to business cycle…

  6. Peer Effects in Welfare Dependence: Quasi-Experimental Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslund, Olof; Fredriksson, Peter

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines peer effects in welfare use among refugees. We exploit a Swedish refugee placement policy, which generated exogenous variation in peer group composition. Our analysis distinguishes between the quantity of contacts--the number of individuals of the same ethnicity--and the quality of contacts--welfare use among members of the…

  7. Healthy, happy and humane: evidence in farm animal welfare policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bock, B.B.; Buller, H.

    2013-01-01

    There has been a dramatic expansion and diversification of knowledge, expertise and expectation associated with farm animal welfare and we witness its increasing adoption within legislative and policy strategies. This article examines how the understanding of what constitutes farm animal welfare and

  8. Welfare Service Professionals, Migrants, and the Question of Trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fersch, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to analyze migrants’ interpretations of their encounters with welfare service professionals in Denmark, focusing on client trust and exploring its diversity across professions. It is based on qualitative interviews with migrants. Migrants as newcomers to the welfare state...

  9. Effective Teaching and Learning in Interprofessional Education in Child Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteley, Robert F.; Gillespie, Judy; Robinson, Cathy; Watts, Wilda; Carter, Deb

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on research regarding interprofessional education (IPE) in child welfare conducted in 2009 and 2010. Pre service nursing, social worker and teacher education candidates participated in a workshop that "exposed" (Charles, Bainbridge & Gilbert, 2010) students to IPE in child welfare. This paper addresses a gap in…

  10. Knowledge of the Animal Welfare Act and Animal Welfare Regulations Influences Attitudes toward Animal Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Recent public-opinion polls indicate that Americans have shown a decline in support for animal experimentation, and several reports suggest a relationship between people's knowledge of animal welfare regulations and their attitudes toward animal research. Therefore, this study was designed to assess respondent's knowledge of several provisions in the Animal Welfare Act (AWA) and Animal Welfare Regulations (AWR), and determine whether exposure to elements of this legislation would influence an individual's attitudes toward the use of animals in research. A survey was used to assess knowledge of animal research regulations and attitudes toward animal research from a sample of individuals recruited through Amazon's Mechanical Turk crowdsourcing marketplace. Results from study 1 confirmed the hypothesis that respondents had little knowledge of various federal regulations that govern animal research activities. Data from study 2 revealed that exposure to elements of the AWA and AWR influenced participants’ attitudes toward the use of animals in research. These results suggest that providing information to the general public about the AWA and AWR that protect laboratory animals from abuse and neglect may help alleviate concerns about using animals in research settings. PMID:25651094

  11. Animal Health and Welfare Planning in Organic Dairy Cattle Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaarst, Mette; Winckler, Christoph; Roderick, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Continuous development is needed within the farm to reach the goal of good animal health and welfare in organic livestock farming. The very different conditions between countries call for models that are relevant for different farming types and can be integrated into local practice and be relevant...... for each type of farming context. This article reviews frameworks, principles and practices for animal health and welfare planning which are relevant for organic livestock farming. This review is based on preliminary analyses carried out within a European project (acronym ANIPLAN) with participants from...... as well as animal health and welfare professionals (veterinarians and advisors) is paramount. This paper provides an overview of some current animal health and welfare planning initiatives and explains the principles of animal health and welfare planning which are being implemented in ANIPLAN partner...

  12. Opinion of the scientific panel on animal health and welfare on a request from the commission related to welfare aspects of the castration of piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunn, Michael; Allen, Paul; Bonneau, Michel

    2004-01-01

    Report - Annex to the Opinion of the Scientific Panel on Animal Health and Welfare on a request from the Commission related to welfare aspects of the castration of piglets......Report - Annex to the Opinion of the Scientific Panel on Animal Health and Welfare on a request from the Commission related to welfare aspects of the castration of piglets...

  13. The fiscal impact of EU immigration on the tax-financed welfare state: Testing the ‘welfare burden’ thesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinsen, Dorte Sindbjerg; Rotger, Gabriel Pons

    2017-01-01

    of administrative data, consisting of repeated cross sections of 100% of the EU population residing in Denmark. We find that EU immigrants made a significant positive net contribution to the Danish welfare state over the long time span examined and thus reject the ‘welfare burden’ thesis for the crucial case...

  14. Social Welfare and the Psychology of Food Sharing: Short-Term Hunger Increases Support for Social Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Michael Bang; Aarøe, Lene; Jensen, Niels Holm

    2014-01-01

    Do politically irrelevant events influence important policy opinions? Previous research on social welfare attitudes has emphasized the role of political factors such as economic self-interest and ideology. Here, we demonstrate that attitudes to social welfare are also influenced by short-term flu......—we consistently find that hungry individuals act in a greedier manner but describe themselves as more cooperative and express greater support for social welfare.......Do politically irrelevant events influence important policy opinions? Previous research on social welfare attitudes has emphasized the role of political factors such as economic self-interest and ideology. Here, we demonstrate that attitudes to social welfare are also influenced by short......-term fluctuations in hunger. Using theories in evolutionary psychology, we predict that hungry individuals will be greedier and take more resources from others while also attempting to induce others to share by signaling cooperative intentions and expressing support for sharing, including evolutionarily novel forms...

  15. Agency Culture and Climate in Child Welfare: Do Perceptions Vary by Exposure to the Child Welfare System?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spielfogel, Jill E; Leathers, Sonya J; Christian, Errick

    2016-01-01

    Organizational culture and climate play a critical role in worker retention and outcomes, yet little is known about whether perceptions of culture and climate vary depending on the demands of particular roles. In this study, 113 staff from a child welfare agency completed Organizational Social Context profiles. Staff were divided into three groups according to their proximity to child welfare tasks to assess whether involvement in higher stress child welfare tasks is related to perceptions of the social context. Findings suggest possible differences across groups, with those involved in core child welfare tasks appearing to perceive higher resistance to new ways of providing services and those with the least involvement in traditional child welfare perceiving a more positive social context overall.

  16. Ethical challenges with welfare technology: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Bjørn

    2013-06-01

    Demographical changes in high income counties will increase the need of health care services but reduce the number of people to provide them. Welfare technology is launched as an important measure to meet this challenge. As with all types of technologies we must explore its ethical challenges. A literature review reveals that welfare technology is a generic term for a heterogeneous group of technologies and there are few studies documenting their efficacy, effectiveness and efficiency. Many kinds of welfare technology break with the traditional organization of health care. It introduces technology in new areas, such as in private homes, and it provides new functions, e.g. offering social stimuli and entertainment. At the same time welfare technology is developed for groups that traditionally have not been extensive technology users. This raises a series of ethical questions with regard to the development and use of welfare technologies, which are presented in this review. The main challenges identified are: (1) Alienation when advanced technology is used at home, (2) conflicting goals, as welfare technologies have many stakeholders with several ends, (3) respecting confidentiality and privacy when third-party actors are involved, (4) guaranteeing equal access and just distribution, and (5) handling conflicts between instrumental rationality and care in terms of respecting dignity and vulnerability. Addressing these issues is important for developing and implementing welfare technologies in a morally acceptable manner.

  17. [Animal experimentation, animal welfare and scientific research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tal, H

    2013-10-01

    Hundreds of thousands of laboratory animals are being used every year for scientific experiments held in Israel, mostly mice, rats, rabbits, guinea pigs, and a few sheep, cattle, pigs, cats, dogs, and even a few dozen monkeys. In addition to the animals sacrificed to promote scientific research, millions of animals slain every year for other purposes such as meat and fine leather fashion industries. While opening a front against all is an impossible and perhaps an unjustified task, the state of Israel enacted the Animal Welfare (Animal Experimentation) Law (1994). The law aims to regulate scientific animal experiments and to find the appropriate balance between the need to continue to perform animal experiments for the advancement of research and medicine, and at the same time to avoid unnecessary trials and minimize animal suffering. Among other issues the law deals with the phylogenetic scale according to which experimental animals should be selected, experiments for teaching and practicing, and experiments for the cosmetic industry. This article discusses bioethics considerations in animal experiments as well as the criticism on the scientific validity of such experiments. It further deals with the vitality of animal studies and the moral and legal obligation to prevent suffering from laboratory animals.

  18. The Ruins of the British Welfare State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahl Kaminer

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The subjects of Owen Hatherley’s A Guide to the New Ruins of Great Britain are architecture and urban development. The book addresses also some broader cultural, political and economic references, as well as personal anecdotes and memories. It includes many encounters with the remnants of the British welfare state.As an extension to his blog postings and a sequel of sorts to his previous Militant Modernism, Hatherley’s antagonist here is the semi-official architecture of New Labour, which he terms ‘pseudomodernism’: an unimaginative, inferior, and, in its own specific way, also tacky architecture of white stucco, steel and glass. He attacks the Faustian bargain of Richard Rogers and his allies with neoliberalism, a pact that produces a modernism devoid of social content, reflected by the unimaginative, speculation-driven architectural design. While Hatherley produces the promised indictment of recent British architecture, the book is, at the end of the day, primarily a eulogy to the disappearing postwar architecture he so evidently loves.

  19. Screening of selected indicators of dairy cattle welfare in Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Radeski

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The welfare state of cattle in dairy farms in Macedonia has never been assessed previously. The objective of this study was to perform screening analysis of dairy cows welfare and to test the practical implementation of the Welfare Quality® Assessment protocol for cattle in dairy farms in Macedonia. In ten small scale and large scale tie stall farms 23 measures were recorded related to 9 welfare criteria of 4 welfare principles (WP described in the Welfare Quality® Assessment protocol for dairy cows. The mean percentage of very lean cows was 40.5±9.1%. All assessed farms were not providing access to pasture and an outdoor loafing area. Regarding cleanliness, the presence of dirty udder, upper leg/flank and lower leg was 65.2±9.0%, 85.5±8.0% and 86.5±5.8%, respectively. The overall prevalence of lameness was 5.6±5.0%, and for mild and severe alterations it was 30.8±5.8% and 54.1±4.6%, respectively. The ocular and vulvar discharge, diarrhea, dystocia, percentage of downer cows and mortality rate exceeded the warning and alarm threshold. The avoidance – distance test classified 70.4±6.8% as animals that can be touched or approached closer than 50cm, with overall score of 42.9±3.5. This screening reveals that the most welfare concerns are found in the WP Good Feeding and Good Housing. The on-farm welfare assessment using the full protocol on a representative sample of farms in the country is highly recommended for emphasizing the key points for improving the animal welfare in Macedonian dairy farms.

  20. Private Animal Welfare Standards—Opportunities and Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röcklinsberg, Helena

    2018-01-01

    Simple Summary In all European countries, farmers keeping animals must comply with European and national animal welfare legislation. Each government has a responsibility to make sure that the legislation is complied with by the farmers. However, during the last decades it has become increasingly common that private organisations, such as the industry, farmers’ organisations, or animal welfare organisations, develop additional animal welfare regulations (‘private standards’) that the farmers also need to comply with. These private standards have the opportunity to improve animal welfare above the legislative level, however, in our study we have shown that this is not always the case and that all of these different private standards, in addition to the legislation, makes it difficult to get an overview of the animal welfare regulation and control arena. For the sake of the farmers, the animal welfare inspectors, the consumers, and the animals we conclude that it is important that policymakers consider this arena as a whole and not their own regulation as a single phenomenon. Abstract The current shift moves the governance of animal welfare away from the government towards the private market and the consumers. We have studied the intentions, content, and on-farm inspection results from different sets of animal welfare legislation and private standards with an aim to highlight the most important opportunities and risks identified in relation to the trend of increasingly relying on private standards for safeguarding or improving farm animal welfare. Our results show that different focuses, intentions, animal welfare requirements, inspection methods (i.e., methods for measuring and evaluating the compliance with a regulation), and inspection results, together with the use of vague wordings and a drive towards more flexible regulations does certainly not facilitate the interpretation and implementation of animal welfare regulations, especially not in relation to

  1. Report on the relationship between welfare, education and social entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, H. Thomas R.; Hafen, Niklas; Rakar, Fredrik

    levels. The focus is on establishing to what extent education and welfare influence the development of social entrepreneurship, social innovation and social enterprises. In this context, welfare and education are understood to be amongst the most relevant areas for any government in that it strongly......In this report, we aim to shed light on how far and to what extent the national and regional governments – more specifically the welfare regime and the education system – have come in terms of developing supporting ecosystems for social enterprises, to strengthen efforts at national and regional...

  2. Stress influencing production and welfare in farmed mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmkvist, Jens

    2012-01-01

    Results linking stress, production and welfare in farmed mink, with special focus on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis, are presented. Interpretation of stress responses are discussed, combining context, neuroendocrine and behavioural indicators. Results from the development and valid......Results linking stress, production and welfare in farmed mink, with special focus on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis, are presented. Interpretation of stress responses are discussed, combining context, neuroendocrine and behavioural indicators. Results from the development...... animals and whether fur-chewing/stereotypic behaviour is associated with hippocampal neurogenesis in mink. Perspectives and suggested future research aiming to improve production and welfare in farmed mink are given....

  3. The prospect of market-driven improvements in animal welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heerwagen, Lennart Ravn; Christensen, Tove; Sandøe, Peter

    2013-01-01

    . Yet considerable uncertainties exist about the ability of the market to promote animal welfare. So far the consumption of most welfare-friendly products has been limited, and the impact of driving and limiting factors is poorly understood. Reviewing market studies, we identify the factors that have......-friendly products. It is therefore to be expected that other animal welfare-friendly food products marketed via “natural behaviors” in the farm animals will catch the interest of consumers. However, grass milk consumption has been supported by proper labeling, ready availability and low price premiums as well...

  4. Welfare effects of the internalization of external cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lijesen, M.; Korteweg, J.A.; Derriks, H.

    2009-03-01

    The effect of passing through the cost of external effects such as accidents, environment and noise to traffic and transport have been mapped. In nine out of the ten examined variants this 'internalization' will lead to an increase in welfare in the Netherlands. Internalization leads to a decrease of external costs of over 100 million to more than 1.7 billion euros annually. Internalization also brings about collection costs, international transfers and logistic adjustments. The balance of these effects varies from a welfare loss of 20 million euros to a welfare increase of 1.2 billion euros annually. [nl

  5. Associations between and development of welfare indicators in organic layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hinrichsen, Lena Karina; Riber, Anja Brinch; Labouriau, Rodrigo

    2016-01-01

    The retail market share of organic eggs in Denmark is high, and the consumers expect high animal welfare standards in the organic production. Documentation of animal welfare is important, however, knowledge about the associations between animal-based welfare indicators is limited. The aims......, keel bone damages, back feathering, body feathering, foot damages, comb colour and wounds on the body. An observational study with 12 organic egg farms was conducted in 2012 and 2013 with a total of 214 hens assessed individually at the peak and the end of lay. Insufficient data were obtained...

  6. Free Movement as a Threat for Universal Welfare States?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Bent

    2014-01-01

    , especially in the area of pensions. Given the enlargement of the past 10 years and a strong increase in inter-EU migration this impact might even increase. This article, using Denmark as a case study, looks at how, over time, free movement may lead towards convergence and thereby Europeanization of welfare...... states in Europe. It focuses especially on the pressures brought to bear on the universality of the Danish welfare state, thereby moving it away from one of the distinctive characteristics of the Nordic welfare state model: the universal access to benefits. It also raises the question of whether...

  7. Simplifying the Welfare Quality® assessment protocol for broiler chicken welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, I C; Hindle, V A; Butterworth, A; Engel, B; Ferrari, P; Gunnink, H; Perez Moya, T; Tuyttens, F A M; van Reenen, C G

    2016-01-01

    Welfare Quality(®) (WQ) assessment protocols place the emphasis on animal-based measures as an indicator for animal welfare. Stakeholders, however, emphasize that a reduction in the time taken to complete the protocol is essential to improve practical applicability. We studied the potential for reduction in time to complete the WQ broiler assessment protocol and present some modifications to the protocol correcting a few errors in the original calculations. Data was used from 180 flocks assessed on-farm and 150 flocks assessed at the slaughter plant. Correlations between variables were calculated, and where correlation was moderate, meaningful and promising (in terms of time reduction), simplification was considered using one variable predicted from another variable. Correlation analysis revealed a promising correlation between severe hock burn and gait scores on-farm. Therefore, prediction of gait scores using hock burn scores was studied further as a possible simplification strategy (strategy 1). Measurements of footpad dermatitis, hock burn, cleanliness and gait score on-farm correlated moderately to highly with slaughter plant measurements of footpad dermatitis and/or hock burn, supporting substitution of on-farm measurements with slaughter plant data. A simplification analysis was performed using footpad dermatitis, hock burn, cleanliness and gait scores measured on-farm predicted from slaughter plant measurements of footpad dermatitis and hock burn (strategy 2). Simplification strategies were compared with the full assessment protocol. Close agreement was found between the full protocol and both simplification strategies although large confidence intervals were found for specificity of the simplified models. It is concluded that the proposed simplification strategies are encouraging; strategy 1 can reduce the time to complete the on-farm assessment by ~1 h (25% to 33% reduction) and strategy 2 can reduce on-farm assessment time by ~2 h (50% to 67% reduction

  8. Trained-user opinion about Welfare Quality measures and integrated scoring of dairy cattle welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Graaf, S.; Ampe, B.; Winckler, C.

    2017-01-01

    important by trained users (e.g., measures relating to drinkers) had the highest influence on the WQ overall welfare categorization. Conversely, measures rated as most important by the trained users (e.g., lameness and mortality) had a lower effect on the WQ overall category. In addition, trained users were...... conducted an online survey to examine whether trained users' opinions of the WQ protocol for dairy cattle correspond with the integrated scores (criteria, principles, and overall categorization) calculated according to the WQ protocol. First, the trained users' scores (n = 8–15) for reliability and validity...

  9. Return to sender - American Images of the Nordic Welfare States and Nordic Welfare State Branding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marklund, C.; Petersen, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we study the relationship between the United States of America and Norden, first showing how images of the Nordic model were constructed and reproduced in the United States from the 1920s until the 1960s. We find both utopias and dystopias in these narratives. Second, the article...... argues that these American images, narratives, and stereotypes did not only fulfill a function in the American debate, but were also relayed back to Norden, and affected debate, nation-branding strategies, and self-understandings there. During the Cold War, furthermore, the Nordic welfare state image...

  10. The welfare of farmed mink should be easy to assess in a correct way and lead to animal welfare improvements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Britt

    2015-01-01

    A three year PhD-study in assessment of mink welfare has contributed with methods and knowledge on how to get the welfare assessments as efficient and correct as possible and how to use the assessments in order to increase the welfare of the animals. The study found, that it might be possible...... periods have the same effect of date of assessment. The study also found that mink farmers are generally positive towards the structural way of working in stable schools and that including a discussion of the WelFur results related to the different farms in a stable school will make the feedback...

  11. Small prey species' behaviour and welfare: implications for veterinary professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, E Anne

    2017-08-01

    People have obligations to ensure the welfare of animals under their care. Offences under the UK Animal Welfare Act are acts, or failures of action, causing unnecessary suffering. Veterinary professionals need to be able to provide current, scientifically based prophylactic advice, and respect the limits of their expertise. The ethical concept of a life worth living and the Five Freedoms are core to welfare. Behaviour is a central component, both influencing and influenced by physical health. Owners frequently misunderstand the behaviour of small prey mammals and how to meet their needs. This review provides insight into the physical-social (external) and the cognitive-emotional (internal) environments of small prey mammals, contextualised within an evolutionary perspective. This is extrapolated to captivity and practical suggestions given for meeting behavioural freedoms and enhancing client understanding and enjoyment of their animals, thereby improving welfare. © 2017 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  12. WELFARE REFORM: Progress in Meeting Work-Focused TANF Goals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    .... The 1996 Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (P.L. 104-193) (PRWORA) significantly changed federal welfare policy for low-income families with children, building upon and expanding state-level reforms...

  13. Innovation in tourism from a welfare state perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjalager, Anne Mette

    2005-01-01

    plentiful resources, and because of close links with key actors in government, unions and employers' organisations. Co-operation with commercial tourism was, however, limited. In recent years, the ideologies have been challenged dramatically. There is no longer such a good fit between the needs......When ‘welfare’ and ‘tourism’ are mentioned together, paid holidays most often come to mind. Subsidised facilities for the less advantaged, can also be considered as core welfare ideology of the 20th century. From a broader perspective, however, welfare ideologies also have very complex indirect...... impacts on tourism. This paper addresses the influence of the welfare state, the impact welfare state interventions have had, and still have, and further implications in terms of product and service innovations. The Danish Labour Market Holiday Foundation has enforced innovations. Ever since...

  14. Intergenerational Justice Perceptions and the Role of Welfare Regimes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabbagh, Clara; Vanhuysse, Pieter

    2010-01-01

    , different welfare regimes structure young people's perceptions of the justness of public resources transfers from young to elderly age-groups and (2) the perceived relative contributions and rewards of various age-groups. Thus we inquire about both the perceived support in principle and about the perceived...... justness of actual outcomes of resource transfers between age-groups. We find that support of transfers from the young to the old is higher in social-democratic and conservative welfare regimes than in liberal and radical regimes. Support of resource transfers also correlates positively with a 'welfare......-statist' ideological frame (the endorsement of egalitarian redistribution and broad state responsibility for welfare provision and the attribution of social inequality to external causes), and negatively with a 'market-based' frame (individualism, a work ethic, and internal attribution). Regarding actual outcomes...

  15. EFFECTS OF MIGRANT REMITTANCES ON FARM HOUSEHOLD WELFARE IN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egbe BASSEY ETOWA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available International remittances are now a mechanism in development financing and a welfare strategy. Growing trends of these money transfers by migrants to their families back home in developing nations have been proven by evidences in literature and many empirical findings. This research analysed the effects of migrant remittances on the welfare of farm households in Nigeria. Welfare was measurable in terms of the households’ real per capita consumption. Cross sectional data were pooled from two sources. The data sources were Nigerian General Household Survey conducted in 2010/2011 and the Nigerian Living Standard Survey carried out in 2003/2004. The analytical technique adopted was the poverty profile function within the framework of multiple regression analysis. Results showed that four exogenous variables, including household real per capita remittances were significant determinants of household real per capita consumption (welfare.

  16. How Welfare Regimes Generate and Erode Social Capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christian Albrekt

    2007-01-01

    in the USA and other liberal welfare regimes, while social capital is stable in the so-called social democratic and conservative welfare regimes. The second puzzle is why the group of social democratic regimes have extremely high levels of social trust. It is argued that both puzzles have to do......Comparative studies of social capital, operationalised as social trust between citizens, have revealed two major puzzles. The first puzzle has to do with the decline in social trust in the USA, which fuelled considerable debate about social capital. The question is why social capital erodes...... with the presence or absence of a poor and culturally distinct underclass. The social democratic welfare regimes hinder – while the liberal welfare regime generate – such underclass phenomena....

  17. The Role Of Women Farmer Group In Increasing Family Welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maudia Camalin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The cross sector inequality puts farmers in Sumedang on the lowest level of welfare. Agricultural institutions, specifically the Women Farmer Group is formed to increase the level of farmer’s family welfare through women as the booster. The aim of starting KWT Mekar Arum is to relieve poverty which is the main social problem in Margaluyu Village, Tanjungsari Sub-district,  Sumedang Regency. This research is intended to describe its role on increasing the level of the member’s family welfare. It is a qualitative designed research with a case study method. The research result shows that the group has a social role for its members. Facilitation in production input, capital, and marketing are carried out by the group in working its role on developing member’s businesses. By joining the group, increase in welfare occurs in terms of income, health, and education of the KWT Mekar Arum.

  18. Institutions, culture and migrants' preference for state-provided welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt-Catran, Alexander; Careja, Romana

    2017-01-01

    Using the difference-in-differences estimator and data provided by the German Socio-Economic Panel, this article explores migrants’ preferences for state-provided welfare. The study finds evidence that over time, the preferences of immigrants and natives become more similar. We interpret this fin......Using the difference-in-differences estimator and data provided by the German Socio-Economic Panel, this article explores migrants’ preferences for state-provided welfare. The study finds evidence that over time, the preferences of immigrants and natives become more similar. We interpret...... this finding as evidence that the culture of home countries does not have a time-invariant effect, and that immigrants’ welfare preferences are subject to a socializing effect of the host countries’ welfare regime....

  19. WELFARE REFORM: Challenges in Saving for a "Rainy Day"

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Posner, Paul

    2001-01-01

    ... remain largely a state determination made under conditions of inherent uncertainty. In 1998 we reported on states plans for financing their welfare programs in the event that the economy unexpectedly turned down...

  20. Welfare Evaluation and the Economic Impacts of Climate Change on ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Welfare Evaluation and the Economic Impacts of Climate Change on Water Supply ... In a context of positive economic growth, demand for water is expected to ... Socially equitable climate action is essential to strengthen the resilience of all ...

  1. Contrasting Attitudes towards Animal Welfare Issues within the Food Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ada Braghieri

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Intensive systems have facilitated the production of animal-based products at relatively low prices. On one hand, these methods have been increasingly considered to be responsible for a dramatic reduction in animal welfare, as indicated by the high prevalence of stereotypies in sows, brittle bones in hens, lameness in broilers and short life span in dairy cattle. As a consequence, large segments of animal welfare-sensitive consumers have been identified. On the other hand, price conscious consumers, if accepting higher prices, are more likely to require explicit justification of returns in quality. Therefore, scientifically validated monitoring systems for assessing the welfare of farm animals have been developed in order to provide a certification system, allow the differentiation of animal-based products through constant and reliable signaling systems, and promote animal welfare friendly farming systems.

  2. Uruguay: Population Geography of a Troubled Welfare State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tata, Robert J.

    1977-01-01

    Discussed is whether or not Uruguay's elaborate welfare system can be maintained by a deteriorating economy plagued by social tension and political unrest. Historical background is presented, demographic variables are discussed and modern influences are measured. (Author/DB)

  3. Social work and research in advanced welfare states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    and North-Western Europe more generally, there are other countries where the public spend on welfare is relatively high. The contributors to this book explore and exemplify ways in which social work and research are distinctive for advanced welfare states. This involves exploring their connection......The aim of this book is to exemplify the ways in which social work and research develop in ‘advanced’ welfare states - countries where public spending is relatively high as a proportion of GNP. While such countries have traditionally been associated with Scandinavian countries in particular...... to professional identities, histories and welfare systems, their associations with academic, theoretical and cultural traditions of collaboration between academic and social work practice, and the distinctive links with community, national policy, governmentality and agency, with respect to forms of knowledge...

  4. Staff development and employee welfare practices and their effect ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Every organization primarily needs committed and dedicated staff that will help the ... are being offered to increase staff competence, efficiencies and performance. ... staff welfare practices and how these affect productivity and performance.

  5. Welfare technologies and ageing bodies - various ways of practising autonomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahler, Anne Marie

    2018-01-01

    Contemporary policy strategies frame welfare technologies as a solution for welfare states facing the challenges of demographic change. Technologies are supposed to reduce or substitute the work of care workers and thereby reduce attrition among their ranks, reduce costs, and at the same make...... elderly people self-reliant and independent. In this paper, it is suggested that this way of framing how welfare technologies work with elderly people holds an instrumental view of technologies as well as of bodies and needs to be challenged. Drawing on theories of subjects as interacting, material......, and embodied and on technologies as material agents that mediate actions, the guiding question in this study is how autonomy is practised in the lives of elderly people using welfare technologies. The study is based on interviews with eight elderly citizens in a Danish municipality who have been provided...

  6. Optimal taxation and welfare benefits with monitoring of job search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boone, J.; Bovenberg, A.L.

    2013-01-01

    In order to investigate the interaction between tax policy, welfare benefits, the government technology for monitoring and sanctioning inadequate search, workfare, and externalities from work, we incorporate endogenous job search and involuntary unemployment into a model of optimal nonlinear income

  7. Demand and welfare effects in recreational travel models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellström, Jörgen; Nordström, Leif Jonas

    for the households welfare loss. Approximating the welfare loss by the change in consumer surplus, accounting for the positive e¤ect from longer stays, imposes a lower bound on the households welfare loss. From a distributional point of view, the results reveal that the CO2 tax reform is regressive, in the sense......In this paper we present a non-linear demand system for households.joint choice of number of trips and days to spend at a destination. The approach, which facilitates welfare analysis of exogenous policy and price changes, is used empirically to study the e¤ects of an increased CO2 tax...... that low income households carry a larger part of the tax burden....

  8. Depicted welfare-recipient stereotypes in Norway and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker-Larsen, Sofie; Lundberg, Kjetil G.

    2016-01-01

    Welfare recipients are continuously subjected to media debates and governmental campaigns drawing on images and symbols encouraging improved work ethic and individual responsibility. Only few studies, however, have analysed how welfare recipients as ‘othered’ citizens react to these often...... stereotypical symbols and images targeting them. In this study we have investigated how welfare recipients in Norway and Denmark, and caseworkers in Denmark, understand and account for images which, through the use of stereotypes, directly or indirectly may question welfare recipients’ work ethic...... and deservedness. Analysing photo-elicitation interview data, we have uncovered a variety of reactions characterized by ‘problematization’. The interviewees problematize the image and depicted stereotypes, which they link both with motif and symbols and with surrounding public debates on the work ethic...

  9. Depicted welfare recipient stereotypes in Norway and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker-Larsen, Sofie; Lundberg, Kjetil G.

    2016-01-01

    Welfare recipients are continuously subjected to media debates and governmental campaigns drawing on images and symbols encouraging improved work ethic and individual responsibility. Only few studies, however, have analysed how welfare recipients as ‘othered’ citizens react to these often...... stereotypical symbols and images targeting them. In this study we have investigated how welfare recipients in Norway and Denmark, and caseworkers in Denmark, understand and account for images which, through the use of stereotypes, directly or indirectly may question welfare recipients’ work ethic...... and deservedness. Analysing photo-elicitation interview data, we have uncovered a variety of reactions characterized by ‘problematization’. The interviewees problematize the image and depicted stereotypes, which they link both with motif and symbols and with surrounding public debates on the work ethic...

  10. Unemployment and welfare consequences of international outsourcing under monopolistic competition

    OpenAIRE

    Richard A. Brecher; Zhiqi Chen

    2014-01-01

    This paper challenges the conventional academic view that international outsourcing is just another form of gainful trade. Contrary to that view, we show that labourservice outsourcing can reduce the highwage country's welfare even when productmarket trade is beneficial, within a model that combines involuntary unemployment and monopolistic competition. Outsourcing's impact on welfare is worsened by a definite loss of jobs and a possible contraction in the range of varieties produced worldwid...

  11. EFFECT OF FISCAL DECENTRALIZATION ON CAPITAL EXPENDITURE, GROWTH, AND WELFARE

    OpenAIRE

    Badrudin, Rudy

    2013-01-01

    This research analyzes the influence of fiscal decentralization on capital expenditure, economic growth, and social welfare of 29 regencies and 6 cities in Central Java Province based on the data of year 2004 to 2008. The method used to analyze the hypotheses is the Partial Least Square. The results showes that fiscal decentralization has no significant effect on capital expenditure; fiscal decentralization has significant effect on economic growth and social welfare; capital expenditure has ...

  12. Welfare of farmed fish - nutrition, breeding and diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchmann, Kurt

    Proceeding on the workshop on Welfare of fish which was organised by the research school SCOFDA at KU-LIFE on April 11 and 12, 2007. Prooceedings comprise a total of 18 abstracts which were edited by Kurt Buchmann.......Proceeding on the workshop on Welfare of fish which was organised by the research school SCOFDA at KU-LIFE on April 11 and 12, 2007. Prooceedings comprise a total of 18 abstracts which were edited by Kurt Buchmann....

  13. Towards a Post-Antropocene Perspective on the Welfare City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braae, Ellen Marie; Bøggild, Signe Sophie

    2015-01-01

    The welfare city with its humanistic, anthropocentric and progressive design ideals of the good life and egalitarianism usually signifies the post-war welfare state’s tabula rasa suburbs with evergreen public landscapes as common ground for public happiness. Inspired by the recent discourse of th...... green heritage’; an umbrella term bridging the gap between perspectives of the anthropocentric, the anthropocene and a possible post-anthropocene era, both challenged and driven by climate change and urbanisation....

  14. International Migration, Income Taxes and Transfers: A Welfare Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Michael S. Michael

    2002-01-01

    An important issue in public policy debates is the effect of international migration on welfare in source and host countries. We address this issue by constructing a general equilibrium model of a two-class source or host country. Each country produces many traded and non-traded goods, uses income taxes and distributes the tax receipts equally to all individuals. The analysis examines the effects of permanent migration on class, and national welfare. We show, among other things, that marginal...

  15. Welfare Cost of the Real Estate Transfer Tax

    OpenAIRE

    Buettner, Thiess

    2017-01-01

    This paper considers the welfare implications of a tax on real estate transfers. A theoretical analysis shows how the discouragement of mutually beneficial transactions as well as tax-sheltering activities give rise to a welfare loss that can be estimated comprehensively from the empirical elasticity of the tax base. In the absence of tax planning, the elasticity of the tax base is determined by the hazard rate to deter transactions at the margin. With tax planning, the elasticity of the tax ...

  16. Unemployment and Welfare State: What do the Data Tell Us?

    OpenAIRE

    DING, HONG

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyze the relationship between welfare expenditure by government and unemployment outcomes. Using a panel of 34 OECD countries from 1980 to 2010 and a two-way fixed effect model for panel data subject to endogeneity test and persistence test, the results of the paper suggest that total welfare expenditure as a percentage of GDP has a statistically significant positive impact on unemployment outcomes (total unemployment, long-term unemployment and youth unemployme...

  17. A general approach to welfare measurement through national income accounting

    OpenAIRE

    Asheim, Geir B.; Buchholz, Wolfgang

    2002-01-01

    We develop a framework for analyzing national income accounting using a revealed welfare approach that is sufficiently general to cover, e.g., both the standard discounted utilitarian and maximin criteria as special cases. We show that the basic welfare properties of comprehensive national income accounting, which were previously ascribed only to the discounted utilitarian case, in fact extend to this more general framework. In particular, it holds under a wide range of circumstances that rea...

  18. The Future of Social Work in Child Welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacquelyn McCroskey

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Child welfare has been a volatile and dynamic field of social work practice where policy and practice are continually shaped by attitudes, perceptions and expectations. New developments likely to shift the current balance in the field of child welfare over the next quarter century include: focus on results and performance measures, focus on child and family well-being, and increasing attention to evidence based practice.

  19. Migrants and Health in the Nordic welfare states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Bent

    2016-01-01

    This article probes into the health of migrants with a focus on the situation in the Nordic universal welfare states. The Nordic welfare states are further compared to each other with a comparison to the EU28 if possible, including investigation of the differences among the four Nordic countries...... socioeconomic factors, such as the impact of economic inequality. Moreover, the healthy migrant paradox cannot be confirmed....

  20. Assessing farm animal welfare without visiting the farm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jan Tind; Houe, Hans; Sandøe, Peter

    Animal welfare is typically assessed on farms by external observers making systematic observations of animals and/or the environment. External observers are costly, and efforts to minimize the time spent by external observers are giving rise to a delicate discussion of priorities of costs, validity...... and reliability. In this situation, it is worthwhile to consider the option of systems for assessing the animal welfare without having an external observer visiting the farm....

  1. Entry regulations, welfare and determinants of market structure

    OpenAIRE

    Maican, Florin; Orth, Matilda

    2015-01-01

    We use a dynamic oligopoly model of entry and exit with store-type differentiation to evaluate how entry regulations affect profitability, market structure and welfare. Based on unique data for all retail food stores in Sweden, we estimate demand, recover variable profits, and estimate entry costs and fixed costs by store type. Counterfactual policy experiments show that welfare increases when competition is enhanced by lower entry costs. Protecting small stores by imposing licensing fees on ...

  2. Child welfare employee recruitment and retention: an organizational culture perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbényiga, DeBrenna LaFa

    2009-01-01

    Drawing data from an organizational culture study, this cross-sectional study investigates the effect of organizational culture on child welfare employee recruitment and retention (N=92). Findings from quantitative analyses of the organizational culture inventory suggest that constructive culture style in child welfare organizations, especially humanistic-encouraging and self-actualizing culture norms, highly predict recruitment through employees' perception of "fit" and satisfaction as a member of the organization. Limitations, future research, and relevant implications are discussed.

  3. Do horses with poor welfare show `pessimistic' cognitive biases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, S.; Fureix, C.; Rowberry, R.; Bateson, M.; Hausberger, M.

    2017-02-01

    This field study tested the hypothesis that domestic horses living under putatively challenging-to-welfare conditions (for example involving social, spatial, feeding constraints) would present signs of poor welfare and co-occurring pessimistic judgement biases. Our subjects were 34 horses who had been housed for over 3 years in either restricted riding school situations ( e.g. kept in single boxes, with limited roughage, ridden by inexperienced riders; N = 25) or under more naturalistic conditions ( e.g. access to free-range, kept in stable social groups, leisure riding; N = 9). The horses' welfare was assessed by recording health-related, behavioural and postural indicators. Additionally, after learning a location task to discriminate a bucket containing either edible food (`positive' location) or unpalatable food (`negative' location), the horses were presented with a bucket located near the positive position, near the negative position and halfway between the positive and negative positions to assess their judgement biases. The riding school horses displayed the highest levels of behavioural and health-related problems and a pessimistic judgment bias, whereas the horses living under more naturalistic conditions displayed indications of good welfare and an optimistic bias. Moreover, pessimistic bias data strongly correlated with poor welfare data. This suggests that a lowered mood impacts a non-human species' perception of its environment and highlights cognitive biases as an appropriate tool to assess the impact of chronic living conditions on horse welfare.

  4. Do horses with poor welfare show 'pessimistic' cognitive biases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, S; Fureix, C; Rowberry, R; Bateson, M; Hausberger, M

    2017-02-01

    This field study tested the hypothesis that domestic horses living under putatively challenging-to-welfare conditions (for example involving social, spatial, feeding constraints) would present signs of poor welfare and co-occurring pessimistic judgement biases. Our subjects were 34 horses who had been housed for over 3 years in either restricted riding school situations (e.g. kept in single boxes, with limited roughage, ridden by inexperienced riders; N = 25) or under more naturalistic conditions (e.g. access to free-range, kept in stable social groups, leisure riding; N = 9). The horses' welfare was assessed by recording health-related, behavioural and postural indicators. Additionally, after learning a location task to discriminate a bucket containing either edible food ('positive' location) or unpalatable food ('negative' location), the horses were presented with a bucket located near the positive position, near the negative position and halfway between the positive and negative positions to assess their judgement biases. The riding school horses displayed the highest levels of behavioural and health-related problems and a pessimistic judgment bias, whereas the horses living under more naturalistic conditions displayed indications of good welfare and an optimistic bias. Moreover, pessimistic bias data strongly correlated with poor welfare data. This suggests that a lowered mood impacts a non-human species' perception of its environment and highlights cognitive biases as an appropriate tool to assess the impact of chronic living conditions on horse welfare.

  5. The Supply Chain’s Role in Improving Animal Welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Harvey

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Supply chains are already incorporating citizen/consumer demands for improved animal welfare, especially through product differentiation and the associated segmentation of markets. Nonetheless, the ability of the chain to deliver high(er levels and standards of animal welfare is subject to two critical conditions: (a the innovative and adaptive capacity of the chain to respond to society’s demands; (b the extent to which consumers actually purchase animal-friendly products. Despite a substantial literature reporting estimates of willingness to pay (WTP for animal welfare, there is a belief that in practice people vote for substantially more and better animal welfare as citizens than they are willing to pay for as consumers. This citizen-consumer gap has significant consequences on the supply chain, although there is limited literature on the capacity and willingness of supply chains to deliver what the consumer wants and is willing to pay for. This paper outlines an economic analysis of supply chain delivery of improved standards for farm animal welfare in the EU and illustrates the possible consequences of improving animal welfare standards for the supply chain using a prototype belief network analysis.

  6. The Supply Chain's Role in Improving Animal Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, David; Hubbard, Carmen

    2013-08-14

    Supply chains are already incorporating citizen/consumer demands for improved animal welfare, especially through product differentiation and the associated segmentation of markets. Nonetheless, the ability of the chain to deliver high(er) levels and standards of animal welfare is subject to two critical conditions: (a) the innovative and adaptive capacity of the chain to respond to society's demands; (b) the extent to which consumers actually purchase animal-friendly products. Despite a substantial literature reporting estimates of willingness to pay (WTP) for animal welfare, there is a belief that in practice people vote for substantially more and better animal welfare as citizens than they are willing to pay for as consumers. This citizen-consumer gap has significant consequences on the supply chain, although there is limited literature on the capacity and willingness of supply chains to deliver what the consumer wants and is willing to pay for. This paper outlines an economic analysis of supply chain delivery of improved standards for farm animal welfare in the EU and illustrates the possible consequences of improving animal welfare standards for the supply chain using a prototype belief network analysis.

  7. Evolution of cooperation driven by social-welfare-based migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Ye, Hang; Zhang, Hong

    2016-03-01

    Individuals' migration behavior may play a significant role in the evolution of cooperation. In reality, individuals' migration behavior may depend on their perceptions of social welfare. To study the relationship between social-welfare-based migration and the evolution of cooperation, we consider an evolutionary prisoner's dilemma game (PDG) in which an individual's migration depends on social welfare but not on the individual's own payoff. By introducing three important social welfare functions (SWFs) that are commonly studied in social science, we find that social-welfare-based migration can promote cooperation under a wide range of parameter values. In addition, these three SWFs have different effects on cooperation, especially through the different spatial patterns formed by migration. Because the relative efficiency of the three SWFs will change if the parameter values are changed, we cannot determine which SWF is optimal for supporting cooperation. We also show that memory capacity, which is needed to evaluate individual welfare, may affect cooperation levels in opposite directions under different SWFs. Our work should be helpful for understanding the evolution of human cooperation and bridging the chasm between studies of social preferences and studies of social cooperation.

  8. Private Animal Welfare Standards-Opportunities and Risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundmark, Frida; Berg, Charlotte; Röcklinsberg, Helena

    2018-01-02

    The current shift moves the governance of animal welfare away from the government towards the private market and the consumers. We have studied the intentions, content, and on-farm inspection results from different sets of animal welfare legislation and private standards with an aim to highlight the most important opportunities and risks identified in relation to the trend of increasingly relying on private standards for safeguarding or improving farm animal welfare. Our results show that different focuses, intentions, animal welfare requirements, inspection methods (i.e., methods for measuring and evaluating the compliance with a regulation), and inspection results, together with the use of vague wordings and a drive towards more flexible regulations does certainly not facilitate the interpretation and implementation of animal welfare regulations, especially not in relation to each other. Since farmers today often have to comply with several animal welfare regulations, including private standards, it is important to stress that a given regulation should never be seen as a single, stand-alone phenomenon, and the policymakers must hence consider the bigger picture, and apply the standards in relation to other existing regulations. This is especially relevant in relation to the legislation, a level that a private standard can never ignore.

  9. From welfare states to welfare sectors: Explaining sectoral differences in occupational pensions with economic and political power of employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiß, Tobias

    2015-12-01

    Studies analysing welfare have previously focused on countries as units. In the course of pension cuts and the increasing importance of occupational welfare, our traditional understanding of a homogeneous welfare state is being challenged. In this article, I distinguish between both economic individual power (employee skills) and political collective power (trade unions), and their relation with different occupational pensions. A combined analysis by both factors is not common, where employee skills and power resources are traditionally treated as separate, rival explanations of public welfare. Combining the 'method of difference' with the 'method of agreement', the article first presents the within-country variety of occupational pensions in Germany, Italy, the United Kingdom and Denmark. Occupational pensions in the same economic sectors across countries are then used as the units of analysis in order to illustrate the plausible determinants of economic individual power and political collective power.

  10. Induced mutations for human welfare through agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patil, S.A.

    2009-01-01

    pulses and oil seeds. The Groundnut varieties of BARC have spread on more than one million hectares and are providing additional income of more than five hundred crores annually on a continuing basis. These examples prove beyond doubt that induced mutations have played a vital role for human welfare through agriculture

  11. Mutilating Procedures, Management Practices, and Housing Conditions That May Affect the Welfare of Farm Animals: Implications for Welfare Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordquist, Rebecca E; van der Staay, Franz Josef; van Eerdenburg, Frank J C M; Velkers, Francisca C; Fijn, Lisa; Arndt, Saskia S

    2017-02-21

    A number of mutilating procedures, such as dehorning in cattle and goats and beak trimming in laying hens, are common in farm animal husbandry systems in an attempt to prevent or solve problems, such as injuries from horns or feather pecking. These procedures and other practices, such as early maternal separation, overcrowding, and barren housing conditions, raise concerns about animal welfare. Efforts to ensure or improve animal welfare involve adapting the animal to its environment, i.e., by selective breeding (e.g., by selecting "robust" animals) adapting the environment to the animal (e.g., by developing social housing systems in which aggressive encounters are reduced to a minimum), or both. We propose adapting the environment to the animals by improving management practices and housing conditions, and by abandoning mutilating procedures. This approach requires the active involvement of all stakeholders: veterinarians and animal scientists, the industrial farming sector, the food processing and supply chain, and consumers of animal-derived products. Although scientific evidence about the welfare effects of current practices in farming such as mutilating procedures, management practices, and housing conditions is steadily growing, the gain in knowledge needs a boost through more scientific research. Considering the huge number of animals whose welfare is affected, all possible effort must be made to improve their welfare as quickly as possible in order to ban welfare-compromising procedures and practices as soon as possible.

  12. Implementation of the Welfare Quality broiler assessment protocol – final report : overview of outcome-based measurement of broiler welfare and a general discussion on the Welfare Quality broiler assessment protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de I.C.; Gunnink, H.; Hindle, V.A.

    2015-01-01

    In the current report, two topics related to our study on the implementation of the Welfare Quality® broiler assessment protocol are discussed. First, animal-based measures for broiler welfare, currently included in the Welfare Quality® broiler assessment protocol, are discussed with respect to

  13. Welfare Use Across Generations: How Important Are the Ties That Bind?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rank, Mark R.; Cheng, Li-Chen

    1995-01-01

    Examined extent of intergenerational welfare use, strength of the association across generations, and reasons underlying such a dynamic, utilizing nationally representative data set of American households (n=13,017). Three-quarters of welfare recipients do not grow up in households that received welfare. Parent economic background, not welfare use…

  14. 34 CFR 104.52 - Health, welfare, and other social services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Health, welfare, and other social services. 104.52... FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Health, Welfare, and Social Services § 104.52 Health, welfare, and other social services. (a) General. In providing health, welfare, or other social services or benefits, a...

  15. Welfare assessment in porcine biomedical research – Suggestion for an operational tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Lene Vammen; Dagnæs-Hansen, Frederik; Herskin, Mette S

    2011-01-01

    of the extent of welfare assessment in pigs used in biomedical research and to suggest a welfare assessment standard for research facilities based on an exposition of ethological considerations relevant for the welfare of pigs in biomedical research. The tools for porcine welfare assessment presented suggest...

  16. 45 CFR 400.112 - Child welfare services for refugee children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Child welfare services for refugee children. 400... RESETTLEMENT, ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT PROGRAM Child Welfare Services § 400.112 Child welfare services for refugee children. (a) In...

  17. A perfect storm? Welfare, care, gender and generations in Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filgueira, Fernando; Gutiérrez, Magdalena; Papadópulos, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    This article claims that welfare states modelled on a contributory basis and with a system of entitlements that assumes stable two-parent families, a traditional breadwinner model, full formal employment and a relatively young age structure are profoundly flawed in the context of present-day challenges. While this is true for affluent countries modelled on the Bismarckian type of welfare system, the costs of the status quo are even more devastating in middle-income economies with high levels of inequality. A gendered approach to welfare reform that introduces the political economy and the economy of care and unpaid work is becoming critical to confront what may very well become a perfect storm for the welfare of these nations and their peoples. Through an in-depth study of the Uruguayan case, the authors show how the decoupling of risk and protection has torn asunder the efficacy of welfare devices in the country. An ageing society that has seen a radical transformation of its family and labour market landscapes, Uruguay maintained during the 1980s and 1990s a welfare state that was essentially contributory, elderly and male-oriented, and centred on cash entitlements. This contributed to the infantilization of poverty, increased the vulnerability of women and exacerbated fiscal stress for the system as a whole. Furthermore, because of high levels of income and asset inequality, the redistribution of risk between upper- and lower-income groups presented a deeply regressive pattern. The political economy of care and welfare has begun to change in the last decade or so, bringing about mild reforms in the right direction; but these might prove to be too little and too late.

  18. Drivers of animal welfare policy in the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huertas, S M; Gallo, C; Galindo, F

    2014-04-01

    Owing to its large size and ethnic, social, cultural and economic diversity, the Americas' production volume is set to make the region one of the world's leading providers of animal foodstuffs. Animal husbandry, transport and slaughter conditions vary from country to country in response to their differing climatic and geographic characteristics. This article examines the main drivers of animal welfare in the Americas, including the standards of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), legislation, codes of practice and advances in education, training, research and development. It recognises the important roles played by all the various stakeholders in changing perceptions of animal welfare by raising public awareness and promoting communication and cooperation as drivers of overall change in the Americas. Regional and international organisations, public and private-sector bodies, academia and non-governmental organisations have launched a number of initiatives with encouraging results. In 2009, the OIE established the Chile-Uruguay Collaborating Centre for Animal Welfare Research, which is now the OIE Collaborating Centre for Animal Welfare and Livestock Production Systems and has recently incorporated Mexico. The Collaborating Centre works closely with official OIE Delegates and the Focal Points for Animal Welfare of national Veterinary Services. The OIE Regional Animal Welfare Strategy for the Americas was adopted in 2012, under the coordination of the OIE Regional Representation for the Americas, as a guide for developing future policies based on a regional approach. The way to achieve cultural change for improving animal welfare, operator safety and the sector's profitability is through training and knowledge transfer. The results demonstrate that the joint efforts of all institutions and the active role of the Collaborating Centre have been most effective, as have the continuing education programmes implemented by universities.

  19. Inter-observer reliability of animal-based welfare indicators included in the Animal Welfare Indicators welfare assessment protocol for dairy goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, A; Battini, M; Can, E; Mattiello, S; Stilwell, G

    2018-01-08

    This study was conducted within the context of the Animal Welfare Indicators (AWIN) project and the underlying scientific motivation for the development of the study was the scarcity of data regarding inter-observer reliability (IOR) of welfare indicators, particularly given the importance of reliability as a further step for developing on-farm welfare assessment protocols. The objective of this study is therefore to evaluate IOR of animal-based indicators (at group and individual-level) of the AWIN welfare assessment protocol (prototype) for dairy goats. In the design of the study, two pairs of observers, one in Portugal and another in Italy, visited 10 farms each and applied the AWIN prototype protocol. Farms in both countries were visited between January and March 2014, and all the observers received the same training before the farm visits were initiated. Data collected during farm visits, and analysed in this study, include group-level and individual-level observations. The results of our study allow us to conclude that most of the group-level indicators presented the highest IOR level ('substantial', 0.85 to 0.99) in both field studies, pointing to a usable set of animal-based welfare indicators that were therefore included in the first level of the final AWIN welfare assessment protocol for dairy goats. Inter-observer reliability of individual-level indicators was lower, but the majority of them still reached 'fair to good' (0.41 to 0.75) and 'excellent' (0.76 to 1) levels. In the paper we explore reasons for the differences found in IOR between the group and individual-level indicators, including how the number of individual-level indicators to be assessed on each animal and the restraining method may have affected the results. Furthermore, we discuss the differences found in the IOR of individual-level indicators in both countries: the Portuguese pair of observers reached a higher level of IOR, when compared with the Italian observers. We argue how the

  20. Welfare effects of a disease eradication programme for dairy goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muri, K; Leine, N; Valle, P S

    2016-02-01

    The Norwegian dairy goat industry has largely succeeded in controlling caprine arthritis encephalitis (CAE), caseous lymphadenitis (CLA) and paratuberculosis through a voluntary disease eradication programme called Healthier Goats (HG). The aim of this study was to apply an on-farm welfare assessment protocol to assess the effects of HG on goat welfare. A total of 30 dairy goat farms were visited, of which 15 had completed disease eradication and 15 had not yet started. Three trained observers assessed the welfare on 10 farms each. The welfare assessment protocol comprised both resource-based and animal-based welfare measures, including a preliminary version of qualitative behavioural assessments with five prefixed terms. A total of 20 goats in each herd were randomly selected for observations of human-animal interactions and physical health. The latter included registering abnormalities of eyes, nostrils, ears, skin, lymph nodes, joints, udder, claws and body condition score. For individual-level data, robust clustered logistic regression analyses with farm as cluster variable were conducted to assess the association with disease eradication. Wilcoxon rank-sum tests were used for comparisons of herd-level data between the two groups. Goats with swollen joints (indicative of CAE) and enlarged lymph nodes (indicative of CLA) were registered on 53% and 93% of the non-HG farms, respectively, but on none of the HG farms. The only other health variables with significantly lower levels in HG herds were skin lesions (P=0.008) and damaged ears due to torn out ear tags (PGoats on HG farms showed less fear of unknown humans (P=0.013), and the qualitative behavioural assessments indicated that the animals in these herds were calmer than in non-HG herds. Significantly more space and lower gas concentrations reflected the upgrading of buildings usually done on HG farms. In conclusion, HG has resulted in some welfare improvements beyond the elimination of infectious diseases

  1. Animal emotions, behaviour and the promotion of positive welfare states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellor, D J

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a rationale that may significantly boost the drive to promote positive welfare states in animals. The rationale is based largely, but not exclusively, on an experimentally supported neuropsychological understanding of relationships between emotions and behaviour, an understanding that has not yet been incorporated into animal welfare science thinking. Reference is made to major elements of the neural/cognitive foundations of motivational drives that energise and direct particular behaviours and their related subjective or emotional experiences. These experiences are generated in part by sensory inputs that reflect the animal's internal functional state and by neural processing linked to the animal's perception of its external circumstances. The integrated subjective or emotional outcome of these inputs corresponds to the animal's welfare status. The internally generated subjective experiences represent motivational urges or drives that are predominantly negative and include breathlessness, thirst, hunger and pain. They are generated by, and elicit specific behaviours designed to correct, imbalances in the animal's internal functional state. Externally generated subjective experiences are said to be integral to the operation of interacting 'action-orientated systems' that give rise to particular behaviours and their negative or positive emotional contents. These action-orientated systems, described in neuropsychological terms, give rise to negative emotions that include fear, anger and panic, and positive emotions that include comfort, vitality, euphoria and playfulness. It is argued that early thinking about animal welfare management focused mainly on minimising disturbances to the internal functional states that generate associated unpleasant motivational urges or drives. This strategy produced animal welfare benefits, but at best it could only lift a poor net welfare status to a neutral one. In contrast, strategies designed to manipulate the

  2. Attitudes of Australian and Turkish veterinary faculty toward animal welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izmirli, Serdar; Phillips, Clive J C

    2012-01-01

    The attitudes of veterinary faculty toward animal welfare were surveyed in four Australian and three Turkish veterinary schools. The former were considered to be typical of modern Western schools, with a faculty of more than 40% women and a primary focus on companion animals, whereas the latter were considered to represent more traditional veterinary teaching establishments, with a faculty of 88% men and a primary focus on livestock. A total of 116 faculty responded to the survey (42 Australian and 74 Turkish faculty members), for response rates of 30% and 33%, respectively. This survey included demographic questions as well as questions about attitudes toward animal-welfare issues. Women were more concerned than men about animal-welfare issues, especially the use of animals in experiments, zoos, entertainment, and sports and for food and clothing. Total scores demonstrated different concerns among Turkish and Australian faculty. The study demonstrates that the veterinary faculty of these two countries have different concerns for animal welfare, concerns that should be acknowledged in considering the welfare attitudes that students may adopt.

  3. Welfare state: Milestones of development and the current status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D A Zakharyan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the evolution of ideas about the social state as a fair state based on the concept of the social contract. L. von Stein argues that the purpose of the welfare state was not changing the class structure of society and the elimination of the contradictions between the classes, but rather balancing and minimizing conflicts with the help of property transformations allowing a person to change one’s class affiliation. The main condition for the existence of the welfare state is its policies compliance with the interests of citizens, which provides political stability and social security. The central idea of the welfare constitutional state is that the rights of citizens are guaranteed by the state. The functions of the state and its social responsibilities were transforming over time mainly due to the erosion of state, private and corporate responsibility for providing social services. In most cases, the social programs are developed by the state, but they can also be provided by commercial organizations in the “consumer society”, in which all things and services have a material value and benefit. The welfare state is based on the principle of social justice in the distribution of wealth among the population, thus, every democratic state seeks to become a welfare state, which implies a high level of confidence in the government.

  4. Solidarity in Swedish welfare--standing the test of time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmark, A

    2000-01-01

    Swedish welfare has for decades served as a role model for universalistic welfare. When the economic recession hit Swedish economy in the beginning of the 1990s, a period of more than 50 years of continuous expansion and reforms in the welfare sector came to an end. Summing up the past decade, we can see that the economic downturn enforced rationing measures in most parts of the welfare state, although most of this took place in the beginning of the decade. Today, most of the retrenchment has stopped and in some areas we can see tendencies of restoration--but more so in financial benefits than in the caring sectors. In the article this process is discussed as a process of reallocation where general principles of solidarity become manifest. Various levels of decision making are discussed within the context of socio-political action. Current transitions in Swedish health care are described with respect to coverage rates, content, marketization and distribution. Basic principles of distribution are highlighted in order to analyse the meaning of social solidarity in a concrete allocative setting. The significance of popular opinion--it's shifts and determinants--is also considered. The article concludes with a discussion of how the (once salient) features of universalism in welfare and health care provision have been affected by the developments in the past decade in Sweden.

  5. Assessment of Broiler Chicken Welfare in Southern Brazil

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    JF Federici

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Scientific literature on broiler chicken welfare in Brazilian industrial systems is scarce. This study aimed at assessing broiler chicken welfare on industrial farms in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil, using the Welfare Quality(r assessment protocol for poultry, to provide directly applicable scientific information. Results are presented as criteria scores ranging from 0 to 100, with higher scores indicating better welfare; and percentages of prevalence. The scores classified as excellent (above 80 were absence of prolonged thirst, absence of prolonged hunger, litter quality, breast blister and touch test. Enhanced scores (between 55 and 80 were comfort around resting, plumage cleanliness and dust sheet test. Acceptable scores (between 20 and 55 were thermal comfort, stocking density, absence of injuries, footpad dermatitis and hock burn; and unacceptable scores (below 20 were lameness and qualitative behavioral assessment. The median percentage of mortality and culled birds were 5.2% and 0.6%, respectively. This study provides useful information to select priorities of action on assessed farms and may contribute for setting up legal standards and guiding decisions related to animal welfare issues in Brazil.

  6. Work or welfare after cancer? Explorations of identity and stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffatt, Suzanne; Noble, Emma

    2015-11-01

    With increasing numbers of people living with cancer, a greater focus is required on the social consequences of the disease. This article explores the connections between cancer and employment and the constraints imposed by ill health and wider structural conditions. Narrative data from 23 people of working age with cancer in north-east England collected longitudinally over 16 months highlight the impact of financial strain caused by temporary or permanent interruption to employment, and the positive benefits of an upstream welfare rights intervention in enabling participants to claim benefit entitlements and boost incomes. Returning to work, for those who were able, helped repair the disruption caused by the illness. For those unable to work, reliance on welfare benefits, while necessary, conferred a stigmatised identity that compounded the disruption wrought by cancer. While stigma occurs at the individual level, the structural dimensions of stigma need to be acknowledged in order to analyse the forces that cause, maintain and perpetuate the stigma associated with claiming welfare while ill. We conclude that current UK policies and welfare reforms to reduce sickness-related welfare claims will lead to greater hardship during periods of ill health and increase inequalities. © 2015 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness.

  7. Perceptions of Social Responsibility of Prominent Animal Welfare Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widmar, Nicole J Olynk; Morgan, Carissa J; Croney, Candace C

    2018-01-01

    Nonhuman animal welfare is an increasingly important component of consumer expectations of corporate social responsibility (CSR). The extent to which prominent animal welfare or protection organizations may influence people's perceptions of food industry CSR may be related to an organization's perceived social responsibility. Data from an online survey of 300 U.S. residents were used to explore relationships between demographics/lifestyle choices and perceptions of prominent animal welfare organizations (using best-worst scaling methodology). Overall, the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals was perceived to be the most socially responsible organization analyzed, followed by the Humane Society of the United States and the American Humane Association (AHA). Results suggest that the perceived social responsibility of animal protection organizations in this study was not strongly linked to personally (financially) supporting them, with 2 exceptions: the perceptions of People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals and AHA. Improved understanding of the perception of animal welfare or protection organizations can inform decision making by organizations interested in furthering animal welfare causes.

  8. [German poultry farming between animal welfare and global market].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erhard, Michael; Damme, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    Despite the positive tendencies concerning sales output in the poultry production, the margins per single animal are extremely low. This circumstance leads inevitably to an increasing number of animals per farm. Also the German egg production is currently confronted with a great challenge due to changes of the legislation of animal welfare in animal farming (German Tierschutz-Nutztierhaltungs-Verordnung), the EU-zoonosis-regulation (2160/2003) and because of the avian influenza difficulties. In addition, the globalization has tightened the competitive conditions during production. Therefore, innovation potential and specialization are mandatory premises for the continuity within a free market economy. In all farming systems there has to be made a consideration between animal welfare, economy and ecology, whereas, based on animal welfare, the "ethical limit" has the utmost importance. It has to be accounted for the concept of fulfilment of demand and prevention of harm. The success of agricultural animal farming depends, last but not least, on a good and robust state of health of the live stock. The German consumer will have to accept that a high quality and high welfare poultry product will have their price, even in the global market. The sale orientation on non-European production methods is not acceptable under the aspect of animal welfare.

  9. Child welfare worker characteristics and job satisfaction: a national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Richard P; Lloyd, E Christopher; Christ, Sharon L; Chapman, Mimi V; Dickinson, Nancy S

    2008-07-01

    The education, recruitment, training, and retention of a quality child welfare workforce is critical to the successful implementation of public policy and programs for the nation's most vulnerable children. Yet, national information about child welfare workers has never been collected. The National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being is a study of children who are investigated for child maltreatment that also offers information about the child welfare workers (unweighted N = 1,729) who serve them in 36 states and 92 counties. These cases represent the national population of child welfare workers, estimated at more than 50,000, serving children approximately 12 months after a case was opened. Child welfare workers having any graduate or social work degree in a nonurban setting were more satisfied than their peers. Regression results indicate that worker satisfaction is associated with quality of supervision and urban setting but does not have a clearly independent relationship with having a degree in social work. Practice implications are discussed.

  10. Welfare issues of horses: an overview and practical recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Canali

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The largest proportion of the world’s horses are still used for work in agriculture and traction, however in the western countries they are increasingly kept for recreational and social purposes, breeding, sport and competition. It is often assumed that horses enjoys better farming conditions than other species, yet they have specific needs which should be fulfilled in order to have a proper welfare. This paper will review the main welfare issues of horses and the following aspects will be considered: nutrition, housing and management, clinical problems, behaviour problems, training and riding, transportation, measuring welfare. Horses are social animals that live in groups in close contact with conspecifics. They spend most of their waking hours moving at walk, grazing and eating grass. Some of the constraints imposed on horses during the last centuries conflict to their naturally evolved behaviour. Effective and humane handling of horses positively affects many important aspects like the safety of man, the performance level and the welfare of horses. It is an essential condition for keeping horses that handlers, riders, trainers, farriers and veterinarians have proper knowledge of the behaviour of the horse in order to fulfil their natural needs and guarantee their welfare.

  11. Welfare State Transformations and Inequality in OECD Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    Editors: Melike Wulfgramm, Tonia Bieber & Stephan Leibfried This book analyzes how recent welfare state transformations across advanced democracies have shaped social and economic disparities. The authors observe a trend from a compensatory paradigm towards supply oriented social policy, and inve......Editors: Melike Wulfgramm, Tonia Bieber & Stephan Leibfried This book analyzes how recent welfare state transformations across advanced democracies have shaped social and economic disparities. The authors observe a trend from a compensatory paradigm towards supply oriented social policy...... supply orientation in most social policy fields has further contributed to social inequality. The authors work from sociological and political science perspectives, examining all of the main branches of the welfare state, from health, education and tax policy, to labour market, pension and migration...

  12. Next Generations of Road Pricing: Social Welfare Enhancing

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    Omid M. Rouhani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers a broad overview of road pricing from a social welfare perspective. I first examine two common objectives of road pricing: congestion management and profit making. My goal is to provide a guideline explaining how to promote a social-welfare-enhancing road pricing scheme. To this end, we should: (i consider and improve public transportation systems by providing more environment-friendly transport options; (ii include tolling profits in our welfare analysis (as opposed to what economists suggest since residents are the real owners of roads not users, and since some users are from outside the region and so might not be excluded from analysis; and (iii search for a holistic approach that takes into account system-wide impacts, disutility to users who change their travel behavior (i.e., switch to public transportation, shift their travel, or do not travel at all, and the impacts on land use, employment, and residents.

  13. Welfare State and globalisation of the economic area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José João ABRANTES

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A “welfare State” is a concept of government in which the state plays a key role in the protection and promotion of the economic and social well-being of its citizens. It is based on the principles of equality of opportunity, equitable distribution of wealth, and public responsibility for those unable to avail themselves of the minimal provisions for a good life. The general term may cover a variety of forms of economic and social organization. This article examines the concept of welfare state in the context of legislation adopted in recent years in Portugal that wants to "provide greater flexibility" of the labour market. This article discusses the crisis and the future of the Social State that is also, according to my view, an act of citizenship, a way of expressing our concern with the actual status of the welfare State.

  14. Trade, Transparency, and Welfare in the Asia Pacific

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    Kazutomo Abe

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the impact of reducing corruption and improving transparency to lower trade costs in the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation region. The authors find, based on a computable general equilibrium model, significant potential trade and welfare gains for Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation members, with increased transparency and lower levels of corruption. Results suggest that trade in the region would increase by 11 percent and global welfare would expand by USD 406 billion by raising transparency to the average in the region. Most of the increase in welfare would take place in member economies undertaking reform. Among the reformers, the gross domestic product (GDP of Vietnam, Thailand, Russia, and the Philippines would increase by approximately 20 percent. The benefits to Malaysia and China would also be substantial with increased transparency and lower levels of corruption.

  15. Eastern migrations vs western welfare states - (unbiased fears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josifidis Kosta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This inquiry considers some effects of migration on the labour markets and the welfare systems found in the EU-15, and from the perspectives of sustainability of the current welfare state regimes. Our inquiry aims to determine whether and to what extent different approaches in regulation of migration flows between the new and old member states are compatible with related economic and demographic findings. Within this context, our research considers regulations affecting migration flows. Our findings suggest that some effects of migration from the EU8+2 on the labour markets and social protection systems found in the EU-15, both with respect to level and structure, do indeed generate effects on migration, especially considering whether migration is based upon economic or welfare decisions. In addition, our inquiry considers perspectives upon restrictive versus liberal migration policies.

  16. Privatization and Optimum-Welfare in an International Cournot Duopoly

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    Fernanda A. Ferreira

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we will analyse the relationship between privatization of a public firm and tax revenue for the domestic government in an international competition, with import tariffs. We consider a duopoly model where a domestic public firmand a foreign private firmcompete in the domesticmarket, asCournot players. Furthermore, the domestic government imposes a tariff to regulate an imported good, and may have a higher preference for tariff revenue than for social welfare. We compute the outputs at equilibrium and we show that privatization (i will increase the profits of both domestic and foreign firms; (ii will increase the tariff imposed to the imported good; and (iii will decrease the domestic welfare. Furthermore, we demonstrate that a rise in the government’s preference for tariff revenues raises the social welfare in both mixed and private models.

  17. DIFFERENTIATION OF WELFARE OF RURAL HOUSEHOLDS IN POLAND IN 2012

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    Krystyna Hanusik

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the research in focus was the material welfare of households. In particular, there were analysed the level and differentiation of the welfare of rural households in 2012, after more than twenty years of developing of market economy in Poland. In addition, there was examined the relationship between income, consumer spending and household equipment and the level and differentiation of measures of the welfare distinguished by the criterion of the main sources of income of households groups. In the study both econometrical and statistical analysis was used. The study was based on primarily source of information coming from the panel study of household budgets conducted by the Central Statistical Office, as well as the data contained in the statistical yearbooks of the Republic of Poland.

  18. Welfare assessment in transgenic pigs expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huber, Reinhard C.; Remuge, Liliana; Carlisle, Ailsa

    2012-01-01

    Since large animal transgenesis has been successfully attempted for the first time about 25 years ago, the technology has been applied in various lines of transgenic pigs. Nevertheless one of the concerns with the technology—animal welfare—has not been approached through systematic assessment...... and statements regarding the welfare of transgenic pigs have been based on anecdotal observations during early stages of transgenic programs. The main aim of the present study was therefore to perform an extensive welfare assessment comparing heterozygous transgenic animals expressing GFP with wildtype animals...... months. The absence of significant differences between GFP and wildtype animals in the parameters observed suggests that the transgenic animals in question are unlikely to suffer from deleterious effects of transgene expression on their welfare and thus support existing anecdotal observations of pigs...

  19. The interaction of ethical questions and farm animal welfare science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; Forkman, Björn; Jensen, Karsten Klint

    2012-01-01

    , following debates starting in the early 1990s, it is now widely recognised that scientific assessments of animal welfare simply cannot avoid making ethical assumptions. Using simple but realistic examples, the presentation will explain how ethical assumptions inform the study and assessment of animal...... states (pain and enjoyment or pleasure)? Perhaps we should try to assess preference satisfaction, or the extent to which the animal lives in a natural way. By choosing a specific definition of animal welfare the researcher will be taking a stance on what matters in our dealings with animals. Secondly....... Would such a narrow focus miss something of ethical importance? Thirdly, ethical assumptions are hugely important when researchers aggregate their results in an effort to say something about the net welfare of a group of animals. Here decisions have to be taken as to how different aspects of animal...

  20. Religious slaughter and animal welfare: data from an online consultation

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    C. Baldinelli

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Two are the main results of the online survey, which was conducted with the purpose to examine the purchase behavior of a group of consumers and their views on animal welfare and religious slaughter. First result is the respondents’ great interest about the question on animal welfare, which is in accordance with the growing interest of European citizens about this issue. Second is the demand for a more transparent labeling of animal products, which would be also concerning animal welfare and slaughter method used. These results are in conflict with marketing analysis, which find that consumers want to receive only positive information. Paradoxically, the more information is transmitted to reassure consumers the higher risk to alarm them.

  1. How can economists help to improve animal welfare?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tove; Lawrence, A.; Lund, Mogens

    2012-01-01

    To-date, the dominant approach to improving farm animal welfare has consisted of a combination of voluntary improvements undertaken by farmers and the tightening of legal requirements. However, history suggests that there is a limit to the improvements capable of being secured by this approach...... priorities as to which aspects of animal welfare should be promoted. Here, economic approaches can be used to capture and synthesise the perspectives of all the stakeholders, including the animals, in a transparent and systematic way. The second way is by helping to ensure that incentives are set up...... in the right way. Where the benefits and costs of improving animal welfare are initially distributed unevenly across stakeholders so that a socially desirable situation will not develop automatically, or be implemented, suitable economic principles may help to create incentives which correct this situation...

  2. The moral economy of austerity: analysing UK welfare reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Lydia

    2016-03-01

    This paper notes the contemporary emergence of 'morality' in both sociological argument and political rhetoric, and analyses its significance in relation to ongoing UK welfare reforms. It revisits the idea of 'moral economy' and identifies two strands in its contemporary application; that all economies depend on an internal moral schema, and that some external moral evaluation is desirable. UK welfare reform is analysed as an example of the former, with reference to three distinct orientations advanced in the work of Freeden (1996), Laclau (2014), and Lockwood (1996). In this light, the paper then considers challenges to the reform agenda, drawn from third sector and other public sources. It outlines the forms of argument present in these challenges, based respectively on rationality, legality, and morality, which together provide a basis for evaluation of the welfare reforms and for an alternative 'moral economy'. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2016.

  3. Policing Norwegian Welfare: Disciplining and Differentiating within the Bottom Rungs

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    Erika K. Gubrium

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Policing is a disciplining means for using welfare services to govern welfare recipients towards a desired behaviour or goal. We apply Foucault’s (1977 definition of institutional discipline as a means for exploring how the distinctions made by state and local welfare authorities in Norway when policing recipients may take shape according to normative perceptions of ethnicity and deservingness. More particularly, we explore the regulating understandings and activities linked to the inclusion and exclusion of eligibility to welfare benefits and services and the form of the services offered. Our focus lies at the point of entry from the lowest tier of Norwegian welfare benefits (social assistance into two semi-parallel and higher tiers promising more (higher benefits, better services. The tiers are represented by programmes that share aims, yet differ in reach: the 2004 Introduction Programme and the 2007 Qualification Programme. The Introduction Programme is an activation programme targeted at immigrants and refugees newly arrived to Norway. Its aim is to strengthen opportunities to participate in society and labour market, as well as to promote economic independence. The Qualification Programme is an activation programme that was explicitly modelled after the Introduction Programme, yet whose target group reaches more broadly to include long-term recipients of social assistance and those whose work ability is severely lowered. While both programmes have been premised on the need to transform participants from a status of passive welfare benefit recipients to active participants in qualifying measures and society, the target groups vary and it is this contrast that is our point of focus. We contrast the two policies at two ‘moments’ in the policy cycle: (1 policy framing (public and policymaker understandings/assumptions concerning the target group, the location of accountability for the marginal position of the policy recipient and the

  4. ADVANCES IN ANIMAL WELFARE FOR FREE-LIVING ANIMALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Over several decades, animal welfare has grown into its own free-standing field of scientific study, from its early beginnings in laboratory animal research to eventually include exhibited animals and farm animals. While it has always been present to some degree, consideration of animal welfare for free-ranging animals has lagged behind, developing as a field of study in the last 20 yr or so. Part of that increase was that animal welfare legislation was finally applied to studies being done on free-ranging animals. But it is the appreciation by the biologists and veterinarians working on wild animals, in which the quality of their results is largely controlled by the quality of the animals they use in their studies, which has resulted in increased attention to the well-being or welfare of the animals that they use. Other important influences driving the recognition of wildlife welfare have been changes in the public's expectations of how wild animals are dealt with, a shift in focus of wildlife professionals from managing animals that can be hunted or angled to include nongame species, the decrease in participation in hunting and fishing by members of the public, and the entry of large numbers of women into fish and wildlife agencies and departments and into veterinary medicine. Technical improvements have allowed the safe capture and handling of large or dangerous animals as immobilization drugs and equipment have been developed. The increasing use of sedating drugs allows for handling of animals with reduced stress and other impacts. A number of topics, such as toe-clipping, branding, defining which taxa can or cannot feel pain, catch-and-release fishing, and more, remain controversial within wildlife science. How we treat the wild animals that we deal with defines who we are as wildlife professionals, and animal welfare concerns and techniques for free-ranging animals will continue to develop and evolve.

  5. Meat liking, animal welfare and consumer willingness to pay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Napolitano

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Three products (beef, lamb and chicken were used to assess the effect of information about animal welfare on meat liking. Each experiment was planned in three tests. In the first test the consumers were offered the product, and asked to taste it and rate their liking receiving no information (perceived liking. In the second test the subjects received the information concerning farming conditions and their effects on animal welfare. They were asked to read the information and give their liking expectation for that product (expected liking. In the third test consumers were given the product along with the information sheet. They were instructed to read the information before tasting the sample and express their liking score (actual liking. Consumers rated the products on a nine-point hedonic scale. Only for beef, a second-price sealed-bid auction was used to assess consumer willingness to pay (WTP according to the level of welfare of the animals used in the production process. Results from the three experiments showed that expectations induced by the information on animal welfare affected quality perception. Thus, if expectations were negatively disconfirmed (the product was worse than expected, the assimilation model was generally applicable, which means that hedonic ratings moved towards the expectations when external information on animal welfare was given compared to tasting without information. In addition, consumers showed a WTP for beef paired with information higher than its actual commercial value (P<0.001. In conclusion, information about animal welfare can be a major determinant of animal-based food liking and consumer WTP.

  6. Main causes of poor welfare in intensively reared dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Abeni

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review is to summarise the main causes of poor welfare in intensively reared dairy cows. Intensive farming systems are considered, both from a structural and a managerial point of view, for their constraints that may limit animal welfare: possible physical activity; acceptable interactions with humans and other animals; feeding and watering, protection from climate, parasites, and diseases. The dairy farms managed according to the organic rules do not always guarantee, per se, better welfare conditions; organic or low input dairy farming needs to consider the right interaction among cattle breed and herd management, focusing on the actual quality of feedstuffs meet face cow requirements. The considered structural aspects evidence how special care must be given to the rest area (straw yard or cubicle; to the floors that should be not too hard or abrasive and not slippery; to the cubicle bedding material to ensure hygiene, softness, and dryness; to the feeding (and watering area to reduce conflicts; to a microclimate control system, to avoid heat stress during summer time. The importance of proper management for animal welfare is evidenced for buildings and equipment, to have clean and comfortable stables and well functioning milking machines; nutritive and storage quality of feeds; diet suitability (energy, protein, physically efficient fibre, buffers etc., in the different phases of a dairy cow’s life (dry period, close-up, transition, and lactation; feed distribution (frequency and time, and 24h availability. Special attention has to be paid to the social aspects, regarding both animal competition (stocking density, group size, and human/animal interactions (methods of management and manipulation. The interaction between welfare and health requires special attention. Poor welfare can cause immune depression, thus increasing the risk of disease. In turn, any disease that causes an inflammatory response may determine depression

  7. Interobserver reliability of the 'Welfare Quality(®) Animal Welfare Assessment Protocol for Growing Pigs'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czycholl, I; Kniese, C; Büttner, K; Beilage, E Grosse; Schrader, L; Krieter, J

    2016-01-01

    The present paper focuses on evaluating the interobserver reliability of the 'Welfare Quality(®) Animal Welfare Assessment Protocol for Growing Pigs'. The protocol for growing pigs mainly consists of a Qualitative Behaviour Assessment (QBA), direct behaviour observations (BO) carried out by instantaneous scan sampling and checks for different individual parameters (IP), e.g. presence of tail biting, wounds and bursitis. Three trained observers collected the data by performing 29 combined assessments, which were done at the same time and on the same animals; but they were carried out completely independent of each other. The findings were compared by the calculation of Spearman Rank Correlation Coefficients (RS), Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICC), Smallest Detectable Changes (SDC) and Limits of Agreements (LoA). There was no agreement found concerning the adjectives belonging to the QBA (e.g. active: RS: 0.50, ICC: 0.30, SDC: 0.38, LoA: -0.05 to 0.45; fearful: RS: 0.06, ICC: 0.0, SDC: 0.26, LoA: -0.20 to 0.30). In contrast, the BO showed good agreement (e.g. social behaviour: RS: 0.45, ICC: 0.50, SDC: 0.09, LoA: -0.09 to 0.03 use of enrichment material: RS: 0.75, ICC: 0.68, SDC: 0.06, LoA: -0.03 to 0.03). Overall, observers agreed well in the IP, e.g. tail biting (RS: 0.52, ICC: 0.88; SDC: 0.05, LoA: -0.01 to 0.02) and wounds (RS: 0.43, ICC: 0.59, SDC: 0.10, LoA: -0.09 to 0.10). The parameter bursitis showed great differences (RS: 0.10, ICC: 0.0, SDC: 0.35, LoA: -0.37 to 0.40), which can be explained by difficulties in the assessment when the animals moved around quickly or their legs were soiled. In conclusion, the interobserver reliability was good in the BO and most IP, but not for the parameter bursitis and the QBA.

  8. The Impact of Lameness on Welfare of the Dairy Cow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whay, Helen Rebecca; Shearer, J K

    2017-07-01

    The five freedoms offer a framework for discussion of lameness and its impact on the welfare of cows. Altered feeding behavior is a cause of reduced body condition, smaller digital cushion, and lameness. Providing a comfortable environment is critical to recovery and welfare. Pain associated with injury or disease of feet or legs is manifested by lameness. Pain management is an important part of therapy. In cases of severe lameness, euthanasia may be preferred. Lameness interferes with an animal's ability to exhibit natural behaviors by altering lying time, social interaction, ovarian activity and estrus intensity, and rumination behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Consumer perception of animal welfare and the effect of information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørkbak, Morten Raun; Nordström, Jonas

    The motivation for the present study is to understand food choice in relation to animal welfare, and how choices and preferences are influenced by expert information. The focus is on the attribute "animal welfare", which is represented by the method of producing chicken (indoor and outdoor...... production). To accomplish the analysis we have carried out a choice experiment. The results indicate that men have a significantly lower willingness to pay (WTP) for outdoor produced chicken than women, and that highly educated people have the highest WTP for outdoor produced chicken. Furthermore...

  10. Health insurance theory: the case of the missing welfare gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyman, John A

    2008-11-01

    An important source of value is missing from the conventional welfare analysis of moral hazard, namely, the effect of income transfers (from those who purchase insurance and remain healthy to those who become ill) on purchases of medical care. Income transfers are contained within the price reduction that is associated with standard health insurance. However, in contrast to the income effects contained within an exogenous price decrease, these income transfers act to shift out the demand for medical care. As a result, the consumer's willingness to pay for medical care increases and the resulting additional consumption is welfare increasing.

  11. Baumol's Cost Disease and the Sustainability of the Welfare State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben M.; Kreiner, Claus T.

    2017-01-01

    If productivity increases more slowly for services than for manufactured goods, then services suffer from Baumol's cost disease and tend to become relatively more costly over time. Since the welfare state in all countries is an important supplier of tax financed services, this translates into a f......If productivity increases more slowly for services than for manufactured goods, then services suffer from Baumol's cost disease and tend to become relatively more costly over time. Since the welfare state in all countries is an important supplier of tax financed services, this translates...

  12. Direct and indirect welfare chauvinism as party strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Careja, Romana; Elmelund-Præstekær, Christian; Klitgaard, Michael Baggesen

    2016-01-01

    welfare chauvinism occurs as a result of legislative changes that explicitly exclude recipients from social protection or reduce the level thereof on the basis of ethnicity. Indirect welfare chauvinism is the result of policy measures that apply to both natives and immigrants, but which deliberately...... and deliberate policy-making strategies of the party. It shows that the distinction between direct and indirect chauvinism is a useful theoretical tool for understanding how the Danish People's Party can fulfill the expectations of both its electorate and its coalition partners, even if they point in different...

  13. Influence of Professional Affiliation on Expert's View on Welfare Measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam Otten, Nina; Rousing, Tine; Forkman, Björn

    2017-01-01

    are not balanced in numbers of experts. At two time points (2012 and 2016), dairy cattle and swine experts from four different stakeholder groups, namely researchers (RES), production advisors (CONS), practicing veterinarians (VET) and animal welfare control officers (AWC) were asked to weigh eight different...... between expert groups among swine experts. Inter-expert differences were more pronounced for both species. The results highlight the challenges of using expert weightings in aggregated welfare assessment models, as the choice of expert affiliation may play a confounding role in the final aggregation due...

  14. Welfare impacts of electricity generation sector reform in the Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toba, Natsuko

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports an empirical investigation into the welfare impacts of the introduction of private sector participation into the Philippines electricity generation sector, by liberalizing the market for independent power producers (IPPs) during the power crisis of 1990-1993. This study uses a social cost and benefit analysis. The main benefits came from IPPs, who contributed to resolving the crisis, and promoted economic and social development. Consumers and investors were net gainers, while the government lost and there was an air pollution cost. The paper concludes that the reform with private sector participation increased social welfare

  15. Mapping farm animal welfare research in an enlarged Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirchner, Marlene K.; Košťál, Ľubor; Bilčík, Boris

    2017-01-01

    Against the background of divergent political developments across Europe, farm animal welfare (FAW) science has evolved during the last three decades as an inter-disciplinary research area. Recent achievements include pan-European research projects and the implementation of animal welfare...... on questionnaires sent out to a wide researcher network in regions of an enlarged Europe, we found differences with regard to ‘input factors’ such as human resources, animal and laboratory facilities and national and international research funding and ‘output factors’ such as inter/national collaboration...

  16. Bologna e il Welfare locale, appunti per una storia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Troilo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Ancora oggi il welfare locale continua ad essere un tema chiave in una città tra le più sviluppate in Italia e con tradizioni politiche radicate. In questo articolo si pone l’attenzione sull’amministrazione di Bologna e sulla classe politica che l’ha governata in maniera quasi ininterrotta dal dopoguerra. Si analizzeranno in maniera sintetica le politiche messe in atto e il dibattito interno ai partiti di sinistra sulla necessità di mantenere, rinforzare o limitare le politiche del welfare cittadino.

  17. Uno aguardo di genere sul concetto di "welfare"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siim, Birte; Borchorst, Anette

    2009-01-01

    to community, care and recognition,"being", which refers to identity building. These classic dimesnions of welfare have different meanings for women and men, because they relate differently to the family, the state and the market. Rethinking the gendered processes of welfare in a post-industrial, knowledge......-based society calls for adding two new dimensions: doing, which refers to the relation between paid and unpaid work,and deciding, which refers to the ability to have a say in your own life and influence political decisions. These dimensions are illustrated by four key debates in international gender research...

  18. The Digitisation of Welfare – a Strategy towards improving Citizens’ Self-care and Co-management of Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thualagant, Nicole; From, Ditte-Marie

    2018-01-01

    (SKAD) analysis, this chapter scrutinizes central documents on the strategy of digital welfare. Our exploration provides a critical insight in the current digitisation of health care by illustrating how new virtues of citizenship are demanded in the digital era in relation to digital health......Government strategy of Digital Welfare 2016-2020 in regards to health and discusses how this strategy encourages self-measurement and self-improvement through discourses of improvement at both state and citizen levels. By illustrating how performativity is embedded in current conceptions of health, this chapter...... emphasize how strategies of digitisation lean on a bio-citizenship where individuals with poor health capacities become depended, not on a supporting welfare system, but paradoxically on own self-management skills in order to receive health services. Based on the sociology of knowledge approach to discourse...

  19. Preface to "Should animal welfare be law or market driven?"

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Bioethics Symposium, entitled “Should animal welfare be law or market driven?” was held at the joint annual meeting of the American Dairy Science Association, American Society of Animal Science, Poultry Science Association, Asociación Mexicana de Producción Animal, and Canadian Society of Animal...

  20. Facilitating Attitudinal Learning in an Animal Behaviour and Welfare MOOC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Sunnie Lee

    2017-01-01

    This case study examines the design and facilitation of a Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) that focused on attitudinal learning about the topic of animal behaviour and welfare. Findings showed that a team of instructors worked together collaboratively towards realising learning goals and found the experience rewarding. While learners had mixed…

  1. Social Networks and Welfare in Future Animal Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koene, Paul; Ipema, Bert

    2014-03-17

    It may become advantageous to keep human-managed animals in the social network groups to which they have adapted. Data concerning the social networks of farm animal species and their ancestors are scarce but essential to establishing the importance of a natural social network for farmed animal species. Social Network Analysis (SNA) facilitates the characterization of social networking at group, subgroup and individual levels. SNA is currently used for modeling the social behavior and management of wild animals and social welfare of zoo animals. It has been recognized for use with farm animals but has yet to be applied for management purposes. Currently, the main focus is on cattle, because in large groups (poultry), recording of individuals is expensive and the existence of social networks is uncertain due to on-farm restrictions. However, in many cases, a stable social network might be important to individual animal fitness, survival and welfare. For instance, when laying hens are not too densely housed, simple networks may be established. We describe here small social networks in horses, brown bears, laying hens and veal calves to illustrate the importance of measuring social networks among animals managed by humans. Emphasis is placed on the automatic measurement of identity, location, nearest neighbors and nearest neighbor distance for management purposes. It is concluded that social networks are important to the welfare of human-managed animal species and that welfare management based on automatic recordings will become available in the near future.

  2. Welfare and Work: Complementary Strategies for Low-Income Women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Judith R.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeane; Klebanov, Pamela K.; Lee, Kyunghee

    2000-01-01

    Examines the effects of mothers' strategies of combining employment and welfare receipt during the first three years of their child's life on the child's cognitive development, behavior problems, and home learning environment at ages five and six. No negative association was found on most child outcomes with a mother's employment whether or not it…

  3. Internet use, welfare and well-being : Evidence from Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    James, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    Traditional consumer theory assumes that welfare is derived at the point where goods are purchased. More recent theories however argue that what matters is dependent on what happens after goods are purchased. Such information requires surveys that are specifically designed for the purpose.

  4. Feeding broiler breeder flocks in relation to bird welfare aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de I.C.; Krimpen, van M.M.

    2011-01-01

    To ensure health and reproductive capacity of the birds, broiler breeders are fed restricted during the rearing period, and to a lesser extent also during the production period. Although restricted feeding improves health and thereby bird welfare, on the other hand the birds are chronically hungry

  5. Impact of nutrition on welfare aspects of broiler breeder flocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krimpen, van M.M.; Jong, de I.C.

    2014-01-01

    To ensure health and reproductive performance, broiler breeders are feed restricted during the rearing period and, to a lesser extent, during the production period. Although restricted feeding improves health and bird welfare, on the other hand the birds are chronically hungry and suffer from

  6. Burnout: Its Impact on Child Welfare Workers and Their Spouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaratne, Srinika; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Female child welfare workers and their husbands participated in a study of burnout and the effects of work stress on family relations. Results indicated that greater feelings of burnout in the workers were associated with their depression, anxiety, and irritableness. These individuals were also likely to report lower marital satisfaction.…

  7. Breeding for Welfare in outdoor pig production : simulation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gourdine, J.L.; Greef, de K.H.; Rydhmer, L.

    2010-01-01

    Despite the societal and market attention, to our knowledge, there is no breeding program for outdoor pig production in which improvement in animal welfare is emphasized. In this study, a dam-line selected for an outdoor production system was simulated. The purpose was to investigate the

  8. Welfare Reform in the Nordic Countries in the 1990s

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Jon

    This article uses a new method for policy analysis, fuzzy-set theory, which is a framework that allows for a precise operationalization of theoretical concepts. fuzzy-set theory is used to asses the conformity of the Nordic countries to a pre-conceptualized ideal-typical nordic welfare model...

  9. Restricted and Unrestricted Dominance for Welfare, Inequality and Poverty Ordenings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duclos, J.-Y.; Makdissi, P.

    2004-01-01

    This paper extends the previous literature on the ethical links between the measurement of poverty, social welfare and inequality. We show inter alia, how, when the range of possible poverty lines is unbounded above, a robust ranking of absolute poverty may be interpreted as a robust ranking of

  10. Chilean consumers' perception about animal welfare in dairy production systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vargas-Bello-Pérez, Einar; Riveros, José Luis; Köbrich, Claus

    2017-01-01

    production systems and animal welfare, and the main aspects they considered when buying dairy products. A face-to-face interview was conducted on a sample of 501 persons from the Province of Santiago, Chile. The survey was conducted in major supermarkets from 15 different municipalities of Santiago...

  11. Cognitive bias test as a tool for accessing fish welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Wojtas

    2015-12-01

    Difference in behaviour during the cognitive bias test suggests that fish cognitive bias can be affected by living conditions. Therefore this type of test should be taken to consideration as a tool in further fish welfare studies. It can be especially useful in studies concerning influence of living conditions that cannot be examined in direct way for example by preference test.

  12. The aggregation of climate change damages. A welfare theoretic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fankhauser, S.; Pearce, D.W.; Tol, R.S.J.

    1997-01-01

    The economic value of environmental goods is commonly determined using the concepts of willingness to pay (WTP) or willingness to accept (WTA). However, the WTP/WTA observed in different countries (or between individuals) will differ according to socio-economic characteristics, in particular income. This notion of differentiated values for otherwise identical goods (say, a given reduction in mortality risk) has been criticized as unethical, most recently in the context of the 'social cost' chapter of the IPCC Second Assessment Report. These critics argue that, being a function of income, WTP/WTA estimates reflect the unfairness in the current income distribution, and for equity reasons uniform per-unit values should therefore be applied across individuals and countries. This paper analyses the role of equity in the aggregation of climate change damage estimates, using basic tools of welfare economics. It shows one way of how WTP/WTA estimates can be corrected in aggregation if the underlying income distribution is considered unfair. It proposes that in the aggregation process individual estimates be weighted with an equity factor derived from the social welfare and utility functions. Equity weighting can significantly increase aggregate (global) damage figures, although some specifications of weighting functions also imply reduced estimates. The paper also shows that while the postulate of uniform per-unit values is compatible with a wide range of 'reasonable' utility and welfare specifications, there are also cases where the common-value notion is not compatible with defensible welfare concepts. 3 tabs., 32 refs

  13. Trust, Social Capital and the Scandinavian Welfare State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    personality is characterized both by cooperation in everyday life and the numerous ‘hard-riders’ who make extraordinary contributions. Applying Bourdieuconomics, the authors focus on contemporary case studies to explain how social capital and trust are used to counteract free-riding and enable the flight...... of the Scandinavian welfare state ‘bumblebee’....

  14. Politics, welfare regimes, and population health: controversies and evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntaner, Carles; Borrell, Carme; Ng, Edwin; Chung, Haejoo; Espelt, Albert; Rodriguez-Sanz, Maica; Benach, Joan; O'Campo, Patricia

    2011-09-01

    In recent years, a research area has emerged within social determinants of health that examines the role of politics, expressed as political traditions/parties and welfare state characteristics, on population health. To better understand and synthesise this growing body of evidence, the present literature review, informed by a political economy of health and welfare regimes framework, located 73 empirical and comparative studies on politics and health, meeting our inclusion criteria in three databases: PubMed (1948-), Sociological Abstracts (1953-), and ISI Web of Science (1900-). We identified two major research programmes, welfare regimes and democracy, and two emerging programmes, political tradition and globalisation. Primary findings include: (1) left and egalitarian political traditions on population health are the most salutary, consistent, and substantial; (2) the health impacts of advanced and liberal democracies are also positive and large; (3) welfare regime studies, primarily conducted among wealthy countries, find that social democratic regimes tend to fare best with absolute health outcomes yet consistently in terms of relative health inequalities; and (4) globalisation defined as dependency indicators such as trade, foreign investment, and national debt is negatively associated with population health. We end by discussing epistemological, theoretical, and methodological issues for consideration for future research. © 2011 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2011 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. An Overview of Animal Welfare Issues in Kenya | Mogoa | Kenya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An animal\\'s welfare is compromised if it does not enjoy the five fundamental freedoms, namely: freedom from hunger or thirst; freedom from thermal or physical discomfort; freedom from pain, injury and disease; freedom from fear and distress and; freedom to indulge in normal behavior patterns. In recent times, animal ...

  16. The Second Fundamental Theorem of Welfare Economics: A Pedagogical Note

    OpenAIRE

    Parrinello Sergio

    1998-01-01

    The author extends the criticism that W. Bryant (1994) levelled against the usual treatment given to the Second Fundamental Theorem of Welfare Economics in many microeconomics textbooks and economic journal literature. He argues that the omission of basic caveats makes the usual interpretation misleading and an obstacle to better economic education.

  17. Default options and social welfare : Opt in versus opt out

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouckaert, J.M.C.; Degryse, H.A.

    2013-01-01

    We offer a social-welfare comparison of the two most prominent default options – opt in and opt out – using a two-period model of localized competition. We demonstrate that when consumers stick to the default option, the prevailing default policy shapes firms' ability to collect and use customer

  18. Introduction: welfare state reform, recognition and emotional labour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tonkens, E.; Grootegoed, E.; Duyvendak, J.W.

    2013-01-01

    Welfare state retrenchment and its corollary, the encouragement of ‘active citizenship’, are widespread phenomena in Western countries today. While public and academic debates have focused on the practical consequences of changing rules and shrinking entitlements, there has been much less attention

  19. Are Aging OECD Welfare States on the Path to Gerontocracy?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanhuysse, Pieter; Tepe, Markus

    2009-01-01

    pension efforts are significantly mediated by welfare regime type and have more fully adopted a retrenchment logic since the late 1980s. It is the politics of double fiscal and electoral straitjackets, not gerontocracy, which reigns supreme in public pension spending today. Population aging is undoubtedly...

  20. The Feminization of Poverty: Women, Work, and Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Diane

    1978-01-01

    Statistics are presented which show that women are accounting for an increasingly large proportion of the economically disadvantaged. Different sources of income (earned, public, and private transfer income) and the welfare system are discussed in terms of their roles in the perpetuation of female poverty. (Author/GC)

  1. Suicidal behavior among delinquent former child welfare clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björkenstam, C; Björkenstam, E; Ljung, R; Vinnerljung, B; Tuvblad, C

    2013-06-01

    Child welfare clients represent a high-risk group for delinquency and adult criminality, but also for future suicidal behavior. We examine associations between delinquency and suicidal behavior in a national child welfare population. This register-based cohort study is based on data for all Swedish former child welfare clients born between 1972 and 1981 that experienced interventions before their adolescent years. We followed 27,228 individuals from age 20 years until 31 December 2006. Juvenile delinquency was defined as being convicted of at least one crime between age 15 and 19. The risk of suicidal behavior was calculated as incidence rate ratios (IRRs). Fifteen percent of the women and 40% of the men had at least one conviction between the age 15 and 19. The adjusted risk of suicidal behavior among women with five or more convictions was 3.5 (95% CI 2.0-6.2); corresponding IRR for men was 3.9 (95% CI 3.1-4.9). Child welfare experience-specifically of out-of-home care-in combination with delinquency is a potent risk factor for suicidal behavior among young adults. However, we cannot exclude that some of this association is an epiphenomenon of uncontrolled confounders, such as impulsivity or severity of psychiatric disease. Despite this caveat, results should be disseminated to practitioners in the health and correction services.

  2. Welfare of African catfish : effects of stocking density

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwegiessen, van de P.G.

    2009-01-01

    The general aim of this thesis was to determine the impact of stocking density on welfare indicators in African catfish, Clarias gariepinus, cultured in a recirculating aquaculture system. The following factors were studied: 1) the effects of stocking density on physical, physiological, and

  3. Market-induced rationalization and welfare-enhancing cartels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuinstra, J.; in 't Veld, D.L.

    2014-01-01

    We show that incomplete cartels in quantity-setting oligopolies may increase welfare, without any efficiencies or synergies being internalized by cartel formation. The main intuition is that the cartel has an incentive to contract output and that the firms outside the cartel react to this by

  4. Market-induced rationalization and welfare enhancing cartels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    in 't Veld, D.; Tuinstra, J.

    2012-01-01

    We show that incomplete cartels in quantity-setting oligopolies may increase welfare, without any effi ciencies or synergies being internalized by cartel formation. The main intuition is that the cartel has an incentive to contract output and that the firms outside the cartel react to this by

  5. Women and the Canadian welfare state: challenges and change

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wekerle, Gerda R; Evans, Patricia M

    1997-01-01

    ... the paid labour force, provide for dependants, and leave abusive relationships. Access to political resources has helped women to form solidarities, alliances, and organizations. In Women and the Canadian Welfare State, scholars from environmental studies, law, social work, sociology, and economics explore the changing relationship between wom...

  6. Farm animal welfare across borders: A vision for the future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Birte Lindstrøm; Zhao, Ruquian

    2012-01-01

    , 2012; Matthews and Hemsworth, 2012). The cost of and willingness to pay for improved farm animal welfare infl uence not only international markets, but also i ncentives, education, guidelines, and legislation put in place to change the way we raise production species. These issues are highly pertinent...

  7. Framework for Culturally Competent Decisionmaking in Child Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Elena P.

    2003-01-01

    Provides a framework for understanding the cultural, social, political, and economic factors that affect decision making when working with ethnically and racially diverse families in the child welfare system. Describes external factors affecting the decision- making process, including community environment, agency structure, and family…

  8. Research Article: Animal Welfare The Impact of Customized ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was designed to investigate the knowledge and perceptions of animal welfare and related legislations among graduating Bachelor of Veterinary Medicine students from the University of Nairobi, Kenya. A questionnaire was designed and administered to assess understanding, poor attributes, good provisions, ...

  9. The Odd One Out? Revisiting the Belgian Welfare State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cor Wagenaar

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Michael Ryckewaert publication Building the Economic Backbone of the Belgian Welfare State. Infrastructure, planning and architecture 1945-1973 describes the evolution of the welfare state and Belgium, more specifically its spatial characteristics. This by now historical socio-political model had decidedly collectivist traits, culminating in the provision of social security networks and a vast expansion of the public domain. If collectivism was one of the key elements of the welfare state, the absence of centralized planning appears to make the Belgian variant somewhat problematic.Whereas in countries like the Netherlands, Germany and France, modernism became the house style of the welfare state, thanks to the massive investments in public housing, this did not happen in Belgium. Here, the De Taeye Act of 1948 sponsored the construction of individual, detached houses; not surprisingly, most clients preferred traditional architecture and refrained from modern experiments. Industrial parks, office buildings and shops, on the other hand, developed into the cornerstones of Belgian modern architecture after 1945. Both the low-density sprawl and the industrial parks depend heavily on the use of the car, which was accommodated by the construction of a network of highways.

  10. Toward Evidence-Informed Policy and Practice in Child Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littell, Julia H.; Shlonsky, Aron

    2010-01-01

    Drawing on the authors' experience in the international Campbell Collaboration, this essay presents a principled and pragmatic approach to evidence-informed decisions about child welfare. This approach takes into account the growing body of empirical evidence on the reliability and validity of various methods of research synthesis. It also…

  11. Real versus tariff liberalization: a welfare comparison under monopolistic competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Philipp

    2004-01-01

    A distinction between real trade costs (e.g. administration, border formalities, transport costs) and tariff costs is introduced into a standard monopolistic competition trade model. Driven by the number of firms, welfare under real trade barriers turns out to be lower than under an equivalent...

  12. Child Labor: A Forgotten Focus for Child Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otis, Jack; Pasztor, Eileen Mayers; McFadden, Emily Jean

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the worldwide problem of child labor and efforts to advocate for the welfare of these impoverished children. Considers factors that contribute to the continued use of child labor and the resistance of these labor practices to reform. Discusses child labor in the United States, and urges public advocacy for labor reform within child…

  13. Teaching animal welfare in the land grant universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, T H

    1990-10-01

    Colleges and universities have an obligation to teach the basis of animal husbandry and welfare and must prepare students so that they can respond effectively to challenges by proponents of the animal welfare and animal rights movements. Veterinary curricula must now contain formal instruction in professional ethics and humane stewardship of animals for accreditation by the American Veterinary Medical Association. It is helpful if students have an understanding of farm animal behavior, stress physiology and methods of assessing welfare prior to learning about the animal welfare/rights movement's philosophies and issues. A review of early judicial practices, "classical" Judeo-Christian philosophy, the philosophy of Rene Descartes, Jeremy Bentham, Albert Schweitzer, and current philosophers and the entertainment media places the movements in perspective. Students should be familiar with such concepts as the mind-body controversy, equality of suffering, self-awareness or intelligence, and speciesism. After acquiring an appreciation of the basics, a knowledge of the issues facing animal agriculture and the arguments for and against each issue are necessary. Graduates of colleges of agriculture need to realize the potential effects the movements can have and take the initiative to improve the image of animal agriculture.

  14. Disclosure Regulation in Duopoly Markets: Proprietary Costs and Social Welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suijs, J.P.M.; Wielhouwer, J.L.

    2014-01-01

    The argument of proprietary costs is commonly used by firms to object against proposed disclosure regulations. The goal of this paper is to improve our understanding of the welfare consequences of disclosure in duopoly markets and to identify market settings where proprietary costs are a viable

  15. Disclosure regulation in duopoly markets : Proprietary costs and social welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suijs, J.P.M.; Wielhouwer, J.L.

    2014-01-01

    The argument of proprietary costs is commonly used by firms to object against proposed disclosure regulations. The goal of this paper is to improve our understanding of the welfare consequences of disclosure in duopoly markets and to identify market settings where proprietary costs are a viable

  16. International migration, remittances and economic welfare in the source country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-batiz, F L

    1986-01-01

    "This article provides a formal framework for the analysis of the impact of international migration in the presence of remittances. The discussion differentiates between temporary and permanent migration and between the effects of remittances that raise investment and those that raise consumption spending in the source country. Changes in prices, income distribution and national welfare are examined." The geographic focus is worldwide. excerpt

  17. Animal Welfare in Relation to Standards in Organic Farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hammarberg Karl-Erik

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The new EU-regulations on organic farming (1804/1999 are also influencing the animal welfare. A lot of positive regulations is to find, but also regulations that seen to mind more about the general public and customer and their view on organic farming, than the health and welfare of the animals. The paper specially focus on the impact of the regulations and the recommendations that phytotherapeutic essences and homeopathic products take precedence over the so called chemically-synthesised allopatic veterinary medical products, and that the use of the same is prohibited for preventive treatments. Key questions here are the lack of scientific evidence concerning homeopathy in animals, and that Swedish veterinarians are not allowed to work with homeopathy. Differences in interpretation of the regulations between animal owners and veterinarians will also be discussed. What is a disease that needs treatment? Who is to decide about the treatment? Parasitic infections are discussed as an illustrative example. Other consequences of the regulations concerning the animal welfare are problems in certain geographical zones, for instance subarctic areas where necessary crops are impossible to grow. Animal transports and splitting mother-offspring are briefly discussed as future problems to be handled in the regulations, and the paper ends by presenting the need of regulated herd health control programs in organic husbandry, which can detect and focus on welfare and production problems. The organic movement is not static, and must not be so.

  18. Families Hardest Hit: Effects of Welfare Reform on Homeless Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dworkin, Julie

    This report presents data from 1999 surveys of people living in Chicago shelters and warming centers for families with children. The surveys asked about the impacts of welfare reform on respondents' lives. Researchers also surveyed housing and food assistance agencies, shelters, and other social service agencies. Of 481 families surveyed, 44…

  19. Organizational Climate, Services, and Outcomes in Child Welfare Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glisson, Charles; Green, Philip

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study examines the association of organizational climate, casework services, and youth outcomes in child welfare systems. Building on preliminary findings linking organizational climate to youth outcomes over a 3-year follow-up period, the current study extends the follow-up period to 7 years and tests main, moderating and…

  20. Carbon taxation, prices and welfare in New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creedy, John; Sleeman, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the effects on consumer prices arising from imposing a carbon tax in New Zealand, using information about inter-industry transactions and the use of fossil fuels by industries. The welfare effects of the carbon tax are examined for a range of different household types. Finally, overall measures of inequality are reported. (author)