WorldWideScience

Sample records for welfare position papers

  1. Governmental Quality and Welfare Reform. Discussion Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mead, Lawrence M.

    In the last decade, caseloads in Aid to Families with Dependent Children and Temporary Assistance for Needy Families have shifted dramatically up, then down. Existing studies do not explain the changes well or reveal policies behind the fluctuations or the important role of government quality in shaping welfare reform. This study uses…

  2. Position paper on mesotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Rashmi; Garg, Vijay Kumar; Mysore, Venkataram

    2011-01-01

    Mesotherapy is a controversial cosmetic procedure which has received publicity among the lay people, in the internet and in the media. It refers to minimally invasive techniques which consist of the use of intra- or subcutaneous injections containing liquid mixture of compounds (pharmaceutical and homeopathic medications, plant extracts, vitamins and other ingredients) to treat local medical and cosmetic conditions. This position paper has examined the available evidence and finds that acceptable scientific evidence for its effectiveness and safety is lacking. IADVL taskforce, therefore would like to state that the use of this technique remains controversial at present. Further research and well-designed controlled scientific studies are required to substantiate the claims of benefit of this mode of therapy.

  3. Position paper on mesotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Sarkar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesotherapy is a controversial cosmetic procedure which has received publicity among the lay people, in the internet and in the media. It refers to minimally invasive techniques which consist of the use of intra- or subcutaneous injections containing liquid mixture of compounds (pharmaceutical and homeopathic medications, plant extracts, vitamins and other ingredients to treat local medical and cosmetic conditions. This position paper has examined the available evidence and finds that acceptable scientific evidence for its effectiveness and safety is lacking. IADVL taskforce, therefore would like to state that the use of this technique remains controversial at present. Further research and well-designed controlled scientific studies are required to substantiate the claims of benefit of this mode of therapy.

  4. EAACI taskforce position paper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konstantinou, G N; Asero, R; Ferrer, M

    2013-01-01

    and Clinical Immunology. Functional autoantibodies in chronic urticaria (CU) patient sera have been demonstrated against IgE and FcεRIα by basophil and mast cell histamine release assays and by basophil activation assays. Antibody specificity has been confirmed by immunoassay, but there is a poor correlation...... between functionality and immunoreactivity. Approximately 25% of CU patients have a positive basophil histamine release assay and show autoreactivity (a positive autologous serum skin test), whereas 50% are negative regarding both. Functionality of CU sera appears to be complement dependent on mast cells...... but not exclusively on basophils. Basophil activation by CU sera is predominantly restricted to IgG1 and IgG3 subclasses. Circumstantial evidence for CU being an autoimmune disease comes from an observed association with other autoimmune diseases, a strong association between serum functionality and HLA-DR4 haplotype...

  5. Integrity & sport events: Position paper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hover, P.; Dijk, B.; Breedveld, K.; Eekeren, F.J.A. van

    2016-01-01

    Sport events are appreciated as important sources of inspiration and positive energy. Yet, for a growing number of people, the negative aspects of sport events have come to cast a shadow over sport events as a positive experience. Questions and doubts have been raised about the transparency and good

  6. Enhancing animal welfare by creating opportunities for positive affective engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellor, D J

    2015-01-01

    In line with an increasing emphasis on promoting positive welfare states in animals, this review extends previous accounts of how recent affective neuroscience observations may be used to identify and then to encourage animals to engage in reward-motivated behaviours. The terms affective states or affects are used to mean the subjective experiences, feelings or emotions that may motivate animals to behave in goal-directed ways and which may accompany success or failure to achieve those goals. These motivational affects may be positive, experienced as rewarding or pleasurable, or negative, experienced as aversive or punishing. There are two overall types: homeostasis-related negative affects that reflect an animal's internal physiological state, and situation-related positive or negative affects that reflect an animal's perception of its external circumstances. The major emphasis is on positive situation-related affects, in particular those that are potentially associated with exploration, feeding and animal-to-animal affiliative behaviours. The review introduces the new concept of positive affective engagement which represents the experience animals may have when they actively respond to motivations to engage in rewarding behaviours, and it incorporates all associated affects that are positive. For example, it would represent a state of engaged aliveness that may attend an animal's goal-directed, energised exploration of and interactions with a stimulus-rich environment. It also represents some states of equally energised, highly focused predatory stalking by carnivores or the focused and engaged foraging by herbivores when they are grazing in natural environments where food sources are abundant. Positive affective engagement may also be anticipated to accompany some aspects of reciprocated affiliative interactions between animals, the dedicated maternal nurturing and care of young, the joyfulness of rough-and-tumble play, and the eroticism and orgasmic pleasures

  7. The Animal Welfare Act and the zoo: A positive approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Glenn H.

    1989-01-01

    Interpretations of the Animal Welfare Act and other regulations governing use of research animals in the United States are changing. Recent amendments to the Act have resulted in the inclusion of more species under the umbrella of regulation. The role of the zoo and wildlife veterinarian should be that of leading his or her institution into a positive endorsement of these regulations and their application. Recent additions to the Code of Federal Regulations spell out the roles of the veterinarian and the Animal Care and Use Committee at an institution.

  8. Welfare Reform And ‘wicked Issues’ - From Coupling To De-coupling? (Working Paper 5)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Christensen (Tom); P. Laegreid (Per)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractAbstract This paper seeks to identify trans-boundary innovative coordination practices and related modes of specialization and steering instruments in welfare administration reforms. We describe how the 2005 reform of the welfare administration in Norway started as a coupling process

  9. Popullution: A Position Paper on Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durner, Mary Beth

    This position paper presents an interdisciplinary approach to the study of population. Six main sections are included in the paper: Introduction, The Growth of the Human Population, The Psychological Effects of Population Growth, Overpopulated America, Myths Concerning Population Growth and Control, and Population Education. Section 1, an…

  10. Strategies for positioning animal welfare as personally relevant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riemsdijk, van Lenka; Ingenbleek, Paul T.M.; Houthuijs, Marleen; Trijp, van Hans C.M.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Next to organic food products, an assortment of ethical products is emerging in the supermarket that targets the large market segment of consumers that are open for ethical product choices but do not restrict themselves to them. The purpose of this paper is to examine the positioning

  11. On Standardized Testing: An ACEI Position Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solley, Bobbie A.

    2007-01-01

    Following the whirlwind standards movement of the 1980s, the beginning of the 1990s ushered in an overwhelming interest in and use of testing to document students' progress. In 1991, the Association for Childhood Education International (ACEI) issued its second position paper calling for a moratorium on standardized testing in the early years of…

  12. Disability in higher education: a position paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Laura H; Aguinaga, Nancy; O'Brien, Christopher; Young, Willette; Zgonc, Kimberly

    2010-01-01

    Leadership in education, particularly special education, implies both knowledge and application of professional behaviors, decisions, and ethics within the field. University students look for best practices in education to be modeled by faculty; this, in turn, underscores a fundamental belief in inclusionary principles. Such modeling is important on every level in teacher education programs, particularly special education programs. The higher a student's level (i.e., undergraduate vs. doctoral), the more notice that student will take of disparities between rhetoric and actions. While reflective practices are explicitly taught in teacher preparation programs to enable professionals to reflect on their own personal and professional practices, teacher education faculty need to employ the same strategy to ensure that they are indeed modeling the practices they teach. This position paper documents the impressions of a doctoral cohort in special education in terms of inclusionary practices demonstrated in a real-life context.

  13. Effects of Welfare Reform on Vocational Education and Training. NBER Working Paper No. 16659

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Dhaval M.; Reichman, Nancy E.; Corman, Hope; Das, Dhiman

    2011-01-01

    Exploiting variation in welfare reform across states and over time and using relevant comparison groups, this study estimates the effects of welfare reform on an important source of human capital acquisition among women at risk for relying on welfare: vocational education and training. The results indicate that welfare reform reduced enrollment in…

  14. The Impact of Welfare Reform on Academic Outcomes: Does Parental Work Boost Grades? Institute for Policy Research Working Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareja, Amber Stitziel, Lewis, Dan A.

    The 1996 welfare reform act forced many poor parents into the labor market, with little understanding of how the parents' workforce participation would affect family life in general and their children in particular. In this paper, researchers examine the relationship between parental workforce participation, welfare receipt, and children's…

  15. When does the left do the right thing? A study of party position change on welfare policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schumacher, G.

    2015-01-01

    Why did pro-welfare Social Democrats and Christian Democrats cease to support the welfare state in the 1980s and 1990s, and support measures such as tighter welfare programme conditionality rules and lower social security benefits instead? Building on the party position change literature, I argue

  16. Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility Position Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oral, H Sarp [ORNL; Hill, Jason J [ORNL; Thach, Kevin G [ORNL; Podhorszki, Norbert [ORNL; Klasky, Scott A [ORNL; Rogers, James H [ORNL; Shipman, Galen M [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the business, administration, reliability, and usability aspects of storage systems at the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF). The OLCF has developed key competencies in architecting and administration of large-scale Lustre deployments as well as HPSS archival systems. Additionally as these systems are architected, deployed, and expanded over time reliability and availability factors are a primary driver. This paper focuses on the implementation of the Spider parallel Lustre file system as well as the implementation of the HPSS archive at the OLCF.

  17. Normative industrial symbiotic networks : a position paper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yazdanpanah, Vahid; Yazan, Devrim Murat; Zijm, Willem H.M.; Criado Pacheco, N.; Carrascosa, C.; Osman, N.; Julián Inglada, V.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a normative, multi-agent perspective on the field of industrial symbiosis research and propose normative institutions as a key technology for operating Industrial Symbiotic Networks (ISNs), both as a framework to represent and reason about dynamic behaviour of ISNs and as

  18. Position Paper on Intelligent Supply Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Charles

    the concept of Intelligent Supply Chain and to establish an overall perspective based on information management. The claim made here is that the notion of the intelligent enterprise contributes with a new perspective on supply chain management that addresses the current challenges in an industrial supply...... of intelligent supply chains. It is concluded that information management is critical to intelligent supply chains and a research agenda is outlined.......This paper is intended to present and to analyze the concept of the Intelligent Supply Chain (ISC). The purpose of the paper is to: 1) Clarify the concept of the intelligent supply chain; 2) Identify emerging research opportunities; and 3) Specify a research engagement model for further exploration...

  19. Positive indicators of cattle welfare and their applicability to on-farm protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe De Rosa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Most of the research on animal welfare has focused on the negative aspects of the matter including an array of stress categories, whereas little has been done about the positive states of well being. The present study aims to describe indicators of positive animal welfare suitable for on-farm assessment. Appropriate environmental stimulation favours good welfare and, in an adequately enriched environment, positive indicators of welfare such as play behaviour tend to be more common. In addition, animals are motivated to perform these behaviours only if their primary needs are satisfied. In cattle, beneficial effects of social licking have been observed with positive correlation between being licked vs. milk production and weight gain, respectively. Ruminants are gregarious and a high degree of synchronisation within the herd may indicate a positive welfare state, in particular for subordinate animals. They may be able to meet their basic feeding and resting requirements performing these behaviours when the competition for a particular resource is low, however their welfare state would be improved if they could choose when and where (i.e. along with the other members of the group to perform such behaviours. Due to the reduced applicability (mainly young animals, low feasibility (time consuming and lack of research on reliability, play behaviour, albeit of proven validity, does not appear to be suitable for a rapid implementation in a welfare assessment scheme. Social licking is rarely expressed and its detection may be time consuming and scarcely feasible. Although validity and reliability need more studies, behaviour synchrony seems to be a promising positive welfare indicator as the instantaneous scan sampling technique makes this indicator easily applicable. Recently, a new methodology called “qualitative assessment of animal behaviour” has been developed. The method relies on a number of terms which are freely generated by observers. Thus

  20. Animal Welfare Practices along the Food Chain: How Does Negative and Positive Information Affect Consumers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dentoni, D.; Calantone, R.; Tonsor, G.; Peterson, H.C.

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzes the mitigating effect of positive brand information on animal welfare on consumers' perceptions, attitudes, and buying intentions for meat products when provided before a negative information shock related to the same issue. By tackling this question, this study integrates with

  1. Sublingual immunotherapy: World Allergy Organization position paper 2013 update

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.W. Canonica (Giorgio Walter); L. Cox (Linda); R. Pawankar (Ruby); C.E. Baena-Cagnani (Carlos); M.S. Blaiss (Michael); S. Bonini (Sergio); J. Bousquet (Jean); M. Calderon (Moises); E. Compalati (Enrico); S.R. Durham (Stephen); R. Gerth van Wijk (Roy); D. Larenas-Linnemann (Désirée); H. Nelson (Harold); G. Passalacqua (Giovanni); O. Pfaar (Oliver); K. Rosario (Karyna); D. Ryan (Dermot); L. Rosenwasser (Lanny); P. Schmid-Grendelmeier (Peter); G.E. Senna (Gianenrico); E. Valovirta (Erkka); H.P. van Bever (Hugo); P. Vichyanond (Pakit); U. Wahn (Ulrich); O.M. Yusuf (Osman)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractWe have prepared this document, "Sublingual Immunotherapy: World Allergy Organization Position Paper 2013 Update", according to the evidence-based criteria, revising and updating chapters of the originally published paper, "Sublingual Immunotherapy: World Allergy Organization Position

  2. Enhancing nonhuman primate care and welfare through the use of positive reinforcement training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laule, Gail; Whittaker, Margaret

    2007-01-01

    Nonhuman primates are excellent subjects for the enhancement of care and welfare through training. The broad range of species offers tremendous behavioral diversity, and individual primates show varying abilities to cope with the stressors of captivity, which differ depending on the venue. Biomedical facilities include small single cages, pair housing, and breeding corrals with large social groups. Zoos have social groupings of differing sizes, emphasizing public display and breeding. Sanctuaries have nonbreeding groups of varying sizes and often of mixed species. In every venue, the primary objective is to provide good quality care, with minimal stress. Positive reinforcement training improves care and reduces stress by enlisting a primate's voluntary cooperation with targeted activities, including both husbandry and medical procedures. It can also improve socialization, reduce abnormal behaviors, and increase species-typical behaviors. This article reviews the results already achieved with positive reinforcement training and suggests further possibilities for enhancing primate care and welfare.

  3. ASAS centennial paper: Farm animal welfare science in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, A K

    2009-06-01

    Compared with the more traditional sciences of nutrition, physiology, and reproduction, the acceptance of animal welfare science in its own right is still relatively new. Seven colleagues, who had an average of 10 yr experience with beef (n = 5), swine (n = 5), dairy (n = 2), poultry (n = 1), and sheep (n = 1) were asked several questions on the opportunities and challenges facing the field. The information collected was pooled for anonymity. General challenges identified by the group were (1) are we making progress and how can this be defined, (2) demand for information has outpaced the science, and (3) pressures from stakeholders. Solutions were (1) to continue providing sound science that has been validated, measured objectively, and is reliable; and (2) to continue to have animal science and veterinary medicine departments employ faculty trained in farm animal welfare. Highlights for the future were willingness for animal welfare scientists to work across disciplines and across departments, within the same institution, and enthusiastically across state lines, and expansion of new teaching models. In conclusion, new and innovative tools, personalities, and dedication to the field of animal welfare will continue to provide scientific information and direction for farm animal welfare science.

  4. Welfare in horse breeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, M.L.H.; Sandøe, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Welfare problems related to the way horses are bred, whether by coitus or by the application of artificial reproduction techniques (ARTs), have been given no discrete consideration within the academic literature. This paper reviews the existing knowledge base about welfare issues in horse breeding...... positive welfare effects associated with breeding might be maximised. Further studies are needed to establish an evidence base about how stressful or painful various breeding procedures are for the animals involved, and what the lifetime welfare implications of ARTs are for future animal generations....

  5. European Position Paper on Rhinosinusitis and Nasal Polyps 2012

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokkens, Wytske J.; Lund, Valerie J.; Mullol, Joachim; Bachert, Claus; Alobid, Isam; Baroody, Fuad; Cohen, Noam; Cervin, Anders; Douglas, Richard; Gevaert, Philippe; Georgalas, Christos; Goossens, Herman; Harvey, Richard; Hellings, Peter; Hopkins, Claire; Jones, Nick; Joos, Guy; Kalogjera, Livije; Kern, Bob; Kowalski, Marek; Price, David; Riechelmann, Herbert; Schlosser, Rodney; Senior, Brent; Thomas, Mike; Toskala, Elina; Voegels, Richard; Wang, De Yun; Wormald, Peter John

    2012-01-01

    The European Position Paper on Rhinosinusitis and Nasal Polyps 2012 is the update of similar evidence based position papers published in 2005 and 2007.The document contains chapters on definitions and classification, we now also proposed definitions for difficult to treat rhinosinusitis, control of

  6. Revival of the Position Paper: Aligning Curricula and Professional Competencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Vonda

    2012-01-01

    As public relations professions advance toward new media platforms, one traditional tool--the backgrounder/position paper (more technically termed white paper) remains a compelling vehicle to impart enduring professional competencies. Moreover, the skills requisite to produce a white paper can be deployed in a variety of new and traditional media…

  7. The European Welfare Model. Is Romania a Welfare State?!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pop-Radu, I.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the various interpretations of the social model and welfare regime concepts. In order to observe Romania’s position within the European welfare regimes, the paper presents a short analysis of the main characteristics of the welfare regimes identified in Europe – i.e. the corporatist welfare regime, the liberal welfare regime and the social democratic/Scandinavian welfare system. We analyze the dynamics of several indicators relevant for establishing the performance of the Romanian welfare regime. Using the results of this study, the current research might offer a new approach on proving that Romania’s case is a particular one among the CEE countries and its sustainability could become a model for other countries.

  8. Dengue vaccine: WHO position paper, July 2016 - recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    World Health Organization

    2017-03-01

    This article presents the World Health Organization's (WHO) recommendations on the use of dengue vaccine excerpted from the WHO position paper on dengue vaccine published in the Weekly epidemiological Record in July 2016 (Dengue vaccine: WHO position paper, 2016) [1]. The current document is the first WHO position paper on dengue vaccination and focuses primarily on the available evidence concerning the only dengue vaccine to have been registered by National Regulatory Authorities. The position paper gives consideration to the epidemiological features of the disease and assesses the potential use of the vaccine for public health benefits. Footnotes to this paper provide a number of core references including references to grading tables that assess the quality of the scientific evidence, and to the evidence-to-recommendation table. In accordance with its mandate to provide guidance to Member States on health policy matters, WHO issues a series of regularly updated position papers on vaccines and combinations of vaccines against diseases that have an international public health impact. These papers are concerned primarily with the use of vaccines in large-scale immunization programmes; they summarize essential background information on diseases and vaccines, and conclude with WHO's current position on the use of vaccines in the global context. This paper reflects the recommendations of the WHO's Strategic Advisory Group of Experts (SAGE) on immunization. Recommendations on the use of this dengue vaccine were discussed by SAGE in April 2016; evidence presented at that SAGE meeting can be accessed at: http://www.who.int/immunization/sage/previous/en/index.html. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Malaria vaccine: WHO position paper, January 2016 - Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-03

    This article presents the World Health Organization's (WHO) recommendations on the use of malaria vaccine excerpted from the WHO position paper on malaria vaccine published in the Weekly epidemiological Record in January 2016 [1]. The current document is the first WHO position paper on malaria vaccination and focuses primarily on the available evidence concerning the only malaria vaccine having received a positive regulation assessment from the European Medicines Agency (EMA) [2]. The position paper gives consideration to the epidemiological features of the disease and assesses the potential use of the vaccine for public health benefits. Footnotes to this paper provide a number of core references including references to grading tables that assess the quality of the scientific evidence, and to the evidence to recommendation table. In accordance with its mandate to provide guidance to Member States on health policy matters, WHO issues a series of regularly updated position papers on vaccines and combinations of vaccines against diseases that have an international public health impact. These papers are concerned primarily with the use of vaccines in large-scale immunization programmes; they summarize essential background information on diseases and vaccines, and conclude with WHO's current position on the use of vaccines in the global context. This paper reflects the joint recommendation of the WHO's Strategic Advisory Group of Experts (SAGE) on immunization and the Malaria Policy Advisory Committee (MPAC). These recommendations were discussed by SAGE and MPAC at the October 2015 SAGE meeting. Evidence presented at the meeting can be accessed at http://www.who.int/immunization/sage/previous/en/index.html. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Japanese Encephalitis Vaccines: WHO position paper, February 2015--Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-12

    This article presents the World Health Organization's (WHO) recommendations on the use of Japanese Encephalitis (JE) vaccines excerpted from the WHO position paper on Japanese Encephalitis vaccines recently published in the Weekly Epidemiological Record [1]. This updated position paper on JE vaccines replaces the 2006 position paper on this subject [2]; it focuses on new information concerning the availability, safety, immunogenicity and effectiveness of JE vaccines and the duration of protection they confer. Recent data on global prevalence and burden of disease caused by JE and cost-effectiveness considerations regarding JE vaccination are also summarized. Footnotes to this paper provide a number of core references including references to grading tables that assess the quality of the scientific evidence. In accordance with its mandate to provide guidance to Member States on health policy matters, WHO issues a series of regularly updated position papers on vaccines and combinations of vaccines against diseases that have an international public health impact. These papers are concerned primarily with the use of vaccines in large-scale immunization programmes; they summarize essential background information on diseases and vaccines, and conclude with WHO's current position on the use of vaccines in the global context. This paper reflects the recommendations of WHO's Strategic Advisory Group of Experts (SAGE) on immunization. These recommendations were discussed by SAGE at its October 2014 meeting. Evidence presented at the meeting can be accessed at http://www.who.int/immunization/sage/previous/en/index.html. Copyright © 2015 The World Health Organization. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Ototoxicity in the South African mining industry: a position paper

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Edwards, AL

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This position paper asserts that exposure to chemicals in certain occupations and work activities in the mining industry can lead to ototoxicity which accentuates the problem of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). Increased awareness of all factors...

  12. Student Unrest in the High Schools: A Position Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flemmings, Vincent C.

    Derived from the deliberations of the 1969 Superintendents Work Conference, this position paper provides an analysis of the current panorama of social unrest in schools and the community in general. It began with the assessment that student unrest, to be effectively dealt with, must be viewed as emerging from and reflecting the structural,…

  13. Position paper of the National Osteoporosis Foundation of South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Position paper of the National Osteoporosis Foundation of South Africa (NOFSA) on the use of parathyroid hormone (PTH 1-34) in the treatment of osteoporosis. Stephen Hough, Brynne Ascott-Evans, Tobie de Villiers, Jan de Weerd, Graham Ellis, Stan Lipschitz ...

  14. Position paper: Web tutorials and Information Literacy research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldegård, Jette

    2011-01-01

    Position paper on future research challenges regarding web tutorials with the aim of supporting and facilitating Information Literacy in an academic context. Presented and discussed at the workshop: Social media & Information Practices, track on Information literacy practices, University of Borås...

  15. European position paper on rhinosinusitis and nasal polyps 2007

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokkens, Wytske; Lund, Valerie; Mullol, Joaquirn

    2007-01-01

    Rhinosinusitis is a significant and increasing health problem which results in a large financial burden on society. This evidence based position paper describes what is known about rhinosinusitis and nasal polyps, offers evidence based recommendations on diagnosis and treatment, and considers how we

  16. Draft position paper on knowledge management in space activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Jeanne; Moura, Denis

    2003-01-01

    As other fields of industry, space activities are facing the challenge of Knowledge Management and the International Academy of Astronautics decided to settle in 2002 a Study Group to analyse the problem and issue general guidelines. This communication presents the draft position paper of this group in view to be discussed during the 2003 IAF Congress.

  17. How to improve skin notation. Position paper from a workshop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sartorelli, Pietro; Ahlers, Heinz W; Alanko, Kristiina

    2007-01-01

    their ideas on several aspects of S such as the problems related to the absorption through the compromised skin, the different approaches to S and models that can be used as alternatives to S. Participants agreed to produce a position paper with the goal of exploring the actions needed to improve the S system...... towards international harmonization. They consider that further discussions are needed to obtain an international consensus, but at the same time they believe that by improving and harmonizing systems for setting S we can make an important contribution to improving health of people with potential dermal...

  18. The Future of Pork Production in the World: Towards Sustainable, Welfare-Positive Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John J. McGlone

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Among land animals, more pork is eaten in the world than any other meat. The earth holds about one billion pigs who deliver over 100 mmt of pork to people for consumption. Systems of pork production changed from a forest-based to pasture-based to dirt lots and finally into specially-designed buildings. The world pork industry is variable and complex not just in production methods but in economics and cultural value. A systematic analysis of pork industry sustainability was performed. Sustainable production methods are considered at three levels using three examples in this paper: production system, penning system and for a production practice. A sustainability matrix was provided for each example. In a comparison of indoor vs. outdoor systems, the food safety/zoonoses concerns make current outdoor systems unsustainable. The choice of keeping pregnant sows in group pens or individual crates is complex in that the outcome of a sustainability assessment leads to the conclusion that group penning is more sustainable in the EU and certain USA states, but the individual crate is currently more sustainable in other USA states, Asia and Latin America. A comparison of conventional physical castration with immunological castration shows that the less-common immunological castration method is more sustainable (for a number of reasons. This paper provides a method to assess the sustainability of production systems and practices that take into account the best available science, human perception and culture, animal welfare, the environment, food safety, worker health and safety, and economics (including the cost of production and solving world hunger. This tool can be used in countries and regions where the table values of a sustainability matrix change based on local conditions. The sustainability matrix can be used to assess current systems and predict improved systems of the future.

  19. The Future of Pork Production in the World: Towards Sustainable, Welfare-Positive Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlone, John J

    2013-05-15

    Among land animals, more pork is eaten in the world than any other meat. The earth holds about one billion pigs who deliver over 100 mmt of pork to people for consumption. Systems of pork production changed from a forest-based to pasture-based to dirt lots and finally into specially-designed buildings. The world pork industry is variable and complex not just in production methods but in economics and cultural value. A systematic analysis of pork industry sustainability was performed. Sustainable production methods are considered at three levels using three examples in this paper: production system, penning system and for a production practice. A sustainability matrix was provided for each example. In a comparison of indoor vs. outdoor systems, the food safety/zoonoses concerns make current outdoor systems unsustainable. The choice of keeping pregnant sows in group pens or individual crates is complex in that the outcome of a sustainability assessment leads to the conclusion that group penning is more sustainable in the EU and certain USA states, but the individual crate is currently more sustainable in other USA states, Asia and Latin America. A comparison of conventional physical castration with immunological castration shows that the less-common immunological castration method is more sustainable (for a number of reasons). This paper provides a method to assess the sustainability of production systems and practices that take into account the best available science, human perception and culture, animal welfare, the environment, food safety, worker health and safety, and economics (including the cost of production and solving world hunger). This tool can be used in countries and regions where the table values of a sustainability matrix change based on local conditions. The sustainability matrix can be used to assess current systems and predict improved systems of the future.

  20. Sublingual immunotherapy: World Allergy Organization position paper 2013 update

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    We have prepared this document, “Sublingual Immunotherapy: World Allergy Organization Position Paper 2013 Update”, according to the evidence-based criteria, revising and updating chapters of the originally published paper, “Sublingual Immunotherapy: World Allergy Organization Position Paper 2009”, available at http://www.waojournal.org. Namely, these comprise: “Mechanisms of sublingual immunotherapy;” “Clinical efficacy of sublingual immunotherapy” – reporting all the data of all controlled trials published after 2009; “Safety of sublingual immunotherapy” – with the recently published Grading System for adverse reactions; “Impact of sublingual immunotherapy on the natural history of respiratory allergy” – with the relevant evidences published since 2009; “Efficacy of SLIT in children” – with detailed analysis of all the studies; “Definition of SLIT patient selection” – reporting the criteria for eligibility to sublingual immunotherapy; “The future of immunotherapy in the community care setting”; “Methodology of clinical trials according to the current scientific and regulatory standards”; and “Guideline development: from evidence-based medicine to patients' views” – including the evolution of the methods to make clinical recommendations. Additionally, we have added new chapters to cover a few emerging crucial topics: “Practical aspects of schedules and dosages and counseling for adherence” – which is crucial in clinical practice for all treatments; “Perspectives and new approaches” – including recombinant allergens, adjuvants, modified allergens, and the concept of validity of the single products. Furthermore, “Raising public awareness about sublingual immunotherapy”, as a need for our patients, and strategies to increase awareness of allergen immunotherapy (AIT) among patients, the medical community, all healthcare stakeholders, and public opinion, are also reported in detail. PMID:24679069

  1. [Cannabis--Position Paper of the German Respiratory Society (DGP)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreuter, M; Nowak, D; Rüther, T; Hoch, E; Thomasius, R; Vogelberg, C; Brockstedt, M; Hellmann, A; Gohlke, H; Jany, B; Loddenkemper, R

    2016-02-01

    In this position paper, the adverse health effects of cannabis are reviewed based on the existing scientific literature; in addition possible symptom-relieving effects on some diseases are depicted. In Germany, cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug. Approximately 600,000 adult persons show abusive or addictive cannabis consumption. In 12 to 17 year old adolescents, cannabis use increased from 2011 to 2014 from 2.8 to 6.4%, and the frequency of regular use from 0.2 to 1.5%. Currently, handling of cannabinoids is much debated in politics as well as in general public. Health aspects have to be incorporated into this debate. Besides analysing mental and neurological side effects, this position paper will mainly focus on the influences on the bronchopulmonary and cardiovascular system. There is strong evidence for the induction of chronic bronchitis. Allergic reactions including asthma are known, too. Associations with other diseases like pulmonary emphysema, lung cancer and pneumonia are not sufficiently proven, however cannot be excluded either. In connection with the use of cannabis cardiovascular events such as coronary syndromes, peripheral vascular diseases and cerebral complications have been noted. Often, the evidence is insufficient due to various reasons; most notably, the overlapping effects of tobacco and cannabis use can frequently not be separated adequately. Empirically, early beginning, high-dosed, long-lasting and regular cannabis consumption increase the risk of various psychological and physical impairments and negatively affect age-based development. Concerns therefore relate especially to children and adolescents. There is only little scientific evidence for medical benefits through cannabis as a remedy; systematic research of good quality, in particular prospective, randomised, placebo-controlled double-blinded studies are rare. The medical societies signing this position paper conclude that cannabis consumption is linked to adverse health

  2. The Priority position paper: Protecting Europe's food chain from prions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Requena, Jesús R; Kristensson, Krister; Korth, Carsten; Zurzolo, Chiara; Simmons, Marion; Aguilar-Calvo, Patricia; Aguzzi, Adriano; Andreoletti, Olivier; Benestad, Sylvie L; Böhm, Reinhard; Brown, Karen; Calgua, Byron; Del Río, José Antonio; Espinosa, Juan Carlos; Girones, Rosina; Godsave, Sue; Hoelzle, Ludwig E; Knittler, Michael R; Kuhn, Franziska; Legname, Giuseppe; Laeven, Paul; Mabbott, Neil; Mitrova, Eva; Müller-Schiffmann, Andreas; Nuvolone, Mario; Peters, Peter J; Raeber, Alex; Roth, Klaus; Schmitz, Matthias; Schroeder, Björn; Sonati, Tiziana; Stitz, Lothar; Taraboulos, Albert; Torres, Juan María; Yan, Zheng-Xin; Zerr, Inga

    2016-05-03

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) created a global European crisis in the 1980s and 90s, with very serious health and economic implications. Classical BSE now appears to be under control, to a great extent as a result of a global research effort that identified the sources of prions in meat and bone meal (MBM) and developed new animal-testing tools that guided policy. Priority ( www.prionpriority.eu ) was a European Union (EU) Framework Program 7 (FP7)-funded project through which 21 European research institutions and small and medium enterprises (SMEs) joined efforts between 2009 and 2014, to conduct coordinated basic and applied research on prions and prion diseases. At the end of the project, the Priority consortium drafted a position paper ( www.prionpriority.eu/Priority position paper) with its main conclusions. In the present opinion paper, we summarize these conclusions. With respect to the issue of re-introducing ruminant protein into the feed-chain, our opinion is that sustaining an absolute ban on feeding ruminant protein to ruminants is essential. In particular, the spread and impact of non-classical forms of scrapie and BSE in ruminants is not fully understood and the risks cannot be estimated. Atypical prion agents will probably continue to represent the dominant form of prion diseases in the near future in Europe. Atypical L-type BSE has clear zoonotic potential, as demonstrated in experimental models. Similarly, there are now data indicating that the atypical scrapie agent can cross various species barriers. More epidemiological data from large cohorts are necessary to reach any conclusion on the impact of its transmissibility on public health. Re-evaluations of safety precautions may become necessary depending on the outcome of these studies. Intensified searching for molecular determinants of the species barrier is recommended, since this barrier is key for important policy areas and risk assessment. Understanding the structural basis for

  3. Private well/spring position paper, Rifle, Colorado, sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    This report describes the hydrogeochemical relationship between the New and Old Rifle processing sites and 15 domestic wells in their vicinity. The relationship of the domestic wells to the Old and New Rifle tailings sites requires clarification due to recent advances in understanding of Rifle site conceptual models. In order to form a bridge from the Rifle remedial action plan (RAP) and the recent baseline risk assessment to this position paper, several issues require discussion. First, through analysis of long-term ground water level data, the hydraulic gradient between the former tailings and private wells and springs was assessed. Second, in the Rifle RAP there was not a strong emphasis placed on describing regional influences on water quality in the vicinity of the processing sites. This document uses available information coupled with theory of regional ground water flow to describe regional flow systems north of Rifle. Third, the definition of background water quality from the RAP has been refined in several ways. Also, for the recent baseline risk assessment, all alluvial wells used to define background for the sites were located east of Old Rifle. In the RAP, alluvial background wells were also placed between the sites (downgradient of Old Rifle). Two additional wells were installed for the recent baseline risk assessment upgradient of Old Rifle which verified that several of the older wells (RFO-01-0597 and -0598) were in locations representative of background.

  4. EPMA position paper in cancer: current overview and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grech, Godfrey; Zhan, Xianquan; Yoo, Byong Chul; Bubnov, Rostyslav; Hagan, Suzanne; Danesi, Romano; Vittadini, Giorgio; Desiderio, Dominic M

    2015-01-01

    At present, a radical shift in cancer treatment is occurring in terms of predictive, preventive, and personalized medicine (PPPM). Individual patients will participate in more aspects of their healthcare. During the development of PPPM, many rapid, specific, and sensitive new methods for earlier detection of cancer will result in more efficient management of the patient and hence a better quality of life. Coordination of the various activities among different healthcare professionals in primary, secondary, and tertiary care requires well-defined competencies, implementation of training and educational programs, sharing of data, and harmonized guidelines. In this position paper, the current knowledge to understand cancer predisposition and risk factors, the cellular biology of cancer, predictive markers and treatment outcome, the improvement in technologies in screening and diagnosis, and provision of better drug development solutions are discussed in the context of a better implementation of personalized medicine. Recognition of the major risk factors for cancer initiation is the key for preventive strategies (EPMA J. 4(1):6, 2013). Of interest, cancer predisposing syndromes in particular the monogenic subtypes that lead to cancer progression are well defined and one should focus on implementation strategies to identify individuals at risk to allow preventive measures and early screening/diagnosis. Implementation of such measures is disturbed by improper use of the data, with breach of data protection as one of the risks to be heavily controlled. Population screening requires in depth cost-benefit analysis to justify healthcare costs, and the parameters screened should provide information that allow an actionable and deliverable solution, for better healthcare provision.

  5. Vagueness and Visions. Biographical Processes of Professionalization among Women in Leading Positions in Social Welfare in East Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Schiebel

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical focus of this article which is based on empirical findings of a biographical study about women in leadings positions in social welfare in East Germany is on the relationship between biography and institution. After the breakdown of the German Democratic Republic and its political institutional order, the West German institutional system was extended into the domain of the new federal states. All women experienced the field of private and public social welfare as a biographically grounded sphere of action. At the same time the theoretical perspective of "professions in process" (STRAUSS, 1991 is helpful to understand the women as strategic actors in the process of constructing new institutions. It was possible to discover four empirical types. All of these types represent distinct biographical process structures which are supported or stimulated by the processes of institutionalization in the field of private and independent social welfare. However, in the long run a mutually stabilizing nexus of biographies and institutionalized fields of action is only possible in those cases in which a political or moral mission is a constitutive part of a biographical process of emancipation and in which the women develop a professional habitus. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0801438

  6. Research Paper Positive and negative qualities of South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Parent and peer relationships are important social resources for adolescents. South African research on adolescents' relationships, however, underemphasises these relationships as potential positive resources. Studies also tend to use samples from urban populations, while rural and semi-rural adolescent populations are ...

  7. Position paper: A generic approach for security policies composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernandez, Alejandro Mario; Nielson, Flemming

    2012-01-01

    When modelling access control in distributed systems, the problem of security policies composition arises. Much work has been done on different ways of combining policies, and using different logics to do this. In this paper, we propose a more general approach based on a 4-valued logic, that abst......When modelling access control in distributed systems, the problem of security policies composition arises. Much work has been done on different ways of combining policies, and using different logics to do this. In this paper, we propose a more general approach based on a 4-valued logic...

  8. State Welfarism and Social Welfare in Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr Indra P TIWARI

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper has analyzed and discussed the social welfare policies of the Asian countries—the responsibilities of international activist institutions and the State towards individuals in terms of state welfarism and social and economic protection, and the conventional family system, which was and still is the core responsible institution for the well-being of its members. The paper has presented economic and poverty indicators (19, demographic, social and economic indicators associated social welfarism (16, satisfaction related indicators (7, and funding related indicators that have association with social welfarism (9. This has also analyzed and discussed the gap between the international propaganda on social welfare, social policies of the Government and its actual delivery and the situation of vacuum being created due to the moribund family system of slothful state welfarism, in the new living context created by the notion of right-prone individualism. The study has identified along with their history of starting social security provisions the present state major workfare and welfare and welfare protection in the Asian countries, thereby explored countries falling into five levels of social welfare system by taking a combined state of poverty, vulnerable employment, and government expenditure on education, health and social protection, namely (i early stage of welfare system; (ii transition to take-off stage of welfare system; (iii take-off stage of welfare system; (iv transition to drive to maturity stage of welfare system; and (v the drive to maturity stage of welfare system. Finally, the paper has presented the critical areas for dialogue where the synergy of the propagandist international activism, state slothfulness, moribund family dynamics, and right-prone individualism interface for a reliable and sustainable social welfare with affection, protection, nurturance, and protection thereby live in peace and harmony with dignity.

  9. Macrolides: A Canadian Infectious Disease Society Position Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S McKenna

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the introduction of erythromycin in 1965, no new compounds from the macrolide antimicrobial class were licensed in Canada until the 1990s. Clarithromycin and azithromycin, since their introduction, have become important agents for treating a number of common and uncommon infectious diseases. They have become prime agents in the treatment of respiratory tract infections, and have revolutionized the management of both genital chlamydial infections, by the use of single-dose therapy with azithromycin, and nontuberculous mycobacterial infections, by the use of clarithromycin. The improvement of clarithromycin and azithromycin over the gastrointestinal intolerability of erythromycin has led to supplanting the use of the latter for many primary care physicians. Unfortunately, the use of these agents has also increased the likelihood for misuse and has raised concerns about a resultant increase in the rates of macrolide resistance in many important pathogens, such as Streptococcus pneumoniae. This paper reviews the pharmacology and evidence for the current indications for use of these newer agents, and provides recommendations for appropriate use.

  10. The association between life course socioeconomic position and life satisfaction in different welfare states: European comparative study of individuals in early old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedzwiedz, Claire L; Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal; Pell, Jill P; Mitchell, Richard

    2014-05-01

    whether socioeconomic position over the life course influences the wellbeing of older people similarly in different societies is not known. to investigate the magnitude of socioeconomic inequalities in life satisfaction among individuals in early old age and the influence of the welfare state regime on the associations. comparative study using data from Wave 2 and SHARELIFE, the retrospective Wave of the Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement in Europe (SHARE), collected during 2006-07 and 2008-09, respectively. thirteen European countries representing four welfare regimes (Southern, Scandinavian, Post-communist and Bismarckian). a total of 17,697 individuals aged 50-75 years. slope indices of inequality (SIIs) were calculated for the association between life course socioeconomic position (measured by the number of books in childhood, education level and current wealth) and life satisfaction. Single level linear regression models stratified by welfare regime and multilevel regression models, containing interaction terms between socioeconomic position and welfare regime type, were calculated. socioeconomic inequalities in life satisfaction were present in all welfare regimes. Educational inequalities in life satisfaction were narrowest in Scandinavian and Bismarckian regimes among both genders. Post-communist and Southern countries experienced both lower life satisfaction and larger socioeconomic inequalities in life satisfaction, using most measures of socioeconomic position. Current wealth was associated with large inequalities in life satisfaction across all regimes. Scandinavian and Bismarckian countries exhibited narrower socioeconomic inequalities in life satisfaction. This suggests that more generous welfare states help to produce a more equitable distribution of wellbeing among older people.

  11. Computerized neuropsychological assessment devices: joint position paper of the American Academy of Clinical Neuropsychology and the National Academy of Neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Russell M; Iverson, Grant L; Cernich, Alison N; Binder, Laurence M; Ruff, Ronald M; Naugle, Richard I

    2012-05-01

    This joint position paper of the American Academy of Clinical Neuropsychology and the National Academy of Neuropsychology sets forth our position on appropriate standards and conventions for computerized neuropsychological assessment devices (CNADs). In this paper, we first define CNADs and distinguish them from examiner-administered neuropsychological instruments. We then set forth position statements on eight key issues relevant to the development and use of CNADs in the healthcare setting. These statements address (a) device marketing and performance claims made by developers of CNADs; (b) issues involved in appropriate end-users for administration and interpretation of CNADs; (c) technical (hardware/software/firmware) issues; (d) privacy, data security, identity verification, and testing environment; (e) psychometric development issues, especially reliability, and validity; (f) cultural, experiential, and disability factors affecting examinee interaction with CNADs; (g) use of computerized testing and reporting services; and (h) the need for checks on response validity and effort in the CNAD environment. This paper is intended to provide guidance for test developers and users of CNADs that will promote accurate and appropriate use of computerized tests in a way that maximizes clinical utility and minimizes risks of misuse. The positions taken in this paper are put forth with an eye toward balancing the need to make validated CNADs accessible to otherwise underserved patients with the need to ensure that such tests are developed and utilized competently, appropriately, and with due concern for patient welfare and quality of care.

  12. Computerized Neuropsychological Assessment Devices: Joint Position Paper of the American Academy of Clinical Neuropsychology and the National Academy of Neuropsychology†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Russell M.; Iverson, Grant L.; Cernich, Alison N.; Binder, Laurence M.; Ruff, Ronald M.; Naugle, Richard I.

    2012-01-01

    This joint position paper of the American Academy of Clinical Neuropsychology and the National Academy of Neuropsychology sets forth our position on appropriate standards and conventions for computerized neuropsychological assessment devices (CNADs). In this paper, we first define CNADs and distinguish them from examiner-administered neuropsychological instruments. We then set forth position statements on eight key issues relevant to the development and use of CNADs in the healthcare setting. These statements address (a) device marketing and performance claims made by developers of CNADs; (b) issues involved in appropriate end-users for administration and interpretation of CNADs; (c) technical (hardware/software/firmware) issues; (d) privacy, data security, identity verification, and testing environment; (e) psychometric development issues, especially reliability, and validity; (f) cultural, experiential, and disability factors affecting examinee interaction with CNADs; (g) use of computerized testing and reporting services; and (h) the need for checks on response validity and effort in the CNAD environment. This paper is intended to provide guidance for test developers and users of CNADs that will promote accurate and appropriate use of computerized tests in a way that maximizes clinical utility and minimizes risks of misuse. The positions taken in this paper are put forth with an eye toward balancing the need to make validated CNADs accessible to otherwise underserved patients with the need to ensure that such tests are developed and utilized competently, appropriately, and with due concern for patient welfare and quality of care. PMID:22382386

  13. Position paper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heidbuchel, Hein; Papadakis, Michael; Panhuyzen-Goedkoop, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    Sports cardiology is a new and rapidly evolving subspecialty. It aims to elucidate the cardiovascular effects of regular exercise and delineate its benefits and risks, so that safe guidance can be provided to all individuals engaging in sports and/or physical activity in order to attain the maximum...... potential benefit at the lowest possible risk. The European Society of Cardiology (ESC) advocates systematic preparticipation cardiovascular screening in an effort to identify competitive athletes at risk of exercise-related cardiovascular events and sudden cardiac death. However, the implementation...... of preparticipation screening is hindered because of lack of structured training and as a result lack of sufficient expertise in the field of sports cardiology. In 2008 the European Society of Cardiology published a core curriculum for the general cardiologist, in which sports cardiology was incorporated within...

  14. Position paper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Peer; Vejborg, Ilse Merete Munk; Kroman, Niels Thorndahl

    2014-01-01

    the 1990s, the use of breast conserving surgery has increased from around 25% to 69% in 2010. Screening has not increased the number of mastectomies. Breast cancer treatment in Denmark is evidence based and in agreement with international recommendations. After the introduction of mammography screening......-out of screening took place in 2008-2010. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Based on published Danish data, this overview describes the status of diagnosis and treatment, and the screening programme. For further evaluating the potential overdiagnosis and overtreatment, additional Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG...

  15. Entrapped in group solidarity? Animal welfare, the ethical positions of farmers and the difficult search for alternatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooij, de S.J.G.; Lauwere, de C.C.; Ploeg, van der J.D.

    2010-01-01

    Animal welfare in today's husbandry systems has become the subject of intense public debate, especially in the Netherlands. The debate reflects the moral tensions that exist between farmers, on the one hand, and the general public on the other, whose attitudes towards animal welfare vary

  16. Scandinavian Model of Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamson, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Within the so-called welfare modeling business Scandinavia stands out as a space with a particular welfare regime. It is a peculiar combination of market, state, and civil societal interventions into people's social life, that define this welfare regime. The particular welfare mix emphasizes...... universal public interventions and a high degree of employment in the formal labor market for all. The thesis promoted in this paper is, that the Scandinavian welfare regime ought to be highly desirable elsewhere, but unfortunately rather difficult to replicate, because it is premised upon a set...

  17. WELFARE ASPECTS OF THE LONG DISTANCE TRANSPORTATION OF CATTLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EVANGELIA N. SOSSIDOU

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper sets out to examine the facts behind the trade of long distance transportation of cattle. In particular it looks at the various welfare implications during handling and transport with examples from research work on cattle. The role of the science is explained and the methodology for assessing the welfare of animals is then presented. Finally, public concerns and legal position are presented as they play an important role to promote farm animal welfare principles during transportation.

  18. Papers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    The chapters in this Volume 7 of a series of PAPERS are based on papers published in the period 2004 - 2008 authored/co-authored by Palle Thoft-Christensen......The chapters in this Volume 7 of a series of PAPERS are based on papers published in the period 2004 - 2008 authored/co-authored by Palle Thoft-Christensen...

  19. THE SOCIAL SCIENTISTS LOOK AT LATIN AMERICA--SIX POSITION PAPERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    CONROY, WILLIAM B.; GILL, CLARK C.

    THIS COLLECTION OF SIX POSITION PAPERS ON LATIN AMERICA WAS PREPARED BY UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS SPECIALISTS IN THE FIELD OF GEOGRAPHY, HISTORY, ECONOMICS, SOCIOLOGY, ANTHROPOLOGY, AND GOVERNMENT. EACH WAS ASKED TO WRITE A POSITION PAPER ON WHAT A HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATE, OR A REASONABLY LITERATE ADULT, OUGHT TO KNOW ABOUT LATIN AMERICA FROM THE…

  20. EPOS 2012: European position paper on rhinosinusitis and nasal polyps 2012. A summary for otorhinolaryngologists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokkens, Wytske J.; Lund, Valerie J.; Mullol, Joachim; Bachert, Claus; Alobid, Isam; Baroody, Fuad; Cohen, Noam; Cervin, Anders; Douglas, Richard; Gevaert, Philippe; Georgalas, Christos; Goossens, Herman; Harvey, Richard; Hellings, Peter; Hopkins, Claire; Jones, Nick; Joos, Guy; Kalogjera, Livije; Kern, Bob; Kowalski, Marek; Price, David; Riechelmann, Herbert; Schlosser, Rodney; Senior, Brent; Thomas, Mike; Toskala, Elina; Voegels, Richard; Wang, De Yun; Wormald, Peter John

    2012-01-01

    The European Position Paper on Rhinosinusitis and Nasal Polyps 2012 is the update of similar evidence based position papers published in 2005 and 2007. The document contains chapters on definitions and classification, we now also propose definitions for 'difficult to treat' rhinosinusitis, control

  1. Assessing the importance of natural behavior for animal welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bracke, M.B.M.; Hopster, H.

    2006-01-01

    The concept of natural behavior is a key element in current Dutch policy-making on animal welfare. It emphasizes that animals need positive experiences, in addition to minimized suffering. This paper interprets the concept of natural behavior in the context of the scientific framework for welfare

  2. Welfare State Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obinger, Herbert; Starke, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes welfare state transformation in OECD countries since the 1970s against the background of the post-war settlement. Relying on quantitative macro-data and qualitative information from the literature, we show that welfare states have con-verged, especially regarding various...... spending measures, and also to a certain extent in some qualitative policy-making patterns. What has emerged can best be described as the ‘supply-side welfare state’ model, and this overall orientation is reflected in many wel-fare state areas. We differ from earlier prognoses of a race to the bottom...... by generous welfare states and disagree with the view that a supply-side orientation equals ‘lean government’ in terms of social expenditure. But convergence implies that the space to maneuver has shrunk for policy-makers. The consequences of the 2008 financial crisis for welfare states are difficult...

  3. The specific-stress-free housing system has positive effects on productivity, health, and welfare of pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ekkel, E.D.; Doorn, van C.E.A.; Hessing, M.J.C.; Tielen, M.J.M.

    1996-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the health, welfare, and growth performance of pigs housed under optimal climatic conditions in a Specific-Stress-Free (SSF) housing system. This system was compared to a conventional housing system with the same climatic conditions. Two identical

  4. Vaccines and vaccination against yellow fever: WHO Position Paper, June 2013--recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    This article presents the World Health Organizations (WHO) evidence and recommendations for the use of yellow fever (YF) vaccination from "Vaccines and vaccination against yellow fever: WHO Position Paper - June 2013" published in the Weekly Epidemiological Record. This position paper summarizes the WHO position on the use of YF vaccination, in particular that a single dose of YF vaccine is sufficient to confer sustained life-long protective immunity against YF disease. A booster dose is not necessary. The current document replaces the position paper on the use of yellow fever vaccines and vaccination published in 2003. Footnotes to this paper provide a number of core references. In accordance with its mandate to provide guidance to Member States on health policy matters, WHO issues a series of regularly updated position papers on vaccines and combinations of vaccines against diseases that have an international public health impact. These papers are concerned primarily with the use of vaccines in large-scale immunization programmes; they summarize essential background information on diseases and vaccines, and conclude with WHO's current position on the use of vaccines in the global context. This paper reflects the recommendations of WHO's Strategic Advisory Group of Experts (SAGE) on immunization. These recommendations were discussed by SAGE at its April 2013 meeting. Evidence presented at the meeting can be accessed at http://www.who.int/immunization/sage/previous/en/index.html. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. The Nordic Welfare Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Helle; Thrane, Claus

     The aim of this paper is to elucidate the impact of welfare policies on women's entrepreneurship because the benefits of these policies do not reflect in the numbers of female entrepreneurs. These are consistently similar to those in other countries that do not have a similar welfare model. Henc...

  6. Market Access and Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis; Woodland, Alan D.

    2015-01-01

    Well known tariff reform rules that are guaranteed to increase welfare will not necessarily increase market access, while rules that are guaranteed to increase market access will not necessarily increase welfare. The present paper proposes a new set of tariff reforms that can achieve both objecti...

  7. Acute Cardiovascular Care Association Position Paper on Intensive Cardiovascular Care Units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnefoy-Cudraz, Eric; Bueno, Hector; Casella, Gianni

    2018-01-01

    Acute cardiovascular care has progressed considerably since the last position paper was published 10 years ago. It is now a well-defined, complex field with demanding multidisciplinary teamworking. The Acute Cardiovascular Care Association has provided this update of the 2005 position paper on ac...... for the inclusion of acute cardiac care and intensive cardiovascular care units within a hospital network, linking university medical centres, large community hospitals, and smaller hospitals with more limited capabilities.......Acute cardiovascular care has progressed considerably since the last position paper was published 10 years ago. It is now a well-defined, complex field with demanding multidisciplinary teamworking. The Acute Cardiovascular Care Association has provided this update of the 2005 position paper...... on acute cardiovascular care organisation, using a multinational working group. The patient population has changed, and intensive cardiovascular care units now manage a large range of conditions from those simply requiring specialised monitoring, to critical cardiovascular diseases with associated multi...

  8. Reducing turnover is not enough: The need for proficient organizational cultures to support positive youth outcomes in child welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glisson, Charles

    2013-01-01

    Objective High caseworker turnover has been identified as a factor in the poor outcomes of child welfare services. However, almost no empirical research has examined the relationship between caseworker turnover and youth outcomes in child welfare systems and there is an important knowledge gap regarding whether, and how, caseworker turnover relates to outcomes for youth. We hypothesized that the effects of caseworker turnover are moderated by organizational culture such that reduced caseworker turnover is only associated with improved youth outcomes in organizations with proficient cultures. Methods The study applied hierarchical linear models (HLM) analysis to the second National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-being (NSCAW II) with a U.S. nationwide sample of 2,346 youth aged 1.5- to 18-years-old and 1,544 caseworkers in 73 child welfare agencies. Proficient organizational culture was measured by caseworkers’ responses to the Organizational Social Context (OSC) measure; staff turnover was reported by the agencies’ directors; and youth outcomes were measured as total problems in psychosocial functioning with the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) completed by the youths’ caregivers at intake and at 18 month follow-up. Results The association between caseworker turnover and youth outcomes was moderated by organizational culture. Youth outcomes were improved with lower staff turnover in proficient organizational cultures and the best outcomes occurred in organizations with low turnover and high proficiency. Conclusions To be successful, efforts to improve child welfare services by lowering staff turnover must also create proficient cultures that expect caseworkers to be competent and responsive to the needs of the youth and families they serve. PMID:24273363

  9. Technologcal Literacy in welfare professions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busch-Jensen, Peter; Kondrup, Sissel

    to be ‘welfare technological literate’ – both generally as well as within specific welfare professions. Secondly to support the development of a helpful educational framework that enables students to develop welfare technological literacy. This paper discusses some difficulties and preliminary findings...

  10. Assessment of welfare in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Antonella Volpelli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the definition given by Appleby (1996, animal welfare represents the state of well-being brought about by meeting the physical, environmental, nutritional, behavioural and social needs of the animal or groups of animals under the care, supervision or influence of people. Suitable husbandry techniques and disease control (in which man is directly involved may satisfy an animal’s physical, environmental and nutritive needs. However, it cannot be stated that people’s supervision or influence always guarantee the satisfaction of behavioural and social needs. Thus, special attention must be paid to these factors in intensive husbandry. This paper calls attention to the main factors characterizing pig welfare on the basis of productive, physiological, pathological and behavioural indicators; to the behavioural needs, which are characterised by several peculiar traits (it is noteworthy that, since the beginning, all categories of reared pigs have been involved in welfare legislation; to all categories of pigs that often show the effects of negative stimuli on their behaviour (limitations, variations; to the main critical points on the farm likely to cause welfare impairment or stress including buildings, inner facilities, space allowance, microclimate, lighting systems, environmental stressors, feeding management, mutilations, weaning, social factors, and stockmanship; and to environmental stressors including dust, odours (especially ammonia and noises. This paper takes into account sources, effects and possible solutions for noises; the positive effect of fibrous feeding; environmental enrichment and other possible techniques for improving social status and for preventing/reducing stereotypic behaviour and abnormal reactions (e.g. tail biting. The scientific/objective evaluation of welfare for intensively reared pigs may be carried out by means of direct observation of the animals themselves (animal-based or encompassing performance

  11. Welfare migration

    OpenAIRE

    Giulietti, Corrado; Wahba, Jackline

    2012-01-01

    This chapter reviews and discusses major theories and empirical studies about the welfare magnet hypothesis, i.e. whether immigrants are more likely to move to countries with generous welfare systems. Although economic theory predicts that welfare generosity affects the number, composition and location of immigrants, the empirical evidence is rather mixed. We offer possible explanations for the existence of such mixed evidence and highlight that the literature so far has overlooked the presen...

  12. Universal Design and Welfare Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brynn, Rudolph

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents the background for the increased interest for and use of welfare technology. It discusses current definitions of welfare technology and suggests a typology of this technology based on the different definitions. It compares the definitions with that of assistive technology and endeavors to draw a clearer limit between them, in particular related to possibilities to utilize the principle of universal design on welfare technology. The issue of operationalization requirements of universal design to welfare technology through standardization is also discussed. Finally, the paper suggests what elements should be part of a new definition of welfare technology.

  13. Transition management and the sustainable nutrients economy in the Netherlands: positioning paper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoppe, Thomas; Arentsen, Maarten J.; Mikkila, M.; Linnanen, L.

    2012-01-01

    In this positioning paper transition management (TM) and the sustainable nutrient economy are addressed. We discuss TM from its scholarly origins in the 1990’s to its implementation as a comprehensive sector-wide policy program on sustainability in The Netherlands during the first decade of the

  14. Four-year-BS-position-paper.pdf | misc docs | academy | Indian ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; academy; misc docs; Four-year-BS-position-paper.pdf. 404! error. The page your are looking for can not be found! Please check the link or use the navigation bar at the top. YouTube · Twitter · Facebook · Blog. Academy News. IAS Logo. Good Governance: Contribution of Vigilance · Vigilance Awareness Talk Talk by ...

  15. Effect of Items Direction (Positive or Negative) on the Reliability in Likert Scale. Paper-11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gul, Showkeen Bilal Ahmad; Qasem, Mamun Ali Naji; Bhat, Mehraj Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    In this paper an attempt was made to analyze the effect of items direction (positive or negative) on the Alpha Cronbach reliability coefficient and the Split Half reliability coefficient in Likert scale. The descriptive survey research method was used for the study and sample of 510 undergraduate students were selected by used random sampling…

  16. CASP Position Paper: Specific Learning Disabilities and Patterns of Strengths and Weaknesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christo, Catherine; Ponzuric, Jenny

    2017-01-01

    California Association of School Psychologists (CASP) adopted a Position Paper in March, 2014 intended to support school psychologists in California in electing to use a process known as Patterns of Strengths and Weaknesses (PSW) as one of three methods specified in IDEA 2014 and California Code of Regulations, Title 5, to identify students being…

  17. Proposed Standards for Education in Online Searching in the Professional Librarianship Curriculum. Position Paper No. 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mignon, Edmond, Ed.

    This position paper, from a March 1978 institute for library educators on teaching techniques for online searching in professional librarianship programs, recognizes two types of teaching programs currently in existence. One of these is consciousness raising, which stresses a basic understanding and appreciation of concepts and issues, and is…

  18. Changing Perception of Physical Properties using Multimodal Augmented Reality: Position Paper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lugtenberg, Geert; Sandor, Christian; Hürst, W.O.; Plopski, Alexander; Taketomi, Takafumi; Kato, Hirokazu; Rosa, N.E.

    2016-01-01

    By means of augmented reality (AR) systems it has become increasingly easy to manipulate our perception of real objects. In this position paper we review existing work that changes physical property perception, and propose methods for changing perceived object density during haptic interaction. Our

  19. Position Paper for Guiding Response to Non-Suicidal Self-Injury in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasking, Penelope A.; Heath, Nancy L.; Kaess, Michael; Lewis, Stephen P.; Plener, Paul L.; Walsh, Barent W.; Whitlock, Janis; Wilson, Marc S.

    2016-01-01

    Around the world, school staff are increasingly expressing concern about nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) and how best to address this behavior in the school setting. However, there is a notable lack of informed guidance for schools, and clear inconsistencies in the practices school staff adopt. In this position paper we draw on our collective…

  20. On how AI & Law can help autonomous systems obey the law: a position paper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prakken, Hendrik

    2016-01-01

    In this position paper I discuss to what extent current and past AI & law research is relevant for research on autonomous intelligent systems that exhibit legally relevant behaviour. After a brief review of the history of AI & law, I will compare the problems faced by autonomous intelligent systems

  1. Who cares about fish welfare?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellingsen, Kristian; Grimsrud, Kristine; Nielsen, Hanne Marie

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is threefold: first, to assess how concerned Norwegians are about fish welfare; second, to investigate Norwegians’ willingness to pay for salmon filet made from welfare-assured farmed fish with high levels of welfare; and third, to examine Norwegian opinions...... about the appropriate way to pay for better welfare standards in fish production. Design/methodology/approach – On the basis of two focus group sessions, a survey questionnaire was developed and distributed to a representative sample of 2,147 Norwegian households via e-mail. Findings – Results showed...... that the Norwegian public is concerned about fish welfare and is willing to pay a price premium for products made from welfare-assured fish. Norwegian consumers do not, however, want to be the only ones paying for fish welfare, as the main responsibility for fish welfare lies with producers and the Government...

  2. Market Access and Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis; Woodland, Alan D.

    objectives of trade policy is problematic and calls for finding alternative tariff reform rules that can achieve both objectives at the same time. The present paper contributes to this aim by using a new set of tariff reforms that are based on local optimality. Using such reforms it is shown that market......According to the literature, well known tariff reform rules that are guaranteed to increase welfare will not necessarily increase market access, while rules that are guaranteed to increase market access will not necessarily increase welfare. Such conflict between welfare and market access...

  3. Animal welfare and eggs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Laura Mørch

    This paper identifies revealed willingness to pay for animal welfare using a panel mixed logit model allowing for correlation between willingness to pay for different types of production. We utilize a unique household level panel, combining real purchases with survey data on perceived public...... and private good attributes of different types of eggs. We find that the estimated correlations are consistent with the levels of animal welfare, and that consumers perceiving a stronger connection between animal welfare and the organic label have higher willingness to pay for organic eggs, even when we...

  4. European welfare states beyond neoliberalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamson, Peter

    2010-01-01

    . Social policies are no longer regarded as a burden on economies, but rather as investment in human capital. Hence, we are now beyond neo-liberalism. Secondly, the widespread welfare reforms in Europe must be distinguished according to welfare regime. Thus, the paper discusses welfare reform within five...... identifying retrenchment even if parts of the literature do argue for such a perspective. This seeming contradiction within the scholarly community calls for a more precise definition of all three import concepts: What should be understood by neo-liberal reform or a neo-liberal approach? Which welfare...... of benefits and an increase in risks and coverage. Therefore, the remainder of the paper discusses in more detail particular welfare reforms within each of the five welfare regimes. It is concluded that problems of welfare state development differ within the different regimes, but a strong commitment...

  5. The Labor Supply Effects of Welfare Reform

    OpenAIRE

    Bartik, Timothy J.

    1998-01-01

    Will welfare reform increase unemployment and reduce wages? The answer depends in part on how much welfare reform increases labor supply. This paper considers the labor supply effects of the welfare reforms that have occurred since 1993, when President Clinton entered office with a promise to "end welfare as we know it." The paper reviews previous estimates, and provides new estimates, of how many additional labor force participants have entered the labor force due to welfare reform. I estima...

  6. Employment and Welfare Reform in the National Survey of America's Families. Discussion Papers. Assessing the New Federalism: An Urban Institute Program To Assess Changing Social Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loprest, Pamela; Wissoker, Douglas

    Data from the National Survey of America's Families (NSAF) in 13 states for 1997 and 1999 was used to study how welfare reform policies, mandated by the 1996 passage of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act, affected employment of single mothers with children. The states were Alabama, California, Colorado, Florida,…

  7. The Limitations of Standardized Science Tests as Benchmarks for Artificial Intelligence Research: Position Paper

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Ernest

    2014-01-01

    In this position paper, I argue that standardized tests for elementary science such as SAT or Regents tests are not very good benchmarks for measuring the progress of artificial intelligence systems in understanding basic science. The primary problem is that these tests are designed to test aspects of knowledge and ability that are challenging for people; the aspects that are challenging for AI systems are very different. In particular, standardized tests do not test knowledge that is obvious...

  8. Technology and Poultry Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Sassi, Neila; Averós, Xavier; Estevez, Inma

    2016-01-01

    Consideration of animal welfare is essential to address the consumers’ demands and for the long term sustainability of commercial poultry. However, assessing welfare in large poultry flocks, to be able to detect potential welfare risks and to control or minimize its impact is difficult. Current developments in technology and mathematical modelling open new possibilities for real-time automatic monitoring of animal welfare and health. New technological innovations potentially adaptable to commercial poultry are appearing, although their practical implementation is still being defined. In this paper, we review the latest technological developments with potential to be applied to poultry welfare, especially for broiler chickens and laying hens. Some of the examples that are presented and discussed include the following: sensors for farm environmental monitoring, movement, or physiological parameters; imaging technologies such as optical flow to detect gait problems and feather pecking; infrared technologies to evaluate birds’ thermoregulatory features and metabolism changes, that may be indicative of welfare, health and management problems. All these technologies have the potential to be implemented at the commercial level to improve birds’ welfare and to optimize flock management, therefore, improving the efficiency of the system in terms of use of resources and, thus, long term sustainability. PMID:27727169

  9. Technology and Poultry Welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neila Ben Sassi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Consideration of animal welfare is essential to address the consumers’ demands and for the long term sustainability of commercial poultry. However, assessing welfare in large poultry flocks, to be able to detect potential welfare risks and to control or minimize its impact is difficult. Current developments in technology and mathematical modelling open new possibilities for real-time automatic monitoring of animal welfare and health. New technological innovations potentially adaptable to commercial poultry are appearing, although their practical implementation is still being defined. In this paper, we review the latest technological developments with potential to be applied to poultry welfare, especially for broiler chickens and laying hens. Some of the examples that are presented and discussed include the following: sensors for farm environmental monitoring, movement, or physiological parameters; imaging technologies such as optical flow to detect gait problems and feather pecking; infrared technologies to evaluate birds’ thermoregulatory features and metabolism changes, that may be indicative of welfare, health and management problems. All these technologies have the potential to be implemented at the commercial level to improve birds’ welfare and to optimize flock management, therefore, improving the efficiency of the system in terms of use of resources and, thus, long term sustainability.

  10. Demand and welfare effects in recreational travel models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellström, Jörgen; Nordström, Leif Jonas

    In this paper we present a non-linear demand system for households.joint choice of number of trips and days to spend at a destination. The approach, which facilitates welfare analysis of exogenous policy and price changes, is used empirically to study the e¤ects of an increased CO2 tax...... for the households welfare loss. Approximating the welfare loss by the change in consumer surplus, accounting for the positive e¤ect from longer stays, imposes a lower bound on the households welfare loss. From a distributional point of view, the results reveal that the CO2 tax reform is regressive, in the sense....... In the empirical study, a bivariate zero-in.ated Poisson lognormal regression model is introduced in order to accommodate the large number of zeroes in the sample. The welfare analysis reveals that the equivalent variation (EV) measure, for the count data demand system, can be seen as an upper bound...

  11. Political Parties’ Welfare Image, Electoral Punishment and Welfare State Retrenchment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schumacher, Gijs; Vis, Barbara; van Kersbergen, Kees

    2013-01-01

    Will voters punish the government for cutting back welfare state entitlements? The comparative literature on the welfare state suggests that the answer is yes. Unless governments are effectively employing strategies of blame avoidance, retrenchment leads to vote loss. Because a large majority...... of voters supports the welfare state, the usual assumption is that retrenchment backfires equally on all political parties. This study contributes to an emerging body of research that demonstrates that this assumption is incorrect. On the basis of a regression analysis of the electoral fate of the governing...... parties of 14 OECD countries between 1970 and 2002, we show that most parties with a positive welfare image lose after they implemented cutbacks, whereas most parties with a negative welfare image do not. In addition, we show that positive welfare image parties in opposition gain votes, at the expense...

  12. Is patient confidentiality compromised with the electronic health record?: a position paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Ilse M

    2015-02-01

    In order for electronic health records to fulfill their expected benefits, protection of privacy of patient information is key. Lack of trust in confidentiality can lead to reluctance in disclosing all relevant information, which could have grave consequences. This position paper contemplates whether patient confidentiality is compromised by electronic health records. The position that confidentiality is compromised was supported by the four bioethical principles and argued that despite laws and various safeguards to protect patients' confidentiality, numerous data breaches have occurred. The position that confidentiality is not compromised was supported by virtue ethics and a utilitarian viewpoint and argued that safeguards keep information confidential and the public feels relatively safe with the electronic health record. The article concludes with an ethically superior position that confidentiality is compromised with the electronic health record. Although organizational and governmental ways of enhancing the confidentiality of patient information within the electronic health record facilitate confidentiality, the ultimate responsibility of maintaining confidentiality rests with the individual end-users and their ethical code of conduct. The American Nurses Association Code of Ethics for nurses calls for nurses to be watchful with data security in electronic communications.

  13. Cotton price change and welfare in Togo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anani Nourredine Mensah

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses the evaluation of net benefit ratios applied to survey data on households to appreciate the effects of international price of cotton on the welfare of producers in Togo. It needs first to trace the difference between international prices and those paid to domestic producers. Furthermore, given that households are producers of these goods, we use a revenue function that depends on the remuneration of labor, other earnings and profit that in turn depends on the price paid to producers and land ownership. For estimates, the effect of welfare, which is captured by the compensating variation, is the result of the share of the average cotton income in average total income multiplied by the change in the price of cotton. Our results with QUIBB 2006 and 2011 survey data reveal that the impact of a price change on the compensating variation gives a welfare change relatively higher for poor households. However, this effect remains low, considering whether a change in producer prices or in international price. A simulation of a potential effect of the change in the producer price of 50% of the differential of the two prices, and the positive impact on social welfare that results appears stronger. This positive change in welfare is reversely associated to the wealth of households.

  14. Position paper concerning substance related enviromental monitoring: short version; Positionspapier zum stoffbezogenen Umweltmonitoring. Kurzfassung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, W.; Schroeter-Kermani, N.T.; Schulze, T.; Schwarzbauer, J.; Theobald, N.; Trenck, K.T. von der; Wagner, G.; Wiesmueller, G.A. [Arbeitskreis Umweltmonitoring in der GDCh-Fachgruppe Umweltchemie und Oekotoxikologie (Germany); Ruedel, H.; Bester, K.; Eisentraeger, A.; Franzaring, J.; Haarich, M.; Koehler, J.; Koerner, W.; Oehlmann, J.; Paschke, A.; Ricking, M.

    2008-07-01

    Background: Due to the requirements of the EU Water Framework Directive and other legal regulations (e.g., national laws like the German Federal Soil Protection Act), but also due to the implementation of the new EU chemicals management system REACh, environmental monitoring will gain increasing importance for the surveillance of environmental quality. Therefore, the Working Group on 'Environmental Monitoring' of the Division of 'Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology' within the German Chemical Society has compiled a position paper on substance-related environmental monitoring. Scope: The main focus of the position paper is the coverage of aspects which have to be observed for the preparation and implementation of a monitoring program. Essential is the clear specification of the targets which determine the development of the monitoring concept and its realization. Of course, also the properties of the substances are important (e.g. lipophilicity/bioaccumulation as pre-requisite for an exposure monitoring with organisms). Moreover, important aspects of the phases sample planning, sampling, storage and transport of samples, selection of analytical methods, quality assurance as well as reporting are discussed. Perspectives: An important issue for the future is to link chemical analyses (exposure and pollution monitoring) more closely to the study of biological effects (effect monitoring) than it was the case up to now. By this means and a spatial differentiation an as comprehensive as possible evaluation of the state of an ecosystem should be obtained and the relevance of the results be improved. (orig.)

  15. The Portuguese Society of Rheumatology position paper on the use of biosimilars - 2017 update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe C. Araújo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Biosimilars are new and more affordable similar versions of previously approved reference biological drugs. Following the approval of the first monoclonal antibody biosimilar in 2013, the Portuguese Society of Rheumatology issued a position paper on the use of biosimilars in rheumatic conditions covering efficacy, safety, extrapolation, interchangeability, substitution and pharmacovigilance. However, as this is a rapidly evolving field, it was felt that the knowledge and evidence gathered since then justified an update of these statements. Literature searches on these issues were performed and the search results were presented and discussed in a national meeting. Portuguese rheumatologists considered that affordability should be taken into consideration when initiating a biological drug, but other factors were equally important. In patients already on reference biological treatment, switch to a more affordable biosimilar is desirable, provided a set of conditions is rigorously met. Automatic substitution is not acceptable and current evidence is insufficient to support interchangeability. Extrapolation of clinical indications is endorsed by Portuguese rheumatologists, and the statements on safety, pharmacovigilance and traceability are in accordance with the previous position paper.

  16. Animal Welfare: Data from an Online Consultation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sechi, Paola; Baldinelli, Chiara; Iulietto, Maria F; Goga, Beniamino T Cenci

    2015-11-02

    This paper analyses data obtained from an online survey related to animal welfare and religious slaughter topics. The questionnaire was conducted with the purpose of examining the purchase behaviour of a group of consumers (with different religious orientation) and their views on animal protection and ritual slaughter. The main results of the consultation were two. The first evidenced the respondents' great interest about the question on animal welfare, which is in accordance with the growing interest of European citizens concerning this issue. The second was the demand for a more transparent labelling of animal products, which would also reflect animal welfare and the slaughter method used. These results are in contrast with marketing analysis, which finds that consumers want to only receive positive information. Paradoxically, the more information is transmitted to reassure consumers, the higher is the risk to alarm them.

  17. Animal welfare: data from an online consultation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Sechi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses data obtained from an online survey related to animal welfare and religious slaughter topics. The questionnaire was conducted with the purpose of examining the purchase behaviour of a group of consumers (with different religious orientation and their views on animal protection and ritual slaughter. The main results of the consultation were two. The first evidenced the respondents’ great interest about the question on animal welfare, which is in accordance with the growing interest of European citizens concerning this issue. The second was the demand for a more transparent labelling of animal products, which would also reflect animal welfare and the slaughter method used. These results are in contrast with marketing analysis, which finds that consumers want to only receive positive information. Paradoxically, the more information is transmitted to reassure consumers, the higher is the risk to alarm them.

  18. Welfare Rights in the Liberal Tradition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, Thomas A.

    1990-01-01

    Maintains that welfare rights are not incompatible with liberalism's commitment to private property and freedom. Argues that students need to be aware of liberalism's favorable historical position on welfare. Examines the positions of John Locke, Thomas Paine, and John Stuart Mills on poverty, welfare, and the role of the state. (RW)

  19. Management of familial heterozygous hypercholesterolemia: Position Paper of the Polish Lipid Expert Forum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rynkiewicz, Andrzej; Cybulska, Barbara; Banach, Maciej; Filipiak, Krzysztof; Guzik, Tomasz; Idzior-Waluś, Barbara; Imiela, Jacek; Jankowski, Piotr; Kłosiewicz-Latoszek, Longina; Limon, Janusz; Myśliwiec, Małgorzata; Opolski, Grzegorz; Steciwko, Andrzej; Stępińska, Janina; Zdrojewski, Tomasz

    2013-01-01

    Heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HFH) affects on average 1 in 500 individuals in European countries, and it is estimated that HeFH in Poland may affect more than 80,000 people. Cardiovascular mortality in individuals with FH between 20 and 39 years of age is 100 times higher than in the general population. HFH is a relatively common lipid disorder, but usually still remaining undiagnosed and untreated. A very high risk of cardiovascular diseases and a shortened lifespan in patients with this condition require early diagnosis and intensive treatment. The aim of the position paper was to present the importance and scale of this problem in Poland, which has not been raised enough so far, as well as the recommendations of diagnosis, treatment and prevention methods. Copyright © 2013 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Climate Change and Health: A Position Paper of the American College of Physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Ryan A

    2016-05-03

    Climate change could have a devastating effect on human and environmental health. Potential effects of climate change on human health include higher rates of respiratory and heat-related illness, increased prevalence of vector-borne and waterborne diseases, food and water insecurity, and malnutrition. Persons who are elderly, sick, or poor are especially vulnerable to these potential consequences. Addressing climate change could have substantial benefits to human health. In this position paper, the American College of Physicians (ACP) recommends that physicians and the broader health care community throughout the world engage in environmentally sustainable practices that reduce carbon emissions; support efforts to mitigate and adapt to the effects of climate change; and educate the public, their colleagues, their community, and lawmakers about the health risks posed by climate change. Tackling climate change is an opportunity to dramatically improve human health and avert dire environmental outcomes, and ACP believes that physicians can play a role in achieving this goal.

  1. Desensitization in delayed drug hypersensitivity reactions -- an EAACI position paper of the Drug Allergy Interest Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, K; Brockow, K; Aberer, W; Gooi, J H C; Demoly, P; Romano, A; Schnyder, B; Whitaker, P; Cernadas, J S R; Bircher, A J

    2013-07-01

    Drug hypersensitivity may deprive patients of drug therapy, and occasionally no effective alternative treatment is available. Successful desensitization has been well documented in delayed drug hypersensitivity reactions. In certain situations, such as sulfonamide hypersensitivity in HIV-positive patients or hypersensitivity to antibiotics in patients with cystic fibrosis, published success rates reach 80%, and this procedure appears helpful for the patient management. A state of clinical tolerance may be achieved by the administration of increasing doses of the previously offending drug. However, in most cases, a pre-existent sensitization has not been proven by positive skin tests. Successful re-administration may have occurred in nonsensitized patients. A better understanding of the underlying mechanisms of desensitization is needed. Currently, desensitization in delayed hypersensitivity reactions is restricted to mild, uncomplicated exanthems and fixed drug eruptions. The published success rates vary depending on clinical manifestations, drugs, and applied protocols. Slower protocols tend to be more effective than rush protocols; however, underreporting of unsuccessful procedures is very probable. The decision to desensitize a patient must always be made on an individual basis, balancing risks and benefits. This paper reviews the literature and presents the expert experience of the Drug Hypersensitivity Interest Group of the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Position paper on management of iron deficiency in adult cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barni, Sandro; Gascòn, Pere; Petrelli, Fausto; García-Erce, José Antonio; Pedrazzoli, Paolo; Rosti, Giovanni; Giordano, Giulio; Mafodda, Antonio; Múñoz, Manuel

    2017-08-01

    Disorders of iron metabolism are commonly seen in onco-hematological clinical practice. Iron-deficiency anemia and cancer-associated anemia are usually treated with supportive therapies. Optimal management of these conditions are discussed in this perspective paper. Areas covered: A position paper discussing a number of hot topics on anemia in cancer patients is presented. The main areas covered by experts in the field are: definitions, prevalence and consequences of anemia and iron deficiency, incidence of anemia resulting from targeted therapies, importance of anemia diagnosis and monitoring, evaluation of iron status before and during treatment, role of transfusions and erythropoiesis-stimulating agents, management of iron deficiency with or without anemia, parenteral iron supplementation, role of new oral iron formulations, safety and cost issues regarding different iron compounds and administration routes. Expert commentary: Despite the availability of newer therapeutic options for its management, anemia still represents a major complication of treatment in cancer patients (surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, targeted therapies), aggravating physical impairment, and negatively affecting general outcome. The view expressed by the panelists, attendees of the 4th Mediterranean Course on Iron Anemia, summarizes what they consider optimal clinical practice for screening, diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of iron deficiency and anemia in cancer patients.

  3. Inequality and Social Welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Wodon, Quentin; Yitzhaki, Shlomo

    2002-01-01

    This paper provides a review of part of the literature on inequality and social welfare, with a special focus on the Gini index. The paper first presents the extended Gini index used for measuring inequality, as well as the source decomposition of the Gini used to analyze how changes in income and consumption sources affect overall inequality. The paper then provides a wide range of policy applications of the source decomposition of the extended Gini index, including techniques for analyzing ...

  4. Activating Welfare States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Jon

    This paper investigates how welfare states may actively contribute to promote employment opportunities, i.e. participation in the labour market through various operations and policies. The principal operations concern in particular the de-familiarisation of caring tasks through social services...

  5. Temporomandibular disorders: A position paper of the International College of Cranio-Mandibular Orthopedics (ICCMO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Barry C

    2011-07-01

    Two principal schools of thought regarding the etiology and optimal treatment of temporomandibular disorders exist; one physical/functional, the other biopsychosocial. This position paper establishes the scientific basis for the physical/functional. THE ICCMO POSITION: Temporomandibular disorders (TMD) comprise a group of musculoskeletal disorders, affecting alterations in the structure and/or function of the temporomandibular joints (TMJ), masticatory muscles, dentition and supporting structures. The initial TMD diagnosis is based on history, clinical examination and imaging, if indicated. Diagnosis is greatly enhanced with physiologic measurement devices, providing objective measurements of the functional status of the masticatory system: TMJs, muscles and dental occlusion. The American Alliance of TMD organizations represent thousands of clinicians involved in the treatment of TMD. The ten basic principles of the Alliance include the following statement: Dental occlusion may have a significant role in TMD; as a cause, precipitant and/or perpetuating factor. Therefore, it can be stated that the overwhelming majority of dentists treating TMD believe dental occlusion plays a major role in predisposition, precipitation and perpetuation. While our membership believes that occlusal treatments most frequently resolve TMD, it is recognized that TMD can be multi faceted and may exist with co-morbid physical or emotional factors that may require therapy by appropriate providers. The International College of Cranio-Mandibular Orthopedics (ICCMO), composed of academic and clinical dentists, believes that TMD has a primary physical/functional basis. Initial conservative and reversible TMD treatment employing a therapeutic neuromuscular orthosis that incorporates relaxed, healthy masticatory muscle function and a stable occlusion is most often successful. This is accomplished using objective measurement technologies and ultra low frequency transcutaneous electrical neural

  6. Predictive, Preventive and Personalised Medicine as the hardcore of 'Horizon 2020': EPMA position paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golubnitschaja, Olga; Kinkorova, Judita; Costigliola, Vincenzo

    2014-04-07

    The European Association for Predictive, Preventive and Personalised Medicine (EPMA) considers acute problems in medical sciences as well as the quality and management of medical services challenging health care systems in Europe and worldwide. This actuality has motivated the representatives of EPMA to comment on the efforts in promoting an integrative approach based on multidisciplinary expertise to advance health care-related research and management. The current paper provides a global overview of the problems related to medical services: pandemic scenario in the progression of common non-communicable diseases, delayed interventional approaches of reactive medicine, poor economy of health care systems, lack of specialised educational programmes, problematic ethical aspects of several treatments as well as inadequate communication among professional groups and policymakers. In the form of individual paragraphs, the article presents a consolidated position of PPPM professionals towards the new European programme 'Horizon 2020' providing the long-lasting instruments for scientific and technological progress in medical services and health care-related programmes. In the author's opinion, Horizon 2020 provides unlimited room for research and implementation in Predictive, Preventive and Personalised Medicine. However, the overall success of the programme strongly depends on the effective communication and consolidation of professionals relevant for PPPM as well as the communication quality with policymakers. Smart political decision is the prerequisite of the effective PPPM implementation in the health care sector. This position is focused on the patients' needs, innovative medical sciences, optimal health and disease management, expert recommendations for the relevant medical fields and optimal solutions which have a potential to advance health care services if the long-term strategies were to be effectively implemented as proposed here.

  7. Obstacles and opportunities in the functional analysis of extracellular vesicle RNA – an ISEV position paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateescu, Bogdan; Kowal, Emma J. K.; van Balkom, Bas W. M.; Bartel, Sabine; Bhattacharyya, Suvendra N.; Buzás, Edit I.; Buck, Amy H.; de Candia, Paola; Chow, Franklin W. N.; Das, Saumya; Driedonks, Tom A. P.; Fernández-Messina, Lola; Haderk, Franziska; Hill, Andrew F.; Jones, Jennifer C.; Van Keuren-Jensen, Kendall R.; Lai, Charles P.; Lässer, Cecilia; Liegro, Italia di; Lunavat, Taral R.; Lorenowicz, Magdalena J.; Maas, Sybren L. N.; Mäger, Imre; Mittelbrunn, Maria; Momma, Stefan; Mukherjee, Kamalika; Nawaz, Muhammed; Pegtel, D. Michiel; Pfaffl, Michael W.; Schiffelers, Raymond M.; Tahara, Hidetoshi; Théry, Clotilde; Tosar, Juan Pablo; Wauben, Marca H. M.; Witwer, Kenneth W.; Nolte-‘t Hoen, Esther N. M.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The release of RNA-containing extracellular vesicles (EV) into the extracellular milieu has been demonstrated in a multitude of different in vitro cell systems and in a variety of body fluids. RNA-containing EV are in the limelight for their capacity to communicate genetically encoded messages to other cells, their suitability as candidate biomarkers for diseases, and their use as therapeutic agents. Although EV-RNA has attracted enormous interest from basic researchers, clinicians, and industry, we currently have limited knowledge on which mechanisms drive and regulate RNA incorporation into EV and on how RNA-encoded messages affect signalling processes in EV-targeted cells. Moreover, EV-RNA research faces various technical challenges, such as standardisation of EV isolation methods, optimisation of methodologies to isolate and characterise minute quantities of RNA found in EV, and development of approaches to demonstrate functional transfer of EV-RNA in vivo. These topics were discussed at the 2015 EV-RNA workshop of the International Society for Extracellular Vesicles. This position paper was written by the participants of the workshop not only to give an overview of the current state of knowledge in the field, but also to clarify that our incomplete knowledge – of the nature of EV(-RNA)s and of how to effectively and reliably study them – currently prohibits the implementation of gold standards in EV-RNA research. In addition, this paper creates awareness of possibilities and limitations of currently used strategies to investigate EV-RNA and calls for caution in interpretation of the obtained data. PMID:28326170

  8. The Scandinavian Welfare States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siim, Birte

    1987-01-01

    and emphasises the need to explore the relationship between the family and the state ( and the family and the economy) in difefrent wefare states. The paper emphasises that the qualitative difference in the organization of care work are important for understanding the institutional differences for between...... the welfare states, and especially the Scandinavian welfare states, where motherhood and care work has to day bef´come part of social citizenship The auther argues that even though women have in important ways been empowered in the Scandinavian woefare states as mothers, workers and citizens, they have...

  9. Toward appropriate criteria in medication adherence assessment in older persons: Position Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giardini, Anna; Martin, Maria Teresa; Cahir, Caitriona; Lehane, Elaine; Menditto, Enrica; Strano, Maria; Pecorelli, Sergio; Monaco, Alessandro; Marengoni, Alessandra

    2016-06-01

    Nonadherence to medication regimens is a worldwide challenge; adherence rates range from 38 to 57 % in older populations with an average rate of less than 45 % and nonadherence contributes to adverse drug events, increased emergency visits and hospitalisations. Accurate measurement of medication adherence is important in terms of both research and clinical practice. However, the identification of an objective approach to measure nonadherence is still an ongoing challenge. The aim of this Position Paper is to describe the advantages and disadvantages of the known medication adherence tools (self-report, pill count, medication event monitoring system (MEMS) and electronic monitoring devices, therapeutic drug monitoring, pharmacy records based on pharmacy refill and pharmacy claims databases) to provide the appropriate criteria to assess medication adherence in older persons. To the best of our knowledge, no gold standard has been identified in adherence measurement and no single method is sufficiently reliable and accurate. A combination of methods appears to be the most suitable. Secondly, adherence assessment should always consider tools enabling polypharmacy adherence assessment. Moreover, it is increasingly evident that adherence, as a process, has to be assessed over time and not just at one evaluation time point (drug discontinuation). When cognitive deficits or functional impairments may impair reliability of adherence assessment, a comprehensive geriatric assessment should be performed and the caregiver involved. Finally, studies considering the possible implementation in clinical practice of adherence assessment tools validated in research are needed.

  10. Non-allergic rhinitis: Position paper of the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellings, P W; Klimek, L; Cingi, C; Agache, I; Akdis, C; Bachert, C; Bousquet, J; Demoly, P; Gevaert, P; Hox, V; Hupin, C; Kalogjera, L; Manole, F; Mösges, R; Mullol, J; Muluk, N B; Muraro, A; Papadopoulos, N; Pawankar, R; Rondon, C; Rundenko, M; Seys, S F; Toskala, E; Van Gerven, L; Zhang, L; Zhang, N; Fokkens, W J

    2017-11-01

    This EAACI position paper aims at providing a state-of-the-art overview on nonallergic rhinitis (NAR). A significant number of patients suffering from persistent rhinitis are defined as nonallergic noninfectious rhinitis (NANIR) patients, often denominated in short as having NAR. NAR is defined as a symptomatic inflammation of the nasal mucosa with the presence of a minimum of two nasal symptoms such as nasal obstruction, rhinorrhea, sneezing, and/or itchy nose, without clinical evidence of endonasal infection and without systemic signs of sensitization to inhalant allergens. Symptoms of NAR may have a wide range of severity and be either continuously present and/or induced by exposure to unspecific triggers, also called nasal hyperresponsiveness (NHR). NHR represents a clinical feature of both AR and NAR patients. NAR involves different subgroups: drug-induced rhinitis, (nonallergic) occupational rhinitis, hormonal rhinitis (including pregnancy rhinitis), gustatory rhinitis, senile rhinitis, and idiopathic rhinitis (IR). NAR should be distinguished from those rhinitis patients with an allergic reaction confined to the nasal mucosa, also called "entopy" or local allergic rhinitis (LAR). We here provide an overview of the current consensus on phenotypes of NAR, recommendations for diagnosis, a treatment algorithm, and defining the unmet needs in this neglected area of research. © 2017 EAACI and John Wiley and Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley and Sons Ltd.

  11. Repigmentation in vitiligo: position paper of the Vitiligo Global Issues Consensus Conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Emily Y; Eleftheriadou, Viktoria; Esmat, Samia; Hamzavi, Iltefat; Passeron, Thierry; Böhm, Markus; Anbar, Tag; Goh, Boon Kee; Lan, Cheng-Che E; Lui, Harvey; Ramam, M; Raboobee, Noufal; Katayama, Ichiro; Suzuki, Tamio; Parsad, Davinder; Seth, Vaneeta; Lim, Henry W; van Geel, Nanja; Mulekar, Sanjeev; Harris, John; Wittal, Richard; Benzekri, Laila; Gauthier, Yvon; Kumarasinghe, Prasad; Thng, Steven T G; Silva de Castro, Caio Cesar; Abdallah, Marwa; Vrijman, Charlotte; Bekkenk, Marcel; Seneschal, Julien; Pandya, Amit G; Ezzedine, Khaled; Picardo, Mauro; Taïeb, Alain

    2017-01-01

    The Vitiligo Global Issues Consensus Conference (VGICC), through an international e-Delphi consensus, concluded that 'repigmentation' and 'maintenance of gained repigmentation' are essential core outcome measures in future vitiligo trials. This VGICC position paper addresses these core topics in two sections and includes an atlas depicting vitiligo repigmentation patterns and color match. The first section delineates mechanisms and characteristics of vitiligo repigmentation, and the second section summarizes the outcomes of international meeting discussions and two e-surveys on vitiligo repigmentation, which had been carried out over 3 yr. Treatment is defined as successful if repigmentation exceeds 80% and at least 80% of the gained repigmentation is maintained for over 6 months. No agreement was found on the best outcome measure for assessing target or global repigmentation, therefore highlighting the limitations of e-surveys in addressing clinical measurements. Until there is a clear consensus, existing tools should be selected according to the specific needs of each study. A workshop will be conducted to address the remaining issues so as to achieve a consensus. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Statin intolerance - an attempt at a unified definition. Position paper from an International Lipid Expert Panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banach, Maciej; Rizzo, Manfredi; Toth, Peter P; Farnier, Michel; Davidson, Michael H; Al-Rasadi, Khalid; Aronow, Wilbert S; Athyros, Vasilis; Djuric, Dragan M; Ezhov, Marat V; Greenfield, Robert S; Hovingh, G Kees; Kostner, Karam; Serban, Corina; Lighezan, Daniel; Fras, Zlatko; Moriarty, Patrick M; Muntner, Paul; Goudev, Assen; Ceska, Richard; Nicholls, Stephen J; Broncel, Marlena; Nikolic, Dragana; Pella, Daniel; Puri, Raman; Rysz, Jacek; Wong, Nathan D; Bajnok, Laszlo; Jones, Steven R; Ray, Kausik K; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P

    2015-06-01

    Statins are one of the most commonly prescribed drugs in clinical practice. They are usually well tolerated and effectively prevent cardiovascular events. Most adverse effects associated with statin therapy are muscle-related. The recent statement of the European Atherosclerosis Society (EAS) has focused on statin-associated muscle symptoms (SAMS), and avoided the use of the term 'statin intolerance'. Although muscle syndromes are the most common adverse effects observed after statin therapy, excluding other side effects might underestimate the number of patients with statin intolerance, which might be observed in 10 - 15% of patients. In clinical practice, statin intolerance limits effective treatment of patients at risk of, or with, cardiovascular disease. Knowledge of the most common adverse effects of statin therapy that might cause statin intolerance and the clear definition of this phenomenon is crucial to effectively treat patients with lipid disorders. Therefore, the aim of this position paper was to suggest a unified definition of statin intolerance, and to complement the recent EAS statement on SAMS, where the pathophysiology, diagnosis and the management were comprehensively presented.

  13. Youth resistance training: updated position statement paper from the national strength and conditioning association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faigenbaum, Avery D; Kraemer, William J; Blimkie, Cameron J R; Jeffreys, Ian; Micheli, Lyle J; Nitka, Mike; Rowland, Thomas W

    2009-08-01

    Faigenbaum, AD, Kraemer, WJ, Blimkie, CJR, Jeffreys, I, Micheli, LJ, Nitka, M, and Rowland, TW. Youth resistance training: Updated position statement paper from the National Strength and Conditioning Association. J Strength Cond Res 23(5): S60-S79, 2009-Current recommendations suggest that school-aged youth should participate daily in 60 minutes or more of moderate to vigorous physical activity that is developmentally appropriate and enjoyable and involves a variety of activities (). Not only is regular physical activity essential for normal growth and development, but also a physically active lifestyle during the pediatric years may help to reduce the risk of developing some chronic diseases later in life (). In addition to aerobic activities such as swimming and bicycling, research increasingly indicates that resistance training can offer unique benefits for children and adolescents when appropriately prescribed and supervised (). The qualified acceptance of youth resistance training by medical, fitness, and sport organizations is becoming universal ().Nowadays, comprehensive school-based programs are specifically designed to enhance health-related components of physical fitness, which include muscular strength (). In addition, the health club and sport conditioning industry is getting more involved in the youth fitness market. In the U.S.A., the number of health club members between the ages of 6 and 17 years continues to increase () and a growing number of private sport conditioning centers now cater to young athletes. Thus, as more children and adolescents resistance train in schools, health clubs, and sport training centers, it is imperative to determine safe, effective, and enjoyable practices by which resistance training can improve the health, fitness, and sports performance of younger populations.The National Strength and Conditioning Association (NSCA) recognizes and supports the premise that many of the benefits associated with adult resistance training

  14. Hospital and homecare malnutrition and nutritional therapy in Brazil. Strategies for alleviating it: a position paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waitzberg, Dan Linetzky; De Aguilar-Nascimento, José Eduardo; Dias, Maria Carolina Gonçalves; Pinho, Nivaldo; Moura, Robson; Correia, Maria Isabel Toulson Davisson

    2017-07-28

    Malnutrition in hospitalized patients is not evaluated frequently. However, it is a critical issue given that it has been related to a high rate of infectious complications and increased mortality rates. There is a high prevalence of patients with nutritional impairment in the home environment, which favors their clinical worsening, the increase of re-hospitalizations and, consequently, the increase in public health expenditures. Nutrition experts have thoroughly discussed and written this positioning paper on hospital and homecare malnutrition to describe the prevalence of malnutrition in Brazil. Best practice recommendations for nutrition therapy of patients in hospital and homecare, in particular the use of oral nutritional supplements (ONS), to those who are at risk of malnutrition or malnourished were evaluated, and the impact on clinical and economic data were assessed. In addition, they emphasize that investments in oral nutritional supplementation are also important in the homecare environment (home or nursing homes). Selected scientific articles on disease-related malnutrition, especially those carried out in Brazil, were assessed. Data on prevalence, clinical outcomes, and economic burdens were reviewed. Several studies have shown the importance of in-hospital nutritional assessment for early detection of malnutrition and early intervention with nutrition therapy, in particular with oral nutritional therapy. Unfortunately, hospital malnutrition remains high in Brazil, with severe consequences for patients. The implementation of universal nutritional screening and diagnosis as well as the therapeutic approach of malnutrition, particularly with the use, when possible, of oral nutrition supplements as the first step to address this condition is still low, and demands the investment in educational resources to change practices. Routine use of nutritional therapy in hospital and homecare settings improves clinical outcomes, is cost effective, and would be

  15. Geographic information systems and the spiritual dimension of health: a short position paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boulos Maged

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The WHO's well known definition of health stressed the indivisibility of human well-being, physical and otherwise, by stating that health is "not merely the absence of disease or infirmity". The spiritual dimension of health is well covered in the medical literature. Different locations on Earth are associated with different interrelated profiles: physical, biological, environmental, socio-economic, cultural, and also spiritual profiles, that do affect and are affected by health (including its spiritual dimension, disease, healthcare, and pastoral care. A number of reviews have been recently published covering the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS in understanding and harnessing the importance of location in the health sector. However, no publication so far has discussed the role of GIS in relation to the spiritual dimension of health. This position paper is an attempt to fill in this gap without going into deep details. GIS role in pastoral care ranges from assisting in pattern and trend detection, and in informed decision-making and resource management, to providing routing and educational functions, and even assessing the impact of missionary radio broadcasts. A review of some of the software tools that are currently available in this field is also provided. GIS are ideal tools for improving and coordinating the integration of the health (physical, social, and spiritual/ pastoral dimensions of individual and community care. However to achieve the full potential of GIS in these areas, we still need to combat many cultural and organisational barriers, while making the tools cheaper and much easier to learn and use.

  16. Ethics and the Legalization of Physician-Assisted Suicide: An American College of Physicians Position Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder Sulmasy, Lois; Mueller, Paul S

    2017-10-17

    Calls to legalize physician-assisted suicide have increased and public interest in the subject has grown in recent years despite ethical prohibitions. Many people have concerns about how they will die and the emphasis by medicine and society on intervention and cure has sometimes come at the expense of good end-of-life care. Some have advocated strongly, on the basis of autonomy, that physician-assisted suicide should be a legal option at the end of life. As a proponent of patient-centered care, the American College of Physicians (ACP) is attentive to all voices, including those who speak of the desire to control when and how life will end. However, the ACP believes that the ethical arguments against legalizing physician-assisted suicide remain the most compelling. On the basis of substantive ethics, clinical practice, policy, and other concerns articulated in this position paper, the ACP does not support legalization of physician-assisted suicide. It is problematic given the nature of the patient-physician relationship, affects trust in the relationship and in the profession, and fundamentally alters the medical profession's role in society. Furthermore, the principles at stake in this debate also underlie medicine's responsibilities regarding other issues and the physician's duties to provide care based on clinical judgment, evidence, and ethics. Society's focus at the end of life should be on efforts to address suffering and the needs of patients and families, including improving access to effective hospice and palliative care. The ACP remains committed to improving care for patients throughout and at the end of life.

  17. The Fiscal Impact of EU Immigration on the Universalistic Welfare State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinsen, Dorte Sindbjerg; Rotger, Gabriel Pons

    Are inclusive welfare states compatible with free movement of people? For long the nexus between immigration and the welfare state has been perceived as fragile or even unsustainable. In this paper, we examine the fiscal impact of European Union (EU) immigration on the universalistic, tax...... on the December 31st of each year between 2002 and 2013, we analyse EU citizens’ contribution to and consumption of welfare benefits, in order to research the evolution of net fiscal contribution to the welfare state over a long time span. We find that EU immigrants made a significant positive net contribution...... to the Danish welfare state. Not only have EU citizens paid their way through the welfare system. They have also made a considerable contribution to its fiscal sustainability....

  18. The Fiscal Impact of EU Immigration on the Universalistic Welfare State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinsen, Dorte Sindbjerg; Rotger, Gabriel Pons

    Are inclusive welfare states compatible with free movement of people? For long the nexus between immigration and the welfare state has been perceived as fragile or even unsustainable. In this paper, we examine the fiscal impact of European Union (EU) immigration on the universalistic, tax-financed...... on the December 31st of each year between 2002 and 2013, we analyse EU citizens’ contribution to and consumption of welfare benefits, in order to research the evolution of net fiscal contribution to the welfare state over a long time span. We find that EU immigrants made a significant positive net contribution...... to the Danish welfare state. Not only have EU citizens paid their way through the welfare system. They have also made a considerable contribution to its fiscal sustainability....

  19. Come cambia il modello di welfare europeo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Bent

    2006-01-01

    European welfare states are changing. All countries are witnessing demographic changes, and are experiencing the impact of globalization. These changes, it is expected, will have repercussions for the various welfare states. Against this background, this paper looks at how the welfare states in E...

  20. Not just maternalism: marriage and fatherhood in American welfare policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geva, Dorit

    2011-01-01

    The United States' 1996 welfare reforms are often interpreted as a historical break in transitioning from supporting motherhood to commodifiying women's labor. However, this cannot account for welfare reform's emphasis upon heterosexual marriage and fatherhood promotion. The paper traces continuities and shifts in over a century of familial regulation through American welfare policy, specifying the place of marriage promotion within welfare policy. Up until 1996, families were key sites of intervention through which the American welfare state was erected, especially through single women as mothers - not wives. However, as of the 1960s, concern with African American men's "failed" familial commitments turned policymakers toward concern over marriage promotion for women and men. While marriage "disincentives" for aid recipients were lifted in the 1960s, the 1996 reforms structured a new form of nuclear family governance actively promoting marriage rooted in, but distinct from, the previous. Given the historical absence of welfare policies available to poor men, Temporary Assistance for Needy Families' (TANF) marriage promotion policies have positioned poor women as nodes connecting the state to poor men, simultaneously structuring poor women as breadwinners, mothers, and wives. Recent welfare reform has also started to target poor men directly, especially in fatherhood and marriage promotion initiatives. The article highlights how, in addition to workfare policies, marriage promotion is a neoliberal policy shifting risk to the shoulders of the poor, aiming to produce "strong families" for the purposes of social security.

  1. Applying ethological and health indicators to practical animal welfare assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wemelsfelder, F; Mullan, S

    2014-04-01

    There is a growing effort worldwide to develop objective indicators for animal welfare assessment, which provide information on an animal's quality of life, are scientifically trustworthy, and can readily be used in practice by professionals. Animals are sentient beings capable of positive and negative emotion, and so these indicators should be sensitive not only to their physical health, but also to their experience of the conditions in which they live. This paper provides an outline of ethological research aimed at developing practical welfare assessment protocols. The first section focuses on the development and validation of welfare indicators generally, in terms of their relevance to animal well-being, their interobserver reliability, and the confidence with which the prevalence of described features can be estimated. Challenges in this work include accounting for the ways in which welfare measures may fluctuate over time, and identifying measures suited to monitoring positive welfare states. The second section focuses more specifically on qualitative welfare indicators, which assess the 'whole animal' and describe the expressive qualities of its demeanour (e.g. anxious, content). Such indicators must be validated in the same way as other health and behaviour indicators, with the added challenge of finding appropriate methods of measurement. The potential contribution of qualitative indicators, however, is to disclose an emotional richness in animals that helps to interpret information provided by other indicators, thus enhancing the validity of welfare assessment protocols. In conclusion, the paper emphasises the importance of integrating such different perspectives, showing that new knowledge of animals and new ways of relating to animals are both needed for the successful development of practical welfare assessment tools.

  2. Research needs in allergy: an EAACI position paper, in collaboration with EFA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papadopoulos Nikolaos G

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In less than half a century, allergy, originally perceived as a rare disease, has become a major public health threat, today affecting the lives of more than 60 million people in Europe, and probably close to one billion worldwide, thereby heavily impacting the budgets of public health systems. More disturbingly, its prevalence and impact are on the rise, a development that has been associated with environmental and lifestyle changes accompanying the continuous process of urbanization and globalization. Therefore, there is an urgent need to prioritize and concert research efforts in the field of allergy, in order to achieve sustainable results on prevention, diagnosis and treatment of this most prevalent chronic disease of the 21st century. The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI is the leading professional organization in the field of allergy, promoting excellence in clinical care, education, training and basic and translational research, all with the ultimate goal of improving the health of allergic patients. The European Federation of Allergy and Airways Diseases Patients’ Associations (EFA is a non-profit network of allergy, asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disorder (COPD patients’ organizations. In support of their missions, the present EAACI Position Paper, in collaboration with EFA, highlights the most important research needs in the field of allergy to serve as key recommendations for future research funding at the national and European levels. Although allergies may involve almost every organ of the body and an array of diverse external factors act as triggers, there are several common themes that need to be prioritized in research efforts. As in many other chronic diseases, effective prevention, curative treatment and accurate, rapid diagnosis represent major unmet needs. Detailed phenotyping/endotyping stands out as widely required in order to arrange or re-categorize clinical syndromes into

  3. Services used by perinatal substance-users with child welfare involvement: a descriptive study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCann Kenneth J

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Substance use during pregnancy often leads to involvement in the child welfare system, resulting in multiple social service systems and service providers working with families to achieve successful child welfare outcomes. The Vulnerable Infants Program of Rhode Island (VIP-RI is a care coordination program developed to work with perinatal substance-users to optimize opportunities for reunification and promote permanency for substance-exposed infants. This paper describes services used by VIP-RI participants and child welfare outcomes. Methods Data collected during the first four years of VIP-RI were used to identify characteristics of program participants, services received, and child welfare outcomes: closed child welfare cases, reunification with biological mothers and identified infant permanent placements. Descriptive Results Medical and financial services were associated with positive child welfare outcomes. Medical services included family planning, pre- and post-natal care and HIV test counseling. Financial services included assistance with obtaining entitlement benefits and receiving tangible support such as food and clothing. Conclusions Findings from this study suggest services that address basic family needs were related to positive child welfare outcomes. The provision of basic services, such as health care and financial assistance through entitlement benefits and tangible donations, may help to establish a foundation so mothers can concentrate on recovery and parenting skills. Identification of services for perinatal substance users that are associated with more successful child welfare outcomes has implications for the child welfare system, treatment providers, courts and families.

  4. Position paper: cognitive radio networking for multiple sensor network interoperability in mines

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kagize, BM

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes the use of cognitive radio technology for multiple wireless sensor technologies in mines. The work is motivated by the lack of flexible and scalable sensor networks in mines. The proposed architecture uses cognitive radio...

  5. Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Driving: A Canadian Thoracic Society and Canadian Sleep Society Position Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najib Ayas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Individuals with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA experience sleep fragmentation and poor sleep quality that results in daytime sleepiness, which impairs performance during driving and leads to an increased risk for collisions. Not surprisingly, observational studies have shown that patients with OSA experience a two- to 10-fold higher risk for collision compared with healthy controls. Although treatment would clearly mitigate these risks, there is no current Canadian position on driving and OSA. This article, the first Canadian position statement addressing the issue, provides an overview of provincial regulations and proposes recommendations with regard to driving in patients with OSA.

  6. WHO position on the use of fractional doses - June 2017, addendum to vaccines and vaccination against yellow fever WHO: Position paper - June 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    World Health Organization

    2017-10-13

    This article presents the World Health Organization's (WHO) recommendations on the use of fractional doses of yellow fever vaccines excerpted from the "Yellow fever vaccine: WHO position on the use of fractional doses - June 2017, Addendum to Vaccines and vaccination against yellow fever WHO: Position Paper - June 2013″, published in the Weekly Epidemiological Record [1,2]. This addendum to the 2013 position paper pertains specifically to use of fractional dose YF (fYF) vaccination (fractional dose yellow fever vaccination refers to administration of a reduced volume of vaccine dose, which has been reconstituted as usual per manufacturer recommendations) in the context of YF vaccine supply shortages beyond the capacity of the global stockpile. The current WHO position on the use of yellow fever (YF) vaccine is set out in the 2013 WHO position paper on vaccines and vaccination against YF and those recommendations are unchanged. Footnotes to this paper provide a number of core references including references to grading tables that assess the quality of the scientific evidence, and to the evidence-to-recommendation table. In accordance with its mandate to provide guidance to Member States on health policy matters, WHO issues a series of regularly updated position papers on vaccines and combinations of vaccines against diseases that have an international public health impact. These papers are concerned primarily with the use of vaccines in large-scale immunization programmes; they summarize essential background information on diseases and vaccines, and conclude with WHO's current position on the use of vaccines in the global context. Recommendations on the use of Yellow Fever vaccines were discussed by SAGE in October 2016; evidence presented at these meetings can be accessed at: www.who.int/immunization/sage/meetings/2016/October/presentations_background_docs/en/. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. East Asian welfare regime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamson, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The paper asks if East Asian welfare regimes are still productivist and Confucian? And, have they developed public care policies? The literature is split on the first question but (mostly) confirmative on the second. Care has to a large, but insufficient extent, been rolled out in the region. Pol...... focusing on outcomes or causal links tend to suggest that legacies prevail, but there is (nearly) consensus that Confucianism exercises great influence in the whole region....

  8. Monotonicity of social welfare optima

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of maximizing social welfare subject to participation constraints. It is shown that for an income allocation method that maximizes a social welfare function there is a monotonic relationship between the incomes allocated to individual agents in a given coalition...... (with at least three members) and its participation constraint if and only if the aggregate income to that coalition is always maximized. An impossibility result demonstrates that there is no welfare maximizing allocation method in which agents' individual incomes monotonically increase in society...

  9. The management of patients with primary chronic anal fissure: a position paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altomare, D F; Binda, G A; Canuti, S; Landolfi, V; Trompetto, M; Villani, R D

    2011-06-01

    Anal fissure is one of the most common and painful proctologic diseases. Its treatment has long been discussed and several different therapeutic options have been proposed. In the last decades, the understanding of its pathophysiology has led to a progressive reduction of invasive and potentially invalidating treatments in favor of conservative treatment based on anal sphincter muscle relaxation. Despite some systematic reviews and an American position statement, there is ongoing debate about the best treatment for anal fissure. This review is aimed at identifying the best treatment option drawing on evidence-based medicine and on the expert advice of 6 colorectal surgeons with extensive experience in this field in order to produce an Italian position statement for anal fissures. While there is little chance of a cure with conservative behavioral therapy, medical treatment with calcium channel blockers, diltiazem and nifepidine or glyceryl trinitrate, had a considerable success rate ranging from 50 to 90%. Use of 0.4% glyceryl trinitrate in standardized fashion seems to have the best results despite a higher percentage of headache, while the use of botulinum toxin had inconsistent results. Nonresponding patients should undergo lateral internal sphincterotomy. The risk of incontinence after this procedure seems to have been overemphasized in the past. Only a carefully selected group of patients, without anal hypertonia, could benefit from anoplasty.

  10. Welfare Effects of Food Miles Labels

    OpenAIRE

    Caputo, Vincenzina; Vassilopoulos, Achilleas; Nayga, Rodolfo M., Jr.; Canavari, Maurizio

    2010-01-01

    We assessed the consumer welfare effects of two generic food miles labels: carbon dioxide (CO2) emission label and number of miles label. Using data from a choice experiment, our results generally suggest that a mandatory labeling policy for either type of label would have a positive welfare effect on both informed and uninformed consumers. However, a label informing consumers about the number of miles the food product has travelled provides greater positive welfare effects than a label infor...

  11. American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Position Paper on the Use of Telemedicine for Allergists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Tania; Shih, Jennifer; Dinakar, Chitra; Portnoy, Jay; Fineman, Stanley

    2017-12-01

    The integration of telecommunications and information systems in health care first began 4 decades ago with 500 patient consultations performed via interactive television. The use of telemedicine services and technology to deliver health care at a distance is increasing exponentially. Concomitant with this rapid expansion is the exciting ability to provide enhancements in quality and safety of care. Telemedicine enables increased access to care, improvement in health outcomes, reduction in medical costs, better resource use, expanded educational opportunities, and enhanced collaboration between patients and physicians. These potential benefits should be weighed against the risks and challenges of using telemedicine. The American College of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology advocates for incorporation of meaningful and sustained use of telemedicine in allergy and immunology practice. This article serves to offer policy and position statements of the use of telemedicine pertinent to the allergy and immunology subspecialty. Copyright © 2017 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. How should death be taken into account in welfare assessments?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Klint

    2016-01-01

    It appears to be a widespread view among animal welfare researchers that death is not a welfare issue. This paper demonstrates that this view is based on the mistaken assumption that welfare assessment is absolute, which moreover is coupled with the assumption that ‘welfare’ means ‘welfare at a t...

  13. Position paper on the importance of psychosocial factors in cardiology: Update 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladwig, Karl-Heinz

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available [english] Background: The rapid progress of psychosomatic research in cardiology and also the increasing impact of psychosocial issues in the clinical daily routine have prompted the Clinical Commission of the German Heart Society (DGK to agree to an update of the first state of the art paper on this issue which was originally released in 2008.Methods: The circle of experts was increased, general aspects were implemented and the state of the art was updated. Particular emphasis was dedicated to coronary heart diseases (CHD, heart rhythm diseases and heart failure because to date the evidence-based clinical knowledge is most advanced in these particular areas. Differences between men and women and over the life span were considered in the recommendations as were influences of cognitive capability and the interactive and synergistic impact of classical somatic risk factors on the affective comorbidity in heart disease patients.Results: A IA recommendation (recommendation grade I and evidence grade A was given for the need to consider psychosocial risk factors in the estimation of coronary risks as etiological and prognostic risk factors. Furthermore, for the recommendation to routinely integrate psychosocial patient management into the care of heart surgery patients because in these patients, comorbid affective disorders (e.g. depression, anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder are highly prevalent and often have a malignant prognosis. A IB recommendation was given for the treatment of psychosocial risk factors aiming to prevent the onset of CHD, particularly if the psychosocial risk factor is harmful in itself (e.g. depression or constrains the treatment of the somatic risk factors. Patients with acute and chronic CHD should be offered anti-depressive medication if these patients suffer from medium to severe states of depression and in this case medication with selective reuptake inhibitors should be given. In the long-term course of treatment

  14. Position paper on the importance of psychosocial factors in cardiology: Update 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladwig, Karl-Heinz; Lederbogen, Florian; Albus, Christian; Angermann, Christiane; Borggrefe, Martin; Fischer, Denise; Fritzsche, Kurt; Haass, Markus; Jordan, Jochen; Jünger, Jana; Kindermann, Ingrid; Köllner, Volker; Kuhn, Bernhard; Scherer, Martin; Seyfarth, Melchior; Völler, Heinz; Waller, Christiane; Herrmann-Lingen, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    The rapid progress of psychosomatic research in cardiology and also the increasing impact of psychosocial issues in the clinical daily routine have prompted the Clinical Commission of the German Heart Society (DGK) to agree to an update of the first state of the art paper on this issue which was originally released in 2008. The circle of experts was increased, general aspects were implemented and the state of the art was updated. Particular emphasis was dedicated to coronary heart diseases (CHD), heart rhythm diseases and heart failure because to date the evidence-based clinical knowledge is most advanced in these particular areas. Differences between men and women and over the life span were considered in the recommendations as were influences of cognitive capability and the interactive and synergistic impact of classical somatic risk factors on the affective comorbidity in heart disease patients. A IA recommendation (recommendation grade I and evidence grade A) was given for the need to consider psychosocial risk factors in the estimation of coronary risks as etiological and prognostic risk factors. Furthermore, for the recommendation to routinely integrate psychosocial patient management into the care of heart surgery patients because in these patients, comorbid affective disorders (e.g. depression, anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder) are highly prevalent and often have a malignant prognosis. A IB recommendation was given for the treatment of psychosocial risk factors aiming to prevent the onset of CHD, particularly if the psychosocial risk factor is harmful in itself (e.g. depression) or constrains the treatment of the somatic risk factors. Patients with acute and chronic CHD should be offered anti-depressive medication if these patients suffer from medium to severe states of depression and in this case medication with selective reuptake inhibitors should be given. In the long-term course of treatment with implanted cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) a

  15. Position paper on the importance of psychosocial factors in cardiology: Update 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladwig, Karl-Heinz; Lederbogen, Florian; Albus, Christian; Angermann, Christiane; Borggrefe, Martin; Fischer, Denise; Fritzsche, Kurt; Haass, Markus; Jordan, Jochen; Jünger, Jana; Kindermann, Ingrid; Köllner, Volker; Kuhn, Bernhard; Scherer, Martin; Seyfarth, Melchior; Völler, Heinz; Waller, Christiane; Herrmann-Lingen, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Background: The rapid progress of psychosomatic research in cardiology and also the increasing impact of psychosocial issues in the clinical daily routine have prompted the Clinical Commission of the German Heart Society (DGK) to agree to an update of the first state of the art paper on this issue which was originally released in 2008. Methods: The circle of experts was increased, general aspects were implemented and the state of the art was updated. Particular emphasis was dedicated to coronary heart diseases (CHD), heart rhythm diseases and heart failure because to date the evidence-based clinical knowledge is most advanced in these particular areas. Differences between men and women and over the life span were considered in the recommendations as were influences of cognitive capability and the interactive and synergistic impact of classical somatic risk factors on the affective comorbidity in heart disease patients. Results: A IA recommendation (recommendation grade I and evidence grade A) was given for the need to consider psychosocial risk factors in the estimation of coronary risks as etiological and prognostic risk factors. Furthermore, for the recommendation to routinely integrate psychosocial patient management into the care of heart surgery patients because in these patients, comorbid affective disorders (e.g. depression, anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder) are highly prevalent and often have a malignant prognosis. A IB recommendation was given for the treatment of psychosocial risk factors aiming to prevent the onset of CHD, particularly if the psychosocial risk factor is harmful in itself (e.g. depression) or constrains the treatment of the somatic risk factors. Patients with acute and chronic CHD should be offered anti-depressive medication if these patients suffer from medium to severe states of depression and in this case medication with selective reuptake inhibitors should be given. In the long-term course of treatment with implanted

  16. Geothermal industry position paper: EPA regulatory options and research and development information needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Alessio, G.

    1977-08-01

    The environmental impact of geothermal energy development may be less intense or widespread than that of some other energy sources; however, it is the first example of a number of emerging energy technologies that must be dealt with by EPA. EPA may consider a spectrum of options ranging from a posutre of business as usual to one of immediate setting of standards, as favored by ERDA. The paper discusses the regulatory approaches and the potential problems that geothermal energy may present in the areas of air quality, water quality, and other impacts. It is recommended that a coordinated program of research be drawn up, comprised of specific research projects, the types of geothermal resource to which they apply, and the date by which the information is required.

  17. An Investigation of the Combined Effect of Stress, Fatigue and Workload on Human Performance: Position Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mock, Jessica

    2005-01-01

    Stress, fatigue, and workload affect worker performance. NSF reported that 61% of respondents state losing concentration at work while 79% occasionally or frequently made errors as a result of being fatigued. Shift work, altered work schedules, long hours of continuous wakefulness, and sleep loss can create sleep and circadian disruptions that degrade waking fundions causing stress and fatigue. Review of the literature has proven void of information that links the combined effects of fatigue, stress, and workload to human performance. This paper will address which occupational factors within stress, fatigue, and workload were identified as occupational contributors to performance changes. The results of this research will be apglied to underlying models and algorithms that will help predict performance changes in control room operators.

  18. Geothermal Industry Position Paper: EPA Regulatory Options and Research and Development Information Needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swetnam, G.F.

    1976-11-01

    The environmental impact of geothermal energy development may be less intense or widespread than that of some other energy sources; however, it is the first example of a number of emerging energy technologies that must be dealt with by EPA. EPA may consider a spectrum of options ranging from a posture of business as usual to one of immediate setting of standards, as favored by ERDA. The paper discusses the regulatory approaches and the potential problems that geothermal energy may present in the areas of air quality, water quality, and other impacts. It is recommended that a coordinated program of research be drawn up, comprised of specific research projects, the types of geothermal resource to which they apply, and the date by which the information is required.

  19. The economics of animal welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, T J; Jackson, E L

    2017-04-01

    This paper examines four examples of animal welfare issues, demonstrating the interactions between welfare and economic principles. Welfare issues associated with purebred companion animals are examined in terms of predicted inherited diseases, highlighting the power of supply and demand in perpetuating traits in pets that compromise their well-being. The livestock industry is presented from the point of view of pig production and the impact that a major disease (pleurisy) has on production and the animals' welfare. The authors investigate the conflicting and complementary demands of animal welfare and economic gains during the transport and slaughter of livestock and poultry. Finally, wildlife species are considered in terms of their prevalence as pests, and the different types of economic analysis that have been conducted to understand the losses caused by these organisms. Also included in this example are decisions made about cost effectiveness and opportunity costs, and regulatory and financial barriers to the development of humane control agents. In conclusion, animal welfare is illustrated as a central factor in the benefits that humans enjoy from the role played by animals in society. There are, however, tradeoffs between optimal animal welfare and meeting the needs of modern human society.

  20. Position paper prepared by the Section of Immunotherapy, Polish Society of Allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Jutel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available SLIT ([i]sublingual immunotherapy[/i], induces allergen-specific immune tolerance by sublingual administration of a gradually increasing dose of an allergen. The mechanism of SLIT is comparable to those during SCIT (subcutaneous immunotherapy, with the exception of local oral dendritic cells, pre-programmed to elicit tolerance. In the SLIT dose, to achieve the same efficacy as in SCIT, it should be 50–100 times higher with better safety profile. The highest quality evidence supporting the efficacy of SLIT lasting 1 – 3 years has been provided by the large scale double-blind, placebo-controlled (DBPC trials for grass pollen extracts, both in children and adults with allergic rhinitis. Current indications for SLIT are allergic rhinitis (and conjunctivitis in both children and adults sensitized to pollen allergens (trees, grass, [i]Parietaria[/i], house dust mites ([i]Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae[/i], cat fur, as well as mild to moderate controlled atopic asthma in children sensitized to house dust mites. There are positive findings for both asthma and new sensitization prevention. Severe adverse events, including anaphylaxis, are very rare, and no fatalities have been reported. Local adverse reactions develop in up to 70 – 80% of patients. Risk factors for SLIT adverse events have not been clearly identified. Risk factors of non-adherence to treatment might be dependent on the patient, disease treatment, physician-patient relationship, and variables in the health care system organization.

  1. Current challenges of research on filamentous fungi in relation to human welfare and a sustainable bio-economy: a white paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Vera; Andersen, Mikael R; Brakhage, Axel A; Braus, Gerhard H; Caddick, Mark X; Cairns, Timothy C; de Vries, Ronald P; Haarmann, Thomas; Hansen, Kim; Hertz-Fowler, Christiane; Krappmann, Sven; Mortensen, Uffe H; Peñalva, Miguel A; Ram, Arthur F J; Head, Ritchie M

    2016-01-01

    The EUROFUNG network is a virtual centre of multidisciplinary expertise in the field of fungal biotechnology. The first academic-industry Think Tank was hosted by EUROFUNG to summarise the state of the art and future challenges in fungal biology and biotechnology in the coming decade. Currently, fungal cell factories are important for bulk manufacturing of organic acids, proteins, enzymes, secondary metabolites and active pharmaceutical ingredients in white and red biotechnology. In contrast, fungal pathogens of humans kill more people than malaria or tuberculosis. Fungi are significantly impacting on global food security, damaging global crop production, causing disease in domesticated animals, and spoiling an estimated 10 % of harvested crops. A number of challenges now need to be addressed to improve our strategies to control fungal pathogenicity and to optimise the use of fungi as sources for novel compounds and as cell factories for large scale manufacture of bio-based products. This white paper reports on the discussions of the Think Tank meeting and the suggestions made for moving fungal bio(techno)logy forward.

  2. Programme guidelines for promoting good oral health for children in Nigeria: a position paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folayan, Morenike O; Adeniyi, Abiola A; Chukwumah, Nneka M; Onyejaka, Nneka; Esan, Ayodeji O; Sofola, Oyinkan O; Orenuga, Omolola O

    2014-10-21

    The objective of this paper is to draw attention to the oral health needs of children in Nigeria, and promote the use of appropriate interventions for disease prevention in the population. It also evaluates the value of the ongoing twice-daily tooth brushing campaign, which focuses on promoting good periodontal health and its relevance for children in Nigeria. The main oral health burden for children in Nigeria is untreated dental caries, attributable to low utilization of oral health facilities. While there is a strong association between oral hygiene status and caries occurrence, no research had established an association between frequency of tooth brushing and caries in children in Nigeria. Prevalence of caries and gingivitis is low, despite the fact that a majority of children brush once a day and most of them have fair oral hygiene. Campaigns that promote twice daily brushing to prevent chronic periodontitis in children are not driven by evidences supporting the local epidemic, and therefore cannot be considered as efficient use of the limited resources available. Existing evidences show that the main oral health need of children in Nigeria is the management of untreated caries. Promoting the treatment of caries should be the primary focus of oral health programmes for children in Nigeria, as this would reduce further risks of developing new carious lesions. Public health campaigns should focus efforts at creating demand for oral health care services, for both preventive and curative purposes.

  3. A position paper on the electronic publication of nematode taxonomic manuscripts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyualem-Abebe; Baldwin, James G; Adams, Byron; Hope, Duane; Gardner, Scott; Huettel, Robin; Mullin, Peter; Powers, Topper; Sharma, Jyotsna; Ye, Weimin; Thomas, William K

    2006-09-01

    Several nematode species have now attained 'model organism' status, yet there remain many niches in basic biological inquiry for which nematodes would be ideal model systems of study. However, furthering the model system approach is hindered by lack of information on nematode biodiversity. The shortage of taxonomic resources to inventory and characterize biodiversity hinders research programs in invasion biology, ecosystem functioning, conservation biology, and many others. The disproportion between numbers of species to be described and numbers of available taxonomic specialists is greater for Nematoda than for any other metazoan phylum. A partial solution to the taxonomic impediment is the adoption of recent advances in electronic publishing. Electronic publishing has the potential to increase the rate at which taxonomic papers are published, the breadth of their distribution, and the type, quantity, quality, and accessibility of data. We propose that the Journal of Nematology implement the advantageous aspects of electronic publication as a means to help ameliorate the limitations of an underdeveloped taxonomy and empower the nematological disciplines currently hindered by it.

  4. POSITION PAPER - pFLogger: The Parallel Fortran Logging Framework for HPC Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clune, Thomas L.; Cruz, Carlos A.

    2017-01-01

    In the context of high performance computing (HPC), software investments in support of text-based diagnostics, which monitor a running application, are typically limited compared to those for other types of IO. Examples of such diagnostics include reiteration of configuration parameters, progress indicators, simple metrics (e.g., mass conservation, convergence of solvers, etc.), and timers. To some degree, this difference in priority is justifiable as other forms of output are the primary products of a scientific model and, due to their large data volume, much more likely to be a significant performance concern. In contrast, text-based diagnostic content is generally not shared beyond the individual or group running an application and is most often used to troubleshoot when something goes wrong. We suggest that a more systematic approach enabled by a logging facility (or 'logger') similar to those routinely used by many communities would provide significant value to complex scientific applications. In the context of high-performance computing, an appropriate logger would provide specialized support for distributed and shared-memory parallelism and have low performance overhead. In this paper, we present our prototype implementation of pFlogger - a parallel Fortran-based logging framework, and assess its suitability for use in a complex scientific application.

  5. The Quebec Association of Gastroenterology Position Paper on Colorectal Cancer Screening - 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AN Barkun

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer is a leading cause of death and the third most common cancer in Canada. Evidence suggests that screening can reduce mortality rates and the cost effectiveness of a program compares favourably with initiatives for breast and cervical cancer. The objectives of the Association des gastro-entérologues du Québec Task Force were to determine the need for a policy on screening for colorectal cancer in Quebec, to evaluate the testing methods available and to propose one or more of these alternatives as part of a formal screening program, if indicated. Fecal occult blood testing (FOBT, endoscopy (including sigmoidoscopy and colonoscopy, barium enema and virtual colonoscopy were considered. Although most clinical efficacy data are available for FOBT and sigmoidoscopy, there are limitations to programs based on these strategies. FOBT has a high false positive rate and a low detection yield, and even a combination of these strategies will miss 24% of cancers. Colonoscopy is the best strategy to both detect and remove polyps and to diagnose colorectal cancer, with double contrast barium enema also being a sensitive detection method. The Task Force recommended the establishment, in Quebec, of a screening program with five- to 10-yearly double contrast barium enema or 10-yearly colonoscopy for individuals aged 50 years or older at low risk. The program should include outcome monitoring, public and professional education to increase awareness and promote compliance, and central coordination with other provincial programs. The program should be evaluated; specific billing codes for screening for colorectal cancer would help facilitate this. Formal feasibility, effectiveness and cost-effectiveness studies in Quebec are now warranted.

  6. Applying extracellular vesicles based therapeutics in clinical trials – an ISEV position paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Lener

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular vesicles (EVs, such as exosomes and microvesicles, are released by different cell types and participate in physiological and pathophysiological processes. EVs mediate intercellular communication as cell-derived extracellular signalling organelles that transmit specific information from their cell of origin to their target cells. As a result of these properties, EVs of defined cell types may serve as novel tools for various therapeutic approaches, including (a anti-tumour therapy, (b pathogen vaccination, (c immune-modulatory and regenerative therapies and (d drug delivery. The translation of EVs into clinical therapies requires the categorization of EV-based therapeutics in compliance with existing regulatory frameworks. As the classification defines subsequent requirements for manufacturing, quality control and clinical investigation, it is of major importance to define whether EVs are considered the active drug components or primarily serve as drug delivery vehicles. For an effective and particularly safe translation of EV-based therapies into clinical practice, a high level of cooperation between researchers, clinicians and competent authorities is essential. In this position statement, basic and clinical scientists, as members of the International Society for Extracellular Vesicles (ISEV and of the European Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST program of the European Union, namely European Network on Microvesicles and Exosomes in Health and Disease (ME-HaD, summarize recent developments and the current knowledge of EV-based therapies. Aspects of safety and regulatory requirements that must be considered for pharmaceutical manufacturing and clinical application are highlighted. Production and quality control processes are discussed. Strategies to promote the therapeutic application of EVs in future clinical studies are addressed.

  7. Applying extracellular vesicles based therapeutics in clinical trials – an ISEV position paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lener, Thomas; Gimona, Mario; Aigner, Ludwig; Börger, Verena; Buzas, Edit; Camussi, Giovanni; Chaput, Nathalie; Chatterjee, Devasis; Court, Felipe A.; del Portillo, Hernando A.; O'Driscoll, Lorraine; Fais, Stefano; Falcon-Perez, Juan M.; Felderhoff-Mueser, Ursula; Fraile, Lorenzo; Gho, Yong Song; Görgens, André; Gupta, Ramesh C.; Hendrix, An; Hermann, Dirk M.; Hill, Andrew F.; Hochberg, Fred; Horn, Peter A.; de Kleijn, Dominique; Kordelas, Lambros; Kramer, Boris W.; Krämer-Albers, Eva-Maria; Laner-Plamberger, Sandra; Laitinen, Saara; Leonardi, Tommaso; Lorenowicz, Magdalena J.; Lim, Sai Kiang; Lötvall, Jan; Maguire, Casey A.; Marcilla, Antonio; Nazarenko, Irina; Ochiya, Takahiro; Patel, Tushar; Pedersen, Shona; Pocsfalvi, Gabriella; Pluchino, Stefano; Quesenberry, Peter; Reischl, Ilona G.; Rivera, Francisco J.; Sanzenbacher, Ralf; Schallmoser, Katharina; Slaper-Cortenbach, Ineke; Strunk, Dirk; Tonn, Torsten; Vader, Pieter; van Balkom, Bas W. M.; Wauben, Marca; Andaloussi, Samir El; Théry, Clotilde; Rohde, Eva; Giebel, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs), such as exosomes and microvesicles, are released by different cell types and participate in physiological and pathophysiological processes. EVs mediate intercellular communication as cell-derived extracellular signalling organelles that transmit specific information from their cell of origin to their target cells. As a result of these properties, EVs of defined cell types may serve as novel tools for various therapeutic approaches, including (a) anti-tumour therapy, (b) pathogen vaccination, (c) immune-modulatory and regenerative therapies and (d) drug delivery. The translation of EVs into clinical therapies requires the categorization of EV-based therapeutics in compliance with existing regulatory frameworks. As the classification defines subsequent requirements for manufacturing, quality control and clinical investigation, it is of major importance to define whether EVs are considered the active drug components or primarily serve as drug delivery vehicles. For an effective and particularly safe translation of EV-based therapies into clinical practice, a high level of cooperation between researchers, clinicians and competent authorities is essential. In this position statement, basic and clinical scientists, as members of the International Society for Extracellular Vesicles (ISEV) and of the European Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST) program of the European Union, namely European Network on Microvesicles and Exosomes in Health and Disease (ME-HaD), summarize recent developments and the current knowledge of EV-based therapies. Aspects of safety and regulatory requirements that must be considered for pharmaceutical manufacturing and clinical application are highlighted. Production and quality control processes are discussed. Strategies to promote the therapeutic application of EVs in future clinical studies are addressed. PMID:26725829

  8. The welfare state and demographic dividends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Abío

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The demographic transition experienced by developed countries produces initial positive effects on economic growth ‒ the first demographic dividend ‒ which can be extended into a second demographic dividend if baby boomers' savings increase capital accumulation. Nevertheless, aging might reverse this process if dissaving of elderly baby boomers and the pressure on the pay-as-you-go financed welfare state reduce savings and capital. Objective: The aim of this paper is to evaluate the extent to which demographic dividends in Spain provide an opportunity for the reform of the welfare state system for an aging population. Methods: We decompose demographic dividends using a general equilibrium overlapping generations model with realistic demography and public transfers from the National Transfer Accounts database. This allows us to capture the endogenous evolution of savings and capital accumulation and, hence, the second demographic dividend. Results: When baby boomers enter the labor market, the purely demographic support ratio increases and this positive effect is extended by composition changes in the age structure of workers. When they start saving, the second demographic dividend arises, while its total net effect depends both on the strength of the aging process and on transfer size. Conclusions: The derived decomposition shows that the second demographic dividend might also disappear. Sharp population aging in Spain implies that capital will shrink drastically after 2040. Before this, there seems to be margin for reforms; however, an extension of the welfare state toward the Nordic model would considerably reduce capital. Contribution: This paper contributes to the debate on the effects of demographics on economic growth by decomposing demographic dividends and investigating the impact of different welfare state transfer systems on the second demographic dividend.

  9. An international position paper on mother-infant (perinatal) mental health, with guidelines for clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockington, Ian; Butterworth, Ruth; Glangeaud-Freudenthal, Nine

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this paper is to set out informal, provisional and comprehensive but concise guidelines for mother-infant (perinatal) mental health (psychiatry), as an area of specialisation. It is informal in the sense that the authors are clinicians and researchers from many different nations, who share a common goal and vision, speaking on their own behalf and not with the backing of any authority or society. It is provisional in the expectation that it can be improved by criticism and new research findings. It is a comprehensive summary of the development of the specialty, its core knowledge and recommended investigations and interventions. It is concise (under 6,000 words, taking less than an hour to read) in order to increase readership and facilitate translation. No attempt has been made to parade the evidence for these suggestions, because the document would have been too long to translate, and for many to read. Instead, drafts were circulated for criticism by those included in the authorship, resulting in a consensus (finalised by the three principal authors), providing a framework to guide service provision, clinical practice and research. The full list of authors, from 33 nations, is given in the postscript. They include mother-infant (or parent-infant) and perinatal adult or child psychiatrists and those with a special interest; mother-infant, perinatal and forensic psychologists; psychiatric nurses; the founders of Postpartum Support International and the Association for Postnatal Illness; representatives of social work and obstetrics and the management of these services, and research scientists working in the field.

  10. Optimal marine mammal welfare under human care: Current efforts and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brando, Sabrina; Broom, Donald M; Acasuso-Rivero, Cristina; Clark, Fay

    2017-09-18

    Marine mammals include cetaceans, pinnipeds, sirenians, sea otters and polar bears, many of which are charismatic and popular species commonly kept under human care in zoos and aquaria. However, in comparison with their fully terrestrial counterparts their welfare has been less intensively studied, and their partial or full reliance on the aquatic environment leads to unique welfare challenges. In this paper we attempt to collate and review the research undertaken thus far on marine mammal welfare, and identify the most important gaps in knowledge. We use 'best practice case studies' to highlight examples of research promoting optimal welfare, include suggestions for future directions of research efforts, and make recommendations to strive for optimal welfare, where it is currently lacking, above and beyond minimum legislation and guidelines. Our review of the current literature shows that recently there have been positive forward strides in marine mammal welfare assessment, but fundamental research is still required to validate positive and negative indicators of welfare in marine mammals. Across all marine mammals, more research is required on the dimensions and complexity of pools and land areas necessary for optimal welfare, and the impact of staff absence for most of the 24-h day, as standard working hours are usually between 0900 and 1700. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Research and the promotion of child health: a position paper of the European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koletzko, Berthold; Kolacek, Sanja; Phillips, Alan; Troncone, Riccardo; Vandenplas, Yvan; Baumann, Ulrich; van Goudoever, Johannes; de Swarte, Casper; Benninga, Marc; Mearin, Luisa

    2014-01-01

    Children comprise one-fifth of Europe's population. Promoting child health and development is of key importance for society and its future. This position paper highlights opportunities of investing in gastrointestinal, liver, and nutritional research to promote child health and delineates priorities

  12. Behavioural indicators of welfare in farmed fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Catarina I M; Galhardo, Leonor; Noble, Chris; Damsgård, Børge; Spedicato, Maria T; Zupa, Walter; Beauchaud, Marilyn; Kulczykowska, Ewa; Massabuau, Jean-Charles; Carter, Toby; Planellas, Sònia Rey; Kristiansen, Tore

    2012-02-01

    Behaviour represents a reaction to the environment as fish perceive it and is therefore a key element of fish welfare. This review summarises the main findings on how behavioural changes have been used to assess welfare in farmed fish, using both functional and feeling-based approaches. Changes in foraging behaviour, ventilatory activity, aggression, individual and group swimming behaviour, stereotypic and abnormal behaviour have been linked with acute and chronic stressors in aquaculture and can therefore be regarded as likely indicators of poor welfare. On the contrary, measurements of exploratory behaviour, feed anticipatory activity and reward-related operant behaviour are beginning to be considered as indicators of positive emotions and welfare in fish. Despite the lack of scientific agreement about the existence of sentience in fish, the possibility that they are capable of both positive and negative emotions may contribute to the development of new strategies (e.g. environmental enrichment) to promote good welfare. Numerous studies that use behavioural indicators of welfare show that behavioural changes can be interpreted as either good or poor welfare depending on the fish species. It is therefore essential to understand the species-specific biology before drawing any conclusions in relation to welfare. In addition, different individuals within the same species may exhibit divergent coping strategies towards stressors, and what is tolerated by some individuals may be detrimental to others. Therefore, the assessment of welfare in a few individuals may not represent the average welfare of a group and vice versa. This underlines the need to develop on-farm, operational behavioural welfare indicators that can be easily used to assess not only the individual welfare but also the welfare of the whole group (e.g. spatial distribution). With the ongoing development of video technology and image processing, the on-farm surveillance of behaviour may in the near

  13. From the front lines of welfare reform: an analysis of social worker and welfare recipient attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, Heather E

    2004-12-01

    Social workers and welfare recipients operate within the same institutional framework and share a working and/or lived knowledge of poverty, but they occupy different social and economic positions. To gain a better understanding of intergroup attitudes, the author compared how social workers and welfare recipients explain poverty and perceive the welfare system. The results highlight important similarities and differences between the two groups. Although the author did not find differences for individualistic attributions, welfare recipients regarded prejudice as playing a greater role in causing poverty than did social workers. Welfare recipients also expressed stronger support for increased welfare funding and progressive welfare policies than did social workers. The author discussed implications for strengthening interclass alliances, particularly the relationship between social service providers and welfare recipients.

  14. Position paper on probiotics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijsseling, I.A.; Pekelharing, P.R.; Rombouts, F.M.

    2005-01-01

    Probiotics are live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host. Probiotics, used to supplement normal daily nutrition, are therefore an important element in consumer health and should be made available as widely as possible. The regulatory status

  15. International aspirations for speech-language pathologists' practice with multilingual children with speech sound disorders: development of a position paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Sharynne; Verdon, Sarah; Bowen, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    A major challenge for the speech-language pathology profession in many cultures is to address the mismatch between the "linguistic homogeneity of the speech-language pathology profession and the linguistic diversity of its clientele" (Caesar & Kohler, 2007, p. 198). This paper outlines the development of the Multilingual Children with Speech Sound Disorders: Position Paper created to guide speech-language pathologists' (SLPs') facilitation of multilingual children's speech. An international expert panel was assembled comprising 57 researchers (SLPs, linguists, phoneticians, and speech scientists) with knowledge about multilingual children's speech, or children with speech sound disorders. Combined, they had worked in 33 countries and used 26 languages in professional practice. Fourteen panel members met for a one-day workshop to identify key points for inclusion in the position paper. Subsequently, 42 additional panel members participated online to contribute to drafts of the position paper. A thematic analysis was undertaken of the major areas of discussion using two data sources: (a) face-to-face workshop transcript (133 pages) and (b) online discussion artifacts (104 pages). Finally, a moderator with international expertise in working with children with speech sound disorders facilitated the incorporation of the panel's recommendations. The following themes were identified: definitions, scope, framework, evidence, challenges, practices, and consideration of a multilingual audience. The resulting position paper contains guidelines for providing services to multilingual children with speech sound disorders (http://www.csu.edu.au/research/multilingual-speech/position-paper). The paper is structured using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health: Children and Youth Version (World Health Organization, 2007) and incorporates recommendations for (a) children and families, (b) SLPs' assessment and intervention, (c) SLPs' professional

  16. Social Welfare in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rutten, Koen

    of China’s economic growth, the long and midterm sustainability of its economic development model and the implications thereof for social stability and political legitimacy. An immediate priority has been to formulate and implement a response to mitigate the disruptive effects of the transition to a market...... to meet China’s social challenges. In this paper, I provide a summary of the academic literature on post-reform development of the welfare system. I will give an overview of its most salient problems, initiatives and their preliminary outcomes. Finally, I will present some concluding remarks and provide...

  17. Inhibition of various gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria growth on selenium nanoparticle coated paper towels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Larese-Casanova, Philip; Webster, Thomas J

    2015-01-01

    There are wide spread bacterial contamination issues on various paper products, such as paper towels hanging in sink splash zones or those used to clean surfaces, filter papers used in water and air purifying systems, and wrappings used in the food industry; such contamination may lead to the potential spread of bacteria and consequent severe health concerns. In this study, selenium nanoparticles were coated on normal paper towel surfaces through a quick precipitation method, introducing antibacterial properties to the paper towels in a healthy way. Their effectiveness at preventing biofilm formation was tested in bacterial assays involving Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus epidermidis. The results showed significant and continuous bacteria inhibition with about a 90% reduction from 24 to 72 hours for gram-positive bacteria including S. aureus and S. epidermidis. The selenium coated paper towels also showed significant inhibition of gram-negative bacteria like P. aeruginosa and E. coli growth at about 57% and 84%, respectively, after 72 hours of treatment. Therefore, this study established a promising selenium-based antibacterial strategy to prevent bacterial growth on paper products, which may lead to the avoidance of bacteria spreading and consequent severe health concerns.

  18. Faces of the Welfare State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Mette-Louise

    2012-01-01

    the welfare State and other realms of life, such as their family and neighborhood, threatening to take away their children (to crime, to prison, to foster families or to the divorced partner, etc). The paper conceptualizes immobility and confinement as embedded in the contrary; a continuous spatial placement......The paper is a short presentation of a central theme in my PhD thesis, which revolves around the way the welfare State is approached as dangerous by parents struggling to keep their family from falling apart. The thesis is an excavation of the risks and dangers they navigate in relation to both...

  19. INVITED REVIEW: The usefulness of measuring glucocorticoids for assessing animal welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralph, C R; Tilbrook, A J

    2016-02-01

    Glucocorticoids (corticosterone in birds and rodents and cortisol in all other mammals) are glucoregulatory hormones that are synthesized in response to a range of stimuli including stress and are regularly measured in the assessment of animal welfare. Glucocorticoids have many normal or non-stress-related functions, and glucocorticoid synthesis can increase in response to pleasure, excitement, and arousal as well as fear, anxiety, and pain. Often, when assessing animal welfare, little consideration is given to normal non-stress-related glucocorticoid functions or the complex mechanisms that regulate the effects of glucocorticoids on physiology. In addition, it is rarely acknowledged that increased glucocorticoid synthesis can indicate positive welfare states or that a stress response can increase fitness and improve the welfare of an animal. In this paper, we review how and when glucocorticoid synthesis increases, the actions mediated through type I and type II glucocorticoid receptors, the importance of corticosteroid-binding globulin, the role of 11 β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, and the key aspects of neurophysiology relevant to activating the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis. This is discussed in the context of animal welfare assessment, particularly under the biological functioning and affective states frameworks. We contend that extending the assessment of animal welfare to key brain regions afferent to the hypothalamus and incorporating the aspects of glucocorticoid physiology that affect change in target tissue will advance animal welfare science and inspire more comprehensive assessment of the welfare of animals.

  20. Reforming the Welfare System in the People's Republic of China

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mai Lu; Mingliang Feng

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews the recent progress in welfare system reforms in the People's Republic of China and looks at the experiences of Japan and Republic of Korea in establishing their modern welfare systems...

  1. A Universal Animal Welfare Framework for Zoos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, Ron; Carter, Scott; Allard, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    The Detroit Zoological Society's (DZS) Center for Zoo Animal Welfare (CZAW) was created to advance the science and policy of the welfare of exotic nonhuman animals in captivity. This important part of the DZS mission is achieved through assessments of, and research on, the welfare of animals in zoos; by recognizing extraordinary achievement in the advancement of animal welfare; by widely sharing knowledge through a bibliographic resource center; by conducting professional training for animal care staff; and by convening important discussions in the form of international symposia. This special issue of the Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science features selected papers from the most recent international CZAW symposium held at the Detroit Zoo in November 2014, as well as a universal framework for zoo animal welfare developed by the DZS. PMID:26440494

  2. A Universal Animal Welfare Framework for Zoos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, Ron; Carter, Scott; Allard, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    The Detroit Zoological Society's (DZS) Center for Zoo Animal Welfare (CZAW) was created to advance the science and policy of the welfare of exotic nonhuman animals in captivity. This important part of the DZS mission is achieved through assessments of, and research on, the welfare of animals in zoos; by recognizing extraordinary achievement in the advancement of animal welfare; by widely sharing knowledge through a bibliographic resource center; by conducting professional training for animal care staff; and by convening important discussions in the form of international symposia. This special issue of the Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science features selected papers from the most recent international CZAW symposium held at the Detroit Zoo in November 2014, as well as a universal framework for zoo animal welfare developed by the DZS.

  3. Vaccines and animal welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, D B

    2007-04-01

    Vaccination promotes animal welfare by protecting animal health, but it also has other welfare benefits, e.g. recent investigations have looked at the potential of vaccines in immunoneutering such as immunocastration--a humane alternative to the painful traditional methods. Similarly, vaccination can be used during disease outbreaks as a viable alternative to stamping-out, thus avoiding the welfare problems that on-farm mass slaughter can cause. Protecting animal health through vaccination leads to improved animal welfare, and maintaining good welfare ensures that animals can respond successfully to vaccination (as poor welfare can lead to immunosuppression, which can affect the response to vaccination). It is clear that vaccination has tremendous advantages for animal welfare and although the possible side effects of vaccination can have a negative effect on the welfare of some individual animals, the harm caused by these unwanted effects must be weighed against the undoubted benefits for groups of animals.

  4. Does the Minimum Wage Affect Welfare Caseloads?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Marianne E.; Spetz, Joanne; Millar, Jane

    2005-01-01

    Although minimum wages are advocated as a policy that will help the poor, few studies have examined their effect on poor families. This paper uses variation in minimum wages across states and over time to estimate the impact of minimum wage legislation on welfare caseloads. We find that the elasticity of the welfare caseload with respect to the…

  5. Towards a Dynamic (Schumpeterian) Welfare Economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.A. Dolfsma (Wilfred)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractFor an economy where knowledge plays an increasingly important role in shaping its dynamics, economics needs a dynamic (Schumpeterian) welfare theory. This paper sketches the role of knowledge in an economy and argues that a static Paretian welfare economics is inadequate, or at least

  6. Welfare-Reducing Trade Liberalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Philipp J.H.; Jørgensen, Jan G.

    tariff that maximizes national and world welfare. Applying one of the simplest specifications possible, namely a symmetric two-country intra-industry trade model with fixed export costs that are heterogeneous across firms, we find that the reciprocal reduction of small tariffs reduces welfare. We explore......Recent literature on the workhorse model of intra-industry trade has explored heterogeneous cost structures at the firm level. These approaches have proven to add realism and predictive power. This note shows, however, that this added realism also implies that there may exist a positive bilateral...

  7. Diagnosis and Management of Asthma in Preschoolers: A Canadian Thoracic Society and Canadian Paediatric Society Position Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francine M Ducharme

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Asthma often starts before six years of age. However, there remains uncertainty as to when and how a preschool-age child with symptoms suggestive of asthma can be diagnosed with this condition. This delays treatment and contributes to both short- and long-term morbidity. Members of the Canadian Thoracic Society Asthma Clinical Assembly partnered with the Canadian Paediatric Society to develop a joint working group with the mandate to develop a position paper on the diagnosis and management of asthma in preschoolers.

  8. Animal welfare: at the interface between science and society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohl, F; van der Staay, F J

    2012-04-01

    The general concept of animal welfare embraces a continuum between negative/bad welfare and positive/good welfare. Early approaches to defining animal welfare were mainly based on the exclusion of negative states, neglecting the fact that during evolution animals optimised their ability to interact with and adapt to their environment(s). An animal's welfare status might best be represented by the adaptive value of the individual's interaction with a given environmental setting but this dynamic welfare concept has significant implications for practical welfare assessments. Animal welfare issues cannot simply be addressed by means of objective biological measurements of an animal's welfare status under certain circumstances. In practice, interpretation of welfare status and its translation into the active management of perceived welfare issues are both strongly influenced by context and, especially, by cultural and societal values. In assessing whether or not a given welfare status is morally acceptable, animal welfare scientists must be aware that scientifically based, operational definitions of animal welfare will necessarily be influenced strongly by a given society's moral understanding. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Animal welfare impact assessments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; Gamborg, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Control of wild animals may give rise to controversy, as is seen in the case of badger control to manage TB in cattle in the UK. However, it is striking that concerns about the potential suffering of the affected animals themselves are often given little attention or completely ignored in policies...... aimed at dealing with wild animals. McCulloch and Reiss argue that this could be remedied by means of a “mandatory application of formal and systematic Animal Welfare Impact Assessment (AWIA)”. Optimistically, they consider that an AWIA could help to resolve controversies involving wild animals. The aim...... of this paper is to evaluate the potential of AWIA. We begin by showing how ideas akin to AWIA already play a significant role in other animal ethics controversies, particularly those concerning laboratory animal use and livestock production; and we bring in lessons learnt from these controversies. Then we...

  10. Drivers for Welfare Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wegener, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    relevant objects of study. Innovation strategy and research traditionally regards innovation as a set of phases. The purpose of this paper is to enhance ‘phase’ models by adding to them a ‘driver’ model which may provide an appropriate strategy for studying and supporting the innovation potential...... of routines), and iii) purposes (i.e. values and visions). The model can assist the acknowledgment of initiatives that hold a potential for innovation, but risk being overlooked by phase models. The model points to the necessity to anchor innovation strategies in existing knowledge, routines, and values......Innovation has become a key goal towards which teaching and workplace learning needs to be directed. Now perceived as germane and even necessary in almost all kinds of welfare work, the innovation potential in everyday practices and ways of allowing for employer creativity have become a highly...

  11. Animal Welfare in Relation to Standards in Organic Farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hammarberg Karl-Erik

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The new EU-regulations on organic farming (1804/1999 are also influencing the animal welfare. A lot of positive regulations is to find, but also regulations that seen to mind more about the general public and customer and their view on organic farming, than the health and welfare of the animals. The paper specially focus on the impact of the regulations and the recommendations that phytotherapeutic essences and homeopathic products take precedence over the so called chemically-synthesised allopatic veterinary medical products, and that the use of the same is prohibited for preventive treatments. Key questions here are the lack of scientific evidence concerning homeopathy in animals, and that Swedish veterinarians are not allowed to work with homeopathy. Differences in interpretation of the regulations between animal owners and veterinarians will also be discussed. What is a disease that needs treatment? Who is to decide about the treatment? Parasitic infections are discussed as an illustrative example. Other consequences of the regulations concerning the animal welfare are problems in certain geographical zones, for instance subarctic areas where necessary crops are impossible to grow. Animal transports and splitting mother-offspring are briefly discussed as future problems to be handled in the regulations, and the paper ends by presenting the need of regulated herd health control programs in organic husbandry, which can detect and focus on welfare and production problems. The organic movement is not static, and must not be so.

  12. Evaluation of medical research performance – position paper of the Association of the Scientific Medical Societies in Germany (AWMF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herrmann-Lingen, Christoph

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available [english] Objective: The evaluation of medical research performance is a key prerequisite for the systematic advancement of medical faculties, research foci, academic departments, and individual scientists’ careers. However, it is often based on vaguely defined aims and questionable methods and can thereby lead to unwanted regulatory effects. The current paper aims at defining the position of German academic medicine toward the aims, methods, and consequences of its evaluation. Methods: During the Berlin Forum of the Association of the Scientific Societies in Germany (AWMF held on 18 October 2013, international experts presented data on methods for evaluating medical research performance. Subsequent discussions among representatives of relevant scientific organizations and within three ad-hoc writing groups led to a first draft of this article. Further discussions within the AWMF Committee for Evaluation of Performance in Research and Teaching and the AWMF Executive Board resulted in the final consented version presented here.Results: The AWMF recommends modifications to the current system of evaluating medical research performance. Evaluations should follow clearly defined and communicated aims and consist of both summative and formative components. Informed peer reviews are valuable but feasible in longer time intervals only. They can be complemented by objective indicators. However, the Journal Impact Factor is not an appropriate measure for evaluating individual publications or their authors. The scientific “impact” rather requires multidimensional evaluation. Indicators of potential relevance in this context may include, e.g., normalized citation rates of scientific publications, other forms of reception by the scientific community and the public, and activities in scientific organizations, research synthesis and science communication. In addition, differentiated recommendations are made for evaluating the acquisition of third

  13. Evaluation of medical research performance--position paper of the Association of the Scientific Medical Societies in Germany (AWMF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann-Lingen, Christoph; Brunner, Edgar; Hildenbrand, Sibylle; Loew, Thomas H; Raupach, Tobias; Spies, Claudia; Treede, Rolf-Detlef; Vahl, Christian-Friedrich; Wenz, Hans-Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    The evaluation of medical research performance is a key prerequisite for the systematic advancement of medical faculties, research foci, academic departments, and individual scientists' careers. However, it is often based on vaguely defined aims and questionable methods and can thereby lead to unwanted regulatory effects. The current paper aims at defining the position of German academic medicine toward the aims, methods, and consequences of its evaluation. During the Berlin Forum of the Association of the Scientific Medical Societies in Germany (AWMF) held on 18 October 2013, international experts presented data on methods for evaluating medical research performance. Subsequent discussions among representatives of relevant scientific organizations and within three ad-hoc writing groups led to a first draft of this article. Further discussions within the AWMF Committee for Evaluation of Performance in Research and Teaching and the AWMF Executive Board resulted in the final consented version presented here. The AWMF recommends modifications to the current system of evaluating medical research performance. Evaluations should follow clearly defined and communicated aims and consist of both summative and formative components. Informed peer reviews are valuable but feasible in longer time intervals only. They can be complemented by objective indicators. However, the Journal Impact Factor is not an appropriate measure for evaluating individual publications or their authors. The scientific "impact" rather requires multidimensional evaluation. Indicators of potential relevance in this context may include, e.g., normalized citation rates of scientific publications, other forms of reception by the scientific community and the public, and activities in scientific organizations, research synthesis and science communication. In addition, differentiated recommendations are made for evaluating the acquisition of third-party funds and the promotion of junior scientists. With the

  14. Position paper of the Cardiovascular Committee of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) on PET imaging of atherosclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bucerius, Jan [Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Maastricht (Netherlands); Maastricht University Medical Center, Cardiovascular Research Institute Maastricht (CARIM), Maastricht (Netherlands); University Hospital RWTH Aachen, RWTH Aachen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Aachen (Germany); Maastricht University Medical Center (MUMC), Department of Nuclear Medicine and Cardiovascular Research Institute (CARIM), P. Debyelaan 25, HX, Maastricht (Netherlands); Hyafil, Fabien [Bichat University Hospital, Inserm 1148, DHU FIRE, Assistance Publique - Hopitaux de Paris, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Paris (France); Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany); Verberne, Hein J. [University of Amsterdam, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Slart, Riemer H.J.A. [University of Groningen, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); University of Twente, Department of Biomedical Photonic Imaging, Faculty of Science and Technology, Enschede (Netherlands); Lindner, Oliver [Heart and Diabetes Center NRW, Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Institute of Radiology, Bad Oeynhausen (Germany); Sciagra, Roberto [University of Florence, Nuclear Medicine Unit, Department of Experimental and Clinical Biomedical Sciences, Florence (Italy); Agostini, Denis [Normandie Universite, Department of Nuclear Medicine, CHU Cote de Nacre, Caen (France); Uebleis, Christopher [Ludwig-Maximilians Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Clinical Radiology, Muenchen (Germany); Gimelli, Alessia [Fondazione Toscana Gabriele Monasterio, Pisa (Italy); Hacker, Marcus [Medical University Vienna, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided therapy, Vienna (Austria); Collaboration: on behalf of the Cardiovascular Committee of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM)

    2016-04-15

    Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death not only in Europe but also in the rest of the World. Preventive measures, however, often fail and cardiovascular disease may manifest as an acute coronary syndrome, stroke or even sudden death after years of silent progression. Thus, there is a considerable need for innovative diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to improve the quality of care and limit the burden of cardiovascular diseases. During the past 10 years, several retrospective and prospective clinical studies have been published using {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) to quantify inflammation in atherosclerotic plaques. However, the current variety of imaging protocols used for vascular (arterial) imaging with FDG PET considerably limits the ability to compare results between studies and to build large multicentre imaging registries. Based on the existing literature and the experience of the Members of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) Cardiovascular Committee, the objective of this position paper was to propose optimized and standardized protocols for imaging and interpretation of PET scans in atherosclerosis. These recommendations do not, however, replace the individual responsibility of healthcare professionals to make appropriate decisions in the circumstances of the individual study protocols used and the individual patient, in consultation with the patient and, where appropriate and necessary, the patient's guardian or carer. These recommendations suffer from the absence of conclusive evidence on many of the recommendations. Therefore, they are not intended and should not be used as ''strict guidelines'' but should, as already mentioned, provide a basis for standardized clinical atherosclerosis PET imaging protocols, which are subject to further and continuing evaluation and improvement. However, this EANM position paper might indeed be a first step towards &apos

  15. Health related social exclusion in Europe: a multilevel study of the role of welfare generosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltkjel, Therese; Dahl, Espen; van der Wel, Kjetil A

    2013-09-28

    The aim of this paper was to investigate the association between health, social position, social participation and the welfare state. Extending recent research on the social consequences of poor health, we asked whether and how welfare generosity is related to the risk of social exclusion associated with combinations of poor health, low education and economic inactivity. Our analyses are based on data from the European Social Survey, round 3 (2006/7), comprising between 21,205 and 21,397 individuals, aged 25-59 years, within 21 European welfare states. The analyses were conducted by means of multilevel logistic regression analysis in STATA 12. The results demonstrated that the risk of non-participation in social networks decreased as welfare generosity increased. The risk of social exclusion, i.e. non-participation in social networks among disadvantaged groups, seldom differed from the overall association, and in absolute terms it was invariably smaller in more generous welfare state contexts. The results showed that there were no indications of higher levels of non-participation among disadvantaged groups in more generous welfare states. On the contrary, resources made available by the welfare state seemed to matter to all individuals in terms of overall lower levels of non-participation. As such, these results demonstrate the importance of linking health related social exclusion to the social policy context.

  16. Health related social exclusion in Europe: a multilevel study of the role of welfare generosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this paper was to investigate the association between health, social position, social participation and the welfare state. Extending recent research on the social consequences of poor health, we asked whether and how welfare generosity is related to the risk of social exclusion associated with combinations of poor health, low education and economic inactivity. Methods Our analyses are based on data from the European Social Survey, round 3 (2006/7), comprising between 21,205 and 21,397 individuals, aged 25–59 years, within 21 European welfare states. The analyses were conducted by means of multilevel logistic regression analysis in STATA 12. Results The results demonstrated that the risk of non-participation in social networks decreased as welfare generosity increased. The risk of social exclusion, i.e. non-participation in social networks among disadvantaged groups, seldom differed from the overall association, and in absolute terms it was invariably smaller in more generous welfare state contexts. Conclusions The results showed that there were no indications of higher levels of non-participation among disadvantaged groups in more generous welfare states. On the contrary, resources made available by the welfare state seemed to matter to all individuals in terms of overall lower levels of non-participation. As such, these results demonstrate the importance of linking health related social exclusion to the social policy context. PMID:24073744

  17. Defining pollen exposure times for clinical trials of allergen immunotherapy for pollen-induced rhinoconjunctivitis - an EAACI position paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaar, O; Bastl, K; Berger, U; Buters, J; Calderon, M A; Clot, B; Darsow, U; Demoly, P; Durham, S R; Galán, C; Gehrig, R; Gerth van Wijk, R; Jacobsen, L; Klimek, L; Sofiev, M; Thibaudon, M; Bergmann, K C

    2017-05-01

    Clinical efficacy of pollen allergen immunotherapy (AIT) has been broadly documented in randomized controlled trials. The underlying clinical endpoints are analysed in seasonal time periods predefined based on the background pollen concentration. However, any validated or generally accepted definition from academia or regulatory authorities for this relevant pollen exposure intensity or period of time (season) is currently not available. Therefore, this Task Force initiative of the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) aimed to propose definitions based on expert consensus. A Task Force of the Immunotherapy and Aerobiology and Pollution Interest Groups of the EAACI reviewed the literature on pollen exposure in the context of defining relevant time intervals for evaluation of efficacy in AIT trials. Underlying principles in measuring pollen exposure and associated methodological problems and limitations were considered to achieve a consensus. The Task Force achieved a comprehensive position in defining pollen exposure times for different pollen types. Definitions are presented for 'pollen season', 'high pollen season' (or 'peak pollen period') and 'high pollen days'. This EAACI position paper provides definitions of pollen exposures for different pollen types for use in AIT trials. Their validity as standards remains to be tested in future studies. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. [Welfare State and public health: a relationship that needs to be updated].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavides, Fernando G; Delclós, Jordi; Serra, Consol

    2017-09-27

    Human health has improved throughout the 20th century, at the same time that the Welfare State was consolidated. This paper explores the current relationship between the welfare state and public health. The essential functions of public health are exercised as part of the State, and currently the main challenge is to ensure that health is protected and promoted through different public policies, including employment. Studies assessing the health effect of different types of welfare state are contradictory, but when the impact of specific policies, such as unemployment benefits, is considered, the results are positive and consistent. However, the current crisis of the Welfare State hampers its continuity, largely due to changes in the labour market, with more flexible and insecure jobs. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Electronic nicotine delivery systems: executive summary of a policy position paper from the American College of Physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Ryan A

    2015-04-21

    Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), which include electronic cigarettes, or e-cigarettes, are growing in popularity, but their safety and efficacy as a smoking cessation aid are not well understood. Some argue that they have the potential to reduce tobacco-related morbidity and mortality and could be a useful tool for reducing tobacco-related harm. Others express concern that the health effects of ENDS use are unknown, that they may appeal to young people, and that they may encourage dual use of ENDS and traditional tobacco products. Although ENDS are a new and unregulated product, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration has proposed regulations that would deem ENDS to be subject to the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act, which regulates cigarettes and other tobacco products. In this position paper, the American College of Physicians offers policy recommendations on ENDS regulation and oversight, taxation, flavorings, promotion and marketing, indoor and public use, and research. This paper is not intended to offer clinical guidance or serve as an exhaustive literature review of existing ENDS-related evidence but to help direct the College, policymakers, and regulators on how to address these products.

  20. Welfare reform: challenges for grandparents raising grandchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copen, Casey E

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of Temporary Aid to Needy Families (TANF) on a growing constituency that may require welfare assistance: grandparents raising grandchildren. A brief review of the demographics of grandparent caregivers is followed by an exploration of welfare reform legislation, including work requirements and the Healthy Marriage Initiative (HMI). The importance of state-level policies in assisting grandparent-headed households, particularly health care, school enrollment, and housing policies, are also discussed. The paper concludes by offering implications for welfare policies in terms of their impact on intergenerational households headed by grandparents.

  1. An epidemiological approach to welfare research in zoos: the Elephant Welfare Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlstead, Kathy; Mench, Joy A; Meehan, Cheryl; Brown, Janine L

    2013-01-01

    Multi-institutional studies of welfare have proven to be valuable in zoos but are hampered by limited sample sizes and difficulty in evaluating more than just a few welfare indicators. To more clearly understand how interactions of husbandry factors influence the interrelationships among welfare outcomes, epidemiological approaches are needed as well as multifactorial assessments of welfare. Many questions have been raised about the housing and care of elephants in zoos and whether their environmental and social needs are being met in a manner that promotes good welfare. This article describes the background and rationale for a large-scale study of elephant welfare in North American zoos funded by the (U.S.) Institute of Museum and Library Services. The goals of this project are to document the prevalence of positive and negative welfare states in 291 elephants exhibited in 72 Association of Zoos and Aquariums zoos and then determine the environmental, management, and husbandry factors that impact elephant welfare. This research is the largest scale nonhuman animal welfare project ever undertaken by the zoo community, and the scope of environmental variables and welfare outcomes measured is unprecedented.

  2. Searching for welfare, work and gender equality

    OpenAIRE

    Plantenga, Janneke

    2014-01-01

    The paper describes to which extent European welfare states support an individual adult worker model and how the current policy should be assessed in terms of gender equality. Although a more individual design of welfare policies is clearly recognizable, the paper also illustrates the large gap between the implicit assumptions of the adult worker model and the actual reality of most European Member States. Only a few countries, with the Nordic countries as the most well-known examples, have d...

  3. Trade liberalisation, resource sustainability and welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Max

    2006-01-01

    market by developing an age-structured bio-economic supply model combined with basic theory of trade between two countries. Welfare effects of trade liberalisation are identified taking fishing quotas, input limitations, mesh-size regulations and shared ownership of stocks into account. It is shown......Recent research has warned that liberalising trade in capture fish products originating from inefficiently managed fisheries might cause over-exploitation, reduced fish stocks and thereby a reduced steady-state of welfare. This paper qualifies the warning in a case study of the East Baltic cod...... that even though liberalising trade in products supplied by such a fishery might cause steady-state welfare reductions in the supplier countries, these welfare reductions are small compared to the welfare gains from a hypothetical change to optimal management. Hence, the introduction of better fisheries...

  4. Welfare improving product bans

    OpenAIRE

    Doğanoğlu, Uğur Toker; Doganoglu, Ugur Toker; İnceoğlu, Fırat; Inceoglu, Firat

    2010-01-01

    We formulate a model of vertical differentiation to evaluate the welfare effects of removing a low quality product from the market. The mechanism through which a welfare improvement might arise is simple: Once the low quality low cost alternative is banned, entry into the high quality segment becomes more likely. This in turn may lead to a significant reduction in the price of the high quality product. We find that such a ban might improve aggregate welfare when consumers value the higher qua...

  5. INVITED REVIEW: Farm size and animal welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, J A; von Keyserlingk, M A G; Fraser, D; Weary, D M

    2016-12-01

    Critics of agricultural intensification have argued that the transition from smaller to larger farms has compromised animal welfare. To critically examine evidence relevant to this claim, we reviewed more than 150 publications that examined the relationship between farm size and at least one animal welfare indicator. Although much of this literature focuses on dairy cattle, we also reference other farmed species where appropriate. We found little evidence of any simple relationship, negative or positive, between farm size and animal welfare. Instead, the evidence suggests that larger farms provide some opportunities to improve animal welfare but may also create welfare risks. For example, larger farms permit more specialized and professional management of animal health but can make it more difficult to accommodate outdoor access that some view as integral to animal welfare. Future research should attempt to specify the underlying casual mechanisms by which statistical associations between farm size and indicators of welfare are believed to occur. We also suggest that policy and advocacy efforts aimed at reversing increases in farm size would be better directed toward improving welfare on farms of all sizes.

  6. Predictive, Preventive and Personalised Medicine as the hardcore of ‘Horizon 2020’: EPMA position paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The European Association for Predictive, Preventive and Personalised Medicine (EPMA) considers acute problems in medical sciences as well as the quality and management of medical services challenging health care systems in Europe and worldwide. This actuality has motivated the representatives of EPMA to comment on the efforts in promoting an integrative approach based on multidisciplinary expertise to advance health care-related research and management. The current paper provides a global overview of the problems related to medical services: pandemic scenario in the progression of common non-communicable diseases, delayed interventional approaches of reactive medicine, poor economy of health care systems, lack of specialised educational programmes, problematic ethical aspects of several treatments as well as inadequate communication among professional groups and policymakers. In the form of individual paragraphs, the article presents a consolidated position of PPPM professionals towards the new European programme ‘Horizon 2020’ providing the long-lasting instruments for scientific and technological progress in medical services and health care-related programmes. In the author's opinion, Horizon 2020 provides unlimited room for research and implementation in Predictive, Preventive and Personalised Medicine. However, the overall success of the programme strongly depends on the effective communication and consolidation of professionals relevant for PPPM as well as the communication quality with policymakers. Smart political decision is the prerequisite of the effective PPPM implementation in the health care sector. This position is focused on the patients' needs, innovative medical sciences, optimal health and disease management, expert recommendations for the relevant medical fields and optimal solutions which have a potential to advance health care services if the long-term strategies were to be effectively implemented as proposed here. PMID:24708704

  7. Inhibition of various gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria growth on selenium nanoparticle coated paper towels

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Qi; Larese-Casanova, Philip; Webster, Thomas J

    2015-01-01

    There are wide spread bacterial contamination issues on various paper products, such as paper towels hanging in sink splash zones or those used to clean surfaces, filter papers used in water and air...

  8. An Assessment of Social Welfare in Spain: Territorial Analysis Using a Synthetic Welfare Indicator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espina, Pilar Zarzosa; Arechavala, Noelia Somarriba

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is measure social welfare in Spanish provinces. To achieve this, we use the distance method P[subscript 2] to compose a synthetic indicator of welfare for 2007, the last year for which data are available. The index comprises information on different social indicators from various life domains and enables a classification of…

  9. The ethics of fish welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, J C

    2009-12-01

    The topic of fish welfare in the context of commercial fisheries is a difficult one. From traditionally anthropocentric or human-centred perspectives, fishes are simply objects for humans to use as they see fit. When it is argued that anthropocentrism is arbitrary, it may appear that a strong animal rights position is the only recourse, with the result that humans ought not to use animals in the first place, if it is at all possible. It can be argued that both positions fail to view human beings as part of the natural world. If human beings are viewed as part of the world from which they live, then it has to be asked what it means to be respectful of the animals which humans use and from which they live. From this perspective, concern for the welfare of the fishes humans eat is simply what should be expected from humans as good citizens in the community of living creatures.

  10. A need to simplify informed consent documents in cancer clinical trials. A position paper of the ARCAD Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleiberg, H; Decoster, G; de Gramont, A; Rougier, P; Sobrero, A; Benson, A; Chibaudel, B; Douillard, J Y; Eng, C; Fuchs, C; Fujii, M; Labianca, R; Larsen, A K; Mitchell, E; Schmoll, H J; Sprumont, D; Zalcberg, J

    2017-05-01

    In respect of the principle of autonomy and the right of self-determination, obtaining an informed consent of potential participants before their inclusion in a study is a fundamental ethical obligation. The variations in national laws, regulations, and cultures contribute to complex informed consent documents for patients participating in clinical trials. Currently, only few ethics committees seem willing to address the complexity and the length of these documents and to request investigators and sponsors to revise them in a way to make them understandable for potential participants. The purpose of this work is to focus on the written information in the informed consent documentation for drug development clinical trials and suggests (i) to distinguish between necessary and not essential information, (ii) to define the optimal format allowing the best legibility of those documents. The Aide et Recherche en Cancérologie Digestive (ARCAD) Group, an international scientific committee involving oncologists from all over the world, addressed these issues and developed and uniformly accepted a simplified informed consent documentation for future clinical research. A simplified form of informed consent with the leading part of 1200-1800 words containing all of the key information necessary to meet ethical and regulatory requirements and 'relevant supportive information appendix' of 2000-3000 words is provided. This position paper, on the basis of the ARCAD Group experts discussions, proposes our informed consent model and the rationale for its content.

  11. Statin intolerance – an attempt at a unified definition. Position paper from an International Lipid Expert Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Manfredi; Toth, Peter P.; Farnier, Michel; Davidson, Michael H.; Al-Rasadi, Khalid; Aronow, Wilbert S.; Athyros, Vasilis; Djuric, Dragan M.; Ezhov, Marat V.; Greenfield, Robert S.; Hovingh, G. Kees; Kostner, Karam; Serban, Corina; Lighezan, Daniel; Fras, Zlatko; Moriarty, Patrick M.; Muntner, Paul; Goudev, Assen; Ceska, Richard; Nicholls, Stephen J.; Broncel, Marlena; Nikolic, Dragana; Pella, Daniel; Puri, Raman; Rysz, Jacek; Wong, Nathan D.; Bajnok, Laszlo; Jones, Steven R.; Ray, Kausik K.; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P.

    2015-01-01

    Statins are one of the most commonly prescribed drugs in clinical practice. They are usually well tolerated and effectively prevent cardiovascular events. Most adverse effects associated with statin therapy are muscle-related. The recent statement of the European Atherosclerosis Society (EAS) has focused on statin associated muscle symptoms (SAMS), and avoided the use of the term ‘statin intolerance’. Although muscle syndromes are the most common adverse effects observed after statin therapy, excluding other side effects might underestimate the number of patients with statin intolerance, which might be observed in 10–15% of patients. In clinical practice, statin intolerance limits effective treatment of patients at risk of, or with, cardiovascular disease. Knowledge of the most common adverse effects of statin therapy that might cause statin intolerance and the clear definition of this phenomenon is crucial to effectively treat patients with lipid disorders. Therefore, the aim of this position paper was to suggest a unified definition of statin intolerance, and to complement the recent EAS statement on SAMS, where the pathophysiology, diagnosis and the management were comprehensively presented. PMID:25861286

  12. A need to simplify informed consent documents in cancer clinical trials. A position paper of the ARCAD Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decoster, G.; de Gramont, A.; Rougier, P.; Sobrero, A.; Benson, A.; Chibaudel, B.; Douillard, J. Y.; Eng, C.; Fuchs, C.; Fujii, M.; Labianca, R.; Larsen, A. K.; Mitchell, E.; Schmoll, H. J.; Sprumont, D.; Zalcberg, J.

    2017-01-01

    Background In respect of the principle of autonomy and the right of self-determination, obtaining an informed consent of potential participants before their inclusion in a study is a fundamental ethical obligation. The variations in national laws, regulations, and cultures contribute to complex informed consent documents for patients participating in clinical trials. Currently, only few ethics committees seem willing to address the complexity and the length of these documents and to request investigators and sponsors to revise them in a way to make them understandable for potential participants. The purpose of this work is to focus on the written information in the informed consent documentation for drug development clinical trials and suggests (i) to distinguish between necessary and not essential information, (ii) to define the optimal format allowing the best legibility of those documents. Methods The Aide et Recherche en Cancérologie Digestive (ARCAD) Group, an international scientific committee involving oncologists from all over the world, addressed these issues and developed and uniformly accepted a simplified informed consent documentation for future clinical research. Results A simplified form of informed consent with the leading part of 1200–1800 words containing all of the key information necessary to meet ethical and regulatory requirements and ‘relevant supportive information appendix’ of 2000–3000 words is provided. Conclusions This position paper, on the basis of the ARCAD Group experts discussions, proposes our informed consent model and the rationale for its content. PMID:28453700

  13. Best practices for the management of local-regional recurrent chordoma: a position paper by the Chordoma Global Consensus Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronchi, A.; Fossati, P.; Akiyama, T.; Alapetite, C.; Baumann, M.; Blay, J. Y.; Bolle, S.; Boriani, S.; Bruzzi, P.; Capanna, R.; Caraceni, A.; Casadei, R.; Colia, V.; Debus, J.; Delaney, T.; Desai, A.; Dileo, P.; Dijkstra, S.; Doglietto, F.; Flanagan, A.; Froelich, S.; Gardner, P. A.; Gelderblom, H.; Gokaslan, Z. L.; Haas, R.; Heery, C.; Hindi, N.; Hohenberger, P.; Hornicek, F.; Imai, R.; Jeys, L.; Jones, R. L.; Kasper, B.; Kawai, A.; Krengli, M.; Leithner, A.; Logowska, I.; Martin Broto, J.; Mazzatenta, D.; Morosi, C.; Nicolai, P.; Norum, O. J.; Patel, S.; Penel, N.; Picci, P.; Pilotti, S.; Radaelli, S.; Ricchini, F.; Rutkowski, P.; Scheipl, S.; Sen, C.; Tamborini, E.; Thornton, K. A.; Timmermann, B.; Torri, V.; Tunn, P. U.; Uhl, M.; Yamada, Y.; Weber, D. C.; Vanel, D.; Varga, P. P.; Vleggeert-Lankamp, C. L. A.; Casali, P. G.; Sommer, J.

    2017-01-01

    Chordomas are rare, malignant bone tumors of the skull-base and axial skeleton. Until recently, there was no consensus among experts regarding appropriate clinical management of chordoma, resulting in inconsistent care and suboptimal outcomes for many patients. To address this shortcoming, the European Society of Medical Oncology (ESMO) and the Chordoma Foundation, the global chordoma patient advocacy group, convened a multi-disciplinary group of chordoma specialists to define by consensus evidence-based best practices for the optimal approach to chordoma. In January 2015, the first recommendations of this group were published, covering the management of primary and metastatic chordomas. Additional evidence and further discussion were needed to develop recommendations about the management of local-regional failures. Thus, ESMO and CF convened a second consensus group meeting in November 2015 to address the treatment of locally relapsed chordoma. This meeting involved over 60 specialists from Europe, the United States and Japan with expertise in treatment of patients with chordoma. The consensus achieved during that meeting is the subject of the present publication and complements the recommendations of the first position paper. PMID:28184416

  14. Long-term risks of kidney living donation: review and position paper by the ERA-EDTA DESCARTES working group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggiore, Umberto; Budde, Klemens; Heemann, Uwe; Hilbrands, Luuk; Oberbauer, Rainer; Oniscu, Gabriel C; Pascual, Julio; Schwartz Sorensen, Soren; Viklicky, Ondrej; Abramowicz, Daniel

    2017-02-01

    Two recent matched cohort studies from the USA and Norway published in 2014 have raised some concerns related to the long-term safety of kidney living donation. Further studies on the long-term risks of living donation have since been published. In this position paper, Developing Education Science and Care for Renal Transplantation in European States (DESCARTES) board members critically review the literature in an effort to summarize the current knowledge concerning long-term risks of kidney living donation to help physicians for decision-making purposes and for providing information to the prospective live donors. Long-term risk of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) can be partially foreseen by trying to identify donors at risk of developing ‘de novo’ kidney diseases during life post-donation and by predicting lifetime ESRD risk. However, lifetime risk may be difficult to assess in young donors, especially in those having first-degree relatives with ESRD. The study from Norway also found an increased risk of death after living donor nephrectomy, which became visible only after >15 years of post-donation follow-up. However, these findings are likely to be largely the result of an overestimation due to the confounding effect related to a family history of renal disease. DESCARTES board members emphasize the importance of optimal risk–benefit assessment and proper information to the prospective donor, which should also include recommendations on health-promoting behaviour post-donation.

  15. Patterns of Welfare Attitudes in the Australian Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy P Schofield

    Full Text Available The study of community attitudes toward welfare and welfare recipients is an area of increasing interest. This is not only because negative attitudes can lead to stigmatization and discrimination, but because of the relevance of social attitudes to policy decisions. We quantify the attitudes toward welfare in the Australian population using attitude data from a nationally representative survey (N = 3243. Although there was broad support for the social welfare system, negative attitudes are held toward those who receive welfare benefits. Using canonical correlation analysis we identify multivariate associations between welfare attitudes and respondent demographic characteristics. A primary attitudinal dimension of welfare positivity was found amongst those with higher levels of education, life instability, and personal exposure to the welfare system. Other patterns of negative welfare attitudes appeared to be motivated by beliefs that the respondent's personal circumstances indicate their deservingness. Moreover, a previously unidentified and unconsidered subset of respondents was identified. This group had positive attitudes toward receiving government benefits despite having no recent experience of welfare. They did, however, possess many of the characteristics that frequently lead to welfare receipt. These results provide insights into not only how attitudinal patterns segment across the population, but are of relevance to policy makers considering how to align welfare reform with community attitudes.

  16. Patterns of Welfare Attitudes in the Australian Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Timothy P; Butterworth, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The study of community attitudes toward welfare and welfare recipients is an area of increasing interest. This is not only because negative attitudes can lead to stigmatization and discrimination, but because of the relevance of social attitudes to policy decisions. We quantify the attitudes toward welfare in the Australian population using attitude data from a nationally representative survey (N = 3243). Although there was broad support for the social welfare system, negative attitudes are held toward those who receive welfare benefits. Using canonical correlation analysis we identify multivariate associations between welfare attitudes and respondent demographic characteristics. A primary attitudinal dimension of welfare positivity was found amongst those with higher levels of education, life instability, and personal exposure to the welfare system. Other patterns of negative welfare attitudes appeared to be motivated by beliefs that the respondent's personal circumstances indicate their deservingness. Moreover, a previously unidentified and unconsidered subset of respondents was identified. This group had positive attitudes toward receiving government benefits despite having no recent experience of welfare. They did, however, possess many of the characteristics that frequently lead to welfare receipt. These results provide insights into not only how attitudinal patterns segment across the population, but are of relevance to policy makers considering how to align welfare reform with community attitudes.

  17. The Regional Index of Sustainable Economic Welfare for Flanders, Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brent Bleys

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the regional Index of Sustainable Economic Welfare (ISEW is compiled for Flanders for the period 1990–2009. The ISEW is a measure of economic welfare in that it measures the contribution of a country’s or region’s economy to the overall level of well-being of its citizens. It does so by comparing the benefits and the costs of economic activities rather than simply looking at the market value of all final goods and services produced in an economy (Gross Domestic Product-GDP. The ISEW for Flanders shows that the per capita level of sustainable economic welfare in the region decreased between 1990 and 2009. The drop in the ISEW/capita is caused by a deterioration of the net international investment position of Belgium (which is divided over the different regions in the country on a per capita basis and by an increase in the income inequalities in Flanders. To a lesser extent, the increase of the environmental costs (climate change and the use of non-renewable energy resources also contributed to the decrease in the ISEW per capita. In the last four years of the study period, the level of sustainable economic welfare in the Flemish region started to rise again, even in 2008 and 2009 during the economic recession.

  18. Policing Welfare: Risk, Gender and Criminality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scarlet Wilcock

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the last three decades, welfare states across the West have embraced a host of new technologies and initiatives in the name of fighting welfare abuse and fraud (see Cook 1989, 2006; Wacquant 2001, 2009. Increasingly, these practices of ‘welfare policing’ are graduated according to risk; particular welfare populations considered at greater risk of welfare fraud are subject to more intense scrutiny. Drawing on interview research with compliance staff from the Australian Department of Human Services, this paper critically explores how the rationality of risk figures in the process of welfare surveillance in Australia. It pays particular attention to the ways in which risk formulations are embedded in gender and class politics, and how this has led to the characterisation of single mothers and unemployed recipients as more ‘risky’ than the general welfare population, a point that is often overlooked in the literature. But, far from being immutable, this paper also considers how the politics of risk are open to reformulation with often unexpected results.

  19. Welfare and self care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulløv, Eva

    2011-01-01

    Using the case of early childcare institutions in contemporary Denmark, the aim of the article is to show that welfare entails visions of living that are made manifest through the requirements of everyday institutional practices. The main argument is that welfare institutions are designed not onl...

  20. Wellbeing or welfare benefits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handlos, Line Neerup; Kristiansen, Maria; Nørredam, Marie Louise

    2016-01-01

    This debate article debunks the myth that migrants are driven primarily by the size of the welfare benefits in the host country, when they decide where to migrate to. We show that instead of welfare benefits, migrants are driven by a desire for safety, wellbeing, social networks and opportunities...

  1. Teenagers and Welfare Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offner, Paul

    This report examines the extent to which welfare reform is changing adolescent behaviors that lead to welfare dependency. It begins by discussing the provisions in the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 that require teenagers to stay in school and live with a parent, concluding that relatively little can be…

  2. The Danish welfare state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jørgen Elm; Bengtsson, Tea Torbenfeldt; Frederiksen, Morten

    The Danish Welfare State analyzes a broad range of areas, such as globalization, labor marked, family life, health and social exclusion, the book demonstrates that life in a modern welfare state is changing rapidly, creating both challenges and possibilities for future management....

  3. The Child Welfare Cartel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoesz, David

    2016-01-01

    The probity of the Children's Bureau's National Child Welfare Workforce Institute (NCWWI) is examined with respect to the status of child welfare as well as the performance of social work education. By requiring that funding go only to accredited schools of social work, which is not authorized by relevant provisions of the Social Security Act,…

  4. Research prioritization through prediction of future impact on biomedical science: a position paper on inference-analytics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganapathiraju, Madhavi K; Orii, Naoki

    2013-08-30

    Advances in biotechnology have created "big-data" situations in molecular and cellular biology. Several sophisticated algorithms have been developed that process big data to generate hundreds of biomedical hypotheses (or predictions). The bottleneck to translating this large number of biological hypotheses is that each of them needs to be studied by experimentation for interpreting its functional significance. Even when the predictions are estimated to be very accurate, from a biologist's perspective, the choice of which of these predictions is to be studied further is made based on factors like availability of reagents and resources and the possibility of formulating some reasonable hypothesis about its biological relevance. When viewed from a global perspective, say from that of a federal funding agency, ideally the choice of which prediction should be studied would be made based on which of them can make the most translational impact. We propose that algorithms be developed to identify which of the computationally generated hypotheses have potential for high translational impact; this way, funding agencies and scientific community can invest resources and drive the research based on a global view of biomedical impact without being deterred by local view of feasibility. In short, data-analytic algorithms analyze big-data and generate hypotheses; in contrast, the proposed inference-analytic algorithms analyze these hypotheses and rank them by predicted biological impact. We demonstrate this through the development of an algorithm to predict biomedical impact of protein-protein interactions (PPIs) which is estimated by the number of future publications that cite the paper which originally reported the PPI. This position paper describes a new computational problem that is relevant in the era of big-data and discusses the challenges that exist in studying this problem, highlighting the need for the scientific community to engage in this line of research. The proposed

  5. European Position Paper on Rhinosinusitis and Nasal Polyps 2012: Updates and highlights on diagnosis and treatment of rhinosinusitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren-wu CHEN

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Rhinosinusitis is one of the most common chronic inflammatory diseases worldwide. It has been associated with many diseases, including allergic and non-allergic rhinitis, asthma, nasal polyps, aspirin sensitivity, cystic fibrosis, immotile cilia syndrome, immunodeficiency, airway infection, otitis media and dental diseases. Due to the complexity in clinical manifestation and classification of rhinosinusitis, and their associated etiology and pathophysiology, evidence based consensus on diagnosis and treatment is important in order to enhance the effectiveness of available treatment and the quality of life of the patients. Since patients with rhinosinusitis may consult a wide range of clinicians, including otolaryngologists, allergists, pulmonologists and paediatricians, clinical guidelines or consensus with the evidence based diagnostic and treatment scheme for rhinosinusitis for different specialists are very important. The first European Position Paper on Rhinosinusitis and Nasal Polyps (EP3OS was published in 2005 by the European Academy of Allergology and Clinical Immunology in the Journal of “Rhinology”, and the updated versions were published in 2007 and 2012 in the same journal. EP3OS 2007 had been endorsed by many international medical societies, including WHO (e.g., InterAirway document, and the full document was translated into more than 15 languages, and its contents have been widely endorsed, as some chapters were significantly enriched, as extensive up-to-date information on epidemiology, predisposing factors, pediatric aspects and randomized double-blinded placebo-controlled studies in the treatment of rhinosinusitis were added, and it encourages further clinical and basic research in this field in the future.

  6. Diagnosis and management of asthma in preschoolers: A Canadian Thoracic Society and Canadian Paediatric Society position paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducharme, Francine M; Dell, Sharon D; Radhakrishnan, Dhenduka; Grad, Roland M; Watson, Wade T A; Yang, Connie L; Zelman, Mitchell

    2015-01-01

    Asthma often starts before six years of age. However, there remains uncertainty as to when and how a preschool-age child with symptoms suggestive of asthma can be diagnosed with this condition. This delays treatment and contributes to both short- and long-term morbidity. Members of the Canadian Thoracic Society Asthma Clinical Assembly partnered with the Canadian Paediatric Society to develop a joint working group with the mandate to develop a position paper on the diagnosis and management of asthma in preschoolers. In the absence of lung function tests, the diagnosis of asthma should be considered in children one to five years of age with frequent (≥ 8 days/month) asthma-like symptoms or recurrent (≥ 2) exacerbations (episodes with asthma-like signs). The diagnosis requires the objective document of signs or convincing parent-reported symptoms of airflow obstruction (improvement in these signs or symptoms with asthma therapy), and no clinical suspicion of an alternative diagnosis. The characteristic feature of airflow obstruction is wheezing, commonly accompanied by difficulty breathing and cough. Reversibility with asthma medications is defined as direct observation of improvement with short-acting ß2-agonists (SABA) (with or without oral corticosteroids) by a trained health care practitioner during an acute exacerbation (preferred method). However, in children with no wheezing (or other signs of airflow obstruction) on presentation, reversibility may be determined by convincing parental report of a symptomatic response to a three-month therapeutic trial of a medium dose of inhaled corticosteroids with as-needed SABA (alternative method), or as-needed SABA alone (weaker alternative method). The authors provide key messages regarding in whom to consider the diagnosis, terms to be abandoned, when to refer to an asthma specialist and the initial management strategy. Finally, dissemination plans and priority areas for research are identified.

  7. Complementary Feeding: A Position Paper by the European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition (ESPGHAN) Committee on Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fewtrell, Mary; Bronsky, Jiri; Campoy, Cristina; Domellöf, Magnus; Embleton, Nicholas; Fidler Mis, Nataša; Hojsak, Iva; Hulst, Jessie M; Indrio, Flavia; Lapillonne, Alexandre; Molgaard, Christian

    2017-01-01

    This position paper considers different aspects of complementary feeding (CF), focussing on healthy term infants in Europe. After reviewing current knowledge and practices, we have formulated these recommendations: Timing: Exclusive or full breast-feeding should be promoted for at least 4 months (17 weeks, beginning of the 5th month of life) and exclusive or predominant breast-feeding for approximately 6 months (26 weeks, beginning of the 7th month) is a desirable goal. Complementary foods (solids and liquids other than breast milk or infant formula) should not be introduced before 4 months but should not be delayed beyond 6 months. Infants should be offered foods with a variety of flavours and textures including bitter tasting green vegetables. Continued breast-feeding is recommended alongside CF. Whole cows' milk should not be used as the main drink before 12 months of age. Allergenic foods may be introduced when CF is commenced any time after 4 months. Infants at high risk of peanut allergy (those with severe eczema, egg allergy, or both) should have peanut introduced between 4 and 11 months, following evaluation by an appropriately trained specialist. Gluten may be introduced between 4 and 12 months, but consumption of large quantities should be avoided during the first weeks after gluten introduction and later during infancy. All infants should receive iron-rich CF including meat products and/or iron-fortified foods. No sugar or salt should be added to CF and fruit juices or sugar-sweetened beverages should be avoided. Vegan diets should only be used under appropriate medical or dietetic supervision and parents should understand the serious consequences of failing to follow advice regarding supplementation of the diet. Parents should be encouraged to respond to their infant's hunger and satiety queues and to avoid feeding to comfort or as a reward.

  8. Generalized Nutrient Taxes Can Increase Consumer Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishai, David

    2015-11-01

    Certain nutrients can stimulate appetite making them fattening in a way that is not fully conveyed by the calorie content on the label. For rational eaters, this information gap could be corrected by more labeling. As an alternative, this paper proposes a set of positive and negative taxes on the fattening and slimming nutrients in food rather than on the food itself. There are conditions under which this tax plus subsidy system could increase welfare by stopping unwanted weight gain while leaving the final retail price of food unchanged. A nutrient tax system could improve welfare if fattening nutrients, net of their effect on weight, are inferior goods and the fiscal cost of administering the tax is sufficiently low. More data on the price elasticity of demand for nutrients as well as data on how specific nutrients affect satiety and how total calorie intake would be necessary before one could be sure a nutrient tax would work in practice. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Nationalism and social welfare in the post-Soviet context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    This paper offers hypotheses on the role that state social welfare measures can play in reflecting nationalism and in aggravating interethnic tensions. Social welfare is often overlooked in theoretical literature on nationalism, because of the widespread assumption that the welfare state promotes social cohesion. However, social welfare systems may face contradictions between the goal of promoting universal access to all citizens on the one hand, and social pressures to recognize particular groups in distinct ways on the other. Examples from the post-Soviet context (particularly Russia) are offered to illustrate the ways in which social welfare issues may be perceived as having ethnic connotations.

  10. Consumer preferences for pig welfare - Can the market accommodate more than one level of welfare pork?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denver, Sigrid; Sandøe, Peter; Christensen, Tove

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to investigate the market potential of pork labelled to indicate medium and high levels of animal welfare. The paper asks, in particular, whether there is a risk that Danish consumers will abandon high level welfare pork if less expensive products with a medium level of animal welfare became available. The study was based on an online questionnaire with a choice experiment involving 396 Danish respondents. The results indicated that the Danish market could accommodate more than one pork product with a welfare label but the price differential separating medium and high level animal welfare pork will have to be quite narrow. In addition, full willingness-to-pay of consumers who want to buy high level welfare pork cannot be relied upon to incentivise new consumers to buy medium welfare pork. Further, raising brand awareness in the shopping situation and improving consumer's understanding of brand attributes for high level welfare brands were found to be vital. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Gender inequality in self-reported health among the elderly in contemporary welfare countries: A cross-country analysis of time use activities, socioeconomic positions and family characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adjei, Nicholas Kofi; Brand, Tilman; Zeeb, Hajo

    2017-01-01

    Paradoxically, despite their longer life expectancy, women report poorer health than men. Time devoted to differing social roles could be an explanation for the observed gender differences in health among the elderly. The objective of this study was to explain gender differences in self-reported health among the elderly by taking time use activities, socio-economic positions, family characteristics and cross-national differences into account. Data from the Multinational Time Use Study (MTUS) on 13,223 men and 18,192 women from Germany, Italy, Spain, UK and the US were analyzed. Multiple binary logistic regression models were used to examine the association between social factors and health for men and women separately. We further identified the relative contribution of different factors to total gender inequality in health using the Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition method. Whereas time allocated to paid work, housework and active leisure activities were positively associated with health, time devoted to passive leisure and personal activities were negatively associated with health among both men and women, but the magnitude of the association varied by gender and country. We found significant gender differences in health in Germany, Italy and Spain, but not in the other countries. The decomposition showed that differences in the time allocated to active leisure and level of educational attainment accounted for the largest health gap. Our study represents a first step in understanding cross-national differences in the association between health status and time devoted to role-related activities among elderly men and women. The results, therefore, demonstrate the need of using an integrated framework of social factors in analyzing and explaining the gender and cross-national differences in the health of the elderly population.

  12. Gender inequality in self-reported health among the elderly in contemporary welfare countries: A cross-country analysis of time use activities, socioeconomic positions and family characteristics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Kofi Adjei

    Full Text Available Paradoxically, despite their longer life expectancy, women report poorer health than men. Time devoted to differing social roles could be an explanation for the observed gender differences in health among the elderly. The objective of this study was to explain gender differences in self-reported health among the elderly by taking time use activities, socio-economic positions, family characteristics and cross-national differences into account.Data from the Multinational Time Use Study (MTUS on 13,223 men and 18,192 women from Germany, Italy, Spain, UK and the US were analyzed. Multiple binary logistic regression models were used to examine the association between social factors and health for men and women separately. We further identified the relative contribution of different factors to total gender inequality in health using the Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition method.Whereas time allocated to paid work, housework and active leisure activities were positively associated with health, time devoted to passive leisure and personal activities were negatively associated with health among both men and women, but the magnitude of the association varied by gender and country. We found significant gender differences in health in Germany, Italy and Spain, but not in the other countries. The decomposition showed that differences in the time allocated to active leisure and level of educational attainment accounted for the largest health gap.Our study represents a first step in understanding cross-national differences in the association between health status and time devoted to role-related activities among elderly men and women. The results, therefore, demonstrate the need of using an integrated framework of social factors in analyzing and explaining the gender and cross-national differences in the health of the elderly population.

  13. En Route towards European Clinical Breakpoints for Veterinary Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing: A Position Paper Explaining the VetCAST Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-Louis Toutain

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available VetCAST is the EUCAST sub-committee for Veterinary Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing. Its remit is to define clinical breakpoints (CBPs for antimicrobial drugs (AMDs used in veterinary medicine in Europe. This position paper outlines the procedures and reviews scientific options to solve challenges for the determination of specific CBPs for animal species, drug substances and disease conditions. VetCAST will adopt EUCAST approaches: the initial step will be data assessment; then procedures for decisions on the CBP; and finally the release of recommendations for CBP implementation. The principal challenges anticipated by VetCAST are those associated with the differing modalities of AMD administration, including mass medication, specific long-acting product formulations or local administration. Specific challenges comprise mastitis treatment in dairy cattle, the range of species and within species breed considerations and several other variable factors not relevant to human medicine. Each CBP will be based on consideration of: (i an epidemiological cut-off value (ECOFF – the highest MIC that defines the upper end of the wild-type MIC distribution; (ii a PK/PD breakpoint obtained from pre-clinical pharmacokinetic data [this PK/PD break-point is the highest possible MIC for which a given percentage of animals in the target population achieves a critical value for the selected PK/PD index (fAUC/MIC or fT > MIC] and (iii when possible, a clinical cut-off, that is the relationship between MIC and clinical cure. For the latter, VetCAST acknowledges the paucity of such data in veterinary medicine. When a CBP cannot be established, VetCAST will recommend use of ECOFF as surrogate. For decision steps, VetCAST will follow EUCAST procedures involving transparency, consensus and independence. VetCAST will ensure freely available dissemination of information, concerning standards, guidelines, ECOFF, PK/PD breakpoints, CBPs and other relevant information

  14. Rescaling Welfare Policies in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haddad Thorgaard, Camilla; Vinter, Henrik

    The report is a contribution to the research project ”Rescaling of Social Welfare Policies: a comparative study on the path towards multilevel governance in Europe”, which is coordinated by the European Centre for Social Welfare Policy and Research. The report is a background paper for the project....... It provides background information for understanding the rescaling process in Denmark. The report has a three-fold purpose. First, it describes the contextual conditions within which the rescaling process occurs. Second, it describes the institutional settings in terms of territorial responsibilities...... and competences, identifying the relevant actors involved in policy design, management and delivery. Third, it describes the rescaling process that has occurred in Denmark since the 1980s; it focuses on four policy areas: social assistance and local politics against poverty, employment policy, elder care...

  15. Housing Welfare Policies in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lotte

    2013-01-01

    marketization, welfare criticism and internationalization. The aim is to provide outside readers a theoretically guided empirical insight into Scandinavian social housing policy. The paper first lines up the core of the inbuilt argument of historical institutionalism in housing policy. Secondly, it briefly...... the past quarter of a decade. The third section then concentrates on the differences between Denmark, Sweden and Norway in which social housing is, our was originally, embedded in a universal welfare policy targeting the general level of housing quality for the entire population. Differences stand out...... of the governance model of social housing policy in which the housing associations are conceived of as 'dialogue partners' in the local housing policy, expected to create solutions to, rather than produce problems in social housing areas. The reform testifies to the strategic ability of the Danish social housing...

  16. Public child welfare staff knowledge, attitudes, and referral behaviors for an evidence based parenting program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J. Whitaker

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about how the knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of the public child welfare work force influence implementation of evidence-based practice (EBP as most research has focused on the private workforce. This paper reports on public child welfare staff knowledge, attitudes, and practices in a state implementing the EBP, SafeCare®. A survey of public child welfare staff (N = 222 was conducted to assess knowledge, familiarity, and referral barriers and practices. Knowledge of and familiarity with SafeCarewere low, especially among front line staff (case managers. Attitudes toward SafeCare were fairly positive, but somewhat less so than attitudes toward a standard, non-evidenced based parenting program. Case managers were significantly less likely to have made a referral (15% than other staff (46%. Job tenure had few effects on familiarity, knowledge, attitudes, or referrals. The strongest predictors of having made referrals were familiarity with SafeCare and job position.

  17. Fathers Matter: Involving and Engaging Fathers in the Child Welfare System Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Christian A; Howard, Douglas; Rayford, Brett S; Gordon, Derrick M

    2015-06-01

    Research suggests that children with involved and engaged fathers tend to have more positive outcomes relative to physical, cognitive, and social emotional health. Of children who become involved in the child welfare system, involving multiple parents in the case (e.g. mother and father) often results in a greater chance of a child returning home, fewer placement episodes, and reduced trauma that may be caused by separation anxiety. With the rise of single parenting homes (which are mostly maternal) in the United States, child welfare agencies are examining the efficacy of engaging multiple caregivers (esp. fathers) in the child welfare process. Research suggests that in order to involve fathers in child welfare processes, practices and policies must be intentional in implementing systems and protocols that encourage involvement of all parents regardless of relationship status of the parents. However, few child welfare agencies are required to inquire about fathers or involve fathers in the child's case. The purpose of this paper is to highlight efforts of the Connecticut Comprehensive Outcome Review (CCOR) process and discuss challenges and lessons learned from interviews and listening forums/focus groups that included social workers and fathers who are involved in the child welfare system in the state of Connecticut. Recommendations and considerations on engaging and involving fathers are discussed.

  18. 'Genericism' in Danish welfare professions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Verner

    and skills in the basic disciplines of the professions also termed as disciplinary and procedural knowledge '. Thus the main research question for this paper is: What consequences do recent reform actions in Danish welfare education concerning generic competence have on developing professional knowledge......Our paper is based on an ongoing research project about ‘genericism’ in Danish professional education. We critically discuss the concept of 'generic skills' and argue that the ability to act professionally and reflective, even in changing contexts, should foremost be based on extensive knowledge...

  19. Power and Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mik-Meyer, Nanna; Villadsen, Kaspar

    approaches, their weaknesses and indicates some possibilities of theoretical integration. Including case studies of patients, nursing home residents, unemployed people, homeless people, and young offenders, from the USA, Denmark, France, Sweden, Canada, and Australia, Power and Welfare is designed...

  20. Power and welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mik-Meyer, Nanna; Villadsen, Kasper

    approaches, their weaknesses and indicates some possibilities of theoretical integration. Including case studies of patients, nursing home residents, unemployed people, homeless people, and young offenders, from the USA, Denmark, France, Sweden, Canada, and Australia, Power and Welfare is designed...

  1. Zoo Animal Welfare Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koene, P.

    2012-01-01

    Species with specific environmental adaptations may show specific behavioral adaptations, difficulty in adapting to a new environment, and hence suboptimal functioning and fitness. Discrepancy between natural behavioral adaptations and behavioral possibilities in captivity may cause welfare

  2. Data from Paper “False-Positive Psychology: Undisclosed Flexibility in Data Collection and Analysis Allows Presenting Anything as Significant”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph P Simmons

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The data includes measures collected for the two experiments reported in “False-Positive Psychology” [1] where listening to a randomly assigned song made people feel younger (Study 1 or actually be younger (Study 2. These data are useful because they illustrate inflations of false positive rates due to flexibility in data collection, analysis, and reporting of results. Data are useful for educational purposes.

  3. The prospect of market-driven improvements in animal welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heerwagen, Lennart Ravn; Christensen, Tove; Sandøe, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Citizens in many European countries urge that the welfare of farm animals should be improved. Policy-makers propose that this could, at least to some extent, be achieved through increased consumption of animal products produced under labeling schemes guaranteeing higher standards of animal welfare....... Yet considerable uncertainties exist about the ability of the market to promote animal welfare. So far the consumption of most welfare-friendly products has been limited, and the impact of driving and limiting factors is poorly understood. Reviewing market studies, we identify the factors that have...... shaped the relatively successful market for grass milk in Denmark. We conclude that the positive drivers such as an appealing animal welfare attribute and animal welfare being bundled with other qualities are essentially the same as those operating in connection with less successful animal welfare...

  4. Welfare Professions in Transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette Kamp

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Welfare professions constitute one of the backbones in the development of the Nordic welfare states. Working in the public sector was for decades associated with high status; public sector employees were trusted employees. Through their work, they had important responsibilities for the welfare state and its citizens. To provide job security—through employment as officials—was a part of ensuring the stability of the state (Åkerstrøm, 2001, and we saw the establishment of what could be called a public ethos, a special morality aimed at serving the needs of the citizens and the state (Hoggett, 2005. The term welfare professions is widely used, referring to public sector employees in the field of, for example, health, education, care, and social work. So this term covers professionals who work directly in contact with patients, citizens, clients, students, etc. (Brante, 1990; Järvinen & Mik-Meyer, 2012. Along with the development and modernization of the welfare state, a number of new welfare professions, such as pedagogues, social works, physiotherapists, social care assistants, and auxiliary nurses have joined the existing ones like nurses, teachers, psychologists, and physicians. At the same time, however, the public sector has undergone dramatic changes as part of a neoliberal transformation of the welfare state. With the New Public Management (NPM wave from 1980s and onwards efforts to restructure public institutions and introduce market-like relationships between them, to outsource and privatize public services and to transform citizens to customers in a market have prevailed (Busch, 2005; Christensen & Lægreid, 2007; Greve, 2008. Within this reform strategy, welfare professionals are perceived as part of the problem that NPM is created to solve, namely an uncontrollable and wildly growing bureaucracy (Clarke & Newman, 1997 (...

  5. Trade, Environment & Animal Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morrison, Peter; Nielsen, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Regulation of animal welfare and the environment under the WTO GATT and GATS Agreements - including introduction of the innovative idea of limiting consumption abroad (mode 2) for e.g. bull fights.......Regulation of animal welfare and the environment under the WTO GATT and GATS Agreements - including introduction of the innovative idea of limiting consumption abroad (mode 2) for e.g. bull fights....

  6. Effect of grazing on the cow welfare of dairy herds evaluated by a multidimensional welfare index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burow, E; Rousing, T; Thomsen, P T; Otten, N D; Sørensen, J T

    2013-05-01

    food. Body condition and faeces consistence were worse in summer. Many daily grazing hours (range average above 3 to 9 h) turned out to be more beneficial than few daily grazing hours (range average above 9 to 21 h) for the welfare of the dairy herds. In conclusion, this study reports a positive within-herd effect of summer grazing on dairy cow welfare, where many daily grazing hours were more beneficial than few daily grazing hours.

  7. Operational Details of the Five Domains Model and Its Key Applications to the Assessment and Management of Animal Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellor, David J.

    2017-01-01

    Simple Summary The Five Domains Model is a focusing device to facilitate systematic, structured, comprehensive and coherent assessment of animal welfare; it is not a definition of animal welfare, nor is it intended to be an accurate representation of body structure and function. The purpose of each of the five domains is to draw attention to areas that are relevant to both animal welfare assessment and management. This paper begins by briefly describing the major features of the Model and the operational interactions between the five domains, and then it details seven interacting applications of the Model. These underlie its utility and increasing application to welfare assessment and management in diverse animal use sectors. Abstract In accord with contemporary animal welfare science understanding, the Five Domains Model has a significant focus on subjective experiences, known as affects, which collectively contribute to an animal’s overall welfare state. Operationally, the focus of the Model is on the presence or absence of various internal physical/functional states and external circumstances that give rise to welfare-relevant negative and/or positive mental experiences, i.e., affects. The internal states and external circumstances of animals are evaluated systematically by referring to each of the first four domains of the Model, designated “Nutrition”, “Environment”, “Health” and “Behaviour”. Then affects, considered carefully and cautiously to be generated by factors in these domains, are accumulated into the fifth domain, designated “Mental State”. The scientific foundations of this operational procedure, published in detail elsewhere, are described briefly here, and then seven key ways the Model may be applied to the assessment and management of animal welfare are considered. These applications have the following beneficial objectives—they (1) specify key general foci for animal welfare management; (2) highlight the foundations of

  8. Human cloning and child welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burley, J; Harris, J

    1999-01-01

    In this paper we discuss an objection to human cloning which appeals to the welfare of the child. This objection varies according to the sort of harm it is expected the clone will suffer. The three formulations of it that we will consider are: 1. Clones will be harmed by the fearful or prejudicial attitudes people may have about or towards them (H1); 2. Clones will be harmed by the demands and expectations of parents or genotype donors (H2); 3. Clones will be harmed by their own awareness of their origins, for example the knowledge that the genetic donor is a stranger (H3). We will show why these three versions of the child welfare objection do not necessarily supply compelling reasons to ban human reproductive cloning. The claim that we will develop and defend in the course of our discussion is that even if it is the case that a cloned child will suffer harms of the type H1-H3, it is none the less permissible to conceive by cloning so long as these cloning-induced welfare deficits are not such as to blight the existence of the resultant child, whoever this may be. PMID:10226914

  9. Type and Position of Adjunct Questions: Their Effects on Memory and Application. IDD&E Working Paper No. 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwazeh, Afnan N.; Reigeluth, Charles M.

    This study examined the effects of the type of adjunct questions (use-a-generality, remember-a-generality, and remember-an-instance) and the position of these questions either before the relevant text passage (pre-questions) or after it (post-questions) on the three corresponding performance levels of learning. The subjects were 74 eighth-grade…

  10. Review of Legal Guidelines Pertaining to Unjust Dismissals and Whistleblowing in the Public and Private Sectors. A Position Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurger, Steven O.

    As a result of the large number of employees who feel a sense of duty to report waste and corruption within their firms, 500,000 people each year are unjustly dismissed. This document reviews several positions taken by various courts and illustrates some common ground for employees who have been unjustly dismissed due to their whistleblowing.…

  11. A Vision for Doctoral Research Training in Health Behavior: A Position Paper from the American Academy of Health Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Journal of Health Behavior, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To establish and disseminate the position of the American Academy of Health Behavior (The Academy) on doctoral research training. Methods: A collaborative process involving the Work Group on Doctoral Research Training with input from The Academy membership led to the development of the guidelines described herein. Results: A set of…

  12. Emerging issues at the intersection of immigration and child welfare: results from a transnational research and policy forum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettlaff, Alan J; Vidal de Haymes, Maria; Velazquez, Sonia; Mindell, Robert; Bruce, Lara

    2009-01-01

    In July 2006, the American Humane Association and the Loyola University Chicago School of Social Work facilitated a roundtable to address the emerging issue of immigration and its intersection with child welfare systems. More than 70 participants from 10 states and Mexico joined the roundtable, representing the fields of higher education, child welfare, international immigration, legal practice, and others. This roundtable created a transnational opportunity to discuss the emerging impact of migration on child welfare services in the United States and formed the basis of a continued multidisciplinary collaboration designed to inform and impact policy and practice at the local, state, and national levels. This paper presents the results of the roundtable discussion and summarizes the emerging issues that participants identified as requiring attention by child welfare systems to facilitat positive outcomes of child safety, permanency, and well-being. Suggestions for further research and implications for policy and practice are also presented.

  13. The World Health Organization Quality of Live assessment (WHOQOL) : Position paper from the the World Health organization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuyken, W.; Orley, J.; Power, M.; HERRMAN, H; Schofield, H.; Murphy, B.; Metelko, Z.; Szabo, S.; PIBERNIKOKANOVIC, M; Quemada, N.; Caria, A.; Rajkumar, S.; Kumar, S.; Saxena, S.; BARON, D; Amir, M.; TAZAKI, M; Noji, A.; VANHECK, G; DEVRIES, J; SUCRE, JA; PICARDAMI, L; KABANOV, M; LOMACHENKOV, A; BURKOVSKY, G; Lucas-Carrasco, R.; BODHARAMIK, Y; MEESAPYA, K; Skevington, S.M.; Patrick, D.L.; Martin-Jones, M.; WILD, D; ACUDA, W; MUTAMBIRWA, J; Aaronson, N.K.; BECH, P; BULLINGER, M; CHEN, HN; FOXRUSHBY, J; MOINPOUR, C; ROSSER, R; BUESCHING, D; BUCQUET, D; CHAMBERS, LW; JAMBON, B; JENKINS, CD; DELEO, D; FALLOWFIELD, L; GERIN, P; GRAHAM, P; GUREJE, O; KALUMBA, K; KERRCORREA,; MERCIER, C; OLIVER, J; Poortinga, Y.H.; TROTTER, R; VANDAM, F

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the World Health Organization's project to develop a quality of life instrument (The WHOQOL). WHOQOL)It outlines the reasons that the project was undertaken, the thinking that underlies the project, the method that has been followed in its development and the current status of

  14. Review: A Position Paper on Selenium in Ecotoxicology: A Procedure for Deriving Site-Specific Water Quality Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Dennis Lemly

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes a method for deriving site-specific water quality criteria for selenium using a two-step process: (1) gather information on selenium residues and biological effects at the site and in down-gradient systems and (2) examine criteria based on the degree of bioaccumulation, the relationship between mea-sured residues and threshold concentrations for...

  15. Attitudes of meat retailers to animal welfare in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda-de la Lama, Genaro C; Sepúlveda, Wilmer S; Villarroel, Morris; María, Gustavo A

    2013-11-01

    This study analyzes retailer attitude towards animal welfare in Spain, and how this attitude has changed over recent years (2006-2011). Retailers were concerned about animal welfare issues but a declining trend is observed recently, probably due to the financial crisis. The concern about animal welfare was affected by sex, with women retailers expressing a more positive attitude towards animal welfare issues than men. Retailers, based on their experience, perceive a low level of willingness to pay more for welfare friendly products (WFP) on behalf of their customers. This fact is reflected in the sales of the WFP, which declined from 2006 to 2011. The main reason for consumers to buy WFP, according to retailer perception, is organoleptic quality, with improved welfare being second. The results obtained provide a pessimistic picture in relation to the current market positioning of WFP, which is probably a consequence of market contraction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Welfare indicators in laying hens

    OpenAIRE

    Alm, Malin

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing concern regarding the welfare of laying hens worldwide and there are both ethical and economic reasons for improving their welfare. Although several different welfare indicators are used today, their ability to accurately reflect welfare status is sometimes questioned. This thesis sought to increase knowledge regarding a number of these welfare indicators by investigating whether and to what extent they were affected when layers were exposed to different stressors. Three di...

  17. The implications of managed care and welfare reform for the integration of health and welfare services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Michael J; Prince, Jonathan

    2003-01-01

    In this era of managed care and welfare reform, the two systems of public health and public welfare are increasingly focused on a shared population and the services designed to promote self-sufficiency and good health among low-income individuals, families and communities. The two service systems are often constrained by categorical funding mechanisms that contribute to service fragmentation, discontinuity and redundancy. This paper focuses on the changing nature of health and welfare, the impact of categorical funding mechanisms, the barriers to service integration, the potentials for partnership, and concludes with implications for enhancing service integration and the quality of services. Copyright 2003 The Haworth Press, Inc.

  18. Welfare reform and parenting: reasonable expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase-Lansdale, P Lindsay; Pittman, Laura D

    2002-01-01

    Although the primary goals of federal welfare reform legislation were to move welfare mothers into the workforce and reduce births outside of marriage, promotion of responsible parenting was also an important underlying theme. Parenting is a complex, multifaceted phenomenon, however, encompassing a wide range of functions related to nurturing, discipline, stimulation, values, activities, and routines. This article provides a framework for assessing the impact of welfare reform on various dimensions of parenting, with the following key findings: Many aspects of life affect parenting and child development, such as parent characteristics, child characteristics, family economic resources, family structure, parental mental health, marital or partner relationships, and the quality of parents' kin and social networks. About two-thirds of states are using federal welfare funds to promote better parenting through programs such as home visits to new parents and parenting classes, but virtually no state parenting programs have been evaluated. Welfare reform appears to have limited effects on parenting. The only dimension of parenting significantly affected by some welfare demonstration programs was parents' choice of child care settings and extracurricular activities for their children. The programs with the greatest positive impact on parenting were those with more generous work supports and more flexible work requirements. Not only did these programs lead to different choices concerning child care and activities for preschool and school-age children, but they also resulted in more stable marriages and less violence between partners, which also could lead to improved parenting. The authors conclude that many important aspects of the connection between welfare reform and parenting have yet to be examined, and that further research is needed to identify the ways states' welfare programs can promote better parenting.

  19. Animal welfare: an animal science approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koknaroglu, H; Akunal, T

    2013-12-01

    Increasing world population and demand for animal-derived protein puts pressure on animal production to meet this demand. For this purpose animal breeding efforts were conducted to obtain the maximum yield that the genetic makeup of the animals permits. Under the influence of economics which is the driving force behind animal production, animal farming became more concentrated and controlled which resulted in rearing animals under confinement. Since more attention was given on economics and yield per animal, animal welfare and behavior were neglected. Animal welfare which can be defined as providing environmental conditions in which animals can display all their natural behaviors in nature started gaining importance in recent years. This does not necessarily mean that animals provided with good management practices would have better welfare conditions as some animals may be distressed even though they are in good environmental conditions. Consumers are willing to pay more for welfare-friendly products (e.g.: free range vs caged egg) and this will change the animal production practices in the future. Thus animal scientists will have to adapt themselves for the changing animal welfare rules and regulations that differ for farm animal species and countries. In this review paper, animal welfare is discussed from an animal science standpoint. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Environmental Sustainability based on Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen

    2005-01-01

    The paper argues that the Scandinavian countries have some traditions of equity and social welfare, which are essential for reaching a truly environmentally sustainable society. But for the highly polluting Denmark, this would require a dramatic change in the political visions. Maintaining...... the present low birth rate is one condition necessary, environmentally better technology is another, and finally a saturation with material consumption, which is required. The latter is in line with people's quest for more leisure time rather than more consumption, but unfortunately counteracted by government...

  1. The electoral feedback effects of welfare reform in mature European welfare states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    The electoral hazard of welfare state reforms in mature welfare states has been a widely acknowledged feedback effect in the literature. However, the literature does typically no distinct between party families when it comes to the electoral consequences of welfare state reforms and treats...... electorates as unity. This paper analysis the feedback effects of social policy retrenchment under Third Way social democracy since 1994. The paper argues that Third Way reforms resulted in lasting electoral setback for social democracy since these reforms went against the social policy preferences of social...... democracy’s core constituency. Using survey data and election studies, the empirical analysis shows that the reforms have been particularly unpopular among social democracy’s core constituency and that these voters now align with competitors that defend core welfare schemes in a credible manner...

  2. The welfare effects of third-degree price discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Simon GB Cowan; Simon Cowan

    2004-01-01

    The welfare effects of third-degree price discrimination are known to be negative when demand functions are linear, marginal cost is constant and all markets are served. This paper shows that discrimination lowers welfare for a more general class of demand functions. Demand varies across markets with additive and multiplicative shift factors. Total welfare (defined as consumer surplus plus profits) with discrimination is lower than with uniform pricing when the density function of consumer va...

  3. Welfare of broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Sirri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Broiler chickens have been selected for their rapid growth rate as well as for high carcass yields, with particular regard to the breast, and reared in intensive systems at high stocking density ranging from 30 to 40 kg live weight/m2. These conditions lead to a worsening of the welfare status of birds. In Europe a specific directive for the protection of broiler chickens has been recently approved whereas in Italy there is not yet any regulation. The EU directive lays down minimum rules for the protection of chickens kept for meat production and gives indications on management practices with particular focus on stocking density, light regimen and air quality, training and guidance for people dealing with chickens, as well as monitoring plans for holding and slaughterhouse. In this review the rearing factors influencing the welfare conditions of birds are described and detailed information on the effects of stocking density, light regimen, litter characteristic and air quality (ammonia, carbon dioxide, humidity, dust are provided. Moreover, the main health implications of poor welfare conditions of the birds, such as contact dermatitis, metabolic, skeletal and muscular disorders are considered. The behavioural repertoire, including scratching, dust bathing, ground pecking, wing flapping, locomotor activity, along with factors that might impair these aspects, are discussed. Lastly, farm animal welfare assessment through physiological and behavioural indicators is described with particular emphasis on the “Unitary Welfare Index,” a tool that considers a wide range of indicators, including productive traits, in order to audit and compare the welfare status of chickens kept in different farms.

  4. Red and processed meat consumption and purchasing behaviours and attitudes: impacts for human health, animal welfare and environmental sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clonan, Angie; Wilson, Paul; Swift, Judy A; Leibovici, Didier G; Holdsworth, Michelle

    2015-09-01

    Higher intakes of red and processed meat are associated with poorer health outcomes and negative environmental impacts. Drawing upon a population survey the present paper investigates meat consumption behaviours, exploring perceived impacts for human health, animal welfare and the environment. Structured self-completion postal survey relating to red and processed meat, capturing data on attitudes, sustainable meat purchasing behaviour, red and processed meat intake, plus sociodemographic characteristics of respondents. Urban and rural districts of Nottinghamshire, East Midlands, UK, drawn from the electoral register. UK adults (n 842) aged 18-91 years, 497 females and 345 males, representing a 35·6 % response rate from 2500 randomly selected residents. Women were significantly more likely (P60 years) were more likely to hold positive attitudes towards animal welfare (Pimpact of climate change could be reduced by consuming less meat, dairy products and eggs. Positive attitudes towards animal welfare were associated with consuming less meat and a greater frequency of 'higher welfare' meat purchases. Human health and animal welfare are more common motivations to avoid red and processed meat than environmental sustainability. Policy makers, nutritionists and health professionals need to increase the public's awareness of the environmental impact of eating red and processed meat. A first step could be to ensure that dietary guidelines integrate the nutritional, animal welfare and environmental components of sustainable diets.

  5. Welfare Landscape and Communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braae, Ellen Marie

    2017-01-01

    Danish housing developments of the post-war era were a cornerstone in the implementation of the welfare vision and the overall urban and landscape planning in the post-war period. The new city was a horizontal city and – as it will be my primary ambition to show – a green and landscape-like city....... The landscape came, in Denmark, to play a prominent role and became synonymous with ‘The Good Life’, but it also presented a number of moral imperatives. The article concerns how communities and community feelings found their expression in the Danish ‘welfare landscapes’....

  6. From Vikings to Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gert Tinggaard, Svendsen; Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase

    The Scandinavian welfare states hold the highest social trust scores in the world. Why? Based on the stationary bandit model by Olson (1993), we first demonstrate that early state building during Viking Age facilitated public good provision and extensive trade. Social trust were probably not dest......The Scandinavian welfare states hold the highest social trust scores in the world. Why? Based on the stationary bandit model by Olson (1993), we first demonstrate that early state building during Viking Age facilitated public good provision and extensive trade. Social trust were probably...

  7. Fish welfare and genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prunet, P; Øverli, Ø; Douxfils, J; Bernardini, G; Kestemont, P; Baron, D

    2012-02-01

    There is a considerable public and scientific debate concerning welfare of fish in aquaculture. In this review, we will consider fish welfare as an integration of physiological, behavioral, and cognitive/emotional responses, all of which are essentially adaptative responses to stressful situations. An overview of fish welfare in this context suggests that understanding will rely on knowledge of all components of allostatic responses to stress and environmental perturbations. The development of genomic technologies provides new approaches to this task, exemplified by how genome-wide analysis of genetic structures and corresponding expression patterns can lead to the discovery of new aspects of adaptative responses. We will illustrate how the genomic approach may give rise to new biomarkers for fish welfare and also increase our understanding of the interaction between physiological, behavioral, and emotional responses. In a first part, we present data on expression of candidate genes selected a priori. This is a common avenue to develop molecular biomarkers capable of diagnosing a stress condition at its earliest onset, in order to allow quick corrective intervention in an aquaculture setting. However, most of these studies address isolated physiological functions and stress responses that may not be truly indicative of animal welfare, and there is only rudimentary understanding of genes related to possible cognitive and emotional responses in fish. We also present an overview on transcriptomic analysis related to the effect of aquaculture stressors, environmental changes (temperature, salinity, hypoxia), or concerning specific behavioral patterns. These studies illustrate the potential of genomic approaches to characterize the complexity of the molecular mechanisms which underlies not only physiological but also behavioral responses in relation to fish welfare. Thirdly, we address proteomic studies on biological responses to stressors such as salinity change and

  8. Adolescents' Formal Employment and School Enrollment: Effects of State Welfare Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Lingxin; Astone, Nan M.; Cherlin, Andrew J.

    2004-01-01

    Variations in state welfare policies in the reform era may affect adolescents through two mechanisms: A competing labor market hypothesis posits that stringent state welfare policies may reduce adolescent employment; and a signaling hypothesis posits that stringent welfare policies may promote enrollment. To test these hypotheses, we use a dynamic…

  9. Position paper by Canadian dental sleep medicine professionals regarding the role of different health care professionals in managing obstructive sleep apnea and snoring with oral appliances

    OpenAIRE

    Gauthier, Luc; Almeida, Fernanda; Arcache, Patrick; Ashton-McGregor, Catherine; Côté, David; Driver, Helen; Ferguson, Kathleen; Lavigne, Gilles; Martin, Philippe; Masse, Jean-François; Morisson, Florence; Pancer, Jeffrey; Samuels, Charles; Schachter, Maurice; Sériès, Frédéric

    2012-01-01

    The present Canadian position paper contains recommendations for the management by dentists of sleep-disordered breathing in adults with the use of oral appliances (OAs) as a treatment option for snoring and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). The recommendations are based on literature reviews and expert panel consensus. OAs offer an effective, first-line treatment option for patients with mild to moderate OSA who prefer an OA to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy, or for severe O...

  10. Immigration and welfare state cash benefits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Peder J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to summarize existing evidence on welfare dependence among immigrants in Denmark and to produce new evidence with focus on the most recent years. Design/methodology/approach – The paper combines a broad descriptive/analytical approach with multivariate...... estimation on the impact on welfare dependence from individual background factors. Findings – The main finding is the importance of aggregate low unemployment for immigrants to assimilate out of welfare dependence. Fairly small effects are reported from policy changes intending to influence the economic...... is the finding, at a disaggregate level, of how changes in immigration policy and cyclical changes interact, influencing the assimilation into or out of dependence on cash benefit programs....

  11. A prospective, randomized, controlled trial of autologous haematopoietic stem cell transplantation for aggressive multiple sclerosis: a position paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saccardi, R; Freedman, M S; Sormani, M P; Atkins, H; Farge, D; Griffith, L M; Kraft, G; Mancardi, G L; Nash, R; Pasquini, M; Martin, R; Muraro, P A

    2012-06-01

    Haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) has been tried in the last 15 years as a therapeutic option in patients with poor-prognosis autoimmune disease who do not respond to conventional treatments. Worldwide, more than 600 patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) have been treated with HSCT, most of them having been recruited in small, single-centre, phase 1-2 uncontrolled trials. Clinical and magnetic resonance imaging outcomes from case series reports or Registry-based analyses suggest that a major response is achieved in most patients; quality and duration of response are better in patients transplanted during the relapsing-remitting phase than in those in the secondary progressive stage. An interdisciplinary group of neurologists and haematologists has been formed, following two international meetings supported by the European and American Blood and Marrow Transplantation Societies, for the purpose of discussing a controlled clinical trial, to be designed within the new scenarios of evolving MS treatments. Objectives of the trial, patient selection, transplant technology and outcome assessment were extensively discussed. The outcome of this process is summarized in the present paper, with the goal of establishing the background and advancing the development of a prospective, randomized, controlled multicentre trial to assess the clinical efficacy of HSCT for the treatment of highly active MS.

  12. Guiding transcranial brain stimulation by EEG/MEG to interact with ongoing brain activity and associated functions: A position paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thut, Gregor; Bergmann, Til Ole; Fröhlich, Flavio; Soekadar, Surjo R; Brittain, John-Stuart; Valero-Cabré, Antoni; Sack, Alexander T; Miniussi, Carlo; Antal, Andrea; Siebner, Hartwig Roman; Ziemann, Ulf; Herrmann, Christoph S

    2017-05-01

    Non-invasive transcranial brain stimulation (NTBS) techniques have a wide range of applications but also suffer from a number of limitations mainly related to poor specificity of intervention and variable effect size. These limitations motivated recent efforts to focus on the temporal dimension of NTBS with respect to the ongoing brain activity. Temporal patterns of ongoing neuronal activity, in particular brain oscillations and their fluctuations, can be traced with electro- or magnetoencephalography (EEG/MEG), to guide the timing as well as the stimulation settings of NTBS. These novel, online and offline EEG/MEG-guided NTBS-approaches are tailored to specifically interact with the underlying brain activity. Online EEG/MEG has been used to guide the timing of NTBS (i.e., when to stimulate): by taking into account instantaneous phase or power of oscillatory brain activity, NTBS can be aligned to fluctuations in excitability states. Moreover, offline EEG/MEG recordings prior to interventions can inform researchers and clinicians how to stimulate: by frequency-tuning NTBS to the oscillation of interest, intrinsic brain oscillations can be up- or down-regulated. In this paper, we provide an overview of existing approaches and ideas of EEG/MEG-guided interventions, and their promises and caveats. We point out potential future lines of research to address challenges. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Use of faecal markers in screening for colorectal neoplasia: a European group on tumor markers position paper.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Duffy, Michael J

    2012-02-01

    Several randomized controlled trials have shown that population-based screening using faecal occult blood testing (FOBT) can reduce mortality from colorectal neoplasia. Based on this evidence, a number of countries have introduced screening for colorectal cancer (CRC) and high-risk adenoma and many others are considering its introduction. The aim of this article is to critically review the current status of faecal markers as population-based screening tests for these neoplasia. Most of the available faecal tests involve the measurement of either occult blood or a panel of DNA markers. Occult blood may be measured using either the guaiac faecal occult blood test (gFOBT) or a faecal immunochemical test (iFOBT). Although iFOBT may require a greater initial investment, they have several advantages over gFOBT, including greater analytical sensitivity and specificity. Their use results in improved clinical performance and higher uptake rates. Importantly for population screening, some of the iFOBTs can be automated and provide an adjustable cutoff for faecal haemoglobin concentration. However, samples for iFOBT, may be less stable after collection than for gFOBT. For new centres undertaking FOBT for colorectal neoplasia, the European Group on Tumour Markers recommends use of a quantitative iFOBT with an adjustable cutoff point and high throughput analysis. All participants with positive FOBT results should be offered colonoscopy. The panel recommends further research into increasing the stability of iFOBT and the development of improved and affordable DNA and proteomic-based tests, which reduce current false negative rates, simplify sample transport and enable automated analysis.

  14. Position paper: improving governance for effective veterinary services in developing countries--a priority for donor funding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, S; Plante, C; Murray, G; Rey, B; Belton, D; Evans, B; Steinmetz, P

    2012-08-01

    Livestock contributes significantly to the world economy. However, animal diseases and food safety are still major constraints on livestock-sector productivity, economic growth, the reduction of poverty and food security. Efficient and effective governance of Veterinary Services throughout the world is a fundamental requirement for addressing the global animal health and related public health threats. Recent work by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) through the application of the Tool for the Evaluation of Performance of Veterinary Services (PVS Tool) and related Gap Analysis (both of which form part of the PVS Pathway) has indicated that a significant proportion of the national Veterinary Services worldwide do not meet the essential requirements for good governance. This shortcoming poses a significant risk for many developing countries and their trading partners when considered in the context of the growing trade in animal-source foods, and the burgeoning global livestock population. Well-managed, transparent and credible Veterinary Services, in both the public and private sector, are essential for mitigating animal disease risks and ensuring sustainable incomes for vulnerable producers. They are also vital for limiting the public health risks posed by zoonotic diseases. This paper is intended to highlight the impact of governance on the delivery of veterinary services in a development context and the benefits generated by improving veterinary governance. It recognises 'global public good' elements embedded in the good governance of Veterinary Services, and it could also provide an operational development investment roadmap that builds on the OIE PVS Pathway, and innovative financing options based on government commitments supported by donor programmes.

  15. The Nordic Welfare Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Helle; Thrane, Claus

    2011-01-01

    The welfare states of Scandinavia have been regarded as pioneers of gender equality, but structural barriers to women’s participation in the labour market may inadvertently discriminate against women and create opportunity costs delimiting women’s career choices. Family policies are defined...

  16. The Danish Welfare Commission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerding, Allan Næs

    2006-01-01

    ) competitiveness in the global economy, (4) behavioural regulation of the use of public bene-fits and services, and (5) management within tight budgets of an increasing demand on health and care. Finally, the concluding section sums up the discussion and elaborates on the debate on the Welfare Commission’s work...

  17. Farm animal welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; Christiansen, Stine Billeschou; Appleby, M. C.

    2003-01-01

    An experimental survey was undertaken to explore the links between the characteristics of a moral issue, the degree of moral intensity/moral imperative associated with the issue (Jones, 1991), and people’s stated willingness to pay (wtp) for policy to address the issue. Two farm animal welfare...

  18. Unequal Welfare States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. Soede; J.C. Vrooman; P.M. Ferraresi; G. Segre

    2004-01-01

    The financial sustainability of the ageing welfare states in Europe has become a key policy issue recently. This study highlights a different aspect of the ageing process, namely its potential impact on income distributions. Since older people usually live on a lower income, their growing share

  19. The interaction of ethical questions and farm animal welfare science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; Forkman, Björn; Jensen, Karsten Klint

    2012-01-01

    In the early days of farm animal welfare science it was often claimed that a sharp distinction should be drawn between, on one hand, the science-based study of animal welfare and, on the other hand, ethical investigation of what is right, and what is wrong, in our dealings with animals. However......, following debates starting in the early 1990s, it is now widely recognised that scientific assessments of animal welfare simply cannot avoid making ethical assumptions. Using simple but realistic examples, the presentation will explain how ethical assumptions inform the study and assessment of animal...... welfare at different levels. First, and most obviously, it matters a great deal how animal welfare is defined in the first place. Should we think of welfare in terms of animal function, or in terms of the avoidance of pain and other suffering? Or should we focus on the net balance of negative and positive...

  20. Demand and welfare effects in recreational travel models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellström, Jörgen; Nordström, Leif Jonas

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present a non-linear demand system for households’ joint choice of numberof trips and days to spend at a destination. The approach, which facilitates welfare analysis of exogenous policy and price changes, is used empirically to study the effects of an increased CO2 tax...... for the households welfare loss. Approximatingthe welfare loss by the change in consumer surplus, accounting for the positiveeffect from longer stays, imposes a lower bound on the households welfare loss. The differencein the estimated loss measures, from the considered CO2 tax reform, is about 20%. Thisemphasizes...... the importance of accounting for substitutions toward longer stays in traveldemand policy evaluations....

  1. The idea of animal welfare - developments and tensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; Jensen, Karsten Klint

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on developments and tensions within the idea of animal welfare. There is divergence among those who believe in the idea of animal welfare. First, we discuss what it takes for farm animal welfare to be good enough. How far should society go beyond the starting point...... of the Brambell Committee, which was to prevent avoidable suffering? Secondly, we turn to the tricky question of how welfare should be distributed between animals. Here, a tension within the concept of animal welfare, between a focus on the indivudual animal and on the herd, flock or shoal, is pointed out....... Finally, the role of economic considerations is considered, given that animal production takes place in a global market with free trade between countries with various standards of animal welfare....

  2. Role of joy in farm animal welfare legislation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Gall, Philipp; Gjerris, Mickey

    2017-01-01

    While animal welfare is commonly invoked in legal debates regarding non-human animals kept for food purposes, the concept of animal joy is rarely mentioned in such contexts. This paper analyzes the relationship between welfare and joy in the German animal protection law (GAPL) and in the EU...... directive 98/58/EC. Based on a review of scientific and philosophical approaches towards animal welfare, joy is argued to be a part of welfare. Nevertheless, joy is ignored in the German and EU legal provisions. While there may be economic disadvantages of legally protecting animal joy, it is argued...... that overlooking elements of joy cannot be justified from any ethical perspective that claims to take animal welfare into consideration. In order to clarify the aims of the legal provisions, decision-makers need to define the role joy ought to play in welfare legislation....

  3. Market barriers to welfare product innovations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Binnekamp, M.H.A.; Ingenbleek, P.T.M.

    2006-01-01

    New products that are based on higher animal welfare standards encounter several barriers on the road to market acceptance. The authors focus on the Dutch poultry sector and distinguish between retailer and consumer barriers. Retailer barriers include the powerful position of retailers, the price

  4. Child Welfare and Stigma: Principles into Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colton, Matthew; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Investigated the stigma attached to child welfare services in the Netherlands, United Kingdom, and Spain. Found that stigma continues to be part of the experience of using and delivering such services, despite positive determination of policies in all three countries that this should not be so. Also found that the experience of stigma can, with…

  5. The Six Dimensions of Child Welfare Employees’ Occupational Well-Being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Baldschun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is the creation of a multidimensional model of occupational well-being for child welfare professions and the definition of the model’s six dimensions of well-being: affective, social, cognitive, professional, personal, and psychosocial well-being. Previous concepts that were used to describe child welfare employees’ well-being at work focused, primarily, on single aspects of work-related mental distress or well-being, disregarding the complexity of well-being in child welfare professions. The model presented here is based on an analysis of theoretical concepts and empirical studies addressing child welfare workers’ mental distress and well-being. The body of variables, consisting of individual and organizational factors and gathered from the analysis, is used to create a positively oriented model. The key processes in developing psychological distress, as well as employee well-being, are seen in worker–client relationships and the interactions of organizations with their employees. The presented model reveals the importance of constructive interaction between organizations and employees concerning the creation and maintenance of occupational well-being. Application of the model will contribute to the enhancement of the occupational well-being of child welfare employees and, thereby, of organizational well-being. Additional investigations are needed for the empirical validation of the model.

  6. Attitudes of Dutch pig farmers towards animal welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huik, van M.M.; Bock, B.B.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose ¿ The purpose of this paper is to provide insights into the rationale of Dutch pig farmers concerning animal welfare and animal-friendly production. It aims to show the interrelations between farmers' production logic, their ideas about good farming and animal welfare and the characteristics

  7. Welfare and distribution effects of water pricing policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijs, A.J.W.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, distribution and welfare effects of changes in block price systems are evaluated. A method is discussed to determine, for a Marshallian demand function, equivalent variation in case of a block price system. The method is applied to analyze welfare and distribution effects of changing

  8. Labor supply and the welfare costs of marital conflict.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maassen van den Brink, H.; Groot, W.J.N.

    1994-01-01

    Marital conflicts can have negative welfare consequences. In this paper we use an equivalence scale approach to analyze the household labor supply and welfare effects of marital conflict. It might be assumed that there is a simultaneous relation between labor supply and marital conflict: increased

  9. Welfare regimes and the incentives to work and get educated

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez-Pose, Andres; Tselios, Vassilis

    This paper examines whether differences in welfare regimes shape the incentives to work and get educated. Using microeconomic data for more than 100 ON European individuals, we show that welfare regimes make a difference for wages and education. First, people-based and household-based effects

  10. The fiscal impact of EU immigration on the tax-financed welfare state: Testing the ‘welfare burden’ thesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinsen, Dorte Sindbjerg; Rotger, Gabriel Pons

    2017-01-01

    of administrative data, consisting of repeated cross sections of 100% of the EU population residing in Denmark. We find that EU immigrants made a significant positive net contribution to the Danish welfare state over the long time span examined and thus reject the ‘welfare burden’ thesis for the crucial case...

  11. Trust, Welfare States and Income Equality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergh, Andreas; Bjørnskov, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The cross-country correlation between social trust and income equality is well documented, but few studies examine the direction of causality. We show theoretically that by facilitating cooperation, trust may lead to more equal outcomes, while the feedback from inequality to trust is ambiguous....... Using a structural equation model estimated on a large country sample, we find that trust has a positive effect on both market and net income equality. Larger welfare states lead to higher net equality but neither net income equality nor welfare state size seems to have a causal effect on trust. We...

  12. Fun, animal welfare or community development? Understanding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper explores the impact of young travellers' value orientations on their choice for a wildlife tourism package. On the basis of existing literature, four different packages were designed: one mirroring the traditional offer of wildlife tourism as a hedonic experience; one enhancing the animal welfare aspect and intended ...

  13. The Welfare Economics of Land Use Planning

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Cheshire; Stephen Sheppard

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents an empirical methodology for the evaluation of the benefits and costs of land use planning. The technique is applied in the context of the Town and Country Planning System of the UK, and examines the gross and net benefits of land use regulation and their distribution across income groups. The results show that the welfare and distributional impacts can be large.

  14. Welfare assessment in pet rabbits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, F.; Koene, P.; Beerda, B.

    2009-01-01

    One million pet rabbits are kept in The Netherlands, but there are no data available on their behaviour and welfare. This study seeks to assess the welfare of pet rabbits in Dutch households and is a first step in the development of a welfare assessment system. In an internet survey, housing

  15. Postcolonial perspectives on the welfare state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Mette-Louise

    2010-01-01

    This paper focuses on law and regulations within loopholes of exception; that is, sovereign power in the dialectics between law and moral disorder in the realm of a liberal, democratic welfare state. The analysis is based on one year of ethnographic fieldwork in the largest suburban immigrant...... neighborhood in Denmark, Gellerupparken. The case focuses on the local implications of power that unfold in spatial and social political regulations on immigrant families. I argue that the Danish welfare state uses excessive power to “conquest” the moral order of marginal communities while enhancing...

  16. Reproductive activity and welfare of rabbit does

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Castellini

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the relationships between reproductive performance and welfare of the rabbit does. In the last 10 years the profitability of rabbit farms has increased mainly due to improvements in management and genetic selection but several problems mainly related to animal welfare have also occurred. The mortality and rates of female replacement per year are very high and the replaced females often show poor body condition and low performance. The effect of kindling order, litter size, genetic strain, weaning age and reproduction rhythm on the reproductive performance and welfare of females and some mechanisms implicated in these effects are discussed. Modern rabbit does produce a lot of milk which have a high energetic value which leads to a mobilization of body fat which results in an energy deficit. In the current reproductive rhythms, there is an extensive overlap between lactation and gestation. The resulting energetic and hormonal antagonism reduces the fertility rate and lifespan of the doe. Strategies to improve the fertility, lifespan and welfare of does are discussed. An approach which combines various strategies seems to be required to meet these objectives. Since the factors involved in this productive system are fixed (genetic strain, environment the most powerful way to improve doe welfare is to choose a reproductive rhythm that is adapted to the physiology of the does.

  17. Position paper of the EAACI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werfel, T; Asero, R; Ballmer-Weber, B K

    2015-01-01

    -resolved diagnosis may help to reach a diagnosis and may predict the risk of a systemic reaction. Allergy needs to be confirmed in cases of unclear history by oral challenge tests. The therapeutic potential of allergen immunotherapy with inhalant allergens in pollen-related food allergy is not clear, and more...... foods. Local, mild, or severe systemic reactions may occur already after the first consumption of a food containing a cross-reactive allergen. In clinical practice, clinically relevant sensitizations are elucidated by skin prick testing or by the determination of specific IgE in vitro. Component...

  18. Experimental Animal Welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Ergun

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available It is an obvious obligation for investigators to consume millions of experimental animals every year to obtain scientific data. Because most of these experiments involve painful and distressing procedures, to obey the so-called 3Rs, reduction, refinement and replacement, is a prerequisite for those who would apply to ethics committees for a given research proposal. Of the 3Rs, refinement could be defined as “decrease in the incidence of severity of inhumane procedures applied to those animals, which have to be used”. In this context, animal welfare and well-being have been referred to the concept of refinement. In the present review, general principles relating to experimental animal welfare will be discussed. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2011; 20(1.000: -

  19. The Field of Welfare Work Addressing "the immigrant" since 1970

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øland, Trine

    The main objective of this paper is to present and discuss preliminary results of the research project “The space of professional interventions and agents addressing ”the immigrant” in Denmark 1970- ”. The paper will clarify the way in which different groups of welfare state professionals act......, assess and facilitate processes around “the immigrant” on behalf of the public interest. The research question guiding the paper is: What characterises the variety of welfare state work and welfare state professionals engaged in interventions targeting “the immigrant” since 1970, and what activities...

  20. Impacts of extension access and cooperative membership on technology adoption and household welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wossen, Tesfamicheal; Abdoulaye, Tahirou; Alene, Arega; Haile, Mekbib G; Feleke, Shiferaw; Olanrewaju, Adetunji; Manyong, Victor

    2017-08-01

    This paper examines the impacts of access to extension services and cooperative membership on technology adoption, asset ownership and poverty using household-level data from rural Nigeria. Using different matching techniques and endogenous switching regression approach, we find that both extension access and cooperative membership have a positive and statistically significant effect on technology adoption and household welfare. Moreover, we find that both extension access and cooperative membership have heterogeneous impacts. In particular, we find evidence of a positive selection as the average treatment effects of extension access and cooperative membership are higher for farmers with the highest propensity to access extension and cooperative services. The impact of extension services on poverty reduction and of cooperatives on technology adoption is significantly stronger for smallholders with access to formal credit than for those without access. This implies that expanding rural financial markets can maximize the potential positive impacts of extension and cooperative services on farmers' productivity and welfare.

  1. Obesity-related hypertension: pathogenesis, cardiovascular risk, and treatment: a position paper of The Obesity Society and the American Society of Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landsberg, Lewis; Aronne, Louis J; Beilin, Lawrence J; Burke, Valerie; Igel, Leon I; Lloyd-Jones, Donald; Sowers, James

    2013-01-01

    In light of the worldwide epidemic of obesity, and in recognition of hypertension as a major factor in the cardiovascular morbidity and mortality associated with obesity, The Obesity Society and the American Society of Hypertension agreed to jointly sponsor a position paper on obesity-related hypertension to be published jointly in the journals of each society. The purpose is to inform the members of both societies, as well as practicing clinicians, with a timely review of the association between obesity and high blood pressure, the risk that this association entails, and the options for rational, evidenced-based treatment. The position paper is divided into six sections plus a summary as follows: pathophysiology, epidemiology and cardiovascular risk, the metabolic syndrome, lifestyle management in prevention and treatment, pharmacologic treatment of hypertension in the obese, and the medical and surgical treatment of obesity in obese hypertensive patients. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Nonprofit Organizations in Danish Welfare Provision – Explaining Differences Across Welfare Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, Malene

    This paper describes and analyzes the large variation in the proportion of non-profit providers across different welfare areas in Denmark with specific focus on two selected areas: Primary schools and care homes for elderly. With inspiration from niche theory, the aim is to get a deeper insight...... in the characteristics of the institutional framework in the two areas. The main argument of the paper is that non-profit welfare providers cannot be lumped together. It is necessary to take a closer look at both the differences and similarities across areas, but also across non-profit providers and their public...

  3. [Transgenic animals and animal welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, Christoph

    1998-01-01

    Under the pressure of a public vote in Switzerland (7 June 1998) on an initiative to ban the production, use and patenting of transgenic animals, their value for biomedical research and development is intensely debated. In addition, the Swiss legislation has adopted (1992) a constitutional obligation to "take into account the dignity of creatures". The term "dignity of creatures", however, can be interpreted in anthropocentric or biocentric ways. The government has now formulated the legal implications of this term for transgenic animals and plants in various laws including the animal and environmental protection laws. This paper gives arguments for a fair evaluation of trangenic animals from an animal welfare point of view where not only the costs of animal suffering must be considered but also the probability of potential benefit for man. A self-confident research community should allow such an evaluation procedure even in view of an outcome which could ban many uses of transgenic animals

  4. Farmers on Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Ann-Christina

    the member states of the European Community from 1958 onward. That story holds that the political priority given to the CAP, as well as its long-term stability, resides in a basic devil's bargain between French agriculture and German industry. In Farmers on Welfare, a landmark new account of the making...... on extensive archival research from a variety of political actors across the Community, she illustrates how and why this supranational farm regime was created in the 1960s, and also provides us with a detailed narrative history of how national and European administrations gradually learned about this kind...

  5. Peace, welfare, culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gad, Ulrik Pram

    2011-01-01

    and multiculturalism – pitted in opposition. By analytically focusing on “security narratives”, the article details how initial narratives of Muslims as threats to culture, welfare and societal peace merged and morphed to award surprising new roles to the state and multiculturalism. The re-evaluation of cultural......This article analyzes how Muslims are implied to constitute threats in the official Danish discourse of the centre-right government since 2001. It does so to provide a more nuanced picture of Danish debates on integration than the usual presentation of two discourses – culturalism...

  6. Welfare assessment in porcine biomedical research – Suggestion for an operational tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Lene Vammen; Dagnæs-Hansen, Frederik; Herskin, Mette S

    2011-01-01

    used for experimental purposes; and (2) the scientific outcome can be dependent upon the welfare state of the animals. In order to be able to quantify and control laboratory pig welfare, a practical tool is needed. The purpose of the present paper is to provide an overview of the current status...... a method for monitoring the welfare status of individual laboratory pigs, intended to relieve the practical scoring of the welfare of individual pigs as well as the interpretation of the findings....

  7. The Welfare Effects of Price Advertising with Basket Shopping: Structural Estimates from Supermarket Promotions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Cixiu

    2015-01-01

    This paper empirically examines welfare effects of the informative price advertising in the supermarket retail industry, using structural estimation approaches and individual scanner data. Supermarket retailers use promotions (advertised price cuts) to announce sales as a competing instrument...... promotion intensities are socially excessive. Moreover, the welfare implications are determined by the two opposite effects of price advertising: (1) the informing and therefore welfare-improving effect, and (2) the welfare-harming effect that higher transportation costs incur when promotions are used...

  8. Do horses with poor welfare show 'pessimistic' cognitive biases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, S; Fureix, C; Rowberry, R; Bateson, M; Hausberger, M

    2017-02-01

    This field study tested the hypothesis that domestic horses living under putatively challenging-to-welfare conditions (for example involving social, spatial, feeding constraints) would present signs of poor welfare and co-occurring pessimistic judgement biases. Our subjects were 34 horses who had been housed for over 3 years in either restricted riding school situations (e.g. kept in single boxes, with limited roughage, ridden by inexperienced riders; N = 25) or under more naturalistic conditions (e.g. access to free-range, kept in stable social groups, leisure riding; N = 9). The horses' welfare was assessed by recording health-related, behavioural and postural indicators. Additionally, after learning a location task to discriminate a bucket containing either edible food ('positive' location) or unpalatable food ('negative' location), the horses were presented with a bucket located near the positive position, near the negative position and halfway between the positive and negative positions to assess their judgement biases. The riding school horses displayed the highest levels of behavioural and health-related problems and a pessimistic judgment bias, whereas the horses living under more naturalistic conditions displayed indications of good welfare and an optimistic bias. Moreover, pessimistic bias data strongly correlated with poor welfare data. This suggests that a lowered mood impacts a non-human species' perception of its environment and highlights cognitive biases as an appropriate tool to assess the impact of chronic living conditions on horse welfare.

  9. Do horses with poor welfare show `pessimistic' cognitive biases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, S.; Fureix, C.; Rowberry, R.; Bateson, M.; Hausberger, M.

    2017-02-01

    This field study tested the hypothesis that domestic horses living under putatively challenging-to-welfare conditions (for example involving social, spatial, feeding constraints) would present signs of poor welfare and co-occurring pessimistic judgement biases. Our subjects were 34 horses who had been housed for over 3 years in either restricted riding school situations ( e.g. kept in single boxes, with limited roughage, ridden by inexperienced riders; N = 25) or under more naturalistic conditions ( e.g. access to free-range, kept in stable social groups, leisure riding; N = 9). The horses' welfare was assessed by recording health-related, behavioural and postural indicators. Additionally, after learning a location task to discriminate a bucket containing either edible food (`positive' location) or unpalatable food (`negative' location), the horses were presented with a bucket located near the positive position, near the negative position and halfway between the positive and negative positions to assess their judgement biases. The riding school horses displayed the highest levels of behavioural and health-related problems and a pessimistic judgment bias, whereas the horses living under more naturalistic conditions displayed indications of good welfare and an optimistic bias. Moreover, pessimistic bias data strongly correlated with poor welfare data. This suggests that a lowered mood impacts a non-human species' perception of its environment and highlights cognitive biases as an appropriate tool to assess the impact of chronic living conditions on horse welfare.

  10. Position Paper by Canadian Dental Sleep Medicine Professionals Regarding the Role of Different Health Care Professionals in Managing Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Snoring with Oral Appliances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luc Gauthier

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present Canadian position paper contains recommendations for the management by dentists of sleep-disordered breathing in adults with the use of oral appliances (OAs as a treatment option for snoring and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA. The recommendations are based on literature reviews and expert panel consensus. OAs offer an effective, first-line treatment option for patients with mild to moderate OSA who prefer an OA to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP therapy, or for severe OSA patients who cannot tolerate CPAP, are inappropriate candidates for CPAP or who have failed CPAP treatment attempts. The purpose of the present position paper is to guide interdisciplinary teamwork (sleep physicians and sleep dentists and to clarify the role of each professional in the management of OA therapy. The diagnosis of OSA should always be made by a physician, and OAs should be fitted by a qualified dentist who is trained and experienced in dental sleep medicine. Follow-up assessment by the referring physician and polysomnography or sleep studies are required to verify treatment efficacy. The present article emphasizes the need for a team approach to OA therapy and provides treatment guidelines for dentists trained in dental sleep medicine. Many of the dentists and sleep physicians who contributed to the preparation of the present article are members of the Canadian Sleep Society and the authors reached a consensus based on the current literature.

  11. Position paper by Canadian dental sleep medicine professionals on the role of different health care professionals in managing obstructive sleep apnea and snoring with oral appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Luc; Almeida, Fernanda; Arcache, Jean-Patrick; Ashton-McGregor, Catherine; Coté, David; Driver, Helen S; Ferguson, Kathleen A; Lavigne, Gilles J; Martin, Philippe; Masse, Jean-François; Morisson, Florence; Pancer, Jeffrey; Samuels, Charles Harry; Schachter, Maurice; Sériès, Frédéric; Sullivan, Glendon Edward

    2012-01-01

    The present Canadian position paper contains recommendations for the management by dentists of sleep-disordered breathing in adults with the use of oral appliances (OAs) as a treatment option for snoring and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). The recommendations are based on literature reviews and expert panel consensus. OAs offer an effective, first-line treatment option for patients with mild to moderate OSA who prefer an OA to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy, or for severe OSA patients who cannot tolerate CPAP, are inappropriate candidates for CPAP or who have failed CPAP treatment attempts. The purpose of the present position paper is to guide interdisciplinary teamwork (sleep physicians and sleep dentists) and to clarify the role of each professional in the management of OA therapy. The diagnosis of OSA should always be made by a physician, and OAs should be fitted by a qualified dentist who is trained and experienced in dental sleep medicine. Follow-up assessment by the referring physician and polysomnography or sleep studies are required to verify treatment efficacy. The present article emphasizes the need for a team approach to OA therapy and provides treatment guidelines for dentists trained in dental sleep medicine. Many of the dentists and sleep physicians who contributed to the preparation of the present article are members of the Canadian Sleep Society and the authors reached a consensus based on the current literature.

  12. Animal Health and Welfare Planning in Organic Dairy Cattle Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaarst, Mette; Winckler, Christoph; Roderick, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Continuous development is needed within the farm to reach the goal of good animal health and welfare in organic livestock farming. The very different conditions between countries call for models that are relevant for different farming types and can be integrated into local practice and be relevant...... for each type of farming context. This article reviews frameworks, principles and practices for animal health and welfare planning which are relevant for organic livestock farming. This review is based on preliminary analyses carried out within a European project (acronym ANIPLAN) with participants from...... as well as animal health and welfare professionals (veterinarians and advisors) is paramount. This paper provides an overview of some current animal health and welfare planning initiatives and explains the principles of animal health and welfare planning which are being implemented in ANIPLAN partner...

  13. Depression among women on welfare: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennon, Mary Clare; Blome, Juliana; English, Kevin

    2002-01-01

    In the "work-first" welfare policy environment embodied in the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996, situational and personal barriers to employment have received increasing scrutiny from researchers, policy makers, and program administrators. Depression has generated a great deal of concern as a potential barrier to job attainment and retention among welfare recipients. This paper reviews the literature on the prevalence of depression in recent studies of welfare recipients. Starting in the late 1980s, many researchers incorporated reliable and comparable measures of major depression and depressive symptoms into their studies of welfare recipients. These investigations show that rates of depression are high, as is the presence of symptoms. The relevance of this problem for welfare administrators and other professionals is discussed.

  14. Welfare of Aged Horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine McGowan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Horses form a unique and special part of their owners’ lives and aged horses are no exception. This review considers the health and management of aged horses, including the role of the owner and their perceptions of aged horses, potential threats or risks to their welfare and finally, factors affecting quality of life and euthanasia of aged horses. Owners of aged horses are concerned about the health, welfare and quality of life of their aged animals. Yet surveys of management and preventive healthcare reflect that there may be some limitations to what owners are actually achieving in practice. They show declining management as horses age, particularly for the retired horse and insufficient appropriate preventive healthcare via veterinary surgeons. The veterinary surgeon plays an essential and influential role in preventive healthcare, management of diseases and disorders and ultimately in the decision making process for euthanasia of aged horses at the end of their lives. The value of aged horses should not be underestimated by veterinarians and others working with them and the continuing care of aged horses should be regarded with the same importance as the care of younger horses with more obvious monetary value.

  15. Some aspects of chicken behavior and welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LS Costa

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is the world leader in broiler production and export. It achieved this position mainly to its excellent supply chain structure and climate, which favor poultry and grain production throughout its territory. Although Brazilian egg production is not as important as broiler production, this segment presents great potential of increasing its share in the global market. However, as elsewhere in the world, Brazilian poultry production faces the challenge to balance two elements within its supply chain: cruelty and productivity. The consumers of the European Union (EU are very concerned with animal welfare issues. In order to increase its share in the European market, and eventually in the world market, Brazilian poultry producers must understand the effects of production systems on poultry welfare, and try to develop systems that are suited for its climate and other production conditions. There is a consensus that the natural behaviors performed by poultry in intensive production systems allow better welfare. This objective of this review is to present scientific research studies that relate different behaviors to chicken welfare. Poultry behavior is a reflex of their welfare status at a particular moment, and it is related to internal (physiological and external (environmental factors. Several natural behaviors that favor welfare, as well as undesirable behaviors, may be stimulated by environmental enrichment. The correct interpretation of the behaviors expressed by poultry, including their frequency, duration, and sequence, may be used to estimate their welfare. Animal production is an import sector of Brazilian economy. It significantly contributes to the Gross Domestic Product (GDP, in terms of products destined both to domestic consumption and exports. New technologies applied to products and management practices have been developed for field application, aiming at improving producers' productivity and profitability. In order to comply

  16. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 18: Scientific and Technical Information (STI) policy and the competitive position of the US aerospace industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernon, Peter; Pinelli, Thomas E.

    1992-01-01

    With its contribution to trade, its coupling with national security, and its symbolism of U.S. technological strength, the U.S. aerospace industry holds a unique position in the Nation's industrial structure. Federal science and technology policy and Federal scientific and technical information (STI) policy loom important as strategic contributions to the U.S. aerospace industry's leading competitive position. However, three fundamental policy problems exist. First, the United States lacks a coherent STI policy and a unified approach to the development of such a policy. Second, policymakers fail to understand the relationship of STI to science and technology policy. Third, STI is treated as a part of general information policy, without any recognition of its uniqueness. This paper provides an overview of the Federal information policy structure as it relates to STI and frames the policy issues that require resolution.

  17. [NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 18:] Scientific and Technical Information (STI) policy and the competitive position of the US aerospace industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernon, Peter; Pinelli, Thomas E.

    1992-01-01

    With its contribution to trade, its coupling with national security, and its symbolism of U.S. technological strength, the U.S. aerospace industry holds a unique position in the Nation's industrial structure. Federal science and technology policy and Federal scientific and technical information (STI) policy loom important as strategic contributions to the U.S. aerospace industry's leading competitive position. However, three fundamental policy problems exist. First, the United States lacks a coherent STI policy and a unified approach to the development of such a policy. Second, policymakers fail to understand the relationship of STI to science and technology policy. Third, STI is treated as a part of general information policy, without any recognition of its uniqueness. This paper provides an overview of the Federal information policy structure as it relates to STI and frames the policy issues that require resolution.

  18. Radioactive waste isolation in salt: Peer review of the Fluor Technology, Inc. , report and position paper concerning waste emplacement mode and its effect on repository conceptual design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hambley, D.F.; Russell, J.E.; Whitfield, R.G.; McGinnis, L.D.; Harrison, W.; Jacoby, C.H.; Bump, T.R.; Mraz, D.Z.; Busch, J.S.; Fischer, L.E.

    1987-02-01

    Recommendations for revising the Fluor Technology, Inc., draft position paper entitled Evaluation of Waste Emplacement Mode and the final report entitled Waste Package/Repository Impact Study include: reevaluate the relative rankings for the various emplacement modes; delete the following want objectives: maximize ability to locate the package horizon because sufficient flexibility exists to locate rooms in the relatively clean San Andres Unit 4 Salt and maximize far-field geologic integrity during retrieval because by definition the far field will be unaffected by thermal and stress perturbations caused by remining; give greater emphasis to want objectives regarding cost and use of present technology; delete the following statements from pages 1-1 and 1-2 of the draft position paper: ''No thought or study was given to the impacts of this configuration (vertical emplacement) on repository construction or short and long-term performance of the site'' and ''Subsequent salt repository designs adopted the vertical emplacement configuration as the accepted method without further evaluation.''; delete App. E and lines 8-17 of page 1-4 of the draft position paper because they are inappropriate; adopt a formal decision-analysis procedure for the 17 identified emplacement modes; revise App. F of the impact study to more accurately reflect current technology; consider designing the underground layout to take advantage of stress-relief techniques; consider eliminating reference to fuel assemblies <10 yr ''out-of-reactor''; model the temperature distribution, assuming that the repository is constructed in an infinitely large salt body; state that the results of creep analyses must be considered tentative until they can be validated by in situ measurements; and reevaluate the peak radial stresses on the waste package so that the calculated stress conditions more closely approximate expected in situ conditions.

  19. Editor's Choice - Acute Cardiovascular Care Association Position Paper on Intensive Cardiovascular Care Units: An update on their definition, structure, organisation and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnefoy-Cudraz, Eric; Bueno, Hector; Casella, Gianni; De Maria, Elia; Fitzsimons, Donna; Halvorsen, Sigrun; Hassager, Christian; Iakobishvili, Zaza; Magdy, Ahmed; Marandi, Toomas; Mimoso, Jorge; Parkhomenko, Alexander; Price, Susana; Rokyta, Richard; Roubille, Francois; Serpytis, Pranas; Shimony, Avi; Stepinska, Janina; Tint, Diana; Trendafilova, Elina; Tubaro, Marco; Vrints, Christiaan; Walker, David; Zahger, Doron; Zima, Endre; Zukermann, Robert; Lettino, Maddalena

    2018-02-01

    Acute cardiovascular care has progressed considerably since the last position paper was published 10 years ago. It is now a well-defined, complex field with demanding multidisciplinary teamworking. The Acute Cardiovascular Care Association has provided this update of the 2005 position paper on acute cardiovascular care organisation, using a multinational working group. The patient population has changed, and intensive cardiovascular care units now manage a large range of conditions from those simply requiring specialised monitoring, to critical cardiovascular diseases with associated multi-organ failure. To describe better intensive cardiovascular care units case mix, acuity of care has been divided into three levels, and then defining intensive cardiovascular care unit functional organisation. For each level of intensive cardiovascular care unit, this document presents the aims of the units, the recommended management structure, the optimal number of staff, the need for specially trained cardiologists and cardiovascular nurses, the desired equipment and architecture, and the interaction with other departments in the hospital and other intensive cardiovascular care units in the region/area. This update emphasises cardiologist training, referring to the recently updated Acute Cardiovascular Care Association core curriculum on acute cardiovascular care. The training of nurses in acute cardiovascular care is additionally addressed. Intensive cardiovascular care unit expertise is not limited to within the unit's geographical boundaries, extending to different specialties and subspecialties of cardiology and other specialties in order to optimally manage the wide scope of acute cardiovascular conditions in frequently highly complex patients. This position paper therefore addresses the need for the inclusion of acute cardiac care and intensive cardiovascular care units within a hospital network, linking university medical centres, large community hospitals, and smaller

  20. Agency Culture and Climate in Child Welfare: Do Perceptions Vary by Exposure to the Child Welfare System?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spielfogel, Jill E; Leathers, Sonya J; Christian, Errick

    2016-01-01

    Organizational culture and climate play a critical role in worker retention and outcomes, yet little is known about whether perceptions of culture and climate vary depending on the demands of particular roles. In this study, 113 staff from a child welfare agency completed Organizational Social Context profiles. Staff were divided into three groups according to their proximity to child welfare tasks to assess whether involvement in higher stress child welfare tasks is related to perceptions of the social context. Findings suggest possible differences across groups, with those involved in core child welfare tasks appearing to perceive higher resistance to new ways of providing services and those with the least involvement in traditional child welfare perceiving a more positive social context overall.

  1. Rents in a welfare state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paldam, Martin

    2015-01-01

    This chapter describes rents in Denmark, a developed welfare state in which the private sector is sharply delimitated and kept efficient by secure property rights and markets including free trade. In the public sector, rents in the form of excess costs that provide benefits are difficult to measure......, but in a number of cases as described in this chapter, the rents are revealed. The implicit welfare coalition, defined as voters receiving their income from the public budget, is the majority, placing the median voter within the welfare coalition. Rents are created and protected by the welfare coalition. Non...

  2. Secondary prevention through cardiac rehabilitation: from knowledge to implementation. A position paper from the Cardiac Rehabilitation Section of the European Association of Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piepoli, Massimo Francesco; Corrà, Ugo; Benzer, Werner

    2010-01-01

    ) to cardiovascular health outcomes. Secondary prevention through exercise-based CR is the intervention with the best scientific evidence to contribute to decrease morbidity and mortality in coronary artery disease, in particular after myocardial infarction but also incorporating cardiac interventions and chronic...... stable heart failure. The present position paper aims to provide the practical recommendations on the core components and goals of CR intervention in different cardiovascular conditions, to assist in the design and development of the programmes, and to support healthcare providers, insurers, policy...

  3. MICROCREDIT, MICROENTERPRISES AND SOCIAL WELFARE OF THE RURAL POOR IN NORTH-EASTERN TRINIDAD: AN EVALUATION OF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talia Esnard-Flavius

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the relationship between microcredit, microenterprises, and the social welfare of the rural poor in north-eastern Trinidad. Guided by the main propositions of social capital theory, the researchers held 45 semi-structured interviews with active participants/clients within a case study research design. The data showed that access to microcredit through Helping Others Prosper Economically (HOPE positively affected their microenterprises and social welfare, though marginally. Findings also revealed that fragmented social relations within the network, conflict, distrust, and the loose structure of the program limited the impact of their access to microcredit on social welfare as well as the financial potential of the lending organisation, that is, HOPE. It is the contention of this paper, therefore, that such questionable social relations dynamics 'hijack' the promise of collective social networks as exercised through goodwill and resource building. Implications of this study and directions for future research are discussed.

  4. A Social Pedagogy Approach to Residential Care: Balancing Education and Placement in the Development of an Innovative Child Welfare Residential Program in Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharabaghi, Kiaras; Groskleg, Ron

    2010-01-01

    This paper chronicles the exploration and development of a residential program of the child welfare authority of Renfrew County in Ontario, Canada. Recognizing that virtually its entire population of youth in care was failing to achieve positive outcomes in education, Renfrew County Family and Children Services embarked on a program development…

  5. The future of graduate medical education in Germany - position paper of the Committee on Graduate Medical Education of the Society for Medical Education (GMA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Dagmar M; Euteneier, Alexander; Fischer, Martin R; Hahn, Eckhart G; Johannink, Jonas; Kulike, Katharina; Lauch, Robert; Lindhorst, Elmar; Noll-Hussong, Michael; Pinilla, Severin; Weih, Markus; Wennekes, Vanessa

    2013-01-01

    The German graduate medical education system is going through an important phase of changes. Besides the ongoing reform of the national guidelines for graduate medical education (Musterweiterbildungsordnung), other factors like societal and demographic changes, health and research policy reforms also play a central role for the future and competitiveness of graduate medical education. With this position paper, the committee on graduate medical education of the Society for Medical Education (GMA) would like to point out some central questions for this process and support the current discourse. As an interprofessional and interdisciplinary scientific society, the GMA has the resources to contribute in a meaningful way to an evidence-based and future-oriented graduate medical education strategy. In this position paper, we use four key questions with regards to educational goals, quality assurance, teaching competence and policy requirements to address the core issues for the future of graduate medical education in Germany. The GMA sees its task in contributing to the necessary reform processes as the only German speaking scientific society in the field of medical education.

  6. Robotics for social welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Fernández Cossío

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Supported by developments in the field of social robotics, virtual worlds and ICT tools it is possible to build new solutions in health and welfare. Two projects are described in this article. They are intended to improve efficiency and quality of current therapeutic procedures. The ESTIMULO project improves emotional and cognitive status of people with dementia using a reactive pet-robot. The ELDERTOY project modifies the classical concept from the toy industry to develop a new solution for the aged people. ELDERTOY involves a double purpose, fun and therapeutic. In a complementary way, these projects aim to be an example of the breaking of the technology gap both of seniors and of people with disabilities. Therefore, the ultimate goal is to promote and adapt scientific and technological knowledge to be applied to improve significantly the standard of quality of life in society.

  7. Buying higher welfare poultry products? Profiling Flemish consumers who do and do not.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhonacker, F; Verbeke, W

    2009-12-01

    A substantial number of studies has already investigated differences within the consumer market with regard to attitudes and perceptions in relation to farm animal welfare. Likewise, several studies focused on the gap that exists between positive attitudes and reported consumption or purchase intentions for sustainable food products in general and higher welfare products more specific, and on the factors influencing this attitude-behavior gap. Little or no studies, however, have started from reported pro-welfare behavior to distinguish between consumer groups and to explore the motivations of the respective behavior. With this study, we aim to group consumers according to their reported buying frequency of higher welfare eggs and higher welfare chicken meat. Similarities and dissimilarities between these groups are mapped in terms of individual characteristics, product attribute importance, perceived consumer effectiveness, perception of higher welfare products, and attitude toward a welfare label. The research methodology applied was a quantitative study with cross-sectional consumer survey data collected in Flanders in spring 2007 (n = 469). Pro-welfare behavior was unevenly distributed across different consumer segments, despite a general interest and concern for bird welfare. A consistent choice for standard (no welfare premium) poultry products was related to strong perceived price and availability barriers, to a low importance attached to ethical issues as product attributes, and to a low perceived consumer effectiveness. A consistent choice for products with higher welfare standards to the contrast associated with a high importance attached to ethical issues; a low effect of price and availability perception; a strong association of higher welfare products with product attributes like health, taste, and quality; and a high perceived consumer effectiveness. The identification of market segments with common characteristics is essential for positioning higher

  8. How assessing relationships between emotions and cognition can improve farm animal welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boissy, A; Lee, C

    2014-04-01

    The assessment of farm animal welfare requires a good understanding of the animals' affective experiences, including their emotions. Emotions are transient reactions to short-term triggering events and can accumulate to cause longer-lasting affective states, which represent good or bad welfare. Cognition refers to the mechanisms by which animals acquire, process, store and act on information from the environment. The objective of this paper is to highlight the two-way relationships between emotions and cognition that were originally identified in human psychology, and to describe in what ways these can be used to better access affective experiences in farm animals. The first section describes a recent experimental approach based on the cognitive processes that the animal uses to evaluate its environment. This approach offers an integrative and functional framework to assess the animal's emotions more effectively. The second section focuses on the influence of emotions on cognitive processes and describes recently developed methodologies based on that relationship, which may enable an assessment of long-term affective states in animals. The last section discusses the relevance of behavioural strategies to improve welfare in animals by taking their cognitive skills into account. Specific cognitive processes eliciting positive emotions will be emphasised. Research into affective states of animals is progressing rapidly and the ability to scientifically access animal feelings should contribute to the development of innovative farming practices based on the animals' sentience and their cognitive skills in order to truly improve their welfare.

  9. Health and Welfare IT Product Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merritt, Timothy; Grønbæk, Kaj

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we describe the outcomes from a university design class focused on the design of systems intended to solve problems faced by health care professionals, patients and systems that support welfare or extended independence for older people. The students worked in groups for 10 weeks...... ideas with the design community and to reflect on lessons learned by the students who, for the first time, were designing robust prototypes that solve real world problems....

  10. Welfare-Reducing Trade Liberalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Philipp J.H.; Jørgensen, Jan G.

    tariff that maximizes national and world welfare. Applying one of the simplest specifications possible, namely a symmetric two-country intra-industry trade model with fixed export costs that are heterogeneous across firms, we find that the reciprocal reduction of small tariffs reduces welfare....

  11. Dietary nitrogen and fish welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Conceicao, L.E.C.; Aragao, C.; Dias, J.; Costas, B.; Terova, G.; Martins, C.I.; Tort, L.

    2012-01-01

    Little research has been done in optimizing the nitrogenous fraction of the fish diets in order to minimize welfare problems. The purpose of this review is to give an overview on how amino acid (AA) metabolism may be affected when fish are under stress and the possible effects on fish welfare when

  12. Governance Strategies and Welfare Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trifkovic, Neda

    Using an original dataset from the Vietnamese catfish sector, we study the impact of vertical coordination options on household welfare and the implications of different stages of vertical coordination for the success of the whole sector. The welfare gain from contract farming and employment...

  13. The Child Welfare Cartel, "Redux"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoesz, David

    2016-01-01

    In response to "The Child Welfare Cartel," defenders of the National Child Welfare Workforce Institute (NCWWI) make three errors: First, restricting federal funds to schools of social work is "not" authorized by the statute cited in the creation of NCWWI. Second, social work is "not" the only discipline engaged in…

  14. How can economists help to improve animal welfare?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tove; Lawrence, A.; Lund, Mogens

    2012-01-01

    To-date, the dominant approach to improving farm animal welfare has consisted of a combination of voluntary improvements undertaken by farmers and the tightening of legal requirements. However, history suggests that there is a limit to the improvements capable of being secured by this approach....... In this paper, it is argued that economic principles can and should have an important role when new, market-driven and other approaches are set up to improve farm animal welfare. The paper focuses on two ways in which economic principles can improve analyses of animal welfare. The first is by helping to define...... in the right way. Where the benefits and costs of improving animal welfare are initially distributed unevenly across stakeholders so that a socially desirable situation will not develop automatically, or be implemented, suitable economic principles may help to create incentives which correct this situation...

  15. Welfare systems, ageing and work: an OECD perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignazio Visco

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the scale of the demographic problem facing OECD economies and the labour market trends among older workers, considering the macroeconomic implications of welfare provision for ageing on living standards and fiscal balances. The nature and the scale of incentives for early retirement are then discussed, concluding that welfare systems in OECD countries will come under increasing pressure as the share of public pension payments on total welfare outlays could rise dramatically over the coming decades. The paper illustrates some of the recent OECD recommendations for responding to the challenges posed by ageing societies in the context of diverse social welfare systems and concludes that policies are urgently needed in a number of countries to pursue two fundamental objectives: increasing the average number of years individuals spend active in the labour force and raising the sources of provision for an adequate retirement income.

  16. Management of acute intestinal failure: A position paper from the European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism (ESPEN) Special Interest Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klek, Stanislaw; Forbes, Alastair; Gabe, Simon; Holst, Mette; Wanten, Geert; Irtun, Øivind; Damink, Steven Olde; Panisic-Sekeljic, Marina; Pelaez, Rosa Burgos; Pironi, Loris; Blaser, Annika Reintam; Rasmussen, Henrik Højgaard; Schneider, Stéphane M; Thibault, Ronan; Visschers, Ruben G J; Shaffer, Jonathan

    2016-12-01

    Intestinal failure (IF) is the consequence of a reduction of gut function below the minimum necessary for the absorption of nutrients from the gastrointestinal tract. Types I and II comprise acute intestinal failure (AIF). Although its prevalence is relatively low, type II AIF is serious and requires specialist multidisciplinary care, often for prolonged periods before its resolution. The key aspects are: sepsis control, fluid and electrolyte resuscitation, optimization of nutritional status, wound care, appropriate surgery and active rehabilitation. The ESPEN Acute Intestinal Failure Special Interest Group (AIF SIG) has devised this position paper to provide a state-of-the-art overview of the management of type II AIF and to point out areas for future research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  17. Animal welfare in a global perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bracke, M.B.M.

    2009-01-01

    Global survey of animal-welfare regulations, practices and perceptions, with case studies on poultry meat from Brazil and Thailand, eggs from India and the USA, welfare regulations of farmed fish and welfare aspects related to (perceived) overpopulation of wildlife

  18. Rearing conditions, health and welfare of dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    Hristov Slavča; Stanković B.; Zlatanović Z.; Joksimović-Todorović M.; Davidović V.

    2008-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of recent developments in rearing conditions, health and welfare issues of dairy cows. The last approximately 30 years has witnessed worldwide increasing scientific research, consumer activity, and political response towards housing condition, health and welfare issues of dairy cattle. All buildings and housing systems for dairy cattle should be designed, constructed, maintained and managed to assist in the achievement of the Five Freedoms: freedom from hunger ...

  19. Welfare Reform and the Role of Tax Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Rogers, Diane Lim; Weil, Alan

    2000-01-01

    This paper explores the often-neglected relationship between welfare reform and tax policy. It sets forth the objectives that underlie welfare reform, then compares expenditure-based and tax-based policy strategies that states and the federal government are taking. The examination suggests that, although they promote the similar broad goals of self-sufficiency and family formation, tax credits such as the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) function differently from expenditure-side programs in s...

  20. Position paper of the EPMA and EFLM: a global vision of the consolidated promotion of an integrative medical approach to advance health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golubnitschaja, Olga; Watson, Ian D; Topic, Elizabeta; Sandberg, Sverre; Ferrari, Maurizio; Costigliola, Vincenzo

    2013-05-10

    The authors consider acute problems in the quality and management of medical services challenging health care systems worldwide. This actuality has motivated the representatives of the European Association for Predictive, Preventive and Personalised Medicine and European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine to consider the efforts in promoting an integrative approach based on multidisciplinary expertise to advance health care. The current paper provides a global overview of the problems related to medical services: pandemic scenario in the progression of common chronic diseases, delayed interventional approaches of reactive medicine, poor economy of health care systems, lack of specialised educational programmes, problematic ethical aspects of treatments as well as inadequate communication among professional groups and policymakers. Further, in the form of individual paragraphs, the article presents a consolidated position of the represented European organisations. This position is focused on the patients' needs, expert recommendations for the relevant medical fields and plausible solutions which have a potential to advance health care services if the long-term strategies were to be effectively implemented as proposed here.

  1. Welfare standards in hospital mergers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katona, Katalin; Canoy, Marcel

    2013-08-01

    There is a broad literature on the consequences of applying different welfare standards in merger control. Total welfare is usually defined as the sum of consumer and provider surplus, i.e., potential external effects are not considered. The general result is then that consumer welfare is a more restrictive standard than total welfare, which is advantageous in certain situations. This relationship between the two standards is not necessarily true when the merger has significant external effects. We model mergers on hospital markets and allow for not-profit-maximizing behavior of providers and mandatory health insurance. Mandatory health insurance detaches the financial and consumption side of health care markets, and the concept consumer in merger control becomes non-evident. Patients not visiting the merging hospitals still are affected by price changes through their insurance premiums. External financial effects emerge on not directly affected consumers. We show that applying a restricted interpretation of consumer (neglecting externality) in health care merger control can reverse the relation between the two standards; consumer welfare standard can be weaker than total welfare. Consequently, applying the wrong standard can lead to both clearing socially undesirable and to blocking socially desirable mergers. The possible negative consequences of applying a simple consumer welfare standard in merger control can be even stronger when hospitals maximize quality and put less weight on financial considerations. We also investigate the implications of these results for the practice of merger control.

  2. Health and Welfare in Organic Poultry Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berg C

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available This review paper deals with the major health and welfare aspects of organic poultry production. The differences between organic and conventional egg and poultry meat production are discussed, with the main emphasis on housing and management requirements, feed composition and the use of veterinary prophylactic and therapeutic drugs. The effects of the legislation and statutes for organic farming on the health and welfare of the birds are also discussed, especially in relation to the biosecurity problems associated with free-range systems, the occurrence of behavioural disturbances in loose housed flocks and the use of veterinary drugs and vaccinations in general. The results from a questionnaire sent out to all Swedish organic egg producers, where questions about the farmer's perception of the birds' health status were included, are presented at the end of the paper. It is concluded that most of the health and welfare problems seen in conventional poultry systems for loose housed or free ranging birds can also been found on organic poultry farms. It is also concluded that there is a need for information about biosecurity, disease detection and disease prevention on organic poultry farms.

  3. Market Integration, Choice of Technology and Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jørgen Drud; Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller

    2010-01-01

    technologies. Market integration may induce a technological restructuring where firms either diversify their technologies or switch to a homogeneous technology. In general, market integration improves welfare. However, a small decrease of trade costs which induces a switch from heterogeneous technologies......This paper develops an international trade model where firms in a duopoly may diversify their technologies for strategic reasons. The firms face the same set of technologies given by a tradeoff between marginal costs and fixed costs, but depending on trade costs firms may choose different...... to a homogeneous technology may locally reduce global welfare. The model also shows that productivity differences lead to intra-industry firm heterogeneity in size and exports similar to the "new-new" trade models with monopolistic competition....

  4. Skill level, Cognitive Ability, Unemployment and Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Birthe

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the implications of that workers may not be ableto estimate their true costs of acquiring skills. Consequently, too fewworkers may acquire skills. This allows for the possibility that subsidizingeducation is welfare improving. Furthermore, if the presence of skill......-biasedtechnological shocks increase unemployment, this may explain why themarket it-self cannot respond to this by making it sufficiently attractiveto acquire skills. Consequently, the trade-off in-between subsidizing educationand thereby reducing unemployment and optimizing welfare maybe eliminated. We analyse this issue...... in a simple educational model andnext in a search equilibrium model including a skill choice decision.Keywords: Education, subsidies, efficiency, unemployment.JEL codes: I20, J64....

  5. Defining, assessing and promoting the welfare of farmed fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntingford, F A; Kadri, S

    2014-04-01

    As currently practised, the culture of fish for food potentially raises concerns about the welfare of farmed fish, and this is a topic that has received considerable attention. As vertebrates, fish share a number of features with the birds and mammals that are more commonly farmed, so many welfare principles derived from consideration of these groups may also be applied to fish. However, fish have a long, separate evolutionary history and are also adapted to a very different, aquatic environment. For these reasons, they have a number of special features that are relevant to how welfare is defined, assessed and promoted and these are discussed. The various methods that are available to researchers for identifying and assessing good and bad welfare in fish are considered, including assessment of physical health and physiological, behavioural and genomic status. The subset of practical welfare indicators that can be used on working farms is also reviewed. Various aspects of intensive aquaculture that can potentially compromise fish welfare are outlined, as are some strategies available for mitigating such adverse effects. Finally, the paper ends by looking briefly to the future, identifying likely changes in aquaculture practices and how these might affect the welfare of farmed fish.

  6. Welfare reform in European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Immervoll, Herwig; Kleven, Henrik Jacobsen; Kreiner, Claus Thustrup

    2007-01-01

    microsimulation model to estimate current marginal and participation tax rates. We quantify the equity-efficiency trade-off for a range of elasticity parameters. In most countries, because of large existing welfare programmes with high phase-out rates, increasing traditional welfare is undesirable unless......This article compares the effects of increasing traditional welfare to introducing in-work benefits in the 15 (pre-enlargement) countries of the European Union. We use a labour supply model encompassing responses to taxes and transfers along both the intensive and extensive margins, and the EUROMOD...

  7. Does Subjective Left-Right Position Have a Causal Effect on Support for Redistribution?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jæger, Mads Meier

    Political values have been hypothesized as causal predictors of welfare state support, with subjective position on the left-right scale often used in empirical studies to measure the individual’s core political values. Unfortunately, a major problem in existing research is that the causal effect...... of left-right position on welfare state support cannot be identified with cross-sectional data in which left-right position and welfare state support are observed simultaneously. In this paper, I propose an alternative approach based on Instrumental Variable methods which, using socioeconomic background...... characteristics as instruments for left-right position, can be used to estimate the causal effect of left-right position on support for redistribution. I analyze data on Sweden, Germany, and Norway from the two first waves of the European Social Survey and find first that left-right position is endogenous...

  8. Child Welfare Outcomes Data Portal

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The most current Child Welfare Outcomes data is featured on this site. Through the site, you can view the data before the full report is published. The most recently...

  9. Transfers, Taxes, and Welfare Reform

    OpenAIRE

    Haveman, Robert; Scolex, John Karl

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the need inability of past administrations to pass any welfare reform and gives an overview of an antipoverty policy. Shows that the poverty problem goes beyond tax reform and includes education, crime and violence.

  10. Consumer perception of animal welfare and the effect of information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørkbak, Morten Raun; Nordström, Jonas

    The motivation for the present study is to understand food choice in relation to animal welfare, and how choices and preferences are influenced by expert information. The focus is on the attribute "animal welfare", which is represented by the method of producing chicken (indoor and outdoor...... production). To accomplish the analysis we have carried out a choice experiment. The results indicate that men have a significantly lower willingness to pay (WTP) for outdoor produced chicken than women, and that highly educated people have the highest WTP for outdoor produced chicken. Furthermore......, the results suggest that once the respondents/consumers are given information about the production method, the higher income people have the more do they care about animal welfare in terms of WTP. Thus, economic progress is likely to have a positive effect on animal welfare, if the consumers are given...

  11. The use ofnatural substances in thetreatment of rhinosinusitis in thelight of the EuropeanPosition Paper on Rhinosinusitis and Nasal Polyps 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Pachecka

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Rhinosinusitis is a very common condition of the upper respiratory tract. The disease may be caused by viral, bacterial or fungal infections as well as by allergens or air pollution (e.g. tobacco smoke, with viral infections being the most common cause. The first phase of viral rhinosinusitis therapy involves the use of antipyretics, analgesics, anti-oedematous agents as well as nasal decongestants, occasionally, topical glucocorticosteroids, nasal irrigation and adjunct phytotherapy. Viral or allergic rhinosinusitis does not require antibiotic therapy. Antibiotics should be used if symptoms persist after 7–10 days or bacterial superinfection develops. More intense treatment (antibiotic, metronidazole, intranasal glucocorticosteroid as well as formulations that dilute mucous secretions and have anti-oedematous effects for up to several days is necessary in cases of acute rhinosinusitis in children, which is quite often a very serious disease bordering on sepsis (pansinusitis. According to the 2012 European Position Paper on Rhinosinusitis and Nasal Polyps 2012 (EPOS 2012, natural compounds may be used as an adjunct treatment in some cases and in certain periods of the disease. These include nasal irrigation with saline or an appropriate seawater solution as well as the use of herbal medicinal products. The paper discusses in detail the use of different herbal medicinal products and presents literature data related to the efficacy and tolerance of these products.

  12. Animal welfare: concepts and practical procedures to evaluate the swine productions systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Manteca

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The concepts of animal welfare have received a wide discussion by international scientific community during the last decades. The most accepted definition consider the animal welfare like a multidimensional theme, where are involved the emotion, the biological activity and the natural behavior. However, considering the clearness of this concepts, another challenge is presented, where is questioned how we can evaluate the animal welfare in commercial systems. Thus, the Welfare Quality® project gave the understanding about the welfare subjects and how we can to evaluate its in commercial farms and slaughterhouses. Then the main of this article is present the principal concepts and practical means to evaluate the animal welfare in swine, according the Welfare Quality® protocols, with the identifications of the positive and critical aspects involved.

  13. A Proposal for Assessing the Economic Welfare Of Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca-Maria BĂLĂ

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Over the last two decades many economists, sociologists and other researchers expressed their views concerning the importance of using economic welfare as an instrument for socio-economic policies instead of relying only on economic growth. This paper aims to present on one hand the weaknesses of the most important macroeconomic aggregate, GDP, in the characterization of the economic welfare of citizens and on the other hand intends to provide some evidence for the theoretical criticism made to GDP, with reference to the case of Romania, taking into account three essential components in quantifying the sustainable economic welfare of the citizens in a country: the social, economic and environmental part. Thus, it is proposed an index more appropriate than GDP in measuring economic welfare for Romania and it is compared their evolution on the last twenty years.

  14. The current and future role of the medical oncologist in the professional care for cancer patients: a position paper by the European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, R A; Schäfer, R; Califano, R; Eckert, R; Coleman, R; Douillard, J-Y; Cervantes, A; Casali, P G; Sessa, C; Van Cutsem, E; de Vries, E; Pavlidis, N; Fumasoli, K; Wörmann, B; Samonigg, H; Cascinu, S; Cruz Hernández, J J; Howard, A J; Ciardiello, F; Stahel, R A; Piccart, M

    2014-01-01

    The number of cancer patients in Europe is rising and significant advances in basic and applied cancer research are making the provision of optimal care more challenging. The concept of cancer as a systemic, highly heterogeneous and complex disease has increased the awareness that quality cancer care should be provided by a multidisciplinary team (MDT) of highly qualified healthcare professionals. Cancer patients also have the right to benefit from medical progress by receiving optimal treatment from adequately trained and highly skilled medical professionals. Built on the highest standards of professional training and continuing medical education, medical oncology is recognised as an independent medical specialty in many European countries. Medical oncology is a core member of the MDT and offers cancer patients a comprehensive and systemic approach to treatment and care, while ensuring evidence-based, safe and cost-effective use of cancer drugs and preserving the quality of life of cancer patients through the entire 'cancer journey'. Medical oncologists are also engaged in clinical and translational research to promote innovation and new therapies and they contribute to cancer diagnosis, prevention and research, making a difference for patients in a dynamic, stimulating professional environment. Medical oncologists play an important role in shaping the future of healthcare through innovation and are also actively involved at the political level to ensure a maximum contribution of the profession to Society and to tackle future challenges. This position paper summarises the multifarious and vital contributions of medical oncology and medical oncologists to today's and tomorrow's professional cancer care.

  15. Clinical recommendations on Cardiac-CT in 2015: a position paper of the Working Group on Cardiac-CT and Nuclear Cardiology of the Italian Society of Cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreini, Daniele; Martuscelli, Eugenio; Guaricci, Andrea Igoren; Carrabba, Nazario; Magnoni, Marco; Tedeschi, Carlo; Pelliccia, Antonio; Pontone, Gianluca

    2016-02-01

    We worked out a position paper on cardiac-computed tomography (CCT) endorsed by the Working Group on CCT and Nuclear Cardiology of the Italian Society of Cardiology. The CCT clinical indications were discussed and formulated according to the following two modalities: a brief paragraph dedicated to each indication, with the description of clinical usefulness of different indications; and each indication was rated by the technical panel for appropriateness, using a score assessing whether the use of CCT for each indication is appropriate, uncertain, or inappropriate. All conventional CCT clinical indications, regarding coronary and noncoronary evaluation, were discussed and rated. Moreover, we wrote specific sections regarding the newest CCT applications, such as stress perfusion computed tomography, noninvasive evaluation of fractional flow reserve, and CCT use in athletes. The present study has the following two main objectives: because the diagnostic performance of coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) is strictly dependent on adequate technology and local expertise, we strove to provide clinical recommendations on CCTA that may help Italian physicians involved with this diagnostic tool; and to give an update on new indications of CCTA, such as its use for safely discharging patients with suspected acute coronary syndromes from the emergency department, and latest clinical results that have been made possible by the remarkable technology developments of the scanners.

  16. Mind the gap—deficits in our knowledge of aspects impacting the bioavailability of phytochemicals and their metabolites—a position paper focusing on carotenoids and polyphenols

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Gordon J.; Alegría, Amparo; Alminger, Marie; Arrigoni, Eva; Aura, Anna‐Marja; Brito, Catarina; Cilla, Antonio; El, Sedef N.; Karakaya, Sibel; Martínez‐Cuesta, Marie C.; Santos, Claudia N.

    2015-01-01

    Various secondary plant metabolites or phytochemicals, including polyphenols and carotenoids, have been associated with a variety of health benefits, such as reduced incidence of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and several types of cancer, most likely due to their involvement in ameliorating inflammation and oxidative stress. However, discrepancies exist between their putative effects when comparing observational and intervention studies, especially when using pure compounds. These discrepancies may in part be explained by differences in intake levels and their bioavailability. Prior to exerting their bioactivity, these compounds must be made bioavailable, and considerable differences may arise due to their matrix release, changes during digestion, uptake, metabolism, and biodistribution, even before considering dose‐ and host‐related factors. Though many insights have been gained on factors affecting secondary plant metabolite bioavailability, many gaps still exist in our knowledge. In this position paper, we highlight several major gaps in our understanding of phytochemical bioavailability, including effects of food processing, changes during digestion, involvement of cellular transporters in influx/efflux through the gastrointestinal epithelium, changes during colonic fermentation, and their phase I and phase II metabolism following absorption. PMID:25988374

  17. Clinical use of quantitative cardiac perfusion PET: rationale, modalities and possible indications. Position paper of the Cardiovascular Committee of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciagrà, Roberto; Passeri, Alessandro; Bucerius, Jan; Verberne, Hein J; Slart, Riemer H J A; Lindner, Oliver; Gimelli, Alessia; Hyafil, Fabien; Agostini, Denis; Übleis, Christopher; Hacker, Marcus

    2016-07-01

    Until recently, PET was regarded as a luxurious way of performing myocardial perfusion scintigraphy, with excellent image quality and diagnostic capabilities that hardly justified the additional cost and procedural effort. Quantitative perfusion PET was considered a major improvement over standard qualitative imaging, because it allows the measurement of parameters not otherwise available, but for many years its use was confined to academic and research settings. In recent years, however, several factors have contributed to the renewal of interest in quantitative perfusion PET, which has become a much more readily accessible technique due to progress in hardware and the availability of dedicated and user-friendly platforms and programs. In spite of this evolution and of the growing evidence that quantitative perfusion PET can play a role in the clinical setting, there are not yet clear indications for its clinical use. Therefore, the Cardiovascular Committee of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine, starting from the experience of its members, decided to examine the current literature on quantitative perfusion PET to (1) evaluate the rationale for its clinical use, (2) identify the main methodological requirements, (3) identify the remaining technical difficulties, (4) define the most reliable interpretation criteria, and finally (5) tentatively delineate currently acceptable and possibly appropriate clinical indications. The present position paper must be considered as a starting point aiming to promote a wider use of quantitative perfusion PET and to encourage the conception and execution of the studies needed to definitely establish its role in clinical practice.

  18. ANMCO Position Paper: the use of non-vitamin K dependent new oral anticoagulant(s) in pulmonary embolism therapy and prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roncon, Loris; Azzarito, Michele; Becattini, Cecilia; Bongarzoni, Amedeo; Casazza, Franco; Cuccia, Claudio; D’Agostino, Carlo; Rugolotto, Matteo; Vatrano, Marco; Vinci, Eugenio; Fenaroli, Paride; Formigli, Dario; Silvestri, Paolo; Nardi, Federico; Vedovati, Maria Cristina; Scherillo, Marino

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The new oral anticoagulants (NOACs) have radically changed the approach to the treatment and prevention of thromboembolic pulmonary embolism. The authors of this position paper face, in succession, issues concerning NOACs, including (i) their mechanism of action, pharmacodynamics, and pharmacokinetics; (ii) the use in the acute phase with the ‘double drug single dose’ approach or with ‘single drug double dose’; (iii) the use in the extended phase with demonstrated efficacy and with low incidence of bleeding events; (iv) the encouraging use of NOACs in particular subgroups of patients such as those with cancer, the ones under- or overweight, with renal insufficiency (creatinine clearance > 30 mL/min), the elderly (>75 years); (v) they propose a possible laboratory clinical pathway for follow-up; and (vi) carry out an examination on the main drug interactions, their potential bleeding risk, and the way to deal with some bleeding complications. The authors conclude that the use of NOACs both in the acute phase and in the extended phase is equally effective to conventional therapy and associated with fewer major bleeding events, which make their use in patients at higher risk of recurrences safer. PMID:28751847

  19. Extending ideas about animal welfare assessment to include 'quality of life' and related concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, T C; Mellor, D J

    2011-11-01

    Ideas within the animal welfare science arena have evolved continuously throughout the last 30 years, and will continue to do so. This paper outlines some of these developments. These included reformulation of the five freedoms concept into the five domains of potential welfare compromise. This accommodated weaknesses in the former by distinguishing between the physical/functional and the mental factors that contribute to an animal's welfare state. This development reflected a rising scientific acceptance that the mental experiences of animals were legitimate foci for study and highlighted that what the animal itself experiences represents its welfare status. Initially, most concepts of animal welfare emphasised predominantly negative subjective experiences, such as thirst, hunger and pain, and negative affective states or feelings including anxiety, fear and boredom, but today positive experiences or emotions such as satiety, vitality, reward, contentment, curiosity and playfulness are also considered to be important. During the same period, the focus shifted from evaluating the impacts of individual mental subjective experiences or emotions towards seeking a more comprehensive, multifactorial understanding. The five domains concept was specifically designed to achieve this. Subsequent notions about quality of life (QoL) had the same objective, and emphasised the importance of positive experiences. However, some approaches to QoL assessment relied heavily on empathetic speculation about what animals may experience subjectively and this raised concerns about inappropriate anthropomorphic projections. Such pitfalls may be minimised when informed personnel rigorously apply objectively based methodologies to QoL assessments limited to a short time frame. It is clear that both formal and somewhat less formal QoL assessments of this type are already used to guide decision-making about the ongoing care and therapeutic management of animals on a daily basis. However

  20. Micro-econometric Analysis of Impact of Remittances on Household’s Welfare: Empirical Evidence from District Peshawar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Waqar Hussain

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study has been conducted in the year 2010 in district Peshawar to assess the impact of inflow of remittances on household’s welfare. The concept welfare was measured in terms of consumption expenditures of the household. A sample of 60 household was interviewed using snowball sampling combined with the convenient sampling technique. A regression model which was a mixture of direct elasticity and semi-elasticity was used to quantify the relationships. Apart from inflow of remittances (lnremt, three control variables (i.e. years of schooling of the household’s head – edu, age of household’s head – age & family size – fz were employed to standardize the impact. Controlling for edu, age & edu, this paper conclude that inflow of remittances enhance household’s welfare. All control variables have theoretically correct positive signs. These results were statistically significant and results showed no major econometric problems that can influence statistical inference derived from the model. So it is highly recommended, in light of the present study, that govt. of Pakistan should take all possible steps to export labors abroad. It has dual positive impacts, one enhancing household’s prosperity (welfare and other reducing unemployment at local level.

  1. Livability of the welfare-state : Appreciation-of-life and length-of- life in nations varying in state-welfare-effort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut); P. Ouweneel (Piet)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractABSTRACT One issue in the debate on the welfare-state is whether state-care renders society more livable or not. The positive view is that people flourish in the welfare-state, the negative view is that people thrive better without. This article approaches the dispute empirically, by

  2. Welfare Reform & the Health of Single Mothers

    OpenAIRE

    Narain, Kimberly Danae Cauley

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This dissertation explores the relationship between welfare reform and the health of single mothers with less than a high school diploma or GED (LESMS) by addressing six research questions: (1) what impact did welfare reform have on the health insurance coverage of LESMS, (2) what impact did welfare reform have on the annual medical provider contact of LESMS, (3) what impact did welfare reform have on the health outcomes of LESMS, (4) what impact did welfare reform have on the fede...

  3. Social Media Use in Child Welfare Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Todd Edward Sage; Melanie Sage

    2016-01-01

    The scholarly child welfare literature offers little information about the use of social media by child welfare workers. We conducted a study of 171 child welfare workers across several states using an online survey. The resulting data offer insights from workers about current practices related to social media use in a child welfare work setting. Most respondents see social media as an acceptable tool for conducting child welfare assessments. Respondents describe strains and benefits of socia...

  4. Do Family Caps on Welfare Affect Births among Welfare Recipients? Reconciling Efficacy and Effectiveness Estimates of Impact through a Blended Design Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagannathan, Radha; Camasso, Michael J.; Killingsworth, Mark R.

    2004-01-01

    This paper proposes a blended experimental and quasi-experimental research strategy which we believe will help improve the external validity of evaluations of welfare reform and other social policies. We draw upon data from New Jersey's imposition of a family cap, where welfare benefits instead of increasing remained the same for women who…

  5. [Position Paper of The AG Digital Health DNVF on Digital Health Applications: Framework Conditions For Use in Health Care, Structural Development and Science].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmar, Horst Christian; Kramer, Ursula; Müller, Hardy; Griemmert, Maria; Noelle, Guido; Schrappe, Matthias

    2017-12-01

    The term "digital health" is currently the most comprehensive term that includes all information and communication technologies in healthcare, including e-health, mobile health, telemedicine, big data, health apps and others. Digital health can be seen as a good example of the use of the concept and methodology of health services research in the interaction between complex interventions and complex contexts. The position paper deals with 1) digital health as the subject of health services research; 2) digital health as a methodological and ethical challenge for health services research. The often-postulated benefits of digital health interventions should be demonstrated with good studies. First systematic evaluations of apps for "treatment support" show that risks are higher than benefits. The need for a rigorous proof applies even more to big data-assisted interventions that support decision-making in the treatment process with the support of artificial intelligence. Of course, from the point of view of health services research, it is worth participating as much as possible in data access available through digital health and "big data". However, there is the risk that a noncritical application of digital health and big data will lead to a return to a linear understanding of biomedical research, which, at best, accepts complex conditions assuming multivariate models but does not take complex facts into account. It is not just a matter of scientific ethical requirements in health services care research, for instance, better research instead of unnecessary research ("reducing waste"), but it is primarily a matter of anticipating the social consequences (system level) of scientific analysis and evaluation. This is both a challenge and an attractive option for health services research to present itself as a mature and responsible scientific discipline. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. Animal welfare in Danish pig herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forkman, Björn; Otten, Nina Dam; Reiten, Mari

    2017-01-01

    -clover pastures poses animal welfare challenges during the hot season as indicated by a recent pilot study we did where 85% of sows were severely sunburned on ears. In the pasture-based system, the farrowing huts are the only possibility for sows to seek protection from the sun. Studies indicate that during hot......On a global scale, the demand for organic pork is increasing. Organic pig production is associated with positive aspects such as animals being able to perform species-specific behavior, and a low use of antimicrobics. However, the current Danish organic production system with sows on grass...

  7. Invertebrate welfare: an overlooked issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelsey Horvath

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available While invertebrates make up the majority of animal species, their welfare is overlooked compared to the concern shown to vertebrates. This fact is highlighted by the near absence of regulations in animal research, with the exception of cephalopods in the European Union. This is often justified by assumptions that invertebrates do not experience pain and stress while lacking the capacity for higher order cognitive functions. Recent research suggests that invertebrates may be just as capable as vertebrates in experiencing pain and stress, and some species display comparable cognitive capacities. Another obstacle is the negative view of invertebrates by the public, which often regards them as pests with no individual personalities, gastronomic entities, or individuals for scientific experimentation without rules. Increasingly, studies have revealed that invertebrates possess individual profiles comparable to the personalities found in vertebrates. Given the large economic impact of invertebrates, developing certain attitude changes in invertebrate welfare may be beneficial for producers while providing higher welfare conditions for the animals. While the immense number and type of species makes it difficult to suggest that all invertebrates will benefit from increased welfare, in this review we provide evidence that the topic of invertebrate welfare should be revisited, more thoroughly investigated, and in cases where appropriate, formally instituted.

  8. The structure and regulation of the Irish equine industries: Links to considerations of equine welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collins J

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The equine industries in Ireland are vibrant and growing. They are broadly classified into two sectors: Thoroughbred racing, and sports and leisure. This paper describes these sectors in terms of governance, education and training in equine welfare, and available data concerning horse numbers, identification, traceability and disposal. Animal welfare, and specifically equine welfare, has received increasing attention internationally. There is general acceptance of concepts such as animal needs and persons' responsibilities toward animals in their care, as expressed in the 'Five Freedoms'. As yet, little has been published on standards of equine welfare pertaining to Ireland, or on measures to address welfare issues here. This paper highlights the central role of horse identification and legal registration of ownership to safeguard the health and welfare of horses.

  9. The Polish Regional Labour Market Welfare Indicator and Its Links to Other Well-being Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ręklewski Marek

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We propose and construct an indicator of labour market well-being in Poland for the year 2013. The indicator is positively related to the degree of civilizational welfare, social welfare, material welfare and psychological well-being in Poland. We conclude that ameliorating the labour market situation improves the quality of the public’s life. The link between our labour market indicator and the total fertility rate turned out to be statistically insignificant.

  10. The Supply Chain's Role in Improving Animal Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, David; Hubbard, Carmen

    2013-08-14

    Supply chains are already incorporating citizen/consumer demands for improved animal welfare, especially through product differentiation and the associated segmentation of markets. Nonetheless, the ability of the chain to deliver high(er) levels and standards of animal welfare is subject to two critical conditions: (a) the innovative and adaptive capacity of the chain to respond to society's demands; (b) the extent to which consumers actually purchase animal-friendly products. Despite a substantial literature reporting estimates of willingness to pay (WTP) for animal welfare, there is a belief that in practice people vote for substantially more and better animal welfare as citizens than they are willing to pay for as consumers. This citizen-consumer gap has significant consequences on the supply chain, although there is limited literature on the capacity and willingness of supply chains to deliver what the consumer wants and is willing to pay for. This paper outlines an economic analysis of supply chain delivery of improved standards for farm animal welfare in the EU and illustrates the possible consequences of improving animal welfare standards for the supply chain using a prototype belief network analysis.

  11. The Supply Chain’s Role in Improving Animal Welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Harvey

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Supply chains are already incorporating citizen/consumer demands for improved animal welfare, especially through product differentiation and the associated segmentation of markets. Nonetheless, the ability of the chain to deliver high(er levels and standards of animal welfare is subject to two critical conditions: (a the innovative and adaptive capacity of the chain to respond to society’s demands; (b the extent to which consumers actually purchase animal-friendly products. Despite a substantial literature reporting estimates of willingness to pay (WTP for animal welfare, there is a belief that in practice people vote for substantially more and better animal welfare as citizens than they are willing to pay for as consumers. This citizen-consumer gap has significant consequences on the supply chain, although there is limited literature on the capacity and willingness of supply chains to deliver what the consumer wants and is willing to pay for. This paper outlines an economic analysis of supply chain delivery of improved standards for farm animal welfare in the EU and illustrates the possible consequences of improving animal welfare standards for the supply chain using a prototype belief network analysis.

  12. Nationalism, Gender and Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siim, Birte; Stoltz, Pauline

    Feminist scholars have pointed out that constructions of gender and gender equality are embedded in national narratives and politics of belonging (Yuval-Davis 2011; Siim & Mokre 2013). This paper aims to explore gendered approaches to nationalism and to discuss how nationalism in Scandinavia is a...

  13. Rural Poverty and Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rural Housing Alliance, Washington, DC.

    Today poverty in rural America remains pervasive and persistent. A decade ago, 14 million rural Americans were classified as "officially" poor. In 1973, nearly 9.2 million were classified poor. The decline in rural poverty over the years has been minimal. This paper briefly documents the poverty statistics according to the living standards used by…

  14. Asian Pacific Islander Community Based Organizations and Welfare Reform

    OpenAIRE

    Vargas, Marcos

    2000-01-01

    This paper will examine these issues based on a review of the existing literature and the analysis of a survey of forty-eight Los Angeles based API CBOs. The paper is organized into five sections. Section I provides an overview of API CBOs, describing their growth over the last two decades, the scope of services they provide and recent shifts in organizational service and constituency focus. Section II addresses efforts by CBOs under welfare reform to provide effective welfare-to-work and o...

  15. Defining Eligible Families in Public Housing and Welfare: the Traditions, Values, and Legalities of Family Form

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Charlotte Charlene

    2002-01-01

    DEFINING ELIGIBLE FAMILIES IN PUBLIC HOUSING AND WELFARE:THE TRADITIONS, VALUES, AND LEGALITIES OF FAMILY FORM By:Charlotte C. Johnson This paper examines how the definition of family, within Federal public housing and welfare policy, corresponds with changes in family patterns in America from 1950 to 2000. The definition of family as used to determine welfare eligibility is extremely important not only for how it defines recipients of cash aid but also because of how it af...

  16. Instrumental Variable Estimates of the Labor Market Spillover Effects of Welfare Reform

    OpenAIRE

    Timothy J. Bartik

    2002-01-01

    By increasing the labor supply of welfare recipients, welfare reform may reduce wages and increase unemployment among other less-educated groups. These "spillover effects" are difficult to estimate because welfare caseloads decrease in response to improvements in the economy, which leads caseload reductions to be associated with improvements in labor market outcomes. This paper corrects for the endogeneity of caseloads by using instruments that reflect policy. The estimates suggest that welfa...

  17. Problems, solutions, and perspectives in the evaluation of interval cancers in Italian mammography screening programmes: a position paper from the Italian group for mammography screening (GISMa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucchi, Lauro; Frigerio, Alfonso; Zorzi, Manuel; Fedato, Chiara; Angiolucci, Giovanni; Bernardi, Daniela; Campari, Cinzia; Crocetti, Emanuele; Ferretti, Stefano; Giorgi, Daniela; Marchisio, Francesca; Morrone, Doralba; Naldoni, Carlo; Petrella, Marco; Ponti, Antonio; Ravaioli, Alessandra; Saguatti, Gianni; Santini, Dolores; Sassoli de Bianchi, Priscilla; Serafini, Monica; Vergini, Viviana; Giordano, Livia

    2015-01-01

    In this position paper, a self-convened team of experts from the Italian Group for Mammography Screening (Gruppo italiano screening mammografico, GISMa) pointed out the problems that increasingly hamper the feasibility and validity of the estimate of the proportional incidence of interval breast cancer (IBC) in Italy, suggested potential solutions and an agenda for research, and proposed that the question of the sensitivity of mammography be viewed in a larger perspective, with a greater attention to radiological review activities and breast radiology quality assurance programmes. The main problems are as follows: the coverage of cancer registration is incomplete; the robustness of using the pre-screening incidence rates as underlying rates decreases with time since the start of screening; the intermediate mammograms performed for early detection purposes may cause an overrepresentation of IBCs; the classification of many borderline screening histories is prone to subjectivity; and, finally, the composition of cohorts of women with negative screening results is uncertain, because several mammography reports are neither clearly negative nor clearly positive, and because of the limitations and instability of the electronic mammography records. Several possibilities can be considered to cope with these issues: standard methods for using the hospital discharge records in the identification of IBCs should be established; for the calculation of regional estimates of the underlying incidence, a suitable mathematical model should be identified; the definition of IBC according to the 2008 GISMa guidelines needs to be updated, especially with respect to in situ cancers and to invasive cancers with borderline screening histories; a closer adherence to standard screening protocols, with a simplified patient management, would make it easier to objectively identify IBCs; alternative methods for estimating the sensitivity of mammography should be taken into consideration; and

  18. Vitamin D: still a topical matter in children and adolescents. A position paper by the Committee on Nutrition of the French Society of Paediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidailhet, M; Mallet, E; Bocquet, A; Bresson, J-L; Briend, A; Chouraqui, J-P; Darmaun, D; Dupont, C; Frelut, M-L; Ghisolfi, J; Girardet, J-P; Goulet, O; Hankard, R; Rieu, D; Simeoni, U; Turck, D

    2012-03-01

    The aims of the present position paper by the Committee on Nutrition of the French Society of Paediatrics were to summarize the recently published data on vitamin D in infants, children and adolescents, i.e., on metabolism, physiological effects, and requirements and to make recommendations on supplementation after careful review of the evidence. Scientific evidence indicates that calcium and vitamin D play key roles in bone health. The current evidence, limited to observational studies, however, does not support other benefits for vitamin D. More targeted research should continue, especially interventional studies. In the absence of any underlying risk of vitamin D deficiency, the recommendations are as follows: pregnant women: a single dose of 80,000 to 100,000 IU at the beginning of the 7th month of pregnancy; breastfed infants: 1000 to 1200 IU/day; children less than 18 months of age, receiving milk supplemented with vitamin D: an additional daily dose of 600 to 800 IU; children less than 18 months of age receiving milk not supplemented with vitamin D: daily dose of 1000 to 1200 IU; children from 18 months to 5 years of age: 2 doses of 80,000 to 100,000 IU every winter (November and February). In the presence of an underlying risk of vitamin D deficiency (dark skin; lack of exposure of the skin to ultraviolet B [UVB] radiation from sunshine in summer; skin disease responsible for decreased exposure of the skin to UVB radiation from sunshine in summer; wearing skin-covering clothes in summer; intestinal malabsorption or maldigestion; cholestasis; renal insufficiency; nephrotic syndrome; drugs [rifampicin; antiepileptic treatment: phenobarbital, phenytoin]; obesity; vegan diet), it may be justified to start vitamin D supplementation in winter in children 5 to 10 years of age as well as to maintain supplementation of vitamin D every 3 months all year long in children 1 to 10 years of age and in adolescents. In some pathological conditions, doses of vitamin D can

  19. Crafting the English Welfare State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ydesen, Christian

    2016-01-01

    administrators in England during the constitutive years of English welfare state formation. Using Birmingham local education administration as an empirical and historical case, the influential Children Acts of 1948 and 1963 serve to demarcate the period treated. The theoretical framework is drawn from Bourdieu...... and Wacquant’s concept of state, with the key concept being ‘state-crafting’. The article contributes knowledge about the imaginaries, and the manufacturing and managing of ‘the public good’ – understood as a referent for modern governing – of the English welfare state. The article concludes...

  20. Ethnicization in Welfare State Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Frederik Georg

    that ethnicization is at once more limited (in that it is unlikely for the most widely discussed issue, welfare) and more pervasive (in that it can arise from local contexts as well as from media). Ethnicization of attitudes is one way in which immigration can influence political life, even when the political agenda...... is to a significant extent shaped by studies of American public opinion, where public opinion on some issues is widely considered 'racialized', i.e. in part based on attitudes toward racial outgroups. The dissertation examines whether by the same token, political attitudes in universal welfare states can become...

  1. Welfare State Changes and Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alves, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that welfare states ensure a certain level of social protection affecting levels of well-being and the extent of inequalities in society. Changes within crucial domains of social policy, such as education, health, or social protection, have, therefore, a major effect upon...... individuals’ opportunities. In this article I compare the effects of these changes in two countries from the mid-1980s to the financial crisis of 2008. Portugal that was a latecomer in welfare state development and Denmark was at the forefront of de-commodification and universalization of social rights...

  2. From work to welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Vibeke; Liversage, Anika

    2017-01-01

    Using a mixed methods approach, this article examines gendered patterns of employment and of unemployment benefit uptake among Turkish marriage migrants in Denmark. The results show that men use co-ethnic networks to access entry positions. Subsequent eligibility for unemployment benefits enable...... these men to search for better jobs. Women enter employment more slowly and tell of such entry being related to entering the unemployment insurance system, enabling them to periodically conform to gendered expectations as homemakers. Pakistani marriage migrants display similar patterns, indicating...

  3. The moral economy of austerity: analysing UK welfare reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Lydia

    2016-03-01

    This paper notes the contemporary emergence of 'morality' in both sociological argument and political rhetoric, and analyses its significance in relation to ongoing UK welfare reforms. It revisits the idea of 'moral economy' and identifies two strands in its contemporary application; that all economies depend on an internal moral schema, and that some external moral evaluation is desirable. UK welfare reform is analysed as an example of the former, with reference to three distinct orientations advanced in the work of Freeden (1996), Laclau (2014), and Lockwood (1996). In this light, the paper then considers challenges to the reform agenda, drawn from third sector and other public sources. It outlines the forms of argument present in these challenges, based respectively on rationality, legality, and morality, which together provide a basis for evaluation of the welfare reforms and for an alternative 'moral economy'. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2016.

  4. The political control of medical diagnoses - welfare retrenchment through demedicalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Marie Østergaard; Larsen, Lars Thorup

    a medical issue into a question about the citizen’s motivation and will- ingness to work. The paper traces the genealogy of these two clashes between medicine and universal welfare rights and how both childlessness and incapacity to work have been ‘demedicalized’ by the polit- ical system in order to smooth......It is notoriously difficult to legitimize cutbacks in already existing welfare rights, but it somehow requires a redefinition of what falls within the limits of public responsibility. In Denmark, a universal welfare state, reforms have sought to regain political control over medical diagnoses...... interest or ‘need’. The paper compares two cases where retrenchment reforms have reframed medical conditions as personal preferences. First, access to fertility treatment has recently been cut off in the Danish health care system, because infertility is polit- ically reframed as putting their own interest...

  5. Animal welfare impact assessments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; Gamborg, Christian

    2017-01-01

    of this paper is to evaluate the potential of AWIA. We begin by showing how ideas akin to AWIA already play a significant role in other animal ethics controversies, particularly those concerning laboratory animal use and livestock production; and we bring in lessons learnt from these controversies. Then we...... comment on the suggested development and application of AWIA in the case of badger control. Finally, we discuss the prospects of applying AWIA to other sorts of wild animal controversy. We argue that the AIWA, as developed by McCulloch and Reiss, relies on several dubious premises, including that killing...

  6. Liquidity, welfare and distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín Gil Samuel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a dynamic general equilibrium model where wealth distribution is endogenous. I provide channels of causality that suggest a complex relationship between financial markets and the real activity which breaks down the classical dichotomy. As a consequence, the Friedman rule does not hold. In terms of the current events taking place in the world economy, this paper provides a rationale to advert against the perils of an economy satiated with liquidity. Efficiency and distribution cannot thus be considered as separate attributes once we account for the interactions between financial markets and the economic performance.

  7. Data Mining in Child Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoech, Dick; Quinn, Andrew; Rycraft, Joan R.

    2000-01-01

    Examines the historical and larger context of data mining and describes data mining processes, techniques, and tools. Illustrates these using a child welfare dataset concerning the employee turnover that is mined, using logistic regression and a Bayesian neural network. Discusses the data mining process, the resulting models, their predictive…

  8. Four Normative Languages of Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mathias Herup

    2017-01-01

    This article explores the normative languages used by ordinary citizens to measure ongoing welfare state transformations in Denmark. Empirically, the article turns to qualitative data from a deliberative democratic forum where 35 citizens gathered to reflect upon and discuss the future...

  9. Dietary nitrogen and fish welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conceição, Luis E C; Aragão, Cláudia; Dias, Jorge; Costas, Benjamín; Terova, Genciana; Martins, Catarina; Tort, Lluis

    2012-02-01

    Little research has been done in optimizing the nitrogenous fraction of the fish diets in order to minimize welfare problems. The purpose of this review is to give an overview on how amino acid (AA) metabolism may be affected when fish are under stress and the possible effects on fish welfare when sub-optimal dietary nitrogen formulations are used to feed fish. In addition, it intends to evaluate the current possibilities, and future prospects, of using improved dietary nitrogen formulations to help fish coping with predictable stressful periods. Both metabolomic and genomic evidence show that stressful husbandry conditions affect AA metabolism in fish and may bring an increase in the requirement of indispensable AA. Supplementation in arginine and leucine, but also eventually in lysine, methionine, threonine and glutamine, may have an important role in enhancing the innate immune system. Tryptophan, as precursor for serotonin, modulates aggressive behaviour and feed intake in fish. Bioactive peptides may bring important advances in immunocompetence, disease control and other aspects of welfare of cultured fish. Fishmeal replacement may reduce immune competence, and the full nutritional potential of plant-protein ingredients is attained only after the removal or inactivation of some antinutritional factors. This review shows that AA metabolism is affected when fish are under stress, and this together with sub-optimal dietary nitrogen formulations may affect fish welfare. Furthermore, improved dietary nitrogen formulations may help fish coping with predictable stressful events.

  10. Social Welfare Activism in Jordan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Marie Juul

    , this interest tends to focus on secular organisations and institutions, overlooking religious ones, although these make up a large part of Jordanian civil society. Particularly interesting are the country's many Muslim social welfare organisations, engaged in activities such as education, health care...

  11. Measuring Welfare of Productive Consumers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Tinbergen (Jan)

    1987-01-01

    textabstractIn the last few decades an increasing number of economists have contributed to new methods of welfare (or utility) measurement. As set out in this journal (Tinbergen, 1985) three groups of economists have been active in this field since 1968, initially relatively independently; an

  12. Air quality and human welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundseth K.

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Human welfare is generally referring to allocation of resources to fit the well being of humans. If high standard of well-being is to be maintained, the concerns for a healthy environment must be balanced against requirements of economic growth. In a natural capital system, human welfare is best served by improving the quality and flow of desired services delivered rather than merely increasing the total money flow. An ecosystem based management of living and natural resource use will steer this progress to the best of human welfare while the efficiency of ecosystem based management depends strongly on the availability of integrated assessment tools that will combine environmental models and monitoring data with ecological economic valuation methods. In applied welfare economics, the methodological approach to assess resource allocations towards societal optimality and thereby establish criteria for government intervention is often linked to tools as Cost-ffectiveness Analysis (CEA, Cost-Benefit Assessment (CBA or Multi-criteria Analysis (MCA. By illustrating an assessment on costs and benefits of the implementation of Hg emission reduction measures in the coal sector, it becomes obvious that for a full analysis of societal costs and benefits, several aspects of Hg pollution, sources, impacts and co-benefits need to be considered.

  13. STRESS AND ANIMAL-WELFARE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WIEPKEMA, PR; KOOLHAAS, JM

    When individual vertebrates loose grip on their life conditions stress symptoms appear and their welfare becomes problematic. Present day research supports the view that stress can originate when an organism experiences a substantial reduction of predictability and/or controllability (P/C) of

  14. Four Normative Languages of Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mathias Herup

    2018-01-01

    This article explores the normative languages used by ordinary citizens to measure ongoing welfare state transformations in Denmark. Empirically, the article turns to qualitative data from a deliberative democratic forum where 35 citizens gathered to reflect upon and discuss the future of the wel......This article explores the normative languages used by ordinary citizens to measure ongoing welfare state transformations in Denmark. Empirically, the article turns to qualitative data from a deliberative democratic forum where 35 citizens gathered to reflect upon and discuss the future...... to be of particular importance: (1) A civic order of worth, defining individualism and welfare consumerism as the big problems while emphasizing the need for every citizen to mentally step out of their selfish state of mind and care more for others and society as such. (2) A domestic order of worth stating...... of worth stating welfare dependency to be one of the big problems and stressing the need for individual responsibility and for giving structural incentives for such behaviour....

  15. Intercultural Health Care and Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ben

    2014-01-01

    Artiklen har fokus på undervisning, planlægning, udvikling og evaluering af et internationalt tværfagligt valgfag Intercultural Health Care and Welfare, der udbydes på Det Sundhedsfaglige og Teknologiske Fakultet på Professionshøjskolen Metropol. Ifølge den tysk-amerikanske professor Iris Varner og...

  16. Lifelong Learning and Welfare Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Colin

    1999-01-01

    An alternative perspective on lifelong learning locates it in culture, civil society, and leisure/consumption lifestyles. Distinctions between education and learning and markets and quasi-markets are used to explore policy models. The relationship to welfare reform policies is discussed. (Author/SK)

  17. American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) Position Paper for the Use of Telemedicine for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Sleep Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jaspal; Badr, M. Safwan; Diebert, Wendy; Epstein, Lawrence; Hwang, Dennis; Karres, Valerie; Khosla, Seema; Mims, K. Nicole; Shamim-Uzzaman, Afifa; Kirsch, Douglas; Heald, Jonathan L.; McCann, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    , Shamim-Uzzaman A, Kirsch D, Heald JL, McCann K. American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) position paper for the use of telemedicine for the diagnosis and treatment of sleep disorders. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(10):1187–1198. PMID:26414983

  18. The relationship between animal welfare and economic performance at farm level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Arne; Czekaj, Tomasz Gerard; Forkman, Björn

    2018-01-01

    We propose a theoretical framework for the relationship between animal welfare and the economic performance of livestock farms. We empirically analyse this relationship based on a unique dataset of randomly sampled Danish pig herds that includes information from unannounced inspections of the com...... economic performance and animal welfare so that good farm managers are able to meet all animal welfare regulations, while achieving a high economic performance.......We propose a theoretical framework for the relationship between animal welfare and the economic performance of livestock farms. We empirically analyse this relationship based on a unique dataset of randomly sampled Danish pig herds that includes information from unannounced inspections...... of the compliance with the animal welfare legislation. We find large variations in economic performance and animal welfare. The relationship between these two indicators is rather weak, but tends to be slightly positive. A possible explanation for our results is that management has a major influence on both...

  19. Do mainstream parties adapt to the welfare chauvinism of populist parties?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schumacher, G.; van Kersbergen, K.

    2016-01-01

    Populist parties increasingly take a welfare chauvinistic position. They criticize mainstream parties for cutting and slashing welfare at the expense of the ‘native’ population and to the benefit of the ‘undeserving’ immigrant. Given the electoral success of populist parties, we investigate whether

  20. Do Mainstream Parties Adapt to the Welfare Chauvinism of Populist Parties?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schumacher, Gijs; van Kersbergen, Kees

    2016-01-01

    Populist parties increasingly take a welfare chauvinistic position. They criticize mainstream parties for cutting and slashing welfare at the expense of the native' population and to the benefit of the undeserving' immigrant. Given the electoral success of populist parties, we investigate whether...

  1. The multidimensionality of welfare state attitudes : A European cross-national study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roosma, F.; Gelissen, J.P.T.M.; van Oorschot, W.J.H.

    2013-01-01

    When evaluating the various aspects of the welfare state, people assess some aspects more positively than others. Following a multidimensional approach, this study systematically argues for a framework composed of seven dimensions of the welfare state, which are subject to the opinions of the

  2. On-farm welfare and estimated daily carcass gain of slaughtered bulls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herva, T.; Virtala, A.M.; Huuskonen, A.; Saatkamp, H.W.; Peltoniemi, O.

    2009-01-01

    Welfare of growing bulls was evaluated using on-farm scoring modified by well-described test theory methods. Production parameters of the bulls were collected at slaughter. A positive relationship was observed between on-farm welfare, using the full A-Index score, and daily carcass gain of bulls.

  3. Resources within "Reason": Resources for Supporting Young Children in the Child Welfare System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinehart, Laura H.; Catlett, Camille

    2011-01-01

    For teachers, working with young children in the child welfare system can be challenging. A high-quality early learning environment has been linked to long-term positive developmental and academic success. But for children in the child welfare system who are facing significant early challenges, a high quality environment can provide the…

  4. Perceived importance and responsibility for market-driven pig welfare: Literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorslund, Cecilie A H; Aaslyng, Margit Dall; Lassen, Jesper

    2017-03-01

    This review explores barriers and opportunities for market-driven pig welfare in Europe. It finds, first, that consumers generally rank animal welfare as important, but they also rank it low relative to other societal problems. Second, consumers have a wide range of concerns about pig welfare, but they focus especially on naturalness. Third, pig welfare is seen as an important indicator of meat quality. Fourth, consumers tend to think that responsibility for pig welfare lies with several actors: farmers, governments and themselves. The paper concludes that there is an opportunity for the market-driven strategy to sell a narrative about naturalness supplemented with other attractive qualities (such as eating quality). It also emphasizes that pig welfare needs to be on the political/societal agenda permanently if it is to be viewed as an important issue by consumers and if consumers are to assume some sort of responsibility for it. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Changes in the welfare caseload and the health of low-educated mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaestner, Pobert; Tarlov, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    Declines in the welfare caseload in the late 1990s brought significant change to the lives of many low-educated, single mothers. Many single mothers left welfare and entered the labor market and others found different ways to avoid going on public assistance. These changes may have affected the health and health behaviors of these women. To date, there has been little study of this issue. In this paper, we obtained estimates of the association between changes in the welfare caseload caused by welfare policy, and four health behaviors--smoking, drinking, diet, and exercise--and four self-reported measures of health--weight, days in poor mental health, days in poor physical health, and general health status. The results of our study reveal that recent declines in the welfare caseload were associated with less binge drinking, but otherwise welfare reform had little effect on health and health behaviors.

  6. Child Welfare Professionals' Attitudes toward Kinship Foster Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeman, Sandra; Boisen, Laura

    1999-01-01

    Surveyed 261 urban, metropolitan, and rural Minnesota child welfare professionals regarding their perceptions of kinship foster care. Found that most had generally positive perceptions of kinship foster parents' motivations and competence and of kinship foster care. Participants also believed that kinship placements were more difficult to…

  7. Determining Connections between the Daily Lives of Zoo Elephants and Their Welfare: An Epidemiological Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meehan, Cheryl L.; Mench, Joy A.; Carlstead, Kathy; Hogan, Jennifer N.

    2016-01-01

    Concerns about animal welfare increasingly shape people’s views about the acceptability of keeping animals for food production, biomedical research, and in zoos. The field of animal welfare science has developed over the past 50 years as a method of investigating these concerns via research that assesses how living in human-controlled environments influences the behavior, health and affective states of animals. Initially, animal welfare research focused on animals in agricultural settings, but the field has expanded to zoos because good animal welfare is essential to zoos’ mission of promoting connections between animals and visitors and raising awareness of conservation issues. A particular challenge for zoos is ensuring good animal welfare for long-lived, highly social species like elephants. Our main goal in conducting an epidemiological study of African (Loxodonta africana) and Asian (Elephas maximus) elephant welfare in 68 accredited North American zoos was to understand the prevalence of welfare indicators in the population and determine the aspects of an elephant’s zoo environment, social life and management that are most important to prevent and reduce a variety of welfare problems. In this overview, we provide a summary of the findings of the nine papers in the collection titled: Epidemiological Investigations of North American Zoo Elephant Welfare with a focus on the life history, social, housing, and management factors found to be associated with particular aspects of elephant welfare, including the performance of abnormal behavior, foot and joint problems, recumbence, walking rates, and reproductive health issues. Social and management factors were found to be important for multiple indicators of welfare, while exhibit space was found to be less influential than expected. This body of work results from the largest prospective zoo-based animal welfare study conducted to date and sets in motion the process of using science-based welfare benchmarks

  8. Determining Connections between the Daily Lives of Zoo Elephants and Their Welfare: An Epidemiological Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meehan, Cheryl L; Mench, Joy A; Carlstead, Kathy; Hogan, Jennifer N

    2016-01-01

    Concerns about animal welfare increasingly shape people's views about the acceptability of keeping animals for food production, biomedical research, and in zoos. The field of animal welfare science has developed over the past 50 years as a method of investigating these concerns via research that assesses how living in human-controlled environments influences the behavior, health and affective states of animals. Initially, animal welfare research focused on animals in agricultural settings, but the field has expanded to zoos because good animal welfare is essential to zoos' mission of promoting connections between animals and visitors and raising awareness of conservation issues. A particular challenge for zoos is ensuring good animal welfare for long-lived, highly social species like elephants. Our main goal in conducting an epidemiological study of African (Loxodonta africana) and Asian (Elephas maximus) elephant welfare in 68 accredited North American zoos was to understand the prevalence of welfare indicators in the population and determine the aspects of an elephant's zoo environment, social life and management that are most important to prevent and reduce a variety of welfare problems. In this overview, we provide a summary of the findings of the nine papers in the collection titled: Epidemiological Investigations of North American Zoo Elephant Welfare with a focus on the life history, social, housing, and management factors found to be associated with particular aspects of elephant welfare, including the performance of abnormal behavior, foot and joint problems, recumbence, walking rates, and reproductive health issues. Social and management factors were found to be important for multiple indicators of welfare, while exhibit space was found to be less influential than expected. This body of work results from the largest prospective zoo-based animal welfare study conducted to date and sets in motion the process of using science-based welfare benchmarks to

  9. Determining Connections between the Daily Lives of Zoo Elephants and Their Welfare: An Epidemiological Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl L Meehan

    Full Text Available Concerns about animal welfare increasingly shape people's views about the acceptability of keeping animals for food production, biomedical research, and in zoos. The field of animal welfare science has developed over the past 50 years as a method of investigating these concerns via research that assesses how living in human-controlled environments influences the behavior, health and affective states of animals. Initially, animal welfare research focused on animals in agricultural settings, but the field has expanded to zoos because good animal welfare is essential to zoos' mission of promoting connections between animals and visitors and raising awareness of conservation issues. A particular challenge for zoos is ensuring good animal welfare for long-lived, highly social species like elephants. Our main goal in conducting an epidemiological study of African (Loxodonta africana and Asian (Elephas maximus elephant welfare in 68 accredited North American zoos was to understand the prevalence of welfare indicators in the population and determine the aspects of an elephant's zoo environment, social life and management that are most important to prevent and reduce a variety of welfare problems. In this overview, we provide a summary of the findings of the nine papers in the collection titled: Epidemiological Investigations of North American Zoo Elephant Welfare with a focus on the life history, social, housing, and management factors found to be associated with particular aspects of elephant welfare, including the performance of abnormal behavior, foot and joint problems, recumbence, walking rates, and reproductive health issues. Social and management factors were found to be important for multiple indicators of welfare, while exhibit space was found to be less influential than expected. This body of work results from the largest prospective zoo-based animal welfare study conducted to date and sets in motion the process of using science-based welfare

  10. Final model of multicriterionevaluation of animal welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Marianne; Botreau, R; Bracke, MBM

    One major objective of Welfare Quality® is to propose harmonized methods for the overall assessment of animal welfare on farm and at slaughter that are science based and meet societal concerns. Welfare is a multidimensional concept and its assessment requires measures of different aspects. Welfare...... Quality® proposes a formal evaluation model whereby the data on animals or their environment are transformed into value scores that reflect compliance with 12 subcriteria and 4 criteria of good welfare. Each animal unit is then allocated to one of four categories: excellent welfare, enhanced welfare......, acceptable welfare and not classified. This evaluation model is tuned according to the views of experts from animal and social sciences, and stakeholders....

  11. Participation and Emotions: Troubling Encounters between Children and Social Welfare Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkney, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the emotional aspects of participation within social welfare contexts. The focus is on individual professionals, such as social workers and children's rights workers and their articulation, management and negotiation of the emotional when working with children and young people. The institutions of welfare are also shown to be…

  12. Decision support system for overall welfare assessment in pregnant sows. B. Validation by expert opinion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bracke, M.B.M.; Spruijt, B.M.; Metz, J.H.M.; Schouten, W.G.P.

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines the validity of a model that is embedded in a computer-based decision support system to assess the welfare status of pregnant sows in housing and management systems. The so-called SOWEL (SOw WELfare) model was constructed using a formalized procedure to identify and weight

  13. Welfare state reform and in-work poverty in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Snel (Erik); J. de Boom (Jan)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThis paper describes the development of in-work poverty in the Netherlands from 1996 until 2005 and examines whether in-work poverty is related to recent social security and welfare state reforms (a new ideology of an ‘activating welfare state’ and numerous policy measures to reduce the

  14. Welfare of the minipig with special reference to use in regulatory toxicology studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellegaard, L.; Cunningham, A.; Edwards, S.; Grand, N.; Nevalainen, T.; Prescott, M.; Schuurman, T.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews the animal welfare challenges associated with the use of minipigs in toxicology testing, and compares these to published knowledge on the other widely used non-rodent species (dogs and non-human primates). Welfare challenges arise from housing and management of populations under

  15. Providing cross-species comparisons of animal welfare with a scientific basis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bracke, M.B.M.

    2006-01-01

    Animal welfare issues may involve different species and require decision-makers to compare welfare across species. Up to now applied ethologists have largely ignored questions involving cross-species comparisons. This paper discusses the question whether cross-species comparisons about animal

  16. Labor Supply and Matching Rates for Welfare Recipients: An Analysis using Neighborhood Characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaauw, van der Bas; Ours, van Jan C.

    2000-01-01

    This paper investigates how in addition to personal characteristicstheneighborhood affects the individual transition rate from welfare to work.We use a unique administrative database on welfare recipients in Rotterdam,the second largest city of The Netherlands. We find that the exit rate towork of

  17. The Globalization-welfare State Nexus Reconsidered

    OpenAIRE

    Stephanie Meinhard; Niklas Potrafke

    2011-01-01

    Two hypotheses relate to the globalization-welfare state nexus: The efficiency hypothesis predicts that globalization reduces government sector size and governments’ capacity to finance the welfare state. The compensation hypothesis, in contrast, predicts that globalization induces a higher demand for social insurance which results in an extended welfare state. Empirical evidence on the globalization-welfare state nexus is mixed. We re-examine the evidence by investigating a yearly panel data...

  18. A Universal Animal Welfare Framework for Zoos

    OpenAIRE

    Kagan, Ron; Carter, Scott; Allard, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    The Detroit Zoological Society's (DZS) Center for Zoo Animal Welfare (CZAW) was created to advance the science and policy of the welfare of exotic nonhuman animals in captivity. This important part of the DZS mission is achieved through assessments of, and research on, the welfare of animals in zoos; by recognizing extraordinary achievement in the advancement of animal welfare; by widely sharing knowledge through a bibliographic resource center; by conducting professional training for animal ...

  19. Delegation of School Health Services to Unlicensed Assistive Personnel: A Position Paper of the National Association of State School Nurse Consultants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of School Health, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Presents the position of the National Association of State School Nurse Consultants regarding delegation of school health services to unlicensed personnel, explaining what school health means, what safe delegation of school nursing activities requires, and how the nurse uses professional judgment to determine which activities may be delegated and…

  20. Welfarism and extra-welfarism: a critical overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brayan Viegas Seixas

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Rules and principles for guiding decision-making in the health care sector have been debated for decades. Here, we present a critical appraisal of the two most important paradigms in this respect: welfarism and extra-welfarism. While the former deals with the maximization of the overall sum of individual utilities as its primary outcome, the latter has been focusing on the maximization of the overall health status. We argue that welfarism has three main problems: (1 its central idea of overall sum of individual utilities does not capture societal values decisively relevant in the context of health; (2 the use of the Potential Pareto Improvement brings an unresolvable separation between efficiency and equity; and (3 individual utility may not be a good measure in the health sector, given that individuals might value things that diminish their overall health. In turn, the extra-welfarist approach is criticized regarding four main limitations: (1 the advocated expansion of the evaluative space, moving from utility to health, may have represented in reality a narrowing of it; (2 it operates using non-explicit considerations of equity; (3 it still holds the issue of “inability to desire” of unprivileged people being considered the best judges of weighing the criteria used to building the health measures; and (4 there is controversial empirical evidence about society members’ values that support its assumptions. Overall, both paradigms show significant weaknesses, but the debate has still been within the realm of welfare economics, and even the new approaches to resource allocation in health care systems appear to be unable to escape from these boundaries.

  1. Animal Welfare: the attitudes and behaviour of European pig farmers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bock, B.B.; Huik, van M.M.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose ¿ The purpose of this paper is to provide insights into the behaviour and attitudes of European pig producers towards animal welfare. It looks at the relationship of these factors with farmers' understanding of good farming and production logic, together with national characteristics of

  2. Disclosure Regulation in Duopoly Markets: Proprietary Costs and Social Welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suijs, J.P.M.; Wielhouwer, J.L.

    2014-01-01

    The argument of proprietary costs is commonly used by firms to object against proposed disclosure regulations. The goal of this paper is to improve our understanding of the welfare consequences of disclosure in duopoly markets and to identify market settings where proprietary costs are a viable

  3. Can ideal family values be promoted in Nigeria through welfare ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal for the Psychological Study of Social Issues ... This paper has discussed how values can be promoted as crucial role of the family in the society. ... Solutions and recommendations were also proffered through welfare counseling to solve the problems facing family values for its promotion in Nigeria society.

  4. CHILD CARE CENTRES AS WELFARE INSTITUTIONS IN THE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-10-02

    Oct 2, 2017 ... role of orphanages as child care centres in the Northern Region of Ghana from the perspectives of welfare services ... The paper is structured as follows: Background of the Study, theoretical framework, .... of the framework is the analysis of the interaction that goes on between inmates and vulnerable ...

  5. Report on achievements in fiscal 1999 on research and development of the Welfare Techno-system (Ube); 1999 nendo Welfare Techno system kenkyu kaihatsu (Ube) seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Research and development has been performed at the Welfare Techno-house Ube located in the area with high aged population rate on welfare and assistance devices to support life of elderly people living in homes. This paper summarizes the achievements in fiscal 1999. In developing a motor-driven wheelchair that can be operated with a sense close to driving a car, a prototype system was fabricated on the trial basis, which allows such steering wheel operation as going straight and turning, by controlling through a computer the electric motor directly connected to the driving wheels. In developing an on-line cardiac function monitoring system, a device was developed, in which a cardiac sound sensor is incorporated in a pillow, and the number of pulse and existence of irregular pulse are outputted via a personal computer. In developing a device to help and stabilize the working posture in the sitting position for lower leg handicapped people, design and trial fabrication were carried out on a mechanism to allow movement in the sitting position with two freedom degrees for straight motion and two freedom degrees for turning motion. In developing an automatic pressurizing belt for orthostatic hypotension patients, a prototype of the automatic pressurizing belt was fabricated, which allows pressurization and depressurization through computer control. (NEDO)

  6. Health and welfare of organic livestock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sukkel, W.; Hommes, M.

    2009-01-01

    Animal health and welfare are important principles of organic animal husbandry. In the Netherlands organic animal husbandry has proven to perform better than the conventional sector on many aspects of animal welfare. The Dutch organic animal husbandry sector has recognised animal health and welfare

  7. Is competition between regions welfare increasing?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerdink, G.C. (Gerhard); Stauvermann, P.J. (Peter)

    2010-01-01

    It is generally assumed that competition increases welfare. The main idea behind this assumption is that competition in a market is the best incentive mechanism to produce efficient market outcomes. This is good for social welfare and therefore stimulating competition is welfare increasing.

  8. The Impact of Resources on Education: A Position Paper on How Theories of Social Capital Provide Insight on the Achievement Gap in the United States Education System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeisler, Kayla

    2012-01-01

    Research has shown that there is a gap in educational achievement between socioeconomic and racial groups in the public education system in the United States. This paper identifies the link between resources and academic achievement. Through examining educational resources, from in-school factors, such as facilities and teacher quality, to…

  9. Self-Inflicted Lesions in Dermatology: A Management and Therapeutic Approach - A Position Paper From the European Society for Dermatology and Psychiatry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomas-Aragones, Lucia; Consoli, Silla M.; Consoli, Sylvie G.; Poot, Francoise; Taube, Klaus-Michael; Linder, M. Dennis; Jemec, Gregor B. E.; Szepietowski, Jacek C.; de Korte, John; Lvov, Andrey; Gieler, Uwe

    2017-01-01

    The classification of self-inflicted skin lesions proposed by the European Society for Dermatology and Psychiatry (ESDaP) group generated questions with regard to specific treatments that could be recommended for such cases. The therapeutic guidelines in the current paper integrate new

  10. [Transformations and continuities in Canadian social welfare programs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessa, Iara

    2007-01-01

    Poor mothers and their families constitute a core dilemma for a social welfare system that aims primarily to encourage and keep workers in the labor force. Public income transfers to these and other marginalized groups may be viewed as disincentives to seek paid work and have been characterized in Canada by stinginess and contradictions since the beginning of the XX century. This paper discusses recent transformations in these programs and their effects on families and individuals. Focusing specifically on poor mothers raising children alone, it argues that many gradual cuts and reshaping these programs have changed the character of the social welfare state in Canada, blocking escape routes from poverty for marginalized groups.

  11. Welfare impact of a ban on child labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Jorge

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a new rationale for imposing restrictions on child labor. In a standard overlapping generation model where parental altruism results in transfers that children allocate to consumption and education, the Nash-Cournot equilibrium results in suboptimal levels of parental transfers and does not maximize the average level of utility of currently living agents. A ban on child labor decreases children's income and generates an increase in parental transfers bringing their levels closer to the optimum, raising children's welfare as well as average welfare in the short run and in the long run. Moreover, the inability to work allows children to allocate more time to education, and it leads to an increase in human capital. Besides, to increase transfers, parents decrease savings and hence physical capital accumulation. When prices are flexible, these effects diminish the positive welfare impact of the ban on child labor.

  12. Religious slaughter and animal welfare: data from an online consultation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Baldinelli

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Two are the main results of the online survey, which was conducted with the purpose to examine the purchase behavior of a group of consumers and their views on animal welfare and religious slaughter. First result is the respondents’ great interest about the question on animal welfare, which is in accordance with the growing interest of European citizens about this issue. Second is the demand for a more transparent labeling of animal products, which would be also concerning animal welfare and slaughter method used. These results are in conflict with marketing analysis, which find that consumers want to receive only positive information. Paradoxically, the more information is transmitted to reassure consumers the higher risk to alarm them.

  13. The Paradigmatic Struggle for Legitimacy of the Danish Welfare State regarding the Provision of Welfare Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, John Storm; Nielsen, Anna Lyneborg; Rendtorff, Jacob Dahl

    2014-01-01

    The Danish welfare state constitutes a paradigmatic case of the welfare struggle of modern welfare states. Taking care of vulnerable children and youths is used as a case study here, to illustrate the efforts of the welfare state to acquire legitimacy as a body of public administration. That is, ...

  14. Comment on papers by Evans et al. and Mekel-Bobrov et al. on Evidence for Positive Selection of MCPH1 and ASPM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timpson, Nicholas; Heron, Jon; Smith, George Davey; Enard, Wolfgang

    2007-08-24

    Evans et al. and Mekel-Bobrov et al. (Reports, 9 September 2005, p. 1717 and 1720, respectively) reported that human genetic variants of Microcephalin (MCPH1) and abnormal spindle-like microcephaly associated (ASPM) are under strong positive selection. We genotyped these variants in 9000 children and find no meaningful associations with brain size and various cognitive measures, which indicates that contrary to previous speculations, ASPM and MCPH1 have not been selected for brain-related effects.

  15. TEAM CONSOLIDATION BY DEVELOPING WELFARE AT WORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CATALINA BONCIU

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The development of welfare at work should contribute not only to strengthen the company’s position on the market. Maybe before measuring the economical results we should first analyze the social consequences of a microeconomic policy supportive of all the elements of good practice conducive to employees. Environmental aspects (inside or outside the company, which affect the workers’ current behavior, should be interpreted. It is the case of the actual conditions on the world market, as well as the state of things among employees’ needs: job security, new aspirations for wage and personal development; professional entourage: complexity, uncertainty, lack of flexibility, fluctuation…The most pressing element of the employees’ welfare is the research of: the work psychopathology; the psychoactive substances at work; the stress causes and manifestations, exhaustion, sleep disorders, but also behavioral; strikes, conflicts, crises, bullying and violence, harassment and sexism…To opt for a leadership where understanding and helping employees is a must also means having an interest in generalizing the state of health among employees, and this is reflected in their high quality of life.

  16. The Paradigmatic Struggle for Legitimacy of the Danish Welfare State regarding the Provision of Welfare Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rendtorff, Jacob Dahl; Nielsen, Anna Lyneborg; Pedersen, John Storm

    2014-01-01

    The Danish welfare state constitutes a paradigmatic case of the welfare struggle of modern welfare states. Taking care of vulnerable children and youths is used as a case study here, to illustrate the efforts of the welfare state to acquire legitimacy as a body of public administration. That is...... blindness, in order to test the legitimacy of the welfare state´s provision of welfare services at the beginning of this century. We propose a new paradigm to improve the welfare state´s legitimacy. Our case is considered critical....

  17. Emigration and welfare in an economy with foreign capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djajic, S

    1998-08-01

    Discussion of the brain drain problem in the 1970s sparked considerable theoretical research upon the effects of emigration. In many cases, it has been determined that emigration reduces the level of welfare of the remaining residents in the source country, regardless of whether or not human capital is exported. In an economy producing traded and non-traded goods. Rivera-Batiz demonstrated that the level of welfare of the remaining residents declines as a consequence of emigration or at most remains unchanged. This paper generalizes the Rivera-Batiz model in another direction to examine the effects of emigration upon the welfare of remaining residents when foreign capital is employed in the economy. In contrast to other earlier studies, it is found that emigration improves the welfare of remaining residents if both they and the migrants have identical preferences and factor endowments. The author also compares the welfare implications of remittance flows back to the source country when they are used to finance consumption and when they are used to finance capital accumulation.

  18. Privatization and Optimum-Welfare in an International Cournot Duopoly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda A. Ferreira

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we will analyse the relationship between privatization of a public firm and tax revenue for the domestic government in an international competition, with import tariffs. We consider a duopoly model where a domestic public firmand a foreign private firmcompete in the domesticmarket, asCournot players. Furthermore, the domestic government imposes a tariff to regulate an imported good, and may have a higher preference for tariff revenue than for social welfare. We compute the outputs at equilibrium and we show that privatization (i will increase the profits of both domestic and foreign firms; (ii will increase the tariff imposed to the imported good; and (iii will decrease the domestic welfare. Furthermore, we demonstrate that a rise in the government’s preference for tariff revenues raises the social welfare in both mixed and private models.

  19. Stunning and animal welfare from Islamic and scientific perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakyinsige, K; Man, Y B Che; Aghwan, Zeiad A; Zulkifli, I; Goh, Y M; Abu Bakar, F; Al-Kahtani, H A; Sazili, A Q

    2013-10-01

    The transformation of an animal into pieces fit for human consumption is a very important operation. Rather than argue about halal slaughter without stunning being inhumane or stunning being controversial from the Islamic point of view, we discuss slaughter, stunning and animal welfare considering both Islamic and animal welfare legislation requirements. With the world Muslim population close to two billion, the provision of halal meat for the Muslim community is important both ethically and economically. However, from the animal welfare standard point of view, a number of issues have been raised about halal slaughter without stunning, particularly, about stressful methods of restraint and the latency of the onset of unconsciousness. This paper sets out to, discuss the methods of stunning that are acceptable by Islamic authorities, highlight the requirements for stunning to be acceptable in Islam and suggest practical ways to improve the humanness of slaughter. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The Advisory Council on the Welfare Issues of Dog Breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crispin, Sheila

    2011-08-01

    This paper summarises the factors that led to the formation of the Advisory Council on the Welfare Issues of Dog Breeding and sets out some of the challenges facing the Council. Common to all types of dog is the irresponsible way in which they can be produced, purchased and owned, and the considerable welfare problems that may arise as a direct consequence of these actions. In pedigree and purebred dogs, specific welfare problems may also be the result of the manner in which some of them are bred, as well as a variety of breed-related and inherited disorders and a number of other complex issues. These include the breeding strategies adopted, including cross-breeding for so-called 'designer dog' hybrids, and the influence of showing and judging on the production of over-exaggerated conformational features. The Advisory Council's science-based collaborative approach is key to tackling these issues. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Trade, Transparency, and Welfare in the Asia Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazutomo Abe

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the impact of reducing corruption and improving transparency to lower trade costs in the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation region. The authors find, based on a computable general equilibrium model, significant potential trade and welfare gains for Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation members, with increased transparency and lower levels of corruption. Results suggest that trade in the region would increase by 11 percent and global welfare would expand by USD 406 billion by raising transparency to the average in the region. Most of the increase in welfare would take place in member economies undertaking reform. Among the reformers, the gross domestic product (GDP of Vietnam, Thailand, Russia, and the Philippines would increase by approximately 20 percent. The benefits to Malaysia and China would also be substantial with increased transparency and lower levels of corruption.

  2. Sudden cardiac arrest in sports - need for uniform registration: A Position Paper from the Sport Cardiology Section of the European Association for Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation.

    OpenAIRE

    Solberg, EE; Borjesson, M; Sharma, S; Papadakis, M; Wilhelm, M; Drezner, JA; Harmon, KG; Alonso, JM; Heidbuchel, H; Dugmore, D; Panhuyzen-Goedkoop, NM; Mellwig, KP; Carre, F; Rasmusen, H; Niebauer, J

    2015-01-01

    There are large variations in the incidence, registration methods and reported causes of sudden cardiac arrest/sudden cardiac death (SCA/SCD) in competitive and recreational athletes. A crucial question is to which degree these variations are genuine or partly due to methodological incongruities. This paper discusses the uncertainties about available data and provides comprehensive suggestions for standard definitions and a guide for uniform registration parameters of SCA/SCD. The parameters ...

  3. Animal Welfare in Air Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Popović

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Animal welfare is becoming an evermore-important factorfor air carriers from the economical viewpoint, due to its importantimpact on the carrier public image. High standard care hasto be taken of animals during transport in order to satisfy an importantsegment of airline customers, either the Business/Firstclass passengers travelling with pets, or influential shippers ofracing horses, dogs, Zoo species etc.Air transp011 of animals, disregarding other advantages,may pose a threat to their health and welfare being a significantmultifactorial stressor. Along with cardiovascular, endocrineand metabolic abe1mtions, it affects the immune response ofan animal and increases susceptibility to infection. Therefore,strict conditions for air transport of eve1y animal species havebeen imposed. Transport of only healthy animals is approved,as it is necessG/y to prevent the spread of disease during transportand to provide satisfactOJy environment for animals to betransported.

  4. Post-Communist Welfare Pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cerami, Alfio; Vanhuysse, Pieter

    countries and across social policy domains. By providing a broad overview based on a theoretical foundation and drawing on recent empirical evidence, Post-Communist Welfare Pathways offers a comprehensive, state-of-the-art account of the progress that has been made since 1989, and the main challenges...... does so by bringing together the leading experts on the subject worldwide. The editors' theoretically well-informed and analytically illuminating and innovative approach to the study of welfare state (self-) transformation, which casts new light on the evolution of domestic and supranational social...... with a stellar line-up of authors that is theoretically sophisticated and empirically rich as it provides insights into the dynamics of change in Central and Eastern European countries since the Fall of the Berlin Wall. The book shows that there are no simple explanations of the transformation of CEECs' social...

  5. Leveraging the World Cup: Mega Sporting Events, Human Rights Risk, and Worker Welfare Reform in Qatar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarath Ganji

    2016-12-01

    that aim to promote regional development and to advance universal values and principles. They also represent an important collaboration between stakeholders across sectors. The UN Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights, therefore, offer a framework for understanding how worker welfare reform might be in the interests of governmental and corporate actors alike. Ultimately, this paper outlines four policy proposals that may be undertaken by countries of origin, nongovernmental organizations, international organizations, and Qatari employers: (1 the development of a list of labor-supply agencies committed to ethical recruitment practices; (2 the devising of low-interest, preferential loans for migrants considering employment in Qatar; (3 the establishment of a resource center to serve as a one-stop shop for migrant information and services; and (4 the creation of training programs to aid migrants upon their return home. These options are not meant to diminish the role of the Qatari government in reform efforts, and indeed, the state can — and should — take steps to improve worker welfare, including strengthening worker welfare standards, closing labor law loopholes, and bolstering law enforcement capacity. But these measures are not enough. Therefore, the above four policy proposals put forward a process-specific, rather than actor-specific, approach to reform aimed at capitalizing on the spotlight of the World Cup to bring about lasting, positive change in Qatar’s migrant labor practices.

  6. Has the Nordic Welfare Model Been Transformed?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Bent; Kvist, Jon

    2011-01-01

    schemes - collective and individual - supplementing public schemes is well documented, scant attention has focused on more recent developments in other areas of the welfare state. This article shows how the multi-tiered welfare state spread in the 2000s to policies for families, the unemployed...... and the sick. Although Denmark still offers universal coverage in core welfare state areas, the increased use of occupational and fiscal welfare as well as changes in public schemes has gradually transformed the nation into a multi-tiered welfare state that is more dualistic and individualistic...

  7. Social inequalities in 'sickness': European welfare states and non-employment among the chronically ill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Wel, Kjetil A; Dahl, Espen; Thielen, Karsten

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine educational inequalities in the risk of non-employment among people with illnesses and how they vary between European countries with different welfare state characteristics. In doing so, the paper adds to the growing literature on welfare states and social inequalities in health by studying the often overlooked 'sickness'-dimension of health, namely employment behaviour among people with illnesses. We use European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC) data from 2005 covering 26 European countries linked to country characteristics derived from Eurostat and OECD that include spending on active labour market policies, benefit generosity, income inequality, and employment protection. Using multilevel techniques we find that comprehensive welfare states have lower absolute and relative social inequalities in sickness, as well as more favourable general rates of non-employment. Hence, regarding sickness, welfare resources appear to trump welfare disincentives. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The assessment of eating behaviour in children who are obese: a psychological approach. A position paper from the European childhood obesity group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braet, Caroline; O'Malley, Grace; Weghuber, Daniel; Vania, Andrea; Erhardt, Eva; Nowicka, Paulina; Mazur, Artur; Frelut, Marie Laure; Ardelt-Gattinger, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces health professionals to the different psychological models thought to influence eating behaviour in the absence of hunger in children who are obese and to propose a method of assessing these behaviours in practice. Clinical researchers from the European Childhood Obesity Group (ECOG) adopted an evidence-based approach to examine the literature concerning the assessment of eating behaviour in children who are obese. Studies published in English were filtered out of the medical and psychological literature from 1960 to the present, and the resulting bibliography was searched for relevant articles. Key themes from the current evidence were compiled and classified according to the underpinning psychological models. Based on the current evidence and the authors' combined clinical experience, a three-staged approach to assessment was agreed by consensus. Valid and reliable tools for assessing and monitoring each of the three identified models (Dietary Restraint Theory, Emotional Eating and the Diathesis-Stress Model) are suggested for use in clinical practice, and the ECOG three-staged approach to assessing eating behaviours in the absence of hunger is described. This paper presents practical guidance on how to assess eating behaviour in the absence of hunger in children who are clinically obese and suggests a focus for future research.

  9. The Assessment of Eating Behaviour in Children Who Are Obese: A Psychological Approach. A Position Paper from the European Childhood Obesity Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Braet

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This paper introduces health professionals to the different psychological models thought to influence eating behaviour in the absence of hunger in children who are obese and to propose a method of assessing these behaviours in practice. Methods: Clinical researchers from the European Childhood Obesity Group (ECOG adopted an evidence-based approach to examine the literature concerning the assessment of eating behaviour in children who are obese. Studies published in English were filtered out of the medical and psychological literature from 1960 to the present, and the resulting bibliography was searched for relevant articles. Key themes from the current evidence were compiled and classified according to the underpinning psychological models. Based on the current evidence and the authors' combined clinical experience, a three-staged approach to assessment was agreed by consensus. Results: Valid and reliable tools for assessing and monitoring each of the three identified models (Dietary Restraint Theory, Emotional Eating and the Diathesis-Stress Model are suggested for use in clinical practice, and the ECOG three-staged approach to assessing eating behaviours in the absence of hunger is described. Conclusions: This paper presents practical guidance on how to assess eating behaviour in the absence of hunger in children who are clinically obese and suggests a focus for future research.

  10. The Assessment of Eating Behaviour in Children Who Are Obese: A Psychological Approach. A Position Paper from the European Childhood Obesity Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braet, Caroline; O'Malley, Grace; Weghuber, Daniel; Vania, Andrea; Erhardt, Éva; Nowicka, Paulina; Mazur, Artur; Frelut, Marie Laure; Ardelt-Gattinger, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    Objective This paper introduces health professionals to the different psychological models thought to influence eating behaviour in the absence of hunger in children who are obese and to propose a method of assessing these behaviours in practice. Methods Clinical researchers from the European Childhood Obesity Group (ECOG) adopted an evidence-based approach to examine the literature concerning the assessment of eating behaviour in children who are obese. Studies published in English were filtered out of the medical and psychological literature from 1960 to the present, and the resulting bibliography was searched for relevant articles. Key themes from the current evidence were compiled and classified according to the underpinning psychological models. Based on the current evidence and the authors' combined clinical experience, a three-staged approach to assessment was agreed by consensus. Results Valid and reliable tools for assessing and monitoring each of the three identified models (Dietary Restraint Theory, Emotional Eating and the Diathesis-Stress Model) are suggested for use in clinical practice, and the ECOG three-staged approach to assessing eating behaviours in the absence of hunger is described. Conclusions This paper presents practical guidance on how to assess eating behaviour in the absence of hunger in children who are clinically obese and suggests a focus for future research. PMID:24820848

  11. Changes in the Welfare of an Injured Working Farm Dog Assessed Using the Five Domains Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine E. Littlewood

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The present structured, systematic and comprehensive welfare evaluation of an injured working farm dog using the Five Domains Model is of interest in its own right. It is also an example for others wanting to apply the Model to welfare evaluations in different species and contexts. Six stages of a fictitious scenario involving the dog are considered: (1 its on-farm circumstances before one hind leg is injured; (2 its entanglement in barbed wire, cutting it free and transporting it to a veterinary clinic; (3 the initial veterinary examination and overnight stay; (4 amputation of the limb and immediate post-operative recovery; (5 its first four weeks after rehoming to a lifestyle block; and (6 its subsequent life as an amputee and pet. Not all features of the scenario represent average-to-good practice; indeed, some have been selected to indicate poor practice. It is shown how the Model can draw attention to areas of animal welfare concern and, importantly, to how welfare enhancement may be impeded or facilitated. Also illustrated is how the welfare implications of a sequence of events can be traced and evaluated, and, in relation to specific situations, how the degrees of welfare compromise and enhancement may be graded. In addition, the choice of a companion animal, contrasting its welfare status as a working dog and pet, and considering its treatment in a veterinary clinical setting, help to highlight various welfare impacts of some practices. By focussing attention on welfare problems, the Model can guide the implementation of remedies, including ways of promoting positive welfare states. Finally, wider applications of the Five Domains Model are noted: by enabling both negative and positive welfare-relevant experiences to be graded, the Model can be applied to quality of life assessments and end-of-life decisions and, with particular regard to negative experiences, the Model can also help to strengthen expert witness testimony during

  12. Definition of Sensitive Skin: An Expert Position Paper from the Special Interest Group on Sensitive Skin of the International Forum for the Study of Itch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misery, Laurent; Ständer, Sonja; Szepietowski, Jacek C; Reich, Adam; Wallengren, Joanna; Evers, Andrea W M; Takamori, Kenji; Brenaut, Emilie; Le Gall-Ianotto, Christelle; Fluhr, Joachim; Berardesca, Enzo; Weisshaar, Elke

    2017-01-04

    Sensitive skin is a frequent complaint in the general population, in patients, and among subjects suffering from itch. The International Forum for the Study of Itch (IFSI) decided to initiate a special interest group (SIG) on sensitive skin. Using the Delphi method, sensitive skin was defined as "A syndrome defined by the occurrence of unpleasant sensations (stinging, burning, pain, pruritus, and tingling sensations) in response to stimuli that normally should not provoke such sensations. These unpleasant sensations cannot be explained by lesions attributable to any skin disease. The skin can appear normal or be accompanied by erythema. Sensitive skin can affect all body locations, especially the face". This paper summarizes the background, unresolved aspects of sensitive skin and the process of developing this definition.

  13. New position paper of the geothermal energy industry for the amendment of the Renewable Energy Law (EEG); Positionspapier der Geothermie-Branche zur Novellierung des Erneuerbare-Energien-Gesetzes (EEG)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2011-07-15

    In April 2011, the geothermal industry associations Wirtschaftsforum Geothermie e.V. (Augsburg, Federal Republic of Germany) and GtV Bundesverband Geothermie e.V. (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany) have submitted a proposal for further development of the Renewable Energy Law (EEG) in a joint position paper for a more rapid expansion of deep geothermal energy. A total of eight changes in the EEG should promote the further positive development of geothermal energy for the production of sustainable heat and electricity.

  14. Toward Creating Synergy Among Policy, Procedures, and Implementation of Evidence-Based Models in Child Welfare Systems: Two Case Examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Patricia

    2017-03-01

    Over the past four to five decades, multiple randomized controlled trials have verified that preventive interventions targeting key parenting skills can have far-reaching effects on improving a diverse array of child outcomes. Further, these studies have shown that parenting skills can be taught, and they are malleable. Given these advances, prevention scientists are in a position to make solid empirically based recommendations to public child service systems on using parent-mediated interventions to optimize positive outcomes for the children and families that they serve. Child welfare systems serve some of this country's most vulnerable children and families, yet they have been slow (compared to juvenile justice and mental health systems) to adopt empirically based interventions. This paper describes two child-welfare-initiated, policy-based case studies that have sought to scale-up research-based parenting skills into the routine services that caseworkers deliver to the families that they serve. In both case studies, the child welfare system leaders worked with evaluators and model developers to tailor policy, administrative, and fiscal system practices to institutionalize and sustain evidence-based practices into usual foster care services. Descriptions of the implementations, intervention models, and preliminary results are described.

  15. Recommendations for promoting the health and well-being of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender adolescents: a position paper of the Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Adolescent health care providers frequently care for patients who identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgendered (LGBT), or who may be struggling with or questioning their sexual orientation or gender identity. Whereas these youth have the same health concerns as their non-LGBT peers, LGBT teens may face additional challenges because of the complexity of the coming-out process, as well as societal discrimination and bias against sexual and gender minorities. The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine encourages adolescent providers and researchers to incorporate the impact of these developmental processes (and understand the impacts of concurrent potential discrimination) when caring for LGBT adolescents. The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine also encourages providers to help positively influence policy related to LGBT adolescents in schools, the foster care system, and the juvenile justice system, and within the family structure. Consistent with other medical organizations, the Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine rejects the mistaken notion that LGBT orientations are mental disorders, and opposes the use of any type of reparative therapy for LGBT adolescents. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Socially selected ornaments and fitness: Signals of fighting ability in paper wasps are positively associated with survival, reproductive success, and rank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibbetts, Elizabeth A; Forrest, Taylor; Vernier, Cassondra; Jinn, Judy; Madagame, Andrew

    2015-11-01

    Many animals have ornaments that mediate choice and competition in social and sexual contexts. Individuals with elaborate sexual ornaments typically have higher fitness than those with less elaborate ornaments, but less is known about whether socially selected ornaments are associated with fitness. Here, we test the relationship between fitness and facial patterns that are a socially selected signal of fighting ability in Polistes dominula wasps. We found wasps that signal higher fighting ability have larger nests, are more likely to survive harsh winters, and obtain higher dominance rank than wasps that signal lower fighting ability. In comparison, body weight was not associated with fitness. Larger wasps were dominant over smaller wasps, but showed no difference in nest size or survival. Overall, the positive relationship between wasp facial patterns and fitness indicates that receivers can obtain diverse information about a signaler's phenotypic quality by paying attention to socially selected ornaments. Therefore, there are surprisingly strong parallels between the information conveyed by socially and sexually selected signals. Similar fitness relationships in social and sexually selected signals may be one reason it can be difficult to distinguish the role of social versus sexual selection in ornament evolution. © 2015 The Author(s). Evolution © 2015 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  17. From "Animal Machines" to "Happy Meat"? Foucault's Ideas of Disciplinary and Pastoral Power Applied to 'Animal-Centred' Welfare Discourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Matthew

    2011-01-11

    Michel Foucault's work traces shifting techniques in the governance of humans, from the production of 'docile bodies' subjected to the knowledge formations of the human sciences (disciplinary power), to the facilitation of self-governing agents directed towards specified forms of self-knowledge by quasi-therapeutic authorities (pastoral power). While mindful of the important differences between the governance of human subjects and the oppression of nonhuman animals, exemplified in nonhuman animals' legal status as property, this paper explores parallel shifts from disciplinary to pastoral regimes of human-'farmed' animal relations. Recent innovations in 'animal-centred' welfare science represent a trend away from the 'disciplinary' techniques of confinement and torture associated with 'factory farms' and towards quasi-therapeutic ways of claiming to know 'farmed' animals, in which the animals themselves are co-opted into the processes by which knowledge about them is generated. The new pastoral turn in 'animal-centred' welfare finds popular expression in 'happy meat' discourses that invite 'consumers' to adopt a position of vicarious carer for the 'farmed' animals who they eat. The paper concludes that while 'animal-centred' welfare reform and 'happy meat' discourses promise a possibility of a somewhat less degraded life for some 'farmed' animals, they do so by perpetuating exploitation and oppression and entrenching speciesist privilege by making it less vulnerable to critical scrutiny.

  18. Drug allergy passport and other documentation for patients with drug hypersensitivity - An ENDA/EAACI Drug Allergy Interest Group Position Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockow, K; Aberer, W; Atanaskovic-Markovic, M; Bavbek, S; Bircher, A; Bilo, B; Blanca, M; Bonadonna, P; Burbach, G; Calogiuri, G; Caruso, C; Celik, G; Cernadas, J; Chiriac, A; Demoly, P; Oude Elberink, J N G; Fernandez, J; Gomes, E; Garvey, L H; Gooi, J; Gotua, M; Grosber, M; Kauppi, P; Kvedariene, V; Laguna, J J; Makowska, J S; Mosbech, H; Nakonechna, A; Papadopolous, N G; Ring, J; Romano, A; Rockmann, H; Sargur, R; Sedlackova, L; Sigurdardottir, S; Schnyder, B; Storaas, T; Torres, M; Zidarn, M; Terreehorst, I

    2016-11-01

    The strongest and best-documented risk factor for drug hypersensitivity (DH) is the history of a previous reaction. Accidental exposures to drugs may lead to severe or even fatal reactions in sensitized patients. Preventable prescription errors are common. They are often due to inadequate medical history or poor risk assessment of recurrence of drug reaction. Proper documentation is essential information for the doctor to make sound therapeutic decision. The European Network on Drug Allergy and Drug Allergy Interest Group of the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology have formed a task force and developed a drug allergy passport as well as general guidelines of drug allergy documentation. A drug allergy passport, a drug allergy alert card, a certificate, and a discharge letter after medical evaluation are adequate means to document DH in a patient. They are to be handed to the patient who is advised to carry the documentation at all times especially when away from home. A drug allergy passport should at least contain information on the culprit drug(s) including international nonproprietary name, clinical manifestations including severity, diagnostic measures, potential cross-reactivity, alternative drugs to prescribe, and where more detailed information can be obtained from the issuer. It should be given to patients only after full allergy workup. In the future, electronic prescription systems with alert functions will become more common and should include the same information as in paper-based documentation. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Sudden cardiac arrest in sports - need for uniform registration: A Position Paper from the Sport Cardiology Section of the European Association for Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solberg, E E; Borjesson, M; Sharma, S; Papadakis, M; Wilhelm, M; Drezner, J A; Harmon, K G; Alonso, J M; Heidbuchel, H; Dugmore, D; Panhuyzen-Goedkoop, N M; Mellwig, K-P; Carre, F; Rasmusen, H; Niebauer, J; Behr, E R; Thiene, G; Sheppard, M N; Basso, C; Corrado, D

    2016-04-01

    There are large variations in the incidence, registration methods and reported causes of sudden cardiac arrest/sudden cardiac death (SCA/SCD) in competitive and recreational athletes. A crucial question is to which degree these variations are genuine or partly due to methodological incongruities. This paper discusses the uncertainties about available data and provides comprehensive suggestions for standard definitions and a guide for uniform registration parameters of SCA/SCD. The parameters include a definition of what constitutes an 'athlete', incidence calculations, enrolment of cases, the importance of gender, ethnicity and age of the athlete, as well as the type and level of sporting activity. A precise instruction for autopsy practice in the case of a SCD of athletes is given, including the role of molecular samples and evaluation of possible doping. Rational decisions about cardiac preparticipation screening and cardiac safety at sport facilities requires increased data quality concerning incidence, aetiology and management of SCA/SCD in sports. Uniform standard registration of SCA/SCD in athletes and leisure sportsmen would be a first step towards this goal. © The European Society of Cardiology 2015.

  20. Monitoring of occupational and environmental aeroallergens-- EAACI Position Paper. Concerted action of the EAACI IG Occupational Allergy and Aerobiology & Air Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raulf, M; Buters, J; Chapman, M; Cecchi, L; de Blay, F; Doekes, G; Eduard, W; Heederik, D; Jeebhay, M F; Kespohl, S; Krop, E; Moscato, G; Pala, G; Quirce, S; Sander, I; Schlünssen, V; Sigsgaard, T; Walusiak-Skorupa, J; Wiszniewska, M; Wouters, I M; Annesi-Maesano, I

    2014-10-01

    Exposure to high molecular weight sensitizers of biological origin is an important risk factor for the development of asthma and rhinitis. Most of the causal allergens have been defined based on their reactivity with IgE antibodies, and in many cases, the molecular structure and function of the allergens have been established. Significant information on allergen levels that cause sensitization and allergic symptoms for several major environmental and occupational allergens has been reported. Monitoring of high molecular weight allergens and allergen carrier particles is an important part of the management of allergic respiratory diseases and requires standardized allergen assessment methods for occupational and environmental (indoor and outdoor) allergen exposure. The aim of this EAACI task force was to review the essential points for monitoring environmental and occupational allergen exposure including sampling strategies and methods, processing of dust samples, allergen analysis, and quantification. The paper includes a summary of different methods for sampling and allergen quantification, as well as their pros and cons for various exposure settings. Recommendations are being made for different exposure scenarios. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Towards a re-definition of 'cardiac hypertrophy' through a rational characterization of left ventricular phenotypes: a position paper of the Working Group 'Myocardial Function' of the ESC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knöll, Ralph; Iaccarino, Guido; Tarone, Guido; Hilfiker-Kleiner, Denise; Bauersachs, Johann; Leite-Moreira, Adelino F; Sugden, Peter H; Balligand, Jean-Luc

    2011-08-01

    Many primary or secondary diseases of the myocardium are accompanied with complex remodelling of the cardiac tissue that results in increased heart mass, often identified as cardiac 'hypertrophy'. Although there have been numerous attempts at defining such 'hypertrophy', the present paper delineates the reasons as to why current definitions of cardiac hypertrophy remain unsatisfying. Based on a brief review of the underlying pathophysiology and tissue and cellular events driving myocardial remodelling with or without changes in heart dimensions, as well as current techniques to detect such changes, we propose to restrict the use of the currently popular term 'hypertrophy' to cardiac myocytes that may or may not accompany the more complex tissue rearrangements leading to changes in shape or size of the ventricles, more broadly referred to as 'remodelling'. We also discuss the great potential of genetically modified (mouse) models as tools to define the molecular pathways leading to the different forms of left ventricle remodelling. Finally, we present an algorithm for the stepwise assessment of myocardial phenotypes applicable to animal models using well-established imaging techniques and propose a list of parameters most suited for a critical evaluation of such pathophysiological phenomena in mouse models. We believe that this effort is the first step towards a much auspicated unification of the terminology between the experimental and the clinical cardiologists.

  2. [Renal denervation for the treatment of resistant hypertension: definition, patient selection and description of the procedure. 2012 Position paper of the Italian Society of Hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpe, Massimo; Agabiti-Rosei, Enrico; Ambrosioni, Ettore; Cottone, Santina; Cuspidi, Cesare; Borghi, Claudio; De Luca, Nicola; Fallo, Francesco; Ferri, Claudio; Mancia, Giuseppe; Morganti, Alberto; Muiesan, Maria Lorenza; Sarzani, Riccardo; Sechi, Leonardo; Tocci, Giuliano; Virdis, Agostino

    2012-12-01

    Hypertension is responsible for a relevant burden of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although several appropriate and integrated pharmacological strategies are available, blood pressure control still remains largely unsatisfactory. Failure to achieve effective blood pressure control in treated hypertensive patients may have a substantial impact on overall cardiovascular risk, since it significantly increases the risk of both macrovascular and microvascular complications. Hypertension is arbitrarily defined as "resistant" or "refractory" when recommended blood pressure goals (clinic blood pressure paper of the Italian Society of Hypertension provides a diagnostic and therapeutic approach to the early identification and effective clinical management of patients with resistant hypertension, who may be candidates for renal denervation. These indications may have important implications not only from a clinical viewpoint but also from an economic perspective. The accurate identification of patients with resistant hypertension and the appropriate selection of patients eligible for this procedure may help improve blood pressure control and reduce the risk of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular complications in these patients.

  3. Policing Norwegian Welfare: Disciplining and Differentiating within the Bottom Rungs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika K. Gubrium

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Policing is a disciplining means for using welfare services to govern welfare recipients towards a desired behaviour or goal. We apply Foucault’s (1977 definition of institutional discipline as a means for exploring how the distinctions made by state and local welfare authorities in Norway when policing recipients may take shape according to normative perceptions of ethnicity and deservingness. More particularly, we explore the regulating understandings and activities linked to the inclusion and exclusion of eligibility to welfare benefits and services and the form of the services offered. Our focus lies at the point of entry from the lowest tier of Norwegian welfare benefits (social assistance into two semi-parallel and higher tiers promising more (higher benefits, better services. The tiers are represented by programmes that share aims, yet differ in reach: the 2004 Introduction Programme and the 2007 Qualification Programme. The Introduction Programme is an activation programme targeted at immigrants and refugees newly arrived to Norway. Its aim is to strengthen opportunities to participate in society and labour market, as well as to promote economic independence. The Qualification Programme is an activation programme that was explicitly modelled after the Introduction Programme, yet whose target group reaches more broadly to include long-term recipients of social assistance and those whose work ability is severely lowered. While both programmes have been premised on the need to transform participants from a status of passive welfare benefit recipients to active participants in qualifying measures and society, the target groups vary and it is this contrast that is our point of focus. We contrast the two policies at two ‘moments’ in the policy cycle: (1 policy framing (public and policymaker understandings/assumptions concerning the target group, the location of accountability for the marginal position of the policy recipient and the

  4. [CONSENSUS ON FATS AND OILS IN THE DIET OF S ISH ADULTS; POSITION PAPER OF THE SPANISH FEDERATION OF FOOD, NUTRITION AND DIETETICS SOCIETIES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ros, Emilio; López-Miranda, José; Picó, Catalina; Rubio, Miguel Ángel; Babio, Nancy; Sala-Vila, Aleix; Pérez-Jiménez, Francisco; Escrich, Eduard; Bulló, Mònica; Solanas, Montserrat; Gil Hernández, Angel; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi

    2015-08-01

    The quality of dietary fat critically influences health. In this consensus document the scientific evidence relating effects of dietary fat quantity and quality on cardiovascular risk is reviewed and recommendations for the Spanish adult population are issued. As a novelty in nutrition guidelines, emphasis is made more on parent foods than on fatty acids per se. In summary, replacing saturated fatty acids (SFA) for monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) reduces cardiovascular risk. Recent data suggest that SFA proper may be harmful or not depending on the parent food, a reason why an intake threshold is not established, but consumption of foods containing excess SFA, such as butter, some processed meats, and commercial confectionery and fried foods is discouraged. The established threshold of oil versus other fats), and no intake limitations are established.n-6 PUFA are cardioprotective and recommended intakes (5-10 % of energy) are not always fulfilled in the Spanish population, thus increased consumption of their vegetable food sources (seeds, derived oils, and margarines)is encouraged. Marine n-3 PUFA are also cardioprotective and the recommendation stands to eat fatty fish≥2 servings/weeks to reach intake levels of at least 250 mg/day. Increasing evidence suggests that alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), the vegetable n-3 PUFA, is also cardioprotective,but the parent foods (walnuts, soy products,green-leaf vegetables) may provide benefits beyond ALA itself. Finally, low-fat (high carbohydrate, particularly when having a high glycemic index) diets appear to lack cardiovascular preventive effects, while high-fat,high-vegetable fat dietary patterns such as the Mediterranean diet, are protective, a reason why no upper limit on fat intake is established for the Spanish population.This position statement targets dietitians, nutritionists and other health professionals involved in dietary counsel so they can deliver it rightly and

  5. Migration and Rural Welfare: The Impact of Potential Policy Reforms in Europe

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wouterse, Fleur

    2012-01-01

    This paper uses an agricultural household model in an imperfect market environment and data from Burkina Faso to explore the impact of potential immigration policy reforms in Europe on the welfare of rural households...

  6. EXPLAINING THE DISTINCTIVENESS OF MEXICAN-IMMIGRANT WELFARE BEHAVIORS: THE IMPORTANCE OF EMPLOYMENT-RELATED CULTURAL REPERTOIRES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hook, Jennifer; Bean, Frank D

    2009-06-01

    Social scientists generally seek to explain welfare-related behaviors in terms of economic choice, social structural, or culture of poverty theories. Because such explanations incompletely account for nativity differences in public assistance receipt among those of Mexican origin, this paper draws upon the sociology of migration and culture literatures to develop alternative materialist-based cultural repertoire hypotheses to explain the welfare behaviors of Mexican immigrants. We argue that immigrants from Mexico arrive and work in the United States under circumstances fostering employment-based cultural repertoires that, compared with natives and other immigrant groups, encourage less welfare participation (in part because such repertoires lead to faster welfare exits) and more post-welfare employment, especially in states with relatively more generous welfare-policies. Using individual-level data predating Welfare Reform from multiple panels of the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP), merged with state-level information on welfare-benefit levels, we assess these ideas by examining immigrant-group differences in welfare receipt, retention, and transition to employment across locales with varying levels of welfare benefits. Overall, the results are consistent with the notion that cultural repertoires incline Mexican immigrants to utilize welfare not primarily to avoid work, cope with disadvantage, or perpetuate a culture of dependency, but rather mostly to minimize employment discontinuities. This result carries important theoretical and policy implications.

  7. Reciprocity, World Prices and Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis; Woodland, Alan D.

    We examine in detail the circumstances under which reciprocity, as defined in Bagwell and Staiger (1999), leads to fixed world prices. We show that a change of tariffs satisfying reciprocity does not necessarily imply constant world prices in a world of many goods and countries. While...... it is possible to find tariff reforms that are consistent with both reciprocity and constant world prices, these reforms do not follow from the reciprocity condition, but rather from the requirement of unchanged world prices. We propose an alternative reciprocity rule that is guaranteed to raise the welfare...... of all countries, independently of whether world prices change and independently of the relative numbers of goods and countries....

  8. On the contribution of reclaimed wastewater irrigation to the potential exposure of humans to antibiotics, antibiotic resistant bacteria and antibiotic resistance genes - NEREUS COST Action ES1403 position paper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piña, Benjamin; Bayona, Josep M.; Christou, Anastasis

    2018-01-01

    ), mainly through meat consumption. However, the ever-increasing use of reclaimed wastewater (RWW) in agriculture may also contribute significantly to the non-accounted exposure to antibiotics, ARB, and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). This position paper aims at evaluating the current knowledge...

  9. Home Economics/Family Studies Education in Canadian Schools: A Position Paper = L'enseignement de l'economie familiale/etudes familiales dans les ecoles canadiennes: Expose de principes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canadian Home Economics Journal, 1996

    1996-01-01

    English and French versions of the Canadian Home Economics Association's position paper describe the place of home economics/family studies (HEFS) in education and worldwide trends indicating the need for HEFS. Suggests it is the only subject with the primary focus on preparing students for everyday life in an increasingly complex global society.…

  10. Consumer Preferences for High Welfare Meat in Germany: Self-service Counter or Service Counter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Weinrich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Many people view animal welfare standards in the agricultural industry as critical and some consumers would prefer to buy high welfare meat. In order to successfully introduce high welfare meat products onto the market, some important marketing decisions must be made. Due to limited shelf space in retail outlets, niche products like high welfare meat cannot be placed both at the self-service counter and at the service counter. In order to analyze where to place it best an online survey of 642 German consumers was conducted. By means of factor and cluster analyses, consumers’ animal welfare attitudes and their preference for a point of purchase were combined. The different target groups were joint using cross tabulation analysis. The results reveal that consumers in the target group show a more positive attitude to the service counter.

  11. The relationship between animal welfare and economic performance at farm level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Arne; Czekaj, Tomasz Gerard; Forkman, Björn

    We propose a theoretical framework for the relationship between animal welfare and the economic performance of livestock farms. We empirically analyse this relationship based on a unique data set of randomly sampled Danish pig herds that includes information from unannounced inspections...... of the compliance with the animal welfare legislation. We find large variations in economic performance indicators and animal welfare indicators. The relationship between these two indicators is rather weak, but tends to be slightly positive. We conclude that management has a major influence on both economic...... performance and animal welfare so that good farm managers are able to obey all animal welfare regulations and, at the same time, achieve a high economic performance....

  12. Inter-observer reliability of animal-based welfare indicators included in the Animal Welfare Indicators welfare assessment protocol for dairy goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, A; Battini, M; Can, E; Mattiello, S; Stilwell, G

    2018-01-08

    This study was conducted within the context of the Animal Welfare Indicators (AWIN) project and the underlying scientific motivation for the development of the study was the scarcity of data regarding inter-observer reliability (IOR) of welfare indicators, particularly given the importance of reliability as a further step for developing on-farm welfare assessment protocols. The objective of this study is therefore to evaluate IOR of animal-based indicators (at group and individual-level) of the AWIN welfare assessment protocol (prototype) for dairy goats. In the design of the study, two pairs of observers, one in Portugal and another in Italy, visited 10 farms each and applied the AWIN prototype protocol. Farms in both countries were visited between January and March 2014, and all the observers received the same training before the farm visits were initiated. Data collected during farm visits, and analysed in this study, include group-level and individual-level observations. The results of our study allow us to conclude that most of the group-level indicators presented the highest IOR level ('substantial', 0.85 to 0.99) in both field studies, pointing to a usable set of animal-based welfare indicators that were therefore included in the first level of the final AWIN welfare assessment protocol for dairy goats. Inter-observer reliability of individual-level indicators was lower, but the majority of them still reached 'fair to good' (0.41 to 0.75) and 'excellent' (0.76 to 1) levels. In the paper we explore reasons for the differences found in IOR between the group and individual-level indicators, including how the number of individual-level indicators to be assessed on each animal and the restraining method may have affected the results. Furthermore, we discuss the differences found in the IOR of individual-level indicators in both countries: the Portuguese pair of observers reached a higher level of IOR, when compared with the Italian observers. We argue how the

  13. Paper electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobjörk, Daniel; Österbacka, Ronald

    2011-05-03

    Paper is ubiquitous in everyday life and a truly low-cost substrate. The use of paper substrates could be extended even further, if electronic applications would be applied next to or below the printed graphics. However, applying electronics on paper is challenging. The paper surface is not only very rough compared to plastics, but is also porous. While this is detrimental for most electronic devices manufactured directly onto paper substrates, there are also approaches that are compatible with the rough and absorptive paper surface. In this review, recent advances and possibilities of these approaches are evaluated and the limitations of paper electronics are discussed. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Pig producer perspectives on the use of meat inspection as an animal health and welfare diagnostic tool in the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devitt, Catherine; Boyle, Laura; Teixeira, D L; O'Connell, N E; Hawe, M; Hanlon, Alison

    2015-01-01

    Currently, there is growing interest in developing ante and post mortem meat inspection (MI) to incorporate measures of pig health and welfare for use as a diagnostic tool on pig farms. However, the success of the development of the MI process requires stakeholder engagement with the process. Knowledge gaps and issues of trust can undermine the effective exchange and utilisation of information across the supply chain. A social science research methodology was employed to establish stakeholder perspectives towards the development of MI to include measures of pig health and welfare. In this paper the findings of semi-structured telephone interviews with 18 pig producers from the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland are presented. Producers recognised the benefit of the utilisation of MI data as a health and welfare diagnostic tool. This acknowledgment, however, was undermined for some by dissatisfaction with the current system of MI information feedback, by trust and fairness concerns, and by concerns regarding the extent to which data would be used in the producers' interests. Tolerance of certain animal welfare issues may also have a negative impact on how producers viewed the potential of MI data. The private veterinary practitioner was viewed as playing a vital role in assisting them with the interpretation of MI data for herd health planning. The development of positive relationships based on trust, commitment and satisfaction across the supply chain may help build a positive environment for the effective utilisation of MI data in improving pig health and welfare. The utilisation of MI as a diagnostic tool would benefit from the development of a communication strategy aimed at building positive relationships between stakeholders in the pig industry.

  15. Welfare Economics: A Story of Existence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Iqbal

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to explore that, despite severe challenges, welfare economics still exists. This descriptive study is conducted through some specific time line developments in this field. Economists are divided over the veracity and survival of the welfare economics. Welfare economics emphasizes on the optimum resource and goods allocation with the objective of better living standard, materialistic gains, social welfare and ethical decisions. It origins back to the political economics and utilitarianism. Adam Smith, Irving Fisher and Pareto contributed significantly towards it. During 1930 to 1940, American and British approaches were developed. Many economists tried to explore the relationship between level of income and happiness. Amartya Sen gave the comparative approach and Tinbergen pioneered the theory of equity. Contemporarily the futuristic restoration of welfare economics is on trial and hopes are alive. This study may be useful to understand the transitional and survival process of welfare economics.

  16. Measuring zoo animal welfare: theory and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Sonya P; Broom, Donald M

    2009-11-01

    The assessment of animal welfare relates to investigations of how animals try to cope with their environment, and how easy or how difficult it is for them to do so. The use of rigorous scientific methods to assess this has grown over the past few decades, and so our understanding of the needs of animals has improved during this time. Much of the work in the field of animal welfare has been conducted on farm animals, but it is important to consider how the methods and approaches used in assessing farm animal welfare have been, and can be, adapted and applied to the measurement of welfare in animals in other domains, such as in zoos. This is beneficial to our understanding of both the theoretical knowledge, and the practicability of methods. In this article, some of the commonly-used methods for measuring animal welfare will be discussed, as well as some practical considerations in assessing the welfare of zoo animals.

  17. Road transport of farm animals: effects of journey duration on animal welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Birte Lindstrøm; Dybkjær, Lise; Herskin, Mette S

    2011-01-01

    Transport of farm animals gives rise to concern about their welfare. Specific attention has been given to the duration of animal transport, and maximum journey durations are used in legislation that seek to minimise any negative impact of transport on animal welfare. This paper reviews...... the relatively few scientific investigations into effects of transport duration on animal welfare in cattle, sheep, horses, pigs and poultry. From the available literature, we attempt to distinguish between aspects, which will impair welfare on journeys of any duration, such as those associated with loading......, and those aspects that may be exacerbated by journey time. We identify four aspects of animal transport, which have increasing impact on welfare as transport duration increases. These relate to (i) the physiological and clinical state of the animal before transport; and - during transport - to (ii) feeding...

  18. Improved Process Quality through Certification Systems: An Assessment of Selected Animal Welfare Labels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinke Heise

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The process quality of food products is currently the subject of increased attention. In the area of meat production, public discussion has centered on perceived low standards of animal welfare. Besides an increase in legislative regulations, improved animal welfare standards are most frequently achieved through the establishment of socalled animal welfare labels. So far these labeling concepts have not been substantially evaluated in terms of how well they carry out their goal of improving process quality in agricultural animal husbandry. This paper will use a recognized list of criteria to evaluate selected animal welfare labels. Results show that competing labels vary strongly regarding the improvement of process quality. This has far‐reaching effects not only for consumers andother label users, but also for companies that want to enter the animal welfare segment of the meat market.

  19. The welfare implications of large litter size in the domestic pig I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rutherford, K.M.D; Baxter, E.M.; D'Eath, R.B.

    2013-01-01

    , in a number of ways, large litter size is a risk factor for decreased animal welfare in pig production. Increased litter size is associated with increased piglet mortality, which is likely to be associated with significant negative animal welfare impacts. In surviving piglets, many of the causes of mortality...... with large litters are being implemented. An important mitigation strategy is genetic selection encompassing traits that promote piglet survival, vitality and growth. Sow nutrition and the minimisation of stress during gestation could also contribute to improving outcomes in terms of piglet welfare......Increasing litter size has long been a goal of pig breeders and producers, and may have implications for pig (Sus scrofa domesticus) welfare. This paper reviews the scientific evidence on biological factors affecting sow and piglet welfare in relation to large litter size. It is concluded that...

  20. On-farm conditions that compromise animal welfare that can be monitored at the slaughter plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandin, Temple

    2017-10-01

    Handling and stunning at slaughter plants has greatly improved through the use of numerical scoring. The purpose of this paper is to encourage the use of numerical scoring systems at the slaughter plants to assess conditions that compromise welfare that occurred either during transport or on the farm. Some of the transport problems that can be assessed are bruises, death losses, and injured animals. Welfare issues that occurred on the farm that can be assessed at the abattoir are body condition, lameness, lesions, injuries, animal cleanliness and internal pathology. There are important welfare issues that cannot be assessed at slaughter. They are on-farm euthanasia methods, use of analgesics during surgeries, and the type of animal housing systems. Welfare evaluations at slaughter have the potential to greatly improve welfare. Copyright © 2017 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Race, Debt and the Welfare State

    OpenAIRE

    Pitcher, B.

    2016-01-01

    In this article I explore how the figure of debt illuminates the racial politics of welfare in neoliberal Britain. I begin by giving a reading of the simultaneous unfolding of post-war race politics and the Beveridgean welfare state, and then turn to consider the interpellative appeal of neoliberal debt to minoritiSed subjects who have, in certain respects, been de facto excluded from prevailing models of welfare citizenship. In particular, this article considers the ways in which household d...

  2. On-farm broiler welfare assessment and associated training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Butterworth

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Around the world, people who care for animals as stock keepers, stockmen, farmers, producers are placed in a position where they can greatly influence the quality of life of the animals they manage. This is particularly true in broiler chickens, where large numbers of animals can be cared for by comparatively small numbers of people. There is an international progression to start to assess poultry welfare on farm by looking at the animals themselves using (Animal Based Measures ABMs rather than by looking exclusively at the resources provided (space, light heat, litter material - Resource Based Measures RBM's. In general, the areas being assessed are: Are the animals properly fed and supplied with water? Are the animals properly housed? Are the animals healthy? Can the animals express a range of behaviours and emotional states? Different types of organisations are starting to use ABM's - Government inspection bodies - for example state veterinary staff, Research institutes - wishing to use standardized assessment methods for research, Animal Welfare NGO's, Farm assurance companies and Legislators. The WelfareQualityNetwork® (WQN http://www.welfarequality.net/everyone has described ABM's which address twelve health and welfare criteria and has tested them on a large number of farms across Europe. Some examples from this assessment scheme are described.

  3. Politics, welfare regimes, and population health: controversies and evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntaner, Carles; Borrell, Carme; Ng, Edwin; Chung, Haejoo; Espelt, Albert; Rodriguez-Sanz, Maica; Benach, Joan; O'Campo, Patricia

    2011-09-01

    In recent years, a research area has emerged within social determinants of health that examines the role of politics, expressed as political traditions/parties and welfare state characteristics, on population health. To better understand and synthesise this growing body of evidence, the present literature review, informed by a political economy of health and welfare regimes framework, located 73 empirical and comparative studies on politics and health, meeting our inclusion criteria in three databases: PubMed (1948-), Sociological Abstracts (1953-), and ISI Web of Science (1900-). We identified two major research programmes, welfare regimes and democracy, and two emerging programmes, political tradition and globalisation. Primary findings include: (1) left and egalitarian political traditions on population health are the most salutary, consistent, and substantial; (2) the health impacts of advanced and liberal democracies are also positive and large; (3) welfare regime studies, primarily conducted among wealthy countries, find that social democratic regimes tend to fare best with absolute health outcomes yet consistently in terms of relative health inequalities; and (4) globalisation defined as dependency indicators such as trade, foreign investment, and national debt is negatively associated with population health. We end by discussing epistemological, theoretical, and methodological issues for consideration for future research. © 2011 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2011 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Welfare measurements of finishing pigs on the day of slaughter: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Pia; Aaslyng, Margit Dall

    2015-05-01

    Animal welfare on the day of slaughter is of increasing concern to the authorities and consumers alike, creating a need not only to optimize the welfare of the animals but also to document the level of welfare. The day of slaughter is composed of a variety of stages, initiated when the pigs leave the home pen and including pick-up facilities, transport, lairage, stunning and sticking. At each of these stages, the animals are exposed to different stressors that, both individually and in interaction with one another, can compromise welfare. As part of the initial work aiming to document the welfare of finishing pigs on the day of slaughter, this paper provides an overview of the individual stages including a discussion of potential stressors and potential welfare measurements. These measurements are discussed with regard to their relevance and suitability for documentation of animal welfare on the day of slaughter for development of on-site tools for continuous automatic monitoring of animal welfare. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Animal welfare assessment at slaughter in Europe: moving from inputs to outputs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velarde, Antonio; Dalmau, Antoni

    2012-11-01

    Producers, retailers and other food chain actors increasingly recognize that consumer concerns for good animal welfare represent a business opportunity that could be profitably incorporated into their commercial strategies. Therefore, during the last decade, numerous trade groups (producers, processors, retailers and restaurant chains) have developed certification systems with their suppliers which include elements of animal welfare. The Welfare Quality® project has developed an integrated and standardised welfare assessment system based on twelve welfare criteria grouped into four main principles (good feeding, good housing, good health and appropriate behaviour) according to how they are experienced by animals. One of the innovations of the Welfare Quality® assessment system is that it focuses more on outcome measures (e.g. directly related to animal body condition, health aspects, injuries, behaviour, etc.). This paper has the objective to discuss the rationale behind the welfare assessment and to describe the Welfare Quality® assessment of pigs and cattle at the slaughterhouse. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Welfare State Development in Central and Eastern Europe: A State of the Art Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragos Adascalitei

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The welfare states in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE have undergone massive changes since the beginning of the 1990s. This paper reviews the literature on welfare state development in CEE in light of the theories that have been used to study advanced capitalist democracies. Its purpose is to critically assess the extent to which different theories can explain changes in the welfare state during and after transition. It argues that until now two strands of literature have crystallised: institutionalism and actor-centred explanations. Institutionalists agree that welfare reforms are limited by the path dependence of the national welfare state structures though this framework is biased towards explaining stability. Recent literature seeks to overcome this bias by adding variables that traditionally belong to the actor-centred paradigm. This essay will argue that the gains from such an approach are exceeded by losses in the accuracy and parsimony of explanations. Further, in the actor-centred camp the welfare state is seen as a product of bargaining between various national and international actors. Yet the debate about who is responsible for the present welfare state arrangements is far from over. Unanswered questions revolve around the impact of political parties and ideologies on welfare reforms, the role of bureaucracies, the efficiency of international financial institutions in advocating retrenchment and the precise mechanisms through which all the above actors defend their interests.

  7. Consumer preferences for pig welfare - can the market accommodate more than one level of welfare pork?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denver, Sigrid; Sandøe, Peter; Christensen, Tove

    2017-01-01

    and high level animal welfare pork will have to be quite narrow. In addition, full willingness-to-pay of consumers who want to buy high level welfare pork cannot be relied upon to incentivise new consumers to buy medium welfare pork. Further, raising brand awareness in the shopping situation and improving...... consumer's understanding of brand attributes for high level welfare brands were found to be vital....

  8. Torn Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Louis J.

    1975-01-01

    Colored construction paper was used to develop an interesting, creative experience for elementary and high school students, who learned to appreciate and to understand the torn paper innovation in art. Examples of this tearing technique are found in works by Picasso, Motherwell, Vincenti, and Matisse. (Author/RK)

  9. Ever Rising Expectations: the Determinants of Subjective Welfare in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Zigante

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this paper is the subjective welfare of the individual in the case of Croatia, a country that in the 1990s carried out a transformation from a socialist to a market-based economy while being at war as a result of the break-up of the former Yugoslavia.Subjective welfare is commonly found to be different from welfare as measured by objective criteria such as income. This difference is first explored by profiling poverty based on the two measures, and here the largest difference is found among those who are not objectively poor. Further the determinants of subjective welfare are analyzed in an ordered probit model broadly grouped as objective variables of personal or household circumstances, and measures of relative income, individual income compared with different reference groups. The results show that, apart from absolute income, which leaves large room for other explanations, relative income is the strongest determinant. This can be connected to the transition heritage of Croatia and is also in line with what has been found in other countries.

  10. Approaches to evaluation in Australian child and family welfare organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Alicia; Rose, David; Connolly, Marie

    2014-06-01

    Child and family welfare organizations around the world aspire to achieve missions that will improve outcomes for vulnerable children and families and ultimately reduce the prevalence and impact of child maltreatment. In Australia, this work is currently being influenced by an increasingly turbulent political and economic climate; one that is requiring organizations to engage with evaluation in new and advanced ways so that they are not left behind in the increasingly complex and competitive environment that they now operate in. Despite the apparent awareness and understanding of the essential place of evaluation in quality and effective service delivery, it is also understood that evaluation of the human services work that child and family welfare organizations undertake is extremely challenging due to its intricate, ever-changing and often innovative nature. Embedding evaluation within such organizations therefore requires a tailored and planned decision-making and implementation process. This paper will briefly describe the recent socio-political history and environment that Australian child and family welfare organizations operate in and how this has impacted on engagement with evaluation. With consideration to this, it will describe the evaluation approaches available to organizations and the factors that may influence selection of a specific approach. It will then explore the benefits and challenges of these evaluation approaches, and consider the implications for child and family welfare agencies more broadly. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Popular Support for Welfare State Reforms: On Welfare State Preferences and Welfare State Reforms in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Raven (Judith)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe aim of this research is to better understand what is meant by general support for the welfare state. At the start of this study, I observed an alleged discrepancy between people’s preferences and welfare state policies. Whereas on the one hand various studies demonstrate that public

  12. EFFECT OF AUDITORY ENRICHMENT (MUSIC) IN PREGNANT SOWS WELFARE

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Flávia R. S.; Miranda,Késia O. da S.; Piedade, Sônia M. S.; Salgado, Douglas D'Alessandro

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Studies have shown that the benefits from music can improve the welfare conditions of laboratory, pet and production animals. The study aimed to evaluate the influence of music (Antonio Lucio Vivaldi compositions) on behavior aspects (position, activity, stereotypes, social and agonistic behavior) and physiological responses (respiratory rate and rectal temperature) in gestating sows in individual cages (stage 1), and collective stalls (stage 2). 28 animals were studied, 14 belonged ...

  13. Ethics and animal welfare in organic animal husbandry

    OpenAIRE

    Lund, Vonne

    2002-01-01

    Farm animals make importance contributions to organic farming systems. This thesis deals with the value and aims of organic farming in relation to animal welfare concerns. The organic standards and other publications from the organic movement are analyzed to define basic values. These are related to ethical theory, and ecocentric ethics is suggested as an ethical position for organic farming. It is concluded that although the main concern is to develop sustainable and environmentally friendly...

  14. Multiscale modelling and simulation: a position paper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, A.; Chopard, B.; Coveney, P.

    2014-01-01

    We argue that, despite the fact that the field of multiscale modelling and simulation has enjoyed significant success within the past decade, it still holds many open questions that are deemed important but so far have barely been explored. We believe that this is at least in part due to the fact

  15. WFUMB Position Paper. Learning Gastrointestinal Ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atkinson, Nathan S S; Bryant, Robert V; Dong, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal ultrasound (GIUS) is an ultrasound application that has been practiced for more than 30 years. Recently, GIUS has enjoyed a resurgence of interest, and there is now strong evidence of its utility and accuracy as a diagnostic tool for multiple indications. The method of learning...... is proposed in the manuscript, based on established learning theory practice. We describe the broad utility of GIUS in clinical medicine, including a review of the literature and existing meta-analyses. Further, the manuscript calls for agreement on international standards regarding education, training...... GIUS is not standardised and may incorporate mentorship, didactic teaching and e-learning. Simulation, using either low- or high-fidelity models, can also play a key role in practicing and honing novice GIUS skills. A course for training as well as establishing and evaluating competency in GIUS...

  16. Koebner's phenomenon in vitiligo: European position paper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Geel, Nanja; Speeckaert, Reinhart; Taieb, Alain; Picardo, Mauro; Böhm, Markus; Gawkrodger, David J.; Schallreuter, Karin; Bennett, Dorothy C.; van der Veen, Wietze; Whitton, Maxine; Moretti, Silvia; Westerhof, Wiete; Ezzedine, Khaled; Gauthier, Yvon

    2011-01-01

    P>Koebner's phenomenon (KP) has been observed in a number of skin diseases, including vitiligo. Its clinical significance in vitiligo with respect to disease activity and course is still debatable, while its relevance for surgical techniques has been demonstrated in some reports. We present a

  17. Occupational hypersensitivity pneumonitis: an EAACI position paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirce, S; Vandenplas, O; Campo, P; Cruz, M J; de Blay, F; Koschel, D; Moscato, G; Pala, G; Raulf, M; Sastre, J; Siracusa, A; Tarlo, S M; Walusiak-Skorupa, J; Cormier, Y

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this document was to provide a critical review of the current knowledge on hypersensitivity pneumonitis caused by the occupational environment and to propose practical guidance for the diagnosis and management of this condition. Occupational hypersensitivity pneumonitis (OHP) is an immunologic lung disease resulting from lymphocytic and frequently granulomatous inflammation of the peripheral airways, alveoli, and surrounding interstitial tissue which develops as the result of a non-IgE-mediated allergic reaction to a variety of organic materials or low molecular weight agents that are present in the workplace. The offending agents can be classified into six broad categories that include bacteria, fungi, animal proteins, plant proteins, low molecular weight chemicals, and metals. The diagnosis of OHP requires a multidisciplinary approach and relies on a combination of diagnostic tests to ascertain the work relatedness of the disease. Both the clinical and the occupational history are keys to the diagnosis and often will lead to the initial suspicion. Diagnostic criteria adapted to OHP are proposed. The cornerstone of treatment is early removal from exposure to the eliciting antigen, although the disease may show an adverse outcome even after avoidance of exposure to the causal agent. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. The Relationship Between Mental Representations of Welfare Recipients and Attitudes Toward Welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown-Iannuzzi, Jazmin L; Dotsch, Ron; Cooley, Erin; Payne, B Keith

    2016-01-01

    Scholars have argued that opposition to welfare is, in part, driven by stereotypes of African Americans. This argument assumes that when individuals think about welfare, they spontaneously think about Black recipients. We investigated people's mental representations of welfare recipients. In Studies

  19. The relationship between mental representations of welfare recipients and attitudes toward welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown-Iannuzzi, J.L.; Dotsch, R.; Cooley, E.; Payne, B.K.

    2017-01-01

    Scholars have argued that opposition to welfare is, in part, driven by stereotypes of African Americans. This argument assumes that when individuals think about welfare, they spontaneously think about Black recipients. We investigated people's mental representations of welfare recipients. In Studies

  20. Child Welfare Workers: Who They Are and How They View the Child Welfare System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zell, Maristela C.

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the characteristics of child welfare caseworkers, their views of the child welfare system, their clients, their agency of employment, and child welfare policies, and whether these views vary according to caseworkers' characteristics. Quantitative and qualitative methods were used to analyze in-depth interviews conducted with…

  1. A history of animal welfare science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broom, Donald M

    2011-06-01

    Human attitudes to animals have changed as non-humans have become more widely incorporated in the category of moral agents who deserve some respect. Parallels between the functioning of humans and non-humans have been made for thousands of years but the idea that the animals that we keep can suffer has spread recently. An improved understanding of motivation, cognition and the complexity of social behaviour in animals has led in the last 30 years to the rapid development of animal welfare science. Early attempts to define welfare referred to individuals being in harmony with nature but the first usable definition incorporated feelings and health as part of attempts to cope with the environment. Others considered that welfare is only about feelings but it is argued that as feelings are mechanisms that have evolved they are a part of welfare rather than all of it. Most reviews of welfare now start with listing the needs of the animal, including needs to show certain behaviours. This approach has used sophisticated studies of what is important to animals and has replaced the earlier general guidelines described as freedoms. Many measures of welfare are now used and indicate how good or how poor the welfare is. Naturalness is not a part of the definition of welfare but explains why some needs exist. In recent years, welfare has become established as one of various criteria used to decide on whether a system is sustainable because members of the public will not accept systems that cause poor welfare. The study of welfare has become part of the scientific basis upon which important political decisions are made.

  2. Audio Papers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Sanne Krogh; Samson, Kristine

    2016-01-01

    of the written paper through its specific use of media, a sonic awareness of aesthetics and materiality, and creative approach towards communication. The audio paper is a performative format working together with an affective and elaborate understanding of language. It is an experiment embracing intellectual...... arguments and creative work, papers and performances, written scholarship and sonic aesthetics. For this special issue of Seismograf, the guidelines for authors and peer reviewers mainly focused on the format. Topic-wise we encouraged dealing with site-specificity and topics related to the island Amager...

  3. We Develop Welfare Together - Locally

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flindt, Helle; Carlsbæk, Poul Hornshøj

    Abstract – ATBH 8 Author/presenter information Poul Carlsbæk, POCA@phmetropol.dk, Denmark, Metropolitan University College Helle Flindt, hefl@phmetropol.dk , Denmark, Metropolitan University College Presentation title We Develop Welfare Together - Locally Description for the conference program...... years  Former Information Manager in municipalities and Senior Executive Consultant in a Danish consultant firm and in a IT-firm's innovative department  Volunteer in e.g. DJØF (association for layers and economists) and DN (society for nature conservation) Helle Flindt:  Occupational Therapist......, societies etc. to join the activities. Theese two examples of new demand rely on the frontline public employees. They have the closest contact with the citizens, which contain valuable knowledge, great innovation potential and have a sense of ownership in the implementing process. Through a 10 week...

  4. Welfare Reform and Children's Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltagi, Badi H; Yen, Yin-Fang

    2016-03-01

    This study investigates the effect of the Temporary Aid to Needy Families (TANF) program on children's health outcomes using data from the Survey of Income and Program Participation over the period 1994 to 2005. The TANF policies have been credited with increased employment for single mothers and a dramatic drop in welfare caseload. Our results show that these policies also had a significant effect on various measures of children's medical utilization among low-income families. These health measures include a rating of the child's health status reported by the parents, the number of times that parents consulted a doctor, and the number of nights that the child stayed in a hospital. We compare the overall changes of health status and medical utilization for children with working and nonworking mothers. We find that the child's health status as reported by the parents is affected by the maternal employment status. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Measuring the Welfare Losses from Urban Water Supply Disruptions

    OpenAIRE

    Steven Buck; Maximilian Auffhammer; Stephen Hamilton; David Sunding

    2015-01-01

    The paper evaluates welfare losses from urban water supply disruptions. The analysis incorporates important features of the water industry that may cause the initial allocation of water to be inefficient, namely that ther are a large number of retail-level water utilities, and that mosst water utilities engage in a form of average cost pricing where volumetric rates are used to finance fixed expenses. We consider a sample of 53 urban water utilities in California collectively providing servic...

  6. On the welfare impacts of an immigration amnesty

    OpenAIRE

    Joël MACHADO

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to assess the effects of an immigration amnesty on agents' welfare by using a simple two-period overlapping generations model. Given that illegal immigrants play a role in the economy even before being regularized, an amnesty differs from new immigration. In the presence of labor market discrimination, capital holders are harmed as the acquisition of legal status increases the wage bill that they pay. The net fiscal effect strongly depends on the discrimination that illegal wo...

  7. The Impacts of Climate Change Mitigation Strategies on Animal Welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Sara Shields; Geoffrey Orme-Evans

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary Climate change is probably the most important environmental issue of our time. Raising animals for food contributes to the production of greenhouse gases implicated in the global warming that is causing climate change. To combat this ecological disaster, a number of mitigation strategies involving changes to agricultural practices have been proposed. However, some of these changes will impact the welfare of farmed animals. This paper reviews selected climate change mitigation s...

  8. The Effect of Tax Havens on Host Country Welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas A. Gresik; Schindler, Dirk; Schjelderup, Guttorm

    2015-01-01

    Multinational corporations can shift income into low-tax countries through transfer pricing and debt financing. While most developed countries use thin capitalization rules to limit the extent to which a subsidiary can be financed with internal debt, a number of developing countries do not. In this paper, we analyze the effect on FDI and host country welfare of thin capitalization rules when multinationals can also shift income via transfer prices. We show that while permissive...

  9. The Effect of Tax Havens on Host Country Welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas A. Gresik; Schindler, Dirk; Schjelderup, Guttorm

    2015-01-01

    Multinational corporations can shift income into low-tax countries through transfer pricing and debt financing. While most developed countries use thin capitalization rules to limit the extent to which a subsidiary can be financed with internal debt, a number of developing countries do not. In this paper, we analyze the effect on FDI and host country welfare of thin capitalization rules when multinationals can also shift income via transfer prices. We show that while permissive thin capitaliz...

  10. On the Macroeconomic and Welfare Effects of Illegal Immigration

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Xiangbo

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the macroeconomic and welfare effects of illegal immigration on the native born within a dynamic general equilibrium framework with labor market frictions. A key feature of the model is that job competition is allowed for between domestic workers and illegal immigrants. We calibrate the model to match some key statistics of the postwar U.S. economy. The model predicts that in the long run illegal immigration is a boon, but the employment opportunities of domestic worke...

  11. Animal welfare and eggs - cheap talk or money on the counter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Laura Mørch

    2011-01-01

    Our estimate revealed willingness to pay for animal welfare using a panel mixed logit model. We utilise a unique household level panel, combining real purchases with survey data on perceived public and private good attributes of different types of eggs. We estimate willingness to pay for organic...... eggs controlling for trust in a positive connection between the public good animal welfare and the organic label and the private good food safety also connected to the label. Our results suggest that in the real world, animal welfare plays a minor role in the demand for agricultural products....

  12. THE TRIUMPH OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT: CONTESTING CORPORATE MOTHERHOOD AND THE CORPORATE WELFARE SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikki Mandell

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Turn-of-the-century advocates of corporate welfare work promoted a familial model of labor relations which opened the doors of labor management to women. Scientific management experts argued instead for personnel management based on a consumer marketplace model. Scientific managers gained the upper hand during World War I. Their success depended, in part, on defining women as unfit for executive positions in labor relations, thereby closing the doors of labor management to women. This regendering masked an equally significant abandonment of the welfare system’s contention that companies bore an inherent responsibility for the general welfare of their workers.

  13. Bioethical Problems: Animal Welfare, Animal Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    March, B. E.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses various bioethical issues and problems related to animal welfare and animal rights. Areas examined include: Aristotelian views; animal welfare legislation; Darwin and evolutionary theory; animal and human behavior; and vegetarianism. A 14-point universal declaration of the rights of animals is included. (JN)

  14. Radical Welfare State Retrenchment: A Comparative Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starke, Peter

    In this study, Peter Starke confronts one of the most fiercely contested issues in current political debates: how is the retrenchment of the welfare state possible when popular support for it remains strong throughout the OECD world? Traditionally, challenges to the welfare state were seen as ele...

  15. The Climate of Child Welfare Employee Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahalane, Helen; Sites, Edward W.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes differences in perceptions of the child welfare work environment among Title IV-E educated individuals who remain within public child welfare and those who sought employment elsewhere after fulfilling a legal work commitment. Job satisfaction, emotional exhaustion, and personal accomplishment were predictive of staying…

  16. Flexible Employment, Risk and the Welfare State

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.P.S. Dekker (Fabian)

    2011-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ In most developed countries, the welfare state provides some form of protection for its citizens. The provision of social arrangements differs substantially between countries but, on the basis of institutional characteristics such as the level of spending on welfare

  17. Behavioural indicators of welfare in farmed fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martins, C.I.; Galhardo, L.; Noble, C.; Damsgard, B.; Spedicato, M.T.; Zupa, W.; Beauchaud, M.; Kulczykowska, E.; Massabuau, J.C.; Carter, T.; Planellas, S.R.; Kristiansen, T.

    2012-01-01

    Behaviour represents a reaction to the environment as fish perceive it and is therefore a key element of fish welfare. This review summarises the main findings on how behavioural changes have been used to assess welfare in farmed fish, using both functional and feeling-based approaches. Changes in

  18. Rights, solidarity and the animal welfare state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harfeld, Jes

    2016-01-01

    This article argues that aspects of the animal rights view can be constructively modulated through a communitarian approach and come to promote animal welfare through the social contexts of expanded caring communities. The Nordic welfare state is presented as a conceivable caring community within...... which animals could be viewed and treated appropriately as co-citizens with solidarity based rights and duties....

  19. Nash Social Welfare in Multiagent Resource Allocation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Ramezani (Sara); U. Endriss; E. David; E.H. Gerding (Enrico); D. Sarne; O. Shehory (Onn)

    2010-01-01

    htmlabstractWe study different aspects of the multiagent resource allocation problem when the objective is to find an allocation that maximizes Nash social welfare, the product of the utilities of the individual agents. The Nash solution is an important welfare criterion that combines efficiency and

  20. Child Welfare Worker Caseload: What's Just Right?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamatani, Hide; Engel, Rafael; Spjeldnes, Solveig

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to establish a caseload standard for child welfare workers. Understanding reasonable workload expectations for child welfare workers is a cornerstone of quality service provision and the recruitment and retention of qualified workers. Because of the analytic complexity of this question, qualitative and quantitative methods…