WorldWideScience

Sample records for welfare equipment rehabilitation

  1. Achievement report for fiscal 1999 on research and development of technologies for medical welfare equipment. Home rehabilitation system for aphasia patients; 1999 nendo iryo fukushi kiki gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Shitsugosho zaitaku rehabilitation shien system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-05-01

    Element technologies under development involve (1) an authoring system for assistance program processing, (2) self-training system for supporting home rehabilitation, (3) human interface for aphasia patients and caregivers, (4) remote rehabilitation evaluation and diagnosis supporting system, and (5) a communication assisting system. Under item (1), a material incorporating interface, training contents layout and combination function, and general-purpose interface specifications are determined, and a one-piece system is designed and developed. Under item (2), a self-training player that behaves in compliance with the authoring specifications is designed and developed. Under item (3), a secondary unit is fabricated on the assumption of its use at an actual treatment scene. Under item (4), remotely controlled two-way face-to-face communication, camera control, shared operation of a training player, training scenario transfer component, etc., are developed and, furthermore, a one-piece system is designed and developed to support the therapist's rehabilitation assessment and diagnosis in coordination with the above-mentioned remotely controlled functions. Under item (5), a network communication component and an auxiliary function using voice synthesis are added for designing and developing a one-piece system that enables long-distance communication between the therapist and patients. (NEDO)

  2. Fiscal 1998 survey report. Welfare equipment (Development of human friendly care support intelligent equipment / Development of home welfare equipment system); 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho. Fukushi kiki (human friendly kaigo shien chino kiki kaihatsu / zaitaku fukushi kiki system kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Since disabled persons increase with a progress of an aging society, while a care power decreases with a decrease in birth rate, development and practical use of the welfare equipment contributing to self-support of aged and handicapped persons, reduction of doctors' or therapists' burdens, and as a result, reduction of medical care costs are desirable. Among them, R and D and practical use are expected of the advanced welfare equipment and system based on human engineering technology contributing to improvement of lives of aged and handicapped persons, and support of nurses and cares of disabled persons. In fiscal 1998, on both human friendly care support intelligent equipment and home welfare equipment system, this project clarified essential technical issues based on the future view, selected some themes to be newly developed in the future, and surveyed and evaluated the details of their R and D concretely. For the former, 'heart disease diagnosis and treatment total support system,' and for the latter, 'body function rehabilitation support system' were surveyed. (NEDO)

  3. Pneumatic Muscle Actuated Rehabilitation Equipment of the Upper Limb Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deaconescu dr. eng. habil., Andrea, Prof.

    2017-06-01

    Rehabilitation equipment of the upper limb joints holds a key role in passive physical therapy. Within this framework, the paper presents two such pieces of equipment developed for the rehabilitation of elbow and of wrist and knuckles, respectively. The presented and discussed equipment is actuated by pneumatic muscles, its benefits being a low cost, simple and robust construction, as well as short response time to commands.

  4. Comparison between two models of elbow rehabilitation equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vetrice Georgiana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available International studies have revealed that using continuous passive motion (CPM equipment as part of a rehabilitation program improves the recovery period and also diminishes the rehabilitation costs by about 50%. This explains the need for conceiving elbow joint rehabilitation equipment to help persons suffering from posttraumatic disabilities. In order to create the best model to meet the patients’ requirements this paper presents two constructive solutions of such equipment and a comparison between their designs. Both achieve the desired movements of the elbow joint: flexion-extension and pronation-supination and are actuated by pneumatic muscles, due to the multiple advantages of pneumatic actuation: low cost, compliance and favorable response to commands.

  5. Welfare based primate rehabilitation as a potential conservation strategy: does it measure up?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guy, Amanda J; Curnoe, Darren; Banks, Peter B

    2014-01-01

    Many primate species are threatened with extinction and are the focus of extensive conservation efforts including re-introduction, captive breeding and habitat conservation. Welfare-based rehabilitation (hereafter also 'rehabilitation') is a management strategy commonly used for primates, particularly those species targeted by the pet and bush meat trades. Rehabilitation of rescued primates typically has the dual motivation of welfare and conservation, but has not been assessed as a conservation strategy. As the species involved in rehabilitation are often endangered (e.g. chimpanzees, gorillas, orang-utans), it is important for rehabilitation projects to follow a 'best practice' model in order to increase positive outcomes. In this study, we compared the approaches of 28 welfare-based primate rehabilitation projects to the 'IUCN guidelines for nonhuman primate re-introductions', in addition to components of the 'Best practice guidelines for the re-introduction of great apes' in order to assess where additional work might be needed for released animals to contribute to conservation outcomes. Few projects examined complied with the guidelines for re-introduction, failing to incorporate important factors such as quarantine, long term post-release monitoring and training for predator awareness. Further development of species-specific rehabilitation guidelines may improve the outcomes of future rehabilitation projects. To support this, we recommend that detailed methods and results be published for all rehabilitation efforts, regardless of the outcome.

  6. Elbow joint rehabilitation equipment actuated by pneumatic muscles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vetrice Georgiana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The mobility of the limbs is an essential prerequisite for the individual’s physical autonomy. For persons suffering from post-traumatic affections of the elbow joint such limited mobility results in barriers in fulfilling personal or professional tasks. Passive motion has certain specific advantages and beneficial effects, thus being highly recommended for the recovery of injured joints. The paper presents a model of rehabilitation equipment that induces continuous passive motion of the elbow, as part of a recovery programme. The equipment is actuated by pneumatic muscles, using compressed air as the source of energy that generates force and motion. The main benefits of the pneumatic actuation system compared to other driving systems are its low cost, simple and robust construction and swift response to commands. Its constructive simplicity and reduced cost adds to the system’s eligibility for deployment in medical units.

  7. Investigational research on welfare equipment needs/seeds adaptation; Fukushi kiki needs seeds tekigo chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    At the advent of the aging society, investigated are images of welfare equipment to be developed. In the range where the use of welfare equipment is to be studied, the following are included: self care, excretion, transfer, and support of work other than care, as assistance to daily life; exercise function, communication function, and environment arrangement, as assistance to social participation. Of the images of the welfare equipment classified by the overall evaluation, the following are cited as what supports daily life: a lift usable even in the existing houses, a bump remover by which bumps in the house are removed without making large repairs, a urine collector for females, a training device to prevent urinary incontinence, reduction in the bed-fast elderly, a device to prevent bedsore, a system for safely watching demented old people, a system in which clothes are automatically washed, dried, and hanged on a hanger, etc. What supports social participation are a system for sports experience by virtual reality, sound user interface, etc. For the aged to be healthy physically and mentally, it is essential to be taken good care of and create things to live for by participating the society. For this, it is necessary that the government establish the public policies and that a people be conscious of welfare. 9 figs., 33 tabs.

  8. Low back pain among workers in care facilities for the elderly after introducing welfare equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwakiri, Kazuyuki; Takahashi, Masaya; Sotoyama, Midori; Liu, Xinxin; Koda, Shigeki

    2016-07-29

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the causes of low back pain among workers in care facilities for the elderly after the introduction of welfare equipment. We conducted anonymous questionnaire surveys among administrators and care workers in eight elderly care facilities. The questionnaires were designed to investigate the status of both the care workers and facility. In reference to the care facility, the questionnaires were comprised items for investigating basic information, occupational safety, and health activities. For care workers, in addition to basic information, occupational safety, and health activities, the questionnaires also comprised items for investigating resident transfer and bathing methods, low back pain, and occupational stress. Completed questionnaires were returned by eight care facility administrators (response rate: 100%) and 373 care workers (response rate: 92.3%), among which 367 were used for analyses. Many care workers participated in a variety of occupational safety and health activities that were conducted in the facilities. Various types of welfare equipment were introduced into the care facilities and subsequently used by many care workers during resident transfer and bathing. As a result, 89.9% of the care workers reported having only slight or no low back pain. The remaining 10.1% reported having serious low back pain that interfered with their work. On the basis of logistic regression analysis, low back pain was associated with the following variables: failure to provide the appropriate method of care to each resident, failure of colleagues to discuss methods for improving care, lack of instructions regarding the use of welfare equipment, and inappropriate job rotation. An association was also found between low back pain and poor posture, poor resident-lifting technique, insufficient time to complete work, and a shortage of workers to assist with resident transfer or bathing. Although care workers received instructions on

  9. Meeting needs for rehabilitation equipment and home adjustments among the disabled in their life environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Kołłątaj

    2015-09-01

    Both the provision of orthopaedic equipment and adjustment of the home to disability are insufficient with respect to the needs. The meeting of these needs is significantly conditioned by high or very high material standard. The lack or incomplete satisfaction with the needs for rehabilitation equipment is associated with a relatively younger age, independent, single residence and low material standard. Living in an residential home means better adjustment of the living environment, and better provision with orthopaedic and rehabilitation equipment.

  10. Meeting needs for rehabilitation equipment and home adjustments among the disabled in their life environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kołłątaj, Barbara; Gorczyca, Rafał; Kołłątaj, Witold; Jędrych, Marian; Sobieszczańska, Anna; Sobieszczański, Jarosław; Karwat, Irena Dorota

    2015-01-01

    The elimination of functional barriers resulting from disability through the provision of adequate orthopaedic and rehabilitation equipment, and homes adjusted for disability is the precondition for an efficient and independent functioning, and high quality of life of the disabled. The objective of the study was recognition of the needs of the disabled declared by them, and the degree of satisfaction with these needs. The study covered 478 disabled from the Lublin Region. The research instrument was the 'Questionnaire for the Disabled' designed by the authors. Considering the needs expressed by the respondents concerning the provision of orthopaedic and rehabilitation equipment and meeting these needs, four groups were distinguished: No Needs - 30.1%, Needs Partially Met - 22.4%, Needs Fully Met - 37.7%, Needs Not Met - 9.8%. The group Needs Not Met was characterized by younger age, in the group Needs Partially Met worse indicators of the state of health were noted, more frequent independent living, loneliness and low material standard. Considering the expressed needs for home adjustments adequate to disability and meeting these needs, three groups were distinguished: No Needs - 59.6%, Needs Not Met - 15.9%, and Needs Met - 24.7%. The group Needs Not Met more rarely covered respondents living in residential homes, compared to those living independently in rural or urban areas. The group Needs Met more rarely included rural inhabitants, while more frequently including the disabled who had a high material standard. Both the provision of orthopaedic equipment and adjustment of the home to disability are insufficient with respect to the needs. The meeting of these needs is significantly conditioned by high or very high material standard. The lack or incomplete satisfaction with the needs for rehabilitation equipment is associated with a relatively younger age, independent, single residence and low material standard. Living in an residential home means better adjustment

  11. Italy-Japan international project-based learning for developing human resources using design of welfare equipment as a subject.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanafusa, A; Komeda, T; Ito, K; Zobel, P Beomonte

    2015-08-01

    Project-based learning (PBL) is effective for developing human resources of young students. The design of welfare equipment, such as wheelchairs and gait assistive devices, is taken as the subject in this study because these devices must be fit to their environment, users, and method of use; students must consider the circumstances of each country concerned. The program commenced in 2012 at L'Aquila, Italy, and the Shibaura Institute of Technology, Japan and has been continuing for three years. Students were divided into four groups and discussions were held on how to adapt the equipment to the user and environment. After discussion, they designed and simulated a model of the equipment using CAD. Finally, they presented their designs to each other. Through the program, students had fruitful discussions, exchanged ideas from different cultures, and learned from each other. Furthermore, friendships among the students were nurtured. It is believed that the objective of the program was satisfactorily accomplished.

  12. Effect of Charity Rehabilitation Centers on the Welfare of Mentally Disabled Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayda Hosseinkhani

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the problems with which mentally challenged children and adolescents are faced in the healthcare systems of the world is that the importance of their problems have often been neglected by decision-makers.1 The problem looks more severe when we investigate health care services to mentally disable children. Generally, a child’s health problem creates an economic burden for families but caring for a child with mental problems affects financial situation of families more as compared to caring for a child with other disorders.2 The available economic resources to provide high quality services for the mentally challenged children are limited. In many countries, mental disorders are a source of fear by people and it might even lead to rejection of the mentally challenged by the community.3 There are many shortcomings in the welfare of children with mental health problems. One of the ways to overcome these shortcomings is involvement of non-governmental organizations(NGOs.3 In many countries, NGOs are in charge of health services in particular areas or among specific populations.4 Their significant part in global health diplomacy shows the emergence of this field.5 The involvement of grassroots communities help is of utmost importance in providing care for the mentally disabled.3 The role of privately funded sectors in providing an alternative to public sector services should be considered as a possible solution for limited resources. There are 10,000 registered NGOs in healthcare fields of activities in Iran.6 The citizens of Fars province have donated approximately thirty eight billion Tomans (Iranian currency, to the health care centers across the province from 2002 to 2005. There are 2 known charity centers in Iran for mentally disabled children, i.e. Shiraz Narjes in Shiraz and Kahrizak in Tehran.3 Although the health care expenditures have been increased rapidly over the past few years in Iran,7 these NGOs continue to provide their

  13. The relationship between emotional intelligence and resilience in students at university of social welfare science and rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of the present study was to examine relationship between emotional intelligence and resilience in students at university of social welfare science and rehabilitation. Method:100 students resident in bedroom participated in this correlational study. Modified Schutte Emotional Intelligence Scale (MSEIS and Coonor-Davidson Resilience Scale(CDRIS were applied to assess variables. Data were analyzed by Pearson correlation and multiple regressions. Finding: This study revealed significant associations among emotional intelligence factors and resilience(p<0/01. Results of multiple regression showed that the emotional intelligence factors can Predict respectively 41% of the resilience variance (p<0/0001. Conclusion: The more the emotional intelligence are higher and favorable, the more probability that students becomes resilient in the face of adversity.

  14. [Combined outpatient alcoholism therapy and occupational rehabilitation on welfare recipients--results of a pilot study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horak, M; Morhart-Klute, V; Nowak, A; Rüster, P; De Christos, S; Pechmann, L; Braunisch, N; Bauder, A; Gebler, M; Löhnert, B; Soyka, M

    2002-08-01

    This study tested the feasibility of outpatient abstinence treatment among alcohol dependent subjects on welfare. Patients had a long history of alcohol dependence and prolonged unemployment. Over a period of six months a total of 250 patients were approached by the social welfare office and asked to participate in the program. The program involved detoxification and a three month combined alcohol treatment and personal job training. Of the 250 persons approached 96 patients (about 40 %) appeared for the initial examination, 19 patients (13 %) finished detoxification and a total of 5 patients completed the program. The majority of a group of patients considered to be highly therapy resistant did not complete the program. Still it was important to demonstrate that a subgroup of patients did successfully complete this program. We consider this pilot project a successful starting point for further development of treatment approaches targeted more specifically at this group of patients.

  15. Evaluating the Impact of Infrastructure Rehabilitation Projects on Household Welfare in Rural Georgia

    OpenAIRE

    Lokshin , Michael; Yemtsov, Ruslan

    2003-01-01

    The authors evaluate the effect of various community level infrastructure rehabilitation projects undertaken in rural Georgia on household well-being. Their analysis is based on combining household and community level survey data. The authors' empirical approach uses the panel structure of the data to control for time-invariant un-observables at the community level by applying propensity-s...

  16. Reduction of Life Cycle CO2 Emission in Public Welfare Facilities Equipped with PV/Solar Heat/Cogeneration System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oke, Shinichiro; Kemmoku, Yoshishige; Takikawa, Hirofumi; Sakakibara, Tateki

    The reduction effect of life cycle CO2 emission is examined in case of introducing a PV/solar heat/cogeneration system into public welfare facilities(hotel and hospital). Life cycle CO2 emission is calculated as the sum of that when operating and that when manufacturing equipments. The system is operated with the dynamic programming method, into which hourly data of electric and heat loads, solar insolation, and atmospheric temperature during a year are input. The proposed system is compared with a conventional system and a cogeneration system. The life cycle CO2 emission of the PV/solar heat/cogeneration system is lower than that of the conventional system by 20% in hotel and by 14% in hospital.

  17. Fiscal 1997 research report on the survey on public test and evaluation organizations for development of welfare equipment; 1997 nendo fukushi kiki kaihatsu ni kakawaru koteki shiken hyoka kikan chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    This research studies the construction policy of public test and evaluation systems for future development and practical use of welfare equipment, through survey on the current methods for development, practical test and evaluation of welfare equipment in countries advanced in welfare, and preparation of basic data for promoting establishment of public test and evaluation functions in Japan. Infrastructure preparation for standards and public test and evaluation organizations for developing welfare equipment is being promoted by Technical Laboratory of Bicycle Industry Promotion Association and some national organizations such as Product Evaluation Technical Center, Mechanical Engineering Laboratory, National Institute of Bioscience and Human Technology, and Living and JIS Center. However, preparation of objective and across test and evaluation systems for developing welfare equipment is still insufficient. Product Evaluation Technical Center is now approaching to evaluation and standardization of welfare equipment. Public test and evaluation organizations of the UK, Sweden and Denmark are presented. (NEDO)

  18. Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... doing things you did before. This process is rehabilitation. Rehabilitation often focuses on Physical therapy to help your ... who has had a stroke may simply want rehabilitation to be able to dress or bathe without ...

  19. Report for fiscal 1998 on the international joint research project of medical welfare equipment; Iryo fukushi kiki kokusai kyodo kenkyu jigyo 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    In connection with the international joint research project of medical welfare, a report was made on the results of the investigation conducted in 1998 concerning the technology of overseas medical welfare equipment. In the investigation of china, observation was made on the actual state of the representative medial institutions, with opinions exchanged. Obsolete equipment and old technology are the present state in China, which is strongly desirous of exchanging information with Japan. In Taiwan, being full of venture spirit, an ultrasonic thermal treatment apparatus and an ultrasonic echo device have been produced for example. In Europe, an observation tour was conducted on a German manipulator and process robot while an investigative visit and exchange of opinions were made on the living environment and facilities in Italian training center for physically handicapped persons. Japan's self-supporting and assisting system for excretion attracted many questions and comments. In the investigation in the U.S., views were exchanged concerning '{sup 13}C-MRS device for non-invasion brain metabolic measurement' in research institutions such as universities. A machine developed in Japan received a high evaluation in that {sup 13}C spectrum was obtained from a substantial depth. (NEDO)

  20. Rehabilitering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hørdam, Britta

    2008-01-01

    En interviewundersøgelse af patienter, der får gennemført hofteoperation, en opgørelse af deres selvvurdere helbredsstatus med henblik på at tilrettelægge rehabilitering baseret på patienternes egne præmisser.......En interviewundersøgelse af patienter, der får gennemført hofteoperation, en opgørelse af deres selvvurdere helbredsstatus med henblik på at tilrettelægge rehabilitering baseret på patienternes egne præmisser....

  1. Fiscal 1997 survey report. Survey consigned to NEDO of the development of energy use rationalization home welfare equipment systems; 1997 nendo energy shiyo gorika zaitaku fukushi kiki system kaihatsu chosa. Itaku kenkyu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    For the purpose of constructing new home welfare equipment systems of an energy effective use type, an investigational analysis was conducted of characteristics of the structure of houses considered of aged people, characteristics of the use of home welfare equipment, etc. As to the subject on space warming/cooling, it was found that the hour of stay-at-home of the aged tends to be longer, and the hour to be required for warming/cooling is longer, that the aged gradually lose senses regarding the peripheral environmental temperature, and the temperature to be considered should be at warmer/cooler levels, and that they are weak in heat shock, and the space of house where the temperature is uneven should be removed. Further, from the study in each welfare techno-house, possibilities were pointed out of further energy conservation in houses considered of the aged and home welfare equipment systems like the weight reduction of home welfare equipment systems and reduction of stand-by power, high air-tightness/high thermal insulation of houses for the aged, use of waste heat from air conditioners, introduction of solar energy to stand-by power and electrically-driven wheel chairs. 257 figs., 89 tabs.

  2. Real-life feasibility and effectiveness of home-based pulmonary rehabilitation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease requiring medical equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coquart JB

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Jérémy B Coquart,1 Olivier Le Rouzic,2 Ghazi Racil,3 Benoit Wallaert,2 Jean-Marie Grosbois4 1CETAPS, EA 3832, UFR STAPS, University of Rouen, Normandie-Univ, Mont Saint Aignan, France; 2Department of Respiratory Diseases, University of Lille, CHRU Lille, Lille, France; 3Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, El Manar University, Tunis, Tunisia; 4FormAction Santé, Pérenchies, France Background: Pulmonary rehabilitation (PR is a key treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD but studies are still needed to identify the most pertinent criteria to personalize this intervention and improve its efficacy.Objective: This real-life retrospective study compared the effects of home-based PR on exercise tolerance, anxiety, depression, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL in COPD patients, according to their medical equipment.Methods: Exercise tolerance, anxiety, depression, and HRQoL were evaluated in 109 patients equipped with long-term oxygen therapy (LTOT, 84 patients with noninvasive ventilation (NIV, 25 patients with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP, and 80 patients with no equipment (NE, before, just after, and 6 and 12 months after PR.Results: At baseline, the body mass index in the CPAP and NIV groups was higher (p<0.05 than in the other two groups, and the forced expiratory volume in 1 second was lower in the LTOT and NIV groups (p<0.001. All parameters improved after PR in the four groups (p<0.05, but for exercise tolerance, only the 6-minute stepper test showed maintained improvement after 6 and 12 months, whereas the 10 times sit-to-stand and timed up-and-go tests were only improved just after PR. At every time point, exercise tolerance was lower in the LTOT group (p<0.05, with a similar trend in the NIV group.Conclusion: Despite differences in the medical equipment to treat COPD, home-based PR showed comparable feasibility, safety, and efficacy in all equipment-based groups. Medical equipment should

  3. Rehabilitering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caswell, Dorte; Høybye-Mortensen, Matilde; Dall, Tanja

    2013-01-01

    Rehabilitering som både begreb og indsats har været genstand for stigende fokus i de seneste år, på både politisk, organisatorisk og praksis-niveau. Fra januar 2013 træder en større reform af førtidspension og fleksjob i kraft, og med reformen etableres ’rehabilitering’ som både mål og middel i...

  4. Comparison of equipment prescriptions in the toilet/bathroom by occupational therapists using home visits and digital photos, for patients in rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Sharon; Barr, Christopher J; George, Stacey

    2015-04-01

    Home visits, used by occupational therapists to facilitate independence and enhance safety, are effective but costly and time consuming. This research aims to establish the level of agreement in equipment prescribed by occupational therapists using: digital photographs only, and using home visits and digital photographs, respectively. Quasi-experimental methodological design conducted in private dwellings in the community in Adelaide with rehabilitation patients and their family members. The equipment recommended by occupational therapists for the toilet and bathroom using similar methods (both digital photographs from previous data; n = 5) was compared with equipment recommended using different methods (conventional home visits vs. digital photographs; n = 14). Percent agreement for equipment prescribed between groups, that is digital only and home visit/photography, respectively, were: 72.5/83.9% for toilet; 87.4/88.3% for bathroom and 83/87% for toilet and bathroom. Variability of agreement in the equipment prescribed showed that some items of equipment were incongruently prescribed, by both methods for toilet and bathroom areas. Using digital photographs taken by family members, patient information, and an equipment list is a reliable method of making accurate equipment prescriptions in the toilet and bathroom areas. To enhance accuracy, in-depth patient information via face-to-face interview and measurements of physical environment should be included. © 2014 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  5. Welfare migration

    OpenAIRE

    Giulietti, Corrado; Wahba, Jackline

    2012-01-01

    This chapter reviews and discusses major theories and empirical studies about the welfare magnet hypothesis, i.e. whether immigrants are more likely to move to countries with generous welfare systems. Although economic theory predicts that welfare generosity affects the number, composition and location of immigrants, the empirical evidence is rather mixed. We offer possible explanations for the existence of such mixed evidence and highlight that the literature so far has overlooked the presen...

  6. Self-Reported Work Ability Predicts Rehabilitation Measures, Disability Pensions, Other Welfare Benefits, and Work Participation: Longitudinal Findings from a Sample of German Employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bethge, Matthias; Spanier, Katja; Peters, Elke; Michel, Elliot; Radoschewski, Michael

    2017-09-27

    Purpose The study examined the performance of the Work Ability Index in predicting rehabilitation measures and disability pensions, sickness absence and unemployment benefits, and work participation among a sample of workers previously receiving sickness absence benefits. Methods Workers aged 40 to 54 years who received sickness absence benefits in 2012 completed the Work Ability Index in 2013. Outcomes were extracted from administrative data records. Results Data for 2149 participants were included (mean age: 47.8 years; 54.4% women). Mean follow-up was 19 months. Work Ability Index scores were poor (7-27 points) in 21% of the participants, and moderate (28-36 points) in 38.4%. In all, 224 rehabilitation measures and 35 disability pensions were approved. Fully adjusted analyses showed increased risk of rehabilitation measures in workers with poor (HR 4.55; 95% CI 3.14-6.60) and moderate scores (HR 2.08; 95% CI 1.43-3.01) compared to workers with good or excellent scores (37-49 points). The risk of a disability pension increased significantly for workers with poor scores (HR 7.78; 95% CI 2.59-23.35). In addition, poor scores were prospectively associated with a longer duration of sickness absence and employment benefits, and fewer employment days and less income from regular employment. Conclusions The Work Ability Index is a potential tool for following up workers who already have an increased risk of permanent work disability due to previous long-term sickness absence.

  7. 45 CFR 2543.34 - Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equipment. 2543.34 Section 2543.34 Public Welfare... Requirements Property Standards § 2543.34 Equipment. (a) Title to equipment acquired by a recipient with... not use equipment acquired with Federal funds to provide services to non-Federal outside organizations...

  8. 45 CFR 74.34 - Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equipment. 74.34 Section 74.34 Public Welfare... COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 74.34 Equipment. (a) Title to equipment... section. (b)(1) The recipient shall not use equipment acquired with HHS funds to provide services to non...

  9. Fiscal 2000 achievement report on the research and development of medical and welfare apparatus/technology. Home rehabilitation system for aphasia patients; 2000 nendo iryo fukushi kiki gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Shitsugosho zaitaku rehabilitation shien system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-05-01

    In the effort to develop an authoring system for assistance programs, a self-training system to enhance home rehabilitation, a remote rehabilitation evaluation/diagnosis supporting system, and a communication assisting system, the systems developed in the preceding fiscal years were customized and, together with their operation manuals, introduced to seven hospitals and subjected to evaluation. The results were analyzed, and improvement centering on the ease of operation was carried out. Various development efforts were exerted to improve on what were strongly demanded. As for the aphasiac/caregiver interface, it was distributed to every hospital concerned. There was a demand for immediate introduction, and then the interface was developed into a practical tool to satisfy the demand. This enabled aphasiac patients to receive training stimuli effectively through various sense organs. (NEDO)

  10. 45 CFR 92.32 - Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equipment. 92.32 Section 92.32 Public Welfare..., Property, and Subawards § 92.32 Equipment. (a) Title. Subject to the obligations and conditions set forth in this section, title to equipment acquired under a grant or subgrant will vest upon acquisition in...

  11. 45 CFR 602.32 - Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equipment. 602.32 Section 602.32 Public Welfare....32 Equipment. (a) Title. Subject to the obligations and conditions set forth in this section, title to equipment acquired under a grant or subgrant will vest upon acquisition in the grantee or...

  12. Rehabilitation Robot RRH1

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kaczmarski, Marcin; Granosik, Grzegorz

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents a prototype of a rehabilitation robot for lower extremities. It is created on the basis of cylindrical kinematic model, equipped with two rigid arms, special handles and fixtures...

  13. 45 CFR 1183.32 - Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equipment. 1183.32 Section 1183.32 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES..., a serial number or other identification number, the source of property, who holds title, the...

  14. 45 CFR 1174.32 - Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equipment. 1174.32 Section 1174.32 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES NATIONAL... requirements: (1) Property records must be maintained that include a description of the property, a serial...

  15. State Welfarism and Social Welfare in Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr Indra P TIWARI

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper has analyzed and discussed the social welfare policies of the Asian countries—the responsibilities of international activist institutions and the State towards individuals in terms of state welfarism and social and economic protection, and the conventional family system, which was and still is the core responsible institution for the well-being of its members. The paper has presented economic and poverty indicators (19, demographic, social and economic indicators associated social welfarism (16, satisfaction related indicators (7, and funding related indicators that have association with social welfarism (9. This has also analyzed and discussed the gap between the international propaganda on social welfare, social policies of the Government and its actual delivery and the situation of vacuum being created due to the moribund family system of slothful state welfarism, in the new living context created by the notion of right-prone individualism. The study has identified along with their history of starting social security provisions the present state major workfare and welfare and welfare protection in the Asian countries, thereby explored countries falling into five levels of social welfare system by taking a combined state of poverty, vulnerable employment, and government expenditure on education, health and social protection, namely (i early stage of welfare system; (ii transition to take-off stage of welfare system; (iii take-off stage of welfare system; (iv transition to drive to maturity stage of welfare system; and (v the drive to maturity stage of welfare system. Finally, the paper has presented the critical areas for dialogue where the synergy of the propagandist international activism, state slothfulness, moribund family dynamics, and right-prone individualism interface for a reliable and sustainable social welfare with affection, protection, nurturance, and protection thereby live in peace and harmony with dignity.

  16. Pathways to sex workers\\' social rehabilitation and assessment of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... various rehabilitation options showed that faith-based rehabilitation milieu and approach was the most effective place of rehabilitation. However, the study argues for a fusion of the faith-based and social welfare approaches for the most effective outcome. Keywords: Sex workers, Pathways, Social rehabilitation, Nigeria

  17. 44 CFR 208.43 - Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rehabilitation. 208.43... Agreements § 208.43 Rehabilitation. DHS will reimburse costs incurred to return System equipment and... Activation. (3) Personnel costs associated with equipment cache rehabilitation. DHS will reimburse costs...

  18. Paralysis: Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Forum About Us Donate Living with Paralysis > Rehabilitation Rehabilitation Rehabilitation and exercise are key to enhancing your health and quality of life. Find a rehabilitation center near you and become familiar with different ...

  19. Balance and steadiness correction of the upright posture of patients having withstood an ischemic stroke with the help of stabilographic rehabilitation training equipment with biofeedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bredikhina Y. P.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The brain ischemic mortality rate in Russia occupies the third position. As a result, a recovery period after an ischemic stroke could undermine social and economic well-being of patients and their close relatives. One of the major consequences of a stroke includes the firm-motor defects. Their degree can be reduced with the help of rehabilitation measures intended to revive the motor function of paralyzed limbs and to train a patient to remain firm upright. A stabilographic rehabilitation training apparatus with biofeedback represents one of the variants of the posture training. This training in a playful way helps a patient to improve the balance and firmness indices of the upright position. This rehabilitation method improved considerably the patients’ clinical and stabilographic indices of the balance and firmness function in comparison with the patients whose programmes did not include this method. A patient could sense better that he/she was standing on the both lower limbs. The sensitivity in the lower limbs was intensifying or reviving. According to the additional stabilographic control tests, the total scatter of the pressure centre and the scatter in the sagittal plane, the rate of the pressure centre movement were decreasing; Romberg coefficient became normal.

  20. Vaccines and animal welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, D B

    2007-04-01

    Vaccination promotes animal welfare by protecting animal health, but it also has other welfare benefits, e.g. recent investigations have looked at the potential of vaccines in immunoneutering such as immunocastration--a humane alternative to the painful traditional methods. Similarly, vaccination can be used during disease outbreaks as a viable alternative to stamping-out, thus avoiding the welfare problems that on-farm mass slaughter can cause. Protecting animal health through vaccination leads to improved animal welfare, and maintaining good welfare ensures that animals can respond successfully to vaccination (as poor welfare can lead to immunosuppression, which can affect the response to vaccination). It is clear that vaccination has tremendous advantages for animal welfare and although the possible side effects of vaccination can have a negative effect on the welfare of some individual animals, the harm caused by these unwanted effects must be weighed against the undoubted benefits for groups of animals.

  1. Inserção do nutricionista na equipe de atendimento ao paciente em reabilitação física e funcional Insertion of a nutritionist in a team that attends patients requiring physical and functional rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Resende Prado Rangel de Oliveira

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Compreender os motivos e o modo como se deu a entrada do nutricionista na equipe do Centro de Reabilitação CREAB, localizado em Belo Horizonte, MG. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de uma pesquisa qualitativa, que tem como desenho o estudo de caso. A pesquisa foi realizada por meio da combinação de instrumentos, como a observação participante, o levantamento de documentos institucionais e o relato oral de profissionais que compõem a equipe. RESULTADOS: Constatou-se que os profissionais desse centro acreditam que a assistência nutricional adequada pode prevenir ou limitar as complicações advindas das doenças músculo-esqueléticas, aliviar o desconforto dos pacientes e auxiliar no tratamento de reabilitação. CONCLUSÃO: A prática do nutricionista dentro dessa equipe abriu e consolidou um espaço para essa categoria profissional, não só na própria unidade, como em outros centros de reabilitação.OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the inquiry was to understand the motives and the way in which a nutritionist entered the team working in the Centro de Reabilitação CREAB in Belo Horizonte, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. METHODS: The inquiry presents qualitative research based on a case study. The research was carried out using a combination of instruments such as: participative observation, a survey of institutional data and reports by professionals working in the team. RESULTS: According to the professionals from Centro de Reabilitação CREAB, adequate nutritional assistance can prevent or limit complications arising from musculoskeletal diseases, relieve the discomfort of patients and show a positive effect on their rehabilitation treatment. CONCLUSION: The nutritionist working in this group initiated and consolidated the possibility of a professional from this category working not only in this particular rehabilitation centre, but also in other rehabilitation centres.

  2. Rehabilitation time before disability pension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Støver, Morten; Pape, Kristine; Johnsen, Roar; Fleten, Nils; Sund, Erik R; Claussen, Bjørgulf; Ose, Solveig Osborg; Bjørngaard, Johan Håkon

    2012-10-30

    The decision to grant a disability pension is usually the end of a long process of medical examinations, treatment and rehabilitation attempts. This study investigates to what extent the time spent on rehabilitation time prior to disability pension is associated with characteristics of the individual or the local employment and welfare office, measured as municipality variance. A study of 2,533 40 to 42 year olds who received disability pension over a period of 18 years. The logarithm of the rehabilitation time before granting a disability pension was analysed with multilevel regression. The rehabilitation time before a disability pension was granted ranged from 30 to 5,508 days. Baseline health characteristics were only moderately associated with rehabilitation time. Younger people and people with unemployment periods had longer rehabilitation time before a disability pension was granted. There were only minor differences in rehabilitation time between men and women and between different levels of education. Approximately 2% of the total variance in rehabilitation time could be attributed to the municipality of residence. There is a higher threshold for granting a disability pension to younger persons and those who are expecting periods of unemployment, which is reflected in the extended rehabilitation requirements for these groups. The longer rehabilitation period for persons with psychiatric disorders might reflect a lack of common knowledge on the working capacity of and the fitted rehabilitation programs for people with psychiatric disorders.

  3. Scandinavian Model of Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamson, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Within the so-called welfare modeling business Scandinavia stands out as a space with a particular welfare regime. It is a peculiar combination of market, state, and civil societal interventions into people's social life, that define this welfare regime. The particular welfare mix emphasizes...... universal public interventions and a high degree of employment in the formal labor market for all. The thesis promoted in this paper is, that the Scandinavian welfare regime ought to be highly desirable elsewhere, but unfortunately rather difficult to replicate, because it is premised upon a set...

  4. 45 CFR 2541.320 - Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equipment. 2541.320 Section 2541.320 Public... Changes, Property and Subawards § 2541.320 Equipment. (a) Title. Subject to the obligations and conditions set forth in this section, title to equipment acquired under a grant or subgrant will vest upon...

  5. Welfare State Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obinger, Herbert; Starke, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes welfare state transformation in OECD countries since the 1970s against the background of the post-war settlement. Relying on quantitative macro-data and qualitative information from the literature, we show that welfare states have con-verged, especially regarding various...... spending measures, and also to a certain extent in some qualitative policy-making patterns. What has emerged can best be described as the ‘supply-side welfare state’ model, and this overall orientation is reflected in many wel-fare state areas. We differ from earlier prognoses of a race to the bottom...... by generous welfare states and disagree with the view that a supply-side orientation equals ‘lean government’ in terms of social expenditure. But convergence implies that the space to maneuver has shrunk for policy-makers. The consequences of the 2008 financial crisis for welfare states are difficult...

  6. Rehabilitation Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for e-updates Please leave this field empty Rehabilitation Options SHARE Home > Treatment and Care > Continuum of Care > Rehabilitation Options Listen Beginning the Healing Process After undergoing ...

  7. Welfare improving product bans

    OpenAIRE

    Doğanoğlu, Uğur Toker; Doganoglu, Ugur Toker; İnceoğlu, Fırat; Inceoglu, Firat

    2010-01-01

    We formulate a model of vertical differentiation to evaluate the welfare effects of removing a low quality product from the market. The mechanism through which a welfare improvement might arise is simple: Once the low quality low cost alternative is banned, entry into the high quality segment becomes more likely. This in turn may lead to a significant reduction in the price of the high quality product. We find that such a ban might improve aggregate welfare when consumers value the higher qua...

  8. Welfare in horse breeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, M.L.H.; Sandøe, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Welfare problems related to the way horses are bred, whether by coitus or by the application of artificial reproduction techniques (ARTs), have been given no discrete consideration within the academic literature. This paper reviews the existing knowledge base about welfare issues in horse breeding...... positive welfare effects associated with breeding might be maximised. Further studies are needed to establish an evidence base about how stressful or painful various breeding procedures are for the animals involved, and what the lifetime welfare implications of ARTs are for future animal generations....

  9. Welfare and self care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulløv, Eva

    2011-01-01

    Using the case of early childcare institutions in contemporary Denmark, the aim of the article is to show that welfare entails visions of living that are made manifest through the requirements of everyday institutional practices. The main argument is that welfare institutions are designed not onl...

  10. The Nordic Welfare Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Helle; Thrane, Claus

     The aim of this paper is to elucidate the impact of welfare policies on women's entrepreneurship because the benefits of these policies do not reflect in the numbers of female entrepreneurs. These are consistently similar to those in other countries that do not have a similar welfare model. Henc...

  11. Wellbeing or welfare benefits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handlos, Line Neerup; Kristiansen, Maria; Nørredam, Marie Louise

    2016-01-01

    This debate article debunks the myth that migrants are driven primarily by the size of the welfare benefits in the host country, when they decide where to migrate to. We show that instead of welfare benefits, migrants are driven by a desire for safety, wellbeing, social networks and opportunities...

  12. Market Access and Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis; Woodland, Alan D.

    2015-01-01

    Well known tariff reform rules that are guaranteed to increase welfare will not necessarily increase market access, while rules that are guaranteed to increase market access will not necessarily increase welfare. The present paper proposes a new set of tariff reforms that can achieve both objecti...

  13. Teenagers and Welfare Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offner, Paul

    This report examines the extent to which welfare reform is changing adolescent behaviors that lead to welfare dependency. It begins by discussing the provisions in the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 that require teenagers to stay in school and live with a parent, concluding that relatively little can be…

  14. The Danish welfare state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jørgen Elm; Bengtsson, Tea Torbenfeldt; Frederiksen, Morten

    The Danish Welfare State analyzes a broad range of areas, such as globalization, labor marked, family life, health and social exclusion, the book demonstrates that life in a modern welfare state is changing rapidly, creating both challenges and possibilities for future management....

  15. The Child Welfare Cartel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoesz, David

    2016-01-01

    The probity of the Children's Bureau's National Child Welfare Workforce Institute (NCWWI) is examined with respect to the status of child welfare as well as the performance of social work education. By requiring that funding go only to accredited schools of social work, which is not authorized by relevant provisions of the Social Security Act,…

  16. Technology and Poultry Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Sassi, Neila; Averós, Xavier; Estevez, Inma

    2016-01-01

    Consideration of animal welfare is essential to address the consumers’ demands and for the long term sustainability of commercial poultry. However, assessing welfare in large poultry flocks, to be able to detect potential welfare risks and to control or minimize its impact is difficult. Current developments in technology and mathematical modelling open new possibilities for real-time automatic monitoring of animal welfare and health. New technological innovations potentially adaptable to commercial poultry are appearing, although their practical implementation is still being defined. In this paper, we review the latest technological developments with potential to be applied to poultry welfare, especially for broiler chickens and laying hens. Some of the examples that are presented and discussed include the following: sensors for farm environmental monitoring, movement, or physiological parameters; imaging technologies such as optical flow to detect gait problems and feather pecking; infrared technologies to evaluate birds’ thermoregulatory features and metabolism changes, that may be indicative of welfare, health and management problems. All these technologies have the potential to be implemented at the commercial level to improve birds’ welfare and to optimize flock management, therefore, improving the efficiency of the system in terms of use of resources and, thus, long term sustainability. PMID:27727169

  17. Technology and Poultry Welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neila Ben Sassi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Consideration of animal welfare is essential to address the consumers’ demands and for the long term sustainability of commercial poultry. However, assessing welfare in large poultry flocks, to be able to detect potential welfare risks and to control or minimize its impact is difficult. Current developments in technology and mathematical modelling open new possibilities for real-time automatic monitoring of animal welfare and health. New technological innovations potentially adaptable to commercial poultry are appearing, although their practical implementation is still being defined. In this paper, we review the latest technological developments with potential to be applied to poultry welfare, especially for broiler chickens and laying hens. Some of the examples that are presented and discussed include the following: sensors for farm environmental monitoring, movement, or physiological parameters; imaging technologies such as optical flow to detect gait problems and feather pecking; infrared technologies to evaluate birds’ thermoregulatory features and metabolism changes, that may be indicative of welfare, health and management problems. All these technologies have the potential to be implemented at the commercial level to improve birds’ welfare and to optimize flock management, therefore, improving the efficiency of the system in terms of use of resources and, thus, long term sustainability.

  18. Market Access and Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis; Woodland, Alan D.

    objectives of trade policy is problematic and calls for finding alternative tariff reform rules that can achieve both objectives at the same time. The present paper contributes to this aim by using a new set of tariff reforms that are based on local optimality. Using such reforms it is shown that market......According to the literature, well known tariff reform rules that are guaranteed to increase welfare will not necessarily increase market access, while rules that are guaranteed to increase market access will not necessarily increase welfare. Such conflict between welfare and market access...

  19. Animal welfare and eggs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Laura Mørch

    This paper identifies revealed willingness to pay for animal welfare using a panel mixed logit model allowing for correlation between willingness to pay for different types of production. We utilize a unique household level panel, combining real purchases with survey data on perceived public...... and private good attributes of different types of eggs. We find that the estimated correlations are consistent with the levels of animal welfare, and that consumers perceiving a stronger connection between animal welfare and the organic label have higher willingness to pay for organic eggs, even when we...

  20. Achievement report on research and development of medical and welfare equipment technology. Meal delivery robot for carrying food trays to aged and disabled persons; Iryo fukushi kiki gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Koreisha shogaishayo shokuji hanso jido robot system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    Research and development of a mobile robot is carried out, who steers the meal distribution wagon, serves the meal at the bedside of aged or disabled people, retrieves the dishes when the meal is over, and then carry them back. The conditions discussed in the study for the robot to simultaneously satisfy are mentioned below. It should be of the size and weight fit for the job, avoid obstacles while travelling automatically and safely, behave at a safe and proper rate not jeopardizing the patient during the feeding process, communicate with the patient through picture and voice, and capable of acting without causing people to find in it anything overbearing or wrongful. The project began with the concept design process, which was followed by the basic design process, tentative manufacture of parts, tentative manufacture of components, and finally the construction of the whole. The developed robot system, after passing functional tests conducted in a mockup facility, experiences some period of tentative employment at three medical and welfare facilities. It is then confirmed that it safely performs a series of acts including meal serving and dish retrieving and that it is excellent in terms of autonomous self-control, safety, friendliness, and work efficiency. (NEDO)

  1. Achievement report for fiscal 1998 on Welfare Technosystem Takaoka research and development; 1998 nendo Walfare technosystem kenkyu kaihatsu (Takaoka) chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    In an effort at developing nursing equipment, a cursor-controlled system for on-the-screen operation is experimentally constructed, which facilitates the use of indoor electronic devices and help aged persons engaged in in-house work. Vocal communicators are investigated for feasibility. In relation to equipment for mobility training, a dynamic equilibrium function evaluating system is experimentally built, and a system for electric stimulation-aided mobility rehabilitation is studied. Sensors are imbedded into the stool, and an excellent result is obtained in the measurement of the user's weight and the discharged amount. Studies are conducted about algorithm for calculating changes in heartbeats while bathing and about recording electrocardiograms while in bed. For welfare equipment to be effectively utilized at home, it has to be easy to use on the one hand and, on the other hand, house configuration and facilities have to be appropriate for welfare equipment application. It is important to improve the mechanism of providing advice on house modification and to expand financial assistance. A measuring method is developed using the state of the art in sensor technologies for the construction of a system for checking old people's activities of daily living, and their activities are evaluated. The system supplies a sufficient amount of data to grasp their behavior, which shows that it is a serviceable system. (NEDO)

  2. Power and Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mik-Meyer, Nanna; Villadsen, Kaspar

    approaches, their weaknesses and indicates some possibilities of theoretical integration. Including case studies of patients, nursing home residents, unemployed people, homeless people, and young offenders, from the USA, Denmark, France, Sweden, Canada, and Australia, Power and Welfare is designed...

  3. Power and welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mik-Meyer, Nanna; Villadsen, Kasper

    approaches, their weaknesses and indicates some possibilities of theoretical integration. Including case studies of patients, nursing home residents, unemployed people, homeless people, and young offenders, from the USA, Denmark, France, Sweden, Canada, and Australia, Power and Welfare is designed...

  4. Zoo Animal Welfare Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koene, P.

    2012-01-01

    Species with specific environmental adaptations may show specific behavioral adaptations, difficulty in adapting to a new environment, and hence suboptimal functioning and fitness. Discrepancy between natural behavioral adaptations and behavioral possibilities in captivity may cause welfare

  5. Application to the field of medical and welfare with fluid power; Fluid power servo no iryo fukushi bun`ya eno oyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayakawa, Y. [Nara Technical Coll., Nara (Japan)

    1999-05-15

    Reported herein are medical and welfare apparatuses activated by fluid power servos. Reference is also made to equipment now undergoing research and development. Numerous fluid power-driven welfare and caring apparatuses have been developed, some of which are named below. In an externally powered prosthetic leg, a rocking type hydraulic servo actuator is attached on the knee section. In this device, switching is performed between an active operation in which much torque is required for instance going up and down a stairway and a passive operation in which less torque is required for instance walking on a flat place, this for increased energy efficiency. In an externally powered orthosisis, an exoskeleton is installed on the lower extremities of a patient suffering from the paralysis of both legs, and enables physical exercises for rehabilitation. Such devices are controlled by one of the two methods, the master-slave method or the manual method. Devices for the transfer of patients include an in-home bathing assist system, powered assist suit for caring, powered assist chair, movable lift for transfer, pneumatic Rubbertuator-driven rehabilitation equipment, walk training device, and wavy motion pneumatic vibrator. (NEDO)

  6. Welfare Professions in Transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette Kamp

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Welfare professions constitute one of the backbones in the development of the Nordic welfare states. Working in the public sector was for decades associated with high status; public sector employees were trusted employees. Through their work, they had important responsibilities for the welfare state and its citizens. To provide job security—through employment as officials—was a part of ensuring the stability of the state (Åkerstrøm, 2001, and we saw the establishment of what could be called a public ethos, a special morality aimed at serving the needs of the citizens and the state (Hoggett, 2005. The term welfare professions is widely used, referring to public sector employees in the field of, for example, health, education, care, and social work. So this term covers professionals who work directly in contact with patients, citizens, clients, students, etc. (Brante, 1990; Järvinen & Mik-Meyer, 2012. Along with the development and modernization of the welfare state, a number of new welfare professions, such as pedagogues, social works, physiotherapists, social care assistants, and auxiliary nurses have joined the existing ones like nurses, teachers, psychologists, and physicians. At the same time, however, the public sector has undergone dramatic changes as part of a neoliberal transformation of the welfare state. With the New Public Management (NPM wave from 1980s and onwards efforts to restructure public institutions and introduce market-like relationships between them, to outsource and privatize public services and to transform citizens to customers in a market have prevailed (Busch, 2005; Christensen & Lægreid, 2007; Greve, 2008. Within this reform strategy, welfare professionals are perceived as part of the problem that NPM is created to solve, namely an uncontrollable and wildly growing bureaucracy (Clarke & Newman, 1997 (...

  7. Trade, Environment & Animal Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morrison, Peter; Nielsen, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Regulation of animal welfare and the environment under the WTO GATT and GATS Agreements - including introduction of the innovative idea of limiting consumption abroad (mode 2) for e.g. bull fights.......Regulation of animal welfare and the environment under the WTO GATT and GATS Agreements - including introduction of the innovative idea of limiting consumption abroad (mode 2) for e.g. bull fights....

  8. On College Formation of Future Lawyers' Professional Readiness to Work in Social Welfare Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitina, Natalya Ivanovna; Grebennikova, Veronica Mikhailovna; Nikishina, Irina Nikolaevna; Galkina, Tatyana Engersovna; Tolstikova, Svetlana Nikolaevna

    2016-01-01

    In Russia today, more than ever, various social welfare institutions (Centers for social services, Social assistance centers for families and children, Rehabilitation centers for disabled children and their families, Centers for work with refugees and IDPs, Centers of medico-social rehabilitation of military men, etc.) require legal profile…

  9. Employment outcome and predictors of competitive employment at 2-year follow-up of a vocational rehabilitation programme for individuals with schizophrenia in a high-income welfare society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evensen, Stig; Ueland, Torill; Lystad, June Ullevoldsæter; Bull, Helen; Klungsøyr, Ole; Martinsen, Egil W; Falkum, Erik

    2017-04-01

    Employment is an important part of recovery for individuals with schizophrenia. The employment rate for this group is as low as 10% in Norway, and major system related barriers to employment are evident. This study reports the competitive employment outcome at 2-year follow-up of a vocational rehabilitation study augmented with cognitive remediation (CR) or elements from cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) for individuals with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. It also investigates if global functioning, self-esteem, and depression at baseline predicts employment outcome, and if change in these variables during the intervention period is associated with employment outcome. One hundred and forty-eight participants with schizophrenia spectrum disorders in six Norwegian counties received 10 months vocational rehabilitation augmented with either CBT (n = 84) or CR (n = 64). Both competitive and sheltered workplaces were used. Participants were assessed at baseline, at the end of the intervention period, and at 2-year follow-up. At 2-year follow-up, 21.2% had obtained competitive employment. A further 25.3% had work placements in competitive workplaces. Significant improvements were found in global functioning, self-esteem, and depression during the intervention period, but no significant differences between the two intervention groups. High baseline global functioning and self-esteem, as well as positive change in these variables during the intervention period, were significantly associated with higher competitive employment outcome at 2-year follow-up. The results add to existing evidence that competitive employment is attainable for individuals with schizophrenia. High global functioning and self-esteem were strongly associated with competitive employment outcome.

  10. Rehabilitation Engineering: What is Rehabilitation Engineering?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Parents/Teachers Resource Links for Students Glossary Rehabilitation Engineering What is rehabilitation engineering? How can future rehabilitation ... the area of rehabilitation engineering? What is rehabilitation engineering? Powered prosthetic leg. Source : M. Goldfarb, Vanderbilt U. ...

  11. Welfare indicators in laying hens

    OpenAIRE

    Alm, Malin

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing concern regarding the welfare of laying hens worldwide and there are both ethical and economic reasons for improving their welfare. Although several different welfare indicators are used today, their ability to accurately reflect welfare status is sometimes questioned. This thesis sought to increase knowledge regarding a number of these welfare indicators by investigating whether and to what extent they were affected when layers were exposed to different stressors. Three di...

  12. [Physicians' and medical students' knowledge on rehabilitation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dénes, Zoltán; Fazekas, Gábor; Zsiga, Katalin; Péter, Orsolya

    2012-06-17

    There are few data on the rehabilitation knowledge of medical specialists and medical students. Assessment of the rehabilitation knowledge of medical specialists working in general hospitals and of final year medical students. A paper form survey was performed using a questionnaire containing seven multiple choice questions and three definitions. Questionnaires were filled in independently on the spot. The three answering groups were physicians (specialized in orthopedic surgery, neurology or neurosurgery) working in a general hospital that had a rehabilitation ward, final year medical students from Semmelweis University, and trainees in rehabilitation medicine. The survey was voluntary and anonymous. Forty physicians, 42 students and 39 rehabilitation trainees filled in the questionnaire. Half of the students gave correct answers to questions about rehabilitation specialization, the existing university chairs, the percentage of people with disabilities in Hungary, and the way of sending patients for rehabilitation consultation. The number of beds designed for rehabilitation was unknown, but with regard to the existence of regulation by law the rights of people with disabilities were well-known by all groups. Very few were able to define the basic categories (rehabilitation, disability). Rehabilitation knowledge of physicians was not better than that of students, but rehabilitation trainees were better informed. According to findings of the authors, students and physicians do not have enough rehabilitation knowledge to perform medical activities adequately. Enlargement of the medical curriculum with basic rehabilitation knowledge is essential. A rehabilitation training course is necessary for physicians to be better equipped to carry out their daily hospital work.

  13. Welfare of broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Sirri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Broiler chickens have been selected for their rapid growth rate as well as for high carcass yields, with particular regard to the breast, and reared in intensive systems at high stocking density ranging from 30 to 40 kg live weight/m2. These conditions lead to a worsening of the welfare status of birds. In Europe a specific directive for the protection of broiler chickens has been recently approved whereas in Italy there is not yet any regulation. The EU directive lays down minimum rules for the protection of chickens kept for meat production and gives indications on management practices with particular focus on stocking density, light regimen and air quality, training and guidance for people dealing with chickens, as well as monitoring plans for holding and slaughterhouse. In this review the rearing factors influencing the welfare conditions of birds are described and detailed information on the effects of stocking density, light regimen, litter characteristic and air quality (ammonia, carbon dioxide, humidity, dust are provided. Moreover, the main health implications of poor welfare conditions of the birds, such as contact dermatitis, metabolic, skeletal and muscular disorders are considered. The behavioural repertoire, including scratching, dust bathing, ground pecking, wing flapping, locomotor activity, along with factors that might impair these aspects, are discussed. Lastly, farm animal welfare assessment through physiological and behavioural indicators is described with particular emphasis on the “Unitary Welfare Index,” a tool that considers a wide range of indicators, including productive traits, in order to audit and compare the welfare status of chickens kept in different farms.

  14. Welfare Landscape and Communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braae, Ellen Marie

    2017-01-01

    Danish housing developments of the post-war era were a cornerstone in the implementation of the welfare vision and the overall urban and landscape planning in the post-war period. The new city was a horizontal city and – as it will be my primary ambition to show – a green and landscape-like city....... The landscape came, in Denmark, to play a prominent role and became synonymous with ‘The Good Life’, but it also presented a number of moral imperatives. The article concerns how communities and community feelings found their expression in the Danish ‘welfare landscapes’....

  15. From Vikings to Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gert Tinggaard, Svendsen; Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase

    The Scandinavian welfare states hold the highest social trust scores in the world. Why? Based on the stationary bandit model by Olson (1993), we first demonstrate that early state building during Viking Age facilitated public good provision and extensive trade. Social trust were probably not dest......The Scandinavian welfare states hold the highest social trust scores in the world. Why? Based on the stationary bandit model by Olson (1993), we first demonstrate that early state building during Viking Age facilitated public good provision and extensive trade. Social trust were probably...

  16. The Scandinavian Welfare States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siim, Birte

    1987-01-01

    and emphasises the need to explore the relationship between the family and the state ( and the family and the economy) in difefrent wefare states. The paper emphasises that the qualitative difference in the organization of care work are important for understanding the institutional differences for between...... the welfare states, and especially the Scandinavian welfare states, where motherhood and care work has to day bef´come part of social citizenship The auther argues that even though women have in important ways been empowered in the Scandinavian woefare states as mothers, workers and citizens, they have...

  17. Fish welfare and genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prunet, P; Øverli, Ø; Douxfils, J; Bernardini, G; Kestemont, P; Baron, D

    2012-02-01

    There is a considerable public and scientific debate concerning welfare of fish in aquaculture. In this review, we will consider fish welfare as an integration of physiological, behavioral, and cognitive/emotional responses, all of which are essentially adaptative responses to stressful situations. An overview of fish welfare in this context suggests that understanding will rely on knowledge of all components of allostatic responses to stress and environmental perturbations. The development of genomic technologies provides new approaches to this task, exemplified by how genome-wide analysis of genetic structures and corresponding expression patterns can lead to the discovery of new aspects of adaptative responses. We will illustrate how the genomic approach may give rise to new biomarkers for fish welfare and also increase our understanding of the interaction between physiological, behavioral, and emotional responses. In a first part, we present data on expression of candidate genes selected a priori. This is a common avenue to develop molecular biomarkers capable of diagnosing a stress condition at its earliest onset, in order to allow quick corrective intervention in an aquaculture setting. However, most of these studies address isolated physiological functions and stress responses that may not be truly indicative of animal welfare, and there is only rudimentary understanding of genes related to possible cognitive and emotional responses in fish. We also present an overview on transcriptomic analysis related to the effect of aquaculture stressors, environmental changes (temperature, salinity, hypoxia), or concerning specific behavioral patterns. These studies illustrate the potential of genomic approaches to characterize the complexity of the molecular mechanisms which underlies not only physiological but also behavioral responses in relation to fish welfare. Thirdly, we address proteomic studies on biological responses to stressors such as salinity change and

  18. Rehabilitating sea otters: Feeling good versus being effective; Chapter 20

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, James A.; Tinker, M. Tim; Kareiva, Peter; Marvier, Michelle; Silliman, Brian

    2017-01-01

    This chapter examines the complexities of assessing the merits and drawbacks of wildlife rehabilitation. Wildlife rehabilitation is often costly, and the resulting benefits differ depending on whether one’s interest is in the welfare of individual animals or conserving populations. Two examples of this dilemma include the rehabilitation of oiled sea otters following the Exxon Valdez spill in Prince William Sound, Alaska, and the rehabilitation of stranded sea otter pups in central California. In the first example, substantial financial investment resulted in little or no benefits for population conservation. In the second example, the potential for population-level benefits is context dependent: in populations near carrying capacity the conservation impacts are negligible, whereas in isolated, low-density populations rehabilitation and release can be an effective conservation tool. Wildlife rehabilitation is valued by people for various reasons, but recognizing and acknowledging the difference between individual and population welfare is an important step toward effective wildlife conservation.

  19. The Nordic Welfare Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Helle; Thrane, Claus

    2011-01-01

    The welfare states of Scandinavia have been regarded as pioneers of gender equality, but structural barriers to women’s participation in the labour market may inadvertently discriminate against women and create opportunity costs delimiting women’s career choices. Family policies are defined...

  20. The Danish Welfare Commission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerding, Allan Næs

    2006-01-01

    ) competitiveness in the global economy, (4) behavioural regulation of the use of public bene-fits and services, and (5) management within tight budgets of an increasing demand on health and care. Finally, the concluding section sums up the discussion and elaborates on the debate on the Welfare Commission’s work...

  1. Farm animal welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; Christiansen, Stine Billeschou; Appleby, M. C.

    2003-01-01

    An experimental survey was undertaken to explore the links between the characteristics of a moral issue, the degree of moral intensity/moral imperative associated with the issue (Jones, 1991), and people’s stated willingness to pay (wtp) for policy to address the issue. Two farm animal welfare...

  2. Unequal Welfare States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. Soede; J.C. Vrooman; P.M. Ferraresi; G. Segre

    2004-01-01

    The financial sustainability of the ageing welfare states in Europe has become a key policy issue recently. This study highlights a different aspect of the ageing process, namely its potential impact on income distributions. Since older people usually live on a lower income, their growing share

  3. Activating Welfare States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Jon

    This paper investigates how welfare states may actively contribute to promote employment opportunities, i.e. participation in the labour market through various operations and policies. The principal operations concern in particular the de-familiarisation of caring tasks through social services...

  4. Who cares about fish welfare?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellingsen, Kristian; Grimsrud, Kristine; Nielsen, Hanne Marie

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is threefold: first, to assess how concerned Norwegians are about fish welfare; second, to investigate Norwegians’ willingness to pay for salmon filet made from welfare-assured farmed fish with high levels of welfare; and third, to examine Norwegian opinions...... about the appropriate way to pay for better welfare standards in fish production. Design/methodology/approach – On the basis of two focus group sessions, a survey questionnaire was developed and distributed to a representative sample of 2,147 Norwegian households via e-mail. Findings – Results showed...... that the Norwegian public is concerned about fish welfare and is willing to pay a price premium for products made from welfare-assured fish. Norwegian consumers do not, however, want to be the only ones paying for fish welfare, as the main responsibility for fish welfare lies with producers and the Government...

  5. Technologcal Literacy in welfare professions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busch-Jensen, Peter; Kondrup, Sissel

    to be ‘welfare technological literate’ – both generally as well as within specific welfare professions. Secondly to support the development of a helpful educational framework that enables students to develop welfare technological literacy. This paper discusses some difficulties and preliminary findings...

  6. Welfare assessment in pet rabbits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, F.; Koene, P.; Beerda, B.

    2009-01-01

    One million pet rabbits are kept in The Netherlands, but there are no data available on their behaviour and welfare. This study seeks to assess the welfare of pet rabbits in Dutch households and is a first step in the development of a welfare assessment system. In an internet survey, housing

  7. Orthopaedic Rehabilitation Device Actuated with Pneumatic Muscles

    OpenAIRE

    Petre, Ioana; Deaconescu, Andrea; Rogozea, Liliana; Deaconescu, Tudor Ion

    2014-01-01

    Year after year recovery clinics worldwide report significant numbers of lower limb bearing joint disabilities. An effective method for the speedy rehabilitation of patients with such afflictions is Continuous Passive Motion (CPM), drawing upon a range of specific equipment. This paper presents an innovative constructive solution for such orthopaedic rehabilitation equipment, designed to ensure a swift reintegration of patients at as low a cost as possible. The absolute novelty consists in...

  8. Cardiac Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoreson, Richard W.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Describes rehabilitation implications associated with psychosocial factors, patient reaction, and family adjustment to coronary heart disease. Patient education and counseling must stress specific long-term care and follow-up and deal with family anxiety and depression. The rehabilitation counselor can help patients incorporate medical…

  9. Coronary Rehabilitation

    OpenAIRE

    Dworkind, Michael

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes a team approach to coronary rehabilitation in a tertiary care hospital and the unique role of the family physician in a shared, multi-disciplinary service for in- and out-patients. Primary care physicians facilitate and supplement the work of the coronary-unit team in establishing an optimal rehabilitative program for MI patients and their families.

  10. The European Welfare Model. Is Romania a Welfare State?!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pop-Radu, I.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the various interpretations of the social model and welfare regime concepts. In order to observe Romania’s position within the European welfare regimes, the paper presents a short analysis of the main characteristics of the welfare regimes identified in Europe – i.e. the corporatist welfare regime, the liberal welfare regime and the social democratic/Scandinavian welfare system. We analyze the dynamics of several indicators relevant for establishing the performance of the Romanian welfare regime. Using the results of this study, the current research might offer a new approach on proving that Romania’s case is a particular one among the CEE countries and its sustainability could become a model for other countries.

  11. Experimental Animal Welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Ergun

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available It is an obvious obligation for investigators to consume millions of experimental animals every year to obtain scientific data. Because most of these experiments involve painful and distressing procedures, to obey the so-called 3Rs, reduction, refinement and replacement, is a prerequisite for those who would apply to ethics committees for a given research proposal. Of the 3Rs, refinement could be defined as “decrease in the incidence of severity of inhumane procedures applied to those animals, which have to be used”. In this context, animal welfare and well-being have been referred to the concept of refinement. In the present review, general principles relating to experimental animal welfare will be discussed. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2011; 20(1.000: -

  12. Inequality and Social Welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Wodon, Quentin; Yitzhaki, Shlomo

    2002-01-01

    This paper provides a review of part of the literature on inequality and social welfare, with a special focus on the Gini index. The paper first presents the extended Gini index used for measuring inequality, as well as the source decomposition of the Gini used to analyze how changes in income and consumption sources affect overall inequality. The paper then provides a wide range of policy applications of the source decomposition of the extended Gini index, including techniques for analyzing ...

  13. East Asian welfare regime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamson, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The paper asks if East Asian welfare regimes are still productivist and Confucian? And, have they developed public care policies? The literature is split on the first question but (mostly) confirmative on the second. Care has to a large, but insufficient extent, been rolled out in the region. Pol...... focusing on outcomes or causal links tend to suggest that legacies prevail, but there is (nearly) consensus that Confucianism exercises great influence in the whole region....

  14. Universal Design and Welfare Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brynn, Rudolph

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents the background for the increased interest for and use of welfare technology. It discusses current definitions of welfare technology and suggests a typology of this technology based on the different definitions. It compares the definitions with that of assistive technology and endeavors to draw a clearer limit between them, in particular related to possibilities to utilize the principle of universal design on welfare technology. The issue of operationalization requirements of universal design to welfare technology through standardization is also discussed. Finally, the paper suggests what elements should be part of a new definition of welfare technology.

  15. European welfare states beyond neoliberalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamson, Peter

    2010-01-01

    . Social policies are no longer regarded as a burden on economies, but rather as investment in human capital. Hence, we are now beyond neo-liberalism. Secondly, the widespread welfare reforms in Europe must be distinguished according to welfare regime. Thus, the paper discusses welfare reform within five...... identifying retrenchment even if parts of the literature do argue for such a perspective. This seeming contradiction within the scholarly community calls for a more precise definition of all three import concepts: What should be understood by neo-liberal reform or a neo-liberal approach? Which welfare...... of benefits and an increase in risks and coverage. Therefore, the remainder of the paper discusses in more detail particular welfare reforms within each of the five welfare regimes. It is concluded that problems of welfare state development differ within the different regimes, but a strong commitment...

  16. Arbejdsrettet Rehabilitering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Labriola, Merete; Thielen, Karsten; Eplov, Lene Falgaard

    2014-01-01

    Work is known to be one of the main sources of human identity. It might be threatened when ill-health impairs individual labour market participation. Vocational rehabilitation, which is based on the bio-psycho-social model of health and function, is the systematic approach to improve employability...... for those who suffer from health-related disabilities. This article gives a short historical overview about vocational rehabilitation in Denmark, describes the current structural and political framework and gives practice examples of local multidisciplinary and intersectoral rehabilitation efforts....

  17. Arbejdsrettet rehabilitering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Labriola, Merete; Thielen, Karsten; Eplov, Lene Falgaard

    2014-01-01

    Work is known to be one of the main sources of human identity. It might be threatened when ill-health impairs individual labour market participation. Vocational rehabilitation, which is based on the bio-psycho-social model of health and function, is the systematic approach to improve employability...... for those who suffer from health-related disabilities. This article gives a short historical overview about vocational rehabilitation in Denmark, describes the current structural and political framework and gives practice examples of local multidisciplinary and intersectoral rehabilitation efforts....

  18. Vocational rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Labriola, Merete; Thielen, Karsten; Eplov, Lene Falgaard

    2014-01-01

    Work is known to be one of the main sources of human identity. It might be threatened when ill-health impairs individual labour market participation. Vocational rehabilitation, which is based on the bio-psycho-social model of health and function, is the systematic approach to improve employability...... for those who suffer from health-related disabilities. This article gives a short historical overview about vocational rehabilitation in Denmark, describes the current structural and political framework and gives practice examples of local multidisciplinary and intersectoral rehabilitation efforts....

  19. Equipment repaired is equipment gained

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Srinivasan

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available According to WHO, at any one time, around 50 per cent of medical equipment in low- and middle-income countries cannot be used because of lack of maintenance or spare parts. We have found that unwillingness or inability to repair equipment and put it back in use is also a major cause.

  20. Political Parties’ Welfare Image, Electoral Punishment and Welfare State Retrenchment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schumacher, Gijs; Vis, Barbara; van Kersbergen, Kees

    2013-01-01

    Will voters punish the government for cutting back welfare state entitlements? The comparative literature on the welfare state suggests that the answer is yes. Unless governments are effectively employing strategies of blame avoidance, retrenchment leads to vote loss. Because a large majority...... of voters supports the welfare state, the usual assumption is that retrenchment backfires equally on all political parties. This study contributes to an emerging body of research that demonstrates that this assumption is incorrect. On the basis of a regression analysis of the electoral fate of the governing...... parties of 14 OECD countries between 1970 and 2002, we show that most parties with a positive welfare image lose after they implemented cutbacks, whereas most parties with a negative welfare image do not. In addition, we show that positive welfare image parties in opposition gain votes, at the expense...

  1. Cardiac Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardiac rehabilitation (rehab) is a medically supervised program to help people who have A heart attack Angioplasty or coronary artery bypass grafting for coronary heart disease A heart valve repair or replacement A ...

  2. Cardiac rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25503364 . Balady GJ, Williams MA, Ades PA, et al. Core components of ... ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22070836 . Thompson PD. Exercise-based, comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation. In: Mann DL, Zipes ...

  3. Stroke Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belagaje, Samir R

    2017-02-01

    Rehabilitation is an important aspect of the continuum of care in stroke. With advances in the acute treatment of stroke, more patients will survive stroke with varying degrees of disability. Research in the past decade has expanded our understanding of the mechanisms underlying stroke recovery and has led to the development of new treatment modalities. This article reviews and summarizes the key concepts related to poststroke recovery. Good data now exist by which one can predict recovery, especially motor recovery, very soon after stroke onset. Recent trials have not demonstrated a clear benefit associated with very early initiation of rehabilitative therapy after stroke in terms of improvement in poststroke outcomes. However, growing evidence suggests that shorter and more frequent sessions of therapy can be safely started in the first 24 to 48 hours after a stroke. The optimal amount or dose of therapy for stroke remains undetermined, as more intensive treatments have not been associated with better outcomes compared to standard intensities of therapy. Poststroke depression adversely affects recovery across a variety of measures and is an important target for therapy. Additionally, the use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) appears to benefit motor recovery through pleiotropic mechanisms beyond their antidepressant effect. Other pharmacologic approaches also appear to have a benefit in stroke rehabilitation. A comprehensive rehabilitation program is essential to optimize poststroke outcomes. Rehabilitation is a process that uses three major principles of recovery: adaptation, restitution, and neuroplasticity. Based on these principles, multiple different approaches, both pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic, exist to enhance rehabilitation. In addition to neurologists, a variety of health care professionals are involved in stroke rehabilitation. Successful rehabilitation involves understanding the natural history of stroke recovery and a

  4. Social Welfare in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rutten, Koen

    of China’s economic growth, the long and midterm sustainability of its economic development model and the implications thereof for social stability and political legitimacy. An immediate priority has been to formulate and implement a response to mitigate the disruptive effects of the transition to a market...... to meet China’s social challenges. In this paper, I provide a summary of the academic literature on post-reform development of the welfare system. I will give an overview of its most salient problems, initiatives and their preliminary outcomes. Finally, I will present some concluding remarks and provide...

  5. Farmers on Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Ann-Christina

    the member states of the European Community from 1958 onward. That story holds that the political priority given to the CAP, as well as its long-term stability, resides in a basic devil's bargain between French agriculture and German industry. In Farmers on Welfare, a landmark new account of the making...... on extensive archival research from a variety of political actors across the Community, she illustrates how and why this supranational farm regime was created in the 1960s, and also provides us with a detailed narrative history of how national and European administrations gradually learned about this kind...

  6. Peace, welfare, culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gad, Ulrik Pram

    2011-01-01

    and multiculturalism – pitted in opposition. By analytically focusing on “security narratives”, the article details how initial narratives of Muslims as threats to culture, welfare and societal peace merged and morphed to award surprising new roles to the state and multiculturalism. The re-evaluation of cultural......This article analyzes how Muslims are implied to constitute threats in the official Danish discourse of the centre-right government since 2001. It does so to provide a more nuanced picture of Danish debates on integration than the usual presentation of two discourses – culturalism...

  7. Rehabilitation robotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, H I; Volpe, B T

    2013-01-01

    This chapter focuses on rehabilitation robotics which can be used to augment the clinician's toolbox in order to deliver meaningful restorative therapy for an aging population, as well as on advances in orthotics to augment an individual's functional abilities beyond neurorestoration potential. The interest in rehabilitation robotics and orthotics is increasing steadily with marked growth in the last 10 years. This growth is understandable in view of the increased demand for caregivers and rehabilitation services escalating apace with the graying of the population. We provide an overview on improving function in people with a weak limb due to a neurological disorder who cannot properly control it to interact with the environment (orthotics); we then focus on tools to assist the clinician in promoting rehabilitation of an individual so that s/he can interact with the environment unassisted (rehabilitation robotics). We present a few clinical results occurring immediately poststroke as well as during the chronic phase that demonstrate superior gains for the upper extremity when employing rehabilitation robotics instead of usual care. These include the landmark VA-ROBOTICS multisite, randomized clinical study which demonstrates clinical gains for chronic stroke that go beyond usual care at no additional cost. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Rehabilitation robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    KREBS, H.I.; VOLPE, B.T.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter focuses on rehabilitation robotics which can be used to augment the clinician’s toolbox in order to deliver meaningful restorative therapy for an aging population, as well as on advances in orthotics to augment an individual’s functional abilities beyond neurorestoration potential. The interest in rehabilitation robotics and orthotics is increasing steadily with marked growth in the last 10 years. This growth is understandable in view of the increased demand for caregivers and rehabilitation services escalating apace with the graying of the population. We will provide an overview on improving function in people with a weak limb due to a neurological disorder who cannot properly control it to interact with the environment (orthotics); we will then focus on tools to assist the clinician in promoting rehabilitation of an individual so that s/he can interact with the environment unassisted (rehabilitation robotics). We will present a few clinical results occurring immediately poststroke as well as during the chronic phase that demonstrate superior gains for the upper extremity when employing rehabilitation robotics instead of usual care. These include the landmark VA-ROBOTICS multisite, randomized clinical study which demonstrates clinical gains for chronic stroke that go beyond usual care at no additional cost. PMID:23312648

  9. Overview of Disability Employment Policy and Rehabilitation Practice in Australia: Implications for Rehabilitation Counselor Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Lynda R.; Buys, Nicholas J.; Crocker, Ruth; Degeneffe, Charles Edmund

    2007-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the development of disability employment policy and rehabilitation services in Australia. In particular, it focuses on recent legislative and policy changes that attempt to address the high rates of welfare dependency, low employment rates and workplace discrimination experienced by people with disabilities. An…

  10. Welfare of Aged Horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine McGowan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Horses form a unique and special part of their owners’ lives and aged horses are no exception. This review considers the health and management of aged horses, including the role of the owner and their perceptions of aged horses, potential threats or risks to their welfare and finally, factors affecting quality of life and euthanasia of aged horses. Owners of aged horses are concerned about the health, welfare and quality of life of their aged animals. Yet surveys of management and preventive healthcare reflect that there may be some limitations to what owners are actually achieving in practice. They show declining management as horses age, particularly for the retired horse and insufficient appropriate preventive healthcare via veterinary surgeons. The veterinary surgeon plays an essential and influential role in preventive healthcare, management of diseases and disorders and ultimately in the decision making process for euthanasia of aged horses at the end of their lives. The value of aged horses should not be underestimated by veterinarians and others working with them and the continuing care of aged horses should be regarded with the same importance as the care of younger horses with more obvious monetary value.

  11. Rehabilitation and Prosthetic Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sensory Aids Service » Prosthetic & Sensory Aids Service (PSAS) Rehabilitation and Prosthetic Services Menu Menu Rehabilitation and Prosthetics Rehabilitation and Prosthetic Services Home Amputation ...

  12. Rents in a welfare state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paldam, Martin

    2015-01-01

    This chapter describes rents in Denmark, a developed welfare state in which the private sector is sharply delimitated and kept efficient by secure property rights and markets including free trade. In the public sector, rents in the form of excess costs that provide benefits are difficult to measure......, but in a number of cases as described in this chapter, the rents are revealed. The implicit welfare coalition, defined as voters receiving their income from the public budget, is the majority, placing the median voter within the welfare coalition. Rents are created and protected by the welfare coalition. Non...

  13. Animal welfare impact assessments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; Gamborg, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Control of wild animals may give rise to controversy, as is seen in the case of badger control to manage TB in cattle in the UK. However, it is striking that concerns about the potential suffering of the affected animals themselves are often given little attention or completely ignored in policies...... aimed at dealing with wild animals. McCulloch and Reiss argue that this could be remedied by means of a “mandatory application of formal and systematic Animal Welfare Impact Assessment (AWIA)”. Optimistically, they consider that an AWIA could help to resolve controversies involving wild animals. The aim...... of this paper is to evaluate the potential of AWIA. We begin by showing how ideas akin to AWIA already play a significant role in other animal ethics controversies, particularly those concerning laboratory animal use and livestock production; and we bring in lessons learnt from these controversies. Then we...

  14. Robotics for social welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Fernández Cossío

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Supported by developments in the field of social robotics, virtual worlds and ICT tools it is possible to build new solutions in health and welfare. Two projects are described in this article. They are intended to improve efficiency and quality of current therapeutic procedures. The ESTIMULO project improves emotional and cognitive status of people with dementia using a reactive pet-robot. The ELDERTOY project modifies the classical concept from the toy industry to develop a new solution for the aged people. ELDERTOY involves a double purpose, fun and therapeutic. In a complementary way, these projects aim to be an example of the breaking of the technology gap both of seniors and of people with disabilities. Therefore, the ultimate goal is to promote and adapt scientific and technological knowledge to be applied to improve significantly the standard of quality of life in society.

  15. Drivers for Welfare Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wegener, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    relevant objects of study. Innovation strategy and research traditionally regards innovation as a set of phases. The purpose of this paper is to enhance ‘phase’ models by adding to them a ‘driver’ model which may provide an appropriate strategy for studying and supporting the innovation potential...... of routines), and iii) purposes (i.e. values and visions). The model can assist the acknowledgment of initiatives that hold a potential for innovation, but risk being overlooked by phase models. The model points to the necessity to anchor innovation strategies in existing knowledge, routines, and values......Innovation has become a key goal towards which teaching and workplace learning needs to be directed. Now perceived as germane and even necessary in almost all kinds of welfare work, the innovation potential in everyday practices and ways of allowing for employer creativity have become a highly...

  16. Burn Rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koray Aydemir

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Burn injuries are important in terms of causing serious disability and threatening life. With the establishment of modern burn treatment units and advances in acute care management contributed to a reduced mortality rate over the last decades. As a result of improved outcome, more attention has to be given to a comprehensive burn rehabilitation program. Burn rehabilitation is a process that starts from day of admission and continues for months or sometimes years after the initial event. The term ‘burn rehabilitation’ incorporates the physical, physiological and social aspects of care. Burns can leave a patient with severely debilitating and deforming contractures, which can lead to significant disability when left untreated. Burn rehabilitation aims to prevent the possible complications, minimalize joint contractures and deformities, increase range of motion, control hypertrophic scarring, achieve the best possible functional capacity and to regain the patients vocational and recreational activities. (Journal of the Turkish Society Intensive Care 2011; 9 Suppl: 70-7

  17. Welfare-Reducing Trade Liberalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Philipp J.H.; Jørgensen, Jan G.

    tariff that maximizes national and world welfare. Applying one of the simplest specifications possible, namely a symmetric two-country intra-industry trade model with fixed export costs that are heterogeneous across firms, we find that the reciprocal reduction of small tariffs reduces welfare....

  18. Dietary nitrogen and fish welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Conceicao, L.E.C.; Aragao, C.; Dias, J.; Costas, B.; Terova, G.; Martins, C.I.; Tort, L.

    2012-01-01

    Little research has been done in optimizing the nitrogenous fraction of the fish diets in order to minimize welfare problems. The purpose of this review is to give an overview on how amino acid (AA) metabolism may be affected when fish are under stress and the possible effects on fish welfare when

  19. Governance Strategies and Welfare Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trifkovic, Neda

    Using an original dataset from the Vietnamese catfish sector, we study the impact of vertical coordination options on household welfare and the implications of different stages of vertical coordination for the success of the whole sector. The welfare gain from contract farming and employment...

  20. The Child Welfare Cartel, "Redux"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoesz, David

    2016-01-01

    In response to "The Child Welfare Cartel," defenders of the National Child Welfare Workforce Institute (NCWWI) make three errors: First, restricting federal funds to schools of social work is "not" authorized by the statute cited in the creation of NCWWI. Second, social work is "not" the only discipline engaged in…

  1. Solar Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    A medical refrigeration and a water pump both powered by solar cells that convert sunlight directly into electricity are among the line of solar powered equipment manufactured by IUS (Independent Utility Systems) for use in areas where conventional power is not available. IUS benefited from NASA technology incorporated in the solar panel design and from assistance provided by Kerr Industrial Applications Center.

  2. Animal welfare in a global perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bracke, M.B.M.

    2009-01-01

    Global survey of animal-welfare regulations, practices and perceptions, with case studies on poultry meat from Brazil and Thailand, eggs from India and the USA, welfare regulations of farmed fish and welfare aspects related to (perceived) overpopulation of wildlife

  3. DIFFERENTIATION OF WELFARE OF RURAL HOUSEHOLDS IN POLAND IN 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Hanusik

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the research in focus was the material welfare of households. In particular, there were analysed the level and differentiation of the welfare of rural households in 2012, after more than twenty years of developing of market economy in Poland. In addition, there was examined the relationship between income, consumer spending and household equipment and the level and differentiation of measures of the welfare distinguished by the criterion of the main sources of income of households groups. In the study both econometrical and statistical analysis was used. The study was based on primarily source of information coming from the panel study of household budgets conducted by the Central Statistical Office, as well as the data contained in the statistical yearbooks of the Republic of Poland.

  4. [30 years animal welfare legislation: what has been achieved?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiger, A

    2008-09-01

    The contribution deals with history and effects of the Swiss animal welfare legislation of 1978. Special descriptions concern the development and increasing dissemination of animal friendly housing systems for cattle, swine, rabbits and poultry, the realization of the prohibition of the usual cages for laying hens until the end of 1991 and the development of aviary systems, the examination and improvement of many housing systems and equipment for farm animals, adaptations of many enclosures for wild animals in zoos and circuses, improvements in animal experimentation and also in housing of companion animals. The new animal welfare law of 2005 and the animal welfare ordinance of 2008 filled loopholes in the legislation. Animal friendly housing forms may also have economic advantages.

  5. Trends in pediatric rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkett, K W

    1989-03-01

    The 1980s have been declared the decade of the disabled. Surgeon General Koop has stated that "it is profoundly important for our own society that we tend to these issues of disabled children, that these children not be forgotten or pushed aside, and that we retain our belief in the strength of the American family". The field of pediatric rehabilitation, unheard of as recently as the late 1970s, has become a recognized specialty. The definition of pediatric rehabilitation has expanded to include the care and treatment of children with congenital and acquired disabilities. The pediatric rehabilitation nurse is challenged to keep abreast of new developments in the field while seeking and implementing innovative ways to assist the child and family in their adjustment to the child's disability. A knowledge base of normal growth and development is essential when assessing abnormal patterns in the child with a disability. Complete assessment of the child with a disability includes a parent-child interview and physical assessment, with particular focus on the child's developmental age, movement patterns, and functional activities of daily living. The reaction of the child and family to the disability is all too often viewed as lack of "acceptance" of the child's disability. A continuum of "adjustment" to the disability for both family and child describes normal coping mechanisms for living with and managing the needs of a disabled child. It is important for the pediatric rehabilitation nurse to develop a partnership with parents in which they serve as consultants to families, not as directors of the child's care. Cerebral palsy and spina bifida are the two most common childhood disabilities. With advanced technologic equipment and refined surgical procedures, the child's potential for independence is reaching new heights. Computerized technology has aided the motor-impaired child to progress through normal developmental processes of exploration and discovery. Specialized

  6. Welfare standards in hospital mergers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katona, Katalin; Canoy, Marcel

    2013-08-01

    There is a broad literature on the consequences of applying different welfare standards in merger control. Total welfare is usually defined as the sum of consumer and provider surplus, i.e., potential external effects are not considered. The general result is then that consumer welfare is a more restrictive standard than total welfare, which is advantageous in certain situations. This relationship between the two standards is not necessarily true when the merger has significant external effects. We model mergers on hospital markets and allow for not-profit-maximizing behavior of providers and mandatory health insurance. Mandatory health insurance detaches the financial and consumption side of health care markets, and the concept consumer in merger control becomes non-evident. Patients not visiting the merging hospitals still are affected by price changes through their insurance premiums. External financial effects emerge on not directly affected consumers. We show that applying a restricted interpretation of consumer (neglecting externality) in health care merger control can reverse the relation between the two standards; consumer welfare standard can be weaker than total welfare. Consequently, applying the wrong standard can lead to both clearing socially undesirable and to blocking socially desirable mergers. The possible negative consequences of applying a simple consumer welfare standard in merger control can be even stronger when hospitals maximize quality and put less weight on financial considerations. We also investigate the implications of these results for the practice of merger control.

  7. The economics of animal welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, T J; Jackson, E L

    2017-04-01

    This paper examines four examples of animal welfare issues, demonstrating the interactions between welfare and economic principles. Welfare issues associated with purebred companion animals are examined in terms of predicted inherited diseases, highlighting the power of supply and demand in perpetuating traits in pets that compromise their well-being. The livestock industry is presented from the point of view of pig production and the impact that a major disease (pleurisy) has on production and the animals' welfare. The authors investigate the conflicting and complementary demands of animal welfare and economic gains during the transport and slaughter of livestock and poultry. Finally, wildlife species are considered in terms of their prevalence as pests, and the different types of economic analysis that have been conducted to understand the losses caused by these organisms. Also included in this example are decisions made about cost effectiveness and opportunity costs, and regulatory and financial barriers to the development of humane control agents. In conclusion, animal welfare is illustrated as a central factor in the benefits that humans enjoy from the role played by animals in society. There are, however, tradeoffs between optimal animal welfare and meeting the needs of modern human society.

  8. Monotonicity of social welfare optima

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of maximizing social welfare subject to participation constraints. It is shown that for an income allocation method that maximizes a social welfare function there is a monotonic relationship between the incomes allocated to individual agents in a given coalition...... (with at least three members) and its participation constraint if and only if the aggregate income to that coalition is always maximized. An impossibility result demonstrates that there is no welfare maximizing allocation method in which agents' individual incomes monotonically increase in society...

  9. Welfare reform in European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Immervoll, Herwig; Kleven, Henrik Jacobsen; Kreiner, Claus Thustrup

    2007-01-01

    microsimulation model to estimate current marginal and participation tax rates. We quantify the equity-efficiency trade-off for a range of elasticity parameters. In most countries, because of large existing welfare programmes with high phase-out rates, increasing traditional welfare is undesirable unless......This article compares the effects of increasing traditional welfare to introducing in-work benefits in the 15 (pre-enlargement) countries of the European Union. We use a labour supply model encompassing responses to taxes and transfers along both the intensive and extensive margins, and the EUROMOD...

  10. Child Welfare Outcomes Data Portal

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The most current Child Welfare Outcomes data is featured on this site. Through the site, you can view the data before the full report is published. The most recently...

  11. Transfers, Taxes, and Welfare Reform

    OpenAIRE

    Haveman, Robert; Scolex, John Karl

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the need inability of past administrations to pass any welfare reform and gives an overview of an antipoverty policy. Shows that the poverty problem goes beyond tax reform and includes education, crime and violence.

  12. Echipament acționat cu mușchi pneumatici destinat recuperării pacienților cu afecțiuni posttraumatice ale articulației cotului/Pneumatic muscle actuated equipment for the rehabilitation of patients with post-traumatic affections of the elbow joint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgiana VETRICE

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Loss of motion following joint surgery is a common complication and has negative effects on individuals. The diminished motion autonomy of persons suffering from post-traumatic affections of the elbow joint can be addressed by continuous passive motion, a treatment method entailing constant moving of the joint, however, without requiring any patient effort. The paper presents a novel type of rehabilitation equipment for the elbow joint, using this technique. The novelty consists in the utilization of pneumatic muscles as actuators and in the two axes of motion. Pneumatic actuation presents benefits from compliance, meaning favourable response to commands, due to air compressibility, as well as from an excellent force-to-weight ratio.

  13. Welfare Reform & the Health of Single Mothers

    OpenAIRE

    Narain, Kimberly Danae Cauley

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This dissertation explores the relationship between welfare reform and the health of single mothers with less than a high school diploma or GED (LESMS) by addressing six research questions: (1) what impact did welfare reform have on the health insurance coverage of LESMS, (2) what impact did welfare reform have on the annual medical provider contact of LESMS, (3) what impact did welfare reform have on the health outcomes of LESMS, (4) what impact did welfare reform have on the fede...

  14. The Labor Supply Effects of Welfare Reform

    OpenAIRE

    Bartik, Timothy J.

    1998-01-01

    Will welfare reform increase unemployment and reduce wages? The answer depends in part on how much welfare reform increases labor supply. This paper considers the labor supply effects of the welfare reforms that have occurred since 1993, when President Clinton entered office with a promise to "end welfare as we know it." The paper reviews previous estimates, and provides new estimates, of how many additional labor force participants have entered the labor force due to welfare reform. I estima...

  15. Social Media Use in Child Welfare Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Todd Edward Sage; Melanie Sage

    2016-01-01

    The scholarly child welfare literature offers little information about the use of social media by child welfare workers. We conducted a study of 171 child welfare workers across several states using an online survey. The resulting data offer insights from workers about current practices related to social media use in a child welfare work setting. Most respondents see social media as an acceptable tool for conducting child welfare assessments. Respondents describe strains and benefits of socia...

  16. Design, modelling and simulation aspects of an ankle rehabilitation device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racu, C. M.; Doroftei, I.

    2016-08-01

    Ankle injuries are amongst the most common injuries of the lower limb. Besides initial treatment, rehabilitation of the patients plays a crucial role for future activities and proper functionality of the foot. Traditionally, ankle injuries are rehabilitated via physiotherapy, using simple equipment like elastic bands and rollers, requiring intensive efforts of therapists and patients. Thus, the need of robotic devices emerges. In this paper, the design concept and some modelling and simulation aspects of a novel ankle rehabilitation device are presented.

  17. What Is Cardiac Rehabilitation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ANSWERS by heart Treatments + Tests What Is Cardiac Rehabilitation? A cardiac rehabilitation (rehab) program takes place in a hospital or ... special help in making lifestyle changes. During your rehabilitation program you’ll… • Have a medical evaluation to ...

  18. Effects of soil compaction on pasture growth during rehabilitation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reports the results of a study conducted to provide an initial assessment of the severity of the problem of soil compaction in the rehabilitation of strip mined land. Presents results from the first season of growth only; Compaction of soils by heavy earth moving equipment is an endemic problem in the rehabilitation of land after ...

  19. Invertebrate welfare: an overlooked issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelsey Horvath

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available While invertebrates make up the majority of animal species, their welfare is overlooked compared to the concern shown to vertebrates. This fact is highlighted by the near absence of regulations in animal research, with the exception of cephalopods in the European Union. This is often justified by assumptions that invertebrates do not experience pain and stress while lacking the capacity for higher order cognitive functions. Recent research suggests that invertebrates may be just as capable as vertebrates in experiencing pain and stress, and some species display comparable cognitive capacities. Another obstacle is the negative view of invertebrates by the public, which often regards them as pests with no individual personalities, gastronomic entities, or individuals for scientific experimentation without rules. Increasingly, studies have revealed that invertebrates possess individual profiles comparable to the personalities found in vertebrates. Given the large economic impact of invertebrates, developing certain attitude changes in invertebrate welfare may be beneficial for producers while providing higher welfare conditions for the animals. While the immense number and type of species makes it difficult to suggest that all invertebrates will benefit from increased welfare, in this review we provide evidence that the topic of invertebrate welfare should be revisited, more thoroughly investigated, and in cases where appropriate, formally instituted.

  20. International Rehabilitation Network

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smith, William

    2001-01-01

    The International Rehabilitation Network's goal is to improve the quality of services for land mine survivors and other amputee's through the dissemination of educational programs to rehabilitation professionals...

  1. [Quality of the psychiatric care in social welfare houses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopińiska, Ewa

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the research is a diagnosis of the level of the psychiatric help in social welfare houses. The research was conducted in the form of a questionnaire. The questionnaire was sent at random to 60 houses of social welfare for people with psychic disorders on the whole territory of Poland. 37 responses were received. All the houses in question provide their inhabitants with regular contact with a psychiatrist, 86% inside the social welfare house. 92% of inhabitants have no problems with obtaining referral to psychiatric hospital, however, 70% inhabitants of the social welfare houses have problems with being admitted to hospital. Half of the houses in question use direct compulsion. All the places studied possess therapeutic-caring teams, in 97% of the houses treatment is based on the individual plan. 14% of the houses do not allow the patients to have access to the medical documentation concerning them. In every house integrated pharmacotherapy is used together with various forms of therapy, 76% of the houses involve the family of the patient into the therapeutic process. 78% of those studied note the existence of different factors reducing the quality of the psychiatric care offered. The level of psychiatric care in the social welfare houses is adjusted to the health needs of the patients in the majority of the houses studied. However, the inhabitants have to face the difficulties connected with being admitted to psychiatric hospitals and can have problems with gaining access to medical documentation concerning them. Treatment and rehabilitation of psychic disorders is based on individualized and multi-directional therapeutic interaction. Preparation of the staff providing psychiatric care, especially therapeutic-caring ones, is diversified in individual houses (half of the therapeutic teams do not have a psychiatrist, whose presence seems to be indispensable). The most essential factors reducing the quality of psychiatric care include insufficient financial

  2. Poverty and Christian Welfare Scheme: Evidence from the Church of Nigeria (Anglican Communion Osun State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Awoniyi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Existing studies on welfare schemes in Nigerian Churches have focussed on the political and economic perspectives, neglecting the ethical dimension which has a stronger basis in the Bible. This study, therefore, examined the welfare scheme of the Church of Nigeria (Anglican Communion, Osun State, Nigeria as evidence with a view to assessing their method of generating welfare resources, as well as their implementation and monitoring strategy against the provision of the Bible on welfare ethics. Data were obtained through interviews, observation and questionnaire. In-depth interviews were conducted with 90 randomly selected key informants including 12 clergy, 24 poor members of the church, 18 welfare scheme officers and 36 beneficiaries. Four welfare schemes were observed between 1991 -2012 in a total of 30 Anglican Churches in major towns in Osun State. A total of 600 copies of the questionnaire were purposively administered to beneficiaries, church members and welfare scheme officers. Out of these, 550 were retrieved and analysed using percentages. The Church of Nigeria (Anglican Communion generated resources for welfare schemes through compulsory  levies, donations, annual harvest proceeds, offering collection ,tithes/offering and foreign assistance .Four categories of welfare schemes were adopted: Health care delivery, vocational rehabilitation, micro-credit loans, and women’s empowerment. One implementation strategy was adopted, namely, social advocacy. The church utilized sensitisation mechanism, widow retreat workshops, free health campaign, radio/television programmes and supportive counselling. Welfare scheme for the Church of Nigeria offered socio-economic benefits to members of the Church, but they were weakened by limited human coverage, insufficient funds and poor monitoring. These call for moral reorientation on the part of stakeholders in order to inculcate the ethics of justice and fairness as enshrined in the Bible.

  3. ADVANCES IN ANIMAL WELFARE FOR FREE-LIVING ANIMALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Over several decades, animal welfare has grown into its own free-standing field of scientific study, from its early beginnings in laboratory animal research to eventually include exhibited animals and farm animals. While it has always been present to some degree, consideration of animal welfare for free-ranging animals has lagged behind, developing as a field of study in the last 20 yr or so. Part of that increase was that animal welfare legislation was finally applied to studies being done on free-ranging animals. But it is the appreciation by the biologists and veterinarians working on wild animals, in which the quality of their results is largely controlled by the quality of the animals they use in their studies, which has resulted in increased attention to the well-being or welfare of the animals that they use. Other important influences driving the recognition of wildlife welfare have been changes in the public's expectations of how wild animals are dealt with, a shift in focus of wildlife professionals from managing animals that can be hunted or angled to include nongame species, the decrease in participation in hunting and fishing by members of the public, and the entry of large numbers of women into fish and wildlife agencies and departments and into veterinary medicine. Technical improvements have allowed the safe capture and handling of large or dangerous animals as immobilization drugs and equipment have been developed. The increasing use of sedating drugs allows for handling of animals with reduced stress and other impacts. A number of topics, such as toe-clipping, branding, defining which taxa can or cannot feel pain, catch-and-release fishing, and more, remain controversial within wildlife science. How we treat the wild animals that we deal with defines who we are as wildlife professionals, and animal welfare concerns and techniques for free-ranging animals will continue to develop and evolve.

  4. Main causes of poor welfare in intensively reared dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Abeni

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review is to summarise the main causes of poor welfare in intensively reared dairy cows. Intensive farming systems are considered, both from a structural and a managerial point of view, for their constraints that may limit animal welfare: possible physical activity; acceptable interactions with humans and other animals; feeding and watering, protection from climate, parasites, and diseases. The dairy farms managed according to the organic rules do not always guarantee, per se, better welfare conditions; organic or low input dairy farming needs to consider the right interaction among cattle breed and herd management, focusing on the actual quality of feedstuffs meet face cow requirements. The considered structural aspects evidence how special care must be given to the rest area (straw yard or cubicle; to the floors that should be not too hard or abrasive and not slippery; to the cubicle bedding material to ensure hygiene, softness, and dryness; to the feeding (and watering area to reduce conflicts; to a microclimate control system, to avoid heat stress during summer time. The importance of proper management for animal welfare is evidenced for buildings and equipment, to have clean and comfortable stables and well functioning milking machines; nutritive and storage quality of feeds; diet suitability (energy, protein, physically efficient fibre, buffers etc., in the different phases of a dairy cow’s life (dry period, close-up, transition, and lactation; feed distribution (frequency and time, and 24h availability. Special attention has to be paid to the social aspects, regarding both animal competition (stocking density, group size, and human/animal interactions (methods of management and manipulation. The interaction between welfare and health requires special attention. Poor welfare can cause immune depression, thus increasing the risk of disease. In turn, any disease that causes an inflammatory response may determine depression

  5. Properties and outcomes of spinal rehabilitation units in four countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fromovich-Amit, Y; Biering-Sørensen, F; Baskov, V

    2009-01-01

    properties, rehabilitation objectives, American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) scale and spinal cord independence measure (SCIM) assessments, and patient data. chi (2)-test, t-test, ANOVA and ANCOVA were used for statistical analysis. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Time from lesion onset to admission......OBJECTIVE: Compare rehabilitation after spinal cord lesions (SCL) in different countries. DESIGN: Multicenter comparative study. SETTING: Four spinal rehabilitation units, in Denmark, Russia, Lithuania and Israel. SUBJECTS: 199 SCL patients. INTERVENTIONS: Information was collected about unit...... for rehabilitation (TAR), length of stay in rehabilitation (LOS), SCIM and spinal cord ability realization measurement index (SCI-ARMI) scores, SCIM gain, SCI-ARMI gain and rehabilitation efficiency (RE). RESULTS: Differences were found between the units in rehabilitation objectives, facilities and special equipment...

  6. Faces of the Welfare State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Mette-Louise

    2012-01-01

    the welfare State and other realms of life, such as their family and neighborhood, threatening to take away their children (to crime, to prison, to foster families or to the divorced partner, etc). The paper conceptualizes immobility and confinement as embedded in the contrary; a continuous spatial placement......The paper is a short presentation of a central theme in my PhD thesis, which revolves around the way the welfare State is approached as dangerous by parents struggling to keep their family from falling apart. The thesis is an excavation of the risks and dangers they navigate in relation to both...

  7. Crafting the English Welfare State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ydesen, Christian

    2016-01-01

    administrators in England during the constitutive years of English welfare state formation. Using Birmingham local education administration as an empirical and historical case, the influential Children Acts of 1948 and 1963 serve to demarcate the period treated. The theoretical framework is drawn from Bourdieu...... and Wacquant’s concept of state, with the key concept being ‘state-crafting’. The article contributes knowledge about the imaginaries, and the manufacturing and managing of ‘the public good’ – understood as a referent for modern governing – of the English welfare state. The article concludes...

  8. Ethnicization in Welfare State Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Frederik Georg

    that ethnicization is at once more limited (in that it is unlikely for the most widely discussed issue, welfare) and more pervasive (in that it can arise from local contexts as well as from media). Ethnicization of attitudes is one way in which immigration can influence political life, even when the political agenda...... is to a significant extent shaped by studies of American public opinion, where public opinion on some issues is widely considered 'racialized', i.e. in part based on attitudes toward racial outgroups. The dissertation examines whether by the same token, political attitudes in universal welfare states can become...

  9. Assessment of welfare in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Antonella Volpelli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the definition given by Appleby (1996, animal welfare represents the state of well-being brought about by meeting the physical, environmental, nutritional, behavioural and social needs of the animal or groups of animals under the care, supervision or influence of people. Suitable husbandry techniques and disease control (in which man is directly involved may satisfy an animal’s physical, environmental and nutritive needs. However, it cannot be stated that people’s supervision or influence always guarantee the satisfaction of behavioural and social needs. Thus, special attention must be paid to these factors in intensive husbandry. This paper calls attention to the main factors characterizing pig welfare on the basis of productive, physiological, pathological and behavioural indicators; to the behavioural needs, which are characterised by several peculiar traits (it is noteworthy that, since the beginning, all categories of reared pigs have been involved in welfare legislation; to all categories of pigs that often show the effects of negative stimuli on their behaviour (limitations, variations; to the main critical points on the farm likely to cause welfare impairment or stress including buildings, inner facilities, space allowance, microclimate, lighting systems, environmental stressors, feeding management, mutilations, weaning, social factors, and stockmanship; and to environmental stressors including dust, odours (especially ammonia and noises. This paper takes into account sources, effects and possible solutions for noises; the positive effect of fibrous feeding; environmental enrichment and other possible techniques for improving social status and for preventing/reducing stereotypic behaviour and abnormal reactions (e.g. tail biting. The scientific/objective evaluation of welfare for intensively reared pigs may be carried out by means of direct observation of the animals themselves (animal-based or encompassing performance

  10. Welfare State Changes and Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alves, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that welfare states ensure a certain level of social protection affecting levels of well-being and the extent of inequalities in society. Changes within crucial domains of social policy, such as education, health, or social protection, have, therefore, a major effect upon...... individuals’ opportunities. In this article I compare the effects of these changes in two countries from the mid-1980s to the financial crisis of 2008. Portugal that was a latecomer in welfare state development and Denmark was at the forefront of de-commodification and universalization of social rights...

  11. Welfare-Reducing Trade Liberalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Philipp J.H.; Jørgensen, Jan G.

    tariff that maximizes national and world welfare. Applying one of the simplest specifications possible, namely a symmetric two-country intra-industry trade model with fixed export costs that are heterogeneous across firms, we find that the reciprocal reduction of small tariffs reduces welfare. We explore......Recent literature on the workhorse model of intra-industry trade has explored heterogeneous cost structures at the firm level. These approaches have proven to add realism and predictive power. This note shows, however, that this added realism also implies that there may exist a positive bilateral...

  12. Cleaning supplies and equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000443.htm Cleaning supplies and equipment To use the sharing features on this page, ... to clean supplies and equipment. Disinfecting Supplies and Equipment Start by wearing the right personal protective equipment ( ...

  13. Rehabilitative bodywork

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Agnete Meldgaard

    2016-01-01

    ‘rehabilitative’ care practices aiming to empower, train and activate elderly citizens provides opportunities for homecare workers to renegotiate their status and reconstruct their work and occupational identities with a ‘cleaner’ and more optimistic image. Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork in two Danish homecare...... units, this article analyses how rehabilitative care practices, drawing on a narrative of the third age, provide an optimistic and anti-ageist framing of homecare work that informs the development of new occupational identities for care workers as coaches rather than carers in relation to citizens......Care work for elderly people has been characterised as dirty work, owing to its proximity to the (dys)functions and discharges of aged bodies and the notions of disease, decay and death associated with the idea of ‘old age’. However, a wave of reform programmes in Danish municipalities promoting...

  14. On the declining health status of welfare caseloads: emerging dilemmas for serving the poor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Laura A; Zabkiewicz, Denise; Henderson, Stuart; Jacobs, Laurie; Wiley, James

    2011-01-01

    An emerging concern for public policy is welfare reform's potential to inadvertently affect caseload composition by increasing the proportion of recipients with health-related barriers to employment. The authors examine this using data from the Welfare Client Longitudinal Study, an in-depth case study of a large California county. Through quantitative analyses, they examine the extent of change in health-related problems since welfare reform and their potential to progressively impact overall composition of the caseload. They augment this with qualitative data on how local welfare providers are responding to the health-related needs of aid recipients. Results suggest that the burden of health-related problems is growing and that welfare providers may be poorly equipped to respond effectively on their own. The changing composition of welfare caseloads may foster several new policy dilemmas that demand broader attention: states and localities may face difficulties meeting federal workforce participation requirements, may need to restructure welfare-to-work programs to serve a more functionally impaired population, and may need to take steps to better integrate health and welfare services at the local level.

  15. Aquatic Equipment Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sova, Ruth

    Equipment usually used in water exercise programs is designed for variety, intensity, and program necessity. This guide discusses aquatic equipment under the following headings: (1) equipment design; (2) equipment principles; (3) precautions and contraindications; (4) population contraindications; and (5) choosing equipment. Equipment is used…

  16. Reabilitação Psicossocial: visão da equipe de Saúde Mental Reabilitación Psicosocial: visión del equipo de Salud Mental Psychosocial Rehabilitation: perceptions of the Mental Health staff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Salete Bessa Jorge

    2006-12-01

    segmentos de la vida social.This study is inserted in assumptions of research's analysis qualitative which objective was to interpretate the Mental Health professional's perspectives about psychosocial rehabilitation of mental disorder's porter to know as them proceed it in their professional practice. Data collection came up by the application of semi-structured interviews to 8 Mental Health professionals that work in the Center of Psychosocial Attention. After the readings, notes of pieces of talk, subcategories and categories were composed after the interpretation based on the literature. The results pointed that psychosocial rehabilitation is a process which implementation and still needs effective overcome of traditional paradigma of health mental disease, that form conception and therapeutic practices and requires trust of professionals about the users' capacity of live as citizen in the most variable segments of social life.

  17. Data Mining in Child Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoech, Dick; Quinn, Andrew; Rycraft, Joan R.

    2000-01-01

    Examines the historical and larger context of data mining and describes data mining processes, techniques, and tools. Illustrates these using a child welfare dataset concerning the employee turnover that is mined, using logistic regression and a Bayesian neural network. Discusses the data mining process, the resulting models, their predictive…

  18. Four Normative Languages of Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mathias Herup

    2017-01-01

    This article explores the normative languages used by ordinary citizens to measure ongoing welfare state transformations in Denmark. Empirically, the article turns to qualitative data from a deliberative democratic forum where 35 citizens gathered to reflect upon and discuss the future...

  19. Dietary nitrogen and fish welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conceição, Luis E C; Aragão, Cláudia; Dias, Jorge; Costas, Benjamín; Terova, Genciana; Martins, Catarina; Tort, Lluis

    2012-02-01

    Little research has been done in optimizing the nitrogenous fraction of the fish diets in order to minimize welfare problems. The purpose of this review is to give an overview on how amino acid (AA) metabolism may be affected when fish are under stress and the possible effects on fish welfare when sub-optimal dietary nitrogen formulations are used to feed fish. In addition, it intends to evaluate the current possibilities, and future prospects, of using improved dietary nitrogen formulations to help fish coping with predictable stressful periods. Both metabolomic and genomic evidence show that stressful husbandry conditions affect AA metabolism in fish and may bring an increase in the requirement of indispensable AA. Supplementation in arginine and leucine, but also eventually in lysine, methionine, threonine and glutamine, may have an important role in enhancing the innate immune system. Tryptophan, as precursor for serotonin, modulates aggressive behaviour and feed intake in fish. Bioactive peptides may bring important advances in immunocompetence, disease control and other aspects of welfare of cultured fish. Fishmeal replacement may reduce immune competence, and the full nutritional potential of plant-protein ingredients is attained only after the removal or inactivation of some antinutritional factors. This review shows that AA metabolism is affected when fish are under stress, and this together with sub-optimal dietary nitrogen formulations may affect fish welfare. Furthermore, improved dietary nitrogen formulations may help fish coping with predictable stressful events.

  20. Social Welfare Activism in Jordan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Marie Juul

    , this interest tends to focus on secular organisations and institutions, overlooking religious ones, although these make up a large part of Jordanian civil society. Particularly interesting are the country's many Muslim social welfare organisations, engaged in activities such as education, health care...

  1. Measuring Welfare of Productive Consumers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Tinbergen (Jan)

    1987-01-01

    textabstractIn the last few decades an increasing number of economists have contributed to new methods of welfare (or utility) measurement. As set out in this journal (Tinbergen, 1985) three groups of economists have been active in this field since 1968, initially relatively independently; an

  2. Air quality and human welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundseth K.

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Human welfare is generally referring to allocation of resources to fit the well being of humans. If high standard of well-being is to be maintained, the concerns for a healthy environment must be balanced against requirements of economic growth. In a natural capital system, human welfare is best served by improving the quality and flow of desired services delivered rather than merely increasing the total money flow. An ecosystem based management of living and natural resource use will steer this progress to the best of human welfare while the efficiency of ecosystem based management depends strongly on the availability of integrated assessment tools that will combine environmental models and monitoring data with ecological economic valuation methods. In applied welfare economics, the methodological approach to assess resource allocations towards societal optimality and thereby establish criteria for government intervention is often linked to tools as Cost-ffectiveness Analysis (CEA, Cost-Benefit Assessment (CBA or Multi-criteria Analysis (MCA. By illustrating an assessment on costs and benefits of the implementation of Hg emission reduction measures in the coal sector, it becomes obvious that for a full analysis of societal costs and benefits, several aspects of Hg pollution, sources, impacts and co-benefits need to be considered.

  3. STRESS AND ANIMAL-WELFARE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WIEPKEMA, PR; KOOLHAAS, JM

    When individual vertebrates loose grip on their life conditions stress symptoms appear and their welfare becomes problematic. Present day research supports the view that stress can originate when an organism experiences a substantial reduction of predictability and/or controllability (P/C) of

  4. Four Normative Languages of Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mathias Herup

    2018-01-01

    This article explores the normative languages used by ordinary citizens to measure ongoing welfare state transformations in Denmark. Empirically, the article turns to qualitative data from a deliberative democratic forum where 35 citizens gathered to reflect upon and discuss the future of the wel......This article explores the normative languages used by ordinary citizens to measure ongoing welfare state transformations in Denmark. Empirically, the article turns to qualitative data from a deliberative democratic forum where 35 citizens gathered to reflect upon and discuss the future...... to be of particular importance: (1) A civic order of worth, defining individualism and welfare consumerism as the big problems while emphasizing the need for every citizen to mentally step out of their selfish state of mind and care more for others and society as such. (2) A domestic order of worth stating...... of worth stating welfare dependency to be one of the big problems and stressing the need for individual responsibility and for giving structural incentives for such behaviour....

  5. Intercultural Health Care and Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ben

    2014-01-01

    Artiklen har fokus på undervisning, planlægning, udvikling og evaluering af et internationalt tværfagligt valgfag Intercultural Health Care and Welfare, der udbydes på Det Sundhedsfaglige og Teknologiske Fakultet på Professionshøjskolen Metropol. Ifølge den tysk-amerikanske professor Iris Varner og...

  6. Lifelong Learning and Welfare Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Colin

    1999-01-01

    An alternative perspective on lifelong learning locates it in culture, civil society, and leisure/consumption lifestyles. Distinctions between education and learning and markets and quasi-markets are used to explore policy models. The relationship to welfare reform policies is discussed. (Author/SK)

  7. Psychological benefits of virtual reality for patients in rehabilitation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Hung; Jeng, Ming-Chang; Fung, Chin-Ping; Doong, Ji-Liang; Chuang, Tien-Yow

    2009-05-01

    Whether virtual rehabilitation is beneficial has not been determined. To investigate the psychological benefits of virtual reality in rehabilitation. An experimental group underwent therapy with a virtual-reality-based exercise bike, and a control group underwent the therapy without virtual-reality equipment. Hospital laboratory. 30 patients suffering from spinal-cord injury. A designed rehabilitation therapy. Endurance, Borg's rating-of-perceived-exertion scale, the Activation-Deactivation Adjective Check List (AD-ACL), and the Simulator Sickness Questionnaire. The differences between the experimental and control groups were significant for AD-ACL calmness and tension. A virtual-reality-based rehabilitation program can ease patients' tension and induce calm.

  8. Final model of multicriterionevaluation of animal welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Marianne; Botreau, R; Bracke, MBM

    One major objective of Welfare Quality® is to propose harmonized methods for the overall assessment of animal welfare on farm and at slaughter that are science based and meet societal concerns. Welfare is a multidimensional concept and its assessment requires measures of different aspects. Welfare...... Quality® proposes a formal evaluation model whereby the data on animals or their environment are transformed into value scores that reflect compliance with 12 subcriteria and 4 criteria of good welfare. Each animal unit is then allocated to one of four categories: excellent welfare, enhanced welfare......, acceptable welfare and not classified. This evaluation model is tuned according to the views of experts from animal and social sciences, and stakeholders....

  9. The Globalization-welfare State Nexus Reconsidered

    OpenAIRE

    Stephanie Meinhard; Niklas Potrafke

    2011-01-01

    Two hypotheses relate to the globalization-welfare state nexus: The efficiency hypothesis predicts that globalization reduces government sector size and governments’ capacity to finance the welfare state. The compensation hypothesis, in contrast, predicts that globalization induces a higher demand for social insurance which results in an extended welfare state. Empirical evidence on the globalization-welfare state nexus is mixed. We re-examine the evidence by investigating a yearly panel data...

  10. A Universal Animal Welfare Framework for Zoos

    OpenAIRE

    Kagan, Ron; Carter, Scott; Allard, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    The Detroit Zoological Society's (DZS) Center for Zoo Animal Welfare (CZAW) was created to advance the science and policy of the welfare of exotic nonhuman animals in captivity. This important part of the DZS mission is achieved through assessments of, and research on, the welfare of animals in zoos; by recognizing extraordinary achievement in the advancement of animal welfare; by widely sharing knowledge through a bibliographic resource center; by conducting professional training for animal ...

  11. Welfarism and extra-welfarism: a critical overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brayan Viegas Seixas

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Rules and principles for guiding decision-making in the health care sector have been debated for decades. Here, we present a critical appraisal of the two most important paradigms in this respect: welfarism and extra-welfarism. While the former deals with the maximization of the overall sum of individual utilities as its primary outcome, the latter has been focusing on the maximization of the overall health status. We argue that welfarism has three main problems: (1 its central idea of overall sum of individual utilities does not capture societal values decisively relevant in the context of health; (2 the use of the Potential Pareto Improvement brings an unresolvable separation between efficiency and equity; and (3 individual utility may not be a good measure in the health sector, given that individuals might value things that diminish their overall health. In turn, the extra-welfarist approach is criticized regarding four main limitations: (1 the advocated expansion of the evaluative space, moving from utility to health, may have represented in reality a narrowing of it; (2 it operates using non-explicit considerations of equity; (3 it still holds the issue of “inability to desire” of unprivileged people being considered the best judges of weighing the criteria used to building the health measures; and (4 there is controversial empirical evidence about society members’ values that support its assumptions. Overall, both paradigms show significant weaknesses, but the debate has still been within the realm of welfare economics, and even the new approaches to resource allocation in health care systems appear to be unable to escape from these boundaries.

  12. Health and welfare of organic livestock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sukkel, W.; Hommes, M.

    2009-01-01

    Animal health and welfare are important principles of organic animal husbandry. In the Netherlands organic animal husbandry has proven to perform better than the conventional sector on many aspects of animal welfare. The Dutch organic animal husbandry sector has recognised animal health and welfare

  13. Come cambia il modello di welfare europeo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Bent

    2006-01-01

    European welfare states are changing. All countries are witnessing demographic changes, and are experiencing the impact of globalization. These changes, it is expected, will have repercussions for the various welfare states. Against this background, this paper looks at how the welfare states in E...

  14. Welfare Rights in the Liberal Tradition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, Thomas A.

    1990-01-01

    Maintains that welfare rights are not incompatible with liberalism's commitment to private property and freedom. Argues that students need to be aware of liberalism's favorable historical position on welfare. Examines the positions of John Locke, Thomas Paine, and John Stuart Mills on poverty, welfare, and the role of the state. (RW)

  15. Is competition between regions welfare increasing?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerdink, G.C. (Gerhard); Stauvermann, P.J. (Peter)

    2010-01-01

    It is generally assumed that competition increases welfare. The main idea behind this assumption is that competition in a market is the best incentive mechanism to produce efficient market outcomes. This is good for social welfare and therefore stimulating competition is welfare increasing.

  16. The Paradigmatic Struggle for Legitimacy of the Danish Welfare State regarding the Provision of Welfare Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, John Storm; Nielsen, Anna Lyneborg; Rendtorff, Jacob Dahl

    2014-01-01

    The Danish welfare state constitutes a paradigmatic case of the welfare struggle of modern welfare states. Taking care of vulnerable children and youths is used as a case study here, to illustrate the efforts of the welfare state to acquire legitimacy as a body of public administration. That is, ...

  17. Specialized stroke rehabilitation services in seven countries: Preliminary results from nine rehabilitation centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhammer, Birgitta; Becker, Frank; Sunnerhagen, Katharina S; Zhang, Tong; Du, Xiaoxia; Bushnik, Tamara; Panchenko, Maria; Keren, Ofer; Banura, Samir; Elessi, Khamis; Luzon, Fuad; Lundgren-Nilsson, Åsa; Li, Xie; Sällström, Susanne; Stanghelle, Johan Kvalvik

    2015-12-01

    There is a lack of defined levels of rehabilitation, indicating possibly random content and access to specialized services. The aim of the study was to perform a multinational descriptive study of specialized rehabilitation in persons with stroke, to elucidate what the different centers define as prerequisites for specialized rehabilitation, and to analyze whether these descriptions map to currently applied standards or constructs of specialized rehabilitation. A secondary aim was to look for similarities and differences between therapies and services for persons with stroke in the sub-acute stage in the different institutions. Descriptive data of the collaborating centers regarding structure and processes of services were recorded and compared with the British Society of Rehabilitation Medicine and Specialized Services National Definitions sets. Comparisons of the definitions showed that all centers admitted severely disabled persons with stroke, in need of complex rehabilitation, and provided high levels of physical services, with specialized equipment and facilities. However, funding, size, university affiliation, quality accreditation, staffing levels, specialist training, cognitive and vocational services, coordination of the professional teams, admission procedures, time and type of therapies, estimated length of stay, and follow-up procedures differed between the centers. This multinational study of specialized stroke rehabilitation centers shows that a universal definition of specialized rehabilitation is possible, even in quite different countries and settings, in terms of general principles. There were however differences in structures and procedures, which may influence patients' outcomes, indicating a need for refinement of the definitions to be globally applicable. © 2015 World Stroke Organization.

  18. The Paradigmatic Struggle for Legitimacy of the Danish Welfare State regarding the Provision of Welfare Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rendtorff, Jacob Dahl; Nielsen, Anna Lyneborg; Pedersen, John Storm

    2014-01-01

    The Danish welfare state constitutes a paradigmatic case of the welfare struggle of modern welfare states. Taking care of vulnerable children and youths is used as a case study here, to illustrate the efforts of the welfare state to acquire legitimacy as a body of public administration. That is...... blindness, in order to test the legitimacy of the welfare state´s provision of welfare services at the beginning of this century. We propose a new paradigm to improve the welfare state´s legitimacy. Our case is considered critical....

  19. Animal Welfare in Air Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Popović

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Animal welfare is becoming an evermore-important factorfor air carriers from the economical viewpoint, due to its importantimpact on the carrier public image. High standard care hasto be taken of animals during transport in order to satisfy an importantsegment of airline customers, either the Business/Firstclass passengers travelling with pets, or influential shippers ofracing horses, dogs, Zoo species etc.Air transp011 of animals, disregarding other advantages,may pose a threat to their health and welfare being a significantmultifactorial stressor. Along with cardiovascular, endocrineand metabolic abe1mtions, it affects the immune response ofan animal and increases susceptibility to infection. Therefore,strict conditions for air transport of eve1y animal species havebeen imposed. Transport of only healthy animals is approved,as it is necessG/y to prevent the spread of disease during transportand to provide satisfactOJy environment for animals to betransported.

  20. The ethics of fish welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, J C

    2009-12-01

    The topic of fish welfare in the context of commercial fisheries is a difficult one. From traditionally anthropocentric or human-centred perspectives, fishes are simply objects for humans to use as they see fit. When it is argued that anthropocentrism is arbitrary, it may appear that a strong animal rights position is the only recourse, with the result that humans ought not to use animals in the first place, if it is at all possible. It can be argued that both positions fail to view human beings as part of the natural world. If human beings are viewed as part of the world from which they live, then it has to be asked what it means to be respectful of the animals which humans use and from which they live. From this perspective, concern for the welfare of the fishes humans eat is simply what should be expected from humans as good citizens in the community of living creatures.

  1. Rescaling Welfare Policies in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haddad Thorgaard, Camilla; Vinter, Henrik

    The report is a contribution to the research project ”Rescaling of Social Welfare Policies: a comparative study on the path towards multilevel governance in Europe”, which is coordinated by the European Centre for Social Welfare Policy and Research. The report is a background paper for the project....... It provides background information for understanding the rescaling process in Denmark. The report has a three-fold purpose. First, it describes the contextual conditions within which the rescaling process occurs. Second, it describes the institutional settings in terms of territorial responsibilities...... and competences, identifying the relevant actors involved in policy design, management and delivery. Third, it describes the rescaling process that has occurred in Denmark since the 1980s; it focuses on four policy areas: social assistance and local politics against poverty, employment policy, elder care...

  2. Housing Welfare Policies in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lotte

    2013-01-01

    marketization, welfare criticism and internationalization. The aim is to provide outside readers a theoretically guided empirical insight into Scandinavian social housing policy. The paper first lines up the core of the inbuilt argument of historical institutionalism in housing policy. Secondly, it briefly...... the past quarter of a decade. The third section then concentrates on the differences between Denmark, Sweden and Norway in which social housing is, our was originally, embedded in a universal welfare policy targeting the general level of housing quality for the entire population. Differences stand out...... of the governance model of social housing policy in which the housing associations are conceived of as 'dialogue partners' in the local housing policy, expected to create solutions to, rather than produce problems in social housing areas. The reform testifies to the strategic ability of the Danish social housing...

  3. Post-Communist Welfare Pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cerami, Alfio; Vanhuysse, Pieter

    countries and across social policy domains. By providing a broad overview based on a theoretical foundation and drawing on recent empirical evidence, Post-Communist Welfare Pathways offers a comprehensive, state-of-the-art account of the progress that has been made since 1989, and the main challenges...... does so by bringing together the leading experts on the subject worldwide. The editors' theoretically well-informed and analytically illuminating and innovative approach to the study of welfare state (self-) transformation, which casts new light on the evolution of domestic and supranational social...... with a stellar line-up of authors that is theoretically sophisticated and empirically rich as it provides insights into the dynamics of change in Central and Eastern European countries since the Fall of the Berlin Wall. The book shows that there are no simple explanations of the transformation of CEECs' social...

  4. Human cloning and child welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burley, J; Harris, J

    1999-01-01

    In this paper we discuss an objection to human cloning which appeals to the welfare of the child. This objection varies according to the sort of harm it is expected the clone will suffer. The three formulations of it that we will consider are: 1. Clones will be harmed by the fearful or prejudicial attitudes people may have about or towards them (H1); 2. Clones will be harmed by the demands and expectations of parents or genotype donors (H2); 3. Clones will be harmed by their own awareness of their origins, for example the knowledge that the genetic donor is a stranger (H3). We will show why these three versions of the child welfare objection do not necessarily supply compelling reasons to ban human reproductive cloning. The claim that we will develop and defend in the course of our discussion is that even if it is the case that a cloned child will suffer harms of the type H1-H3, it is none the less permissible to conceive by cloning so long as these cloning-induced welfare deficits are not such as to blight the existence of the resultant child, whoever this may be. PMID:10226914

  5. Has the Nordic Welfare Model Been Transformed?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Bent; Kvist, Jon

    2011-01-01

    schemes - collective and individual - supplementing public schemes is well documented, scant attention has focused on more recent developments in other areas of the welfare state. This article shows how the multi-tiered welfare state spread in the 2000s to policies for families, the unemployed...... and the sick. Although Denmark still offers universal coverage in core welfare state areas, the increased use of occupational and fiscal welfare as well as changes in public schemes has gradually transformed the nation into a multi-tiered welfare state that is more dualistic and individualistic...

  6. Behavioural indicators of welfare in farmed fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Catarina I M; Galhardo, Leonor; Noble, Chris; Damsgård, Børge; Spedicato, Maria T; Zupa, Walter; Beauchaud, Marilyn; Kulczykowska, Ewa; Massabuau, Jean-Charles; Carter, Toby; Planellas, Sònia Rey; Kristiansen, Tore

    2012-02-01

    Behaviour represents a reaction to the environment as fish perceive it and is therefore a key element of fish welfare. This review summarises the main findings on how behavioural changes have been used to assess welfare in farmed fish, using both functional and feeling-based approaches. Changes in foraging behaviour, ventilatory activity, aggression, individual and group swimming behaviour, stereotypic and abnormal behaviour have been linked with acute and chronic stressors in aquaculture and can therefore be regarded as likely indicators of poor welfare. On the contrary, measurements of exploratory behaviour, feed anticipatory activity and reward-related operant behaviour are beginning to be considered as indicators of positive emotions and welfare in fish. Despite the lack of scientific agreement about the existence of sentience in fish, the possibility that they are capable of both positive and negative emotions may contribute to the development of new strategies (e.g. environmental enrichment) to promote good welfare. Numerous studies that use behavioural indicators of welfare show that behavioural changes can be interpreted as either good or poor welfare depending on the fish species. It is therefore essential to understand the species-specific biology before drawing any conclusions in relation to welfare. In addition, different individuals within the same species may exhibit divergent coping strategies towards stressors, and what is tolerated by some individuals may be detrimental to others. Therefore, the assessment of welfare in a few individuals may not represent the average welfare of a group and vice versa. This underlines the need to develop on-farm, operational behavioural welfare indicators that can be easily used to assess not only the individual welfare but also the welfare of the whole group (e.g. spatial distribution). With the ongoing development of video technology and image processing, the on-farm surveillance of behaviour may in the near

  7. Preparing Social Work Students for Rural Child Welfare Practice: Emerging Curriculum Competencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riebschleger, Joanne; Norris, Debra; Pierce, Barbara; Pond, Debora L.; Cummings, Cristy

    2015-01-01

    Multiple issues that are unique to child welfare social work practice in rural areas markedly affect workforce recruitment and retention, yet little attention is given to the proficiencies needed to equip emerging social workers for this growing area of the field. Curriculum content is needed that provides students with the opportunity to master…

  8. Remote monitoring of electroencephalogram, electrocardiogram, and behavior during controlled atmosphere stunning in broilers: Implications for welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coenen, A.M.L.; Lankhaar, J.A.C.; Lowe, J.C.; McKeegan, D.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the welfare implications of euthanizing broilers with 3 gas mixtures relevant to the commercial application of controlled atmosphere stunning (CAS). Birds were implanted/equipped with electrodes to measure brain activity (electroencephalogram, EEG) and heart rate. These signals

  9. Basics of SCI Rehabilitation

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Adult Injuries Spinal ... Spinal Cord Injury 101 Lawrence Vogel, MD The Basics of Pediatric SCI Rehabilitation Sara Klaas, MSW Transitions ...

  10. Basics of SCI Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... menu Topics The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 David Chen, ... Life After Pediatric Spinal Injury Dawn Sheaffer, MSW Rehabilitation Psychological Realities after Spinal Cord Injury Toby Huston, ...

  11. Basics of SCI Rehabilitation

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... menu Topics The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 David Chen, ... Life After Pediatric Spinal Injury Dawn Sheaffer, MSW Rehabilitation Psychological Realities after Spinal Cord Injury Toby Huston, ...

  12. Armenia - Rural Road Rehabilitation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The key research questions guiding our design of the RRRP evaluation are: • Did rehabilitating roads affect the quality of roads? • Did rehabilitating roads improve...

  13. Basics of SCI Rehabilitation

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Spinal Cord Injury Facts and Figures Care and Treatment After SCI Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Pediatric Spinal ... Spinal Cord Injury Facts and Figures Care and Treatment After SCI Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Pediatric Spinal ...

  14. Basics of SCI Rehabilitation

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Injury Chart Spinal Cord Injury Facts and Figures Care and Treatment After SCI Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation ... Injury Chart Spinal Cord Injury Facts and Figures Care and Treatment After SCI Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation ...

  15. Basics of SCI Rehabilitation

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cord Injury Rehabilitation Pediatric Spinal Cord Injuries Video Library SCI Medical Experts People Living with SCI Personal ... Cord Injury Rehabilitation Pediatric Spinal Cord Injuries Video Library SCI Medical Experts People Living with SCI Personal ...

  16. Relatos da equipe de saúde quanto às práticas educativas ao vitimado no trânsito durante a hospitalização/reabilitação num hospital de emergência Health care team's reports on educational practices for road traffic victims during hospitalization/rehabilitation in an emergency hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiza Jane Eyre de Souza Vieira

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar os relatos da equipe de saúde quanto às práticas educativas ao vitimado no trânsito durante a hospitalização/reabilitação, visando à minimização da instalação de sequelas traumato-ortopédicas. Este estudo foi realizado com 10 profissionais da equipe de saúde que trabalham em um hospital público de emergência em Fortaleza, Ceará, Brasil, em 2006. A entrevista semiestruturada foi a técnica utilizada para a coleta de dados, os quais foram submetidos à análise temática e discutidos à luz da Educação em Saúde e Promoção da Saúde. Para os participantes, a concepção sobre a prática educativa convergiu para o caráter preventivo, informacional e normativo; a equipe de saúde, apesar de não exercer o processo de assistência terapêutica integral e humanizada, alguns profissionais da equipe de saúde desenvolvem de forma tímida a prática educativa, desmitificando a Promoção da Saúde como foco da atenção primária. Desse modo, a reorientação da prática da equipe de saúde, com enfoque interdisciplinar à vítima de acidente de trânsito, pode ser um diferencial para minimizar a instalação de sequelas.The paper aims at analyzing the health care team's reports on educational practices to road traffic victims during the period of hospitalization and rehabilitation, trying to reduce traumatic orthopedic sequelae. The study was carried out with 10 professionals from the health care team who work in a public emergency hospital in the city of Fortaleza, State of Ceará, Brazil, in 2006. The semi-structured interview was the technique for collecting data and these were submitted to thematic analysis and then discussed in the light of Health Education and Health Promotion. To the participants, the conception of educational practice converged to a preventive, informational, and normative approach; although the health care team did not accomplish with integrality and humanization the

  17. Pediatric rehabilitation in children with rare diseases--preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binkiewicz-Glińska, Anna; Ruckermann-Dziurdzińska, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    As consultants in rehabilitation medicine and pediatrics sometimes we realize that most of our patients and their families are left unsupported and alone in terms of rehabilitation therapy during the treatment of their primary disease. Probably we forget that rehabilitation should be an integral part of every treatment process. In the case of rare diseases, their basic treatment should be carried out in speciality facilities (speciality hospitals) where personel and equipment are able to run the most effective treatment. Rehabilitation medicine offers full range of cheap, non-invasive diagnostic tools. Well-chosen equipment can help with physical therapy and allow the independence of the child and full social integration. In an era of rapid change in civilization and progress of science, professionals use new technologies more often. This also refers to the field of rehabilitation medicine. Exoskeletons and lokomats created nowadays allow the use of new technologies in rehabilitation treatment processes. For specific disorders effective treatment may include even virtual reality (VR). Early initiation of the rehabilitation process can improve the therapeutic effects and the overall outcome of the treatment, identifying the needs and realizing the available goals of rehabilitation that could build the sense of safety in the family and enhance their trust in the therapeutic team.

  18. Environmental Sustainability based on Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen

    2005-01-01

    The paper argues that the Scandinavian countries have some traditions of equity and social welfare, which are essential for reaching a truly environmentally sustainable society. But for the highly polluting Denmark, this would require a dramatic change in the political visions. Maintaining...... the present low birth rate is one condition necessary, environmentally better technology is another, and finally a saturation with material consumption, which is required. The latter is in line with people's quest for more leisure time rather than more consumption, but unfortunately counteracted by government...

  19. Reciprocity, World Prices and Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis; Woodland, Alan D.

    We examine in detail the circumstances under which reciprocity, as defined in Bagwell and Staiger (1999), leads to fixed world prices. We show that a change of tariffs satisfying reciprocity does not necessarily imply constant world prices in a world of many goods and countries. While...... it is possible to find tariff reforms that are consistent with both reciprocity and constant world prices, these reforms do not follow from the reciprocity condition, but rather from the requirement of unchanged world prices. We propose an alternative reciprocity rule that is guaranteed to raise the welfare...... of all countries, independently of whether world prices change and independently of the relative numbers of goods and countries....

  20. 'Genericism' in Danish welfare professions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Verner

    and skills in the basic disciplines of the professions also termed as disciplinary and procedural knowledge '. Thus the main research question for this paper is: What consequences do recent reform actions in Danish welfare education concerning generic competence have on developing professional knowledge......Our paper is based on an ongoing research project about ‘genericism’ in Danish professional education. We critically discuss the concept of 'generic skills' and argue that the ability to act professionally and reflective, even in changing contexts, should foremost be based on extensive knowledge...

  1. Animal welfare and use of silkworm as a model animal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekimizu, N; Paudel, A; Hamamoto, H

    2012-08-01

    Sacrificing model animals is required for developing effective drugs before being used in human beings. In Japan today, at least 4,210,000 mice and other mammals are sacrificed to a total of 6,140,000 per year for the purpose of medical studies. All the animals treated in Japan, including test animals, are managed under control of "Act on Welfare and Management of Animals". Under the principle of this Act, no person shall kill, injure, or inflict cruelty on animals without due cause. "Animal" addressed in the Act can be defined as a "vertebrate animal". If we can make use of invertebrate animals in testing instead of vertebrate ones, that would be a remarkable solution for the issue of animal welfare. Furthermore, there are numerous advantages of using invertebrate animal models: less space and small equipment are enough for taking care of a large number of animals and thus are cost-effective, they can be easily handled, and many biological processes and genes are conserved between mammals and invertebrates. Today, many invertebrates have been used as animal models, but silkworms have many beneficial traits compared to mammals as well as other insects. In a Genome Pharmaceutical Institute's study, we were able to achieve a lot making use of silkworms as model animals. We would like to suggest that pharmaceutical companies and institutes consider the use of the silkworm as a model animal which is efficacious both for financial value by cost cutting and ethical aspects in animals' welfare.

  2. A Universal Animal Welfare Framework for Zoos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, Ron; Carter, Scott; Allard, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    The Detroit Zoological Society's (DZS) Center for Zoo Animal Welfare (CZAW) was created to advance the science and policy of the welfare of exotic nonhuman animals in captivity. This important part of the DZS mission is achieved through assessments of, and research on, the welfare of animals in zoos; by recognizing extraordinary achievement in the advancement of animal welfare; by widely sharing knowledge through a bibliographic resource center; by conducting professional training for animal care staff; and by convening important discussions in the form of international symposia. This special issue of the Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science features selected papers from the most recent international CZAW symposium held at the Detroit Zoo in November 2014, as well as a universal framework for zoo animal welfare developed by the DZS. PMID:26440494

  3. Welfare Economics: A Story of Existence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Iqbal

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to explore that, despite severe challenges, welfare economics still exists. This descriptive study is conducted through some specific time line developments in this field. Economists are divided over the veracity and survival of the welfare economics. Welfare economics emphasizes on the optimum resource and goods allocation with the objective of better living standard, materialistic gains, social welfare and ethical decisions. It origins back to the political economics and utilitarianism. Adam Smith, Irving Fisher and Pareto contributed significantly towards it. During 1930 to 1940, American and British approaches were developed. Many economists tried to explore the relationship between level of income and happiness. Amartya Sen gave the comparative approach and Tinbergen pioneered the theory of equity. Contemporarily the futuristic restoration of welfare economics is on trial and hopes are alive. This study may be useful to understand the transitional and survival process of welfare economics.

  4. A Universal Animal Welfare Framework for Zoos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, Ron; Carter, Scott; Allard, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    The Detroit Zoological Society's (DZS) Center for Zoo Animal Welfare (CZAW) was created to advance the science and policy of the welfare of exotic nonhuman animals in captivity. This important part of the DZS mission is achieved through assessments of, and research on, the welfare of animals in zoos; by recognizing extraordinary achievement in the advancement of animal welfare; by widely sharing knowledge through a bibliographic resource center; by conducting professional training for animal care staff; and by convening important discussions in the form of international symposia. This special issue of the Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science features selected papers from the most recent international CZAW symposium held at the Detroit Zoo in November 2014, as well as a universal framework for zoo animal welfare developed by the DZS.

  5. Measuring zoo animal welfare: theory and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Sonya P; Broom, Donald M

    2009-11-01

    The assessment of animal welfare relates to investigations of how animals try to cope with their environment, and how easy or how difficult it is for them to do so. The use of rigorous scientific methods to assess this has grown over the past few decades, and so our understanding of the needs of animals has improved during this time. Much of the work in the field of animal welfare has been conducted on farm animals, but it is important to consider how the methods and approaches used in assessing farm animal welfare have been, and can be, adapted and applied to the measurement of welfare in animals in other domains, such as in zoos. This is beneficial to our understanding of both the theoretical knowledge, and the practicability of methods. In this article, some of the commonly-used methods for measuring animal welfare will be discussed, as well as some practical considerations in assessing the welfare of zoo animals.

  6. Rehabilitation of cancer patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandey M

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available With the developments in cancer treatment, more and more patients are surviving their disease. However, very little emphasis is being placed to rehabilitate these cancer survivors. Ignorance, social structure, stigma attached in seeking psychological help, and poor communication skills of oncology staff all contribute to poor rehabilitative efforts. The priority of governmental agencies and health efforts to fight rampant communicable diseases, malnutrition, maternal health, and the frequent natural calamities, puts rehabilitation movements in the back seat. Treatment and prevention of disability and its rehabilitation requires comprehensive and multidisciplinary approach. There is an urgent need to promote physical and psychological rehabilitation.

  7. Cancer rehabilitation in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Helle Ploug; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine

    2008-01-01

    A fundamental assumption behind cancer rehabilitation in many Western societies is that cancer survivors can return to normal life by learning to deal with the consequences of their illness and their treatment. This assumption is supported by increasing political attention to cancer rehabilitation...... and a growth in residential cancer-rehabilitation initiatives in Denmark (Danish Cancer Society 1999; Government of Denmark 2003). On the basis of their ethnographic fieldwork in residential-cancer rehabilitation courses, the authors examine the new rehabilitation discourse. They argue that this discourse has...

  8. Welfare Effects of Food Miles Labels

    OpenAIRE

    Caputo, Vincenzina; Vassilopoulos, Achilleas; Nayga, Rodolfo M., Jr.; Canavari, Maurizio

    2010-01-01

    We assessed the consumer welfare effects of two generic food miles labels: carbon dioxide (CO2) emission label and number of miles label. Using data from a choice experiment, our results generally suggest that a mandatory labeling policy for either type of label would have a positive welfare effect on both informed and uninformed consumers. However, a label informing consumers about the number of miles the food product has travelled provides greater positive welfare effects than a label infor...

  9. Race, Debt and the Welfare State

    OpenAIRE

    Pitcher, B.

    2016-01-01

    In this article I explore how the figure of debt illuminates the racial politics of welfare in neoliberal Britain. I begin by giving a reading of the simultaneous unfolding of post-war race politics and the Beveridgean welfare state, and then turn to consider the interpellative appeal of neoliberal debt to minoritiSed subjects who have, in certain respects, been de facto excluded from prevailing models of welfare citizenship. In particular, this article considers the ways in which household d...

  10. Rehabilitation on Geriatric Rheumatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Isabela de Almeida

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Elders are the most representative installment among the universe ofdefi ciency bearer persons. Advanced age contributes for the advent ofdefi ciencies in general. Rehabilitation of elderly patients is imperativefor quality of life of the patient and for the society. Rehabilitation isable to help basically in four fronts: prevention of wounds, minimize,revert and adaptation to sequels. The elder is always prone to receivebenefi ts from rehabilitation. However, he tends to react more slowlyto the rehabilitative interventions. The objective of Physical Medicineand Rehabilitation is to insert independence and quality in the lifewhose duration was prolonged by the advancements of science.The success of Rehabilitation depends on many variables, including:the nature and severity of the illness or wound, kind and severity ofremaining incapacities, global health of the patient and support of thefamily. In this article, the main characteristics of the rehabilitation inGeriatric Rheumatology are described.

  11. From the front lines of welfare reform: an analysis of social worker and welfare recipient attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, Heather E

    2004-12-01

    Social workers and welfare recipients operate within the same institutional framework and share a working and/or lived knowledge of poverty, but they occupy different social and economic positions. To gain a better understanding of intergroup attitudes, the author compared how social workers and welfare recipients explain poverty and perceive the welfare system. The results highlight important similarities and differences between the two groups. Although the author did not find differences for individualistic attributions, welfare recipients regarded prejudice as playing a greater role in causing poverty than did social workers. Welfare recipients also expressed stronger support for increased welfare funding and progressive welfare policies than did social workers. The author discussed implications for strengthening interclass alliances, particularly the relationship between social service providers and welfare recipients.

  12. Consumer preferences for pig welfare - can the market accommodate more than one level of welfare pork?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denver, Sigrid; Sandøe, Peter; Christensen, Tove

    2017-01-01

    and high level animal welfare pork will have to be quite narrow. In addition, full willingness-to-pay of consumers who want to buy high level welfare pork cannot be relied upon to incentivise new consumers to buy medium welfare pork. Further, raising brand awareness in the shopping situation and improving...... consumer's understanding of brand attributes for high level welfare brands were found to be vital....

  13. Assessment of Rehabilitation Infrastructure in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhs, Amy K; LaGrone, Lacey N; Moscoso Porras, Miguel G; Rodríguez Castro, Manuel J; Ecos Quispe, Rosa Lizbeth; Mock, Charles N

    2017-11-21

    training tools (28%) were least frequent. Rehabilitation emphasis is on outpatient services, and there are comparatively adequate numbers of physical therapists and physiatrists relative to rehabilitation personnel. Financial barriers seem low for accessing existing services. There appear to be shortages of inpatient rehabilitation, specialized services, and interdisciplinary collaboration. These may be addressed by redistributing personnel and investing in education and equipment for specialized services. Further examination of task sharing's role in Peru's rehabilitation services is necessary to evaluate its potential to address deficiencies. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Popular Support for Welfare State Reforms: On Welfare State Preferences and Welfare State Reforms in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Raven (Judith)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe aim of this research is to better understand what is meant by general support for the welfare state. At the start of this study, I observed an alleged discrepancy between people’s preferences and welfare state policies. Whereas on the one hand various studies demonstrate that public

  15. The Relationship Between Mental Representations of Welfare Recipients and Attitudes Toward Welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown-Iannuzzi, Jazmin L; Dotsch, Ron; Cooley, Erin; Payne, B Keith

    2016-01-01

    Scholars have argued that opposition to welfare is, in part, driven by stereotypes of African Americans. This argument assumes that when individuals think about welfare, they spontaneously think about Black recipients. We investigated people's mental representations of welfare recipients. In Studies

  16. The relationship between mental representations of welfare recipients and attitudes toward welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown-Iannuzzi, J.L.; Dotsch, R.; Cooley, E.; Payne, B.K.

    2017-01-01

    Scholars have argued that opposition to welfare is, in part, driven by stereotypes of African Americans. This argument assumes that when individuals think about welfare, they spontaneously think about Black recipients. We investigated people's mental representations of welfare recipients. In Studies

  17. Child Welfare Workers: Who They Are and How They View the Child Welfare System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zell, Maristela C.

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the characteristics of child welfare caseworkers, their views of the child welfare system, their clients, their agency of employment, and child welfare policies, and whether these views vary according to caseworkers' characteristics. Quantitative and qualitative methods were used to analyze in-depth interviews conducted with…

  18. A history of animal welfare science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broom, Donald M

    2011-06-01

    Human attitudes to animals have changed as non-humans have become more widely incorporated in the category of moral agents who deserve some respect. Parallels between the functioning of humans and non-humans have been made for thousands of years but the idea that the animals that we keep can suffer has spread recently. An improved understanding of motivation, cognition and the complexity of social behaviour in animals has led in the last 30 years to the rapid development of animal welfare science. Early attempts to define welfare referred to individuals being in harmony with nature but the first usable definition incorporated feelings and health as part of attempts to cope with the environment. Others considered that welfare is only about feelings but it is argued that as feelings are mechanisms that have evolved they are a part of welfare rather than all of it. Most reviews of welfare now start with listing the needs of the animal, including needs to show certain behaviours. This approach has used sophisticated studies of what is important to animals and has replaced the earlier general guidelines described as freedoms. Many measures of welfare are now used and indicate how good or how poor the welfare is. Naturalness is not a part of the definition of welfare but explains why some needs exist. In recent years, welfare has become established as one of various criteria used to decide on whether a system is sustainable because members of the public will not accept systems that cause poor welfare. The study of welfare has become part of the scientific basis upon which important political decisions are made.

  19. [Transgenic animals and animal welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, Christoph

    1998-01-01

    Under the pressure of a public vote in Switzerland (7 June 1998) on an initiative to ban the production, use and patenting of transgenic animals, their value for biomedical research and development is intensely debated. In addition, the Swiss legislation has adopted (1992) a constitutional obligation to "take into account the dignity of creatures". The term "dignity of creatures", however, can be interpreted in anthropocentric or biocentric ways. The government has now formulated the legal implications of this term for transgenic animals and plants in various laws including the animal and environmental protection laws. This paper gives arguments for a fair evaluation of trangenic animals from an animal welfare point of view where not only the costs of animal suffering must be considered but also the probability of potential benefit for man. A self-confident research community should allow such an evaluation procedure even in view of an outcome which could ban many uses of transgenic animals

  20. We Develop Welfare Together - Locally

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flindt, Helle; Carlsbæk, Poul Hornshøj

    Abstract – ATBH 8 Author/presenter information Poul Carlsbæk, POCA@phmetropol.dk, Denmark, Metropolitan University College Helle Flindt, hefl@phmetropol.dk , Denmark, Metropolitan University College Presentation title We Develop Welfare Together - Locally Description for the conference program...... years  Former Information Manager in municipalities and Senior Executive Consultant in a Danish consultant firm and in a IT-firm's innovative department  Volunteer in e.g. DJØF (association for layers and economists) and DN (society for nature conservation) Helle Flindt:  Occupational Therapist......, societies etc. to join the activities. Theese two examples of new demand rely on the frontline public employees. They have the closest contact with the citizens, which contain valuable knowledge, great innovation potential and have a sense of ownership in the implementing process. Through a 10 week...

  1. Welfare Reform and Children's Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltagi, Badi H; Yen, Yin-Fang

    2016-03-01

    This study investigates the effect of the Temporary Aid to Needy Families (TANF) program on children's health outcomes using data from the Survey of Income and Program Participation over the period 1994 to 2005. The TANF policies have been credited with increased employment for single mothers and a dramatic drop in welfare caseload. Our results show that these policies also had a significant effect on various measures of children's medical utilization among low-income families. These health measures include a rating of the child's health status reported by the parents, the number of times that parents consulted a doctor, and the number of nights that the child stayed in a hospital. We compare the overall changes of health status and medical utilization for children with working and nonworking mothers. We find that the child's health status as reported by the parents is affected by the maternal employment status. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Bioethical Problems: Animal Welfare, Animal Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    March, B. E.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses various bioethical issues and problems related to animal welfare and animal rights. Areas examined include: Aristotelian views; animal welfare legislation; Darwin and evolutionary theory; animal and human behavior; and vegetarianism. A 14-point universal declaration of the rights of animals is included. (JN)

  3. Radical Welfare State Retrenchment: A Comparative Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starke, Peter

    In this study, Peter Starke confronts one of the most fiercely contested issues in current political debates: how is the retrenchment of the welfare state possible when popular support for it remains strong throughout the OECD world? Traditionally, challenges to the welfare state were seen as ele...

  4. The Climate of Child Welfare Employee Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahalane, Helen; Sites, Edward W.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes differences in perceptions of the child welfare work environment among Title IV-E educated individuals who remain within public child welfare and those who sought employment elsewhere after fulfilling a legal work commitment. Job satisfaction, emotional exhaustion, and personal accomplishment were predictive of staying…

  5. Flexible Employment, Risk and the Welfare State

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.P.S. Dekker (Fabian)

    2011-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ In most developed countries, the welfare state provides some form of protection for its citizens. The provision of social arrangements differs substantially between countries but, on the basis of institutional characteristics such as the level of spending on welfare

  6. Behavioural indicators of welfare in farmed fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martins, C.I.; Galhardo, L.; Noble, C.; Damsgard, B.; Spedicato, M.T.; Zupa, W.; Beauchaud, M.; Kulczykowska, E.; Massabuau, J.C.; Carter, T.; Planellas, S.R.; Kristiansen, T.

    2012-01-01

    Behaviour represents a reaction to the environment as fish perceive it and is therefore a key element of fish welfare. This review summarises the main findings on how behavioural changes have been used to assess welfare in farmed fish, using both functional and feeling-based approaches. Changes in

  7. Rights, solidarity and the animal welfare state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harfeld, Jes

    2016-01-01

    This article argues that aspects of the animal rights view can be constructively modulated through a communitarian approach and come to promote animal welfare through the social contexts of expanded caring communities. The Nordic welfare state is presented as a conceivable caring community within...... which animals could be viewed and treated appropriately as co-citizens with solidarity based rights and duties....

  8. Nash Social Welfare in Multiagent Resource Allocation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Ramezani (Sara); U. Endriss; E. David; E.H. Gerding (Enrico); D. Sarne; O. Shehory (Onn)

    2010-01-01

    htmlabstractWe study different aspects of the multiagent resource allocation problem when the objective is to find an allocation that maximizes Nash social welfare, the product of the utilities of the individual agents. The Nash solution is an important welfare criterion that combines efficiency and

  9. Does the Minimum Wage Affect Welfare Caseloads?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Marianne E.; Spetz, Joanne; Millar, Jane

    2005-01-01

    Although minimum wages are advocated as a policy that will help the poor, few studies have examined their effect on poor families. This paper uses variation in minimum wages across states and over time to estimate the impact of minimum wage legislation on welfare caseloads. We find that the elasticity of the welfare caseload with respect to the…

  10. Child Welfare Worker Caseload: What's Just Right?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamatani, Hide; Engel, Rafael; Spjeldnes, Solveig

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to establish a caseload standard for child welfare workers. Understanding reasonable workload expectations for child welfare workers is a cornerstone of quality service provision and the recruitment and retention of qualified workers. Because of the analytic complexity of this question, qualitative and quantitative methods…

  11. Animal Welfare Considerations: Should Context Matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ohl, Frauke|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314545255; Putman, R.J.

    2014-01-01

    Much consideration of animal welfare issues, as well as the bulk of welfare legislation, is closely related to context, with clear distinction between defined responsibilities towards farm-, laboratory-, companion- and wild animals. It has however been recognised that such distinction leads to

  12. Towards a Dynamic (Schumpeterian) Welfare Economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.A. Dolfsma (Wilfred)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractFor an economy where knowledge plays an increasingly important role in shaping its dynamics, economics needs a dynamic (Schumpeterian) welfare theory. This paper sketches the role of knowledge in an economy and argues that a static Paretian welfare economics is inadequate, or at least

  13. Child Welfare in Developing Countries | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-08-05

    Child Welfare in Developing Countries. Couverture du livre Child Welfare in Developing Countries. Editor(s):. John Cockburn et Jane Kabubo-Mariara. Publisher(s):. Springer, PEP, CRDI. August 5, 2010. ISBN: 9781441963376. 308 pages. e-ISBN: 9781552504888. Download PDF · Read the e-book · Order the book.

  14. Effects of Welfare Participation on Marriage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teitler, Julien O.; Reichman, Nancy E.; Nepomnyaschy, Lenna; Garfinkel, Irwin

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the widely held premise that welfare participation causes women to refrain from marriage. Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 3,219), we employed an event history approach to study transitions to marriage among mothers who have had a nonmarital birth. We found that welfare participation reduces the…

  15. INVITED REVIEW: Farm size and animal welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, J A; von Keyserlingk, M A G; Fraser, D; Weary, D M

    2016-12-01

    Critics of agricultural intensification have argued that the transition from smaller to larger farms has compromised animal welfare. To critically examine evidence relevant to this claim, we reviewed more than 150 publications that examined the relationship between farm size and at least one animal welfare indicator. Although much of this literature focuses on dairy cattle, we also reference other farmed species where appropriate. We found little evidence of any simple relationship, negative or positive, between farm size and animal welfare. Instead, the evidence suggests that larger farms provide some opportunities to improve animal welfare but may also create welfare risks. For example, larger farms permit more specialized and professional management of animal health but can make it more difficult to accommodate outdoor access that some view as integral to animal welfare. Future research should attempt to specify the underlying casual mechanisms by which statistical associations between farm size and indicators of welfare are believed to occur. We also suggest that policy and advocacy efforts aimed at reversing increases in farm size would be better directed toward improving welfare on farms of all sizes.

  16. Child Welfare in Developing Countries | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-08-05

    Aug 5, 2010 ... Order the book. What factors affect child welfare? How can policy improve child welfare? In developing countries, there has been relatively little empirical work on the analysis and measurement of child poverty. Further, poverty has many dimensions, including mortality, morbidity, hunger, illiteracy, lack of ...

  17. The globalisation of farm animal welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, D

    2014-04-01

    Animal welfare has achieved significant global prominence for perhaps three reasons. First, several centuries of scientific research, especially in anatomy, evolutionary biology and animal behaviour, have led to a gradual narrowing of the gap that people perceive between humans and other species; this altered perception has prompted grass-roots attention to animals and their welfare, initially in Western countries but now more globally asthe influence of science has expanded. Second, scientific research on animal welfare has provided insights and methods for improving the handling, housing and management of animals; this 'animal welfare science' is increasingly seen as relevant to improving animal husbandry worldwide. Third, the development and use of explicit animal welfare standards has helped to integrate animal welfare as a component of national and international public policy, commerce and trade. To date, social debate about animal welfare has been dominated bythe industrialised nations. However, as the issue becomes increasingly global, it will be important for the non-industrialised countries to develop locally appropriate approaches to improving animal welfare, for example, by facilitating the provision of shelter, food, water and health care, and by improving basic handling, transportation and slaughter.

  18. Social Service Organizations and Welfare Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Barbara; Widom, Rebecca

    The Project on Devolution and Urban Change conducted a study to learn how new welfare policies and funding mechanisms, especially devolution and Temporary Assistance for Needy Families block grants, affect human service agencies in neighborhoods with high concentrations of welfare recipients and people living in poverty. Key personnel at 106…

  19. Rehabilitation Charges Associated With Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Joanne Y; Cohen, Jeremiah R; Yeranosian, Michael G; Lord, Elizabeth L; Wang, Jeffrey C; Petrigliano, Frank A; McAllister, David R

    2015-01-01

    Pre- and postoperative rehabilitation are important to the management of patients with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction, but little attention has been given to the costs. This study evaluated the pre- and postoperative rehabilitation charges in patients with ACL reconstruction in the United States. Patients receive preoperative rehabilitation less commonly than postoperative rehabilitation. Retrospective database study. Level 4. Using the PearlDiver database, we identified patients undergoing ACL reconstruction from 2007 through 2011 using Current Procedural Terminology codes. The associated rehabilitation charges billed to insurance providers for 90 days preoperatively and 6 months postoperatively were categorized as physical therapy or as durable medical equipment (DME). The charges were examined by year and geographic region and represented as per-patient average charges (PPACs). A total of 92,179 patients were identified in the study period. The PPAC for rehabilitation was $241 during the 90-day preoperative period and $1876 for the 6-month postoperative period. Patients averaged 2 preoperative sessions for physical therapy, with 44% of patients receiving preoperative rehabilitation in contrast with an average of 17 postoperative sessions per patient in 93% of patients. Rehabilitation charges were greater postoperatively than preoperatively (P postoperatively. Preoperative rehabilitation PPACs were highest in the Northeast, followed by Midwest, South, and West (P postoperative rehabilitation PPACs for geographic region (P = 0.43). Preoperative rehabilitation charges were lower than postoperative charges. A patient undergoing ACL reconstruction typically received 9 times more sessions of postoperative physical therapy than preoperative. This study found that preoperative supervised rehabilitation for patients with ACL reconstruction was infrequent across the United States. © 2015 The Author(s).

  20. Trade liberalisation, resource sustainability and welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Max

    2006-01-01

    market by developing an age-structured bio-economic supply model combined with basic theory of trade between two countries. Welfare effects of trade liberalisation are identified taking fishing quotas, input limitations, mesh-size regulations and shared ownership of stocks into account. It is shown......Recent research has warned that liberalising trade in capture fish products originating from inefficiently managed fisheries might cause over-exploitation, reduced fish stocks and thereby a reduced steady-state of welfare. This paper qualifies the warning in a case study of the East Baltic cod...... that even though liberalising trade in products supplied by such a fishery might cause steady-state welfare reductions in the supplier countries, these welfare reductions are small compared to the welfare gains from a hypothetical change to optimal management. Hence, the introduction of better fisheries...

  1. The context of child welfare performance measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnochan, Sarah; Samples, Mark; Lawson, Jennifer; Austin, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    A growing movement in the United States seeks to improve the outcomes achieved by public agencies through performance measurement strategies. In child welfare policy, a federally mandated performance measurement system has evolved since the 1980s, establishing the federal Child and Family Services Review which uses a series of performance indicators for evaluating the child welfare system. This article reviews the literature on performance measurement and performance management in the public sector in order to develop a conceptual framework for examining the federal child welfare performance measurement system. It briefly summarizes the evolution of federal policy related to performance measurement in child welfare. The framework is then used to guide an analysis of the debate surrounding the establishment of the current child welfare performance measurement system, concluding with recommendations for consideration in future reform efforts.

  2. The ritualization of rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine; Hansen, Helle Ploug

    2013-01-01

    There is widespread and increasing political interest in devising plans to support people who have or have had cancer to recover and recommence 'normal' lives. Educating cancer patients for this purpose is a central element in cancer rehabilitation in both Europe and the United States. One...... of the challenges in intervention research pertaining to rehabilitation is how to measure and explain the effects of a particular rehabilitation program. The social processes of particular programs are often a 'closed box' and not taken into consideration methodologically or analytically. In this article, we unpack...... and explicate the 'closed box' of a particular cancer rehabilitation program in Denmark by drawing on approaches from the study of ritual. By analyzing rehabilitation as a ritual and as ritualization, we identify and conceptualize some of the transformative activities involved in cancer rehabilitation. We...

  3. Exercise Equipment: Neutral Buoyancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shackelford, Linda; Valle, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Load Bearing Equipment for Neutral Buoyancy (LBE-NB) is an exercise frame that holds two exercising subjects in position as they apply counter forces to each other for lower extremity and spine loading resistance exercises. Resistance exercise prevents bone loss on ISS, but the ISS equipment is too massive for use in exploration craft. Integrating the human into the load directing, load generating, and motion control functions of the exercise equipment generates safe exercise loads with less equipment mass and volume.

  4. Highlighting ethical decisions underlying the scoring of animal welfare in the Welfare Quality® scheme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veissier, I.; Jensen, Karsten Klint; Botreau, R.

    2011-01-01

    All systems of scoring animal units (groups, farms, slaughter plants, etc.) according to the level of the animals’ welfare are based inevitably on normative decisions. Similarly, all methods of labelling, in terms of acceptability, are based on choices reflecting ethical values. The evaluative...... system, which was designed in accordance with assessments and judgments from experts in animal and social sciences and stakeholders, we identify value-based decisions at the following five levels. First, there are several definitions of animal welfare (eg hedonist, perfectionist, and preferentialist......), and any welfare scoring system will reflect a focus upon one or other definition. In Welfare Quality® 12 welfare criteria were defined, and the entire list of criteria was intended to cover relevant definitions of animal welfare. Second, two dimensions can structure an overall evaluation of animal welfare...

  5. Images of welfare in law and society: the British welfare state in comparative perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wincott, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Designed by Beveridge and built by Attlee's post-war Labour government, the welfare state was created during the 1940s. Britain has been seen – in domestic debates and internationally – as a world first: the place where both the idea and the practice of the welfare state were invented. I draw together comparative welfare state analysis with law and society scholarship (previously largely developed in isolation from one another) – as well as using British political cartoons as a source – to develop a revisionist historical critique of this conventional wisdom. First, the British welfare state has always been comparatively parsimonious. Second, the idea of the welfare state seems to have its origins outside the United Kingdom and this terminology was adopted relatively late and with some ambivalence in public debate and scholarly analysis. Third, a large body of socio-legal scholarship shows that robust ‘welfare rights’ were never embedded in the British ‘welfare state’.

  6. Cardiac rehabilitation costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghei, Mahshid; Turk-Adawi, Karam; Isaranuwatchai, Wanrudee; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal; Oh, Paul; Chessex, Caroline; Grace, Sherry L

    2017-10-01

    Despite the clinical benefits of cardiac rehabilitation (CR) and its cost-effectiveness, it is not widely received. Arguably, capacity could be greatly increased if lower-cost models were implemented. The aims of this review were to describe: the costs associated with CR delivery, approaches to reduce these costs, and associated implications. Upon finalizing the PICO statement, information scientists were enlisted to develop the search strategy of MEDLINE, Embase, CDSR, Google Scholar and Scopus. Citations identified were considered for inclusion by the first author. Extracted cost data were summarized in tabular format and qualitatively synthesized. There is wide variability in the cost of CR delivery around the world, and patients pay out-of-pocket for some or all of services in 55% of countries. Supervised CR costs in high-income countries ranged from PPP$294 (Purchasing Power Parity; 2016 United States Dollars) in the United Kingdom to PPP$12,409 in Italy, and in middle-income countries ranged from PPP$146 in Venezuela to PPP$1095 in Brazil. Costs relate to facilities, personnel, and session dose. Delivering CR using information and communication technology (mean cost PPP$753/patient/program), lowering the dose and using lower-cost personnel and equipment are important strategies to consider in containing costs, however few explicitly low-cost models are available in the literature. More research is needed regarding the costs to deliver CR in community settings, the cost-effectiveness of CR in most countries, and the economic impact of return-to-work with CR participation. A low-cost model of CR should be standardized and tested for efficacy across multiple healthcare systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Georgia - Energy Rehabilitation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — Gustavson Associates was retained by Millennium Challenge Georgia (MCG) to prepare a model to calculate the economic rate of return (ERR) for rehabilitation work...

  8. Robotics in shoulder rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicuri, Chiara; Porcellini, Giuseppe; Merolla, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Summary In the last few decades, several researches have been conducted in the field of robotic rehabilitation to meet the intensive, repetitive and task-oriented training, with the goal to recover the motor function. Up to now, robotic rehabilitation studies of the upper extremity have generally focused on stroke survivors leaving less explored the field of orthopaedic shoulder rehabilitation. In this review we analyse the present status of robotic technologies, in order to understand which are the current indications and which may be the future perspective for their application in both neurological and orthopaedic shoulder rehabilitation. PMID:25332937

  9. Basics of SCI Rehabilitation

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Pediatric SCI Rehabilitation Sara Klaas, MSW Transitions for Children with Spinal Cord Injury Patricia Mucia, RN Family Life After Pediatric Spinal Injury Dawn Sheaffer, MSW ...

  10. [Neurorehabilitation, neurology, rehabilitation medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbán, Edina; Szél, István; Fáy, Veronika; Dénes, Zoltán; Lippai, Zoltán; Fazekas, Gábor

    2013-05-30

    We have read several publications of great authority on the neurological profession in the last two years in which were expressed assessments of the current situation combined with opinions about neurology and the necessity to reorganize neurological patient care. These articles took up the question of neurorehabilitation too. The authors, who on a daily basis, deal with the rehabilitation of people with disabilities as a consequence of neurological conditions, summarize some important definitions of rehabilitation medicine and the present system of neurological rehabilitation, as it is defined by the rehabilitation profession.

  11. Achievement report for fiscal 1999 on research and development of technologies for medical welfare equipment. Surgery support system for brain tumors and other conditions (Rationalization for energy profit); 1999 nendo iryo fukushi kiki gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Noshuyo nado shujutsu shien system (energy shiyo gorika)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-05-01

    In the second phase of experimental micro-manipulator fabrication, insertion parts equipped with three manipulators and operation input units are built and evaluated. The system comprises three input units and a console with a built-in controller etc., and the console is checked for shape and operability. A high resolution and high brightness stereoscopic viewer is developed for clinical use by surgical operators, and is examined for practicality. The positioning system for the intraoperative vision instrument are improved relative to its attachment method, accuracy, and sterilization tolerance. The result is evaluated, and then further improvement is made. Some functions are added to the surgical planning software program. Software programs are constructed for the real-time control and operation of the viewing system. For the micro-manipulator system to serve as a total system, the forceps are extended, tips are developed for the suction device and incision device, and their functions as members of the system are evaluated. (NEDO)

  12. Space Heating Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafferty, Kevin D.

    1998-01-01

    The performance evaluation of space heating equipment for a geothermal application is generally considered from either of two perspectives: (a) selecting equipment for installation in new construction, or (b) evaluating the performance and retrofit requirements of an existing system. With regard to new construction, the procedure is relatively straightforward. Once the heating requirements are determined, the process need only involve the selection of appropriately sized hot water heating equipment based on the available water temperature. It is important to remember that space heating equipment for geothermal applications is the same equipment used in non-geothermal applications. What makes geothermal applications unique is that the equipment is generally applied at temperatures and flow rates that depart significantly from traditional heating system design. This chapter presents general considerations for the performance of heating equipment at non-standard temperature and flow conditions, retrofit of existing systems, and aspects of domestic hot water heating.

  13. Policing Welfare: Risk, Gender and Criminality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scarlet Wilcock

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the last three decades, welfare states across the West have embraced a host of new technologies and initiatives in the name of fighting welfare abuse and fraud (see Cook 1989, 2006; Wacquant 2001, 2009. Increasingly, these practices of ‘welfare policing’ are graduated according to risk; particular welfare populations considered at greater risk of welfare fraud are subject to more intense scrutiny. Drawing on interview research with compliance staff from the Australian Department of Human Services, this paper critically explores how the rationality of risk figures in the process of welfare surveillance in Australia. It pays particular attention to the ways in which risk formulations are embedded in gender and class politics, and how this has led to the characterisation of single mothers and unemployed recipients as more ‘risky’ than the general welfare population, a point that is often overlooked in the literature. But, far from being immutable, this paper also considers how the politics of risk are open to reformulation with often unexpected results.

  14. Renewal of radiological equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    In this century, medical imaging is at the heart of medical practice. Besides providing fast and accurate diagnosis, advances in radiology equipment offer new and previously non-existing options for treatment guidance with quite low morbidity, resulting in the improvement of health outcomes and quality of life for the patients. Although rapid technological development created new medical imaging modalities and methods, the same progress speed resulted in accelerated technical and functional obsolescence of the same medical imaging equipment, consequently creating a need for renewal. Older equipment has a high risk of failures and breakdowns, which might cause delays in diagnosis and treatment of the patient, and safety problems both for the patient and the medical staff. The European Society of Radiology is promoting the use of up-to-date equipment, especially in the context of the EuroSafe Imaging Campaign, as the use of up-to-date equipment will improve quality and safety in medical imaging. Every healthcare institution or authority should have a plan for medical imaging equipment upgrade or renewal. This plan should look forward a minimum of 5 years, with annual updates. Teaching points • Radiological equipment has a definite life cycle span, resulting in unavoidable breakdown and decrease or loss of image quality which renders equipment useless after a certain time period.• Equipment older than 10 years is no longer state-of-the art equipment and replacement is essential. Operating costs of older equipment will be high when compared with new equipment, and sometimes maintenance will be impossible if no spare parts are available.• Older equipment has a high risk of failure and breakdown, causing delays in diagnosis and treatment of the patient and safety problems both for the patient and the medical staff.• Every healthcare institution or authority should have a plan for medical imaging equipment upgrade or replacement. This plan should look forward a

  15. Cultural adaptation of a pediatric functional assessment for rehabilitation outcomes research

    OpenAIRE

    Arestad, Kristen E.; MacPhee, David; Lim, Chun Y; Khetani, Mary A.

    2017-01-01

    Background Significant racial and ethnic health care disparities experienced by Hispanic children with special health care needs (CSHCN) create barriers to enacting culturally competent rehabilitation services. One way to minimize the impact of disparities in rehabilitation is to equip practitioners with culturally relevant functional assessments to accurately determine service needs. Current approaches to culturally adapting assessments have three major limitations: use of inconsistent trans...

  16. Evaluation of a welfare indicator protocol for assessing animal welfare in AMS herds: researcher, production advisor and veterinary practitioner opinion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rousing, Tine; Jakobsen, Iben Alber; Hindhede, Jens

    2007-01-01

    important welfare indicators. In summary, researchers as well as production advisors and veterinarians supported the suggested measures for inclusion in a welfare assessment system. This has demonstrated that integration of different information is considered decisive for operational welfare assessment...

  17. Animal behavior and animal welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houpt, K A

    1991-04-15

    The value of behavioral techniques in assessing animal welfare, and in particular assessing the psychological well being of animals, is reviewed. Using cats and horses as examples, 3 behavioral methods are presented: (1) comparison of behavior patterns and time budgets; (2) choice tests; and (3) operant conditioning. The behaviors of intact and declawed cats were compared in order to determine if declawing led to behavioral problems or to a change in personality. Apparently it did not. The behavior of free ranging horses was compared with that of stabled horses. Using two-choice preference tests, the preference of horses for visual contact with other horses and the preference for bedding were determined. Horses show no significant preference for locations from which they can make visual contact with other horses, but they do prefer bedding, especially when lying down. Horses will perform an operant response in order to obtain light in a darkened barn or heat in an outside shed. These same techniques can be used to answer a variety of questions about an animal's motivation for a particular attribute of its environment.

  18. An epidemiological approach to welfare research in zoos: the Elephant Welfare Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlstead, Kathy; Mench, Joy A; Meehan, Cheryl; Brown, Janine L

    2013-01-01

    Multi-institutional studies of welfare have proven to be valuable in zoos but are hampered by limited sample sizes and difficulty in evaluating more than just a few welfare indicators. To more clearly understand how interactions of husbandry factors influence the interrelationships among welfare outcomes, epidemiological approaches are needed as well as multifactorial assessments of welfare. Many questions have been raised about the housing and care of elephants in zoos and whether their environmental and social needs are being met in a manner that promotes good welfare. This article describes the background and rationale for a large-scale study of elephant welfare in North American zoos funded by the (U.S.) Institute of Museum and Library Services. The goals of this project are to document the prevalence of positive and negative welfare states in 291 elephants exhibited in 72 Association of Zoos and Aquariums zoos and then determine the environmental, management, and husbandry factors that impact elephant welfare. This research is the largest scale nonhuman animal welfare project ever undertaken by the zoo community, and the scope of environmental variables and welfare outcomes measured is unprecedented.

  19. The institutional logic of welfare attitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christian Albrekt

    2008-01-01

    to link institutions and welfare attitudes have not been convincing. The empirical studies have had large difficulties in finding the expected effects from regime dependent differences in self-interest, class-interest, and egalitarian values. This article develops a new theoretical macro-micro link...... by combining the literature on deservingness criteria and the welfare regime theory. The basic ideas is that three regime characteristics 1) the degree of universalism in welfare policy, 2) the differences in economic resources between ‘the bottom’ and ‘the majority’, and 3) the degree of job opportunities...

  20. The institutional logic of welfare attitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christian Albrekt

    to link institutions and welfare attitudes have not been convincing. The empirical studies have had large difficulties in finding the expected effects from regime dependent differences in self-interest, class-interest, and egalitarian values. This book develops a new theoretical macro-micro link...... by combining the literature on deservingness criteria and the welfare regime theory. The basic ideas is that three regime characteristics 1) the degree of universalism in welfare policy, 2) the differences in economic resources between ‘the bottom’ and ‘the majority’, and 3) the degree of job opportunities...

  1. What Works in Education and Social Welfare?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krejsler, John B.

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on Foucauldian genealogy, the article maps major sources and trajectories of the evidence discourse. This enables scrutiny of the current struggle about evidence for What Works in education and social welfare. Evidence discourse is identified as emerging from the medical field as a bottom......-up professional strategy. It is subsequently reworked and launched into education and social welfare in moves that largely bypass professionals to serve policy-maker and market needs to enable evidence-based choices among public services. From this perspective, the author argues that education and social welfare...

  2. What works in education and social welfare?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krejsler, John B.

    2011-01-01

    Drawing on Foucauldian genealogy, the article maps major sources and trajectories of the evidence discourse. This enables scrutiny of the current struggle about evidence for What Works in education and social welfare. Evidence discourse is identified as emerging from the medical field as a bottom......-up professional strategy. It is subsequently reworked and launched into education and social welfare in moves that largely bypass professionals to serve policy-maker and market needs to enable evidence-based choices among public services. From this perspective, the author argues that education and social welfare...

  3. The Handbook of Welfare in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The Handbook is a timely compilation dedicated to exploring a rare diversity of perspectives and content on the development, successes, reforms and challenges within China’s contemporary welfare system. It showcases an extensive introduction and 20 original chapters by leading and emerging area...... specialists who explore a century of welfare provision from the Nationalist era, up to and concentrating on economic reform and marketisation (1978 to the present). Organised around five key concerns (social security and welfare; emerging issues and actors; gaps; future challenges) chapters draw on original...

  4. WELFARE REGIMES IN LATIN AMERICA AND CARIBBEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melisa Campana-Alabarce

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a characterization of Latin American and Caribbean Welfare regimes in historiographical perspective. Firstly, it makes a review of the emergence conditions of Welfare States in Western Europe and its core features, with particular emphasis on its role as a method to regulate inequalities in industrial capitalism. Dialoguing with it, then stops in the specific configurations that welfare regimes have taken in Latin America during the course of the twentieth century. Finally, it provides a map of its contemporary features and the major challenges that the States of the region face in his capacity as right guarantors for the future.

  5. Evaluating the Welfare of Index Insurance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Glenn W.; Martínez-Correa, Jimmy; Ng, Jia Min

    risks that are different from preferences exhibited for their actuarially-equivalent counterparts. We study the potential link between index insurance demand and attitudes towards compound risks. We test the hypothesis that the compound risk nature of index insurance induced by basis risk negatively...... affects both the demand for the product and the welfare of individuals making take-up decisions. We study the impact of basis risk on insurance take-up and on expected welfare in a laboratory experiment with an insurance frame. We measure the expected welfare of index insurance to individuals while...

  6. Welfare reform: challenges for grandparents raising grandchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copen, Casey E

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of Temporary Aid to Needy Families (TANF) on a growing constituency that may require welfare assistance: grandparents raising grandchildren. A brief review of the demographics of grandparent caregivers is followed by an exploration of welfare reform legislation, including work requirements and the Healthy Marriage Initiative (HMI). The importance of state-level policies in assisting grandparent-headed households, particularly health care, school enrollment, and housing policies, are also discussed. The paper concludes by offering implications for welfare policies in terms of their impact on intergenerational households headed by grandparents.

  7. Basics of SCI Rehabilitation

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Expert Videos Topics menu Topics The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 David Chen, ... Meade, PhD Jonathon Rose, PhD The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Kristine Cichowski, MS Occupational Therapy after Spinal Cord ...

  8. Humanoid assessing rehabilitative exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonov, M; Delconte, G

    2015-01-01

    This article is part of the Focus Theme of Methods of Information in Medicine on "New Methodologies for Patients Rehabilitation". The article presents the approach in which the rehabilitative exercise prepared by healthcare professional is encoded as formal knowledge and used by humanoid robot to assist patients without involving other care actors. The main objective is the use of humanoids in rehabilitative care. An example is pulmonary rehabilitation in COPD patients. Another goal is the automated judgment functionality to determine how the rehabilitation exercise matches the pre-programmed correct sequence. We use the Aldebaran Robotics' NAO humanoid to set up artificial cognitive application. Pre-programmed NAO induces elderly patient to undertake humanoid-driven rehabilitation exercise, but needs to evaluate the human actions against the correct template. Patient is observed using NAO's eyes. We use the Microsoft Kinect SDK to extract motion path from the humanoid's recorded video. We compare human- and humanoid-operated process sequences by using the Dynamic Time Warping (DTW) and test the prototype. This artificial cognitive software showcases the use of DTW algorithm to enable humanoids to judge in near real-time about the correctness of rehabilitative exercises performed by patients following the robot's indications. One could enable better sustainable rehabilitative care services in remote residential settings by combining intelligent applications piloting humanoids with the DTW pattern matching algorithm applied at run time to compare humanoid- and human-operated process sequences. In turn, it will lower the need of human care.

  9. Is Rehabilitation Dead?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halleck, Seymour L.; Witte, Ann D.

    1977-01-01

    This paper examines rising crime rates, findings on the relative effectiveness of deterrence and rehabilitation, and the rise of a civil rights movement in correction, all of which have led to greater emphasis on deterrence and incapacitation and less emphasis on rehabilitation in correctional philosophy and practice. (Author)

  10. [Rehabilitation and work participation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bethge, Matthias

    2017-04-01

    Work participation is increasingly seen as a primary outcome of rehabilitation measures. Randomised controlled trials from several different countries and the reviews and meta-analyses based on them show that multidisciplinary rehabilitation programmes improve work participation, return-to-work rates, and reduce sickness absence in patients with back pain, depression, and cancer. In Germany, such programmes were implemented as work-related medical rehabilitation. This intervention targets patients with poor work ability and an increased risk of permanent work disability. Randomised controlled trials have confirmed a reduction of sickness absence and increased rates of sustainable work participation in favour of work-related medical rehabilitation as compared to common medical rehabilitation. Dissemination of these programmes and translation of research evidence into practice progresses. An additional important strategy to support returning to work following rehabilitation is graded return to work. There is emerging evidence of sustainable employment effects in favour of graded return to work. A direct involvement of the workplace and a closer cooperation with employers and occupational health physicians may further improve the outcomes of rehabilitation programmes. Strategies that synergistically integrate safety, health promotion and rehabilitation may achieve more favourable outcomes than separated actions.

  11. Rehabilitering ved spiseforstyrrelser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lau, Marianne Engelbrecht; Waaddegaard, Mette

    2010-01-01

    Psykiatrisk & psykosocial rehabilitering - en recoveryorienteret tilgang beskriver rehabilitering til mennesker med sindslidelser. Udgangspunktet er en indsats med fokus på den enkeltes egne mål og ressourcer. Bogen bidrager bl.a. med metoder og teoretiske forudsætninger for en national psykiatri...

  12. Socially differentiated cardiac rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meillier, Lucette Kirsten; Nielsen, Kirsten Melgaard; Larsen, Finn Breinholt

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation (CR) programme after myocardial infarction (MI) improves quality of life and results in reduced cardiac mortality and recurrence of MI. Hospitals worldwide face problems with low participation rates in rehabilitation programmes. Inequality...... cardiac rehabilitation programme. Methods: From 1 September 2002 to 31 December 2005, 388 first-incidence MI patients ≤75 years were hospitalised. Register check for newly hospitalised MI patients, screening interview, and systematic referral were conducted by a project nurse. Patients were referred...... to a standard rehabilitation programme (SRP). If patients were identified as socially vulnerable, they were offered an extended version of the rehabilitation programme (ERP). Excluded patients were offered home visits by a cardiac nurse. Concordance principles were used in the individualised programme elements...

  13. Ambivalence in rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jan; Langberg, Henning; Doherty, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Knowledge about the organization and factors of importance to rehabilitation of veterans with lower limb amputation is sparse. The aim of this study was, therefore, to improve understanding of the influences of "military identity" on the organization of rehabilitation services and to ...... observation. Data were generated using in-depth semi-structured interviews (n = 6) exploring in-hospital and post-hospital rehabilitation in Danish veterans after unilateral lower limb amputation due to trauma. We conducted four sessions of participant observation, during weekly post......-hospitalization rehabilitation and included field notes in the dataset. RESULTS: Two main themes emerged: "experiencing different identities" and "experiencing discontinuity in rehabilitation." The first theme illustrated how veterans actively shift between the identities of disabled person, wounded veteran and athlete...

  14. Rehabilitation and multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgas, Ulrik

    2011-01-01

    In a chronic and disabling disease like multiple sclerosis, rehabilitation becomes of major importance in the preservation of physical, psychological and social functioning. Approximately 80% of patients have multiple sclerosis for more than 35 years and most will develop disability at some point...... of their lives, emphasising the importance of rehabilitation in order to maintain quality of life. An important aspect of multiple sclerosis rehabilitation is the preservation of physical functioning. Hot topics in the rehabilitation of physical function include (1) exercise therapy, (2) robot-assisted training...... and (3) pharmacological interventions. Exercise therapy has for many years been a controversial issue in multiple sclerosis rehabilitation and the advice generally given to patients was not to participate in physical exercise, since it was thought to lead to a worsening of symptoms or fatigue. However...

  15. Talking about the institutional complexity of the integrated rehabilitation system – the importance of coordination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sari Miettinen

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Rehabilitation in Finland is a good example of functions divided among several welfare sectors, such as health services and social services.  The rehabilitation system in Finland is a complex one and there have been many efforts to create a coordinated entity. The purpose of this study is to open up a complex welfare system at the upper policy level and to understand the meaning of coordination at the level of service delivery. We shed light in particular on the national rehabilitation policy in Finland and how the policy has tried to overcome the negative effects of institutional complexity. In this study we used qualitative content analysis and frame analysis. As a result we identified four different welfare state frames with distinct features of policy problems, policy alternatives and institutional failure. The rehabilitation policy in Finland seems to be divided into different components which may cause problems at the level of service delivery and thus in the integration of services. Bringing these components together could at policy level enable a shared view of the rights of different population groups, effective management of integration at the level of service delivery and also an opportunity for change throughout the rehabilitation system.

  16. Gendering European welfare states and citizenship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siim, Birte; Borchorst, Anette

    2017-01-01

    on gender, class, ethnicity or race, and nationality. One issue is what has been the effect of the European emphasis on women’s wage work and gender equality policies for women in different European countries? Another issue concerns how multiple discrimination is tackled and institutionalized in European......The chapter revisits the feminist scholarship on gendering of European welfare states and European citizenship, and reflects on the effects of globalization, Europeanization and migration. It first presents feminist perspectives on the liberal, the conservative and the social democratic welfare...... welfare states. A third issue is to what extent the Nordic welfare states still represent an attractive alternative model of social and gender equality to neo-liberalism. The final part discusses feminist approaches to reframe gender equality and gender justice from the transnational European contexts....

  17. Tackling the welfare issues of dog breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crispin, Sheila

    2011-01-15

    Sheila Crispin is chair of the new Advisory Council on the Welfare Issues of Dog Breeding. Here, she describes the background to the Council, outlines its priorities and offers some thoughts on the issues that need to be addressed.

  18. Major welfare issues in broiler breeders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de I.C.; Guemene, D.

    2011-01-01

    Under current practices, broiler parent stock (broiler breeders) encounter several welfare problems, such as feed restriction and injury during mating. Intensive selection for production traits, especially growth rate, is associated with increased nutritious requirement and thus feed consumption,

  19. Welfare State Transformation across OECD Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starke, Peter; Wulfgramm, Melike; Obinger, Herbert

    2016-01-01

    Editors: Melike Wulfgramm, Tonia Bieber & Stephan Leibfried This book analyzes how recent welfare state transformations across advanced democracies have shaped social and economic disparities. The authors observe a trend from a compensatory paradigm towards supply oriented social policy, and inve...

  20. Marketization of welfare services in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Ole Helby; Hjelmar, Ulf

    2013-01-01

    Scandinavian welfare states are undergoing a gradual transformation towards a more market-based mode of public service delivery. The results of these marketization reforms are, however, insufficiently documented in terms of their consequences for the price and quality of welfare services....... This article presents the findings of a systematic review of Danish and Swedish experiences with private provision of welfare services within three areas: home care for the elderly, provision of child care, and the operation of nursing homes. The research shows that there is no general evidence in support...... of improved cost effectiveness or enhanced service quality within these three welfare areas. A part of the reason for this is that many studies are characterized by lack of data and insufficient methodological designs. The article concludes that more and better studies are needed in order to broaden...

  1. The politics of welfare state retrenchment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starke, Peter

    2006-01-01

    parties, political institutions, welfare state structures and ideas. Most authors agree that socio-economic problems - particularly domestic problems - contribute to an atmosphere of 'permanent austerity' which inspires cutbacks. Moreover, according to most scholars, the extent of retrenchment possible......Welfare state retrenchment is widely seen as a highly unpopular endeavour and, therefore, as politically difficult to pursue. This assumption has underpinned most of the political science research on this issue, notably Paul Pierson's seminal contributions about the 'new politics of the welfare...... state'. Yet, the question remains why and under what circumstances cutbacks take place in highly developed welfare states despite these formidable political obstacles. This article reviews the literature on the politics of retrenchment, namely on the impact of socio-economic problem pressure, political...

  2. [Investigation of burn rehabilitation development of China in 2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ao, M; Wu, J; Chen, J

    2017-05-20

    therapists with rehabilitation treatment related professional background (a total of 73 person, account for 76.0%), 80.8% (59/73) rehabilitation therapists with rehabilitation and therapeutic professions, 60.3% (44/73) with bachelor degree or above, and 87.7% (64/73) with primary and intermediate titles. Besides, 39.7% (29/73) rehabilitation therapists did physical therapy; 12.3% (9/73) rehabilitation therapists did occupational therapy; 38.4% (28/73) rehabilitation therapists did not have specific duties. (8) During the development of burn rehabilitation treatment of 35 burn treatment units, the common problems were reflected in the authorized strength and professional technology level of rehabilitation treatment relating personnel, and the area and equipment for rehabilitation. There were also many problems in cooperation between burn surgeons and rehabilitation therapists and fund. The supports from hospital and department leaders were good. Conclusions: Through the development of several years, the general condition and the development of rehabilitation treatment of burn treatment units in China are improved; the beginning time of burn rehabilitation treatment is advanced; the number of rehabilitation treatment personnel is increased with their speciality improved; the burn rehabilitation work get great support from hospitals and departments.

  3. Animal-based measures for welfare assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agostino Sevi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Animal welfare assessment can’t be irrespective of measures taken on animals. Indeed, housing parametersrelatedtostructures, designandmicro-environment, evenifreliable parameters related to structures, design and micro-environment, even if reliable and easier to take, can only identify conditions which could be detrimental to animal welfare, but can’t predict poor welfare in animals per se. Welfare assessment through animal-based measures is almost complex, given that animals’ responses to stressful conditions largely depend on the nature, length and intensity of challenges and on physiological status, age, genetic susceptibility and previous experience of animals. Welfare assessment requires a multi-disciplinary approach and the monitoring of productive, ethological, endocrine, immunological and pathological param- eters to be exhaustive and reliable. So many measures are needed, because stresses can act only on some of the mentioned parameters or on all of them but at different times and degree. Under this point of view, the main aim of research is to find feasible and most responsive indicators of poor animal welfare. In last decades, studies focused on the following parameters for animal wel- fare assessment indexes of biological efficiency, responses to behavioral tests, cortisol secretion, neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio, lymphocyte proliferation, production of antigen specific IgG and cytokine release, somatic cell count and acute phase proteins. Recently, a lot of studies have been addressed to reduce handling and constraint of animals for taking measures to be used in welfare assessment, since such procedures can induce stress in animals and undermined the reliability of measures taken for welfare assessment. Range of animal-based measures for welfare assessment is much wider under experimental condition than at on-farm level. In welfare monitoring on-farm the main aim is to find feasible measures of proved validity and reliability

  4. Searching for welfare, work and gender equality

    OpenAIRE

    Plantenga, Janneke

    2014-01-01

    The paper describes to which extent European welfare states support an individual adult worker model and how the current policy should be assessed in terms of gender equality. Although a more individual design of welfare policies is clearly recognizable, the paper also illustrates the large gap between the implicit assumptions of the adult worker model and the actual reality of most European Member States. Only a few countries, with the Nordic countries as the most well-known examples, have d...

  5. Welfare reform and parenting: reasonable expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase-Lansdale, P Lindsay; Pittman, Laura D

    2002-01-01

    Although the primary goals of federal welfare reform legislation were to move welfare mothers into the workforce and reduce births outside of marriage, promotion of responsible parenting was also an important underlying theme. Parenting is a complex, multifaceted phenomenon, however, encompassing a wide range of functions related to nurturing, discipline, stimulation, values, activities, and routines. This article provides a framework for assessing the impact of welfare reform on various dimensions of parenting, with the following key findings: Many aspects of life affect parenting and child development, such as parent characteristics, child characteristics, family economic resources, family structure, parental mental health, marital or partner relationships, and the quality of parents' kin and social networks. About two-thirds of states are using federal welfare funds to promote better parenting through programs such as home visits to new parents and parenting classes, but virtually no state parenting programs have been evaluated. Welfare reform appears to have limited effects on parenting. The only dimension of parenting significantly affected by some welfare demonstration programs was parents' choice of child care settings and extracurricular activities for their children. The programs with the greatest positive impact on parenting were those with more generous work supports and more flexible work requirements. Not only did these programs lead to different choices concerning child care and activities for preschool and school-age children, but they also resulted in more stable marriages and less violence between partners, which also could lead to improved parenting. The authors conclude that many important aspects of the connection between welfare reform and parenting have yet to be examined, and that further research is needed to identify the ways states' welfare programs can promote better parenting.

  6. Implications of Animal Welfare on Toxicity Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Otto A.

    1993-01-01

    The testing strategy for chemical substances is discussed with regard to obtaining improved quality of data for health assessment while respecting the ethical responsibility for consideration of the welfare of the animals involved. Ensuring animal welfare without indulging too much...... in anthropomorphism leads to better research/testing. Current trends in toxicity testing will result in tests involving more sophisticated techniques, better quality of laboratory animals, and eventually the use of fewer animals....

  7. Medical equipment management

    CERN Document Server

    Willson, Keith; Tabakov, Slavik

    2013-01-01

    Know What to Expect When Managing Medical Equipment and Healthcare Technology in Your Organization As medical technology in clinical care becomes more complex, clinical professionals and support staff must know how to keep patients safe and equipment working in the clinical environment. Accessible to all healthcare professionals and managers, Medical Equipment Management presents an integrated approach to managing medical equipment in healthcare organizations. The book explains the underlying principles and requirements and raises awareness of what needs to be done and what questions to ask. I

  8. 38 CFR 17.154 - Dog-guides and equipment for blind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dog-guides and equipment... AFFAIRS MEDICAL Prosthetic, Sensory, and Rehabilitative Aids § 17.154 Dog-guides and equipment for blind... disability may be furnished a trained dog-guide. In addition, they may be furnished necessary travel expense...

  9. Exercise-based oncology rehabilitation: leveraging the cardiac rehabilitation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittus, Kim L; Lakoski, Susan G; Savage, Patrick D; Kokinda, Nathan; Toth, Michael; Stevens, Diane; Woods, Kimberly; OʼBrien, Patricia; Ades, Philip A

    2015-01-01

    The value of exercise and rehabilitative interventions for cancer survivors is increasingly clear, and oncology rehabilitation programs could provide these important interventions. However, a pathway to create oncology rehabilitation has not been delineated. Community-based cardiac rehabilitation (CR) programs staffed by health care professionals with experience in providing rehabilitation and secondary prevention services to individuals with coronary heart disease are widely available and provide a potential model and location for oncology rehabilitation programs. Our purpose was to outline the rehabilitative needs of cancer survivors and demonstrate how oncology rehabilitation can be created using a CR model. We identify the impairments associated with cancer and its therapy that respond to rehabilitative interventions. Components of the CR model that would benefit cancer survivors are described. An example of an oncology rehabilitation program using a CR model is presented. Cancer survivors have impairments associated with cancer and its therapy that improve with rehabilitation. Our experience demonstrates that effective rehabilitation services can be provided utilizing an existing CR infrastructure. Few adjustments to current CR models would be needed to provide oncology rehabilitation. Preliminary evidence suggests that cancer survivors participating in an oncology rehabilitation program experience improvements in psychological and physiologic parameters. Utilizing the CR model of rehabilitative services and disease management provides a much needed mechanism to bring oncology rehabilitation to larger numbers of cancer survivors.

  10. Drivers for animal welfare policies in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molomo, M; Mumba, T

    2014-04-01

    Livestock in Africa represent on average 30% of the agricultural gross domestic product (GDP) and about 10% of the national GDP. Up to 300 million people depend on livestock for their income and livelihood. Accordingly, livestock are considered to be important for the African continent. Despite this, little or no provision for animal welfare is made in the laws and regulations of most African countries. However, the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Performance of Veterinary Services (PVS) Tool includes animal welfare as a critical competency in Veterinary Services, and most African countries have now conducted PVS appraisals. The development of a Regional Animal Welfare Strategy in Africa is also important because it will provide opportunities for full engagement by all relevant parties. Key elements in this process should include collaboration and coordination in information dissemination to all stakeholders, who should include all those in the value chain. The roles played by the OIE Member Delegates and Focal Points, and non-governmental organisations (NGOs), in driving animal welfare policy in most African countries are notable. Without a level of understanding of animal welfare that is sufficient to support clear animal welfare policy development and implementation, problems may appear in the near future which could jeopardise the attainment of increased animal productivity and product quality. This may have negative implications for economic growth and for national and international trade.

  11. Animal welfare: an animal science approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koknaroglu, H; Akunal, T

    2013-12-01

    Increasing world population and demand for animal-derived protein puts pressure on animal production to meet this demand. For this purpose animal breeding efforts were conducted to obtain the maximum yield that the genetic makeup of the animals permits. Under the influence of economics which is the driving force behind animal production, animal farming became more concentrated and controlled which resulted in rearing animals under confinement. Since more attention was given on economics and yield per animal, animal welfare and behavior were neglected. Animal welfare which can be defined as providing environmental conditions in which animals can display all their natural behaviors in nature started gaining importance in recent years. This does not necessarily mean that animals provided with good management practices would have better welfare conditions as some animals may be distressed even though they are in good environmental conditions. Consumers are willing to pay more for welfare-friendly products (e.g.: free range vs caged egg) and this will change the animal production practices in the future. Thus animal scientists will have to adapt themselves for the changing animal welfare rules and regulations that differ for farm animal species and countries. In this review paper, animal welfare is discussed from an animal science standpoint. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. THE ROLES OF INDUSTRY AND SCIENCE, INCLUDING GENETIC SELECTION, IN IMPROVING ANIMAL WELFARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.M. BROOM

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Animal producers have to predict future situations and be aware of changing public views. At present, those in the animal industry are often trying to fight off change rather than preparing for and pre-empting it. As a consequence, many animal producers have bad public images. It is better to be proactive than reactive. Producer groups should be aware of new developments in knowledge and in public attitudes to animal-related activities. They should inform their members about how to manage animals in such a way that the welfare of the animals is good and the people involved in animal care are well-respected in society. This is especially important also for those who design and manufacture housing and equipment and those who breed animals for they can have substantial effects on animal welfare. It is important for animal welfare scientists to provide objective information about the welfare of animals, so that decisions can be taken about how animals should be bred, housed and treated. Animals use a wide range of coping mechanisms and these involve high-level brain function, with associated good and bad feelings. Where welfare is poor, the best overall assessment of welfare is a function of how bad is the effect on the individual and the duration of that effect. Conventional breeding, cloning and transgenesis can all have effects on the welfare of the animals produced. Selection for fast growth and high feed conversion efficiency in broiler chickens and other meat producing animals leads to too high an incidence of leg and other disorders. Selection for high milk yield in dairy cows leads to poor welfare associated with leg disorders, mastitis and reproductive disorders. These effects should be evaluated using a range of animal welfare measures and if there are adverse effects of genetic engineering, the usage of the animals should not be permitted except for research. In the case of genetically modified or cloned animals, any effects on function

  13. Psychosocial rehabilitation in a chronic care hospital in South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    for themselves. Conclusion: It is not surprising that most of the clinical staff in this investigation do not feel sufficiently equipped to perform ... staff for the demands of a psychiatric rehabilitation setting can enhance cohesiveness ..... rotation across all of the different units and thus have knowledge of virtually all of the patients.

  14. Incorporating kettlebells into a lower extremity sports rehabilitation program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumitt, Jason; En Gilpin, Hui; Brunette, Meredith; Meira, Erik P

    2010-12-01

    The primary goal of a sports rehabilitation program is to return the injured athlete back to competition as quickly and as safely as possible. Sports physical therapists utilize a variety of exercise equipment to help an athlete restore function after an injury. An injured athlete's therapeutic exercise program frequently includes the prescription of functional strengthening and power exercises during the later stages of rehabilitation. One piece of exercise equipment, the kettlebell, has gained popularity for its ability to allow the user to perform functional power exercises. The unique exercises that can be performed with kettlebells may have utility in sports physical therapy practice. This clinical suggestion outlines the clinical rationale for the inclusion of kettlebell exercises when rehabilitating an athlete with a lower extremity injury.

  15. Pediatric rehabilitation: 4. Prescribing assistive technology to promote community integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trovato, Melissa; Kim, Heakyung; Moberg-Wolff, Elizabeth; Murphy, Nancy; Kim, Chong Tae

    2010-03-01

    This self-directed learning module highlights the equipment and assistive technology needs of children and youth with disabilities. This article specifically focuses on preparing families and patients for equipment transitions that occur over the course of childhood and adolescence including progressing from stroller to wheelchair to powerchair, as well as job training and use of augmentative communication. It is part of the study guide on pediatric rehabilitation in the Self-Directed Physiatric Education Program for practitioners and trainees in physical medicine and rehabilitation and pediatric medicine. The goal of this article is to modify the learner's current practice techniques to ensure that assistive technology is used to promote community integration from early childhood through transition and into adulthood. Copyright 2010 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Assessing welfare of individual sirenians in the wild and in captivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Mark; Bonde, Robert K.

    2017-01-01

    Assessing the welfare of wild populations of sirenians has required a “generalist” approach. The outcome has been a subjective decision as to whether what the observers are witnessing in an individual or group of animals is normal and whether that has positive or negative consequences. The understanding of sirenian welfare requirements, and a decision process for whether to support and maintain their natural habitats or to try to replicate it in a meaningful way in an artificial captive setting, is still in its early developmental stages and has dynamic qualities that are in need of urgent attention. In this chapter we use the knowledge and observations presented throughout the chapters on sirenians to outline a proposed standard approach for assessing welfare in individuals in wild populations, as well as guidelines for assessing captive groups of dugongs and manatees. In the wild, the suitability of the habitat and human impact on it, the limitations of carrying capacity, the dynamics of ecosystems, and the effects that the immediate environment will have on the known resident populations are examined. In captivity, we use the foundation of the Five Freedoms, based on experience derived from other captive species, and we combine this with experience from rehabilitating manatees in Europe and the United States and, more recently, dugongs in the Indo-Pacific, to identify requirements and to help us to assess the unique needs of these species when held in facilities. We present considerations and approaches to (1) holistically assess captive facilities and to assess the well-being of the individuals held in the facility, (2) derive a guideline for standard captive assessment, (3) determine if adequate welfare needs for the animals are being met, and (4) help to provide guidance on whether an animal is suitable for release after rehabilitation.

  17. [Social rehabilitation through sports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohkendl, H

    1995-11-01

    The contribution community disabled sports is making towards comprehensive rehabilitation of people with disabilities is interpreted much too narrowly by the statutory definition of rehabilitation sports. In the member clubs of Deutscher Behinderten-Sportverband, the German disabled sports association, severely disabled individuals rediscover their potential and self-worth, which may entail self-determination, solidarity with others, and genuine social integration. Renewed awareness of the traditional values of German disabled sports as a self-help movement of those concerned, and characterization of rehabilitation as a complex learning process towards regaining personal autonomy--both call for a thorough reconsideration of ambulatory disabled sports in organizational and funding respects.

  18. Operational welfare indicators (OWI) in rainbow trout farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchmann, Kurt

    2007-01-01

    A number of welfare parameters are defined in order to create tools for the future management of welfare in farmed fish......A number of welfare parameters are defined in order to create tools for the future management of welfare in farmed fish...

  19. How should death be taken into account in welfare assessments?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Klint

    2016-01-01

    It appears to be a widespread view among animal welfare researchers that death is not a welfare issue. This paper demonstrates that this view is based on the mistaken assumption that welfare assessment is absolute, which moreover is coupled with the assumption that ‘welfare’ means ‘welfare at a t...

  20. Cooling of electronic equipment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A. Kristensen, Anders Schmidt

    2003-01-01

    Cooling of electronic equipment is studied. The design size of electronic equipment decrease causing the thermal density to increase. This affect the cooling which can cause for example failures of critical components due to overheating or thermal induced stresses. Initially a pin fin heat sink...

  1. Interface transfer of equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashton, I.J.

    1989-04-01

    This article details the interface transfer of heavy-duty face equipment from 5's to 6's face in the Great Row Seam at Silverdale Colliery, British Coal, Western Area. The salvaged face was roofbolted using leg-mounted Wombat drilling rigs. All heavy-duty equipment was transported by FSV's. 5 figs.

  2. Effect of grazing on the cow welfare of dairy herds evaluated by a multidimensional welfare index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burow, E; Rousing, T; Thomsen, P T; Otten, N D; Sørensen, J T

    2013-05-01

    Structural development in the prime sector has led to increasing herd sizes and new barn systems, followed by less summer grazing for dairy cows in Denmark. Effects of grazing on single welfare measures in dairy cows - for example, the presence of integument alterations or mortality - have been studied under different conditions. However, the effect of grazing on welfare, conceptualised as the multidimensional physical and mental state of the animal, has not yet been studied in contemporary cubicle loose-housing systems. The aim of our study was to investigate, based on a Welfare Quality® inspired multidimensional dairy cow welfare assessment protocol, the within-herd effect of summer grazing compared with winter barn housing in Danish dairy herds with cubicle free-stall systems for the lactating cows. Our hypothesis was that cow welfare in dairy herds was better during summer grazing than during full-time winter housing. Furthermore, we expected improved welfare with an increase in daily summer grazing hours. In total, 41 herds have been visited once in the winter and once in the summer of 2010 to assess their welfare status with 17 different animal- and resource-based welfare measures. A panel of 20 experts on cattle welfare and husbandry evaluated the relative weight of the 17 welfare measures in a multidimensional assessment scheme. They estimated exact weights for a priori constituted severe compared with moderate scores of welfare impairment concerning each measure, as well as relevance of the measures in relation to each other. A welfare index (WI; possible range 0 to 5400) was calculated for each herd and season with a higher index indicating poorer welfare. The within-herd comparison of summer grazing v. winter housing considered all the 17 measures. The mean WI in summer was significantly lower (better) than in winter (mean 2926 v. 3330; paired t-test P = 0.0001) based on a better state of the integument, claw conformation and better access to water and

  3. Engaging rehabilitation technologies: making things happen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Kathryn M; Kayes, Nicola M; Hale, Leigh A

    2012-01-01

    For some people, the word "technology" in rehabilitation brings to mind equipment and assistive devices. For others - it is a brave new frontier where robotic advance means many of the functional consequences of impairment are/will be alleviated, and many roles health professionals and carers currently perform will disappear. Like most things in life, a simplistic interpretation in complexity rarely capture what is truly going on. This is certainly true for rehabilitation technologies where devices are clearly important for our clients and for our professions but, it is not just about gadgets - it is far more than that. Of the numerous definitions available, most have in common a notion of tools to apply knowledge to practical issues or, as noted in the Britannica Concise Encyclopaedia [ 1 ]: "Whereas science is concerned with how and why things happen, technology focuses on making things happen".

  4. The development of multi-model rehabilitation training system for lower limb sitting function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jianfeng; Sun, Yue; Wu, Qun

    2017-04-01

    The multi-model rehabilitation training system was manufactured according to the demands of patients' practical training. Through the use of the patient's exercise physiology information, the ability of muscle force and movement efficiency of the patient were identified. Following with medical rehabilitation therapy, the training model, a combination of active and passive training, was proposed to enhance the training efficiency and rehabilitation effect. Furthermore, taking the sitting movement training as an example, the research theory was applied in knee rehabilitation training. The results of the research provid technical support and practical reference to the relevant training equipment designs and clinical applications.

  5. Inpatient Rehabilitation Facility - Conditions

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A list of inpatient rehabilitation facilities with data on the number of times people with Medicare who had certain medical conditions were treated in the last year.

  6. Basics of SCI Rehabilitation

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Diane M. Rowles, MS, NP How Family Life Changes After Spinal Cord Injury Nancy Rosenberg, PsyD Understanding SCI Rehabilitation Donald Peck Leslie, MD Adjusting to Social Life in a Wheelchair Lisa Rosen, MS Spasticity, ...

  7. Basics of SCI Rehabilitation

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... After Pediatric Spinal Injury Dawn Sheaffer, MSW Rehabilitation Psychological Realities after Spinal Cord Injury Toby Huston, PhD ... not provide medical advice, recommend or endorse health care products or services, or control the information found ...

  8. Patients' views of rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, B

    Patients and nurses may not appreciate the differences between acute care settings and rehabilitation units. The relative informality and 'hands-off' approach of nurses in the latter can lead to confusion and misunderstanding for people whose exclusive experience of nursing is in the acute sector. At the behest of concerned nurses on a rehabilitation unit, the author conducted interviews with discharged patients to try to establish what their perceptions of the unit were, and how these influenced their progress. The results suggested that the patients' misconceptions may have been hindering their rehabilitation potential. The nurses subsequently devised an action plan to improve understanding of the unit's aims and practices. Follow-up interviews after the plan's implementation showed that it had been successful in improving patients' understanding and engagement with the rehabilitation process.

  9. Basics of SCI Rehabilitation

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Founding Director, Life Center, Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago play_arrow What's the most important thing for families to know right away? play_arrow What are the main concerns of the ...

  10. Basics of SCI Rehabilitation

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cord Injury Rehabilitation Pediatric Spinal Cord Injuries Video Library SCI Medical Experts People Living with SCI Personal Experiences by Topic Resources Peer Counseling Blog About Media Donate close search Understanding Spinal Cord Injury What ...

  11. Basics of SCI Rehabilitation

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 David Chen, MD Preventing Pressure Sores Mary Zeigler, MS Transition from ... Rosenberg, PsyD Understanding SCI Rehabilitation Donald Peck Leslie, MD Adjusting to Social Life in a Wheelchair Lisa ...

  12. Basics of SCI Rehabilitation

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... How Peer Counseling Works Julie Gassaway, MS, RN Pediatric Injuries Pediatric Spinal Cord Injury 101 Lawrence Vogel, MD The Basics of Pediatric SCI Rehabilitation Sara Klaas, MSW Transitions for Children ...

  13. Basics of SCI Rehabilitation

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Peer Counseling Blog About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 David ...

  14. Basics of SCI Rehabilitation

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... SCI Rehabilitation Donald Peck Leslie, MD Adjusting to Social Life in a Wheelchair Lisa Rosen, MS Spasticity, ... OT Anne Bryden, OT The Role of the Social Worker after Spinal Cord Injury Patti Rogers, SW ...

  15. Basics of SCI Rehabilitation

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Injury Diane M. Rowles, MS, NP How Family Life Changes After Spinal Cord Injury Nancy Rosenberg, PsyD ... Rehabilitation Donald Peck Leslie, MD Adjusting to Social Life in a Wheelchair Lisa Rosen, MS Spasticity, Physical ...

  16. Physical medicine and rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disability Muscular dystrophy or other neuromuscular disorders Sensory deprivation disorder, autism or developmental disorders Speech disorders and ... or more parts of the body. Rehabilitation experts use many tests to evaluate a person's problems and ...

  17. Basics of SCI Rehabilitation

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Resources Peer Counseling Blog About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 ...

  18. Basics of SCI Rehabilitation

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Adult Injuries ... Therapy-Lokomat T. George Hornby, PhD, PT Empowering the Patient After Spinal Cord Injury Guy W. Fried, ...

  19. Physical rehabilitation at Parkinson's

    OpenAIRE

    Мітько [Elena Mitko], Олена Володимирівна; Авраменко [Ol’ga Avramenko], Ольга Миколаївна; Дугіна [Liana Dugina], Ліана В'ячеславівна

    2013-01-01

    Questions touching a physical rehabilitation at Parkinson's disease are considered in the article. Modern data over are brought about etiopathogenesis, clinical flow of disease. Purpose of work – on the basis of analysis of modern scientific-methodical literature to describe the method of physical rehabilitation of patients sufferings illness of Parkinsona. Methods are researches, applied in-process: the analysis of literary sources and practical experience is accumulated by us at a robot wit...

  20. Rehabilitation following meniscal repair

    OpenAIRE

    Cavanaugh, John T.; Killian, Sarah E.

    2012-01-01

    It has become increasingly more evident that the meniscus plays an important role in contributing to knee joint longevity. Advances in surgical techniques by orthopaedic surgeons to repair traumatized menisci have led to better long term outcomes, decreasing the incidence of articular cartilage degeneration. Advances have also been made in rehabilitative techniques following meniscal repair. These techniques along with sound rehabilitation principles to include a criteria based progression ha...

  1. Biofeedback in rehabilitation

    OpenAIRE

    Giggins, Oonagh M; Persson, Ulrik McCarthy; Caulfield, Brian

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature relating to the biofeedback used in physical rehabilitation. The biofeedback methods used in rehabilitation are based on biomechanical measurements and measurements of the physiological systems of the body. The physiological systems of the body which can be measured to provide biofeedback are the neuromuscular system, the respiratory system and the cardiovascular system. Neuromuscular biofeedback methods include electromyography (EMG) biofeedback and real-tim...

  2. An Assessment of Social Welfare in Spain: Territorial Analysis Using a Synthetic Welfare Indicator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espina, Pilar Zarzosa; Arechavala, Noelia Somarriba

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is measure social welfare in Spanish provinces. To achieve this, we use the distance method P[subscript 2] to compose a synthetic indicator of welfare for 2007, the last year for which data are available. The index comprises information on different social indicators from various life domains and enables a classification of…

  3. Improving farm animal welfare : science and society working together: the welfare quality approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blokhuis, H.J.; Miele, M.; Veissier, I.; Jones, B.

    2013-01-01

    How do you define the quality of life of a farmed animal? This book addresses the complex and often controversial issues surrounding the assessment and improvement of farm animal welfare. It discusses the relevance of science based welfare assessments and the importance of establishing a fruitful

  4. Do Welfare Asset Limits Affect Household Saving? Evidence from Welfare Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Erik; Ziliak, James P.

    2006-01-01

    We use data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics to estimate the effect of new saving incentives implemented as part of the 1996 welfare reform on household saving. Economic theory predicts that loosening asset limits will increase total savings for households with a large ex-ante probability of welfare receipt such as female-headed households…

  5. Welfare inequality, regionalisation, and welfare policy : measurement and analysis for Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quadrado, L.

    1999-01-01

    This study is focused on the changes in regional inequality in Spain over the last four decades, with emphasis on regional welfare. The two most important items of welfare in Spain are, health and education, and so these are the main focus of this study. Attention is paid to the levels and

  6. Consumer preferences for pig welfare - Can the market accommodate more than one level of welfare pork?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denver, Sigrid; Sandøe, Peter; Christensen, Tove

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to investigate the market potential of pork labelled to indicate medium and high levels of animal welfare. The paper asks, in particular, whether there is a risk that Danish consumers will abandon high level welfare pork if less expensive products with a medium level of animal welfare became available. The study was based on an online questionnaire with a choice experiment involving 396 Danish respondents. The results indicated that the Danish market could accommodate more than one pork product with a welfare label but the price differential separating medium and high level animal welfare pork will have to be quite narrow. In addition, full willingness-to-pay of consumers who want to buy high level welfare pork cannot be relied upon to incentivise new consumers to buy medium welfare pork. Further, raising brand awareness in the shopping situation and improving consumer's understanding of brand attributes for high level welfare brands were found to be vital. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Feminism, Voluntarism and the Welfare State: Toward a Feminist Sociological Theory of Social Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrander, Susan A.

    1989-01-01

    Reviews feminist theory and practice, spelling out implications for a feminist theory of social welfare containing both public and private realms. Uses these implications to examine a woman's grassroots voluntary organization that contains possibilities for rethinking societal responses to social welfare needs. (Author/LS)

  8. Alexithymia in respiratory rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzarella, Federica; Alesii, Annalisa; Dall'armi, Valentina; Rubino, Salvatore; Ferri, Luigi

    2010-01-01

    To date, there are no studies that have investigated the role of alexithymia in respiratory rehabilitation. We aimed to observe the prevalence of alexithymia in patients attending respiratory rehabilitation and to verify the presence of a difference between alexithymics and non-alexithymics responsiveness to the respiratory rehabilitation standard protocol. A prospective cohort study evaluating the influence of alexithymia on functional recovery of in-patients afferent to the Respiratory Rehabilitation Unit of IRCCS San Raffaele Pisana. Sixty patients were consecutively enrolled into the study and evaluated for alexithymia, anxiety and depression. Functional recovery was assessed with the six-minute walking test (6MWT). Prior and post-completion of this test dyspnoea, oxygen saturation and cardiac frequency were recorded. Alexithymia was not found to be significantly affecting the functional recovery of participants in respiratory rehabilitation. The distance walked at the 6MWT (6MWD) increased in both alexithymics and non-alexithymics (p(alexithymics) = 0.014; p(non-alexithymics) respiratory rehabilitation.

  9. Adaptation of the animal welfare assessment grid (AWAG) for monitoring animal welfare in zoological collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justice, W S M; O'Brien, M F; Szyszka, O; Shotton, J; Gilmour, J E M; Riordan, P; Wolfensohn, S

    2017-08-05

    Animal welfare monitoring is an essential part of zoo management and a legal requirement in many countries. Historically, a variety of welfare audits have been proposed to assist zoo managers. Unfortunately, there are a number of issues with these assessments, including lack of species information, validated tests and the overall complexity of these audits which make them difficult to implement in practice. The animal welfare assessment grid (AWAG) has previously been proposed as an animal welfare monitoring tool for animals used in research programmes. This computer-based system was successfully adapted for use in a zoo setting with two taxonomic groups: primates and birds. This tool is simple to use and provides continuous monitoring based on cumulative lifetime assessment. It is suggested as an alternative, practical method for welfare monitoring in zoos. British Veterinary Association.

  10. Cotton price change and welfare in Togo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anani Nourredine Mensah

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses the evaluation of net benefit ratios applied to survey data on households to appreciate the effects of international price of cotton on the welfare of producers in Togo. It needs first to trace the difference between international prices and those paid to domestic producers. Furthermore, given that households are producers of these goods, we use a revenue function that depends on the remuneration of labor, other earnings and profit that in turn depends on the price paid to producers and land ownership. For estimates, the effect of welfare, which is captured by the compensating variation, is the result of the share of the average cotton income in average total income multiplied by the change in the price of cotton. Our results with QUIBB 2006 and 2011 survey data reveal that the impact of a price change on the compensating variation gives a welfare change relatively higher for poor households. However, this effect remains low, considering whether a change in producer prices or in international price. A simulation of a potential effect of the change in the producer price of 50% of the differential of the two prices, and the positive impact on social welfare that results appears stronger. This positive change in welfare is reversely associated to the wealth of households.

  11. Reproductive activity and welfare of rabbit does

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Castellini

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the relationships between reproductive performance and welfare of the rabbit does. In the last 10 years the profitability of rabbit farms has increased mainly due to improvements in management and genetic selection but several problems mainly related to animal welfare have also occurred. The mortality and rates of female replacement per year are very high and the replaced females often show poor body condition and low performance. The effect of kindling order, litter size, genetic strain, weaning age and reproduction rhythm on the reproductive performance and welfare of females and some mechanisms implicated in these effects are discussed. Modern rabbit does produce a lot of milk which have a high energetic value which leads to a mobilization of body fat which results in an energy deficit. In the current reproductive rhythms, there is an extensive overlap between lactation and gestation. The resulting energetic and hormonal antagonism reduces the fertility rate and lifespan of the doe. Strategies to improve the fertility, lifespan and welfare of does are discussed. An approach which combines various strategies seems to be required to meet these objectives. Since the factors involved in this productive system are fixed (genetic strain, environment the most powerful way to improve doe welfare is to choose a reproductive rhythm that is adapted to the physiology of the does.

  12. [Medical Equipment Maintenance Methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongbin

    2015-09-01

    Due to the high technology and the complexity of medical equipment, as well as to the safety and effectiveness, it determines the high requirements of the medical equipment maintenance work. This paper introduces some basic methods of medical instrument maintenance, including fault tree analysis, node method and exclusive method which are the three important methods in the medical equipment maintenance, through using these three methods for the instruments that have circuit drawings, hardware breakdown maintenance can be done easily. And this paper introduces the processing methods of some special fault conditions, in order to reduce little detours in meeting the same problems. Learning is very important for stuff just engaged in this area.

  13. Standards in Neurological Rehabilitation, June 1997

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P. Barnes

    1997-01-01

    neurological services. We believe that disabled individuals should have access to a regional specialist service as well as a local community service. The regional specialist service would cater for people with more complicated and severe disabilities, including spinal injury and severe brain injury. The regional centres would provide specialist expertise for wheelchairs and special seating, orthotics, continence and urological services, aids and equipment including communication aids and environmental controls, prosthetics and driving assessment. The Task Force additionally endorses the development of local and community based rehabilitation teams with clear links to the regional centre. (6 The Task Force recognizes the limited amount of rehabilitation research and encourages individuals, universities and governments to invest more in rehabilitation research. Such investment should produce benefits for disabled people and their carers and in the long term benefits for the national economy. (7 The Task Force realizes that neurological rehabilitation is poorly developed both in Europe and the world as a whole. We firmly endorse international co-operation in this field and are happy to co-operate with any international organization in order to develop such links for clinical, educational or research initiatives. (8 The Task Force encourages individual countries to produce a document summarizing their own situation with regard to these standards and to produce a timetable for action to improve their situation. The EFNS Task Force would be pleased to assist in the publication of such deliberations or to act as a focus for international education and research or for sharing of examples of good practice.

  14. Some aspects of chicken behavior and welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LS Costa

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is the world leader in broiler production and export. It achieved this position mainly to its excellent supply chain structure and climate, which favor poultry and grain production throughout its territory. Although Brazilian egg production is not as important as broiler production, this segment presents great potential of increasing its share in the global market. However, as elsewhere in the world, Brazilian poultry production faces the challenge to balance two elements within its supply chain: cruelty and productivity. The consumers of the European Union (EU are very concerned with animal welfare issues. In order to increase its share in the European market, and eventually in the world market, Brazilian poultry producers must understand the effects of production systems on poultry welfare, and try to develop systems that are suited for its climate and other production conditions. There is a consensus that the natural behaviors performed by poultry in intensive production systems allow better welfare. This objective of this review is to present scientific research studies that relate different behaviors to chicken welfare. Poultry behavior is a reflex of their welfare status at a particular moment, and it is related to internal (physiological and external (environmental factors. Several natural behaviors that favor welfare, as well as undesirable behaviors, may be stimulated by environmental enrichment. The correct interpretation of the behaviors expressed by poultry, including their frequency, duration, and sequence, may be used to estimate their welfare. Animal production is an import sector of Brazilian economy. It significantly contributes to the Gross Domestic Product (GDP, in terms of products destined both to domestic consumption and exports. New technologies applied to products and management practices have been developed for field application, aiming at improving producers' productivity and profitability. In order to comply

  15. General versus program-specific welfare chauvinism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christian Albrekt

    2017-01-01

    care, whereas permanent exclusion is favoured for other programs, e.g. child allowances given to children in country of origin. These findings support the thesis of program-specific welfare chauvinism and point to a political space for pragmatic adjustments of current EU rules. The article also finds......The article investigates how welfare chauvinism differs across various social benefits and services. The case is Danes’ attitudes towards granting social rights to Eastern European workers. For some programs a clear majority favours giving social rights immediately on arrival, e.g. rights to health...... similarity across programs. The Danish welfare chauvinist attitudes are in general fuelled by lack of shared identity with migrants and sociotropic concerns about the economic burden of migration. The article finds little evidence of narrow self-interest effects; with a notable exception of disability...

  16. Social capital, migration and the welfare state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard; Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase

    2009-01-01

    welfare state and based on data from our ongoing SoCap project, we suggest how more bridging social capital can be established between parallel societies and the rest of society. Our ‘institutions matter' model is tentative and needs to be tested rigorously in future empirical research.......  The full potential of migrants from non-western countries has not yet been realized in the modern welfare state. Rather, parallel societies have risen, as often counteracting integration. It is however crucial to integrate migrants from non-western countries more successfully - also simply...... to rescue the ageing populations in Western Europe. Though the modern welfare state seems in strong need of reform within a globalized world, it nevertheless enjoys strong support among voters in its present form. Thus, an empirical puzzle exists. Given the existing institutional set-up of the modern...

  17. Animal Welfare: Data from an Online Consultation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sechi, Paola; Baldinelli, Chiara; Iulietto, Maria F; Goga, Beniamino T Cenci

    2015-11-02

    This paper analyses data obtained from an online survey related to animal welfare and religious slaughter topics. The questionnaire was conducted with the purpose of examining the purchase behaviour of a group of consumers (with different religious orientation) and their views on animal protection and ritual slaughter. The main results of the consultation were two. The first evidenced the respondents' great interest about the question on animal welfare, which is in accordance with the growing interest of European citizens concerning this issue. The second was the demand for a more transparent labelling of animal products, which would also reflect animal welfare and the slaughter method used. These results are in contrast with marketing analysis, which finds that consumers want to only receive positive information. Paradoxically, the more information is transmitted to reassure consumers, the higher is the risk to alarm them.

  18. Animal welfare: data from an online consultation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Sechi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses data obtained from an online survey related to animal welfare and religious slaughter topics. The questionnaire was conducted with the purpose of examining the purchase behaviour of a group of consumers (with different religious orientation and their views on animal protection and ritual slaughter. The main results of the consultation were two. The first evidenced the respondents’ great interest about the question on animal welfare, which is in accordance with the growing interest of European citizens concerning this issue. The second was the demand for a more transparent labelling of animal products, which would also reflect animal welfare and the slaughter method used. These results are in contrast with marketing analysis, which finds that consumers want to only receive positive information. Paradoxically, the more information is transmitted to reassure consumers, the higher is the risk to alarm them.

  19. Immigration and welfare state cash benefits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Peder J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to summarize existing evidence on welfare dependence among immigrants in Denmark and to produce new evidence with focus on the most recent years. Design/methodology/approach – The paper combines a broad descriptive/analytical approach with multivariate...... estimation on the impact on welfare dependence from individual background factors. Findings – The main finding is the importance of aggregate low unemployment for immigrants to assimilate out of welfare dependence. Fairly small effects are reported from policy changes intending to influence the economic...... is the finding, at a disaggregate level, of how changes in immigration policy and cyclical changes interact, influencing the assimilation into or out of dependence on cash benefit programs....

  20. Community health changes under welfare reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Susan

    2004-01-01

    This comparative case study examined changes in community health under New Jersey welfare reform policy implementation (1994-2001). The boundaries of these case descriptions were directed by Milii's ecological framework for policy studies. The separate cases consist of descriptions of changes in social climate and health indicators within Camden, Essex, and Hudson counties in New Jersey. Data analysis revealed a greater public health challenge in these counties than the state as a whole. A large increase in the numbers of low income and uninsured in the population may begin in 2004, 2 years following the 5-year lifetime limit of the receipt of welfare benefits. A growing uninsured population would place additional burdens on the abilities of safety net providers to meet health care needs of vulnerable populations. If left unchanged, these wider effects of the New Jersey welfare reform policy would have negative implications for improving quality of care.

  1. Exoskeleton Motion Control for Children Walking Rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Ploscaru

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a quick method for motion control of an exoskeleton used on children walking rehabilitation with ages between four to seven years old. The exoskeleton used on this purpose has six servomotors which work independently and actuates each human lower limb joints (hips, knees and ankles. For obtaining the desired motion laws, a high-speed motion analysis equipment was used. The experimental rough data were mathematically modeled in order to obtain the proper motion equations for controlling the exoskeleton servomotors.

  2. Electronic equipment packaging technology

    CERN Document Server

    Ginsberg, Gerald L

    1992-01-01

    The last twenty years have seen major advances in the electronics industry. Perhaps the most significant aspect of these advances has been the significant role that electronic equipment plays in almost all product markets. Even though electronic equipment is used in a broad base of applications, many future applications have yet to be conceived. This versatility of electron­ ics has been brought about primarily by the significant advances that have been made in integrated circuit technology. The electronic product user is rarely aware of the integrated circuits within the equipment. However, the user is often very aware of the size, weight, mod­ ularity, maintainability, aesthetics, and human interface features of the product. In fact, these are aspects of the products that often are instrumental in deter­ mining its success or failure in the marketplace. Optimizing these and other product features is the primary role of Electronic Equipment Packaging Technology. As the electronics industry continues to pr...

  3. The effect of steps to promote higher levels of farm animal welfare across the EU. Societal versus animal scientists’ perceptions of animal welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Averós, X.; Aparicio, M.A.; Ferrari, P.; Guy, J.H.; Hubbard, C.; Schmid, O.; Ilieski, V.; Spoolder, H.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Information about animal welfare standards and initiatives from eight European countries was collected, grouped, and compared to EU welfare standards to detect those aspects beyond minimum welfare levels demanded by EU welfare legislation. Literature was reviewed to determine the scientific

  4. Hen welfare in different housing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lay, D C; Fulton, R M; Hester, P Y; Karcher, D M; Kjaer, J B; Mench, J A; Mullens, B A; Newberry, R C; Nicol, C J; O'Sullivan, N P; Porter, R E

    2011-01-01

    Egg production systems have become subject to heightened levels of scrutiny. Multiple factors such as disease, skeletal and foot health, pest and parasite load, behavior, stress, affective states, nutrition, and genetics influence the level of welfare hens experience. Although the need to evaluate the influence of these factors on welfare is recognized, research is still in the early stages. We compared conventional cages, furnished cages, noncage systems, and outdoor systems. Specific attributes of each system are shown to affect welfare, and systems that have similar attributes are affected similarly. For instance, environments in which hens are exposed to litter and soil, such as noncage and outdoor systems, provide a greater opportunity for disease and parasites. The more complex the environment, the more difficult it is to clean, and the larger the group size, the more easily disease and parasites are able to spread. Environments such as conventional cages, which limit movement, can lead to osteoporosis, but environments that have increased complexity, such as noncage systems, expose hens to an increased incidence of bone fractures. More space allows for hens to perform a greater repertoire of behaviors, although some deleterious behaviors such as cannibalism and piling, which results in smothering, can occur in large groups. Less is understood about the stress that each system imposes on the hen, but it appears that each system has its unique challenges. Selective breeding for desired traits such as improved bone strength and decreased feather pecking and cannibalism may help to improve welfare. It appears that no single housing system is ideal from a hen welfare perspective. Although environmental complexity increases behavioral opportunities, it also introduces difficulties in terms of disease and pest control. In addition, environmental complexity can create opportunities for the hens to express behaviors that may be detrimental to their welfare. As a

  5. Individual welfare analysis for collective households

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cherchye, Laurens; Cosaert, Sam; de Rock, Bram

    We propose novel tools for the analysis of individual welfare on the basis of aggregate household demand behavior. The method assumes a collective model of household consumption with the public and private nature of goods specified by the empirical analyst. A main distinguishing feature of our...... method is that it builds on a revealed preference characterization of the collective model that is intrinsically nonparametric. We show how to identify individual money metric welfare indices from observed household demand, along with the intrahousehold sharing rule and the individuals’ willingness...

  6. Linking water treatment practices and fish welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zubiaurre, Claire; Pedersen, Lars-Flemming

    2016-01-01

    optimizing treatment protocols a challenge. Continuous low-dose applications seem to be a promising solution. In this preliminary study behavioral response was used to assess potential correlations with PAA dosage. A behavioral change or response is not necessarily an indication of compromised welfare....... Supportive enzymatic, biochemical and physiological biomarkers can be used along with gill and epidermal histological measures to evaluate the effects on water treatment regimens. The ultimate goal is to define the therapeutic window where fish welfare is not compromised.PAA is among the few disinfectants...

  7. Social Welfare Expenditures and Infant Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Joyce

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the effects of social welfare expenditures on infant mortality (deaths younger than age 1 per 1,000 live births) across 19 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries from 1980 to 2010. Data are obtained from various sources including the OECD, World Health Organization, and World Bank. The findings indicate that among three social welfare expenditure measures for families, the expenditures on family cash allowances are predicted to reduce infant mortality. However, the other two measures-the expenditures on parental and maternity leave and expenditures on family services-have no significant effects on infant mortality.

  8. Market Behavior in the Welfare State:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Nørgaard; christensen, bjarke

    2017-01-01

    of the consumerist citizen, and finally we suggest its implications for the welfare state. The dissemination of consumerist identity represents a serious change in the relationship between citizens and the welfare state. The rise of a public acting on the basis of market-logic is a serious change taking place......The “consumerist citizen” is a type of citizen who develops his or her public and political commitments on the basis of market-like principles. For this citizen the important thing is the possibility to make individual choices in public contexts. In this article the implications of the consumerist...

  9. Welfare work addressing immigrants and refugees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øland, Trine

    these integrationist visions in their quest to protect immigrants’ and refugees’ fundamental wellbeing and status as human beings with equal rights, group life and history. These opposing elements generate ambiguity and contradiction within integrationist welfare work. The ambition of the presentation is to enquire...... and remaking of society, solidarity and what it takes to be and/or become a legitimate member of society. The presentation is based on analyses of 48 interviews (carried out in 2014) with a range of welfare workers (social workers, psychologists, police officers, pedagogues, doctors, teachers, health visitors...

  10. Postcolonial perspectives on the welfare state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Mette-Louise

    2010-01-01

    This paper focuses on law and regulations within loopholes of exception; that is, sovereign power in the dialectics between law and moral disorder in the realm of a liberal, democratic welfare state. The analysis is based on one year of ethnographic fieldwork in the largest suburban immigrant...... neighborhood in Denmark, Gellerupparken. The case focuses on the local implications of power that unfold in spatial and social political regulations on immigrant families. I argue that the Danish welfare state uses excessive power to “conquest” the moral order of marginal communities while enhancing...

  11. Trust, Welfare States and Income Equality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergh, Andreas; Bjørnskov, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The cross-country correlation between social trust and income equality is well documented, but few studies examine the direction of causality. We show theoretically that by facilitating cooperation, trust may lead to more equal outcomes, while the feedback from inequality to trust is ambiguous....... Using a structural equation model estimated on a large country sample, we find that trust has a positive effect on both market and net income equality. Larger welfare states lead to higher net equality but neither net income equality nor welfare state size seems to have a causal effect on trust. We...

  12. Animal welfare: at the interface between science and society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohl, F; van der Staay, F J

    2012-04-01

    The general concept of animal welfare embraces a continuum between negative/bad welfare and positive/good welfare. Early approaches to defining animal welfare were mainly based on the exclusion of negative states, neglecting the fact that during evolution animals optimised their ability to interact with and adapt to their environment(s). An animal's welfare status might best be represented by the adaptive value of the individual's interaction with a given environmental setting but this dynamic welfare concept has significant implications for practical welfare assessments. Animal welfare issues cannot simply be addressed by means of objective biological measurements of an animal's welfare status under certain circumstances. In practice, interpretation of welfare status and its translation into the active management of perceived welfare issues are both strongly influenced by context and, especially, by cultural and societal values. In assessing whether or not a given welfare status is morally acceptable, animal welfare scientists must be aware that scientifically based, operational definitions of animal welfare will necessarily be influenced strongly by a given society's moral understanding. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. 78 FR 35758 - Final Priority; National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research-Rehabilitation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-14

    ... CFR Chapter III Final Priority; National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research--Rehabilitation Research and Training Centers AGENCY: Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services... Rehabilitative Services announces a priority for the Disability and Rehabilitation Research Projects and Centers...

  14. 78 FR 12002 - Proposed Priority-National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research-Rehabilitation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-21

    ... CFR Chapter III Proposed Priority--National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research--Rehabilitation Research and Training Centers AGENCY: Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services... and Rehabilitative Services proposes a priority for the Rehabilitation Research and Training Center...

  15. 78 FR 29237 - Final Priority; National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research-Rehabilitation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-20

    ... CFR Chapter III Final Priority; National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research--Rehabilitation Research and Training Centers AGENCY: Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services... Rehabilitative Services announces a priority for the Disability and Rehabilitation Research Projects and Centers...

  16. 78 FR 26560 - Proposed Priority-National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research-Rehabilitation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-07

    ... CFR Chapter III Proposed Priority--National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research--Rehabilitation Research and Training Centers AGENCY: Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services... and Rehabilitative Services proposes a priority for the Rehabilitation Research and Training Center...

  17. 78 FR 27038 - Final Priorities; National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research-Rehabilitation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-09

    ... CFR Chapter III Final Priorities; National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research--Rehabilitation Research and Training Centers AGENCY: Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services... Rehabilitative Services announces priorities for the Disability and Rehabilitation Research Projects and Centers...

  18. The implications of managed care and welfare reform for the integration of health and welfare services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Michael J; Prince, Jonathan

    2003-01-01

    In this era of managed care and welfare reform, the two systems of public health and public welfare are increasingly focused on a shared population and the services designed to promote self-sufficiency and good health among low-income individuals, families and communities. The two service systems are often constrained by categorical funding mechanisms that contribute to service fragmentation, discontinuity and redundancy. This paper focuses on the changing nature of health and welfare, the impact of categorical funding mechanisms, the barriers to service integration, the potentials for partnership, and concludes with implications for enhancing service integration and the quality of services. Copyright 2003 The Haworth Press, Inc.

  19. About Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Equipment for Infection Control Questions About Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... Print Q1. How do manufacturers ensure personal protective equipment (PPE) is safe and effective? A1. To help ...

  20. EPA’s Response Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA maintains a variety of equipment to respond to hazardous substance emergencies such as releases or oil spills regardless of their nature, size, or location. This include ASPECT, PHILIS, Equipment Module (EM), and personal protective equipment.

  1. Searching for behavioral indicators of welfare in zoos: uncovering anticipatory behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watters, Jason V

    2014-01-01

    A current focus of zoo-based research aims to identify indicators of animal welfare. Reliable behavioral indicators of welfare are highly desirable as behavioral observation is non invasive and requires little in the way of specialized equipment and other costly resources-save for observer time. Anticipatory behavior is an indicator of an animal's sensitivity to reward and as such, it is a real-time indicator of animals' own perceptions of their well-being. In fact, anticipatory behavior may generate a positive affective state and thus be at least a brief manifestation of good welfare itself. The husbandry conditions of most captive animals are such that food acquisition and other positive outcomes are highly scheduled and easily signaled. These conditions promote the development of anticipatory behavior, yet little research has either documented or interpreted this behavior in zoo and aquarium animals. This commentary suggests that anticipatory behavior could be a useful tool for assessing welfare and calls upon zoo and aquarium researchers to begin to develop this tool by describing the behavior and the circumstances that lead to its modulation. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Marie; Hochstrasser, Stefan; Zwisler, Ann-Dorthe O

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The costs of comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation are established and compared to the corresponding costs of usual care. The effect on health-related quality of life is analyzed. METHODS: An unprecedented and very detailed cost assessment was carried out, as no guidelines existed...... for the situation at hand. Due to challenging circumstances, the cost assessment turned out to be ex-post and top-down. RESULTS: Cost per treatment sequence is estimated to be approximately euro 976, whereas the incremental cost (compared with usual care) is approximately euro 682. The cost estimate is uncertain...... and may be as high as euro 1.877. CONCLUSIONS: Comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation is more costly than usual care, and the higher costs are not outweighed by a quality of life gain. Comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation is, therefore, not cost-effective....

  3. HALOTHERAPY FOR PREVENTION AND MEDICAL REHABILITATION IN PEDIATRIC HEALTH CARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina V. Chervinskaya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary focus of medical rehabilitation is the approach of model simulation of natural environment. Halotherapy is one of the nonpharmacological methods widely used in Russian public health care delivery including prophylaxis and rehabilitation in children. This method is based on the recreation of the air environment of a natural underground salt mine. The article presents an innovative method using a next generation of equipment for halotherapy: a guided halocomplex where the control on dosage regiments and aerodisperse medium parameters is implemented. The mechanisms of the effect of halotherapy are considered, the data of the clinical effectiveness for various paediatric diseases are outlined. 

  4. Social welfare functions in a fuzzy environment

    OpenAIRE

    Montero, Javier

    1987-01-01

    Fuzzy preference relations are considered and the concept of “fuzzy acyclity” is defined in order to measure their rationality. Such a concept is applied to study the properties of social welfare function in a fuzzy environment. In particular, the existence of non‐irrational aggregation rules is assured, in such a way that they can be used as a group decision aid.

  5. Measuring Racial Disparity in Child Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Terry V.; Putnam-Hornstein, Emily; Magruder, Joseph; Needell, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    Overrepresentation of certain racial/ethnic groups in the foster care system is one of the most troubling and challenging issues in child welfare today. In response, many states have started reporting outcomes by race and ethnicity to identify disproportionately high rates of system contact. The identification of disproportional representation is…

  6. Welfare Careers and Low Wage Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Joe A.; Ferman, Louis A.

    A sample of 1010 low-wage workers in Detroit (stratified by sex and welfare status) were interviewed in 1969. Data were collected on background characteristics, labor market experiences, and work career histories. The data relate to sexism as an important determinant of income in low-wage groups (women earn less and have lower status jobs),…

  7. Fun, animal welfare or community development? Understanding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper explores the impact of young travellers' value orientations on their choice for a wildlife tourism package. On the basis of existing literature, four different packages were designed: one mirroring the traditional offer of wildlife tourism as a hedonic experience; one enhancing the animal welfare aspect and intended ...

  8. Adoption and Child Welfare Protection in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumaret, Annick-Camille; Rosset, Dominique-Jeanne

    2005-01-01

    This article presents the French Child Protection system, which is managed by Child Welfare of the local authorities (Aide Sociale a l'Enfance) and by Judicial Juvenile Protection depending on the central government (Protection Judiciaire de la Jeunesse) Children's judges are involved in child protection. The majority of children in care live in…

  9. Animal welfare: neuro-cognitive approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Morgante

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Many people maintain a naive belief that non-human animals consciously experience pain and suffering in similar ways to humans. Others tend to assume a more sceptical or agnostic attitude. Drawing on recent advances in research on animal cognition and neuroscience, the science of animal welfare is now beginning to address these issues empirically. We describe recent advances that may contribute to the main questions of animal welfare, namely whether animals are conscious and how we can assess good and bad welfare in animals. Evidence from psychology is described which demonstrate that many complex actions in humans can be carried out quite unconsciously and that human patients with certain sorts of brain damage can behave and manipulate objects properly while at the same time o consciously denying experience of them. The relevance of these findings with respect to the issue of animal consciousness is discussed. Evidence from animal cognition is described concerning the possibility that animals monitor the state of their own memories, show episodic-like knowledge and exhibit self-medication. Evidence from neuroscience concerning brain lateralization in non-human animals and its relevance to animal welfare is described. It is argued that in animals raised for economic purposes (milk and meat production differences in cognitive abilities and brain lateralization can affect adaptive behavioural, physiological and immune responses to environmental stressors.

  10. The Welfare Economics of Land Use Planning

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Cheshire; Stephen Sheppard

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents an empirical methodology for the evaluation of the benefits and costs of land use planning. The technique is applied in the context of the Town and Country Planning System of the UK, and examines the gross and net benefits of land use regulation and their distribution across income groups. The results show that the welfare and distributional impacts can be large.

  11. Beyond home ownership: housing, welfare and society

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ronald, R.; Elsinga, M.

    2012-01-01

    In context of ongoing transformations in housing markets and socioeconomic conditions, this book focuses on past, current and future roles of home ownership in social policies and welfare practices. It considers owner-occupied housing in terms of diverse meanings and manifestations, but in

  12. Sustainable Welfare in Low Energy Societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen

    1996-01-01

    The chapter presents some general basic concepts which are useful in analyzing future options for saving energy and thereby mitigate the environmental problems. Three factors are suggested as determinants of the energy demand, namely the population, the level of energy services (material welfare)...

  13. Global Perspectives on Child Welfare. Preface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasztor, Eileen Mayers; McFadden, Emily Jean

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the effects of a global perspective on awareness of issues affecting child welfare worldwide, including warfare, land mines, AIDS, child labor, child sexual exploitation, and immigration. Considers programs and policies from other countries, including nongovernmental organizations, that can be replicated worldwide to better children's…

  14. Market barriers to welfare product innovations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Binnekamp, M.H.A.; Ingenbleek, P.T.M.

    2006-01-01

    New products that are based on higher animal welfare standards encounter several barriers on the road to market acceptance. The authors focus on the Dutch poultry sector and distinguish between retailer and consumer barriers. Retailer barriers include the powerful position of retailers, the price

  15. Welfare monitroing system : assessment protocol for horses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Livestock Research,

    2012-01-01

    This document describes the protocol for horses in more detail. For the development of the protocol the Welfare Quality® framework was used. For each measure there is a description how to assess the measure including the method of classification.

  16. Culture, Cooperation, and the General Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berigan, Nick; Irwin, Kyle

    2011-01-01

    Solutions to social dilemmas require cooperation. Given that there are commonly multiple avenues for cooperation, sometimes social dilemmas require coordination of strategies in addition to sufficient cooperation to be successful. This study examines one social dilemma where such coordination is necessary: supporting the general welfare. Using…

  17. Welfare Effects of Distortionary Company Car Taxation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutiérrez-i-Puigarnau, Eva; Ommeren, van Jos

    2007-01-01

    In Europe, company cars are offered by employers as fringe benefits to their employees at a lower price than employees pay in the car market, mainly due to favourable taxation of company cars. We analyse the welfare effects of favourable taxation of company cars for the Netherlands. The estimated

  18. Car Ownership and Welfare-to-Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Paul M.

    2002-01-01

    This study examines the role of car ownership in facilitating employment among recipients under the current welfare-to-work law. Because of a potential problem with simultaneity, the analysis uses predicted car ownership constructed from two instrumental variables, insurance premiums and population density for car ownership. The data come from a…

  19. Welfare States and Labour Market Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Bent

    2017-01-01

    to labour markets, and whether there might be in the future, including arguments pro and con the possible impact thereof. The article thus provides a review of knowledge within the field, with a focus especially on how this can or might have an impact on welfare states, given the often strong connection...

  20. Child Welfare and Stigma: Principles into Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colton, Matthew; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Investigated the stigma attached to child welfare services in the Netherlands, United Kingdom, and Spain. Found that stigma continues to be part of the experience of using and delivering such services, despite positive determination of policies in all three countries that this should not be so. Also found that the experience of stigma can, with…

  1. Welfare – con o senza stato

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bengtsson, Steen

    Welfare – con o senza stato analizza una vasta gamma di servizi sociali presenti a Padova, comprandoli con quelli di una cittá di dimensioni simili, Århus. La ricerca pertanto illustra la concreta erticolazione del sisterma di sicurezza sociale danese, confrontadolo con quello realizzato del nord...

  2. Governmental Quality and Welfare Reform. Discussion Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mead, Lawrence M.

    In the last decade, caseloads in Aid to Families with Dependent Children and Temporary Assistance for Needy Families have shifted dramatically up, then down. Existing studies do not explain the changes well or reveal policies behind the fluctuations or the important role of government quality in shaping welfare reform. This study uses…

  3. Literary Fiction Influences Attitudes Toward Animal Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Małecki, Wojciech; Pawłowski, Bogusław; Sorokowski, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Literary fiction has been credited with considerable power to improve attitudes toward outgroups. It was even argued that it has been an important factor behind the global decline of violence against various minorities in the last centuries. Could it also help to reduce the human-inflicted suffering of animals? To test this, we studied the attitude toward animal welfare of n = 921 (experimental group) people of both sexes who read a short fragment of an unpublished novel with a motif of the physical abuse of an animal. The control group (n = 912) read a fragment of a similar length but not related to animals. After reading the text all subjects filled out an on-line questionnaire with seven items (camouflaged among many others items) measuring attitudes toward animal welfare. The questionnaire included also demographical questions, such as whether the subject keeps pets. We found that in comparison with the control group, the experimental group was significantly more concerned about animal welfare. This result indicates that literary fiction can influence attitudes toward other species. It is also worth noting that our study is characterized by a high level of ecological validity, i.e. a relatively high extent to which its results can be generalized (or extended) to real-world settings. Due to its specific design, which involved the cooperation of a bestselling author and his publisher, the study approximated the typical conditions in which people read fiction in a remarkably accurate way. Finally, our research has potential practical implications for promoting animal welfare.

  4. Prioritizing equipment for replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capuano, Mike

    2010-01-01

    It is suggested that clinical engineers take the lead in formulating evaluation processes to recommend equipment replacement. Their skill, knowledge, and experience, combined with access to equipment databases, make them a logical choice. Based on ideas from Fennigkoh's scheme, elements such as age, vendor support, accumulated maintenance cost, and function/risk were used.6 Other more subjective criteria such as cost benefits and efficacy of newer technology were not used. The element of downtime was also omitted due to the data element not being available. The resulting Periop Master Equipment List and its rationale was presented to the Perioperative Services Program Council. They deemed the criteria to be robust and provided overwhelming acceptance of the list. It was quickly put to use to estimate required capital funding, justify items already thought to need replacement, and identify high-priority ranked items for replacement. Incorporating prioritization criteria into an existing equipment database would be ideal. Some commercially available systems do have the basic elements of this. Maintaining replacement data can be labor-intensive regardless of the method used. There is usually little time to perform the tasks necessary for prioritizing equipment. However, where appropriate, a clinical engineering department might be able to conduct such an exercise as shown in the following case study.

  5. Model to evaluate welfare in dairy cow farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Calamari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of herd welfare is a scientific discipline that is rapidly developing. The scientific community plays an important role in delivering appropriate, repeatable, valid and feasible models for this assessment. Unfortunately, there are different feelings regarding the welfare of animals and it is imperative for its assessment that certain agreement on the meaning of animal welfare is accepted. Then it is necessary to look at the goals of the models of welfare assessment because different goals require a different combination of welfare indicators. The different models for welfare assessment can be categorized broadly into research, legislative requirements, certification systems, and advisory/management tools. These models may have various goals: quantification of welfare, provision of welfare assurance or welfare management. However, it is widely accepted that welfare is best assessed with multiple different measures; therefore, a welfare assessment model for a livestock herd can include two types of measure: a description of the housing system and management (indirect indicators and data recording on how the animals react to the system (direct indicators. The first type provides information on risk factors for welfare problems. Direct measures on the animals provide information on their response to the environment and are more direct measures of welfare than their counterparts, but direct welfare indicators alone do not point out the causes of impaired welfare. Because welfare is a complex construct, different approaches for the aggregation of the different aspects of welfare have been proposed, although the aggregation in an overall welfare value is not sufficient. The thresholds between acceptable and unacceptable welfare levels have to be included in the model of welfare assessment but it seems useful to set certain minimum standards for each single welfare aspect. Afterward, judging the validity of a common welfare assessment

  6. [In-patient (early) rehabilitation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallesch, Claus-W; Lautenschläger, Sindy

    2017-04-01

    It is difficult to develop the financing and hospital provision of interventions for early rehabilitation within the diagnosis-related group (DRG) system. In addition to a range of partially rehabilitative complex interventions, the system recognizes three main forms of early rehabilitative interventions: geriatric, neurological/neurosurgical, and interdisciplinary and others. In this article, the appropriate definitions and cost-effectiveness of these procedures are analyzed and compared. The early rehabilitative interventions are characterized by constant cooperation in the therapeutic team, especially neurological early rehabilitation through the incorporation of nursing as a therapeutic profession. Whereas geriatric and neurological early rehabilitation are reflected in the DRG system, the former provided in many general hospitals and the latter mainly in specialized institutions, interdisciplinary early rehabilitation has only occasionally been represented in the DRG system so far. If all acute in-patients who require early rehabilitation should receive such an intervention, an additional fee must be implemented for this this interdisciplinary service.

  7. Skilled nursing or rehabilitation facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000435.htm Skilled nursing or rehabilitation facilities To use the sharing features ... facility. Who Needs to go to a Skilled Nursing or Rehabilitation Facility? Your health care provider may ...

  8. Rehabilitation courses for road users.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2010-01-01

    Rehabilitation courses are educational measures directed at deviant driving behaviour of car drivers. The Netherlands has four rehabilitation courses: EMA (Educational Measure Alcohol and traffic), LEMA (Lighter version of EMA), EMG (Educational Measure Behaviour and traffic) and ASP (Alcohol

  9. Lessons learned from early rehabilitation of complex trauma at the Royal Centre for Defence Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Sue; Vickerstaff, A L; Wareham, A P

    2017-04-01

    During the recent conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan, substantial numbers of service personnel survived devastating injuries, presenting significant challenges for early rehabilitation at Queen Elizabeth Hospital Birmingham. Royal Centre for Defence Medicine personnel augmented NHS therapy provision, gaining significant experience in rehabilitating complex trauma. Multidisciplinary working was key to delivering this service, with a unique rehabilitation coordinating officer position established to manage the rehabilitation pathway. A military exercise rehabilitation instructor provided daily gym-based rehabilitation, developing exercise tolerance. Emphasis was placed on early independence, reducing pain, eliminating complications and optimising function. Innovative solutions and non-standard combinations of rehabilitation were required, with therapy working practices redesigned that, we believe, exceed provision elsewhere, including novel applications such as unique patient transfers, specialist seating, additional equipment, problem-solving teaching and early upper limb prosthetic provision. Active pain management allowed engagement in rehabilitation. With limited evidence available, therapeutic modalities attempting to alleviate phantom limb pain centred on patients' ability to engage in treatment. Finally, the requirement to measure change in early trauma rehabilitation was identified, leading to the development of the preprosthetic functional outcome measure. This article aims to document advances made, lessons learned, encourage debate and identify priorities for future research for military complex trauma rehabilitation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  10. Neuropsychological function and employment status in a welfare-to-work sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorske, Tad T; Daley, Dennis C; Yenerall, Eric; Morrow, Lisa A

    2006-01-01

    Since 1996, individuals who participate in welfare programs are mandated to find employment. Welfare recipients may have difficulty transitioning to the workforce due to impairments in psychosocial functioning. Examples include mental health and substance use disorders, medical problems, academic and learning difficulties, and lack of resources such as childcare and transportation. An area unexplored as a potential barrier is cognitive functioning as influencing recipient's ability to transition into the workforce. This is important because many Welfare to Work (WtW) recipients have personal risk factors related to impaired cognitive ability. We evaluated the relationship between demographics, cognitive functioning, and substance abuse severity in a group of 180 WtW recipients in order to assess predictors of employment impairment. No relationship was found between employment functioning and alcohol use, drug use, or psychiatric impairment. However neuropsychological test results demonstrate that WtW study participants with lower scores on tests of general intelligence are more impaired in their employment functioning. General intelligence emerged as the best predictor of employment functioning. The results have implications for identifying individuals at risk for unsuccessful transition into the workforce and for the development of effective vocational rehabilitation strategies.

  11. [Work-related musculoskeletal disorders: the profile of workers receiving welfare benefit in Diamantina (MG, Brazil)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Alcântara, Marcus Alessandro; da Silveira e Nunes, Gabriela; dos Santos Ferreira, Bárbara Coura Moreira

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the profile of workers receiving temporary or permanent benefit for Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders (WMSD) at the Social Welfare Office in Diamantina between 2002 and 2005, and to compare the prevalence among this population. The sample was obtained through analysis of the database containing socio-demographic and clinical variables, and the profile was similar over the years. The most prevalent characteristics were among workers resident in Diamantina, between 40 and 59 years of age of elementary educational level and without difference in gender. The majority were employed in the service sector, with income below US$200 per month. The benefit granted most frequently was social welfare due to illness, the most common diagnosis being back pain with duration of benefit of 10 months. An increase in the incidence of WMSD was observed leading to a marked rise in social welfare retirement due to disability over the years. This study made it possible to establish the profile of workers retired due to WMSD in Diamantina. This tendency of growth in retirement indices reflects the world tendency. The need to implement prevention, promotion and rehabilitation policies for the health of this population arises as a clear priority from this study.

  12. What Use Is Science to Animal Welfare?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, A. J. F.

    1998-06-01

    My concern is to question the quality and utility of science in general and ethology in particular as applied to animal welfare. This topic has in the past provoked me to some severe criticism, for example, 'A lot of well-intended welfare research is neither very good science nor very helpful to the animals.... Too much welfare research is (in my opinion) flawed either because it is oversimplistic, or because it is not so much designed to test preconceptions but to reinforce prejudice' (Webster 1994). Dawkins (1997) has recently responded to this challenge, addressing the question 'Why has there not been more progress in welfare research?' Her response is concerned largely with applied ethology. My own criticism was not directed at ethologists in particular. I was more concerned by the misuse of scientific method by those who seek to obtain a so-called 'objective' measurement of something which they preconceive to be a stress (e.g. measurement of plasma concentrations of cortisol or endorphins in animals following transportation). Here the 'objective' measure frequently becomes the test that gives the answer that they want, and if it fails, then they seek other 'objective' markers until they achieve a set of measurements that supports the subjective impression which they had at the outset. My second main concern is that the welfare state of a sentient animal is a very complex affair and cannot be embraced by any single scientific discipline, be it ethology, physiology, molecular or neurobiology. Unfortunately it is also too complex to be embraced by a single-sentence definition. The best I can do is to suggest that it is determined by the capacity of an animal to sustain physical fitness and avoid mental suffering. The assessment of this is necessarily multidisciplinary.

  13. Effect of grazing on the cow welfare of dairy herds evaluated by a multidimensional welfare index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burow, E.; Rousing, T.; Thomsen, P. T.

    2013-01-01

    studied under different conditions. However, the effect of grazing on welfare, conceptualised as the multidimensional physical and mental state of the animal, has not yet been studied in contemporary cubicle loose-housing systems. The aim of our study was to investigate, based on a Welfare Quality (R...... as relevance of the measures in relation to each other. A welfare index (WI; possible range 0 to 5400) was calculated for each herd and season with a higher index indicating poorer welfare. The within-herd comparison of summer grazing v. winter housing considered all the 17 measures. The mean WI in summer...... was significantly lower (better) than in winter (mean 2926 v. 3330; paired t-test P = 0.0001) based on a better state of the integument, claw conformation and better access to water and food. Body condition and faeces consistence were worse in summer. Many daily grazing hours (range average above 3 to 9 h) turned...

  14. A Decade of Welfare Reform: What We've Learned About Welfare Usage and Economic Outcomes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2003-01-01

    The last decade has seen a number of changes in welfare policy, starting with state waivers under the Aid to Families with Dependent Children program and culminating in the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF...

  15. The electoral feedback effects of welfare reform in mature European welfare states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    The electoral hazard of welfare state reforms in mature welfare states has been a widely acknowledged feedback effect in the literature. However, the literature does typically no distinct between party families when it comes to the electoral consequences of welfare state reforms and treats...... electorates as unity. This paper analysis the feedback effects of social policy retrenchment under Third Way social democracy since 1994. The paper argues that Third Way reforms resulted in lasting electoral setback for social democracy since these reforms went against the social policy preferences of social...... democracy’s core constituency. Using survey data and election studies, the empirical analysis shows that the reforms have been particularly unpopular among social democracy’s core constituency and that these voters now align with competitors that defend core welfare schemes in a credible manner...

  16. Equipment Operational Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenwalt, B; Henderer, B; Hibbard, W; Mercer, M

    2009-06-11

    The Iraq Department of Border Enforcement is rich in personnel, but poor in equipment. An effective border control system must include detection, discrimination, decision, tracking and interdiction, capture, identification, and disposition. An equipment solution that addresses only a part of this will not succeed, likewise equipment by itself is not the answer without considering the personnel and how they would employ the equipment. The solution should take advantage of the existing in-place system and address all of the critical functions. The solutions are envisioned as being implemented in a phased manner, where Solution 1 is followed by Solution 2 and eventually by Solution 3. This allows adequate time for training and gaining operational experience for successively more complex equipment. Detailed descriptions of the components follow the solution descriptions. Solution 1 - This solution is based on changes to CONOPs, and does not have a technology component. It consists of observers at the forts and annexes, forward patrols along the swamp edge, in depth patrols approximately 10 kilometers inland from the swamp, and checkpoints on major roads. Solution 2 - This solution adds a ground sensor array to the Solution 1 system. Solution 3 - This solution is based around installing a radar/video camera system on each fort. It employs the CONOPS from Solution 1, but uses minimal ground sensors deployed only in areas with poor radar/video camera coverage (such as canals and streams shielded by vegetation), or by roads covered by radar but outside the range of the radar associated cameras. This document provides broad operational requirements for major equipment components along with sufficient operational details to allow the technical community to identify potential hardware candidates. Continuing analysis will develop quantities required and more detailed tactics, techniques, and procedures.

  17. The 'Real Welfare' scheme: benchmarking welfare outcomes for commercially farmed pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandolfi, F; Stoddart, K; Wainwright, N; Kyriazakis, I; Edwards, S A

    2017-10-01

    Animal welfare standards have been incorporated in EU legislation and in farm assurance schemes, based on scientific information and aiming to safeguard the welfare of the species concerned. Recently, emphasis has shifted from resource-based measures of welfare to animal-based measures, which are considered to assess more accurately the welfare status. The data used in this analysis were collected from April 2013 to May 2016 through the 'Real Welfare' scheme in order to assess on-farm pig welfare, as required for those finishing pigs under the UK Red Tractor Assurance scheme. The assessment involved five main measures (percentage of pigs requiring hospitalization, percentage of lame pigs, percentage of pigs with severe tail lesions, percentage of pigs with severe body marks and enrichment use ratio) and optional secondary measures (percentage of pigs with mild tail lesions, percentage of pigs with dirty tails, percentage of pigs with mild body marks, percentage of pigs with dirty bodies), with associated information about the environment and the enrichment in the farms. For the complete database, a sample of pens was assessed from 1928 farm units. Repeated measures were taken in the same farm unit over time, giving 112 240 records at pen level. These concerned a total of 13 480 289 pigs present on the farm during the assessments, with 5 463 348 pigs directly assessed using the 'Real Welfare' protocol. The three most common enrichment types were straw, chain and plastic objects. The main substrate was straw which was present in 67.9% of the farms. Compared with 2013, a significant increase of pens with undocked-tail pigs, substrates and objects was observed over time (P0.3). The results from the first 3 years of the scheme demonstrate a reduction of the prevalence of animal-based measures of welfare problems and highlight the value of this initiative.

  18. Chronic Kidney Disease is a New Target of Cardiac Rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Kohzuki

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Chronic heart failure is increasingly prevalent worldwide and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The Cochrane review demonstrated that cardiac rehabilitation (CR resulted in improvements in QOL and a reduction in long-term mortality. Chronic kidney disease (CKD is another worldwide public health problem. This review focuses on the importance and efficacy of rehabilitation for CKD patients as a new target of CR. Patients with CKD on hemodialysis (HD have a high mortality rate, with cardiovascular diseases, such as chronic heart failure. A new systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials reported that exercise-based renal rehabilitation improved aerobic capacity, muscular functioning, cardiovascular function, walking capacity, and QOL in CKD patients with HD. Moreover, exercise training may have renal protective effects, not only in some animal models of pre-HD CKD, but also in pre-HD CKD patients. Exercise therapy could be an effective clinical strategy in improving renal function, lowering the need for renal replacement therapy, such as HD, and reducing renal transplant risk in pre-HD CKD patients. This led the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare of Japan to extend renal rehabilitation partial coverage to stage 4 pre-HD CKD patients for the first time in the world in 2016.

  19. EU Country Rankings' Sensitivity to the Choice of Welfare Indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, M. Azhar

    2016-01-01

    are particularly volatile for countries in the middle of the ranking distribution, while countries with either high or low welfare generally have lower volatility. A multidimensional poverty index has the highest correlation with the latent welfare measure. It is concluded that the observed rankings do not tell......Ranking of countries with respect to some welfare measure is highly popular and takes places with high frequency. Ranking of a country can change over time given the same welfare measure is applied. Rankings can also change depending on which welfare measure is applied in a given year. To what...... extent do we see ranking changes and which existing welfare measures best captures an unobserved, yet existing, notion of welfare in society? To investigate this we apply seven welfare indicators for fifteen EU countries covering the years from 2005 until 2011. The results indicate that rankings...

  20. Reforming the Welfare System in the People's Republic of China

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mai Lu; Mingliang Feng

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews the recent progress in welfare system reforms in the People's Republic of China and looks at the experiences of Japan and Republic of Korea in establishing their modern welfare systems...

  1. Rehabilitation as a positive obligation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, S.

    2017-01-01

    Although the emphasis in European penal policy now lies on the rehabilitative aim of imprisonment, the concept of rehabilitation remains vague and is being interpreted differently in different European countries. This paper looks at rehabilitation from a legal perspective and aims to clarify the

  2. Technology improves upper extremity rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczewski, Jan; Prochazka, Arthur

    2011-01-01

    Stroke survivors with hemiparesis and spinal cord injury (SCI) survivors with tetraplegia find it difficult or impossible to perform many activities of daily life. There is growing evidence that intensive exercise therapy, especially when supplemented with functional electrical stimulation (FES), can improve upper extremity function, but delivering the treatment can be costly, particularly after recipients leave rehabilitation facilities. Recently, there has been a growing level of interest among researchers and healthcare policymakers to deliver upper extremity treatments to people in their homes using in-home teletherapy (IHT). The few studies that have been carried out so far have encountered a variety of logistical and technical problems, not least the difficulty of conducting properly controlled and blinded protocols that satisfy the requirements of high-level evidence-based research. In most cases, the equipment and communications technology were not designed for individuals with upper extremity disability. It is clear that exercise therapy combined with interventions such as FES, supervised over the Internet, will soon be adopted worldwide in one form or another. Therefore it is timely that researchers, clinicians, and healthcare planners interested in assessing IHT be aware of the pros and cons of the new technology and the factors involved in designing appropriate studies of it. It is crucial to understand the technical barriers, the role of telesupervisors, the motor improvements that participants can reasonably expect and the process of optimizing IHT-exercise therapy protocols to maximize the benefits of the emerging technology. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Child Welfare Workers’ Adoption of Decision Support Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Foster, Kirk A.; Stiffman, Arlene R.

    2009-01-01

    Child welfare workers must process complex information in deciding to refer clients to appropriate mental health services. Decision support systems (DSS) have been demonstrated in other fields to be an important tool, yet little research has been done in child welfare. This study focused on the adoption of a specific DSS into child welfare practice. Quantitative analysis was used to demonstrate the diffusion of innovation process among a sample of state child welfare workers, while qualitativ...

  4. Health and Welfare in Dutch Organic Laying Hens

    OpenAIRE

    Bestman, Monique; Wagenaar, Jan-Paul

    2014-01-01

    Simple Summary Data on animal health and welfare and farm management during rearing and laying periods were collected from 49 flocks of organic laying hens in the Netherlands to establish how farms performed in terms of animal health and welfare and which factors affected health and welfare. Abstract From 2007–2008, data on animal health and welfare and farm management during rearing and laying periods were collected from 49 flocks of organic laying hens in the Netherlands. Our aim was to inv...

  5. COMMUNITY BASED REHABILITATION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. OLAOGUN

    subject of substantial international research, development and technical assistance by governments and international non-government organizations. In 1951, the UNO established a Rehabilitation Unit, with the aim of facilitating the transfer of these new medical and technical advances to developing countries. The main ...

  6. Rehabilitating torture survivors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjölund, Bengt H; Kastrup, Marianne; Montgomery, Edith

    2009-01-01

    Refugees have often been exposed to torture in their countries of origin. A core issue is the resulting multifaceted presentation of somatic, psychological and social problems in the same individual, leading to severe activity limitations and participation restrictions. An international conferenc...... of a successful rehabilitation process, and great attention should be paid to contextual components....

  7. Basics of SCI Rehabilitation

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cord Injury Allen Heinemann, PhD How Peer Counseling Works Julie Gassaway, MS, RN Pediatric Injuries Pediatric Spinal Cord Injury 101 Lawrence Vogel, MD The Basics of Pediatric SCI Rehabilitation Sara Klaas, MSW Transitions for Children with Spinal Cord Injury Patricia Mucia, RN Family ...

  8. Providing rehabilitation online

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Malene; Juul, Annegrete

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – Telecare promises to deliver healthcare services more efficiently while, at the same time, improving the quality of care. The purpose of this paper is to challenge these promises by analysing the implications of introducing telecare in the rehabilitation of patients suffering from chron...

  9. Penile Rehabilitation and Neuromodulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Facio

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Erectile dysfunction (ED following treatment for clinically localized prostate cancer, particularly radical prostatectomy (RP, is a major quality of life issue that remains unsatisfactorily addressed. With the introduction and use of cavernous nerve–sparing procedures over the past 25 years, many men recover erections postoperatively that enable sexual intercourse unlike in the prior surgical era, when permanent ED postoperatively was certain. Despite this advance, 26–100% of these patients may never recover normal erectile function (EF. Recent advances in the understanding of ED after RP have stimulated great attention to develop penile rehabilitation programs and neuromodulation. The purpose of penile rehabilitation is to prevent adverse corpus cavernosal tissue structural alterations and thereby maximize the chances of recovering functional erections. Rehabilitation programs are common in clinical practice, but there is no definitive evidence to support their efficacy. Neuromodulation represents another strategy for promoting erection recovery postoperatively. This therapy involves the application of neuroprotective interventions, conceivably targeting biological elements involved in the erection response that are affected by neuropathic injury. Well-conducted, controlled trials with adequate follow-up are required in order to determine the erection preservative benefits of these therapeutic strategies. The purpose of this essay is to describe the mechanisms related to post-RP ED, assess the need for penile rehabilitation and neuromodulation following surgery, and analyze the basic science and clinical trial evidence associated with these applications for preserving EF following prostate cancer treatment.

  10. Basics of SCI Rehabilitation

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cord Injury Diane M. Rowles, MS, NP How Family Life Changes After Spinal Cord Injury Nancy Rosenberg, PsyD ... Children with Spinal Cord Injury Patricia Mucia, RN Family Life After Pediatric Spinal Injury Dawn Sheaffer, MSW Rehabilitation ...

  11. [Psychosocial rehabilitation in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidon, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    For a long time in France, readaptation and reinsertion have been considered separately. While readaptation focuses on the way the patient "adapts again", reintegration looks at the place of the readaptation, the society or the group. Today, psychosocial rehabilitation encompasses both of these notions by taking into account the medical and social aspects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Games for Rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersson, Eva; Brown, David

    This anthology on games for rehabilitation contains a serious chapters on game methods and apps or research that compares game systems or modified games or interface devices (Wii, Eyetoy, Kinect, DDR) applied across all areas of clinical care and clinically focused research....

  13. Basics of SCI Rehabilitation

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... overcome in rehabilitation? play_arrow How soon should people return to school or work after a spinal cord injury? play_arrow What’s important to know about sex and intimacy after a spinal cord injury? play_ ...

  14. Smart portable rehabilitation devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leahey Matt

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The majority of current portable orthotic devices and rehabilitative braces provide stability, apply precise pressure, or help maintain alignment of the joints with out the capability for real time monitoring of the patient's motions and forces and without the ability for real time adjustments of the applied forces and motions. Improved technology has allowed for advancements where these devices can be designed to apply a form of tension to resist motion of the joint. These devices induce quicker recovery and are more effective at restoring proper biomechanics and improving muscle function. However, their shortcoming is in their inability to be adjusted in real-time, which is the most ideal form of a device for rehabilitation. This introduces a second class of devices beyond passive orthotics. It is comprised of "active" or powered devices, and although more complicated in design, they are definitely the most versatile. An active or powered orthotic, usually employs some type of actuator(s. Methods In this paper we present several new advancements in the area of smart rehabilitation devices that have been developed by the Northeastern University Robotics and Mechatronics Laboratory. They are all compact, wearable and portable devices and boast re-programmable, real time computer controlled functions as the central theme behind their operation. The sensory information and computer control of the three described devices make for highly efficient and versatile systems that represent a whole new breed in wearable rehabilitation devices. Their applications range from active-assistive rehabilitation to resistance exercise and even have applications in gait training. The three devices described are: a transportable continuous passive motion elbow device, a wearable electro-rheological fluid based knee resistance device, and a wearable electrical stimulation and biofeedback knee device. Results Laboratory tests of the devices

  15. Shipboard and laboratory equipment

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shyamprasad, M.; Ramaswamy, V.

    bed, and a digital clock and a transponder helped to locate the camera. Equipment for the analysis of the nodules such as x-ray fluorescence and atomic absorption spectrophotometers were installed aboard MV Skandi Surveyor and MV Fernella and MV G A...

  16. A new animal welfare concept based on allostasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korte, S.M.; Olivier, B.; Koolhaas, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    Animal welfare is an increasing issue of public concern and debate. As a result, many countries are reconsidering the way animal welfare is embedded in the legislation and rules for housing and care of animals. This requires general agreement of what animal welfare is. Unfortunately, the current

  17. State Child Welfare Program Self-Assessment Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundel, Martin; And Others

    This manual provides a systematic method for administrators and child welfare specialists to assess a child welfare service delivery system. The management of child welfare programs is considered within the framework of five management functions: planning, resource development, implementation, monitoring and evaluation. The manual contains seven…

  18. Getting There From Here: Revitalizing Child Welfare Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaberg, James R.

    1982-01-01

    Suggests that revitalization of child welfare training is more complex than development of better training curriculum and materials. Reviews factors affecting training and questions the overall concept of child welfare training centers. If child welfare careers become more attractive, training programs will revitalize themselves. (JAC)

  19. The importance of reward-evaluating mechanisms for animal welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harst, Johanneke van der; Spruijt, Berry

    An increasing need exists for tools to assess and improve animal welfare in an objective and scientifically based manner. This review presents an overview of knowledge and factors related to animal welfare, and explains a new concept to approach animal welfare research. This concept is based on

  20. Comparative welfare state politics: Development, opportunities, and reform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kersbergen, C.J.; Vis, B.

    2014-01-01

    Welfare state reform occurs in all advanced capitalist democracies, but it does not occur in identical ways, to the same degree or with similar consequences. In Comparative Welfare State Politics, Kees van Kersbergen and Barbara Vis explain the political opportunities and constraints of welfare

  1. The Effects of Welfare on Marital Stability and Remarriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahr, Stephen J.

    1979-01-01

    Estimates the effects of welfare on marital dissolution and remarriage. Data from females indicated that those who received AFDC, food stamps, or other public assistance dissolved their marriages more frequently than those not receiving welfare. The relationship between welfare and marital dissolution decreased somewhat as duration of marriage…

  2. 43 CFR 17.250 - Health, welfare, and social services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Health, welfare, and social services. 17... § 17.250 Health, welfare, and social services. This subpart applies to health, welfare, and other social service programs or activities that receive Federal financial assistance and to recipients that...

  3. Perceived importance and responsibility for market-driven pig welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorslund, Cecilie Agnete H; Aaslyng, Margit Dall; Lassen, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    This review explores barriers and opportunities for market-driven pig welfare in Europe. It finds, first, that consumers generally rank animal welfare as important, but they also rank it low relative to other societal problems. Second, consumers have a wide range of concerns about pig welfare, bu...

  4. The Child Welfare Profession's Perception of Residential Care for Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Larry W.

    2008-01-01

    This research study explored the Child Welfare League of America's (CWLA) perception of residential care for children, as a reflection of the child welfare profession as a whole. A content analysis of CWLA's national conference programs and the journal "Child Welfare" from 1997 to 2006 found that the profession emphasizes family foster care and…

  5. Child Welfare Research and Training: A Response to David Stoesz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Brenda D.; Vandiver, Vikki L.

    2016-01-01

    In this response to David Stoesz' critique, "The Child Welfare Cartel," the authors agree that child welfare research and training must be improved. The authors disagree, however, with Stoesz' critique of social work education, his assessment of the most-needed forms of child welfare research, and his depiction of the goals and…

  6. Patterns of Welfare Attitudes in the Australian Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy P Schofield

    Full Text Available The study of community attitudes toward welfare and welfare recipients is an area of increasing interest. This is not only because negative attitudes can lead to stigmatization and discrimination, but because of the relevance of social attitudes to policy decisions. We quantify the attitudes toward welfare in the Australian population using attitude data from a nationally representative survey (N = 3243. Although there was broad support for the social welfare system, negative attitudes are held toward those who receive welfare benefits. Using canonical correlation analysis we identify multivariate associations between welfare attitudes and respondent demographic characteristics. A primary attitudinal dimension of welfare positivity was found amongst those with higher levels of education, life instability, and personal exposure to the welfare system. Other patterns of negative welfare attitudes appeared to be motivated by beliefs that the respondent's personal circumstances indicate their deservingness. Moreover, a previously unidentified and unconsidered subset of respondents was identified. This group had positive attitudes toward receiving government benefits despite having no recent experience of welfare. They did, however, possess many of the characteristics that frequently lead to welfare receipt. These results provide insights into not only how attitudinal patterns segment across the population, but are of relevance to policy makers considering how to align welfare reform with community attitudes.

  7. Patterns of Welfare Attitudes in the Australian Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Timothy P; Butterworth, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The study of community attitudes toward welfare and welfare recipients is an area of increasing interest. This is not only because negative attitudes can lead to stigmatization and discrimination, but because of the relevance of social attitudes to policy decisions. We quantify the attitudes toward welfare in the Australian population using attitude data from a nationally representative survey (N = 3243). Although there was broad support for the social welfare system, negative attitudes are held toward those who receive welfare benefits. Using canonical correlation analysis we identify multivariate associations between welfare attitudes and respondent demographic characteristics. A primary attitudinal dimension of welfare positivity was found amongst those with higher levels of education, life instability, and personal exposure to the welfare system. Other patterns of negative welfare attitudes appeared to be motivated by beliefs that the respondent's personal circumstances indicate their deservingness. Moreover, a previously unidentified and unconsidered subset of respondents was identified. This group had positive attitudes toward receiving government benefits despite having no recent experience of welfare. They did, however, possess many of the characteristics that frequently lead to welfare receipt. These results provide insights into not only how attitudinal patterns segment across the population, but are of relevance to policy makers considering how to align welfare reform with community attitudes.

  8. [Social inequality in medical rehabilitation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deck, Ruth; Hofreuter-Gätgens, Kerstin

    2016-02-01

    The analysis of inequalities in health care provision in Germany is of high sociopolitical relevance. For medical rehabilitation, which is an essential part of health care provision, only a few studies exist. With the example of psychosomatic and orthopedic medical rehabilitation, the present article investigates how features of social inequality influence different aspects of medical rehabilitation. The database consists of a written survey on the quality assurance of medical rehabilitation in northern Germany that includes 687 patients aged between 21 and 87 years. Aspects of the access to rehabilitation (e.g., the motivation for application), the process (participation in therapies) and the outcomes (e.g., subjective health and occupational risk) of rehabilitation were investigated in relation to social inequality. Social inequality was measured by means of a social class index. For the analysis, Chi-squared tests, t tests and a repeated measures analysis of variance, adjusted for sex and age, were conducted. Initially, the analyses indicate that social inequality is of minor importance for access to rehabilitation and processes within rehabilitation. As subjective health is unequally distributed at the beginning of rehabilitation, however, equal treatment has to be discussed critically in terms of demand-driven treatment. In rehabilitation outcome distinct differences between social classes exist. To reduce these differences, rehabilitation aftercare close to the individual's living environment is necessary, which promotes the empowerment of vulnerable social groups in burdensome living conditions.

  9. State of the Art: Bipedal Robots for Lower Limb Rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiong Yang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The bipedal robot is one of the most attractive robots types given its similarity to the locomotion of human beings and its ability to assist people to walk during rehabilitation. This review summarizes the chronological historical development of bipedal robots and introduces some current popular bipedal robots age. Then, the basic theory-stability control and key technology-motion planning of bipedal robots are introduced and analyzed. Bipedal robots have a wide range of applications in the service, education, entertainment, and other industries. After that, we specifically discuss the applications of bipedal robots in lower limb rehabilitation, including wearable exoskeleton robots, rehabilitation equipment, soft exoskeleton robots, and unpowered exoskeleton robots, and their control methods. Lastly, the future development and the challenges in this field are discussed.

  10. Active Social Policy meets Welfare Professions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Marie Østergaard

    2013-01-01

    Active social policy is an example of New Public Management, which contains a set of policy tools directly affecting the various professions working in the welfare sector (Harrits & Møller 2011). The legitimization of the policy is based in a need to strengthen control with public expenditures...... an alternative perspective on how to interpret what happens when policy tools meet the practice of different welfare professions. Using interviews the interface between doctors and social workers in Denmark, the clash emerges as the concrete meeting between New Public Management and different professional norms...... and to restore public support for redistributive social benefits such as early retirement pension. Yet, New Public Management and professional norms are typically seen as two distinct rationalities, as reflected in the conflicting aims of the political system (retrenchment) and the ‘street-level bureaucrats...

  11. Market Integration, Choice of Technology and Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jørgen Drud; Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller

    2010-01-01

    technologies. Market integration may induce a technological restructuring where firms either diversify their technologies or switch to a homogeneous technology. In general, market integration improves welfare. However, a small decrease of trade costs which induces a switch from heterogeneous technologies......This paper develops an international trade model where firms in a duopoly may diversify their technologies for strategic reasons. The firms face the same set of technologies given by a tradeoff between marginal costs and fixed costs, but depending on trade costs firms may choose different...... to a homogeneous technology may locally reduce global welfare. The model also shows that productivity differences lead to intra-industry firm heterogeneity in size and exports similar to the "new-new" trade models with monopolistic competition....

  12. Religious Education research in welfare state Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchardt, Mette

    2017-01-01

    The article deals with forms of knowledge and types of research interests in scholarly work on Religious Education at the primary and lower secondary levels in Denmark throughout the heyday of the welfare state from the 1960s and up until the 2000s, when the welfare state model not least...... and thus in a changed institutional field. Drawing on the conceptual understanding of the field of educational sciences deriving from Hofstetter and Schneuwly (2002), the article analyzes ways of doing research in and related to Religious Education and the scholarly disciplines involved. Focus...... with regard to education was in transition. The point of departure is the work and oeuvre of K.E. Bugge, for many years – and remaining until now – the last professor of Religious Education in Denmark, namely at the Royal Danish School of Education (Danmarks Lærerhøjskole) which reorganized as Danish...

  13. When do fat taxes increase consumer welfare?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusk, Jayson L; Schroeter, Christiane

    2012-11-01

    Previous analyses of fat taxes have generally worked within an empirical framework in which it is difficult to determine whether consumers benefit from the policy. This note outlines on simple means to determine whether consumers benefit from a fat tax by comparing the ratio of expenditures on the taxed good to the weight effect of the tax against the individual's willingness to pay for a one-pound weight reduction. Our empirical calculations suggest that an individual would have to be willing to pay about $1500 to reduce weight by one pound for a tax on sugary beverages to be welfare enhancing. The results suggest either that a soda tax is very unlikely to increase individual consumer welfare or that the policy must be justified on some other grounds that abandon standard rationality assumptions. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Skill level, Cognitive Ability, Unemployment and Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Birthe

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the implications of that workers may not be ableto estimate their true costs of acquiring skills. Consequently, too fewworkers may acquire skills. This allows for the possibility that subsidizingeducation is welfare improving. Furthermore, if the presence of skill......-biasedtechnological shocks increase unemployment, this may explain why themarket it-self cannot respond to this by making it sufficiently attractiveto acquire skills. Consequently, the trade-off in-between subsidizing educationand thereby reducing unemployment and optimizing welfare maybe eliminated. We analyse this issue...... in a simple educational model andnext in a search equilibrium model including a skill choice decision.Keywords: Education, subsidies, efficiency, unemployment.JEL codes: I20, J64....

  15. Features of the development of a welfare system for visually disabled people in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, S. Ry

    2004-01-01

    ophthalmology, formalizid welfare for blind and partially sighted people, laws and help towards welfare, obligations to visually disabled people......ophthalmology, formalizid welfare for blind and partially sighted people, laws and help towards welfare, obligations to visually disabled people...

  16. What Works in Education and Social Welfare?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krejsler, John B.

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on Foucauldian genealogy, the article maps major sources and trajectories of the evidence discourse. This enables scrutiny of the current struggle about evidence for What Works in education and social welfare. Evidence discourse is identified as emerging from the medical field as a bottom...... professions may profit from adopting evidence as a floating signifier. An analytical distinction between external and internal forms of evidence is introduced to facilitate alternative strategies to dealing with the evidence discourse....

  17. The welfare state and demographic dividends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Abío

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The demographic transition experienced by developed countries produces initial positive effects on economic growth ‒ the first demographic dividend ‒ which can be extended into a second demographic dividend if baby boomers' savings increase capital accumulation. Nevertheless, aging might reverse this process if dissaving of elderly baby boomers and the pressure on the pay-as-you-go financed welfare state reduce savings and capital. Objective: The aim of this paper is to evaluate the extent to which demographic dividends in Spain provide an opportunity for the reform of the welfare state system for an aging population. Methods: We decompose demographic dividends using a general equilibrium overlapping generations model with realistic demography and public transfers from the National Transfer Accounts database. This allows us to capture the endogenous evolution of savings and capital accumulation and, hence, the second demographic dividend. Results: When baby boomers enter the labor market, the purely demographic support ratio increases and this positive effect is extended by composition changes in the age structure of workers. When they start saving, the second demographic dividend arises, while its total net effect depends both on the strength of the aging process and on transfer size. Conclusions: The derived decomposition shows that the second demographic dividend might also disappear. Sharp population aging in Spain implies that capital will shrink drastically after 2040. Before this, there seems to be margin for reforms; however, an extension of the welfare state toward the Nordic model would considerably reduce capital. Contribution: This paper contributes to the debate on the effects of demographics on economic growth by decomposing demographic dividends and investigating the impact of different welfare state transfer systems on the second demographic dividend.

  18. Welfare Economic Dogmas: A Reply to Sagoff

    OpenAIRE

    Richard Cookson

    1996-01-01

    This article examines Sagoff's criticisms of 'Four Dogmas of Environmental Economics' (Environmental Values, Winter 1994) and argues that none of them are fatal. Many of the criticisms appear to rest on general misunderstandings about welfare economics. One misunderstanding is that transaction costs are theoretically indistinguishable from regular production costs. The theoretical distinction is that transaction costs vary under alternative policies and institutions whereas production costs a...

  19. Literary Fiction Influences Attitudes Toward Animal Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawłowski, Bogusław; Sorokowski, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Literary fiction has been credited with considerable power to improve attitudes toward outgroups. It was even argued that it has been an important factor behind the global decline of violence against various minorities in the last centuries. Could it also help to reduce the human-inflicted suffering of animals? To test this, we studied the attitude toward animal welfare of n = 921 (experimental group) people of both sexes who read a short fragment of an unpublished novel with a motif of the physical abuse of an animal. The control group (n = 912) read a fragment of a similar length but not related to animals. After reading the text all subjects filled out an on-line questionnaire with seven items (camouflaged among many others items) measuring attitudes toward animal welfare. The questionnaire included also demographical questions, such as whether the subject keeps pets. We found that in comparison with the control group, the experimental group was significantly more concerned about animal welfare. This result indicates that literary fiction can influence attitudes toward other species. It is also worth noting that our study is characterized by a high level of ecological validity, i.e. a relatively high extent to which its results can be generalized (or extended) to real-world settings. Due to its specific design, which involved the cooperation of a bestselling author and his publisher, the study approximated the typical conditions in which people read fiction in a remarkably accurate way. Finally, our research has potential practical implications for promoting animal welfare. PMID:28006033

  20. Literary Fiction Influences Attitudes Toward Animal Welfare.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Małecki

    Full Text Available Literary fiction has been credited with considerable power to improve attitudes toward outgroups. It was even argued that it has been an important factor behind the global decline of violence against various minorities in the last centuries. Could it also help to reduce the human-inflicted suffering of animals? To test this, we studied the attitude toward animal welfare of n = 921 (experimental group people of both sexes who read a short fragment of an unpublished novel with a motif of the physical abuse of an animal. The control group (n = 912 read a fragment of a similar length but not related to animals. After reading the text all subjects filled out an on-line questionnaire with seven items (camouflaged among many others items measuring attitudes toward animal welfare. The questionnaire included also demographical questions, such as whether the subject keeps pets. We found that in comparison with the control group, the experimental group was significantly more concerned about animal welfare. This result indicates that literary fiction can influence attitudes toward other species. It is also worth noting that our study is characterized by a high level of ecological validity, i.e. a relatively high extent to which its results can be generalized (or extended to real-world settings. Due to its specific design, which involved the cooperation of a bestselling author and his publisher, the study approximated the typical conditions in which people read fiction in a remarkably accurate way. Finally, our research has potential practical implications for promoting animal welfare.

  1. Health and Welfare IT Product Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merritt, Timothy; Grønbæk, Kaj

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we describe the outcomes from a university design class focused on the design of systems intended to solve problems faced by health care professionals, patients and systems that support welfare or extended independence for older people. The students worked in groups for 10 weeks...... ideas with the design community and to reflect on lessons learned by the students who, for the first time, were designing robust prototypes that solve real world problems....

  2. Romanian welfare state between excess and failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Ciuraru-Andrica

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Timely or not, our issue can bring back to life some prolific discussions, sometimes diametrical. We strike the social assistance, where, at this moment, is still uncertain if, once unleashed the excess, the failure will come inevitably or there is a “Salvation Ark”. However, the difference between the excess and the failure of the welfare state is almost intangible, the reason of his potential failure being actually the abuses made until the start of depression.

  3. Some possible factors affecting horse welfare assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdaléna Fejsáková

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the influence of various stimuli that confound interpretation of assessed indicators of horse welfare during rest and working period by the use of non-invasive methods of sampling. In total, 40 horses of different breeds and used for different purposes in Slovakia were used. The following indicators were tested: concentration of cortisol in saliva and 11,17-dioxoandrostanes in faeces measured by Elisa methods, heart rate and heart rate variability recording with the Polar Heart Rate Monitor and presence of stereotypical behaviour assessed with a horse questionnaire survey. The evaluated physiological responses were mostly affected by the type of work undertaken, especially horse movement intensity (P P P < 0.05 compared to horses without stereotypical behaviour. Horse breed, age, sex and stabling conditions affected only some of the heart rate indicators. The type of riding style had no fundamental influence on evaluated indicators. These observations highlight the difficulties in determining the welfare status in horses, since measurements can be affected by many factors that need to be investigated for achieving relevant outcomes. This is the first study in Slovakia focusing on the evaluation of horse welfare by non-invasive sampling.

  4. Mental health and welfare in Australian anaesthetists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonnell, N J; Kaye, R M; Hood, S; Shrivastava, P; Khursandi, D C S

    2013-09-01

    This survey was designed to evaluate the factors affecting mental health and welfare in Australian anaesthetists and to investigate current sources of support. An electronic survey was sent to 500 randomly selected Fellows and trainees of the Australian and New Zealand College of Anaesthetists. Questions were related to: anxiety, stress, depression, substance misuse, self-medication, suicide, reporting illness, and help-seeking. Current psychological wellbeing was assessed using the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10). A total of 191 completed surveys were received (a response rate of 38%): 26% had attended their general practitioner for mental health issues, of whom half had been diagnosed with a mental illness; 7% of all respondents were currently prescribed medication for this; 25% had previously self-prescribed psychoactive medication; 17% admitted to using alcohol to deal with stress, anxiety or depression; and 8% responded that mental illness had at some point impaired clinical care. Sixteen percent of all respondents reported previous suicidal ideation. Despite a low response rate, and the possibility of responder bias, the mental health of Australian anaesthetists would appear to be subject to common and persistent risk factors, many of which are well described in previous studies. We identify general practitioners as particularly valuable in targeting initiatives for improvements in mental health and welfare. The significant prevalence of suicidal ideation and reluctance to approach senior colleagues with concerns about mental health or welfare issues are specific causes for concern and suggest that further investigation, education and a potential review of support networks is required.

  5. Health and Welfare in Organic Poultry Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berg C

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available This review paper deals with the major health and welfare aspects of organic poultry production. The differences between organic and conventional egg and poultry meat production are discussed, with the main emphasis on housing and management requirements, feed composition and the use of veterinary prophylactic and therapeutic drugs. The effects of the legislation and statutes for organic farming on the health and welfare of the birds are also discussed, especially in relation to the biosecurity problems associated with free-range systems, the occurrence of behavioural disturbances in loose housed flocks and the use of veterinary drugs and vaccinations in general. The results from a questionnaire sent out to all Swedish organic egg producers, where questions about the farmer's perception of the birds' health status were included, are presented at the end of the paper. It is concluded that most of the health and welfare problems seen in conventional poultry systems for loose housed or free ranging birds can also been found on organic poultry farms. It is also concluded that there is a need for information about biosecurity, disease detection and disease prevention on organic poultry farms.

  6. Auditing animal welfare at slaughter plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandin, Temple

    2010-09-01

    The OIE Welfare Standards on slaughter transport, and killing of animals for disease control are basic minimum standards that every country should follow. The OIE, European Union, and many private standards used by commercial industry have an emphasis on animal based outcome standards instead of engineering based standards. Numerical scoring is used by both private industry and some governments to access animal welfare at slaughter plants. Five variables are measured. They are: 1) Percentage of animals effectively stunned on the first attempt, 2) Percentage rendered insensible, 3) Percentage that vocalize (bellow, moo, squeal) during handling and stunning, 4) Percentage that fall during handling, and 5) Percentage moved with an electric goad. Each one of these critical control points measures the outcome of many problems. A good animal welfare auditing system also has standards that prohibit really bad practices such as dragging, dropping, throwing, puntilla, and hoisting live animals before ritual slaughter. On farm and transport problems that can be measured at the slaughter plant are: percentage of lame animals, percentage of thin animals, percentage of dirty animals, percentage with sores, bruises or lesions, death losses, morbidity, and percentage of birds with broken wings and legs.

  7. Welfare aspects in rabbit rearing and transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Cavani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The review starts with the description of the rabbits’ (Oryctolagus cuniculus main habits and the current situation concerning the rabbit husbandry and management systems, as well as their effects on the welfare of these animals. As far as the intensive rabbit husbandry systems are concerned, the main problems are related to the time since rabbits have been domesticated and their adaptive capacity and coping styles as respects the farming environment and management systems. Both these aspects have implications in the present and future of rabbit rearing for different purposes. Examples are given on the effects of different housing and management systems on rabbit welfare, as well as examples of the ethological, physiological and productive indicators used to evaluate these effects. Transportation and, more generally, preslaughter phases including catching, fasting and lairage at the abattoir are considered major stressors for farmed rabbits and might have deleterious effects on health, well-being, performance, and finally, product quality. A general statement of the recent scientific studies considering the effects of pre-slaughter factors on physiological and productive measurements are reported. Finally, some indications in order to improve rabbit welfare, already present at the European level, are also outlined, together with the European Food Safety Authority opinions.

  8. Slowed ageing, welfare, and population problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wareham, Christopher

    2015-10-01

    Biological studies have demonstrated that it is possible to slow the ageing process and extend lifespan in a wide variety of organisms, perhaps including humans. Making use of the findings of these studies, this article examines two problems concerning the effect of life extension on population size and welfare. The first--the problem of overpopulation--is that as a result of life extension too many people will co-exist at the same time, resulting in decreases in average welfare. The second--the problem of underpopulation--is that life extension will result in too few people existing across time, resulting in decreases in total welfare. I argue that overpopulation is highly unlikely to result from technologies that slow ageing. Moreover, I claim that the problem of underpopulation relies on claims about life extension that are false in the case of life extension by slowed ageing. The upshot of these arguments is that the population problems discussed provide scant reason to oppose life extension by slowed ageing.

  9. Nationalism and social welfare in the post-Soviet context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    This paper offers hypotheses on the role that state social welfare measures can play in reflecting nationalism and in aggravating interethnic tensions. Social welfare is often overlooked in theoretical literature on nationalism, because of the widespread assumption that the welfare state promotes social cohesion. However, social welfare systems may face contradictions between the goal of promoting universal access to all citizens on the one hand, and social pressures to recognize particular groups in distinct ways on the other. Examples from the post-Soviet context (particularly Russia) are offered to illustrate the ways in which social welfare issues may be perceived as having ethnic connotations.

  10. Race and welfare reform: the Wisconsin Works W-2 experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonds, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the impact of welfare reform on African- American and Caucasian welfare recipients in Milwaukee, Wisconsin to determine if there were differences in their experience with employers and private welfare agencies. The study found that despite having higher education levels and higher job training completion rates, African-American welfare recipients did not fare any better than Caucasians in terms of employment. African-American welfare recipients were more likely to be required to take pre-employment tests and Alcohol and Other Drug Abuses (AODA) than were Caucasians.

  11. MODERNIZATION OF CUPOLA EQUIPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. L. Rovin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an automated cupola complex, developed by scientific-production enterprise «Technolit» together with GSTU named after P. O. Sukhoi, launched in the spring of 2015 at the plant «Stroiex» in the city of Chelyabinsk (the Russian Federation. The old cupolas (open type have been replaced by the new cupolas of the closed type, equipped with automatic control and management system and multistage wet gas treatment system. Cupolas are equipped with systems of post-combustion gases and the batch charging, the separate systems of air blast, systems of sludge removal and recirculation of water, the slag granulation installations, mechanized cleaning of cupola furnace and automatic safety system. These activities allowed the company to increase production and improve the quality of cast iron, reduce the coke consumption by 20% and reducing emissions of pollutants into the atmosphere almost 30 times.

  12. [Rehabilitation for Pain Relief: Preface and Comments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanaoka, Kazuo

    2015-07-01

    Chronic intractable pain is difficult to manage as the mechanisms of chronic pain are complicated. Recently rehabilitation is used in patients with chronic pain not responding to NSAIDs, non-opioids, anti-depressants and so on. Rehabilitation includes acute, recovery and maintained modes of rehabilitation. This review is focused on the concept of rehabilitation, rehabilitation therapy, rehabilitation during recovery period, nerve rehabilitation, music-trampoline therapy and so on.

  13. Sensitive Equipment Decontamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    permeable and porous materials of equipment, such as rubbers, plastic and paints , due to their solvating powers. Such absorption can cause changes to...substrates (e.g., polymers, paints ). TECHNICAL PART STO-TR-HFM-233 3 - 39 N°- Requirement Technical Specifications Capability (efficacy...needed. Environmental aspects Toxicity of nanoparticles has to be studied. Operational parameters Unknown. Shelf-life parameters Depends on

  14. Soviet equipment flies in

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1978-01-01

    End of February 1977 a Soviet Ilyushin-76 heavy freight aircraft landed at Cointrin airport having on board fifty large wire proprtional chambers and associated apparatus, together weighing 10 tons, supplied by the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, USSR. The equipment was for the CERN- Dubna-Munich-Saclay experiment NA4 on deep inelastic muon scattering being set up in the North Area of SPS. See Weekly Bulletin 11/78.

  15. Bridges and Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-15

    the Trilateral Design and Test Code, paragraph 4.2.11, refers to a 15-percent impact factor for bending moment and deflection for crossing vehicle...speeds of 25 km/hr (15 mph). Since the BCS is equipped with both strain and load control features, the impact factor of each vehicle load and speed...can be determined. BCS testing to date has revealed that wheeled vehicle impact factors are approximately 10 percent and tracked vehicle impact

  16. The prospect of market-driven improvements in animal welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heerwagen, Lennart Ravn; Christensen, Tove; Sandøe, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Citizens in many European countries urge that the welfare of farm animals should be improved. Policy-makers propose that this could, at least to some extent, be achieved through increased consumption of animal products produced under labeling schemes guaranteeing higher standards of animal welfare....... Yet considerable uncertainties exist about the ability of the market to promote animal welfare. So far the consumption of most welfare-friendly products has been limited, and the impact of driving and limiting factors is poorly understood. Reviewing market studies, we identify the factors that have...... shaped the relatively successful market for grass milk in Denmark. We conclude that the positive drivers such as an appealing animal welfare attribute and animal welfare being bundled with other qualities are essentially the same as those operating in connection with less successful animal welfare...

  17. Welfare programs that target workforce participation may negatively affect mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muennig, Peter; Rosen, Zohn; Wilde, Elizabeth Ty

    2013-06-01

    During the 1990s reforms to the US welfare system introduced new time limits on people's eligibility to receive public assistance. These limits were developed to encourage welfare recipients to seek employment. Little is known about how such social policy programs may have affected participants' health. We explored whether the Florida Family Transition Program randomized trial, a welfare reform experiment, led to long-term changes in mortality among participants. The Florida program included a 24-36-month time limit for welfare participation, intensive job training, and placement assistance. We linked 3,224 participants from the experiment to 17-18 years of prospective mortality follow-up data and found that participants in the program experienced a 16 percent higher mortality rate than recipients of traditional welfare. If our results are generalizable to national welfare reform efforts, they raise questions about whether the cost savings associated with welfare reform justify the additional loss of life.

  18. Equipment Obsolescence Management Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redmond, J.

    2014-07-01

    Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) Operators are challenged with securing reliable supply channels for safety related equipment due to equipment obsolescence. Many Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) have terminated production of spare parts and product life-cycle support. The average component life cycles are much shorter than the NPP design life, which means that replacement components and parts for the original NPP systems are not available for the complete design life of the NPPs. The lack or scarcity of replacement parts adversely affects plant reliability and ultimately the profitability of the affected NPPs. This problem is further compounded when NPPs pursue license renewal and approval for plant-life extension. A reliable and predictable supply of replacement co components is necessary for NPPs to remain economically competitive and meet regulatory requirements and guidelines. Electrical and I and C components, in particular, have short product life cycles and obsolescence issues must be managed pro actively and not reactively in order to mitigate the risk to the NPP to ensure reliable and economic NPP operation. (Author)

  19. Equipping the stockyard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-04-01

    Good stockyard management has become an important feature in the coal supply chain. Today, virtually all suppliers and consumers make use of at least one stockyard when moving coal. The type of handling equipment that is best for a particular situation is consequently of wide interest. The value of coal stored in stockpiles can form a significant part of the end user's costs, as pointed out in a recent IEA Coal Research report 'Management of coal stockpiles'. Better blending is becoming a key factor in optimising both power plant and blast furnace performance. It is important to match the materials handling equipment to a facility's needs. Good stockpile management involves processing coal quality within the pile and controlling dust. Decisions must be made on appropriate methods of stacking coal, in longitudinal or circular bed. The article goes on to describe recent contracts for stockyard equipment by such manufacturers as UK-based Strachan and Henshaw and Spain's TAIM TFG. 3 photos.

  20. Rehabilitation for postpolio sequelae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Fary

    2004-08-01

    Postpolio sequelae (PPS) are new, late manifestations that occur many years after the initial poliomyelitis infection. Recurrence of symptoms and fear of reactivation of the polio virus is particularly distressing to polio survivors. This article outlines the diagnosis, pathophysiology, and management of PPS disabilities using a case vignette. Clinical features of PPS include fatigue, joint and muscle pain, new muscular weakness and bulbar symptoms. Diagnosis can be complicated particularly in nonparalytic cases of poliomyelitis. Disabilities in PPS may not be obvious to the observer but significantly affect the quality of life of the PPS patient. Previous rehabilitation intervention focussed on physical effort and determination to overcome disability at all costs. The treatment in PPS is now modified, and aggressive physical measures that may exacerbate muscle weakness are avoided. Most disabilities in PPS can be well managed with rehabilitation interventions that address limitations in patient activities of daily living, mobility and cardiopulmonary fitness.

  1. SEFRE: Semiexoskeleton Rehabilitation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winai Chonnaparamutt

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available SEFRE (Shoulder-Elbow-Forearm Robotics Economic rehabilitation system is presented in this paper. SEFRE Rehab System is composed of a robotic manipulator and an exoskeleton, so-called Forearm Supportive Mechanism (FSM. The controller of the system is developed as the Master PC consisting of five modules, that is, Intelligent Control (IC, Patient Communication (PC, Training with Game (TG, Progress Monitoring (PM, and Patient Supervision (PS. These modules support a patient to exercise with SEFRE in six modes, that is, Passive, Passive Stretching, Passive Guiding, Initiating Active, Active Assisted, and Active Resisted. To validate the advantages of the system, the preclinical trial was carried out at a national rehabilitation center. Here, the implement of the system and the preclinical results are presented as the verifications of SEFRE.

  2. Integral Rehabilitation in Dentistry

    OpenAIRE

    Lamas Lara, César; Cirujano Dentista, Diplomado en Odontología Restauradora y Estética de la Facultad de Odontología de la UNMSM. Docente del Curso de Operatoria Dental I y II ULADECH Católica.; Paz Fernández, Juan José; Cirujano Dentista, Especialista en Rehabilitación Oral, Docente del Área de Rehabilitación Oral de la Facultad de Odontología de la UNMSM.; Paredes Coz, Gerson; Cirujano Dentista, Especialista en Rehabilitación Oral, Docente del Área de Rehabilitación Oral de la Facultad de Odontología de la UNMSM.; Angulo de la Vega, Giselle; Cirujano Dentista, Estudios de Especialidad de Rehabilitación Oral de la Facultad de Odontología de la UNMSM.; Cardoso Hernández, Sully; Estudiante de internado de la Facultad de Odontología de la UNMSM.

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays is fundamental the interrelationship of the diverse specialities of dentistry for the resolution of the treatments realized in the patients who come to the odontologic consultation, since the vision slanted of some area can deprive to offer a better possibility of treatment. Working with specialists in different areas carries to orientating adequately the treatments and to optimizing results. In the present article the integral rehabilitation of a patient is detailed by the participa...

  3. Early rehabilitation after stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Bernhardt, Julie; Godeckeb, Erin; Johnson, Liam; Langhorne, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of review: \\ud Early rehabilitation is recommended in many guidelines, with limited evidence to guide practice. Brain\\ud neurobiology suggests that early training, at the right dose, will aid recovery. In this review, we highlight\\ud recent trials of early mobilization, aphasia, dysphagia and upper limb treatment in which intervention is\\ud commenced within 7 days of stroke and discuss future research directions.\\ud Recent findings: \\ud Trials in this early time window are few. Althou...

  4. [Cardiac rehabilitation in women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghannem, M; Ghannem, L; Lamouchi, S; Justin, K D; Meimoun, P; Ghannem, L

    2016-12-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) occurs later in life in women when compared to men (10 years later). The FAST-MI study has shown that the profile of women with CAD has changed in the past 15 years, they are younger, more obese, and usually smokers. Whatever the age at which CAD occurs in women, the prognosis tends to be worse than in men, despite a higher frequency of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) with angiographically normal coronary arteries in women. In women without significant lesion at coronary angiography, the WISE study has shown abnormalities of the coronary vasomotricy. Despite its beneficial effect on morbidity and mortality, cardiac rehabilitation is underused particularly in women. Indeed, several factors do not encourage a woman to follow a cardiac rehabilitation program, even after an ACS. These factors may be cultural, domestic, familial, orthopedic, or even the fear of exercising. Therefore, physicians have to be particularly convincing in women, in order to have them participating in rehabilitation programs. Physical capacity is lower in women when compared to men. However, the weaker the physical capacity, the better the benefit of cardiac rehabilitation. Physical endurance training continuously or in interval, associated to muscle strengthening can improve the physical capacity in women. Vascular risk factors correction is also an important step for the management of women with CAD. Therapeutic education and several available workshops help women to better understand their disease and to improve their self-management when they return home. Anxiety, depression, and sexual dysfunction frequently deteriorate the quality of life of our patients. Therefore, psychological management is also essential in our departments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Does the water reuse affect the fish growth, welfare quality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Štěpán Lang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The fish production in aquaculture is growing from year to year. However capacities of current aquaculture facilities are limited. So the need of intensification of old facilities and building new intensive facilities is obvious. The high intensity of fish culture generates some questions. Could water reuse affect fish growth, welfare, health or quality of final product? A lot of research was performed for this issue but just a few works compared water reuse systems (RAS versus flow thru systems (FTS. A problem with CO2 oversaturation was solved by shallow diffusers. Fin erosion seems to be a problem of high stocking density and system hygienic but it is not related directly to water reuse. A few papers were written about biochemical blood stress markers but it was mostly aimed to acute crowding or changes were found at extreme stocking densities over 124 kg.m3 for rainbow trout and 70 kg.m3 for sea bass. The fish are able to accustom to increased noise produced by RAS equipment very fast so it don’t affect fish negatively. There wasn’t found any prove of main water reuse to fish influence in the available literature. All results indicates that if the ecological parameters are kept in natural range for the fish reared in RAS, there is no negative effect of water reuse on fish.

  6. REHABILITATION PRACTICAL PROGRAMME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana KRANJC JOLDIKJ

    Full Text Available Centre for Education and Rehabilitation of Physi­cally Handicapped Children and Adolescents Kamnik (Zavod za usposabljanje invalidne mlad­ine Kamnik; hereinafter: ZUIM perform verified or state-ap­proved programme the Rehabilitation practical pro­gramme. The programme is intended for all those young people, who have completed primary school education, but cannot continue regular schooling in secondary school pro­grammes. The programme con­sists of several equivalent parts: education, practical work, train­ing work, health, therapeutic, psychologi­cal, and other activities. For every beginner in the first month of education members of the operative team create an individualized programme, which in­cludes individualized school work, individualized training programme, and other expert activities. The programme can last for 6 years maximum, it can however be completed earlier, when the op­erative team feels the training is no longer neces­sary. Pro­gress of a young person is what matters the most, and if there is no progress, the training is brought to an end. Training of young people in the Rehabilitation practical programme is only the be­ginning. The country will have to start considering social enter­prises, which are found elsewhere in the world, for example in Scandinavian countries and in the USA.

  7. [Cognitive rehabilitation of amusia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weill-Chounlamountry, A; Soyez-Gayout, L; Tessier, C; Pradat-Diehl, P

    2008-06-01

    The cognitive model of music processing has a modular architecture with two main pathways (a melody pathway and a time pathway) for processing the musical "message" and thus enabling music recognition. It also features a music-specific module for tonal encoding of pitch which stands apart from all other known cognitive systems (including language processing). To the best of our knowledge, rehabilitation therapy for amusia has not yet been reported. We developed a therapeutic method (inspired by work on word deafness) in order to determine whether specific rehabilitation based on melody discrimination could prompt the regression of amusia. We report the case of a patient having developed receptive, acquired amusia four years previously. His tone deafness disorder was assessed using the Montreal Battery of Evaluation of Amusia (MBEA), which revealed impairment of the melody pathway but no deficiency in the time pathway. A computer-assisted rehabilitation method was implemented; it used melody discrimination tasks and an errorless learning paradigm with progressively fading visual cues. After therapy, we noted an improvement in the overall MBEA score and its component subscores which could not be explained by spontaneous recovery (in view of the number of years since the neurological accident). The improvement was maintained at seven months post-therapy. Although post-therapy improvement in daily life was not systematically assessed, the patient started listening to his favourite music again. Specific amusia therapy has shown efficacy.

  8. [Rehabilitation in Alzheimer's dementia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicconetti, P; Fionda, A; Zannino, G; Ettorre, E; Marigliano, V

    2000-09-01

    Alzheimer's disease is a neurodegenerative disease that causes a progressive decline of cognitive and behavioural functions. The simultaneous presence of these disorders requires a treatment not only for cognitive decline, but also for behavioural symptoms, depression and caregiver's stress. Research has made many efforts to develop a wide range of treatments, different from current pharmacological therapy, which is not resolutive, owing to the absence of an exact etiopathogenetic mechanism. Since new drugs have not been shown to be really effective in slowing cognitive impairment, various forms of rehabilitative interventions have been proposed in order to treat Alzheimer's disease. Their efficacy in the improvement of cognitive functions is still not completely clear. Surely, interesting results have been obtained from studies about Reality Orientation Therapy, Occupational Therapy and Memory Training. Music therapy might provide a new form of rehabilitative intervention, especially acting on the reducing of behavioural symptoms. These alternative forms of non pharmacological treatment may have a positive effect on caregiver. The heavy emotional burden of seeing a loved one becoming confused and isolated and of having to accept new responsibilities, may be reduced by rehabilitative supports, complementary to the pharmacological therapy. Caregiver stress could be reduced in two ways: by promoting the hope that something is being done for the patient and providing free time for himself.

  9. Inequality in rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guldager, Rikke; Poulsen, Ingrid

    accident. The patient suffers from severe physical and cognitive deficits. MK is married and has 3 grown-up children. MK is an academic and is acknowledged within the field, as well as her husband. They live in a house on three floors and have a summer cottage. At the admission interview, the husband....... The case study shows how one high status couple with many resources uses capitals. Especially cultural health capital, cultural capital (including health literacy and ability to use language) and social capital (including family and networks) when interacting with the health and welfare professions...

  10. Biofeedback in rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giggins, Oonagh M; Persson, Ulrik McCarthy; Caulfield, Brian

    2013-06-18

    This paper reviews the literature relating to the biofeedback used in physical rehabilitation. The biofeedback methods used in rehabilitation are based on biomechanical measurements and measurements of the physiological systems of the body. The physiological systems of the body which can be measured to provide biofeedback are the neuromuscular system, the respiratory system and the cardiovascular system. Neuromuscular biofeedback methods include electromyography (EMG) biofeedback and real-time ultrasound imaging (RTUS) biofeedback. EMG biofeedback is the most widely investigated method of biofeedback and appears to be effective in the treatment of many musculoskeletal conditions and in post cardiovascular accident (CVA) rehabilitation. RTUS biofeedback has been demonstrated effective in the treatment of low back pain (LBP) and pelvic floor muscle dysfunction. Cardiovascular biofeedback methods have been shown to be effective in the treatment of a number of health conditions such as hypertension, heart failure, asthma, fibromyalgia and even psychological disorders however a systematic review in this field has yet to be conducted. Similarly, the number of large scale studies examining the use of respiratory biofeedback in rehabilitation is limited. Measurements of movement, postural control and force output can be made using a number of different devices and used to deliver biomechanical biofeedback. Inertial based sensing biofeedback is the most widely researched biomechanical biofeedback method, with a number of studies showing it to be effective in improving measures of balance in a number of populations. Other types of biomechanical biofeedback include force plate systems, electrogoniometry, pressure biofeedback and camera based systems however the evidence for these is limited. Biofeedback is generally delivered using visual displays, acoustic or haptic signals, however more recently virtual reality (VR) or exergaming technology have been used as biofeedback

  11. Causative factors and rehabilitation of patellar tendinopathy: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanell Morgan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patellar tendinopathy (PT is a common chronic pathology of the knee, with a high prevalence in athletes and the general population.Objectives: The objectives of this article were to systematically investigate all the evidence applicable to the intrinsic and extrinsic causative factors and rehabilitation of PT, and then integrate and link rehabilitation with the main causative factors identified.Method: The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines were followed. Various tools were used to evaluate the methodological quality of the eligible articles. Data were interpreted descriptively, and the causative factors and rehabilitation of PT were analysed.Results: Twenty studies were included in the review. The distinctive factor responsible for PT is the mechanical theory. Seven intrinsic and four extrinsic risk factors were identified, with the main intrinsic risk factors being muscle flexibility and strength, and extrinsic risk factors being acquisition and level of skills. PT can be treated with numerous different therapeutic modalities, although eccentric muscle training showed exceptional results. The intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors can only be transformed and reduced by rehabilitation, which is inevitable to improve PT pain and function.Conclusion: The essence of an integrated management protocol for PT is to identify the dominant contributing factors, whether intrinsic or extrinsic, and to reduce the load on the patellar tendon by modifying these factors by either rehabilitation intervention or direct modification of the equipment or environment to obtain a positive outcome towards pain management and function.

  12. Highway Maintenance Equipment Operator. Specialized Equipment. Training Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perky, Sandra Dutreau; And Others

    This curriculum guide provides instructional materials to assist in training equipment operators in the safe and effective use of highway maintenance equipment. It includes 18 units of instruction covering the large equipment used in maintenance operations. Each unit of instruction consists of eight basic components: performance objectives,…

  13. Highway Maintenance Equipment Operator. Miscellaneous Equipment. Training Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perky, Sandra Dutreau; And Others

    This curriculum guide provides instructional materials to assist in training equipment operators in the safe and effective use of highway maintenance equipment. It includes six units of instruction covering the small, specialized equipment used in maintenance operations. Each unit of instruction consists of eight basic components: performance…

  14. Nonprofit Organizations in Danish Welfare Provision – Explaining Differences Across Welfare Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, Malene

    This paper describes and analyzes the large variation in the proportion of non-profit providers across different welfare areas in Denmark with specific focus on two selected areas: Primary schools and care homes for elderly. With inspiration from niche theory, the aim is to get a deeper insight...... in the characteristics of the institutional framework in the two areas. The main argument of the paper is that non-profit welfare providers cannot be lumped together. It is necessary to take a closer look at both the differences and similarities across areas, but also across non-profit providers and their public...

  15. From cruelty to welfare: the emergence of farm animal welfare in Britain, 1964-71.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Abigail

    2012-03-01

    There is a long history of concern in Britain for how animals are treated. Until the 1960s, these concerns were expressed largely in terms of cruelty or suffering, which was prevented through various acts of Parliament. Over the period 1964-71, amidst public debates about intensive farming, a new discourse of animal welfare emerged. To understand what welfare meant and how it became established as a term, a concept and a target of government regulation, it is necessary to examine farming politics and practices, the existing tradition of animal protection and attempts to rethink the nature of animal suffering. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Recent Development of Rehabilitation Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqin Qian

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We have conducted a critical review on the development of rehabilitation robots to identify the limitations of existing studies and clarify some promising research directions in this field. This paper is presented to summarize our findings and understanding. The demands for assistive technologies for elderly and disabled population have been discussed, the advantages and disadvantages of rehabilitation robots as assistive technologies have been explored, the issues involved in the development of rehabilitation robots are investigated, some representative robots in this field by leading research institutes have been introduced, and a few of critical challenges in developing advanced rehabilitation robots have been identified. Finally to meet the challenges of developing practical rehabilitation robots, reconfigurable and modular systems have been proposed to meet the identified challenges, and a few of critical areas leading to the potential success of rehabilitation robots have been discussed.

  17. Evolution of orthopaedic rehabilitation care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Wade T; Stannard, James P; Pasquina, Paul F; Archer, Kristin R

    2012-01-01

    Rehabilitation following surgical reconstruction for combat-related extremity injuries sustained in the current conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan has been challenging. The goal of rehabilitation is to restore limb function to facilitate the reintegration of patients with these severe injuries into society. The US Department of Defense has developed a network of rehabilitation centers of excellence within the military healthcare system in collaboration with the US Department of Veterans Affairs to optimize outcomes using technologic and systemic advances in prostheses in patients who have undergone limb salvage procedures or amputation. Managing pain during rehabilitation and optimizing function following high bilateral lower extremity amputation remains a clinical challenge. However, continued research is likely to improve outcomes in this severely injured patient population. To that end, two research consortia, the Bridging Advanced Developments for Exceptional Rehabilitation and the Center for Rehabilitation Sciences Research, have recently been created to address identified knowledge gaps.

  18. 38 CFR 21.70 - Vocational rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vocational rehabilitation...) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment Under 38 U.S.C. Chapter 31 Duration of Rehabilitation Programs § 21.70 Vocational rehabilitation. (a) General. The goal of a...

  19. 48 CFR 871.208 - Rehabilitation facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rehabilitation facilities... DEPARTMENT SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS LOAN GUARANTY AND VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EMPLOYMENT PROGRAMS Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment Service 871.208 Rehabilitation facilities. Charges by rehabilitation...

  20. A Survey of Chinese Citizens’ Perceptions on Farm Animal Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Xiaolin; Li, Yibo; Zhang, Min; Yan, Huoqi; Zhao, Ruqian

    2014-01-01

    Farm animal welfare has been gradually recognized as an important issue in most parts of the world. In China, domestic animals were traditionally raised in backyard and treated as an important component of family wealth. Industrialization of animal production brings forth the farm animal welfare concerns recently in China, yet the modern concept of animal welfare has not been publicized and a comprehensive recognition on how consumers and farmers perceive animal welfare is lacking. Therefore, we conducted a survey on public opinions toward farm animal welfare in China, based on pigs (including sows, piglets, and fattening pigs), domestic fowls (including layers and broilers) and their products. From 6,006 effective questionnaires approximately two thirds of the respondents had never heard of ‘animal welfare’; 72.9% of the respondents claimed that, for the sake of animal derived food safety, human beings should improve the rearing conditions for pigs and domestic fowls; 65.8% of the respondents totally or partly agreed on establishing laws to improve animal welfare; more than half of the respondents were willing, or to some extent willing, to pay more for high-welfare animal products, whereas 45.5% of the respondents were not willing or reluctant to pay more. In summary, farm animal welfare is still in its early stage of development and more efforts are needed to improve the public conception to animal welfare in the process of establishing farm animal welfare standards and legislations in China. PMID:25314159

  1. Problematising risk in stroke rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Mary Y; Kessler, Dorothy; Ceci, Christine; Laliberté-Rudman, Debbie; McGrath, Colleen; Sikora, Lindsey; Gardner, Paula

    2016-11-01

    Following stroke, re-engagement in personally valued activities requires some experience of risk. Risk, therefore, must be seen as having positive as well as negative aspects in rehabilitation. Our aim was to identify the dominant understanding of risk in stroke rehabilitation and the assumptions underpinning these understandings, determine how these understandings affect research and practise, and if necessary, propose alternate ways to conceptualise risk in research and practise. Alvesson and Sandberg's method of problematisation was used. We began with a historical overview of stroke rehabilitation, and proceeded through five steps undertaken in an iterative fashion: literature search and selection; data extraction; syntheses across texts; identification of assumptions informing the literature and; generation of alternatives. Discussion of risk in stroke rehabilitation is largely implicit. However, two prominent conceptualisations of risk underpin both knowledge development and clinical practise: the risk to the individual stroke survivor of remaining dependent in activities of daily living and the risk that the health care system will be overwhelmed by the costs of providing stroke rehabilitation. Conceptualisation of risk in stroke rehabilitation, while implicit, drives both research and practise in ways that reinforce a focus on impairment and a generic, decontextualised approach to rehabilitation. Implications for rehabilitation Much of stroke rehabilitation practise and research seems to centre implicitly on two risks: risk to the patient of remaining dependent in ADL and risk to the health care system of bankruptcy due to the provision of stroke rehabilitation. The implicit focus on ADL dependence limits the ability of clinicians and researchers to address other goals supportive of a good life following stroke. The implicit focus on financial risk to the health care system may limit access to rehabilitation for people who have experienced either milder or

  2. A multifunctional social economy offer to the Danish welfare state? The case of Farming for Health in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Pia Heike

    2010-01-01

    agriculture nor inside the fourth sector meet the practices of Farming for Health in Denmark. In addition it concludes that if Farming for Health should be an offer for the Danish welfare state then cooperation between for example bottom-up initiatives supported by the LEADER program and actors from......Social Farming and Farming for Health are both internationally accepted names for farms that in addition to their agricultural production offer social, medical care or educational services. Such services could for example be related to rehabilitation / reintegration of socially disadvantaged people...... to promote integration of minorities, to special education of maladjusted school pupils and to physical or mental therapeutic rehabilitation. In Europe there has in recent years been an increasing focus on this linkage between farming and social / health activities as an initiative that encourages relations...

  3. Californium-252 Program Equipment Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chattin, Fred Rhea [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wilson, Kenton [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ezold, Julie G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-12-01

    To successfully continue the 252Cf production and meet the needs of the customers, a comprehensive evaluation of the Building 7920 processing equipment was requested to identify equipment critical to the operational continuity of the program.

  4. Center for Rehabilitation Sciences Research

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Center for Rehabilitation Sciences Research (CRSR) was established as a research organization to promote successful return to duty and community reintegration of...

  5. Penile rehabilitation after radical prostatectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fode, Mikkel; Ohl, Dana A; Ralph, David

    2013-01-01

    The pathophysiology of erectile dysfunction after radical prostatectomy (RP) is believed to include neuropraxia, which leads to temporarily reduced oxygenation and subsequent structural changes in penile tissue. This results in veno-occlusive dysfunction, therefore, penile rehabilitation programmes...... compared with placebo. The effects of prostaglandin and vacuum erection devices are questionable and high-quality studies are lacking. Better documentation for current penile rehabilitation and/or better rehabilitation protocols are needed. One must be careful not to repeat the statement that penile...... rehabilitation improves erectile function after RP so many times that it becomes a truth even without the proper scientific backing....

  6. New methodologies for patients rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fardoun, H M; Mashat, A S; Lange, B

    2015-01-01

    The present editorial is part of the focus theme of Methods of Information in Medicine titled "New Methodologies for Patients Rehabilitation", with a specific focus on technologies and human factors related to the use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) for improving patient rehabilitation. The focus theme explores different dimensions of empowerment methodologies for disabled people in terms of rehabilitation and health care, and to explores the extent to which ICT is a useful tool in this process. The focus theme lists a set of research papers that present different ways of using ICT to develop advanced systems that help disabled people in their rehabilitation process.

  7. Exercise rehabilitation for smartphone addiction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hyunna Kim

    2013-01-01

    Internet addiction after launching smartphone is becoming serious. Therefore this paper has attempted to sketch out the diverse addiction treatment and then check the feasibility of exercise rehabilitation...

  8. Rehabilitation Research for Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salima Suleman

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we describe a knowledge translation symposium focused on rehabilitation research for older adults. The symposium consisted of presentations on rehabilitation research, followed by roundtable discussions designed to solicit perspectives of public stakeholders. Eighty-eight people attended the event, most with backgrounds in health care service provision. The participants evaluated the event and provided feedback on research topics related to rehabilitation of older adults. Lessons learned from this event may be useful in the design of future knowledge translation symposia and to facilitate involvement of public stakeholders in design, implementation, and dissemination of rehabilitation research for older adults.

  9. Ordinal Welfare Comparisons with Multiple Discrete Indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Distante, Roberta; Hussain, M. Azhar

    We develop an ordinal method for making welfare comparisons between populations with multidimensional discrete well-being indicators observed at the micro level. The approach assumes that, for each well-being indicator, the levels can be ranked from worse to better; however, no assumptions are ma...... another on the basis of available binary indicators by drawing upon linear programming theory. These approaches are applied to household survey data from Vietnam and Mozambique with a focus on child poverty comparisons over time and between regions....

  10. Animal welfare in Danish pig herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forkman, Björn; Otten, Nina Dam; Reiten, Mari

    2017-01-01

    -clover pastures poses animal welfare challenges during the hot season as indicated by a recent pilot study we did where 85% of sows were severely sunburned on ears. In the pasture-based system, the farrowing huts are the only possibility for sows to seek protection from the sun. Studies indicate that during hot......On a global scale, the demand for organic pork is increasing. Organic pig production is associated with positive aspects such as animals being able to perform species-specific behavior, and a low use of antimicrobics. However, the current Danish organic production system with sows on grass...

  11. Social Polarisation and the Danish Welfare State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anders Bøggild; Rasmussen, Tove Valborg

    Globalisation and the information society tend - according to leading theories - to increase social polarisation and create dual cities. Studies have shown that the tendencies are more complicated in several of the European cities and the welfare state seems to have an impact on the development. We...... look at Aarhus in the light of these theories and studies of other cities. We present some preliminary results of a study based on public registered data covering income, capital, occupation, social services, types of dwellings, localisation etc. in the municipality of Aarhus. On the one hand we paint...

  12. Determinants of Welfare Dynamics in Rural Nicaragua

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Kristian Thor

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the determinants of poverty movements in rural Nicaragua by introducing a bivariate probate model, making it possible to treat the initial state of poverty as endogenous and thus avoiding introducing selection bias. The results indicate that this is relevant when exploring...... welfare dynamics in rural Nicaragua, as initially poor households face a higher probability of being poor in the subsequent period compared with non-poor households. It is also found that household composition, access to non-agriculture wage income and ownership of productive assets are important factors...

  13. Negotiating privacy in surveillant welfare relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Bo; Lauritsen, Peter; Bøge, Ask Risom

    the analytical capacity of the concept by rendering it a situated and relational concept. The argument is developed through a research and design project called Teledialogue meant to improve the relation between case managers and children placed at institutions or in foster families. Privacy in Teledialogue......The Danish welfare system is dependent on surveillance practices. Health authorities screen for diseases, tax authorities surveil financial flows, and social services are surveillant to vulnerable families. Such state surveillance is often related to, and opposed to, the privacy of citizens...

  14. Welfare State Regimes and Caseworkers’ Problem Explanation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Marie Østergaard; Stensöta, Helena Helena Olofsdotter

    2017-01-01

    In frontline bureaucracy research, the dominant view holds that frontline workers resist managerial pressure to “blame the poor” by bending the rules based on moral considerations, a practice labeled “citizen agency.” We suggest that frontline responses to managerial pressure are filtered through...... welfare state regime type. Based on in-depth study of caseworker reasoning in Sweden and Denmark, we find a “structural problem explanation” that sees reasons for clients seeking support as rooted in the structures of society— not in the individual client. We find and present two narratives hitherto...

  15. Predicting the Grade of Disability 1 Year After Stroke Following Rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jau-Hong Lin

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to identify predictors of grades of disability at least 1 year after stroke rehabilitation therapy. We recruited stroke patients from the inpatient rehabilitation department of a university hospital. The degree of disability was graded using the disability evaluation at least 1 year after stroke onset. Functional ability was evaluated using the Functional Independence Measure instrument on admission, on discharge from the inpatient rehabilitation program, and at the 6-month follow-up visit after discharge. Major sociodemographic, medical, and rehabilitative factors were also collected during the hospitalization period. Of the 109 patients surveyed, 64 (58.7% had severe or very severe grades of disability. The correlates of severe or very severe disability in logistic regression analyses were bilaterally affected (odds ratio, OR, 10.8, impaired orientation (OR, 3.6, and poorer functional ability at discharge (OR, 7.6. Based on the significant predictors identified, the logistic regression model correctly classified severe or very severe disability in 68.0% of subjects. The higher frequency of severe or very severe disability in this study may have been due to the relatively more severely affected stroke patient population in the inpatient rehabilitation service and the use of unique disability evaluation criteria. These results may provide information useful in planning continuous rehabilitation care and setting relevant socio-welfare policies for stroke victims.

  16. Corporate Reporting on Farm Animal Welfare: An Evaluation of Global Food Companies’ Discourse and Disclosures on Farm Animal Welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rory Sullivan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The views that food companies hold about their responsibilities for animal welfare can strongly influence the lives and welfare of farm animals. If a company’s commitment is translated into action, it can be a major driver of animal welfare. The Business Benchmark on Farm Animal Welfare (BBFAW is an annual evaluation of farm animal welfare-related practices, reporting and performance of food companies. The framework evaluates how close, based on their disclosures, companies are to best practice in three areas: Management Commitment, Governance & Performance and Leadership & Innovation. The BBFAW analysed information published by 68 (2012 and 70 (2013 of the world’s largest food companies. Around 70% of companies acknowledged animal welfare as a business issue. Between 2012 and 2013, the mean BBFAW score increased significantly by 5% (p < 0.001, Wilcoxon Signed-Rank test. However, only 34% (2012 and 44% (2013 of companies published comprehensive animal welfare policies. This increase suggests that global food companies are increasingly aware that farm animal welfare is of interest to their stakeholders, but also that many companies have yet to acknowledge farm animal welfare as a business issue or to demonstrate their approach to farm animal welfare to stakeholders and society.

  17. Corporate Reporting on Farm Animal Welfare: An Evaluation of Global Food Companies' Discourse and Disclosures on Farm Animal Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Rory; Amos, Nicky; van de Weerd, Heleen A

    2017-03-06

    The views that food companies hold about their responsibilities for animal welfare can strongly influence the lives and welfare of farm animals. If a company's commitment is translated into action, it can be a major driver of animal welfare. The Business Benchmark on Farm Animal Welfare (BBFAW) is an annual evaluation of farm animal welfare-related practices, reporting and performance of food companies. The framework evaluates how close, based on their disclosures, companies are to best practice in three areas: Management Commitment, Governance & Performance and Leadership & Innovation. The BBFAW analysed information published by 68 (2012) and 70 (2013) of the world's largest food companies. Around 70% of companies acknowledged animal welfare as a business issue. Between 2012 and 2013, the mean BBFAW score increased significantly by 5% (p companies published comprehensive animal welfare policies. This increase suggests that global food companies are increasingly aware that farm animal welfare is of interest to their stakeholders, but also that many companies have yet to acknowledge farm animal welfare as a business issue or to demonstrate their approach to farm animal welfare to stakeholders and society.

  18. “A fine balance”—how child welfare workers manage organizational changes within the Norwegian Welfare State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudrun Brottveit

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In 2004, the Child Welfare Reform (CWR was introduced in Norway. One of the most important goals of the reform was to strengthen State level authority in public child welfare and establish equal child welfare services across the country. The aim of this article is to study how this new reform affected the work of municipal child welfare professionals and led to the development of a regional project called New Child Welfare (NCW. Based on qualitative interviews with central actors in NCW, regarding the interaction between state and local child welfare professionals, the article shows how professionals within local child welfare reacted on the CWR. The NCW was established as a consequence of the professionals’ reaction on state governance and represent a new type of network. Inspired by Michel Foucaults’ concepts of governmentality and self-work, the article focuses on the development of the NCW as a result of child welfare workers’ confrontation with state governance and their fight for innovative solutions, knowing that the reform had direct impact on vulnerable children, youths, and their families. The local and collective self-work in NCW is an expression of a new form of productive power based on equality and cooperation, as well as a particular form of dependency between municipal and state levels of governance. The article highlights the importance of studying how reforms introduced by the state actually influence local child welfare work, policy, and professionalism within municipal child welfare.

  19. Female urinary incontinence rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Benedetto, P

    2004-08-01

    Pelvic floor rehabilitation (PFR) is an important and recommended strategy for the treatment of many urogynecological disorders including urinary incontinence (UI). The recognised pioneer of PFR is the American gynecologist Arnold Kegel who, over 50 years ago, proposed pelvic floor muscle exercises (PFME) to prevent and/or treat female UI. Kegel's techniques were successfully used by others too, but as the years passed these techniques sank into unjustified oblivion. In the 1980s in Europe the medical world's interest in PFME techniques gained ground, contemporaneously with functional electrical stimulation (FES) and biofeedback (BFB). As a general rule, the least invasive and least dangerous procedure for the patient should be the first choice, and behavioural and rehabilitative techniques should be considered as the first line of therapy for UI. The behavioural approaches in women with UI and without cognitive deficits are tailored to the patient's underlying problem, such as bladder training or retraining (BR) for urge UI. BR has many variations but generally consists of education, scheduled voiding, and positive reinforcements. The rehabilitative approaches comprise BFB, FES, PFME, and vaginal cones (VC). BFB allows the subject to modify the unconscious physiological events, while FES is aimed at strengthening perineal awareness, increasing the tone and trophism of the pelvic floor, and inhibiting detrusor overactivity. PFME play an extremely important role in the conservative treatment of UI and overactive bladder, and many studies have demonstrated their effectiveness. Many authors have used the different methods for PFR in a heterogeneous manner: the best results were obtained when protocols requiring the contemporary use of 2 or more techniques were followed.

  20. SERIES "NOVELTIES IN PULMONARY REHABILITATION" New tools in pulmonary rehabilitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijkstra, P. J.; Wempe, J. B.

    2011-01-01

    In patients with more severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease ( COPD), the benefits of rehabilitation might not be clear and, therefore, new treatment options have been developed to increase the benefits of rehabilitation. This review provides an overview of new approaches being developed as an