WorldWideScience

Sample records for welfare economics

  1. FARM ANIMAL WELFARE ECONOMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.T. CZISZTER

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the literature regarding the economics of the farm animal welfare. The following issues are addressed: productions costs and savings of the animal welfare regulations, benefits of improved animal welfare, and consumers’ willingness to pay for animal-friendly products.

  2. Welfare Economics: A Story of Existence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Iqbal

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to explore that, despite severe challenges, welfare economics still exists. This descriptive study is conducted through some specific time line developments in this field. Economists are divided over the veracity and survival of the welfare economics. Welfare economics emphasizes on the optimum resource and goods allocation with the objective of better living standard, materialistic gains, social welfare and ethical decisions. It origins back to the political economics and utilitarianism. Adam Smith, Irving Fisher and Pareto contributed significantly towards it. During 1930 to 1940, American and British approaches were developed. Many economists tried to explore the relationship between level of income and happiness. Amartya Sen gave the comparative approach and Tinbergen pioneered the theory of equity. Contemporarily the futuristic restoration of welfare economics is on trial and hopes are alive. This study may be useful to understand the transitional and survival process of welfare economics.

  3. Towards a Dynamic (Schumpeterian) Welfare Economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.A. Dolfsma (Wilfred)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractFor an economy where knowledge plays an increasingly important role in shaping its dynamics, economics needs a dynamic (Schumpeterian) welfare theory. This paper sketches the role of knowledge in an economy and argues that a static Paretian welfare economics is inadequate, or at least

  4. ANIMAL WELFARE AND ECONOMIC EFFECTIVENESS IN BULGARIA AND EU FARMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TSVETANA HARIZANOVA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study the relationship between economic effectiveness and animal welfare standards is investigated in the case of the pig and cattle breeding. The issue is of importance in order to assess economic viability of livestock breeding while applying animal friendly practices. This paper considers animal welfare standards in national regulations in pig breeding and cattle breeding, production under animal welfare and economic effectiveness in the specified sectors. It is pointed out the conditions which the legislation lays down to ensure better animal welfare. The discussion continues with detailed examination of the applying these standards in the production process. At the end of the paper are presented main conclusions concerning economic efficiency under animal welfare standards. The aim of the paper is to analyse the interactions between the economic effectiveness of livestock production and animal welfare in the pig breeding and cattle breeding.

  5. Southern european model welfare state and economic crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mpoutsiou S.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The current economic crisis has affected the exercise of social policy and has shrunk welfare states in southern Europe. The welfare state, a structure that is a pillar and constant goal of Greek ideology and culture seems to accept strong tremors that threaten the social cohesion of Greek society. This literature review presents the characteristics of the applied social policy and the different models of welfare states, focusing on South model welfare state. Additionally presented benefits of the welfare state such as pension and insurance system and the degree of their contribution to the economic crisis in Greece in recent years.

  6. Farm animal welfare in an economic context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huirne, R.B.M.; Ouden, den M.

    2002-01-01

    Consumers show a growing interest in the quality of agricultural products and the manner of production and distribution, including issues such as animal welfare, food safety and environmental pollution. Demands of this type refer to a large extent to the upstream farm stages of the so-called supply

  7. The Cost of Pollution on Longevity, Welfare and Economic Stability

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an overlapping generations model where pollution, private and public healths are all determinants of longevity. Public expenditure, financed through labour taxation, provide both public health and abatement. We study the complementarity between the three components of longevity on welfare and economic stability. At the steady state, we show that an appropriate fiscal policy may enhance welfare. However, when pollution is heavily harmful for longevity, the economy might exp...

  8. On Welfare and Terror: Social Welfare Policies and Political-Economic Roots of Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgoon, Brian

    2006-01-01

    This article argues that social welfare policies may reduce international and domestic terrorism. Social policies likely affect terrorism in offsetting ways but, on balance, should diminish preferences for terrorism by reducing economic insecurity, inequality, poverty, and religious-political extremism. Thus, countries with more generous welfare…

  9. Welfare State and globalisation of the economic area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José João ABRANTES

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A “welfare State” is a concept of government in which the state plays a key role in the protection and promotion of the economic and social well-being of its citizens. It is based on the principles of equality of opportunity, equitable distribution of wealth, and public responsibility for those unable to avail themselves of the minimal provisions for a good life. The general term may cover a variety of forms of economic and social organization. This article examines the concept of welfare state in the context of legislation adopted in recent years in Portugal that wants to "provide greater flexibility" of the labour market. This article discusses the crisis and the future of the Social State that is also, according to my view, an act of citizenship, a way of expressing our concern with the actual status of the welfare State.

  10. Welfare Reform and Black Women's Economic Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfred, Mary V.

    2007-01-01

    In 1996, the United States Congress passed the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act, placing emphasis on individuals to take responsibility for separating themselves from governmental dependence by becoming economically self-sufficient through employment. Using a qualitative approach, this study explored the experiences…

  11. Road Pricing, Traffic Congestion and Economic Welfare: A Note

    OpenAIRE

    Ingo Böbel; Casimir de Rham

    2004-01-01

    Only recently, the subject of road pricing to reduce traffic congestion gained increasing importance in Europe. This paper uses a standard microeconomic approach to show that road user price charging to avoid traffic congestion is optimal from a society’s point of view as it improves economic efficiency of allocating a scarce resource (road space) by reducing the welfare loss (as being measured by a loss in consumer surplus) for everyone in the society.

  12. INCREASING ECONOMIC WELFARE OF CHURCH CONGREGATION : A CONCEPT OF EMPOWERMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TONGAM SIHOL NABABAN

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In our community, many structural problems unresolved well, especially in social and economic life. Seeing this reality, the Church needs to have a sensitivity and a strong commitment to encourage cooperation of some parties to empower people, especially its congregation. Congregation of the Church, especially the poor need to be raised and empowered to pursue their own welfare through economic business. One manifestation of the Church's task is to empower the community-based and to revitalize its role more focused on optimizing the institution of community economy. For that, it is important to use the Model of Empowerment of Congregation-Based Community Economic in form of business partnership. The success of congregation economic empowerment lies in the motivation and orientation of the actors themselves, where the Church is expected to seriously fight. Keywords: Church, Congregation, Community-Based Economic, Business Partnership,  Empowerment.

  13. Chicken or Egg: Global Economic Crisis or Ideological Retrenchment from Welfare in Three European Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Aase Mygind; Judd, Dawn; Boeckh, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    As welfare states confront massive changes, these are often explained as inevitable by-products of the global economic crisis. However, many of the shifts in welfare ideology pre-date the crisis. As increasing numbers of European welfare states move towards neoliberal paradigms then this converge......As welfare states confront massive changes, these are often explained as inevitable by-products of the global economic crisis. However, many of the shifts in welfare ideology pre-date the crisis. As increasing numbers of European welfare states move towards neoliberal paradigms...

  14. The politics and policies of welfare chauvinism under the economic crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keskinen, Suvi; Norocel, Ov Cristian; Bak Jørgensen, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The ongoing economic crisis that emerged in the wake of the global recession in 2008, and was followed by the more recent crisis of the Eurozone, has introduced new themes and remoulded old ways of approaching the welfare state, immigration, national belonging and racism in Northern Europe. This ...... of a broader neoliberal restructuring of the welfare state and of welfare retrenchment....

  15. The relationship between animal welfare and economic performance at farm level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Arne; Czekaj, Tomasz Gerard; Forkman, Björn

    We propose a theoretical framework for the relationship between animal welfare and the economic performance of livestock farms. We empirically analyse this relationship based on a unique data set of randomly sampled Danish pig herds that includes information from unannounced inspections of the co......We propose a theoretical framework for the relationship between animal welfare and the economic performance of livestock farms. We empirically analyse this relationship based on a unique data set of randomly sampled Danish pig herds that includes information from unannounced inspections...... of the compliance with the animal welfare legislation. We find large variations in economic performance indicators and animal welfare indicators. The relationship between these two indicators is rather weak, but tends to be slightly positive. We conclude that management has a major influence on both economic...... performance and animal welfare so that good farm managers are able to obey all animal welfare regulations and, at the same time, achieve a high economic performance....

  16. Economic incentives and individuals choice between welfare programmes and work in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Martin

    We estimate the effect of welfare benefits and wages on individuals' choice between working or collecting one of three welfare programmes. We compare the magnitude of transitions between various welfare programmes with transitions between, say, work and disability benefit. We use simulation methods...... to estimate random parameters. Estimation results show significant effects of economic incentives and significant variations of estimated parameters. Experiments with the estimated model show that transitions within welfare programmes are important relative to transitions between such programmes and work....

  17. Health and innovation: economic dynamics and Welfare State in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Augusto Grabois Gadelha

    Full Text Available Abstract: The effective enforcement of the access to healthcare as fundamental right requires an important theoretical and political effort at linking the often contradictory economic and social dimensions of development. This study suggests the need for a systemic view of policies related to the industrial base and innovation in health and the construction of the Brazilian Unified National Health System (SUS. The authors investigate the relations between health, innovation, and development, seeking to show and update the political, economic, and social determinants of the recent Brazilian experience with the Health Economic-Industrial Complex (HEIC. They discuss how the agenda for innovation and domestic industrial production in health gained a central place in the project for construction of the SUS. The article thus seeks to link inherent issues from the agenda for development, production, and innovation to social policy in healthcare, as observed in recent years, and based on this analysis, points to political and conceptual challenges for implementing the SUS, especially as regards strengthening its technological and industrial base. As a byproduct, the article develops an analytical and factual focus on the consolidation of the HEIC in Brazil, both as a dynamic vector of industrial development, generating investment, income, employment, and innovations, and as a decisive element for reducing vulnerability and structural dependence in health. The authors aim to show that strengthening the SUS and orienting it to social needs is an essential part of building a social Welfare State in Brazil.

  18. Globalization, Child Welfare Policy, and the Economics of Social Uplift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casella, Ronnie

    2002-01-01

    Explores both the development of child welfare in the United States and the impact of international declarations of human and child rights from a global perspective, focusing on: child welfare and the visiting teacher profession in the United States; research on the well-being of children; child welfare policy in an international context; the…

  19. THE WELFARE AND THE ECONOMIC GROWTH: TWO FACES OF THE SAME COIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALINA LIGIA DUMITRESCU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The research starts with review of the evolution of the concept of welfare. The model of economic growth and social welfare of the European Union continuously adapts to social and economic changes of contemporary European society. As a result of the financial and economic crisis and its impact on the EU’s economy, including economic contraction and rising unemployment, European Commission has launched the Strategy “Europe 2020”. The study will focus on the analysis of the strategy “Europe 2020” as a tool for economic growth and welfare.

  20. Governmental Disability Welfare Expenditure and National Economic Growth from 1991 to 2006 in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jin-Ding; Lin, Lan-Ping

    2009-01-01

    The purposes of the present study were to describe the welfare expenditure for people with disabilities and examine its relation to national economic growth from 1991 to 2006 in Taiwan. We analyzed data mainly from the information of population with disabilities, disability welfare expenditure and national economic growth and gross national…

  1. Economic Modelling for water Quantity and Quality Management: A Welfare Program Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, X.; Ierland, van E.C.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an integrated economic model which is able to explicitly address both water quantity and quality. We use a welfare program to maximize social welfare subject to the economic and ecological constraints, where interactions, emissions and environmental impacts are incorporated. Such

  2. The relationship between animal welfare and economic performance at farm level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Arne; Czekaj, Tomasz Gerard; Forkman, Björn;

    We propose a theoretical framework for the relationship between animal welfare and the economic performance of livestock farms. We empirically analyse this relationship based on a unique data set of randomly sampled Danish pig herds that includes information from unannounced inspections...... of the compliance with the animal welfare legislation. We find large variations in economic performance indicators and animal welfare indicators. The relationship between these two indicators is rather weak, but tends to be slightly positive. We conclude that management has a major influence on both economic...... performance and animal welfare so that good farm managers are able to obey all animal welfare regulations and, at the same time, achieve a high economic performance....

  3. The Welfare State as Crisis Manager: Explaining the Diversity of Policy Responses to Economic Crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starke, Peter; Kaasch, Alexandra; van Hooren, Franca

    welfare states, over a 40-year period, the book reveals the ways in which expansion and retrenchment are shaped by domestic politics and existing welfare state institutions. Moreover, the study addresses the kind of policy change triggered by economic crisis. In contrast to conventional wisdom......Written during an ongoing period of global economic crisis, The Welfare State as a Crisis Manager examines the practice and potential of using social policy to cope with crises. Through an in-depth analysis of social policy reactions in the wake of international economic shocks in four different...

  4. The Welfare State as Crisis Manager: Explaining the Diversity of Policy Responses to Economic Crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starke, Peter; Kaasch, Alexandra; van Hooren, Franca

    Written during an ongoing period of global economic crisis, The Welfare State as a Crisis Manager examines the practice and potential of using social policy to cope with crises. Through an in-depth analysis of social policy reactions in the wake of international economic shocks in four different...... welfare states, over a 40-year period, the book reveals the ways in which expansion and retrenchment are shaped by domestic politics and existing welfare state institutions. Moreover, the study addresses the kind of policy change triggered by economic crisis. In contrast to conventional wisdom...

  5. Economic welfare analysis of simulated control strategies for classical swine fever epidemics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mangen, M.J.J.

    2002-01-01

     Keywords: Classical swine fever; contagious disease; epidemiological model; sector-level market and trade model; simulation; economic welfare analysis; densely and sparsely populated areas; supplementary animal welfare measure

  6. Health and innovation: economic dynamics and Welfare State in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadelha, Carlos Augusto Grabois; Braga, Patrícia Seixas da Costa

    2016-11-03

    The effective enforcement of the access to healthcare as fundamental right requires an important theoretical and political effort at linking the often contradictory economic and social dimensions of development. This study suggests the need for a systemic view of policies related to the industrial base and innovation in health and the construction of the Brazilian Unified National Health System (SUS). The authors investigate the relations between health, innovation, and development, seeking to show and update the political, economic, and social determinants of the recent Brazilian experience with the Health Economic-Industrial Complex (HEIC). They discuss how the agenda for innovation and domestic industrial production in health gained a central place in the project for construction of the SUS. The article thus seeks to link inherent issues from the agenda for development, production, and innovation to social policy in healthcare, as observed in recent years, and based on this analysis, points to political and conceptual challenges for implementing the SUS, especially as regards strengthening its technological and industrial base. As a byproduct, the article develops an analytical and factual focus on the consolidation of the HEIC in Brazil, both as a dynamic vector of industrial development, generating investment, income, employment, and innovations, and as a decisive element for reducing vulnerability and structural dependence in health. The authors aim to show that strengthening the SUS and orienting it to social needs is an essential part of building a social Welfare State in Brazil. Resumo: A efetivação da saúde como um direito fundamental exige importante esforço, teórico e político, de articulação das dimensões econômicas e sociais, por vezes contraditórias, do desenvolvimento. Este trabalho indica a necessidade de um olhar sistêmico das políticas relacionadas à base produtiva e de inovação em saúde e à construção do Sistema Único de Sa

  7. Trust and its Implications for Economic Activity, Welfare and Globalisation

    OpenAIRE

    Tisdell, Clement A.

    2008-01-01

    According to The Macquarie Dictionary, the word ‘trust’ has more than 20 interpretations in English. Therefore, it is important to specify the way in which the word is being used in any discourses about managerial and economic issues. In what respect and to what extent are economic agents to be trusted in their dealings with others. When economic agents are untrustworthy, this adds to economic transaction costs, reduces the level of economic activity and the achievable level of economic welfa...

  8. Regional welfare disparities and regional economic growth in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen Huy Hoang,

    2009-01-01

    This study had multiple objectives. First, it aimed at examining regional inequality in several welfare variables, such as health and education during the 1998-2004 period, and per capita income over time from 1990 to 2006. The first objective of the study was to gain a better understanding about

  9. Governmental disability welfare expenditure and national economic growth from 1991 to 2006 in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jin-Ding; Lin, Lan-Ping

    2009-01-01

    The purposes of the present study were to describe the welfare expenditure for people with disabilities and examine its relation to national economic growth from 1991 to 2006 in Taiwan. We analyzed data mainly from the information of population with disabilities, disability welfare expenditure and national economic growth and gross national product (GNP) per capita in Taiwan from 1991 to 2006. The percentage and overtime trend were used to examine the change in disability welfare expenditure, national economic growth and GNP per capita. Taiwan's economy continued its steady expansion on record an annual average growth of 5.4% and GNP per capita of 5.7% for the year 1991-2006. At the same period of time, the registered population with disabilities increased nearly five times (204,158 persons in 1991 to 981,015 persons in 2006), the government disability welfare expenditure was dramatically increasing to over 10 times from 1991 to 2006 (US$ 74 million to US$ 784 million). Although the total disability budget increased, the beneficiary of the individual with disability increased only 2.2 times. In the content of annual welfare budget for people with disabilities, it is difficult to figure out the increase pattern of the budget growth. However, the local government plays a vital role in disability welfare services gradually, it provides more than 85% welfare budget for people with disabilities. Finally, the author emphasizes that government should examine the long term effects of welfare budget allocation shifting from central government to local government to ensure the right of people with disabilities.

  10. The Most Quoted Danish Economic Expert and the Welfare State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Poul Thøis

    It is well-known that economic experts (as well as other experts) are biased. However, it is not normally demonstrated systematically. By identifying and analyzing the viewpoints of the most quoted Danish expert on five characteristic debates bias is demonstrated. The character of the bias...

  11. A multi-disciplinary framework for bio-economic modeling in aquaculture: a welfare case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noble, C.; Berrill, I.K.; Waller, B.; Schneider, O.; Kole, A.P.W.

    2012-01-01

    This article summarizes the framework that translated data from multiple disciplines into a bio-economic decision tool for modeling the costs and benefits of improving fish welfare in commercial aquaculture. This decision tool formed the basis of a recent EU research project, BENEFISH which was fund

  12. Marriage, Family Structure and Economic Well-Being: The Second Round of Welfare Reform. Family Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindjord, Denise

    2002-01-01

    Notes that many from across the ideological spectrum suggest that welfare reform address policies that promote marriage and two-parent families. Discusses marriage, family structure and economic well-being, the benefits of marriage for adults and children, and low-income unwed mothers and marriage. Suggests that marriage and two-parent families…

  13. A multi-disciplinary framework for bio-economic modeling in aquaculture: a welfare case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noble, C.; Berrill, I.K.; Waller, B.; Schneider, O.; Kole, A.P.W.

    2012-01-01

    This article summarizes the framework that translated data from multiple disciplines into a bio-economic decision tool for modeling the costs and benefits of improving fish welfare in commercial aquaculture. This decision tool formed the basis of a recent EU research project, BENEFISH which was

  14. Marriage, Family Structure and Economic Well-Being: The Second Round of Welfare Reform. Family Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindjord, Denise

    2002-01-01

    Notes that many from across the ideological spectrum suggest that welfare reform address policies that promote marriage and two-parent families. Discusses marriage, family structure and economic well-being, the benefits of marriage for adults and children, and low-income unwed mothers and marriage. Suggests that marriage and two-parent families…

  15. Has the Economic Crisis Contributed to More Segmentation in Labour Market and Welfare Outcomes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leschke, Janine

    This paper analyses whether developments on the labour market and in the welfare system during the economic crisis can be seen as perpetuating the trend towards labour market segmentation or whether the crisis may actually have contributed to containing some of the divisions forged in recent...

  16. Indicators of Economic Progress: The Power of Measurement and Human Welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garry Jacobs

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Right measurement is a powerful instrument for social progress; wrong or imprecise measurement a source of hazard and even havoc. The essential purpose of economic activity is the promotion of human development, welfare and well-being in a sustainable manner, and not growth for growth’s sake, yet we lack effective measures to monitor progress toward these objectives. Advances in understanding, theory and measurement must necessarily proceed hand in hand. A companion article in this publication sets forth the urgent need for new theory in economics. This article sets forth the complementary need for new measures. The stakes are high and the choice is ours. On one side, rising social tensions, recurring financial crises and ecological disaster; on the other, the progressive unfolding and development of human capacity in harmony with Nature. The deficiencies of GDP as a measure are well-documented by leading economists Kuznets, Tobin, Tinbergen and many others; but, unfortunately, decision-making still remains largely based on GDP, valid during 1930-70 perhaps, but certainly inappropriate today. The challenge is to derive more appropriate indicators to reflect real, sustainable economic welfare, social development and human wellbeing. The attributes that have made GDP so successful are often overlooked — it provides clear objectives for policy and decision-making. We propose new composite indicator, HEWI, which can be used to guide decision-making, which retains the strengths associated with GDP, while substantially enhancing its value as a measure of human economic development. HEWI monitors progress on factors that contribute prominently to present economic welfare — household consumption, government welfare-related expenditure, income inequality and unemployment — as well as factors that have the potential to significantly enhance long term sustainability — education, fossil fuel energy efficiency and net household savings. The index

  17. Permanent Effects of Economic Crises on Household Welfare: Evidence and Projections from Argentina’s Downturns

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The quantification of the impact of crises on household welfare and socioeconomic outcomes is a fundamental input for the design of ex ante safety nets and ex post alleviation programs. Economic downturns have direct effects through employment and household income, but whether these and other impacts are permanent rather than transitory is harder to establish. This study of Argentina estimates the relationship between GDP growth and severe crises on poverty, youth unemployment, and a series o...

  18. The Korean economic crisis and coping strategies in the health sector: pro-welfarism or neoliberalism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chang-Yup

    2005-01-01

    In South Korea, there have been debates on the welfare policies of the Kim Dae-jung government after the economic crisis beginning in late 1997, but it is unquestionable that health and health care policies have followed the trend of neoliberal economic and social polices. Public health measures and overall performance of the public sector have weakened, and the private health sector has further strengthened its dominance. These changes have adversely affected the population's health status and access to health care. However, the anti-neoliberal coalition is preventing the government's drive from achieving a full success.

  19. The effect of economic change and elite framing on support for welfare state retrenchment: a survey experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Marx; G. Schumacher

    2016-01-01

    How do economic downturns affect citizens’ support for welfare state retrenchment? Existing observational studies fail to isolate the effect of economic conditions and the effect of elite framing of these conditions. We therefore designed a survey experiment to evaluate how economic change in conjun

  20. Comparing top-down and bottom-up costing approaches for economic evaluation within social welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Tina M

    2011-10-01

    This study compares two approaches to the estimation of social welfare intervention costs: one "top-down" and the other "bottom-up" for a group of social welfare clients with severe problem behavior participating in a randomized trial. Intervention costs ranging over a two-year period were compared by intervention category (foster care placement, institutional placement, mentorship services, individual support services and structured support services), estimation method (price, micro costing, average cost) and treatment group (intervention, control). Analyses are based upon 2007 costs for 156 individuals receiving 404 interventions. Overall, both approaches were found to produce reliable estimates of intervention costs at the group level but not at the individual level. As choice of approach can greatly impact the estimate of mean difference, adjustment based on estimation approach should be incorporated into sensitivity analyses. Analysts must take care in assessing the purpose and perspective of the analysis when choosing a costing approach for use within economic evaluation.

  1. Good animal welfare makes economic sense: potential of pig abattoir meat inspection as a welfare surveillance tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harley, Sarah; More, Simon; Boyle, Laura; Connell, Niamh O'; Hanlon, Alison

    2012-01-01

    During abattoir meat inspection pig carcasses are partially or fully condemned upon detection of disease that poses a risk to public health or welfare conditions that cause animal suffering e.g. fractures. This incurs direct financial losses to producers and processors. Other health and welfare-related conditions may not result in condemnation but can necessitate 'trimming' of the carcass e.g. bruising, and result in financial losses to the processor. Since animal health is a component of animal welfare these represent a clear link between suboptimal pig welfare and financial losses to the pig industry.Meat inspection data can be used to inform herd health programmes, thereby reducing the risk of injury and disease and improving production efficiency. Furthermore, meat inspection has the potential to contribute to surveillance of animal welfare. Such data could contribute to reduced losses to producers and processors through lower rates of carcass condemnations, trimming and downgrading in conjunction with higher pig welfare standards on farm. Currently meat inspection data are under-utilised in the EU, even as a means of informing herd health programmes. This includes the island of Ireland but particularly the Republic.This review describes the current situation with regard to meat inspection regulation, method, data capture and utilisation across the EU, with special reference to the island of Ireland. It also describes the financial losses arising from poor animal welfare (and health) on farms. This review seeks to contribute to efforts to evaluate the role of meat inspection as a surveillance tool for animal welfare on-farm, using pigs as a case example.

  2. Reallocation Fiscal Policy: Implications for Enhancing Human Capital and Infrastructure Development on Economic Growth and Welfare Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayat Abdullah

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The growth of the nation's economy continues to experience a variety of developments. Various economic challenges still facing the nation. At the Asean Free Trade Area (AFTA in 2015 soon arrives, the challenge is coming from a variety of factors, both internal factors (domestic and external (foreign. Restructuring as the evaluation and development of various infrastructure and economic infrastructure. Determination of the state budget and the budget allocation to be of key importance in the economic growth of the nation. The main problem is that correlation is not balanced in fiscal management. Likewise, expenses and income is not directly proportional to the economic growth and social welfare. The purpose of this study was (1 to describe and analyze the implementation of fiscal reallocation as a preference for the government in the way of reformulating policy and fiscal reallocation for sustainable economic development; (2 to determine and analyze the effect of an increase in human capital to economic growth; and (3 describe and analyze the relationship between infrastructure development and economic growth of the welfare of society. Therefore, to improve the welfare of the people of obstruction takes a comprehensive synergy between human capital and the development of adequate infrastructure, of course, this must be supported by the existence of a fiscal restructuring and reallocation policy making substantive and accommodating. So, that the implementation of AFTA in 2015, Indonesia is ready to be a trend setting in the economic growth, community welfare, human resource development and integrative development.

  3. [What type of welfare policy promotes health?: the puzzling interrelation of economic and health inequality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurrelmann, K; Richter, M; Rathmann, K

    2011-06-01

    In all highly developed countries, the overall health status of the population has significantly improved within the past 30 years. The most important reason for this is the increase in economic prosperity. Economic wealth, however, today is much more unequally distributed than it was 3 decades ago. Countries with relatively small disparities in the availability of material resources between socioeconomic groups, such as the Scandinavian countries, have better health outcomes on the population level. Health inequalities, however, have also reached a higher level than 30 years ago. As of today, we do not have convincing explanations for the interrelation of economic and health inequality. This paper gives an overview of existing research on a comparative basis. The research results are ambivalent. They show the puzzling result that the Scandinavian countries with their highly distributive welfare policy manage to achieve the comparatively highest level of economic, but not health, equity. Based on these results, we develop proposals for future research approaches. A central assumption is that in rich societies no longer only material, but more and more immaterial determinants are crucial for the formation of health inequality. The promotion of "salutogenic" self-management capabilities in socially disadvantaged groups is considered to be the central element in effective intervention strategies. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Welfare economic asessments of nitrogen losses from agriculture to river basins and other water bodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasler, Berit; Jacobsen, Brian H.; Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård

    2005-01-01

    The welfare economic consequences of reductions in nitrogen loading to the aquatic environment in Denmark are analysed with the purpose of assessing the cost-effectiveness of different abatement measures and instruments. The analyses cover a broad range of instruments and measures. These include......: nitrogen taxes at sector level implemented as deposit refund systems, fertiliser accounts and nitrogen quotas, requirements on utilisation of livestock manure, restrictions on livestock density, set aside, forestation and wetland restoration. Based on the analyses the conclusions are that deposit refund...... taxes at sector level are the most cost effective instrument at national level, while other instruments and measures have to be used to reduce nutrient emissions further in especially sensitive areas. These areas are not identified yet, and the cost of action will depend on the localisation. However...

  5. The political-economic transition and the building of the welfare state in Spain (1975-1986

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Muñoz de Bustillo Llorente

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the economic policy in Spain during the govern- ments of the Spanish political transition from 1975 to 1986. It considers the different areas of economic policy with special emphasis on the development of welfare state issues in this period. Taking into account the difficult economic and political situation in 1975, there were some important advances in social policy and progressive taxation during the period. The transition to democracy in Spain changed the role and size of the public sector above all from 1975 to 1986. The social demands over the political system were possible improvements in the progressive and redistributive policies in education, health, and social programs. Spain’s transition to democracy and the first period of welfare state show a mutually reinforcing and its consequences were the modernization of the Spanish economy. However, from 1986 the economic develop- ment and the progress of welfare state have had a different growth.Key words: Welfare state, Economic transition, Spain.

  6. Alternative farrowing accommodation: welfare and economic aspects of existing farrowing and lactation systems for pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, E M; Lawrence, A B; Edwards, S A

    2012-01-01

    There is growing societal pressure, expressed through government legislation and consumers' purchasing choices, to abolish livestock systems considered detrimental to farm animal welfare. Such systems include farrowing crates, which are behaviourally and physically restrictive for sows. Therefore, identifying less restrictive farrowing systems for commercial implementation has become an important focus of pig research. Despite numerous attempts to develop indoor alternatives to crates, there is as yet no universal acceptance of such systems at the commercial level. The primary concern is piglet survival, because often favourable figures are reported at the experimental level, but not replicated in commercial evaluation. Alternative farrowing systems should equal or surpass survival levels in conventional systems and perform consistently across a range of farm circumstances for widespread commercial implementation. In addition, it is important that alternatives consider ease of management, operator safety and economic sustainability. Utilising a large database of literature, 12 existing alternative indoor systems were identified and compared against each other, conventional crates and outdoor systems. An assessment of how well alternative systems satisfy the design criteria for meeting animals' biological needs was carried out by developing a welfare design index (WDI). The physical and financial performance of these systems was also evaluated and summarised. The derived WDI yielded values of 0.95 for conventional crates, with higher scores for commercial outdoor systems of 1.10 and indoor group farrowing or multi-suckling systems (e.g. Thorstensson = 2.20). However, the high total piglet mortality (23.7% ± s.e. 2.26) in indoor group systems compared with conventional crates (18.3% ± s.e. 0.63) and outdoor systems (17.0% ± s.e. 2.05), together with the added capital cost (92% more than conventional crates, 249% more than commercial outdoor huts), mainly as a

  7. The Impact of Sectorial Economic Growth on Poverty and Social welfare in Provinces of Iran (2000-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shekoofeh Farahmand

    2013-07-01

    Iran's disappointingly low rate of poverty reduction and high welfare between the 2000 and 2007 was not due only to weak economic growth — though this was certainly key. It also reflected a low growth elasticity of poverty reduction, consistent with the country's high level of inequality. In this paper, we investigated three possible sets of factors that determine the distributional component of poverty reduction and more social welfare. We did find marked differences in the poverty-reducing effect of growth across different sectors, with growth in the service sector being consistently more pro-poor than either in agriculture or industry sectors.

  8. Analysis of the Economic and Welfare Impacts of Establishing Irrigation Water Market in Qazvin Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study economic and welfare impacts of establishing irrigation water market in Qazvin province as well as potentiality of irrigation water transfer under stress irrigation conditions in the cities of Qazvin province were analyzed. To achieve the above objectives, Positive Mathematical Programming model and State Wide Agricultural Production functions were used. To achieve applicable results, the production function with a constant elasticity of substitution and cost function with an exponential form were included into the Positive Mathematical Programming model was imported. The study data for the year 2011-2012 was collected by asking the relevant offices in each city of Qazvin province. The proposed model was solved in six successive stages using the GAMS software. After solving the model, amount changes in the area of irrigated crops, farmer's gross profit and labor surplus under the two conditions of “existence of water market” and “lack of water market “at the regional level were calculated. The results showed that establishing irrigation water market increases total irrigated lands for 1/2 percent, total farmer’s gross profit for 1/86 percent and total labor force employed in agriculture for 1/8 percent in the province. Ultimately, considering the supportive and constructive role of regional water markets, it is recommended to provide necessary conditions and tools to establish an optimal use of such a mechanism associated with the type of market in Qazvin province.

  9. Influence of increasing slaughter age of chickens on meat quality, welfare, and technical and economic results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baéza, E; Arnould, C; Jlali, M; Chartrin, P; Gigaud, V; Mercerand, F; Durand, C; Méteau, K; Le Bihan-Duval, E; Berri, C

    2012-06-01

    Because of the increasing demand for raw cuts and processed products, there is a trend to producing very heavy broilers. Breeds that are used for such kinds of production have been intensively selected for growth rate and breast meat yield, and birds are reared for a longer period than standard broilers. This study was to evaluate the effects of increasing slaughter age on technical and economic factors, including production efficiency and environmental costs, bird welfare, and breast meat quality in a modern heavy broiler line. Five groups of 300 male Ross 708 chickens were reared until slaughter ages of 35, 42, 49, 56, or 63 d. Increasing age at slaughter from 35 to 63 d resulted in a 7.4-fold increase (P economic profit evaluated through the net gain reached a maximum at 42 d. The moisture and ammonium content of litter increased (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively) rapidly during rearing concomitantly with increased (P < 0.05) occurrence and severity of contact dermatitis and decreased (P < 0.05) walking ability and activity of birds. Thermal comfort also decreased (P < 0.05) greatly as early as 42 d of age. Changes in carcass quality occurred mainly between 35 and 56 d of age, with a progressive increase (P < 0.001) in breast and leg yield, whereas body fatness was barely affected by age. Major changes in breast meat traits were observed between 35 and 49 d of age, with an increase in muscle pH at 15 min (P < 0.01) and 24 h (P < 0.001) postmortem and reduced (P < 0.001) lightness and drip loss. The protein and lipid content of raw breast meat also increased (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively) with age. Taking into account the main aspects of sustainability, we could recommend slaughtering chickens of heavy line at 42 d of age.

  10. Optimal Financing by Money and Taxes of Productive and Unproductive Government Spending: Effects on Economic Growth, Inflation, and Welfare

    OpenAIRE

    David Alan Aschauer

    1998-01-01

    This paper contains an investigation of the effects of different means of financing government spending on economic growth, inflation, and welfare. In this setting, two different types of government spending are considered: productive expenditures which provide services to the private sector in its production activities; and unproductive expenditures which have no direct influence on the private economy. In turn, two different forms of finance are considered: proportional income taxation; and...

  11. Economic impact of cross compliance in the field of animal welfare (Acts C18 and C16

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisanna Speroni

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper reports the results of assessment of animal welfare at farm level on two dairy cattle farms, identification of structural and management actions to improve the animal welfare and estimate of the costs of such actions; furthermore the economic impact of the potential support under measure 215 of the Rural Development Plan was also simulated. At the time of assessment, no severe break of compliance was detected at the two farms; however some weaknesses were identified and improvement were proposed in order to maintain the current animal welfare status and avoid future failures. The two use cases showed that investments to improve animal welfare were partly self funded in the mid and long term due to the higher milk yield and the better animal health that were expected as consequence; however, in the short term, a large part of expenses was fully borne by farmers if not supported by a public grant or higher market prices. The support provided by the measure 215 is effective in rewarding farmers who undertake to adopt standards of animal husbandry which go beyond the relevant mandatory standards.

  12. A conceptual approach for a quantitative economic analysis of farmers’ decision-making regarding animal welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gocsik, E.; Saatkamp, H.W.; Lauwere, de C.C.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Decisions related to animal welfare (AW) standards depend on farmer’s multiple goals and values and are constrained by a wide range of external and internal forces. The aim of this paper is twofold, i.e., (1) to develop a theoretical framework for farmers’ AW decisions that incorporates farmers’ goa

  13. The Index for Sustainable Economic Welfare for Flanders, Belgium, 1990-2009; De Index voor Duurzame Economische Welvaart (ISEW) voor Vlaanderen, 1990-2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bleys, B. [Geassocieerde Faculteit Handelswetenschappen en Bestuurskunde, Hogeschool Gent, Associatie Universiteit Gent, Gent (Belgium)

    2012-05-15

    In this report the Index of Sustainable Economic Welfare (ISEW) is compiled for Flanders for the period 1990-2009. The index is a measure of economic welfare in that it measures the contribution of a country's or region's economy to the overall level of well-being of its citizens. In this regard, the ISEW can be regarded as an indicator for the economic dimension of well-being [Dutch] In deze studie wordt de Index voor Duurzame Economische Welvaart (ISEW - Index of Sustainable Economic Welfare) berekend voor Vlaanderen voor de periode 1990-2009. Deze index is een maatstaf voor economische welvaart en meet de bijdrage van het economische systeem van een land of regio tot het algemene welzijn van haar bevolking. De ISEW kan dus gezien worden als een indicator voor de economische dimensie van welzijn.

  14. Modeling the economic impact of welfare interventions in fish farming - a case study from the U.K. rainbow trout industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kankainen, M.; Berrill, I.K.; Noble, C.; Kole, A.P.W.

    2012-01-01

    Actions that aim to improve animal welfare are likely to involve costs for the producer, although at the same time such actions may improve the profitability of production. In this article we introduce a quantitative bio-economical approach for estimating the economic consequences for improving anim

  15. State Welfarism and Social Welfare in Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr Indra P TIWARI

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper has analyzed and discussed the social welfare policies of the Asian countries—the responsibilities of international activist institutions and the State towards individuals in terms of state welfarism and social and economic protection, and the conventional family system, which was and still is the core responsible institution for the well-being of its members. The paper has presented economic and poverty indicators (19, demographic, social and economic indicators associated social welfarism (16, satisfaction related indicators (7, and funding related indicators that have association with social welfarism (9. This has also analyzed and discussed the gap between the international propaganda on social welfare, social policies of the Government and its actual delivery and the situation of vacuum being created due to the moribund family system of slothful state welfarism, in the new living context created by the notion of right-prone individualism. The study has identified along with their history of starting social security provisions the present state major workfare and welfare and welfare protection in the Asian countries, thereby explored countries falling into five levels of social welfare system by taking a combined state of poverty, vulnerable employment, and government expenditure on education, health and social protection, namely (i early stage of welfare system; (ii transition to take-off stage of welfare system; (iii take-off stage of welfare system; (iv transition to drive to maturity stage of welfare system; and (v the drive to maturity stage of welfare system. Finally, the paper has presented the critical areas for dialogue where the synergy of the propagandist international activism, state slothfulness, moribund family dynamics, and right-prone individualism interface for a reliable and sustainable social welfare with affection, protection, nurturance, and protection thereby live in peace and harmony with dignity.

  16. Car ownership and status. Implications for fuel efficiency policies from the viewpoint of theories of happiness and welfare economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verhoef, E.T. [Free University Amsterdam, Department of Spatial Economics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Van Wee, B. [National Institute of Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven (Netherlands)

    2000-07-01

    Research on 'happiness' suggests that once an average per capita income of around US$10,000 is achieved in a country, further increases in income will not lead to a significant increase in happiness. Additional income will probably often be spent on the satisfaction of mainly 'relative' needs, of which 'status goods' would be one example. From that perspective, an overall shift to more fuel-efficient cars (i.e. smaller cars with less power) would not necessarily, or only to a limited extent, result in less happiness. From a welfare economic perspective, the satisfaction of the relative needs pertaining to consumption can be considered as a form of consumption externalities. This creates a welfare economic basis for government intervention. A model in which these consumption externalities are studied is presented here. Government intervention would include stimulating consumption of lower-status goods and discouraging consumption of higher-status ones. We speculate, however, that to achieve a significant increase in the fuel efficiency of a country's car fleet through pricing policies, huge price increases may often be needed. As acceptance of price increases as a policy instrument is often low, 'fee-bates' and tradeable permits may be more preferable instruments. 36 refs.

  17. Potential cultivation areas of Saffron and its economic effects on forest dwellers welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armin Mashayekhan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The maintenance of natural forest and forest dwellers welfare are vital to biodiversity conservation. For this purpose, introducing of Saffron cultivation as innovation in agricultural activities outside of the forest could be a key factor. To achieve this goal, it is necessary to determine the agronomic suitability and the appropriate spatial pattern for the Saffron cultivation. Geographic Information System (GIS was used to identify suitable areas for Saffron cultivation in the North of Khorasan Province, Iran. Relevant environment components such as climate factors (temperature and rainfall, topography (Digital Elevation Model and slope and land-use were considered. The results of this study were specially looking for potential cultivation areas for expanding Saffron and to develop suitable map for Saffron cultivation. We found that 69% (1887 ha of agricultural land have currently suitable for Saffron cultivation in North of Khorasan, Iran. The map of land suitability for cultivation of Saffron can be practiced for improving livelihood and forest conservation.

  18. Economic Hardship and Depression across the Life Course: The Impact of Welfare State Regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levecque, Katia; Van Rossem, Ronan; De Boyser, Katrien; Van de Velde, Sarah; Bracke, Piet

    2011-01-01

    Previous research in the United States suggests that depression related to economic hardship decreases with age. We test whether this pattern can be generalized to other developed nations. Based on data from 23 countries in the European Social Survey (2006-2007), multilevel analyses show that the moderating role of age depends on the…

  19. The Most Quoted Danish Economic Expert and the Welfare State - bias in practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Poul Thøis

    It is well-known that economic experts (as well as other experts) are biased. However, it is not normally demonstrated systematically. By identifying and analyzing the viewpoints of the most quoted Danish expert on five characteristic debates bias is demonstrated. The character of the bias...

  20. Economic vulnerability among low-educated Europeans: Resource, composition, labour market and welfare state influences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gesthuizen, M.J.W.; Scheepers, P.L.H.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we pose the question: To what extent does a lack of individual resources and of access to high quality resources in one's core social network explain why low-educated people are likely to experience economic vulnerability? Additionally, we explain cross-national differences in the

  1. Economic vulnerability among low-educated Europeans: Resource, composition, labour market and welfare state influences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gesthuizen, M.J.W.; Scheepers, P.L.H.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we pose the question: To what extent does a lack of individual resources and of access to high quality resources in one's core social network explain why low-educated people are likely to experience economic vulnerability? Additionally, we explain cross-national differences in the r

  2. Welfare effects of natural disasters in developing countries: an examination using multi-dimensional socio-economic indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutter, J. C.; Deraniyagala, S.; Mara, V.; Marinova, S.

    2011-12-01

    The study of the socio-economic impacts of natural disasters is still in its infancy. Social scientists have historically regarded natural disasters as exogenous or essentially random perturbations. More recent scholarship treats disaster shocks as endogenous, with pre-existing social, economic and political conditions determining the form and magnitude of disaster impacts. One apparently robust conclusion is that direct economic losses from natural disasters, similar to human losses, are larger (in relative terms) the poorer a country is, yet cross-country regressions show that disasters may accrue economic benefits due to new investments in productive infrastructure, especially if the investment is funded by externally provided capital (Work Bank assistance, private donations, etc) and do not deplete national savings or acquire a debt burden. Some econometric studies also show that the quality of a country's institutions can mitigate the mortality effects of a disaster. The effects on income inequality are such that the poor suffer greater 'asset shocks' and may never recover from a disaster leading to a widening of existing disparities. Natural disasters affect women more adversely than men in terms of life expectancy at birth. On average they kill more women than men or kill women at a younger age than men, and the more so the stronger the disaster. The extent to which women are more likely to die than men or to die at a younger age from the immediate disaster impact or from post-disaster events depends not only on disaster strength itself but also on the socioeconomic status of women in the affected country. Existing research on the economic effects of disasters focus almost exclusively on the impact on economic growth - the growth rate of GDP. GDP however is only a partial indicator of welfare, especially for countries that are in the lower ranks of development status. Very poor communities are typically involved in subsistence level activities or in the

  3. Applied welfare economics with discrete choice models: implications of theory for empirical specification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batley, Richard; Ibáñez Rivas, Juan Nicolás

    2013-01-01

    The apparatus of the Random Utility Model (RUM) first emerged in the early 1960s, with Marschak (1960) and Block and Marschak (1960) translating models originally developed for discriminant analysis in psychophysics (Thurstone, 1927) to the alternative domain of discrete choice analysis in econom......The apparatus of the Random Utility Model (RUM) first emerged in the early 1960s, with Marschak (1960) and Block and Marschak (1960) translating models originally developed for discriminant analysis in psychophysics (Thurstone, 1927) to the alternative domain of discrete choice analysis...

  4. Gaining Ground, Moving Up: The Change in the Economic Status of Single Mothers under Welfare Reform. Civic Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, June; Hill, M. Anne

    This study is a follow-up of a 2001 study that examined changes in the welfare and work participation of single mothers. This study addresses whether single mothers earn enough to compensate for loss of benefits under welfare reform and the extent to which these women have access to income from sources other than their own earnings. Data come from…

  5. THE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY OF THE UNIVERSITY. THE EXPERIENCE OF THE WELFARE DEPARTMENT, OF THE FACULTY OF ECONOMICS, UNIVERSITY OF BUENOS AIRES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico, Saravia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article reflects on the social responsibility of the organizations, especially in public university institutions understood as socially responsible. Considering the social responsibility of universities as a key player in the processes of social change, we share the experience of the Department of Students’ Welfare of the Faculty of Economics, University of Buenos Aires (EGF and its leading role as a development factor within the community.

  6. Applying Contingent Valuation Method for Economic Valuation of Awqaf Wealth Management in Welfare Changes of Muslim Households in

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarabdeen Masahina

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective- The main objective of this study is to estimate the Willingness to Pay of the Muslim households to contribute cash waqf as a strategy towards wealth management in Sri Lanka. Waqf is holding or confinement which is emphasised in Islam as ibadah as it can distribute the wealth among the Muslim society and would help to develop the Islamic vision of brotherhood.Method- Contingent valuation method is used to estimate the Willingness to Pay of Muslim households to improve socio-economic status of the low income people through waqf wealth management in Sri Lanka. This study is developed based on Random Utility Theory.Result- This paper identifies the appropriate methods to estimate the willingness to pay of Muslim households in Sri Lanka for waqf (awqaf is plural institutions. Such evaluations are crucial for the Islamic financial system to function effectively in order to achieve the dignified objectives of socio-economic justice through proper distribution of wealth.Conclusion-This paper presents a conceptual model of waqf institutions which would be useful for further empirical research in this area. The findings are not only appropriate and applicable to Sri Lanka but also to other Muslim and non-Muslim countries. This is a unique contribution to the Islamic economic literature. The knowledge obtained from this study hopes to propose cash waqf to manage the wealth in order to improve the socio-economic status of low income people in Sri Lanka.Tujuan - Tujuan utama dari penelitian ini adalah untuk memperkirakan Kemauan Membayar rumah tangga Muslim untuk berkontribusi wakaf tunai sebagai strategi menuju pengelolaan kekayaan di Sri Lanka. Wakaf secara bahasa menahan (harta yang ditekankan dalam Islam sebagai ibadah karena dapat mendistribusikan kekayaan di antara masyarakat Muslim dan akan membantu untuk mengembangkan visi Islam yaitu persaudaraan.Metode - Metode penilaian Kontingensi digunakan untuk memperkirakan Kesediaan membayar rumah

  7. Why are most EU pigs tail docked? Economic and ethical analysis of four pig housing and management scenarios in the light of EU legislation and animal welfare outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Eath, R B; Niemi, J K; Vosough Ahmadi, B; Rutherford, K M D; Ison, S H; Turner, S P; Anker, H T; Jensen, T; Busch, M E; Jensen, K K; Lawrence, A B; Sandøe, P

    2016-04-01

    To limit tail biting incidence, most pig producers in Europe tail dock their piglets. This is despite EU Council Directive 2008/120/EC banning routine tail docking and allowing it only as a last resort. The paper aims to understand what it takes to fulfil the intentions of the Directive by examining economic results of four management and housing scenarios, and by discussing their consequences for animal welfare in the light of legal and ethical considerations. The four scenarios compared are: 'Standard Docked', a conventional housing scenario with tail docking meeting the recommendations for Danish production (0.7 m2/pig); 'Standard Undocked', which is the same as 'Standard Docked' but with no tail docking, 'Efficient Undocked' and 'Enhanced Undocked', which have increased solid floor area (0.9 and 1.0 m2/pig, respectively) provision of loose manipulable materials (100 and 200 g/straw per pig per day) and no tail docking. A decision tree model based on data from Danish and Finnish pig production suggests that Standard Docked provides the highest economic gross margin with the least tail biting. Given our assumptions, Enhanced Undocked is the least economic, although Efficient Undocked is better economically and both result in a lower incidence of tail biting than Standard Undocked but higher than Standard Docked. For a pig, being bitten is worse for welfare (repeated pain, risk of infections) than being docked, but to compare welfare consequences at a farm level means considering the number of affected pigs. Because of the high levels of biting in Standard Undocked, it has on average inferior welfare to Standard Docked, whereas the comparison of Standard Docked and Enhanced (or Efficient) Undocked is more difficult. In Enhanced (or Efficient) Undocked, more pigs than in Standard Docked suffer from being tail bitten, whereas all the pigs avoid the acute pain of docking endured by the pigs in Standard Docked. We illustrate and discuss this ethical balance using

  8. When There Is No Welfare: The Income Packaging Strategies of Mothers Without Earnings or Cash Assistance Following an Economic Downturn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin S. Seefeldt

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The 1996 welfare reform law sought to reformulate single mothers’ income package, replacing cash welfare checks with paychecks. However, many single mothers have not been able to do that and have neither earnings nor cash assistance. Among a sample of single mothers in Los Angeles and southeast Michigan, we find that when single mothers lose jobs and do not receive cash assistance, they package income from a variety of sources (such as other public assistance programs and informal child support, find others in their social networks to pay their bills, or move in with others. However, their income packaging strategies are fraught with challenges. Benefits from certain public programs are difficult to secure; financial assistance from friends and family members can quickly vanish, particularly if a partner is deported or jailed; and doubling up with others often leads to living in crowded and unsafe conditions.

  9. TRADE, REVENUE AND WELFARE EFFECTS UNDER AN ECONOMIC PARTNERSHIP AGREEMENT BETWEEN BURKINA FASO AND THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.O. Onogwu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study estimates the impact on Burkina Faso of eliminating tariffs on imports from the EU under EPAs, considering trade, revenue and welfare effects. At complete elimination of tariffs on all products imports from trade classification sections (TDC 01-13 from the EU. Burkina Faso is likely to experience both welfare gains and losses depending on the values of imports of each trade classification section in question. The overall welfare effect relative to GDP tends to be very small and positive, but potential tariff revenue losses are enormous even when the country has up to fifteen - twenty-five years in which to implement the tariff reductions, unless with scope for tax substitution. EPAs effects are concentrated on those product sections where trade creation outweighs trade diversion such as Animal products, Vegetable products, Animal/Veg. products, Mineral products, and Textiles products. Besides, product sections with the greatest market opportunities for EU suppliers to displace any of the other suppliers, ECOWAS and/or ROW include sections where trade diversion outweighs trade creation effects, such as prepared foodstuffs, product of chemicals, plastics, raw hides & skin, etc. The sensitive products (SPs to be excluded from tariff removal should include sections in which ECOWAS member nations are suppliers to regional importers so that excluding them as SPs would improve the welfare gain compared to estimates where tariff are removed from those products in which ECOWAS have zero potential. The results at this level of aggregation will provide useful information to the on-going negotiations between ECOWAS and the EU in determining Burkinabe's products to be exempted from tariff removal during EPAs based on the severity of the effects on varied trade classification (TDC sections, among other considerations.

  10. Linking human health and livestock health: a "one-health" platform for integrated analysis of human health, livestock health, and economic welfare in livestock dependent communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S M Thumbi

    Full Text Available For most rural households in sub-Saharan Africa, healthy livestock play a key role in averting the burden associated with zoonotic diseases, and in meeting household nutritional and socio-economic needs. However, there is limited understanding of the complex nutritional, socio-economic, and zoonotic pathways that link livestock health to human health and welfare. Here we describe a platform for integrated human health, animal health and economic welfare analysis designed to address this challenge. We provide baseline epidemiological data on disease syndromes in humans and the animals they keep, and provide examples of relationships between human health, animal health and household socio-economic status.We designed a study to obtain syndromic disease data in animals along with economic and behavioral information for 1500 rural households in Western Kenya already participating in a human syndromic disease surveillance study. Data collection started in February 2013, and each household is visited bi-weekly and data on four human syndromes (fever, jaundice, diarrhea and respiratory illness and nine animal syndromes (death, respiratory, reproductive, musculoskeletal, nervous, urogenital, digestive, udder disorders, and skin disorders in cattle, sheep, goats and chickens are collected. Additionally, data from a comprehensive socio-economic survey is collected every 3 months in each of the study households.Data from the first year of study showed 93% of the households owned at least one form of livestock (55%, 19%, 41% and 88% own cattle, sheep, goats and chickens respectively. Digestive disorders, mainly diarrhea episodes, were the most common syndromes observed in cattle, goats and sheep, accounting for 56% of all livestock syndromes, followed by respiratory illnesses (18%. In humans, respiratory illnesses accounted for 54% of all illnesses reported, followed by acute febrile illnesses (40% and diarrhea illnesses (5%. While controlling for household

  11. The science of animal welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    People differ in their culture, education, economic status, and values; thus they may view an animal’s welfare status as good or poor based on their individuality. However, regardless of these human differences in perception the actual state of welfare for the animal does exist in a range from good ...

  12. A randomized controlled trial to improve health among women receiving welfare in the US: the relationship between employment outcomes and the economic recession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneipp, Shawn M; Kairalla, John A; Sheely, Amanda L

    2013-03-01

    The high prevalence of health conditions among U.S. women receiving Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF, or 'welfare') impedes the ability of many in this group to move from 'welfare-to-work', and the economic recession has likely exacerbated this problem. Despite this, few interventions have been developed to improve employment outcomes by addressing the health needs of women receiving TANF, and little is known about the impact of economic downturns on the employment trajectory of this group. Using data from a recent randomized controlled trial (RCT) that tested the efficacy of a public health nursing (PHN) intervention to address the chronic health condition needs of 432 American women receiving TANF, we examine the effect of the intervention and of recession exposure on employment. We further explore whether intervention effects were modified by select sociodemographic and health characteristics. Both marginal and more robust intervention effects were noted for employment-entry outcomes (any employment, p = 0.05 and time-to-employment, p = 0.01). There were significant effects for recession exposure on employment-entry (any employment, p = 0.002 and time-to-employment, p recession exposure influenced longer-term employment outcomes (employment rate or maximum continuous employment). Intervention effects were not modified by age, education, prior TANF receipt, functional status, or recession exposure, suggesting the intervention was equally effective in improving employment-entry across a fairly heterogeneous group both before and after the recession onset. These findings advance our understanding of the health and employment dynamics among this group of disadvantaged women under variable macroeconomic conditions, and have implications for guiding health and TANF-related policy.

  13. The Welfare Costs of Economic Fluctuation:Review and Prospect%企业税收负担计量和影响因素研究述评

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴祖光; 万迪昉

    2012-01-01

    Does it have potential welfare effect to stabilize economic fluctuations? The answer to this question relates to the promotion of the economic cycles research, as well as whether it is necessary to implement counter - cyclical policies. According to the Lueas baseline model,we divide the researches of the welfare costs of the economic fluctuation into the broad sense and the narrow sense two camps. The former refers to the studies which are conducted by amending Lucas baseline model or using alternative consumption data to test Lucas assertion,and the latter refers to the studies which consider the reality of the economic characteristics of incomplete capital markets and consumer heterogeneity, or introduce some innovative ideas, such as endogenous nature of the fluctuations and growth, small probability of crash states, and the loss of subjective well - being to develop the Lucas baseline model. After combing the two camps of the related literatures from the perspective of research approach and measuring methods, we find that future studies should go further by introducing consumers' labor - leisure choice, possibility of the intergenerational transfer of wealth, and the reasonable assumption of the generating process of random consumption stream reasonably.%近年,实施结构性减税已经成为引导产业结构调整、促进中小企业持续发展和激励企业创新的重要政策之一,但减税政策实施效果会受到企业所处制度环境、企业治理以及企业特征等因素的影响。本文对企业税收负担计量以及企业税收负担影响因素相关文献进行了梳理,指出了现有研究不足之处,并提出未来研究方向。第一,需要结合制度环境、政府与企业行为等因素研究企业的税收负担问题;第二,需要基于契约理论和公共治理视角,研究契约类型、公司治理、外部监管等内外部治理机制对企业税收负担的影响;第三,需要重点研究非

  14. 中国经济国民投资率的福利经济学分析%A Welfare Economics Analysis of the Chinese Economic Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李稻葵; 徐欣; 江红平

    2012-01-01

    China' s macroeconomic investment rate seems to be very high in comparing with the world average and that of similar emerging market economies. Is China over-nvesting? Existing research focuses on the rate of turn of investment in order to answer this question. We believe that this is wrong since the ultimate measure should be social welfare. However, such analyses are missing in the literature. In the paper, we first construct two measures of China' s investment rate: the domestic investment rate and the national investment rate, which incorporates China' s current account surplus. We then build a benchmark of growth model and then explore the method of backward integration to solve the model. Finally, we compare the optimal investment path of the benchmark model with the actual one and calculate the welfare loss due to the deviation the actual investment rate from the optimal one. We find that China' s average domestic investment rate and national investment rate are 6% and 4% lower than benchmark rate in the 1990s, respectively. However, after 2002, they are 5% and 12% higher than welfare maximizing rate, respectively. As a result, between 1990 and 2008, the total welfare loss is 5.9% , corresponding to 3.8% GDP annually.%本文首次系统地从福利经济学角度出发,运用前沿计算方法,试图回答中国投资率是否过高这一重要问题。本文首先计算了两个投资率:一是境内投资率;二是国民投资率,即(境内投资+对外投资)/GDP。通过横向的对比,发现无论是境内投资率还是国民投资率,即便考虑高经济增长率,中国经济都远高于世界各国。其次,采用经济增长理论的基准模型,利用中国的参数进行校准,并且进行稳健性检验,运用逆向积分法模拟中国经济福利最大化的投资路径。结果表明,中国经济上世纪90年代平均境内投资率低于福利最大化的投资率6%,国民投资率4

  15. Sistem Supply Chain Crude-Palm-Oil Indonesia dengan Mempertimbangkan Aspek Economical Revenue, Social Welfare dan Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuncoro Harto Widodo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Crude-Palm-Oil (CPO is an agro-industrial commodity which has a strategic value to be developed for Indonesian economy and social welfare. Production and export of Indonesian CPO increase progressively in the view years so that CPO is one of the pre-eminent products of Indonesia. On the other hand, however, they could give two negative impacts. First, a less CPO supply for domestic market as a result of export growing. Second, a worse environment as an effect of the opening new palm plantations. We, therefore, construct and simulate the system model for analyzing the relationships between the components and for describing their behaviour within the supply chain of CPO by using a dynamic model. The result shows that in the next 30 years, the revenue of Indonesian CPO industries tends to increase. The biggest revenue will be achieved in the year 23rd. The maximum addition of plantation employees is in the year 7th as well as in the year 17th. Deforestation would be the highest in the year 7th and 17th in which 2008 as a basic year.

  16. Economic vulnerability among low educated Europeans : the impact of resources, the group's position, labour market conditions and welfare state arrangements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gesthuizen, M.; Scheepers, P.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we pose the question: To what extent does a lack of individual resources and of access to high quality resources in one’s core social network explain why low-educated people are likely to experience economic vulnerability? Additionally, we explain cross-national differences in the

  17. Economic vulnerability among low educated Europeans : the impact of resources, the group's position, labour market conditions and welfare state arrangements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gesthuizen, M.; Scheepers, P.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we pose the question: To what extent does a lack of individual resources and of access to high quality resources in one’s core social network explain why low-educated people are likely to experience economic vulnerability? Additionally, we explain cross-national differences in the r

  18. Prevalence of carcass bruises as an indicator of welfare in beef cattle and the relation to the economic impact.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huertas, S.M.; van Eerdenburg, F.J.C.M.; Gil, A.; Piaggio, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this work was to characterize bruises in bovine carcasses in Uruguay and to evaluate the economic impact. Thirteen abattoirs were visited during 2 years and bruises were identified, classified, and quantified by zone and degree (depth and size). One hundred carcasses were separated

  19. The Welfare Costs of Economic Fluctuation:Review and Prospect%经济波动福利成本研究述评与展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁志帆; 孙根紧

    2012-01-01

    Does it have potential welfare effect to stabilize economic fluctuations? The answer to this question relates to the promotion of the economic cycles research, as well as whether it is necessary to implement counter - cyclical policies. According to the Lueas baseline model, we divide the researches of the welfare costs of the economic fluctuation into the broad sense and the narrow sense two camps. The former refers to the studies which are conducted by amending Lucas baseline model or using alternative consumption data to test Lucas assertion,and the latter refers to the studies which consider the reality of the economic characteristics of incomplete capital markets and consumer heterogeneity, or introduce some innovative ideas, such as endogenous nature of the fluctuations and growth, small probability of crash states, and the loss of subjective well - being to develop the Lucas baseline model. After combing the two camps of the related literatures from the perspective of research approach and measuring methods, we find that future studies should go further by introducing consumers' labor - leisure choice, possibility of the intergenerational transfer of wealth, and the reasonable assumption of the generating process of random consumption stream reasonably.%平抑经济波动是否具有潜在的福利效应?对此问题的回答关系到经济周期理论研究的深入推进和反周期政策存在必要性的进一步探讨。本文从Lucas基准模型出发,依据是否遵循Lucas基准模型的分析框架,将继Lucas(1987)之后的经济波动福利成本研究划分为狭义经济波动福利成本研究和广义经济波动福利成本研究两大阵营。前者主要是指通过修正Lucas基准模型或采用替代性的消费数据来检验Lucas论断的研究;后者是指考虑了不完全资本市场与消费者异质性等现实经济特征,或是引入了波动与增长的内生性、小概率灾难性事件和主观福祉概念等

  20. The Economic and Welfare Effects of Different irrigation Water Pricing Methods, Case Study of Khomein Plain in Markazi Province of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Zamanian

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The scarcity of water resources and supply resources limitation, have caused an increasing gap between water supply and demand specially in recent decades in almost all regions of the globe. One of the best known solutions proposed by the economists is using the different water pricing approaches thereby obtaining the optimal allocation and social justice. To this purpose, this paper uses the positive Mathematical Programming (PMP and Econometric Mathematical Programming (EMP in a comparative analysis to study the economic and welfare impacts of alternative water pricing approaches in the agricultural sector during agricultural period 2011/2012 in Khomein plain of Markazi province in Iran. Results show that the EMP can be a better alternative approach instead of PMP to better analyze of agricultural policies. According to the final outcomes, it is suggested to apply the block tariff in place of volumetric pricing method to reach the optimal allocation and promoting the water efficiency in the price range of 198 to 853 Rials.

  1. Governance Strategies and Welfare Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trifkovic, Neda

    Using an original dataset from the Vietnamese catfish sector, we study the impact of vertical coordination options on household welfare and the implications of different stages of vertical coordination for the success of the whole sector. The welfare gain from contract farming and employment...... on processor-owned estate farms is estimated using a maximum simulated likelihood estimator. Our results show positive welfare effects from participating in contract farming, but not from employment on processor-owned estate farms. The results imply that contract farming presents opportunities for economic...

  2. European Integration between Equity, Efficiency and Welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Marchis

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Throughout this article I tried to highlight the path for improving the Europeans standards ofliving. Poverty, inequality and efficiency are the key concepts of the welfare economic. Similar to many otherarticles about equity, efficiency and welfare, this article offers an account of the challenges facing theEuropean Union welfare in a context of global economy assessing the ability of different components of thewelfare governance to respond to these challenges. The welfare of European Union is analyzed under themultidimensional aspects of integration, such as: internal versus external integration and multilevelintegration. Aging, changes in the labor market, increased mobility are particular aspects that characterize EUand under the fundamental reform of Europe 2020 Strategy, welfare economic becomes a priority even if thepolitical integration comes first to the economic one. As Europe grows more diverse, the welfare economictranslates from desire to necessity.

  3. Social Welfare in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rutten, Koen

    of China’s economic growth, the long and midterm sustainability of its economic development model and the implications thereof for social stability and political legitimacy. An immediate priority has been to formulate and implement a response to mitigate the disruptive effects of the transition to a market...... to meet China’s social challenges. In this paper, I provide a summary of the academic literature on post-reform development of the welfare system. I will give an overview of its most salient problems, initiatives and their preliminary outcomes. Finally, I will present some concluding remarks and provide...

  4. Farmers on Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Ann-Christina

    the member states of the European Community from 1958 onward. That story holds that the political priority given to the CAP, as well as its long-term stability, resides in a basic devil's bargain between French agriculture and German industry. In Farmers on Welfare, a landmark new account of the making...... of the single largest European policy ever, Ann-Christina L. Knudsen suggests that this accepted narrative is too neat. In particular, she argues, it neglects how a broad agreement was made in the 1960s that related to the national welfare state policies aiming to improve incomes for farmers. Drawing...... of deep archival research with nuanced political analysis makes it required reading for both historians and political scientists interested in this cornerstone of European integration." Helen Wallace, Centennial Professor, European Institute, London School of Economics and Political Science. "Farmers...

  5. The institutional logic of welfare attitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christian Albrekt

    by combining the literature on deservingness criteria and the welfare regime theory. The basic ideas is that three regime characteristics 1) the degree of universalism in welfare policy, 2) the differences in economic resources between ‘the bottom’ and ‘the majority’, and 3) the degree of job opportunities...

  6. The institutional logic of welfare attitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christian Albrekt

    2008-01-01

    by combining the literature on deservingness criteria and the welfare regime theory. The basic ideas is that three regime characteristics 1) the degree of universalism in welfare policy, 2) the differences in economic resources between ‘the bottom’ and ‘the majority’, and 3) the degree of job opportunities...

  7. Air quality and human welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundseth K.

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Human welfare is generally referring to allocation of resources to fit the well being of humans. If high standard of well-being is to be maintained, the concerns for a healthy environment must be balanced against requirements of economic growth. In a natural capital system, human welfare is best served by improving the quality and flow of desired services delivered rather than merely increasing the total money flow. An ecosystem based management of living and natural resource use will steer this progress to the best of human welfare while the efficiency of ecosystem based management depends strongly on the availability of integrated assessment tools that will combine environmental models and monitoring data with ecological economic valuation methods. In applied welfare economics, the methodological approach to assess resource allocations towards societal optimality and thereby establish criteria for government intervention is often linked to tools as Cost-ffectiveness Analysis (CEA, Cost-Benefit Assessment (CBA or Multi-criteria Analysis (MCA. By illustrating an assessment on costs and benefits of the implementation of Hg emission reduction measures in the coal sector, it becomes obvious that for a full analysis of societal costs and benefits, several aspects of Hg pollution, sources, impacts and co-benefits need to be considered.

  8. Invertebrate welfare: an overlooked issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelsey Horvath

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available While invertebrates make up the majority of animal species, their welfare is overlooked compared to the concern shown to vertebrates. This fact is highlighted by the near absence of regulations in animal research, with the exception of cephalopods in the European Union. This is often justified by assumptions that invertebrates do not experience pain and stress while lacking the capacity for higher order cognitive functions. Recent research suggests that invertebrates may be just as capable as vertebrates in experiencing pain and stress, and some species display comparable cognitive capacities. Another obstacle is the negative view of invertebrates by the public, which often regards them as pests with no individual personalities, gastronomic entities, or individuals for scientific experimentation without rules. Increasingly, studies have revealed that invertebrates possess individual profiles comparable to the personalities found in vertebrates. Given the large economic impact of invertebrates, developing certain attitude changes in invertebrate welfare may be beneficial for producers while providing higher welfare conditions for the animals. While the immense number and type of species makes it difficult to suggest that all invertebrates will benefit from increased welfare, in this review we provide evidence that the topic of invertebrate welfare should be revisited, more thoroughly investigated, and in cases where appropriate, formally instituted.

  9. Value of welfare loss associated with agreements of controlled power cuts. An economic valuation using Discrete Choice Experiment; Mael af velfaerdstab ved kontrollerede stroemafbrydelser. En vaerdisaetningsundersoegelse udfoert vha. metoden Discrete Choice Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lassen, Christa; Lund Jensen, Kirsten

    2005-06-01

    Flexible electricity consumption has potential to become an important step towards achieving an economically efficient electricity supply. One way to obtain flexible electricity consumption is to establish agreements with private consumers regarding power-cuts during periods of peak consumption. Whether these agreements are economically efficient depends on how big a welfare loss the consumers experience during controlled power-cuts. This loss has so far not been estimated; hence the objective of this rapport is to indicate the level of such welfare loss. This rapport aims to analyse and quantify the private consumer's preferences for a number of characteristics relating to 'controlled power-cuts' of washing machine, dish-washer and dry-tumbler respectively. These characteristics are decisive factors in determining loss of utility the consumer associate with the power-cuts. Additionally, these characteristics are significant for the application of power-cuts. The selected characteristics investigated are duration and frequency. The consumers required compensation for acceptance of changes to the various characteristics is derived. (A combination of number of power cuts per year with a given duration is to be considered as an agreement) Data was collected through questionnaires and analysed using Discrete Choice Experiment. This method is based on the consumers choice between various combinations of controlled power-cut agreements. Apart from providing the possibility to value a change to each of the specified characteristics, the method can also estimate a total value of a changed agreement. The survey shows that the consumers experience an increasing welfare loss the longer duration of the power-cuts and the greater the frequency. Preferences and compensation for the various agreements are shown not to be dependent on whether the consumer has received information regarding the environmental benefits of the agreement. A lower compensation threshold

  10. Animal welfare assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučinić Marijana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with animal welfare definitions and animal welfare assessment. Animal welfare is a prolonged mental state, resulting from how the animal experiences its environment over time. There are different methods for animal welfare assessment. The four basic criteria for animal welfare assessment are feeding, housing, health and appropriate behavior. Therefore, criteria used to assess animal welfare are not direct measures of the mental state but only parameters that need to be interpreted in terms of welfare. The immediate housing environment and feeding may influence animal welfare either positively, when most of the important requirements are respected, or negatively, when animals are exposed to various stress factors and unpleasant emotions that contribute to animal disease, injuries or inappropriate behavior. Therefore, animal welfare is a unique link between housing conditions, feeding and watering on one side, and animal health status and behavior on the other side.

  11. Drivers for animal welfare policies in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalla Villa, P; Matthews, L R; Alessandrini, B; Messori, S; Migliorati, G

    2014-04-01

    The European region has been, and remains, a global leader in the development of animal welfare policies. The region has a great diversity of cultures and religions, different levels of socio-economic development, and varied legislation, policies and practices. Nevertheless, there are common drivers for animal welfare policy based on a history of animal welfare ethics and obligations to animal users and society in general. A unifying goal of countries in the region is to achieve sustainable compliance with the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) standards on animal health and welfare. Ethics isthe overarching driver, supported by the actions of governmental, inter-governmental and non-governmental activities, markets and trade, science and knowledge. Historically, organisations involved in promoting animal welfare have tended to act in isolation. For example, non-governmental organisations (NGOs) have run campaigns to influence retailers and the welfare policies of their farmer suppliers. Increasingly, different organisations with common or complementary goals are working together. For example, competent authorities, inter-governmental bodies and NGOs have combined their efforts to address dog population control across several countries in the region. Also, animal welfare is becoming integrated into the corporate social responsibility targets of private companies. Science and knowledge, as drivers and tools, are assisting with the harmonisation of welfare standards, e.g. by providing a common basis for measuring welfare impacts through animal-based measures and widespread sharing of this information. Current trends suggest that there will be greater collaboration among the organisations driving change, and increasing convergence of animal welfare strategies and welfare assessment tools. The result will be increased harmonisation of animal welfare standards throughout the region.

  12. COGNITIVE ECONOMICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    KIMBALL, MILES

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive economics is the economics of what is in people’s minds. It is a vibrant area of research (much of it within behavioural economics, labour economics and the economics of education) that brings into play novel types of data, especially novel types of survey data. Such data highlight the importance of heterogeneity across individuals and highlight thorny issues for welfare economics. A key theme of cognitive economics is finite cognition (often misleadingly called “bounded rationality”), which poses theoretical challenges that call for versatile approaches. Cognitive economics brings a rich toolbox to the task of understanding a complex world. PMID:28149186

  13. Evaluation of a commercially available organic acid product on body weight loss, carcass yield, and meat quality during preslaughter feed withdrawal in broiler chickens: a poultry welfare and economic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menconi, A; Kuttappan, V A; Hernandez-Velasco, X; Urbano, T; Matté, F; Layton, S; Kallapura, G; Latorre, J; Morales, B E; Prado, O; Vicente, J L; Barton, J; Andreatti Filho, R L; Lovato, M; Hargis, B M; Tellez, G

    2014-02-01

    The effect of a commercial organic acid (OA) product on BW loss (BWL) during feed withdrawal and transportation, carcass yield, and meat quality was evaluated in broiler chickens. Two experiments were conducted in Brazil. Commercial houses were paired as control groups receiving regular water and treated groups receiving OA in the water. Treated birds had a reduction in BWL of 37 g in experiment 1 and 32.2 g in experiment 2. In experiment 2, no differences were observed in carcass yield between groups. Estimation of the cost benefit suggested a 1:16 ratio by using the OA. In experiment 3, conducted in Mexico, significant differences on water consumption, BWL, and meat quality characteristics were observed in chickens that were treated with the OA (P animal welfare and economic concerns in the poultry industry by reducing BWL and improving meat quality attributes.

  14. Study on the European Welfare and Tax Systems Models Used to Support Economic Growth and Overcome the Effects of the Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The article presents a theme of great interest for political parties, public administration representatives and researchers as each country tries to implement those policies that bring about economic growth. This study aims to determine the key role of taxation for achieving economic growth and to highlight to what extent the different fiscal levers can influence it. The main issues are the tax systems and policies adopted by the EU members for reaching an optimal yield from implementing thei...

  15. The Danish Welfare Commission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerding, Allan Næs

    2006-01-01

    The paper deals with the main report of the Danish Welfare Commission and the one-hundred-and-nine proposals on the structure of the future Danish welfare state that the com-mission has put forward. Following upon a brief review of the discussion on the work of the Danish Welfare Commission...

  16. Scandinavian Model of Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamson, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Within the so-called welfare modeling business Scandinavia stands out as a space with a particular welfare regime. It is a peculiar combination of market, state, and civil societal interventions into people's social life, that define this welfare regime. The particular welfare mix emphasizes...... of conditions with respect to political culture and ethnic homogeneity. The East Asian welfare regime resembles that of Southern Europe, characterized as it is by a high degree of informality regarding care for children, fragile elderly and the handicapped....

  17. Use of information on disease diagnoses from databases for animal health economic, welfare and food safety purposes: strengths and limitations of recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houe, Hans; Gardner, Ian Andrew; Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum

    2011-01-01

    Many animal health, welfare and food safety databases include data on clinical and test-based disease diagnoses. However, the circumstances and constraints for establishing the diagnoses vary considerably among databases. Therefore results based on different databases are difficult to compare and compilation of data in order to perform meta-analysis is almost impossible. Nevertheless, diagnostic information collected either routinely or in research projects is valuable in cross comparisons between databases, but there is a need for improved transparency and documentation of the data and the performance characteristics of tests used to establish diagnoses. The objective of this paper is to outline the circumstances and constraints for recording of disease diagnoses in different types of databases, and to discuss these in the context of disease diagnoses when using them for additional purposes, including research. Finally some limitations and recommendations for use of data and for recording of diagnostic information in the future are given. It is concluded that many research questions have such a specific objective that investigators need to collect their own data. However, there are also examples, where a minimal amount of extra information or continued validation could make sufficient improvement of secondary data to be used for other purposes. Regardless, researchers should always carefully evaluate the opportunities and constraints when they decide to use secondary data. If the data in the existing databases are not sufficiently valid, researchers may have to collect their own data, but improved recording of diagnostic data may improve the usefulness of secondary diagnostic data in the future.

  18. Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palley, Paul D; Parcero, Miriam E

    2016-10-01

    A review of literature in the calendar year 2015 dedicated to environmental policies and sustainable development, and economic policies. This review is divided into these sections: sustainable development, irrigation, ecosystems and water management, climate change and disaster risk management, economic growth, water supply policies, water consumption, water price regulation, and water price valuation.

  19. Economism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Simons

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Modern society is characterised not only by a fascination with scientific technology as a means of solving all problems, especially those that stand in the way of material progress (technicism, but also by an obsessive interest in everything that has to do with money (economism or mammonism. The article discusses the relationship between technicism and economism, on the basis of their relationship to utilitarian thinking: the quest for the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people. Recent major studies of neo-liberalism (seen as an intensification of utilitarianism by Laval and Dardot are used as reference to the development of utilitarianism. It is suggested that the western view of the world, as expressed in economism and technicism, with a utilitarian ethics, features three absolutisations: those of theoretical thinking, technology and economics. In a second part, the article draws on the framework of reformational philosophy to suggest an approach that, in principle, is not marred by such absolutisations.

  20. Animal Welfare in Air Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Popović

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Animal welfare is becoming an evermore-important factorfor air carriers from the economical viewpoint, due to its importantimpact on the carrier public image. High standard care hasto be taken of animals during transport in order to satisfy an importantsegment of airline customers, either the Business/Firstclass passengers travelling with pets, or influential shippers ofracing horses, dogs, Zoo species etc.Air transp011 of animals, disregarding other advantages,may pose a threat to their health and welfare being a significantmultifactorial stressor. Along with cardiovascular, endocrineand metabolic abe1mtions, it affects the immune response ofan animal and increases susceptibility to infection. Therefore,strict conditions for air transport of eve1y animal species havebeen imposed. Transport of only healthy animals is approved,as it is necessG/y to prevent the spread of disease during transportand to provide satisfactOJy environment for animals to betransported.

  1. Animal welfare: an animal science approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koknaroglu, H; Akunal, T

    2013-12-01

    Increasing world population and demand for animal-derived protein puts pressure on animal production to meet this demand. For this purpose animal breeding efforts were conducted to obtain the maximum yield that the genetic makeup of the animals permits. Under the influence of economics which is the driving force behind animal production, animal farming became more concentrated and controlled which resulted in rearing animals under confinement. Since more attention was given on economics and yield per animal, animal welfare and behavior were neglected. Animal welfare which can be defined as providing environmental conditions in which animals can display all their natural behaviors in nature started gaining importance in recent years. This does not necessarily mean that animals provided with good management practices would have better welfare conditions as some animals may be distressed even though they are in good environmental conditions. Consumers are willing to pay more for welfare-friendly products (e.g.: free range vs caged egg) and this will change the animal production practices in the future. Thus animal scientists will have to adapt themselves for the changing animal welfare rules and regulations that differ for farm animal species and countries. In this review paper, animal welfare is discussed from an animal science standpoint.

  2. Welfare Professions in Transition

    OpenAIRE

    Annette Kamp

    2016-01-01

    Welfare professions constitute one of the backbones in the development of the Nordic welfare states. Working in the public sector was for decades associated with high status; public sector employees were trusted employees. Through their work, they had important responsibilities for the welfare state and its citizens. To provide job security—through employment as officials—was a part of ensuring the stability of the state (Åkerstrøm, 2001), and we saw the establishment of what could be called ...

  3. Welfare in horse breeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, M.L.H.; Sandøe, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Welfare problems related to the way horses are bred, whether by coitus or by the application of artificial reproduction techniques (ARTs), have been given no discrete consideration within the academic literature. This paper reviews the existing knowledge base about welfare issues in horse breeding...... and identifies areas in which data is lacking. We suggest that all methods of horse breeding are associated with potential welfare problems, but also that the judicious use of ARTs can sometimes help to address those problems. We discuss how negative welfare effects could be identified and limited and how...

  4. Welfare in horse breeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, M.L.H.; Sandøe, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Welfare problems related to the way horses are bred, whether by coitus or by the application of artificial reproduction techniques (ARTs), have been given no discrete consideration within the academic literature. This paper reviews the existing knowledge base about welfare issues in horse breeding...... and identifies areas in which data is lacking. We suggest that all methods of horse breeding are associated with potential welfare problems, but also that the judicious use of ARTs can sometimes help to address those problems. We discuss how negative welfare effects could be identified and limited and how...

  5. Welfarism and extra-welfarism: a critical overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brayan Viegas Seixas

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Rules and principles for guiding decision-making in the health care sector have been debated for decades. Here, we present a critical appraisal of the two most important paradigms in this respect: welfarism and extra-welfarism. While the former deals with the maximization of the overall sum of individual utilities as its primary outcome, the latter has been focusing on the maximization of the overall health status. We argue that welfarism has three main problems: (1 its central idea of overall sum of individual utilities does not capture societal values decisively relevant in the context of health; (2 the use of the Potential Pareto Improvement brings an unresolvable separation between efficiency and equity; and (3 individual utility may not be a good measure in the health sector, given that individuals might value things that diminish their overall health. In turn, the extra-welfarist approach is criticized regarding four main limitations: (1 the advocated expansion of the evaluative space, moving from utility to health, may have represented in reality a narrowing of it; (2 it operates using non-explicit considerations of equity; (3 it still holds the issue of “inability to desire” of unprivileged people being considered the best judges of weighing the criteria used to building the health measures; and (4 there is controversial empirical evidence about society members’ values that support its assumptions. Overall, both paradigms show significant weaknesses, but the debate has still been within the realm of welfare economics, and even the new approaches to resource allocation in health care systems appear to be unable to escape from these boundaries.

  6. Welfare Gains from Financial Liberalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Robert M; Ueda, Kenichi

    2010-08-01

    Financial liberalization has been a controversial issue, as empirical evidence for growth enhancing effects is mixed. Here, we find sizable welfare gains from liberalization (cost to repression), though the gain in economic growth is ambiguous. We take the view that financial liberalization is a government policy that alters the path of financial deepening, while financial deepening is endogenously chosen by agents given a policy and occurs in transition towards a distant steady state. This history-dependent view necessitates the use of simulation analysis based on a growth model. Our application is a specific episode: Thailand from 1976 to 1996.

  7. The Danish Welfare State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jørgen Elm; Bengtsson, Tea Torbenfeldt; Frederiksen, Morten

    The Danish Welfare State analyzes a broad range of areas, such as globalization, labor marked, family life, health and social exclusion, the book demonstrates that life in a modern welfare state is changing rapidly, creating both challenges and possibilities for future management....

  8. The Danish welfare state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jørgen Elm; Bengtsson, Tea Torbenfeldt; Frederiksen, Morten

    The Danish Welfare State analyzes a broad range of areas, such as globalization, labor marked, family life, health and social exclusion, the book demonstrates that life in a modern welfare state is changing rapidly, creating both challenges and possibilities for future management....

  9. The Child Welfare Cartel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoesz, David

    2016-01-01

    The probity of the Children's Bureau's National Child Welfare Workforce Institute (NCWWI) is examined with respect to the status of child welfare as well as the performance of social work education. By requiring that funding go only to accredited schools of social work, which is not authorized by relevant provisions of the Social Security Act,…

  10. The Child Welfare Cartel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoesz, David

    2016-01-01

    The probity of the Children's Bureau's National Child Welfare Workforce Institute (NCWWI) is examined with respect to the status of child welfare as well as the performance of social work education. By requiring that funding go only to accredited schools of social work, which is not authorized by relevant provisions of the Social Security Act,…

  11. Wellbeing or welfare benefits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handlos, Line Neerup; Kristiansen, Maria; Nørredam, Marie Louise

    2016-01-01

    This debate article debunks the myth that migrants are driven primarily by the size of the welfare benefits in the host country, when they decide where to migrate to. We show that instead of welfare benefits, migrants are driven by a desire for safety, wellbeing, social networks and opportunities...

  12. Market Access and Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis; Woodland, Alan D.

    2015-01-01

    Well known tariff reform rules that are guaranteed to increase welfare will not necessarily increase market access, while rules that are guaranteed to increase market access will not necessarily increase welfare. The present paper proposes a new set of tariff reforms that can achieve both...

  13. Animal welfare decisions in Dutch poultry and pig farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gocsik, E.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The minimum level of animal welfare (AW) is guaranteed by EU and national legislation in most European countries. Within the current international economic and political environment further improvements in the welfare of farm animals predominantly rely on market initiative

  14. 12 CFR 24.3 - Public welfare investments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Public welfare investments. 24.3 Section 24.3 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY COMMUNITY AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ENTITIES, COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS, AND OTHER PUBLIC WELFARE INVESTMENTS § 24.3 Public...

  15. Television Programming, Monopolistic Competition and Welfare. Technical Report No. 159.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Michael; Owen, Bruce

    An economic analysis of television programing was conducted focusing on the public welfare implications of alternative market structures and policies in the broadcasting industry. Welfare was measured by the sum of producer's and consumer's surplus. It was demonstrated that any of the private market systems considered contain biases against…

  16. Nordic society, welfare state and the Nordic brand

    OpenAIRE

    ВАСИЛЬЕВ ВАСИЛИЙ ВАСИЛЬЕВИЧ

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews the essential features of Nordic welfare state and its current state. Considered also are the factors that have contributed or are related to Nordic welfare state, such as political and economic path, religion and immigration. In the concluding section author discusses the phenomenon of Nordic brand and the contribution of abovementioned factors and features to the construction of the Nordic brand.

  17. The Scandinavian Welfare States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siim, Birte

    1987-01-01

    that the Scandinavian welfare states are the most advanced in relation to women and dicusses both the potentialities and the dangers in the Scandinavian welfare states in relation to women. The paper points to the need to integrate gender relations in the theoretical model for an analysis of the welfare state...... and emphasises the need to explore the relationship between the family and the state ( and the family and the economy) in difefrent wefare states. The paper emphasises that the qualitative difference in the organization of care work are important for understanding the institutional differences for between...... the welfare states, and especially the Scandinavian welfare states, where motherhood and care work has to day bef´come part of social citizenship The auther argues that even though women have in important ways been empowered in the Scandinavian woefare states as mothers, workers and citizens, they have...

  18. Nationalism, Gender and Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siim, Birte; Stoltz, Pauline

    is associated with ‘social democratic’ perceptions of welfare and gender equality. Brochmann and Hagelund (2010) have pointed towards a specific form of Scandinavian welfare nationalism which is challenged by globalization and increased migration. We add that gender equality is a key aspect of the Scandinavian...... politics of belonging and that this has implications for our understanding of the challenges which can be recognised in the contemporary politics of gender and welfare in Scandinavia. This point is illustrated by exploring the problematic ways in which contemporary nationalist parties in Sweden, Denmark...... and Norway have linked national belongings with support for the welfare state and gender equality politics. These observations in turn raise theoretical, normative and analytical questions about understandings and conceptualizations of the nationalism, welfare and gender.The article aims to explore what...

  19. Drivers for Welfare Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wegener, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Innovation has become a key goal towards which teaching and workplace learning needs to be directed. Now perceived as germane and even necessary in almost all kinds of welfare work, the innovation potential in everyday practices and ways of allowing for employer creativity have become a highly...... on the empirical material, the paper proposes a ‘driver’ model for context sensitive research of innovation in welfare workplaces. The model involves three elements which can be regarded as drivers for innovation: i) craft (i.e. professional skills and knowledge), ii) levers (i.e. experiments and adjustment...... that are not necessarily perceived, performed, and changed in phases. A pragmatic and situated perspective on welfare innovation suggests a conception of welfare innovation which is not translated from firm innovation, but derived directly from welfare contexts....

  20. Derecho represivo y neoliberal: La crisis económica y política del Estado de sustitución de importaciones en Argentina / Repressive law and neoliberal: economic and political crisis of the Welfare State in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Gabriel Manzo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Resumen Este artículo analiza el Derecho “represivo” y “neoliberal” surgido en la última dictadura militar argentina, y la relación existente entre ambos. Investiga la crisis económica y política del Estado de sustitución de importaciones en el tiempo inmediatamente anterior al golpe de 1976. Explica el diagnóstico que la nueva elite gobernante hizo de esta crisis; diagnóstico que dio lugar a la emergencia de un Derecho represivo y neoliberal. Palabras claves: Derecho-Estado-Neoliberalismo. Abstract This article analyzes the “repressive” and “neoliberal” law that appeared in Argentina during the last military government (1976-1983, and the relationship among them. It, also, analyzes the economic and political crisis of the Welfare State that took place before the military coup. It, finally, explains the diagnosis that the new military government did of this crisis; diagnosis that gave place to the emergency of a new repressive and neoliberal Law. Key words: Law-State-Neoliberalism. 

  1. Towards the Measurement of Spatial Welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grevers, Wilbert

    2005-01-01

    This paper develops a framework for assessing the welfare effects of the capitalisation of the value of environmental quality in the price for land, combining elements from environmental and spatial economics on the basis of equilibrium considerations for population games. Its main contribution to e

  2. Towards the Measurement of Spatial Welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grevers, Wilbert

    2005-01-01

    This paper develops a framework for assessing the welfare effects of the capitalisation of the value of environmental quality in the price for land, combining elements from environmental and spatial economics on the basis of equilibrium considerations for population games. Its main contribution to

  3. Drivers for animal welfare policies in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molomo, M; Mumba, T

    2014-04-01

    Livestock in Africa represent on average 30% of the agricultural gross domestic product (GDP) and about 10% of the national GDP. Up to 300 million people depend on livestock for their income and livelihood. Accordingly, livestock are considered to be important for the African continent. Despite this, little or no provision for animal welfare is made in the laws and regulations of most African countries. However, the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Performance of Veterinary Services (PVS) Tool includes animal welfare as a critical competency in Veterinary Services, and most African countries have now conducted PVS appraisals. The development of a Regional Animal Welfare Strategy in Africa is also important because it will provide opportunities for full engagement by all relevant parties. Key elements in this process should include collaboration and coordination in information dissemination to all stakeholders, who should include all those in the value chain. The roles played by the OIE Member Delegates and Focal Points, and non-governmental organisations (NGOs), in driving animal welfare policy in most African countries are notable. Without a level of understanding of animal welfare that is sufficient to support clear animal welfare policy development and implementation, problems may appear in the near future which could jeopardise the attainment of increased animal productivity and product quality. This may have negative implications for economic growth and for national and international trade.

  4. Consumer perception of animal welfare and the effect of information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørkbak, Morten Raun; Nordström, Jonas

    , the results suggest that once the respondents/consumers are given information about the production method, the higher income people have the more do they care about animal welfare in terms of WTP. Thus, economic progress is likely to have a positive effect on animal welfare, if the consumers are given......The motivation for the present study is to understand food choice in relation to animal welfare, and how choices and preferences are influenced by expert information. The focus is on the attribute "animal welfare", which is represented by the method of producing chicken (indoor and outdoor...

  5. A balanced perspective on animal welfare for improved meat and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A balanced perspective on animal welfare for improved meat and meat ... and biochemical status, and meat quality and quantity; which leads to economic losses. ... Although the issues of animal production, which range from the environment ...

  6. Animal welfare and eggs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Laura Mørch

    This paper identifies revealed willingness to pay for animal welfare using a panel mixed logit model allowing for correlation between willingness to pay for different types of production. We utilize a unique household level panel, combining real purchases with survey data on perceived public...... and private good attributes of different types of eggs. We find that the estimated correlations are consistent with the levels of animal welfare, and that consumers perceiving a stronger connection between animal welfare and the organic label have higher willingness to pay for organic eggs, even when we...

  7. Animal welfare and eggs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Laura Mørch

    This paper identifies revealed willingness to pay for animal welfare using a panel mixed logit model allowing for correlation between willingness to pay for different types of production. We utilize a unique household level panel, combining real purchases with survey data on perceived public...... and private good attributes of different types of eggs. We find that the estimated correlations are consistent with the levels of animal welfare, and that consumers perceiving a stronger connection between animal welfare and the organic label have higher willingness to pay for organic eggs, even when we...

  8. Market Access and Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis; Woodland, Alan D.

    According to the literature, well known tariff reform rules that are guaranteed to increase welfare will not necessarily increase market access, while rules that are guaranteed to increase market access will not necessarily increase welfare. Such conflict between welfare and market access...... objectives of trade policy is problematic and calls for finding alternative tariff reform rules that can achieve both objectives at the same time. The present paper contributes to this aim by using a new set of tariff reforms that are based on local optimality. Using such reforms it is shown that market...

  9. Role of joy in farm animal welfare legislation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Gall, Philipp; Gjerris, Mickey

    2017-01-01

    While animal welfare is commonly invoked in legal debates regarding non-human animals kept for food purposes, the concept of animal joy is rarely mentioned in such contexts. This paper analyzes the relationship between welfare and joy in the German animal protection law (GAPL) and in the EU...... directive 98/58/EC. Based on a review of scientific and philosophical approaches towards animal welfare, joy is argued to be a part of welfare. Nevertheless, joy is ignored in the German and EU legal provisions. While there may be economic disadvantages of legally protecting animal joy, it is argued...... that overlooking elements of joy cannot be justified from any ethical perspective that claims to take animal welfare into consideration. In order to clarify the aims of the legal provisions, decision-makers need to define the role joy ought to play in welfare legislation....

  10. A Scenario Analysis on the Implementation of a Farm Animal Welfare Assessment System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingenbleek, P.T.M.; Blokhuis, H.J.; Butterworth, A.; Keeling, L.J.

    2011-01-01

    There have been important developments in the measurement of farm animal welfare in recent years. Measuring animal welfare is one thing, implementing a farm animal welfare assessment system another. The implementation of such a system occurs in an environment that is influenced by economic, politica

  11. Social Welfare Expenditures and Infant Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Joyce

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the effects of social welfare expenditures on infant mortality (deaths younger than age 1 per 1,000 live births) across 19 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries from 1980 to 2010. Data are obtained from various sources including the OECD, World Health Organization, and World Bank. The findings indicate that among three social welfare expenditure measures for families, the expenditures on family cash allowances are predicted to reduce infant mortality. However, the other two measures-the expenditures on parental and maternity leave and expenditures on family services-have no significant effects on infant mortality.

  12. Trade liberalisation, resource sustainability and welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Max

    2006-01-01

    Recent research has warned that liberalising trade in capture fish products originating from inefficiently managed fisheries might cause over-exploitation, reduced fish stocks and thereby a reduced steady-state of welfare. This paper qualifies the warning in a case study of the East Baltic cod...... market by developing an age-structured bio-economic supply model combined with basic theory of trade between two countries. Welfare effects of trade liberalisation are identified taking fishing quotas, input limitations, mesh-size regulations and shared ownership of stocks into account. It is shown...

  13. General versus program-specific welfare chauvinism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christian Albrekt

    2017-01-01

    care, whereas permanent exclusion is favoured for other programs, e.g. child allowances given to children in country of origin. These findings support the thesis of program-specific welfare chauvinism and point to a political space for pragmatic adjustments of current EU rules. The article also finds...... similarity across programs. The Danish welfare chauvinist attitudes are in general fuelled by lack of shared identity with migrants and sociotropic concerns about the economic burden of migration. The article finds little evidence of narrow self-interest effects; with a notable exception of disability...

  14. Zoo Animal Welfare Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koene, P.

    2012-01-01

    Species with specific environmental adaptations may show specific behavioral adaptations, difficulty in adapting to a new environment, and hence suboptimal functioning and fitness. Discrepancy between natural behavioral adaptations and behavioral possibilities in captivity may cause welfare problems

  15. Welfare Undominated Groves Mechanisms

    CERN Document Server

    Apt, Krzysztof R; Guo, Mingyu; Markakis, Evangelos

    2008-01-01

    A common objective in mechanism design is to choose the outcome (for example, allocation of resources) that maximizes the sum of the agents' valuations, without introducing incentives for agents to misreport their preferences. The class of Groves mechanisms achieves this; however, these mechanisms require the agents to make payments, thereby reducing the agents' total welfare. In this paper we introduce a measure for comparing two mechanisms with respect to the final welfare they generate. This measure induces a partial order on mechanisms and we study the question of finding minimal elements with respect to this partial order. In particular, we say a non-deficit Groves mechanism is welfare undominated if there exists no other non-deficit Groves mechanism that always has a smaller or equal sum of payments. We focus on two domains: (i) auctions with multiple identical units and unit-demand bidders, and (ii) mechanisms for public project problems. In the first domain we analytically characterize all welfare und...

  16. Trade, Environment & Animal Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morrison, Peter; Nielsen, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Regulation of animal welfare and the environment under the WTO GATT and GATS Agreements - including introduction of the innovative idea of limiting consumption abroad (mode 2) for e.g. bull fights.......Regulation of animal welfare and the environment under the WTO GATT and GATS Agreements - including introduction of the innovative idea of limiting consumption abroad (mode 2) for e.g. bull fights....

  17. Welfare Professions in Transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette Kamp

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Welfare professions constitute one of the backbones in the development of the Nordic welfare states. Working in the public sector was for decades associated with high status; public sector employees were trusted employees. Through their work, they had important responsibilities for the welfare state and its citizens. To provide job security—through employment as officials—was a part of ensuring the stability of the state (Åkerstrøm, 2001, and we saw the establishment of what could be called a public ethos, a special morality aimed at serving the needs of the citizens and the state (Hoggett, 2005. The term welfare professions is widely used, referring to public sector employees in the field of, for example, health, education, care, and social work. So this term covers professionals who work directly in contact with patients, citizens, clients, students, etc. (Brante, 1990; Järvinen & Mik-Meyer, 2012. Along with the development and modernization of the welfare state, a number of new welfare professions, such as pedagogues, social works, physiotherapists, social care assistants, and auxiliary nurses have joined the existing ones like nurses, teachers, psychologists, and physicians. At the same time, however, the public sector has undergone dramatic changes as part of a neoliberal transformation of the welfare state. With the New Public Management (NPM wave from 1980s and onwards efforts to restructure public institutions and introduce market-like relationships between them, to outsource and privatize public services and to transform citizens to customers in a market have prevailed (Busch, 2005; Christensen & Lægreid, 2007; Greve, 2008. Within this reform strategy, welfare professionals are perceived as part of the problem that NPM is created to solve, namely an uncontrollable and wildly growing bureaucracy (Clarke & Newman, 1997 (...

  18. The Approach of Ecological Economics

    OpenAIRE

    John M. Gowdy; Jon D Erickson

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the major tenets of ecological economics - including value pluralism, methodological pluralism, and multi-criteria policy assessment. Ecological economics offers viable alternatives to the theoretical foundations and policy recommendations of neoclassical welfare economics. A revolution in neoclassical economics is currently taking place and the core assumptions of welfare economics are being replaced with more realistic models of consumer and firm behavior. But we argue ...

  19. How can economists help to improve animal welfare?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tove; Lawrence, A.; Lund, Mogens

    2012-01-01

    To-date, the dominant approach to improving farm animal welfare has consisted of a combination of voluntary improvements undertaken by farmers and the tightening of legal requirements. However, history suggests that there is a limit to the improvements capable of being secured by this approach....... In this paper, it is argued that economic principles can and should have an important role when new, market-driven and other approaches are set up to improve farm animal welfare. The paper focuses on two ways in which economic principles can improve analyses of animal welfare. The first is by helping to define...... priorities as to which aspects of animal welfare should be promoted. Here, economic approaches can be used to capture and synthesise the perspectives of all the stakeholders, including the animals, in a transparent and systematic way. The second way is by helping to ensure that incentives are set up...

  20. Farm animal welfare: the five freedoms and the free market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, A J

    2001-05-01

    This review addresses the scientific, ethical and economic factors that impact on the welfare of farm animals. Respect for animals within the food chain is considered within the context of an ethical matrix that affords respect according to the principles of wellbeing, autonomy and justice to consumers, farm animals, farmers and the living environment. The welfare of a farm animal depends on its ability to sustain fitness and avoid suffering. The responsibility of the farmer is to make provision for good welfare through good husbandry; he cannot ensure good welfare. Improvements to farm animal welfare can only come about within the context of the forces that drive the free market. In essence, consumers need to afford a greater extrinsic value to farm animals. The costs to farmers of legislation to impose higher animal welfare standards are substantial but the cost to consumers can be very small. The responsibility is therefore on the consumer to convert an expressed desire for higher welfare standards into an effective demand. A promising route to encourage and fulfil this demand is through welfare-based quality assurance schemes with quality control ensured by independent audit. At present, audit protocols are based largely on identification of the elements of good husbandry. Ultimately we need a further independent audit to ensure that the outcome of these perceived elements of good husbandry is, in fact, good animal welfare.

  1. The Nordic Welfare Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Helle; Thrane, Claus

    2011-01-01

    to include maternity/paternity leave, benefits, childcare and leave to take care of sick children. The aim of this paper is to increase awareness and elucidate the impact of welfare policies on women’s entrepreneurship because it may impact on women’s entrepreneurial behaviour. The paper investigates...... entrepreneurs. The implications for policy makers are that if they are serious about increasing the number of female entrepreneurs, and achieving equality in the labour market, then future Welfare Models should be tailored to the needs of this group of individuals. So far it has been taken for granted...... that the initiation of public childcare would facilitate increased entrepreneurship among women. Our study shows that this is not necessarily so, that women utilize ‘babystrapping’ strategies, and that there is a schism between welfare models that facilitate employment and those that facilitate entrepreneurship....

  2. From Vikings to Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gert Tinggaard, Svendsen; Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase

    The Scandinavian welfare states hold the highest social trust scores in the world. Why? Based on the stationary bandit model by Olson (1993), we first demonstrate that early state building during Viking Age facilitated public good provision and extensive trade. Social trust were probably not dest......The Scandinavian welfare states hold the highest social trust scores in the world. Why? Based on the stationary bandit model by Olson (1993), we first demonstrate that early state building during Viking Age facilitated public good provision and extensive trade. Social trust were probably...... not destroyed but rather accumulated in the following centuries up till the universal welfare state of the 20th century. Focusing on the case of Denmark, our tentative argument is that social trust was not destroyed through five subsequent phases of state building but rather enhanced. Long-run political...

  3. The Nordic Welfare Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Helle; Thrane, Claus

     The aim of this paper is to elucidate the impact of welfare policies on women's entrepreneurship because the benefits of these policies do not reflect in the numbers of female entrepreneurs. These are consistently similar to those in other countries that do not have a similar welfare model. Hence...... this article seeks to investigate the reasons underlying this apparent anomaly so that future policies in Scandinavia nd Europe may be tailored to suit the needs of female entrepreneurs. We are addressing this through the analytical lens of a gender regime model which shows that hierarchical gender patterns...... have proven remarkably resilient and that social context matters. The results of the analysis shows that there is a schism between welfare models that facilitate employment and those that facilitate   entrepreneurship and that in order to overcome the obstacles female entrepreneurs 'babystrap'....

  4. Welfare of broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Sirri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Broiler chickens have been selected for their rapid growth rate as well as for high carcass yields, with particular regard to the breast, and reared in intensive systems at high stocking density ranging from 30 to 40 kg live weight/m2. These conditions lead to a worsening of the welfare status of birds. In Europe a specific directive for the protection of broiler chickens has been recently approved whereas in Italy there is not yet any regulation. The EU directive lays down minimum rules for the protection of chickens kept for meat production and gives indications on management practices with particular focus on stocking density, light regimen and air quality, training and guidance for people dealing with chickens, as well as monitoring plans for holding and slaughterhouse. In this review the rearing factors influencing the welfare conditions of birds are described and detailed information on the effects of stocking density, light regimen, litter characteristic and air quality (ammonia, carbon dioxide, humidity, dust are provided. Moreover, the main health implications of poor welfare conditions of the birds, such as contact dermatitis, metabolic, skeletal and muscular disorders are considered. The behavioural repertoire, including scratching, dust bathing, ground pecking, wing flapping, locomotor activity, along with factors that might impair these aspects, are discussed. Lastly, farm animal welfare assessment through physiological and behavioural indicators is described with particular emphasis on the “Unitary Welfare Index,” a tool that considers a wide range of indicators, including productive traits, in order to audit and compare the welfare status of chickens kept in different farms.

  5. From Vikings to Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gert Tinggaard, Svendsen; Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase

    The Scandinavian welfare states hold the highest social trust scores in the world. Why? Based on the stationary bandit model by Olson (1993), we first demonstrate that early state building during Viking Age facilitated public good provision and extensive trade. Social trust were probably not dest......The Scandinavian welfare states hold the highest social trust scores in the world. Why? Based on the stationary bandit model by Olson (1993), we first demonstrate that early state building during Viking Age facilitated public good provision and extensive trade. Social trust were probably...

  6. East Asian welfare regime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamson, Peter

    2017-01-01

    . Political science studies tend to conclude that the region has left the old legacies behind and are now welfare states comparable to European states including them either in the conservative type (e.g. Japan), the liberal type (e.g. Korea) or even as a tendency in the Nordic type (e.g. China), while studies......The paper asks if East Asian welfare regimes are still productivist and Confucian? And, have they developed public care policies? The literature is split on the first question but (mostly) confirmative on the second. Care has to a large, but insufficient extent, been rolled out in the region...

  7. Economic Cost and Welfare Consequences of the College Entrance Examination:A Generational Overlapping Model%高考的经济代价与福利后果--一个世代交叠模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何立华; 王祖山

    2015-01-01

    In China, college entrance examination is one of the most important institutional arrangements of education which attracts the most attention of families who care about the offspring education. By constructing an OLG model, this study discussed the impact of the college entrance examination on micro dynamic mechanism, such as human capital formation, economic development and income distribution. Because capital market is imperfect and family’s education investment is conducive to the improvement of child's test scores, under unified college admission scores, part of the gifted children from low-income families were replaced by less gifted children from high-income families, so that they lose the opportunity to receive higher education. As a result, unified college admission scores will not only impede the low income family's upward mobility and the current human capital accumulation, but also reduce the long- term economic growth rate. In order to make the children from different families enjoy the equal opportunity to receive education, it is necessary to implement differentiated college admission scores. The Differentiated college admission scores brings not only the higher speed of economic growth, but alsothe welfare improvement of the most families.%在中国,高考几乎是每个关心子女教育的家庭最为关注的事情。通过构建一个 OLG 理论模型,本研究探讨了高考制度影响人力资本形成、经济增长和收入分配等的微观动态机制。由于家庭教育投资有助于提高高考成绩,在信贷市场不完善的条件下,统一的高考录取分数线将使得部分低收入家庭天资聪慧的子女被高收入家庭天资稍低的子女所替代。其结果是,统一录取分数的高考一方面阻碍了低收入家庭向上的代际流动和当期的人力资本积累,另一方面则是降低了长期经济增长速度。为了使不同家庭的子女享有公平的教育机会,差异化的高考

  8. Who cares about fish welfare?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellingsen, Kristian; Grimsrud, Kristine; Nielsen, Hanne Marie

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is threefold: first, to assess how concerned Norwegians are about fish welfare; second, to investigate Norwegians’ willingness to pay for salmon filet made from welfare-assured farmed fish with high levels of welfare; and third, to examine Norwegian opinions ab...... concern about animal welfare is growing in the western world, very little attention has been given to the welfare of fish. This paper aims to make up for this by presenting a study of how Norwegians view the welfare of farmed salmon....

  9. Social Welfare Evaluation of Electric Universal Service in China: From the Perspective of Sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Huiru Zhao; Sen Guo; Qi Zhang; Chunjie Li

    2014-01-01

    Electric universal service aims to improve the individual living quality in remote and underdeveloped areas, the implementation of which can promote the sustainable development of people’s lives and the local economy to some extent. A social welfare evaluation model of electric universal service was proposed, which was divided into economic and non-economic welfare evaluation models. After the factors influencing the social welfare sense of electric universal service were identified from the ...

  10. 限制性价格管制、经济福利和基本药物制度的帕累托改进%Ceiling Price, Economic Welfare and Pareto Improvement of Essential Drug System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾洪波; 刘玮玮

    2011-01-01

    新一轮医药卫生体制改革对基本药物实施限制性价格管制措施.在完全竞争市场条件下政府对基本药物的限制性价格管制,把部分生产者剩余,转化为消费者剩余,导致了经济福利的净损失.现实世界中对基本药物实施限制性价格管制,是为了应对一定程度的基本药物市场失灵和政府对基本药物消费者剩余的评价高于对生产者剩余的评价.限制性价格管制对降低基本药物价格和增加其有效需求起到了积极作用,同时也凸显出基本药物供给短缺压力和加强公共财政责任的必要性.在实施限制性价格管制的前提下,基本药物制度应该在不断总结试点经验的基础上实施帕累托改进.%Ceiling price regulating measure to essential drugs has been implemented in the new round health system reform. Under the perfect competition market, the ceiling price of government regulating measure to essential drugs will transfer the part producer surplus to consumer surplus, leading to the net loss of economic welfare. The reasons that implementing the ceiling price to essential drugs in the real world are on the one side to response the market failure of essential drugs caused by some market monopoly, information asymmetry and positive externality, and on the other side to give consumer surplus of essential drugs the higher evaluation than to give producer surplus of essential drags. Ceiling price played the positive role to decrease the price of essential drugs and to increase the effective demand, and to stand out the shortage pressure of essential drags supply and the necessity to strengthen the public financial responsibility. Under the condition of ceiling price, essential drug system should implement the Pareto improvement based on summing up the pilot experience.

  11. Power and Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mik-Meyer, Nanna; Villadsen, Kaspar

    approaches, their weaknesses and indicates some possibilities of theoretical integration. Including case studies of patients, nursing home residents, unemployed people, homeless people, and young offenders, from the USA, Denmark, France, Sweden, Canada, and Australia, Power and Welfare is designed...... for students and researchers of social policy, sociology, anthropology, political science, education, nursing and social work....

  12. Power and welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mik-Meyer, Nanna; Villadsen, Kasper

    approaches, their weaknesses and indicates some possibilities of theoretical integration. Including case studies of patients, nursing home residents, unemployed people, homeless people, and young offenders, from the USA, Denmark, France, Sweden, Canada, and Australia, Power and Welfare is designed...... for students and researchers of social policy, sociology, anthropology, political science, education, nursing and social work....

  13. Farm animal welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; Christiansen, Stine Billeschou; Appleby, M. C.

    2003-01-01

    An experimental survey was undertaken to explore the links between the characteristics of a moral issue, the degree of moral intensity/moral imperative associated with the issue (Jones, 1991), and people’s stated willingness to pay (wtp) for policy to address the issue. Two farm animal welfare...

  14. Activating Welfare States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Jon

    This paper investigates how welfare states may actively contribute to promote employment opportunities, i.e. participation in the labour market through various operations and policies. The principal operations concern in particular the de-familiarisation of caring tasks through social services...

  15. Modelling Farm Animal Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Lisa M; Part, Chérie E

    2013-05-16

    The use of models in the life sciences has greatly expanded in scope and advanced in technique in recent decades. However, the range, type and complexity of models used in farm animal welfare is comparatively poor, despite the great scope for use of modeling in this field of research. In this paper, we review the different modeling approaches used in farm animal welfare science to date, discussing the types of questions they have been used to answer, the merits and problems associated with the method, and possible future applications of each technique. We find that the most frequently published types of model used in farm animal welfare are conceptual and assessment models; two types of model that are frequently (though not exclusively) based on expert opinion. Simulation, optimization, scenario, and systems modeling approaches are rarer in animal welfare, despite being commonly used in other related fields. Finally, common issues such as a lack of quantitative data to parameterize models, and model selection and validation are discussed throughout the review, with possible solutions and alternative approaches suggested.

  16. Modelling Farm Animal Welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chérie E. Part

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of models in the life sciences has greatly expanded in scope and advanced in technique in recent decades. However, the range, type and complexity of models used in farm animal welfare is comparatively poor, despite the great scope for use of modeling in this field of research. In this paper, we review the different modeling approaches used in farm animal welfare science to date, discussing the types of questions they have been used to answer, the merits and problems associated with the method, and possible future applications of each technique. We find that the most frequently published types of model used in farm animal welfare are conceptual and assessment models; two types of model that are frequently (though not exclusively based on expert opinion. Simulation, optimization, scenario, and systems modeling approaches are rarer in animal welfare, despite being commonly used in other related fields. Finally, common issues such as a lack of quantitative data to parameterize models, and model selection and validation are discussed throughout the review, with possible solutions and alternative approaches suggested.

  17. Farm animal welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; Christiansen, Stine Billeschou; Appleby, M. C.

    2003-01-01

    An experimental survey was undertaken to explore the links between the characteristics of a moral issue, the degree of moral intensity/moral imperative associated with the issue (Jones, 1991), and people’s stated willingness to pay (wtp) for policy to address the issue. Two farm animal welfare...

  18. The Nordic Welfare Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Helle; Thrane, Claus

    have proven remarkably resilient and that social context matters. The results of the analysis shows that there is a schism between welfare models that facilitate employment and those that facilitate   entrepreneurship and that in order to overcome the obstacles female entrepreneurs 'babystrap'....

  19. The Gentrification of Public Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dattalo, Patrick

    1992-01-01

    Notes that public welfare agencies are serving middle-class Americans. Examines six factors that may contribute to gentrification of public welfare agencies: growing demands for services from nontraditional clients; restructuring of public welfare's service delivery system; declining resources; increasing emphasis on child protective services;…

  20. Welfare assessment in pet rabbits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, F.; Koene, P.; Beerda, B.

    2009-01-01

    One million pet rabbits are kept in The Netherlands, but there are no data available on their behaviour and welfare. This study seeks to assess the welfare of pet rabbits in Dutch households and is a first step in the development of a welfare assessment system. In an internet survey, housing

  1. The Gentrification of Public Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dattalo, Patrick

    1992-01-01

    Notes that public welfare agencies are serving middle-class Americans. Examines six factors that may contribute to gentrification of public welfare agencies: growing demands for services from nontraditional clients; restructuring of public welfare's service delivery system; declining resources; increasing emphasis on child protective services;…

  2. Technologcal Literacy in welfare professions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busch-Jensen, Peter; Kondrup, Sissel

    to be ‘welfare technological literate’ – both generally as well as within specific welfare professions. Secondly to support the development of a helpful educational framework that enables students to develop welfare technological literacy. This paper discusses some difficulties and preliminary findings...

  3. Psychiatry, homeless patients and welfare reforms: historical links and chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Hamid, Walid Khalid; Bhui, Kamaldeep

    2014-02-01

    The birthplace of the specialty of psychiatry was in the asylum, which was created to divert patients from workhouses where the most disadvantaged and destitute people with mental illness were to be found. The current welfare reforms are endangering the welfare and livelihood of the most disadvantaged of our patients. These reforms in the authors' opinion are related more to the historical cycle of societal attitude to homeless people than to seeing them as the undeserving poor. This is particularly true since the current economic crisis was not caused by the poor, so it is very unfair that our poorest patients should suffer most as a result of the welfare reforms.

  4. Migrants and Health in the Nordic welfare states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Bent

    2016-01-01

    This article probes into the health of migrants with a focus on the situation in the Nordic universal welfare states. The Nordic welfare states are further compared to each other with a comparison to the EU28 if possible, including investigation of the differences among the four Nordic countries...... socioeconomic factors, such as the impact of economic inequality. Moreover, the healthy migrant paradox cannot be confirmed....

  5. The European Welfare Model. Is Romania a Welfare State?!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pop-Radu, I.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the various interpretations of the social model and welfare regime concepts. In order to observe Romania’s position within the European welfare regimes, the paper presents a short analysis of the main characteristics of the welfare regimes identified in Europe – i.e. the corporatist welfare regime, the liberal welfare regime and the social democratic/Scandinavian welfare system. We analyze the dynamics of several indicators relevant for establishing the performance of the Romanian welfare regime. Using the results of this study, the current research might offer a new approach on proving that Romania’s case is a particular one among the CEE countries and its sustainability could become a model for other countries.

  6. Do Generous Welfare States Generate Efficiency Gains Which Counterbalance Short Run Losses? Testing Downside Risk Theory with Economic Panel Data for the U.S., Germany and the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Headey, Bruce; Muffels, Ruud

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to assess the theory that the downside risk insurance provided by more generous welfare states generates long run efficiency gains, which counterbalance the short run efficiency losses caused by work disincentives in these states (Feldstein 1974, 1976; Sinn 1995, 1996). Testing downside risk theory requires long term…

  7. The Effect of Steps to Promote Higher Levels of Farm Animal Welfare across the EU. Societal versus Animal Scientists’ Perceptions of Animal Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averós, Xavier; Aparicio, Miguel A.; Ferrari, Paolo; Guy, Jonathan H.; Hubbard, Carmen; Schmid, Otto; Ilieski, Vlatko; Spoolder, Hans A. M.

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary We studied different EU production standards and initiatives to determine whether there is still room or not for further animal welfare improvement, and which should be the best way to achieve it. Many of the adopted measures in these standards and initiatives are scientifically supported, but other aspects that are equally important for animal welfare are not included in any of them. Animal welfare improvement should consider, for each country, those aspects actually benefiting animals, but also the social expectations within each country. Economic constraints might explain the gap between what society demands, and what farm animals actually need. Abstract Information about animal welfare standards and initiatives from eight European countries was collected, grouped, and compared to EU welfare standards to detect those aspects beyond minimum welfare levels demanded by EU welfare legislation. Literature was reviewed to determine the scientific relevance of standards and initiatives, and those aspects going beyond minimum EU standards. Standards and initiatives were assessed to determine their strengths and weaknesses regarding animal welfare. Attitudes of stakeholders in the improvement of animal welfare were determined through a Policy Delphi exercise. Social perception of animal welfare, economic implications of upraising welfare levels, and differences between countries were considered. Literature review revealed that on-farm space allowance, climate control, and environmental enrichment are relevant for all animal categories. Experts’ assessment revealed that on-farm prevention of thermal stress, air quality, and races and passageways’ design were not sufficiently included. Stakeholders considered that housing conditions are particularly relevant regarding animal welfare, and that animal-based and farm-level indicators are fundamental to monitor the progress of animal welfare. The most notable differences between what society offers and what

  8. Animal welfare: neuro-cognitive approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Morgante

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Many people maintain a naive belief that non-human animals consciously experience pain and suffering in similar ways to humans. Others tend to assume a more sceptical or agnostic attitude. Drawing on recent advances in research on animal cognition and neuroscience, the science of animal welfare is now beginning to address these issues empirically. We describe recent advances that may contribute to the main questions of animal welfare, namely whether animals are conscious and how we can assess good and bad welfare in animals. Evidence from psychology is described which demonstrate that many complex actions in humans can be carried out quite unconsciously and that human patients with certain sorts of brain damage can behave and manipulate objects properly while at the same time o consciously denying experience of them. The relevance of these findings with respect to the issue of animal consciousness is discussed. Evidence from animal cognition is described concerning the possibility that animals monitor the state of their own memories, show episodic-like knowledge and exhibit self-medication. Evidence from neuroscience concerning brain lateralization in non-human animals and its relevance to animal welfare is described. It is argued that in animals raised for economic purposes (milk and meat production differences in cognitive abilities and brain lateralization can affect adaptive behavioural, physiological and immune responses to environmental stressors.

  9. Peace, welfare, culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gad, Ulrik Pram

    2011-01-01

    and multiculturalism – pitted in opposition. By analytically focusing on “security narratives”, the article details how initial narratives of Muslims as threats to culture, welfare and societal peace merged and morphed to award surprising new roles to the state and multiculturalism. The re-evaluation of cultural...... difference implied in a recent strategy to counter radicalization, however, does not amount to a de-securitization of Muslims – rather it installs a need for surveillance and control of the Muslim difference....

  10. Robotics for social welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Lucía Fernández Cossío; Jesús Manuel López Salvador; Sergio Fínez Martínez

    2012-01-01

    Supported by developments in the field of social robotics, virtual worlds and ICT tools it is possible to build new solutions in health and welfare. Two projects are described in this article. They are intended to improve efficiency and quality of current therapeutic procedures. The ESTIMULO project improves emotional and cognitive status of people with dementia using a reactive pet-robot. The ELDERTOY project modifies the classical concept from the toy industry to develop a new solution for ...

  11. Robotics for social welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Cossío, Lucía; López Salvador, Jesús Manuel; Fínez Martínez, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    Supported by developments in the field of social robotics, virtual worlds and ICT tools it is possible to build new solutions in health and welfare. Two projects are described in this article. They are intended to improve efficiency and quality of current therapeutic procedures. The ESTIMULO project improves emotional and cognitive status of people with dementia using a reactive pet-robot. The ELDERTOY project modifies the classical concept from the toy industry to develop a new solution for ...

  12. The Effect of Steps to Promote Higher Levels of Farm Animal Welfare across the EU. Societal versus Animal Scientists’ Perceptions of Animal Welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlatko Ilieski

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Information about animal welfare standards and initiatives from eight European countries was collected, grouped, and compared to EU welfare standards to detect those aspects beyond minimum welfare levels demanded by EU welfare legislation. Literature was reviewed to determine the scientific relevance of standards and initiatives, and those aspects going beyond minimum EU standards. Standards and initiatives were assessed to determine their strengths and weaknesses regarding animal welfare. Attitudes of stakeholders in the improvement of animal welfare were determined through a Policy Delphi exercise. Social perception of animal welfare, economic implications of upraising welfare levels, and differences between countries were considered. Literature review revealed that on-farm space allowance, climate control, and environmental enrichment are relevant for all animal categories. Experts’ assessment revealed that on-farm prevention of thermal stress, air quality, and races and passageways’ design were not sufficiently included. Stakeholders considered that housing conditions are particularly relevant regarding animal welfare, and that animal-based and farm-level indicators are fundamental to monitor the progress of animal welfare. The most notable differences between what society offers and what farm animals are likely to need are related to transportation and space availability, with economic constraints being the most plausible explanation.

  13. The Effect of Steps to Promote Higher Levels of Farm Animal Welfare across the EU. Societal versus Animal Scientists' Perceptions of Animal Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averós, Xavier; Aparicio, Miguel A; Ferrari, Paolo; Guy, Jonathan H; Hubbard, Carmen; Schmid, Otto; Ilieski, Vlatko; Spoolder, Hans A M

    2013-08-14

    Information about animal welfare standards and initiatives from eight European countries was collected, grouped, and compared to EU welfare standards to detect those aspects beyond minimum welfare levels demanded by EU welfare legislation. Literature was reviewed to determine the scientific relevance of standards and initiatives, and those aspects going beyond minimum EU standards. Standards and initiatives were assessed to determine their strengths and weaknesses regarding animal welfare. Attitudes of stakeholders in the improvement of animal welfare were determined through a Policy Delphi exercise. Social perception of animal welfare, economic implications of upraising welfare levels, and differences between countries were considered. Literature review revealed that on-farm space allowance, climate control, and environmental enrichment are relevant for all animal categories. Experts' assessment revealed that on-farm prevention of thermal stress, air quality, and races and passageways' design were not sufficiently included. Stakeholders considered that housing conditions are particularly relevant regarding animal welfare, and that animal-based and farm-level indicators are fundamental to monitor the progress of animal welfare. The most notable differences between what society offers and what farm animals are likely to need are related to transportation and space availability, with economic constraints being the most plausible explanation.

  14. Deriving welfare measures from discrete choice experiments: inconsistency between current methods and random utility and welfare theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancsar, Emily; Savage, Elizabeth

    2004-09-01

    Discrete choice experiments (DCEs) are being used increasingly in health economics to elicit preferences for products and programs. The results of such experiments have been used to calculate measures of welfare or more specifically, respondents' 'willingness to pay' (WTP) for products and programs and their 'marginal willingness to pay' (MWTP) for the attributes that make up such products and programs. In this note we show that the methods currently used to derive measures of welfare from DCEs in the health economics literature are not consistent with random utility theory (RUT), or with microeconomic welfare theory more generally. The inconsistency with welfare theory is an important limitation on the use of such WTP estimates in cost-benefit analyses. We describe an alternative method of deriving measures of welfare (compensating variation) from DCEs that is consistent with RUT and is derived using welfare theory. We demonstrate its use in an empirical application to derive the WTP for asthma medication and compare it to the results elicited from the method currently used in the health economics literature.

  15. Financial Structure and Economic Welfare: Applied General Equilibrium Development Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Robert

    2010-09-01

    This review provides a common framework for researchers thinking about the next generation of micro-founded macro models of growth, inequality, and financial deepening, as well as direction for policy makers targeting microfinance programs to alleviate poverty. Topics include treatment of financial structure general equilibrium models: testing for as-if-complete markets or other financial underpinnings; examining dual-sector models with both a perfectly intermediated sector and a sector in financial autarky, as well as a second generation of these models that embeds information problems and other obstacles to trade; designing surveys to capture measures of income, investment/savings, and flow of funds; and aggregating individuals and households to the level of network, village, or national economy. The review concludes with new directions that overcome conceptual and computational limitations.

  16. Financial Structure and Economic Welfare: Applied General Equilibrium Development Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Robert

    2010-01-01

    This review provides a common framework for researchers thinking about the next generation of micro-founded macro models of growth, inequality, and financial deepening, as well as direction for policy makers targeting microfinance programs to alleviate poverty. Topics include treatment of financial structure general equilibrium models: testing for as-if-complete markets or other financial underpinnings; examining dual-sector models with both a perfectly intermediated sector and a sector in financial autarky, as well as a second generation of these models that embeds information problems and other obstacles to trade; designing surveys to capture measures of income, investment/savings, and flow of funds; and aggregating individuals and households to the level of network, village, or national economy. The review concludes with new directions that overcome conceptual and computational limitations. PMID:21037939

  17. On revenue and welfare dominance of ad valorem taxes in two-sided markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kind, Hans Jarle; Köthenbürger, Marko; Schjelderup, Guttorm

    2009-01-01

    A benchmark result in public economics is that it is possible to increase both tax revenue and welfare by making a monopoly subject to ad valorem taxes rather than unit taxes. We show that such revenue and welfare dominance does not hold in two-sided markets.......A benchmark result in public economics is that it is possible to increase both tax revenue and welfare by making a monopoly subject to ad valorem taxes rather than unit taxes. We show that such revenue and welfare dominance does not hold in two-sided markets....

  18. Economic impacts of hurricanes on forest owners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey P. Prestemon; Thomas P. Holmes

    2010-01-01

    We present a conceptual model of the economic impacts of hurricanes on timber producers and consumers, offer a framework indicating how welfare impacts can be estimated using econometric estimates of timber price dynamics, and illustrate the advantages of using a welfare theoretic model, which includes (1) welfare estimates that are consistent with neo-classical...

  19. Political Parties’ Welfare Image, Electoral Punishment and Welfare State Retrenchment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schumacher, Gijs; Vis, Barbara; van Kersbergen, Kees

    2013-01-01

    Will voters punish the government for cutting back welfare state entitlements? The comparative literature on the welfare state suggests that the answer is yes. Unless governments are effectively employing strategies of blame avoidance, retrenchment leads to vote loss. Because a large majority...... of voters supports the welfare state, the usual assumption is that retrenchment backfires equally on all political parties. This study contributes to an emerging body of research that demonstrates that this assumption is incorrect. On the basis of a regression analysis of the electoral fate of the governing...... parties of 14 OECD countries between 1970 and 2002, we show that most parties with a positive welfare image lose after they implemented cutbacks, whereas most parties with a negative welfare image do not. In addition, we show that positive welfare image parties in opposition gain votes, at the expense...

  20. Peace, welfare, culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gad, Ulrik Pram

    2011-01-01

    and multiculturalism – pitted in opposition. By analytically focusing on “security narratives”, the article details how initial narratives of Muslims as threats to culture, welfare and societal peace merged and morphed to award surprising new roles to the state and multiculturalism. The re-evaluation of cultural......This article analyzes how Muslims are implied to constitute threats in the official Danish discourse of the centre-right government since 2001. It does so to provide a more nuanced picture of Danish debates on integration than the usual presentation of two discourses – culturalism...

  1. Is globalization undermining the welfare state? The evolution of the welfare state in developed capitalist countries during the 1990s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Vicente; Schmitt, John; Astudillo, Javier

    2004-01-01

    The authors analyze the evolution of macro-indicators of social and economic well-being during the 1990s in the majority of developed capitalist countries, grouped according to their dominant political traditions since the end of World War II. Their analysis shows that, despite the economic globalization of commerce and finance, "politics still matters" in explaining the evolution of the welfare states and labor markets in these countries; the impact of the globalization of financial capital in forcing reductions in the financial resources available for welfare state purposes has been exaggerated.

  2. Rents in a welfare state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paldam, Martin

    2015-01-01

    This chapter describes rents in Denmark, a developed welfare state in which the private sector is sharply delimitated and kept efficient by secure property rights and markets including free trade. In the public sector, rents in the form of excess costs that provide benefits are difficult to measure......, but in a number of cases as described in this chapter, the rents are revealed. The implicit welfare coalition, defined as voters receiving their income from the public budget, is the majority, placing the median voter within the welfare coalition. Rents are created and protected by the welfare coalition. Non...

  3. Inequality, Social Justice and Welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena S. Averkieva

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Researching the redistribution processes in the framework of welfare economics is primarily carried out through the analysis of implementation opportunity of the social justice principle. Distributive justice involves the redistribution of income and resources in proportion to certain criteria. However, there is still no consensus on these criteria, which would clearly judge the fairness of the distribution.Individual needs, rights, desert or specific contributions of citizens in the development of society, the product outcomes, and many others can be served as the justice criteria. According to an egalitarian tradition, if not identified relevant distinguishing criteria, we can talk about the existence of the presumption of equality. Establishing equality means the advantages elimination of one individual over others. The paper attempts to analyze the egalitarian policies measures to implementation of equal opportunities, treatment and results, which ideally should neutralize all negative effects of a high degree of social inequality and achieve the desired goals of social policy. The paper also provides the argument concerning the realization possibility of the general equality idea. The author focuses on the existence of the exclusions in the equality policy - on the idea of «positive discrimination», which determines the appearance of conflicts between individual and public interests.

  4. Social Welfare and the Psychology of Food Sharing: Short-Term Hunger Increases Support for Social Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Michael Bang; Aarøe, Lene; Jensen, Niels Holm

    2014-01-01

    Do politically irrelevant events influence important policy opinions? Previous research on social welfare attitudes has emphasized the role of political factors such as economic self-interest and ideology. Here, we demonstrate that attitudes to social welfare are also influenced by short......-term fluctuations in hunger. Using theories in evolutionary psychology, we predict that hungry individuals will be greedier and take more resources from others while also attempting to induce others to share by signaling cooperative intentions and expressing support for sharing, including evolutionarily novel forms...... of sharing such as social welfare. We test these predictions using self-reported hunger data as well as comparisons of subjects who participated in relevant online studies before and after eating lunch. Across four studies collected in two different welfare regimes—the United Kingdom and Denmark...

  5. Albanian consumer’s perception towards animal welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KASTRIOT BELEGU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study is the result of subsequent of previous survey conducted by the author regarding animal welfare during transportation and destined for meat consumption or to be breed for milk. The strategy of European Union for Animal Protection and Welfare 2012-2015 focusing on animal’s breed for economic purposes aims to increase or guarantee animal welfare during breeding, transportation and to the butchery. Thus, its purpose is to guarantee the welfare of agricultural and domestic animals, whose final destination is the consumption of their meat in all chains until they get to the ultimate consumer. The purpose of this study is to assess the level of knowledge that consumers have in relation to animal welfare as well as their perception on the current situation of animal welfare in Albania. At the same time, the results of this survey will also serve as indicators to give its contribution to the strategy for increasing consumer’s level of awareness on animal welfare and the impact of animal welfare on human life.The process of interviweing was realised with 166 occasional people belonging to different ages, different educational levels who are rezidents in different areas of Albania, so that the survey can be as representative as possible.Based on the analyses of the responses given by the interviewed results that the Albanian consumer is partially informed and the rest of them uninformed. What is worth mentioning here is the fact that mostly of the interviewed are really concerned about animal welfare during breeding, transportation and butchery’s conditions.

  6. 社会公平、经济增长与财政支出关系探析——基于社会福利函数的角度%Relationship of Social Fairness, Economic Growth and Fiscal Expenditure --From the Perspective of Social Welfare Function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢乔昕; 孔刘柳

    2011-01-01

    基于公平与效率矛盾统一关系,通过以城乡居民收入差距与国内生产总值为基础构建社会福利函数对改革开放以来我国财政支出与社会福利水平关系进行实证分析。研究结果发现我国财政支出对社会福利水平影响尚不显著,财政支出中经济建设费与社会文教费对社会福利水平影响显著,但作用机制各不相同。我国财政支出规模与结构调整应注意:一是合理调整公共财政政策目标,优化公共财政支出结构;二是适度调整经济建设类财政支出结构与投向;三是加大对社会文教类支出力度;四是积极控制、优化行政管理支出规模。%Based on the contradictory unity between equity and efficiency, this paper makes empirical analysis on the rela- tionship between fiscal expenditure and social welfare level since the opening-up by constructing social welfare function with the data of urban and rural income gap and GDP. The study shows that China's aggregate fiscal expenditure's influence on the social welfare level is not significant, and economic construction expenditure and social culture and education expenditure have significant influence on the social welfare level, but the effective mechanism is different. At the time of adjusting China's fiscal expenditure scale and structure, attention should be paid to the foUowing: first, rationally adjust the target of publie frscal policy, optimize the structure of public fiscal expenditure; second, properly adjust the structure and direction of fiscal expenditure on economic construction; third, expand the expenditure on social culture and education; fourth, actively control and optimize the scale of expenditure on general administration.

  7. Eastern migrations vs western welfare states - (unbiased fears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josifidis Kosta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This inquiry considers some effects of migration on the labour markets and the welfare systems found in the EU-15, and from the perspectives of sustainability of the current welfare state regimes. Our inquiry aims to determine whether and to what extent different approaches in regulation of migration flows between the new and old member states are compatible with related economic and demographic findings. Within this context, our research considers regulations affecting migration flows. Our findings suggest that some effects of migration from the EU8+2 on the labour markets and social protection systems found in the EU-15, both with respect to level and structure, do indeed generate effects on migration, especially considering whether migration is based upon economic or welfare decisions. In addition, our inquiry considers perspectives upon restrictive versus liberal migration policies.

  8. Social security, social welfare and the aging population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecchenino, R A; Utendorf, K R

    1999-01-01

    This study examined the effects of pay-as-you-go social security programs under various demographic assumptions including physical capital accumulation, education of the youth, support of the elderly, social welfare, and economic growth of the community. An overlapping generations framework in which agents are three-period lived agents are analyzed in this study. Findings of the study revealed a positive relationship between educational attainment and economic growth. However, programs designed to benefit the elderly affect the youth both directly and indirectly. Furthermore, social welfare considerations of the beneficiaries may not be achieved due to the passage of time and adjustments in the plans. Thus, policy-makers must develop a more comprehensive program to promote greater social welfare.

  9. Animal welfare impact assessments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; Gamborg, Christian

    2017-01-01

    aimed at dealing with wild animals. McCulloch and Reiss argue that this could be remedied by means of a “mandatory application of formal and systematic Animal Welfare Impact Assessment (AWIA)”. Optimistically, they consider that an AWIA could help to resolve controversies involving wild animals. The aim......Control of wild animals may give rise to controversy, as is seen in the case of badger control to manage TB in cattle in the UK. However, it is striking that concerns about the potential suffering of the affected animals themselves are often given little attention or completely ignored in policies...... of this paper is to evaluate the potential of AWIA. We begin by showing how ideas akin to AWIA already play a significant role in other animal ethics controversies, particularly those concerning laboratory animal use and livestock production; and we bring in lessons learnt from these controversies. Then we...

  10. Robotics for social welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Fernández Cossío

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Supported by developments in the field of social robotics, virtual worlds and ICT tools it is possible to build new solutions in health and welfare. Two projects are described in this article. They are intended to improve efficiency and quality of current therapeutic procedures. The ESTIMULO project improves emotional and cognitive status of people with dementia using a reactive pet-robot. The ELDERTOY project modifies the classical concept from the toy industry to develop a new solution for the aged people. ELDERTOY involves a double purpose, fun and therapeutic. In a complementary way, these projects aim to be an example of the breaking of the technology gap both of seniors and of people with disabilities. Therefore, the ultimate goal is to promote and adapt scientific and technological knowledge to be applied to improve significantly the standard of quality of life in society.

  11. Welfare reform in European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Immervoll, Herwig; Kleven, Henrik Jacobsen; Kreiner, Claus Thustrup;

    2007-01-01

    microsimulation model to estimate current marginal and participation tax rates. We quantify the equity-efficiency trade-off for a range of elasticity parameters. In most countries, because of large existing welfare programmes with high phase-out rates, increasing traditional welfare is undesirable unless...

  12. METHODS FOR CALF WELFARE EVALUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.T. CZISZTER

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the welfare assessment with reference to calves. Assessment methods were divided into individual level and farm (system level. At the farm level the ANI 35L is discussed and the ANSVSA, Romanian evaluation from is presented. Also, the EFSA opinion on poor welfare in intensive calf farming systems is presented.

  13. The Child Welfare Cartel, "Redux"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoesz, David

    2016-01-01

    In response to "The Child Welfare Cartel," defenders of the National Child Welfare Workforce Institute (NCWWI) make three errors: First, restricting federal funds to schools of social work is "not" authorized by the statute cited in the creation of NCWWI. Second, social work is "not" the only discipline engaged in…

  14. Rescaling Welfare Policies in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haddad Thorgaard, Camilla; Vinter, Henrik

    The report is a contribution to the research project ”Rescaling of Social Welfare Policies: a comparative study on the path towards multilevel governance in Europe”, which is coordinated by the European Centre for Social Welfare Policy and Research. The report is a background paper for the project...

  15. Governance Strategies and Welfare Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trifkovic, Neda

    Using an original dataset from the Vietnamese catfish sector, we study the impact of vertical coordination options on household welfare and the implications of different stages of vertical coordination for the success of the whole sector. The welfare gain from contract farming and employment...

  16. The Child Welfare Cartel, "Redux"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoesz, David

    2016-01-01

    In response to "The Child Welfare Cartel," defenders of the National Child Welfare Workforce Institute (NCWWI) make three errors: First, restricting federal funds to schools of social work is "not" authorized by the statute cited in the creation of NCWWI. Second, social work is "not" the only discipline engaged in…

  17. Family Policy Options for the Welfare of China's Children in the Future

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ChengHaijun,; ZhuShida; DavidKelly

    2004-01-01

    China's current child welfare policies principally stress the importance of family care. The state will not intervene unless there is harm to the child. Owing to economic and human resource limitations, govemment child welfare work is mainly remedial: rendering assistance to orphaned,

  18. 12 CFR 24.6 - Examples of qualifying public welfare investments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Examples of qualifying public welfare investments. 24.6 Section 24.6 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY COMMUNITY AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ENTITIES, COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS, AND OTHER PUBLIC WELFARE...

  19. BENEFISH: A European project to put a cost on fish welfare actions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berrill, I.K.; Kadri, S.; Ruohonen, K.; Kankainen, M.; Damsgard, B.; Toften, H.; Noble, C.; Schneider, O.; Turnbull, J.F.

    2009-01-01

    BENEFISH is a research project funded under the European Commission Sixth Framework initiative. It aims to develop bio-economic models that establish the effects of welfare actions (i.e. measures taken to safeguard welfare) on value chains within the European aquaculture industry, including both pro

  20. Social Welfare Evaluation of Electric Universal Service in China: From the Perspective of Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiru Zhao

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Electric universal service aims to improve the individual living quality in remote and underdeveloped areas, the implementation of which can promote the sustainable development of people’s lives and the local economy to some extent. A social welfare evaluation model of electric universal service was proposed, which was divided into economic and non-economic welfare evaluation models. After the factors influencing the social welfare sense of electric universal service were identified from the perspective of sustainability, the economic welfare evaluation model was built based on Atkinson’s social welfare function, and the non-economic welfare evaluation model was constructed based on the ideological connotation of prospect theory. Taking Yunnan province in China as the example, a social welfare evaluation of electric universal service was performed. The result shows that the social welfare of electric universal service for Yunnan rural areas has increased by 9.79% from 2006 to 2011, and the “electric service realization degree” is the most sensitive indicator.

  1. Environmental aspects of improving sow welfare with group housing and straw bedding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenestein, C.M.

    2006-01-01

    After intensifying pig husbandry in the second half of the 20 th century to improve economical development, public concern brought about legislation to secure animal welfare and ecological values.The development of welfare-friendl

  2. Boundaries of Welfare between the EU and Member States during the ‘Great Recession’

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de la Porte, Caroline; Pochet, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on the changing boundaries of welfare between EU and national levels by developing a dynamic and actor-centred approach, where different groups of actors compete to influence the social and economic dimensions of EU social policy. The success of ideas and policies around welfar...

  3. ABOUT WELFARE IN CULTURAL CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica-Nicoleta NECULĂESEI

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to briefly analyze the research efforts on measuring welfare indices in terms of cultural relativism. It presents the limitations of GDP and some of the proposed alternatives over time, to understand the wideness and interest in this topic, but also the consequences of imposing a certain type of indicators to reflect the progress and welfare of a country. To provide a coherent overview on the proposed subject, the approach starts with the presentation of general acceptation of the welfare concept. Further, the literature review reveals many concerns about the welfare and progress, but also the difficulties associated with this effort. Critical comments generally reflect the need to consider the culture factor in the debate on welfare.

  4. Research on Government Intervention Applicability in Health Care Market---Based on the Analysis Framework of Welfare Economics%政府干预在医疗卫生市场中的适用性研究--基于福利经济学的理论分析框架

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张婷

    2015-01-01

    Based on the supply and demand segmentation of Health Care Market, the government role and its contributions have been elaborated by using the theory of Welfare Economics. The fact that the government intervention occurs is that the market segment is distinguished by its market failure, and intervention itself depends on the accessibility of health-related information. Targeted interven-tion and niche service delivery can effectively adjust the loss of welfare. It reveals that universal coverage access as well as the maxi-mized social service benefits from the health welfare, which represents the applicability of government intervention in positive way.%将医疗卫生进行供、需市场细分,运用福利经济学框架阐述政府在医疗卫生市场当中的作用,可以明确:当细分市场以市场失灵为特征时,存在着政府干预市场的余地;政府干预的广度和深度取决于政府对医疗信息的可获得性;有针对性地进行干预和服务提供,是对福利矫正的有效方式;其适用性在于医疗服务的公平享有以及医疗福利社会收益的最大化。

  5. Cost-efficiency of animal welfare in broiler production systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gocsik, Éva; Brooshooft, Suzanne D.; Jong, de Ingrid C.; Saatkamp, Helmut W.

    2016-01-01

    Broiler producers operate in a highly competitive and cost-price driven environment. In addition, in recent years the societal pressure to improve animal welfare (AW) in broiler production systems is increasing. Hence, from an economic and decision making point of view, the cost-efficiency of imp

  6. Women and the Canadian welfare state: challenges and change

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wekerle, Gerda R; Evans, Patricia M

    1997-01-01

    ... the paid labour force, provide for dependants, and leave abusive relationships. Access to political resources has helped women to form solidarities, alliances, and organizations. In Women and the Canadian Welfare State, scholars from environmental studies, law, social work, sociology, and economics explore the changing relationship between wom...

  7. The Puzzle of the Scandinavian Welfare State and Social Trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2015-01-01

    The Scandinavian welfare model is a puzzle to economists: It works economically, even though free-riding should prevail with its explosive cocktail of high taxation and high social benefits. One overlooked solution to the puzzle could be the unique stock of social trust present in Scandinavia. Here...

  8. The Supply Chain’s Role in Improving Animal Welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Harvey

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Supply chains are already incorporating citizen/consumer demands for improved animal welfare, especially through product differentiation and the associated segmentation of markets. Nonetheless, the ability of the chain to deliver high(er levels and standards of animal welfare is subject to two critical conditions: (a the innovative and adaptive capacity of the chain to respond to society’s demands; (b the extent to which consumers actually purchase animal-friendly products. Despite a substantial literature reporting estimates of willingness to pay (WTP for animal welfare, there is a belief that in practice people vote for substantially more and better animal welfare as citizens than they are willing to pay for as consumers. This citizen-consumer gap has significant consequences on the supply chain, although there is limited literature on the capacity and willingness of supply chains to deliver what the consumer wants and is willing to pay for. This paper outlines an economic analysis of supply chain delivery of improved standards for farm animal welfare in the EU and illustrates the possible consequences of improving animal welfare standards for the supply chain using a prototype belief network analysis.

  9. Animal welfare: the role of non-governmental organisations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, D B; Houseman, C; Allan, R; Appleby, M C; Peeling, D; Stevenson, P

    2005-08-01

    The welfare of animals is of interest to many people in most parts of the world. Concern about the way that animals are treated will depend on many factors, including socio-economic conditions, culture, religion and tradition. The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) is committed to ensuring that all animal welfare standards are science-based, but recognises that these other factors must also be taken into account. The International Coalition for Farm Animal Welfare (ICFAW) was formed to represent the interests of non-governmental animal welfare organisations from most corners of the globe and opinions, comment and information from these animal welfare organisations will play a part in the OIE decision-making process. In coming together for this purpose it was recognised that the views of the various member organisations of ICFAW vary depending on which part of the world they come from. The authors provide information about the situation in three continents: Africa, North America and Europe. This information includes details of relevant legislation, farming practices, and educational and campaign programmes developed by both animal welfare non-governmental organisations and governments. The authors also look to the future to see what issues may influence the way that farm animals are reared, transported and slaughtered.

  10. Availability of online educational content concerning topics of animal welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petervary, Nicolette; Allen, Tim; Stokes, William S; Banks, Ron E

    2016-05-01

    Animal welfare is an important area of study for professionals in fields of animal care and use, and many turn to self-learning resources to gain a better understanding of topics in this area. We assessed the state of these self-learning resources by evaluating open access, freely available resources on the internet with respect to their content and the reliability of their information. We categorized content using a modified list of the topics described in the American College of Animal Welfare's Role Delineation Document, and we identified subject areas that are underrepresented among freely available resources. We identified that the field needs more content describing practical information on subtopics of animal transportation, humane education and economic issues in animal welfare. We also suggest a targeted approach to improve and increase particular aspects of content that concerns the impacts of human, animal and environment interactions on animal welfare. We recommend that veterinary societies place more emphasis on welfare policies in their websites. Additionally, the field of animal welfare would benefit from more available and authoritative information on certain species and uses of animals that are presently underrepresented.

  11. The Supply Chain's Role in Improving Animal Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, David; Hubbard, Carmen

    2013-08-14

    Supply chains are already incorporating citizen/consumer demands for improved animal welfare, especially through product differentiation and the associated segmentation of markets. Nonetheless, the ability of the chain to deliver high(er) levels and standards of animal welfare is subject to two critical conditions: (a) the innovative and adaptive capacity of the chain to respond to society's demands; (b) the extent to which consumers actually purchase animal-friendly products. Despite a substantial literature reporting estimates of willingness to pay (WTP) for animal welfare, there is a belief that in practice people vote for substantially more and better animal welfare as citizens than they are willing to pay for as consumers. This citizen-consumer gap has significant consequences on the supply chain, although there is limited literature on the capacity and willingness of supply chains to deliver what the consumer wants and is willing to pay for. This paper outlines an economic analysis of supply chain delivery of improved standards for farm animal welfare in the EU and illustrates the possible consequences of improving animal welfare standards for the supply chain using a prototype belief network analysis.

  12. Privatization-between Static Cost Efficiency and Social Welfare Goals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张娟

    2010-01-01

    Privatization, the transferring of public ownership rights to private economic agents, has been embraced by governments of all political strips as a policy instrument to spur the operating efficiency of the public sector through increased exposure to competitive market forces since the early 1980's. In spite of the rhetorically persuasive rationales to advance privatization as an economic or political policy, the challenges it presents in relation to the trade-off between economic objectives and social welfare goals can not be easily ignored. Privatization, as is argued in this paper, is a complex process which should not be judged purely on its economic gains.

  13. THE ECONOMIC TRANSITION OF ROMANIA FROM A BEHAVIOURAL ECONOMICS PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula-Elena Diacon

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to briefly analyze the economic transition of Romania from a behavioural economics perspective. Despite the adverse effects experienced in the past regime, the paper finds out that the suitable macroeconomic policies implemented had fundamental effects, generating economic welfare and higher standards of living, life satisfaction, and happiness / subjective well-being.

  14. Welfare standards in hospital mergers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katona, Katalin; Canoy, Marcel

    2013-08-01

    There is a broad literature on the consequences of applying different welfare standards in merger control. Total welfare is usually defined as the sum of consumer and provider surplus, i.e., potential external effects are not considered. The general result is then that consumer welfare is a more restrictive standard than total welfare, which is advantageous in certain situations. This relationship between the two standards is not necessarily true when the merger has significant external effects. We model mergers on hospital markets and allow for not-profit-maximizing behavior of providers and mandatory health insurance. Mandatory health insurance detaches the financial and consumption side of health care markets, and the concept consumer in merger control becomes non-evident. Patients not visiting the merging hospitals still are affected by price changes through their insurance premiums. External financial effects emerge on not directly affected consumers. We show that applying a restricted interpretation of consumer (neglecting externality) in health care merger control can reverse the relation between the two standards; consumer welfare standard can be weaker than total welfare. Consequently, applying the wrong standard can lead to both clearing socially undesirable and to blocking socially desirable mergers. The possible negative consequences of applying a simple consumer welfare standard in merger control can be even stronger when hospitals maximize quality and put less weight on financial considerations. We also investigate the implications of these results for the practice of merger control.

  15. Energy, Economics & Environment

    OpenAIRE

    David James

    1997-01-01

    Energy-economic-environment (EEE) interactions can be expected to play a crucial role in the development process. Energy is a critical resourced underpinning economic growth. Countries in SE Asia have reached different levels of economic welfare, and this is reflected in their energy use patterns. Some of the countries are well endowed with energy resources - to the extent of being major exporters of energy. Others face serious poverty, accompanied by low levels of energy use. To achieve impr...

  16. Monotonicity of social welfare optima

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of maximizing social welfare subject to participation constraints. It is shown that for an income allocation method that maximizes a social welfare function there is a monotonic relationship between the incomes allocated to individual agents in a given coalition...... (with at least three members) and its participation constraint if and only if the aggregate income to that coalition is always maximized. An impossibility result demonstrates that there is no welfare maximizing allocation method in which agents' individual incomes monotonically increase in society......'s income. Thus, for any such allocation method, there are situations where some agents have incentives to prevent society in becoming richer....

  17. An intra-household approach to the welfare costs of inflation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cysne Rubens Penha

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The literature on the welfare costs of inflation universally assumes that the many-person household can be treated as a single economic agent. This paper explores what the heterogeneity of the agents in a household might imply for such welfare analyses. First, we show that allowing for a one-person or for a many-person transacting technology impacts the money demand function and, therefore, the welfare costs of inflation. Second, more importantly, we derive sufficient conditions under which welfare assessments which depart directly from the knowledge of the money demand function (as in Lucas, 2000 are robust (invariant under the number of persons considered in the household. Third, we show that Bailey?s (1956 partial-equilibrium measure of the welfare costs of inflation can be obtained as a first-order approximation of the general-equilibrium welfare measure derived in this paper using a many-person transacting technology.

  18. Welfare Architecture and voluntarism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boje, Thomas P.; Henriksen, Lars Skov; Ibsen, Bjarne

    2008-01-01

    society from a variety of disciplines - including economics, sociology, political science, management and public policy. Areas covered include the Third Sector civil society and democracy, relationships with government, its impact on social and public policy, the growth of social enterprise and of hybrid...

  19. European welfare states beyond neoliberalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamson, Peter

    2010-01-01

    to order European welfare states. Hence, I agree with Francis Castles and Herbert Obinger (2008: 321) when they write: “Our main conclusions are that country clustering is, if anything, more pronounced than in the past, that it is, in large part, structurally determined and that the EU now contains a quite...... distinct post-Communist family of nations.” A superficial overview of spending on social protection in both relative and absolute terms from 1980 (1990 in Eastern Europe) to 2005 reveals no signs of retrenchment in any regime. But such summary indicators may mask a different distributional profile...... of benefits and an increase in risks and coverage. Therefore, the remainder of the paper discusses in more detail particular welfare reforms within each of the five welfare regimes. It is concluded that problems of welfare state development differ within the different regimes, but a strong commitment...

  20. Child Welfare Outcomes Data Portal

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The most current Child Welfare Outcomes data is featured on this site. Through the site, you can view the data before the full report is published. The most recently...

  1. European welfare states beyond neoliberalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamson, Peter

    2010-01-01

    After the golden age of welfare state development in Europe, the glorious thirty years from 1945 to 1974, perceptions changed and the welfare state was interpreted to be in crisis. One solution to the crisis was a neo-liberal approach emphasizing privatization and retrenchment. And at least...... rhetorically this perspective gained ground during the 1980s in Northwestern Europe and during the 1990s in the newly emerging market economies of Central and Eastern Europe. However, on the whole, social science literature has been more concerned about trying to explain welfare state resilience to change than...... identifying retrenchment even if parts of the literature do argue for such a perspective. This seeming contradiction within the scholarly community calls for a more precise definition of all three import concepts: What should be understood by neo-liberal reform or a neo-liberal approach? Which welfare...

  2. Design and farm animal welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, W T

    1976-07-24

    Farm animal welfare and the design of farm buildings and equipment are interrelated. The animals' requirements and preferences should first be estimated and ways in which this can be done are discussed, as are methods of assessment of their environment. Some examples of the influence which housing and equipment design can have are given. Attention is drawn to the difficulties inherent in the assessment of farm animal welfare and the postulation made that the veterinarian is well fitted to carry out such assessments.

  3. Welfare Reform Will Create More Misery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanley, James

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the effects of welfare reform on American Indian families and college students. Contends that, under the new federal welfare program, tribes that choose to administer welfare will lose matching funds from state governments, resulting in a 30-50% loss of welfare benefits for eligible recipients. (JDI)

  4. Improving Animal Welfare in Livestock Operations

    OpenAIRE

    International Finance Corporation

    2014-01-01

    In the past decade, animal welfare has been increasingly recognized in importance in commercial livestock operations. Governments, academic institutions, and animal welfare professionals are addressing animal welfare at different points in the agricultural supply chain, while consumers are demanding higher standards for food safety and animal welfare. Meanwhile, regional and global initiat...

  5. [30 years animal welfare legislation: what has been achieved?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiger, A

    2008-09-01

    The contribution deals with history and effects of the Swiss animal welfare legislation of 1978. Special descriptions concern the development and increasing dissemination of animal friendly housing systems for cattle, swine, rabbits and poultry, the realization of the prohibition of the usual cages for laying hens until the end of 1991 and the development of aviary systems, the examination and improvement of many housing systems and equipment for farm animals, adaptations of many enclosures for wild animals in zoos and circuses, improvements in animal experimentation and also in housing of companion animals. The new animal welfare law of 2005 and the animal welfare ordinance of 2008 filled loopholes in the legislation. Animal friendly housing forms may also have economic advantages.

  6. Poultry welfare scenario in South America: norms and regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RBTR Silva

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Animal welfare related issues have been intensely discussed in recent years as a consequence of changes in public attitudes and regulatory reforms that are taking place in many countries. A combination of public opinion pressure and trade policy has driven requirements for regulation and the World Trade Organization (WTO assigned the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE to develop guidelines that could be used as international standards. However, trade disputes related to animal welfare are not likely to be resolved under the auspices of OIE, and access to international markets may be questioned in a way that does not necessarily reflect attitudes to animal production in emerging economies, such as those in South America. This paper presents an overall view of basic welfare issues and points out specific items related to the present scenario of norms and regulations that are being implemented in South America, where the growing poultry industry is an important economic activity.

  7. SWEDEN AND TURKEY: TWO MODELS OF WELFARE STATE IN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea - Emanuela Dragoi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Our paper analyzes two models of economic development: Sweden and Turkey. The main objective of this analysis is to highlight in which way two countries with different development strategies, economic geography, mentality and culture have managed to maintain growth before and during the global economic crisis, becoming gradually genuine models of welfare state. The analysis undertaken in this paper is, consequently, divided into two parts. The first shows the Swedish model of welfare state, that was an inspirational one in the ’70 and ’80, and its specific strengths and vulnerabilities. The second part summarizes Turkey's economic development over the past decade,emphasizing comparative advantages that have made it the 16th largest economy of the world and its strategy in terms of managing the international economic crisis. The final part of our comparative approach aims to respond to the following question: may those two economic models be considered proper economic lessons for the other states that are confronted with economic vulnerabilities?

  8. Micro-econometric Analysis of Consumption,Poverty & Welfare,and Its Extension:A Review of Main Economic Theory Contributions of Angus Deaton as the Winner of the 2015 Economics Nobel Prize%消费、贫困与福利的微观实证研究及其扩展--2015年度诺贝尔经济学奖得主安格斯・迪顿主要经济理论贡献述评

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宝良; 郭其友

    2015-01-01

    The 2015 Nobel Prize in Economics was awarded to economist Angus Deaton for his outstanding analysis of consumption ,poverty ,and welfare .This paper provides an o‐verview of the academic life and main works of Deaton ,and then reviews his micro—econo‐metric analysis of demand system across commodities at a given time ,consumption decision over time and problems related to poverty in developing countries ,and its extension .Final‐ly ,it also briefly comments on the main economic theory contributions of Deaton and refer‐ence values .%安格斯・迪顿因其对消费、贫困和福利研究的杰出贡献被授予2015年度的诺贝尔经济学奖。本文在简要概述迪顿学术生涯及其主要论著的基础上,着重探讨了他对给定时点上跨商品需求系统、跨期消费选择以及发展中国家贫困问题的微观实证研究及其扩展的贡献。最后,对迪顿的主要经济理论贡献以及借鉴价值作一简要评介。

  9. Küreselleşme Kıskacındaki Refah Devletinde Sosyal Refah Harcamaları = Social Welfare Spending in the Welfare State During the Latest Globalization Upsurge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alparslan Uğur

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In many countries, employment was expanded, social rights were improved and the idea of welfare state was firmly established during the 1945 - 1975 period, so called “the golden years of the welfare state”. After the 1973 in conjunction with the first and second oil shocks, the economic, political and social pillars of the welfare state have started to evolve rapidly.Recently there have been continuous debates on the boundaries of the welfare state. What should be the state’s role? Does welfare state face fiscal crisis? Are there any socio - economic limits of the improvement of welfare state and financing need of redistribution level? In this study, we evaluate above - mentioned issues within the context of the latest rise on the globalization.

  10. Symposium: Animal welfare challenges for today and tomorrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizzier Thaxton, Yvonne; Christensen, Karen D; Mench, Joy A; Rumley, Elizabeth R; Daugherty, Christine; Feinberg, Bruce; Parker, Molly; Siegel, Paul; Scanes, Colin G

    2016-09-01

    The increasing separation of the public from production agriculture means there is often a lack of knowledge among consumers about current production practices and a perception that increased productivity and economic efficiency are necessarily associated with a decline in animal welfare. A symposium was organized to present information about animal welfare issues and the challenges they pose for both scientists and the poultry and allied industries. Companion papers provide information about understanding public attitudes and physiological/immunological approaches to welfare assessment, while this paper outlines current and future challenges to egg and meat production and industry responses to those challenges. For broiler chickens, increases in growth rate result in corollary increases in metabolic heat generation and water consumption, leading to the need for continuing improvements in housing, ventilation, and litter management. Stocking densities, lighting programs, muscle myopathies, and use of antibiotics are also areas that require research attention. In the layer industry, the key challenge is housing, with the industry undergoing a shift from conventional cage housing to alternatives like enriched colonies or cage-free. While these alternative systems have hen welfare advantages, there are also welfare disadvantages that require the development of mitigation strategies, and it is also essential to address associated issues including economic, environmental, egg safety, and worker health impacts. Concerns on the horizon include euthanasia of surplus male chicks and spent hens as well as beak-trimming. The humaneness of slaughter methods is an important welfare and consumer confidence issue, and the current regulations for poultry slaughter in the USA are discussed and compared to those for livestock. The poultry and allied industries, including retailers, are responding to these concerns by consulting with experts, developing science-based animal care

  11. Drivers of animal welfare policy in the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huertas, S M; Gallo, C; Galindo, F

    2014-04-01

    Owing to its large size and ethnic, social, cultural and economic diversity, the Americas' production volume is set to make the region one of the world's leading providers of animal foodstuffs. Animal husbandry, transport and slaughter conditions vary from country to country in response to their differing climatic and geographic characteristics. This article examines the main drivers of animal welfare in the Americas, including the standards of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), legislation, codes of practice and advances in education, training, research and development. It recognises the important roles played by all the various stakeholders in changing perceptions of animal welfare by raising public awareness and promoting communication and cooperation as drivers of overall change in the Americas. Regional and international organisations, public and private-sector bodies, academia and non-governmental organisations have launched a number of initiatives with encouraging results. In 2009, the OIE established the Chile-Uruguay Collaborating Centre for Animal Welfare Research, which is now the OIE Collaborating Centre for Animal Welfare and Livestock Production Systems and has recently incorporated Mexico. The Collaborating Centre works closely with official OIE Delegates and the Focal Points for Animal Welfare of national Veterinary Services. The OIE Regional Animal Welfare Strategy for the Americas was adopted in 2012, under the coordination of the OIE Regional Representation for the Americas, as a guide for developing future policies based on a regional approach. The way to achieve cultural change for improving animal welfare, operator safety and the sector's profitability is through training and knowledge transfer. The results demonstrate that the joint efforts of all institutions and the active role of the Collaborating Centre have been most effective, as have the continuing education programmes implemented by universities.

  12. EMPLOYMENT AND WELFARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina VASILE

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In consideration of the Lisbon Agenda, the Romanian Government drew up the National Programme for Reform for 2007-2010, which established national priorities, and ways and tools to achieve economic reform and growth. Transition in Romania implied a complex and extensive system of regulations and institutions for stimulating employment and creating a flexible system of social protection. The new regulations were focused on harmonisation with the Community labour law. Increasing investment in human capital is essential for a competitive and dynamic economy. Besides, labour market policies were formulated for correcting labour market imbalances.

  13. Liquidity, welfare and distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín Gil Samuel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a dynamic general equilibrium model where wealth distribution is endogenous. I provide channels of causality that suggest a complex relationship between financial markets and the real activity which breaks down the classical dichotomy. As a consequence, the Friedman rule does not hold. In terms of the current events taking place in the world economy, this paper provides a rationale to advert against the perils of an economy satiated with liquidity. Efficiency and distribution cannot thus be considered as separate attributes once we account for the interactions between financial markets and the economic performance.

  14. Review of the social and environmental factors affecting the behavior and welfare of turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchewka, J; Watanabe, T T N; Ferrante, V; Estevez, I

    2013-06-01

    In modern rearing systems, turkey producers often face economic losses due to increased aggression, feather pecking, cannibalism, leg disorders, or injuries among birds, which are also significant welfare issues. The main underlying causes appear to relate to rapid growth, flock size, density, poor environmental complexity, or lighting, which may be deficient in providing the birds with an adequate physical or social environment. To date, there is little information regarding the effect of these factors on turkey welfare. This knowledge is, however, essential to ensure the welfare of turkeys and to improve their quality of life, but may also be beneficial to industry, allowing better bird performance, improved carcass quality, and reduced mortality and condemnations. This paper reviews the available scientific literature related to the behavior of turkeys as influenced by the physical and social environment that may be relevant to advances toward turkey production systems that take welfare into consideration. We addressed the effects that factors such as density, group size, space availability, maturation, lightning, feeding, and transport may have over parameters that may be relevant to ensure welfare of turkeys. Available scientific studies were based in experimental environments and identified individual factors corresponding to particular welfare problems. Most of the studies aimed at finding optimal levels of rearing conditions that allow avoiding or decreasing most severe welfare issues. This paper discusses the importance of these factors for development of production environments that would be better suited from a welfare and economic point of view.

  15. TEAM CONSOLIDATION BY DEVELOPING WELFARE AT WORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CATALINA BONCIU

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The development of welfare at work should contribute not only to strengthen the company’s position on the market. Maybe before measuring the economical results we should first analyze the social consequences of a microeconomic policy supportive of all the elements of good practice conducive to employees. Environmental aspects (inside or outside the company, which affect the workers’ current behavior, should be interpreted. It is the case of the actual conditions on the world market, as well as the state of things among employees’ needs: job security, new aspirations for wage and personal development; professional entourage: complexity, uncertainty, lack of flexibility, fluctuation…The most pressing element of the employees’ welfare is the research of: the work psychopathology; the psychoactive substances at work; the stress causes and manifestations, exhaustion, sleep disorders, but also behavioral; strikes, conflicts, crises, bullying and violence, harassment and sexism…To opt for a leadership where understanding and helping employees is a must also means having an interest in generalizing the state of health among employees, and this is reflected in their high quality of life.

  16. Reversing Early Retirement in Advanced Welfare Economies A Paradigm Shift to Overcome Push and Pull Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Bernhard Ebbinghaus

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent reform efforts of advanced welfare states have attempted to reverse trends in early retirement and increase the statutory retirement age. This paradigm shift often occurred against the protest of unions, fi rms and their employees. As a consequence of expanding welfare states and as response to economic challenges since the 1970s early exit from work has become a widespread practice. Early retirement has been part of Continental Europe’s welfare without work problem, while the Scandinavian welfare states, the Anglophone liberal economies and the Japanese welfare society were able to maintain higher levels of employment for older workers. Since the 1990s, an international consensus to reverse early exit from work emerged among international organisations and national policy experts. Based on a comparative historical analysis of selected OECD countries, this study analyses the cross-national variations in the institutionalisation of early exit regimes and its recent reversal using macro-indictors on early exit trends and stylised information on institutional arrangements. Comparing the interaction of social policy and economic institutions, it reviews the cross-national differences in welfare state “pull” and economic “push” factors that have contributed to early exit from work and discusses the likely impact of welfare retrenchment and assesses the importance of “retention” factors such as activation policies for decreasing early exit from work.

  17. Welfare Balance of Different Interest Groups During Rural-urban Land Conversion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng Kaili; Zhang Peng; Zhang Anlu

    2009-01-01

    Rural-urban land conversion is currently a common social economic phenomenon during the process of economic development and rural urbanization in China.Rural-urban land conversion is positively effective as far as social and economic benefits are concerned (Yang,2002),but its negative effect is also evident,resulting in such problems as low efficiency of rural land configuration and loss of social welfare.Consequently,farmers should also have an equal chance to enjoy the social welfare enhanced by land conversion.Based on the theories of welfare economy,this paper puts forward policy suggestions by discussing the welfare changes of various interest groups,builds the model of welfare distribution,and analyzes the conditions of maximizing social welfare.The absolute and opposite value of social welfare is closely related with the speed of rural-urban land conversion,and governments should give farmers and collectives fair compensation to make up for the utility loss caused by land expropriation,which are conclusions drawn from this paper.This study aims to provide a theoretical basis for regulating targets and evaluation criteria,realizing the mechanism and implementation of public polices during rural-urban land conversion.

  18. Institutional Transition from Welfare Enterprise to Social Enterprise: the Localization of Legislation and Policy in Chinese Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xiaomeng

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Welfare enterprises, which are intended to create jobs for disabled people, are the core component of China's welfare system. As the economic environment and regulations change, China's welfare enterprises, which cannot take effective measures from within and emerge strong in market competition, are stuck in a bottleneck where further development is difficult. Welfare enterprises have hit the ceiling in their development for lacking sustainable sources of capital and capabilities of capital operation, inefficient management model and uncompetitive products and services. To reverse the trend of decline and grow into strong market players, the transformation from welfare enterprise to social enterprise, embracing the features of enterprise and social objectives, as an alternative is of crucial importance. As a new hybrid economic form, social enterprise combines the efficiency of businesses and the public-good nature of welfare enterprises, representing win-win cooperation among the government, society, and business sector. Such development is an institutional transformation which boosts competitiveness and tackles tough issues welfare enterprises are facing. Shifting from welfare enterprises to social enterprises means an institutional transition, during the process of which international experience in legislation shall be learned and localized. This paper analyzes the development history of welfare enterprises by taking a comprehensive look at the salient points of existing laws, policies promulgated throughout history, implementation and performance, major problems etc. so as to explore the institutional transition from welfare enterprises to social enterprises, revealing possible legal and policy problems and making suggestions.

  19. Welfare-Reducing Trade Liberalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Philipp J.H.; Jørgensen, Jan G.

    Recent literature on the workhorse model of intra-industry trade has explored heterogeneous cost structures at the firm level. These approaches have proven to add realism and predictive power. This paper shows, however, that this added realism also implies that there may exist a positive bilateral...... tariff that maximizes national and world welfare. Applying one of the simplest specifications possible, namely a symmetric two-country intra-industry trade model with fixed export costs that are heterogeneous across firms, we find that the reciprocal reduction of small tariffs reduces welfare....

  20. Welfare-Reducing Trade Liberalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Philipp J.H.; Jørgensen, Jan G.

    Recent literature on the workhorse model of intra-industry trade has explored heterogeneous cost structures at the firm level. These approaches have proven to add realism and predictive power. This note shows, however, that this added realism also implies that there may exist a positive bilateral...... tariff that maximizes national and world welfare. Applying one of the simplest specifications possible, namely a symmetric two-country intra-industry trade model with fixed export costs that are heterogeneous across firms, we find that the reciprocal reduction of small tariffs reduces welfare. We explore...

  1. Crafting the English Welfare State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ydesen, Christian

    2016-01-01

    administrators in England during the constitutive years of English welfare state formation. Using Birmingham local education administration as an empirical and historical case, the influential Children Acts of 1948 and 1963 serve to demarcate the period treated. The theoretical framework is drawn from Bourdieu...... and Wacquant’s concept of state, with the key concept being ‘state-crafting’. The article contributes knowledge about the imaginaries, and the manufacturing and managing of ‘the public good’ – understood as a referent for modern governing – of the English welfare state. The article concludes...

  2. Assessment of welfare in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Antonella Volpelli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the definition given by Appleby (1996, animal welfare represents the state of well-being brought about by meeting the physical, environmental, nutritional, behavioural and social needs of the animal or groups of animals under the care, supervision or influence of people. Suitable husbandry techniques and disease control (in which man is directly involved may satisfy an animal’s physical, environmental and nutritive needs. However, it cannot be stated that people’s supervision or influence always guarantee the satisfaction of behavioural and social needs. Thus, special attention must be paid to these factors in intensive husbandry. This paper calls attention to the main factors characterizing pig welfare on the basis of productive, physiological, pathological and behavioural indicators; to the behavioural needs, which are characterised by several peculiar traits (it is noteworthy that, since the beginning, all categories of reared pigs have been involved in welfare legislation; to all categories of pigs that often show the effects of negative stimuli on their behaviour (limitations, variations; to the main critical points on the farm likely to cause welfare impairment or stress including buildings, inner facilities, space allowance, microclimate, lighting systems, environmental stressors, feeding management, mutilations, weaning, social factors, and stockmanship; and to environmental stressors including dust, odours (especially ammonia and noises. This paper takes into account sources, effects and possible solutions for noises; the positive effect of fibrous feeding; environmental enrichment and other possible techniques for improving social status and for preventing/reducing stereotypic behaviour and abnormal reactions (e.g. tail biting. The scientific/objective evaluation of welfare for intensively reared pigs may be carried out by means of direct observation of the animals themselves (animal-based or encompassing performance

  3. EXPLAINING THE DISTINCTIVENESS OF MEXICAN-IMMIGRANT WELFARE BEHAVIORS: THE IMPORTANCE OF EMPLOYMENT-RELATED CULTURAL REPERTOIRES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hook, Jennifer; Bean, Frank D

    2009-06-01

    Social scientists generally seek to explain welfare-related behaviors in terms of economic choice, social structural, or culture of poverty theories. Because such explanations incompletely account for nativity differences in public assistance receipt among those of Mexican origin, this paper draws upon the sociology of migration and culture literatures to develop alternative materialist-based cultural repertoire hypotheses to explain the welfare behaviors of Mexican immigrants. We argue that immigrants from Mexico arrive and work in the United States under circumstances fostering employment-based cultural repertoires that, compared with natives and other immigrant groups, encourage less welfare participation (in part because such repertoires lead to faster welfare exits) and more post-welfare employment, especially in states with relatively more generous welfare-policies. Using individual-level data predating Welfare Reform from multiple panels of the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP), merged with state-level information on welfare-benefit levels, we assess these ideas by examining immigrant-group differences in welfare receipt, retention, and transition to employment across locales with varying levels of welfare benefits. Overall, the results are consistent with the notion that cultural repertoires incline Mexican immigrants to utilize welfare not primarily to avoid work, cope with disadvantage, or perpetuate a culture of dependency, but rather mostly to minimize employment discontinuities. This result carries important theoretical and policy implications.

  4. Majority and Minority Nationalism in the Danish Post-Welfare State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koefoed, Lasse Martin

    2015-01-01

    The future of the nation and the Danish welfare state is one of the most important political issues today. The transition in neoliberal governance from welfare state to security state, the ongoing securitization of global and European mobility, the restructuring of public services and the re......-scaling of political and economic power has made the debate around the welfare state central. In this article I take an approach to the welfare nation state that is based on the practices and narratives of everyday life. The argument is that narrative practices in everyday life constitute a central sphere inviting...... studies of the struggle over the welfare community and meaning. The empirical material draws on two recent research projects that include narratives and perspectives from minority and majority population in Denmark. By analysing different perspectives on the nation the article intends to open up for both...

  5. Job Search or Basic Education Participation First: Which Improves Welfare Recipients' Earnings More in the Long Term?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Gayle; Michalopoulos, Charles

    2016-01-01

    There is a longstanding debate about whether helping welfare recipients quickly find work or helping them to first obtain some basic education and training better improves their economic well-being. This brief contributes to the debate by presenting long-term findings from three sites in the seven-site National Evaluation of Welfare-to-Work…

  6. Portfolio of Research in Welfare and Family Self-Sufficiency: FY 2014. OPRE Report 2015-15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Administration for Children & Families, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The Division of Economic Independence within the Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation (OPRE) has primary responsibility for welfare and family self-sufficiency research. OPRE's research in the area of welfare and family self-sufficiency is designed to expand knowledge about effective programs to promote employment, self-sufficiency, and…

  7. The effects of social and political openness on the welfare state in 18 OECD countries, 1970-2000

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Koster

    2007-01-01

    Studies examining the relationship between globalization and the welfare state tend to focus on the effects of economic dimensions of globalization; the extent to which a country is part of the world market. Globalization also has a social and political dimension and their effects on welfare states

  8. Animal welfare: the EU policy and consumers' perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    The awareness of animal welfare and animal well-being is growing all over Europe and the world. The concerns are related to the applied policy regimes, economic sustainability of the production methods, food quality and safety, consumers’ health and behaviour and their willingness to pay for animal products obtained in animal-friendly conditions. The paper aims to analyse the consumers’ awareness and its effect on consumers’ purchasing behaviour in Bulgaria. The data were collected under the ...

  9. Intercultural Health Care and Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ben

    2014-01-01

    Artiklen har fokus på undervisning, planlægning, udvikling og evaluering af et internationalt tværfagligt valgfag Intercultural Health Care and Welfare, der udbydes på Det Sundhedsfaglige og Teknologiske Fakultet på Professionshøjskolen Metropol. Ifølge den tysk-amerikanske professor Iris Varner og...

  10. STRESS AND ANIMAL-WELFARE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WIEPKEMA, PR; KOOLHAAS, JM

    1993-01-01

    When individual vertebrates loose grip on their life conditions stress symptoms appear and their welfare becomes problematic. Present day research supports the view that stress can originate when an organism experiences a substantial reduction of predictability and/or controllability (P/C) of releva

  11. Jobs and welfare in Mozambique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Sam; Tarp, Finn

    Mozambique has achieved remarkable macroeconomic success over recent decades, boasting one of the world’s highest rates of GDP growth. However, absolute poverty remains persistent, spilling over into social unrest. To better understand the link between aggregate growth and household welfare...

  12. Crafting the English Welfare State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ydesen, Christian

    2016-01-01

    administrators in England during the constitutive years of English welfare state formation. Using Birmingham local education administration as an empirical and historical case, the influential Children Acts of 1948 and 1963 serve to demarcate the period treated. The theoretical framework is drawn from Bourdieu...

  13. Measuring Welfare of Productive Consumers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Tinbergen (Jan)

    1987-01-01

    textabstractIn the last few decades an increasing number of economists have contributed to new methods of welfare (or utility) measurement. As set out in this journal (Tinbergen, 1985) three groups of economists have been active in this field since 1968, initially relatively independently; an Americ

  14. Environmental Sustainability based on Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen

    2005-01-01

    The paper argues that the Scandinavian countries have some traditions of equity and social welfare, which are essential for reaching a truly environmentally sustainable society. But for the highly polluting Denmark, this would require a dramatic change in the political visions. Maintaining the pr...

  15. Ethnicization in Welfare State Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Frederik Georg

    , but also why it is more likely for some issues (such as European integration or crime) than others (such as welfare). The dissertation includes four stand-alone articles illustrating the influence of group identities in political cognition. Compared to the existing literature, they suggest...

  16. Jobs and welfare in Mozambique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Sam; Tarp, Finn

    Mozambique has achieved remarkable macroeconomic success over recent decades, boasting one of the world’s highest rates of GDP growth. However, absolute poverty remains persistent, spilling over into social unrest. To better understand the link between aggregate growth and household welfare...

  17. Faces of the Welfare State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Mette-Louise

    2012-01-01

    the welfare State and other realms of life, such as their family and neighborhood, threatening to take away their children (to crime, to prison, to foster families or to the divorced partner, etc). The paper conceptualizes immobility and confinement as embedded in the contrary; a continuous spatial placement...

  18. Consumers’ perception of farm animal welfare: an Italian and European perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Martelli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of some recent European and Italian surveys on consumer perception of farm animal welfare are shown and discussed. Special attention is paid to consumers’ opinions about animal welfare attributes, differences among species (and across countries in terms of animal welfare perception, “animal-friendly” labels and willingness of purchasers to pay more for food (eggs deriving from animals raised under higher welfare conditions. From a general standpoint, consumers’ perception and knowledge of animal welfare varies among European countries and it is mainly affected by their economic and educational level. Among animal welfare attributes, a strong preference is given to the availability of spaces, and, in the case of Italian respondents, also to the absence of movement restrictions (chains or tethers. Laying hens (44%, followed by broilers (42% and pigs (28% are the categories/species for which rearing conditions in the EU are judged to need the highest improvement in terms of welfare. Italian consumers appear less concerned about swine welfare (17% than other Europeans. It is noteworthy that 12% of EU respondents states that all farmed animals need more welfare and/or protection. With respect to labels on food packaging, claims for animal welfare often fall within wider schemes for quality assurance and, with the exception of eggs and organic goods, in many countries the possibility of identifying animal friendly products and the knowledge of the specific legislation on farm animal protection are still limited. According to the Community Action Plan on the Protection and Welfare of Animals 2006-2010, the establishment of an EU label for animal welfare, based on standardised scientific indicators, is an option to be explored which could promote the consumption of products elaborated under high welfare standards thus facilitating the choice of consumers. The readiness of consumers to pay more for a higher animal welfare level has

  19. Policing Norwegian Welfare: Disciplining and Differentiating within the Bottom Rungs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika K. Gubrium

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Policing is a disciplining means for using welfare services to govern welfare recipients towards a desired behaviour or goal. We apply Foucault’s (1977 definition of institutional discipline as a means for exploring how the distinctions made by state and local welfare authorities in Norway when policing recipients may take shape according to normative perceptions of ethnicity and deservingness. More particularly, we explore the regulating understandings and activities linked to the inclusion and exclusion of eligibility to welfare benefits and services and the form of the services offered. Our focus lies at the point of entry from the lowest tier of Norwegian welfare benefits (social assistance into two semi-parallel and higher tiers promising more (higher benefits, better services. The tiers are represented by programmes that share aims, yet differ in reach: the 2004 Introduction Programme and the 2007 Qualification Programme. The Introduction Programme is an activation programme targeted at immigrants and refugees newly arrived to Norway. Its aim is to strengthen opportunities to participate in society and labour market, as well as to promote economic independence. The Qualification Programme is an activation programme that was explicitly modelled after the Introduction Programme, yet whose target group reaches more broadly to include long-term recipients of social assistance and those whose work ability is severely lowered. While both programmes have been premised on the need to transform participants from a status of passive welfare benefit recipients to active participants in qualifying measures and society, the target groups vary and it is this contrast that is our point of focus. We contrast the two policies at two ‘moments’ in the policy cycle: (1 policy framing (public and policymaker understandings/assumptions concerning the target group, the location of accountability for the marginal position of the policy recipient and the

  20. Final model of multicriterionevaluation of animal welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Marianne; Botreau, R; Bracke, MBM

    One major objective of Welfare Quality® is to propose harmonized methods for the overall assessment of animal welfare on farm and at slaughter that are science based and meet societal concerns. Welfare is a multidimensional concept and its assessment requires measures of different aspects. Welfar......, acceptable welfare and not classified. This evaluation model is tuned according to the views of experts from animal and social sciences, and stakeholders....... Quality® proposes a formal evaluation model whereby the data on animals or their environment are transformed into value scores that reflect compliance with 12 subcriteria and 4 criteria of good welfare. Each animal unit is then allocated to one of four categories: excellent welfare, enhanced welfare...

  1. Welfare analysis of discrete choices based on a direct utility function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanner, R.

    2015-01-01

    Discrete choice analysis is a cornerstone of modern day transportation economics. It facilitates the analysis and prediction of individual’s transportation choices as well as the computation of welfare and willingness to pay (WTP) metrics for economic appraisal. In this paper, I develop an approach

  2. Motivational and Ideological Underpinnings of Welfare Preferences in Eastern and Western Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadarics, Márton

    2016-02-01

    In our study we investigated the motivational and ideological correlates of the approval of welfare services in postsocialist Central Eastern and Western Europe. In the centre of our inquiry stood how the motivations of selflessness and conventionality, along with distributional justice principles, are related to our welfare preferences beyond our rational self-interest, furthermore, how these associations depend on social-cultural circumstances. We have found that the motivational background of egalitarian economic and welfare attitudes are substantially different in the two regions. While beside of the rationalisation of self-interest, it seems to be related to selflessness-driven solidarity in Western Europe, pro-welfare and egalitarian distributional views are primarily motivated by conventionality-driven norm adherence in postsocialist countries in the form of the mechanism of postsocialist economic system nostalgia. Our results highlight the benefits of a context-specific 'motivated social cognition' approach to ideological and political attitudes.

  3. Institutions, culture and migrants' preference for state-provided welfare. Longitudinal evidence from Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt-Catran, Alexander; Careja, Romana

    2017-01-01

    Using the difference-in-differences estimator and data provided by the German Socio-Economic Panel, this article explores migrants’ preferences for state-provided welfare. The study finds evidence that over time, the preferences of immigrants and natives become more similar. We interpret this fin...... this finding as evidence that the culture of home countries does not have a time-invariant effect, and that immigrants’ welfare preferences are subject to a socializing effect of the host countries’ welfare regime.......Using the difference-in-differences estimator and data provided by the German Socio-Economic Panel, this article explores migrants’ preferences for state-provided welfare. The study finds evidence that over time, the preferences of immigrants and natives become more similar. We interpret...

  4. Motivational and Ideological Underpinnings of Welfare Preferences in Eastern and Western Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márton Hadarics

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In our study we investigated the motivational and ideological correlates of the approval of welfare services in postsocialist Central Eastern and Western Europe. In the centre of our inquiry stood how the motivations of selflessness and conventionality, along with distributional justice principles, are related to our welfare preferences beyond our rational self-interest, furthermore, how these associations depend on social-cultural circumstances. We have found that the motivational background of egalitarian economic and welfare attitudes are substantially different in the two regions. While beside of the rationalisation of self-interest, it seems to be related to selflessness-driven solidarity in Western Europe, pro-welfare and egalitarian distributional views are primarily motivated by conventionality-driven norm adherence in postsocialist countries in the form of the mechanism of postsocialist economic system nostalgia. Our results highlight the benefits of a context-specific ’motivated social cognition’ approach to ideological and political attitudes.

  5. The Future of the Welfare State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Bent

    This book challenges the common beliefs that the European welfare states are already in or are heading towards crisis and that the process of globalisation necessarily takes away any hopes of eventual worldwide welfare.......This book challenges the common beliefs that the European welfare states are already in or are heading towards crisis and that the process of globalisation necessarily takes away any hopes of eventual worldwide welfare....

  6. Challenges to promoting health in the modern welfare state: the case of the Nordic nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raphael, Dennis

    2014-02-01

    Finland, Norway, and Sweden are leaders in promoting health through public policy action. Much of this has to do with the close correspondence between key health promotion concepts and elements of the Nordic welfare state that promote equity through universalist strategies and programs that provide citizens with economic and social security. The purpose of this article is to identify the threats to the Nordic welfare states related to immigration, economic globalization, and welfare state fatigue. Through a critical analysis of relevant literature and data this article provides evidence of the state of the Nordic welfare state and some of these challenges to the Nordic welfare state and its health promotion efforts. There is evidence of declining support for the unconditional Nordic welfare state, increases in income inequality and poverty, and a weakening of the programs and supports that have associated with the excellent health profile of the Nordic nations. This is especially the case for Sweden. It is argued that the Nordic welfare states' accomplishments must be celebrated and used as a basis for maintaining the public policies shown to be successful in promoting the health of its citizens.

  7. Welfare Rights in the Liberal Tradition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, Thomas A.

    1990-01-01

    Maintains that welfare rights are not incompatible with liberalism's commitment to private property and freedom. Argues that students need to be aware of liberalism's favorable historical position on welfare. Examines the positions of John Locke, Thomas Paine, and John Stuart Mills on poverty, welfare, and the role of the state. (RW)

  8. 77 FR 895 - Tribal Child Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-06

    ... 45 CFR Parts 1355 and 1356 Tribal Child Welfare; Interim Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 77... Welfare AGENCY: Administration on Children, Youth and Families (ACYF), Administration for Children and... submitted via email to CBComments@acf.hhs.gov . Please include ``Tribal Child Welfare'' in the subject...

  9. Welfare Reform and Reducing Teen Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawhill, Isabel V.

    2000-01-01

    Most adolescent mothers are unmarried and on welfare. Congress enacted new welfare legislation that emphasizes reducing teen pregnancy and requiring work, but states are reluctant to meet this challenge. Discusses child poverty's new face, public policy and culture wars, welfare reform, and social norms. Concludes that reducing unwed parenthood…

  10. Has the Nordic Welfare Model Been Transformed?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Bent; Kvist, Jon

    2011-01-01

    The Nordic welfare model is undergoing a fundamental transformation. Using Denmark we show how a universal welfare state model is gradually being transformed into an emergent multi-tiered welfare state. Whereas the Danish pension system's having become multi-tiered in the 1990s, with private...

  11. Welfare Rights in the Liberal Tradition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, Thomas A.

    1990-01-01

    Maintains that welfare rights are not incompatible with liberalism's commitment to private property and freedom. Argues that students need to be aware of liberalism's favorable historical position on welfare. Examines the positions of John Locke, Thomas Paine, and John Stuart Mills on poverty, welfare, and the role of the state. (RW)

  12. The Paradigmatic Struggle for Legitimacy of the Danish Welfare State regarding the Provision of Welfare Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, John Storm; Nielsen, Anna Lyneborg; Rendtorff, Jacob Dahl

    2014-01-01

    The Danish welfare state constitutes a paradigmatic case of the welfare struggle of modern welfare states. Taking care of vulnerable children and youths is used as a case study here, to illustrate the efforts of the welfare state to acquire legitimacy as a body of public administration. That is, ...

  13. Corporate Welfare: The Third Stage of Welfare in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoesz, David

    1986-01-01

    Corporate involvement in social welfare represents a third stage in the evolution of welfare institutions in the United States, following the voluntary sector and the welfare state. Examining health and welfare corporations reveals rapid growth and consolidation in nursing homes, hospital management, health maintenance organizations, child care,…

  14. Comparing Drug Use between Welfare-Receiving Arrestees and Non-Welfare-Receiving Arrestees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yacoubian, George S., Jr.; Peters, Ronald J., Jr.; Urbach, Blake J.; Johnson, Regina J.

    2002-01-01

    Compares drug-positive rates between welfare-receiving arrestees, non-welfare receiving arrestees living below the poverty level, and non-welfare arrestees living above the poverty level. Welfare-receiving arrestees were more likely to be female, older, less educated, and to test positive for opiates and benzodiazepines than the other subgroups.…

  15. The Struggle for Recognition: Embracing the Islamic Welfare Effort in Indonesian Welfare System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirojudin Abbas

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available This article traces the struggle of Indonesian Muslims to integrate Islam welfare programs into the statutory social welfare policy and provisions in Indonesia. Indonesia Muslims have gone through a long process of political struggle and negotiation to be able to embrace religious based social welfare programs as one element of a pluralistic social welfare system. The enactment of Law number 38/1999 on zakat administration and its utilization of Islamic welfare purposes signifies the formal accomodation of Islamic welfare effort into social welfare policies in Indonesia.Copyright (c 2014 by SDI. All right reserved.DOI: 10.15408/sdi.v12i1.645

  16. Welfare Reform: Employers' Perceptions of Factors Associated with Virginia's Initiative for Employment Not Welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Bernice B. Jr.

    1998-01-01

    Welfare Reform: Employers' Perceptions of Factors Associated with Virginia's Initiative for Employment Not Welfare by Bernice B. Wilson Daisy L. Stewart, Chair Vocational and Technical Education (ABSTRACT) Welfare reform has been an issue in America for many years. The need to make positive changes to the welfare system escalated to the point that federal legislation was passed in 1996. This legislation mandated that each state establish welfare-t...

  17. Post-Communist Welfare Pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cerami, Alfio; Vanhuysse, Pieter

    This collection adopts novel theoretical approaches to study the diverse welfare state pathways that have evolved across Central and Eastern Europe since the fall of communism in 1989. Going beyond existing path dependency and neo-institutionalist explanations, it highlights the role of explanatory...... factors such as micro-causal mechanisms, ideas, discourses, path departures, power politics, and elite strategies. This book includes contributions from leading international Experts such as Claus Offe, Robert Kaufman, Stefan Haggard, Tomasz Inglot, and Mitchell Orenstein, to examine welfare in specific...... or oppose reform, and national or supranational ideas and discourse that frame those reform efforts.' - Vivien A. Schmidt, Jean Monnet Professor of European Integration, Boston University ‘Quite an extraordinary book. One rarely reads an edited volume in which contributors engage each other the way they do...

  18. The ethics of fish welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, J C

    2009-12-01

    The topic of fish welfare in the context of commercial fisheries is a difficult one. From traditionally anthropocentric or human-centred perspectives, fishes are simply objects for humans to use as they see fit. When it is argued that anthropocentrism is arbitrary, it may appear that a strong animal rights position is the only recourse, with the result that humans ought not to use animals in the first place, if it is at all possible. It can be argued that both positions fail to view human beings as part of the natural world. If human beings are viewed as part of the world from which they live, then it has to be asked what it means to be respectful of the animals which humans use and from which they live. From this perspective, concern for the welfare of the fishes humans eat is simply what should be expected from humans as good citizens in the community of living creatures.

  19. Gender and Welfare Regimes Revised

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamson, Peter

    2015-01-01

    demographic patterns, with more elderly persons in need of both care and support, coupled with smaller working-age populations to deliver that care and support. Mapping and comparing the combinations of welfare regarding care for the elderly in China and Denmark reveals serious inequalities of class, gender......China and Denmark could hardly be more different cases for comparison: a huge developing one-party state set against a small post-industrial plural state. Despite these significant and categorical differences, however, both states are faced with similar challenges when it comes to changing...... and generation, but also with respect to class. The conclusion is that Denmark and China are converging towards a model of welfare combinations set within an overall framework of universalism. The most important lines of conflict revolve around generation, though class and gender also remain influential....

  20. Housing Welfare Policies in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lotte

    2013-01-01

    that the institutional differences between the Swedish model of municipal ownership and the Danish model of independent cooperative social housing associations provides different sources of resistance to the prospective dismantlement of social housing as we know it. The fifth section presents the recent Danish reform......It is commonplace to refer to the Nordic countries of Sweden, Norway, Denmark, Finland and Iceland as a distinctive and homogenous welfare regime. As far as social housing is concerned, however, the institutional heritage of the respective countries significantly frames the ways in which social...... housing is understood, regulated and subsidized, and, in turn, how housing regimes respond to the general challenges to the national welfare states. The paper presents a historical institutionalist approach to understanding the diversity of regime responses in the modern era characterized by increasing...

  1. Socio-economic evaluation of selected biogas technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, F.; Martinsen, L.

    2013-05-15

    Financial and welfare economic analyses are conducted of 15 different biogas production scenarios that vary in terms of plant size and type of input. All considered scenarios lead to welfare economic losses. Overall welfare economic GHG reduction costs seem to increase with increasing crop/crop material share of input, and although the costs vary significantly across scenarios they are quite high for all scenarios. The financial analyses suggest that biogas production generally will be financially profitable for the agricultural sector and local CHP facilities but unprofitable for the biogas plants and the State. Seen from a policy perspective the results highlights the importance of designing regulatory instruments in a way that create incentives for private actors to engage in welfare economically desirable biogas production activities while discouraging the expansion of welfare economically undesirable activities. (Author)

  2. Welfare Dynamics under Time Limits

    OpenAIRE

    Jeff Grogger; Charles Michalopoulos

    2003-01-01

    Among the most important changes brought about by the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (PRWORA) is the imposition of time limits. In this paper, we analyze a simple model in which a potential welfare recipient chooses how to allocate her time-limited endowment of benefits so as to maximize her expected lifetime utility. Not surprisingly, the model reveals that time limits provide an incentive for the consumer to conserve, or bank, her benefits. More inte...

  3. Assessment of welfare in pigs

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    According to the definition given by Appleby (1996), animal welfare represents the state of well-being brought about by meeting the physical, environmental, nutritional, behavioural and social needs of the animal or groups of animals under the care, supervision or influence of people. Suitable husbandry techniques and disease control (in which man is directly involved) may satisfy an animal’s physical, environmental and nutritive needs. However, it cannot be stated that people’s s...

  4. Human cloning and child welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burley, J; Harris, J

    1999-01-01

    In this paper we discuss an objection to human cloning which appeals to the welfare of the child. This objection varies according to the sort of harm it is expected the clone will suffer. The three formulations of it that we will consider are: 1. Clones will be harmed by the fearful or prejudicial attitudes people may have about or towards them (H1); 2. Clones will be harmed by the demands and expectations of parents or genotype donors (H2); 3. Clones will be harmed by their own awareness of their origins, for example the knowledge that the genetic donor is a stranger (H3). We will show why these three versions of the child welfare objection do not necessarily supply compelling reasons to ban human reproductive cloning. The claim that we will develop and defend in the course of our discussion is that even if it is the case that a cloned child will suffer harms of the type H1-H3, it is none the less permissible to conceive by cloning so long as these cloning-induced welfare deficits are not such as to blight the existence of the resultant child, whoever this may be. PMID:10226914

  5. The welfare of dairy buffalo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Winckler

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper addresses the issue of buffalo welfare. Firstly, the biological characteristics and behavioural needs of buffalo are considered. Subsequently, the effects of intensive farming and some animalrelated indicators, to be used for a monitoring scheme of buffalo welfare at farm level, are described. The attention was focused on the following indicators: excessive thinning or fattening assessed with Body Condition Score (BCS systems; cleanliness (the presence of mud may be considered positively, whereas a thick and compact layer of dung may be regarded negatively; health status (lameness, hoof overgrowth, injuries, etc.; social, aggressive, oral abnormal behaviours; animal-human relationship (avoidance distance at manger; positive indicators (qualitative assessment of behaviour, etc.; housing factors. The indicators are discussed on the basis of their validity (meaningful with respect to animal welfare, reliability (reflecting the tendency to give the same results on repeated measurements and feasibility (concerning time and money consumed. For some aspects, the differences between buffalo and dairy cattle are also highlighted.

  6. Evaluating the Welfare of Index Insurance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Glenn W.; Martínez-Correa, Jimmy; Ng, Jia Min

    accounting for their risk preferences, and structurally decompose the sources of the welfare effects of index insurance. Our results show that the compound risk in index insurance decreases the welfare of index insurance choices made by individuals. The behavioral inability to process compound risks...... decreases welfare when there is a compound risk of loss, whereas loss probability, basis risk and premium only impact the welfare of insurance choices when the risk of loss is expressed in its reduced, non-compound form. We also see, again, that take-up is not a reliable indicator of welfare. Furthermore......, the drivers of increased welfare from index insurance are not be the same drivers of increased take-up, so take-up is not even a useful proxy for guiding policy to improve welfare....

  7. Mexican consumers' perceptions and attitudes towards farm animal welfare and willingness to pay for welfare friendly meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda-de la Lama, G C; Estévez-Moreno, L X; Sepúlveda, W S; Estrada-Chavero, M C; Rayas-Amor, A A; Villarroel, M; María, G A

    2017-03-01

    Increasing concerns about farm animal welfare have led to an increase in the availability of welfare-friendly-products (WFP), but little is known about how much more consumers are willing-to-pay (WTP) for WFP or about their buying trends in Latin America. In this study, a survey was given to 843 meat consumers in the city of Toluca, Mexico. The results show that consumers were interested in farm animal welfare issues and their ethical, sociological and economic implications, as in Europe. The people surveyed also conveyed a high level of empathy with animal feelings and emotions, however they clearly demanded more information and regulations related to farm animal welfare. The majority of respondents expressed that they were WTP more for properly certified WFP, but mostly based on the benefits in terms of product quality and human health. If the demand for WFP begins to increase in Mexico, the supply chain should consider a certification system to guarantee product origin based on current conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Five essays on fiscal policy, intergenerational welfare and petroleum wealth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thoegersen, Oe.

    1994-12-01

    Motivated by current macro economic problems facing the Norwegian economy, this thesis deals with fiscal policy and the management of petroleum wealth in a small open resource economy. The thesis highlights the fact that considerable parts of the petroleum revenues are collected by the government and studies in particular the interaction between fiscal policy, uncertain petroleum revenues and welfare between generations. Essay 1 is a paper on the calculation of the Norwegian petroleum wealth and surveys economic effects of the development of the petroleum sector and the spending of the petroleum revenues. Essay 2 deals with the effects of uncertain government petroleum revenues on fiscal policy, wealth accumulation and inter generational welfare. In Essay 3 a discussion is given of the effects of oil price risk on international risk sharing. Petroleum importing and exporting countries are considered within OECD-Europe. A possible wealth consumption policy is found to have serious and long-lasting negative effects on the welfare of coming generations, as described in Essay 4. Finally, Essay 5 considers a dynamic dependent economy model extended to incorporate finite horizons of the households and structural adjustment costs in production. 121 refs., 19 figs., 10 tabs.

  9. The economics of moral hazard revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyman, J A

    1999-12-01

    Pauly's (1968) [Pauly, M., 1968. The economics of moral hazard, Comment, American Economic Review 58, 531-537.] analysis of the welfare loss from insurance assumes that medical care consumption is not determined by income, but recent studies suggest it is. This study argues that (1) Pauly's analysis overstates the welfare loss because it includes the effect of income on consumption, (2) the relevant income effect is derived from income transfer from the healthy to the ill that occur when the probability of illness is less than 1, and (3) the welfare loss can be considered the transaction cost of insurance.

  10. Mid-term financial impact of animal welfare improvements in Dutch broiler production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gocsik, E; Lansink, A G J M Oude; Saatkamp, H W

    2013-12-01

    This study used a stochastic bioeconomic simulation model to simulate the business and financial risk of different broiler production systems over a 5-yr period. Simulation analysis was conducted using the @Risk add-in in MS Excel. To compare the impact of different production systems on economic feasibility, 2 cases were considered. The first case focused on the economic feasibility of a completely new system, whereas the second examined economic feasibilities when a farm switches from a conventional to an animal welfare-improving production system. A sensitivity analysis was conducted to assess the key drivers of economic feasibility and to reveal systematic differences across production systems. The study shows that economic feasibility of systems with improved animal welfare predominantly depends on the price that farmers receive. Moreover, the study demonstrates the importance of the level and variation of the price premium for improved welfare, particularly in the first 5 yr after conversion. The economic feasibility of the production system increases with the level of welfare improvements for a sufficiently high price level for broiler meat and low volatility in producer prices. If this is not the case, however, risk attitudes of farmers become important as well as the use of potential risk management instruments.

  11. Mapping farm animal welfare research in an enlarged Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirchner, Marlene K.; Košťál, Ľubor; Bilčík, Boris

    2017-01-01

    assessment systems on-farm. The aim of this study was mapping activities for FAW science and investigating geographical differences in FAW research in Europe (EU28 + candidate countries and the European Economic Area) with regard to available resources (e.g. human resources, infrastructure, funding......, participation in EU-funded projects related to FAW and number of publications. Respondents were allocated to 4 Western and 4 Eastern geographical clusters of countries (‘hubs’). There were a larger number of researchers, students and technical staff per laboratory in Western compared to Eastern hubs......Against the background of divergent political developments across Europe, farm animal welfare (FAW) science has evolved during the last three decades as an inter-disciplinary research area. Recent achievements include pan-European research projects and the implementation of animal welfare...

  12. Corrective Ad Valorem and Unit Taxes: A Welfare Comparison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Philipp J.H.; Dröge, Susanne

    The ad valorem versus unit taxes debate has traditionally emphasized tax yield. For this criterion, ad valorem taxes outperform unit taxes in terms of welfare for a wide range of imperfect competition settings, including Dixit-Stiglitz monopolistic competition. Yet, in a number of policy fields......, such as environmental, health or trade economics, policy makers apply taxes to target the production/consumption volume in an industry, i.e. aim at a certain corrective effect rather than tax yield. This paper compares the two tax instruments with respect to equal corrective-effect in a Dixit-Stiglitz setting with love...... of variety, entry, exit, and redistribution of tax revenues. We find that unit taxes lead to more firms in the industry, less output per firm, less tax revenue, but higher welfare compared to ad valorem taxes....

  13. The welfare state and its distributive effects: part of the problem or part of the solution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, V

    1987-01-01

    In the first part of this article, the author presents (1) a discussion of some of the major arguments against the welfare state put forward by neoliberal forces on both sides of the Atlantic, and (2) empirical information that shows the ideological rather than scientific nature of those arguments. The author also questions the widely held belief among European neoliberal (and even on occasion progressive) forces that the Reagan Administration policies have been (1) very successful in stimulating employment and economic growth, and (2) neoliberal rather than Keynesian. The empirical information presented in this article shows that these Reagan Administration policies have followed a military Keynesianism rather than social Keynesianism, which is responsible for a rather poor economic and social performance. In the second part, the author presents alternatives to the austerity policies advocated by the anti-welfare state forces, policies based on an expansion of the universalist character of the welfare state and its democratization, with active participation of the municipalities in the administration of the welfare state services and in the development of reflationary policies aimed at guiding production and stimulating consumption. The author also shows that the full development of the welfare state is a precondition for the needed restructuring of the economy, labor mobility, and technological innovation. The welfare state, rather than being the cause of the economic crisis, is part of the resolution of this crisis. The article ends with a discussion of the political conditions for the expansion of the welfare state and for the resolution of the economic crisis.

  14. Reciprocity, World Prices and Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis; Woodland, Alan D.

    We examine in detail the circumstances under which reciprocity, as defined in Bagwell and Staiger (1999), leads to fixed world prices. We show that a change of tariffs satisfying reciprocity does not necessarily imply constant world prices in a world of many goods and countries. While...... it is possible to find tariff reforms that are consistent with both reciprocity and constant world prices, these reforms do not follow from the reciprocity condition, but rather from the requirement of unchanged world prices. We propose an alternative reciprocity rule that is guaranteed to raise the welfare...

  15. Welfare State Changes and Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alves, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    . The conclusion of this article is that income inequality has been steadily increasing in Danish society; while in Portugal, despite improvements in many social domains (healthcare, poverty alleviation, unemployment protection), problems of inequality remain deeply embedded in the country’s social......It is well known that welfare states ensure a certain level of social protection affecting levels of well-being and the extent of inequalities in society. Changes within crucial domains of social policy, such as education, health, or social protection, have, therefore, a major effect upon...

  16. A Universal Animal Welfare Framework for Zoos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, Ron; Carter, Scott; Allard, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    The Detroit Zoological Society's (DZS) Center for Zoo Animal Welfare (CZAW) was created to advance the science and policy of the welfare of exotic nonhuman animals in captivity. This important part of the DZS mission is achieved through assessments of, and research on, the welfare of animals in zoos; by recognizing extraordinary achievement in the advancement of animal welfare; by widely sharing knowledge through a bibliographic resource center; by conducting professional training for animal care staff; and by convening important discussions in the form of international symposia. This special issue of the Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science features selected papers from the most recent international CZAW symposium held at the Detroit Zoo in November 2014, as well as a universal framework for zoo animal welfare developed by the DZS.

  17. Measuring zoo animal welfare: theory and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Sonya P; Broom, Donald M

    2009-11-01

    The assessment of animal welfare relates to investigations of how animals try to cope with their environment, and how easy or how difficult it is for them to do so. The use of rigorous scientific methods to assess this has grown over the past few decades, and so our understanding of the needs of animals has improved during this time. Much of the work in the field of animal welfare has been conducted on farm animals, but it is important to consider how the methods and approaches used in assessing farm animal welfare have been, and can be, adapted and applied to the measurement of welfare in animals in other domains, such as in zoos. This is beneficial to our understanding of both the theoretical knowledge, and the practicability of methods. In this article, some of the commonly-used methods for measuring animal welfare will be discussed, as well as some practical considerations in assessing the welfare of zoo animals.

  18. Rawlsian justice and welfare-state capitalism

    OpenAIRE

    Yuen, Ho-yin; 袁浩然

    2014-01-01

    Rawls emphasizes in his later writings that his theory of justice as fairness is not a defense of welfare-state capitalism. He argues that welfare-state capitalism cannot be an acceptable regime for justice as fairness because its ideal institutional description fails to satisfy the two principles of justice in various ways. Against Rawls, I argue in this thesis that his rejection of welfare-state capitalism is not justified. I begin by clarifying an ambiguity regarding what arrangements...

  19. Trust, Welfare States and Income Equality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergh, Andreas; Bjørnskov, Christian

    2014-01-01

    . Using a structural equation model estimated on a large country sample, we find that trust has a positive effect on both market and net income equality. Larger welfare states lead to higher net equality but neither net income equality nor welfare state size seems to have a causal effect on trust. We...... conclude that while trust facilitates welfare state policies that may reduce net inequality, this decrease in inequality does not increase trust....

  20. What Characterise the Nordic Welfare State Model

    OpenAIRE

    Bent Greve

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the main distinctive characteristics of the Nordic welfare states. These include, for example, full employment, high degree of equality, a high level of taxes and a high level of public spending on welfare. The article further presents data, which enables the reader to a comparison with welfare states in Europe and to analyse whether we are witnessing convergence in Europe and/or the withering away of the Nordic Model. The conclusion being that the Nordic Model is here t...

  1. Neoliberalism, welfare policy and health: a qualitative meta-synthesis of single parents' experience of the transition from welfare to work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Kay

    2012-09-01

    Following the United States' lead, the emergence of neoliberal welfare policy across the western world has resulted in employment programmes for single parents, who are predominantly single mothers. While some governments claim that employment will improve single parents' incomes and well-being, researchers dispute that single parents can unproblematically move into the workforce, with net positive effects. While researchers have quantified the socio-economic effect of these programmes, in particular on participant health, no study has yet synthesized participants' experiences of welfare-to-work. Here, I present a meta-synthesis of eight qualitative health-related studies of single parents' (and exclusively single mothers') welfare-to-work transition. I report that single mothers faced a combination of health and economic issues which made their transition from welfare to work difficult, including degrees of poor physical and mental health. For participants in the United States, these health issues were often compounded by a loss of health benefits on moving into low-wage employment. In countries where a return to employment was required before children reached school age, a lack of affordable and appropriate child care, especially for children with health problems, exacerbated these difficulties. As a result of scarce resources, single mothers in receipt of welfare benefits often relied on food banks or went without food. A return to the workforce did not alleviate this problem as additional child care and reduced government subsidies depleted the funds available for food. I conclude that welfare-to-work policies are underpinned by the neoliberal assumption that the market more efficiently distributes resources than the State. However, for the women in the studies examined here, labour market participation often depleted access to essential resources. Interventions to address the 'problem' of welfare dependency must recognize the complex interplay between work

  2. Expansion and retrenchment of the Swedish welfare state: a long-term approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buendía, Luis

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we will undertake a long-term analysis of the evolution of the Swedish welfare state, seeking to explain that evolution through the use of a systemic approach. That is, our approach will consider the interrelations between economic growth (EG), the sociopolitical institutional framework (IF), and the welfare state (WS)-understood as a set of institutions embracing the labor market and its regulation, the tax system, and the so-called social wage-in order to find the main variables that elucidate its evolution. We will show that the expansive phase of the Swedish welfare state can be explained by the symbiotic relationships developed in the WS-EG-IF interaction, whereas the period of welfare state retrenchment is one result of changes operating within the sociopolitical IF and EG bases.

  3. The reoccurance of pre-welfare state poverty profiles in Denmark?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anders Bøggild

    2011-01-01

    . However immigrants and descendants are facing a pre-welfare state poverty risk profile with very high poverty rates among children, families and old age. In context the economical crisis has several consequences. One is regarding the possibilities to prevent poverty through increased public spending. Most......This abstract is addressing the conference theme “Welfare and professionalism in Turbulent Times – where are we now and where are we heading” focusing on the development of poverty and inequality exemplified by the development in a larger city in Denmark. The Danish welfare state with emphasis...... on universalism, progressive taxation and extensive social benefits is often regarded to perform well at preventing poverty problems and inequality (Goul Andersen 2003). Comparative research shows Denmark and the Nordic welfare states as countries with low levels of poverty and inequality (OECD 2008, Fritzell...

  4. Welfare work addressing immigrants and refugees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øland, Trine

    these integrationist visions in their quest to protect immigrants’ and refugees’ fundamental wellbeing and status as human beings with equal rights, group life and history. These opposing elements generate ambiguity and contradiction within integrationist welfare work. The ambition of the presentation is to enquire......In this presentation I will discuss the ways in which welfare workers addressing immigrants and refugees (re)produce integrationist visions, symbolizing society as an integrated whole and immigrants/refugees as a distraction to that whole. Paradoxically, welfare workers also oppose......, nurses and more) addressing immigrants and refugees and their families and descendants in the Danish welfare nation-state....

  5. Highlighting ethical decisions underlying the scoring of animal welfare in the Welfare Quality® scheme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veissier, I.; Jensen, Karsten Klint; Botreau, R.;

    2011-01-01

    dimension of scoring and labelling does not mean that we should reject them, but it does mean that we need to make the normative and ethical background explicit. The Welfare Quality® scoring system is used as a case study in order to highlight the role of underlying value-based decisions. In this scoring......), and any welfare scoring system will reflect a focus upon one or other definition. In Welfare Quality® 12 welfare criteria were defined, and the entire list of criteria was intended to cover relevant definitions of animal welfare. Second, two dimensions can structure an overall evaluation of animal welfare...... state of the animals or give priority to worse-off animals. In the Welfare Quality® scoring system the worse-off animals are treated as much more important than the others, but all welfare problems, major or minor, count. Fourth, one has to decide whether good scores on certain criteria can compensate...

  6. Reversing Early Retirement in Advanced Welfare EconomiesA Paradigm Shift to Overcome Push and Pull Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Ebbinghaus

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent reform efforts of advanced welfare states have attempted to reverse trends in early retirement and increase the statutory retirement age. This paradigm shift often occurred against the protest of unions, firms and their employees. As a consequence of expanding welfare states and as response to economic challenges since the 1970s early exit from work has become a widespread practice. Early retirement has been part of Continental Europe’s welfare without work problem, while the Scandinavian welfare states, the Anglophone liberal economies and the Japanese welfare society were able to maintain higher levels of employment for older workers. Since the 1990s, an international consensus to reverse early exit from work emerged among international organisations and national policy experts. Based on a comparative historical analysis of selected OECD countries, this study analyses the cross-national variations in the institutionalisation of early exit regimes and its recent reversal using macro-indictors on early exit trends and stylised information on institutional arrangements. Comparing the interaction of social policy and economic institutions, it reviews the cross-national differences in welfare state “pull” and economic “push” factors that have contributed to early exit from work and discusses the likely impact of welfare retrenchment and assesses the importance of “retention” factors such as activation policies for decreasing early exit from work.

  7. Land markets and their regulation: the welfare economics of planning

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    This book brings together a range of viewpoints on a number of the burning issues affecting urban sustainability in North America and Europe at the beginning of the 21st century. H.S. Geyer and his contributors cover a wide spectrum of the urban policy issues that determine the growth and development progress as well as the livability of cities in the Occident.\\ud The volume focuses on three broad themes: nuances in urban policy formulation in Britain and the United States; the evolvement of ...

  8. How New Economic Ideas Changed the Danish Welfare State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christian Albrekt; Andersen, Jørgen Goul

    2009-01-01

    to monetarism in the UK. However, in the Danish case this paradigmatic shift did not coincide with a political shift to a right-wing government. This makes it possible to disentangle the intimate relationship between ideas and interests. It is argued that the Danish case provides one of the clearest examples...

  9. Compensation Standard of Cultivated Land Protection and Mechanism of Transregional Fiscal Transfer Payment:From the Perspective of Local Government Economic Welfare%耕地保护补偿标准及跨区域财政转移机制--基于地方政府经济福利视角的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹瑞芬; 张安录

    2015-01-01

    耕地保护区地方政府很难获取土地财政,一定程度上阻碍了地方政府财政收入的积累,损害了地方政府的经济利益,打击了地方政府保护耕地的积极性。因此,基于地方政府经济福利视角,构建耕地保护跨区域财政转移机制迫在眉睫。本文采用中国1999-2008年省际面板数据和动态面板GMM估计方法,考察了土地财政与耕地保护之间的定量关系,从地方政府经济福利视角测算了耕地保护经济补偿标准。研究结果发现,土地财政不利于耕地保护,土地财政每增加1亿元,耕地面积相应减少约91.5 hm2;进一步由转换关系可知,耕地保护经济补偿标准约为109万元/hm2。并在此基础上,结合粮食安全法下各省份的耕地赤字/盈余量,探讨耕地保护省际跨区域财政转移支付。结果表明,11个耕地赤字区共需支付补偿款757.500亿元,其中赤字最严重的广东省需支付高达158.481亿元的补偿款;10个耕地盈余区共可获取补偿款523.856亿元,其中盈余量最多的黑龙江省可获得高达132.787亿元的补偿款;10个耕地平衡区不参与财政转移支付过程。另外,分析转移支付额与当年地方财政收入之间的关系可知,各支付区的支付额占当年地方财政收入的比例约为1.30%-12.26%,均未超出当地政府的承受范围,表明财政转移支付行为具有一定的现实可操作性。研究成果能为均衡我国区域发展、保障国家粮食安全提供参考依据。%Local government of cultivated land protection area has less chance to obtain land revenue, which hinders the accumulation of local revenue to a certain extent, and then does harm to the economic interests of local government, thus reducing the local government’s enthusiasm of protecting cultivated land. Hence, constructing transregional compensation system is imminent from the perspective of local government economic welfare. In this paper, we quantify the

  10. Generic drug names and social welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo, Félix; Feldman, Roger

    2013-06-01

    This article studies how well International Nonproprietary Names (INNs), the "generic" names for pharmaceuticals, address the problems of imperfect information. Left in private hands, the identification of medicines leads to confusion and errors. Developed in the 1950s by the World Health Organization, INNs are a common, global, scientific nomenclature designed to overcome this failure. Taking stock after sixty years, we argue that the contribution of INNs to social welfare is paramount. They enhance public health by reducing errors and improving patient safety. They also contribute to economic efficiency by creating transparency as the foundation of competitive generic drug markets, reducing transaction costs, and favoring trade. The law in most countries requires manufacturers to designate pharmaceuticals with INNs in labeling and advertising. Generic substitution is also permitted or mandatory in many countries. But not all the benefits of INNs are fully realized because prescribers may not use them. We advocate strong incentives or even legally binding provisions to extend the use of INNs by prescribing physicians and dispensing pharmacists, but we do not recommend replacing brand names entirely with INNs. Instead, we propose dual use of brand names and INNs in prescribing, as in drug labeling.

  11. The Ruins of the British Welfare State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahl Kaminer

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The subjects of Owen Hatherley’s A Guide to the New Ruins of Great Britain are architecture and urban development. The book addresses also some broader cultural, political and economic references, as well as personal anecdotes and memories. It includes many encounters with the remnants of the British welfare state.As an extension to his blog postings and a sequel of sorts to his previous Militant Modernism, Hatherley’s antagonist here is the semi-official architecture of New Labour, which he terms ‘pseudomodernism’: an unimaginative, inferior, and, in its own specific way, also tacky architecture of white stucco, steel and glass. He attacks the Faustian bargain of Richard Rogers and his allies with neoliberalism, a pact that produces a modernism devoid of social content, reflected by the unimaginative, speculation-driven architectural design. While Hatherley produces the promised indictment of recent British architecture, the book is, at the end of the day, primarily a eulogy to the disappearing postwar architecture he so evidently loves.

  12. Popular Support for Welfare State Reforms: On Welfare State Preferences and Welfare State Reforms in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Raven (Judith)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe aim of this research is to better understand what is meant by general support for the welfare state. At the start of this study, I observed an alleged discrepancy between people’s preferences and welfare state policies. Whereas on the one hand various studies demonstrate that public

  13. Three worlds of educational welfare states? A comparative study of higher education systems across welfare states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Willemse; P. de Beer

    2012-01-01

    Although education is generally considered to be an important part of the welfare state, it is largely absent in the comparative welfare state literature. This article tries to fill this void by applying the central concepts of welfare state analysis of decommodification and stratification, as propo

  14. Societal Factors Impacting Child Welfare: Validating the Perceptions of Child Welfare Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auerbach, Charles; Zeitlin, Wendy; Augsberger, Astraea; McGowan, Brenda G.; Claiborne, Nancy; Lawrence, Catherine K.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This research examines the psychometric properties of the Perceptions of Child Welfare Scale (PCWS). This instrument is designed to assess child welfare workers' understanding of how society views their role and their work. Methods: Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was utilized to analyze data on 538 child welfare workers. Results:…

  15. Preliminary evaluation of a prototype welfare monitoring system for sows and piglets (Welfare Quality (R) project)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scott, K.; Binnendijk, G.P.; Edwards, S.A.; Gu, J.H.; Wijhe-Kiezebrink, van M.C.; Vermeer, H.M.

    2009-01-01

    The Welfare Quality(R) project aims to develop a European on-form welfare assessment standard for pigs, amongst other species. A prototype monitoring system was developed for sows and piglets using predominantly animal-based measures of behaviour, health and physiology to assess welfare. The

  16. Preliminary evaluation of a prototype welfare monitoring system for sows and piglets (Welfare Quality (R) project)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scott, K.; Binnendijk, G.P.; Edwards, S.A.; Gu, J.H.; Wijhe-Kiezebrink, van M.C.; Vermeer, H.M.

    2009-01-01

    The Welfare Quality(R) project aims to develop a European on-form welfare assessment standard for pigs, amongst other species. A prototype monitoring system was developed for sows and piglets using predominantly animal-based measures of behaviour, health and physiology to assess welfare. The prototy

  17. The relationship between mental representations of welfare recipients and attitudes toward welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown-Iannuzzi, J.L.; Dotsch, R.; Cooley, E.; Payne, B.K.

    2017-01-01

    Scholars have argued that opposition to welfare is, in part, driven by stereotypes of African Americans. This argument assumes that when individuals think about welfare, they spontaneously think about Black recipients. We investigated people's mental representations of welfare recipients. In Studies

  18. The Relationship Between Mental Representations of Welfare Recipients and Attitudes Toward Welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown-Iannuzzi, Jazmin L; Dotsch, Ron; Cooley, Erin; Payne, B Keith

    2016-01-01

    Scholars have argued that opposition to welfare is, in part, driven by stereotypes of African Americans. This argument assumes that when individuals think about welfare, they spontaneously think about Black recipients. We investigated people's mental representations of welfare recipients. In Studies

  19. A history of animal welfare science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broom, Donald M

    2011-06-01

    Human attitudes to animals have changed as non-humans have become more widely incorporated in the category of moral agents who deserve some respect. Parallels between the functioning of humans and non-humans have been made for thousands of years but the idea that the animals that we keep can suffer has spread recently. An improved understanding of motivation, cognition and the complexity of social behaviour in animals has led in the last 30 years to the rapid development of animal welfare science. Early attempts to define welfare referred to individuals being in harmony with nature but the first usable definition incorporated feelings and health as part of attempts to cope with the environment. Others considered that welfare is only about feelings but it is argued that as feelings are mechanisms that have evolved they are a part of welfare rather than all of it. Most reviews of welfare now start with listing the needs of the animal, including needs to show certain behaviours. This approach has used sophisticated studies of what is important to animals and has replaced the earlier general guidelines described as freedoms. Many measures of welfare are now used and indicate how good or how poor the welfare is. Naturalness is not a part of the definition of welfare but explains why some needs exist. In recent years, welfare has become established as one of various criteria used to decide on whether a system is sustainable because members of the public will not accept systems that cause poor welfare. The study of welfare has become part of the scientific basis upon which important political decisions are made.

  20. Assessment of welfare of Brazilian and Belgian broiler flocks using the Welfare Quality protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuyttens, F A M; Federici, J F; Vanderhasselt, R F; Goethals, K; Duchateau, L; Sans, E C O; Molento, C F M

    2015-08-01

    The Welfare Quality consortium has proposed a science-based protocol for assessing broiler chicken welfare on farms. Innovative features make the protocols particularly suited for comparative studies, such as the focus on animal-based welfare measures and an integration procedure for calculating an overall welfare status. These protocols reflect the scientific status up to 2009 but are meant to be updated on the basis of inter alia implementation studies. Because only few such studies have been done, we applied the Welfare Quality protocol to compare the welfare of broiler flocks in Belgium (representing a typical European Union (EU) country which implies stringent animal welfare legislation) versus Brazil (the major broiler meat exporter to the EU and with minimal animal welfare legislation). Two trained observers performed broiler Welfare Quality assessments on a total of 22 farms in Belgium and south Brazil. All of the farms produced for the EU market. Although the overall welfare was categorized as 'acceptable' on all farms, many country differences were observed at the level of the welfare principles, criteria, and measures. Brazilian farms obtained higher scores for 3 of the 4 welfare principles: 'good feeding' (P = 0.007), 'good housing' (P potential of the protocol. The results also call for more research into the effect of animal welfare legislation as broiler welfare on the south Brazilian farms appeared to be superior to that on the Belgian farms. Animal-based welfare assessments on a larger sample of farms are needed to evaluate to what extent these findings may be generalized.

  1. Analysing changes of health inequalities in the Nordic welfare states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lahelma, Eero; Kivelä, Katariina; Roos, Eva

    2002-01-01

    a period of deep economic recession and a large increase in unemployment, particularly in Finland and Sweden, health inequalities by employment status and education remained broadly unchanged in all Nordic countries. Thus, during this fairly short period health inequalities in these countries were...... not strongly influenced by changes in other structural inequalities, in particular labour market inequalities. Institutional arrangements in the Nordic welfare states, including social benefits and services, were cut during the recession but nevertheless broadly remained, and are likely to have buffered...

  2. Measuring forest and wild product contributions to household welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakkegaard, Riyong Kim; Hogarth, Nicholas J.; Bong, Indah Waty

    2016-01-01

    Systematic comparisons of human dependence on forests and environmental resources have been challenging, as a result of heterogeneous methodologies. Specialized Forestry Modules have been developed, with the goal of filling current information gaps concerning the economic importance of forest...... and wild products in household welfare and rural livelihoods. Results from a pilot assessment of the Forestry Modules in West Kalimantan, Indonesia, are presented, showing that the Forestry Modules perform well in extracting the expected information: mean per capita forest and wild product income shifts...

  3. Implications of Genotype by Environment Interactions in Dairy Sheep Welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinu Gavojdian

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Small ruminants are the most extensively farmed livestock species in Europe, as a result being extremely exposed to natural hazards which leads to strong interactions between genotype and environment. Aim of the current review was to outline and discuss the main welfare issues and economic implications with regards to the genotype by environment interactions in dairy sheep. Researches concerning the additive genetic effect on milk yield, shown that this accounts only for 10%, while the milk production is 90% influenced by environmental factors, highlighting the major role that management and nutrition play in the dairy production of sheep. Nowadays, dairy sheep breeds (e.g. Eastern Friesian and Lacaune, are being introduced and reared in various countries under an extremely wide range of rearing conditions, without adequate knowledge on their acclimatization to the new specific conditions. It was concluded that a welfare assessment protocol for dairy sheep does not exist up today, moreover, there is a serious lack of data concerning the genetic and environmental factors affecting the welfare status of dairy sheep at farm level under different production systems.

  4. Social Welfare Activism in Jordan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Marie Juul

    , this interest tends to focus on secular organisations and institutions, overlooking religious ones, although these make up a large part of Jordanian civil society. Particularly interesting are the country's many Muslim social welfare organisations, engaged in activities such as education, health care...... and financial assistance to the poor. This brief asks whether these organisations can be considered potential agents of democratic change or rather as preservers of the status quo. Moreover, do they employ Islam as a means of control or empowerment? Attempting to answer these questions, the brief discusses...... the organisations' positions on a number of concepts often associated with "democratisation", namely women's rights, participation and pluralism, paying particular attention to the role of Islam....

  5. We Develop Welfare Together - Locally

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flindt, Helle; Carlsbæk, Poul Hornshøj

    2016-01-01

    to take care of themselves and each other. This should result in citizens becoming co-producers in an organised community, which goes beyond the individual. The students practise taking initiative to co-creation between civic groups, professionals, private corporations and volunteer organisations....... The students must form a collaboration with a local community and test a limited, concrete welfare benefit initiative for this particular community. The students experience to act in the professional world where it is important to cede control and at the same time ensure the quality. Their point of departure...... is in the challenges in the local society - not the participants that will be a part of the solution. Feedback from the communities is an essential part of the foundation for the examination. Here the group shall reflect upon the interprofessional and intersectorial collaboration including whether co...

  6. Welfare Reform and Children's Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltagi, Badi H; Yen, Yin-Fang

    2016-03-01

    This study investigates the effect of the Temporary Aid to Needy Families (TANF) program on children's health outcomes using data from the Survey of Income and Program Participation over the period 1994 to 2005. The TANF policies have been credited with increased employment for single mothers and a dramatic drop in welfare caseload. Our results show that these policies also had a significant effect on various measures of children's medical utilization among low-income families. These health measures include a rating of the child's health status reported by the parents, the number of times that parents consulted a doctor, and the number of nights that the child stayed in a hospital. We compare the overall changes of health status and medical utilization for children with working and nonworking mothers. We find that the child's health status as reported by the parents is affected by the maternal employment status. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Effects of Welfare Participation on Marriage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teitler, Julien O.; Reichman, Nancy E.; Nepomnyaschy, Lenna; Garfinkel, Irwin

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the widely held premise that welfare participation causes women to refrain from marriage. Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 3,219), we employed an event history approach to study transitions to marriage among mothers who have had a nonmarital birth. We found that welfare participation reduces the…

  8. Rights, solidarity and the animal welfare state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harfeld, Jes

    2016-01-01

    This article argues that aspects of the animal rights view can be constructively modulated through a communitarian approach and come to promote animal welfare through the social contexts of expanded caring communities. The Nordic welfare state is presented as a conceivable caring community within...... which animals could be viewed and treated appropriately as co-citizens with solidarity based rights and duties....

  9. Social Service Organizations and Welfare Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Barbara; Widom, Rebecca

    The Project on Devolution and Urban Change conducted a study to learn how new welfare policies and funding mechanisms, especially devolution and Temporary Assistance for Needy Families block grants, affect human service agencies in neighborhoods with high concentrations of welfare recipients and people living in poverty. Key personnel at 106…

  10. Does the Minimum Wage Affect Welfare Caseloads?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Marianne E.; Spetz, Joanne; Millar, Jane

    2005-01-01

    Although minimum wages are advocated as a policy that will help the poor, few studies have examined their effect on poor families. This paper uses variation in minimum wages across states and over time to estimate the impact of minimum wage legislation on welfare caseloads. We find that the elasticity of the welfare caseload with respect to the…

  11. Welfare States and Labour Market Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Bent

    2017-01-01

    between being on the labour market, access to a variety of welfare benefits and the ability to finance welfare states. It uses concepts such as under-employment and new forms of jobs as indicators of change. These changes implying, more than ever, that having a job does not necessarily entail...

  12. Flexible Employment, Risk and the Welfare State

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.P.S. Dekker (Fabian)

    2011-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ In most developed countries, the welfare state provides some form of protection for its citizens. The provision of social arrangements differs substantially between countries but, on the basis of institutional characteristics such as the level of spending on welfare pro

  13. The Role of the Welfare Advocate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jermany, Catherine Day

    The paper, part of the paralegal training materials prepared by the National Paralegal Institution, discusses the role of the welfare advocate, a type of legal assistant: the right and responsibility to refuse a case; competency to provide adequate representation; informal advocacy vs. formal advocacy in welfare; arranging the negotiation setting…

  14. The Climate of Child Welfare Employee Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahalane, Helen; Sites, Edward W.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes differences in perceptions of the child welfare work environment among Title IV-E educated individuals who remain within public child welfare and those who sought employment elsewhere after fulfilling a legal work commitment. Job satisfaction, emotional exhaustion, and personal accomplishment were predictive of staying…

  15. Animal Welfare in organic framing systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoolder, H.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    The concept of farm animal welfare can, for practical purposes, be translated into the so-called Five Freedoms.[1] Organic farming aims to meet animal welfare needs and should therefore comply with these Freedoms. The first Freedom, from hunger and thirst, is met in any system properly managed to or

  16. Animal Welfare: What's coming down the pipe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concern for farm animal welfare is not a new concept. However, increased public pressure and an increasingly entangled global economy are effecting change across the world. The conversation about farm animal welfare is difficult because the world’s population has become disconnected from agricultur...

  17. Reconsidering Schools and the American Welfare State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Miriam

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses her comparative study of the history of the welfare state in the United States, England, and France, she studies some of the usual features of the welfare state, which include important entitlement programs, such as social insurance, and protective labor legislation, but she also focuses on the development of…

  18. Rights, solidarity and the animal welfare state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harfeld, Jes

    2016-01-01

    This article argues that aspects of the animal rights view can be constructively modulated through a communitarian approach and come to promote animal welfare through the social contexts of expanded caring communities. The Nordic welfare state is presented as a conceivable caring community within...... which animals could be viewed and treated appropriately as co-citizens with solidarity based rights and duties....

  19. The globalisation of farm animal welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, D

    2014-04-01

    Animal welfare has achieved significant global prominence for perhaps three reasons. First, several centuries of scientific research, especially in anatomy, evolutionary biology and animal behaviour, have led to a gradual narrowing of the gap that people perceive between humans and other species; this altered perception has prompted grass-roots attention to animals and their welfare, initially in Western countries but now more globally asthe influence of science has expanded. Second, scientific research on animal welfare has provided insights and methods for improving the handling, housing and management of animals; this 'animal welfare science' is increasingly seen as relevant to improving animal husbandry worldwide. Third, the development and use of explicit animal welfare standards has helped to integrate animal welfare as a component of national and international public policy, commerce and trade. To date, social debate about animal welfare has been dominated bythe industrialised nations. However, as the issue becomes increasingly global, it will be important for the non-industrialised countries to develop locally appropriate approaches to improving animal welfare, for example, by facilitating the provision of shelter, food, water and health care, and by improving basic handling, transportation and slaughter.

  20. Bioethical Problems: Animal Welfare, Animal Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    March, B. E.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses various bioethical issues and problems related to animal welfare and animal rights. Areas examined include: Aristotelian views; animal welfare legislation; Darwin and evolutionary theory; animal and human behavior; and vegetarianism. A 14-point universal declaration of the rights of animals is included. (JN)

  1. Flexible Employment, Risk and the Welfare State

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.P.S. Dekker (Fabian)

    2011-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ In most developed countries, the welfare state provides some form of protection for its citizens. The provision of social arrangements differs substantially between countries but, on the basis of institutional characteristics such as the level of spending on welfare pro

  2. Indian Child Welfare Act Proceedings. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-14

    This final rule adds a new subpart to the Department of the Interior's (Department) regulations implementing the Indian Child Welfare Act (ICWA), to improve ICWA implementation. The final rule addresses requirements for State courts in ensuring implementation of ICWA in Indian child-welfare proceedings and requirements for States to maintain records under ICWA.

  3. Rethinking European Competition Law: From a Consumer Welfare to a Capability Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rutger Claassen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available European competition law is predominantly focused on maximizing consumer welfare. This overarching purpose (which is supported by economic theory leaves little place for safeguarding non-economic values, such as sustainability. This makes it difficult to allow cooperation between companies to contribute to such non-economic goals. In this article we explore whether it is possible to establish a different normative framework, in which such goals can be taken into account and can be balanced against the economic goal of consumer welfare. To answer this question, we take four steps. First, we discuss current EU competition law and the difficulty of fitting non-economic goals into the dominant interpretation of that law. Second, we propose a different normative framework, based on the capability approach advanced by philosopher Martha Nussbaum and economist Amartya Sen. Third, we argue that there are good principled reasons to incorporate non-economic goals into competition law. Fourth, we apply both the capability approach and the consumer welfare approach to three (illustrative cases in which non-economic goals are at stake. Overall, we argue that the capability framework, although not without difficulties of its own, may provide a more legitimate theory for the interpretation of European competition law.

  4. Consumer preferences for pig welfare - can the market accommodate more than one level of welfare pork?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denver, Sigrid; Sandøe, Peter; Christensen, Tove

    2017-01-01

    level of animal welfare became available. The study was based on an online questionnaire with a choice experiment involving 396 Danish respondents. The results indicated that the Danish market could accommodate more than one pork product with a welfare label but the price differential separating medium...... and high level animal welfare pork will have to be quite narrow. In addition, full willingness-to-pay of consumers who want to buy high level welfare pork cannot be relied upon to incentivise new consumers to buy medium welfare pork. Further, raising brand awareness in the shopping situation and improving...

  5. Animal welfare education: development and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broom, Donald M

    2005-01-01

    Animal welfare has developed rapidly as a scientific discipline since the 1980s. Concepts have been refined, methodologies for assessment developed, and links made to other areas of science. Changes in the subject and in its teaching are required. Since 1986, a series of senior academic teaching posts in the subject have been created, especially in the last 10 years. Veterinary and animal science students should receive a specific course on animal welfare, in addition to mention of the subject in other courses. In the future, more allusion to developments in understanding of welfare in relation to disease and brain measures of welfare is likely. The central role of animal welfare in veterinary and animal science teaching will become more firmly established.

  6. Social Media Use in Child Welfare Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd Edward Sage

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The scholarly child welfare literature offers little information about the use of social media by child welfare workers. We conducted a study of 171 child welfare workers across several states using an online survey. The resulting data offer insights from workers about current practices related to social media use in a child welfare work setting. Most respondents see social media as an acceptable tool for conducting child welfare assessments. Respondents describe strains and benefits of social media use. It is recommended that agencies provide guidance on ethical decision-making for using social media as a work-related tool. Agencies should also provide policy clearly defining social media use and misuse.

  7. Welfare impacts of climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hof, Andries F.

    2015-01-01

    Climate change can affect well-being in poor economies more than previously shown if its effect on economic growth, and not only on current production, is considered. But this result does not necessarily suggest greater mitigation efforts are required.

  8. Welfare impacts of climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hof, Andries F.

    2015-01-01

    Climate change can affect well-being in poor economies more than previously shown if its effect on economic growth, and not only on current production, is considered. But this result does not necessarily suggest greater mitigation efforts are required.

  9. Highlighting ethical decisions underlying the scoring of animal welfare in the Welfare Quality® scheme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veissier, I.; Jensen, Karsten Klint; Botreau, R.

    2011-01-01

    of criteria to which the unit complies vs does not comply). Welfare Quality® opted for the second alternative to facilitate the provision of advice to farmers on solving the welfare problems associated with their farms. Third, one has to decide whether the overall welfare assessment should reflect the average...... for bad scores on others. In the opinion of most people, welfare scores do not compensate each other. This was taken into account in the Welfare Quality® scoring system by using a specific operator instead of mere weighted sums. Finally, a scoring system may either reflect societal demands for high levels......, but the rules governing the assignment of an animal unit to a category take into account what had been observed on European farms. The scientists behind Welfare Quality® are keen to make the value-based choices underlying assessments of animal welfare transparent. This is essential to allow stakeholder groups...

  10. Images of welfare in law and society: the British welfare state in comparative perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wincott, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Designed by Beveridge and built by Attlee's post-war Labour government, the welfare state was created during the 1940s. Britain has been seen – in domestic debates and internationally – as a world first: the place where both the idea and the practice of the welfare state were invented. I draw together comparative welfare state analysis with law and society scholarship (previously largely developed in isolation from one another) – as well as using British political cartoons as a source – to develop a revisionist historical critique of this conventional wisdom. First, the British welfare state has always been comparatively parsimonious. Second, the idea of the welfare state seems to have its origins outside the United Kingdom and this terminology was adopted relatively late and with some ambivalence in public debate and scholarly analysis. Third, a large body of socio-legal scholarship shows that robust ‘welfare rights’ were never embedded in the British ‘welfare state’.

  11. Status consumption and poverty in developing countries: Evidence and welfare effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempen, L.A.C.M. van

    2009-01-01

    This book investigates the scope, nature, and welfare effects of status consumption by the poor in developing countries, a phenomenon that is virtually unexplored in the development economics literature. It addresses questions such as: why do the poor buy status-intensive goods, while they suffer

  12. Redefining Participation? On the Positioning of Children in Swedish Welfare Benefits Appeals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernqvist, Stina

    2011-01-01

    This article deals with the representation of children in the Swedish welfare state, and particularly how children and parents living in economic hardship are positioned in issues regarding financial aid. According to Article 12 in the UNCRC, children have a right to be heard "in any judicial and administrative proceedings affecting the…

  13. Redefining Participation? On the Positioning of Children in Swedish Welfare Benefits Appeals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernqvist, Stina

    2011-01-01

    This article deals with the representation of children in the Swedish welfare state, and particularly how children and parents living in economic hardship are positioned in issues regarding financial aid. According to Article 12 in the UNCRC, children have a right to be heard "in any judicial and administrative proceedings affecting the…

  14. The welfare implications of large litter size in the domestic pig II: management factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baxter, E.M.; Rutherford, K.M.D.; D'Eath, R.B.

    2013-01-01

    Increasing litter size has long been a goal of pig (Sus scrofa domesticus) breeders and producers in many countries. Whilst this has economic and environmental benefits for the pig industry, there are also implications for pig welfare. Certain management interventions are used when litter size ro...

  15. "The Single-Parent Family" and Welfare Reform: Is Marriage the Solution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitchen, Janet M.

    1995-01-01

    Many proposals for welfare reform center on the issue of marriage-based families versus single-parent families and oversimplify the relationship between single-parenting and poverty. Research done in upstate rural New York among low-income families showed that personal and economic characteristics of married and single mothers were similar as to…

  16. Scenario Realism and Welfare Estimates in Choice Experiments: - A Non-Market Valuation Study on the European Water Framework Directive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kataria, Mitesh; Bateman, Ian; Christensen, Tove

    2012-01-01

    Using choice experiment data for economic valuation we analyse how disbelief in survey information could affect the retrieved welfare estimates. We distinguish between two types of survey information to the respondents. The first type of information concerns the current environmental status...... welfare measures differ considerably according to whether respondents who disagree with the status quo levels and find proposed scenarios unlikely are included or not....

  17. The Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) approach as a framework for business involvement in health promotion in the welfare state

    OpenAIRE

    Monachino, Michelle Sara

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation is to be situated in the debate about the development of the contemporary Western European welfare state, its displacement of responsibilities from state to non-state societal actors and the resulting concerns vis-à-vis the optimal distribution of responsibilities. Drawing, in interdisciplinary fashion, from the fields of political sociology, political economics, welfare studies, public health policy, and management, it focuses upon the involvement of for-profit, non-state a...

  18. Formulating policies for the welfare of animals during long distance transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavinelli, Andrea; Ferrara, Maria; Simonin, Denis

    2008-01-01

    Long distance transportation of animals creates much public concern in the European Union (EU) and elsewhere, partly because of its visibility to the general public. The protection of animals during transport is thus a key element of EU policy for farm animal welfare. At the same time, animal transport has been vital to the structure of the food chain in Europe since the beginning of the Common Agricultural Policy. The authors describe the formulation of EU policy on long distance transportation. Initiatives are based on scientific risk assessment and considerations of international guidelines. The two main objectives of EU policy are to reduce long distance transportation as far as possible and to upgrade standards for transported animals. The extent of detail in regulations depends on the ability of the sector concerned to address issues and on continual upgrading of the awareness and knowledge of transport operators on animal welfare which is universally important for progress. The economic impact of legislative measures must be evaluated as part of the policy process, noting that proper animal welfare standards can generate direct and indirect economic advantages. Awareness of these welfare advantages in all sectors is essential for raising the quality of enforcement. Finally, policy goals should be monitored to verify the extent of their fulfilment. Efforts from competent authorities and transport companies in Europe are improving the situation. However, a strong legislative framework is likely to remain the best option for the coming years to ensure that the welfare of transported animals is more than just a minimum.

  19. Policing Welfare: Risk, Gender and Criminality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scarlet Wilcock

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the last three decades, welfare states across the West have embraced a host of new technologies and initiatives in the name of fighting welfare abuse and fraud (see Cook 1989, 2006; Wacquant 2001, 2009. Increasingly, these practices of ‘welfare policing’ are graduated according to risk; particular welfare populations considered at greater risk of welfare fraud are subject to more intense scrutiny. Drawing on interview research with compliance staff from the Australian Department of Human Services, this paper critically explores how the rationality of risk figures in the process of welfare surveillance in Australia. It pays particular attention to the ways in which risk formulations are embedded in gender and class politics, and how this has led to the characterisation of single mothers and unemployed recipients as more ‘risky’ than the general welfare population, a point that is often overlooked in the literature. But, far from being immutable, this paper also considers how the politics of risk are open to reformulation with often unexpected results.

  20. Trade policy under imperfect competition : The economics of Russian roulette

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brakman, S; vanMarrewijk, C

    1996-01-01

    Neo-classical economic theory shows that managed trade or protectionism is (almost) always welfare decreasing. However, measurements of the welfare costs of protectionism based on neo-classical models seem to suggest that these costs are quite small. We discuss general new insights and developments

  1. Trade policy under imperfect competition: The economics of Russian roulette

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Brakman (Steven); J.G.M. van Marrewijk (Charles)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractNeo-classical economic theory shows that managed trade or protectionism is (almost) always welfare decreasing. However, measurements of the welfare costs of protectionism based on neo-classical models seem to suggest that these costs are quite small. We discuss general new insights and d

  2. An epidemiological approach to welfare research in zoos: the Elephant Welfare Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlstead, Kathy; Mench, Joy A; Meehan, Cheryl; Brown, Janine L

    2013-01-01

    Multi-institutional studies of welfare have proven to be valuable in zoos but are hampered by limited sample sizes and difficulty in evaluating more than just a few welfare indicators. To more clearly understand how interactions of husbandry factors influence the interrelationships among welfare outcomes, epidemiological approaches are needed as well as multifactorial assessments of welfare. Many questions have been raised about the housing and care of elephants in zoos and whether their environmental and social needs are being met in a manner that promotes good welfare. This article describes the background and rationale for a large-scale study of elephant welfare in North American zoos funded by the (U.S.) Institute of Museum and Library Services. The goals of this project are to document the prevalence of positive and negative welfare states in 291 elephants exhibited in 72 Association of Zoos and Aquariums zoos and then determine the environmental, management, and husbandry factors that impact elephant welfare. This research is the largest scale nonhuman animal welfare project ever undertaken by the zoo community, and the scope of environmental variables and welfare outcomes measured is unprecedented.

  3. Good Governance, Welfare, and Transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Jürgen Wagener

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Market conforming institutions are a precondition for a thriving and stable economy. This is the upshot of the Washington consensus or, of somewhat earlier origin, the “Eucken hypothesis”. Another hypothesis of Eucken has it that market conforming institutions are the product of a strong state. However, more general and more important than the strong state is good governance. In this paper I refer to it as the “Lorenzetti hypothesis”. The paper tries to figure out the mechanisms by which good governance and economic order influence economic outcome. Then the two hypotheses are tested for two aspects of economic outcome: productivity as measured by GNP per capita over a wide range of countries and transformation success as measured by GNP growth over the European transformation countries. The tests confirm the theoretical expectation that good governance is more important than good order

  4. Spatial Segregation, Redistribution and Welfare: A Theoretical Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommaso Gabrieli

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops a theoretical model focusing on the effect that different neighborhood compositions can have on the formation of individual beliefs about economic opportunities. Specifically we highlight two effects that spatial segregation may have: (1 it can efficiently separate the individual effort choices of highly and low productive individuals, (2 it may imply that the median voter imposes a level of redistribution that is inefficient from the aggregate point of view. The trade-off implies that segregated and non-segregated cities may present very similar levels of aggregate welfare. We employ this framework to discuss how the structure of cities can play a role in the determination of US-type and Europe-type politico-economic equilibria and the implications for planning policies.

  5. Welfare reform- Major challenge for the social management in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Irina Dumitrescu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the main amendments brought by Law of the social work no. 292/2011 from the perspective of the social management and efficiency of social work system reform in Romania. Given the necessity of restructuration of the system of social benefits and services, the reform project outlines the responsibilities of the social actors in providing welfare and proposes a block of measures aimed to contribute at reducing social sector spending according to the austerity measures imposed by the economic crisis. The new management vision focused on reducing costs does not seem to provide suitable solutions for institutions functioning as it enables the harmonization of the economic efficiency with the social one. Received with scepticism by the public opinion and profoundly contested by the academic world, the reform project only partially succeeds in reaching proposed objectives of modernizing the social assistance system and supporting the people in need.

  6. WELFARE REGIMES IN LATIN AMERICA AND CARIBBEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melisa Campana-Alabarce

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a characterization of Latin American and Caribbean Welfare regimes in historiographical perspective. Firstly, it makes a review of the emergence conditions of Welfare States in Western Europe and its core features, with particular emphasis on its role as a method to regulate inequalities in industrial capitalism. Dialoguing with it, then stops in the specific configurations that welfare regimes have taken in Latin America during the course of the twentieth century. Finally, it provides a map of its contemporary features and the major challenges that the States of the region face in his capacity as right guarantors for the future.

  7. Behavior analysis and farm animal welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, T M; Temple, W; Poling, A

    1997-01-01

    This article demonstrates that there is a role for behavior-analytic techniques in the area of farm animal welfare and provides examples of the kinds of work that can be done. Behavior-analytic procedures, specifically those used in the study of psychophysics, preference, and demand, can provide answers to three questions people concerned with the welfare of farm animals are likely to ask: What can the animals detect? What do they like and dislike? What will they work to attain or preserve? Such information certainly is necessary for making reasonable decisions about animal welfare, although it is not sufficient in and of itself.

  8. Explaining convergence of oecd welfare states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmitt, C.; Starke, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Existing studies have found only limited empirical evidence of welfare state convergence. Moreover, although there are good theoretical reasons both for and against welfare state convergence, there are virtually no studies that have explicitly tested the assumed effects. We argue that the concept....... First, we show that there is very strong evidence of convergence across all categories of social expenditure when conditional factors are taken into account. Second, we demonstrate that the speed of convergence is highly driven by globalization and European Union membership and shaped by existing...... welfare state structures. © The Author(s) 2011....

  9. Gentling and welfare of lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Muscio

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In traditional sheep production systems, lambs are suckled by their mothers and then gradually weaned at 35 days of age. However, the increased size of intensive dairy sheep flocks to obtain greater amounts of ovine milk for cheese making, is promoting the diffusion of artificial rearing programs involving early separation of lambs from their mothers. Maternal deprivation soon after birth can have detrimental effects on lamb immune functions, and lead to altered cortisol secretion and behavioural responses to isolation (Napolitano et al., 1995. Human-animal interactions have been documented to play a role in sustaining the welfare and production of domestic animals (Hemsworth, 2003. In addition, gentled animals are less difficult to be handled and less susceptible to the stress induced by management practices involving human contacts (Lensink et al., 2000. The aim of the present trial was to investigate the effects of gently handling newborn lambs on their behavioural, immune and endocrine responses, and on their growth rate when mothered or artificially reared.

  10. Highlighting ethical decisions underlying the scoring of animal welfare in the Welfare Quality® scheme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veissier, I.; Jensen, Karsten Klint; Botreau, R.

    2011-01-01

    All systems of scoring animal units (groups, farms, slaughter plants, etc.) according to the level of the animals’ welfare are based inevitably on normative decisions. Similarly, all methods of labelling, in terms of acceptability, are based on choices reflecting ethical values. The evaluative...... dimension of scoring and labelling does not mean that we should reject them, but it does mean that we need to make the normative and ethical background explicit. The Welfare Quality® scoring system is used as a case study in order to highlight the role of underlying value-based decisions. In this scoring...... of welfare or be based on what can be achieved in practice – in other words, an absolute assessment or a relative one may be proposed. Welfare Quality® adopted an intermediate strategy: absolute limits between welfare categories (Not classified, Acceptable, Enhanced, or Excellent level of welfare) were set...

  11. "Concepts in animal welfare": a syllabus in animal welfare science and ethics for veterinary schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boo, Jasmijn; Knight, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    Public attitudes toward animal welfare have improved with growing social affluence, and veterinarians are increasingly expected to be informed about animal welfare in a broader sense than health alone. However, animal welfare has not been a traditional component of the veterinary curriculum. To help address this lack, the World Society for the Protection of Animals(WSPA) and the University of Bristol School of Veterinary Science launched the ''Concepts in Animal Welfare'' syllabus in 2003. This comprehensive syllabus comprises seven core and 23 elective modules and covers a range of animal welfare issues, including farm and companion animal welfare, wildlife, and the use of animals in experiments. There are also modules on ethics and animal legislation. The syllabus is interactive, promotes critical analysis of issues from different angles, and may be adapted for use in any veterinary curriculum. WSPA provides training and workshops in developing countries and assists with the implementation of the syllabus.

  12. Child Support Enforcement and Welfare Caseloads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chein-Chung Huang; Garfinkel, Irwin; Waldfogel, Jane

    2004-01-01

    Annual state panel data from 1980 to 1999 was examined to understand the effects of child support enforcement (CSE). However, in recent years, it has been found that the CSE among current and former welfare families are dramatically improved.

  13. Global perspectives on animal welfare: Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caporale, V; Alessandrini, B; Dalla Villa, P; Del Papa, S

    2005-08-01

    Effective implementation and enforcement of legislation is essential to ensure animal welfare. In the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) European Region the well-established body of national and European Union laws in existence is growing continuously. The growth is due to various factors, such as new technology in animal farming and experimentation, exploitation of wildlife, new understanding of animal needs, and increasing public awareness and concern. The latter, in particular, determines the need for new animal welfare legislation to regulate and discipline the 'use' of animals for different purposes, such as food production, companionship, work and leisure. This paper intends to provide an overview of the more relevant activities carried out by the Council of Europe and the European Union in the field of animal welfare. The authors identify eLearning as a tool to harmonise the interpretation and the implementation of animal welfare legislation.

  14. Disability and the Worlds of Welfare Capitalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rourke O’Brien

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A higher proportion of working- age persons receive disability assistance in the Nordic countries and the Netherlands than in other European countries. Whereas current research emphasizes the connection between disability assistance and rates of labor force exit, to date there has been no exploration of how welfare state context influences individual self-reported disability. Using nationally representative data from 15 countries (n = 88, 478, I find that residents of generous welfare states are significantly more likely to report a disability net of self-reported health, sociodemographic, and labor force characteristics and, notably, that this association extends to younger and more educated workers. I argue that welfare state context may directly shape what it means to be disabled, which may have consequences for evaluations of welfare state performance and social exclusion.

  15. Housing conditions in calves welfare risk assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Relić Renata R.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows results of calf welfare risk assessment at intensive breeding farms. Assessment has been conducted on the basis of housing conditions which can have negative influence on welfare of cattle, especially in calf category considering their needs. According to analysis results very good housing conditions were confirmed in open shed rearing stall (C and closed type rearing stall without feeding yard (A, whilst in closed rearing stall with feeding yard (B housing conditions were estimated as acceptable. Based on collected data about housing conditions, we have estimated that the least risk for calf welfare is at C farm, slightly higher at A farm and the highest at B farm. Data about housing conditions and analysis of potential welfare risk factors show possible causes for already present health and other problems with animals, which also can reappear in future. However for that reason, applying described methods can increase rearing conditions and increase production at cattle farms.

  16. Factors affecting welfare attitudes in different types of welfare states: personal interests and values

    OpenAIRE

    Olga Gryaznova

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the effect of personal interests and basic human values on the degree of support for a welfare state. Data from the European Social Survey, round 4 (2008) for 29 European countries (total n = 56,752) was used for the study. Results show that values such as collectivism and altruism promote demand for state intervention in welfare, while values like individualism and egoism negatively affect it. Income has the strongest negative effect on support for a welfare state among a...

  17. The Nordic welfare model and welfare services - Can we maintain acceptable standards?

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, Torben M.

    2015-01-01

    A key feature of the Nordic welfare model is provision of welfare services like care, education and health. They are individual entitlements, and collectively financed. It is a prerequisite that contemporary standards of services are provided; thus the public solution is not a second rate solution used only by those who cannot afford better solutions. Can the Nordic welfare model meet this objective in the future? Increasing productivity and wealth challenge this. Services tend to have lower ...

  18. Animal-based measures for welfare assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agostino Sevi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Animal welfare assessment can’t be irrespective of measures taken on animals. Indeed, housing parametersrelatedtostructures, designandmicro-environment, evenifreliable parameters related to structures, design and micro-environment, even if reliable and easier to take, can only identify conditions which could be detrimental to animal welfare, but can’t predict poor welfare in animals per se. Welfare assessment through animal-based measures is almost complex, given that animals’ responses to stressful conditions largely depend on the nature, length and intensity of challenges and on physiological status, age, genetic susceptibility and previous experience of animals. Welfare assessment requires a multi-disciplinary approach and the monitoring of productive, ethological, endocrine, immunological and pathological param- eters to be exhaustive and reliable. So many measures are needed, because stresses can act only on some of the mentioned parameters or on all of them but at different times and degree. Under this point of view, the main aim of research is to find feasible and most responsive indicators of poor animal welfare. In last decades, studies focused on the following parameters for animal wel- fare assessment indexes of biological efficiency, responses to behavioral tests, cortisol secretion, neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio, lymphocyte proliferation, production of antigen specific IgG and cytokine release, somatic cell count and acute phase proteins. Recently, a lot of studies have been addressed to reduce handling and constraint of animals for taking measures to be used in welfare assessment, since such procedures can induce stress in animals and undermined the reliability of measures taken for welfare assessment. Range of animal-based measures for welfare assessment is much wider under experimental condition than at on-farm level. In welfare monitoring on-farm the main aim is to find feasible measures of proved validity and reliability

  19. A Qualitative Study of the Long Term Impact of Welfare Reform on Cambodian American Families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Quintiliani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Many Cambodian American families have struggled on the economic margins since their arrival to the U.S. in the 1980s. To raise families in poverty Cambodians created family survival strategies to buffer themselves against economic uncertainty and the vagaries of the social welfare system. They combine public assistance with formal and informal work activities of household members, including teenagers and young adults, to survive. With the passage of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Act of 1996 or Welfare Reform, Cambodians lost vital economic resources. Based upon a longitudinal qualitative study from 1998-2007, this article looks back on how first generation Cambodian American household members adjusted to changes in welfare policy practices and how the loss of vital resources impacted the youth (15-19 years old coming of age in these families. The research findings and family case histories presented in this article illustrate the shared struggle of Cambodian family members in poverty. It reveals the significant challenges second generation Cambodian Americans face to achieve higher education goals when welfare policies systematically undercut family survival strategies.

  20. Health inequality and non-monotonicity of the health related social welfare function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Indranil

    2007-03-01

    In a recent paper in this journal Abasolo and Tsuchiya [Abasolo, I., Tsuchiya, A., 2004. Exploring social welfare functions and violation of monotonicity: an example from inequalities in health. Journal of Health Economics 23, 313-329] have strongly argued for the use of a non-monotonic health related social welfare function. This note discusses both the limitations of the measure proposed by Abasolo and Tsuchiya [Abasolo, I., Tsuchiya, A., 2004. Exploring social welfare functions and violation of monotonicity: an example from inequalities in health. Journal of Health Economics 23, 313-329] and the problems associated with their empirics. We are able to show how non-monotonicity may lead to paradoxical results and policies. Further we examine the empirics of Abasolo and Tsuchiya [Abasolo, I., Tsuchiya, A., 2004. Exploring social welfare functions and violation of monotonicity: an example from inequalities in health. Journal of Health Economics 23, 313-329] and provide an alternative explanation to the observed patterns in the data that do not violate monotonicity. Finally we briefly mention why the Atkinson-Sen framework may be more appropriate as a way forward.

  1. Welfare mix, CSR and social citizenship

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno Fernández, Luis

    2010-01-01

    Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is an important undertaking by corporations in order to advance social citizenship. In the last decades a growing implication of businesses and NGOs in welfare development has run hand in hand with a noticeable increase of both: (a) the for-profit welfare provision of policies and services to the general public, and (b) those programmes made available by corporations to their employees. All these developments, together with the provision of social poli...

  2. Why Did Austrian Business Oppose Welfare Cuts?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paster, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    In recent decades, business interests became protagonists of welfare retrenchment in many countries. In contrast, Austria’s national business organization, the WKÖ (Wirtschaftskammer Österreich), defended welfare programs and social partnership against government initiatives to dismantle them...... than alternative explanations that focus on competitive advantages. The article identifies compulsory membership, equal voting rights, and encompassing organization as the relevant features of the institutional setup. These features shaped the WKÖ’s social policy attitudes in two ways: first...

  3. Implications of Animal Welfare on Toxicity Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Otto A.

    1993-01-01

    The testing strategy for chemical substances is discussed with regard to obtaining improved quality of data for health assessment while respecting the ethical responsibility for consideration of the welfare of the animals involved. Ensuring animal welfare without indulging too much...... in anthropomorphism leads to better research/testing. Current trends in toxicity testing will result in tests involving more sophisticated techniques, better quality of laboratory animals, and eventually the use of fewer animals....

  4. Welfare Policies and Solidarity Toward the Elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Alonso, Mercedes; Jaime Castillo, Antonio M.; Ortega Gaspar, Marta

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we analyze the effect of welfare policies oriented toward the elderly on solidarity toward the elderly in a sample of European countries. The research question is whether more generous welfare policies crowd out solidarity. For this purpose, we analyze four waves of the SHARE database. We use multilevel analysis to estimate the effect of national variables on transfers toward the elderly, controlling for individual level variables. At the national level we focus on the effect of...

  5. Liberalism, Multiculturalism, and the Welfare State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Selamé G.

    Full Text Available This article examines whether the politics of difference is consistent with the politics of redistribution that characterizes the welfare state. The paper also explains why Brian Barry’s version of multiculturalism is a caricature, and inquires whether the dichotomy between liberalism and multiculturalism allows for any conciliation. Finally, it revises the pertinence and relevance of the thesis that upholds the compatibility between multiculturalism and the welfare state.

  6. Animal Welfare: eine empirische Analyse landwirtschaftlicher Frames

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Nach den aktuellen Erkenntnissen der nutztierwissenschaftlichen Forschung rekurriert das Verständnis von Animal Welfare auf vier Kriterien: Haltungssystem, Management, Tiergesundheit und Tierverhalten (KEELING und KJ™RNES, 2009). Es ist jedoch unklar, inwieweit sich dieses Verständnis auch in der landwirtschaftlichen Praxis wiederfindet. In der vorliegenden empirischen Studie wird erstmals mit Hilfe einer Faktorenanalyse das Animal-Welfare-Verständnis konventioneller deutscher Schweinemäster ...

  7. Neighborhood Decline and the Economic Crisis (discussion paper)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwiers, M.D.; Bolt, G.; Van Ham, M.; Van Kempen, R.

    2014-01-01

    Neighborhood decline is a complex and multidimensional process. National and regional variation in economic and political structures (including variety in national welfare state arrangements), combined with differences in neighborhood history, development and population composition, makes it

  8. Immune responses to improving welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berghman, L R

    2016-09-01

    The relationship between animal welfare and the immune status of an animal has a complex nature. Indeed, the intuitive notion that "increased vigilance of the immune system is by definition better" because it is expected to better keep the animal healthy, does not hold up under scrutiny. This is mostly due to the fact that the immune system consists of 2 distinct branches, the innate and the adaptive immune system. While they are intimately intertwined and synergistic in the living organism, they are profoundly different in their costs, both in terms of performance and wellbeing. In contrast to the adaptive immune system, the action of the innate immune system has a high metabolic cost as well as undesirable behavioral consequences. When a pathogen breaches the first line of defense (often a mucosal barrier), that organism's molecular signature is recognized by resident macrophages. The macrophages respond by releasing a cocktail of pro-inflammatory cytokines (including interleukin-1 and -6) that signal the brain via multiple pathways (humoral as well as neural) of the ongoing peripheral innate immune response. The behavioral response to the release of proinflammatory cytokines, known as "sickness behavior," includes nearly all the behavioral aspects that are symptomatic for clinical depression in humans. Hence, undesired innate immune activity, such as chronic inflammation, needs to be avoided by the industry. From an immunological standpoint, one of the most pressing poultry industry needs is the refinement of our current veterinary vaccine arsenal. The response to a vaccine, especially to a live attenuated vaccine, is often a combination of innate and adaptive immune activities, and the desired immunogenicity comes at the price of high reactogenicity. The morbidity, albeit limited and transient, caused by live vaccines against respiratory diseases and coccidiosis are good examples. Thankfully, the advent of various post-genomics technologies, such as DNA

  9. 48 CFR 252.235-7002 - Animal welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Animal welfare. 252.235... Clauses 252.235-7002 Animal welfare. As prescribed in 235.072(a), use the following clause: Animal Welfare... contractors with approved Public Health Service Welfare Assurances. (e) The Contractor may...

  10. Effects of Welfare Reform on Vocational Education and Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Dhaval M.; Reichman, Nancy E.; Corman, Hope; Das, Dhiman

    2011-01-01

    Exploiting variation in welfare reform across states and over time and using relevant comparison groups, this study estimates the effects of welfare reform on an important source of human capital acquisition among women at risk for relying on welfare: vocational education and training. The results suggest that welfare reform reduced enrollment in…

  11. Operational welfare indicators (OWI) in rainbow trout farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2007-01-01

    A number of welfare parameters are defined in order to create tools for the future management of welfare in farmed fish......A number of welfare parameters are defined in order to create tools for the future management of welfare in farmed fish...

  12. How should death be taken into account in welfare assessments?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Klint

    2016-01-01

    It appears to be a widespread view among animal welfare researchers that death is not a welfare issue. This paper demonstrates that this view is based on the mistaken assumption that welfare assessment is absolute, which moreover is coupled with the assumption that ‘welfare’ means ‘welfare...... at a time’. It also demonstrates that to exclude the welfare issues of being deprived of life from the ethical assessment of killing distorts the ethical considerations. In order to assess the welfare issues of death, it is necessary to structure welfare assessment as comparisons of possible whole lives...... of the animals....

  13. Effect of grazing on the cow welfare of dairy herds evaluated by a multidimensional welfare index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burow, E; Rousing, T; Thomsen, P T; Otten, N D; Sørensen, J T

    2013-05-01

    Structural development in the prime sector has led to increasing herd sizes and new barn systems, followed by less summer grazing for dairy cows in Denmark. Effects of grazing on single welfare measures in dairy cows - for example, the presence of integument alterations or mortality - have been studied under different conditions. However, the effect of grazing on welfare, conceptualised as the multidimensional physical and mental state of the animal, has not yet been studied in contemporary cubicle loose-housing systems. The aim of our study was to investigate, based on a Welfare Quality® inspired multidimensional dairy cow welfare assessment protocol, the within-herd effect of summer grazing compared with winter barn housing in Danish dairy herds with cubicle free-stall systems for the lactating cows. Our hypothesis was that cow welfare in dairy herds was better during summer grazing than during full-time winter housing. Furthermore, we expected improved welfare with an increase in daily summer grazing hours. In total, 41 herds have been visited once in the winter and once in the summer of 2010 to assess their welfare status with 17 different animal- and resource-based welfare measures. A panel of 20 experts on cattle welfare and husbandry evaluated the relative weight of the 17 welfare measures in a multidimensional assessment scheme. They estimated exact weights for a priori constituted severe compared with moderate scores of welfare impairment concerning each measure, as well as relevance of the measures in relation to each other. A welfare index (WI; possible range 0 to 5400) was calculated for each herd and season with a higher index indicating poorer welfare. The within-herd comparison of summer grazing v. winter housing considered all the 17 measures. The mean WI in summer was significantly lower (better) than in winter (mean 2926 v. 3330; paired t-test P = 0.0001) based on a better state of the integument, claw conformation and better access to water and

  14. Examining social work with children and youth in welfare service organizations observed as hybrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montes de Oca, Lis Klovning Hansen

    2014-01-01

    This paper seeks to explore social work as it can be observed in the welfare service organizations of Danish municipalities, specifically within the context of social work concerned with the protection of the child at risk. The paper uses the systems theory of Niklas Luh-mann to elaborate...... and explore how social work within the specific frame of child protection care becomes an actual hybrid (Philippopoulos-Mihalopoulos, 2012). The paper recognizes social work as a social system, the system for help in society (Baecker, 1994) (Nissen, 2010). The paper sets out to explore how structural coupling...... within the welfare system of child protection can be said to emerge into a different form than (maybe) other welfare services. The explorative curiosity rises from recognition of the economic systems expansion and dominant semantics within social services, specifically child protection and how social...

  15. Problems on the Enforcement Judicature and Legal Supervision of Animal Welfare Laws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Wei

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available AbstratAlong with the economic development and social progress, the idea of animal protection has gone deep into people’s hearts all over the world. Animal protection includes not only reserving species resources and nursing the diversification of creatures, but also animal health care and welfare. Compared with some other countries, there exists severe imperfection on legislation for animal protection,and the related legal system is nearly left blank. In view of such unfavorable state and the rising appeal for animal protection, it is an inevitable trend to enact China Animal Welfare Laws. Since the final purpose of legislation has to be reached through the enforcement and realization of the law, there involve the problems onthe enforcement, judicature and legal supervision of China Animal Welfare Laws.

  16. Welfare-positive management and nutrition for the dairy herd: a European perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logue, David N; Mayne, C Sinclair

    2014-01-01

    As European dairy farms become larger and diverge between grass-based and fully housed systems, interest in the welfare of the dairy cow and related environmental issues by consumers and legislators is increasing. These pressures mean that good nutrition and management, which underpin much dairy cow welfare, is critical. Despite considerable research into the management and nutrition of the dairy cow from calf to adulthood there is much on-farm variability in its application. While the incidences of many endemic diseases are reduced most are still significant, for example lameness. In addition, trade and climate change are bringing a more diverse range of pathogens, parasites and pests into Northern Europe. Housing aspects are limited in application by economics and in most cases still do not match grazing for welfare in temperate climates. Genomic technologies offer increased opportunities to breed for 'robustness' but like 'precision animal management systems' have still to be fully exploited.

  17. Attacks upon the Romanian Welfare State and the Trade Union Decline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriu Frunzaru

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The global economic crisis has dramatically affected the Romanian economy and consequently the Romanian labour market. The Romanian right-wing government tackled these challenges by cutting 25% of the public sector salaries and introducing new laws that radically changed the labour rights. Therefore, the economic crisis and the global economic competition are causes and justifications for the implementation of the new policies that gave less social rights to the employees and made them less protected by unions. In a broader perspective, the welfare state regime became more liberal with a lower level of decomodification.

  18. Consumer preferences for pig welfare - Can the market accommodate more than one level of welfare pork?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denver, Sigrid; Sandøe, Peter; Christensen, Tove

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to investigate the market potential of pork labelled to indicate medium and high levels of animal welfare. The paper asks, in particular, whether there is a risk that Danish consumers will abandon high level welfare pork if less expensive products with a medium level of animal welfare became available. The study was based on an online questionnaire with a choice experiment involving 396 Danish respondents. The results indicated that the Danish market could accommodate more than one pork product with a welfare label but the price differential separating medium and high level animal welfare pork will have to be quite narrow. In addition, full willingness-to-pay of consumers who want to buy high level welfare pork cannot be relied upon to incentivise new consumers to buy medium welfare pork. Further, raising brand awareness in the shopping situation and improving consumer's understanding of brand attributes for high level welfare brands were found to be vital. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Improving farm animal welfare : science and society working together: the welfare quality approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blokhuis, H.J.; Miele, M.; Veissier, I.; Jones, B.

    2013-01-01

    How do you define the quality of life of a farmed animal? This book addresses the complex and often controversial issues surrounding the assessment and improvement of farm animal welfare. It discusses the relevance of science based welfare assessments and the importance of establishing a fruitful

  20. The Value of Family Welfare Conferencing within the Child Protection and Welfare System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devaney, Carmel; Byrne, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The Family Welfare Conference (FWC) is a model used within the child protection and welfare services to address concerns about the needs of children and their family's ability to respond to these needs. The FWC model operates in partnership with family members, who participate in identifying both the issues of concern and potential responses to…

  1. An Assessment of Social Welfare in Spain: Territorial Analysis Using a Synthetic Welfare Indicator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espina, Pilar Zarzosa; Arechavala, Noelia Somarriba

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is measure social welfare in Spanish provinces. To achieve this, we use the distance method P[subscript 2] to compose a synthetic indicator of welfare for 2007, the last year for which data are available. The index comprises information on different social indicators from various life domains and enables a classification of…

  2. The legitimacy of welfare : A sociological analysis of the motives for contributing to welfare schemes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oorschot, W.J.H.

    1999-01-01

    Theoretically deduced concern about a declining legitimacy of the welfare state has been expressed regularly over the last thirty years. However, in that period empirical studies have repeatedly shown a permanent and substantial popular supportfor welfare. This naismatch might be due to two factors.

  3. Welfare inequality, regionalisation, and welfare policy : measurement and analysis for Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quadrado, L.

    1999-01-01

    This study is focused on the changes in regional inequality in Spain over the last four decades, with emphasis on regional welfare. The two most important items of welfare in Spain are, health and education, and so these are the main focus of this study. Attention is paid to the levels and

  4. Welfare inequality, regionalisation, and welfare policy : measurement and analysis for Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quadrado, L.

    1999-01-01

    This study is focused on the changes in regional inequality in Spain over the last four decades, with emphasis on regional welfare. The two most important items of welfare in Spain are, health and education, and so these are the main focus of this study. Attention is paid to the levels and trends in

  5. CORRUPTION AND WELFARE: A SIMPLE ECONOMETRIC ACROSS COUNTRIES ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joko Mariyono

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to measure the impact of corruption on welfare, and to compare the magnitude of impact between high-income and low-income countries. Corruption perception index is used as a proxy of corruption level; human development index is used to represent welfare. Natural resource endowment and international trade are included in analysis to control robustness of corruption. The results show that corruption has negative impact on welfare. The impact in low-income countries is more destructive. Natural resource endowment and trade also have significant impacts, particularly for low-income countries. Since the corruption is destructive, government should eradicate corruption using preventive and repressive actions. Keywords:Economic development, corruption, low income countries, human development indexJEL classification numbers: D73, D31, I31AbstrakKajian ini bertujuan untuk mengukur dampak korupsi pada kesejahteraan, dan untuk membandingkan besarnya dampak antara negara-negara berpenghasilan tinggi dan berpenghasilan rendah. Indeks persepsi korupsi digunakan sebagai proksi tingkat korupsi; indeks pembangunan manusia digunakan sebagai pendekatan kesejahteraan. Sumber daya alam dan perdagangan internasional dimasukkan dalam analisis untuk mengontrol kekuatan variabel korupsi. Hasil kajian menunjukkan bahwa korupsi berdampak negatif pada kesejahteraan. Dampak korupsi di negara-negara miskin lebih buruk dari pada di negara-negara kaya. Sumber daya alam dan perdagangan juga memiliki dampak yang signifikan, terutama untuk negara-negara miskin. Karena korupsi bersifat merusak, pemerintah harus memberantas korupsi menggunakan tindakan preventif maupun represif.Kata kunci: Pembangunan ekonomi, korupsi, negara berpenghasilan rendah, IPMJEL classification numbers: D73, D31, I31

  6. The use of wastewater in livestock production and its socioeconomic and welfare implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elahi, Ehsan; Abid, Muhammad; Zhang, Liqin; Alugongo, Gibson Maswayi

    2017-07-01

    Although epidemiological studies have found a significant amount of toxins in surface water, a complex link between animals' access to wastewater and associated animal and human welfare losses needs to be explored. The scarcity of safe water has put stress on the utilization of wastewater for crops and livestock production. The access of animals to wastewater is related to the emergence of dangerous animal's diseases, hampering productivity, increasing economic losses, and risking human health along the food chain. This review explores use of wastewater for agriculture, epidemiological evidence of microbial contamination in wastewater, and animal and human welfare disruption due to the use of wastewater for crop and livestock production. More specifically, the review delves into animals exposure to wastewater for bathing, drinking, or grazing on a pasture irrigated with contaminated water and related animal and human welfare losses. We included some scientific articles and reviews published from 1970 to 2017 to support our rational discussions. The selected articles dealt exclusively with animals direct access to wastewater via bathing and indirect access via grazing on pasture irrigated with contaminated wastewater and their implication for animal and human welfare losses. The study also identified that some policy options such as wastewater treatments, constructing wastewater stabilization ponds, controlling animal access to wastewater, and dissemination of necessary information to ultimate consumers related to the source of agricultural produce and wastewater use in animal and crop production are required to protect the human and animal health and welfare.

  7. Effects of pre-slaughter fasting on broiler welfare, meat quality, and intestinal integrity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    REP Pereira

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture (MAPA regulations establish 12 hours as the maximum pre-slaughter fasting period for broilers; however, many processing plants have considered this time is not sufficient, and consequently return the birds to the farms, with consequent economic losses and welfare problems. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the possible effects of longer pre-slaughter fasting times. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of pre-slaughter fasting times longer than those established by MAPA on broiler welfare, breast meat quality, and intestinal integrity. Forty 42-d-old broilers were submitted to different pre-slaughter fasting times: group I: 6 hours, group II 9h, group III 12h, and group IV 15h. Bird welfare was assessed before slaughter. After sacrifice, intestinal samples were collected to assess their morphology and morphometrics, and the Pectoralis major muscle was analyzed for pH and color. There was no influence (p>0.05 of treatments on breast muscle pH or color.There were no significant changes in intestinal morphometrics (p<0.05. Bird behavior was affected (p<0.05, suggesting that welfare was impaired as fasting time increased, but no differences in the analyzed parameters were detected between broilers fasted for 12 or 15 hours. It was concluded that the behavioral differences between birds fasted for 12 and 15 hours are not sufficient to assert that those fasted for 15 hours were in worse welfare conditions.

  8. Welfare implications of energy and environmental policies: A general equilibrium approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Mohammad Qamar

    Government intervention and implementation of policies can impose a financial and social cost. To achieve a desired goal there could be several different alternative policies or routes, and government would like to choose the one which imposes the least social costs or/and generates greater social benefits. Therefore, applied welfare economics plays a vital role in public decision making. This paper recasts welfare measure such as equivalent variation, in terms of the prices of factors of production rather than product prices. This is made possible by using duality theory within a general equilibrium framework and by deriving alternative forms of indirect utility functions and expenditure functions in factor prices. Not only we are able to recast existing welfare measures in factor prices, we are able to perform a true cost-benefit analysis of government policies using comparative static analysis of different equilibria and breaking up monetary measure of welfare change such as equivalent variation into its components. A further advantage of our research is demonstrated by incorporating externalities and public goods in the utility function. It is interesting that under a general equilibrium framework optimal income tax tends to reduce inequalities. Results show that imposition of taxes at socially optimal rates brings a net gain to the society. It was also seen that even though a pollution tax may reduce GDP, it leads to an increase in the welfare of the society if it is imposed at an optimal rate.

  9. Effect of grazing on the cow welfare of dairy herds evaluated by a multidimensional welfare index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burow, E; Rousing, T; Thomsen, P T

    2013-01-01

    studied under different conditions. However, the effect of grazing on welfare, conceptualised as the multidimensional physical and mental state of the animal, has not yet been studied in contemporary cubicle loose-housing systems. The aim of our study was to investigate, based on a Welfare Quality (R......Structural development in the prime sector has led to increasing herd sizes and new barn systems, followed by less summer grazing for dairy cows in Denmark. Effects of grazing on single welfare measures in dairy cows - for example, the presence of integument alterations or mortality - have been......) inspired multidimensional dairy cow welfare assessment protocol, the within-herd effect of summer grazing compared with winter barn housing in Danish dairy herds with cubicle free-stall systems for the lactating cows. Our hypothesis was that cow welfare in dairy herds was better during summer grazing than...

  10. NGOs as providers of the social welfare services in cooperation with local authorities in the times of financial crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halina Waniak-Michalak

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to establish whether Polish non-governmental organizations (NGOs are important providers of social welfare services, and whether local authorities perceive them as partners in the implementation of this type of projects. The significance of NGOs is measured with the amount of social welfare grants they received between 2006 and 2011 and with the number of NGOs offering social welfare services that were active in that period. To test the research hypotheses, a trend analysis and a panel regression model are used. The research findings show that NGOs are becoming increasingly important to local governments as their partners in the field of social welfare, as well as a strong correlation between the number of NGOs in the area and the level of local governments’ grants for NGOs on the one hand and economic indicators such as GDP and the rate of unemployment on the other.

  11. Body weight management and dilemmas of health responsibility for vulnerable groups in the changing Danish welfare state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vitus, Kathrine; Tørslev, Mette Kirstine; Ditlevsen, Kia

    2017-01-01

    This article explores how health responsibility in relation to body weight management is institutionally enacted in three welfare institutions in the interplay between traditional ‘social interventionist’ welfare and ‘non-interfering’ neoliberal ideology. The analysis asks how citizens of non...... of individual responsibility increases, but that in all three settings health responsibility is ambiguously distributed and enacted among welfare state agencies and citizens, and that this renders children, youths and parents vulnerable in different ways. We identify how marginalised citizens are constituted by......, but also resist, neoliberal health promotion policies as welfare policy moves away from universalism and towards targeting in Denmark, which appears to increase health inequalities along socio-economic and ethnic lines....

  12. Challenges of welfare-to-work programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Precin, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    Governmental expectations of placement outcomes were often high given the severity of work barriers that were present in disabled welfare recipients in the United States [11]. The purpose of this article is to identify challenges that were inherent in welfare-to-work programs and solutions to these challenges. Although rich with opportunity, welfare-to-work programs presented the challenge of employing large numbers of difficult-to-employ individuals before their public assistance benefits expired\\cite{5}. Many clients also had symptoms of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) secondary to childhood physical or sexual abuse (59%) or severe domestic violence (55%) [8]. Few funds were available for work training and education. Instead, the employment-first model was expected even though most consumers did not have a high school diploma, had not worked in years, and were fearful and resistant about returning to work [3]. Performance based payment systems presented a challenge because the program's future depended on the compliance of its consumers. There was an impetus for substance abusers to return to work even if they were still using drugs, which contradicted the teachings of many recovery models. This paper presents possible solutions to each of these problems and reports outcomes of one particular welfare-to-work program. By examining the challenges of welfare-to-work programs, by identifying solutions, and by realizing that these solutions are inherent in the basic principles of rehabilitation, this article provides therapists with tools and motivation to make unique contributions to this area of practice.

  13. Standardized Welfare Terms for the Zebrafish Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karp, Natasha A.; Blackledge, Samuel; Clark, Bradley; Keeble, Rosemary; Kovacs, Ceri; Murray, Katrina N.; Price, Michael; Thompson, Peter; Bussell, James

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Managing the welfare of laboratory animals is critical to animal health, vital in the understanding of phenotypes created by treatment or genetic alteration and ensures compliance of regulations. Part of an animal welfare assessment is the requirement to record observations, ensuring all those responsible for the animals are aware of their health status and can act accordingly. Although the use of zebrafish in research continues to increase, guidelines for conducting welfare assessments and the reporting of observations are considered unclear compared to mammalian species. To support the movement of zebrafish between facilities, significant improvement would be achieved through the use of standardized terms to ensure clarity and consistency between facilities. Improving the clarity of terminology around welfare not only addresses our ethical obligation but also supports the research goals and provides a searchable description of the phenotypes. A Collaboration between the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute and Cambridge University (Department of Medicine-Laboratory of Molecular Biology) has led to the creation of the zebrafish welfare terms from which standardization of terminology can be achieved. PMID:27096380

  14. Reproductive activity and welfare of rabbit does

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Castellini

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the relationships between reproductive performance and welfare of the rabbit does. In the last 10 years the profitability of rabbit farms has increased mainly due to improvements in management and genetic selection but several problems mainly related to animal welfare have also occurred. The mortality and rates of female replacement per year are very high and the replaced females often show poor body condition and low performance. The effect of kindling order, litter size, genetic strain, weaning age and reproduction rhythm on the reproductive performance and welfare of females and some mechanisms implicated in these effects are discussed. Modern rabbit does produce a lot of milk which have a high energetic value which leads to a mobilization of body fat which results in an energy deficit. In the current reproductive rhythms, there is an extensive overlap between lactation and gestation. The resulting energetic and hormonal antagonism reduces the fertility rate and lifespan of the doe. Strategies to improve the fertility, lifespan and welfare of does are discussed. An approach which combines various strategies seems to be required to meet these objectives. Since the factors involved in this productive system are fixed (genetic strain, environment the most powerful way to improve doe welfare is to choose a reproductive rhythm that is adapted to the physiology of the does.

  15. Cotton price change and welfare in Togo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anani Nourredine Mensah

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses the evaluation of net benefit ratios applied to survey data on households to appreciate the effects of international price of cotton on the welfare of producers in Togo. It needs first to trace the difference between international prices and those paid to domestic producers. Furthermore, given that households are producers of these goods, we use a revenue function that depends on the remuneration of labor, other earnings and profit that in turn depends on the price paid to producers and land ownership. For estimates, the effect of welfare, which is captured by the compensating variation, is the result of the share of the average cotton income in average total income multiplied by the change in the price of cotton. Our results with QUIBB 2006 and 2011 survey data reveal that the impact of a price change on the compensating variation gives a welfare change relatively higher for poor households. However, this effect remains low, considering whether a change in producer prices or in international price. A simulation of a potential effect of the change in the producer price of 50% of the differential of the two prices, and the positive impact on social welfare that results appears stronger. This positive change in welfare is reversely associated to the wealth of households.

  16. Standardized Welfare Terms for the Zebrafish Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Nicola; Karp, Natasha A; Blackledge, Samuel; Clark, Bradley; Keeble, Rosemary; Kovacs, Ceri; Murray, Katrina N; Price, Michael; Thompson, Peter; Bussell, James

    2016-07-01

    Managing the welfare of laboratory animals is critical to animal health, vital in the understanding of phenotypes created by treatment or genetic alteration and ensures compliance of regulations. Part of an animal welfare assessment is the requirement to record observations, ensuring all those responsible for the animals are aware of their health status and can act accordingly. Although the use of zebrafish in research continues to increase, guidelines for conducting welfare assessments and the reporting of observations are considered unclear compared to mammalian species. To support the movement of zebrafish between facilities, significant improvement would be achieved through the use of standardized terms to ensure clarity and consistency between facilities. Improving the clarity of terminology around welfare not only addresses our ethical obligation but also supports the research goals and provides a searchable description of the phenotypes. A Collaboration between the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute and Cambridge University (Department of Medicine-Laboratory of Molecular Biology) has led to the creation of the zebrafish welfare terms from which standardization of terminology can be achieved.

  17. Transformation of theoretical-methodological approaches and methodical tools of the individual and territory welfare diagnostics. Part 1. From spreading to the alternative diagnostics approaches (background

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Anatolyevich Kuklin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an evolution of theoretical and methodological approaches to the welfare study. Existing theories of wellbeing are grouped according to accounted method of goods and resources distribution among society members. As a welfare future as a category we highlight objective (measured and subjective (estimated components. Based on the analysis of scientific literature we determine the ratio of individual and social welfare. The main differences between the categories of “ welfare” and “wealth” are given. The main difference consists in multidirectional changes of welfare and wealth for an increase (decrease in income of the individual (country. In this article we present an analysis of modern approaches to the definition of welfare: state, institutional and expendable approach. The welfare level estimation is complicated due to the need to consider the subjective component. The article provides an analysis of existing approaches to quantitative welfare evaluation ranging from the most common techniques (HDI, GDP to alternative techniques (Happy Planet Index.Methodological devices are structured by levels of welfare assessment objects (world, country, region, people. Based on the analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of methods we can conclude that the most reliable method is a comprehensive approach, which includes economic, environmental, social, vital and infrastructure indicators. The author’s approach to the formation of a complex methodological tool for individual and territory welfare estimation is presented in this article.

  18. Welfare reforms and the cognitive development of young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Deanna L; Salkie, Fiona J; Letourneau, Nicole

    2005-01-01

    To investigate whether the cognitive development of young children in poverty is affected by activities of their primary caregiver and by household income source, which are two components of family poverty experience that have been affected by recent welfare reforms. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were used to examine the relationships that caregiver activity, household income source, and family characteristics (family income adequacy, caregiver depressive symptoms, caregiver education) have with the cognitive development of 59 impoverished children less than three years old. Of the three poverty experience variables included in the multivariate analysis, only employment as the exclusive source of household income had an independent relationship (positive) with children's cognitive development. Two of the family characteristics, income adequacy and caregiver education, also were associated with the children's cognitive score, and they were both better relative predictors than the employment-only income source variable. Income adequacy was positively associated and caregiver education was negatively associated with children's cognitive development. Although recent welfare reforms, in combination with economic growth and declining unemployment, have changed the poverty experience of young families by increasing the proportion that secure at least part of their income from employment, our study provides preliminary evidence that these reforms have made little difference for most young impoverished children. Instead, our findings suggest that the cognitive development of young children is influenced as much by the actual amount of household income as by their parents' activity and source of income.

  19. Welfare and Generational Equity in Sustainable Unfunded Pension Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auerbach, Alan J; Lee, Ronald

    2011-02-01

    Using stochastic simulations we analyze how public pension structures spread the risks arising from demographic and economic shocks across generations. We consider several actual and hypothetical sustainable PAYGO pension structures, including: (1) versions of the US Social Security system with annual adjustments of taxes or benefits to maintain fiscal balance; (2) Sweden's Notional Defined Contribution system and several variants developed to improve fiscal stability; and (3) the German system, which also includes annual adjustments to maintain fiscal balance. For each system, we present descriptive measures of uncertainty in representative outcomes for a typical generation and across generations. We then estimate expected utility for generations based on simplifying assumptions and incorporate these expected utility calculations in an overall social welfare measure. Using a horizontal equity index, we also compare the different systems' performance in terms of how neighboring generations are treated.While the actual Swedish system smoothes stochastic fluctuations more than any other and produces the highest degree of horizontal equity, it does so by accumulating a buffer stock of assets that alleviates the need for frequent adjustments. In terms of social welfare, this accumulation of assets leads to a lower average rate of return that more than offsets the benefits of risk reduction, leaving systems with more frequent adjustments that spread risks broadly among generations as those most preferred.

  20. Family policy and inequalities in health in different welfare states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fosse, Elisabeth; Bull, Torill; Burström, Bo; Fritzell, Sara

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on differences in health and welfare outcomes for families with children in three European countries, discussed in relation to national policies for child and family welfare. Data consist of policy documents and cross-national surveys. The document analysis was based on policy documents that described government policies. The statistical analyses utilize data from the European Social Survey. For the analyses in this article, a sub-sample of child families was selected from the countries Slovenia, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. Data showed that England's policy has mainly addressed socially disadvantaged groups and areas. Sweden and Slovenia are mainly developing universal policies. The United Kingdom has high scores for subjective general health, but a steep income gradient in the population. Parents in England experience the highest level of at-risk-of-poverty. Sweden generally scores well on health outcomes and on level of at-risk-of-poverty, and the gradient in self-rated general health is the mildest. Slovenia has the weakest economy, but low levels of inequality and low child at-risk-for-poverty scores. The Slovenian example suggests that not only the level of economic wealth, but also its distribution in the population, has bearings on health and life satisfaction, not least on the health of children.

  1. Measures to improve dairy cow foot health: consequences for farmer income and dairy cow welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruijnis, M R N; Hogeveen, H; Stassen, E N

    2013-01-01

    Dairy farming in western countries with cubicle housing is an efficient way of dairy farming. Though, a disadvantage is the high prevalence and incidence of foot disorders (clinical and subclinical), which cause high economic losses and also seriously impair the welfare of dairy cattle. To point out the importance of reducing the amount and severity of foot disorders, advice to farmers should include information about the scale of the problem and the consequences in terms of economics and animal welfare. To provide support in making decisions on implementing intervention measures, insight into costs and benefits of different measures should be available. The objective of this study, therefore, is to provide more insight into the costs and benefits, for farmer and cow, of different intervention measures to improve dairy cow foot health. Intervention measures were modeled when they were applicable on a dairy farm with cubicle housing and when sufficient information was available in literature. Net costs were calculated as the difference between the costs of the measure and the economic benefits resulting from the measure. Welfare benefits were calculated as well. Cost-effective measures are: improving lying surface (mattress and bedding, €7 and €1/cow per year, respectively), reducing stocking density (break even) and performing additional foot trimming (€1/cow per year). Simultaneously, these measures have a relative high welfare benefit. Labor costs play an important role in the cost-effectiveness of labor-intensive measures. More insight into cost-effectiveness and welfare benefits of intervention measures can help to prioritize when choosing between intervention measures.

  2. A universal preference for equality in health? Reasons to reconsider properties of applied social welfare functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mæstad, Ottar; Norheim, Ole Frithjof

    2012-11-01

    The literature on how to combine efficiency and equity considerations in the social valuation of health allocations has borrowed extensively from applied welfare economics, including the literature on inequality measurement. By so doing, it has adopted normative assumptions that have been applied for evaluating the allocation of welfare (or income) rather than the allocation of health, including the assumption of a monotonically declining social marginal value of welfare/income/health. At the same time, empirical studies that have elicited social preferences for allocation of health have reported results that are seemingly incompatible with this assumption. There are two ways of addressing this inconsistency; we may censor the stated preferences by arguing that they cannot be supported by normative arguments, or we may reject or modify the analytical framework in order to accommodate the stated preferences. We argue that the stated preferences can be supported by normative reasoning and therefore conclude that one should be cautious in applying the standard welfare economic framework to the allocation of health.

  3. A New Paradigm for Health Economics?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kjeld Møller Pedersen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Culyer and Newhouse in their introduction to the Handbook of Health Economics1 noted that as a research program health economics seemed to be in good shape. “Moreover, its ‘hard core’ of neoclassical economics (especially welfare economics is itself a part of the ongoing developmental agenda of the subject”. They further observed that there is something in health economics for almost all kinds of health economists: “Powerful defenders of conventional methods and aggressive challengers; pure theorists and applied economists, those who undertake academic research for its own sake and those who see it as an instrument for the improvement of societies …”. ...

  4. Some aspects of chicken behavior and welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LS Costa

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is the world leader in broiler production and export. It achieved this position mainly to its excellent supply chain structure and climate, which favor poultry and grain production throughout its territory. Although Brazilian egg production is not as important as broiler production, this segment presents great potential of increasing its share in the global market. However, as elsewhere in the world, Brazilian poultry production faces the challenge to balance two elements within its supply chain: cruelty and productivity. The consumers of the European Union (EU are very concerned with animal welfare issues. In order to increase its share in the European market, and eventually in the world market, Brazilian poultry producers must understand the effects of production systems on poultry welfare, and try to develop systems that are suited for its climate and other production conditions. There is a consensus that the natural behaviors performed by poultry in intensive production systems allow better welfare. This objective of this review is to present scientific research studies that relate different behaviors to chicken welfare. Poultry behavior is a reflex of their welfare status at a particular moment, and it is related to internal (physiological and external (environmental factors. Several natural behaviors that favor welfare, as well as undesirable behaviors, may be stimulated by environmental enrichment. The correct interpretation of the behaviors expressed by poultry, including their frequency, duration, and sequence, may be used to estimate their welfare. Animal production is an import sector of Brazilian economy. It significantly contributes to the Gross Domestic Product (GDP, in terms of products destined both to domestic consumption and exports. New technologies applied to products and management practices have been developed for field application, aiming at improving producers' productivity and profitability. In order to comply

  5. Role of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA in providing scientific advice on the welfare of food producing animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Serratosa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The survey describes the work of the Animal Health and Welfare (AHAW Panel of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA in the provision of scientific advice on the welfare of food producing animals including animal health and food safety aspects, where relevant, and on the impact of these scientific assessments on the EU regulatory framework. EFSA was created in 2002 with the mission to provide advice and scientific and technical support for the Community legislation and policies in all fields which have a direct or indirect impact on food and feed safety, plant health, environment and animal health and animal welfare. When providing objective and independent science-based advice, the risk assessment approach should be followed, whenever possible. The AHAW Panel of EFSA provides specific advices on risk factors related to animal diseases and welfare, mainly of food producing animals, including fish. According to EFSA’s remit, ethical, socio-economic, cultural and religious aspects are outside the scope of the EFSA’s assessments. Since 2004, the Animal Health and Welfare Panel of EFSA adopted a total of 21 scientific opinions on animal welfare. Animal diseases and food safety aspects have also been taken into account, where relevant. Animal welfare aspects have been considered in some scientific opinions on animal diseases (e.g. AI, FMD. The AHAW Panel is currently working on five scientific opinions on the welfare of dairy cows and on the welfare aspects of the stunning and killing of farmed fish for eight fish species (salmon, trout, carp, eel, tuna, sea bass, sea bream and turbot. The possible interactions and implications for food safety and animal disease have been considered, when relevant, in most of the AW scientific opinions, involving other areas of expertise in EFSA, like Biohazards, Contaminants and Plant Health. The final aim of EFSA’s scientific assessments on animal welfare is to support animal welfare EU legislation on the

  6. Animal welfare: a social networks perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinhappel, Tanja K; John, Elizabeth A; Pike, Thomas W; Wilkinson, Anna; Burman, Oliver H P

    2016-01-01

    Social network theory provides a useful tool to study complex social relationships in animals. The possibility to look beyond dyadic interactions by considering whole networks of social relationships allows researchers the opportunity to study social groups in more natural ways. As such, network-based analyses provide an informative way to investigate the factors influencing the social environment of group-living animals, and so has direct application to animal welfare. For example, animal groups in captivity are frequently disrupted by separations, reintroductions and/or mixing with unfamiliar individuals and this can lead to social stress and associated aggression. Social network analysis ofanimal groups can help identify the underlying causes of these socially-derived animal welfare concerns. In this review we discuss how this approach can be applied, and how it could be used to identify potential interventions and solutions in the area of animal welfare.

  7. What works in education and social welfare?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krejsler, John B.

    2011-01-01

    Drawing on Foucauldian genealogy, the article maps major sources and trajectories of the evidence discourse. This enables scrutiny of the current struggle about evidence for What Works in education and social welfare. Evidence discourse is identified as emerging from the medical field as a bottom......-up professional strategy. It is subsequently reworked and launched into education and social welfare in moves that largely bypass professionals to serve policy-maker and market needs to enable evidence-based choices among public services. From this perspective, the author argues that education and social welfare...... professions may profit from adopting evidence as a floating signifier. An analytical distinction between external and internal forms of evidence is introduced to facilitate alternative strategies to dealing with the evidence discourse....

  8. What Works in Education and Social Welfare?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krejsler, John B.

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on Foucauldian genealogy, the article maps major sources and trajectories of the evidence discourse. This enables scrutiny of the current struggle about evidence for What Works in education and social welfare. Evidence discourse is identified as emerging from the medical field as a bottom......-up professional strategy. It is subsequently reworked and launched into education and social welfare in moves that largely bypass professionals to serve policy-maker and market needs to enable evidence-based choices among public services. From this perspective, the author argues that education and social welfare...... professions may profit from adopting evidence as a floating signifier. An analytical distinction between external and internal forms of evidence is introduced to facilitate alternative strategies to dealing with the evidence discourse....

  9. Market Behavior in the Welfare State:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Nørgaard; christensen, bjarke

    2017-01-01

    The “consumerist citizen” is a type of citizen who develops his or her public and political commitments on the basis of market-like principles. For this citizen the important thing is the possibility to make individual choices in public contexts. In this article the implications of the consumerist...... of the consumerist citizen, and finally we suggest its implications for the welfare state. The dissemination of consumerist identity represents a serious change in the relationship between citizens and the welfare state. The rise of a public acting on the basis of market-logic is a serious change taking place...... in relation to citizenship. Regardless of whether this development is perceived as positive or negative, it will inevitably influence the ways in which the public sector is perceived. The rise of the consumerist citizen can be seen as a factor erosive of the basic solidary principles of the welfare state...

  10. Market Behavior in the Welfare State:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Nørgaard; christensen, bjarke

    2017-01-01

    The “consumerist citizen” is a type of citizen who develops his or her public and political commitments on the basis of market-like principles. For this citizen the important thing is the possibility to make individual choices in public contexts. In this article the implications of the consumerist...... of the consumerist citizen, and finally we suggest its implications for the welfare state. The dissemination of consumerist identity represents a serious change in the relationship between citizens and the welfare state. The rise of a public acting on the basis of market-logic is a serious change taking place...... in relation to citizenship. Regardless of whether this development is perceived as positive or negative, it will inevitably influence the ways in which the public sector is perceived. The rise of the consumerist citizen can be seen as a factor erosive of the basic solidary principles of the welfare state...

  11. Moving toward reconciliation in indigenous child welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auger, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    The Touchstones of Hope reconciliation movement consists of principles (culture and language, self-determination, structural interventions, non discrimination, and holistic approach) that guide a reconciliation process of truth-telling, acknowledging, restoring and relating to reshape indigenous child welfare led by indigenous peoples and supported by their non-indigenous counterparts. This article describes a reconciliation movement in Canada grounded in Touchstones of Hope principles, involving a reconciliation process between indigenous and non-indigenous individuals, which has enabled culturally relevant concepts of child welfare and plans for child safety to emerge.

  12. Comprehensive Child Welfare Information System. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    This final rule replaces the Statewide and Tribal Automated Child Welfare Information Systems (S/TACWIS) rule with the Comprehensive Child Welfare Information System (CCWIS) rule. The rule also makes conforming amendments in rules in related requirements. This rule will assist title IV-E agencies in developing information management systems that leverage new innovations and technology in order to better serve children and families. More specifically, this final rule supports the use of cost-effective, innovative technologies to automate the collection of high-quality case management data and to promote its analysis, distribution, and use by workers, supervisors, administrators, researchers, and policy makers.

  13. Understanding and measuring child welfare outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Andrade, Amy; Osterling, Kathy Lemon; Austin, Michael J

    2008-01-01

    The new "Children's and Family Services Reviews" (CFSR) process focuses on the effectiveness of services to children and families by measuring client outcomes. This article reviews the research literature related to child welfare outcomes in order to provide a context for federal accountability efforts. It also summarizes the 2001 federal mandate to hold states accountable for child welfare outcomes and describes California's response to this mandate. Implications of the outcomes literature review and measurement problems in the CFSR process suggest CSFR measures do not always capture meaningful outcomes. Recommendations for change are made.

  14. Social capital, migration and the welfare state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard; Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase

    2009-01-01

      The full potential of migrants from non-western countries has not yet been realized in the modern welfare state. Rather, parallel societies have risen, as often counteracting integration. It is however crucial to integrate migrants from non-western countries more successfully - also simply to r...... welfare state and based on data from our ongoing SoCap project, we suggest how more bridging social capital can be established between parallel societies and the rest of society. Our ‘institutions matter' model is tentative and needs to be tested rigorously in future empirical research....

  15. Analysing changes of health inequalities in the Nordic welfare states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lahelma, Eero; Kivelä, Katariina; Roos, Eva

    2002-01-01

    This study examined changes over time in relative health inequalities among men and women in four Nordic countries, Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. A serious economic recession burst out in the early 1990s particularly in Finland and Sweden. We ask whether this adverse social structural...... not strongly influenced by changes in other structural inequalities, in particular labour market inequalities. Institutional arrangements in the Nordic welfare states, including social benefits and services, were cut during the recession but nevertheless broadly remained, and are likely to have buffered......'development influenced health inequalities by employment status and educational attainment, i.e. whether the trends in health inequalities were similar or dissimilar between the Nordic countries. The data derived from comparable interview surveys carried out in 1986/87 and 1994/95 in the four countries. Limiting long...

  16. Combining activity and economic efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fersch, Barbara

    In the Danish welfare state, long-term care is a universal service that is run by the municipalities. The municipalities, although bound by a national legal framework, do have considerable autonomy concerning the concrete definition and organization of long-term care services. One of the newest “....... The paper provides a discourse analysis of the interviewees’ accounts, that shows how discourses on activity and economic efficiency have been combined in the Danish context....

  17. Pet overpopulation: An economic analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Coate, Stephen; Knight, Brian

    2009-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of pet overpopulation. It develops a tractable dynamic model whose positive predictions square well with key features of the current U.S. market for pets. The model is used to understand, from a welfare economic perspective, the sense in which there is \\overpopulation" of pets and the underlying causes of the problem. The paper also employs the model to consider what policies might be implemented to deal with the problem. A calibrated example is developed to i...

  18. Teaching the Principles of Economics

    OpenAIRE

    N. Gregory Mankiw

    1998-01-01

    In this brief essay, I describe my approach to the principles course. I emphasize three themes. First, in teaching microeconomics, the tools of welfare economics should play a larger role than they have in the past. Second, in teaching macroeconomics, classical ideas should play a larger role than they have in the past. Third, in teaching all parts of the course, we instructors should be sure to stress the important principles and be careful not to overwhelm students with an excess of details.

  19. Economics of landmines and demining

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Approved for public release, distribution unlimited MBA Professional Report Landmines threaten human lives and the welfare of mine-affected countries. They cause an economic burden both by destroying lives and by limiting the valuable use of land. Landmines remain dangerous for decades after they are deployed, killing or injuring civilians and rendering land impassable and unusable. Historically, studies of the impact of landmines mostly focused on safety issues and the risk of inj...

  20. Welfare and Market Impacts of Food Safety Measures in China:Results from Urban Consumers’ Valuation of Product Attributes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    David L.Ortega; H.Holly Wang; Nicole J.Olynk Widmar

    2014-01-01

    This study provides an economics assessment of various food safety measures in China. A choice experiment approach is used to elicit Chinese consumer preferences for various food safety attributes using data from a 2008 urban consumer survey. An alternative welfare calculation is used to model aggregate market impacts of select food safety measures. Our results show that the largest welfare gains are found in the current government-run certiifcation program. The implementation of a third-party certiifcation system, a traceability network and a product label would generate signiifcant value and would help reduce current system inefifciencies in China. This study builds on previous research and provides an alternative approach for calculating consumer valuation of safety and quality attributes that can be used to estimate aggregate economic and welfare impacts.

  1. Nonprofit Organizations in Danish Welfare Provision – Explaining Differences Across Welfare Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, Malene

    This paper describes and analyzes the large variation in the proportion of non-profit providers across different welfare areas in Denmark with specific focus on two selected areas: Primary schools and care homes for elderly. With inspiration from niche theory, the aim is to get a deeper insight...... knowledge on the varying conditions for non-profit welfare provision which in the end can help to understand and explan the large variations in the proportion of non-profit welfare provision and the recent development trends....

  2. Cars, status and welfare. A reaction; Auto`s, status en welvaart. Een reactie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polak, J.B.

    1999-11-01

    In reaction to an article in this journal by Van Wee en Verhoef it is contended that `status effects`, do not satisfy the definition of externalities that is common in welfare theory. Principally this is because they do not imply any sacrificing of scarce resources. `Status effects`, therefore, are not, and opposed to the opinion of Van Wee and Verhoef, a case of a divergence from maximum welfare. Quite apart from this, and also in opposition to Van Wee en Verhoef, it is argued that no absolute prescriptions for policy may be derived from economic theory. Such prescriptions necessarily are conditional on the optimum allocation of resources being the sole objective of policy. Finally, it is stated that `happiness`, a concept used by the authors in their discussion of `status effects`, has no role to play in economics. 17 refs.

  3. The Role of Business in the Development of the Welfare State and Labor Markets in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paster, Thomas

    This book assesses the role of employers in the development of welfare state and labour market institutions. Building on an in-depth analysis of Germany, a market economy known to often provide economic benefits to firms, this book explores one of the most contested issues in the comparative...... and historical literature on the welfare state. In a departure from existing employer-centered explanations, the author applies new empirical data to contend that the variation in acceptance of social reform depends more on changes in the types of political challenges faced by employers, than on changes...... in the type of institutions considered economically beneficial. Covering major reforms spanning more than a century of institutional development in unemployment insurance, accident insurance, pensions, collective bargaining, and codetermination, this book argues that employers support social policy as a means...

  4. Cost-effectiveness analysis: adding value to assessment of animal health welfare and production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babo Martins, S; Rushton, J

    2014-12-01

    Cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) has been extensively used in economic assessments in fields related to animal health, namely in human health where it provides a decision-making framework for choices about the allocation of healthcare resources. Conversely, in animal health, cost-benefit analysis has been the preferred tool for economic analysis. In this paper, the use of CEA in related areas and the role of this technique in assessments of animal health, welfare and production are reviewed. Cost-effectiveness analysis can add further value to these assessments, particularly in programmes targeting animal welfare or animal diseases with an impact on human health, where outcomes are best valued in natural effects rather than in monetary units. Importantly, CEA can be performed during programme implementation stages to assess alternative courses of action in real time.

  5. Household water demand and welfare loss for future Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhard, Jeroen; Reynaud, Arnaud; Lanzanova, Denis; de Roo, Ad

    2015-04-01

    Matching the availability of water to its demand in Europe is a major challenge for the future due to expected economic and demographic developments and climate change. This means there is a growing need to estimate future water demand and to optimize the water allocation to all end users to counteract welfare loss. At the European scale it is currently not possible to assess the impact of social and economic changes on future water demand or to prioritize water allocation amongst different sectors based on economic damage without extensive use of assumptions and generalizations. Indeed, our review of existing regional optimization models for Europe reveals that the social-economic component of the water use system needs to be improved by complementing them with detailed water use estimates and cost/benefit functions in order to determine the optimal situation. Our study contributes to closing this knowledge gap for the European household sector by quantifying future water demand and the effect of water pricing, as well as providing a method for the calculation of monetary damage due to unmet demand at the highest spatial resolution possible. We used a water demand function approach in which household water consumption depends upon some exogenous drivers including water price, household income, population and household characteristics and climate conditions. For each European country, the annual water consumption per capita was calculated at regional level (NUTS3) and subsequently disaggregated to five kilometer grid level based on a population density map. In order to produce estimates of water demand, the evolution of the explanatory variables of the water demand functions and population density map were simulated until 2050 based on related variables such as GDP and demographic projections. The results of this study will be integrated into the JRC hydro-economic modelling framework for an assessment of the Water-Agriculture-Energy-Ecosystems Nexus.

  6. Equine Welfare in England and Wales: Exploration of Stakeholders' Understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horseman, Susan V; Buller, Henry; Mullan, Siobhan; Knowles, Toby G; Barr, Alistair R S; Whay, Helen R

    2017-01-01

    Investigating how those responsible for the care of nonhuman animals understand the concept of animal welfare is important for animal welfare improvement. In-depth interviews with 31 equine stakeholders were used to explore their perceptions and understanding of welfare. The results showed the stakeholders understood the concept of welfare in 4 ways. Firstly, welfare was understood in terms of the provision of resources-for example, food. Secondly, a "horse-centered" understanding of welfare was articulated; this understanding included the horses' mental state and was linked to natural behavior. Thirdly, the word welfare had negative connotations, and for some, good welfare was achieved through avoidance of negative states. Finally, interviewees discussed incidents that occurred in their own familiar contexts but suggested that these were not welfare problems. Evidence indicated that the ways in which equine stakeholders understood the concept of welfare might have been acting as a barrier to the alleviation of some equine welfare problems. There is a need for strategies aimed at improving equine welfare to consider stakeholder constructs of welfare and the ways in which these constructs are generated and acted upon.

  7. Model to evaluate welfare in dairy cow farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Calamari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of herd welfare is a scientific discipline that is rapidly developing. The scientific community plays an important role in delivering appropriate, repeatable, valid and feasible models for this assessment. Unfortunately, there are different feelings regarding the welfare of animals and it is imperative for its assessment that certain agreement on the meaning of animal welfare is accepted. Then it is necessary to look at the goals of the models of welfare assessment because different goals require a different combination of welfare indicators. The different models for welfare assessment can be categorized broadly into research, legislative requirements, certification systems, and advisory/management tools. These models may have various goals: quantification of welfare, provision of welfare assurance or welfare management. However, it is widely accepted that welfare is best assessed with multiple different measures; therefore, a welfare assessment model for a livestock herd can include two types of measure: a description of the housing system and management (indirect indicators and data recording on how the animals react to the system (direct indicators. The first type provides information on risk factors for welfare problems. Direct measures on the animals provide information on their response to the environment and are more direct measures of welfare than their counterparts, but direct welfare indicators alone do not point out the causes of impaired welfare. Because welfare is a complex construct, different approaches for the aggregation of the different aspects of welfare have been proposed, although the aggregation in an overall welfare value is not sufficient. The thresholds between acceptable and unacceptable welfare levels have to be included in the model of welfare assessment but it seems useful to set certain minimum standards for each single welfare aspect. Afterward, judging the validity of a common welfare assessment

  8. The Politics and Anti-Politics of HIV: healthcare and welfare in contemporary Kenya.

    OpenAIRE

    Prince, Ruth J.

    2012-01-01

    The chapter addresses HIV care and treatment programmes, funded by the US, which touch upon thousands of western Kenyans’ lives and draw upon funds that dwarf the Ministry of Health’s budget. During the past decade these programmes have produced a medicalized economy of care and welfare, which provides much of the resources circulating in the local economy, otherwise marked by economic crisis, rising food prices, corruption and socioeconomic inequality. HIV-interventions open up pathways of o...

  9. How do GM / non GM coexistence regulations affect markets and welfare?

    OpenAIRE

    Desquilbet, Marion; Sylvaine PORET

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical economic model assessing the effect of the level of mandatory genetically modified (GM) / non-GM coexistence regulations on market and welfare outcome. We assume vertical differentiation of GM and non-GM goods on the consumer side. Producers are heterogeneous in their cost savings from GMO adoption. Producers of non-GM crops face a probability of having their harvest downgraded if gene flow from GM fields makes its GMO content above the labeling threshold. Th...

  10. How do GM / non GM coexistence regulations affect markets and welfare?

    OpenAIRE

    Desquilbet, Marion; Sylvaine PORET

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical economic model assessing the effects of the level of mandatory genetically modified (GM) / non-GM coexistence regulations on market and welfare outcomes. We assume vertical differentiation of GM and non-GM goods on the consumer side. Producers are heterogeneous in their production cost for GM crops. Producers of non- GM crops face a probability of having their harvest downgraded if gene flow from GM fields raises its content in GMOs (geneticall...

  11. How do GM / non GM coexistence regulations affect markets and welfare?

    OpenAIRE

    Desquilbet, Marion; Sylvaine PORET

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical economic model assessing the effects of the level of mandatory genetically modified (GM) / non-GM coexistence regulations on market and welfare outcomes. We assume vertical differentiation of GM and non-GM goods on the consumer side. Producers are heterogeneous in their production cost for GM crops. Producers of non- GM crops face a probability of having their harvest downgraded if gene flow from GM fields raises its content in GMOs (genetically modified orga...

  12. Immigration and welfare state cash benefits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Peder J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to summarize existing evidence on welfare dependence among immigrants in Denmark and to produce new evidence with focus on the most recent years. Design/methodology/approach – The paper combines a broad descriptive/analytical approach with multivariate...

  13. Welfare Effects of Distortionary Company Car Taxation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutiérrez-i-Puigarnau, Eva; Ommeren, van Jos

    2007-01-01

    In Europe, company cars are offered by employers as fringe benefits to their employees at a lower price than employees pay in the car market, mainly due to favourable taxation of company cars. We analyse the welfare effects of favourable taxation of company cars for the Netherlands. The estimated an

  14. Literary Fiction Influences Attitudes Toward Animal Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Małecki, Wojciech; Pawłowski, Bogusław; Sorokowski, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Literary fiction has been credited with considerable power to improve attitudes toward outgroups. It was even argued that it has been an important factor behind the global decline of violence against various minorities in the last centuries. Could it also help to reduce the human-inflicted suffering of animals? To test this, we studied the attitude toward animal welfare of n = 921 (experimental group) people of both sexes who read a short fragment of an unpublished novel with a motif of the physical abuse of an animal. The control group (n = 912) read a fragment of a similar length but not related to animals. After reading the text all subjects filled out an on-line questionnaire with seven items (camouflaged among many others items) measuring attitudes toward animal welfare. The questionnaire included also demographical questions, such as whether the subject keeps pets. We found that in comparison with the control group, the experimental group was significantly more concerned about animal welfare. This result indicates that literary fiction can influence attitudes toward other species. It is also worth noting that our study is characterized by a high level of ecological validity, i.e. a relatively high extent to which its results can be generalized (or extended) to real-world settings. Due to its specific design, which involved the cooperation of a bestselling author and his publisher, the study approximated the typical conditions in which people read fiction in a remarkably accurate way. Finally, our research has potential practical implications for promoting animal welfare.

  15. Strategic and welfare implications of bundling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin, Stephen

    1999-01-01

    A standard oligopoly model of bundling shows that bundling by a firm with a monopoly over one product has a strategic effect because it changes the substitution relationships between the goods among which consumers choose. Bundling in appropriate proportions is privately profitable, reduces rival......' profits and overall welfare, and may drive rivals from the market...

  16. Beyond home ownership: housing, welfare and society

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ronald, R.; Elsinga, M.

    2012-01-01

    In context of ongoing transformations in housing markets and socioeconomic conditions, this book focuses on past, current and future roles of home ownership in social policies and welfare practices. It considers owner-occupied housing in terms of diverse meanings and manifestations, but in particula

  17. Welfare financing : Grant allocation and efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toolsema-Veldman, Linda; Allers, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    Welfare is often administered locally, but financed through grants from the central government. This raises the question how the central government can prevent local governments from spending more than necessary. Block grants are more efficient than matching grants, because the latter reduce the loc

  18. Welfare Financing : Grant Allocation and Efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toolsema, L.A.; Allers, Maarten A.

    2014-01-01

    Welfare is often administered locally, but financed through grants from the central government. This raises the question how the central government can prevent local governments from spending more than necessary. We analyze block grants used in The Netherlands, which depend on exogenous spending nee

  19. What Characterise the Nordic Welfare State Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Bent

    2007-01-01

    The main distinctive characteristics of the Nordic welfare states are presented. These include full employment, high degree of equality, a high level of taxes and public sector spending. The Nordic countries are compared to other European countries. The conclusion being that the Nordic Model...

  20. Welfare state: Convergence: Downward versus upward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josifidis Kosta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to contribute, in the theoretical and empirical sense, to better understanding the challenges of the EU welfare regimes and how particular regimes react on them. Despite significant differences among the EU welfare regimes, it is real to expect that they will converge because of the common challenges confronting them. In this paper, using the model of sigma and beta convergence, we are trying to predict the possible direction of convergence in the sense that Europe will go toward to more or less generosity or in other words it will converge downward or upward. The downward convergence means the strengthen competition among existing welfare regimes, in order to maintain and/or attract capital, that could reduce the social spending generosity. On the other hand, the upward convergence above involves the strengthening of coordination among existing welfare regimes according to the values of solidarity and social justice, which characterise not only the most developed EU countries but also the supranational European social model. .

  1. The use of animal welfare indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    At any given time, an animal’s welfare ranges on a scale of very good to very poor. It contains both physical elements and mental elements. The physical elements, such as behaviour, physiology, health, productivity and pathology, can be measured relatively easily, in an experimental setting, but the...

  2. Market barriers to welfare product innovations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Binnekamp, M.H.A.; Ingenbleek, P.T.M.

    2006-01-01

    New products that are based on higher animal welfare standards encounter several barriers on the road to market acceptance. The authors focus on the Dutch poultry sector and distinguish between retailer and consumer barriers. Retailer barriers include the powerful position of retailers, the price co

  3. Culture, Cooperation, and the General Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berigan, Nick; Irwin, Kyle

    2011-01-01

    Solutions to social dilemmas require cooperation. Given that there are commonly multiple avenues for cooperation, sometimes social dilemmas require coordination of strategies in addition to sufficient cooperation to be successful. This study examines one social dilemma where such coordination is necessary: supporting the general welfare. Using…

  4. Social capital, migration and the welfare state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard; Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase

    2009-01-01

      The full potential of migrants from non-western countries has not yet been realized in the modern welfare state. Rather, parallel societies have risen, as often counteracting integration. It is however crucial to integrate migrants from non-western countries more successfully - also simply to r...

  5. Measuring rural welfare in colonial Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haas, De Michiel

    2017-01-01

    Recent scholarship on historical welfare development in Sub-Saharan Africa has uncovered long-term trends in standards of living. How the majority of rural dwellers fared, however, remains largely elusive. This study develops a new approach to reconstruct rural living standards in a historical

  6. Marketization of welfare services in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Ole Helby; Hjelmar, Ulf

    2013-01-01

    . This article presents the findings of a systematic review of Danish and Swedish experiences with private provision of welfare services within three areas: home care for the elderly, provision of child care, and the operation of nursing homes. The research shows that there is no general evidence in support...

  7. Welfare Effects of Tariff Reduction Formulas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guldager, Jan G.; Schröder, Philipp J.H.

    . This paper presents a two country intra-industry trade model with heterogeneous firms subject to high and low tariffs. We examine the welfare effects of applying three different tariff reduction formulas proposed in the literature i) a proportional cut, ii) the Swiss formula and iii) a compression formula...

  8. Market barriers to welfare product innovations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Binnekamp, M.H.A.; Ingenbleek, P.T.M.

    2006-01-01

    New products that are based on higher animal welfare standards encounter several barriers on the road to market acceptance. The authors focus on the Dutch poultry sector and distinguish between retailer and consumer barriers. Retailer barriers include the powerful position of retailers, the price

  9. Welfare – con o senza stato

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bengtsson, Steen

    Welfare – con o senza stato analizza una vasta gamma di servizi sociali presenti a Padova, comprandoli con quelli di una cittá di dimensioni simili, Århus. La ricerca pertanto illustra la concreta erticolazione del sisterma di sicurezza sociale danese, confrontadolo con quello realizzato del nord...

  10. Welfare of sea lions in travelling circuses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hopster, H.; Jong, de I.C.

    2014-01-01

    Dit rapport geeft een overzicht van de wetenschappelijke literatuur en opinies van deskundigen over het welzijn van zeeleeuwen in reizende circussen. Dit als basis voor beleidsontwikkeling.This report describes the scientific literature and expert views concerning the welfare of sea lions in travell

  11. Welfare issues of modern laying hen farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Ferrante

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This review starts with a brief outline of poultry behaviour and biology and a description of the present laying hen farming situation in Italy. Moreover, it points out the situation of EU legislation currently in effect for laying hen welfare. It then reviews the main welfare issues of layer farming. The following aspects are considered: rearing system (e.g. stocking density, light intensity and photoperiod, equipment and facilities and some health aspects. All these aspects represent important issues for farmed species, but special attention should be paid when we deal with intensively farmed species like poultry, where a lot of potential stressors may impair the welfare with consequences on health and production. The adoption of suitable housing systems and of adequate management techniques, as well as the presence of well trained stockpersons with a sound knowledge of poultry physiology and behaviour, are particularly important in guaranteeing a sufficient welfare level to poultry. Therefore, the adoption of specific codes of recommendations is highly desirable.

  12. Welfare monitroing system : assessment protocol for horses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Livestock Research,

    2012-01-01

    This document describes the protocol for horses in more detail. For the development of the protocol the Welfare Quality® framework was used. For each measure there is a description how to assess the measure including the method of classification.

  13. Welfare Effects of Distortionary Company Car Taxation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutiérrez-i-Puigarnau, Eva; Ommeren, van Jos

    2007-01-01

    In Europe, company cars are offered by employers as fringe benefits to their employees at a lower price than employees pay in the car market, mainly due to favourable taxation of company cars. We analyse the welfare effects of favourable taxation of company cars for the Netherlands. The estimated

  14. Children of divorce in a Scandinavian welfare state: are they less affected than US children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breivik, Kyrre; Olweus, Dan

    2006-02-01

    A fairly common view holds that children's risks of negative outcomes associated with family dissolution are generally small or even nonexistent in Scandinavia, and clearly smaller than what is usually found in the United States. This view was empirically examined in a recent large-scale study of 4,127 12-15-year-old children in Norway, of whom 623 had experienced parental divorce and lived in a single-mother family. The somewhat paradoxical pattern of findings was as follows: (a) The negative associations between parental divorce and various outcomes were found to be generally very similar in Norway and the United States in spite of the great differences in family policy and welfare benefits for single mothers (at the macro level); and (b) Mediational effects of family economic resources were in both countries most marked for the academic achievement area, and the predictive power of such variables was quite similar, again in spite of the great differences in absolute level of the economic resources available to single-mother families in the two countries. The results cast some doubt on the value of the absolute economic deprivation perspective in explaining the results, and the many Norwegian welfare benefits do not seem to mitigate the association between divorce and negative outcomes for the children involved. Also policy implications derived from the economic deprivation perspective are questioned. Alternative interpretations of the findings involving relative deprivation and economic resources as a partial proxy for other non-economic factors are briefly discussed.

  15. Addressing the financial consequences of cancer: qualitative evaluation of a welfare rights advice service.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Moffatt

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The onset, treatment and trajectory of cancer is associated with financial stress among patients across a range of health and welfare systems and has been identified as a significant unmet need. Welfare rights advice can be delivered effectively in healthcare settings, has the potential to alleviate financial stress, but has not yet been evaluated. We present an evaluation of a welfare rights advice intervention designed to address the financial consequences of cancer. METHODS: Descriptive study of welfare outcomes among 533 male and 641 female cancer patients and carers aged 4-95 (mean 62 years, who accessed the welfare rights advice service in North East England between April 2009 and March 2010; and qualitative interview study of a maximum variation sample of 35 patients and 9 carers. RESULTS: Over two thirds of cancer patients and carers came from areas of high socio-economic deprivation. Welfare benefit claims were successful for 96% of claims made and resulted in a median increase in weekly income of £70.30 ($109.74, €84.44. Thirty-four different types of benefits or grants were awarded. Additional resources were perceived to lessen the impact of lost earnings, help offset costs associated with cancer, reduce stress and anxiety and increase ability to maintain independence and capacity to engage in daily activities, all of which were perceived to impact positively on well-being and quality of life. Key barriers to accessing benefit entitlements were knowledge, system complexity, eligibility concerns and assumptions that health professionals would alert patients to entitlements. CONCLUSIONS: The intervention proved feasible, effectively increased income for cancer patients and was highly valued. Addressing the financial sequelae of cancer can have positive social and psychological consequences that could significantly enhance effective clinical management and suitable services should be routinely available. Further research

  16. The Nordic welfare model and welfare services - Can we maintain acceptable standards?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben M.

    A key feature of the Nordic welfare model is provision of welfare services like care, education and health. They are individual entitlements, and collectively financed. It is a prerequisite that contemporary standards of services are provided; thus the public solution is not a second rate solution...... used only by those who cannot afford better solutions. Can the Nordic welfare model meet this objective in the future? Increasing productivity and wealth challenge this. Services tend to have lower productivity growth and thus to become more expensive (Baumol’s cost disease), but also to have a high...... income elasticity, and thus demands rise alongside improved material living standards (Wagner effects). The same implies to leisure, implying that tax bases may be eroded. In short, expenditures are on an upward drift and revenues on a downward trend, challenging the financial viability of the welfare...

  17. The Power of Citizens and Professionals in Welfare Encounters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mik-Meyer, Nanna

    relationships with welfare workers. However, other factors impact these interactions; factors which often pull in different directions. Welfare encounters are thus influenced by bureaucratic principles and market values as well. Consequently, this book engages with both Weberian (bureaucracy) and Foucauldian...

  18. EU Country Rankings' Sensitivity to the Choice of Welfare Indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, M. Azhar

    2016-01-01

    are particularly volatile for countries in the middle of the ranking distribution, while countries with either high or low welfare generally have lower volatility. A multidimensional poverty index has the highest correlation with the latent welfare measure. It is concluded that the observed rankings do not tell......Ranking of countries with respect to some welfare measure is highly popular and takes places with high frequency. Ranking of a country can change over time given the same welfare measure is applied. Rankings can also change depending on which welfare measure is applied in a given year. To what...... extent do we see ranking changes and which existing welfare measures best captures an unobserved, yet existing, notion of welfare in society? To investigate this we apply seven welfare indicators for fifteen EU countries covering the years from 2005 until 2011. The results indicate that rankings...

  19. 12 CFR 24.5 - Public welfare investment after-the-fact notice and prior approval procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Public welfare investment after-the-fact notice and prior approval procedures. 24.5 Section 24.5 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY COMMUNITY AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ENTITIES, COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS, AND...

  20. The 'Real Welfare' scheme: benchmarking welfare outcomes for commercially farmed pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandolfi, F; Stoddart, K; Wainwright, N; Kyriazakis, I; Edwards, S A

    2017-03-02

    Animal welfare standards have been incorporated in EU legislation and in farm assurance schemes, based on scientific information and aiming to safeguard the welfare of the species concerned. Recently, emphasis has shifted from resource-based measures of welfare to animal-based measures, which are considered to assess more accurately the welfare status. The data used in this analysis were collected from April 2013 to May 2016 through the 'Real Welfare' scheme in order to assess on-farm pig welfare, as required for those finishing pigs under the UK Red Tractor Assurance scheme. The assessment involved five main measures (percentage of pigs requiring hospitalization, percentage of lame pigs, percentage of pigs with severe tail lesions, percentage of pigs with severe body marks and enrichment use ratio) and optional secondary measures (percentage of pigs with mild tail lesions, percentage of pigs with dirty tails, percentage of pigs with mild body marks, percentage of pigs with dirty bodies), with associated information about the environment and the enrichment in the farms. For the complete database, a sample of pens was assessed from 1928 farm units. Repeated measures were taken in the same farm unit over time, giving 112 240 records at pen level. These concerned a total of 13 480 289 pigs present on the farm during the assessments, with 5 463 348 pigs directly assessed using the 'Real Welfare' protocol. The three most common enrichment types were straw, chain and plastic objects. The main substrate was straw which was present in 67.9% of the farms. Compared with 2013, a significant increase of pens with undocked-tail pigs, substrates and objects was observed over time (P0.3). The results from the first 3 years of the scheme demonstrate a reduction of the prevalence of animal-based measures of welfare problems and highlight the value of this initiative.

  1. Formulating policies for the welfare of animals during long distance transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Gavinelli

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Long distance transportation of animals creates much public concern in the European Union (EU and elsewhere, partly because of its visibility to the general public. The protection of animals during transport is thus a key element of EU policy for farm animal welfare. At the same time, animal transport has been vital to the structure of the food chain in Europe since the beginning of the Common Agricultural Policy. The authors describe the formulation of EU policy on long distance transportation. Initiatives are based on scientific risk assessment and considerations of international guidelines. The two main objectives of EU policy are to reduce long distance transportation as far as possible and to upgrade standards for transported animals. The extent of detail in regulations depends on the ability of the sector concerned to address issues and on continual upgrading of the awareness and knowledge of transport operators on animal welfare which is universally important for progress. The economic impact of legislative measures must be evaluated as part of the policy process, noting that proper animal welfare standards can generate direct and indirect economic advantages. Awareness of these welfare advantages in all sectors is essential for raising the quality of enforcement. Finally, policy goals should be monitored to verify the extent of their fulfilment. Efforts from competent authorities and transport companies in Europe are improving the situation. However, a strong legislative framework is likely to remain the best option for the coming years to ensure that the welfare of transported animals is more than just a minimum.

  2. Occupational welfare and organizational effectiveness: some theoretical notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamir, B; Bargal, D

    1982-01-01

    The recent revival of interest in occupational welfare is justified in many cases by the alleged contribution of occupational welfare to organizational effectiveness. The authors critically examine the possible relationships between management-sponsored occupational welfare services and programs and several facets of organizational effectiveness: workers' motivation, health, performance, commitment and attachment to the organization, rate of absenteeism and labor-management relations. It is concluded that occupational welfare contains potential risks, as well as potential benefits for the organization.

  3. The impact of management on dairy calf welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Ellingsen-Dalskau, Kristian

    2016-01-01

    No universal definition of animal welfare exists. However, an animal allowed expression of natural, innate behaviours, showing good biological functioning and having a positive affective state is generally viewed as having a high level of welfare. Animal welfare challenges exist across all countries and species. This thesis is focused on dairy calves and the impact that management has on their level of welfare. Organic production has several prerequisites which should allow for...

  4. Show Horse Welfare: Horse Show Competitors' Understanding, Awareness, and Perceptions of Equine Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Melissa A; Hiney, Kristina; Richardson, Jennifer C; Waite, Karen; Borron, Abigail; Brady, Colleen M

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain a better understanding of stock-type horse show competitors' understanding of welfare and level of concern for stock-type show horses' welfare. Data were collected through an online questionnaire that included questions relating to (a) interest and general understanding of horse welfare, (b) welfare concerns of the horse show industry and specifically the stock-type horse show industry, (c) decision-making influences, and (d) level of empathic characteristics. The majority of respondents indicated they agree or strongly agree that physical metrics should be a factor when assessing horse welfare, while fewer agreed that behavioral and mental metrics should be a factor. Respondent empathy levels were moderate to high and were positively correlated with the belief that mental and behavioral metrics should be a factor in assessing horse welfare. Respondents indicated the inhumane practices that most often occur at stock-type shows include excessive jerking on reins, excessive spurring, and induced excessive unnatural movement. Additionally, respondents indicated association rules, hired trainers, and hired riding instructors are the most influential regarding the decisions they make related to their horses' care and treatment.

  5. Aging and Economics: The Future Is Now.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Ronald W.

    1986-01-01

    Examines the economic and social implications of world aging (social welfare costs, strain on family finances, diversion of youth-oriented expenditures to elderly-oriented expenditures, need for containment of inflation, return to a nuclear family) and the role of home economists in preparing people for this future. (CT)

  6. The economic impacts of emission reduction policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, D.A.

    1992-01-01

    Environmental expenditures, or environmental tax revenues, e.g., carbon taxes are potentially significant components of the US macroeconomy. This paper presents a simple model of the role of environmental abatement expenditures and/or emission taxes from the viewpoint of economic efficiency, welfare and potential macroeconomic effects.

  7. The economic impacts of emission reduction policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, D.A.

    1992-07-01

    Environmental expenditures, or environmental tax revenues, e.g., carbon taxes are potentially significant components of the US macroeconomy. This paper presents a simple model of the role of environmental abatement expenditures and/or emission taxes from the viewpoint of economic efficiency, welfare and potential macroeconomic effects.

  8. Teaching Health Care in Introductory Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutler, David M.

    2017-01-01

    Health care is one of the economy's biggest industries, so it is natural that the health care industry should play some role in the teaching of introductory economics. There are many ways that health care can appear in such a context: in the teaching of microeconomics, as a macroeconomic issue, to learn about social welfare, and even to learn how…

  9. Poultry welfare and management: WPSA Working Group Nine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elson, H.A.; Jong, de I.C.; Kjaer, J.B.; Sossidou, E.; Tauson, R.K.

    2012-01-01

    The introduction of the UK Protection of Animals Act 1911 demonstrates that animal welfare has been of concern for at least a century. The matter came to the fore about 50 years ago, when the welfare of hens in battery cages became an issue. Since then poultry welfare research and the development of

  10. The Janus Face of Homeownership-based Welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsinga, M.G.; Hoekstra, J.S.C.M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper reflects on the different faces of asset-based welfare from both a theoretical and an empirical perspective. It shows that asset-based welfare can be perceived as a lever for welfare state restructuring but also as an instrument for poverty eradication. In most countries, asset-based

  11. Patterns of Welfare Attitudes in the Australian Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Timothy P; Butterworth, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The study of community attitudes toward welfare and welfare recipients is an area of increasing interest. This is not only because negative attitudes can lead to stigmatization and discrimination, but because of the relevance of social attitudes to policy decisions. We quantify the attitudes toward welfare in the Australian population using attitude data from a nationally representative survey (N = 3243). Although there was broad support for the social welfare system, negative attitudes are held toward those who receive welfare benefits. Using canonical correlation analysis we identify multivariate associations between welfare attitudes and respondent demographic characteristics. A primary attitudinal dimension of welfare positivity was found amongst those with higher levels of education, life instability, and personal exposure to the welfare system. Other patterns of negative welfare attitudes appeared to be motivated by beliefs that the respondent's personal circumstances indicate their deservingness. Moreover, a previously unidentified and unconsidered subset of respondents was identified. This group had positive attitudes toward receiving government benefits despite having no recent experience of welfare. They did, however, possess many of the characteristics that frequently lead to welfare receipt. These results provide insights into not only how attitudinal patterns segment across the population, but are of relevance to policy makers considering how to align welfare reform with community attitudes.

  12. Advancing animal welfare science: sharing knowledge, debating issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orritt, Rachel

    2016-07-23

    Established animal welfare scientists and others at the beginning of their career gathered in York last month to discuss recent advances in animal welfare science. Organised by the Universities Federation for Animal Welfare, the meeting aimed to provide a forum for sharing knowledge and practice, discussion and debate. Rachel Orritt, a PhD researcher at the University of Lincoln, reports on proceedings.

  13. A new animal welfare concept based on allostasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korte, S.M.; Olivier, B.; Koolhaas, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    Animal welfare is an increasing issue of public concern and debate. As a result, many countries are reconsidering the way animal welfare is embedded in the legislation and rules for housing and care of animals. This requires general agreement of what animal welfare is. Unfortunately, the current

  14. The idea of animal welfare - developments and tensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; Jensen, Karsten Klint

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on developments and tensions within the idea of animal welfare. There is divergence among those who believe in the idea of animal welfare. First, we discuss what it takes for farm animal welfare to be good enough. How far should society go beyond the starting point...

  15. 42 CFR 86.19 - Human subjects; animal welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Human subjects; animal welfare. 86.19 Section 86.19... Occupational Safety and Health Training Grants § 86.19 Human subjects; animal welfare. No grant award may be... concerning animal welfare. 2 The Department Grants Administration Manual is available for inspection at...

  16. Pupil Welfare in Finnish Schools -- Communal or Falling Apart?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskela, Teija; Määttä, Kaarina; Uusiautti, Satu

    2013-01-01

    The need for pupil welfare has increased in schools as has the need to renew the traditional teacher's work. The purpose of this article is to find out how committed the teachers are to pupil welfare work and how the school organisation supports pupil welfare work structurally and practically. The original research was carried out in northern…

  17. 42 CFR 86.33 - Human subjects; animal welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Human subjects; animal welfare. 86.33 Section 86.33... Occupational Safety and Health Direct Traineeships § 86.33 Human subjects; animal welfare. Where the...) Chapter 1-43 of the Department Grants Administration Manual 2 068 concerning animal welfare. 2...

  18. Devolution and Welfare Reform: Re-Evaluating "Success"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheely, Amanda

    2012-01-01

    The passage of welfare reform shifted significant authority for welfare provision from the federal government to state and local governments. Proponents of devolution point to drastic caseload declines as evidence that state-run programs are decreasing dependency among families. However, welfare rolls in many states have remained stagnant or…

  19. Poultry welfare and management: WPSA Working Group Nine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elson, H.A.; Jong, de I.C.; Kjaer, J.B.; Sossidou, E.; Tauson, R.K.

    2012-01-01

    The introduction of the UK Protection of Animals Act 1911 demonstrates that animal welfare has been of concern for at least a century. The matter came to the fore about 50 years ago, when the welfare of hens in battery cages became an issue. Since then poultry welfare research and the development of

  20. Child Welfare Research and Training: A Response to David Stoesz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Brenda D.; Vandiver, Vikki L.

    2016-01-01

    In this response to David Stoesz' critique, "The Child Welfare Cartel," the authors agree that child welfare research and training must be improved. The authors disagree, however, with Stoesz' critique of social work education, his assessment of the most-needed forms of child welfare research, and his depiction of the goals and…