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Sample records for welded lap joints

  1. Ultrasonic Welding of Thermoplastic Composite Coupons for Mechanical Characterization of Welded Joints through Single Lap Shear Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas, Irene F.; Palardy, Genevieve

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a novel straightforward method for ultrasonic welding of thermoplastic-composite coupons in optimum processing conditions. The ultrasonic welding process described in this paper is based on three main pillars. Firstly, flat energy directors are used for preferential heat generation at the joining interface during the welding process. A flat energy director is a neat thermoplastic resin film that is placed between the parts to be joined prior to the welding process and heats up preferentially owing to its lower compressive stiffness relative to the composite substrates. Consequently, flat energy directors provide a simple solution that does not require molding of resin protrusions on the surfaces of the composite substrates, as opposed to ultrasonic welding of unreinforced plastics. Secondly, the process data provided by the ultrasonic welder is used to rapidly define the optimum welding parameters for any thermoplastic composite material combination. Thirdly, displacement control is used in the welding process to ensure consistent quality of the welded joints. According to this method, thermoplastic-composite flat coupons are individually welded in a single lap configuration. Mechanical testing of the welded coupons allows determining the apparent lap shear strength of the joints, which is one of the properties most commonly used to quantify the strength of thermoplastic composite welded joints. PMID:26890931

  2. Ultrasonic Welding of Thermoplastic Composite Coupons for Mechanical Characterization of Welded Joints through Single Lap Shear Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas, Irene F; Palardy, Genevieve

    2016-02-11

    This paper presents a novel straightforward method for ultrasonic welding of thermoplastic-composite coupons in optimum processing conditions. The ultrasonic welding process described in this paper is based on three main pillars. Firstly, flat energy directors are used for preferential heat generation at the joining interface during the welding process. A flat energy director is a neat thermoplastic resin film that is placed between the parts to be joined prior to the welding process and heats up preferentially owing to its lower compressive stiffness relative to the composite substrates. Consequently, flat energy directors provide a simple solution that does not require molding of resin protrusions on the surfaces of the composite substrates, as opposed to ultrasonic welding of unreinforced plastics. Secondly, the process data provided by the ultrasonic welder is used to rapidly define the optimum welding parameters for any thermoplastic composite material combination. Thirdly, displacement control is used in the welding process to ensure consistent quality of the welded joints. According to this method, thermoplastic-composite flat coupons are individually welded in a single lap configuration. Mechanical testing of the welded coupons allows determining the apparent lap shear strength of the joints, which is one of the properties most commonly used to quantify the strength of thermoplastic composite welded joints.

  3. Numerical analysis of the adherends with similar thickness on weld-bonded single lap aluminium joint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jianli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the adherend with similar thickness varied from 1 mm to 3 mm on the stress distribution in weld-bonded single lap aluminium joint was investigated using elasto-plastic finite element method (FEM. The results from the numerical simulation show that all the values of the peak stresses along the mid-bondline at the points near the both ends of the lap zone as well as the ones in the region of the nugget are increased when the adherend thickness increased. It is suggested that the adherend thickness of 2 mm to 2.5 mm be appropriate to optimize the stress distribution in the weld-bonded single lap aluminium joint.

  4. Role of heat equation in lap joint for welding process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, P.; Rohit, Sooraj

    2017-07-01

    Welding is predominantly used in industrial purposes and growth in their industry, which gives exact welding and more efficient. The major advantage of using this welding technique at initial stage it takes very low heat to weld the portion and gives a good result of low distortion in modules. In this context, two dissimilar metals copper and nickel are chosen for analysis in tungsten inert gas welding (TIG) in which length is 300 mm and breadth is 100 mm thickness 15 mm welded at room temperature a welded portion zone is formed simulation analysis has done on CATIA® and ANSYS®and MATLAB® code is generated for calculating temperatures at each node to calculate temperature at each node a new technique is used tri-diagonal matrix algorithm is used (TDMA) Steady state one dimension heat is calculated results compared between simulation analysis and analytical analysis temperature at each node is calculated both the temperatures are equal with error.

  5. Experiments and simulation for 6061-T6 aluminum alloy resistance spot welded lap joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florea, Radu Stefanel

    This comprehensive study is the first to quantify the fatigue performance, failure loads, and microstructure of resistance spot welding (RSW) in 6061-T6 aluminum (Al) alloy according to welding parameters and process sensitivity. The extensive experimental, theoretical and simulated analyses will provide a framework to optimize the welding of lightweight structures for more fuel-efficient automotive and military applications. The research was executed in four primary components. The first section involved using electron back scatter diffraction (EBSD) scanning, tensile testing, laser beam profilometry (LBP) measurements, and optical microscopy(OM) images to experimentally investigate failure loads and deformation of the Al-alloy resistance spot welded joints. Three welding conditions, as well as nugget and microstructure characteristics, were quantified according to predefined process parameters. Quasi-static tensile tests were used to characterize the failure loads in specimens based upon these same process parameters. Profilometer results showed that increasing the applied welding current deepened the weld imprints. The EBSD scans revealed the strong dependency between the grain sizes and orientation function on the process parameters. For the second section, the fatigue behavior of the RSW'ed joints was experimentally investigated. The process optimization included consideration of the forces, currents, and times for both the main weld and post-heating. Load control cyclic tests were conducted on single weld lap-shear joint coupons to characterize the fatigue behavior in spot welded specimens. Results demonstrate that welding parameters do indeed significantly affect the microstructure and fatigue performance for these welds. The third section comprised residual strains of resistance spot welded joints measured in three different directions, denoted as in-plane longitudinal, in-plane transversal, and normal, and captured on the fusion zone, heat affected zone

  6. Numerical analysis of weld pool for galvanized steel with lap joint in GTAW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Hunchul; Park, Kyungbae; Kim, Yougjun; Cho, Jungho [Chungbuk National University, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dong-Yoon; Kang, Moon-Jin [Korea Institute of Industrial Technology, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    Galvanized steel is widely used and its demand is growing in automotive industry due to high quality requirement for corrosion resistance. Although there are a lot of demands on using galvanized steel as automotive parts especially for outer body, it has a grave flaw in its welding process. The difficulty is low weldability due to various defects such as porosities and blow holes in weldment, which occurred during welding. A solution to prevent these defects is using hybrid welding process, with two more welding processes. One of the hybrid solutions is using Gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) as leading position in order to remove the zinc (Zn) coating on the surface before the followed practical fusion welding process. In this research, a numerical analysis model which can predict the eliminated Zn coated layers and the area of Fusion zone (FZ). Developed numerical analysis model was validated through comparing experiment to simulation. Basically, arc heat flux, arc pressure, electromagnetic force and Marangoni flow were employed as the boundary conditions and body force terms. Governing equations such as the continuity, momentum, Volume of fluid (VOF) and energy equations were adopted as usual. In addition to previous model, concentrated arc heat flux and contact thermal conductance models are newly suggested and showed successful result. They are adopted to realize edge concentrated arc and interfacial thermal conductance in lap joint fillet arc welding. Developed numerical analysis model successfully simulated the weld pool and temperature profile therefore the predicted Zn removed area considerably coincided with experimental result.

  7. Dual beam Nd:YAG laser welding: influence of lubricants to lap joint welding of steel sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, M.; Merklein, M.; Otto, A.; Blankl, A.

    2007-05-01

    Laser welding is applied in large-volume production since the late eighties and has revolutionized the possibilities of designing and engineering products. Nevertheless, problems appear during application because the operational conditions in industrial environments fluctuate and can influence the welding process negatively. Contaminations, like lubricants and organic solids, are an example of changing conditions in laser beam welding. If a lap joint is welded, these materials have to be removed from the sheets, otherwise pores and surface failures may appear due to keyhole instabilities induced by uncontrolled outgassing. One possibility for solving this problem is the use of two separate laser beams. For producing these two beams several systems are available for all different kind of lasers. A bifocal optic is such a solution for an Nd:YAG laser. By using this system, the laser beam is divided after collimation with a prism. Afterwards the two beams are focussed with a lens to the surface of the sheet and two single spots are produced. If the distance between the two spots is low, one common, elliptical keyhole is created. With this system two different welding strategies are possible. The spots can be oriented parallel or normal to the feed direction. For stabilizing the laser welding of contaminated steel sheets the parallel arrangement is better, because the amount of contamination is nearly the same as in single spot welding but the total volume of the keyhole is greater and so pressure variations due to uncontrolled evaporation of contaminations are lower. In order to prove this theory and to determine the exact effects some investigations were made at the Chair of Manufacturing Technology of the University of Erlangen-Nuremberg. A 4 kW Nd:YAG laser with a beam parameter product of 25 mm*mrad and a focal distance of 200 mm was used to weld two 1 mm DC04 steel sheets together with a lap joint. Between the sheets a deep drawing lubricant, Castrol FST 6, was

  8. Analysis on the Fracture of Al-Cu Dissimilar Materials Friction Stir Welding Lap Joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hongyu; Zhou, Qi; Zhu, Jun; Peng, Yong

    2017-12-01

    Friction stir welding (FWS) is regarded as a more plausible alternative to other welding methods for Al-Cu dissimilar joining. However, the structure of an FSW joint is different from others. In this study, lap joints of 6061 aluminum alloy and commercially pure copper were produced by FSW, and the effects of rotation rate on macromorphology, microstructure and mechanical properties were investigated. In addition, a fracture J integral model was used to analyze the effect of microstructure on the mechanical properties. The results revealed that the macrodefect-free joints were obtained at a feed rate of 150 mm/min and 1100 rpm and that the failure load of the joint reached as high as 4.57 kN and only reached 2.91 kN for the 900 rpm, where tunnel defects were identified. Particle-rich zones composed of Cu particles dispersed in an Al matrix, and "Flow tracks" were observed by the EDS. The J integral results showed that the microdefects on the advancing side cause serious stress concentration compared with the microdefects located on the Al-Cu interface, resulting in the fracture of the joints.

  9. Analysis on the Fracture of Al-Cu Dissimilar Materials Friction Stir Welding Lap Joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hongyu; Zhou, Qi; Zhu, Jun; Peng, Yong

    2017-11-01

    Friction stir welding (FWS) is regarded as a more plausible alternative to other welding methods for Al-Cu dissimilar joining. However, the structure of an FSW joint is different from others. In this study, lap joints of 6061 aluminum alloy and commercially pure copper were produced by FSW, and the effects of rotation rate on macromorphology, microstructure and mechanical properties were investigated. In addition, a fracture J integral model was used to analyze the effect of microstructure on the mechanical properties. The results revealed that the macrodefect-free joints were obtained at a feed rate of 150 mm/min and 1100 rpm and that the failure load of the joint reached as high as 4.57 kN and only reached 2.91 kN for the 900 rpm, where tunnel defects were identified. Particle-rich zones composed of Cu particles dispersed in an Al matrix, and "Flow tracks" were observed by the EDS. The J integral results showed that the microdefects on the advancing side cause serious stress concentration compared with the microdefects located on the Al-Cu interface, resulting in the fracture of the joints.

  10. Corrosion Performance of Friction Stir Linear Lap Welded AM60B Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kish, J. R.; Birbilis, N.; McNally, E. M.; Glover, C. F.; Zhang, X.; McDermid, J. R.; Williams, G.

    2017-11-01

    A corrosion investigation of friction stir linear lap welded AM60B joints used to fabricate an Mg alloy-intensive automotive front end sub-assembly was performed. The stir zone exhibited a slightly refined grain size and significant break-up and re-distribution of the divorced Mg17Al12 (β-phase) relative to the base material. Exposures in NaCl (aq) environments revealed that the stir zone was more susceptible to localized corrosion than the base material. Scanning vibrating electrode technique measurements revealed differential galvanic activity across the joint. Anodic activity was confined to the stir zone surface and involved initiation and lateral propagation of localized filaments. Cathodic activity was initially confined to the base material surface, but was rapidly modified to include the cathodically-activated corrosion products in the filament wake. Site-specific surface analyses revealed that the corrosion observed across the welded joint was likely linked to variations in Al distribution across the surface film/metal interface.

  11. Identifying Combination of Friction Stir Welding Parameters to Maximize Strength of Lap Joints of AA2014-T6 Aluminum Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendrana C.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available AA2014 aluminum alloy (Al-Cu alloy has been widely utilized in fabrication of lightweight structures like aircraft structures, demanding high strength to weight ratio and good corrosion resistance. The fusion welding of these alloys will lead to solidification problems such as hot cracking. Friction stir welding is a new solid state welding process, in which the material being welded does not melt and recast. Lot of research works have been carried out by many researchers to optimize process parameters and establish empirical relationships to predict tensile strength of friction stir welded butt joints of aluminum alloys. However, very few investigations have been carried out on friction stir welded lap joints of aluminum alloys. Hence, in this investigation, an attempt has been made to optimize friction stir lap welding (FSLW parameters to attain maximum tensile strength using statistical tools such as design of experiment (DoE, analysis of variance (ANOVA, response graph and contour plots. By this method, it is found that maximum tensile shear fracture load of 12.76 kN can be achieved if a joint is made using tool rotational speed of 900 rpm, welding speed of 110 mm/min, tool shoulder diameter of 12 mm and tool tilt angle of 1.5°.

  12. Effect of Thread and Rotating Speed on Material Flow Behavior and Mechanical Properties of Friction Stir Lap Welding Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Shude; Li, Zhengwei; Zhou, Zhenlu; Wu, Baosheng

    2017-10-01

    This study focused on the effects of thread on hook and cold lap formation, lap shear property and impact toughness of alclad 2024-T4 friction stir lap welding (FSLW) joints. Except the traditional threaded pin tool (TR-tool), three new tools with different thread locations and orientations were designed. Results showed that thread significantly affected hook, cold lap morphologies and lap shear properties. The tool with tip-threaded pin (T-tool) fabricated joint with flat hook and cold lap, which resulted in shear fracture mode. The tools with bottom-threaded pin (B-tool) eliminated the hook. The tool with reverse-threaded pin (R-tool) widened the stir zone width. When using configuration A, the joints fabricated by the three new tools showed higher failure loads than the joint fabricated by the TR-tool. The joint using the T-tool owned the optimum impact toughness. This study demonstrated the significance of thread during FSLW and provided a reference to optimize tool geometry.

  13. Dual-beam laser welding of AZ31B magnesium alloy in zero-gap lap joint configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harooni, Masoud; Carlson, Blair; Kovacevic, Radovan

    2014-03-01

    Porosity within laser welds of magnesium alloys is one of the main roadblocks to achieving high quality joints. One of the causes of pore formation is the presence of pre-existing coatings on the surface of magnesium alloy such as oxide or chromate layers. In this study, single-beam and dual-beam laser heat sources are investigated in relation to mitigation of pores resulting from the presence of the as-received oxide layer on the surface of AZ31B-H24 magnesium alloy during the laser welding process. A fiber laser with a power of up to 4 kW is used to weld samples in a zero-gap lap joint configuration. The effect of dual-beam laser welding with different beam energy ratios is studied on the quality of the weld bead. The purpose of this paper is to identify the beam ratio that best mitigates pore formation in the weld bead. The laser molten pool and the keyhole condition, as well as laser-induced plasma plume are monitored in real-time by use of a high speed charge-coupled device (CCD) camera assisted with a green laser as an illumination source. Tensile and microhardness tests were used to measure the mechanical properties of the laser welded samples. Results showed that a dual-beam laser configuration can effectively mitigate pore formation in the weld bead by a preheating-welding mechanism.

  14. Influence of Zn Interlayer on Interfacial Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of TIG Lap-Welded Mg/Al Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qiong; Wang, Kehong

    2016-03-01

    This study explored 6061 Al alloy and AZ31B Mg alloy joined by TIG lap welding with Zn foils of varying thicknesses, with the additional Zn element being imported into the fusion zone to alloy the weld seam. The microstructures and chemical composition in the fusion zone near the Mg substrate were examined by SEM and EDS, and tensile shear strength tests were conducted to investigate the mechanical properties of the Al/Mg joints, as well as the fracture surfaces, and phase compositions. The results revealed that the introduction of an appropriate amount of Zn transition layer improves the microstructure of Mg/Al joints and effectively reduces the formation of Mg-Al intermetallic compounds (IMCs). The most common IMCs in the fusion zone near the Mg substrate were Mg-Zn and Mg-Al-Zn IMCs. The type and distribution of IMCs generated in the weld zone differed according to Zn additions; Zn interlayer thickness of 0.4 mm improved the sample's mechanical properties considerably compared to thicknesses of less than 0.4 mm; however, any further increase in Zn interlayer thickness of above 0.4 mm caused mechanical properties to deteriorate.

  15. Lap shear strength and fatigue behavior of friction stir spot welded dissimilar magnesium-to-aluminum joints with adhesive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chowdhury, S.H. [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Ryerson University, 350 Victoria Street, Toronto, Ontario M5B 2K3 (Canada); Chen, D.L., E-mail: dchen@ryerson.ca [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Ryerson University, 350 Victoria Street, Toronto, Ontario M5B 2K3 (Canada); Bhole, S.D. [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Ryerson University, 350 Victoria Street, Toronto, Ontario M5B 2K3 (Canada); Cao, X.; Wanjara, P. [National Research Council Canada Aerospace, 5145 Decelles Avenue, Montreal, Quebec H3T 2B2 (Canada)

    2013-02-01

    Lightweighting is currently considered as an effective way in improving fuel efficiency and reducing anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. The structural applications of lightweight magnesium and aluminum alloys in the aerospace and automotive sectors unavoidably involve welding and joining while guaranteeing the safety and durability of motor vehicles. The objective of this study was to evaluate the lap shear strength and fatigue properties of friction stir spot welded (FSSWed) dissimilar AZ31B-H24 Mg alloy and Al alloy (AA) 5754-O in three combinations, i.e., (top) Al/Mg (bottom), Al/Mg with an adhesive interlayer, and Mg/Al with an adhesive interlayer. For all the dissimilar Mg-to-Al weld combinations, FSSW induced an interfacial layer in the stir zone (SZ) that was composed of intermetallic compounds of Al{sub 3}Mg{sub 2} and Al{sub 12}Mg{sub 17}, which led to an increase in hardness. Both Mg/Al and Al/Mg dissimilar adhesive welds had significantly higher lap shear strength, failure energy and fatigue life than the Al/Mg dissimilar weld without adhesive. Two different types of fatigue failure modes were observed. In the Al/Mg adhesive weld, at high cyclic loads nugget pull-out failure occurred due to fatigue crack propagation circumferentially around the nugget. At low cyclic loads, fatigue failure occurred in the bottom Mg sheet due to the stress concentration of the keyhole leading to crack initiation followed by propagation perpendicular to the loading direction. In the Mg/Al adhesive weld, nugget pull-out failure mode was primarily observed at both high and low cyclic loads.

  16. Tensile-Shear Fatigue Behavior of Aluminum and Magnesium Lap-Joints obtained by Ultrasonic Welding and Adhesive Bonding

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carboni, Michele; Moroni, Fabrizio

    2011-01-01

    ...€‹ï€Œï€‡ï€‹ï€… www.elsevier.com/locate/procedia ICM11 Tensile-Shear Fatigue Behavior of Aluminum and Magnesium Lap-Joints obtained by Ultrasonic...

  17. Investigation into Interface Lifting Within FSW Lap Welds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. S. Miller; C. R. Tolle; D. E. Clark; C. I. Nichol; T. R. McJunkin; H. B. Smartt

    2008-06-01

    Friction stir welding (FSW) is rapidly penetrating the welding market in many materials and applications, particularly in aluminum alloys for transportation applications. As this expansion outside the research laboratory continues, fitness for service issues will arise, and process control and NDE methods will become important determinants of continued growth. The present paper describes research into FSW weld nugget flaw detection within aluminum alloy lap welds. We present results for two types of FSW tool designs: a smooth pin tool and a threaded pin tool. We show that under certain process parameters (as monitored during welding with a rotating dynamometer that measures x, y, z, and torque forces) and tooling designs, FSW lap welds allow significant nonbonded interface lifting of the lap joint, while forming a metallurgical bond only within the pin region of the weld nugget. These lifted joints are often held very tightly together even though unbonded, and might be expected to pass cursory NDE while representing a substantial compromise in joint mechanical properties. The phenomenon is investigated here via radiographic and ultrasonic NDE techniques, with a copper foil marking insert (as described elsewhere) and by the tensile testing of joints. As one would expect, these results show that tool design and process parameters significantly affect plactic flow and this lifted interface. NDE and mechanical strength ramifications of this defect are discussed.

  18. Influences of Friction Stir Welding Parameters on Microstructural and Mechanical Properties of AA5456 (AlMg5) at Different Lap Joint Thicknesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pishevar, M. R.; Mohandesi, J. Aghazadeh; Omidvar, H.; Safarkhanian, M. A.

    2015-10-01

    Friction stir welding is suitable for joining series 5000 alloys because no fusion welding problems arise for the alloys in this process. The present study examined the effects of double-pass welding and tool rotational and travel speeds for the second-pass welding on the mechanical and microstructural properties of friction stir lap welding of AA5456 (AlMg5)-H321 (5 mm thickness) and AA5456 (AlMg5)-O (2.5 mm thickness). The first pass of all specimens was performed at a rotational speed of 650 rpm and a travel speed of 50 mm/min. The second pass was performed at rotational speeds of 250, 450, and 650 rpm and travel speeds of 25, 50, and 75 mm/min. The results showed that the second pass changed the grain sizes in the center of the nugget zone compared with the first pass. It was observed that the size of the hooking defect of the double-pass-welded specimens was higher than that for the single-pass-welded specimen. The size of the hooking defect was found to be a function of the rotational and travel speeds. The optimal joint tensile shear properties were achieved at a rotational speed of 250 rpm and travel a speed of 75 mm/min.

  19. Experimental and numerical studies on the issues in laser welding of light-weight alloys in a zero-gap lap joint configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harooni, Masoud

    current study a non-destructive evaluation method based on spectroscopy is proposed to detect the presence of pores in the lap joint of laser welded AZ31B magnesium alloy. The electron temperature that is calculated by the Boltzmann plot method is correlated to the presence of pores in the weld bead. A separate series of experiments was performed to evaluate the effect of an oxide coating layer on the dynamic behavior of the molten pool in the laser welding of an AZ31B magnesium alloy in a zero-gap lap joint configuration. A high speed CCD camera assisted with a green laser as an illumination source was selected to record the weld pool dynamics. Another technique used in this study was two-pass laser welding process to join AZ31B magnesium sheet in a zero-gap, lap-shear configuration. Two groups of samples including one pass laser welding (OPLW) and two pass laser welding (TPLW) were studied. In the two pass laser welding procedure, the first pass is performed by a defocused laser beam on the top of the two overlapped sheets in order to preheat the faying surface prior to laser welding, while the second pass is applied to melt and eventually weld the samples. Tensile and microhardness tests were used to measure the mechanical properties of the laser welded samples. A spectrometer was also used in real-time to correlate pore formation with calculated electron temperature using the Boltzmann plot method. The results of calculated electron temperature confirmed the previous results in earlier chapter. Magnesium and aluminum are two alloys which are used in different industries mainly due to their light weight. The main use of these two alloys is in automotive industry. Since different parts of the automobiles can be manufactured with each of these two alloys, it is essential to evaluate the joining feasibility of dissimilar metals such as aluminum to magnesium. A 4 kW fiber laser is used to join AZ31B magnesium alloy to AA 6014 using an overlap joint configuration. Two

  20. A study on composite adhesive lap joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Qinggang

    In this study, a novel design of adhesive single-lap joint was proposed and investigated. In this new design, load eccentricity as well as singular peel stresses in the joint interface were avoided. In fact, numerical calculations show that, in the new design, the interfacial normal stress becomes compressive in the joint end region, and the shear load is more evenly transferred over the length of the joint. Experimental results using cross-ply carbon/epoxy composites as adherends show that the strength of the new joint is significantly higher than that of the conventional single lap joint. Efforts were made to investigate effects of the four most relevant design parameters of the wavy joint on the critical interfacial stress distributions. By careful selecting the design parameters, interfacial stresses can further be optimized. Test results with unidirectional composite adherends confirm that joint strength can further be improved through careful design. In order to fully demonstrate advantage of the new wavy-lap joint over the conventional single-lap joint, fatigue tests were carried out to determine durability performance of the wavy-lap joint. Fatigue tests show that under the same loading conditions, i.e. same maximum load levels or same load percentage levels, fatigue performance of the wavy-lap joint is much better than that of the conventional single-lap joint. Further study shows that fatigue life of adhesive joint, either flat or wavy, is strongly dependent on loading frequency. This is due to the fact that FM73 adhesive is a viscoelastic material. With the increase of frequency, fatigue lives of both joints also increase. However, the wavy joint still outperforms the flat joint at all loading frequencies.

  1. Optimization of Resistance Spot Weld Condition for Single Lap Joint of Hot Stamped 22MnB5 by Taking Heating Temperature and Heating Time into Consideration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hong Seok; Kim, Byung Min; Park, Geun Hwan [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Woo Seung [Keimyung University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    In this study, optimization of the process parameters of the resistance spot welding of a sheet of aluminum-coated boron alloyed steel, 22MnB5, used in hot stamping has been performed by a Taguchi method to increase the strength of the weld joint. The process parameters selected were current, electrode force, and weld time. The heating temperature and heating time of 22MnB5 are considered to be noise factors. It was known that the variation in the thickness of the intermetallic compound layer between the aluminum-coated layer and the substrate, which influences on the formation of nugget, was generated due to the difference of diffusion reaction according to heating conditions. From the results of spot weld experiment, the optimum weld condition was determined to be when the current, electrode force, and weld time were 8kA, 4kN, and 18 cycles, respectively. The result of a test performed to verify the optimized weld condition showed that the tensile strength of the weld joint was over 32kN, which is considerably higher than the required strength, i.e., 23kN.

  2. Adhesively bonded single lap joint of composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Alvarado Prieto

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A study of single lap joints of composite materials with and without attachments is presented. Failure of this type of joint is caused by the high peel stress in a perpendicular direction presented in the geometric singularity. It is shown that the joint strength is affected by factors such as surface preparation, the adhesive curing process and cleaning. The two configurations, with and without attachments, are compared. It is shown that the single lap joint with attachment has a higher strength than the joint without attachments when no fillet is left on the geometrical singularity. However, because of the low increase in joint strength and the complexity of manufacturing, the choice of type of joint is left to the manufacturer's judgment.

  3. 49 CFR 230.30 - Lap-joint seam boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Inspection and Repair § 230.30 Lap-joint seam boilers. Every boiler having lap-joint longitudinal seams... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lap-joint seam boilers. 230.30 Section 230.30...

  4. Friction Melt Bonding: An innovative process for aluminium-steel lap joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simar Aude

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A new process based on Friction Stir Welding has been developed to weld dissimilar metals, particularly steel and aluminum, in a lap-joint configuration. In this Friction Melt Bonding process, frictional heat generated by the rotating and translating tool brings about local and transient melting (Figure 1. Welding then occurs owing to controlled reactivity and solidification at the interface between the two plates. With an adequate choice of the welding parameters, low alloy steel and aluminium alloys have been successfully welded. Characterisation of the microstructure was systematically performed to highlight the influence of the process parameters, particularly the temperature cycle, on the steel-Al interface. The thickness of the intermetallic layer varies from a couple of micrometers to tens of micrometers depending on the advancing speed of the tool (Fig. 2. The lap shear properties of the joints were also investigated and analysed based on the morphology of the intermetallic layer.

  5. Studies of welded joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Krupa

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Studies of a welded joint were described. The joint was made as a result of the reconstruction of a truss and one of the possible means to make a repair. The studies were of a simulation character and were targeted at the detection of welding defects and imperfections thatshould be eliminated in a real structure. A model was designed and on this model the tests and examinations were carried out. The modelwas made under the same conditions as the conditions adopted for repair. It corresponded to the real object in shape and dimensions, and in the proposed technique of welding and welding parameters. The model was composed of five plates joined together with twelve beads.The destructive and non-destructive tests were carried out; the whole structure and the respective welds were also examined visually. Thedefects and imperfections in welds were detected by surface methods of inspection, penetration tests and magnetic particle flaw detection.The model of the welded joint was prepared by destructive methods, a technique that would never be permitted in the case of a realstructure. For the investigations it was necessary to cut out the specimens from the welded joint in direction transverse to the weld run. The specimens were subjected to metallographic examinations and hardness measurements. Additionally, the joint cross-section was examined by destructive testing methods to enable precise determination of the internal defects and imperfections. The surface methods were applied again, this time to determine the severity of welding defects. The analysis has proved that, fabricated under proper conditions and with parameters of the welding process duly observed, the welded joint has good properties and repairs of this type are possible in practice.

  6. Thin plate gap bridging study for Nd:YAG pulsed laser lap welds.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roach, Robert Allen; Fuerschbach, Phillip William; Bernal, John E.; Norris, Jerome T.

    2006-01-01

    In an on going study of gap bridging for thin plate Nd:YAG laser lap welds, empirical data, high speed imaging, and computer modeling were utilized to better understand surface physics attributed to the formation and solidification of a weld pool. Experimental data indicates better gap bridging can be achieved through optimized laser parameters such as pulse length, duration, and energy. Long pulse durations at low energies generating low peak powers were found to create the highest percent of gap bridging ability. At constant peak power, gap-bridging ability was further improved by using a smaller spot diameter resulting in higher irradiances. Hence, welding in focus is preferable for bridging gaps. Gas shielding was also found to greatly impact gap-bridging ability. Gapped lap welds that could not be bridged with UHP Argon gas shielding, were easily bridged when left unshielded and exposed to only air. Incident weld angle and joint offset were also investigated for their ability to improve gap bridging. Optical filters and brightlight surface illumination enabled high-speed imaging to capture the fluid dynamics of a forming and solidifying weld pool. The effects of various laser parameters and the weld pool's interaction with the laser beam could also be observed utilizing the high-speed imaging. The work described is used to develop and validate a computer model with improved weld pool physics. Finite element models have been used to derive insight into the physics of gap bridging. The dynamics of the fluid motion within the weld pool in conjunction with the free surface physics have been the primary focus of the modeling efforts. Surface tension has been found to be a more significant factor in determining final weld pool shape than expected.

  7. THE INFLUENCE OF LAP SIZE ON SHEAR STRENGTH OF ADHESIVE JOINTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Kubit

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Adhesive joints may be used instead of forced-in joints, welded and riveted joints, soldered and twisted connections. They are characterized by a lot of advantages, thanks to them the adhesive joints are willingly used in manufacturing processes. These advantages include low price of joint, reduction of weight of the final construction, improvement of durability, reliability and quality and improving visual appearance. From this point of view it should be concluded that experimental tests of adhesive joints are grounded. In the paper the results of experimental tests of static shear strength of single-lap joints are presented. These joints are made with two constructive glues. The specimens made from AISI 4130 steel were glued. Their surfaces were prepared in two versions before gluing: grinded with abrasive paper by hand and cleaned by sand-blasting. The results were analyzed from variable size of the lap point of view.

  8. How to obtain the adhesive strength for double lap joint by using single lap joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, N. A.; Li, R.; Sano, Y.; Takase, Y.; Takaki, R.; Miyazaki, T.

    2017-05-01

    The testing method of adhesive strength of lap joint is prescribed in Japanese Industrial Standard (JIS K6850). However, it has been reported that the strength of double lap joint (DLJ) is about two times larger than the one of single lap joint (SLJ). Therefore, suitable testing method has been required from industries. In this study, the equivalent conditions of strength for SLJ and DLJ are investigated in terms of the intensity of singular stress field (ISSF) appearing at the interface end. First, in order to minimize the bend effect for SLJ, the effect of the specimen geometry on ISSF and deformation angle at the interface corner is considered under the same adhesive geometry and load P. It is found that the minimum ISSF of SLJ can be obtained when the adherend thickness t 1 is large enough, and the deformation angle at interface corner is also smallest when adherend thickness t 1 is large enough. Therefore, it is necessary to use the specimen with thicker adherend thickness. Then, the equivalent conditions of strength for SLJ and DLJ is investigated by changing adherend thickness. The results show that the strength of the DLJ in JIS ( t 1 = 1.5mm) can be obtained by using the SLJ with adherend thickness t 1 = 7mm. When the adherend thickness t 1 ≥ 25mm, the strength of SLJ is nearly equal to that of DLJ.

  9. Riveted Lap Joints in Aircraft Fuselage Design, Analysis and Properties

    CERN Document Server

    Skorupa, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    Fatigue of the pressurized fuselages of transport aircraft is a significant problem all builders and users of aircraft have to cope with for reasons associated with assuring a sufficient lifetime and safety, and formulating adequate inspection procedures. These aspects are all addressed in various formal protocols for creating and maintaining airworthiness, including damage tolerance considerations. In most transport aircraft, fatigue occurs in lap joints, sometimes leading to circumstances that threaten safety in critical ways. The problem of fatigue of lap joints has been considerably enlarged by the goal of extending aircraft lifetimes. Fatigue of riveted lap joints between aluminium alloy sheets, typical of the pressurized aircraft fuselage, is the major topic of the present book. The richly illustrated and well-structured chapters treat subjects such as: structural design solutions and loading conditions for fuselage skin joints; relevance of laboratory test results for simple lap joint specimens to rive...

  10. Influence of laser beam incidence angle on laser lap welding quality of galvanized steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Lifang; Yan, Dongbing; Chen, Genyu; Wang, Zhenhui; Chen, Shuixuan

    2017-11-01

    Based on the characteristics of laser welded structural parts of auto bodies, the influence of variation in laser beam incidence angle on the lap welding performance of galvanized auto-body sheets was studied. Lap welding tests were carried out on the galvanized sheets for auto-body application at different laser beam incidence angles by using the optimal welding parameters obtained through orthogonal experiment. The effects of incidence angle variation on seam appearance, cross-sectional shape, joint mechanical properties and microstructure of weldments were analyzed. In addition, the main factors influencing the value of incidence angle were investigated. According to the results, the weld seams had a good appearance as well as a fine, and uniform microstructure when the laser beam incidence angle was smaller than the critical incidence angle, and thus they could withstand great tensile and shear loads. Moreover, all tensile-shear specimens were fractured in the base material zone. When the laser beam incidence angle was larger than the critical incidence angle, defects like shrinkage and collapse tended to emerge, thereby resulting in the deteriorated weldability of specimens. Meanwhile, factors like the type and thickness of sheet, weld width as well as inter-sheet gap all had a certain effect on the value of laser beam incidence angle. When the sheet thickness was small and the weld width was narrow, the laser beam incidence angle could be increased appropriately. At the same time, small changes in the inter-sheet gap could greatly impact the value of incidence angle. When the inter-sheet gap was small, the laser beam incidence angle should not be too large.

  11. Debonding problem of a transversely loaded single lap joint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, J.H.; Sridhar, I.; Tan, G.E.B. [Nanyang Technological Univ., Singapore (Singapore)

    2012-07-01

    This paper aims to describe the debonding problem of transversely loaded single lap joint using fracture mechanics approach. This is achieved by first solving the deflection problem of the single lap joint. By evaluating the bending moments at the vicinity of crack tip, non-dimensional energy release rate required for the debonding can be found. The effects of relative position of transverse load and overlap length on the debonding propensity are discussed. As for design consideration, any transverse load moving towards critical side of square edge of the joint should be avoided. Increasing the overlap length improves the joint's strength, particularly when the joint is also axially loaded. (Author)

  12. Review on failure prediction techniques of composite single lap joint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ab Ghani, A.F., E-mail: ahmadfuad@utem.edu.my; Rivai, Ahmad, E-mail: ahmadrivai@utem.edu.my [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Locked Bag 1200, Hang Tuah Jaya, 75450 Ayer Keroh, Melaka (Malaysia)

    2016-03-29

    Adhesive bonding is the most appropriate joining method in construction of composite structures. The use of reliable design and prediction technique will produce better performance of bonded joints. Several papers from recent papers and journals have been reviewed and synthesized to understand the current state of the art in this area. It is done by studying the most relevant analytical solutions for composite adherends with start of reviewing the most fundamental ones involving beam/plate theory. It is then extended to review single lap joint non linearity and failure prediction and finally on the failure prediction on composite single lap joint. The review also encompasses the finite element modelling part as tool to predict the elastic response of composite single lap joint and failure prediction numerically.

  13. Review on failure prediction techniques of composite single lap joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ab Ghani A., F.; Rivai, Ahmad

    2016-03-01

    Adhesive bonding is the most appropriate joining method in construction of composite structures. The use of reliable design and prediction technique will produce better performance of bonded joints. Several papers from recent papers and journals have been reviewed and synthesized to understand the current state of the art in this area. It is done by studying the most relevant analytical solutions for composite adherends with start of reviewing the most fundamental ones involving beam/plate theory. It is then extended to review single lap joint non linearity and failure prediction and finally on the failure prediction on composite single lap joint. The review also encompasses the finite element modelling part as tool to predict the elastic response of composite single lap joint and failure prediction numerically.

  14. Finite element analysis of a single lap joint

    OpenAIRE

    Heistermann, Christine; Heistermann, Tim; Limam, Marouene; Veljkovic, Milan, ed. lit.

    2012-01-01

    A single shear lap joint of steel grade S355 is modelled with finite elements to investigate the influence of externally applied tensile loading on the loss of pretension in the engaged bolts. Additionally, a parameter study is performed to understand the effect of various steel grades on the loss of pretension. It is found that the slip resistance of the specimen depends on the steel grade of the clamped plates. Besides, the final resistance of the single shear lap joint has been found to in...

  15. TESTING AND ANALYSIS OF COMPOSITE MATERIALS UNDER TENSILE LOADING WITH DIFFERENT LAP JOINTS

    OpenAIRE

    Mr. Hariharan E *

    2017-01-01

    The composite structural members are highly used in the following applications such as aerospace, automobiles, marine, architecture etc., has attracted extensive attention in the past decades. A numerical and experimental study was carried out to identify the ultimate strength and failure modes of Bonded-single lap joints, Riveted-single lap joints and Hybrid-single lap joints at two different layers (3&4 Layer). In our project work, the effect of bonded, riveted, hybrid lap joints at differe...

  16. Spectroscopic, energetic and metallographic investigations of the laser lap welding of AISI 304 using the response surface methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzi, Domenico; Sibillano, Teresa; Pietro Calabrese, Paolo; Ancona, Antonio; Mario Lugarà, Pietro

    2011-07-01

    Spectroscopic signals originated by the laser-induced plasma optical emission have been simultaneously investigated together with energetic and metallographic analyses of CO 2 laser welded stainless steel lap joint, using the Response Surface Methodology. This statistical approach allowed us to study the influence of the laser beam power and the laser welding speed on the following response parameters: plasma plume electron temperature, joint penetration depth and melted area. A clear correlation has been found between all the investigated response parameters. The results have been shown to be consistent with quantitative considerations on the energy supplied to the workpiece as far as the laser power and travel speed were varied. The regression model obtained in this way could be a valuable starting point to develop a closed loop control of the weld penetration depth and the melted area in the investigated process window.

  17. Failure analysis of dissimilar single-lap joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.A. Stuparu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Single-lap joints made of aluminium and carbon fibre adherends of different thickness are tested to understand better the behaviour of such dissimilar joints. The overlap length and the thickness of the adhesive are kept constant. Local deformation fields are onitored by using the digital image correlation method. Peeling and shearing strains are investigated, emphasizing that peeling is important in the region where failure is initiated, towards an extremity of the overlap region. The use of only carbon fibre adherends is not recommended for a smaller thickness as an additional interface failure is produced and compromises the integrity of the lap joint. However, a dissimilar joint (aluminium-carbon with smaller thickness adherends succeeds to maintain the stiffness of the assembly, but its strength is diminished. The obtained results are suggesting that a complete monitoring of the failure processes in the overlap region can be fully understood only if local deformation measurements are possible.

  18. Investigation on the Effect of Pulsed Energy on Strength of Fillet Lap Laser Welded AZ31B Magnesium Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salleh, M. N. M.; Ishak, M.; Aiman, M. H.; Idris, S. R. A.; Romlay, F. R. M.

    2017-09-01

    AZ31B magnesium alloy have been hugely applied in the aerospace, automotive, and electronic industries. However, welding thin sheet AZ31B was challenging due to its properties which is easily to evaporated especially using conventional fusion welding method such as metal inert gas (MIG). Laser could be applied to weld this metal since it produces lower heat input. The application of fiber laser welding has been widely since this type of laser could produce better welding product especially in the automotive sectors. Low power fiber laser was used to weld this non-ferrous metal where pulse wave (PW) mode was used. Double fillet lap joint was applied to weld as thin as 0.6 mm thick of AZ31B and the effect of pulsed energy on the strength was studied. Bond width, throat length, and penetration depth also was studied related to the pulsed energy which effecting the joint. Higher pulsed energy contributes to the higher fracture load with angle of irradiation lower than 3 °

  19. Influence of temperature on strength and failure mechanisms of resistance welded thermoplastic composites joints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koutras, N.; Fernandez Villegas, I.; Benedictus, R.

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the effect of temperature exposure on the strength of resistance welded joints is analysed. Glass fibre polyphenylene sulphide (GF/PPS) laminates were joined using the resistance welding technique and a stainless steel metal mesh as the heating element. Single lap shear tests at

  20. CHARACTERIZATION OF DAMPING IN BOLTED LAP JOINTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. MALONEY; D. PEAIRS; ET AL

    2000-08-01

    The dynamic response of a jointed beam was measured in laboratory experiments. The data were analyzed and the system was mathematically modeled to establish plausible representations of joint damping behavior. Damping is examined in an approximate, local linear framework using log decrement and half power bandwidth approaches. in addition, damping is modeled in a nonlinear framework using a hybrid surface irregularities model that employs a bristles-construct. Experimental and analytical results are presented.

  1. Microstructural Characterization of Friction Stir Welded Aluminum-Steel Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    plasticized by the rotation around the back of the tool in preparation for adhesion to the faying surface of the other alloy. In the case of a lap weld...strengths from lap - shear tests than the welds performed using the tool with the scribe. The cross-sectional morphology of the weld was different as...alloy serving as the matrix. Lap - shear samples from the welds performed with the scribe not only produced higher failure stresses but were also more

  2. Optimal tubular adhesive-bonded lap joint of the carbon fiber epoxy composite shaft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki S.; Kim, Won T.; Lee, Dai G.; Jun, Eui J.

    The effects of the adhesive thickness and the adherend surface roughness on the fatigue strength of a tubular adhesive-bonded single lap joint were investigated using fatigue test specimens whose adherends were made of S45C carbon steel. Results of fatigue tests showed that the optimal arithmetic surface roughness of the adherends is about 2 microns and the optimal adhesive thickness is about 0.15 mm. Using these values, the prototype torsional adhesive joints were manufactured for power transmission shafts of an automotive vehicle or a small helicopter, and static tests under torque were performed on a single-lap joint, a single-lap joint with scarf, a double-lap joint, and a double-lap joint with scarf. It was found that the double-lap joint was superior among the joints, in terms of torque capacity and manufacturing cost.

  3. Fatigue behavior of thick composite single lap joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, J.H.; Sridhar, I.; Srikanth, N. [Nanyang Technological Univ., Singapore (Singapore)

    2012-07-01

    In consideration of bondline thickness variability, in bonded joints where thick adherend is adopted, relative thick adhesive layer (2-5 mm) is preferable. This paper aims to give some insight in fatigue strength of adhesively bonded structures involving thick adherend coupled with thick adhesive layer. Single lap joints with nominal adherend thickness of 8 mm and two different nominal thicknesses (2.5 mm and 5.5 mm) were made and tested under fatigue loading. The failure mode exhibits always a tendency for interfacial initiation, followed by interlaminar separation. Fatigue strength for higher adhesive thickness is found to be lower. (Author)

  4. An investigation on the strain distribution of resistance welded thermoplastic composite joints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shi, H.; Fernandez-Villegas, I.; Bersee, H.E.N.

    2012-01-01

    In order to better understand the usefulness of single lap shear testing for the characterization of resistance welded thermoplastic composite joints, finite element method (FEM) and digital image correlation measurements (DIC) were combined to investigate the strain distributions of the joints

  5. INFLUENCE OF THE THICKNESS OF JOINED ELEMENTS ON LAP LENGTH OF ALUMINIUM ALLOY SHEET BONDED JOINTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Rudawska

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This work features the results of experimental research in determining the limiting length of the bonded single-lap joint of materials of the same thickness, different thicknesses and of hybrid systems of different aluminium alloy sheets. The length of the bonded lap joint is just one of the structural features, critical to the strength of bonded joints, this length depending on the thickness and type of the bonded elements. In the case of single-lap bonded joints there is a limiting lap length exceeding of which should not increase the strength of such joints. This is why the length of a bonded lap joint is critical in terms of strength and application concerns. The length of the lap is not always reflected in practice due to simplification of the analytical relations. What is required is experimental verification of the derived theoretical relations. The tested materials are aluminium alloy sheets, widely used in the machinery, aviation and construction industries.

  6. Inspection of plastic weld joints with terahertz imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wietzke, S.; Krumbholz, N.; Jördens, C.; Baudrit, B.; Bastian, M.; Koch, M.

    2007-06-01

    Polymers cover the whole range from commodities to high-tech applications. Plastic products have also gained in importance for construction purposes. This draws the attention to joining techniques like welding. Common evaluation of the weld quality is mostly mechanical and destructive. Existing non-destructive techniques are mostly not entirely reliable or economically inefficient. Here, we demonstrate the potential of terahertz time-domain spectroscopy imaging as a non-destructive testing tool for the inspection of plastic weld joints. High-density polyethylene sheets welded in a lap joint with varying quality serve as samples for terahertz transmission measurements. Imperfections within the weld contact area can clearly be detected by displaying the transmitted intensity in a limited frequency range. Contaminations such as metal or sand are identified since they differ significantly from the polymer in the terahertz image. Furthermore, this new and promising technique is capable of detecting the boundaries of a weld contact area. Aside from revealing a contrast between a proper weld joint and no material connection, the size of an air gap between two plastic sheets can be determined by considering the characteristic frequency-dependent transmission through the structure: The spectral positions of the maxima and minima allow for the calculation of the air layer thickness.

  7. Environmental influence on the usage of adhesive single lap joints in nuclear industry applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amorim, Felipe do C.; Reis, João M.L. dos; Souza, João F.B. de; Costa, Gilberto T. de P.; Moura, Jorge C. de, E-mail: felipe.amorim@cefet-rj.br, E-mail: jreis@id.uff.br, E-mail: joaofellipe@id.uff.br, E-mail: gilberto.costa@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: jcmoura@cnen.gov.br [Centro Federal de Educação Tecnológica Celso Suckow da Fonseca (CEFET-RJ), Itaguai, RJ (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica; Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Laboratorio de Mecania Teorica e Aplicada; Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Divisão de Controle de Rejeitos e Transporte de Materiais Radioativos

    2017-07-01

    Despite of some polymeric compounds vulnerability to different types of radiation, high polymer, as epoxy adhesives, had prospered in the nuclear industry because their mechanical properties to high doses of ionizing radiation is maintained. Because of this, epoxy adhesives are widely used in nuclear applications: nuclear power plants, aerospace components, radioactive sealed sources to medicine, radioactive waste immobilization. In the present work, the performance of a diglycidyl ether of bisphenol ether A (DGEBA) was analyzed. Tensile tests of adhesive single lap joints bonded with epoxy were performed. The environmental effect of ultraviolet (UV) exposure was observed in the mechanical reaction of PolyAnchor 4100 HT. In particular, maximum load decreases slightly in aggressive environment. It is possible to conclude the material is proper to use in internal and external areas, mainly due to the easy application when compared to welded joints with similar strength. The easy application reduces the workers exposure time to ionizing radiation. (author)

  8. INFLUENCE OF THE THICKNESS OF JOINED ELEMENTS ON LAP LENGTH OF ALUMINIUM ALLOY SHEET BONDED JOINTS

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Rudawska

    2015-01-01

    This work features the results of experimental research in determining the limiting length of the bonded single-lap joint of materials of the same thickness, different thicknesses and of hybrid systems of different aluminium alloy sheets. The length of the bonded lap joint is just one of the structural features, critical to the strength of bonded joints, this length depending on the thickness and type of the bonded elements. In the case of single-lap bonded joints there is a limiting lap leng...

  9. Progressive Failure Analysis on the Single Lap Bonded Joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadir TURAN

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the failure analysis on the single lap bonded joint, which is used for joined two composite plates each other with adhesive, is investigated experimentally and numerically. In the joint, the epoxy resin is used for adhesive and the four layered carbon fiber reinforced epoxy matrix resin composite plates are used for adherent. Numerical study is performed in the ANSYS software which is used finite element method for solution. For obtained numerical failure loads, the progressive failure analysis is used with material property degradation rules. In the failure analysis the Hashin Failure Criterion is used for composite plates and the Maximum Principal Stress failure criterion is used for adhesive. The effects of the adhesive thickness overlap lengths and plate weight on the joint strength is investigated with numerically. As a result it is seen that the failure loads is affected the bond face area. The results are presented with graphs and tables.

  10. Shading aboveground L-joint and lap-joint tests : comparison of white pine and sugar maple test assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carol A. Clausen; Daniel L. Lindner

    2011-01-01

    Five-year performance ratings are presented for two types of untreated, uncoated wood joints (L and lap) in aboveground tests under shaded conditions. The effect of shading on moisture entrapment in pine and maple L and lap joints was evaluated in a moderate decay zone (Madison, Wisconsin). Variations were observed between wood species, visual ratings, joint type,...

  11. Microstructural Characterization of Friction Stir Welded Aluminum-Steel Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Erin E.; Hovanski, Yuri; Field, David P.

    2016-06-01

    This work focuses on the microstructural characterization of aluminum to steel friction stir welded joints. Lap weld configuration coupled with scribe technology used for the weld tool have produced joints of adequate quality, despite the significant differences in hardness and melting temperatures of the alloys. Common to friction stir processes, especially those of dissimilar alloys, are microstructural gradients including grain size, crystallographic texture, and precipitation of intermetallic compounds. Because of the significant influence that intermetallic compound formation has on mechanical and ballistic behavior, the characterization of the specific intermetallic phases and the degree to which they are formed in the weld microstructure is critical to predicting weld performance. This study used electron backscatter diffraction, energy dispersive spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and Vickers micro-hardness indentation to explore and characterize the microstructures of lap friction stir welds between an applique 6061-T6 aluminum armor plate alloy and a RHA homogeneous armor plate steel alloy. Macroscopic defects such as micro-cracks were observed in the cross-sectional samples, and binary intermetallic compound layers were found to exist at the aluminum-steel interfaces of the steel particles stirred into the aluminum weld matrix and across the interfaces of the weld joints. Energy dispersive spectroscopy chemical analysis identified the intermetallic layer as monoclinic Al3Fe. Dramatic decreases in grain size in the thermo-mechanically affected zones and weld zones that evidenced grain refinement through plastic deformation and recrystallization. Crystallographic grain orientation and texture were examined using electron backscatter diffraction. Striated regions in the orientations of the aluminum alloy were determined to be the result of the severe deformation induced by the complex weld tool geometry. Many of the textures observed in the weld

  12. Thermal treatment of dissimilar steels' welded joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikulina, A. A.; Denisova, A. S.; Gradusov, I. N.; Ryabinkina, P. A.; Rushkovets, M. V.

    2016-04-01

    In this paper combinations of chrome-nickel steel and high-carbon steel, produced by flash butt welding after heat treatment, are investigated. Light and electron microscopic studies show that the welded joints after heat treatment have a complex structure consisting of several phases as initial welded joints. A martensite structure in welded joints after thermal treatment at 300... 800 °C has been found.

  13. Nonlinear Analysis of Bonded Composite Single-LAP Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oterkus, E.; Barut, A.; Madenci, E.; Smeltzer, S. S.; Ambur, D. R.

    2004-01-01

    This study presents a semi-analytical solution method to analyze the geometrically nonlinear response of bonded composite single-lap joints with tapered adherend edges under uniaxial tension. The solution method provides the transverse shear and normal stresses in the adhesive and in-plane stress resultants and bending moments in the adherends. The method utilizes the principle of virtual work in conjunction with von Karman s nonlinear plate theory to model the adherends and the shear lag model to represent the kinematics of the thin adhesive layer between the adherends. Furthermore, the method accounts for the bilinear elastic material behavior of the adhesive while maintaining a linear stress-strain relationship in the adherends. In order to account for the stiffness changes due to thickness variation of the adherends along the tapered edges, their in-plane and bending stiffness matrices are varied as a function of thickness along the tapered region. The combination of these complexities results in a system of nonlinear governing equilibrium equations. This approach represents a computationally efficient alternative to finite element method. Comparisons are made with corresponding results obtained from finite-element analysis. The results confirm the validity of the solution method. The numerical results present the effects of taper angle, adherend overlap length, and the bilinear adhesive material on the stress fields in the adherends, as well as the adhesive, of a single-lap joint

  14. Support and Development of Workflow Protocols for High Throughput Single-Lap-Joint Testing - Data Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Standard D1002-01, 2001, "Standard Test Method for Apparent Shear Strength of Single- Lap - Joint Adhesively Bonded Metal Specimens by Ten- sion Loading... adhesion , single lap joint, database, digital capture, metadata 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT UU 18. NUMBER OF PAGES...mode equipped with a 22 kN load cell and mechanical wedge grips. The length in the jaws of the grippers was set at 25.4 mm. The lap shear tests

  15. Multi-Track Friction Stir Lap Welding of 2024 Aluminum Alloy: Processing, Microstructure and Mechanical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengke Zou

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Friction stir lap welding (FSLW raises the possibility of fabricating high-performance aluminum components at low cost and high efficiency. In this study, we mainly applied FSLW to fabricate multi-track 2024 aluminum alloy without using tool tilt angle, which is important for obtaining defect-free joint but significantly increases equipment cost. Firstly, systematic single-track FSLW experiments were conducted to attain appropriate processing parameters, and we found that defect-free single-track could also be obtained by the application of two-pass processing at a rotation speed of 1000 rpm and a traverse speed of 300 mm/min. Then, multi-track FSLW experiments were conducted and full density multi-track samples were fabricated at an overlapping rate of 20%. Finally, the microstructure and mechanical properties of the full density multi-track samples were investigated. The results indicated that ultrafine equiaxed grains with the grain diameter about 9.4 μm could be obtained in FSLW samples due to the dynamic recrystallization during FSLW, which leads to a yield strength of 117.2 MPa (17.55% higher than the rolled 2024-O alloy substrate and an elongation rate of 31.05% (113.84% higher than the substrate.

  16. Lap-joint testing of precoated steel materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chico, B.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available In industry, particularly in the building construction, lap-joint technology for precoated steel sheet materials has undergone rapid development. However, standars for lap-joint testing are lacking. This work analyses the behaviour of four precoated steel materials commonly used in the building industry: 55 % Al-Zn and hot dip galvanized, painted and unpainted. Two-year atmospheric exposure tests have been carried out in Madrid and Avilés (Spain, complemented by accelerated weathering tests in climatic cabinets. The latter have consisted of two salt fog/humidity/drying cycles: VDA cycle 621-415 and the "CENIM cycle", which has been designed to adequately simulate the behaviour of materials in this type of joints.

    En la industria en general y, particularmente, en la industria de la construcción, las tecnologías sobre uniones solapadas han experimentado un rápido desarrollo. Sin embargo, no son abundantes los ensayos para este tipo de uniones. Este trabajo analiza el comportamiento de cuatro materiales de acero pre-recubierto comúnmente usados en la industria de la construcción: 55 % Al-Zn y galvanizado por inmersión en caliente, con recubrimiento orgánico y sin él. Se han realizado ensayos de exposición natural durante dos años en las atmósferas de Madrid y Avilés (España, complementados con ensayos de envejecimiento acelerado en cámaras climáticas. En estos últimos se han ensayado dos ciclos de proyección niebla salina/humedad/secado: ciclo VDA 621-415 y un ciclo desarrollado en el CENIM diseñado.

  17. Comparative analysis of in-plane and out-of-plane mechanical behaviour of spot-welded and mechaincally fastened joints in thermoplastic composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, T.; Palardy, G.; Rans, C.D.; Benedictus, R.; Drechsler, K.

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasonic welding is a promising assembly technique for thermoplastic composites and it is well-suited for spot welding. In this paper, the in-plane and out-of-plane mechanical behaviour of ultrasonically spot-welded and mechanically fastened joints are investigated by double-lap shear and

  18. Influence of friction stir welding parameters on titanium-aluminum heterogeneous lap joining configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picot, Florent; Gueydan, Antoine; Hug, Éric

    2017-10-01

    Lap joining configuration for Friction Stir Welding process is a methodology mostly dedicated to heterogeneous bonding. This welding technology was applied to join pure titanium with pure aluminum by varying the rotation speed and the movement speed of the tool. Regardless of the process parameters, it was found that the maximum strength of the junction remains almost constant. Microstructural observations by means of Scanning Electron Microscopy and Energy Dispersive Spectrometry analysis enable to describe the interfacial join and reveal asymmetric Cold Lap Defects on the sides of the junction. Chemical analysis shows the presence of one exclusive intermetallic compound through the interface identified as TiAl3. This compound is responsible of the crack spreading of the junction during the mechanical loading. The original version of this article supplied to AIP Publishing contained an accidental inversion of the authors, names. An updated version of this article, with the authors names formatted correctly was published on 20 October 2017.

  19. Influence of friction stir welding parameters on titanium-aluminum heterogeneous lap joining configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florent, Picot; Antoine, Gueydan; Éric, Hug

    2017-10-01

    Lap joining configuration for Friction Stir Welding process is a methodology mostly dedicated to heterogeneous bonding. This welding technology was applied to join pure titanium with 1050 aluminum alloy by varying the rotation speed and the movement speed of the tool. Regardless of the process parameters, it was found that the maximum strength of the junction remains almost constant. Microstructural observations by means of Scanning Electron Microscopy and Energy Dispersive Spectrometry analysis enable to describe the interfacial join and reveal asymmetric Cold Lap Defects on the sides of the junction. Chemical analysis shows the presence of one exclusive intermetallic compound through the interface identified as TiAl3. This compound is responsible of the crack spreading of the junction during the mechanical loading.

  20. Secondary bending effects in progressively damaged single-lap, single-bolt composite joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Libin; Xin, An; Liu, Fengrui; Zhang, Jianyu; Hu, Ning

    Static tensile experiments and progressive failure simulations of single-bolt, single- and double-lap joints were carried out to comparatively investigate secondary bending effects, which present significant eccentric-loading phenomena in single-lap joints but are almost non-existent in symmetric double-lap joints. Progressive damage models of single-lap and double-lap joints were established, from which the numerical predictions were found to be in good agreement with the experimental outcomes. Experimental macro-scope failure patterns and seven numerical micro-scope failure modes obtained from the progressive damage analyses were presented for the two types of joints. The effects of secondary bending on the mechanical degradation and failure mechanism of single-lap joints were revealed. Some characterizations of secondary bending in the joints, such as a characterized parameter on the AGARD points, joint deformations and contact states, were quantitatively traced during the total progressive damage process. All these characterizations increased the understanding of the effects of secondary bending on the failure process of a single-bolt, single-lap joint.

  1. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of an Ultrasonic Spot Welded Aluminum Alloy: The Effect of Welding Energy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    He Peng; Daolun Chen; Xianquan Jiang

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the microstructures, tensile lap shear strength, and fatigue resistance of 6022-T43 aluminum alloy joints welded via a solid-state welding technique-ultrasonic spot welding (USW...

  2. Global-Local Finite Element Analysis of Bonded Single-Lap Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Bahattin; Madenci, Erdogan; Ambur, Damodar R.

    2004-01-01

    Adhesively bonded lap joints involve dissimilar material junctions and sharp changes in geometry, possibly leading to premature failure. Although the finite element method is well suited to model the bonded lap joints, traditional finite elements are incapable of correctly resolving the stress state at junctions of dissimilar materials because of the unbounded nature of the stresses. In order to facilitate the use of bonded lap joints in future structures, this study presents a finite element technique utilizing a global (special) element coupled with traditional elements. The global element includes the singular behavior at the junction of dissimilar materials with or without traction-free surfaces.

  3. Materials participation in welded joints manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghenghea, L. D.

    2016-08-01

    Management of materials dilution to form a joint with higher features asked by complex metallic structures is a problem that took attention and efforts of welding processes researchers and this communication will give a little contribution presenting some scientific and experimental results of dilution processes studied by Welding Research Group from Iasi, Romania, TCM Department. Liquid state welding processes have a strong dependence related to dilution of base and filler materials, the most important are for automatic joining using welding. The paper presents a review of some scientific works already published and their contributions, results of dilution coefficient evaluation using weighing, graphics and software applied for shielded metal arc welding process. Paper results could be used for welders’ qualification, welding procedure specification and other welding processes researchers’ activities. The results of Welding Research Group from Iasi, Romania, TCM Department, show dilution coefficient values between 20-30 % of base material and 70-80 % of filler material for studied welding process.

  4. Failure strength prediction for adhesively bonded single lap joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Niat Mahmud

    For adhesively bonded joint, failure strength depends on many factors such as material properties (both adhesive and adherend), specimen geometries, test environments, surface preparation procedures, etc. Failure occurs inside constitutive materials or along joint interfaces. Based on location, adhesively bonded failure mode can be classified as adhesive failure mode, cohesive failure mode and adherend failure mode. Failure mode directly affects the failure strength of joint. For last eight decades, researchers have developed analytical, empirical or semi-empirical methods capable of predicting failure strength for adhesively bonded joints generating either cohesive failure or adherend failure. Applicability of most of the methods is limited to particular cases. In this research, different failure modes for single lap joints (SLJs) were generated experimentally using epoxy based paste adhesive. Based on experimental data and analytical study, simplified failure prediction methods were developed for each failure mode. For adhesive failure mode, it is observed that peel stress distributions concur along interface near crack initiation points. All SLJs for this test endured consistent surface treatments. Geometric parameters of the joints were varied to study their effect on failure strength. Peel stress distributions were calculated using finite analysis (FEA). Based on peel stress distribution near crack initiation point, a failure model is proposed. Numerous analytical, empirical and semi-empirical models are available for predicting failure strengths of SLJs generating cohesive failures. However, most of the methods in the literature failed to capture failure behavior of SLJs having thickness of adhesive layer as variable. Cohesive failure mode was generated experimentally using aluminum as adherend and epoxy adhesive considering thickness of adhesive layers as variable within SLJs. Comparative study was performed among various methods. It was observed that

  5. Single-Lap-Joint Screening of Hysol EA 9309NA Epoxy Adhesive

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    temperature conditioning. This testing protocol is intended to provide a minimal recommendation for adhesive selection for Army ground vehicle applications...D1002-102 as the basis standard, schematically represented in Fig. 1. Single lap joints are widely studied in the literature and allow for minimal labor...for the 9309 is of minimal concern as the single lap joints were pretreated with a silane coupling agent. The standards that cite a minimum of 95% hot

  6. Yield load solutions of heterogeneous welded joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozak, D., E-mail: dkozak@sfsb.h [Mechanical Engineering Faculty in Slavonski Brod, Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek, Trg Ivane Brlic-Mazuranic 2, Hr-35000 Slavonski Brod (Croatia); Gubeljak, N. [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Maribor, Smetanova 17, SI-2000 Maribor (Slovenia); Konjatic, P.; Sertic, J. [Mechanical Engineering Faculty in Slavonski Brod, Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek, Trg Ivane Brlic-Mazuranic 2, Hr-35000 Slavonski Brod (Croatia)

    2009-12-15

    The aim of this paper is to establish yield load solutions when the materials inhomogeneity within the weld is present, which is usually the case in repair welding. The effect of yield strength mismatch of welded joints performed with different geometry on the yield load value has been investigated in the context of single edge notched fracture toughness specimen subjected to bending SE(B) using the finite element method. The crack was located in the center of the weld and the two most important geometrical parameters were identified as: crack length ratio a/W as well as slenderness of the welded joint, which were systematically varied. One practical and four additional combinations of filler materials, with the same portion of overmatched part and undermatched part of the weld, were analyzed, and plane strain FE solutions for the case when the crack is located in the overmatched half of the heterogeneous weld were obtained.

  7. SHM of single lap adhesive joints using subharmonic frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginzburg, D.; Ciampa, F.; Scarselli, G.; Meo, M.

    2017-10-01

    The increased usage of adhesive bonding as a joining method in modern aerospace components has led to developing reliable ultrasonic health monitoring systems for detection of regions of poor adhesion. Nonlinear acousto-ultrasonic techniques based on higher harmonics and subharmonic frequencies have shown to be sensitive to the detection of micro-voids and disbonds. Nonlinear resonance properties of disbonds generate various nonlinear phenomena such as self-modulation, subharmonics, hysteresis and so on. By exploiting the local natures of these phenomena, this paper demonstrates the use of subharmonics for detection and imaging of flaws in bonded structures. To optimise the experimental testing a two-dimensional analytical model and a three-dimensional finite element analysis simulation were developed for understanding the generation of nonlinear elastic effects with emphasis on subharmonic frequency components. The proposed analytical model qualitatively described the generation of subharmonics but also higher harmonics due to the nonlinear intermodulation of the driving and resonance frequencies associated with the disbonded region. The numerical model was developed by modifying the user defined cohesive element formulation with a bi-linear traction-displacement relationship in order to simulate the interaction of elastic waves with the structural disbond. Whilst the analytical model supported the selection of the driving frequency, the numerical one successfully predicted the generation of subharmonic frequencies originating in the disbonded area. Experimental tests were conducted on a disbonded single lap joint structure using surface-bonded piezoelectric transducers and a laser-Doppler vibrometer, and allowed to validate the analytical and numerical results. It was clearly demonstrated that the nonlinear resonance effects in the form of subharmonics could be used to discriminate reliably regions of poor adhesion in bonded structures. This work can lead to new

  8. Nd:Yag laser irradiation of single lap joints made by polyethylene and polyethylene doped by carbon nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visco, A. M.; Brancato, V.; Cutroneo, M.; Torrisi, L.

    2014-04-01

    Thermoplastic polyethylene can be welded by the transmission laser welding technique (TTLW) that exhibits some process related benefits with respect other conventional joining methods. This justifies its large use in wide fields, from the automotive to medical or domestic appliances. In this research, we studied single lap joints made by polyethylene pure and filled with carbon nanomaterials (0.2% in weight) to make the polymer laser absorbent. The joints were irradiated by a Nd:YAG laser operating at 1064 nm (first harmonic) with an intensity of 107 W/cm2 and 1 ÷ 30Hz, a maximum pulse energy of 300mJ and a laser spot of ≈ 1 cm2 (no focusing lens were employed). The joints were characterized by morphological analysis, mechanical shear tests and calorimetric analysis. The results suggested that the laser exposition time must be opportunely balanced in order to avoid a poor adhesion between the polymer sheets and to realized efficient joints. In particular the mechanical test showed that the laser exposition time of 40 seconds is the best conditions to obtain the highest shear strength of the joints of 140 N. After too prolonged laser exposure times, degrading phenomena starts.

  9. Non destructive evaluation of adhesively bonded carbon fiber reinforced composite lap joints with varied bond quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, R. L.; Bhat, M. R.; Murthy, C. R. L.

    2012-05-01

    Structural adhesive bonding is widely used to execute assemblies in automobile and aerospace structures. The quality and reliability of these bonded joints must be ensured during service. In this context non destructive evaluation of these bonded structures play an important role. Evaluation of adhesively bonded composite single lap shear joints has been attempted through experimental approach. Series of tests, non-destructive as well as destructive were performed on different sets of carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composite lap joint specimens with varied bond quality. Details of the experimental investigations carried out and the outcome are presented in this paper.

  10. Corrosion Behavior of MIG Brazed and MIG Welded Joints of Automotive DP600-GI Steel Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basak, Sushovan; Das, Hrishikesh; Pal, Tapan Kumar; Shome, Mahadev

    2016-12-01

    Galvanized dual-phase steel sheets are extensively used by the auto industry for their corrosion resistance property. Welding by the metal inert gas (MIG) process causes degradation of the steel in the vicinity of the joint due to excessive zinc evaporation. In order to minimize Zn loss, the MIG brazing process has been tried out in lap joint configuration over a heat input range of 136-204 J mm-1. The amount of zinc loss, intermetallic formation and corrosion properties in the joint area has been evaluated for both MIG brazing and MIG welding. Corrosion rate of 21 mm year-1 has been reduced to 2 mm year-1 by adopting MIGB in place MIGW. Impedance study has shown that the corrosion mechanism in base metal, MIG brazed and MIG welded joints is dominated by charge transfer, diffusion and mixed mode control processes, respectively.

  11. Identification of optimum friction stir spot welding process parameters controlling the properties of low carbon automotive steel joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K. Lakshminarayanan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Friction stir spot welding is a novel solid state process that has recently received considerable attention from various industries including automotive sectors due to many advantages over the resistance spot welding. However to apply this technique, the process parameters must be optimized to obtain improved mechanical properties compared to resistance spot welding. To achieve this, in this investigation, design of experiments was used to conduct the experiments for exploring the interdependence of the process parameters. A second order quadratic model for predicting the lap shear tensile strength of friction stir spot welded low carbon automotive steel joints was developed from the experimental obtained data. It is found that dwell time plays a major role in deciding the joint properties, which is followed by rotational speed and plunge depth. Further optimum process parameters were identified for maximum lap shear tensile strength using numerical and graphical optimization techniques.

  12. Failure load prediction of single lap adhesive joints using artificial neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdi Tosun

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to predict the failure load in single lap adhesive joints subjected to tensile loading by using artificial neural networks. Experimental data obtained from the literature cover the single lap adhesive joints with various geometric models under the tensile loading. The data are arranged in a format such that two input parameters cover the length and width of bond area in single lap adhesive joints and the corresponding output is the ultimate failure load. An artificial neural network model was developed to estimate relationship between failure loads by using geometric dimensions of bond area as input data. A three-layer feedforward artificial neural network that utilized Levenberg–Marquardt learning algorithm model was used in order to train network. It was observed that artificial neural network model can estimate failure load of single lap adhesive joints with acceptable error. Mean absolute percentage error and Nash–Sutcliffe coefficient of efficiency values of both training and testing data were 3.523 and 3.524 and 0.997 and 0.992, respectively. The results showed that the artificial neural network is an efficient alternative method to predict the failure load of single lap adhesive joints. Also estimated results are in very good agreement with the experimental data.

  13. 46 CFR 56.30-5 - Welded joints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Welded joints. 56.30-5 Section 56.30-5 Shipping COAST... Selection and Limitations of Piping Joints § 56.30-5 Welded joints. (a) General. Welded joints may be used..., then: (1) The backing rings shall be removed and the inside of the joint ground smooth, or (2) The...

  14. STRUCTURAL DEGRADATION OF HETEROGENEOUS WELDED JOINTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Schmidová

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Developing the techniques of welding materials with higher dynamic strength onto the rolling surfaces of rails is one of the options for increasing their operational endurance. The subject of this paper is an analysis of heterogeneous weld joints experimentally manufactured by welding medium-carbon austenitic steels onto high-carbon unalloyed pearlitic steels. The analyses focus on examinations of the marginal mixing of the materials at the fusion line and the circumstances under which intercrystalline cracks form in the weld deposit layers. Structural analyses, chemical microanalyses and a hardness assessment were performed in order to identify the corresponding structural changes. The proportion of zonal vs. interdendritic segregation of the alloying elements in the degradation of the welded joint was distinguished. We described the nature of the structural heterogeneities produced, locally connected with the martensitic transformation. The chemical heterogeneity leading to the formation of martensite at grain boundaries was identified as the limiting effect.

  15. Structural degradation of heterogeneous welded joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Schmidová

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Developing the techniques of welding materials with higher dynamic strength onto the rolling surfaces of rails is one of the options for increasing their operational endurance. The subject of this paper is an analyses of heterogeneous weld interfaces experimentally manufactured by welding medium-carbon austenitic steels onto high-carbon unalloyed pearlitic steels. The analyses focus on examinations of the marginal mixing of the materials at the weld interface and the circumstances under which intercrystalline cracks form in the weld deposit layers. Structural analyses, chemical microanalyses and a hardness assessment were performed in order to identify the corresponding structural changes. The proportion of zonal vs. interdendritic segregation of the alloying elements in the degradation of the welded joint was distinguished. We described the nature of the structural heterogeneities produced, locally connected with the martensitic transformation. The chemical heterogeneity leading to the formation of martensite at grain boundaries was identified as the limiting effect.

  16. Experimental assessment of the influence of welding process parameters on Lamb wave transmission across ultrasonically welded thermoplastic composite joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochôa, Pedro; Fernandez Villegas, Irene; Groves, Roger M.; Benedictus, Rinze

    2018-01-01

    One of the advantages of thermoplastic composites relative to their thermoset counterparts is the possibility of assembling components through welding. Ultrasonic welding in particular is very promising for industrialization. However, uncertainty in the fatigue and fracture behaviour of composites is still an obstacle to the full utilisation of these materials. Health monitoring is then of vital importance, and Lamb wave techniques have been widely recognised as some of the most promising approaches for that end. This paper presents the first experimental study about the influence of welding travel on the transmission of Lamb waves across ultrasonically welded thermoplastic composite joints in single-lap configuration. The main aim of this research is to start to understand how guided waves interact with the internal structure of ultrasonic welds, so that benign, manufacturing-related structural features can be distinguished from damaging ones in signal interpretation. The power transmission coefficient and the correlation coefficient proved to be suitable for analysing the wave propagation phenomena, allowing quantitative identification of small variations of weld-line thickness and intermolecular diffusion at the weld interface. The conclusions are used to develop a tentative damage detection criterion which can later on assist the design of a Lamb wave based structural health monitoring system for thermoplastic composite structures. The Lamb wave test results are backed up by phased-array inspections, which also provide some extra insight on the internal structure of ultrasonic welds.

  17. Hybrid (bolted/bonded) joints applied to aeronautic parts: analytical one-dimensional models of a single-lap joint

    OpenAIRE

    Paroissien, Eric; Sartor, Marc; Huet, Jacques

    2006-01-01

    The load transfer in hybrid (bolted/bonded) single-lap joint is complex due to the association of two different transfer modes (discrete and continuous) through elements with different stiffness. Analytical methods exist for these two different modes, when considered separately. In this paper two one-dimensional elastic analytical models are presented for the determination of the load transfer in single lap configuration. The first one is developed by using the integration of the local equili...

  18. Experimental validation of a lap-type joint AC loss model with an ITER correction coil conductor joint

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rolando, G.; Hansheng, F.; Hongwei, L.; Lin, W.; Wu, W.; Foussat, A.; Ilyin, Y.; Libeyre, P.; Nijhuis, Arend

    2014-01-01

    The ITER correction coils (CC) system features shaking hands lap-type joints to interface the terminations of the conductors. The feasibility of operating plasma scenarios depends on the ability of the magnets to retain sufficient temperature and current margins. In this respect, the joints

  19. Effects of process parameters on microstructure and mechanical properties of friction stir lap linear welded 6061 aluminum alloy to NZ30K magnesium alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Tan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The microstructures and lap-shear behaviors of friction stir lap linear welded as-extruded 6061 Al alloy to as-cast Mg–3.0Nd–0.2Zn–0.7Zr (wt.% (NZ30K alloy joints were examined. Various tool rotation and travel speeds were adopted to prepare the joints. The analysis of temperature field indicates that the peak temperature for each sample can reach 450 °C, which exceeds the eutectic reaction temperatures of 437 °C and 450 °C according to the binary phase diagram of Al–Mg system. The fierce intermixing can be found at the interface between Al and Mg alloys, forming the intermetallic of Al3Mg2. Welds with the rotation speed of 900 rpm and travel speed of 120 mm/min display the highest tensile shear failure load of about 2.24 kN. The value was increased by 13% after the sample was heat treated at 400 °C for 0.5 h.

  20. Reliability Analysis for Adhesive Bonded Composite Stepped Lap Joints Loaded in Fatigue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kimiaeifar, Amin; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Lund, Erik

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a probabilistic approach to calculate the reliability of adhesive bonded composite stepped lap joints loaded in fatigue using three- dimensional finite element analysis (FEA). A method for progressive damage modelling is used to assess fatigue damage accumulation and residual...... by the wind turbine standard IEC 61400-1. Finally, an approach for the assessment of the reliability of adhesive bonded composite stepped lap joints loaded in fatigue is presented. The introduced methodology can be applied in the same way to calculate the reliability level of wind turbine blade components...

  1. A Single-Lap Joint Adhesive Bonding Optimization Method Using Gradient and Genetic Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeltzer, Stanley S., III; Finckenor, Jeffrey L.

    1999-01-01

    A natural process for any engineer, scientist, educator, etc. is to seek the most efficient method for accomplishing a given task. In the case of structural design, an area that has a significant impact on the structural efficiency is joint design. Unless the structure is machined from a solid block of material, the individual components which compose the overall structure must be joined together. The method for joining a structure varies depending on the applied loads, material, assembly and disassembly requirements, service life, environment, etc. Using both metallic and fiber reinforced plastic materials limits the user to two methods or a combination of these methods for joining the components into one structure. The first is mechanical fastening and the second is adhesive bonding. Mechanical fastening is by far the most popular joining technique; however, in terms of structural efficiency, adhesive bonding provides a superior joint since the load is distributed uniformly across the joint. The purpose of this paper is to develop a method for optimizing single-lap joint adhesive bonded structures using both gradient and genetic algorithms and comparing the solution process for each method. The goal of the single-lap joint optimization is to find the most efficient structure that meets the imposed requirements while still remaining as lightweight, economical, and reliable as possible. For the single-lap joint, an optimum joint is determined by minimizing the weight of the overall joint based on constraints from adhesive strengths as well as empirically derived rules. The analytical solution of the sin-le-lap joint is determined using the classical Goland-Reissner technique for case 2 type adhesive joints. Joint weight minimization is achieved using a commercially available routine, Design Optimization Tool (DOT), for the gradient solution while an author developed method is used for the genetic algorithm solution. Results illustrate the critical design variables

  2. Condition and problems of ultrasonic inspection of austenitic weld joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grebennikov, V.V.; Gurvich, A.K.

    1986-05-01

    A review is presented of methods and means of ultrasonic inspection of austenitic weld joints. The basic structural factors influencing the propagation of ultrasonic vibrations in austenitic weld joints are considered. The influence of the ultrasonic inspection parameters on the ratio of the useful signal to the average level of structural interferences is shown. Acoustic models of austenitic weld joints are presented. The basic methods of increasing the interference resistance and apparatus for inspection of acoustic weld joints are described.

  3. Fatigue Damage Monitoring of a Composite Step Lap Joint Using Distributed Optical Fibre Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Leslie; Chowdhury, Nabil; Wang, John; Chiu, Wing Kong; Kodikara, Jayantha

    2016-05-14

    Over the past few decades, there has been a considerable interest in the use of distributed optical fibre sensors (DOFS) for structural health monitoring of composite structures. In aerospace-related work, health monitoring of the adhesive joints of composites has become more significant, as they can suffer from cracking and delamination, which can have a significant impact on the integrity of the joint. In this paper, a swept-wavelength interferometry (SWI) based DOFS technique is used to monitor the fatigue in a flush step lap joint composite structure. The presented results will show the potential application of distributed optical fibre sensor for damage detection, as well as monitoring the fatigue crack growth along the bondline of a step lap joint composite structure. The results confirmed that a distributed optical fibre sensor is able to enhance the detection of localised damage in a structure.

  4. Fatigue Damage Monitoring of a Composite Step Lap Joint Using Distributed Optical Fibre Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie Wong

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few decades, there has been a considerable interest in the use of distributed optical fibre sensors (DOFS for structural health monitoring of composite structures. In aerospace-related work, health monitoring of the adhesive joints of composites has become more significant, as they can suffer from cracking and delamination, which can have a significant impact on the integrity of the joint. In this paper, a swept-wavelength interferometry (SWI based DOFS technique is used to monitor the fatigue in a flush step lap joint composite structure. The presented results will show the potential application of distributed optical fibre sensor for damage detection, as well as monitoring the fatigue crack growth along the bondline of a step lap joint composite structure. The results confirmed that a distributed optical fibre sensor is able to enhance the detection of localised damage in a structure.

  5. Stress Analysis of Adhesive Lap Joint of Hollow Shafts Subjected to Torsional Moments

    OpenAIRE

    仲野, 雄一; 高城, 有希久

    2001-01-01

    The stress and strain distributions in adhesively bonded lap joints of dissimilar hollow shafts are examined using the axisymmetric theory of elasticity. In the analysis, the joint is modeled as an elastic three-body contact problem where the hollow shafts and the adhesive are replaced by finite hollow cylinders. The effects of the ratio of Young's modulus of the adhesive to that of the shaft, the overlap length and the thickness of the adhesive on the stress distributions at the interfaces i...

  6. The Fuzzy Finite Element Stress Analysis of Adhesive-Bonded Single Lap Joints

    OpenAIRE

    Alpay AYDEMİR

    2004-01-01

    An adhesive-bonded single lap joint is analyzed using a new fuzzy finite element model. In the model, Young's moduli and Poisson's ratios of the joint materials are taken as fuzzy numbers in order to take the uncertainty of the material properties into account. The fuzzy numbers are modeled using linear triangular membership functions. At a selected material point in the adhesive layer, the possibility distributions for the displacements and shear stresses are depi...

  7. Investigation on Void Effect on Shear Stress Field in Bonded Stepped-Lap Joint

    OpenAIRE

    Ghoddous,Behnam; Shishehsaz,Mohamad

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In this paper, an adhesively-bonded stepped-lap joint suffering from a void within its adhesive layer is investigated. The void separates the layer into two sections. The joint is under tensile load and materials are isotropic and assumed to behave as linear elastic. Classical elasticity theory is used to determine shear stress distribution in the separated sections of adhesive layer along the overlap length. A set of differential equations was derived and solved by using appropriate...

  8. High-power Laser Welding of Thick Steel-aluminum Dissimilar Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahdo, Rabi; Springer, André; Pfeifer, Ronny; Kaierle, Stefan; Overmeyer, Ludger

    According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), a worldwide reduction of CO2-emissions is indispensable to avoid global warming. Besides the automotive sector, lightweight construction is also of high interest for the maritime industry in order to minimize CO2-emissions. Using aluminum, the weight of ships can be reduced, ensuring lower fuel consumption. Therefore, hybrid joints of steel and aluminum are of great interest to the maritime industry. In order to provide an efficient lap joining process, high-power laser welding of thick steel plates (S355, t = 5 mm) and aluminum plates (EN AW-6082, t = 8 mm) is investigated. As the weld seam quality greatly depends on the amount of intermetallic phases within the joint, optimized process parameters and control are crucial. Using high-power laser welding, a tensile strength of 10 kN was achieved. Based on metallographic analysis, hardness tests, and tensile tests the potential of this joining method is presented.

  9. THE INFLUENCE OF LAP SIZE ON SHEAR STRENGTH OF ADHESIVE JOINTS

    OpenAIRE

    Andrzej Kubit; Barbara Ciecińska; Kamil Drozd

    2015-01-01

    Adhesive joints may be used instead of forced-in joints, welded and riveted joints, soldered and twisted connections. They are characterized by a lot of advantages, thanks to them the adhesive joints are willingly used in manufacturing processes. These advantages include low price of joint, reduction of weight of the final construction, improvement of durability, reliability and quality and improving visual appearance. From this point of view it should be concluded that experimental tests of ...

  10. Application of a simple and cost-effective method for detection of bolt self-loosening in single lap joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeel, Ramadan A.; Taheri, Farid

    2013-09-01

    One of the major advantages of bolted joints (BJs) over welded, riveted and adhesively bonded joints is the disassembling option. This option facilitates the manufacturing and transportation of large-scale structures that are commonly formed as assemblage of various large structural components. However, this option is not always problem free, in that, during the life cycle of such structures, the bolts used to fasten the joints may become loosened. Although several techniques have been developed to mitigate bolt self-loosening (BSL), nonetheless, development of a methodology for detecting BSL has consumed considerable attention in recent years. As a result, several researchers have been seeking simple and reliable methods for detecting bolt-loosening in BJs, without compromising their stability. In this study, piezoelectric sensors are used to collect the vibration signals of a laboratory-scale single lap joint, joining two steel plates with three bolts. The acquired signals are then processed using the empirical mode decomposition method and the energies of the respective signals are calculated. A recently developed effective method is then employed to establish the so-called energy damage index, evaluated based on the energy stored in certain modes of the collected signal, in both the damaged and healthy states of the system. This method is found to be quite effective in detecting bolt loosening and the progression of self-loosening.

  11. The technology and welding joint properties of hybrid laser-tig welding on thick plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenghai, Zhang; Yifu, Shen; Huijuan, Qiu

    2013-06-01

    The technologies of autogenous laser welding and hybrid laser-TIG welding are used on thick plate of high strength lower alloy structural steel 10CrNiMnMoV in this article. The unique advantages of hybrid laser-TIG welding is summarized by comparing and analyzing the process parameters and welding joints of autogenous laser welding laser welding and hybrid laser-TIG welding. With the optimal process parameters of hybrid welding, the good welding joint without visible flaws can be obtained and its mechanical properties are tested according to industry standards. The results show that the hybrid welding technology has certain advantages and possibility in welding thick plates. It can reduce the demands of laser power, and it is significant for lowering the aspect ratio of weld during hybrid welding, so the gas in the molten pool can rise and escape easily while welding thick plates. Therefore, the pores forming tendency decreases. At the same time, hybrid welding enhances welding speed, and optimizes the energy input. The transition and grain size of the microstructure of hybrid welding joint is better and its hardness is higher than base material. Furthermore, its tensile strength and impact toughness is as good as base material. Consequently, the hybrid welding joint can meet the industry needs completely.

  12. A critical examination of stresses in an elastic single lap joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, P. A.; Sawyer, J. W.

    1979-01-01

    The results of an approximate nonlinear finite-element analysis of a single lap joint are presented and compared with the results of a linear finite-element analysis, and the geometric nonlinear effects caused by the load-path eccentricity on the adhesive stress distributions are determined. The results from finite-element, Goland-Reissner, and photoelastic analyses show that for a single lap joint the effect of the geometric nonlinear behavior of the joint has a sizable effect on the stresses in the adhesive. The Goland-Reissner analysis is sufficiently accurate in the prediction of stresses along the midsurface of the adhesive bond to be used for qualitative evaluation of the influence of geometric or material parametric variations. Detailed stress distributions in both the adherend and adhesive obtained from the finite-element analysis are presented to provide a basis for comparison with other solution techniques.

  13. Profile design of loaded pins in composite single lap joints: From circular to non-circular

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yadong; Fei, Qingguo; Tao, Jiayue

    Mechanical joints are the weakest links of composite materials and structures. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of the pin profiles on the stress concentration and load-carry capacity of the pin-loaded single-lap joints subjected to tensile loading. Non-circular profiles of pins are numerically investigated to pursue a possible stress concentration reduction in both the net-tension and bearing stresses of composite single lap joints. Firstly, by varying the characteristic parameters, various round-corner squares are evaluated in terms of peak stresses. Secondly, the square-like profile is transferred to the racetrack-like one in order to gain optimal bearing stresses. Thirdly, the pin of the racetrack-like profile is investigated compared to the circular one, taking into account the through-thickness distributions of stresses. Lastly, the orthotropic effect and the load-carry capacity of the proposed profile are also discussed.

  14. Modeling the Influence of Stitching on Delamination Growth in Stitched Warp-Knit Composite Lap Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaessgen, E. H.; Raju, I. S.; Poe, C. C., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    The effect of stitches on the failure of a single lap joint configuration was determined in a combined experimental and analytical study. The experimental study was conducted to determine debond growth under static monotonic loading. The stitches were shown to delay the initiation of the debond and provide load transfer beyond the load necessary to completely debond the stitched lap joint. The strain energy release rates at the debond front were calculated using a finite element-based technique. Models of the unstitched configuration showed significant values of modes I and II across the width of the joint and showed that mode III is zero at the centerline but increases near the free edge. Models of the stitched configuration showed that the stitches effectively reduced mode I to zero, but had less of an effect on modes II and III.

  15. STUDY AND ANALYSIS OF THE EFFECT OF WELDING PROCESS ON DISTORTION WITH 304L STAINLESS STEEL WELD JOINTS

    OpenAIRE

    Dhananjay Kumar*, Dharamvir mangal

    2017-01-01

    The effect of welding process on the distortion with 304L stainless steel 12thk weld joints made by TIG (tungsten inert gas) and SMAW (Shielded metal arc welding) welding process involving different type joint configuration have been studied. The joint configurations employed were double V-groove edge preparation for double side SMAW welding and square – butt preparation for double side TIG welding. All weld joints passed by radiographic. Distortion measurements were carried out using height ...

  16. Investigations on Laser Beam Welding of Different Dissimilar Joints of Steel and Aluminum Alloys for Automotive Lightweight Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seffer, Oliver; Pfeifer, Ronny; Springer, André; Kaierle, Stefan

    Due to the enormous potential of weight saving, and the consequential reduction of pollutant emissions, the use of hybrid components made of steel and aluminum alloys is increasing steadily, especially concerning automotive lightweight construction. However, thermal joining of steel and aluminum is still being researched, due to a limited solubility of the binary system of iron and aluminum causing the formation of hard and brittle intermetallic phases, which decrease the strength and the formability of the dissimilar seam. The presented results show the investigation of laser beam welding for joining different dissimilar hybrid components of the steel materials HX220LAD+Z100, 22MnB5+AS150 and 1.4301, as well as the aluminum alloy AA6016-T4 as a lap joint. Among other things, the influences of the energy per unit length, the material grade, the sheet thickness t, the weld type (lap weld, fillet weld) and the arrangement of the base materials in a lap joint (aluminum-sided irradiation, steel-sided irradiation) on the achievable strengths are analyzed. The characterization of the dissimilar joints includes tensile shear tests and metallographic analyses, depending on the energy per unit length.

  17. Effect of preforming adherends on static and fatigue strength of bonded composite single-lap joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, J. W.

    1984-01-01

    An analytical and experimental investigation was conducted on bonded composite single-lap joints with the adherends performed to reduce the angle between the line of action of the applied in-plane force and the bondline. A classical closed-form solution was used to analyze the composite joints with various preform angles and overlap lengths. The adherends of the test specimens were preformed before bonding, during the layup and curing process. Static tests were conducted for preform angles of 0, 5, 10, and 15 deg and overlap lengths of 0.75, 1.75, 2.75, and 3.75 in. A limited fatigue study was conducted for specimens with a 2.75-in. overlap and a preform angle of 5 deg. Results of the analysis showed that preforming the adherends of bonded composite single-lap joints significantly reduced the shear and peel stress concentrations in the adhesive. Experimental results showed that preforming the adherends significantly increased their static and fatigue strength and thus increased the load level for which bonded composite single-lap joints can be designed.

  18. Analysis and test of bonded single lap joints with preformed adherends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, J. W.; Cooper, P. A.

    1980-01-01

    A theoretical and experimental study has been conducted to investigate the load transfer of a single lap joint where the adherends have been preformed so that the angle between the line of action of the applied in-plane force and the bond line is reduced. The preforming of the adherend reduces the moment resultant in the adherend at the edge of the overlap region which reduces both the maximum peel and shear stresses in the adhesive, and gives a more uniform shear distribution in the adhesive. An increase in static load transfer of up to 120 percent has been shown, and several orders of magnitude increase in fatigue life have been achieved with modest preform angles. Thus, sizeable benefits can be obtained in the fatigue life or additional load capacity of bonded single lap joints by preforming the adherends.

  19. Experimental Study on Steel to FRP Bonded Lap Joints in Marine Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çiçek Özes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Steel structures coated with fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP composites have gained wide acceptance in marine industry due to their high strength-to-weight ratio, good protection from environmental degradation, and impact loads. In this study, adhesive bonding performance of single-lap bonded joints composed of steel coated with FRP has been investigated experimentally for three different surface roughness and two epoxy types. Single-lap bonded joints have been tested under tensile loading. The adhesive bonding performance has been evaluated by calculating the strain energy values. The results reveal that the surface roughness of steel has a significant effect on the bonding performance of steel to FRP combinations and the performance of the resin can be improved by using the primer in an economical way.

  20. The characteristics of welded joints for air conditioning application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weglowski, M. St.; Weglowska, A.; Miara, D.; Kwiecinski, K.; Błacha, S.; Dworak, J.; Rykala, J.; Pikula, J.; Ziobro, G.; Szafron, A.; Zimierska-Nowak, P.; Richert, M.; Noga, P.

    2017-10-01

    In the paper the results of metallographic examination of welded joints for air-conditioning elements are presented. The European directives 2006/40/EC on the greenhouse gasses elimination demand to stop using traditional refrigerant and to change it to R744 (CO2) medium in air conditioning installation. The R744 refrigerant is environmental friendly medium if compared with standard solution such as R12, R134a or R1234yf and safer for passengers than R1234yf. The non-standard thermodynamic parameters of the R744 which translate into high pressure and high temperature require specific materials to develop the shape and to specify the technology of manufacturing for the particular elements of the conduits and moreover the technologies of joining for the whole structure, which would meet the exploitation requirements of the new air-conditioning system. To produce the test welded joints of stainless steels four different joining technologies were applied: laser welding, plasma welding, electron beam welding as well as high speed rotation welding. This paper describes the influence of the selected welding process on the macrostructure and microstructure of welded joints of AISI 304 and AISI 316L steels. The results indicated that plasma welding laser welding and electron beam welding technologies guaranty the proper quality of welded joints and can be used for the air conditioning application in automotive industry. However, high speed rotation welding not guarantee the good quality of welded joints and cannot be used for above application.

  1. A Neural Network Approach for GMA Butt Joint Welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Kim Hardam; Sørensen, Torben

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the application of the neural network technology for gas metal arc welding (GMAW) control. A system has been developed for modeling and online adjustment of welding parameters, appropriate to guarantee a certain degree of quality in the field of butt joint welding with full...... penetration, when the gap width is varying during the welding process. The process modeling to facilitate the mapping from joint geometry and reference weld quality to significant welding parameters has been based on a multi-layer feed-forward network. The Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm for non-linear least...

  2. THE VISUAL METHOD IN QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF SINGLE-LAP ADHESIVE JOINTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Rudawska

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article presents selected criteria for the quality assessment of single-lap adhesive joints formed on 0.66±0.04 thick hot dip zinc coated sheets with the hot dip zinc coating thickness equal to 18 µm. Three types of epoxy adhesives and three variants of the mass of adhesives were tested (1 g, 2 g and 3 g. The work intended to assess the capacity of the visual method with regard to evaluating joint quality, allowing for the presence and the size of spew fillet, joint dimensions and the effect of spew fillet on adhesive joint strength. The strength of analysed adhesive joints was determined in destructive tests.

  3. The effect of viscoelasticity on creep behavior of double-lap adhesively bonded joints

    OpenAIRE

    Reza,Arash; Shishesaz,Mohammad; Naderan-Tahan, Khosro

    2014-01-01

    The effect of viscoelasticity of epoxy adhesive on creep behavior in the adhesive layer of a double-lap joint is studied in this paper. The joint is comprised of three elastic single isotropic adherend layers joined by an epoxy adhesive that is under shear loading. Prony series is used to modeling the relaxation modulus of epoxy adhesive. The differential equation is derived in Laplace domain, and numerical inversion from the Laplace domain to the time domain is achieved by the Fixed Talbot m...

  4. 49 CFR 195.216 - Welding: Miter joints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Welding: Miter joints. 195.216 Section 195.216 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... PIPELINE Construction § 195.216 Welding: Miter joints. A miter joint is not permitted (not including...

  5. A fracture mechanics analysis of adhesive failure in a single lap shear joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devries, K. L.; Williams, M. L.; Chang, M. D.

    1972-01-01

    Discussion of adhesive fracture of single lap shear joints in terms of a maximum stress criterion and an energy balance. The Goland and Reissner (1944) analysis is used to determine the stress distribution in the adhesive assembly, and the results obtained are introduced into an energy balance to determine the initiation of adhesive fracture. In the stress analysis the loads at the edges of the joint are first determined. This is a problem in which the deformation of the joint sheets must be taken into account and is solved by using the finite-deflection theory of cylindrically bent plates. Then the stress in the joint due to applied loads is determined. This problem is formulated as one in plane strain consisting of two rectangular sheets of equal thickness and unit width. With the aid of this stress analysis and the stresses obtained from the conditions of equilibrium the contributions to the energy change with crack length are calculated. The analysis performed is then compared with a maximum stress criterion for a lap joint.

  6. An Experimental Method for Measuring the Clamping Force in Double Lap Simple Bolted and Hybrid (Bolted-Bonded) Joints

    OpenAIRE

    Goldarag, Firooz Esmaeili; Barzegar, Sajjad; Babaei, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    In this research, an experimental method for measuring the clamping force as a result of tightening torque in double lap simple bolted and hybrid (bolted-bonded) joints is proposed. Two types of joints, i.e. double lap simple and hybrid (bolted-bonded) joints were prepared for testing. In order to measure the clamping force or pretension resulting from the tightening torque at different applied torques, for both types of joints, a special experimental method was designed using a steel bush th...

  7. Strain measurement within a single-lap joint using embedded strain gages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttle, M. E.; Barthelemy, B. M.; Brinson, H. F.

    1984-01-01

    An experimental method used to measure the in-plane normal-axial strains produced within a single-lap joint is described in which a resistance-foil strain gage is embedded within the joint prior to curing of the adhesive. Nominal dimensions of the titanium Ti-6-4 adherends were 0.13 x 2.5 x 12.7 cm and an overlap of 2.5 cm was used. The joint was bonded with FM-300 structural adhesive. The average ultimate shear strength of the gaged specimens and control specimens was 16.1 MPa and 14.1 MPa. A significant advantage of the proposed method is that strains internal to the joint are measured, rather than strains at an external edge. The presence of the gage was found to be not detrimental to bond performance.

  8. Virtual Welded - Joint Design Integrating Advanced Materials and Processing Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Zhishang; Ludewig, Howard W.; Babu, S. Suresh

    2005-06-30

    Virtual Welede-Joint Design, a systematic modeling approach, has been developed in this project to predict the relationship of welding process, microstructure, properties, residual stress, and the ultimate weld fatique strength. This systematic modeling approach was applied in the welding of high strength steel. A special welding wire was developed in this project to introduce compressive residual stress at weld toe. The results from both modeling and experiments demonstrated that more than 10x fatique life improvement can be acheived in high strength steel welds by the combination of compressive residual stress from the special welding wire and the desired weld bead shape from a unique welding process. The results indicate a technology breakthrough in the design of lightweight and high fatique performance welded structures using high strength steels.

  9. Assessing the Impact of Sequencing Practicums for Welding in Agricultural Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Malcolm; Pate, Michael L.; Lawver, Rebecca G.; Warnick, Brian K.; Dai, Xin

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the impact of sequencing practicums for welding on students' ability to perform a 1F (flat position-fillet lap joint) weld on low-carbon steel. Participants were randomly assigned a specific practice sequence of welding for using gas metal arc welding (GMAW) and shielded metal arc welding (SMAW). A total of 71 participants…

  10. Impact Tests of Welded Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    1936-04-01

    La Soci&i des Ingenieurs Soudeurs and ITn- stitut de Soudure Autogene drawn up for adoption in January 1936.3 The specimens adopted. Fig. 3, are...Specification of the Joint Commission of Society des Ingenieurs Soudeurs and Institut de Soudure Autogene, 1935. Rev. Solid. Anlog., J7, (257), 2-10 July...34, 1413-1422 and 1521-1525 (1925). " Kleiner, H., and Bossen, K., Autog. Melallb.,37, 131-139 (1934). ’» Keel, C F., J’l. de la Soudure . 22, 12-13

  11. The impact of welding wire on the mechanical properties of welded joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Mazur

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results of the mechanical properties of Hardox 450 steel welded joints. These welded joints were made in accordance with welding procedure specifications (WPS, which was prepared and  applied in the Wielton company. Fillers were provided by welding wires with two different diameters. The welding wire was G4Sil with diameter of 1.0 mm and 1.2 mm. The aim of this study was to examine whether the thickness of the welding wire has a direct effect on the properties of welded joints. Test specimens were made in similar parameters of the welding process. Then they were subjected to macroscopic research, tensile strength, impact strength and hardness

  12. Welded joints integrity analysis and optimization for fiber laser welding of dissimilar materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Yuewei; Shao, Xinyu; Jiang, Ping; Li, Peigen; Liu, Yang; Liu, Wei

    2016-11-01

    Dissimilar materials welded joints provide many advantages in power, automotive, chemical, and spacecraft industries. The weld bead integrity which is determined by process parameters plays a significant role in the welding quality during the fiber laser welding (FLW) of dissimilar materials. In this paper, an optimization method by taking the integrity of the weld bead and weld area into consideration is proposed for FLW of dissimilar materials, the low carbon steel and stainless steel. The relationships between the weld bead integrity and process parameters are developed by the genetic algorithm optimized back propagation neural network (GA-BPNN). The particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm is taken for optimizing the predicted outputs from GA-BPNN for the objective. Through the optimization process, the desired weld bead with good integrity and minimum weld area are obtained and the corresponding microstructure and microhardness are excellent. The mechanical properties of the optimized joints are greatly improved compared with that of the un-optimized welded joints. Moreover, the effects of significant factors are analyzed based on the statistical approach and the laser power (LP) is identified as the most significant factor on the weld bead integrity and weld area. The results indicate that the proposed method is effective for improving the reliability and stability of welded joints in the practical production.

  13. A Neural Network Approach for GMA Butt Joint Welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Kim Hardam; Sørensen, Torben

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the application of the neural network technology for gas metal arc welding (GMAW) control. A system has been developed for modeling and online adjustment of welding parameters, appropriate to guarantee a certain degree of quality in the field of butt joint welding with full...

  14. Effect of weld spacing on microstructure and mechanical properties of CLAM electron beam welding joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhai, Yutao; Huang, Bo, E-mail: aufa0007@163.com; Zhang, Junyu; Zhang, Baoren; Liu, Shaojun; Huang, Qunying

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • The welded joints of CLAM steel with different weld spacings have been fabricated with electron beam welding, and a simplified model of CLAM sheet was proposed. • The microstructure and mechanical properties such as microhardness, impact and tensile were investigated at different welding spacing for both conditions of as-welded and post weld heat treatment (PWHT). • The effect of the welding thermal cycle was significantly when the weld spacings were smaller than 4 mm. • When the weld spacing was small enough, the original microstructures would be fragmented with the high heat input. - Abstract: China low activation martensitic (CLAM) steel has been chosen as the primary structural material in the designs of dual function lithium-lead (DFLL) blanket for fusion reactors, China helium cooled ceramic breeder (HCCB) test blanket module (TBM) for ITER and China fusion engineering test reactor (CFETR) blanket. The cooling components of the blankets are designed with high density cooling channels (HDCCs) to remove the high nuclear thermal effectively. Hence, the welding spacing among the channels are small. In this paper, the welded joints of CLAM steel with different weld spacings have been fabricated with electron beam welding (EBW). The weld spacing was designed to be 2 mm, 3 mm, 4 mm, 6 mm and 8 mm. The microstructure and mechanical properties such as microhardness, impact and tensile were investigated at different welding spacing for both conditions of as-welded and post weld heat treatment (PWHT). The PWHT is tempering at 740 °C for 120 min. The results showed that the grain size in the heat affected zone (HAZ) increased with the increasing weld spacing, and the joint with small weld spacing had a better performance after PWHT. This work would give useful guidance to improve the preparation of the cooling components of blanket.

  15. Comparative Analysis of Welded and Adhesive Joints Strength Made of Acid-Resistant Stainless Steel Sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Miturska

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the selected results of strength tests on the effectiveness of bonding high-alloy steel 1.4310. Sheet steel is one of the materials that are difficult to activate energy. Effective joining of it is difficult, requires selection of the appropriate bonding technology. The paper focuses on the comparative tests the shear strength of one-single lap welded and bonded joints. The welding process was performed 3 groups of samples TIG welding and argon, where the variable value of the welding process was current: 60A, 70A, 80A. The adhesion process was performed in 6 groups of samples which differed in the method of surface preparation and the type of the adhesive. Adhesive joints were made by using adhesive of epoxy resin and a hardener: Epidian 61/TFF at a mass ratio of 100:22 and Epidian 61/IDA at a mass ratio of 100:40. As a way of surface preparation applied 3 different, but simplified and environmentally friendly methods of surface preparation: degreasing with using cleaner Loctite 7061, abrasive machining with P320 and degreasing and grinding with abrasive T800 and degreasing were used. Make joints and curing the adhesive joints were carried out at ambient temperature. Analyzed the joints were tested destructive - which set out the shear strength, in accordance with DIN EN 1465 on the testing machine Zwick / Roell Z150. Based on the results of research it was found that better results were obtained for the maximum welded joints, but this result was similar to the maximum value of the strength of the adhesive bond.

  16. Stress analysis of un-lapped rectangular hollow 'k' joints by the finite ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Finite element stress analysis relevant for the study of welded hollow rectangular 'K' Joints is presented. Thin shell theory and iso-parametric formulation are employed to obtain equilibrium equations. Thereafter, the effect of brace spacing is investigated by varying the spacing between the two braces and making computer ...

  17. A multi-feature integration method for fatigue crack detection and crack length estimation in riveted lap joints using Lamb waves

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This paper presents an experimental study of damage detection and quantification in riveted lap joints. Embedded lead zirconate titanate piezoelectric (PZT) ceramic...

  18. Analysis of Balanced Double Lap Joints with a Bi-Linear Softening Adhesive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Christian Skodborg; Stang, Henrik; Schmidt, Jacob Wittrup

    2010-01-01

    relationships is needed. A constitutive relationship containing a bi-linear softening law contains such versatility. The solution was investigated for moderate and extreme softening parameters. The solution for extreme softening parameters, exhibited a non-physical behavior, where the size of the stress......-free crack decreased for increasing size of fracture process zone. This suggests that in order to fully describe the loading and unloading response, an unloading law should be implemented in the constitutive model. Apart from adhesively bonded metallic joints, the present solution may be used in analysis......The response of a bonded symmetric balanced double lap joint under tensile loading with a bilinear softening adhesive is described with a closed form solution. Since bonded joints in concrete structures undergo softening, a versatile model to describe the response for a wide range of constitutive...

  19. Analysis of an adhesively bonded single lap joint subjected to eccentric loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anyfantis, Konstantinos; Tsouvalis, N. G.

    2013-01-01

    is benchmarking of computational tools. The test is based on a Single Lap Joint subjected to Eccentric Loading (SLJ-EL). The basic concept that lies behind this configuration is that the applied in-plane tensile load leads the adhesive layer to develop normal stresses, in-plane and out-of-plane shear stresses......A new experimental test is proposed, which allows the contribution of Mode I, II and III fracture modes to the failure of the adhesive layer of bonded joints aiming at achieving the realistic conditions often occurring during loading of practical joints. The main objective of this test......, which correspond to Mode I, II and III loading and fracture. These tests were designed so that the metal substrates do not enter plasticity and the adhesive achieves a mode mixity ratio between Mode II and Mode III not lower than 0.5. The experiments were simulated in a 3-dimensional finite element...

  20. Degradation of Epoxy-Steel Single Lap Joints Immersed in Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goglio, L; Rezaei, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to environmental factors, especially moisture, is recognized as the major cause of degradation of adhesive joints. In this work, complementing a previous study on exposure to moisture, single lap joints were subjected to immersion in water, up to five weeks, at room temperature and 50 °C....... The material of the adherends was mild steel, and the adhesive was a bi-component epoxy. The specimens were fabricated using the open-face technique. Mechanical testing at the end of the relevant period of immersion showed an initial loss of ultimate load, after one week at 50 °C or two at room temperature......; then, the strength remained practically constant over the remaining time. The loss was more accentuated after immersion at 50 °C, about 70%, than at room temperature, about 30%. Also a reduction in stiffness of the joints was measured, again dramatic (about 70%) after immersion at 50 °C, moderate...

  1. Research on Fracture Failure of the Underwater Welding Joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xiangfeng; Qiu, Feng; Zhang, Jing; Zou, Yan; Chu, Dongzhi

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, by testing welding joints of their metallography and hardness, we analyze the metal structure. And then, the microstructure characteristics, macro and micro fracture morphology of underwater welding joint were investigated by means of metallographical examination and SEM. The fracture failure of the underwater welding joint is discussed here. The cracks are the major factors to fracture failure. The cracks spread along with the crack of the welding line, and this expand process generates dimple. The crack continues to expand under the action of tensile and the fracture fails eventually.

  2. Forming Completely Penetrated Welded T-joints when Pulsed Arc Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krampit, N. Yu; Krampit, M. A.; Sapozhkov, A. S.

    2016-04-01

    The paper is focused on revealing the influence of welding parameters on weld formation when pulsed arc welding. As an experimental sample a T-joint over 10 mm was selected. Welding was carried out in flat position, which required no edge preparation but provided mono-directional guaranteed root penetration. The following parameters of welding were subjected to investigation: gap in the joint, wire feed rate and incline angles of the torch along and across the weld axis. Technological recommendations have been made with respect to pulsed arc welding; the cost price of product manufacturing can be reduced on their basis due to reduction of labor input required by machining, lowering consumption of welding materials and electric power.

  3. Models for selecting GMA Welding Parameters for Improving Mechanical Properties of Weld Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasa Rao, P.; Ramachandran, Pragash; Jebaraj, S.

    2016-02-01

    During the process of Gas Metal Arc (GMAW) welding, the weld joints mechanical properties are influenced by the welding parameters such as welding current and arc voltage. These parameters directly will influence the quality of the weld in terms of mechanical properties. Even small variation in any of the cited parameters may have an important effect on depth of penetration and on joint strength. In this study, S45C Constructional Steel is taken as the base metal to be tested using the parameters wire feed rate, voltage and type of shielding gas. Physical properties considered in the present study are tensile strength and hardness. The testing of weld specimen is carried out as per ASTM Standards. Mathematical models to predict the tensile strength and depth of penetration of weld joint have been developed by regression analysis using the experimental results.

  4. Influence of the Gap Width on the Geometry of the Welded Joint in Hybrid Laser-Arc Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turichin, G.; Tsibulskiy, I.; Kuznetsov, M.; Akhmetov, A.; Mildebrath, M.; Hassel, T.

    The aim of this research was the experimental investigation of the influence of the gap width and speed of the welding wire on the changes of the geometry in the welded joint in the hybrid laser-arc welding of shipbuilding steel RS E36. The research was divided into three parts. First, in order to understand the influence of the gap width on the welded joint geometry, experimental research was done using continuous wave fiber laser IPG YLS-15000 with arc rectifier VDU-1500DC. The second part involved study of the geometry of the welded joint and hardness test results. Three macrosections from each welded joint were obtained. Influence of the gap width and welding wire speed on the welded joint geometry was researched in the three lines: in the right side of the plates, middle welded joint and in the root welded joint.

  5. The Role of Mechanical Connection during Friction Stir Keyholeless Spot Welding Joints of Dissimilar Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Liu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Contrast experiments of lap joints among dissimilar AZ31B Mg alloy, Mg99.50, zinc-coated DP600 sheet, and non-zinc-coated DP600 sheet were made by friction stir keyholeless spot welding (FSKSW and vacuum diffusion welding (VDW, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM and energy disperse spectroscopy (EDS were used to investigate the microstructures and components of the joints welded. The experimental results show that the FSKSW bonding method is a kind of compound mode that contains a mechanical connection and element diffusion fusion connection, in which mechanical connection has the main decisive function on joints of Mg/steel. Elements diffusion exists in the interfacial region of the joints and the elements diffusion extent is basically the same to that of VDW. The elements’ diffusion in Mg/steel using FSKSW is defined in the reaction between small amounts elements of the base metal and zinc-coated metals. The intermetallic compounds and composite oxide perform some reinforcement on the mechanical connection strength.

  6. Biomimetic-inspired joining of composite with metal structures: A survey of natural joints and application to single lap joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avgoulas, Evangelos Ioannis; Sutcliffe, Michael P. F.

    2014-03-01

    Joining composites with metal parts leads, inevitably, to high stress concentrations because of the material property mismatch. Since joining composite to metal is required in many high performance structures, there is a need to develop a new multifunctional approach to meet this challenge. This paper uses the biomimetics approach to help develop solutions to this problem. Nature has found many ingenious ways of joining dissimilar materials and making robust attachments, alleviating potential stress concentrations. A literature survey of natural joint systems has been carried out, identifying and analysing different natural joint methods from a mechanical perspective. A taxonomy table was developed based on the different methods/functions that nature successfully uses to attach dissimilar tissues (materials). This table is used to understand common themes or approaches used in nature for different joint configurations and functionalities. One of the key characteristics that nature uses to joint dissimilar materials is a transitional zone of stiffness in the insertion site. Several biomimetic-inspired metal-to-composite (steel-to-CFRP), adhesively bonded, Single Lap Joints (SLJs) were numerically investigated using a finite element analysis. The proposed solutions offer a transitional zone of stiffness of one joint part to reduce the material stiffness mismatch at the joint. An optimisation procedure was used to identify the variation in material stiffness which minimises potential failure of the joint. It was found that the proposed biomimetic SLJs reduce the asymmetry of the stress distribution along the adhesive area.

  7. Tracking on the joint during the electron beam welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braverman, V.; Bogdanov, V.; Belozertsev, V.; Uspenskiy, N.

    2016-11-01

    In the article the description of device, which provides automatic positioning of electron beam relative to joint of welded parts during welding, is given. Extremum seeking based on synchronous detection of sensor signal (X-ray or secondary emission) is realized in the device. Measurements are made when beam goes out of the channel following the welding direction. The application of synchronous detection is possible due to the fact that during joint scanning with electron beam harmonics, carrying data about beam position relative to the joint appear in the joint sensor signal spectrum.

  8. Nano-modified adhesive by graphene: the single lap-joint case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva Neto, Almir; Cruz, Diego Thadeu Lopes da; Avila, Antonio Ferreira, E-mail: aavila@netuno.lcc.ufmg.b [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica

    2013-11-01

    This paper addresses the performance study on, low viscosity, nano-modified adhesives by graphene. For achieving this goal, single-lap joints following ASTM D 5868-01 were manufactured and tested. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and nanoindentation were employed for graphene based nanostructures characterization. The increase on joint strength was around 57% when compared against the control group. Furthermore, all failures for the nano-modified adhesive were cohesive failure for the carbon fibre/epoxy composites indicating that the adhesive was tested. X-ray diffractions signatures indicate formation of nano-structures with 17-19 nm diameters. Moreover, nanoindentation tests revealed a homogeneous dispersion of graphene. (author)

  9. Crack detection in riveted lap joints using fiber laser acoustic emission sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranch, G A; Johnson, L; Algren, M; Heerschap, S; Miller, G A; Marunda, T S; Holtz, R L

    2017-08-07

    Fiber laser ultrasonic sensors are demonstrated to be capable of measuring acoustic emission generated by cracks in aluminum panels. A single laser sensor is integrated into a riveted lap joint, which is subject to accelerated fatigue. Acoustic emission generated by crack formation in the panel in addition to other acoustic events due to fretting within the joint are clearly resolved by the laser sensor. Localization of an acoustic emission event is demonstrated with a multiplexed array of three laser sensors. This manuscript also calculates the fundamental limit to displacement resolution of the fiber laser sensor and presents measurements of the directional response to Lamb waves. The high measurement resolution and multiplexing capability of the fiber laser ultrasonic sensor makes it an ideal candidate for structural health monitoring applications.

  10. Microstructure development of welding joints in high Cr ferritic steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubushiro, Keiji; Takahashi, Satoshi; Morishima, Keiko [IHI Corporation (Japan). Research Lab.

    2010-07-01

    Creep failure in high Cr ferritic steels welding joints are Type IV failure. Type IV-failure was ruptured in fine grained region of heat affected zone, microstructure and phase transformation process at welding in fine grained region were very important to clarify. Microstructure difference of heat affected zone was investigated in Gr.91, Gr.92, Gr.122 welding joint. The fraction of 60 degree block boundary, packet boundary, random boundary (including prior gamma boundary) length was compared in three ferritic steels by EBSP(Electron Backscatter Diffraction Pattern) analysis. HAZ was almost fully martensite phase in Gr.122 weld joint. On the other hand, HAZ in Gr.91 welding joint were some equiaxial grain and martensite structure. (orig.)

  11. Weld bead profile of laser welding dissimilar joints stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Ghusoon R.; Ishak, M.; Aqida, S. N.; Abdulhadi, Hassan A.

    2017-10-01

    During the process of laser welding, the material consecutively melts and solidifies by a laser beam with a peak high power. Several parameters such as the laser energy, pulse frequency, pulse duration, welding power and welding speed govern the mode of the welding process. The aim of this paper is to investigate the effect of peak power, incident angle, and welding speed on the weld bead geometry. The first investigation in this context was conducted using 2205-316L stainless steel plates through the varying of the welding speed from 1.3 mm/s to 2.1 mm/s. The second investigation was conducted by varying the peak power from 1100 W to 1500 W. From the results of the experiments, the welding speed and laser power had a significant effect on the geometry of the weld bead, and the variation in the diameter of the bead pulse-size. Due to the decrease in the heat input, welding speed affected penetration depth more than bead width, and a narrow width of heat affected zone was achieved ranging from 0.2 to 0.5 mm. Conclusively, weld bead geometry dimensions increase as a function of peak power; at over 1350 W peak power, the dimensions lie within 30 μm.

  12. Corrosion resistance of «tube – tubesheet» weld joint obtained by friction welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RIZVANOV Rif Garifovich

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Shell-and-tube heat exchangers are widely applied for implementation of various processes at ventures of fuel and energy complex. Cost of production and reliability of heat exchangers of this type is to a wide extent determined by corresponding characteristics of tube bundle, «tube – tubesheet» is its typical joint in particular when welding operations are used in order to attach tubes to tubesheet in addition to expansion. When manufacturing such equipment of heat-resistant chrome-bearing or chromium-molybdenum steels including steel 15H5M, the process of fixed joint manufacturing gets significantly more complicated and costly due to the necessity to use thermal treatment before, during and after welding (this problem is particularly applicable for manufacturing of large-size equipment. One of the options to exclude thermal treatment from manufacturing process is to use «non-arc» welding methods – laser welding, explosion welding as well as friction welding. Use of each of the welding methods mentioned above during production of heat-exchange equipment has its process challenges and peculiarities. This article gives a comparative analysis of weld structure and distribution of electrode potentials of welded joints and parent metal of the joints simulating welding of tube to tubesheet of steel 15H5M using the following welding methods: shielded manual arc welding, tungsten-arc inert-gas welding and friction welding. Comparative analysis of macro- and microstructures of specific zones of the studied welded joints showed that the joints produced by arc welding methods do not exhibit evident inhomogeneity of the structure after application of thermal treatment which is explained by the correctness of thermal treatment. Joints obtained via friction welding are characterized by structural inhomogeneity of the welded joint zone metal microstructure. The ultra-fine-grained structure obtained as a result of friction welding makes it possible to

  13. The Transmission of Lamb Waves Across Adhesively Bonded lap Joints to Evaluate Interfacial Adhesive Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siryabe, Emmanuel; Renier, Mathieu; Meziane, Anissa; Castaings, Michel

    The present work attempts to infer mechanical interfacial properties for lap joint like structures, using Lamb wave modes. A pair of air-coupled, ultrasonic transducers is used to generate and detect a desired Lamb mode. The Lamb waves are launched from one plate and propagate towards the other plate, via the joint. Signals are picked up by the receiving transducer, before and past the joint, and post-processed to obtain the experimental transmission coefficient versus frequency. In addition, a two-dimensional Finite Element-based model is developed and used to compare predicted transmission coefficients with experimental results. The FE model simulates the excitation produced by the transmittertakes into account the viscoelastic properties of the adhesive layer and distributions of longitudinal (kL) and shear (kT) springs at both interfaces between the adhesive and the substrates. Temporal responses of the receiving transducer are predicted before and past the joints, as well as the transmission coefficient versus frequency. This paper discusses preliminary results for aluminium substrates. Values for both kLand kTare optimized so that best fit is obtained between numerical and experimental transmission coefficients. These results demonstrate the potential of Lamb waves to infer mechanical properties at interfaces in adhesively bonded joints.

  14. Effects of Vibration Amplitude on Microstructure Evolution and Mechanical Strength of Ultrasonic Spot Welded Cu/Al Joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Liu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The effects of vibration amplitude on the interface reaction and mechanical strength of the Cu/Al joints were systematically investigated in ultrasonic spot welding (USW experiments. The appropriate vibration amplitude (22.5 μm was beneficial for obtaining a sound joint. The formation of the continuous intermetallic compounds (IMC layer accelerated with a higher vibration amplitude. The lap shear tensile strength of the Cu/Al joints decreased when the thickness of the intermetallic layer was greater than 1 μm at various amplitudes. With the increase in welding time, a crack occurred in the copper side owing to the occurrence of the eutectic reaction, α-A l + θ → L , at the periphery of the nugget. The remarkable decline of ultrasonic power curves occurred at various amplitude levels upon the formation of a crack in the copper side.

  15. A Neural Network Approach for GMA Butt Joint Welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Kim Hardam; Sørensen, Torben

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the application of the neural network technology for gas metal arc welding (GMAW) control. A system has been developed for modeling and online adjustment of welding parameters, appropriate to guarantee a certain degree of quality in the field of butt joint welding with full...... penetration, when the gap width is varying during the welding process. The process modeling to facilitate the mapping from joint geometry and reference weld quality to significant welding parameters has been based on a multi-layer feed-forward network. The Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm for non-linear least...... squares has been used with the back-propagation algorithm for training the network, while a Bayesian regularization technique has been successfully applied for minimizing the risk of inexpedient over-training. Finally, a predictive closed-loop control strategy based on a so-called single-neuron self...

  16. Effect of post weld impact treatment (PWIT) on mechanical properties of spot-welded joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazali, F. A.; Salleh, Z.; Hyie, K. M.; Rozlin, N. M. Nik; Hamidi, S. H. Ahmad; Padzi, M. M.

    2017-12-01

    This paper focuses on the study of improvement for spot welding on the tensile shear and hardness by applying post weld impact treatment (PWIT) on the welded joint. The main objective of the research is to characterize and improve the mechanical properties of the joint. The method of PWIT used on the welded joint was Pneumatic Impact Treatment (PIT). The concept of PIT on spot welding is that it improves the mechanical properties of the welded zone. The working sample was undergoing a resistance spot welding of joining two similar in dimension and material of a steel plate before treated. The dimension of both plate are 110 mm × 45 mm × 1.2 mm and the material used were low carbon steel (LCS). All the welded samples were tested for its mechanical properties by performing the tensile-shear and hardness test. Tensile-shear test was conducted on the spot welded, both treated and as-welded samples using crosshead speed of 2 mm/min, while hardness test was performed using 1kgf load via Vickers hardness indenter. The effects of PIT on tensile-shear properties and hardness were evaluated and found that the implementation of PIT has increased tensile shear and hardness significantly.

  17. Fatigue life estimation in welded joints under multiaxial loadings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Vantadori

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Welded joints are frequently locations for cracks initiation and propagation that may cause fatigue failure of engineering structures. Biaxial or triaxial stress-strain states are present in the vicinity of welded joints, due to local geometrical constraints, welding processes and/or multiaxial external loadings. Fatigue life evaluation of welded joints under multiaxial proportional (in-phase cyclic loading can be performed by using conventional hypotheses (e.g. see the von Mises criterion or the Tresca criterion on the basis of local approaches. On the contrary, the fatigue life predictions of welded joints under non-proportional (out-ofphase cyclic loading are generally unsafe if these conventional hypotheses are used. A criterion initially proposed by the authors for smooth and notched structural components has been extended to the fatigue assessment of welded joints. In more detail, fatigue life of welded joints under multiaxial stress states can be evaluated by considering a nonlinear combination of the shear stress amplitude (acting on the critical plane and the amplitude and the mean value of the normal stress (acting on the critical plane. In the present paper, fatigue lifetimes predicted through the proposed criterion are compared with experimental fatigue life data available in the literature, related to fatigue biaxial tests.

  18. The shear properties of a polymer sealant and analyses of the distortion and fatigue of sealed countersunk riveted lap joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamnerdtong, Notsanop

    Thin layers of low modulus polymer sealants are frequently installed in riveted aircraft lap joints to prevent contact with moisture and retard corrosion. The mechanical effects of thin sealant and adhesive layers on riveted lap joints have resisted analysis and remain ill defined. In this research, thin sealant layers were tested to obtain their shear mechanical behaviors. Finite element analyses (FEA) and the TALA method were used to analyze lap joint behavior with variations in thickness and stiffness of sealant. FEA results are compared with experimental results to validate the computer models. Fatigue tests were performed to understand the effect of a thin sealant layer on the fatigue life of countersunk riveted lap joints. The analyses reveal that the sealant reduces the out-of-plane bending and the stress concentration factor (SCF). The parametric studies indicate that much larger reductions in SCF are possible with stiffer sealants and adhesives. The SCF values, deduced from the fatigue life measurements and S-N curves, correlate with the corresponding SCF values derived from the FEA/TALA analyses.

  19. Asymptotic Sampling for Reliability Analysis of Adhesive Bonded Stepped Lap Composite Joints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kimiaeifar, Amin; Lund, Erik; Thomsen, Ole Thybo

    2013-01-01

    Reliability analysis coupled with finite element analysis (FEA) of composite structures is computationally very demanding and requires a large number of simulations to achieve an accurate prediction of the probability of failure with a small standard error. In this paper Asymptotic Sampling, which...... is a promising and time efficient tool to calculate the probability of failure, is utilized, and a probabilistic model for the reliability analysis of adhesive bonded stepped lap composite joints, representative for the main laminate in a wind turbine blade subjected to static flapwise bending load, is presented....... Three dimensional (3D) FEA is used for the structural analysis together with a design equation that is associated with a deterministic code-based design equation where reliability is secured by partial safety factors. The Tsai-Wu and the maximum principal stress failure criteria are used to predict...

  20. A novel technique for measuring 3D deformation of adhesively bonded single lap joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Bing; Ma, LuJun; Xia, Yong

    2016-01-01

    An easy-to-implement yet practical single-camera microscopic stereo-digital image correlation (stereo-DIC) technique is proposed for surface three-dimensional (3D) deformation measurement of singe lap joint (SLJ) samples subjected to mechanical loads. The basic principles, optical configurations and implementation procedures of the proposed technique are described in detail. Compared with existing single-camera 2D-DIC technique, which has been regularly used for in-plane deformation measurement of a SLJ specimen, the proposed technique offers the special merit of simultaneously determining all the three displacement components by simply adding two additional optical elements to existing single-camera 2D-DIC systems. The accuracy and effectiveness of the proposed technique is demonstrated by measuring the 3D deformation of a SLJ specimen subjected to quasi-static tensile loads.

  1. Shear Strength of Single Lap Joint Aluminium-Thermoplastic Natural Rubber (Al-TPNR) Laminated Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzakkar, M. Z.; Ahmad, S.; Yarmo, M. A.; Jalar, A.; Bijarimi, M.

    2013-04-01

    In this work, we studied the effect of surface treatment on the aluminium surface and a coupling agent to improve adhesion between aluminium with organic polymer. Thermoplastic natural rubber (TPNR) matrix was prepared by melt blending of natural rubber (NR), liquid natural rubber (LNR) compatibilizer, linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE) and polyethylene grafted maleic anhydride (PE-g-MAH). The PEgMAH concentration used was varied from 0% - 25%. In addition, the aluminium surface was pre-treated with 3-glycidoxy propyl trimethoxy silane (3-GPS) to enhance the mechanical properties of laminated composite. It was found that the shear strength of single lap joint Al-TPNR laminated composite showing an increasing trend as a function of PE-g-MAH contents for the 3-GPS surface treated aluminium. Moreover, the scanning electron microscope (SEM) revealed that the strength improvement was associated with the chemical state of the compound involved.

  2. Control of GMA Butt Joint Welding Based on Neural Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Kim Hardam; Sørensen, Torben

    2004-01-01

    in the challenging field of butt joint welding with full penetration under stochastically changing boundary conditions, e.g. major gap width variations. GMAW experiments performed on mild-steel plates (3 mm of thickness), show that high quality welds with uniform back-bead geometry are achievable for gap width...

  3. Numerical evaluation of multipass welding temperature field in API 5L X80 steel welded joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Nóbrega

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Many are the metallurgical changes suffered by materials when subjected to welding thermal cycle, promoting a considerable influence on the welded structures thermo mechanical properties. In project phase, one alternative for evaluating the welding cycle variable, would be the employment of computational methods through simulation. So, this paper presents an evaluation of the temperature field in a multipass welding of API 5L X80 steel used for oil and gas transportation, using the ABAQUS ® software, based on Finite Elements Method (FEM. During the simulation complex phenomena are considerable including: Variation in physical and mechanical properties of materials as a function of temperature, welding speed and the different mechanisms of heat exchange with the environment (convection and radiation were used. These considerations allow a more robust mathematical modeling for the welding process. An analytical heat source proposed by Goldak, to model the heat input in order to characterize the multipass welding through the GTAW (Gas Tungsten Arc Welding process on root and the SMAW (Shielded Metal Arc Welding process for the filling passes were used. So, it was possible to evaluate the effect of each welding pass on the welded joint temperature field, through the temperature peaks and cooling rates values during the welding process.

  4. Apparatus for maintaining alignment of a shrinking weld joint in an electron-beam welding operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trent, Jett B.; Murphy, Jimmy L.

    1981-01-01

    The present invention is directed to an apparatus for automatically maintaining a shrinking weld joint in alignment with an electron beam during an electron-beam multipass-welding operation. The apparatus utilizes a biasing device for continually urging a workpiece-supporting face plate away from a carriage mounted base that rotatably supports the face plate. The extent of displacement of the face plate away from the base is indicative of the shrinkage occuring in the weld joint area. This displacement is measured and is used to move the base on the carriage a distance equal to one-half the displacement for aligning the weld joint with the electron beam during each welding pass.

  5. Propagation of ultrasonic guided waves in lap-shear adhesive joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanza di Scalea, Francesco; Rizzo, Piervincenzo; Marzani, Alessandro

    2004-07-01

    This paper deals with the propagation of ultrasonic guided waves in adhesively-bonded lap-shear joints. The topic is relevant to ultrasonic bond inspection in aerospace components. Specifically, the propagation of the lowest-order, antisymmetric a0 mode through the joint is examined. This mode can be easily generated and detected in the field due to the predominant out-of-plane displacements at the surface of the test piece. An important aspect is the mode conversion at the boundaries between the single-plate adherends and the multilayer overlap. The a0 strength of transmission is studied for three different bond states in aluminum joints, namely a fully cured adhesive bond, a poorly cured adhesive bond, and a slip bond. Theoretical predictions based on the Global Matrix Method indicate that the dispersive behavior of the guided waves in the multilayer overlap is highly dependent on bond state. Experimental tests of the joints are conducted by a hybrid, broadband laser/air-coupled ultrasonic setup in a through-transmission configuration. This system does not require any wet coupling and it can be moved flexibly across the test piece. The Gabor Wavelet transform is employed to extract energy transmission coefficients in the 100 kHz - 1.4 MHz range for the three different bond states examined. The cross-sectional mode shapes of the guided waves are shown to have a substantial role in the energy transfer through the joint. A rationale for the selection of the a0 excitation frequencies highly sensitive to bond state will be given.

  6. Residual stress simulation of circumferential welded joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melicher R.

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Residual stresses are an important consideration in the component integrity and life assessment of welded structure. The welding process is very complex time dependent physical phenomenon with material nonlinearity. The welding is a thermal process with convection between fluid flow and welding body, between welding bodyand environment. Next type of boundary conditions is radiation and thermo-mechanical contact on the outer surface of gas pipe in the near of weld. The temperature variation so obtained is utilised to find the distribution of the stress field.In this paper, a brief review of weld simulation and residual stress modelling using the finite element method (FEM by commercial software ANSYS is presented. Thermo-elastic-plastic formulations using a von Mises yield criterion with nonlinear kinematics hardening has been employed. Residual axial and hoop stresses obtained from the analysis have been shown. The commercial FEM code ANSYS was used for coupled thermalmechanical analysis.

  7. Automatic joint tracking for CNC-programmed electron beam welding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, M.J.; Powers, D.E.

    1985-08-01

    In an effort to provide a means for actively maintaining precise alignment during an entire welding procedure, various types of contact and non-contact joint sensing and tracking methods have been investigated over the years. A stylus riding in the groove or a cam follower running along a machined reference surface that parallels the groove, coupled to a transducer for producing a signal indicative of seam path runout, is one method that has been investigated. Another is the employment of light-sensitive devices, used in both a comparative and a discerning fashion to produce a signal indicative of beam-to-joint alignment. Also, electronic detectors that monitor the magnitude of either electron or x-ray emission coming back from a workpiece and produce a signal indicative of beam-to-joint alignment deviations have been investigated. Of the various methods tried, the one which has proved to be ideal for use in joint sensing and tracking during EB welding is that of monitoring the ''secondary'' electron backflow that results when a workpiece is bombarded with a beam of ''primary'' electrons. This is because the primary electron beam producing this secondary electron backflow is the welding beam itself. Since the welding beam becomes the means for measuring joint location, the technique of sensing secondary electron backflow automatically provides a direct correlation between the actual welding beam position and the joint location measured. Thus, any need for calibrating an auxiliary joint location device to actual welding beam position is eliminated. In addition, this method is least affected by the high amount of vapor and spatter generated during welding. In this article, a system employing Secondary Electron Emission Sensing (SEES) to provide an on-line (''realtime''), truly automatic joint tracking capability will be discussed.

  8. Evaluation of debonding strength of single lap joint by the intensity of singular stress field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Tatsujiro; Noda, Nao-Aki

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, the similarity of the singular stress field of the single lap joint (SLJ) is discussed to evaluate the debonding fracture by the intensity of the singular stress field (ISSF). The practical method is proposed for analyzing the ISSF for the SLJ. The analysis method focuses on the FEM stress at the interface end by applying the same mesh pattern to the unknown and reference models. It is found that the independent technique useful for the bonded plate and butt joint cannot be applied to the SLJ because the singular stress field of the SLJ consists of two singular stress terms. The FEM stress is divided to two FEM stresses by applying the unknown and reference models to different minimum element sizes. Then, the practicality of the present method is examined by applying to the previous tensile test results of the SLJ composed of the aluminum alloy and the epoxy resin. The ISSFs for the SLJ were calculated by changing the adhesive thickness t 2 and the overlap length l 2. In the case of the SLJ with 225 mm in total length and 7 mm in adherend thickness, it was found that the similar singular stress fields are formed in the range of 0.15 mm ≤ t 2 ≤ 0.9mm and 15 mm ≤ l 2 ≤ 50 mm. It is shown that the critical ISSFs at the fracture are constant in the range.

  9. Analysis of debonding in single lap joints based on employment of ultrasounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarselli, G.; Nicassio, F.

    2017-04-01

    In this study the amplitude and the phase of the structural response of samples of Single Lap Joint (SLJ) subjected to ultrasonic harmonic excitation was evaluated to identify and characterize the defects within the bonded region. Different parameters such as frequency, shape, and amplitude of the response signal coming back from the adhesive joint are key criteria for understanding the quality of the adhesion. Different metallic samples with the same geometry were experimentally tested: the defects were artificially introduced bonding partially two plates and changing the extension of the debonded region: two piezoelectric sensors (one exciting, one receiver) were attached on each of the two bonded plates. In this way, different experimental tests were carried out in order to study the influence of debonded regions on SLJ structural behavior. The structural dynamic response of the debonded samples was investigated and compared with the predictions of numerical models, for each SLJ, introducing viscoelastic properties for the adhesive layer, and applying the harmonic excitation. Moreover the numerical modal analysis was used to understand the experimental results by a proper description of viscoelastic tape behavior. The numerical simulations were used to find correlation between the content of the acquired signals and the defects of adhesion.

  10. Effect of Post-Welding Heat Treatment on Mechanical Properties of Joints of Steel P92 Formed by Submerged Arc Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohyla, P.; Foldynová, K.

    2014-07-01

    Results of mechanical tests and metallographic studies of welded joints of steel P92 obtained by submerged arc welding are presented. The effect of the post-welding heat treatment on the mechanical properties of the welds is described.

  11. Influence of Welding Current and Joint Design on the Tensile Properties of SMAW Welded Mild Steel Joints Prof. Rohit Jha1 , Dr. A.K. Jha

    OpenAIRE

    Prof. Rohit Jha; Dr. A.K. Jha

    2014-01-01

    Present study includes welding characteristics of weldment with respect to different types of weld design and welding current. Mild steel plates of 6mm were welded using different joint designs. Single V, Double V and Flat surfaces were joined by Shielded Metal Arc Welding process. Welding current was varied in all the cases. Mechanical properties such as ultimate tensile strength, yield strength and percentage elongation were evaluated. Results indicated that the single V join...

  12. The Effect of Wetting Gravity Regime on Shear Strength of SAC and Sn-Pb Solder Lap Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sona, Mrunali; Prabhu, K. Narayan

    2017-09-01

    The failure of solder joints due to imposed stresses in an electronic assembly is governed by shear bond strength. In the present study, the effect of wetting gravity regime on single-lap shear strength of Sn-0.3Ag-0.7Cu and Sn-2.5Ag-0.5Cu solder alloys reflowed between bare copper substrates as well as Ni-coated Cu substrates was investigated. Samples were reflowed for 10 s, T gz (time corresponding to the end of gravity regime) and 100 s individually and tested for single-lap shear strength. The single-lap shear test was also carried out on eutectic Sn-Pb/Cu- and Sn-Pb/Ni-coated Cu specimens to compare the shear strength values obtained with those of lead-free alloys. The eutectic Sn-Pb showed significantly higher ultimate shear strength on bare Cu substrates when compared to Sn-Ag-Cu alloys. However, SAC alloys reflowed on nickel-coated copper substrate exhibited higher shear strength when compared to eutectic Sn-Pb/Ni-coated Cu specimens. All the substrate/solder/substrate lap joint specimens that were reflowed for the time corresponding to the end of gravity regime exhibited maximum ultimate shear strength.

  13. Closed loop control of penetration depth during CO2 laser lap welding processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sibillano, T.; Rizzi, D.; Mezzapesa, F.P.; Lugara, P.M.; Konuk, A.R.; Aarts, Ronald G.K.M.; Huis in 't Veld, Bert; Ancona, A.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we describe a novel spectroscopic closed loop control system capable of stabilizing the penetration depth during laser welding processes by controlling the laser power. Our novel approach is to analyze the optical emission from the laser generated plasma plume above the keyhole, to

  14. An investigation of interfacial stresses in adhesively-bonded single lap joints subject to transverse pulse loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwankwo, E.; Soleiman Fallah, A.; Louca, L. A.

    2013-04-01

    Debonding in adhesively-bonded lap joints is a detrimental failure mode contingent upon the level of stresses develped in the adhesive. In this work, an analytical model is developed to estimate the peel and shear stresses in an isotropic elastic adhesive in a single lap joint subjected to transverse pulse loads. The proposed analytical model is an extension of the mathematical models developed by He and Rao (Journal of Sound and Vibration 152 (3), (1992) 405-416, 417-425) to study the coupled transverse and longitudinal vibrations of a bonded lap joint system. The adhesive, in this work, is modelled as an elastic isotropic material implemented in Abaqus 6.9-1. The interfacial stresses obtained by finite element simulations were used to validate the proposed analytical model. The maximum peel and shear stresses in the adhesive as predicted by the analytical model were found to correlate well with the maximum stresses predicted by the corresponding numerical models. The peel stresses in the adhesive were found to be higher than shear stresses, a result which is consistent with intuition for transversally loaded joints. The analytical model is able to predict the maxium stresses in the edges where debonding initiates due to the highly asymetrical stress distribution as observed in the finite element simulations and experiment. This phenomenon is consistent with observations made by Vaidya et al. (International Journal of Adhesion & Adhesives 26 (2006) 184-198). The stress distribution under uniformily distributed transverse pulse loading was observed to be similarly asymetric.

  15. Effect of parameters on local stress field in single-lap bolted joints with the interference fit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiefeng Jiang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available From the interference fit bolt installation to tensile loading stage in single-lap joint with a hi-lock bolt, the stress and strain fields were studied experimentally and numerically. A three-dimensional finite element model was generated to simulate the experimental setup, which was validated using the experimental data. The fatigue behavior of the bolted joint is influenced by the local stress fields on the faying surface near the holes in single-lap joints. Therefore, with the aim to improve design awareness, the effects of the parameters on the local stress fields were investigated by means of finite element simulation. With an increase in the interference fit size, the occurred position of the maximum stress values on the upper plate faying surface moves away from the hole edge gradually. As the clamping force or friction coefficient increases, the position of larger stress area is changed to the side of bearing load from the transverse direction. The lap geometry of the bolted joint as well as the amplitude of tensile load has apparent impact on the maximum stress value.

  16. Fatigue classification of welded joints in orthotropic steel bridge decks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolstein, M.H.

    2007-01-01

    This dissertation presents the research into fatigue classifications of welded joints in orthotropic steel bridge decks. These classifications are needed to calculate the fatigue life of these joints and should be included in the design codes. For years bridge design was mainly based on static

  17. Degradation Processes of Al-Zn Welded Joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Votava

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Welding of metal materials belongs to non-demountable joints. Current trend especially in an automotive industry is to join materials with a different melting temperature. Most of all, there are dural profiles with ferrite or austenite steel. The reason for this is the effort to lower the weight of the whole construction and at the same time preserve sufficient mechanical characteristics. However, there is a big risk of different electrical potentials of both of these metals in this type of non-demountable joints. The experimental part of this paper brings evaluation of mechanical-corrosion processes of overlapped joints produced by the CMT (cold metal transfer method. The base material for weld bead is dural sheet AlMg3 and dural sheet with a surface treatment aluzinc DX51D+AZ 150. Material AlSi5 in the form of a wire was used as an additional material for a welding bath. Method CMT was used in order to create a weld bead. Initial analysis of weld bead was done visually using a binocular microscope. Further, a metallographic analysis of weld bead and base material was processed. The aim was to identify the heat affected area around the welded joint. Microhardness of intermetallic aluminium phases was measured, after the identification of intermetallic phases a chemical analysis EDS was processed. Prepared samples underwent corrosion degradation in a salt spray environment in compliance with the norm ČSN EN ISO 9227. Visual and metallographic evaluation of the individual samples was processed after every week of exposition to the salt spray environment. The goal of this experiment was to record the initial impulse of galvanic corrosion which consists in corrosion degradation in the area of welded joint.

  18. The Investigation of Structure Heterogeneous Joint Welds in Pipelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyubimova Lyudmila

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Welding joints of dissimilar steels don’t withstand design life. One of the important causes of premature destructions can be the acceleration of steel structural degradation due to cyclic mechanical and thermal gradients. Two zones of tube from steel 12H18N9T, exhibiting the structural instability at early stages of the decomposition of a supersaturated solid austenite solution, were subjected to investigation. Methods of x-ray spectral and structure analysis, micro hardnessmetry were applied for the research. Made the following conclusions, inside and outside tube wall surfaces of hazardous zones in welding joint have different technological and resource characteristics. The microhardness very sensitive to changes of metal structure and can be regarded as integral characteristic of strength and ductility. The welding processes are responsible for the further fibering of tube wall structure, they impact to the characteristics of hot-resistance and long-term strength due to development of ring cracks in the welding joint of pipeline. The monitoring of microhardness and structural phase conversions can be used for control by changes of mechanical properties in result of post welding and reductive heat treatment of welding joints.

  19. The mechanics and tribology of fretting fatigue with application to riveted lap joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szolwinski, Matthew Paul

    Fretting is the synergistic combination of wear, corrosion, and fatigue damage mechanisms driven by the partial slip of contacting surfaces. The surface microslip and near-surface contact stresses associated with fretting can lead to severe reduction in service lifetimes of contacting components as diversified as bearings, turbine blades and mechanically-fastened joints, both structural and biological. This tribologically induced degradation has come under close scrutiny by those responsible for maintaining aging fleets of both commercial and military aircraft. Thus a critical need exists for predicting fretting crack nucleation in riveted aluminum. aircraft joints. Fulfilling this need requires characterizing both the near-surface mechanics and intimately-related tribology of fretting. To this end, a well characterized experimental setup has been developed to generate carefully controlled and monitored fretting contacts to investigate the nature of the near-surface conditions. Included in this investigation were in-situ observations of the fretting contact stress field via a non-invasive thermal imaging technique and a characterization of the evolution of friction under partial slip conditions. With specific qualitative and quantitative understanding of these near-surface conditions, a series of fretting fatigue experiments have been conducted to validate a mechanics-based model for predicting fretting fatigue crack nucleation. Finally, efforts have been directed toward extending this understanding of fretting crack nucleation to riveted aircraft structure through modeling of the riveting process and a related experimental program designed to link riveting process parameters and fretting damage in single-lap joint structures. This work focuses specifically on determination of the residual stresses induced during rivet installation and the morphological characterization of fretting fatigue damage in the riveted test specimens manufactured under controlled

  20. Optimizing tensile strength of low-alloy steel joints in upset welding

    OpenAIRE

    Hamedi, M

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Purpose In resistance upset welding, the heat is generated by resistance of the interface of abutting surfaces to the flow of electrical current in heating and post-weld heating stages. Upset welding typically results in solid-state welds with no melting at the joint. In this paper, the effect of process parameters including heating and post-weld heating power and their corresponding duration along with interference, on the tensile strength of the welded joint are experimentally inve...

  1. Effect of oxidation and surface roughness on the shear strength of single-lap-joint adhesively bonded metal specimens by tension loading

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Khan, M H; Gali, O A; Edrisy, A; Riahi, A R

    2016-01-01

    An experimental investigation was performed to study the effect of surface roughness and oxidation on the shear strength of single-lap-joints of AA6061, AA7075 aluminum alloys and an AISI 1080 steel...

  2. A Probabilistic Damage Tolerance Concept for Welded Joints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, T.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2002-01-01

    The first part of this paper presented the required statistics and stochastic models for reliability analysis of the fatigue fracture of welded plate joints. This present Part 2 suggests a probabilistic damage tolerance supplement to the design S–N curves for welded joints. The goal is to provide...... are presented as dimensionless matrices and suggested for use in support of decision-making at the design stage, without any advanced fracture mechanics modelling and stochastic simulation. One important advantage of this format is that the probability levels are presented regardless of actual weld class...... and target service life (TSL). This is obtained by introducing the FDF as a key parameter to the results. This parameter is defined as the ratio of predicted fatigue life over TSL. FDF is always calculated in the S–N approach which is mandatory in fatigue life prediction. Various welded details (classes...

  3. Characterization on strength and toughness of welded joint for Q550 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Q550 high strength steel was welded using gas shielded arc welding and three different welding wires without pre- or post-heat treatments. The paper investigates the influence of welding wire on the microstructure, tensile strength and impact toughness of Q550 steel weld joints. Results showed that the ...

  4. Characterization on strength and toughness of welded joint for Q550 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Q550 high strength steel was welded using gas shielded arc welding and three different welding wires without pre- or post-heat treatments. The paper investigates the influence of welding wire on the microstructure, tensile strength and impact toughness of Q550 steel weld joints. Results showed that the microstructure of ...

  5. Mechanical Behavior of Lithium-Ion Batteries and Fatigue Behavior of Ultrasonic Weld-Bonded Lap-Shear Specimens of Dissimilar Magnesium and Steel Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Wei-Jen

    The mechanical behaviors of LiFePO4 battery cell and module specimens under in-plane constrained compression were investigated for simulations of battery cells, modules and packs under crush conditions. The experimental stress-strain curves were correlated to the deformation patterns of battery cell and module specimens. Analytical solutions were developed to estimate the buckling stresses and to provide a theoretical basis for future design of representative volume element cell and module specimens. A physical kinematics model for formation of kinks and shear bands in battery cells was developed to explain the deformation mechanism for layered battery cells under in-plane constrained compression. A small-scale module constrained punch indentation test was also conducted to benchmark the computational results. The computational results indicate that macro homogenized material models can be used to simulate battery modules under crush conditions. Fatigue behavior and failure modes of ultrasonic spot welds in lap-shear specimens of magnesium and steel sheets with and without adhesive were investigated. For ultrasonic spot welded lap-shear specimens, the failure mode changes from the partial nugget pullout mode under low-cycle loading conditions to the kinked crack failure mode under high-cycle loading conditions. For adhesive-bonded and weld-bonded lap-shear specimens, the test results show the near interface cohesive failure mode and the kinked crack failure mode under low-cycle and high-cycle loading conditions, respectively. Next, the analytical effective stress intensity factor solutions for main cracks in lap-shear specimens of three dissimilar sheets under plane strain conditions were developed and the solutions agreed well with the computational results. The analytical effective stress intensity factor solutions for kinked cracks were compared with the computational results at small kink lengths. The results indicate that the computational results approach to

  6. Adhesives: Test Method, Group Assignment, and Categorization Guide for High-Loading-Rate Applications Preparation and Testing of Single Lap Joints (Ver. 2.2, Unlimited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    a starting point, the operator should refer to the manufacturer’s technical data sheet (TDS) and MSDS for preliminary guidance. Operator safety is...Step 4 Place the bottom lap-joint coupon panel opposite to the bottom shim on top of the release sheet , tabs facing inward, with the prepared tab...Assignment, and Categorization Guide for High-Loading- Rate Applications – Preparation and Testing of Single Lap Joints (Ver. 2.2, Unlimited) by

  7. Numerical Simulation of Residual Stresses in Linear Friction Welded Joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Nikiforov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A thermo-mechanical model of linear friction welding has been developed. The temperature distribution during the heating process was determined using a one-dimensional model. The distribution of temperature and stress field during the forging phase was determined by solving the coupled problem in ANSYS. The model allows to predict the effect of welding parameters on the stress field, whereas modeling data are consistent with the residual stresses in welded joints of the Ti6Al4V alloy obtained during the experiment.

  8. Mechanical Characteristics of Welded Joints of Aluminum Alloy 6061 T6 Formed by Arc and Friction Stir Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astarita, A.; Squillace, A.; Nele, L.

    2016-01-01

    Butt welds formed by arc welding in inert gas with nonconsumable electrode (tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding) and by friction stir welding (FSW) from aluminum alloy AA6061 T6 are studied. Comparative analysis of the structures and mechanical properties of the welded joints is performed using the results of optical and electron microscopy, tensile tests, tests for residual bending ductility, and measurements of microhardness. The changes in the microstructure in different zones and the degrees of degradation of the mechanical properties after the welding are determined. It is shown that the size of the tool for the friction stir welding affects the properties of the welds. Quantitative results showing the relation between the microscopic behavior of the alloy and the welding-induced changes in the microstructure are obtained. Friction stir welding is shown to provide higher properties of the welds.

  9. The structure and phase composition of welded joint after deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, Aleksander; Popova, Natalya; Ozhiganov, Eugeniy; Nikonenko, Elena; Ababkov, Nikolay; Kalashnikov, Mark; Koneva, Nina; Kozlov, Eduard

    2017-01-01

    The paper addresses the issue of the structure and phase composition of welded joint and focuses on their investigation after plastic deformation. The contribution of internal stresses to the formation of phase composition and fine structure of welded joint is shown herein. Electrode welding is used to obtain welded joint in St3 steel. Specimens are subjected to a quasi-static tensile deformation ranging from 0 to 5% under 370 MPa loading. TEM investigations on thin foil specimens allow studying the structure and phase composition within the heat-affected zone at 1 mm distance from base material and 0.5 mm from welding material. The degree of plastic deformation is shown for both base and welding materials and includes their morphology, phase composition, defect structure and its parameters. Long-range stresses are divided into plastic and elastic. Plastic deformation has no qualitative effect on the material structure, however, it modifies its quantitative parameters. With the increase of deformation degree, the perlite component becomes more imperfect and transforms, first, to a fractured perlite and then to ferrite, thereby decreasing the volume ratio of perlite. Polarization of the dislocation structure is observed. The amplitude of internal stress fields grows. Unlike the shear stresses, long-range stresses manifest their intensive growth. The elastic component makes the major contribution to the long-range stresses resulting in the formation of microcracks.

  10. Damage Analyses of Adhesively Bonded Single Lap Joints Due to Delaminated FRP Composite Adherends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panigrahi, S. K.

    2009-08-01

    Three-dimensional non-linear Finite Element Analyses (FEA) due to an in-plane loading have been performed to evaluate the out-of-plane normal and shear stresses over the overlap region of a Single Lap Joint (SLJ) on different surfaces. These surfaces have been considered as; (i) two interfacial surfaces between the adherends and the adhesive layer, (ii) the mid-surface of the adhesive layer and (iii) two surfaces beneath the surface ply of both the adherends adjacent to the adhesive layer. The critical locations of onset of adhesion, cohesion and delamination failures on the above mentioned surfaces of the SLJ have been determined using suitable damage criteria. A comparative study due to adhesion, cohesion and delamination failures in the SLJ with Fiber Reinforced Polymeric (FRP) composite adherends have been presented. The effects of simultaneous variations of the delamination positions on the out-of-plane peel and shear stress components have been studied by pre-embedding the delamination damages at the critical locations in both the adherends. It has been observed that the possibilities of onset of cohesion failures in the adhesive layer are higher compared to the adhesion and delamination failures. The detailed analyses showed that secondary peaks of out-of-plane stress components ( σ z , τ yz and τ xz ) on the mid surface of the adhesive layer appeared at the locations closer to the delamination fronts due to pre-embedded delamination damages. The highest stress magnitudes on the overlap edge of the SLJ have been reduced significantly when the centers of the delamination damages are exactly aligned with the overlap ends of the joint. No significant variations of stress magnitudes have been noticed either when the delaminations are pre-embedded outside the overlap regions or when the delamination damages are completely entrapped within the overlap region.

  11. A novel weld seam detection method for space weld seam of narrow butt joint in laser welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Wen Jun; Huang, Yu; Zhang, Yong

    2018-02-01

    Structured light measurement is widely used for weld seam detection owing to its high measurement precision and robust. However, there is nearly no geometrical deformation of the stripe projected onto weld face, whose seam width is less than 0.1 mm and without misalignment. So, it's very difficult to ensure an exact retrieval of the seam feature. This issue is raised as laser welding for butt joint of thin metal plate is widely applied. Moreover, measurement for the seam width, seam center and the normal vector of the weld face at the same time during welding process is of great importance to the welding quality but rarely reported. Consequently, a seam measurement method based on vision sensor for space weld seam of narrow butt joint is proposed in this article. Three laser stripes with different wave length are project on the weldment, in which two red laser stripes are designed and used to measure the three dimensional profile of the weld face by the principle of optical triangulation, and the third green laser stripe is used as light source to measure the edge and the centerline of the seam by the principle of passive vision sensor. The corresponding image process algorithm is proposed to extract the centerline of the red laser stripes as well as the seam feature. All these three laser stripes are captured and processed in a single image so that the three dimensional position of the space weld seam can be obtained simultaneously. Finally, the result of experiment reveals that the proposed method can meet the precision demand of space narrow butt joint.

  12. [The effects of different welding wires on the mechanical properties of laser welding joints].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qing-feng; Zhang, Jian-zhong; Jiang, Wei-dong; Li, Quan; Yu, Jin-xing

    2006-08-01

    To evaluate the mechanical properties and microstructure of laser-welded joints with different welding wires for clinical use of welding wire. The standard tensile test and three-point bending test rods were made from Co-Cr and Ni-Cr alloy, and were laser-welded with different welding wire (commercially welding wire and casting wire). Then the tensile rods were tested for the ultimate tensile strength (UTS), and the bending rods for the ultimate bending strength (UBS). The results was analyzed by one-way ANOVA. The tensile fracture surface were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Metallurgical analysis were also performed on polished longitudinal sectioned samples. For Co-Cr alloy, the UTS of casting wire group and commercially welding wire group was respectively (606.40+/-82.53)MPa and (693.61+/-47.68)MPa; the UBS was respectively (997.95+/-88.89)MPa and (1160.76+/-91.59)MPa. ANOVA showed a significant difference of UTS and UBS between the two groups at the 0.05 level (Pwelding wire group was respectively (558.14+/-46.75)MPa and (582.32+/-35.43)MPa; the UBS was respectively (1084.75+/-46.02)MPa and (1078.29+/-36.25)MPa. There was no significant difference between the two groups (P>0.05). SEM and metallurgical examination showed the welded zone exhibiting more cracks in the casting wire group than in the commercially welding wire group. It would be advisable to work with commercially welding wire for the joints that need better strength.

  13. Study on Microtexture and Martensite Formation of Friction Stir Lap-welded DP 590 Steel within A1 to A3 Temperature Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Hrishikesh; Lee, Kwang-Jin; Hong, Sung-Tae

    2017-07-01

    Friction stir lap welding of dual phase 590 steel has been successfully performed within the A1 to A3 temperature range upon adjusting the process parameters. The microstructures and the texture have been characterized using scanning electron microscopy and electron back scattered diffraction analysis. The martensite volume fraction increases with an increasing travel speed from 100 to 300 mm/min for a constant tool rotational speed of 300 rpm. Under severe deformation and high strain rate during friction stir welding, the grain orientation shifts toward the and directions compared to the base metal. The base metal shows γ fiber components, whereas the friction stir welded specimen shows strong brass with weak cube fibers.

  14. A Probabilistic Damage Tolerance Concept for Welded Joints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, T.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2002-01-01

    The present paper presents the necessary crack growth statistics and suggests stochastic models for a reliability analysis of the fatigue fracture of welded steel plate joints. The reliability levels are derived from extensive testing with fillet-welded joints for which the entire crack growth....... The derived statistics and distribution function for these parameters are used as variables in a Monte Carlo simulation (MCS). In addition a Markov model is developed as an alternative stochastic model. It is a Markov chain for which the discrete damage states are related to chosen crack depths...

  15. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of an Ultrasonic Spot Welded Aluminum Alloy: The Effect of Welding Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, He; Chen, Daolun; Jiang, Xianquan

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the microstructures, tensile lap shear strength, and fatigue resistance of 6022-T43 aluminum alloy joints welded via a solid-state welding technique–ultrasonic spot welding (USW)–at different energy levels. An ultra-fine necklace-like equiaxed grain structure is observed along the weld line due to the occurrence of dynamic crystallization, with smaller grain sizes at lower levels of welding energy. The tensile lap shear strength, failure energy, and critical stress intensity of the welded joints first increase, reach their maximum values, and then decrease with increasing welding energy. The tensile lap shear failure mode changes from interfacial fracture at lower energy levels, to nugget pull-out at intermediate optimal energy levels, and to transverse through-thickness (TTT) crack growth at higher energy levels. The fatigue life is longer for the joints welded at an energy of 1400 J than 2000 J at higher cyclic loading levels. The fatigue failure mode changes from nugget pull-out to TTT crack growth with decreasing cyclic loading for the joints welded at 1400 J, while TTT crack growth mode remains at all cyclic loading levels for the joints welded at 2000 J. Fatigue crack basically initiates from the nugget edge, and propagates with “river-flow” patterns and characteristic fatigue striations. PMID:28772809

  16. Propagation of ultrasonic guided waves in lap-shear adhesive joints: Case of incident a0 Lamb wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanza di Scalea, Francesco; Rizzo, Piervincenzo; Marzani, Alessandro

    2004-01-01

    This paper deals with the propagation of ultrasonic guided waves in adhesively bonded lap-shear joints. The topic is relevant to bond inspection by ultrasonic testing. Specifically, the propagation of the lowest-order, antisymmetric a0 mode through the joint is examined. An important aspect is the mode conversion at the boundaries between the single-plate adherents and the multilayer overlap. The a0 strength of transmission is studied for three different bond states in aluminum joints, namely a fully cured adhesive bond, a poorly cured adhesive bond, and a slip bond. Theoretical predictions indicate that the dispersive behavior of the guided waves in the multilayer overlap is highly dependent on bond state. Experimental tests are conducted in lap-shear joints by a hybrid, broadband laser/air-coupled ultrasonic setup in a through-transmission configuration. The Gabor wavelet transform is employed to extract energy transmission coefficients in the 100 kHz 1.4 MHz range for the three different bond states examined. The cross-sectional mode shapes of the guided waves are shown to have a substantial role in the energy transfer through the joint.

  17. Closed Loop Control of Penetration Depth during CO2 Laser Lap Welding Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Ancona

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we describe a novel spectroscopic closed loop control system capable of stabilizing the penetration depth during laser welding processes by controlling the laser power. Our novel approach is to analyze the optical emission from the laser generated plasma plume above the keyhole, to calculate its electron temperature as a process-monitoring signal. Laser power has been controlled by using a quantitative relationship between the penetration depth and the plasma electron temperature. The sensor is able to correlate in real time the difference between the measured electron temperature and its reference value for the requested penetration depth. Accordingly the closed loop system adjusts the power, thus maintaining the penetration depth.

  18. Research of the Resistance of Contact Welding Joint of R65 Type Rail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kęstutis Dauskurdis

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the article the R65 type rail joints that were welded by resistance welding are analysed. Survey methodology of the research consists of the following parts: visual inspection of welded joint, ultrasonic rail inspection, hardness test of upper part of the rail, fusion area research, the measurement hardness test of heat-softened area, the measurement microhardness test, microstructure research of the welded joint, impact strength experiments, chemical analysis of welded joint, wheel-rail interaction research using the finite element method (FEM. The results of the research are analysed and the quality of weld is evaluated. The conclusion is based on the results of this research.

  19. Real time monitoring of spot-welded joints under service load using lead zirconate titanate (PZT) transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Ping; Zheng, Botong; Dawood, Mina; Huo, Linsheng; Song, Gangbing

    2017-03-01

    This paper proposes a nondestructive method to evaluate the health status of resistance spot-welded (RSW) joint under service load using lead zirconate titanate (PZT) active sensing system, in which the PZT transducers were used as both actuator and sensor. The physical principle of the approach was validated through a numerical analysis showing that an opening between the faying faces at the welded joint occurred under tension load. The opening decreased the contact area hence reduced the amplitude of the stress wave received by the PZT sensor. Therefore, by comparing the energy index of the signals before and after the loading, the health condition of the joint can be evaluated. Five ST14 steel single lap joint specimens were tested under tension load while being monitored by the PZT sensing system and digital image correlation (DIC) system in real time. The data obtained from the DIC system validated the numerical results. By comparing the energy index of the signal obtained from the PZT sensing system before and after unloading, it was concluded that the RSW joint was intact after being loaded to the service load. The proposed method is promising in evaluating the health condition of RSW joint nondestructively.

  20. Superconducting properties of ultra-pure niobium welded joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demyanov, S. E.; Kaniukov, E. Yu.; Pobol, I. L.; Yurevich, S. V.; Baturitsky, M. A.; Shirkov, G. D.; Budagov, Yu. A.; Demin, D. L.; Azaryan, N. S.

    2015-07-01

    An optimal electron-beam welding operating regime for ultra-pure sheet niobium has been developed for use in a superconducting resonator for the International Linear Collider (ILC). The formation of weld joints is studied and their microstructure and microhardness are investigated taking the required geometry of the weld seams into account. Low-temperature electrical measurements in magnetic fields up to 2 T are used to determine the critical parameters of the superconducting transition in the weld area. From the standpoint of the superconducting properties of the resonator, the slight degradation in the characteristics of sheet niobium observed in the thermally affected area (about 10% on average) is not of fundamental importance.

  1. Size effect of welded thin-walled tubular joints

    OpenAIRE

    Mashiri, Fidelis Rutendo; Zhao, Xiao-Ling; Hirt, Manfred A.; NUSSBAUMER, Alain

    2007-01-01

    This paper clarifies the terminologies used to describe the size effect on fatigue behaviour of welded joints. It summarizes the existing research on size effect in the perspective of newly defined terminologies. It identifies knowledge gaps in designing tubular joints using the hot spot stress method, i.e. thin-walled tubular joints with wall thickness less than 4 mm and thick-walled tubular joints with wall thickness larger than 50 mm or diameter to thickness ratio less than 24. It is the t...

  2. Laser welding head tailored to tube-sheet joint requirements for heat exchangers manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Vandewynckéle, Ambroise; Vaamonde, Eva; Fontán, Marcos; Herwig, Patrick; Mascioletti, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    Tube to tube-sheet joints in heat exchangers are currently welded by the orbital TIG process characterized by very high quality of the weld beads and good repeatability. However, due to high number of welds, a reduction in the welding cycle time would have an interesting impact on manufacturing costs and delays and laser welding technology is aimed to improve this factor. The main disadvantage is the positioning accuracy required by the laser welding process since beam deviations from real jo...

  3. Investigation of Welded Joints with Linear Turned Beech Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ŽUPČIĆ, Ivica

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Welding of wood is a process where chemical and physical reactions take place, heat isformed during the friction, which melts and softens the structure of wood, and a firm joint is formedby cooling of the melt.The paper discusses the present knowledge about wood welding and the results of wood weldingresearch obtained in the Faculty of Forestry, University of Zagreb. The results were obtained onsamples (solid beech wood with tapered entrance holes 9 mm in diameter, the bottom of the hole7 mm in diameter and dowel lengths of 20 mm and 30 mm, as well as samples with 8 mm holediameters and dowel lengths of 20 mm and 30 mm. The tensile strength of welded joints was analysed.The analysis results show that there is a big difference in tensile strength between the samples with 20and 30 mm long dowels and profile holes. 30 mm long dowels give better results than the 20 mmdowels.

  4. Designing aluminium friction stir welded joints against multiaxial fatigue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Susmel

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The present paper investigates the accuracy of the Modified Wöhler Curve Method (MWCM in estimating multiaxial fatigue strength of aluminium friction stir (FS welded joints. Having developed a bespoke joining technology, circumferentially FS welded tubular specimens of Al 6082-T6 were tested under proportional and non-proportional tension and torsion, the effect of non-zero mean stresses being also investigated. The validation exercise carried out using the experimental results have demonstrated that the MWCM applied in terms of nominal stresses, notch stresses, and also the Point Method is accurate in predicting the fatigue lifetime of the tested FS welded joints, with its use resulting in life estimates that fall within the uniaxial and torsional calibration scatter bands.

  5. Multiaxial fatigue of aluminium friction stir welded joints: preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. G. Hattingh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present research is to check the accuracy of the Modified Wöhler Curve Method (MWCM in estimating the fatigue strength of friction stir (FS welded tubular joints of Al 6082-T6 subjected to in-phase and out-of-phase multiaxial fatigue loading. The welded samples being investigated were manufactured by equipping an MTS I-STIR process development system with a retracting tool that was specifically designed and optimised for this purpose. These specimens were tested under proportional and non-proportional tension and torsion, the effect of non-zero mean stresses being also investigated. The validation exercise carried out by using the generated experimental results allowed us to prove that the MWCM (applied in terms of nominal stresses is highly accurate in predicting the fatigue strength of the tested FS welded joints, its usage resulting in estimates falling with the uniaxial and torsional calibration scatter bands.

  6. Relaxation cracking in austenitic welded joints: an underestimated problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wortel, J.C. van

    1995-01-01

    In both power generation and chemical process industries austenitic materials, including 800H, 321H and 316H, are often used at temperatures between 500 and 700 degrees Celsius. The critical pressure containment components typically contain circumferential and longitudinal welded joints of varying

  7. Comparison of Tensile Damage Evolution in Ti6A14V Joints Between Laser Beam Welding and Gas Tungsten Arc Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiao-Long; Zhang, Lin-Jie; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Jian-Xun

    2014-12-01

    The present paper studied the evolution of tensile damage in joints welded using laser beam welding (LBW) and gas tungsten arc welding (TIG) under a uniaxial tensile load. The damage evolution in the LBW joints and TIG-welded joints was studied by using digital image correlation (DIC) technology and monitoring changes in Young's modulus during tensile testing. To study the mechanism of void nucleation and growth in the LBW joints and TIG-welded joints, test specimens with various amounts of plastic deformation were analyzed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Compared with TIG-welded joints, LBW-welded joints have a finer microstructure and higher microhardness in the fusion zone. The SEM analysis and DIC test results indicated that the critical strain of void nucleation was greater in the LBW-welded joints than in the TIG-welded joints, while the growth rate of voids was lower in the LBW-welded joints than in the TIG-welded joints. Thus, the damage ratio in the LBW joints was lower than that in the TIG-welded joints during tensile testing. This can be due to the coarser martensitic α' and the application of TC-1 welding rods in the TIG-welded joint.

  8. Comparison of Post Weld Treatment of High Strength Steel Welded Joints in Medium Cycle Fatigue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mikkel Melters; Mouritsen, Ole Ø.; Hansen, Michael Rygaard

    2010-01-01

    the stress range can exceed the yield-strength of ordinary structural steel, especially when considering positive stress ratios (R > 0). Fatigue experiments and qualitative evaluation of the different post-weld treatments leads to the selection of TIG dressing. The process of implementing TIG dressing......This paper presents a comparison of three post-weld treatments for fatigue life improvement of welded joints. The objective is to determine the most suitable post-weld treatment for implementation in mass production of certain crane components manufactured from very high-strength steel....... The processes investigated are: burr grinding, TIG dressing and ultrasonic impact treatment. The focus of this investigation is on the so-called medium cycle area, i.e. 10 000-500 000 cycles and very high stress ranges. In this area of fatigue design, the use of very high strength steel becomes necessary, since...

  9. The analysis of spot welding joints of steel sheets with closed profile by ultrasonic method

    OpenAIRE

    Dariusz Ulbrich; Jakub Kowalczyk; Marian Jósko; Jarosław Selech

    2015-01-01

    Resistance spot welding is widely used in the fabrication of vehicle bodies and parts of their equipment. The article presents the methodology and the results of non-destructive ultrasonic testing of resistance spot welded joints of thin steel sheet with closed profile. Non-destructive test results were verified on the basis of welded joint area after destructive testing. The obtained results were used to develop an assessment technique for spot welded joints of closed profile with steel shee...

  10. Effect of Welding Processes on the Microstructure, Mechanical Properties and Residual Stresses of Plain 9Cr-1Mo Steel Weld Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraju, S.; Vasantharaja, P.; Brahadees, G.; Vasudevan, M.; Mahadevan, S.

    2017-12-01

    9Cr-1Mo steel designated as P9 is widely used in the construction of power plants and high-temperature applications. It is chosen for fabricating hexcan fuel subassembly wrapper components of fast breeder reactors. Arc welding processes are generally used for fabricating 9Cr-1Mo steel weld joints. A-TIG welding process is increasingly being adopted by the industries. In the present study, shielded metal arc (SMA), tungsten inert gas (TIG) and A-TIG welding processes are used for fabricating the 9Cr-1Mo steel weld joints of 10 mm thickness. Effect of the above welding processes on the microstructure evolution, mechanical properties and residual stresses of the weld joints has been studied in detail. All the three weld joints exhibited comparable strength and ductility values. 9Cr-1Mo steel weld joint fabricated by SMAW process exhibited lower impact toughness values caused by coarser grain size and inclusions. 9Cr-1Mo steel weld joint fabricated by TIG welding exhibited higher toughness due to finer grain size, while the weld joint fabricated by A-TIG welding process exhibited adequate toughness values. SMA steel weld joint exhibited compressive residual stresses in the weld metal and HAZ, while TIG and A-TIG weld joint exhibited tensile residual stresses in the weld metal and HAZ.

  11. Fatigue and Damage Tolerance of Friction Stir Welded Joints for Aerospace Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemmen, H.J.K.

    2010-01-01

    Friction stir welding is a young welding process with high potential to replace riveted joints in aerospace structures like the fuselage. Friction stir welding is a robust process and capable of welding high strength aluminum alloys. Therefore it can lead to both costs and weight savings. To

  12. Virtual Welded-Joint Design Integrating Advanced Materials and Processing Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Z.; Dong, P.; Liu, S.; Babu, S.; Olson, G.; DebRoy, T.

    2005-04-15

    The primary goal of this project is to increase the fatigue life of a welded-joint by 10 times and to reduce energy use by 25% through product performance and productivity improvements using an integrated modeling approach. The fatigue strength of a welded-joint is currently the bottleneck to design high performance and lightweight welded structures using advanced materials such as high strength steels. In order to achieve high fatigue strength in a welded-joint it is necessary to manage the weld bead shape for lower stress concentration, produce preferable residual stress distribution, and obtain the desired microstructure for improved material toughness and strength. This is a systems challenge that requires the optimization of the welding process, the welding consumable, the base material, as well as the structure design. The concept of virtual welded-joint design has been proposed and established in this project. The goal of virtual welded-joint design is to develop a thorough procedure to predict the relationship of welding process, microstructure, property, residual stress, and the ultimate weld fatigue strength by a systematic modeling approach. The systematic approach combines five sub-models: weld thermal-fluid model, weld microstructure model, weld material property model, weld residual stress model, and weld fatigue model. The systematic approach is thus based on interdisciplinary applied sciences including heat transfer, computational fluid dynamics, materials science, engineering mechanics, and material fracture mechanics. The sub-models are based on existing models with further development. The results from modeling have been validated with critical experiments. The systematic modeling approach has been used to design high fatigue resistant welds considering the combined effects of weld bead geometry, residual stress, microstructure, and material property. In particular, a special welding wire has been developed in this project to introduce

  13. Mechanical Properties and Microstructure of Dissimilar Material Welded Joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziewiec A.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of the mechanical testing and the microstructure analysis of dissimilar welded joint of the R350HT steel and the high-manganese (Hadfield cast steel using Cr-Ni cast steel spacer. The simulation tests of the welded joint surface deformation were carried out. The macroscopic and microscopic investigation were made using light microscopy (LM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Content of the magnetic phase was measured using magnetoscope. The quantitative metallographic investigation was used for assessment of ferrite and martensite contents and X-ray diffraction phase analysis was carried out. The results showed that during cooling of the spacer after welding, the transformation of metastable austenite into martensite proceeded. In addition to work hardening, the phase transformation of austenite into martensite occurs during the process of the superficial deformation of the spacer while simulated exploitation. This leads to a substantial increase of hardness, and at the same time, causes the increase of wear resistance of the welded joints of crossovers.

  14. Mechanical characteristics of welded joints between different stainless steels grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topolska, S.; Łabanowski, J.

    2017-08-01

    Investigation of mechanical characteristics of welded joints is one of the most important tasks that allow determining their functional properties. Due to the very high, still rising, cost of some stainless steels it is justified, on economic grounds, welding austenitic stainless steel with steels that are corrosion-resistant like duplex ones. According to forecasts the price of corrosion resistant steels stil can increase by 26 ÷ 30%. For technical reasons welded joints require appropriate mechanical properties such as: tensile strength, bending, ductility, toughness, and resistance to aggressive media. Such joints are applied in the construction of chemical tankers, apparatus and chemical plants and power steam stations. Using the proper binder makes possible the welds directly between the elements of austenitic stainless steels and duplex ones. It causes that such joits behave satisfactorily in service in such areas like maritime constructions and steam and chemical plants. These steels have high mechanical properties such as: the yield strength, the tensile strength and the ductility as well as the resistance to general corrosion media. They are resistant to both pitting and stress corrosions. The relatively low cost of production of duplex steels, in comparison with standard austenitic steels, is inter alia, the result of a reduced amount of scarce and expensive Nickel, which is seen as a further advantage of these steels.

  15. Ultrasonic inspection of AA6013 laser welded joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Passini

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Interest in laser beam welding for aerospace applications is continuously growing, mainly for aluminum alloys. The joints quality is usually assessed by non-destructive inspection (NDI. In this work, bead on plate laser welds on 1.6 mm thick AA6013 alloy sheets, using a 2 kW Yb-fiber laser were obtained and inspected by pulse/echo ultrasonic phased-array technique. Good and poor quality welds were inspected in order to verify the limits of inspection, comparing also to X-ray radiography and metallographic inspections. The results showed that ultrasonic phased array technique was able to identify the presence of grouped porosity, through the attenuation of the amplitude of the echo signal. This attenuation is attributed to the scattering of the waves caused by micro pores, with individual size below the resolution limit of the equipment, but when grouped, can cause a perceptive effect on the reflection spectra.

  16. Characterising electron beam welded dissimilar metal joints to study residual stress relaxation from specimen extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Abburi Venkata, Kiranmayi; Truman, Christopher E; Smith, David J.; Bhaduri, Arun K

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear power plants require dissimilar metal weld joints to connect the primary steam generator made from ferritic steel to the intermediate heat exchanger made from austenitic steel. Such joints are complex because of the mismatch in the thermal and the mechanical properties of the materials used in the joint. Electron Beam (EB) welding is emerging as a promising technique to manufacture dissimilar joints providing a great many advantages over conventional welding techniques, in terms of lo...

  17. Numerical modeling of welded joints by the "Friction Stir Welding" process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego H. Santiago

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work is aimed to simulate the Friction Stir Welding process as a three-dimensional thermally coupled viscoplastic flow. A Finite Element technique is employed, within the context of a general purpose FEM framework, to provide the temperature distributions and the patterns of plastic flow for the material involved in the welded joints. The computational tool presented here may be of great relevance for technologist seeking to set the process control variables, as they are intended to obtain suitable material properties that yield the adequate on service response of the structural components.

  18. Effect of Abrasive Waterjet Peening Surface Treatment of Steel Plates on the Strength of Single-Lap Adhesive Joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Anasiewicz

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of comparative study of shear strength of single–lap adhesive joints, depending on the method of surface preparation of steel plates with increased corrosion resistance. The method of preparing adherend surfaces is often one of the most important factors determining the strength of adhesive joints. Appropriate geometric surface development and cleaning of the surface enhances adhesion forces between adherend material and adhesive. One of the methods of shaping engineering materials is waterjet cutting, which in the AWJP – abrasive waterjet peening variant, serves to shape flat surfaces of the material by changing the roughness and introducing stresses into the surface layer. These changes are valuable when preparing adhesive joints. In the study, surface roughness parameters obtained with AWJP treatment, were analyzed in direct relation to the strength of the adhesive joint. As a consequence of the experimental results analysis, the increase in the strength of the adhesive joints was observed in a certain range of parameters used for AWJP treatment. A decrease in shear strength of adhesive joint with the most modified topography of overlap surface was observed.

  19. Experimental Investigation and Finite Element Analysis on Fatigue Behavior of Aluminum Alloy 7050 Single-Lap Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Bing; Cui, Hao; Liu, Haibo; Li, Yang; Liu, Gaofeng; Li, Shujun; Zhang, Shangzhou

    2018-01-01

    The fatigue behavior of single-lap four-riveted aluminum alloy 7050 joints was investigated by using high-frequency fatigue test and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Stress distributions obtained by finite element (FE) analysis help explain the fatigue performance. The fatigue test results showed that the fatigue lives of the joints depend on cold expansion and applied cyclic loads. FE analysis and fractography indicated that the improved fatigue lives can be attributed to the reduction in maximum stress and evolution of fatigue damage at the critical location. The beneficial effects of strengthening techniques result in tearing ridges or lamellar structure on fracture surface, decrease in fatigue striations spacing, delay of fatigue crack initiation, crack deflection in fatigue crack propagation and plasticity-induced crack closure.

  20. Influence of Interface Gap on the Stress Behaviour of Smart Single Lap Joints Under Time Harmonic Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Jordanka; Valeva, Varbinka

    2017-06-01

    Adhesive joints are frequently used in different composite structures due to their improved mechanical performance and better understanding of the failure mechanics. The application of such structures can be seen in aerospace and high technology components. The authors developed and applied modified shear lag analysis to investigate the hygrothermalpiezoelectric response of a smart single lap joint at environmental conditions (with/without an interface gap along the overlap zone) and under dynamic time harmonic mechanical and electric loads. The main key is the study of the appearance of possible delamination along the interface. As illustrative examples, the analytical closed form solution of the structure shear and the axial stresses response, as well as the interface debond length, including influence of mechanical, piezoelectric, thermal characteristics and frequencies is performed and discussed. All results are presented in figures. The comparison of the shear stress and electric fields for both cases of overlap zone (continuous or with a gap) is also shown in figures and discussed.

  1. Microstructure and Failure Analysis of Flash Butt Welded HSLA 590CL Steel Joints in Wheel Rims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ping; Xu, Zhixin; Shu, Yang; Ma, Feng

    2017-02-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the microstructures, mechanical properties and failure behavior of flash butt welded high strength low alloy 590CL steel joints. Acicular ferrite, Widmanstatten ferrite and granular bainite were observed in the weld. The micro-hardness values of the welded joints varied between 250 HV and 310 HV. The tensile strength of the welded joints met the strength standard of the wheel steel. The Charpy V-notch impact absorbing energy of the welded joints was higher than the base metal, and the impact fracture of the welded joints was composed of shearing and equiaxed dimples. The fracture mode of the wheel rim in the flaring and expanding process was brittle fracture and ductile fracture, respectively. A limited deviation was found in the terminal of the crack for the wheel in the flaring process. A transition from the weld to the Heat Affected Zone was observed for the wheel in the expanding process.

  2. Microstructures and mechanical properties of friction stir welded dissimilar steel-copper joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jafari, M.; Abbasi, M.; Poursina, D.; Gheysarian, A. [University of Kashan, Kashan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bagheri, B. [Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    Welding dissimilar metals by fusion welding is challenging. It results in welding defects. Friction stir welding (FSW) as a solid-state joining method can overcome these problems. In this study, 304L stainless steel was joined to copper by FSW. The optimal values of the welding parameters traverse speed, rotational speed, and tilt angle were obtained through Response surface methodology (RSM). Under optimal welding conditions, the effects of welding pass number on the microstructures and mechanical properties of the welded joints were investigated. Results indicated that appropriate values of FSW parameters could be obtained by RSM and grain size refinement during FSW mainly affected the hardness in the weld regions. Furthermore, the heat from the FSW tool increased the grain size in the Heat-affected zones (HAZs), especially on the copper side. Therefore, the strength and ductility decreased as the welding pass number increased because of grain size enhancement in the HAZs as the welding pass number increased.

  3. Material test data of SUS304 welded joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asayama, Tai [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center; Kawakami, Tomohiro [Nuclear Energy System Incorporation, Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-10-01

    This report summarizes the material test data of SUS304 welded joints. Numbers of the data are as follows: Tensile tests 71 (Post-irradiation: 39, Others: 32), Creep tests 77 (Post-irradiation: 20, Others: 57), Fatigue tests 50 (Post-irradiation: 0), Creep-fatigue tests 14 (Post-irradiation: 0). This report consists of the printouts from 'the structural material data processing system'. (author)

  4. Structural and mechanical properties of welded joints of reduced activation martensitic steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filacchioni, G. E-mail: gianni.filacchioni@casaccia.enea.it; Montanari, R.; Tata, M.E.; Pilloni, L

    2002-12-01

    Gas tungsten arc welding and electron beam welding methods were used to realise welding pools on plates of reduced activation martensitic steels. Structural and mechanical features of these simulated joints have been investigated in as-welded and post-welding heat-treated conditions. The research allowed to assess how each welding technique affects the original mechanical properties of materials and to find suitable post-welding heat treatments. This paper reports results from experimental activities on BATMAN II and F82H mod. steels carried out in the frame of the European Blanket Project - Structural Materials Program.

  5. The Analysis of Welding Conditions Under the Flux of Double-Sides Joints Without Edge Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidorov, Vladimir P.

    2017-10-01

    This paper represents the results of analysis for automatic welding conditions under the flux of double-sides butt joint without edge preparation. As the process characteristics, a specific energy of welding, joint formation rate, average weld width, fusion rate of base metal and other parameters were used. It is determined an optimal joint rate of about 1 cm2/s, that can be used to calculate welding conditions. The paper founds the use of linear dependence between specific energy of welding and cross-section area of base metal’s fusion.

  6. The influence of manual metal arc multiple repair welding of long operated waterwall on the structure and hardness of the heat affected zone of welded joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pikuła J.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Welded installations failures of power plants, which are often result from a high degree of wear, requires suitable repairs. In the case of cracks formed in the weld bead of waterwall, weld bead is removed and new welded joint is prepared. However, it is associated with consecutive thermal cycles, which affect properties of heat affected zone of welded joint. This study presents the influence of multiple manual metal arc welding associated with repair activities of long operated waterwall of boiler steel on properties of repair welded joints. The work contains the results of macro and microscopic metallographic examination as well as the results of hardness measurements.

  7. Fatigue Properties of Welded Butt Joint and Base Metal of MB8 Magnesium Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-xia YU

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The fatigue properties of welded butt joint and base metal of MB8 magnesium alloy were investigated. The comparative fatigue tests were carried out using EHF-EM200K2-070-1A fatigue testing machine for both welded butt joint and base metal specimens with the same size and shape. The fatigue fractures were observed and analyzed by a scanning electron microscope of 6360 LA type. The experimental results show that the fatigue performance of the welded butt joint of MB8 magnesium alloy is sharply decreased. The conditional fatigue limit (1×107 of base metal and welded butt joint is about 69.41 and 32.76 MPa, respectively. The conditional fatigue limit (1×107 of the welded butt joint is 47.2 % of that of base metal. The main reasons are that the welding can lead to stress concentration in the weld toe area, tensile welding residual stress in the welded joint, as well as grain coarsening in the welding seam. The cleavage steps or quasi-cleavage patterns present on the fatigue fracture surface, indicating the fracture type of the welded butt joint belongs to a brittle fracture.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.22.3.9132

  8. Verification of Strength of the Welded Joints by using of the Aramis Video System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pała Tadeusz

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the paper are presented the results of strength analysis for the two types of the welded joints made according to conventional and laser technologies of high-strength steel S960QC. The hardness distributions, tensile properties and fracture toughness were determined for the weld material and heat affect zone material for both types of the welded joints. Tests results shown on advantage the laser welded joints in comparison to the convention ones. Tensile properties and fracture toughness in all areas of the laser joints have a higher level than in the conventional one. The heat affect zone of the conventional welded joints is a weakness area, where the tensile properties are lower in comparison to the base material. Verification of the tensile tests, which carried out by using the Aramis video system, confirmed this assumption. The highest level of strains was observed in HAZ material and the destruction process occurred also in HAZ of the conventional welded joint.

  9. Influence of Joint Configuration on the Strength of Laser Welded Presshardened Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kügler, H.; Mittelstädt, C.; Vollertsen, F.

    Presshardened steel is used in nowadays automotive production. Due to its high strength, sheet thicknesses can be reduced which results in decreasing weight of car body components. However, because of microstructure softening and coating agglomerations in the seam, welding is still a challenge. In this paper laser beam welding of 22MnB5 with varying energy input per irradiated area is presented. It is found that increasing energy input per seam length reduces tensile strength. Using a small spot size of 200 μm, tensile strength of 1434 N/mm2 can be reached in bead on plate welds. In lap welds tensile strength is limited because of coating particles agglomerating at the melt pool border line. However, the resulting strength is higher when using several small weld seams than using one seam with the same total seam width. With three weld seams, each 0.5mm in width, tensile strength of 911N/mm2 is reached in lap welding.

  10. Fabrication of niobium superconducting accelerator cavity by electron beam welded joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, T. K.; Mondal, J.; Mittal, K. C.; Bhushan, K. G.; Bapat, A. V.

    2012-11-01

    Fabrication of superconducting cavities has been taken up as a part of the development of accelerator driven sub critical system (ADSS) by Bhabha Atomic Research Centre. Large grain (RRR>99) pure niobium was chosen as the material for the cavity. Niobium,for its application as superconductor requires extremely high quality joints, feasible only by electron beam welding at high vacuum environment. An indigenously developed 100kV, 4kW high vacuum electron beam welding machine has been utilized to carry out the welding operations. Planning of the weld sequences was chalked out. Holding fixtures for the cavity, consists of seven numbers of joints have been fabricated beforehand. A few coupons were welded for optimization of the weld parameters and for inspection of the weld purity by indigenously developed secondary ion mass spectroscopy. The report describes the welding equipment and the stage wise joining operations of the cavity in details and also discusses the qualification testing of the welded cavity.

  11. The investigation of ultrasonic mechanical forging influence on the structure and mechanical properties of VT23 welded joints by methods of laser and electron beam welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnova, A. S.; Pochivalov, Yu. I.; Panin, V. E.; Orishich, A. M.; Malikov, A. G.; Fomin, V. M.

    2016-11-01

    The structure and mechanical properties of welded joints of VT23 titanium alloy received by methods of laser and electron beam welding with subsequent thermomechanical treatment (TMP1 and TMP2) including ultrasonic mechanical forging are investigated. X-ray structure analysis, scanning electron and transmission electron microscopy have revealed the features of phase structure, microstructure and fractography of welded joints after electron beam and laser welding with subsequent ultrasonic mechanical forging. Application of ultrasonic mechanical forging of welded joints produced by electron beam and laser welding has allowed increasing fatigue life of samples of welded joints after laser welding from 6369 to 19 569 cycles and from 54 616 cycles to 77 126 cycles for electron beam welding. Thus, the application of ultrasonic mechanical forging can significantly raise fatigue and mechanical characteristics of welded connections.

  12. MICROSTRUCTURE AND FATIGUE PROPERTIES OF DISSIMILAR SPOT WELDED JOINTS OF AISI 304 AND AISI 1008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nachimani Charde

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Carbon steel and stainless steel composites are being more frequently used for applications requiring a corrosion resistant and attractive exterior surface and a high strength structural substrate. Spot welding is a potentially useful and efficient jointing process for the production of components consisting of these two materials. The spot welding characteristics of weld joints between these two materials are discussed in this paper. The experiment was conducted on dissimilar weld joints using carbon steel and 304L (2B austenitic stainless steel by varying the welding currents and electrode pressing forces. Throughout the welding process; the electrical signals from the strain sensor, current transducer and terminal voltage clippers are measured in order to understand each and every millisecond of the welding process. In doing so, the dynamic resistances, heat distributions and forging forces are computed for various currents and force levels within the good welds’ regions. The other process controlling parameters, particularly the electrode tip and weld time, remained constant throughout the experiment. The weld growth was noted for the welding current increment, but in the electrode force increment it causes an adverse reaction to weld growth. Moreover, the effect of heat imbalance was clearly noted during the welding process due to the different electrical and chemical properties. The welded specimens finally underwent tensile, hardness and metallurgical testing to characterise the weld growth.

  13. Investigation on edge joints of Inconel 625 sheets processed with laser welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caiazzo, F.; Alfieri, V.; Cardaropoli, F.; Sergi, V.

    2017-08-01

    Laser welding of Inconel 625 edge joint beads in square groove configuration was investigated. The use of different weld geometries in new aerospace solutions explains research on edge joints. A structured plan was carried out in order to characterize the process defining the influence of laser power and welding speed and to study possible interactions among the governing factors. As weld pool protection is crucial in order to obtain sound joints when processing superalloys, a special glove box for gas supply was designed to upgrade the welding head. Welded joints were characterized referring to bead profile, microstructure and X-rays. It was found that heat input plays an important role as it affects welding stability, porosity content and bead shape. Results suggest operating with low values of heat input to reduce porosity and guarantee stable bead conformation. Furthermore, a decrease in the grain size has been observed as a consequence of decreasing heat input.

  14. Analysis of the Static and Fatigue Strenght of a Damage Tolerant 3D-Reinforced Joining Technology on Composite Single Lap Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, A. C.; Drechsler, K.; Hombergsmeier, E.

    2012-07-01

    The increasing usage of carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) in aerospace together with the constant drive for fuel efficiency and lightweight design have imposed new challenges in next generation structural assemblies and load transfer efficient joining methods. To address this issue, an innovative technology, denominated Redundant High Efficiency Assembly (RHEA) joints, is introduced as a high-performance lightweight joint that combines efficient load transfer with good damage tolerance. A review of the ongoing research involving the RHEA joint technology, its through-thickness reinforcement concept and the results of quasi-static and fatigue tensile investigations of single lap shear specimens are exposed and discussed. Improvements in ultimate static load, maximum joint deformation, damage tolerance and fatigue life are encountered when comparing the performance of the RHEA lap shear joints to co-bonded reference specimens.

  15. Evaluation of cold crack susceptibility on HSLA steel welded joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silverio-Freire Júnior, R. C.

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study addresses an evaluation of the effect of several welding parameters on cold cracking formation in welded joints of High Strength and Low Alloy steels, as well as the resulting microstructures and hardness values. The main parameters studied include the variation of the preheating temperature, drying time of the electrode, chemical composition and thickness of the base metal. The presence of cold cracking in the joints was analyzed from Tekken tests using steel plates made of SAR 80 T, 100 T and 120 T with of various thickness. The plates were welded by Shielded Metal Arc Welding either with or without pre-heating. Different preheating temperatures were studied, i.e., 375, 455 and 525 K. AWS E 12018 G and 11018 G electrodes were used under different conditions, i.e., not dried or dried up to 2, 3 and 4 h at 515 K. The results indicated the presence of cracks in the welded metals with the combination of hardness values above 230 HV and the formation of high contents of acicular ferrite (above 93 % in the welds without preheating. Higher crack susceptibility was also observed in the thick welded metal plates.

    Este trabajo evalúa la influencia de la variación de temperatura de precalentamiento, del tiempo de secado del electrodo, de la composición química y del espesor del metal base sobre la formación de fisuras en frío, inducidas por el hidrógeno en juntas soldadas de aceros de alta resistencia y baja aleación y su relación con la microestructura y dureza resultante. Para esto, se analizó la presencia de fisuras en frío en probetas para ensayos Tekken, fabricadas a partir de chapas de aceros SAR 80 T, 100 T y 120 T, con diferentes espesores y soldados por proceso de arco eléctrico con electrodo revestido, sin precalentamiento y con precalentamiento, a 375, 455 y 525 K, empleando electrodos AWS E 12018 G y 11018 G no secados y secados durante 2, 3 y 4 h. Los resultados obtenidos indicaron la presencia de fisuras

  16. Experimental and analytical program to determine strains in 737 LAP splice joints subjected to normal fuselage pressurization loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roach, D.P. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jeong, D.Y. [Department of Transportation, Cambridge, MA (United States). John A. Volpe National Transportation Systems Center

    1996-02-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration Technical Center (FAATC) has initiated several research projects to assess the structural integrity of the aging commercial aircraft fleet. One area of research involves the understanding of a phenomenon known as ``Widespread Fatigue Damage`` or WFD, which refers to a type of multiple element cracking that degrades the damage tolerance capability of an aircraft structure. Research on WFD has been performed both experimentally and analytically including finite element modeling of fuselage lap splice joints by the Volpe Center. Fuselage pressurization tests have also been conducted at the FAA`s Airworthiness Assurance NDI Validation Center (AANC) to obtain strain gage data from select locations on the FAA/AANC 737 Transport Aircraft Test Bed. One-hundred strain channels were used to monitor five different lap splice bays including the fuselage skin and substructure elements. These test results have been used to evaluate the accuracy of the analytical models and to support general aircraft analysis efforts. This paper documents the strain fields measured during the AANC tests and successfully correlates the results with analytical predictions.

  17. The analysis of spot welding joints of steel sheets with closed profile by ultrasonic method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Ulbrich

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Resistance spot welding is widely used in the fabrication of vehicle bodies and parts of their equipment. The article presents the methodology and the results of non-destructive ultrasonic testing of resistance spot welded joints of thin steel sheet with closed profile. Non-destructive test results were verified on the basis of welded joint area after destructive testing. The obtained results were used to develop an assessment technique for spot welded joints of closed profile with steel sheet, which could be used in factories employing such joints. In addition, the article makes comparison between the costs of the developed assessment technique and currently used destructive method.

  18. Friction stir scribe welding technique for dissimilar joining of aluminium and galvanised steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Tianhao [Center for Friction Stir Processing, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of North Texas, Denton, TX, USA; Sidhar, Harpreet [Center for Friction Stir Processing, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of North Texas, Denton, TX, USA; Mishra, Rajiv S. [Center for Friction Stir Processing, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of North Texas, Denton, TX, USA; Hovanski, Yuri [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Energy Materials and Manufacturing, Richland, WA, USA; Upadhyay, Piyush [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Energy Materials and Manufacturing, Richland, WA, USA; Carlson, Blair [General Motors Technical Center, Warren, MI, USA

    2017-10-04

    Friction stir scribe technology, a derivative of friction stir welding, was applied for the dissimilar lap welding of an aluminum alloy and galvanized mild steel sheets. During the process, the rotating tool with a cobalt steel scribe first penetrated the top material — aluminum — and then the scribe cut the bottom material — steel. The steel was displaced into the upper material to produce a characteristic hook feature. Lap welds were shear tested, and their fracture paths were studied. Welding parameters affected the welding features including hook height, which turned out to be highly related to fracture position. Therefore, in this paper, the relationships among welding parameters, hook height, joint strength and fracture position are presented. In addition, influence of zinc coating on joint strength was also studied. Keywords: friction stir scribe technology; dissimilar material welding; zinc coating; hook height; joint strength; fracture position

  19. A Study of Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Grade 91 Steel A-TIG Weld Joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arivazhagan, B.; Vasudevan, M.

    2013-12-01

    In the present study, A-TIG welding was carried out on grade 91 steel plates of size 220 × 110 × 10 mm using the in-house developed activated flux to produce butt-joints. The room-temperature impact toughness of the A-TIG as-welded joint was low due to the presence of untempered martensite matrix despite the low microinclusion density caused by activated flux and also low δ-ferrite (TIG-processed grade 91 steel weld joint was found to meet the toughness requirements after PWHT at 760 °C-3 h. Observations of fracture surfaces using SEM revealed that the as-welded joint failed by brittle fracture, whereas post-weld heat-treated weld joints failed by decohesive rupture mode.

  20. Characterization of fatigue damage in adhesively bonded lap joints through dynamic, full-spectral interrogation of fiber Bragg grating sensors: 1. Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, S.; Shin, P.; Peters, K.; Zikry, M. A.; Stan, N.; Chadderdon, S.; Selfridge, R.; Schultz, S.

    2014-02-01

    In this study we measure the in situ response of a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor embedded in the adhesive layer of a single composite lap joint, subjected to harmonic excitation after fatigue loading. After a fully reversed cyclic fatigue loading is applied to the composite lap joint, the full-spectral response of the sensor is interrogated at 100 kHz during two loading conditions: with and without an added harmonic excitation. The full-spectral information avoided dynamic measurement errors often experienced using conventional peak wavelength and edge filtering techniques. The short-time Fourier transform (STFT) is computed for the extracted peak wavelength information to reveal time-dependent frequencies and amplitudes of the dynamic FBG sensor response. The dynamic response of the FBG sensor indicated a transition to strong nonlinear dynamic behavior as fatigue-induced damage progressed. The ability to measure the dynamic response of the lap joint through sensors embedded in the adhesive layer can provide in situ monitoring of the lap joint condition.

  1. Laser welding of Zn-coated sheet steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Marianne P.; Kerr, Hugh W.; Weckman, David C.

    1996-04-01

    Compared to other welding processes, laser welding of sheet steels coated with various zinc- rich layers (galvanized, electrogalvanized, galvannealed, etc.) can permit weight reduction of automobiles plus increase in productivity. Some instances of laser welding of such coated steels have been reported. However, wider applications of lasers for this purpose are hampered by the low boiling temperature of zinc compared to the melting temperature of steel. During laser welding in the lap-joint configuration, the presence of vaporized zinc between the steel sheets often leads to expulsion of the weld metal or considerably weld porosity. Attempts to overcome this problem using Nd:YAG laser welding are reviewed. For the lap-joint configuration, techniques examined include provision of a gap between the sheets, use of geometrical solutions such as concave or convex surfaces, and pulsing or modulating the laser waveform. The effects on weld quality of power density, pulse time and pulse shaping (for pulsed welding), the coating type and weight, the location of the beam axis and beam focus with respect to the sheet surface(s) and the joint geometry (lap and edge) have been examined. The results provide insight into the weldability of coated sheet steels by the laser welding process as well as better assessment of viable approaches to this problem.

  2. Gas metal arc welding of butt joint with varying gap width based on neural networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Kim Hardam; Sørensen, Torben

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the application of the neural network technology for gas metal arc welding (GMAW) control. A system has been developed for modeling and online adjustment of welding parameters, appropriate to guarantee a certain degree of quality in the field of butt joint welding with full...

  3. Mechanical Properties of Steel P92 Welded Joints Obtained By TIG Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohyla, P.; Havelka, L.; Schmidová, E.; Vontorová, J.

    2017-11-01

    Mechanical properties of P92 steel welded joints obtained using the TIG (141) technology have been studied upon post-welding heat treatment (PWHT). The microhardness, tensile strength, and impact toughness of metal in the weld and heat-affected zone are determined. The PWHT is shown to be obligatory.

  4. Electric pulse treatment of welded joint of aluminum alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Mitiaev

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Explanation of the redistribution effect of residual strengthes after electric pulse treatment of ark welding seam of the aluminum alloy. Methodology. Alloy on the basis of aluminium of АК8М3 type served as the research material. As a result of mechanical treatment of the ingots after alloy crystallization the plates with 10 mm thickness were obtained. After edge preparation the elements, which are being connected were butt welded using the technology of semiautomatic argon arc welding by the electrode with a diameter of 3 mm of AK-5 alloy. Metal structure of the welded joint was examined under the light microscope at a magnification of 200 and under the scanning electronic microscope «JSM-6360 LA». The Rockwell hardness (HRF was used as a strength characteristic of alloy. Hardness measuring of the phase constituents (microhardness was carried out using the device PМТ-3, with the indenter loadings 5 and 10 g. The crystalline structure parameters of alloy (dislocation density, second kind of the crystalline grid distortion and the scale of coherent scattering regions were determined using the methods of X-ray structural analysis. Electric pulse treatment (ET was carried out on the special equipment in the conditions of the DS enterprise using two modes A and В. Findings. On the basis of researches the previously obtained microhardness redistribution effect in the area of welded connection after ET was confirmed. As a result of use of the indicated treatment it was determined not only the reduction of microhardness gradient but also the simultaneous hardening effect in the certain thermal affected areas near the welding seam. During study of chemical composition of phase constituents it was discovered, that the structural changes of alloy as a result of ET first of all are caused by the redistribution of chemical elements, which form the connections themselves. By the nature of the influence the indicated treatment can be

  5. Effect of welding speed on microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of laser welded-brazed Al/brass dissimilar joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, L.; Luo, L. Y.; Tan, C. W.; Li, Z. Y.; Song, X. G.; Zhao, H. Y.; Huang, Y. X.; Feng, J. C.

    2018-01-01

    Laser welding-brazing process was developed for joining 5052 aluminum alloy and H62 brass in butt configuration with Zn-15%Al filler. Effect of welding speed on microstructural characteristics and mechanical properties of joints were investigated. Acceptable joints without obvious defect were obtained with the welding speed of 0.5-0.6 m/min, while lower and higher welding speed caused excessive back reinforcement and cracking, respectively. Three reaction layers were observed at welding speed of 0.3 m/min, which were Al4.2Cu3.2Zn0.7 (τ‧)/Al4Cu9/CuZn from weld seam side to brass side; while at welding speed of 0.4-0.6 m/min, two layers Al4.2Cu3.2Zn0.7 and CuZn formed. The thickness of interfacial reaction layers increased with the decrease of welding speed, but varied little at different interfacial positions from top to bottom in one joint. Tensile test results indicated that the maximum joint tensile strength of 128 MPa was obtained at 0.5 m/min, which was 55.7% of that of Al base metal. All the joints fractured along the weld seam/brass interface. Some differences were found regarding fracture locations with three and two reaction layers. The joint fractured between Al4Cu9 and τ‧ IMC layer when the interface had three layers, while the crack occurred between CuZn and τ‧ phase in the case of two layers.

  6. Influence of adhesive thickness and filler content on the mechanical performance of aluminum single-lap joints bonded with aluminum powder filled epoxy adhesive

    OpenAIRE

    Kahraman, R.; M. Sunar; Yilbas, B.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop information on the influence of adhesive thickness and aluminum filler content on the mechanical performance of aluminum joints bonded by aluminum powder filled epoxy. The adhesive strength of the joints was determined by utilizing the single-lap shear test. The influence of adhesive thickness and aluminum filler content on stress distribution within the adhesive was also analyzed by finite element method (FEM). Both FEM analysis and the experimental...

  7. Testing of the shopprimer’s influence on the quality of welded joint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Šolić

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the process of preparing the surface of construction material and applying the temporary protection that refers to the two-component epoxy workshop primer (shopprimer in order to perform testing of its influence on mechanical properties of the weld. Testing of mechanical properties of welds after welding proved that there were no negative influences of the protective coating on the quality of welded joint.

  8. Variation of Lap Shear Tensile Strength of Polycarbonate Mild Steel Adhesive Joints with DC Glow Discharge Modified Polycarbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panwar, Amrish K.; Barthwal, S. K.; Ray, S.

    2007-01-01

    It has been observed that the wettability/surface energy of polycarbonate (PC) changes with the variation in process parameters, such as discharge power and time of exposure of DC glow discharge. The wettability of the PC surface has been measured by the contact angle measurements of two test liquids, such as water and formamide, by the sessile drop method. The lap shear tensile strength (LSTS) of PC to the mild steel (MS) adhesive joint has been measured with both the as-received polymer and those exposed under DC glow discharge. An appreciable increase in the LSTS has been attained for samples treated under DC glow discharge at a lower power level and also at a short exposure time at higher power. This increase in LSTS is attributed to increased polar surface energy with increasing power and time of exposure. After a certain level of surface modification of the PC, the strength of the adhesive joint deteriorates, while the total surface energy and its polar component may increase continuously. The subsurface damage taking place particularly at long exposure times and at higher power may lead to deterioration of LSTS in spite of a strong interface between the polymer and the adhesive. In such a case, the joint is observed to fracture not across the interface but through the subsurface. The optimum exposure limits the subsurface damage while creating a strong interface.

  9. Non-destructive testing techniques based on nonlinear methods for assessment of debonding in single lap joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarselli, G.; Ciampa, F.; Ginzburg, D.; Meo, M.

    2015-04-01

    Nonlinear ultrasonic non-destructive evaluation (NDE) methods can be used for the identification of defects within adhesive bonds as they rely on the detection of nonlinear elastic features for the evaluation of the bond strength. In this paper the nonlinear content of the structural response of a single lap joint subjected to ultrasonic harmonic excitation is both numerically and experimentally evaluated to identify and characterize the defects within the bonded region. Different metallic samples with the same geometry were experimentally tested in order to characterize the debonding between two plates by using two surface bonded piezoelectric transducers in pitch-catch mode. The dynamic response of the damaged samples acquired by the single receiver sensor showed the presence of higher harmonics (2nd and 3rd) and subharmonics of the fundamental frequencies. These nonlinear elastic phenomena are clearly due to nonlinear effects induced by the poor adhesion between the two plates. A new constitutive model aimed at representing the nonlinear material response generated by the interaction of the ultrasonic waves with the adhesive joint is also presented. Such a model is implemented in an explicit FE software and uses a nonlinear user defined traction-displacement relationship implemented by means of a cohesive material user model interface. The developed model is verified for the different geometrical and material configurations. Good agreement between the experimental and numerical nonlinear response showed that this model can be used as a simple and useful tool for understanding the quality of the adhesive joint.

  10. Microstructural Evolution and Migration Mechanism Study in a Eutectic Sn-37Pb Lap Joint Under High Current Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhihao; Cao, Huijun; Yang, Haifeng; Xiao, Yong; Li, Mingyu; Yu, Yuxi; Yao, Shun

    2017-08-01

    The microstructural evolution in eutectic Sn-37Pb solder under high current density seriously threatens the reliability of solder interconnections, but atomic electromigration has often been confused with thermomigration. In this paper, after decoupling the effect of the non-uniform temperature distribution in a Cu/Sn-37Pb/Cu lap joint from the current stress, the microstructural evolution was investigated under an average current density of 1.84 × 104 A cm-2 for 0-24 h. The decomposition and recombination of the Pb-rich phase occurred at the cathode and the anode, respectively. The corresponding migration mechanism was proposed from the viewpoint of energy and was explained by the interactions among the potential energies of ripening, electron wind force, and back stress. Our study may be helpful for understanding the migration mechanism and reliability of eutectic two-phase solder joints and provides supporting data for interpreting the acceleration tests of Sn-37Pb solder joints under electromigration.

  11. Characterization of fatigue damage in adhesively bonded lap joints through dynamic, full-spectral interrogation of fiber Bragg grating sensors: 2. Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, S.; Shin, P.; Peters, K.; Zikry, M. A.; Stan, N.; Chadderdon, S.; Selfridge, R.; Schultz, S.

    2014-02-01

    In this paper, we simulate the response of fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors embedded in the adhesive layer of a composite lap that is subjected to harmonic excitation. To simulate accumulated fatigue damage at the adhesive layer, two forms of numerical nonlinearities are introduced into the model: (1) progressive plastic deformation of the adhesive and (2) changing the boundary of an interfacial defect at the adhesive layer across the overlap shear area. The simulation results are compared with previous measurements of the dynamic, full-spectral response of such FBG sensors for condition monitoring of the lap joint. Short-time Fourier transforms (STFT) of the locally extracted axial strain time histories reveal a transition to nonlinear behavior of the composite lap joint by means of intermittent frequencies that were observed in the experimental measurements and are not associated with the external excitation. The simulation results verify that the nonlinear changes in measured dynamic FBG responses are due to the progression of damage in the lap joint.

  12. Microstructure and fatigue resistance of high strength dual phase steel welded with gas metal arc welding and plasma arc welding processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahiale, Godwin Kwame; Oh, Yong-Jun; Choi, Won-Doo; Lee, Kwang-Bok; Jung, Jae-Gyu; Nam, Soo Woo

    2013-09-01

    This study presents the microstructure and high cycle fatigue performance of lap shear joints of dual phase steel (DP590) welded using gas metal arc welding (GMAW) and plasma arc welding (PAW) processes. High cycle fatigue tests were conducted on single and double lap joints under a load ratio of 0.1 and a frequency of 20 Hz. In order to establish a basis for comparison, both weldments were fabricated to have the same weld depth in the plate thickness. The PAW specimens exhibited a higher fatigue life, a gentle S-N slope, and a higher fatigue limit than the GMAW specimens. The improvement in the fatigue life of the PAW specimens was primarily attributed to the geometry effect that exhibited lower and wider beads resulting in a lower stress concentration at the weld toe where cracks initiate and propagate. Furthermore, the microstructural constituents in the heat-affected zone (HAZ) of the PAW specimens contributed to the improvement. The higher volume fraction of acicular ferrite in the HAZ beneath the weld toe enhanced the PAW specimen's resistance to fatigue crack growth. The double lap joints displayed a higher fatigue life than the single lap joints without changing the S-N slope.

  13. High-cycle Fatigue Properties of Alloy718 Base Metal and Electron Beam Welded Joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Yoshinori; Yuri, Tetsumi; Nagashima, Nobuo; Sumiyoshi, Hideshi; Ogata, Toshio; Nagao, Naoki

    High-cycle fatigue properties of Alloy 718 plate and its electron beam (EB) welded joint were investigated at 293 K and 77 K under uniaxial loading. At 293 K, the high-cycle fatigue strength of the EB welded joint with the post heat treatment exhibited somewhat lower values than that of the base metal. The fatigue strengths of both samples basically increased at 77 K. However, in longer life region, the EB welded joint fractured from a blow hole formed in the welded zone, resulting in almost the same fatigue strength at 107 cycles as that at 293 K.

  14. Butt Welding of 2205/X65 Bimetallic Sheet and Study on the Inhomogeneity of the Properties of the Welded Joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Ning-Nian; Zhang, Jian-Xun; Wang, Jian-Long; Bi, Zong-Yue

    2017-04-01

    The explosively welded 2205 duplex stainless steel/X65 pipe steel bimetallic sheets were butt jointed by multilayer and multi-pass welding (gas tungsten arc welding for the flyer and gas metal arc welding for the transition and parent layers of the bimetallic sheets). The microstructure and mechanical properties of the welded joint were investigated. The results showed that in the thickness direction, microstructure and mechanical properties of the welded joint exhibited obvious inhomogeneity. The microstructures of parent filler layers consisted of acicular ferrite, widmanstatten ferrite, and a small amount of blocky ferrite. The microstructure of the transition layer and flyer layer consisted of both austenite and ferrite structures; however, the transition layer of weld had a higher volume fraction of austenite. The results of the microhardness test showed that in both weld metal (WM) and heat-affected zone (HAZ) of the parent filler layers, the average hardness decreased with the increasing (from parent filler layer 1 to parent filler layer 3) welding heat input. The results of hardness test also indicated that the hardness of the WM and the HAZ for the flyer and transition layers was equivalent. The tensile test combined with Digital Specklegram Processing Technology demonstrated that the fracturing of the welded joint started at the HAZ of the flyer, and then the fracture grew toward the base metal of the parent flyer near the parent HAZ. The stratified impact test at -5 °C showed that the WM and HAZ of the flyer exhibited lower impact toughness, and the fracture mode was ductile and brittle mixed fracture.

  15. Application of welding simulation to block joints in shipbuilding and assessment of welding-induced residual stresses and distortions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fricke Wolfgang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available During ship design, welding-induced distortions are roughly estimated as a function of the size of the component as well as the welding process and residual stresses are assumed to be locally in the range of the yield stress. Existing welding simulation methods are very complex and time-consuming and therefore not applicable to large structures like ships. Simplified methods for the estimation of welding effects were and still are subject of several research projects, but mostly concerning smaller structures. The main goal of this paper is the application of a multi-layer welding simulation to the block joint of a ship structure. When welding block joints, high constraints occur due to the ship structure which are assumed to result in accordingly high residual stresses. Constraints measured during construction were realized in a test plant for small-scale welding specimens in order to investigate their and other effects on the residual stresses. Associated welding simulations were successfully performed with fine-mesh finite element models. Further analyses showed that a courser mesh was also able to reproduce the welding-induced reaction forces and hence the residual stresses after some calibration. Based on the coarse modeling it was possible to perform the welding simulation at a block joint in order to investigate the influence of the resulting residual stresses on the behavior of the real structure, showing quite interesting stress distributions. Finally it is discussed whether smaller and idealized models of definite areas of the block joint can be used to achieve the same results offering possibilities to consider residual stresses in the design process.

  16. Application of welding simulation to block joints in shipbuilding and assessment of welding-induced residual stresses and distortions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricke, Wolfgang; Zacke, Sonja

    2014-06-01

    During ship design, welding-induced distortions are roughly estimated as a function of the size of the component as well as the welding process and residual stresses are assumed to be locally in the range of the yield stress. Existing welding simulation methods are very complex and time-consuming and therefore not applicable to large structures like ships. Simplified methods for the estimation of welding effects were and still are subject of several research projects, but mostly concerning smaller structures. The main goal of this paper is the application of a multi-layer welding simulation to the block joint of a ship structure. When welding block joints, high constraints occur due to the ship structure which are assumed to result in accordingly high residual stresses. Constraints measured during construction were realized in a test plant for small-scale welding specimens in order to investigate their and other effects on the residual stresses. Associated welding simulations were successfully performed with fine-mesh finite element models. Further analyses showed that a courser mesh was also able to reproduce the welding-induced reaction forces and hence the residual stresses after some calibration. Based on the coarse modeling it was possible to perform the welding simulation at a block joint in order to investigate the influence of the resulting residual stresses on the behavior of the real structure, showing quite interesting stress distributions. Finally it is discussed whether smaller and idealized models of definite areas of the block joint can be used to achieve the same results offering possibilities to consider residual stresses in the design process.

  17. Fatigue properties and fracture mechanism of load carrying type fillet joints with one-sided welding

    OpenAIRE

    Takamasa Abe; Hiroyuki Akebono; Masahiko Kato; Atsushi Sugeta

    2016-01-01

    The structures of the hydraulic excavator and the crane have numerous one-sided welded joints. However, attachments with box like structures are difficult to weld at both sides. Therefore, high accurate evaluation method is needed. In this study, the fatigue properties and the fracture mechanism of the load carrying type fillet joints with one-sided welding were investigated experimentally to evaluate its fatigue damage with high accuracy based on the experimental results. As the ...

  18. Methodologies for Crack Initiation in Welded Joints Applied to Inspection Planning

    OpenAIRE

    Zou, Guang; Banisoleiman, Kian; González, Arturo

    2016-01-01

    Crack initiation and propagation threatens structural integrity of welded joints and normally inspections are assigned based on crack propagation models. However, the approach based on crack propagation models may not be applicable for some high-quality welded joints, because the initial flaws in them may be so small that it may take long time for the flaws to develop into a detectable size. This raises a concern regarding the inspection planning of high-quality welded joins, as there is no g...

  19. Structure and Corrosion Resistance of Welded Joints of Alloy 1151 in Marine Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakulo, A. V.; Yakushin, B. F.; Puchkov, Yu. A.

    2017-07-01

    The corrosion behavior of joints formed by TIG and IMIG welding from clad sheets of heat-hardenable aluminum alloy 1151 of the Al - Cu - Mg system is studied. The corrosion tests are performed in an aqueous solution of NaCl in a salt-spray chamber. The welded joints are subjected to a metallographic analysis.

  20. Mechanical properties of TIG and EB weld joints of F82H

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirose, Takanori, E-mail: hirose.takanori@jaea.go.jp; Sakasegawa, Hideo; Nakajima, Motoki; Tanigawa, Hiroyasu

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Narrow groove TIG minimized volume of F82H weld. • Mechanical properties of TIG and EB welds of F82H have been characterized. • Post weld heat treatment successfully moderate the toughness of weld metal without softening the base metal. - Abstract: This work investigates mechanical properties of weld joints of a reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steel, F82H and effects of post weld heat treatment on the welds. Vickers hardness, tensile and Charpy impact tests were conducted on F82H weld joints prepared using tungsten-inert-gas and electron beam after various heat treatments. Although narrow groove tungsten-inert-gas welding reduced volume of weld bead, significant embrittlement was observed in a heat affected zone transformed due to heat input. Post weld heat treatment above 993 K successfully moderated the brittle transformed region. The hardness of the brittle region strongly depends on the heat treatment temperature. Meanwhile, strength of base metal was slightly reduced by the treatment at temperature ranging from 993 to 1053 K. Moreover, softening due to double welding was observed only in the weld metal, but negligible in base metal.

  1. Effect of the rotational speed of on the surface quality of 6061 Al-alloy welded joint using friction stir welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, T. T.; Zhang, X. H.; Fan, G. J.; Xu, L. F.

    2017-06-01

    The rotational speed of the stir-welding head is an important technological parameter in friction stir welding (FSW) process. For investigating the effect of the rotational speed of the stir-welding head on the surface quality of the welded joint, in this study, the weld tests were conducted under different rotational speeds (in which the welding speed was fixed), and then the effects were analyzed using the heat-fluid analysis model established. The test results revealed that cracks or grooves could be observed on the welded joint at small rotational speeds; with the increase of rotational speed, the weld surface became bright and clean; as the rotational speed further increased, the surface of the welded joint may be over burnt. Through analysis, it can be observed that appropriate increasing the rotational speed of the stir-welding joint increased the heat input in welding; meanwhile, fewer materials participated in the formation of weld, the material’s flowability was improved, and the resistance that impeded the advance of the stir-welding needle was reduced, thereby improving the quality of the welded joint.

  2. Effect of Multipass TIG and Activated TIG Welding Process on the Thermo-Mechanical Behavior of 316LN Stainless Steel Weld Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesh, K. C.; Balasubramanian, K. R.; Vasudevan, M.; Vasantharaja, P.; Chandrasekhar, N.

    2016-04-01

    The primary objective of this work was to develop a finite element model to predict the thermo-mechanical behavior of an activated tungsten inert gas (ATIG)-welded joint. The ATIG-welded joint was fabricated using 10 mm thickness of 316LN stainless steel plates in a single pass. To distinguish the merits of ATIG welding process, it was compared with manual multipass tungsten inert gas (MPTIG)-welded joint. The ATIG-welded joint was fabricated with square butt edge configuration using an activating flux developed in-house. The MPTIG-welded joint was fabricated in thirteen passes with V-groove edge configuration. The finite element model was developed to predict the transient temperature, residual stress, and distortion of the welded joints. Also, microhardness, impact toughness, tensile strength, ferrite measurement, and microstructure were characterized. Since most of the recent publications of ATIG-welded joint was focused on the molten weld pool dynamics, this research work gives an insight on the thermo-mechanical behavior of ATIG-welded joint over MPTIG-welded joint.

  3. Mechanical properties of type 316L stainless steel welded joint for ITER vacuum vessel (1). Experiment of unirradiated welded joint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, Shigeru; Fukaya, Kiyoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Ishiyama, Shintaro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Koizumi, Kouichi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment

    2001-01-01

    In design activity of ITER, the vacuum vessel (VV) is ranked as one of the most important components in core reactor from the view point of first barrier to tritium release from the reactor. The VV of ITER is designed as double walled structure so that some parts of them are not qualified in the conventional design standards. So it is necessary to prepare the new design standards to be applied them. JAERI has executed the preparation activity of the new design standards and the technical data to support them. In this study, the results of metallographic observation and mechanical properties of unirradiated type 316L stainless steel welded joint were reported. (author)

  4. Research on the microstructure and properties of laser-MIG hybrid welded joint of Invar alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Xiaohong; Zhang, Dan; Wei, Yanhong; Wang, Yuhua

    2017-12-01

    In order to solve the problem of large deformation, low production efficiency and high tendency of hot cracking in welding 19.05 mm thick plates of Fe36Ni Invar alloy, laser-MIG hybrid multi-layer welding technique (LMHMW) has been developed. To investigate the influence of different welding parameters on the joint properties, optical microscope observation, SEM, EDS and microhardness measurement were conducted. Experimental results illustrated that different matching of welding parameters significantly affected the depth-to-width ratio, formation of defects and HAZ width. Besides, weld zone were consisted of two regions according to the different grain shape. The region near center of weld seam (region 1) was columnar dendrite induced by laser, while the region far away from weld seam center (region 2) was cellular dendrite which was mainly caused by MIG arc. The peak value of microhardness appeared at the center of weld seam since the grains in region 1 were relatively fine, and the lowest hardness value was obtained in HAZ. In addition, results showed that the sheets can be welded at optimum process parameters, with few defects such as, surface oxidation, porosity, cracks and lack of penetration in the welding seam: laser power of backing weld P = 5500 W, welding current I = 240 A, welding speed v = 1 m/min. laser power of filling weld P = 2000 W, welding current I = 220 A, welding speed v = 0.35 m/min. laser power of cosmetic weld P = 2000 W, welding current I = 300 A, welding speed v = 0.35 m/min.

  5. Influence of Interface Gap on the Stress Behaviour of Smart Single Lap Joints Under Time Harmonic Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanova Jordanka

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Adhesive joints are frequently used in different composite structures due to their improved mechanical performance and better understanding of the failure mechanics. The application of such structures can be seen in aerospace and high technology components. The authors developed and applied modified shear lag analysis to investigate the hygrothermalpiezoelectric response of a smart single lap joint at environmental conditions (with/without an interface gap along the overlap zone and under dynamic time harmonic mechanical and electric loads. The main key is the study of the appearance of possible delamination along the interface. As illustrative examples, the analytical closed form solution of the structure shear and the axial stresses response, as well as the interface debond length, including influence of mechanical, piezoelectric, thermal characteristics and frequencies is performed and discussed. All results are presented in figures. The comparison of the shear stress and electric fields for both cases of overlap zone (continuous or with a gap is also shown in figures and discussed.

  6. Experimental and Numerical Investigations of Fretting Fatigue Behavior for Steel Q235 Single-Lap Bolted Joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazhou Xu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to investigate the fretting fatigue life and failure mode of steel Q235B plates in single-lap bolted joints. Ten specimens were prepared and tested to fit the S-N curve. SEM (scanning electron microscope was then employed to observe fatigue crack surfaces and identify crack initiation, crack propagation, and transient fracture zones. Moreover, a FEM model was established to simulate the stress and displacement fields. The normal contact stress, tangential contact stress, and relative slipping displacement at the critical fretting zone were used to calculate FFD values and assess fretting fatigue crack initiation sites, which were in good agreement with SEM observations. Experimental results confirmed the fretting fatigue failure mode for these specimens. It was found that the crack initiation resulted from wear regions at the contact surfaces between plates, and fretting fatigue cracks occurred at a certain distance away from hole edges. The proposed FFD-N relationship is an alternative approach to evaluate fretting fatigue life of steel plates in bolted joints.

  7. Wear Resistance Analysis of A359/SiC/20p Advanced Composite Joints Welded by Friction Stir Welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Cuevas Mata

    Full Text Available Abstract Advancement in automotive part development demands new cost-effective materials with higher mechanical properties and improved wear resistance as compared to existing materials. For instance, Aluminum Matrix Composites (AMC shows improved mechanical properties as wear and abrasion resistance, high strength, chemical and dimensional stability. Automotive industry has focused in AMC for a variety of applications in automotive parts in order to improve the fuel economy, minimize vehicle emissions, improve design options, and increase the performance. Wear resistance is one of the most important factors in useful life of the automotive components, overall in those components submitted to mechanical systems like automotive brakes and suspensions. Friction Stir Welding (FSW rises as the most capable process to joining AMC, principally for the capacity to weld without compromising their ceramic reinforcement. The aim of this study is focused on the analysis of wear characteristics of the friction-stir welded joint of aluminum matrix reinforced with 20 percent in weight silicon carbide composite (A359/SiC/20p. The experimental procedure consisted in cut samples into small plates and perform three welds on these with a FSW machine using a tool with 20 mm shoulder diameter and 8 mm pin diameter. The wear features of the three welded joints and parent metal were analyzed at constant load applying 5 N and a rotational speed of 100 rpm employing a Pin-on - Disk wear testing apparatus, using a sapphire steel ball with 6 mm diameter. The experimental results indicate that the three welded joints had low friction coefficient compared with the parent metal. The results determine that the FSW process parameters affect the wear resistance of the welded joints owing to different microstructural modifications during welding that causes a low wear resistance on the welded zone.

  8. Microstructural changes in welded joints of 316 SS by dual-ion irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohyama, A.; Kohno, Y.; Baba, K.; Katoh, Y.; Hishinuma, A.

    1992-09-01

    As a part of the activity to establish joining methods to fabricate in-vessel components and to evaluate their performance under fusion environment, microstructural evolution was studied by means of the dual-ion irradiation method. The base material used in this study was solution annealed 316 stainless steel. Welded joints were made by the tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding method and electron beam (EB) welding method. For the prospective improvement of swelling in welded joints, modified TIG or EB welding procedures utilizing titanium or nickel foil insertions were investigated. TEM disk specimens from various positions of welded joints were irradiated to 25 dpa at 673, 773 and 873 K. He/dpa ratio in Ni/He dual-ion irradiation was 15 appm He/dpa. The present results indicate some concern about the microstructures which result in the fusion zone and heat affected zones.

  9. Experimental Study on Failure Mechanism of Single Lap-shear Bond Joint with Dissimilar Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, S. H.; Park, B. C.; Chun, H. J.; Park, J. C.

    2017-05-01

    The use of bond joints has increased recently, owing to a number of advantages they have over mechanical fasteners. However, most relevant studies have focused on bond joints with the same adherends. In this study, a quasi-static tensile test was conducted to investigate the failure mechanism of bond joints, considering different overlap lengths and dissimilar adherends. In the experiments, two modes of failure were observed: the interfacial and cohesive failure modes. The experiments showed that the length of separation of an overlap area through the interfacial failure was almost the same for different specimens.

  10. Effect of Welding Consumables on Fatigue Performance of Shielded Metal Arc Welded High Strength, Q&T Steel Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magudeeswaran, G.; Balasubramanian, V.; Madhusudhan Reddy, G.

    2009-02-01

    Quenched and Tempered (Q&T) steels are widely used in the construction of military vehicles due to their high strength-to-weight ratio and high hardness. These steels are prone to hydrogen-induced cracking in the heat affected zone (HAZ) after welding. The use of austenitic stainless steel consumables to weld the above steel was the only remedy because of higher solubility for hydrogen in austenitic phase. Recent studies proved that high nickel steel and low hydrogen ferritic steel consumables can be used to weld Q&T steels, which can give very low hydrogen levels in the weld deposits. In this investigation an attempt has been made to study the effect of welding consumables on high cycle fatigue properties of high strength, Q&T steel joints. Three different consumables namely (i) austenitic stainless steel, (ii) low hydrogen ferritic steel, and (iii) high nickel steel have been used to fabricate the joints by shielded metal arc (SMAW) welding process. The joints fabricated using low hydrogen ferritic steel electrodes showed superior fatigue properties than other joints.

  11. Study on Joint Interface and Mechanical Properties of Cu/Pb-Sn/Cu Lap Joint Produced by Friction Stir Soldering Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkari Khorrami, Mahmoud; Kokabi, Amir Hossein; Movahedi, Mojtaba

    2015-05-01

    In this work, friction stir soldering (FSS) as a new approach for fabrication of copper/copper lap joints was introduced. This process is principally based on the friction stir processing (FSP) that can be performed using FSP tools with and without pin on the top sheet. In the present study, Pb-Sn foil was used as a solder which would be melted and then extruded in the area between the copper sheets during FSS process. This process was carried out using tools with and without pin at various rotation speeds of 1200, 1400, and 1600 rpm and traverse speed of 32 mm/min. Also, the same joint was fabricated using furnace soldering to compare the mechanical properties obtained with FSS and furnace soldering processes. It was observed that FSS possesses some advantages over the conventional furnace soldering process including the formation of more bond area at the interface corresponding to the higher fracture load of FSS joints compared with furnace soldering one. Moreover, it was concluded that the thickness of intermetallic compounds (IMCs) and the formation of voids at the joint interface were the predominant factor determining the mechanical properties of the FSS joints produced by FSS tool with and without pin, respectively. The microstructural examinations revealed that Cu-Sn IMCs of Cu3Sn and Cu6Sn5 were formed at the joint interface. It was observed that the FSS joint produced by tool with pin experienced the more peak temperature in comparison with that produced by pin-free tool. This may lead to the formation of thicker IMCs at the interface. Of course, the thickness of IMCs can be controlled by choosing proper FSS parameters, especially the rotation speed of the tool.

  12. Modeling Stress-Strain State in Butt-Welded Joints after TIG Welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Atroshenko

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper mathematical model was developed for definition of thermal-welding cycle influence on welding deformations distribution in flat samples of austenitic steels after TIG welding and developed recommendations to reduce the welding deformation on o the machinery for welding with a copper backing.

  13. Effect of Strength Matching on Mechanical Properties of WELDOX 960 Steel Welded Joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiling

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, WELDOX 960 high strength steel sheet was used as the research object, and the welding method was adopted with Ar-CO2 mixed gas welding method. The change of microstructure and properties under different strength matching was studied by changing the strength matching method of welded joint. The main research contents are as follows: The comprehensive mechanical properties of the weld are tested, including the tensile, impact and microhardness tests. The changes of the comprehensive mechanical properties of the welds under different strength matching are obtained, and the selection of the best strength matching under different application conditions is put forward.

  14. Effect of Laser Heat Treatment on Microstructures of 1Cr5Mo Steel Welded Joint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUO Wei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The surface of 1Cr5Mo heat-resistant steel welded joint was treated with CO2 laser,the microstructure and grain size grades of welded joints before and after laser heat treatment (LHT were analyzed with 4XC type optical microscope (OM,and the distribution of residual stress and retained austenite content in the surface of the welded joints were measured with X-ray diffraction (XRD stress tester.The results show that the grains of 1Cr5Mo steel welded joints are refined by LHT,and the microstructure uniformity improves significantly,the grain levels of welded zone,fusion zone,overheated zone and normalized zone increase from level 9,level 9.8,level 8 and level 10.7 to level 10,level 10.2,level 8.5 and level 11 respectively,the mechanical weak areas reduce from overheated zone,welded zone and fusion zone to the overheated zone.The tensile residual stress in the welded joint surface is eliminated by LHT and a layer of compressive residual stress with thickness of about 0.28mm is formed.The residual austenite content in the welded joint surface increases after LHT,of which the distribution is more uniform and conducive to the improvement of mechanical properties.

  15. Qualification of electron-beam welded joints between copper and stainless steel for cryogenic application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusch, C.; Borsch, M.; Heidt, C.; Magginetti, N.; Sas, J.; Weiss, K.-P.; Grohmann, S.

    2015-12-01

    Joints between copper and stainless steel are commonly applied in cryogenic systems. A relatively new and increasingly important method to combine these materials is electron-beam (EB) welding. Typically, welds in cryogenic applications need to withstand a temperature range from 300K down to 4K, and pressures of several MPa. However, few data are available for classifying EB welds between OFHC copper and 316L stainless steel. A broad test program was conducted in order to qualify this kind of weld. The experiments started with the measurement of the hardness in the weld area. To verify the leak-tightness of the joints, integral helium leak tests at operating pressures of 16 MPa were carried out at room- and at liquid nitrogen temperature. The tests were followed by destructive tensile tests at room temperature, at liquid nitrogen and at liquid helium temperatures, yielding information on the yield strength and the ultimate tensile strength of the welds at these temperatures. Moreover, nondestructive tensile tests up to the yield strength, i.e. the range in which the weld can be stressed during operation, were performed. Also, the behavior of the weld upon temperature fluctuations between room- and liquid nitrogen temperature was tested. The results of the qualification indicate that EB welded joints between OFHC copper and 316L stainless steel are reliable and present an interesting alternative to other technologies such as vacuum brazing or friction welding.

  16. The Microstructure and Pitting Resistance of Weld Joints of 2205 Duplex Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Mingfang; Liu, Fei; Pu, Juan; Anderson, Neil E.; Li, Leijun; Liu, Dashuang

    2017-11-01

    2205 duplex stainless steel (DSS) was welded by submerged arc welding. The effects of both heat input and groove type on the ferrite/austenite ratio and elemental diffusion of weld joints were investigated. The relationships among welding joint preparation, ferrite/austenite ratio, elemental diffusion, and pitting corrosion resistance of weld joints were analyzed. When the Ni content of the weld wire deposit was at minimum 2-4% higher than that of 2205 DSS base metal, the desired ratio of ferrite/austenite and elemental partitioning between the austenite and ferrite phases were obtained. While the pitting sensitivity of weld metal was higher than that of base metal, the self-healing capability of the passive film of weld metal was better than that of the base metal when a single V-type groove was used. Furthermore, the heat input should be carefully controlled since pitting corrosion occurred readily in the coarse-grained heat-affected zone near the fusion line of welded joints.

  17. Effect of post weld heat treatment on the mechanical and corrosion behaviour of welded Al-Fe-Si alloy joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isiaka Oluwole OLADELE

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Al-Fe-Si alloy was joined by shielded metal arc welding (SMAW process and the effects of post weld heat treatment (PWHT on the mechanical (tensile and hardness properties, corrosion behaviour and microstructure of the welded joints were investigated. The welded samples were divided into as-weld (AW, PWHT, base metal (BM and heat treated base metal (HT BM samples. Artificial aging was carried out on part of the welded sample at 177 °C with holding time of 8 hours to obtain the PWHT samples. The various samples were subjected to tensile, hardness and corrosion tests while microstructures of the fractured surfaces were viewed under optical microscope. From the results, it was observed that corrosion susceptibility of the alloy in 3.5 wt% NaCl solution was highly reduced after PWHT. The hardness was reduced after PWHT while the yield strength and joint efficiency was improved compared to the AW sample. The improvement in corrosion resistance, yield strength and joint efficiency are 78, 8.4 and 8.7 %, respectively.

  18. Microstructure and properties of weld joint during 10 kW laser welding with surface-active element sulfur

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shichun; Deng, Zhaohui; Deng, Hui; Xu, Wei

    2017-12-01

    The present work has been focused on the effects of surface-active element sulfur on welding properties during 10 kW high power laser welding of 304 stainless steel thick plate. Molten pool behavior, morphology feature of sulfide inclusions, metallographic structures, XRD patterns, microhardness, potentiodynamic polarization curves and pitted surface have been investigated and discussed. The results indicated that the added sulfur powder improved the weld depth by increasing molten metal fluidity, elongating molten pool and promoting heat transmission. The observed sulfide inclusions had small particle size of 0.65 μm in average and were distributed sparsely in weld joint. The WWS (weld joint with sulfur powder) had higher δ-ferrite content and finer grain size than the WWOS (weld joint without sulfur powder) and BM (base metal) due to the effects of sulfide inclusions on crystallizing process. The preferred orientations of γ-austenite along the (200) and (220) directions were promoted both in WWS and WWOS. Fine grain size and high δ-ferrite content led to high microhardness. The WWS had the highest microhardness among all the specimens. The WWOS and BM had a similar corrosion resistance. By comprehensive comparison, the WWS had a relative lower corrosion resistance than others, since sulfide inclusions in WWS not only had some benefits but also had some bad effects on corrosion property.

  19. On some other preferred method for optimizing the welded joint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pejović Branko B.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows an example of performed optimization of sizes in terms of welding costs in a characteristic loaded welded joint. Hence, in the first stage, the variables and constant parameters are defined, and mathematical shape of the optimization function is determined. The following stage of the procedure defines and places the most important constraint functions that limit the design of structures, that the technologist and the designer should take into account. Subsequently, a mathematical optimization model of the problem is derived, that is efficiently solved by a proposed method of geometric programming. Further, a mathematically based thorough optimization algorithm is developed of the proposed method, with a main set of equations defining the problem that are valid under certain conditions. Thus, the primary task of optimization is reduced to the dual task through a corresponding function, which is easier to solve than the primary task of the optimized objective function. The main reason for this is a derived set of linear equations. Apparently, a correlation is used between the optimal primary vector that minimizes the objective function and the dual vector that maximizes the dual function. The method is illustrated on a computational practical example with a different number of constraint functions. It is shown that for the case of a lower level of complexity, a solution is reached through an appropriate maximization of the dual function by mathematical analysis and differential calculus.

  20. Examination of pulsed eddy current for inspection of second layer aircraft wing lap-joint structures using outlier detection methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butt, D.M., E-mail: Dennis.Butt@forces.gc.ca [Royal Military College of Canada, Dept. of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Kingston, Ontario (Canada); Underhill, P.R.; Krause, T.W., E-mail: Thomas.Krause@rmc.ca [Royal Military College of Canada, Dept. of Physics, Kingston, Ontario (Canada)

    2016-09-15

    Ageing aircraft are susceptible to fatigue cracks at bolt hole locations in multi-layer aluminum wing lap-joints due to cyclic loading conditions experienced during typical aircraft operation, Current inspection techniques require removal of fasteners to permit inspection of the second layer from within the bolt hole. Inspection from the top layer without fastener removal is desirable in order to minimize aircraft downtime while reducing the risk of collateral damage. The ability to detect second layer cracks without fastener removal has been demonstrated using a pulsed eddy current (PEC) technique. The technique utilizes a breakdown of the measured signal response into its principal components, each of which is multiplied by a representative factor known as a score. The reduced data set of scores, which represent the measured signal, are examined for outliers using cluster analysis methods in order to detect the presence of defects. However, the cluster analysis methodology is limited by the fact that a number of representative signals, obtained from fasteners where defects are not present, are required in order to perform classification of the data. Alternatively, blind outlier detection can be achieved without having to obtain representative defect-free signals, by using a modified smallest half-volume (MSHV) approach. Results obtained using this approach suggest that self-calibrating blind detection of cyclic fatigue cracks in second layer wing structures in the presence of ferrous fasteners is possible without prior knowledge of the sample under test and without the use of costly calibration standards. (author)

  1. Upper Bound Limit Load Solutions for Welded Joints with Cracks

    CERN Document Server

    Alexandrov, Sergey

    2012-01-01

    The present short monograph concerns analytic and semi-analytic techniques for finding an approximate value of the limit load. The limit load is an essential input parameter of flaw assessment procedures. In most cases, finding the limit load involves some numerical calculations of different levels of complexity, including numerical minimization of functions of one or several arguments, the slip-line technique and the finite element method. This book shows in particular how to use singular behavior of the real velocity field in the vicinity of bi-material interfaces in kinematically admissible velocity fields to increase the accuracy of upper bound solutions. An approach to recalculate the limit load for a class of structures with defects with the use of its value for the corresponding structure with no defect is discussed. The upper bound technique is applied to evaluate the limit load of overmatched and undermatched welded joints with cracks subject to various loading conditions of practical importance in c...

  2. Assessment of Stress Corrosion Cracking Resistance of Activated Tungsten Inert Gas-Welded Duplex Stainless Steel Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alwin, B.; Lakshminarayanan, A. K.; Vasudevan, M.; Vasantharaja, P.

    2017-11-01

    The stress corrosion cracking behavior of duplex stainless steel (DSS) weld joint largely depends on the ferrite-austenite phase microstructure balance. This phase balance is decided by the welding process used, heat input, welding conditions and the weld metal chemistry. In this investigation, the influence of activated tungsten inert gas (ATIG) and tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding processes on the stress corrosion cracking (SCC) resistance of DSS joints was evaluated and compared. Boiling magnesium chloride (45 wt.%) environment maintained at 155 °C was used. The microstructure and ferrite content of different weld zones are correlated with the outcome of sustained load, SCC test. Irrespective of the welding processes used, SCC resistance of weld joints was inferior to that of the base metal. However, ATIG weld joint exhibited superior resistance to SCC than the TIG weld joint. The crack initiation and final failure were in the weld metal for the ATIG weld joint; they were in the heat-affected zone for the TIG weld joint.

  3. Assessment of Stress Corrosion Cracking Resistance of Activated Tungsten Inert Gas-Welded Duplex Stainless Steel Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alwin, B.; Lakshminarayanan, A. K.; Vasudevan, M.; Vasantharaja, P.

    2017-12-01

    The stress corrosion cracking behavior of duplex stainless steel (DSS) weld joint largely depends on the ferrite-austenite phase microstructure balance. This phase balance is decided by the welding process used, heat input, welding conditions and the weld metal chemistry. In this investigation, the influence of activated tungsten inert gas (ATIG) and tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding processes on the stress corrosion cracking (SCC) resistance of DSS joints was evaluated and compared. Boiling magnesium chloride (45 wt.%) environment maintained at 155 °C was used. The microstructure and ferrite content of different weld zones are correlated with the outcome of sustained load, SCC test. Irrespective of the welding processes used, SCC resistance of weld joints was inferior to that of the base metal. However, ATIG weld joint exhibited superior resistance to SCC than the TIG weld joint. The crack initiation and final failure were in the weld metal for the ATIG weld joint; they were in the heat-affected zone for the TIG weld joint.

  4. 3-D modelling of single-lap multi-bolted joints under quasi-static conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supar, Khairi; Ahmad, Hilton

    2017-09-01

    Multi-bolted joint configurations are commonly used in joining different parts in various engineering sectors, ability of bolts to transfer by-pass stress to adjacent bolts prone of net-tension to occur compared to single-bolt joint configurations. There is bearing-bypass envelope has been proposed but due to complexities in bearing damage leading to difficulties in predicting failure modes. More recently, strength prediction works in composite structures are carried out within finite element framework to take into advantage of advanced computing technology. Current work implemented a three-dimensional Extended Finite Element Method (XFEM) framework of single-row multi-bolted joints to predict the bearing stress at failure, validated against experimental datasets. A testing series comprised of different clamping load and number of bolts in a single row. All testing series failed in net-tension failure mode, suggesting prominent effect from stress concentration. Crack initiation and propagations shows similarity within XFEM and experimental observations. Good agreements were found (less than 10% discrepancy) due to ability in 3-D modelling to capture effect of bolt load and frictional load transfer.

  5. Ultrasonic Impact Treatment to Improve Stress Corrosion Cracking Resistance of Welded Joints of Aluminum Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, J.; Gou, G.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, W.; Chen, H.; Yang, Y. P.

    2016-07-01

    Stress corrosion cracking is one of the major issues for welded joints of 6005A-T6 aluminum alloy in high-speed trains. High residual stress in the welded joints under corrosion results in stress corrosion cracking. Ultrasonic impact treatment was used to control the residual stress of the welded joints of 6005A-T6 aluminum alloy. Experimental tests show that ultrasonic impact treatment can induce compressive longitudinal and transverse residual stress in the welded joint, harden the surface, and increase the tensile strength of welded joints. Salt-fog corrosion tests were conducted for both an as-welded sample and an ultrasonic impact-treated sample. The surface of the treated sample had far fewer corrosion pits than that of the untreated sample. The treated sample has higher strength and lower tensile residual stress than the untreated sample during corrosion. Therefore, ultrasonic impact treatment is an effective technique to improve the stress corrosion cracking resistance of the welded joints of 6005A-T6 aluminum alloy.

  6. Different types of cracking of P91 steel weld joints after long-term creep tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jandova, D.; Kasl, J.; Chvostova, E. (SKODA VYZKUM s.r.o., Plzen (Czech Republic))

    2010-05-15

    This paper deals with creep testing and microstructural investigation of trial weld joints prepared of wrought and cast 9Cr-1Mo-V steels using GTAW & SMAW method. Creep testing was carried out at temperature range from 525 degC to 625 degC, the longest time to rupture of 45 811 hrs was achieved. The creep strengths of weld joints for 100 000 hrs were calculated. Different types of cracking were observed in dependency on conditions of creep test and the type of weld joint. Type 1 and Type 2 fractures occurred at high applied stress at relatively low temperatures in the tube weld joint and also in two speciments of the cast plate weld joint after creep test at the lowest temperature and the highest temperature. All other fractures were of the Type 4. Causes of different fracture location in tested weld joints were elucidated on the base of substructure evolution in individual zones - the weld metal, the heat affected zone and the base material. Two processes occur simultaneously, which result in the creep damage: (i) softening of solid solution as a result of Laves phase precipitation and (ii) formation and coalescence of cavities in the soft fine grained parts of heat affected zone. (orig.)

  7. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Hybrid Welded Joints with Laser and CO2-Shielded Arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahba, M.; Mizutani, M.; Katayama, S.

    2016-07-01

    With the objective of reducing the operating costs, argon-rich shielding gas was replaced by 100% CO2 gas in hybrid laser-arc welding of shipbuilding steel. The welding parameters were optimized to obtain buried-arc transfer in order to mitigate spatter formation. Sound butt joints could be successfully produced for plates of 14 and 17 mm thickness in one welding pass. Subsequently, the welded joints were subjected to different tests to evaluate the influence of CO2 shielding gas on the mechanical properties of the welded joints. All tensile-tested specimens failed in the base material, indicating the higher strength of the welded joints. The impact toughness of the welded joints, measured at -20 °C, reached approximately 76% of that of the base material, which was well above the limit set by the relevant standard. The microstructure of the fusion zone consisted of grain boundary ferrite and acicular ferrite uniformly over the plate thickness except for the joint root where the microstructure was chiefly ferrite with an aligned second phase. This resulted in higher hardness in the root region compared with the top and middle parts of the fusion zone.

  8. Experimental study of hot cracking at circular welding joints of 42CrMo steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Chen, Genyu; Chen, Binghua; Wang, Jinhai; Zhou, Cong

    2017-12-01

    The hot cracking at circular welding joints of quenched and tempered 42CrMo steel were studied. The flow of the molten pool and the solidification process of weld were observed with a high-speed video camera. The information on the variations in the weld temperature was collected using an infrared (IR) thermal imaging system. The metallurgical factors of hot cracking were analyzed via metallographic microscope and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The result shows that leading laser laser-metal active gas (MAG) hybrid welding process has a smaller solid-liquid boundary movement rate (VSL) and a smaller solid-liquid boundary temperature gradient (GSL) compared with leading arc laser-MAG hybrid welding process and laser welding process. Additionally, the metal in the molten pool has superior permeability while flowing toward the dendritic roots and can compensate for the inner-dendritic pressure balance. Therefore, leading laser laser-MAG hybrid welding process has the lowest hot cracking susceptibility.

  9. Pulsed Magnetic Welding for Advanced Core and Cladding Steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Guoping [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Yang, Yong [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2013-12-19

    To investigate a solid-state joining method, pulsed magnetic welding (PMW), for welding the advanced core and cladding steels to be used in Generation IV systems, with a specific application for fuel pin end-plug welding. As another alternative solid state welding technique, pulsed magnetic welding (PMW) has not been extensively explored on the advanced steels. The resultant weld can be free from microstructure defects (pores, non-metallic inclusions, segregation of alloying elements). More specifically, the following objectives are to be achieved: 1. To design a suitable welding apparatus fixture, and optimize welding parameters for repeatable and acceptable joining of the fuel pin end-plug. The welding will be evaluated using tensile tests for lap joint weldments and helium leak tests for the fuel pin end-plug; 2 Investigate the microstructural and mechanical properties changes in PMW weldments of proposed advanced core and cladding alloys; 3. Simulate the irradiation effects on the PWM weldments using ion irradiation.

  10. Non-destructive three-dimensional evaluation of pores at different welded joints and their effects on joints strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomoto, Rie; Takayama, Yasuko; Tsuchida, Fujio; Nakajima, Hiroyuki

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the porosity in different laser welded cast alloys non-destructively using X-ray micro-focus computerized tomography (micro-CT) and to evaluate the effect of porosity on the tensile strength of the welded joints. The welding procedure was conducted in rectangular cast metals, CoCr, Ti and platinum added gold alloy (AuPt). The metal plates were butted CoCr to CoCr (CoCr/CoCr) or Ti to Ti (Ti/Ti) for welding of similar metals and Ti to AuPt (Ti/AuPt) for welding of dissimilar metals. Specimens were welded under several laser-welding conditions; with groove (normal), without groove (no groove), spatter, crack, or no overlapped welding (no overlap) (n=5). Porosity in the welded area was evaluated using a micro-CT. Tensile strength of the welded specimens was measured at a crosshead speed of 1mm/min. Multiple comparisons of the group means were performed using ANOVA and Fisher's multiple comparisons test (α=.05). The relationship between the porosity and the tensile strength was investigated with a regression analysis. Three-dimensional images of Ti/AuPt could not be obtained due to metal artifacts and the tensile specimens of Ti/AuPt were debonded prior to the tensile test. All other welded specimens had porosity in the welded area and the porosities ranged from 0.01% to 0.17%. The fractures of most of the CoCr/CoCr and Ti/Ti specimens occurred in the parent metals. Joint strength had no relationship with the porosity in the welded area (R(2)=0.148 for CoCr/CoCr, R(2)=0.088 for Ti/Ti, respectively). The small amount of porosity caused by the laser-welding procedures did not affect the joint strength. The joint strength of Ti/AuPt was too weak to be used clinically. Copyright © 2010 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A Study on the Optimal Welding Condition for Root-Pass in Horizontal Butt-Joint TIG Welding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Sung Hun; Kim, Jae-Woong [Yeungnam Univ., Gyeongsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    In this study, to investigate the shape of the back bead as a weld quality parameter and to select the optimal condition of the root-pass TIG welding of a horizontal butt-joint, an experimental design and the response surface method (RSM) have been employed. Three parameters are used as input variables, which include the base current, peak current, and welding speed. The back bead width is selected as an output variable representing the weld quality, the target value of the width is 5.4 mm. Conducting the experiments according to the Box-Behnken experimental design, a 2nd regression model for the back bead width was made, and the validation of the model was confirmed by using the F-test. The desirability function was designed through the nominal-the-best formula for the appropriate back bead width. Finally, the following optimal condition for welding was selected using the RSM: base current of 0.9204, peak current of 0.8676, and welding speed of 0.3776 in coded values. For verification, a test welding process under the optimal condition was executed and the result showed the back bead width of 5.38 mm that matched the target value well.

  12. Structural, chemical and deformation changes in friction welded joint of dissimilar steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ratković

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Fundamental principles of friction welding of dissimilar steels (high speed and tempering steel from the aspect of metallurgical and chemical processes occurring in the joint zone are presented in this paper. Considering that phenomena accompanying the friction welding are interdependent, it was necessary to experimentally determine the process variable parameters, to establish the optimal welding regime. The experiments were set and realized so that all the variables were analyzed as a function of the friction time. The metallographic investigations included analysis of the joint zone microstructure through structural phases and hardness changes, due to influence of the heat treatment - annealing. The experimental work included analysis of the geometry changes, the joint zone structure and the basic mechanical characteristics of the joint realized by the friction welding.

  13. Effects of Metal Types on Residual Stress in Electron-Beam Welding Joints with Sheet Metals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nagai, Takuya; Kasai, Ryu; Ueno, Kunika; Mochizuki, Masahito; Suga, Tetsuo

    2015-01-01

    The effect of metal types on the residual stresses has been researched through X-ray stress measurement for the electron-beam welding joints made of sheet metals with a thickness of approximately 10 mm...

  14. Effect of interference fit size on local stress in single lap bolted joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunbo Bi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The interference fit is an effective process technique to improve the fatigue life of aircraft structures. In this article, the experiments including the interference fit bolt installation and tensile loading in bolted joint were carried out. A three-dimensional finite element model was established to simulate the experimental process, and the finite element model was validated by comparing the simulated data with the experimental data of the squeeze forces and the strains. By finite element simulation and analysis, it can be concluded that the location of maximum value of the maximum principal stress on the upper plate faying surface is going far away from the hole edge with the increase in interference fit size. Furthermore, by analyzing the hoop stress variations along a prescribed path, the maximum value of the hoop tensile stress is smallest at the interference fit size of 1.5%.

  15. Insights into intermetallic phases on pulse welded dissimilar metal joints

    OpenAIRE

    Beyer, E.; Brenner, B; Göbel, G.; Herrmannsdörfer, T.; Kaspar, J.

    2010-01-01

    The Magnetic Pulse Welding (MPW) process has been developed to an industrially used joining method which is considered to be a fast, noncontact, clean and "cold" solid state welding process. Unlike fusion welding, the absence of direct heat during the welding cycle makes it possible to join dissimilar metals, for instance aluminium to copper or copper to steel, without noticeable detrimental metallurgical defects. This is very desirable, as today s industry lacks technologies to join often no...

  16. Microstructure and Fatigue Properties of Laser Welded DP590 Dual-Phase Steel Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Chaojie; Yang, Shanglei; Liu, Haobo; Zhang, Qi; Cao, Yaming; Wang, Yuan

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, cold-rolled DP590 dual-phase steel sheets with 1.5 mm thickness were butt-welded by a fiber laser, and the evolution and effect on microhardness, tensile property and fatigue property of the welded joint microstructure were studied. The results showed that the base metal is composed of ferrite and martensite, with the martensite dispersed in the ferrite matrix in an island manner. The microstructure of the weld zone was lath-shaped martensite that can be refined further by increasing the welding speed, while the heat-affected zone was composed of ferrite and tempered martensite. The microhardness increased with increasing welding speed, and the hardness reached its highest value—393.8 HV—when the welding speed was 5 m/min. Static tensile fracture of the welded joints always occurred in the base metal, and the elongation at break was more than 16%. The conditional fatigue limits of the base metal and the weld joints were 354.2 and 233.6 MPa, respectively, under tension-tension fatigue tests with a stress rate of 0.1. After observation of the fatigue fracture morphology, it was evident that the fatigue crack of the base metal had sprouted into the surface pits and that its expansion would be accelerated under the action of a secondary crack. The fatigue source of the welded joint was generated in the weld zone and expanded along the martensite, forming a large number of fatigue striations. Transient breaking, which occurred in the heat-affected zone of the joint as a result of the formation of a large number of dimples, reflected the obvious characteristics of ductile fracture.

  17. Failure Mode Analysis of Aluminium Alloy 2024-T3 in Double-Lap Bolted Joints with Single and Double Fasteners; A Numerical and Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khosro Fallahnezhad

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to study the mechanical behaviour and failure mode of Al 2024-T3 in double-lap bolted joints. To accomplish this, the effect of geometric parameters was investigated in both configurations of single and double fasteners. Using ABAQUS/Standard, a three-dimensional finite element model was developed and verified against the experimental results of the joints loaded in tension. In general, double bolt joints were found to have greater load carrying capacities than single bolt joints (by 40%–49%. In single bolt joints, the plate width had insignificant effect on the behaviour of the joint under tensile loading; whereas, increasing the distance of the hole from the edge, considerably enhanced the strength of the joint. In double bolt joints, changing the edge distance had almost no effect on the behaviour of the joint. However, increasing the plate width from 25.4 to 30 mm increased the load carrying capacity by 28%. This study showed that in single bolt connections, with increasing the edge distance, the failure mode can favourably shift from shear-out to bearing. Also, double bolt joints with wider plates (increased width can beneficially shift the failure mode from net-tension to bearing. The geometric parameters were found to play an important role in controlling the failure mode so that catastrophic failure modes of net-tension and shear-out can be prevented in bolted joint.

  18. Use of coatings for protection of welded joints of steels, their structure and properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezborodov, V. P.; Saraev, Yu N.

    2017-05-01

    The paper studies the structure and demonstrates the efficiency of application of eutectic nickel coatings for protection of welded joints of the 10G2S-type steels from corrosive action. It increases simultaneously with the increase of eutectic content and chemical compounds along the grain boundaries of the γ-solid solution based on nickel. The refinement of the coatings’ structure and the reduction of their heterogeneity allow enhancing the protective properties and resistance of welded joints to corrosion.

  19. Design of a welded joint for robotic, on-orbit assembly of space trusses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rule, William K.

    1992-12-01

    In the future, some spacecraft will be so large that they must be assembled on-orbit. These spacecraft will be used for such tasks as manned missions to Mars or used as orbiting platforms for monitoring the Earth or observing the universe. Some large spacecraft will probably consist of planar truss structures to which will be attached special purpose, self-contained modules. The modules will most likely be taken to orbit fully outfitted and ready for use in heavy-lift launch vehicles. The truss members will also similarly be taken to orbit, but most unassembled. The truss structures will need to be assembled robotically because of the high costs and risks of extra-vehicular activities. Some missions will involve very large loads. To date, very few structures of any kind have been constructed in space. Two relatively simple trusses were assembled in the Space Shuttle bay in late 1985. Here the development of a design of a welded joint for on-orbit, robotic truss assembly is described. Mechanical joints for this application have been considered previously. Welded joints have the advantage of allowing the truss members to carry fluids for active cooling or other purposes. In addition, welded joints can be made more efficient structurally than mechanical joints. Also, welded joints require little maintenance (will not shake loose), and have no slop which would cause the structure to shudder under load reversal. The disadvantages of welded joints are that a more sophisticated assembly robot is required, weld flaws may be difficult to detect on-orbit, the welding process is hazardous, and welding introduces contamination to the environment. In addition, welded joints provide less structural damping than do mechanical joints. Welding on-orbit was first investigated aboard a Soyuz-6 mission in 1969 and then during a Skylab electron beam welding experiment in 1973. A hand held electron beam welding apparatus is currently being prepared for use on the MIR space station

  20. On Post-Weld Heat Treatment of a Single Crystal Nickel-Based Superalloy Joint by Linear Friction Welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. J. Ma

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Three types of post-weld heat treatment (PWHT, i.e. solution treatment + primary aging + secondary aging (I, secondary aging (II, and primary aging + secondary aging (III, were applied to a single crystal nickel-based superalloy joint made with linear friction welding (LFW. The results show that the grains in the thermomechanically affected zone (TMAZ coarsen seriously and the primary γ' phase in the TMAZ precipitates unevenly after PWHT I. The primary γ' phase in the TMAZ and weld zone (WZ precipitates insufficiently and fine granular secondary γ' phase is observed in the matrix after PWHT II. After PWHT III, the primary γ' phase precipitates more sufficiently and evenly compared to PWHTs I and II. Moreover, the grains in the TMAZ have not coarsened seriously and fine granular secondary γ' phase is not found after PWHT III. PWHT III seems more suitable to the LFWed single crystal nickel-based superalloy joints when performing PWHT.

  1. JOINTING PROCESS OF THE SAE 1020 WITH MAG WELD'S REGION HAVE BEEN INVESTIGATED AND FACTOR OF MISMATCH DETERMINED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cevdet MERİÇ

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the jointing process of the SAE 1020 low carbon steel, generally used in the industry, has been done by the MAG weld method. The aim of this study is to examine the mismatch between base and weld metal. After the jointing process, mechanical and metalographical properties of the weld region, HAZ, and the weld metal of the samples considered here were searched, and CTOD (Crack Tip Opening Displacement was identified.

  2. JOINTING PROCESS OF THE SAE 1020 WITH MAG WELD'S REGION HAVE BEEN INVESTIGATED AND FACTOR OF MISMATCH DETERMINED

    OpenAIRE

    Cevdet MERİÇ; Mesut TOKDEMİR

    1997-01-01

    In this study, the jointing process of the SAE 1020 low carbon steel, generally used in the industry, has been done by the MAG weld method. The aim of this study is to examine the mismatch between base and weld metal. After the jointing process, mechanical and metalographical properties of the weld region, HAZ, and the weld metal of the samples considered here were searched, and CTOD (Crack Tip Opening Displacement) was identified.

  3. A Study of the Structure of Steel - Titanium Joints Formed by Diffusion Welding with the Use of Ultrafine Nickel Powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uvarov, A. A.; Semenov, A. N.; Krestnikov, N. S.; Lyushinskii, A. V.; Nikitina, E. V.

    2017-11-01

    The structure and phase composition of welded joints of austenitic steel 08Kh17N10T and titanium alloy PT-3V formed by diffusion welding with an intermediate layer of ultrafine nickel powder have been studied. The microstructure of joints welded in various regimes was studied using metallographic and energy-dispersive x-ray microanalysis techniques. Good prospects of the application of ultrafine dispersed media for diffusion welding of steels and titanium alloys are shown.

  4. In vitro study on the fatigue limit of single-lap joints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenske, Christian; Sadat-Khonsari, Reza; Bauss, Oskar; Seedorf, Hartwig; Kirsch, Ingo; Kahl-Nieke, Bärbel; Jüde, Hans Dieter

    2003-07-01

    Lasting adhesion between attachment and tooth is an essential prerequisite for all adhesive techniques in dentistry. However, the maximum static fatigue load is only one material-related parameter for the quality of this adhesion. Another parameter is the dynamic loading capacity of a bonded joint, which was determined in the present study for Dual adhesive resin by means of fatigue testing. This revealed a significant correlation between the recorded static and dynamic fatigue load and the gap width, which varied between 0.01 mm, 0.15 mm and 0.5 mm in the experimental setup. At 18.8 MPa, the median gap width of 0.15 mm yielded the highest static resistance, with a dynamic resistance 15% below this figure. Both the smaller and the larger gap showed significantly lower static fracture strengths (0.01 mm: 13.6 MPa; 0.5 mm: 13.7 MPa), whereas a dynamic load on the 0.01 mm bond, in contrast to the 0.5 mm bond, led to only a 5% reduction in bonding strength.

  5. Influence of Material Model on Prediction Accuracy of Welding Residual Stress in an Austenitic Stainless Steel Multi-pass Butt-Welded Joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Dean; Zhang, Chaohua; Pu, Xiaowei; Liang, Wei

    2017-04-01

    Both experimental method and numerical simulation technology were employed to investigate welding residual stress distribution in a SUS304 steel multi-pass butt-welded joint in the current study. The main objective is to clarify the influence of strain hardening model and the yield strength of weld metal on prediction accuracy of welding residual stress. In the experiment, a SUS304 steel butt-welded joint with 17 passes was fabricated, and the welding residual stresses on both the upper and bottom surfaces of the middle cross section were measured. Meanwhile, based on ABAQUS Code, an advanced computational approach considering different plastic models as well as annealing effect was developed to simulate welding residual stress. In the simulations, the perfect plastic model, the isotropic strain hardening model, the kinematic strain hardening model and the mixed isotropic-kinematic strain hardening model were employed to calculate the welding residual stress distributions in the multi-pass butt-welded joint. In all plastic models with the consideration of strain hardening, the annealing effect was also taken into account. In addition, the influence of the yield strength of weld metal on the simulation result of residual stress was also investigated numerically. The conclusions drawn by this work will be helpful in predicting welding residual stresses of austenitic stainless steel welded structures used in nuclear power plants.

  6. Structural Phase Evolution in Ultrasonic-Assisted Friction Stir Welded 2195 Aluminum Alloy Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliseev, A. A.; Fortuna, S. V.; Kalashnikova, T. A.; Chumaevskii, A. V.; Kolubaev, E. A.

    2017-10-01

    The authors examined the structural and phase state of fixed joints produced by method of friction stir welding (FSW) and ultrasonic-assisted friction stir welding (UAFSW) from extruded profile of aluminum alloy AA2195. In order to identify the role of ultrasonic application in the course of welding, such characteristics, as volume fraction and average size of secondary particles are compared in the base material and stir zones of FSW and UAFSW joints. By applying the methods of SEM and TEM analysis, researchers established the complex character of phase transitions as a result of ultrasonic application.

  7. Measurement and Analysis of the Diffusible Hydrogen in Underwater Wet Welding Joint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kong Xiangfeng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The diffusible hydrogen in steel weldments is one of the main reasons that led to hydrogen assisted cracking. In this paper, the results of literatures survey and preliminary tests of the diffusible hydrogen in underwater wet welding joint were presented. A fluid-discharge method of for measuring the diffusible hydrogen in weldment was introduced in detail. Two kinds of underwater welding electrode diffusible hydrogen are 26.5 mL/100g and 35.5 mL/100g by fluid-discharge method, which are high levels. The diffusible hydrogen of underwater welding is higher than atmospheric welding, and the result is closely related to welding material. The best way to control the diffusible hydrogen is adjusting welding material and improving fluidity of slag.

  8. Characterization of Mechanical Properties and Residual Stress in API 5L X80 Steel Welded Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa Lins, Amilton; de Souza, Luís Felipe Guimarães; Fonseca, Maria Cindra

    2018-01-01

    The use of high-strength and low-alloy steels, high design factors and increasingly stringent safety requirements have increased the operating pressure levels and, consequently, the need for further studies to avoid and prevent premature pipe failure. To evaluate the possibility of improving productivity in manual arc welding of this type of steel, this work characterizes the mechanical properties and residual stresses in API 5L X80 steel welded joints using the SMAW and FCAW processes. The residual stresses were analyzed using x-ray diffraction with the sin2 ψ method at the top and root of the welded joints in the longitudinal and transverse directions of the weld bead. The mechanical properties of the welded joints by both processes were characterized in terms of tensile strength, impact toughness and Vickers microhardness in the welded and shot peening conditions. A predominantly compressive residual stress was found, and shot peening increased the tensile strength and impact toughness in both welded joints.

  9. Analysis and Comparison of Aluminum Alloy Welded Joints Between Metal Inert Gas Welding and Tungsten Inert Gas Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lei; Guan, Yingchun; Wang, Qiang; Cong, Baoqiang; Qi, Bojin

    2015-09-01

    Surface contamination usually occurs during welding processing and it affects the welds quality largely. However, the formation of such contaminants has seldom been studied. Effort was made to study the contaminants caused by metal inert gas (MIG) welding and tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding processes of aluminum alloy, respectively. SEM, FTIR and XPS analysis was carried out to investigate the microstructure as well as surface chemistry. These contaminants were found to be mainly consisting of Al2O3, MgO, carbide and chromium complexes. The difference of contaminants between MIG and TIG welds was further examined. In addition, method to minimize these contaminants was proposed.

  10. Microstructure of friction stir welded joints of 2017A aluminium alloy sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mroczka, K; Dutkiewicz, J; Pietras, A

    2010-03-01

    The present study examines a friction stir welded 2017A aluminium alloy. Transmission electron microscope investigations of the weld nugget revealed the average grain size of 5 microm, moderate density of dislocations as well as the presence of nanometric precipitates located mostly in grains interiors. Scanning electron microscope observations of fractures showed the presence of ductile fracture in the region of the weld nugget with brittle precipitates in the lower part. The microhardness analysis performed on the cross-section of the joints showed fairly small changes; however, after the artificial ageing process an increase in hardness was observed. The change of the joint hardness subject to the ageing process indicates partial supersaturation in the material during friction stir welding and higher precipitation hardening of the joint.

  11. Improved TIG weld joint strength in aluminum alloy 2219-T87 by filler metal substitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poorman, R. M.; Lovoy, C. V.

    1972-01-01

    The results of an investigation on weld joint characteristics of aluminum alloy 2219-T87 are given. Five different alloys were utilized as filler material. The mechanical properties of the joints were determined at ambient and cryogenic temperatures for weldments in the as-welded condition and also, for weldments after elevated temperature exposures. Other evaluations included hardness surveys, stress corrosion susceptibility, and to a limited extent, the internal metallurgical weld structures. The overall results indicate that M-943 filler weldments are superior in strength to weldments containing either the standard 2319 filler or fillers 2014, 2020, and a dual wire feed consisting of three parts 2319 and one part 5652. In addition, no deficiencies were evident in M-934 filler weldments with regard to ductility, joint strength after elevated temperature exposure, weld hardness, metallographic structures, or stress corrosion susceptibility.

  12. Experimental analysis of dissimilar metal weld joint: Ferritic to austenitic stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rathod, Dinesh W., E-mail: dineshvrathod@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi 110016 (India); Pandey, Sunil [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi 110016 (India); Singh, P.K. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Prasad, Rajesh [Department of Applied Mechanics, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi 110016 (India)

    2015-07-15

    The dissimilar metal weld (DMW) joint between SA508Gr.3Cl.1 ferritic steel and SS304LN using Inconel 82/182 consumables was required in the nuclear power plants. The joint integrity assessment of these welds requires mechanical and metallurgical properties evaluation in weldment regions. The joint was subjected to 100% radiography test and bend test and transverse tensile test. Welding and testing were carried out as per the requirements of ASME Sec-IX and acceptance criteria as per ASME Sec-III. The transverse tensile test results indicated the failure from the weld metal although it satisfies the minimum strength requirement of the ASME requirements; therefore, the DMW joint was analyzed in detail. Straight bead deposition technique, fine slag inclusion, less reliable radiograph technique, plastic instability stress, yield strength ratio and metallurgical deteriorations have been contributed to failure of the DMW joint from the weld region. In the present work, the factors contributing to the fracture from weld metal have been discussed and analyzed.

  13. Effects of Porosity, Heat Input and Post-Weld Heat Treatment on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of TIG Welded Joints of AA6082-T6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Wang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Various heat input conditions and post-weld heat treatments were adopted to investigate the microstructure evolution and mechanical properties of tungsten inert gas (TIG welded joints of AA6082-T6 with porosity defects. The results show that the fracture location is uncertain when an as-welded joint has porosities in the weld zone (WZ, and overaging in the heat-affected zone (HAZ at the same time. When the fracture of the as-welded joint occurs in the HAZ, the total heat input has a linear relation with the tensile strength of the joint. An excess heat input induces the overgrowth of Mg2Si precipitates in HAZ and the coarsening of α-Al grains in WZ, resulting in a decrease in the microhardness of the corresponding areas. After artificial aging treatment, the tensile strength of the welded joint is increased by approximately 9–13% as compared to that of as-welded joint, and fracture also occurs in HAZ. In contrast, for solution treated and artificial aging treated joint, fracture occurs suddenly at the rising phase of the tensile curve due to porosity defects throughout the weld metal. Furthermore, the eutectic Si particles of WZ coarsen and spheroidize after solution treatment and artificial aging treatment, due to the diffusion of Si to the surface of the original Si phases when soaking at high temperature.

  14. Numerical and microstructural evaluation of 9%Cr welded joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawada, K. [National Institute for Materials Science (Japan); Bauer, M.; Kauffmann, F.; Klenk, A. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). MPA

    2008-07-01

    Microstructural changes after creep at 600 C were investigated on E911 welded joints, focusing on the influence of multiaxiality of stress on microstructure of the fine-grained heat-affected zone (FGHAZ). In FGHAZ, more creep voids were observed in the interior portion of the specimen, compared with the outer surface. This is due to the higher multiaxiality of stress in the interior portion. There was no significant growth of VX particles during creep because of their higher thermal stability in base metal and FGHAZ. For M{sub 23}C{sub 6}, the growth during creep in FGHAZ was faster than in the base metal. There was no large difference in the growth rate of M{sub 23}C{sub 6} between the interior portion and near the outer surface. The number of Z-phase particles after creep in the base metal was higher than that in the FGHAZ. For FGHAZ, the number of Z-phase particles was higher in the interior portion of the specimen in contrast with near the outer surface. Increase in subgrain size and decrease in dislocation density were observed after creep in the base metal and the FGHAZ. For FGHAZ, the subgrain size and dislocation density after creep in the interior portion were almost the same as near the outer surface. (orig.)

  15. Effect of process parameters on microstructure and mechanical behaviors of friction stir linear welded aluminum to magnesium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, H.M. [Research & Development Division, Hitachi America Ltd., Farmington Hills, MI 48335 (United States); Ghaffari, B. [Research and Advanced Engineering, Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, MI 48121 (United States); Yuan, W., E-mail: wei.yuan@hitachi-automotive.us [Research & Development Division, Hitachi America Ltd., Farmington Hills, MI 48335 (United States); Jordon, J.B. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States); Badarinarayan, H. [Research & Development Division, Hitachi America Ltd., Farmington Hills, MI 48335 (United States)

    2016-01-10

    The microstructure and lap-shear behaviors of friction stir linear welded wrought Al alloy AA6022-T4 to cast Mg alloy AM60B joints were examined. A process window was developed to initially identify the potential process conditions. Multitudes of welds were produced by varying the tool rotation rate and tool traverse speed. Welds produced at 1500 revolutions per minute (rpm) tool rotation rate and either 50 mm/min or 75 mm/min tool traverse speed displayed the highest quasi-static failure load of ~3.3 kN per 30 mm wide lap-shear specimens. Analysis of cross sections of untested coupons indicated that the welds made at these optimum welding parameters had negligible microvoids and displayed a favorable weld geometry for the cold lap and hook features at the faying surface, compared to welds produced using other process parameters. Cross sections of the tested coupons indicated that the dominant crack initiated on the advancing side and progressed through the weld nugget, which consists of intermetallic compounds (IMC). This study demonstrates the feasibility of welding wrought Al and cast Mg alloy via friction stir linear welding with promising lap-shear strength results.

  16. FE analysis of cruciform welded joints considering different mechanical properties for base material, heat affected zone and weld metal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasqualino Corigliano

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this scientific work was to investigate the behaviour of cruciform welded joints under static loading using a full-field technique: Digital Image Correlation. The material curves, relative to different zones (base material, heat affected zone, weld, were obtained by hardness measurements, which were done by means of a fully automated hardness scanner with high resolution. This innovative technique, based on the UCI method, allowed to identify the different zones and to assess their different mechanical properties, which were considered in the finite element model. Finally the finite element model was validated experimentally, comparing the results with the measurements obtained using the Digital Image Correlation technique.

  17. Improved design bases of welded joints in seawater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ólafsson, Ólafur Magnús

    were tested in a corrosion environment with cathodic protection. The specimens were subjected to high fatigue loading at the samestress ratio as the tests performed in-air. A direct comparison to the specimens testedunder in-air conditions was performed in order to evaluate the effects of the corrosion...... different environments, i.e. under in-air conditions and in a corrosion environment. Welded structures of all sizes and shapes exhibit fatigue failure primarily in the welded region, rather than in the base material, due to imperfections and flaws relating to the welding procedure. The welded region has...

  18. Effect of Temperature on Microstructure and Fracture Mechanisms in Friction Stir Welded Al6061 Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorbane, A.; Ayoub, G.; Mansoor, B.; Hamade, R. F.; Imad, A.

    2017-05-01

    Aluminum and its alloys are widely used in different industries due to such attractive properties as adequate strength, ductility, and low density. It is desirable to characterize welds of aluminum alloys obtained using "friction stir welding" at high temperatures. Al-to-Al (both 6061-T6) butt joints are produced by friction stir welding at tool rotation speed of 1600 rpm and four levels of tool advancing speeds: 250, 500, 750, and 1000 mm/min. Microstructural properties of the different welds are investigated. Observed are noticeable differences in microstructure characteristics between the various weld zones. Mechanical properties of these welded joints are characterized under tensile tests at temperatures of 25, 100, 200, and 300 °C, at a constant strain rate of 10-3/s. The optimum microstructural and mechanical properties were obtained for the samples FS welded with 1600 rpm tool rotation speed at 1000 mm/min tool advancing speed. The studied welds exhibited yield strength, ultimate tensile strength, and strain to failure with values inferior of those of the base material. Observations of postmortem samples revealed that in the temperature range of 25-200 °C the locus of failure originates at the region between the thermo-mechanically affected zone and the heat-affected zones. However, at higher temperatures (300 °C), the failure occurs in the stir zone. A change in the crack initiation mechanism with temperature is suggested to explain this observation.

  19. Long-term creep testing and microstructure evaluation of P91 steel weld joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jandova, D.; Kasl, J.; Kanta, V. [SKODA VYZKUM s.r.o., Plzen (Czech Republic)

    2007-06-15

    Trial weld joints were made from wrought and cast modified 9Cr-lMo-V steel using GTAW and SMAW methods. Creep testing was carried out at temperature range from 525 deg C to 625 deg C and stresses from 50 to 240 MPa. Time to rupture of welds made from tube segments and cast plates reached almost 30 000 hours and 20 000 hours respectively. Creep strength was evaluated according the Larson-Miller parametric equation and microstructure was investigated using both light and electron microscopy. Creep rupture strength of both weld joints tested at temperatures below 600 deg C falls into the {+-}20% scatter band of the creep rupture strength of the parent material. At 600 deg C and 625 deg C the creep strength dropped by 27% and 30% for the plate weld and the tube weld respectively. All ruptures occurred in fine grain and intercritically reheated heat affected zones either in the parent material or in the weld metal. Observation of thin foils prepared from selected regions of the weld joints revealed differences in precipitation processes and the structure recovery causing decrease of dislocation density in some regions. Fine ferritic grains with low density of fine carbonitride precipitate occurred in critical localities. Soft grains were deformed and cavities at grain boundaries initiated the crack propagation. (orig.)

  20. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of TIG Weld Joint of ZM5 Magnesium Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    QIN Ren-yao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The ZM5 magnesium alloy plates were welded by TIG welding method. The microstructural characteristics and mechanical properties of ZM5 magnesium alloy joint were studied by optical microscopy, microhardness and tensile testers. The results show that the TIG weld joint of ZM5 magnesium alloy is composed of heat affected zone, partially melted zone and weld metal. The heat affected zone is consisted of primary α-Mg phase and eutectic phase that is composed of eutectic α-Mg and eutectic β-Mg17Al12 phase and mainly precipitated at grain boundaries. In the partially melted zone, the eutectic phase is not only increasingly precipitated at grain boundaries, but also dispersed in grains, and the growth of the β-Mg17Al12 phase is obviously observed. The microstructure in the weld is the typical dendritic morphology. The dendrites are considered as primary α-Mg phase, and the interdendritic regions are α+β eutectic phase. The difference in the microstructure of the heat affected zone, partially melted zone and weld results in their various microhardness values, and leads to the smaller tensile strength and ductility in the ZM5 alloy weld joint than parent metal.

  1. Microstructures and Mechanical Properties of 12Cr1MoVG Tube Welded Joints With/Without Post-weld Heat Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingjing; Sun, Jian; Yu, Xinhai; Chen, Guohong; Fu, Qiuhua; Gao, Chao; Tang, Wenming

    2017-10-01

    Small-caliber, thick-wall 12Cr1MoVG seamless steel tube welded joints were fabricated in this study by gas tungsten arc welding and shielded metal arc welding techniques, then the microstructures, mechanical properties, and residual stress distributions of the joints with or without post-weld heat treatment (PWHT) were compared. The welded joints are mainly composed of bcc ferrite (F), Fe3C, and M7C3 carbides. PWHT did not cause an apparent microstructure evolution in the joints, but promoted granular pearlite decomposition and growth of F grains and carbides, therefore decreasing the yield, tensile strength, and hardness while increasing the impact toughness and elongation of the welded joints. PWHT also released the circumferential residual stress and altered the stress state in the joint from tensile to compressive. Although the mechanical properties and bending performance of the small-caliber, thick-wall 12Cr1MoVG seamless welded joints without PWHT are acceptable, our results show that the joints with PWHT are more reliable.

  2. Friction stir welding tool and process for welding dissimilar materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovanski, Yuri; Grant, Glenn J; Jana, Saumyadeep; Mattlin, Karl F

    2013-05-07

    A friction stir welding tool and process for lap welding dissimilar materials are detailed. The invention includes a cutter scribe that penetrates and extrudes a first material of a lap weld stack to a preselected depth and further cuts a second material to provide a beneficial geometry defined by a plurality of mechanically interlocking features. The tool backfills the interlocking features generating a lap weld across the length of the interface between the dissimilar materials that enhances the shear strength of the lap weld.

  3. A multi-feature integration method for fatigue crack detection and crack length estimation in riveted lap joints using Lamb waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jingjing; Guan, Xuefei; Peng, Tishun; Liu, Yongming; Saxena, Abhinav; Celaya, Jose; Goebel, Kai

    2013-10-01

    This paper presents an experimental study of damage detection and quantification in riveted lap joints. Embedded lead zirconate titanate piezoelectric (PZT) ceramic wafer-type sensors are employed to perform in situ non-destructive evaluation (NDE) during fatigue cyclical loading. PZT wafers are used to monitor the wave reflection from the boundaries of the fatigue crack at the edge of bolt joints. The group velocity of the guided wave is calculated to select a proper time window in which the received signal contains the damage information. It is found that the fatigue crack lengths are correlated with three main features of the signal, i.e., correlation coefficient, amplitude change, and phase change. It was also observed that a single feature cannot be used to quantify the damage among different specimens since a considerable variability was observed in the response from different specimens. A multi-feature integration method based on a second-order multivariate regression analysis is proposed for the prediction of fatigue crack lengths using sensor measurements. The model parameters are obtained using training datasets from five specimens. The effectiveness of the proposed methodology is demonstrated using several lap joint specimens from different manufactures and under different loading conditions.

  4. Reconstruction of fiber Bragg grating strain profile used to monitor the stiffness degradation of the adhesive layer in carbon fiber–reinforced plastic single-lap joint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Chunsheng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The adhesive-bonded joint of carbon fiber–reinforced plastic is one of the core components in aircraft structure design. It is an effective guarantee for the safety and reliability of the aerospace aircraft structure to use effective methods for monitoring and early warning of internal failure. In this article, the mapping relation model between the strain profiles of the adherend of the carbon fiber–reinforced plastic single-lap adhesive joint and the stiffness degradation evolution of adhesive layer was achieved by finite element software ABAQUS. The fiber Bragg grating was embedded in the adherend between the first and second layers at the end of the adhesive layer to calculate the reflection spectrum of fiber Bragg grating sensor region with improved T-matrix method for reconstruction of the adherend strain profile of fiber Bragg grating sensing area with the help of genetic algorithm. According to the reconstruction results, the maximum error between the ideal and reconstructed strain profile under different tension loads did not exceed 7.43%, showing a good coincidence degree. The monitoring method of the stiffness degradation evolution of adhesive layer of the carbon fiber–reinforced plastic single-lap joint based on the reconstruction of the adherend strain profile of fiber Bragg grating sensing area thus was figured out.

  5. Comparative study between 2D and 3D FEM techniques in single bolt, single lap, composite bolted joints for space structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calin-Dumitru COMAN

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Two-dimensional and three-dimensional finite element models have been developed to study the effects of bolt-hole clearance on the mechanical behavior of bolted composites (graphite/epoxy joints in space structures. The type of the studied joint was single bolt, single lap, and the geometry is a standard type for these kind of composite joints space structures. In this study, two approaches, 2D (linear analysis and 3D (nonlinear analysis were developed and the results were compared to numerical and experiment results from literature. The contact between the parts affecting the accuracy and efficiency of the models is detailed. The model’s capability to predict the three-dimensional effects such as secondary bending and through-thickness variations of the stress and stain tensor fields is presented.

  6. Influence of the Overlapping Factor and Welding Speed on T-Joint Welding of Ti6Al4V and Inconel 600 Using Low-Power Fiber Laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamini Janasekaran

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Double-sided laser beam welding of skin-stringer joints is an established method for many applications. However, in certain cases with limited accessibility, single-sided laser beam joining is considered. In the present study, single-sided welding of titanium alloy Ti6Al4V and nickel-based alloy Inconel 600 in a T-joint configuration was carried out using continuous-wave (CW, low-power Ytterbium (Yb-fiber laser. The influence of the overlapping factor and welding speed of the laser beam on weld morphology and properties was investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM and X-ray diffraction (XRD, respectively. XRD analysis revealed the presence of intermetallic layers containing NiTi and NiTi2 at the skin-stringer joint. The strength of the joints was evaluated using pull testing, while the hardness of the joints was analyzed using Vickers hardness measurement at the base metal (BM, fusion zone (FZ and heat-affected zone (HAZ. The results showed that the highest force needed to break the samples apart was approximately 150 N at a laser welding power of 250 W, welding speed of 40 mm/s and overlapping factor of 50%. During low-power single-sided laser welding, the properties of the T-joints were affected by the overlapping factor and laser welding speed.

  7. Structure and properties of fixed joints formed by ultrasonic-assisted friction-stir welding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fortuna, S. V., E-mail: s-fortuna@ispms.ru; Ivanov, K. V., E-mail: ikv@ispms.ru; Eliseev, A. A., E-mail: alan@ispms.ru [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials ScienceTomsk, 634055 (Russian Federation); Tarasov, S. Yu., E-mail: tsy@ispms.ru; Ivanov, A. N., E-mail: ivan@ispms.ru; Rubtsov, V. E., E-mail: rvy@ispms.ru; Kolubaev, E. A., E-mail: eak@ispms.ru [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials ScienceTomsk, 634055 (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-27

    This paper deals with structure and properties of aluminum alloy 7475 and its joints obtained by friction stir welding including under ultrasonic action. Microhardness measurements show that ultrasonic action increases strength properties of the joints. Optical and transmission electron microscopy reveals that this effect is related to the precipitation of tertiary coherent S-and T-phase particles.

  8. Numerical and Experimental Determination of Strain (Stress) Concentration Factors of Welded Joints between Square Hollow Sections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Puthli, R.S.; Wardenier, J.; De Koning, C.H.M.; Van Wingerde, A.M.; Van Dooren, F.J.

    1988-01-01

    This article presents methods of approach for finite element modelling of joints made of rectangular hollow steel sections where the brace members are welded to the face of the chord, to obtain strain (stress) concentration factors, SNCF (SCF). X, T and K type joints are considered. Simple modelling

  9. Finite element modelling and updating of friction stir welding (FSW joint for vibration analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahari Siti Norazila

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Friction stir welding of aluminium alloys widely used in automotive and aerospace application due to its advanced and lightweight properties. The behaviour of FSW joints plays a significant role in the dynamic characteristic of the structure due to its complexities and uncertainties therefore the representation of an accurate finite element model of these joints become a research issue. In this paper, various finite elements (FE modelling technique for prediction of dynamic properties of sheet metal jointed by friction stir welding will be presented. Firstly, nine set of flat plate with different series of aluminium alloy; AA7075 and AA6061 joined by FSW are used. Nine set of specimen was fabricated using various types of welding parameters. In order to find the most optimum set of FSW plate, the finite element model using equivalence technique was developed and the model validated using experimental modal analysis (EMA on nine set of specimen and finite element analysis (FEA. Three types of modelling were engaged in this study; rigid body element Type 2 (RBE2, bar element (CBAR and spot weld element connector (CWELD. CBAR element was chosen to represent weld model for FSW joints due to its accurate prediction of mode shapes and contains an updating parameter for weld modelling compare to other weld modelling. Model updating was performed to improve correlation between EMA and FEA and before proceeds to updating, sensitivity analysis was done to select the most sensitive updating parameter. After perform model updating, total error of the natural frequencies for CBAR model is improved significantly. Therefore, CBAR element was selected as the most reliable element in FE to represent FSW weld joint.

  10. Mehanical Properties of Electron Beam Welded Joints in Thick Gage CA6NM Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarafan, Sheida; Wanjara, Priti; Gholipour, Javad; Champliaud, Henri; Mathieu, Louis

    2017-10-01

    Design of hydroelectric turbine components requires high integrity welds (without detectable volumetric defects) in heavy gage sections of stainless steel materials, such as ASTM A743 grade CA6NM—a low carbon 13% Cr-4% Ni martensitic stainless steel that is manufactured in cast form. In this work, 90-mm-thick plates of CA6NM were joined using a single-pass autogenous electron beam (EB) welding process and the mechanical properties were evaluated in the as-welded condition to characterize the performance of the joints. The static tensile properties that were evaluated in two directions—transverse and longitudinal to the EB weld seam—demonstrated conformance of the joints with the requirements of the ASME Section IX standard. The Charpy impact energies of the EB welds—measured at -18 °C on samples with V-notch roots located in the fusion and heat-affected zones—met the minimum requirements of 27 J specified in ASME Section VIII standard. In addition, bend tests that were conducted on the entire weld cross section displayed no discontinuities on the tension side of the bent joints. Hence, the developed EB welding process was demonstrated to render high-performance joints and promises key advantages for industrialization, such as cost savings through reductions in consumable material, production time and labor intensity.

  11. Morphology, microstructure, and mechanical properties of laser-welded joints in GH909 alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Chunming; Cai, Yuanzheng; Hu, Chongjing; Zhang, Xiong; Yan, Fei; Hu, Xiyuan [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China)

    2017-05-15

    The experimental laser welding of GH909 alloy was conducted in this study. The morphology, microstructure, and mechanical properties of laser-welded joints were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, energy diffraction spectroscopy, and other techniques. Results revealed that the microstructure of the welded joints mainly consisted of tiny cellular structures, dendritic structures, and equiaxed crystals. Pores appeared in the interdendritic regions because of the insufficient local feeding of molten metal during solidification. Nb segregation in the heat-affected zone caused liquation cracking, whereas C segregation further induced the formation of carbide precipitates along the grain boundaries during the welding thermal cycle. The instability of the keyhole significantly promoted the escape of the metal vapor/plasma from the hole; as a result, porosity defects formed in the weld. The average tensile strength of the test joints was 756 MPa, which is 93.1 % of that of the base metal. The average microhardness of the weld zone (250 HV) was higher than that of the GH909 alloy substrate (208 HV), peaking at 267 HV. Microcracks appeared along the grain boundaries, proving that the grain boundaries were the weakest areas in the joint.

  12. Mehanical Properties of Electron Beam Welded Joints in Thick Gage CA6NM Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarafan, Sheida; Wanjara, Priti; Gholipour, Javad; Champliaud, Henri; Mathieu, Louis

    2017-09-01

    Design of hydroelectric turbine components requires high integrity welds (without detectable volumetric defects) in heavy gage sections of stainless steel materials, such as ASTM A743 grade CA6NM—a low carbon 13% Cr-4% Ni martensitic stainless steel that is manufactured in cast form. In this work, 90-mm-thick plates of CA6NM were joined using a single-pass autogenous electron beam (EB) welding process and the mechanical properties were evaluated in the as-welded condition to characterize the performance of the joints. The static tensile properties that were evaluated in two directions—transverse and longitudinal to the EB weld seam—demonstrated conformance of the joints with the requirements of the ASME Section IX standard. The Charpy impact energies of the EB welds—measured at -18 °C on samples with V-notch roots located in the fusion and heat-affected zones—met the minimum requirements of 27 J specified in ASME Section VIII standard. In addition, bend tests that were conducted on the entire weld cross section displayed no discontinuities on the tension side of the bent joints. Hence, the developed EB welding process was demonstrated to render high-performance joints and promises key advantages for industrialization, such as cost savings through reductions in consumable material, production time and labor intensity.

  13. Microstructure and mechanical characteristics of a laser welded joint in SA508 nuclear pressure vessel steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Wei, E-mail: wei.guo-2@manchester.ac.uk [Laser Processing Research Centre, School of Mechanical, Aerospace and Civil Engineering, University of Manchester, Sackville Street, Manchester, M13 9 PL (United Kingdom); Dong, Shiyun [Laser Processing Research Centre, School of Mechanical, Aerospace and Civil Engineering, University of Manchester, Sackville Street, Manchester, M13 9 PL (United Kingdom); Institute of Laser Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China); Guo, Wei; Francis, John A.; Li, Lin [Laser Processing Research Centre, School of Mechanical, Aerospace and Civil Engineering, University of Manchester, Sackville Street, Manchester, M13 9 PL (United Kingdom)

    2015-02-11

    SA508 steels are typically used in civil nuclear reactors for critical components such as the reactor pressure vessel. Nuclear components are commonly joined using arc welding processes, but with design lives for prospective new build projects exceeding 60 years, new welding technologies are being sought. In this exploratory study, for the first time, autogenous laser welding was carried out on 6 mm thick SA508 Cl.3 steel sheets using a 16 kW fiber laser system operating at a power of 4 kW. The microstructure and mechanical properties (including microhardness, tensile strength, elongation, and Charpy impact toughness) were characterized and the microstructures were compared with those produced through arc welding. A three-dimensional transient model based on a moving volumetric heat source model was also developed to simulate the laser welding thermal cycles in order to estimate the cooling rates included by the process. Preliminary results suggest that the laser welding process can produce welds that are free of macroscopic defects, while the strength and toughness of the laser welded joint in this study matched the values that were obtained for the parent material in the as-welded condition.

  14. Fatigue Tests on Welded Joints Improved by Grinding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerskov, Henning; Bjørnbak-Hansen, Jørgen; Olesen, John Forbes

    The present project is a part of an investigation on the fatigue life of the welded structure of large two-stroke diesel engines. Of special interest has been a study of the improvement in fatigue life, due to grinding of the weld toes. The test series carried through showed a significant increas...

  15. Modelling of damage development and ductile failure in welded joints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kim Lau

    conducted ([P1], [P2], [P7]-[P9]). The focus in the thesis is on FS-welded 2xxx and 6xxx series of aluminum alloys, which are attractive, for example, to the aerospace industry, since the 2024 aluminum in particular, is typically classified as un-weldable by conventional fusion welding techniques. Secondly...

  16. Inhibition of the formation of intermetallic compounds in aluminum-steel welded joints by friction stir welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torres López, Edwar A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Formation of deleterious phases during welding of aluminum and steel is a challenge of the welding processes, for decades. Friction Stir Welding (FSW has been used in an attempt to reduce formation of intermetallic compounds trough reducing the heat input. In this research, dissimilar joint of 6063-T5 aluminum alloy and AISI-SAE 1020 steel were welded using this technique. The temperature of welded joints was measured during the process. The interface of the welded joints was characterized using optical microscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Additionally, composition measurements were carried out by X-EDS and DRX. The experimental results revealed that the maximum temperature on the joint studied is less than 360 °C. The microstructural characterization in the aluminum-steel interface showed the absence of intermetallic compounds, which is a condition attributed to the use of welding with low thermal input parameters.La unión de juntas aluminio-acero, sin la formación de fases deletéreas del tipo FexAly, ha sido, por décadas, un desafío para los procesos de soldadura. La soldadura por fricción-agitación ha sido empleada para intentar reducir el aporte térmico y evitar la formación de compuestos intermetálicos. Usando esta técnica fueron soldadas juntas disimilares de aluminio 6063-T5 y acero AISI-SAE 1020. La soldadura fue acompañada de medidas de temperatura durante su ejecución. La interfase de las juntas soldadas fue caracterizada utilizando microscopía óptica, electrónica de barrido y electrónica de transmisión. Adicionalmente fueron realizadas medidas puntuales X-EDS y DRX. Los resultados experimentales revelan que la temperatura máxima en la junta es inferior a 360 °C. La caracterización microestructural en la interfase aluminio-acero demostró la ausencia de compuestos intermetálicos, condición atribuida al uso de parámetros de soldadura con bajo aporte térmico.

  17. Modelling of ultrasonic impact treatment (UIT of welded joints and its effect on fatigue strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.L. Yuan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonic impact treatment (UIT is a remarkable post-weld technique applying mechanical impacts in combination with ultrasound into the welded joints. In the present work, a 3D simulation method including welding simulation, numerical modelling of UIT-process and an evaluation of fatigue crack growth has been developed. In the FE model, the actual treatment conditions and local mechanical characteristics due to acoustic softening are set as input parameters. The plastic deformation and compressive stress layer are found to be more pronounced when acoustic softening takes place. The predicted internal residual stress distributions of welded joint before and after UIT are compared with experimental results, showing a fairly good agreement with each other. Finally, simulated results of fatigue crack growth in various residual stress fields are well compared with test results, so that the proposed model may provide an effective tool to simulate UIT-process in engineering structures.

  18. Predictive Modeling of Mechanical Properties of Welded Joints Based on Dynamic Fuzzy RBF Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Yongzhi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A dynamic fuzzy RBF neural network model was built to predict the mechanical properties of welded joints, and the purpose of the model was to overcome the shortcomings of static neural networks including structural identification, dynamic sample training and learning algorithm. The structure and parameters of the model are no longer head of default, dynamic adaptive adjustment in the training, suitable for dynamic sample data for learning, learning algorithm introduces hierarchical learning and fuzzy rule pruning strategy, to accelerate the training speed of model and make the model more compact. Simulation of the model was carried out by using three kinds of thickness and different process TC4 titanium alloy TIG welding test data. The results show that the model has higher prediction accuracy, which is suitable for predicting the mechanical properties of welded joints, and has opened up a new way for the on-line control of the welding process.

  19. Tensile properties and fracturing behavior of weld joints in the CLAM at high temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lei, Yucheng [School of Material Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding and Joining, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Xiao, Chengwen, E-mail: emoryxiao@163.com [School of Material Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Wang, Xu; Yue, Jiajia; Zhu, Qiang [School of Material Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China)

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • We use the stress triaxiality theory to explain the plastic deformation and facture behavior of the joints during the short term tensile tests at high temperature. • The tensile strength of CLAM welded joint at high temperature is lower compared with that at room temperature. • We explained the formation of crack and the reason of fracture. - Abstract: The tensile properties and fracturing behavior of weld joints in the Chinese low activation martensitic steel (CLAM) at high temperatures were studied. The result revealed that the cracks of weld joints in the base metal would appear in the heat-affected zone, after post-weld heat treatment for the high-temperature tensile test. The microstructure in the fractured frontier had different deformation and directions, and the fractured surface had different angles, a result associating with the normal faulting and shear fracturing. The tri-axial theory of stress can well explain the deformation and fracturing behavior of weld joints in the high-temperature tensile.

  20. Effect of Interfacial Reaction on the Mechanical Performance of Steel to Aluminum Dissimilar Ultrasonic Spot Welds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lei; Wang, Li; Chen, Ying-Chun; Robson, Joe D.; Prangnell, Philip B.

    2016-01-01

    The early stages of formation of intermetallic compounds (IMC) have been investigated in dissimilar aluminum to steel welds, manufactured by high power (2.5 kW) ultrasonic spot welding (USW). To better understand the influence of alloy composition, welds were produced between a low-carbon steel (DC04) and two different aluminum alloys (6111 and 7055). The joint strengths were measured in lap shear tests and the formation and growth behavior of IMCs at the weld interface were characterized by electron microscopy, for welding times from 0.2 to 2.4 seconds. With the material combinations studied, the η (Fe2Al5) intermetallic phase was found to form first, very rapidly in the initial stage of welding, with a discontinuous island morphology. Continuous layers of η and then θ (FeAl3) phase were subsequently seen to develop on extending the welding time to greater than 0.7 second. The IMC layer formed in the DC04-AA7055 combination grew thicker than for the DC04-AA6111 welds, despite both weld sets having near identical thermal histories. Zinc was also found to be dissolved in the IMC phases when welding with the AA7055 alloy. After post-weld aging of the aluminum alloy, fracture in the lap shear tests always occurred along the joint interface; however, the DC04-AA6111 welds had higher fracture energy than the DC04-AA7055 combination.

  1. Effect of welding processes on mechanical and microstructural characteristics of high strength low alloy naval grade steel joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ragu Nathan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Naval grade high strength low alloy (HSLA steels can be easily welded by all types of fusion welding processes. However, fusion welding of these steels leads to the problems such as cold cracking, residual stress, distortion and fatigue damage. These problems can be eliminated by solid state welding process such as friction stir welding (FSW. In this investigation, a comparative evaluation of mechanical (tensile, impact, hardness properties and microstructural features of shielded metal arc (SMA, gas metal arc (GMA and friction stir welded (FSW naval grade HSLA steel joints was carried out. It was found that the use of FSW process eliminated the problems related to fusion welding processes and also resulted in the superior mechanical properties compared to GMA and SMA welded joints.

  2. Research of Technological Properties of Steel X6CRNITI18-10 Welded Joints Exploited in Nitric Acid Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gediminas Mikalauskas

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The repair of chemical industry equipments often requires to replace long time operated pipes or welded inserts with the simi-lar chemical composition. During the study the joints from corro-sion resistant steel X6CrNiTi18-10 were welded by manual metal arc welding with covered electrodes (MMA process 111 and tungsten inert gas welding (TIG process 141 at different welding parameters. The visual, radiographic, penetrant control and ferrite content analysis were carried out. The transverse tensile and bending samples were produced from welded samples; also the macroscopic and microscopic analyse were carried out.

  3. A non-conventional technique for evaluating welded joints based on the electrical conductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, T.G.; Sorger, G., E-mail: telmo.santos@fct.unl.pt, E-mail: lgs18243@campus.fct.unl.pt [Universidade Nova de Lisboa, UNIDEMI, Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica e Industrial, Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Caparica (Portugal); Vilaca, P., E-mail: pedro.vilaca@aalto.fi [Aalto Univ., Dept. of Engineering Design and Production, School of Engineering, Aalto (Finland); Miranda, R., E-mail: rmiranda@fct.unl.pt [Universidade Nova de Lisboa, UNIDEMI, Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica e Industrial, Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Caparica (Portugal)

    2015-01-15

    Recent studies showed that electrical conductivity is a valuable technique to identify the different zones of solid-state welded joints with a good correlation with the microstructure and hardness. This is a relevant result since this technique is fast and, in some cases, non destructive, The concept was applied to other welding processes such as the ones involving fusion to a wide range of materials, For this, a comprehensive study was performed using friction stir welding, tungsten inert gas (TlG) and gas metal arc (MAG) welding processes in either bead on plate or butt joints in: carbon steel, magnesium and titanium, Eddy current nondestructive testing (NDT) was used to measure the electrical conductivity at different depths in transverse sections of the processed materials. The profiles were compared to the hardness profiles in the same sections. As a result, a correlation was observed in most materials welded by solid state and by fusion processes. The variation of the electrical conductivity closely follows that measured in the hardness. Another interesting conclusion is that, even for fusion welding of carbon steels, the technique has potential to complement the hardness measurements and microstructural observations, allowing the identification of the distinct zones of welds in materials commonly used in industry. (author)

  4. The reliability of the repair weld joints of aged high temperature components in fossil power boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okamura, Hiroyuki [Science Univ. of Tokyo (Japan); Ohtani, Ryuichi [Kyoto Univ. (Japan); Fujii, Kazuya [Japan Power Engineering and Inspection Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Yokoyama, Tomomitsu; Nishimura, Nobuhiko [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Suzuki, Komei [Japan Steel Works Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-11-01

    It is of fundamental engineering importance to be able to give reliable assessments of the effective service life of the critical components used within fossil power plants, particularly for those operating for prolonged periods. It is common practice for such assessments to have been estimated using destructive tests, typically the stress rupture test, this having been recognized as one of the most reliable evaluation methods available. Its only drawback is that it often does not permit the component to be in use following the sampling of the test specimen without repairing. The current piece of work focuses on the reliability of the repair welds of components for specimens taken from fossil power plants, having been in service for prolonged periods. Several such repairs to welds have been made to an old power boiler, in particular to a superheater header which is fabricated from 2.25Cr-1Mo steel. Under close examination the repairs to the girth weldment showed susceptibilities of weld cracking, similar to that observed in as-manufactured material. Within the repaired region of the welded joint the microstructure, tensile properties and toughness seemed to be unaffected. The hardness attained its minimum value within the heat affected zone, HAZ of the repair weld, overlapping that of original girth weld HAZ. Furthermore, the stress rupture strength achieved its minimum value at the same position taking on the same value as the strength associated with the aged girth welded joint. (orig.)

  5. Welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

    This curriculum guide is designed for use by South Carolina vocational education teachers as a continuing set of lesson plans for a two-year course on welding. Covered in the individual sections of the guide are the following topics: an orientation to welding, oxyacetylene welding, advanced oxyacetylene welding, shielded metal arc welding, TIG…

  6. Measurement of longitudinal strain and estimation of peel stress in adhesive-bonded single-lap joint of CFRP adherend using embedded FBG sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, X.; Murayama, H.; Kageyama, K.; Uzawa, K.; Wada, D.

    2012-04-01

    In this research, longitudinal strain and peel stress in adhesive-bonded single-lap joint of carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) were measured and estimated by embedded fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor. Two unidirectional CFRP substrates were bonded by epoxy to form a single-lap configuration. The distributed strain measurement system is used. It is based on optical frequency domain reflectometry (OFDR), which can provide measurement at an arbitrary position along FBG sensors with the high spatial resolution. The longitudinal strain was measured based on Bragg grating effect and the peel stress was estimated based on birefringence effect. Special manufacturing procedure was developed to ensure the embedded location of FBG sensor. A portion of the FBG sensor was embedded into one of CFRP adherends along fiber direction and another portion was kept free for temperature compensation. Photomicrograph of cross-section of specimen was taken to verify the sensor was embedded into proper location after adherend curing. The residual strain was monitored during specimen curing and adhesive joint bonding process. Tensile tests were carried out and longitudinal strain and peel stress of the bondline are measured and estimated by the embedded FBG sensor. A two-dimensional geometrically nonlinear finite element analysis was performed by ANSYS to evaluate the measurement precision.

  7. Effect of joint design and welding type on the flexural strength and weld penetration of Ti-6Al-4V alloy bars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simamoto Júnior, Paulo Cézar; Resende Novais, Veridiana; Rodrigues Machado, Asbel; Soares, Carlos José; Araújo Raposo, Luís Henrique

    2015-05-01

    Framework longevity is a key factor for the success of complete-arch prostheses and commonly depends on the welding methods. However, no consensus has been reached on the joint design and welding type for improving framework resistance. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of different joint designs and welding methods with tungsten inert gas (TIG) or laser to join titanium alloy bars (Ti-6Al-4V). Seventy titanium alloy bar specimens were prepared (3.18 mm in diameter × 40.0 mm in length) and divided into 7 groups (n=10): the C-control group consisting of intact specimens without joints and the remaining 6 groups consisting of specimens sectioned perpendicular to the long-axis and rejoined using an I-, X30-, or X45-shaped joint design with TIG welding (TI, TX30, and TX45) or laser welding (LI, LX30, and LX45). The specimens were tested with 3-point bending. The fracture surfaces were first evaluated with stereomicroscopy to measure the weld penetration area and then analyzed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The data were statistically analyzed with 2-way ANOVA and the Tukey post hoc test, 1-way ANOVA and the Dunnett test, and the Pearson correlation test (α=.05). Specimens from the X30 and X45 groups showed higher flexural strength (Pwelded area (Pwelding type. TIG welded groups showed significantly higher flexural strength than the laser groups (PTIG welding also resulted in higher welded areas than laser welding for the I-shaped specimens. No significant differences were found for the weld penetration area in the X45 group, either for laser or TIG welding. SEM analysis showed more pores at the fracture surfaces of the laser specimens. Fracture surfaces indicative of regions of increased ductility were detected for the TIG specimens. TIG welding resulted in higher flexural strength for the joined titanium specimens than laser welding. For both welding methods, X30- and X45-shaped joint designs resulted in higher flexural strength and

  8. Simulation and experimental study on distortion of butt and T-joints using WELD PLANNER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sulaiman, Mohd Shahar; Manurung, Yupiter HP; Rahim, Mohammad Ridzwan Abdul Mohd; Redza, Ridhwan; Lidam, Robert Ngendang Ak.; Abas, Sunhaji Kiyai; Tham, Ghalib [Universiti Teknologi MARA, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Haruman, Esa [Bakrie University, Jakarta (Indonesia); Chau, Chan Yin [ESI Group, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2011-10-15

    This paper investigates the capability of linear thermal elastic numerical analysis to predict the welding distortion that occurs due to GMAW process. Distortion is considered as the major stumbling block that can adversely affect the dimensional accuracy and thus lead to expensive corrective work. Hence, forecast of distortion is crucially needed and ought to be determined in advance in order to minimize the negative effects, improve the quality of welded parts and finally to reduce the production costs. In this study, the welding deformation was simulated by using relatively new FEM software WELD PLANNER developed by ESI Group. This novel Welding Simulation Solution was employed to predict welding distortion induced in butt and T-joints with thickness of 4 mm. Low carbon steel material was used for the simulation and experimental study. A series of experiments using fully automated welding process were conducted for verification purpose to measure the distortion. By comparing between the simulation and experimental results, it was found out that this program code offered fast solution analysis time in estimating weld induced distortion within acceptable accuracy.

  9. Microstructure and mechanical properties of GTAW welded joints of AA6105 aluminum alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minerva Dorta-Almenara

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW is one of the most used methods to weld aluminum. This work investigates the influence of welding parameters on the microstructure and mechanical properties of GTAW welded AA6105 aluminum alloy joints. AA6105 alloy plates with different percent values of cold work were joined by GTAW, using various combinations of welding current and speed. The fusion zone, in which the effects of cold work have disappeared, and the heat affected zone of the welded samples were examined under optical and scanning electron microscopes, additionally, mechanical tests and measures of Vickers microhardness were performed. Results showed dendritic morphology with solute micro- and macrosegregation in the fusion zone, which is favored by the constitutional supercooling when heat input increases. When heat input increased and welding speed increased or remained constant, greater segregation was obtained, whereas welding speed decrease produced a coarser microstructure. In the heat affected zone recrystallization, dissolution, and coarsening of precipitates occurred, which led to variations in hardness and strength.

  10. The effect of postprocessing on tensile property and microstructure evolution of friction stir welding aluminum alloy joint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Z.L., E-mail: zhilihuhit@163.com [Hubei Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology of Automobile Parts, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding and Joining, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); State Key Laboratory of Materials Processing and Die & Mould Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology (China); Wang, X.S. [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding and Joining, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Pang, Q. [School of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Wuhan Donghu University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Huang, F.; Qin, X.P.; Hua, L. [Hubei Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology of Automobile Parts, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China)

    2015-01-15

    Friction stir welding is an efficient manufacturing method for joining aluminum alloy and can dramatically reduce grain size conferring excellent plastic deformation properties. Consequently, friction stir welding is used to manufacture tailor welded blanks to optimize weight or performance in the final component. In the study, the microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of friction stir welding joint during plastic forming and subsequent heat treatment were investigated. The microstructural characteristics of the friction stir welding joints were studied by Electron Backscattered Diffraction and Transmission Electron Microscopy. The mechanical properties were evaluated by tensile and microhardness tests. It is found that the tensile and yield strengths of friction stir welding joints are significantly improved after severe plastic deformation due to the grain refinement. Following heat treatment, the strength of the friction stir welding joints significantly decrease due to the obvious abnormal grain growth. Careful attention must be given to the processing route of any friction stir welding joint intended for plastic forming, especially the annealing between forming passes. Severe plastic deforming of the friction stir welding joint leads to a high level of stored energy/dislocation density, which causes the abnormal grain growth during subsequent heat treatment, and consequently reduce the mechanical properties of the friction stir welding joint. - Highlights: • Great changes are observed in the microstructure of FSW joint after postprocessing. • Postprocessing shows great effect on the microstructure stability of FSW joint. • The weld shows more significant decrease in strength than the BM due to the AGG. • Attention must be given to the processing route of FSW joint for plastic forming.

  11. Dissimilar ultrasonic spot welding of Mg-Al and Mg-high strength low alloy steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.K. Patel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sound dissimilar lap joints were achieved via ultrasonic spot welding (USW, which is a solid-state joining technique. The addition of Sn interlayer during USW effectively blocked the formation of brittle al12Mg17 intermetallic compound in the Mg-Al dissimilar joints without interlayer, and led to the presence of a distinctive composite-like Sn and Mg2Sn eutectic structure in both Mg-Al and Mg-high strength low alloy (HSLA steel joints. The lap shear strength of both types of dissimilar joints with a Sn interlayer was significantly higher than that of the corresponding dissimilar joints without interlayer. Failure during the tensile lap shear tests occurred mainly in the mode of cohesive failure in the Mg-Al dissimilar joints and in the mode of partial cohesive failure and partial nugget pull-out in the Mg-HSLA steel dissimilar joints.

  12. Effect of welding processes and consumables on fatigue crack growth behaviour of armour grade quenched and tempered steel joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Magudeeswaran

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Quenched and Tempered (Q&T steels are widely used in the construction of military vehicles due to its high strength to weight ratio and high hardness. These steels are prone to hydrogen induced cracking (HIC in the heat affected zone (HAZ after welding. The use of austenitic stainless steel (ASS consumables to weld the above steel was the only available remedy because of higher solubility for hydrogen in austenitic phase. The use of stainless steel consumables for a non-stainless steel base metal is not economical. Hence, alternate consumables for welding Q&T steels and their vulnerability to HIC need to be explored. Recent studies proved that low hydrogen ferritic steel (LHF consumables can be used to weld Q&T steels, which can give very low hydrogen levels in the weld deposits. The use of ASS and LHF consumables will lead to distinct microstructures in their respective welds. This microstructural heterogeneity will have a drastic influence in the fatigue crack growth resistance of armour grade Q&T steel welds. Hence, in this investigation an attempt has been made to study the influence of welding consumables and welding processes on fatigue crack growth behaviour of armour grade Q&T Steel joints. Shielded metal arc welding (SMAW and Flux cored arc welding (FCAW were used for fabrication of joints using ASS and LHF consumables. The joints fabricated by SMAW process using LHF consumable exhibited superior fatigue crack growth resistance than all other joints.

  13. A Water-Drop Method of Hardening of the Welded Joints of Drill Pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maisuradze, M. V.; Yudin, Yu. V.; Eismondt, Yu. G.

    2015-09-01

    A combined computational and experimental technique is developed for implementing a scientifically based approach to the selection of a technology of heat hardening of welded joints of drill pipes made of steel 25KhGM with the use of water-drop quenching. The basic service characteristics of the water-drop cooling device are presented. An analytic model that relates the parameters of the water-drop quenching device (standard size and number of jets in device, pressure of fed water, distance from the jet nozzle to the cooled surface) to the properties of the welded joint is proposed. With the new technique the construction of a quenching device may be developed and the technology of heat treatment of the welded joints of drill pipes optimized in order to increase the level of mechanical properties.

  14. Fracture Behaviour of Nickel-Titanium Laser Welded Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maletta, C.; Falvo, A.; Furgiuele, F.; Barbieri, G.; Brandizzi, M.

    2009-08-01

    In this study, the effects of Nd:YAG laser welding on the fracture behavior of Ni-rich nickel-titanium sheets are analyzed by experimental investigations. The welding was carried out in open air conditions by using a special shielding/clamping system to avoid the chemical contamination of the molten zone and the formation of hot cracks. Mechanical tests of standard dog bone-shaped and single edge crack specimens were carried out to measure the stress-strain response and the fracture resistance of both the base and the welded materials. Furthermore, scanning electron microscopy observations of the fracture surfaces were carried out in order to better understand the failure mechanisms. Finally, systematic comparative studies between base and laser-welded materials were carried out.

  15. 3D finite element analysis of stress distributions and strain energy release rates for adhesive bonded flat composite lap shear joints having pre-existing delaminations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parida, S. K.; Pradhan, A. K. [Indian Institute of Technology, Bhubaneswar (India)

    2014-02-15

    The rate of propagation of embedded delamination in the strap adherend of lap shear joint (LSJ) made of carbon/epoxy composites has been evaluated employing three-dimensional non-linear finite elements. The delamination has been presumed to pre-exist in the thin resin layer between the first and second plies of the strap adherend. The inter-laminar peel and shear stress distributions have been studied in details and are seen to be predominantly three-dimensional in nature. The components of strain energy release rate (SERR) corresponding to the opening, sliding and cross sliding modes of delamination are significantly different at the two fronts of the embedded delamination. The sequential release of multi-point constraint (MPC) finite elements in the vicinity of the delamination fronts enables to simulate the growth of the delamination at either ends. This simulation procedure can be utilized effectively for evaluation of the status of the structural integrity of the bonded joints.

  16. Dynamic strain distribution measurement and crack detection of an adhesive-bonded single-lap joint under cyclic loading using embedded FBG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Xiaoguang; Murayama, Hideaki; Kageyama, Kazuro; Wada, Daichi; Kanai, Makoto; Ohsawa, Isamu; Igawa, Hirotaka

    2014-10-01

    In this study, the dynamic strain distribution measurement of an adhesive-bonded single-lap joint was carried out in a cyclic load test using a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor embedded into the adhesive/adherend interface along the overlap length direction. Unidirectional carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) substrates were bonded by epoxy resin to form the joint, and the FBG sensor was embedded into the surface of one substrate during its curing. The measurement was carried out with a sampling rate of 5 Hz by the sensing system, based on the optical frequency domain reflectometry (OFDR) throughout the test. A finite element analysis (FEA) was performed for the measurement evaluation using a three-dimensional model, which included the embedded FBG sensor. The crack detection method, based on the longitudinal strain distribution measurement, was introduced and performed to estimate the cracks that occurred at the adhesive/adherend interface in the test.

  17. Bearing Stress at Failure of Double-Lap Hybrid Joints in Woven Fabric Kenaf Fiber Composite Plates under Quasi-static Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Sim Yee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper is focused on the bearing stress at failure of double-lap woven fabric kenaf fiber reinforced polymer (KFRP hybrid bonded-bolted joints in experimental frameworks. The effects of different normalized plate width (plate width/hole diameter, W/d, lay-up types and bolt loads were incorporated in current study as specified in testing series. Generally, hybrid joint coupons separated within adhesive layer prior to net-tension failure or bearing/net-tension failure. The bearing stress at failure increased as W/d ratio increment, critical W/d is given as four and three in clamped and finger tight condition respectively. Lay-up types present insignificant effect to bearing stress at failure due to low volume fiber fraction in kenaf fiber composites. Combination of thicker and clamped conditions plate demonstrated greater bearing stress than equivalent finger-tight (FT conditions due to higher load transferred from friction, as expected.

  18. Vision and spectroscopic sensing for joint tracing in narrow gap laser butt welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Morgan; Sikström, Fredrik; Christiansson, Anna-Karin; Ancona, Antonio

    2017-11-01

    The automated laser beam butt welding process is sensitive to positioning the laser beam with respect to the joint because a small offset may result in detrimental lack of sidewall fusion. This problem is even more pronounced in case of narrow gap butt welding, where most of the commercial automatic joint tracing systems fail to detect the exact position and size of the gap. In this work, a dual vision and spectroscopic sensing approach is proposed to trace narrow gap butt joints during laser welding. The system consists of a camera with suitable illumination and matched optical filters and a fast miniature spectrometer. An image processing algorithm of the camera recordings has been developed in order to estimate the laser spot position relative to the joint position. The spectral emissions from the laser induced plasma plume have been acquired by the spectrometer, and based on the measurements of the intensities of selected lines of the spectrum, the electron temperature signal has been calculated and correlated to variations of process conditions. The individual performances of these two systems have been experimentally investigated and evaluated offline by data from several welding experiments, where artificial abrupt as well as gradual deviations of the laser beam out of the joint were produced. Results indicate that a combination of the information provided by the vision and spectroscopic systems is beneficial for development of a hybrid sensing system for joint tracing.

  19. Electric pulse treatment of welded joint of aluminum alloy

    OpenAIRE

    A.A. Mitiaev; I. P. Volchok; Yu. L. Nadezhdin; V.A. Sokirko; I. A. Vakulenko

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. Explanation of the redistribution effect of residual strengthes after electric pulse treatment of arc welding seam of the aluminum alloy. Methodology. Alloy on the basis of aluminium of АК8М3 type served as the research material. As a result of mechanical treatment of the ingots after alloy crystallization the plates with 10 mm thickness were obtained. After edge preparation the elements, which are being connected were butt welded using the technology of semiautomatic argon arc weldi...

  20. Ultrasonic methods of testing austenite weld joints and identifying defects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grebennikov, V.V.; Glek, Yu.S.; Grigor' ev, M.V.; Gurvich, A.K.; Markelova, E.A.; Matynova, N.A.; Zakharov, Yu.V.

    1985-01-01

    Testing welds with an austenitic structure and determining the nature of the defect by ultrasonic methods are the most complex and urgent problems in non-destructive testing of nuclear power station equipment and in many other engineering fields. A dual-frequency method and device for ultrasonic testing of austenitic welds are described. A method is presented for identifying the defects, based on ultrasonic-wave diffraction on the defect tips.

  1. Comparative study on transverse shrinkage, mechanical and metallurgical properties of AA2219 aluminium weld joints prepared by gas tungsten arc and gas metal arc welding processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Arunkumar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium alloy AA2219 is a high strength alloy belonging to 2000 series. It has been widely used for aerospace applications, especially for construction of cryogenic fuel tank. However, arc welding of AA2219 material is very critical. The major problems that arise in arc welding of AA2219 are the adverse development of residual stresses and the re-distribution as well as dissolution of copper rich phase in the weld joint. These effects increase with increase in heat input. Thus, special attention was taken to especially thick section welding of AA2219-T87 aluminium alloy. Hence, the present work describes the 25 mm-thick AA2219-T87 aluminium alloy plate butt welded by GTAW and GMAW processes using multi-pass welding procedure in double V groove design. The transverse shrinkage, conventional mechanical and metallurgical properties of both the locations on weld joints were studied. It is observed that the fair copper rich cellular (CRC network is on Side-A of both the weldments. Further, it is noticed that, the severity of weld thermal cycle near to the fusion line of HAZ is reduced due to low heat input in GTAW process which results in non dissolution of copper rich phase. Based on the mechanical and metallurgical properties it is inferred that GTAW process is used to improve the aforementioned characteristics of weld joints in comparison to GMAW process.

  2. Sensitivity Analysis for Residual Stress on DVI (Direct Vessel Injection) Nozzle Welded Joint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noh, Byeong Wook; Chung, Sung Ho; Lee, Jung Hun; Kim, Oak Sug [DOOSAN Heavy Industries and Construction Co. LTD, Reactor Design Team, 555 Guygok-dong Changwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-07-01

    Generally, any welding process produces high compressive or tensile residual stresses in the heat affected zone depending on the method, shape and procedures of the weldment. In particular, the tensile residual stresses have a considerable effect on the material strength, fatigue strength and corrosion cracking. For this reason, it is important that some knowledge of the internal stress state be deduced either from measurements or from modeling predictions. In this study, the residual stresses after a multi-pass welding process for DVI nozzle welding joint were evaluated by a numerical simulation method. The welding joint considered three weld joint angles of 40 deg., 6 deg. and 2 deg. Computations were made using a 2-D finite element model based on the simulation of cooling from the heat treatment temperature to room temperature with two cooling conditions at the inside surface. In these results, it is shown that the residual stress increased at the inner surface, when water cooling was applied to the inner surface, and axial compressive residual stress increased at the inner surface when the joint angle was decreased. (authors)

  3. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Friction Welding Joints with Dissimilar Titanium Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingping Ji

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Titanium alloys, which are important in aerospace application, offer different properties via changing alloys. As design complexity and service demands increase, dissimilar welding of the titanium alloys becomes a particular interest. Linear friction welding (LFW is a relatively novel bond technique and has been successfully applied for joining titanium alloys. In this paper, dissimilar joints with Ti-6Al-4V and Ti-5Al-2Sn-2Zr-4Mo-4Cr alloys were produced by LFW process. Microstructure was studied via optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM, while the chemical composition across the welded samples was identified by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Mechanical tests were performed on welded samples to study the joint mechanical properties and fracture characteristics. SEM was carried out on the fracture surface to reveal their fracture modes. A significant microstructural change with fine re-crystallization grains in the weld zone (WZ and small recrystallized grains in the thermo-mechanically affected zone on the Ti-6Al-4V side was discovered in the dissimilar joint. A characteristic asymmetrical microhardness profile with a maximum in the WZ was observed. Tensile properties of the dissimilar joint were comparable to the base metals, but the impact toughness exhibited a lower value.

  4. Structural health monitoring of multi-spot welded joints using a lead zirconate titanate based active sensing approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Ping; Kong, Qingzhao; Xu, Kai; Jiang, Tianyong; Huo, Lin-sheng; Song, Gangbing

    2016-01-01

    Failures of spot welded joints directly reduce the load capacity of adjacent structures. Due to their complexity and invisibility, real-time health monitoring of spot welded joints is still a challenge. In this paper, a lead zirconate titanate (PZT) based active sensing approach was proposed to monitor the structural health of multi-spot welded joints in real time. In the active sensing approach, one PZT transducer was used as an actuator to generate a guided stress wave, while another one, as a sensor, detected the wave response. Failure of a spot welded joint reduces the stress wave paths and attenuates the wave propagation energy from the actuator to the sensor. A total of four specimens made of dual phase steel with spot welds, including two specimens with 20 mm intervals of spot welded joints and two with 25 mm intervals, were designed and fabricated for this research. Under tensile tests, the spot welded joints successively failed, resulting in the PZT sensor reporting decreased received energy. The energy attenuations due to the failures of joints were clearly observed by the PZT sensor signal in both the time domain and frequency domain. In addition, a wavelet packet-based spot-weld failure indicator was developed to quantitatively evaluate the failure condition corresponding to the number of failed joints.

  5. Microstructural and Mechanical Characterization of Electron Beam Welded Joints of High Strength S960QL and Weldox 1300 Steel Grades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Błacha S.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows the results of metallographic examination and mechanical properties of electron beam welded joints of quenched and tempered S960QL and Weldox 1300 steel grades. The aim of this study was to examine the feasibility of producing good quality electron beam welded joints without filler material.

  6. Validation and implementation of sandwich structure bottom plate to rib weld joint in the base section of ITER Cryostat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prajapati, Rajnikant, E-mail: rajnikant@iter-india.org [ITER-India, Institute For Plasma Research, A-29, GIDC Electronics Estate, Sector-25, Gandhinagar 382016 (India); Bhardwaj, Anil K.; Gupta, Girish; Joshi, Vaibhav; Patel, Mitul; Bhavsar, Jagrut; More, Vipul; Jindal, Mukesh; Bhattacharya, Avik; Jogi, Gaurav; Palaliya, Amit; Jha, Saroj; Pandey, Manish [ITER-India, Institute For Plasma Research, A-29, GIDC Electronics Estate, Sector-25, Gandhinagar 382016 (India); Jadhav, Pandurang; Desai, Hemal [Larsen & Toubro Limited, Heavy Engineering, Hazira Manufacturing Complex, Gujarat (India)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • ITER Cryostat base section sandwich structure bottom plate to rib weld joint is qualified through mock-up. • Established welding sequence was successfully implemented on all six sectors of cryostat base section. • Each layer liquid penetrant examination has been carried out for these weld joints and found satisfactory. - Abstract: Cryostat is a large stainless steel vacuum vessel providing vacuum environment to ITER machine components. The cryostat is ∼30 m in diameter and ∼30 m in height having variable thickness from 25 mm to 180 mm. Sandwich structure of cryostat base section withstands vacuum loading and limits the deformation under service conditions. Sandwich structure consists of top and bottom plates internally strengthened with radial and circular ribs. In current work, sandwich structure bottom plate to rib weld joint has been designed with full penetration joint as per ITER Vacuum Handbook requirement considering nondestructive examinations and welding feasibility. Since this joint was outside the scope of ASME Section VIII Div. 2, it was decided to validate through mock-up of bottom plate to rib joint. Welding sequence was established to control the distortion. Tensile test, macro-structural examination and layer by layer LPE were carried out for validation of this weld joint. However possibility of ultrasonic examination method was also investigated. The test results from the welded joint mock-up were found to confirm all code and specification requirements. The same was implemented in first sector (0–60°) of base section sandwich structure.

  7. Investigation of welding crack in micro laser welded NiTiNb shape memory alloy and Ti6Al4V alloy dissimilar metals joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuhua, Chen; Yuqing, Mao; Weiwei, Lu; Peng, He

    2017-06-01

    Dissimilar metals of NiTiNb shape memory alloy and Ti6Al4V alloy with a same thickness of 0.2 mm were joined by micro laser welding. The effect of laser power on crack sensitivity of the weld was investigated. The results show that full penetrated welds are obtained when the laser power of 7.2 W is used, many cracks are observed in the weld. With increasing the laser power to 12 W, the number of all cracks and cracking width first increase and then decrease. By XRD analysis, three different kinds of Ti2Ni, NbNi3 and AlNbTi2 intermetallic compounds are found in the weld. According to the formation enthalpy and binary phase diagram, brittle Ti2Ni phase with more contents is existed in the weld due to final solidification, and which is the main reason of crack formation along with large stress concentration. Moreover, the welding cracks like the weld center longitudinal solidification cracks, weld metal toe transversal liquid cracks, heat-affected-zone hot cracks and crater cracks are classified in the laser welded joints. A brittle cleavage fracture with cleavage planes and river patterns in the joints is presented from the fracture surface.

  8. A comparative study of the microstructure and properties of 800 MPa microalloyed C-Mn steel welded joints by laser and gas metal arc welding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Qian [The State Key Laboratory of Rolling and Automation of Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Di, Hong-Shuang, E-mail: hongshuangdi_ral@126.com [The State Key Laboratory of Rolling and Automation of Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Li, Jun-Chen [The State Key Laboratory of Rolling and Automation of Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Wu, Bao-Qiang [National Key Laboratory for Precision Hot Processing of Metals, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Misra, R.D.K. [Laboratory for Excellence in Advanced Steel Research, Department of Metallurgical, Material and Biomedical Engineering, University of Texas at El Paso, TX 79968 (United States)

    2016-07-04

    The differences in microstructure and mechanical properties of laser beam welded (LBW) and gas metal arc welded (GMAW) joints of 800 MPa grade Nb-Ti-Mo microalloyed C-Mn steel of 5 mm thickness were studied. The study suggested that the microstructure in welded seam (WS) of GMAW was acicular ferrite and fine grained ferrite, whereas lath martensite (LM) was obtained in WS of LBW, where inclusions were finer and did not act as nucleation sites for acicular ferrite. The microstructure of coarse-grained HAZ (CGHAZ) obtained using the two welding methods was LM and granular bainite (GB), respectively. The original austenite grain size in CGHAZ of LBW was 1/3 of GMAW. The microstructure of fine-grained HAZ and mixed-grained HAZ using the two welding methods was ferrite and M-A constituents, while that of LBW was significantly fine. The hardness of LBW welded joints was higher than the base metal (BM), which was the initiation site for tensile fracture. The tensile fracture location of GMAW welded joints was in WS. The impact toughness of LBW welded joints was excellent and the impact absorption energy was similar to BM.

  9. Influence of Laser Power on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of a Laser Welded-Brazed Mg Alloy/Ni-Coated Steel Dissimilar Joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Caiwang; Xiao, Liyuan; Liu, Fuyun; Chen, Bo; Song, Xiaoguo; Li, Liqun; Feng, Jicai

    2017-05-01

    In this work, we describe a method to improve the bonding of an immiscible Mg/steel system using Ni as an interlayer by coating it on the steel surface. Laser welding-brazing of AZ31B Mg alloy to Ni-coated Q235 steel using Mg-based filler was performed in a lap configuration. The influence of laser power on the weld characteristics, including joint appearance, formation of interfacial reaction layers and mechanical properties was investigated. The results indicated that the presence of the Ni-coating promoted the wetting of the liquid filler metal on the steel surface. A thermal gradient along the interface led to the formation of heterogeneous interfacial reaction layers. When using a low laser power of 1600 W, the reaction products were an FeAl phase in the direct laser irradiation zone, an AlNi phase close to the intermediate zone and mixtures of AlNi phase and an (α-Mg + Mg2Ni) eutectic structure near the interface at the seam head zone. For high powers of more than 2000 W, the FeAl phase grew thicker in the direct laser irradiation zone and a new Fe(Ni) transition layer formed at the interface of the intermediate zone and the seam head zone. However, the AlNi phase and (α-Mg + Mg2Ni) eutectic structure were scattered at the Mg seam. All the joints fractured at the fusion zone, indicating that the improved interface was not the weakest joint region. The maximum tensile-shear strength of the Mg/Ni-coated steel joint reached 190 N/mm, and the joint efficiency was 70% with respect to the Mg alloy base metal.

  10. Correlation between microstructure and hardness of a low activation ferritic steel (JLF-1) weld joint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, N.; Muroga, T.; Nishimura, A.; Motojima, O. [National Inst. for Fusion Science (NIFS), Toki (Japan)

    1998-10-01

    Fe-Cr-W ferritic steels are candidate low activation materials for fusion reactor structural components. Under a surveillance test program of the Japanese low activation Fe-9Cr-2WVTa steel (JLF-1), JLF-1-HEAT2 was made by Japanese universities. The present paper reports the results of microstructural observation and hardness testing of JLF-1-HEAT2 and its weld joint. The relation of microstructure with local hardness and tensile properties at various positions on the weld joint was investigated, and the correlation qualitatively interpreted in terms of the martensitic lath width. (orig.) 4 refs.

  11. Modeling and analysis of novel laser weld joint designs using optical ray tracing.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milewski, J. O. (John O.)

    2002-01-01

    Reflection of laser energy presents challenges in material processing that can lead to process inefficiency or process instability. Understanding the fundamentals of non-imaging optics and the reflective propagation of laser energy can allow process and weld joint designs to take advantage of these reflections to enhance process efficiency or mitigate detrimental effects. Optical ray tracing may be used within a 3D computer model to evaluate novel joint and fixture designs for laser welding that take advantage of the reflective propagation of laser energy. This modeling work extends that of previous studies by the author and provides comparison with experimental studies performed on highly reflective metals. Practical examples are discussed.

  12. Experimental characterization of fatigue strength in butt welded joint considering the geometry and the effect of cooling rate of the weld

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzola, Nelson; Hernández, Edgar

    2017-05-01

    In this work the experimental characterization of fatigue strength in butt welded joints considering the geometry and the post-weld cooling cycle was performed. ASTM A-36 structural steel was used as the base metal for the shielded metal arc welding process, with welding electrode E6013. Two experimental factors were established: weld bead geometry and the post-weld cooling rate. Two levels for each factor, the welding reinforcement (1 and 3 mm), and the rate of cooling, slow (quiet air) and fast (immersion in water) are evaluated respectively. For the uniaxial fatigue tests, 8 samples were selected for each treatment for a total of 32 specimens. The mechanical and fractomechanical properties of fusion zone, heat affected zone and base metal in relation to the analysis of failure mechanisms were analysed. The fatigue crack growth rates were estimated based on the counting of microstrations. Furthermore, experimental tests, such as uniaxial tension, microindentation hardness, Charpy impact and metallographic analysis, were made to know the influence of the experimental factors in the fatigue strength. On this research, about the 78.13% of the samples obtained a resistance higher than the recommended one by class FAT 100. The results showed that the geometry of the joint is the factor of greatest influence on fatigue strength for butt welded joints; the greater the weld reinforcement the lower the fatigue strength of the joint. Although it is also important to consider other geometric factors of less impact as it is the weld toe radius and the welding chord width.

  13. Dissimilar ultrasonic spot welding of aerospace aluminum alloy AA2139 to titanium alloy TiAl6V4

    OpenAIRE

    Prangnell, Philip; Zhang, Chaoqun Q; Robson, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    The microstructure, hardness, lap shear strength and fracture energy of AA2139–TiAl6V4 spot joints produced by ultrasonic welding were investigated and related to the weld thermal cycle. No obvious intermetallic reaction layer was observed in the AA2139–TiAl6V4 welds, even using transmission electron microscopy. The hardness profile of AA2139 side after welding was studied, demonstrating that the heat introduced by the welding process leads to some softening with partial hardness recovery aft...

  14. Metallurgical and Corrosion Characterization of POST Weld Heat Treated Duplex Stainless Steel (uns S31803) Joints by Friction Welding Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asif M., Mohammed; Shrikrishna, Kulkarni Anup; Sathiya, P.

    2016-02-01

    The present study focuses on the metallurgical and corrosion characterization of post weld heat treated duplex stainless steel joints. After friction welding, it was confirmed that there is an increase in ferrite content at weld interface due to dynamic recrystallization. This caused the weldments prone to pitting corrosion attack. Hence the post weld heat treatments were performed at three temperatures 1080∘C, 1150∘C and 1200∘C with 15min of aging time. This was followed by water and oil quenching. The volume fraction of ferrite to austenite ratio was balanced and highest pit nucleation resistance were achieved after PWHT at 1080∘C followed by water quench and at 1150∘C followed by oil quench. This had happened exactly at parameter set containing heating pressure (HP):40 heating time (HT):4 upsetting pressure (UP):80 upsetting time (UP):2 (experiment no. 5). Dual phase presence and absence of precipitates were conformed through TEM which follow Kurdjumov-Sachs relationship. PREN of ferrite was decreasing with increase in temperature and that of austenite increased. The equilibrium temperature for water quenching was around 1100∘C and that for oil quenching was around 1140∘C. The pit depths were found to be in the range of 100nm and width of 1.5-2μm.

  15. Influence of friction stir welding parameters on properties of 2024 T3 aluminium alloy joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eramah Abdsalam M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to analyse the process of friction stir welding (FSW of 3mm thick aluminium plates made of high strength aluminium alloy - 2024 T3, as well as to assess the mechanical properties of the produced joints. FSW is a modern procedure which enables joining of similar and dissimilar materials in the solid state, by the combined action of heat and mechanical work. This paper presents an analysis of the experimental results obtained by testing the butt welded joints. Tensile strength of the produced joints is assessed, as well as the distribution of hardness, micro-and macrostructure through the joints (in the base material, nugget, heat affected zone and thermo-mechanically affected zone. Different combinations of the tool rotation speed and the welding speed are used, and the dependence of the properties of the joints on these parameters of welding technology is determined. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 34018 i br. TR 35006

  16. Finite element normal mode analysis of resistance welding jointed of dissimilar plate hat structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazri, N. A.; Sani, M. S. M.

    2017-10-01

    Structural joints offer connection between structural element (beam, plate, solid etc.) in order to build a whole assembled structure. The complex behaviour of connecting elements plays a valuable role in characteristics of dynamic such as natural frequencies and mode shapes. In automotive structures, the trustworthiness arrangement of the structure extremely depends on joints. In this paper, top hat structure is modelled and designed with spot welding joint using dissimilar materials which is mild steel 1010 and stainless steel 304, using finite element software. Different types of connector elements such as rigid body element (RBE2), welding joint element (CWELD), and bar element (CBAR) are applied to represent real connection between two dissimilar plates. Normal mode analysis is simulated with different types of joining element in order to determine modal properties. Natural frequencies using RBE2, CBAR and CWELD are compared to equivalent rigid body method. Connection that gives the lowest percentage error among these three will be selected as the most reliable joining for resistance spot weld. From the analysis, it is shown that CWELD is better compared to others in term of weld joining among dissimilar plate materials. It is expected that joint modelling of finite element plays significant role in structural dynamics.

  17. Structure and Microhardness of Cu-Ta Joints Produced by Explosive Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maliutina, Iu. N.; Mali, V. I.; Bataev, I. A.; Bataev, A. A.; Esikov, M. A.; Smirnov, A. I.; Skorokhod, K. A.

    2013-01-01

    The structure and microhardness of Cu-Ta joints produced by explosive welding were studied. It was found that, during explosive welding, an intermediate layer 20⋯40 μm thick with a finely dispersed heterophase structure, formed between the welded copper and tantalum plates. The structure of the layer was studied by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Microvolumes with tantalum particles distributed in a copper matrix and microvolumes of copper particles in a tantalum matrix were detected. The tantalum particles in copper have a size of 5⋯500 nm, with a predominance of 5⋯50 nm particles. A mechanism for the formation of the finely dispersed heterophase structure in explosive welding is proposed. The microhardness of interlayers with the heterophase structure reaches 280 HV, which far exceeds the microhardness of copper (~130 HV) and tantalum (~160 HV). Many twins of deformation origin were found in the structure of the copper plate. The effect of heating temperature in the range from 100 to 900°C on the microhardness of copper, tantalum, and the Cu-Ta welded joint was studied. Upon heating to 900°C, the microhardness of the intermediate layer decreases from 280 to 150 HV. The reduction in the strength properties of the weld material is mainly due to structural transformations in copper. PMID:24453818

  18. Fatigue properties and fracture mechanism of load carrying type fillet joints with one-sided welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takamasa Abe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The structures of the hydraulic excavator and the crane have numerous one-sided welded joints. However, attachments with box like structures are difficult to weld at both sides. Therefore, high accurate evaluation method is needed. In this study, the fatigue properties and the fracture mechanism of the load carrying type fillet joints with one-sided welding were investigated experimentally to evaluate its fatigue damage with high accuracy based on the experimental results. As the results, fatigue cracks in the test piece initiated from the tip of the unwelded portion and propagated into the welding materials. Multiple welding defects were observed in the unwelded portion, but did not appear to be crack origins. Although these welding defects affected the direction of crack propagation they exerted minimal influence. The three-dimensional observations revealed that fatigue cracks initiate at an early stage of the fatigue development. We infer that the fatigue lifetime is chiefly governed by the crack propagation lifetime. Cracks were initiated at multiple sites in the test piece. As the number of cycles increased, these cracks propagated and combined. So considering the combination of cracks from multiple crack origins is important for a precise evaluation of fatigue damage.

  19. Fatigue properties and fracture mechanism of load carrying type fillet joints with one-sided welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takamasa Abe

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The structures of the hydraulic excavator and the crane have numerous one-sided welded joints. However, attachments with box like structures are difficult to weld at both sides. Therefore, high accurate evaluation method is needed. In this study, the fatigue properties and the fracture mechanism of the load carrying type fillet joints with one-sided welding were investigated experimentally to evaluate its fatigue damage with high accuracy based on the experimental results. As the results, fatigue cracks in the test piece initiated from the tip of the unwelded portion and propagated into the welding materials. Multiple welding defects were observed in the unwelded portion, but did not appear to be crack origins. Although these welding defects affected the direction of crack propagation they exerted minimal influence. The three-dimensional observations revealed that fatigue cracks initiate at an early stage of the fatigue development. We infer that the fatigue lifetime is chiefly governed by the crack propagation lifetime. Cracks were initiated at multiple sites in the test piece. As the number of cycles increased, these cracks propagated and combined. So considering the combination of cracks from multiple crack origins is important for a precise evaluation of fatigue damage.

  20. Investigation on Mechanical Properties of 9%Cr/CrMoV Dissimilar Steels Welded Joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xia; Lu, Fenggui; Yang, Renjie; Wang, Peng; Xu, Xiaojin; Huo, Xin

    2015-04-01

    Advanced 9%Cr steel with good heat resistance and CrMoV with good toughness were chosen as candidate materials to fabricate combined rotor for steam turbine operating at over 620 °C. But the great difference in base metals properties presents a challenge in achieving sound defect-free joint with optimal properties in dissimilar welded rotor. In this paper, appropriate selection of filler metal, welding parameters, and post-weld heat treatment was combined to successfully weld 1100-mm-diameter 9%Cr/CrMoV dissimilar experimental rotor through ultra-narrow gap submerge arc welding. Some properties such as hardness, low-cycle fatigue (LCF), and high-cycle fatigue (HCF) combined with microstructural characterization qualify the integrity of the weld. Microstructural analysis indicated the presence of high-temperature tempered martensite as the phase responsible for the improved properties obtained in the weld. The Coffin-Manson parameters were obtained by fitting the data in LCF test, while the conditional fatigue strength was derived from the HCF test based on S-N curve. Analysis of hardness profile showed that the lowest value occurred at heat-affected zone adjacent to base metal which represents the appropriate location of fracture for the samples after LCF and HCF tests.

  1. Fatigue Life Improvement for Cruciform Welded Joint by Mechanical Surface Treatment using Hammer Peening and UNSM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Seung-Ho; Han, Jeong-Woo; Nam, Yong-Yun; Cho, In-Ho

    For the improvement of fatigue strength of welded structures, mechanical post treatments have been applied in various industrial fields and have in most cases been founded to give substantial increases in their fatigue lives. These methods, generally, consist of the modification of weld toe geometry and the introduction of compressive residual stresses. In mechanical surface treatments, e.g. PHP (pneumatic hammer peening) and UNSM (ultrasonic nano-crystal surface modification), the weld profile is modified due to remove or reduce minute crack-like flaws, and compressive residual stresses are also induced. In this study, a pneumatic hammer peening procedure and a UNSM device were introduced, and a quantitative measure of fatigue strength improvement was performed. The fatigue strength at 2 × 106 cycles of hammer-peened and UNSM treated on a non-load carrying cruciform welded joint shows 220 and 260MPa, respectively, which are more than two times higher than that of as-welded specimen. Especially, the surface layer in the vicinity weld toe treated by the UNSM provides nano-crystal structure created by an ultrasonic cold forging and introduces very high welding residual stress in compression.

  2. Double Fillet Welding of Carbon Steel T-Joint by Double Channel Shielding Gas Metal Arc Welding Method Using Metal Cored Wire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mert T.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Low carbon steel material and T-joints are frequently used in ship building and steel constructions. Advantages such as high deposition rates, high quality and smooth weld metals and easy automation make cored wires preferable in these industries. In this study, low carbon steel materials with web and flange thicknesses of 6 mm, 8 mm and 10 mm were welded with conventional GMAW and double channel shielding gas metal arc welding (DMAG method to form double fillet T-joints using metal cored wire. The difference between these two methods were characterized by measurements of mean welding parameters, Vickers hardness profiles, weld bead and HAZ geometry of the joints and thermal camera temperature measurements. When weld bead and HAZ geometries are focused, it was seen filler metal molten area increased and base metal molten area decreased in DMAG of low carbon steel. When compared with traditional GMAW, finer and acicular structures in weld metal and more homogenous and smaller grains in HAZ are obtained with double channel shielding gas metal arc welding.

  3. A study on an efficient prediction of welding deformation for T-joint laser welding of sandwich panel PART I : Proposal of a heat source model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Woong Kim

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of I-Core sandwich panel has increased in cruise ship deck structure since it can provide similar bending strength with conventional stiffened plate while keeping lighter weight and lower web height. However, due to its thin plate thickness, i.e. about 4~6 mm at most, it is assembled by high power CO2 laser welding to minimize the welding deformation. This research proposes a volumetric heat source model for T-joint of the I-Core sandwich panel and a method to use shell element model for a thermal elasto-plastic analysis to predict welding deformation. This paper, Part I, focuses on the heat source model. A circular cone type heat source model is newly suggested in heat transfer analysis to realize similar melting zone with that observed in experiment. An additional suggestion is made to consider negative defocus, which is commonly applied in T-joint laser welding since it can provide deeper penetration than zero defocus. The proposed heat source is also verified through 3D thermal elasto-plastic analysis to compare welding deformation with experimental results. A parametric study for different welding speeds, defocus values, and welding powers is performed to investigate the effect on the melting zone and welding deformation. In Part II, focuses on the proposed method to employ shell element model to predict welding deformation in thermal elasto-plastic analysis instead of solid element model.

  4. Microstructures and Mechanical Properties of Weld Metal and Heat-Affected Zone of Electron Beam-Welded Joints of HG785D Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiang; Han, Jianmin; Tan, Caiwang; Yang, Zhiyong; Wang, Junqiang

    2016-12-01

    Vacuum electron beam welding (EBW) process was employed to butt weld 10-mm-thick HG785D high-strength steels. The penetration into the steel was adjusted by beam current. Microstructures at weld metal and heat-affected zone (HAZ) regions were comparatively observed. Mechanical properties of the EBWed joints including Vickers hardness, tensile and Charpy impact tests were evaluated. The results indicated that microstructures at the weld metal consisted of coarse lath martensite and a small amount of acicular martensite, while that in the HAZ was tempered sorbite and martensite. The grain size in the weld metal was found to be larger than that in the HAZ, and its proportion in weld metal was higher. The hardness in the weld metal was higher than the HAZ and base metal. The tensile strength and impact toughness in the HAZ was higher than that in the weld metal. All the behaviors were related to microstructure evolution caused by higher cooling rates and state of base metal. The fracture surfaces of tensile and impact tests on the optimized joint were characterized by uniform and ductile dimples. The results differed significantly from that obtained using arc welding process.

  5. Optimization of weld characteristics of friction welded AA 6061-AA 6351 joints using grey-principal component analysis (G-PCA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adalarasan, R.; Santhanakumar, M. [Saveetha Engineering College, Chennai (India); Sundaram, A. Shanmuga [Sree Sastha Institute of Engineering and Technology, Chennai (India)

    2014-01-15

    Friction welding is a solid state joining process in which the quality of welded joint is influenced by the input parameter setting. The objective of the present study is to conduct experimental investigation of the bond strength and hardness of the friction welded joints involving AA 6061 and AA 6351 alloys by conducting experiments designed by Taguchi's L{sub 9} orthogonal matrix array. A systematic approach becomes essential to find the optimal setting of friction welding parameters. Hence a new approach named grey-principal component analysis (G-PCA) is presented in which the principal component analysis (PCA) is used to generate weights for the grey relational coefficients obtained in the grey relational analysis (GRA). The results of the confirmation experiment conducted with the optimal setting predicted by the G-PCA have shown improvements in the performance characteristics. Hence G-PCA can be used for experimental welding optimization.

  6. Re-analysis of fatigue data for welded joints using the notch stress approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mikkel Melters; Mouritsen, Ole Ø.; Hansen, Michael Rygaard

    2010-01-01

    Experimental fatigue data for welded joints have been collected and subjected to re-analysis using the notch stress approach according to IIW recommendations. This leads to an overview regarding the reliability of the approach, based on a large number of results (767 specimens). Evidently......, there are some limitations in the approach regarding mild notch joints, such as butt joints, which can be assessed non-conservatively. In order to alleviate this problem, an increased minimum notch factor of Kw>2.0 is suggested instead of the current recommendation of Kw>1.6. The data for most fillet......-welded joints agree quite well with the FAT 225 curve; however a reduction to FAT 200 is suggested in order to achieve approximately the same safety as observed in the nominal stress approach....

  7. Evaluation of the diffusivity and susceptibility to hydrogen embrittlement of API 5L X80 steel welded joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Araújo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study of susceptibility to hydrogen embrittlement of API 5L X80 steel welded joints by SMAW and GTAW processes. By varying the consumables used and the use of the same interpass temperature three different welded joints were obtained. Tests of hydrogen embrittlement susceptibility were performed according to ASTM G129-2006 with an aqueous solution (Solution A - TM0177/2005 NACE sodium thiosulfate (Na2S2O3 replacing the bubbling of H2S. From the elongation values was observed that the joint obtained in all welding conditions showed susceptibility to hydrogen embrittlement, which was determined by the elongation ratio. The joints that showed higher levels of hardness showed higher susceptibility to hydrogen embrittlement. The joints obtained with higher welding speeds for the same amount of heat input presented a reduction in the rate of hydrogen embrittlement. All joints tested in solution showed fracture surfaces with quasi cleavage zones.

  8. Microstructure and Properties of TIG/FSW Welded Joints of a New Al-Zn-Mg-Sc-Zr Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Xuefeng; Deng, Ying; Peng, Yongyi; Yin, Zhimin; Xu, Guofu

    2013-09-01

    A new Al-Zn-Mg-Sc-Zr alloy with low Sc content was welded by tungsten inert gas (TIG) and friction stir welding (FSW) techniques. The microstructure and properties of those two welded joints were investigated by property tests and microstructural observations. The results show that the new Al-Zn-Mg-Sc-Zr alloy has desirable welding property. The ultimate tensile strength and welding coefficient of the TIG joint reach 405 MPa and 76.7%, respectively, and in FSW joint those property values reach 490 MPa and 92.6%, respectively. The studied base metal has a deformed fibrous subgrains structure, many nano-scaled Al3(Sc,Zr) particles, and very fine aging precipitates. In the TIG joint, the fusion zone consists of coarsened dendritic grains and the heat-affected zone (HAZ) has fibrous micro-scaled subgrains. The FSW welded joint is characterized by a weld nugget zone, thermo-mechanically affected zone (TMAZ), and HAZ. Due to plastic deformation around the rotating pin and anti-recrystallized effectiveness of Al3(Sc,Zr) particles, the weld nugget zone has a very fine subgrain structure. The TMAZ experiences some dissolution of aging precipitates. Coarsening of aging precipitates was observed in the HAZ. The better mechanical properties of the FSW joint are derived from a fine subgrain structure and homogeneous chemical compositions.

  9. Application of electrochemical methods for the investigation of intergranular corrosion welded joint austenitic stainless steel 19Cr-9Ni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jegdić Bore V.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sensitization degree of the austenitic stainless steel welded joints was investigated by electrochemical methods of the double loop electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation (DL EPR in H2SO4 + KSCN solution, and by the measurement of corrosion potential of the steel in the drop of the solution of HNO3 + FeCl3 + HCl. The welded joints were tested by X-ray radiographic method in order to check the presence of the weld defects. Grain size of the base metal and the welded joints were determined by optical microscopy. Good agreement between the results obtained by different electrochemical methods was obtained. Heat-affected zone (HAZ of the austenitic stainless steel welded joints has shown significant degree of sensitization. The double loop electrochemical potentiokinetic method gave quantitative evidence about susceptibility of the stainless steel to intergranular corrosion.

  10. ANSYS Simulation of Residual Strains in Butt-welded Joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Atroshenko

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of thermal-strain cycle on residual strains in thin-walled circular seams of cylindrical shells using TIG butt welds was studied. Estimates were calculated using numerical modelling. The structure was made of corrosion-resistant austenitic steels.

  11. Upsetting Butt Edge Increases Weld-Joint Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesco, D.

    1964-01-01

    Mechanical upsetting /a mode of cold forging/ of butt edges to be welded is accomplished by the use of hydraulic rams and pressure rollers. The mechanical upsetting increases the thickness of the material in the heat-affected zone and compensates for the lower specific strength per unit thickness common to this area.

  12. Experimental Investigation and Stochastic Modelling of the Fatigue Behaviour of Welded Steel Joints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Tom

    The present report describes the fatigue behaviour of surface cracks in welded steel joints. Emphasis is laid on fracture mechanics modelling and the stochastic nature of the fatigue process. Various sources which may contribute to the observed scatter in time to crack initiation and time spent...

  13. Ductile damage development in friction stir welded aluminum (AA2024) joints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kim Lau

    2008-01-01

    Ductile damage development in a friction stir welded aluminum joint subjected to tension is analyzed numerically by FE-analysis, based on a total Lagrangian formulation. An elastic-viscoplastic constitutive relation that accounts for nucleation and growth of microvoids is applied. Main focus in t...

  14. Digital image correlation in analysis of striffness in local zones of welded joints

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Milosevic, M.; Milosevic, N.J.; Sedmak, S.; Tatic, U.; Mitrovic, N.; Hloch, Sergej; Jovicic, R.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 1 (2016), s. 19-24 ISSN 1330-3651 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : Aramis software * digital image correlation * strain analysis * stiffness * welded joints Subject RIV: JQ - Machines ; Tools Impact factor: 0.723, year: 2016 http://hrcak.srce.hr/file/225545

  15. The effect of micro-swinging on joint formation in linear friction welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenya Li

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A 3D Eulerian numerical model was developed to investigate the effect of micro-swing on joint formation during workpiece oscillation in linear friction welding (LFW. The temperature field and axial shortening history for different amplitudes of micro-swing have been studied. Results show that the amplitude of micro-swing influences flash morphology and axial shortening. The micro-swing contributes to the extrusion of viscoplastic metal and the formation of flash during the LFW process. Flash volume and axial shortening increase as the amplitude of micro-swing becomes larger. When the amplitude of micro-swing is more than a critical value, a sudden change of axial shortening (different from the period of the oscillation cycle would occur at certain welding time, which change would also have a periodic nature. Although different amplitudes of micro-swing affect joint morphology, the inner temperature field and the highest temperature of joints remain constant. The high temperature region inside the joints remains about the same, when the amplitude of micro-swing is constant. This indicates that the heat generated through plastic deformation could maintain the welding process, and so that the welding process would enter the equilibrium phase.

  16. Effect of Stress Relief Annealing on Microstructure & Mechanical Properties of Welded Joints Between Low Alloy Carbon Steel and Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nivas, R.; Das, G.; Das, S. K.; Mahato, B.; Kumar, S.; Sivaprasad, K.; Singh, P. K.; Ghosh, M.

    2017-01-01

    Two types of welded joints were prepared using low alloy carbon steel and austenitic stainless steel as base materials. In one variety, buttering material and weld metal were Inconel 82. In another type, buttering material and weld metal were Inconel 182. In case of Inconel 82, method of welding was GTAW. For Inconel 182, welding was done by SMAW technique. For one set of each joints after buttering, stress relief annealing was done at 923 K (650 °C) for 90 minutes before further joining with weld metal. Microstructural investigation and sub-size in situ tensile testing in scanning electron microscope were carried out for buttered-welded and buttered-stress relieved-welded specimens. Adjacent to fusion boundary, heat-affected zone of low alloy steel consisted of ferrite-pearlite phase combination. Immediately after fusion boundary in low alloy steel side, there was increase in matrix grain size. Same trend was observed in the region of austenitic stainless steel that was close to fusion boundary between weld metal-stainless steel. Close to interface between low alloy steel-buttering material, the region contained martensite, Type-I boundary and Type-II boundary. Peak hardness was obtained close to fusion boundary between low alloy steel and buttering material. In this respect, a minimum hardness was observed within buttering material. The peak hardness was shifted toward buttering material after stress relief annealing. During tensile testing no deformation occurred within low alloy steel and failure was completely through buttering material. Crack initiated near fusion boundary between low alloy steel-buttering material for welded specimens and the same shifted away from fusion boundary for stress relieved annealed specimens. This observation was at par with the characteristics of microhardness profile. In as welded condition, joints fabricated with Inconel 82 exhibited superior bond strength than the weld produced with Inconel 182. Stress relief annealing

  17. Tensile strength and corrosion resistance of brazed and laser-welded cobalt-chromium alloy joints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupancic, Rok; Legat, Andraz; Funduk, Nenad

    2006-10-01

    The longevity of prosthodontic restorations is often limited due to the mechanical or corrosive failure occurring at the sites where segments of a metal framework are joined together. The purpose of this study was to determine which joining method offers the best properties to cobalt-chromium alloy frameworks. Brazed and 2 types of laser-welded joints were compared for their mechanical and corrosion characteristics. Sixty-eight cylindrical cobalt-chromium dental alloy specimens, 35 mm long and 2 mm in diameter, were cast. Sixteen specimens were selected for electrochemical measurements in an artificial saliva solution and divided into 4 groups (n=4). In the intact group, the specimens were left as cast. The specimens of the remaining 3 groups were sectioned at the center, perpendicular to the long-axis, and were subsequently rejoined by brazing (brazing group) or laser welding using an X- or I-shaped joint design (X laser and I laser groups, respectively). Another 16 specimens were selected for electrochemical measurements in a more acidic artificial saliva solution. These specimens were also divided into 4 groups (n=4) as described above. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and potentiodynamic polarization were used to assess corrosion potentials, breakdown potentials, corrosion current densities, total impedances at lowest frequency, and polarization charge-transfer resistances. The remaining 36 specimens were used for tensile testing. They were divided into 3 groups in which specimen pairs (n=6) were joined by brazing or laser welding to form 70-mm-long cylindrical rods. The tensile strength (MPa) was measured using a universal testing machine. Differences between groups were analyzed using 1-way analysis of variance (alpha=.05). The fracture surfaces and corrosion defects were examined with a scanning electron microscope. The average tensile strength of brazed joints was 792 MPa and was significantly greater (Pcobalt-chromium alloy joints, but strength is

  18. A comparative evaluation of low-cycle fatigue behavior of type 316LN base metal, 316 weld metal, and 316LN/316 weld joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valsan, M.; Sundararaman, D.; Rao, K. Bhanu Sankara; Mannan, S. L.

    1995-05-01

    A comparative evaluation of the low-cycle fatigue (LCF) behavior of type 316LN base metal, 316 weld metal, and 316LN/316 weld joints was carried out at 773 and 873 K. Total strain-controlled LCF tests were conducted at a constant strain rate of 3 × 10-3 s-1 with strain amplitudes in the range ±0.20 to ±1.0 pct. Weld pads with single V and double V configuration were prepared by the shielded metal-arc welding (SMAW) process using 316 electrodes for weld-metal and weld-joint specimens. Optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of the untested and tested samples were carried out to elucidate the deformation and the fracture behavior. The cyclic stress response of the base metal shows a very rapid hardening to a maximum stress followed by a saturated stress response. Weld metal undergoes a relatively short initial hardening followed by a gradual softening regime. Weld joints exhibit an initial hardening and a subsequent softening regime at all strain amplitudes, except at low strain amplitudes where a saturation regime is noticed. The initial hardening observed in base metal has been attributed to interaction between dislocations and solute atoms/complexes and cyclic saturation to saturation in the number density of slip bands. From TEM, the cyclic softening in weld metal was ascribed to the annihilation of dislocations during LCF. Type 316LN base metal exhibits better fatigue resistance than weld metal at 773 K, whereas the reverse holds true at 873 K. The weld joint shows the lowest life at both temperatures. The better fatigue resistance of weld metal is related to the brittle transformed delta ferrite structure and the high density of dislocations at the interface, which inhibits the growth rate of cracks by deflecting the crack path. The lower fatigue endurance of the weld joint was ascribed to the shortening of the crack initiation phase caused by surface intergranular crack initiation and to the poor

  19. Microstructure and mechanical properties of laser welded DP600 steel joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farabi, N. [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Ryerson University, 350 Victoria Street, Toronto, Ontario M5B 2K3 (Canada); Chen, D.L., E-mail: dchen@ryerson.ca [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Ryerson University, 350 Victoria Street, Toronto, Ontario M5B 2K3 (Canada); Li, J.; Zhou, Y. [Department of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); Dong, S.J. [School of Mechanical Engineering, Hubei University of Technology, Wuhan, Hubei (China)

    2010-02-15

    To reduce fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions, dual phase (DP) steels have been considered for automotive applications due to their higher tensile strength, better initial work hardening along with larger elongation compared to conventional grade of steels. In such applications welding and joining have to be involved, which would lead to a localized alteration of materials and create potential safety and reliability issues under cyclic loading. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate microstructural change after laser welding and its effect on the tensile and fatigue properties in DP600 steel. The welding resulted in a significant increase of hardness in the fusion zone, but also the formation of a soft zone in the outer heat-affected zone (HAZ). While the ductility decreased after welding, the yield strength increased and the ultimate tensile strength remained almost unchanged. Fatigue life at higher stress amplitudes was almost the same between the base metal and welded joints despite slightly lower fatigue limit after welding. Tensile fracture and fatigue failure at higher stress amplitudes occurred at the outer HAZ. Fatigue crack initiation was observed to occur from the specimen surface and crack propagation was characterized by the characteristic mechanism of striation formation. Dimples and deformation bands were observed in the fast propagation area.

  20. Thermo-mechanic and Microstructural Analysis of an Underwater Welding Joint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Hernández Gutiérrez

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this research is to present a comparative analysis between theoretical and experimental thermal fields as well as a microstructural behaviour and residual stresses applying multiple weld beads in the joint of two API 5L X52 pipe sections. The thermal field, microstructural and residual stresses were numerically modelled through the finite element method (FEM and compared to experimentally. The simulation conditions used in the FEM analysis were similar considerations to the underwater welding conditions. The finite element analysis was carried out, first by a non-linear transient thermal analysis for obtaining the global temperature history generated during the underwater welding process. Subsequently, a microstructural behaviour was determined using the temperatures distribution obtained in the pipe material by calculating the structural transformations of the material during the welding process, and finally a stress analysis was developed using the temperatures obtained from the thermal analysis. It was found that this simulation method can be used efficiently to determinate with accuracy the optimum welding parameters of this kind of weld applications.

  1. Strategies for reduced distortion during laser beam welding of shaft-hub joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buschenhenke, F.; Seefeld, T.; Vollertsen, F. [Bremer Institut fuer angewandte Strahltechnik, Bremen (Germany)

    2012-01-15

    The joining of shaft-hub connections is gaining in importance in the area of power train applications. The quality demands in abrasion and power transmission are playing a major role. Dimensional as well as repeat accuracies are essential quality criteria, which have to be focused on. The understanding of the whole process chain in view of different distortion potentials introduced in each processing step provides the ability to control the distortion of the welded components. The laser beam sources of the new generation permit a high power welding process and high beam quality at the same time. These laser beams are capable of producing deep and narrow weld seams. This work deals with compensation strategies of deformations during laser beam welding in axial welded shaft-hub joints made of steel. Furthermore, simultaneous welding with two laser beams and the influence of the process chain were investigated to characterise the influence of these strategies tactile differential measurements were done. The results were discussed regarding numerical calculations in the FEM application SYSWELD. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  2. Recommendations for fatigue design of welded joints and components

    CERN Document Server

    Hobbacher, A F

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a basis for the design and analysis of welded components that are subjected to fluctuating forces, to avoid failure by fatigue. It is also a valuable resource for those on boards or commissions who are establishing fatigue design codes. For maximum benefit, readers should already have a working knowledge of the basics of fatigue and fracture mechanics. The purpose of designing a structure taking into consideration the limit state for fatigue damage is to ensure that the performance is satisfactory during the design life and that the survival probability is acceptable. The latter is achieved by the use of appropriate partial safety factors. This document has been prepared as the result of an initiative by Commissions XIII and XV of the International Institute of Welding (IIW).

  3. Heat input effect of friction stir welding on aluminum alloy AA 6061-T6 welded joint

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sedmak, A.; Kumar, R.; Chattopadhyaya, S.; Hloch, Sergej; Tadić, S.; Djurdjević, A. A.; Čeković, I. R.; Dončeva, E.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 2 (2016), s. 637-641 ISSN 0354-9836 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : friction stir welding * defect * heat input * maximum temperature Subject RIV: JQ - Machines ; Tools Impact factor: 1.093, year: 2016 http://www.doiserbia.nb.rs/img/doi/0354-9836/2016/0354-98361500147D.pdf

  4. Friction welding of Al-Cu-SiC composite to AISI 304 austenitic stainless steel

    OpenAIRE

    Özdemir, Niyazi; Balaban, Zülküf

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigates thefeasibility of joining an aluminium matrix composite reinforced with 5, 10 and15 vol. % of SiCp particles to AISI 304 austenitic stainless steel by usingfriction welding technique. In the present study, optical and electronmicroscopy as well as lap shear strength test and microhardness measurementswere used to evaluate the quality of bonding of Al-Cu-SiC and AISI 304austenitic stainless steel joints produced by friction welding

  5. Corrosion behavior of dissimilar weld joint of 316L and alloy 182 filler metal with different post-weld heat treatments in saline environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Joao H.N.; Santos, Neice F.; Esteves, Luiza; Campos, Wagner R.C.; Rabello, Emerson G., E-mail: joao.garcia@cdtn.br, E-mail: nfs@cdtn.br, E-mail: luiza.esteves@cdtn.br, E-mail: wrcc@cdtn.br, E-mail: egr@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (SEIES/CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Serviço de Integridade Estrutural

    2017-11-01

    Austenitic stainless steel and nickel alloys are widely used in nuclear reactors components and other plants of energy generation, chemical and petrochemical industries, due to their high corrosion resistance. These metals require post weld heat treatment (PWHT) to relieve stresses from the welding processes, although it can lead to a degradation of the weld microstructure. The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of different PWHT on corrosion behavior of a dissimilar weld joint of two AISI 316L austenitic stainless steel plates with nickel alloy as filler material in saline environments. The material was submitted to heat treatments for three hours at 600, 700 and 800 °C. The weld joint was examined by optical microscopy to determine the effects of PWHT in the microstructure. The corrosion behavior of the samples before and after heat treatment was evaluated using cyclic potentiodynamic polarization (CPP) in sodium chloride solutions (19% v/v) and pH 4.0 at room temperature. Metallographic analyses showed that delta ferrite dissolute with PWHT temperature increase. CPP curves demonstrated an increase of pitting corrosion resistance as the PWHT temperature increases, although the pit size has been increased. The heat treated weld joint at 600 °C showed corrosion resistance close to the as welded material. (author)

  6. Effect of Tool Geometry and Welding Speed on Mechanical Properties and Microstructure of Friction Stir Welded Joints of Aluminium Alloys AA6082-T6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patil Hiralal Subhash

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Friction stir welding is a solid state innovative joining technique, widely being used for joining aluminium alloys in aerospace, marine automotive and many other applications of commercial importance. The welding parameters and tool pin profile play a major role in deciding the weld quality. In this paper, an attempt has been made to understand the influences of welding speed and pin profile of the tool on friction stir welded joints of AA6082-T6 alloy. Three different tool pin profiles (tapered cylindrical four flutes, triangular and hexagonal have been used to fabricate the joints at different welding speeds in the range of 30 to 74 mm/min. Microhardness (HV and tensile tests performed at room temperature were used to evaluate the mechanical properties of the joints. In order to analyse the microstructural evolution of the material, the weld’s cross-sections were observed optically and SEM observations were made of the fracture surfaces. From this investigation it is found that the hexagonal tool pin profile produces mechanically sound and metallurgically defect free welds compared to other tool pin profiles.

  7. A mathematical model for a pseudo-plastic welding joint

    OpenAIRE

    Iosifescu, Oana; Juntharee, Pongpol; Licht, Christian; Michaille, Gérard

    2009-01-01

    An elementary situation in welding involves the perfect assembly of two adherents and a strong adhesive occupying a thin layer. The bulk energy density of the hyperelastic adherents grows superlinearly while that of the pseudo-plastic adhesive grows linearly with a stiffness of the order of the inverse of its thickness epsilon. We propose a simplified but accurate model by studying the asymptotic behavior, when epsilon goes to zero, through variational convergence methods: at the limit, the i...

  8. Effect of Manganese on the Mechanical Properties of Welded As-Cast Aluminium Joint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isiaka Oluwole OLADELE

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The effects of manganese on the mechanical properties of welded and un-weld as-cast 6063 aluminium alloy has been studied. Alloys of varying percentage of manganese from 0.019 to 0.24 were sand cast. A wooden pattern of dimensions 200×100×100mm was used, the aluminium (500g was charged into an induction furnace and heated to 750°C for 15 minutes, this was followed by the addition of weighed powdered manganese, stirred and heated at the same temperature for another 5 minutes and thereafter poured into the already prepared sand mould at a temperature of 690°C. The as-cast aluminium samples, were sectioned into two equal parts of 45mm each using power hack saw; a weld groove was created between the sides of the samples using an electric hand grinding machine, the groove served as the path along which the filler metal was deposited on the aluminium, a single v butt joint was produced from each sample and Metal Inert Gas Welding process was carried out to produce the required joint design. The different cast samples were machined to the different test pieces after which they were assessed to determine their mechanical properties (impact, hardness (welded joint and heat affected zone and tensile tests. The microstructures of the welded samples were also studied. From the results, it was observed that Sample F, which has 0.172% Mn, has the best hardness and impact strength while sample C with 0.160% Mn has the highest ultimate tensile strength.

  9. Influence of structure on static cracking resistance and fracture of welded joints of pipe steels of strength class K60

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tereshchenko, N. A.; Tabatchikova, T. I.; Yakovleva, I. L.; Makovetskii, A. N.; Shander, S. V.

    2017-07-01

    The static cracking resistance of a number of welded joints made from pipe steels of K60 strength class has been determined. It has been established that the deformation parameter CTOD varies significantly at identical parameters of weldability of steels. The character of fracture has been investigated and the zone of local brittleness of welded joints has been studied. It has been shown that the ability of a metal to resist cracking is determined by the austenite grain size and by the bainite morphology in the region of overheating in the heat-affected zone of a welded joint.

  10. Local strain energy density for the fatigue assessment of hot dip galvanized welded joints: some recent outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Peron

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Since in literature only data about the effect of the hot-dip galvanizing coating on fatigue behavior of unnotched specimens are available, whereas very few for notched components and none for welded joints, the aim of this paper is to partially fill this lack of knowledge comparing fatigue strength of uncoated and hot-dip galvanized fillet welded cruciform joints made of structural steel S355 welded joints, subjected to a load cycle R = 0. 34. The results are shown in terms of stress range ?s and of the averaged strain energy density range DW in a control volume of radius R0 = 0.28 mm

  11. Comparison of fatigue crack growth of riveted and bonded aircraft lap joints made of Aluminium alloy 2024-T3 substrates - A numerical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitta, S.; Rojas, J. I.; Crespo, D.

    2017-05-01

    Aircraft lap joints play an important role in minimizing the operational cost of airlines. Hence, airlines pay more attention to these technologies to improve efficiency. Namely, a major time consuming and costly process is maintenance of aircraft between the flights, for instance, to detect early formation of cracks, monitoring crack growth, and fixing the corresponding parts with joints, if necessary. This work is focused on the study of repairs of cracked aluminium alloy (AA) 2024-T3 plates to regain their original strength; particularly, cracked AA 2024-T3 substrate plates repaired with doublers of AA 2024-T3 with two configurations (riveted and with adhesive bonding) are analysed. The fatigue life of the substrate plates with cracks of 1, 2, 5, 10 and 12.7mm is computed using Fracture Analysis 3D (FRANC3D) tool. The stress intensity factors for the repaired AA 2024-T3 plates are computed for different crack lengths and compared using commercial FEA tool ABAQUS. The results for the bonded repairs showed significantly lower stress intensity factors compared with the riveted repairs. This improves the overall fatigue life of the bonded joint.

  12. Numerical investigation on stress corrosion cracking behavior of dissimilar weld joints in pressurized water reactor plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingyan Zhao

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available There have been incidents recently where stress corrosion cracking (SCC observed in the dissimilar metal weld (DMW joints connecting the reactor pressure vessel (RPV nozzle with the hot leg pipe. Due to the complex microstructure and mechanical heterogeneity in the weld region, dissimilar metal weld joints are more susceptible to SCC than the bulk steels in the simulated high temperature water environment of pressurized water reactor (PWR. Tensile residual stress (RS, in addition to operating loads, has a great contribution to SCC crack growth. Limited experimental conditions, varied influence factors and diverging experimental data make it difficult to accurately predict the SCC behavior of DMW joints with complex geometry, material configuration, operating loads and crack shape. Based on the film slip/dissolution oxidation model and elastic-plastic finite element method (EPFEM, an approach is developed to quantitatively predict the SCC growth rate of a RPV outlet nozzle DMW joint. Moreover, this approach is expected to be a pre-analytical tool for SCC experiment of DMW joints in PWR primary water environment.

  13. Experimental and numerical evaluation of the fatigue behaviour in a welded joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almaguer, P.; Estrada, R.

    2014-07-01

    Welded joints are an important part in structures. For this reason, it is always necessary to know the behaviour of them under cyclic loads. In this paper a S - N curve of a butt welded joint of the AISI 1015 steel and Cuban manufacturing E6013 electrode is showed. Fatigue tests were made in an universal testing machine MTS810. The stress ratio used in the test was 0,1. Flaws in the fatigue specimens were characterized by means of optical and scanning electron microscopy. SolidWorks 2013 software was used to modeling the specimens geometry, while to simulate the fatigue behaviour Simulation was used. The joint fatigue limit is 178 MPa, and a cut point at 2 039 093 cycles. Some points of the simulations are inside of the 95% confidence band.

  14. Study on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of 304 Stainless Steel Joints by Tig-Mig Hybrid Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogundimu, Emmanuel O.; Akinlabi, Esther T.; Erinosho, Mutiu F.

    Stainless steel is a family of Fe-based alloys having excellent resistance to corrosion and as such has been used imperatively for kitchen utensils, transportation, building constructions and much more. This paper presents the work conducted on the material characterizations of a tungsten inert gas (TIG)-metal inert gas (MIG) hybrid welded joint of type 304 austenitic stainless steel. The welding processes were conducted in three phases. The phases of welding employed are MIG welding using a current of 170A, TIG welding using a current of 190A, and a hybrid TIG-MIG welding with currents of 190/170A, respectively. The MIG, TIG, and hybrid TIG-MIG weldments were characterized with incomplete penetration, full penetration and excess penetration of weld. Intergranular austenite was created toward transition and heat affected zones. The thickness of the delta ferrite (δ-Fe) formed in the microstructures of the TIG weld is more than the thickness emerged in the microstructures of MIG and hybrid TIG-MIG welds. A TIG-MIG hybrid weld of specimen welded at the currents of 190/170A has the highest ultimate tensile strength value and percentage elongation of 397.72MPa and 35.7%. The TIG-MIG hybrid welding can be recommended for high-tech industrial applications such as nuclear, aircraft, food processing, and automobile industry.

  15. Geometry and Material Constraint Effects on Creep Crack Growth Behavior in Welded Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y.; Wang, G. Z.; Xuan, F. Z.; Tu, S. T.

    2017-02-01

    In this work, the geometry and material constraint effects on creep crack growth (CCG) and behavior in welded joints were investigated. The CCG paths and rates of two kinds of specimen geometry (C(T) and M(T)) with initial cracks located at soft HAZ (heat-affected zone with lower creep strength) and different material mismatches were simulated. The effect of constraint on creep crack initiation (CCI) time was discussed. The results show that there exists interaction between geometry and material constraints in terms of their effects on CCG rate and CCI time of welded joints. Under the condition of low geometry constraint, the effect of material constraint on CCG rate and CCI time becomes more obvious. Higher material constraint can promote CCG due to the formation of higher stress triaxiality around crack tip. Higher geometry constraint can increase CCG rate and reduce CCI time of welded joints. Both geometry and material constraints should be considered in creep life assessment and design for high-temperature welded components.

  16. Joining of Materials with Diferent Properties Through Submerged Arc Welding Process and Destructive and Non-Destructive Testing of the Joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakup Kaya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, X60, X65 and X70 steels used in petroleum and natural gas pipeline were joined with Submerged Arc Welding by using different type of welding fluxes (LN761 and P223 and wires (S1 and S2Mo. Initially, visual and radiographic inspection techniques were subjected to welded joints for determining surface and subsurface defects. After that, spectral analyses were carried out in order to determine the compositions of wire-flux-base metal on the joints. Impact toughness test were performed for determining toughness properties the joints. Furthermore, hardness and microstructure studies were also carried out on the samples. As a result of the visual and radiographic inspection on the welded samples, there were no weld defects on joints were observed. It was clearly understood that carbon ratio in the compositions of weld metal higher than base metal but lower than filler metal in terms of spectral analyses results. According to impact toughness test results, the joints obtained by using S2Mo welding wire and P223 welding flux had better impact toughness value than the joints obtained by S1 welding wire and LN 761 welding flux. With respect to hardness test, the highest hardness values were measured on weld metal. When the microstructure images were examined, it is clearly understood that similar images for all the joints were shown adjacent zones to weld metals heat affected zones and welding boundary, due to heat input constant.

  17. Fatigue behaviour of welded joints from magnesium alloy (AZ31) according to the local strain concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karakas, Oe.; Guelsoez, A. [Engineering Faculty, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University Pamukkale, Denizli (Turkey); Kaufmann, H.; Sonsino, C.M. [Fraunhofer - Institute for Structural Durability and System Reliability, LBF, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2010-02-15

    In the present study, the results of fatigue tests with the magnesium alloy AZ31 (ISO-MgAl3Zn1) in the material states base metal, heat affected zone and weld metal obtained under strain control at room temperature within a range from 2.10{sup 2} to 5 .10 {sup 6} cycles are presented. The fatigue behaviour was characterized by the Coffin-Manson-Basquin equations and the stress - strain behaviour by the Ramberg-Osgood equation. The data can be used to assess welded magnesium joints according to the local strain concept. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  18. Investigation of Residual Stresses and Distortion in Welded Pipe-Flange Joint of Different Classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Abid

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Pipe and flange joints are commonly used in petrochemical, nuclear and process industries. Commonly, welding is used to make these joints which produces residual stresses and distortions. These stresses have detrimental effects on the structural integrity and service performance of the welded pipe joints. The objective of this study is to investigate the residual stresses and distortions during Gas Metal Arc Welding of pipe of schedule 40, nominal diameter 200 mm with different ANSI flanges of class numbers 150, 300, 600, 900, 1500, and 2500. Welding parameters including: voltage, current and heat as inputs were selected based on the literature available. The behaviour of the flanges of different classes is also discussed. In addition, the finite element methodology presented, in this paper, can be helpful for developing welding procedures for a range of pipe flange welded joint sizes in order to control the residual stresses and deformations. This will lead to optimised performance during bolt up and operating conditions.ABSTRAK: Paip dan sambungan flan biasanya digunakan dalam industri petrokimia, nuklear dan proses. Kimpalan menghasilkan tegasan sisa dan herotan, yang memberikan kesan yang merbahaya ke atas integriti struktur dan prestasi servis sambungan kimpalan paip. Objektif kajian ini adalah untuk mengkaji tegasan sisa dan herotan ketika kimpalan arka logam gas paip berjadual 40, diameter nominal 200mm dengan flan ANSI yang berbeza kelas # 150, 300, 600, 900, 1500, dan 2500. Parameter kimpalan termasuklah; voltan, arus dan haba input yang dipilih berdasarkan literatur sediada. Kelakuan flan yang berbeza kelas telah dibincangkan. Kaedah elemen finit yang dibentangkan adalah berguna dalam membangunkan prosedur kimpalan bagi julat saiz kimpalan flan paip unutk mengawal tegasan sisa dan canggaan i.e. bagi mengoptimakan prestasi ketika bolt up dan sedang beroperasi.                                 

  19. Effect of Friction Stir Welding Parameters on the Mechanical and Microstructure Properties of the Al-Cu Butt Joint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sare Celik

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Friction Stir Welding (FSW is a solid-state welding process used for welding similar and dissimilar materials. FSW is especially suitable to join sheet Al alloys, and this technique allows different material couples to be welded continuously. In this study, 1050 Al alloys and commercially pure Cu were produced at three different tool rotation speeds (630, 1330, 2440 rpm and three different tool traverse speeds (20, 30, 50 mm/min with four different tool position (0, 1, 1.5, 2 mm by friction stir welding. The influence of the welding parameters on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the joints was investigated. Tensile and bending tests and microhardness measurements were used to determine the mechanical properties. The microstructures of the weld zone were investigated by optical microscope and scanning electron microscope (SEM and were analyzed in an energy dispersed spectrometer (EDS. Intermetallic phases were detected based on the X-ray diffraction (XRD analysis results that evaluated the formation of phases in the weld zone. When the welding performance of the friction stir welded butt joints was evaluated, the maximum value obtained was 89.55% with a 1330 rpm tool rotational speed, 20 mm/min traverse speed and a 1 mm tool position configuration. The higher tensile strength is attributed to the dispersion strengthening of the fine Cu particles distributed over the Al material in the stir zone region.

  20. Investigation of residual stresses in welded joints of heat-resistant magnesium alloy ML10 after electrodynamic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.M. Lobanov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In repair of aircraft structures of magnesium alloy ML10, the argon arc non-consumable electrode welding is used. In this case, the residual welding stresses occur in repair welds, being one of the causes for reducing the service characteristics of the restored products. Residual stresses arise as a result of welding. Post-weld heat treatment is used to reduce the residual stresses. The heat treatment, which occurs after welding, increases the cost of repair. This leads to the search for alternative methods to control the stressed state of welded joints, one of which is electrodynamic treatment, which reduces the level of residual stresses in repair welds, and as a consequence, the cost of the welding repair in restoring aircraft structures. It was found from the results of experiments carried out, that the electrodynamic treatment allows reduces the initial level of stresses in welded joints, reaching 120 MPa, to 30 MPa, and at definite geometric characteristics of the specimens forming the field of compressive stresses, the values of which are equal to –50 MPa. It is shown that the optimum distance between the zones of treatment, being 5 mm, provides the guaranteed covering the zones of electrodynamic effect and, as a consequence, the maximum efficiency of the electric dynamic treatment.

  1. Reasons for crack nucleation in welded joints of main gas-pipelines after a long-term operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruschak, P. O.; Bishchak, R. T.; Shlapak, L. S.; Panin, S. V.

    2017-02-01

    A crack of operational origin in the welded joint of the main gas pipeline is analyzed. The reasons for its nucleation and impact on technological microdefects that were formed earlier during the welding are found. Micromechanisms and stages of nucleation and propagation of the crack are investigated.

  2. Tight butt joint weld detection based on optical flow and particle filtering of magneto-optical imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiangdong; Mo, Ling; You, Deyong; Li, Zhuman

    2017-11-01

    It is a challenge to detect the weld position during tight butt joint laser welding in that the tight butt joint is non-grooved and invisible. This paper proposes a novel method for tight butt joint weld detection based on magneto optical imaging. Two pieces of weldment were magnetized by an electromagnet so that they could show magnetic N and S polarity respectively. When a polarized light was projected on a magneto-optical film, it would deflect due to magneto-optical effect. In accordance with magneto field distribution, an image formed on the visual sensor. A transition zone of magnetic field distribution which corresponded to the butt joint could be shown in a magneto optical image of weldment. Variation features of magnetic field distribution were obtained by using image sequence optical flow method, and a particle filter was integrated to make an accurate prediction on weld position. Weld position was obtained by calculating the maximum value of optical flow intensity in the vertical direction, and a particle filter was used to realize the accurate prediction on weld position. Experimental results showed that the proposed method was effective in detection of weld and realizing weld seam tracking.

  3. Analysis of interface solid-state reaction on dissimilar ultrasonic spot welding of Al-Mg alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hyung-Seop; de Leon, Michael

    2017-05-01

    The solid-state joining nature of the ultrasonic spot welding (USW) process has been proven useful in the fields where joining applications involve dissimilar lightweight materials. This study focused on the USW of challenging dissimilar aluminum (Al)-magnesium (Mg) alloys to gain a better understanding of the dominant factors of joint performance with particular emphasis on proper lap-joint positioning. Weld qualities of dissimilar ultrasonic spot welds, classified through a series of experiments, were determined. Process parameters effects, such as failure load and fracture morphologies, showed distinctions between two dissimilar welds based on lap-joint position. Characteristic distinctions between welding process parameters and material combinations (lap-positioning) were found. Incomplete deformation zones were found during USW of Mg/Al combination, yet they were noticeable and almost the same size as the horn diameter. It can be found that proper lap-positioning of the top part of the specimen is important for efficient utilization of the USW process.

  4. Micro friction stir welding of copper electrical contacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Klobčar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an analysis of micro friction stir welding (μFSW of electrolytic tough pitch copper (CuETP in a lap and butt joint. Experimental plan was done in order to investigate the influence of tool design and welding parameters on the formation of defect free joints. The experiments were done using universal milling machine where the tool rotation speed varied between 600 and 1 900 rpm, welding speed between 14 and 93 mm/min and tilt angle between 3° and 5°. From the welds samples for analysis of microstructure and samples for tensile tests were prepared. The grain size in the nugget zone was greatly reduced compared to the base metal and the joint tensile strength exceeded the strength of the base metal.

  5. Heat input effect of friction stir welding on aluminium alloy AA 6061-T6 welded joint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedmak Aleksandar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the heat input and maximum temperature developed during friction stir welding with different parameters. Aluminium alloy (AA 6061-T6 has been used for experimental and numerical analysis. Experimental analysis is based on temperature measurements by using infrared camera, whereas numerical analysis was based on empirical expressions and finite element method. Different types of defects have been observed in respect to different levels of heat input.

  6. Strength of Welded Joints in Tubular Members for Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    1930-02-06

    cleuwd of milI scaIe or surface oxides, or foreign matter, such as oil, grease, pa@, etc., oxide to be removed by a wire brush , file, or emery paper, as... brush , a file, or emery paper, or by grinding if llece.ssaxy. Welder to seleot tip and determine gas presmes. Welder to weld one filIet forward and...r??- —. --.- .— .—— .— — — ,.:— — — FIGum Z6.- Teet -k forhtth jOhtS610tO660. ThO s&?59- _ndc9 hve kn PIot&d S3~tdY fm the

  7. Reproducibility of pop-ins in laboratory testing of welded joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Berejnoi

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available The pop-in phenomenon, quite common in fracture mechanics tests of welded joints, corresponds to a brittle crack initiation grown from a local brittle zone (LBZ that is arrested in reaching the higher toughness material that surrounds this LBZ. A methodology to obtain a high percentage of pop-in occurrence in laboratory testing is necessary to study the pop-in significance. Such a method is introduced in this work and includes the consumable combination and welding procedures for the SMAW welding process to generate artificial LBZ. In order to find out the influence of the loading state upon the pop-in phenomenon, laboratory CTOD tests were performed using two specimen configurations: some single edge-notched specimens were loaded on a three-point bending (SE(B fixture while others were tested in tensile load (SE(T. A higher frequency of pop-in occurrence was observed in the SE(B geometry.

  8. Creep properties and microstructure evaluation of weld joint of the pipe made of P92 steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasl, Josef; Jandova, Dagmar; Chvostova, Eva [SKODA VYZKUM s.r.o., Plzen (Czech Republic); Folkova, Eva [SKODA POWER a.s., Plzen (Czech Republic)

    2010-07-01

    One-side weld joint of W type was prepared from P92 type steel using GTAW and SMAW method. Creep test to the rupture of smooth cross-weld samples has been carried out at temperatures ranging from 575 to 650 C and at stresses from 70 to 240 MPa. Fractographic analysis, hardness measurement and detailed study of submicrostructure have been performed using light, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Changes of microstructure were correlated with the creep strength. Increase in size of secondary phases and cavities formation were evident after creep tests at temperatures above 575 C. Voids were concentrated in the fine prior austenite grain heat affected zones, where fracture occurred. In addition, a sporadic occurrence of individual cavities was found out in the base material and the weld metal after tests at 625 and 650 C. During creep exposures at temperatures above 600 C Laves phase precipitated. (orig.)

  9. WOOD WELDING

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos Theodoro Muller; Rafael Rodolfo de Melo; Diego Martins Stangerlin

    2010-01-01

    The term "wood welding" designates what can be defined as "welding of wood surfaces". This new process, that it provides the joint of wood pieces without the use of adhesives or any other additional material, provokes growing interest in the academic environment, although it is still in laboratorial state. Linear friction welding induced bymechanical vibration yields welded joints of flat wood surfaces. The phenomenon of the welding occurs in less time than 10 seconds, with the temperature in...

  10. Microstructure and mechanical properties of laser welded dissimilar DP600/DP980 dual-phase steel joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farabi, N. [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Ryerson University, 350 Victoria Street, Toronto, Ontario M5B 2K3 (Canada); Chen, D.L., E-mail: dchen@ryerson.ca [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Ryerson University, 350 Victoria Street, Toronto, Ontario M5B 2K3 (Canada); Zhou, Y. [Department of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2011-01-21

    Research highlights: > Laser welding results in a significant hardness rise in the fusion zone, but the formation of a soft zone in the heat-affected zone. > A characteristic unsymmetrical hardness profile is observed across the dissimilar joint. > Yield point phenomenon with only stage III strain hardening occurs after welding. > Fatigue life at higher stress amplitudes is equivalent to that of DP600 steel despite slightly lower fatigue limit. - Abstract: The use of dual phase (DP) steels in the automobile industry unavoidably involves welding and dynamic loading. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the microstructural change and mechanical properties of laser welded dissimilar DP600/DP980 steel joints. The dissimilar joints showed a significant microstructural change from nearly full martensite in the fusion zone (FZ) to the unchanged ferrite-martensite dual-phase microstructure in the base metal. The welding resulted in a significant hardness increase in the FZ but the formation of a soft zone in the heat-affected zone (HAZ). The dissimilar welded joints were observed to exhibit a distinctive unsymmetrical hardness profile, yield-point-like phenomenon, and single-stage work hardening characteristic, with yield strength and work hardening rate lying in-between those of DP600 and DP980 base metals, and ultimate tensile strength equivalent to that of DP600 base metal. Although the welded joints showed a lower fatigue limit than the base metals, the fatigue life of the welded joints at higher stress amplitudes was almost the same as that of the DP600 base metal. The welded joints failed in the soft zone at the DP600 side under tensile loading and fatigue loading at the higher stress amplitudes. Fatigue crack initiation occurred from the specimen surface and crack propagation was characterized by typical fatigue striation together with secondary cracks.

  11. Influence of microstructure and elemental partitioning on pitting corrosion resistance of duplex stainless steel welding joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiqiang; Jing, Hongyang; Xu, Lianyong; Han, Yongdian; Zhao, Lei; Zhang, Jianli

    2017-02-01

    The influences of microstructure and elemental partitioning on pitting corrosion resistance of duplex stainless steel joints welded by gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) and flux-cored arc welding (FCAW) with different shielding gas compositions were studied by optical microscopy, electron backscatter diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, electron probe microanalysis, and potentiostatic and potentiodynamic polarization methods The adding 2% N2 in shielding gas facilitated primary austenite formation in GTAW weld metal (WM) and suppressed Cr2N precipitation in GTAW weld root. In the HAZ, the banded microstructure disappeared while the coarse ferrite grains maintained same orientation as the banded ferrite in the BM. In the WM, the ferrite had one single orientation throughout a grain, whereas several families of austenite appeared. The austenite both in BM and WM enriched in Ni and nitro`gen, while Cr and Mo were concentrated in the ferrite and thus no element showed clear dendritic distribution in the WM (ER2209 and E2209T1). In addition, the secondary austenite had higher Ni content but lower Cr and Mo content than the primary austenite. The N2-supplemented shielding gas promoted nitrogen solid-solution in the primary and secondary austenite. Furthermore, the secondary austenite had relatively lower pitting resistance equivalent number (PREN) than the ferrite and primary austenite, thereby resulting in its preferential corrosion. The Cr2N precipitation led to relatively poor resistance to pitting corrosion in three HAZs and pure Ar shielding GTAW weld root. The N2-supplemented shielding gas improved pitting corrosion resistance of GTAW joint by increasing PREN of secondary austenite and suppressing Cr2N precipitation. In addition, the FCAW WM had much poorer resistance to pitting corrosion than the GTAW WM due to many O-Ti-Si-Mn inclusions. In the BM, since the austenite with lower PREN compared

  12. Welded repair joints of boiler steels following operation in creep conditions exceeding the design time of operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobrzanski, J.; Paszkowska, H.; Zielinski, A. [Institute for Ferrous Metallurgy, Gliwice (Poland)

    2010-07-01

    The assessment of suitability for further operation for materials and welded repair joints of thick-walled main steam pipeline components, made of steel 14MoV63, as well as steam superheater outlet headers made of steel X20CrMoV121 following operation in creep conditions in time periods considerably longer than the specified calculated time of operation. Strength properties, impact strength and transition temperature into brittle condition, as well as structure condition have been evaluated. On the basis of shortened creep tests, the residual life and disposable residual life of materials and welded joints have been determined. Material properties following operation and those of fabricated circumferential welded repair joints have been compared. The condition of examined components and suitability of the fabricated welded repair joints for further operation have been assessed. (orig.)

  13. The effects of alloying elements on microstructures and mechanical properties of tungsten inert gas welded AZ80 magnesium alloys joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Zhang, Jiansheng; Ding, Rongrong

    2017-11-01

    The effects of alloying elements on the macrostructures, microstructures and tensile strength of AZ80 Mg alloy weldments were studied in the present study. The results indicate that with the decrease of Al element content of filler wire, the welding defects of seam are gradually eliminated and the β-Mg17Al12 phases at α-Mg boundaries are refined and become discontinuous, which are beneficial to the improvement of tensile strength. With AZ31 Mg alloy filler wire, the maximum tensile strength of AZ80 weldment is 220 MPa and fracture occurs at the welding seam of joint. It is experimentally proved that robust AZ80 Mg alloy joints can be obtained by tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding process with AZ31 Mg alloy filler wire. However, further study is required to improve the microstructures and reduce welding defects of joint in order to further improve the joining strength of AZ80 Mg alloy joint.

  14. Prediction of Tensile Strength of Friction Stir Weld Joints with Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) and Neural Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewan, Mohammad W.; Huggett, Daniel J.; Liao, T. Warren; Wahab, Muhammad A.; Okeil, Ayman M.

    2015-01-01

    Friction-stir-welding (FSW) is a solid-state joining process where joint properties are dependent on welding process parameters. In the current study three critical process parameters including spindle speed (??), plunge force (????), and welding speed (??) are considered key factors in the determination of ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of welded aluminum alloy joints. A total of 73 weld schedules were welded and tensile properties were subsequently obtained experimentally. It is observed that all three process parameters have direct influence on UTS of the welded joints. Utilizing experimental data, an optimized adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) model has been developed to predict UTS of FSW joints. A total of 1200 models were developed by varying the number of membership functions (MFs), type of MFs, and combination of four input variables (??,??,????,??????) utilizing a MATLAB platform. Note EFI denotes an empirical force index derived from the three process parameters. For comparison, optimized artificial neural network (ANN) models were also developed to predict UTS from FSW process parameters. By comparing ANFIS and ANN predicted results, it was found that optimized ANFIS models provide better results than ANN. This newly developed best ANFIS model could be utilized for prediction of UTS of FSW joints.

  15. Exemplification of Tomographic Method to Evaluate the Quality of Welded Joints Made from EN 5754-H22 Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Błachnio Józef

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The quality of welded joints depends on many factors. The relevant standards stipulate technical conditions of welds quality assessment, which provides the basis for stating whether the given joint is compatible with the requirements or whether it is defective. In practice, making welded joints that are totally devoid of defects is extremely difficult. To conduct the control of inner structure of the given joint a non-destructive method with the application of industrial CT scanner might be applied. This modern diagnosing method combines the x-ray examination with advanced computer technology. The basic advantage of computer-assisted tomography consists in examining objects in three dimensions and the possibility to carry out three-dimensional reconstructions. The aim of this article is to discuss the use of this method to evaluate the quality of welded joints made of aluminium alloys. Capabilities of computer-assisted tomography were depicted by the case of weld probes constructed with TIG (ang. Tungsten Inert Gas welding by different process variables. One has made the analysis of the quality of probes showing the smallest and the biggest internal and external welding defects.

  16. 78 FR 47486 - Joint Failure on Continuous Welded Rail Track

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-05

    ..., telephone (202) 493-6399; or Ms. Elisabeth Galotto, Trial Attorney, Office of Chief Counsel, FRA, 1200 New... rail gap, defective joint bolts, disturbed ballast, surface deviations, gap between tie plates and rail...

  17. Effects of the Heterogeneity in the Electron Beam Welded Joint on Mechanical Properties of Ti6Al4V Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing; Gao, Xiao-Long; Zhang, Lin-Jie; Zhang, Jian-Xun

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the effect of microstructure heterogeneity on the tensile and low cycle fatigue properties of electron beam welded (EBW) Ti6Al4V sheets. To achieve this goal, the tensile and low cycle fatigue property in the EBW joints and base metal (BM) specimens is compared. During the tensile testing, digital image correlation technology was used to measure the plastic strain field evolution within the specimens. The experimental results showed that the tensile ductility and low cycle fatigue strength of EBW joints are lower than that of BM specimens, mainly because of the effect of microstructure heterogeneity of the welded joint. Moreover, the EBW joints exhibit the cyclic hardening behavior during low fatigue process, while BM specimens exhibit the cyclic softening behavior. Compared with the BM specimens with uniform microstructure, the heterogeneity of microstructure in the EBW joint is found to decrease the mechanical properties of welded joint.

  18. On the visualization of joint formation during linear friction welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.T. Bikmeyev

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A 3D computer model of the preliminary and the transition phases of LFW using ANSYS was developed. Based on the adhesion phenomena theory, we introduce a simple method to evaluate the areas of joint formation. Results of this evaluation are in good agreement with experiments. Custom software for the 3D-simulation of the process of joint formation and material movement into the flash was built, which used the results of the FEM model.

  19. Corrosion behavior of friction stir welded AZ31B Mg alloy - Al6063 alloy joint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Ratna Sunil

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, AZ31B Mg alloy and Al6063 alloy-rolled sheets were successfully joined by friction stir welding. Microstructural studies revealed a sound joint with good mechanical mixing of both the alloys at the nugget zone. Corrosion performance of the joint was assessed by immersing in 3.5% NaCl solution for different intervals of time and the corrosion rate was calculated. The joint has undergone severe corrosion attack compared with both the base materials (AZ31B and Al6063 alloys. The predominant corrosion mechanism behind the high corrosion rate of the joint was found to be high galvanic corrosion. From the results, it can be suggested that the severe corrosion of dissimilar Mg–Al joints must be considered as a valid input while designing structures intended to work in corroding environment.

  20. Microstructure and Hardness Distribution of Resistance Welded Advanced High Strength Steels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kim Richardt; Harthøj, Anders; Friis, Kasper Leth

    2008-01-01

    In this work a low carbon steel and two high strength steels (DP600 and TRIP700) have been resistance lap welded and the hardness profiles were measured by micro hardness indentation of cross sections of the joint. The resulting microstructure of the weld zone of the DP-DP and TRIP-TRIP joints were...... found to consist of a martensitic structure with a significant increase in hardness. Joints of dissimilar materials mixed completely in the melted region forming a new alloy with a hardness profile lying in between the hardness measured in joints of the similar materials. Furthermore the joints were...... simulated numerically and together with the material carbon equivalent, austenization temperatures and the thermal history the simulations were used to estimate the resulting post weld hardness using the commercial FE code SORPAS. The hardness of the welds of dissimilar materials was estimated...

  1. A Semi-Analytical Method for Determining the Energy Release Rate of Cracks in Adhesively-Bonded Single-Lap Composite Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Charles; Sun, Wenjun; Tomblin, John S.; Smeltzer, Stanley S., III

    2007-01-01

    A semi-analytical method for determining the strain energy release rate due to a prescribed interface crack in an adhesively-bonded, single-lap composite joint subjected to axial tension is presented. The field equations in terms of displacements within the joint are formulated by using first-order shear deformable, laminated plate theory together with kinematic relations and force equilibrium conditions. The stress distributions for the adherends and adhesive are determined after the appropriate boundary and loading conditions are applied and the equations for the field displacements are solved. Based on the adhesive stress distributions, the forces at the crack tip are obtained and the strain energy release rate of the crack is determined by using the virtual crack closure technique (VCCT). Additionally, the test specimen geometry from both the ASTM D3165 and D1002 test standards are utilized during the derivation of the field equations in order to correlate analytical models with future test results. The system of second-order differential field equations is solved to provide the adherend and adhesive stress response using the symbolic computation tool, Maple 9. Finite element analyses using J-integral as well as VCCT were performed to verify the developed analytical model. The finite element analyses were conducted using the commercial finite element analysis software ABAQUS. The results determined using the analytical method correlated well with the results from the finite element analyses.

  2. High Temperature Plasticity of Bimetallic Magnesium and Aluminum Friction Stir Welded Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regev, Michael; El Mehtedi, Mohamad; Cabibbo, Marcello; Quercetti, Giovanni; Ciccarelli, Daniele; Spigarelli, Stefano

    2014-02-01

    The high temperature deformation of a bimetallic AZ31/AA6061 Friction Stir Welded joint was investigated in the present study by constant load creep experiments carried out at 473 K (200 °C). The microstructural analysis revealed the strongly inhomogeneous nature of the weld, which was characterized by an extremely fine grain size in the magnesium-rich zones and by the extensive presence of intermetallic phases. In the high stress regime, the creep strain was concentrated in the refined and particle-rich microstructure of the weld zone, while the AA6061 base metal remained undeformed. In the low stress regime, deformation became more homogeneously distributed between the AZ31 base metal and the weld zone. The creep behavior of the weld was found to obey the constitutive equation describing the minimum creep rate dependence on applied stress for the base AZ31, slightly modified to take into account the finer microstructure and the role of secondary phase particles, i.e., the retardation of grain growth and the obstruction of grain boundary sliding.

  3. Experimental Research on Fatigue Failure for 2219-T6 Aluminum Alloy Friction Stir-Welded Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Guo-Qin; Niu, Jiang-Pei; Chen, Ya-Jing; Sun, Feng-Yang; Shang, De-Guang; Chen, Shu-Jun

    2017-08-01

    The fatigue experiment was executed for the 2219-T6 aluminum alloy friction stir-welded joints at the rotation speed of 800 r/min and the welding velocity of 150 mm/min. Most fatigue failures occurred in the weld nugget zone (WNZ), the thermo-mechanical affected zone and the nearby areas. The experimental results demonstrated that the sudden hardness gradient increases sites corresponding to the fatigue failure locations. The high-angle grain boundaries with the highest concentration were scattered within the WNZ. The microcracks initiated at the intersection of the soft grains. More than one crack initiation site was observed within the WNZ and the thermo-mechanical affected zone, when the fracture occurred in these areas. The rough surface of the welding area should be one of the main reasons for the fatigue failure occurrence. The fatigue crack growth rate in the WNZ at the first stage was fastest in comparison with the fatigue crack growth rate in the other areas of the joint.

  4. Stress corrosion cracking behaviour of gas tungsten arc welded super austenitic stainless steel joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Vinoth Kumar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Super 304H austenitic stainless steel with 3% of copper posses excellent creep strength and corrosion resistance, which is mainly used in heat exchanger tubing of the boiler. Heat exchangers are used in nuclear power plants and marine vehicles which are intended to operate in chloride rich offshore environment. Chloride stress corrosion cracking is the most likely life limiting failure with austenitic stainless steel tubing. Welding may worsen the stress corrosion cracking susceptibility of the material. Stress corrosion cracking susceptibility of Super 304H parent metal and gas tungsten arc (GTA welded joints were studied by constant load tests in 45% boiling MgCl2 solution. Stress corrosion cracking resistance of Super 304H stainless steel was deteriorated by GTA welding due to the formation of susceptible microstructure in the HAZ of the weld joint and the residual stresses. The mechanism of cracking was found to be anodic path cracking, with transgranular nature of crack propagation. Linear relationships were derived to predict the time to failure by extrapolating the rate of steady state elongation.

  5. The Measurement of Hardness and Elastic Modulus of non-Metallic Inclusions in Steely Welding Joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignatova Anna

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Trunk pipelines work under a cyclic dynamical mechanical load because when oil or gas is pumped, the pressure constantly changes - pulsates. Therefore, the fatigue phenomenon is a common reason of accidents. The fatigue phenomenon more often happens in the zone of non-metallic inclusions concentration. To know how the characteristics of nonmetallic inclusions influence the probability of an accident the most modern research methods should be used. It is determined with the help of the modern research methods that the accident rate of welded joints of pipelines is mostly influenced by their morphological type, composition and size of nonmetallic inclusions, this effect is more important than the common level of pollution by non-metallic inclusions. The article presents the results of the investigations of welded joints, obtained after the use of different common welding materials. We used the methods, described in the state standards: scanning electronic microscopy, spectral microprobe analysis and nano-indentation. We found out that non-metallic inclusions act like stress concentrators because they shrink, forming a blank space between metal and nonmetallic inclusions; it strengthens the differential properties on this boundary. Nonmetallic inclusion is not fixed, it can move. The data that we have received mean that during welded joints’ contamination (with non-metallic inclusions monitoring process, more attention should be paid to the content of definite inclusions, but not to total contamination.

  6. Welding simulation and fatigue assessment of tubular K-joints in high-strength steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamiri Akhlaghi, F.

    2014-07-01

    Application of newly developed high strength steel hollow sections is increasing in construction industry – especially for bridge structures – due to their satisfactory material properties and fabrication advantages. These sections allow for longer spans, more slender structures. Savings in weight and volume of material compared to traditional steel grades increase sustainability of construction and compensate for part of higher unit cost of material. Nevertheless, use of high strength steels cannot be promoted unless potential fatigue issues are properly addressed. Two fabrication methods are currently available for the planar Warren trusses made of circular hollow sections (CHS): welding the tubes together, or using cast steel nodes and connecting truss members to them by girth welds. Previous research on tubular bridge trusses indicates that the problematic fatigue cracking sites for the first fabrication method are located at weld toes in the gap region of the truss joints. For the second method, cracking occurs at the root of CHS–cast butt welds. Fatigue performance of these two methods were investigated by constant amplitude fatigue testing of two full scale trusses made of steel grade S690QH and with a geometry similar to previous S355J2H investigation. Fatigue lives of K-joints were in agreement with current recommended code values. For CHS–cast welded connections, no visible cracking was observed up to 2£10{sup 6} cycles. Due to the effect of residual stresses, fatigue cracking was observed in compressive joints as well as tensile joints. Indeed, tensile welding residual stresses keep the crack open during all or part of the compressive load cycle. Their distribution and impact on fatigue life of tubular joints has not been fully investigated before for a complex detail such as Tubular K-joint made of high strength steel. Experimental and numerical methods were utilized for assessment of welding residual stresses. Neutron diffraction experiments

  7. Characteristics of AZ31 Mg alloy joint using automatic TIG welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong-tao; Zhou, Ji-xue; Zhao, Dong-qing; Liu, Yun-teng; Wu, Jian-hua; Yang, Yuan-sheng; Ma, Bai-chang; Zhuang, Hai-hua

    2017-01-01

    The automatic tungsten-inert gas welding (ATIGW) of AZ31 Mg alloys was performed using a six-axis robot. The evolution of the microstructure and texture of the AZ31 auto-welded joints was studied by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and electron backscatter diffraction. The ATIGW process resulted in coarse recrystallized grains in the heat affected zone (HAZ) and epitaxial growth of columnar grains in the fusion zone (FZ). Substantial changes of texture between the base material (BM) and the FZ were detected. The {0002} basal plane in the BM was largely parallel to the sheet rolling plane, whereas the c-axis of the crystal lattice in the FZ inclined approximately 25° with respect to the welding direction. The maximum pole density increased from 9.45 in the BM to 12.9 in the FZ. The microhardness distribution, tensile properties, and fracture features of the AZ31 auto-welded joints were also investigated.

  8. The porosity formation mechanism in the laser-MIG hybrid welded joint of Invar alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Xiaohong; Gao, Qiyu; Gu, Cheng; Sun, Weihua; Chen, Jicheng; Wei, Yanhong

    2017-10-01

    The porosity formation mechanism in the laser-metal inter gas (MIG) multi-layer hybrid welded (HW) joint of 19.05 mm thick Invar alloy is investigated. The microstructure characteristics and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) are analyzed. The phase identification was conducted by the X-ray diffractometer (XRD). Experimental results show that the generation of porosity is caused by the relatively low laser power in the root pass and low current in the cover pass. It is also indicated that the microstructures of the welded joints are mainly observed to be columnar crystal and equiaxial crystal, which are closely related to the porosity formation. The EDS results show that oxygen content is significantly high in the inner wall of the porosity. The XRD results indicate that the BM and the WB of laser-MIG HW all are composed of Fe0.64Ni0.36 and γ-(Fe,Ni). When the weld pool is cooled quickly, [NiO] [FeO] and [MnO] are formed that react on C to generate CO/CO2 gases. The porosity of laser-MIG HW for Invar alloy is oxygen pore. The root source of metallurgy porosity formation is that the dissolved gases are hard to escape sufficiently and thus exist in the weld pool. Furthermore, 99.99% pure Argon is recommended as protective gas in the laser-MIG HW of Invar alloy.

  9. Inhibition of the formation of intermetallic compounds in aluminum-steel welded joints by friction stir welding; Inhibicion de la formacion de compuestos intermetalicos en juntas aluminio-acero soldadas por friccion-agitacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres Lopez, E. A.; Ramirez, A. J.

    2015-07-01

    Formation of deleterious phases during welding of aluminum and steel is a challenge of the welding processes, for decades. Friction Stir Welding (FSW) has been used in an attempt to reduce formation of intermetallic compounds trough reducing the heat input. In this research, dissimilar joint of 6063-T5 aluminum alloy and AISI-SAE 1020 steel were welded using this technique. The temperature of welded joints was measured during the process. The interface of the welded joints was characterized using optical microscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Additionally, composition measurements were carried out by X-EDS and DRX. The experimental results revealed that the maximum temperature on the joint studied is less than 360 degree centigrade. The microstructural characterization in the aluminum-steel interface showed the absence of intermetallic compounds, which is a condition attributed to the use of welding with low thermal input parameters. (Author)

  10. Corrosion behavior of Al6061 alloy weldment produced by friction stir welding process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Gharavi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the corrosion behavior of welded lap joints of AA6061-T6 aluminum alloy produced by friction stir welding process has been investigated. Corrosion properties of welded lap joints were studied by cyclic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy tests. All tests were performed in an aerated 0.6 mol L−1 NaCl aqueous solution with pH = 6.5 at a temperature of 30 °C to characterize corrosion morphology and realize corrosion features of weld regions as opposed to the parent alloy. The microstructure of weld nugget (WN, heated affected zone (HAZ, and parent alloy were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The experimental results indicated that the welding process has a major effect on the corrosion resistance, which possibly associated to the break-down and dissolution of intermetallic particles. It is supposed that an increasing in intermetallic distributed throughout the matrix of weld regions increases the galvanic corrosion couples. Furthermore, by decreasing the grain size in the weld regions, the susceptibility to corrosion is enhanced. The pitting corrosion and intergranular attack are the dominant corrosion types in the weld regions and the parent alloy.

  11. Fatigue Crack Growth Characteristics of Cold Stretched STS 304 Welded Joint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jeong Won; Na, Seong Hyeon; Yoon, Dong Hyun; Kim, Jae Hoon [Chungnam Nat’l Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Kyun; Kim, Ki Dong [Korea Gas Coporation R& D Division, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-09-15

    STS 304 steel is used as pressure vessel material, and although it exhibits excellent mechanical characteristics at a low temperature, it is heavier than other materials. To address this issue, a method using cold-stretching techniques for STS 304 can be applied. In this study, a cold-stretching part and welded joint specimen were directly obtained from a cold-stretching pressure vessel manufactured according to ASME code. Fatigue crack propagation tests were carried out at room temperature and -170℃ using the compliance method for stress ratios of 0.1 and 0.5. The results indicate that crack growth rate of the welded joint is higher than that of the cold-stretching part within the same stress intensity factor range. The outcome of this work is expected to serve as a basis for the development of a cold-stretched STS 304 pressure vessel.

  12. Numerical study of electron beam welded butt joints with the GTN model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Haoyun; Schmauder, Siegfried; Weber, Ulrich

    2012-08-01

    The fracture behavior of S355NL electron beam welded steel joints is investigated experimentally and numerically. The simulation of crack propagation in an electron beam welded steel joint was performed with the Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman (GTN) damage model. A parameter study of the GTN model was adopted which reveals the influence of parameters on the material behavior of notched round and compact tension specimens. Based on the combined method of metallographic investigations and numerical calibration, the GTN parameters were fixed. The same parameters were used to predict the ductile fracture of compact tension specimens with the initial crack located at different locations. Good match can be found between the numerical and experimental results in the form of force versus Crack Opening Displacement as well as fracture resistance curves.

  13. Effect of adding powder on joint properties of laser penetration welding for dual phase steel and aluminum alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, D. W.; Liu, J. S.; Lu, Y. Z.; Xu, S. H.

    2017-09-01

    The experiments of laser penetration welding for dual phase steel and aluminum alloy were carried out, and the effect of adding Mn or Si powder on mechanical properties and microstructure of the weld was investigated. Some defects, such as spatter, inclusion, cracks and softening in heat affected zone (HAZ), can be avoided in welding joints, and the increased penetration depth is obtained by adding Mn or Si powder. The average tensile-shear strength of Si-added joint is 3.84% higher than that of Mn-added joint, and the strength of both joints exceeds that of no-added joint. In the case of adding Mn powder, small amount of liquid Al is mixed into steel molten pool, and the Al content increases in both sides of the weld, which leads to the increased weld width in aluminum molten pool. Thus, transverse area increases in jointing steel to aluminum, which is significant for the improved tensile-shear strength of joints. As far as adding Si powder is concerned, it is not the case, the enhancement of the joint properties benefits from improvement of metallurgical reaction.

  14. Effect of Peculiarities of Heat Transfer, Diffusion and Phase Transformation on Joint Formation During Welding of Dissimilar Materials by High Power Fiber Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turichin, Gleb; Klimova, Olga; Valdaytseva, Ekaterina

    The article describes mathematical models of diffusion and thermal processes for welding of dissimilar materials and kinetic model of diffusion-controlled deposition and growth of intermetallic inclusions in the weld. Developed models were combined and implemented in the model of weld joint formation for dissimilar materials. To verify a model the microstructure analysis of weld joints and elemental analysis in the diffusion zone by SEM has been made for welding of systems Fe-Cu, Al-Ti, Fe-Al. The good agreement between calculated and experimental data has been obtained. Examples of developed technologies of welding of dissimilar materials using high-power fiber lasers were discussed also.

  15. Thermo-mechanic and Microstructural Analysis of an Underwater Welding Joint

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro Hernández Gutiérrez; Francisco Cepeda Rodríguez; Jose Jorge Ruiz Mondragón; Jorge Leobardo Acevedo Dávila; Martha Patricia Guerrero Mata; Carlos Alberto Guevara Chavez

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this research is to present a comparative analysis between theoretical and experimental thermal fields as well as a microstructural behaviour and residual stresses applying multiple weld beads in the joint of two API 5L X52 pipe sections. The thermal field, microstructural and residual stresses were numerically modelled through the finite element method (FEM) and compared to experimentally. The simulation conditions used in the FEM analysis were similar considerations to t...

  16. Automatic weld torch guidance control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smaith, H. E.; Wall, W. A.; Burns, M. R., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    A highly reliable, fully digital, closed circuit television optical, type automatic weld seam tracking control system was developed. This automatic tracking equipment is used to reduce weld tooling costs and increase overall automatic welding reliability. The system utilizes a charge injection device digital camera which as 60,512 inidividual pixels as the light sensing elements. Through conventional scanning means, each pixel in the focal plane is sequentially scanned, the light level signal digitized, and an 8-bit word transmitted to scratch pad memory. From memory, the microprocessor performs an analysis of the digital signal and computes the tracking error. Lastly, the corrective signal is transmitted to a cross seam actuator digital drive motor controller to complete the closed loop, feedback, tracking system. This weld seam tracking control system is capable of a tracking accuracy of + or - 0.2 mm, or better. As configured, the system is applicable to square butt, V-groove, and lap joint weldments.

  17. Influence of the Strength Mismatch of a Narrow Gap Welded Joint of SA508 on the Plastic η Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, J. M.; Huh, Y.; Seok, C. S.

    2012-11-01

    In this article, the influence of the strength mismatch of a narrow gap welded joint of SA508 on the η factor was evaluated. The η factor is the principal parameter that determines the plastic portion of the J-integral. The specimens for tensile and hardness tests were collected from piping with narrow gap welding and the stress-strain curve and hardness were obtained from those. From these results, the Ramberg-Osgood (R-O) constant was obtained. Also, the finite element analysis was performed with variations in the strength mismatch and the weld width. The η factor equation considering the strength mismatch and the weld width of a narrow gap welded joint was suggested.

  18. Influence of temperature and exploitation period on fatigue crack growth parameters in different regions of welded joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivica Camagic

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The influence of exploitation period and temperature on the fatigue crack growth parameters indifferent regions of a welded joint is analysed for new and exploited low-alloyed Cr-Mo steel A-387 Gr. B. The parent metal is a part of a reactor mantle which was exploited for over 40 years, and recently replaced with new material. Fatigue crack growth parameters, threshold value Kth, coefficient C and exponent m, have been determined, both at room and exploitation temperature. Based on testing results, fatigue crack growth resistance in different regions of welded joint is analysed in order to justify the selected welding procedure specification.

  19. Influence of microstructure and elemental partitioning on pitting corrosion resistance of duplex stainless steel welding joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zhiqiang; Jing, Hongyang [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300350 (China); Tianjin Key Laboratory of Advanced Joining Technology, Tianjin 300350 (China); Xu, Lianyong, E-mail: xulianyong@tju.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300350 (China); Tianjin Key Laboratory of Advanced Joining Technology, Tianjin 300350 (China); Han, Yongdian; Zhao, Lei [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300350 (China); Tianjin Key Laboratory of Advanced Joining Technology, Tianjin 300350 (China); Zhang, Jianli [Welding laboratory, Offshore Oil Engineering (Qing Dao) Company, Qing Dao 266520 (China)

    2017-02-01

    Highlights: • N{sub 2}-supplemented shielding gas promoted nitrogen solid-solution in the austenite. • Secondary austenite had higher Ni but lower Cr and Mo than primary austenite. • Pitting corrosion preferentially occurred at secondary austenite and Cr{sub 2}N. • Adding N{sub 2} in shielding gas improved pitting corrosion resistance of GTAW joint. • E2209T{sub 1} weld metal had very poor pitting corrosion resistance due to inclusions. - Abstract: The influences of microstructure and elemental partitioning on pitting corrosion resistance of duplex stainless steel joints welded by gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) and flux-cored arc welding (FCAW) with different shielding gas compositions were studied by optical microscopy, electron backscatter diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, electron probe microanalysis, and potentiostatic and potentiodynamic polarization methods The adding 2% N{sub 2} in shielding gas facilitated primary austenite formation in GTAW weld metal (WM) and suppressed Cr{sub 2}N precipitation in GTAW weld root. In the HAZ, the banded microstructure disappeared while the coarse ferrite grains maintained same orientation as the banded ferrite in the BM. In the WM, the ferrite had one single orientation throughout a grain, whereas several families of austenite appeared. The austenite both in BM and WM enriched in Ni and nitrogen, while Cr and Mo were concentrated in the ferrite and thus no element showed clear dendritic distribution in the WM (ER2209 and E2209T{sub 1}). In addition, the secondary austenite had higher Ni content but lower Cr and Mo content than the primary austenite. The N{sub 2}-supplemented shielding gas promoted nitrogen solid-solution in the primary and secondary austenite. Furthermore, the secondary austenite had relatively lower pitting resistance equivalent number (PREN) than the ferrite and primary austenite, thereby resulting in its preferential

  20. Microstructure, Hardness, and Residual Stress Distributions in T-Joint Weld of HSLA S500MC Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frih, Intissar; Montay, Guillaume; Adragna, Pierre-Antoine

    2017-03-01

    This paper investigates the characterization of the microstructure, hardness, and residual stress distributions of MIG-welded high-strength low-alloy S500MC steel. The T-joint weld for 10-mm-thick plates was joined using a two passes MIG welding technology. The contour method was performed to measure longitudinal welding residual stress. The obtained results highlighted a good correlation between the metallurgical phase constituents and hardness distribution within the weld zones. In fact, the presence of bainite and smaller ferrite grain size in the weld-fusion zone might be the reason for the highest hardness measured in this region. A similar trend of the residual stress and hardness distributions was also obtained.

  1. Effect of buffer-layered buttering on microstructure and mechanical properties of dissimilar metal weld joints for nuclear plant application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rathod, Dinesh W., E-mail: dineshvrathod@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical Enggineering, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Hauz-khas, New Delhi 110016 (India); Singh, P.K. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Pandey, Sunil; Aravindan, S. [Department of Mechanical Enggineering, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Hauz-khas, New Delhi 110016 (India)

    2016-06-01

    In this study, we present the metallurgical and mechanical investigation of four dissimilar welds between SA508Gr.3Cl.1 and SS304LN. The welding processes for buttering deposition and fill-pass welding were varied with ERNiCr-3/ENiCrFe-3 consumables. The Ni-Fe alloy buffer layer was introduced as intermediate layer in buttering and then the joints (with and without buffer layer in buttering) were fabricated. The effect of Ni-Fe buffer layered buttering and welding processes on the resulting weld joints properties has been addressed. Metallurgical and mechanical properties, fracture toughness were measured and various examinations were carried out for integrity assessment on all the weld joints. Addition of a Ni-Fe buttering layer leads to the development of more favourable properties than observed in welded joints made using the current practice without a buffer layer. Control of carbon migration and its subsequent effect on metallurgical, mechanical properties due to buffer layer has been justified in the study. Conventional procedure of DMW fabrication has been proven to be the least favourable against the new technique suggested. Modification in current integrity assessment procedure would be possible by considering the properties at interfacial regions, introduction of yield strength ratio mismatch and the plastic instability strength in the integrity assessment.

  2. Simulation Study on Multipassed Welding Distortion of Combined Joint Types using Thermo-Elastic-Plastic FEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RN Lidam

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the angular distortion induced by the gas metal arc welding (GMAW process on the combined butt and T-joint with a thickness of 9 mm. The material used in this study was low manganese carbon steel S355J2G3. A 2-D and 3-D thermo-elastic-plastic finite element (FE analysis has been developed to simulate the induced distortion of multipassed welding. In this research, SYSWELD 2010 with its computation management tool, known as multipassed welding advisor (MPA, was applied to analyze the distortion behavior of combined joint types. To model the heat source of GMAW, Goldak's double ellipsoid representation, which is available within this finite element analysis (FEA code was selected. Prior to the results discussion, this paper also shows the step-bystep procedures to simulate combined jointing which begins with metallurgical and customized heat source modeling, and is followed by creating geometrical mesh using Visual-Mesh 6.5 for analyzing and processing the results. Apart from 2-D and 3-D comparison analysis, the final objective of this research is also aimed to be a baseline study to provide preliminary information in preparing the tools and equipment for experimental investigation.

  3. Fatigue limits of titanium-bar joints made with the laser and the electric resistance welding techniques: microstructural characterization and hardness properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degidi, Marco; Nardi, Diego; Morri, Alessandro; Sighinolfi, Gianluca; Tebbel, Florian; Marchetti, Claudio

    2017-09-01

    Fatigue behavior of the titanium bars is of utmost importance for the safe and reliable operation of dental implants and prosthetic constructions based on these implants. To date, however, only few data are available on the fatigue strength of dental prostheses made with electric resistance welding and laser welding techniques. This in-vitro study highlighted that although the joints made with the laser welding approach are credited of a superior tensile strength, joints made with electric resistance welding exhibited double the minimum fatigue strength with respect to the joints made with laser welding (120 vs 60 N).

  4. Updating failure probability of a welded joint in offshore wind turbine substructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mai, Quang A.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Rigo, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    . Updating the reliability of a welded joint can theoretically be done using Bayesian updating. However, for tubular joints in offshore wind turbine substructures when considering a two dimensional crack growth and a failure criterion combining brittle fracture and material strength, the updating is quite...... complex due to the wind turbine loading obtained during operation. This paper solves that updating problem by using the Failure Assessment Diagram as a limit state function. It is discussed how application of the updating procedure can be used for inspection planning for offshore wind turbine...... substructures, and thus also for reducing the required safety factors at the design stage....

  5. Microstructure and Hardness Profiles of Bifocal Laser-Welded DP-HSLA Steel Overlap Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grajcar, A.; Matter, P.; Stano, S.; Wilk, Z.; Różański, M.

    2017-04-01

    The article presents results related to the bifocal laser welding of overlap joints made of HSLA and DP high-strength steels. The joints were made using a disk laser and a head enabling the 50-50% distribution of laser power. The effects of the laser welding rates and the distance between laser spots on morphological features and hardness profiles were analyzed. It was established that the positioning of beams at angles of 0° or 90° determined the hardness of the individual zones of the joints, without causing significant differences in microstructures of the steels. Microstructural features were inspected using scanning electron microscopy. Both steels revealed primarily martensitic-bainitic microstructures in the fusion zone and in the heat-affected zone. Mixed multiphase microstructures were revealed in the inter-critical heat-affected zone of the joint. The research involved the determination of parameters making it possible to reduce the hardness of joints and prevent the formation of the soft zone in the dual-phase steel.

  6. Physical Nature of the Processes in Structure Forming, Phase and Chemical Composition of pipe Permanent Joints when MMA Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Il'yaschenko, D. P.; Chinakhov, D. A.; Danilov, V. I.; Sadykov, I. D.

    2016-04-01

    The paper outlines peculiarities of structure formation, phase and chemical composition in regard to heat content in molten electrode metal beads when pipe steel (steel 09G2S) welding using power sources with various energy characteristics. Mathematical calculations indicate an inverter power source provides minor heat content into the bead of electrode metal when welding. Experimental research has pointed at 4-9 % increase in impact strength of joints produced using an inverter power source in comparison with samples produced applying a diode rectifier. The following factors can possibly give rise to the increasing impact strength: difference in microstructures of weld joints, up to 50% shortening ferritic plates in metal of weld joint, change in dimensions of ferritic grains in the heat-affected zone by as much as 17.5 %, and decrease in the extent of heat-affected zone by 50%.

  7. The Effect of Tool Profiles on Mechanical Properties of Friction Stir Welded Al5052 T-Joints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byeong-Jin; Bang, Hee-Seon; Bang, Han-Sur

    2018-03-01

    Al5052 T butt joints with two skins (5 mm) and one stringer (3 mm) has been successfully welded by friction stir welding (FSW). Notably, this paper has been investigated the effect of tool shape on welded formation mechanism and mechanical properties. The used shapes of tool pin are two types which are cylinder (type 1) and frustum (type 2). Dimension on two types of tool pin shape is respectively pin length of 4.7 mm and pin diameter of frustum type of top (5 mm) and bottom (3 mm). The results of experiment show that inner defects in FSWed T-joints increase significantly in accordance with traverse speed. The maximum tensile strength of welded joint fabricated using type 1 is equivalent to 85% that of the base metal, which is approximately 10% higher than that of type 2. Because welded joint of type 1 has more smoothly plastic flow in comparison with type 2. Consequently, the results show that type 1 is better appropriate for friction stir welded Al5052 T butt joints than type 2.

  8. Prediction of Welded Joint Strength in Plasma Arc Welding: A Comparative Study Using Back-Propagation and Radial Basis Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivas, Kadivendi; Vundavilli, Pandu R.; Manzoor Hussain, M.; Saiteja, M.

    2016-09-01

    Welding input parameters such as current, gas flow rate and torch angle play a significant role in determination of qualitative mechanical properties of weld joint. Traditionally, it is necessary to determine the weld input parameters for every new welded product to obtain a quality weld joint which is time consuming. In the present work, the effect of plasma arc welding parameters on mild steel was studied using a neural network approach. To obtain a response equation that governs the input-output relationships, conventional regression analysis was also performed. The experimental data was constructed based on Taguchi design and the training data required for neural networks were randomly generated, by varying the input variables within their respective ranges. The responses were calculated for each combination of input variables by using the response equations obtained through the conventional regression analysis. The performances in Levenberg-Marquardt back propagation neural network and radial basis neural network (RBNN) were compared on various randomly generated test cases, which are different from the training cases. From the results, it is interesting to note that for the above said test cases RBNN analysis gave improved training results compared to that of feed forward back propagation neural network analysis. Also, RBNN analysis proved a pattern of increasing performance as the data points moved away from the initial input values.

  9. Microstructural characterisation of friction stir welding joints of mild steel to Ni-based alloy 625

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, J. [Brazilian Nanotechnology National Laboratory (LNNano), P.O. Box 6192, Campinas, SP (Brazil); University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil); Ramirez, A.J., E-mail: ramirezlondono.1@osu.edu [Brazilian Nanotechnology National Laboratory (LNNano), P.O. Box 6192, Campinas, SP (Brazil); University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Ohio State University — OSU, Columbus, OH 43221 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    In this study, 6-mm-thick mild steel and Ni-based alloy 625 plates were friction stir welded using a tool rotational speed of 300 rpm and a travel speed of 100 mm·min{sup −1}. A microstructural characterisation of the dissimilar butt joint was performed using optical microscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (XEDS). Six different weld zones were found. In the steel, the heat-affected zone (HAZ) was divided into three zones and was composed of ferrite, pearlite colonies with different morphologies, degenerated regions of pearlite and allotriomorphic and Widmanstätten ferrite. The stir zone (SZ) of the steel showed a coarse microstructure consisting of allotriomorphic and Widmanstätten ferrite, degenerate pearlite and MA constituents. In the Ni-based alloy 625, the thermo-mechanically affected zone (TMAZ) showed deformed grains and redistribution of precipitates. In the SZ, the high deformation and temperature produced a recrystallised microstructure, as well as fracture and redistribution of MC precipitates. The M{sub 23}C{sub 6} precipitates, present in the base material, were also redistributed in the stir zone of the Ni-based alloy. TMAZ in the steel and HAZ in the Ni-based alloy could not be identified. The main restorative mechanisms were discontinuous dynamic recrystallisation in the steel, and discontinuous and continuous dynamic recrystallisation in the Ni-based alloy. The interface region between the steel and the Ni-based alloy showed a fcc microstructure with NbC carbides and an average length of 2.0 μm. - Highlights: • Comprehensive microstructural characterisation of dissimilar joints of mild steel to Ni-based alloy • Friction stir welding of joints of mild steel to Ni-based alloy 625 produces sound welds. • The interface region showed deformed and recrystallised fcc grains with NbC carbides and a length of 2.0 μm.

  10. Fatigue Crack Growth Behavior of a New Type of 10% Cr Martensitic Steel Welded Joints with Ni-Based Weld Metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qunbing; Zhang, Jianxun

    2017-08-01

    In the present work, the fatigue crack growth (FCG) behavior of a new type of 10% Cr martensitic steel welded joints with Ni-based weld metal was comparatively studied for different regions including base metal (BM), heat-affected zone (HAZ) and weld metal (WM). FCG results indicated that the tempered lath martensite BM has a higher fatigue crack growth resistance than the tempered granular martensite HAZ that without a typical lath structure. In comparison, the austenitic WM has the highest fatigue crack growth threshold. Meanwhile, due to the microstructural and chemical compositional differences between BM and WM, a clear interface existed in the welded joints. At the region of the interface, the microstructures were physically connected and an element transition layer was formed. Although the starter notch was positioned at the region of interface, the fatigue crack gradually deviated from the interface and ultimately propagated along the inter-critically heat-affected zone. The difference in microstructure is considered as the primary factor that resulted in the different fatigue crack growth behaviors of the welded joints. In addition, the continuous microstructure connection and composition transition at the interface contributed to the good fatigue resistance at this region.

  11. Creep Deformation and Rupture Behavior of Single- and Dual-Pass 316LN Stainless-Steel-Activated TIG Weld Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayanand, V. D.; Vasudevan, M.; Ganesan, V.; Parameswaran, P.; Laha, K.; Bhaduri, A. K.

    2016-06-01

    Creep deformation and rupture behavior of single-pass and dual-pass 316LN stainless steel (SS) weld joints fabricated by an autogenous activated tungsten inert gas welding process have been assessed by performing metallography, hardness, and conventional and impression creep tests. The fusion zone of the single-pass joint consisted of columnar zones adjacent to base metals with a central equiaxed zone, which have been modified extensively by the thermal cycle of the second pass in the dual-pass joint. The equiaxed zone in the single-pass joint, as well as in the second pass of the dual-pass joint, displayed the lowest hardness in the joints. In the dual-pass joint, the equiaxed zone of the first pass had hardness comparable to the columnar zone. The hardness variations in the joints influenced the creep deformation. The equiaxed and columnar zone in the first pass of the dual-pass joint was more creep resistant than that of the second pass. Both joints possessed lower creep rupture life than the base metal. However, the creep rupture life of the dual-pass joint was about twofolds more than that of the single-pass joint. Creep failure in the single-pass joint occurred in the central equiaxed fusion zone, whereas creep cavitation that originated in the second pass was blocked at the weld pass interface. The additional interface and strength variation between two passes in the dual-pass joint provides more restraint to creep deformation and crack propagation in the fusion zone, resulting in an increase in the creep rupture life of the dual-pass joint over the single-pass joint. Furthermore, the differences in content, morphology, and distribution of delta ferrite in the fusion zone of the joints favors more creep cavitation resistance in the dual-pass joint over the single-pass joint with the enhancement of creep rupture life.

  12. The effect of viscoelasticity on the stress distribution of adhesively single-lap joint with an internal break in the composite adherends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reza, Arash; Shishesaz, Mohammad

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this research is to study the effect of a break in the laminated composite adherends on stress distribution in the adhesively single-lap joint with viscoelastic adhesive and matrix. The proposed model involves two adherends with E-glass fibers and poly-methyl-methacrylate matrix that have been adhered to each other by phenolic-epoxy resin. The equilibrium equations that are based on shear-lag theory have been derived in the Laplace domain, and the governing differential equations of the model have been derived analytically in the Laplace domain. A numerical inverse Laplace transform, which is called Gaver-Stehfest method, has been used to extract desired results in the time domain. The results obtained at the initial time completely matched with the results of elastic solution. Also, a comparison between results obtained from the analytical and finite element models show a relatively good match. The results show that viscoelastic behavior decreases the peak of stress near the break. Finally, the effect of size and location of the break, as well as volume fraction of fibers, on the stress distribution in the adhesive layer is fully investigated.

  13. Experimental and numerical investigations of hybrid laser arc welding of aluminum alloys in the thick T-joint configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazar Atabaki, M.; Nikodinovski, M.; Chenier, P.; Ma, J.; Liu, W.; Kovacevic, R.

    2014-07-01

    In the present investigation, a numerical finite element model was developed to simulate the hybrid laser arc welding of different aluminum alloys, namely 5××× to 6××× series. The numerical simulation has been considered two double-ellipsoidal heat sources for the gas metal arc welding and laser welding. The offset distance of the metal arc welding and laser showed a significant effect on the molten pool geometry, the heat distribution and penetration depth during the welding process. It was confirmed that when the offset distance is within the critical distance the laser and arc share the molten pool and specific amount of penetration and dilution can be achieved. The models and experiments show that the off-distance between the two heat sources and shoulder width have considerable influence on the penetration depth and appearance of the weld beads. The experiments also indicate that the laser power, arc voltage and type of the filler metal can effectively determine the final properties of the bonds, specifically the bead appearance and microhardness of the joints. The experiments verified the numerical simulation as the thermocouples assist to comprehend the amount of heat distribution on the T-joint coupons. The role of the welding parameters on the mechanism of the hybrid laser welding of the aluminum alloys was also discussed.

  14. Influence of Friction Stir Welding on Mechanical Properties of Butt Joints of AZ61 Magnesium Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Ju Sun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effect of heat input on the mechanical properties and fracture behaviors of AZ61 magnesium alloy joints has been studied. Magnesium alloy AZ61 plates with thickness of 5 mm were welded at different ratios of tool rotational speed to welding speed (ω/ν. The average ultimate tensile strength of all weld conditions satisfying a ω/ν ratio of 3 reached 100% of the strength of the base material. Fractures occurred at the interface between the thermomechanical affected zone at advancing side and the stir zone in all welded specimens. From the scanning electron microscope and electron backscatter diffraction analysis, it was determined that the interface between the thermomechanical affected zone and the stir zone, which is the region where the grain orientation changes, was the weakest part; the advancing side region was relatively weaker than the retreating side region because the grain orientation change occurred more dramatically in the advancing side region.

  15. The influence of radiation on the properties of welds and joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavassoli, A. A.

    1988-07-01

    The effect of radiation on mechanical properties of candidate structural materials for the first wall and breeder blanket of fusion reactors is reviewed. The emphasis is placed on austenitic stainless steel type 316L and its weld metals; design parameters considered are similar to those currently specified for the Next European Torus, namely, irradiation doses ≤15 dpa, temperatures ≤ 400°C, number of pulse cycles ≈10 5 and hold times ≤15 mn. The effect of irradiation on other materials, including austenitic stainless steel Type 304L, weld metal Type 308L and ferritic/martensitic steels (9-12% Cr-Mo), as well as other service conditions such as temperatures as high as 550°C are also briefly discussed. The data collected and presented in this review are those usually measured before and after irradiation, through tensile, impact toughness, fracture toughness, fatigue, creep-fatigue and fatigue crack propagation testing. In each case the influence of irradiation parameters on the observed changes are discussed and relative conclusions are drawn. The most important observation made is the lack of medium dose irradiation data on the weld metal and in particular on the electron beam welded joints.

  16. The Effects of Laser Welding Direction on Joint Quality for Non-Uniform Part-to-Part Gaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocku Oh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Controlling part-to-part gaps is a crucial task in the laser welding of galvanized steel sheets for ensuring the quality of the assembly joint. However, part-to-part gaps are frequently non-uniform. Hence, elevations and depressions from the perspective of the heading direction of the laser beam always exist throughout the gap, creating ascending, descending, and flat travelling paths for laser welding. In this study, assuming non-uniform part-to-part gaps, the effects of welding direction on the quality of the joint of galvanized steel sheets—SGARC440 (lower part and SGAFC590DP (upper part—were examined using 2-kW fiber and 6.6-kW disk laser welding systems. The experimental analysis of coupon tests confirmed that there is no statistically significant correlation between the direction of welding and weld pool quality if the gap exceeds the tolerable range. However, when the gap is controlled within the tolerable range, the welding direction can be considered as an important process control variable to enhance the quality of the joint.

  17. Mechanical properties of API X80 steel pipe joints welded by Flux Core Arc Weld Process; Propriedades mecanicas de juntas de tubos de aco API X80 soldadas com arame tubulares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ordonez, Robert E. Cooper; Silva, Jose Hilton F.; Trevisan, Roseana E. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Engenharia de Fabricacao

    2003-07-01

    Flux Core Arc Welding processes (FCAW) are beginning to be applied in pipeline welds, however, very limited experimental data regarding mechanical properties of pipeline weld joints with these processes are available in the literature. In this paper, the effects of preheat temperature and type of FCAW on mechanical properties (microhardness and tensile strength) of API X80 weld joint steel are presented. FCAW processes with gas protection and self-shielded were used. Multipasses welding were applied in 30'' diameter and 0,625'' thickness tubes. Influence factors were: FCAW type and preheat temperature. Acceptance criteria of welded joints were evaluated by API 1104 standard for tensile strength test and ASTM E384-99 for microhardness test. The results obtained showed that FCAW type and preheat temperature have no influence on mechanical properties of API X80 joint steel. (author)

  18. Effects of thermal aging on microstructure and hardness of China low activation martensitic steel welded joint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wei; Zhang, Junyu [Key Laboratory of Neutronics and Radiation Safety, Institute of Nuclear Energy Safety Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui (China); Xu, Gang, E-mail: gang.xu@fds.org.cn [Key Laboratory of Neutronics and Radiation Safety, Institute of Nuclear Energy Safety Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • The hardness of HAZ and WM decreases obviously after aging. • The precipitation of the Laves-phase in BM is similar to that in HAZ. • M{sub 23}C{sub 6} particles are conducive to the nucleation of Laves-phase. • Ta may have a role to retard the early precipitation of the Laves-phase. - Abstract: The aim of this paper is to investigate the microstructure evolution and the change in hardness distribution of China low activation martensitic steel welded joints after thermal aging at 550 °C for 6000 h. The joint was processed by electron beam welding. Compared to the base metal (BM) and heat affected zone (HAZ), Laves-phase was not formed in weld metal (WM) in the as-aged condition due to the higher tantalum content and less precipitation in WM before aging. The dislocation density decreased in HAZ and WM after aging for 6000 h. The property results showed that hardness of WM and HAZ was decreased significantly after aging for 6000 h due to the weakening of solution strengthening and dislocations strengthening. However, the change in the hardness of the base metal by aging remained at a minor level.

  19. Characteristics of friction welded AZ31B magnesium–commercial pure titanium dissimilar joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K. Lakshminarayanan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available It is essential to understand the weld interface characteristics and mechanical properties of dissimilar joints to improve its quality. This study is aimed at exploring the properties of friction welded magnesium–titanium dissimilar joint using tensile testing coupled with digital image correlation, optical and scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction and microhardness measurements. Microstructurally different regions such as contact zone, dynamic recrystallized zone, thermo-mechanically affected zone, and partially deformed zone in the magnesium side were observed. No discernible regions were observed in the titanium side, as it had not undergone any significant plastic deformation. Phase analysis indicated that the aluminium from the magnesium side diffused toward the weld interface and formed a thin continuous intermetallic layer by reacting with the titanium. Microhardness mapping showed a steep hardness gradient from the titanium to magnesium side. Critical analysis is done on the tensile characteristics of the specimen and the response of the local regions to the deformation process is mapped.

  20. Effect of adhesive thickness and surface treatment on shear strength on single lap joint Al/CFRP using adhesive of epoxy/Al fine powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diharjo, Kuncoro; Anwar, Miftahul; Tarigan, Roy Aries P.; Rivai, Ahmad

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of adhesive thickness and surface treatment on the shear strength and failure type characteristic of single lap joint (SLJ) CFRP/Al using adhesive epoxy/Al-fine-powder. The CFRP was produced by using hand layup method for 30% of woven roving carbon fiber (w/w) and the resin used was bisphenolic. The adhesive was prepared using 12.5% of aluminum fine powder (w/w) in the epoxy adhesive. The powder was mixed by using a mixing machine at 60 rpm for 6 minutes, and then it was used to join the Al plate-2024 and CFRP. The start time to pressure for the joint process was 20 minutes after the application of adhesive on the both of adherends. The variables in this research are adhesive thickness (i.e. 0.2 mm, 0.4 mm, 0.6 mm, 0.8 mm and 1 mm) and surface treatment of adherends (i.e. acetone, chromate sulphuric acid, caustic etch and tucker's reagent). Before shear testing, all specimens were post-cured at 100 °C for 15 minutes. The result shows that the SLJ has the highest shear strength for 0.4 mm of adhesive thickness. When the adhesive thickness is more than 0.4 mm (0.6-1 mm), the shear strength decreases significantly. It might be caused by the property change of adhesive from ductile to brittle. The acetone surface treatment produces the best bonding between the adhesive and adherends (CFRP and Al-plate 2024), and the highest shear strength is 9.31 MPa. The surface treatment give the humidification effect of adherend surfaces by adhesive. The failure characteristic shows that the mixed failure of light-fiber-tear-failure and cohesive-failure are occurred on the high shear strength of SLJ, and the low shear strength commonly has the adhesive-failure type.

  1. Effects of aging treatment and heat input on the microstructures and mechanical properties of TIG-welded 6061-T6 alloy joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Dong; Shen, Jun; Tang, Qin; Wu, Cui-ping; Zhou, Yan-bing

    2013-03-01

    Aging treatment and various heat input conditions were adopted to investigate the microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of TIG welded 6061-T6 alloy joints by microstructural observations, microhardness tests, and tensile tests. With an increase in heat input, the width of the heat-affected zone (HAZ) increases and grains in the fusion zone (FZ) coarsen. Moreover, the hardness of the HAZ decreases, whereas that of the FZ decreases initially and then increases with an increase in heat input. Low heat input results in the low ultimate tensile strength of the welded joints due to the presence of partial penetrations and pores in the welded joints. After a simple artificial aging treatment at 175°C for 8 h, the microstructure of the welded joints changes slightly. The mechanical properties of the welded joints enhance significantly after the aging process as few precipitates distribute in the welded seam.

  2. Multiple pass and multiple layer friction stir welding and material enhancement processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zhili [Knoxville, TN; David, Stan A [Knoxville, TN; Frederick, David Alan [Harriman, TN

    2010-07-27

    Processes for friction stir welding, typically for comparatively thick plate materials using multiple passes and multiple layers of a friction stir welding tool. In some embodiments a first portion of a fabrication preform and a second portion of the fabrication preform are placed adjacent to each other to form a joint, and there may be a groove adjacent the joint. The joint is welded and then, where a groove exists, a filler may be disposed in the groove, and the seams between the filler and the first and second portions of the fabrication preform may be friction stir welded. In some embodiments two portions of a fabrication preform are abutted to form a joint, where the joint may, for example, be a lap joint, a bevel joint or a butt joint. In some embodiments a plurality of passes of a friction stir welding tool may be used, with some passes welding from one side of a fabrication preform and other passes welding from the other side of the fabrication preform.

  3. IIW recommendations for the HFMI treatment for improving the fatigue strength of welded joints

    CERN Document Server

    Marquis, Gary B

    2016-01-01

    This book of recommendations presents an overview of High Frequency Mechanical Impact (HFMI) techniques existing today in the market and their proper procedures, quality assurance measures and documentation. Due to differences in HFMI tools and the wide variety of potential applications, certain details of proper treatments and quantitative quality control measures are presented generally. An example of procedure specification as a quality assurance measure is given in the Appendix. Moreover, the book presents procedures for the fatigue life assessment of HFMI-improved welded joints based on nominal stress, structural hot spot stress and effective notch stress. It also considers the extra benefit that has been experimentally observed for HFMI-treated high-strength steels. The recommendations offer proposals on the effect of loading conditions like high mean stress fatigue cycles, variable amplitude loading and large amplitude/low cycle fatigue cycles. Special considerations for low stress concentration welded...

  4. Properties and Microstructure of Laser Welded VM12-SHC Steel Pipes Joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skrzypczyk A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Paper presents results of microstructure and tests of welded joints of new generation VM12-SHC martensitic steel using high power CO2 laser (LBW method with bifocal welding head. VM12-SHC is dedicated to energetic installation material, designed to replace currently used. High content of chromium and others alloying elements improve its resistance and strength characteristic. Use of VM12-SHC steel for production of the superheaters, heating chambers and walls in steam boilers resulted in various weldability researches. In article are presented results of destructive and non-destructive tests. For destructive: static bending and Vickers hardness tests, and for non-destructive: VT, RT, UT, micro and macroscopic tests were performed.

  5. Experimental and theoretical investigations on temperature distribution at the joint interface for copper joints using ultrasonic welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elangovan Sooriya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonic welding is a solid-state joining process that produces joints by the application of high frequency vibratory energy in the work pieces held together under pressure without melting. Copper and its alloys are extensively used in electrical and electronic industry because of its excellent electrical and thermal properties. This paper mainly focused on temperature distribution and the influence of process parameters at the joint interface while joining copper sheets using ultrasonic welding process. Experiments are carried out using Cu sheets (0.2 mm and 0.3 mm thickness and the interface temperature is measured using Data Acquisition (DAQ System (thermocouple and thermal imager. Numerical and finite element based model for temperature distribution at the interface are developed and solved the same using Finite Difference Method (FDM and Finite Element Analysis (FEA. The results obtained from FDM and FEA model shows similar trend with experimental results and are found to be in good agreement.

  6. Strength of 30KhGSA and 12Kh18N10T steel joints, made by diffusion welding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazakov, N.F.; Trifonov, V.A. (Moskovskij Aviatsionnyj Tekhnologicheskij Inst. (USSR)); Nikolaenko, V.V.; Varyanitsa, V.Yu.; Ermakova, N.V. (Vsesoyuznyj Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Inst. po Zashchite Metallov ot Korrozii, Moscow (USSR))

    1984-01-01

    The optimum regime of diffusion welding (T=1470 K, P=10 MPa, tau=20 min) of the steels 30KhGSA and 12Kh18N10T has been suggested. It is established, that during welding of the given metals a transition zone (10...15 ..mu..m) is formed, the microhardness of which is higher than that of materials welded. Formation of the transition zone is explained by the 30KhGSA steel decarbonization and chromium, titanium and nickel penetration to the zone. Destruction of 30KhGSA and 12Kh18N10T steel welded joints, produced by means of diffusion welding in the above-mentioned regime, takes place in the basic metal-steel 12Kh18N10T.

  7. Research of state of metal welded joint by deformation and corrosion surface projection parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demchenko Maria Vyacheslavovna

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available At industrial enterprises in building structures and equipment one can see corrosion damage, as well as damage accumulated during operation period. The areas of stress concentration are welded joints as their structure is heterogeneous. From the point of view of the scale hierarchy, the welded joint represents the welded and base metal zones at the meso-macrolevel, the weld zone, the thermal zone, the base metal at the micro-mesolevel, the grain constituents at the nano-microlevel. Borders are the stress concentrators at different scale levels, thus they becomes the most dangerous places of metal structure. Modeling by the molecular dynamics method at the atomic level has shown nanocracks initiation in triple junctions of grain boundaries and on the ledges of the grain boundaries. Due to active development of nanotechnology, it became possible to evaluate the state of the weld metal at the nanoscale, where irreversible changes take place from the very beginning. Existing methods of nondestructive testing can detect damage only at the meso- and macrolevel. Modern equipment makes it possible to use other methods of control and approaches. For example, according to GOST R55046-2012 and R57223-2016, the analysis of the parameters of the surface projection deformation performed by confocal laser scanning microscopy should be taken into account when the evaluation of state of metal pipelines is carried out. However, there is a problem to monitore it due to various factors affecting the surface during operation. The paper proposes an additional method to estimate the state of weld metal at any stage of deformation that uses 3D analysis of the parameters of the «artificial» corrosion relief of surface. During the operation period changes in the stress-strain state and structure of the metal take place, as the result the character and depth of etching of the grains of the structural components and their boundaries change too. Evaluation of the

  8. Parameter Design in Fusion Welding of AA 6061 Aluminium Alloy using Desirability Grey Relational Analysis (DGRA) Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adalarasan, R.; Santhanakumar, M.

    2015-01-01

    In the present work, yield strength, ultimate strength and micro-hardness of the lap joints formed with Al 6061 alloy sheets by using the processes of Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG) welding and Metal Inert Gas (MIG) welding were studied for various combinations of the welding parameters. The parameters taken for study include welding current, voltage, welding speed and inert gas flow rate. Taguchi's L9 orthogonal array was used to conduct the experiments and an integrated technique of desirability grey relational analysis was disclosed for optimizing the welding parameters. The ignored robustness in desirability approach is compensated by the grey relational approach to predict the optimal setting of input parameters for the TIG and MIG welding processes which were validated through the confirmation experiments.

  9. Aluminum 6060-T6 friction stir welded butt joints: fatigue resistance with different tools and feed rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baragetti, S.; D' Urso, G. [University of Bergamo, Viale Marconi (Italy)

    2014-03-15

    The fatigue behavior of AA6060-T6 friction stir welded butt joints was investigated. The joints were produced by using both a standard and a threaded tri-flute cylindrical-tool with flat shoulder. The friction stir welding process was carried out using different feed rates. Preliminary tensile tests, micrograph analyses and hardness profile measurements across the welds were carried out. Welded and unwelded fatigue samples were tested under axial loading (R = 0.1) with upper limits of 10{sup 4} and 10{sup 5} cycles, using threaded and unthreaded (standard) tools at different feed rates. The best tensile and fatigue performance was obtained using the standard tool at low feed rate.

  10. Thermal Modeling of Al-Al and Al-Steel Friction Stir Spot Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedrasiak, P.; Shercliff, H. R.; Reilly, A.; McShane, G. J.; Chen, Y. C.; Wang, L.; Robson, J.; Prangnell, P.

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents a finite element thermal model for similar and dissimilar alloy friction stir spot welding (FSSW). The model is calibrated and validated using instrumented lap joints in Al-Al and Al-Fe automotive sheet alloys. The model successfully predicts the thermal histories for a range of process conditions. The resulting temperature histories are used to predict the growth of intermetallic phases at the interface in Al-Fe welds. Temperature predictions were used to study the evolution of hardness of a precipitation-hardened aluminum alloy during post-weld aging after FSSW.

  11. Surface Plastic Deformation and Nanocrystallization Mechanism of Welded Joint of 16MnR Steel Treated by Ultrasonic Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingxia YU

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The welded joint surfaces of 16MnR steel were treated using an ultrasonic impact machine. The effects of ultrasonic impact treating (UIT on the plastic deformation and nanocrystallization mechanism of the welded joints of 16MnR steel were studied. The micro-structural features of the surface layer produced by UIT were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM, and micro-hardness measurements were performed. Experimental results showed that the thickness of the plastic deformation layer was approximately 80 μm. It was found that grains in the surfaces of the welded joints of 16MnR were greatly refined by UIT. Obvious grain refinement was observed, with resultant gain sizes less than 100nm. The micro-hardness of the treated surface layer of the welded joint was enhanced significantly compared to that of the un-treated sample. The micro-hardness on the treated surface of the welded joint was 62.3% higher than that of the un-treated surface.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.21.4.9563

  12. An Analysis of the Microstructure, Macrostructure and Microhardness of Nicr-Ir Joints Produced by Laser Welding with and without Preheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Różowicz S.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses some of the basic problems involved in laser welding of dissimilar materials with significant differences in melting points. It focuses on the micro and macrostructure of laser welded NiCr-Ir microjoints used in central spark plug electrodes. The joints were produced by welding with and without preheat using an Nd,YAG laser. The structure and composition of the welded joints were analyzed by means of a light microscope (LM and a scanning electron microscope (SEM equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray (EDX spectrometer. The microhardness of the weld area was also studied.

  13. Fatigue strength: effect of welding type and joint design executed in Ti-6Al-4V structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantoja, Juliana M C Nuñez; Farina, Ana P; Vaz, Luis G; Consani, Rafael L X; Nóbilo, Mauro A de Arruda; Mesquita, Marcelo F

    2012-06-01

    This study evaluated the fatigue strength of Ti-6Al-4V-machined structures submitted to laser (L)-welding and TIG (TIG)-welding procedures, varying the joint designs. Seventy dumbbell rods were machined in Ti-6Al-4V alloy with central diameters of 3.5 mm. The specimens were sectioned and welded using TIG or L and three joint designs {'I' design, varying welding distances [0.0 mm (I00) or 0.6 mm (I06)], or 'X' [X] design}. The combinations of variables created six groups, which, when added to the intact group, made a total of seven groups (n = 10). L was executed as follows: 360 V/8 ms (X) and 390 V/9 ms (I00 and I06), with focus and frequency regulated to zero. TIG was executed using 2:2 (X) and 3:2 (I00 and I06) as welding parameters. Joints were finished, polished and submitted to radiographic examination to be analysed visually for the presence of porosity. The specimens were then subjected to mechanical cyclic tests, and the number of cycles completed until failure was recorded. The fracture surface was examined using a scanning electron microscope. The Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn test (α = 0.05) indicated that the number of cycles resisted for fracture was higher to X for both welding procedures. To L, I06 was as resistant as X. The Mann-Whitney U-test (α = 0.05) indicated that L joints were more resistant than TIG to I00 and I06. Spearman's correlation coefficient (α = 0.05) indicated a negative correlation between the number of cycles and presence of porosity. Thus, to weld Ti-6Al-4V structures, the best condition is X, independent of the welding method employed. © 2011 The Gerodontology Society and John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  14. Analysis of Deformation and Failure Behaviors of TIG Welded Dissimilar Metal Joints Using Miniature Tensile Specimens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Ji-Hwan; Jahanzeb, Nabeel; Kim, Min-Seong; Hwang, Ji-Hyun; Choi, Shi-Hoon [Sunchon National University, Suncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    The deformation and failure behaviors of dissimilar metal joints between SS400 steel and STS316L steel were investigated. The dissimilar metal joints were fabricated using the tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding process with STS309 steel as a filler metal. The microstructures of the dissimilar metal joints were investigated using an optical microscope and EBSD technique. The mechanical properties of the base metal (BM), heat affected zone (HAZ) and weld metal (WM) were measured using a micro-hardness and micro-tension tester combined with the digital image correlation (DIC) technique. The HAZ of the STS316L steel exhibited the highest micro-hardness value, and yield/tensile strengths, while the BM of the SS440 steel exhibited the lowest micro-hardness value and yield /tensile strengths. The grain size refinement in the HAZ of SS400 steel induced an enhancement of micro-hardness value and yield/tensile strengths compared to the BM of the SS400 steel. The WM, which consists of primary δ-ferrite and a matrix of austenite phase, exhibited relatively a high micro-hardness value, yield /tensile strengths and elongation compared to the BM and HAZ of the SS400 steel.

  15. Effect of post-weld heat treatment on the mechanical properties of CLAM/316L dissimilar joint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Junyu [Key Laboratory of Neutronics and Radiation Safety, Institute of Nuclear Energy Safety Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230027 (China); Huang, Bo [Key Laboratory of Neutronics and Radiation Safety, Institute of Nuclear Energy Safety Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Wu, Qingsheng, E-mail: qingsheng.wu@fds.org.cn [Key Laboratory of Neutronics and Radiation Safety, Institute of Nuclear Energy Safety Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Li, Chunjing; Huang, Qunying [Key Laboratory of Neutronics and Radiation Safety, Institute of Nuclear Energy Safety Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China)

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • Dissimilar joints between CLAM and 316L steels welded by TIG were investigated. • After PWHTs, the hardening in HAZ on the CLAM steel side decreased remarkably. • Tempering at 740 °C for 2 h was considered as the preferable treatment rule. - Abstract: Dissimilar welding between China low activation martensitic (CLAM) steel and 316L austenitic stainless steel was investigated to achieve the reliable connection between test blanket modules (TBMs) and piping system in the international thermonuclear experimental reactor (ITER). The dissimilar joints were welded by tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding process with a filler material type-309. In order to stabilize the microstructure and improve the strength and toughness, post-weld heat treatments (PWHTs) of tempering at 740 °C, 780 °C and 820 °C, respectively, for 2 h were performed. The microstructure observation showed that tempering at 740 °C for 2 h was the preferable PWHT rule in this work. After the treatment, the hardening in heat affected zone (HAZ) on the CLAM steel side decreased remarkably. The tensile strength of the joint was roughly the same as that of the base metal. The impact toughness of HAZ on the CLAM steel side was 77% of that of the base metal. The absorbed energy of HAZ of 316L steel decreased by 93 J, and that of weld metal (WM) was 110 J after the treatment.

  16. TRANSIENT FINITE ELEMENT SIMULATION AND MICROSTRUCTURE EVOLUTION OF AA2219 WELD JOINT USING GAS TUNGSTEN ARC WELDING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivaraman Arunkumar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study we focus on finite element simulation of gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW of AA2219 aluminum alloy and the behavioral of the microstructure before and after weld. The simulations were performed using commercial COMSOL Multiphysics software. The thermal history of the weld region was studied by initially developed mathematical model. A sweep type meshing was used and transient analysis was performed for one welding cycle. The highest temperature noted was 3568 °C during welding. The welding operation was performed on 200×100×25 mm plates. Through metallurgical characterization, it was observed that a fair copper rich cellular (CRC network existed in the weld region. A small amount of intermetallic compounds like Al2Cu is observed through the XRD pattern.

  17. Synthetic Aperture Focusing Technique for the Ultrasonic Evaluation of Friction Stir Welds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lévesque, D.; Dubourg, L.; Mandache, C.; Kruger, S. E.; Lord, M.; Merati, A.; Jahazi, M.; Monchalin, J.-P.

    2008-02-01

    An ultrasonic technique using numerical focusing and processing is presented in this paper for the detection of different types of flaws in friction stir welds (FSW). The data is acquired using immersion ultrasonic technique or laser ultrasonics, while the Synthetic Aperture Focusing Technique (SAFT) is used for numerical focusing. Measurements on the top and far sides of the weld for both lap and butt joints of thin aluminum sheets are investigated. Discontinuities such as wormholes, hooking, lack of penetration and voids are found to be easily detected. The limit of detectability and a comparison with mechanical properties are discussed. Also, the detection of joint line remnants or kissing bonds due to entrapped oxide layers seems possible in lap joint structures using high frequency laser-ultrasonics.

  18. Estimation of the resistance to the initiation of fatigue cracks in the welded joints of steel constructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odesskii, P. D.; Shuvalov, A. N.; Emel'yanov, O. V.

    2017-04-01

    The problem of choosing an effective approach to determining the fatigue strength of welded butt joints at the stage of crack nucleation is solved. The results of the calculations performed according to the existing building code from the specified strength characteristics and the calculations that take into account local elastoplastic deformation in stress concentration zones are compared. Full-scale specimens of the welded joints of pair angles are tested in the low-cycle fatigue region at a constant load. The kinetics of the state of stress in the zones of terminating flange welded joints is studied by a tensometric method. It is shown that the stage of fatigue crack nucleation is best described using the deformation criterion of fracture: a comparison of the results of calculating the number of cycles to the nucleation of a fatigue crack with experimental data demonstrates good agreement.

  19. Improved Formula for the Stress Intensity Factor of Semi-Elliptical Surface Cracks in Welded Joints under Bending Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Peng

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Welded joints are prone to fatigue cracking with the existence of welding defects and bending stress. Fracture mechanics is a useful approach in which the fatigue life of the welded joint can be predicted. The key challenge of such predictions using fracture mechanics is how to accurately calculate the stress intensity factor (SIF. An empirical formula for calculating the SIF of welded joints under bending stress was developed by Baik, Yamada and Ishikawa based on the hybrid method. However, when calculating the SIF of a semi-elliptical crack, this study found that the accuracy of the Baik-Yamada formula was poor when comparing the benchmark results, experimental data and numerical results. The reasons for the reduced accuracy of the Baik-Yamada formula were identified and discussed in this paper. Furthermore, a new correction factor was developed and added to the Baik-Yamada formula by using theoretical analysis and numerical regression. Finally, the predictions using the modified Baik-Yamada formula were compared with the benchmark results, experimental data and numerical results. It was found that the accuracy of the modified Baik-Yamada formula was greatly improved. Therefore, it is proposed that this modified formula is used to conveniently and accurately calculate the SIF of semi-elliptical cracks in welded joints under bending stress.

  20. Improved Formula for the Stress Intensity Factor of Semi-Elliptical Surface Cracks in Welded Joints under Bending Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yang; Wu, Chao; Zheng, Yifu; Dong, Jun

    2017-02-13

    Welded joints are prone to fatigue cracking with the existence of welding defects and bending stress. Fracture mechanics is a useful approach in which the fatigue life of the welded joint can be predicted. The key challenge of such predictions using fracture mechanics is how to accurately calculate the stress intensity factor (SIF). An empirical formula for calculating the SIF of welded joints under bending stress was developed by Baik, Yamada and Ishikawa based on the hybrid method. However, when calculating the SIF of a semi-elliptical crack, this study found that the accuracy of the Baik-Yamada formula was poor when comparing the benchmark results, experimental data and numerical results. The reasons for the reduced accuracy of the Baik-Yamada formula were identified and discussed in this paper. Furthermore, a new correction factor was developed and added to the Baik-Yamada formula by using theoretical analysis and numerical regression. Finally, the predictions using the modified Baik-Yamada formula were compared with the benchmark results, experimental data and numerical results. It was found that the accuracy of the modified Baik-Yamada formula was greatly improved. Therefore, it is proposed that this modified formula is used to conveniently and accurately calculate the SIF of semi-elliptical cracks in welded joints under bending stress.

  1. Tensile properties of a titanium modified austenitic stainless steel and the weld joints after neutron irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiba, K.; Ioka, I.; Jitsukawa, S.; Hamada, A.; Hishinuma, A. [and others

    1996-10-01

    Tensile specimens of a titanium modified austenitic stainless steel and its weldments fabricated with Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG) and Electron Beam (EB) welding techniques were irradiated to a peak dose of 19 dpa and a peak helium level of 250 appm in the temperature range between 200 and 400{degrees}C in spectrally tailored capsules in the Oak Ridge Research Reactor (ORR) and the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). The He/dpa ratio of about 13 appm/dpa is similar to the typical helium/dpa ratio of a fusion reactor environment. The tensile tests were carried out at the irradiation temperature in vacuum. The irradiation caused an increase in yield stress to levels between 670 and 800 MPa depending on the irradiation temperature. Total elongation was reduced to less than 10%, however the specimens failed in a ductile manner. The results were compared with those of the specimens irradiated using irradiation capsules producing larger amount of He. Although the He/dpa ratio affected the microstructural change, the impact on the post irradiation tensile behavior was rather small for not only base metal specimens but also for the weld joint and the weld metal specimens.

  2. Hardness analysis of welded joints of austenitic and duplex stainless steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topolska, S.

    2016-08-01

    Stainless steels are widely used in the modern world. The continuous increase in the use of stainless steels is caused by getting greater requirements relating the corrosion resistance of all types of devices. The main property of these steels is the ability to overlap a passive layer of an oxide on their surface. This layer causes that they become resistant to oxidation. One of types of corrosion-resistant steels is ferritic-austenitic steel of the duplex type, which has good strength properties. It is easily formable and weldable as well as resistant to erosion and abrasive wear. It has a low susceptibility to stress-corrosion cracking, to stress corrosion, to intercrystalline one, to pitting one and to crevice one. For these reasons they are used, among others, in the construction of devices and facilities designed for chemicals transportation and for petroleum and natural gas extraction. The paper presents the results which shows that the particular specimens of the ][joint representing both heat affected zones (from the side of the 2205 steel and the 316L one) and the weld are characterized by higher hardness values than in the case of the same specimens for the 2Y joint. Probably this is caused by machining of edges of the sections of metal sheets before the welding process, which came to better mixing of native materials and the filler metal. After submerged arc welding the 2205 steel still retains the diphase, austenitic-ferritic structure and the 316L steel retains the austenitic structure with sparse bands of ferrite σ.

  3. Evaluation of creep damage in a welded joint of modified 9Cr-1Mo steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongkui; Monma, Yoshio; Hongo, Hiromichi; Tabuchi, Masaaki

    2010-10-01

    This paper aims to evaluate the creep damage of modified 9Cr-1Mo steel under 600 °C operating conditions, using constitutive equations based on the continuum damage mechanics. The accumulation of voids over a long period is believed to contribute to the formation of Type IV cracking, which in turn leads eventually to the failure of weldment under conditions of higher temperatures and lower stresses. Specimens of base metal, a simulated fine-grained heat affected zone, and a thin (thick) welded joint were kept under stress from 80 to 160 MPa at 600 °C. During the creep tests of thick plate welded joint specimens, the application of stress was suspended several times, and the creep damage as indicated by the void distribution was examined quantitatively using a laser microscope. The combined effect of the equivalent creep strain and the stress triaxial factor was considered and introduced into the constitutive equations with the aid of a finite element method. The logarithms of m and 1/λ in the continuum damage mechanics equations were determined to have a linear correlation with the ratio of the applied stress to the yield stress for homogeneous materials. In this way, the damage distribution and evolution in the fine-grained heat affected zone were evaluated successfully.

  4. Microstructure and mechanical properties of China low activation martensitic steel joint by TIG multi-pass welding with a new filler wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bo; Zhang, Junyu; Wu, Qingsheng

    2017-07-01

    Tungsten Inner Gas (TIG) welding is employed for joining of China low activation martensitic (CLAM) steel. A new filler wire was proposed, and the investigation on welding with various heat input and welding passes were conducted to lower the tendency towards the residual of δ ferrite in the joint. With the optimized welding parameters, a butt joint by multi-pass welding with the new filler wire was prepared to investigate the microstructure and mechanical properties. The microstructure of the joint was observed by optical microscope (OM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The hardness, Charpy impact and tensile tests of the joint were implemented at room temperature (25 °C). The results revealed that almost full martensite free from ferrite in the joints were obtained by multipass welding with the heat input of 2.26 kJ/mm. A certain degree of softening occurred at the heat affected zone of the joint according to the results of tensile and hardness tests. The as welded joints showed brittle fracture in the impact tests. However, the joints showed toughness fracture after tempering and relatively better comprehensive performance were achieved when the joints were tempered at 740 °C for 2 h.

  5. Welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Earl; And Others

    The curriculum guide for welding instruction contains 16 units presented in six sections. Each unit is divided into the following areas, each of which is color coded: terminal objectives, specific objectives, suggested activities, and instructional materials; information sheet; transparency masters; assignment sheet; test; and test answers. The…

  6. Columnar jointing in vapor-phase-altered, non-welded Cerro Galán Ignimbrite, Paycuqui, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Heather M.; Lesti, Chiara; Cas, Ray A.F.; Porreca, Massimiliano; Viramonte, Jose G.; Folkes, Christopher B.; Giordano, Guido

    2011-01-01

    Columnar jointing is thought to occur primarily in lavas and welded pyroclastic flow deposits. However, the non-welded Cerro Galán Ignimbrite at Paycuqui, Argentina, contains well-developed columnar joints that are instead due to high-temperature vapor-phase alteration of the deposit, where devitrification and vapor-phase crystallization have increased the density and cohesion of the upper half of the section. Thermal remanent magnetization analyses of entrained lithic clasts indicate high emplacement temperatures, above 630°C, but the lack of welding textures indicates temperatures below the glass transition temperature. In order to remain below the glass transition at 630°C, the minimum cooling rate prior to deposition was 3.0 × 10−3–8.5 × 10−2°C/min (depending on the experimental data used for comparison). Alternatively, if the deposit was emplaced above the glass transition temperature, conductive cooling alone was insufficient to prevent welding. Crack patterns (average, 4.5 sides to each polygon) and column diameters (average, 75 cm) are consistent with relatively rapid cooling, where advective heat loss due to vapor fluxing increases cooling over simple conductive heat transfer. The presence of regularly spaced, complex radiating joint patterns is consistent with fumarolic gas rise, where volatiles originated in the valley-confined drainage system below. Joint spacing is a proxy for cooling rates and is controlled by depositional thickness/valley width. We suggest that the formation of joints in high-temperature, non-welded deposits is aided by the presence of underlying external water, where vapor transfer causes crystallization in pore spaces, densifies the deposit, and helps prevent welding.

  7. Influence of Filler Wire Feed Rate in Laser-Arc Hybrid Welding of T-butt Joint in Shipbuilding Steel with Different Optical Setups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unt, Anna; Poutiainen, Ilkka; Salminen, Antti

    In this paper, a study of laser-arc hybrid welding featuring three different process fibres was conducted to build knowledge about process behaviour and discuss potential benefits for improving the weld properties. The welding parameters affect the weld geometry considerably, as an example the increase in welding speed usually decreases the penetration and a larger beam diameter usually widens the weld. The laser hybrid welding system equipped with process fibres with 200, 300 and 600 μm core diameter were used to produce fillet welds. Shipbuilding steel AH36 plates with 8 mm thickness were welded with Hybrid-Laser-Arc-Welding (HLAW) in inversed T configuration, the effects of the filler wire feed rate and the beam positioning distance from the joint plane were investigated. Based on the metallographic cross-sections, the effect of process parameters on the joint geometry was studied. Joints with optimized properties (full penetration, soundness, smooth transition from bead to base material) were produced with 200 μm and 600 μm process fibres, while fiber with 300 μm core diameter produced welds with unacceptable levels of porosity.

  8. Experimental investigation on different patterned bolted/welded structural connection in steel and GFRP plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanchidurai, S.; Vivek, P.

    2017-07-01

    The experimental investigation is explained different structural connection like various patterned single shear lap bolted connections and slot complete penetration welded connection. Totally 12 numbers of 300 x 50 x 4 mm steel connections made by lap joint as per IS800: 2007 provisions. The patterns are linear, diamond and staggered for the bolted and slot complete penetration welded connections, 4.6 grade bolt and tungsten electrode rods are used for structural slot complete penetration welded connection conforming to IS 800: 2007. And 6 numbers of 300 x 50 x 6mm Glass fibre reinforced polymer (GFRP) plate with bolted connection was casted, shear resistance capacity is considerably higher in the staggered pattern structural connections then the linear and diamond pattern connections. The connection which is made by GFRP, failure occurred in the plate itself and the shear resistance capacity is lowered 60% then the steel plate even though GFRP plate high resistivity against aggressive environment

  9. The Optimization of Process Parameters and Microstructural Characterization of Fiber Laser Welded Dissimilar HSLA and MART Steel Joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celalettin Yuce

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, environmental impact, safety and fuel efficiency are fundamental issues for the automotive industry. These objectives are met by using a combination of different types of steels in the auto bodies. Therefore, it is important to have an understanding of how dissimilar materials behave when they are welded. This paper presents the process parameters’ optimization procedure of fiber laser welded dissimilar high strength low alloy (HSLA and martensitic steel (MART steel using a Taguchi approach. The influence of laser power, welding speed and focal position on the mechanical and microstructural properties of the joints was determined. The optimum parameters for the maximum tensile load-minimum heat input were predicted, and the individual significance of parameters on the response was evaluated by ANOVA results. The optimum levels of the process parameters were defined. Furthermore, microstructural examination and microhardness measurements of the selected welds were conducted. The samples of the dissimilar joints showed a remarkable microstructural change from nearly fully martensitic in the weld bead to the unchanged microstructure in the base metals. The heat affected zone (HAZ region of joints was divided into five subzones. The fusion zone resulted in an important hardness increase, but the formation of a soft zone in the HAZ region.

  10. Corrosion Behavior of Metal Active Gas Welded Joints of a High-Strength Steel for Automotive Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Mainã Portella; Mantovani, Gerson Luiz; Vasant Kumar, R.; Antunes, Renato Altobelli

    2017-10-01

    In this work, the corrosion behavior of metal active gas-welded joints of a high-strength steel with tensile yield strength of 900 MPa was investigated. The welded joints were obtained using two different heat inputs. The corrosion behavior has been studied in a 3.5 wt.% NaCl aqueous solution using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and potentiodynamic polarization tests. Optical microscopy images, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy with energy-dispersive x-ray revealed different microstructural features in the heat-affected zone (HAZ) and the weld metal (WM). Before and after the corrosion process, the sample was evaluated by confocal laser scanning microscopy to measure the depth difference between HAZ and WM. The results showed that the heat input did not play an important role on corrosion behavior of HSLA steel. The anodic and cathodic areas of the welded joints could be associated with depth differences. The HAZ was found to be the anodic area, while the WM was cathodic with respect to the HAZ. The corrosion behavior was related to the amount and orientation nature of carbides in the HAZ. The microstructure of the HAZ consisted of martensite and bainite, whereas acicular ferrite was observed in the weld metal.

  11. Corrosion Behavior of Metal Active Gas Welded Joints of a High-Strength Steel for Automotive Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Mainã Portella; Mantovani, Gerson Luiz; Vasant Kumar, R.; Antunes, Renato Altobelli

    2017-09-01

    In this work, the corrosion behavior of metal active gas-welded joints of a high-strength steel with tensile yield strength of 900 MPa was investigated. The welded joints were obtained using two different heat inputs. The corrosion behavior has been studied in a 3.5 wt.% NaCl aqueous solution using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and potentiodynamic polarization tests. Optical microscopy images, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy with energy-dispersive x-ray revealed different microstructural features in the heat-affected zone (HAZ) and the weld metal (WM). Before and after the corrosion process, the sample was evaluated by confocal laser scanning microscopy to measure the depth difference between HAZ and WM. The results showed that the heat input did not play an important role on corrosion behavior of HSLA steel. The anodic and cathodic areas of the welded joints could be associated with depth differences. The HAZ was found to be the anodic area, while the WM was cathodic with respect to the HAZ. The corrosion behavior was related to the amount and orientation nature of carbides in the HAZ. The microstructure of the HAZ consisted of martensite and bainite, whereas acicular ferrite was observed in the weld metal.

  12. A Study on the compensation margin on butt welding joint of Large Steel plates during Shipbuilding construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J.; Jeong, H.; Ji, M.; Jeong, K.; Yun, C.; Lee, J.; Chung, H.

    2015-09-01

    This paper examines the characteristics of butt welding joint shrinkage for shipbuilding and marine structures main plate. The shrinkage strain of butt welding joint which is caused by the process of heat input and cooling, results in the difference between dimensions of the actual parent metal and the dimensions of design. This, in turn, leads to poor quality in the production of ship blocks and reworking through period of correction brings about impediment on improvement of productivity. Through experiments on butt welding joint's shrinkage strain on large structures main plate, the deformation of welding residual stress in the form of I, Y, V was obtained. In addition, the results of experiments indicate that there is limited range of shrinkage in the range of 1 ∼ 2 mm in 11t ∼ 21.5t thickness and the effect of heat transfer of weld appears to be limited within 1000 mm based on one side of seam line so there was limited impact of weight of parent metal on the shrinkage. Finally, it has been learned that Shrinkage margin needs to be applied differently based on groove phenomenon in the design phase in order to minimize shrinkage.

  13. Development of methodology for measurements of residual stresses in welded joint based on displacement of points in a coordinated table

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aníbal Veras Siqueira Filho

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Residual stresses in a welded joint of ASTM A131 grade AH32 steel was measured either by the X-ray diffraction or by displacements of referenced points measured on a coordinate measuring machine before and after heat treatment. For all tests, the welding was performed with Shielded Metal Arc Welding, vertical-up position, by a certified welder. After welding, some specimens were subjected to marking, made through small holes evenly spaced and mapped on a coordinate measuring machine. After labeling, the samples were subjected to heat treatment at temperatures nearby recrystallization. After heat treatment, the samples were subjected to new measurements by coordinate measuring machine to evaluate the displacements of the points produced by the recrystallization. In parallel, residual stress measurements were made by XRD for validation of this new methodology. The results obtained either by X-ray or by coordinate measuring machine showed a good correlation between the two measurement methodologies employed.

  14. Interface Phenomena and Bonding Mechanism in Magnetic Pulse Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, A.; Shribman, V.; Ben-Artzy, A.; Aizenshtein, M.

    2014-10-01

    Magnetic pulse welding (MPW) is a solid-state impact welding technology that provides metallurgical joints while exhibiting a negligible heat-affected zone. The MPW process is a high speed single shot welding technique used mainly for joining tubular components in a lap configuration and characteristic length scales of few millimeters to centimeters. It is similar in operation to explosive welding and shares the same physical principles. The nature of bonding in MPW is not sufficiently understood yet and some controversial explanations are reported in the literature. The two major ideas are based on either solid state bonding or local melting and solidification. The present work summarizes our current understanding of the bonding mechanism and the structure in various similar and dissimilar metal pairs joined by MPW.

  15. The evolution of microstructures, corrosion resistance and mechanical properties of AZ80 joints using ultrasonic vibration assisted welding process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Zhang, Jiansheng

    2017-12-01

    The evolution of microstructures, corrosion resistance and mechanical properties of AZ80 joints using an ultrasonic vibration assisted welding process is investigated. The results show that, with ultrasonic vibration treatment, a reliable AZ80 joint without defects is obtained. The coarsening α-Mg grains are refined to about 83.5  ±  3.3 µm and the continuous β-Mg17Al12 phases are broken to granular morphology, owing to the acoustic streaming effect and the cavitation effect evoked by ultrasonic vibration. Both immersion and electrochemical test results indicate that the corrosion resistance of the AZ80 joint welded with ultrasonic vibration is improved, attributed to microstructure evolution. With ultrasonic power of 900 W, the maximum tensile strength of an AZ80 specimen is 261  ±  7.5 MPa and fracture occurs near the heat affected zone of the joint.

  16. High temperature strength analysis of welded joint of RAF's by small punch test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, T. [Muroran Institute of Technology, Dept. of Materials Science and Engineeering, Hokkaido (Japan); Komazaki, S.; Kohno, Y. [Muroran Institute of Technology, Muroran (Japan); Tanigawa, H. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naga-gun, Ibaraki-ken (Japan); Kohyama, A. [Kyoto Univ., Institute of Advanced Energy (Japan)

    2007-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: Nucleation and growth of microvoids and/or small cracks in fine-grained heat affected zone (HAZ) after long-term service operation, which is recognized as Type IV creep damage, has recently been a worldwide issue for high Cr ferritic steels. In our group, a small punch (SP) creep test has been successfully applied to evaluate this damage of low alloy ferritic steel. However, the HAZ of fusion reactor material welded by electron-beam (EB) welding is so narrow that it is not easy to evaluate its mechanical properties by conventional tests including the SP creep test with a plate-type specimen (10 x 10 x 0.5 mm{sup 3}). In this study, the SP creep test using a further miniaturized specimen was developed and applied to the welded joint of reduced activation ferritic steels (RAFs), F82H-IEA (Fe-8Cr-2W-0.2V-0.02Ta), for measuring creep properties of the HAZ. For the SP creep test, TEM disk-type samples (diam. 3.0 x 0.30 mm) were removed from the base metal (BM), weld metal (WM) and HAZ, respectively. The specimen surfaces were polished up to a 0.05 {mu}m alumina powder finish and the specimen's thickness was finally adjusted to 0.25 mm. The SP creep tests were performed at temperatures of 823{approx}973 K and under loads ranging from 20 to 200 N. A constant load was applied to the center of the specimen through the Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} bail (diam. 1.0 mm) using the electric servo motor. The central deflection of the specimen was monitored by measuring the displacement of the compression rod. The tests were carried out in an argon gas atmosphere and the gas was continuously passed through during the test to prevent severe oxidation of the specimen. The differences in SP creep properties such as rupture time and minimum creep rate between the BM, WM and HAZ were discussed in terms of microstructural changes during welding thermal cycles. In addition, the result obtained from the BM was correlated with those of uniaxial creep test

  17. Qualification of phased array ultrasonic examination on T-joint weld of austenitic stainless steel for ITER vacuum vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, G.H. [ITER Korea, National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Park, C.K., E-mail: love879@hanmail.net [ITER Korea, National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Jin, S.W.; Kim, H.S.; Hong, K.H.; Lee, Y.J.; Ahn, H.J.; Chung, W. [ITER Korea, National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Y.H.; Roh, B.R. [Hyundai Heavy Industries Co. Ltd., Ulsan 682-792 (Korea, Republic of); Sa, J.W.; Choi, C.H. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St. Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • PAUT techniques has been developed by Hyundai Heavy Industries Co., LTD (HHI) and Korea Domestic Agency (KODA) to verify and settle down instrument calibration, test procedures, image processing, and so on. As the first step of development for PAUT technique, Several dozens of qualification blocks with artificial defects, which are parallel side drilled hole, embedded lack of fusion, embedded repair weld notch, and so on, have been designed and fabricated to simulate all potential defects during welding process. Real UT qualification group-1 for T-joint weld was successfully conducted in front of ANB inspector. • In this paper, remarkable progresses of UT qualification are presented for ITER vacuum vessel. - Abstract: Full penetration welding and 100% volumetric examination are required for all welds of pressure retaining parts of the ITER Vacuum Vessel (VV) according to RCC-MR Code and French Order of Nuclear Pressure Equipment (ESPN). The NDE requirement is one of important technical issues because radiographic examination (RT) is not applicable to many welding joints. Therefore the ultrasonic examination (UT) has been selected as an alternative method. Generally the UT on the austenitic welds is regarded as a great challenge due to the high attenuation and dispersion of the ultrasonic signal. In this paper, Phased array ultrasonic examination (PAUT) has been introduced on double sided T-shape austenitic welds of the ITER VV as a major NDE method as well as RT. Several dozens of qualification blocks with artificial defects, which are parallel side drilled hole, embedded lack of fusion, embedded repair weld notch, embedded parallel vertical notch, and so on, have been designed and fabricated to simulate all potential defects during welding process. PAUT techniques on the thick austenitic welds have been developed taking into account the acceptance criteria. Test procedure including calibration of equipment is derived and qualified through

  18. Microstructures and mechanical properties of Gas Tungsten Arc Welded joints of new Al–Mg–Sc and Al–Mg–Er alloy plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Le [Key Laboratory of Super-Microstructure and Ultrafast Process in Advanced Materials of Hunan Province, School of Physics and Electronics, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); Peng, Yongyi, E-mail: pengyongyi@126.com [Key Laboratory of Super-Microstructure and Ultrafast Process in Advanced Materials of Hunan Province, School of Physics and Electronics, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); Huang, Jiwu; Deng, Ying; Yin, Zhimin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China)

    2015-01-03

    The effect of microalloy element Sc and Er on Gas Tungsten Arc Welded (GTAW) joints of Al–Mg alloy was studied by comparative method. The microstructures and mechanical properties of Al–Mg–Sc and Al–Mg–Er alloy welded joint were examined by microhardness measurement, tensile test, optical microscopy and transmission electron microscope. The strength of Al–Mg–Sc welded joint is higher than that of Al–Mg–Er welded joint. The differences of the two welded joints can be attributed to the different thermal stability and the effect of Al{sub 3}(Sc{sub 1−x},Zr{sub x}) particles and Al{sub 3}(Er{sub 1−x},Zr{sub x}) particles. Al{sub 3}(Sc{sub 1−x},Zr{sub x}) particles, which have higher thermal stability, are still coherent with Al matrix in the HAZ, can strongly pin dislocations and subgrain boundaries of the HAZ. There are strain strengthening and precipitation strengthening in the HAZ of Al–Mg–Sc welded joints. Notable coarsening of Al{sub 3}(Er{sub 1−x},Zr{sub x}) particles and recrystallization in the HAZ of Al–Mg–Er welded joint lead to the reduction and disappearance of strain strengthening and precipitation strengthening.

  19. Improvement of localised corrosion resistance of AISI 2205 Duplex Stainless Steel joints made by gas metal arc welding under electromagnetic interaction of low intensity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-Rentería, M.A., E-mail: crazyfim@gmail.com [Instituto de Investigación en Metalurgia y Materiales, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo, A.P. 888, CP 58000, Morelia, Michoacán (Mexico); López-Morelos, V.H., E-mail: vhlopez@umich.mx [Instituto de Investigación en Metalurgia y Materiales, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo, A.P. 888, CP 58000, Morelia, Michoacán (Mexico); García-Hernández, R., E-mail: rgarcia@umich.mx [Instituto de Investigación en Metalurgia y Materiales, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo, A.P. 888, CP 58000, Morelia, Michoacán (Mexico); Dzib-Pérez, L., E-mail: luirdzib@uacam.mx [Centre for Corrosion Research, Autonomous University of Campeche, Av. Agustín Melgar s/n, Col. Buenavista, CP 24039, Campeche, Cam (Mexico); García-Ochoa, E.M., E-mail: emgarcia@uacam.mx [Centre for Corrosion Research, Autonomous University of Campeche, Av. Agustín Melgar s/n, Col. Buenavista, CP 24039, Campeche, Cam (Mexico); González-Sánchez, J., E-mail: jagonzal@uacam.mx [Centre for Corrosion Research, Autonomous University of Campeche, Av. Agustín Melgar s/n, Col. Buenavista, CP 24039, Campeche, Cam (Mexico)

    2014-12-01

    Highlights: • Electromagnetic interaction in welding improved localised corrosion resistance. • Electromagnetic interaction in welding enhanced γ/δ phase balance of DuplexSS. • Welding under Electromagnetic interaction repress formation and growth of detrimental phases. • Welds made with gas protection (2% O{sub 2} + 98% Ar) have better microstructural evolution during welding. - Abstract: The resistance to localised corrosion of AISI 2205 duplex stainless steel plates joined by Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) under the effect of electromagnetic interaction of low intensity (EMILI) was evaluated with sensitive electrochemical methods. Welds were made using two shielding gas mixtures: 98% Ar + 2% O{sub 2} (M1) and 97% Ar + 3% N{sub 2} (M2). Plates were welded under EMILI using the M1 gas with constant welding parameters. The modified microstructural evolution in the high temperature heat affected zone and at the fusion zone induced by application of EMILI during welding is associated with the increase of resistance to localised corrosion of the welded joints. Joints made by GMAW using the shielding gas M2 without the application of magnetic field presented high resistance to general corrosion but high susceptibility to undergo localised attack.

  20. Fatigue Behaviour of CFRP Strengthened Out-of-Plane Gusset Welded Joints with Double Cracks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian-Qian Yu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the fatigue behaviour of out-of-plane gusset welded joints strengthened with carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP laminates. Two notches were introduced at the weld toes adjacent to longitudinal plate ends to simulate the initial damage. Variables including the stress range, single- or double-sided strengthening and modulus of CFRP materials were considered. It was found that both cracks propagated under fatigue loading. All the specimens fractured along one predefined notch when the fatigue crack reached a certain length while the other crack also grew to some extent. Test results showed that the addition of composite materials significantly prolonged the fatigue life of specimens by as much as 1.28 to 8.17 times. Double-sided bond and ultra-high modulus CFRP materials led to a better strengthening efficiency. Thereafter, a series of numerical analyses were performed to study the stress intensity factor (SIF and crack opening displacement (COD. Local debonding around the crack tip at the adhesive-steel interface was taken into consideration. Finally, the fatigue life of all the specimens was evaluated based on the linear elastic fracture mechanism (LEFM theory and the predicted results agreed well with the experimental data.